WorldWideScience

Sample records for barrier wall system

  1. Case history: Vertical barrier wall system for Superfund Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Design considerations and construction aspects are presented for the installation of a vertical barrier wall system for the Boeing Company at a Superfund Site near Seattle, WA. The construction was performed during 1996. The vertical barrier wall system included: (1) a soil-bentonite (SB) slurry wall, approximately 670 meters (2200 feet) in length, ranging from 12 to 21 meters (40 to 70 feet) in depth; (2) expansion of a cover system over the area enclosed by the SB wall; and (3) surface drainage improvements. Design and construction of the system addressed requirements of a Consent Decree for the site issued in 1993. The paper discusses the development of the design to meet remedial performance goals of preventing migration of contaminants in the soil/groundwater system and aiding aquifer restoration. Secondly, the paper details installation of the SB wall, highlighting the more significant construction issues, which included excavation of the wall through glacially deposited cobbles/boulders/till as well as addressing the severe elevation changes along the wall alignment. Thirdly, the paper presents Quality Assurance (QA) monitoring and testing performed during the construction phase

  2. A new alternative in vertical barrier wall construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rawl, G.F. [Horizontal Technologies Inc., Matlacha, FL (United States)

    1997-12-31

    A new proprietary vertical barrier wall system has been developed to revolutionize the construction process by eliminating many of the concerns of conventional installation method`s with respect to performance, installation constraints and costs. Vertical barrier walls have been used in the environmental and construction industries for a variety of purposes, usually for cut-off or containment. The typical scenario involves a groundwater contamination problem, in which a vertical barrier wall is utilized to contain or confine the spread of contaminants below the ground surface. Conventional construction techniques have been adequate in many applications, but often fall short of their intended purposes due to physical constraints. In many instances, the economics of these conventional methods have limited the utilization of physical barrier walls. Polywall, the trade name for this new barrier wall technology, was subsequently developed to meet these needs and offer a number of distinct advantages in a variety of scenarios by maximizing confinement and minimizing installation costs. Polywall is constructed from chemically resistant high density polyethylene (HDPE) plastic. It has proven in a half-dozen projects to date to be the most cost-effective and technically sound approach to many containment situations. This paper will cover the development of the technology and will provide a brief synopsis of several installations.

  3. Composite steel panels for tornado missile barrier walls. Topical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A composite steel panel wall system is defined as a wall system with concrete fill sandwiched between two steel layers such that no concrete surface is exposed on the interior or the exterior wall surface. Three full scale missile tests were conducted on two specific composite wall systems. The results of the full scale tests were in good agreement with the finalized theory. The theory is presented, and the acceptance of the theory for design calculations is discussed

  4. Multilayer thermal barrier coating systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vance, Steven J.; Goedjen, John G.; Sabol, Stephen M.; Sloan, Kelly M.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention generally describes multilayer thermal barrier coating systems and methods of making the multilayer thermal barrier coating systems. The thermal barrier coating systems comprise a first ceramic layer, a second ceramic layer, a thermally grown oxide layer, a metallic bond coating layer and a substrate. The thermal barrier coating systems have improved high temperature thermal and chemical stability for use in gas turbine applications.

  5. Rising damp in building walls: the wall base ventilation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, A. S.; Delgado, J. M. P. Q.; de Freitas, V. P.

    2012-12-01

    This work intends to validate a new system for treating rising damp in historic buildings walls. The results of laboratory experiments show that an efficient way of treating rising damp is by ventilating the wall base, using the HUMIVENT technique. The analytical model presented describes very well the observed features of rising damp in walls, verified by laboratory tests, who contributed for a simple sizing of the wall base ventilation system that will be implemented in historic buildings.

  6. Retrofitting Systems for External Walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jørgen

    1997-01-01

    In this report, 9 different external and internal retrofitting systems are analyzed using numerical calculations. The analysis focuses on the thermal bridge effects in the different systems, and on this basis it is discussed whether internal or external retrofitting has the most advantages. The...... different systems are evaluated using 5 different types of existing walls....

  7. Transport barriers in helical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are some publications with indications that the formation of transport barriers in toroidal devices could take place in the vicinity of low order rational surfaces (RS). It is necessary to note that the environs of RS have very important peculiarities. In particular, a stochastic layer of magnetic field lines forms instead of separaterix which must separate the island surfaces from the adjacent to them non-island surfaces in stellarator magnetic configurations. The attempt to realize the formation of transport barriers near RS and to study their influence on the RF discharge plasma confinement was undertaken in presented experiments on the U-3M torsatron. The presupposition was made that the radial electric field profile would have sharp change on the width of stochastic layer near RS in the case of collisionless longitudinal motion of electrons in this layer. Experimental data obtained on the U-3M torsatron during the formation of interior and edge transport barriers are in a good agreement with this presupposition. The results of experiments on the U-3M torsatron are discussed in comparison with data of other helical systems. It is shown that the number of dependences (the threshold power and density, the time of barrier formation, the localization of radial electric field shear layer) are in a good agreement for all these systems. In conclusion, the common features of formation of transport barriers in non- axisymmetric and non-axisymmetric systems are discussed. (author)

  8. SUBSURFACE BARRIER VALIDATION WITH THE SEAFACE SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandra Dalvit Dunn

    1997-11-30

    The overall objective of the effort was to develop and demonstrate an integrated methodology and field system to evaluate the integrity of in situ, impermeable barriers constructed in the vadose zone. An autonomous, remotely accessible, automatic monitoring and analysis system was designed and fabricated. It was thoroughly tested under field conditions, and was able to function as designed throughout the test period. Data inversion software was developed with enhanced capabilities over the previous prototype version, and integrated with the monitoring system for real time operation. Analytical simulations were performed to determine the inversion code's sensitivity to model parameters. Numerical simulations were performed to better understand how typical field conditions differ from the ideal model(s) which are used (or have been developed for use) in the inversion code and to further validate the flux limited forward model developed for use with the system. Results from the analytical and numerical assessment of the inversion code showed that the SEAtrace{trademark} approach could locate leaks within 0.4 to 1.2 m. Leak size determination was less accurate, but produced results within a factor of 3 to 8 for leaks in the 2.5 to 10 cm diameter range. The smallest engineered leak in the test 1.1 cm diameter, could be located but its size estimate was high by a factor of 30. Data analysis was performed automatically after each gas scan was completed, yielding results in less than thirty minutes, although the bulk of the results reported required post test data analysis to remove effects of high background concentrations. The field test of the integrated system was problematic, primarily due to unanticipated, unintentional leaks formed in the impermeable liner. The test facility constructed to proof the system was ambitious, initially having 11 engineered leaks of various dimensions that could be independently operated. While a great deal of care went into the

  9. When Walls are No Longer Barriers: Perception of Wall Height in Parkour

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, J. Eric T.; Witt, Jessica; Sugovic, Mila

    2011-01-01

    Through training, skilled parkour athletes (traceurs) overcome everyday obstacles, such as walls, that are typically insurmountable. Traceurs and untrained novices estimated the height of walls and reported their anticipated ability to climb the wall. The traceurs perceived the walls as shorter than did novices. This result suggests that perception is scaled by the perceiver’s anticipated ability to act, and is consistent with the action-specific account of perception.

  10. When walls are no longer barriers: perception of wall height in parkour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, J Eric T; Witt, Jessica K; Sugovic, Mila

    2011-01-01

    Through training, skilled parkour athletes (traceurs) overcome everyday obstacles, such as walls, that are typically insurmountable. Traceurs and untrained novices estimated the height of walls and reported their anticipated ability to climb the wall. The traceurs perceived the walls as shorter than did novices. This result suggests that perception is scaled by the perceiver's anticipated ability to act, and is consistent with the action-specific account of perception. PMID:21936305

  11. Systems study on engineered barriers: barrier performance analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A performance assessment model for multiple barrier packages containing unreprocessed spent fuel has been modified and applied to several package designs. The objective of the study was to develop information to be used in programmatic decision making concerning engineered barrier package design and development. The assessment model, BARIER, was developed in previous tasks of the System Study on Engineered Barriers (SSEB). The new version discussed in this report contains a refined and expanded corrosion rate data base which includes pitting, crack growth, and graphitization as well as bulk corrosion. Corrosion rates for oxic and anoxic conditions at each of the two temperature ranges are supplied. Other improvements include a rigorous treatment of radionuclide release after package failure which includes resistance of damaged barriers and backfill, refined temperature calculations that account for convection and radiation, a subroutine to calculate nuclear gamma radiation field at each barrier surface, refined stress calculations with reduced conservatism and various coding improvements to improve running time and core usage. This report also contains discussion of alternative scenarios to the assumed flooded repository as well as the impact of water exclusion backfills. The model was used to assess post repository closure performance for several designs which were all variation of basic designs from the Spent Unreprocessed Fuel (SURF) program. Many designs were found to delay the onset of leaching by at least a few hundreds of years in all geologic media. Long delay times for radionuclide release were found for packages with a few inches of sorption backfill. Release of uranium, plutonium, and americium was assessed

  12. Systems study on engineered barriers: barrier performance analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stula, R.T.; Albert, T.E.; Kirstein, B.E.; Lester, D.H.

    1980-09-01

    A performance assessment model for multiple barrier packages containing unreprocessed spent fuel has been modified and applied to several package designs. The objective of the study was to develop information to be used in programmatic decision making concerning engineered barrier package design and development. The assessment model, BARIER, was developed in previous tasks of the System Study on Engineered Barriers (SSEB). The new version discussed in this report contains a refined and expanded corrosion rate data base which includes pitting, crack growth, and graphitization as well as bulk corrosion. Corrosion rates for oxic and anoxic conditions at each of the two temperature ranges are supplied. Other improvements include a rigorous treatment of radionuclide release after package failure which includes resistance of damaged barriers and backfill, refined temperature calculations that account for convection and radiation, a subroutine to calculate nuclear gamma radiation field at each barrier surface, refined stress calculations with reduced conservatism and various coding improvements to improve running time and core usage. This report also contains discussion of alternative scenarios to the assumed flooded repository as well as the impact of water exclusion backfills. The model was used to assess post repository closure performance for several designs which were all variation of basic designs from the Spent Unreprocessed Fuel (SURF) program. Many designs were found to delay the onset of leaching by at least a few hundreds of years in all geologic media. Long delay times for radionuclide release were found for packages with a few inches of sorption backfill. Release of uranium, plutonium, and americium was assessed.

  13. Double barrier system for an in situ conversion process

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinzie, Billy John [Houston, TX; Vinegar, Harold J [Bellaire, TX; Cowan, Kenneth Michael [Sugar land, TX; Deeg, Wolfgang Friedrich Johann [Houston, TX; Wong, Sau-Wai [Rijswijk, NL

    2009-05-05

    A barrier system for a subsurface treatment area is described. The barrier system includes a first barrier formed around at least a portion of the subsurface treatment area. The first barrier is configured to inhibit fluid from exiting or entering the subsurface treatment area. A second barrier is formed around at least a portion of the first barrier. A separation space exists between the first barrier and the second barrier.

  14. Plant Wall Degradative Compounds and Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The present invention relates to cell wall degradative systems, in particular to systems containing enzymes that bind to and/or depolymerize cellulose. These...

  15. Apoplasmic barriers and oxygen transport properties of hypodermal cell walls in roots from four amazonian tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Simone, Oliviero; Haase, Karen; Müller, Ewald; Junk, Wolfgang J; Hartmann, Klaus; Schreiber, Lukas; Schmidt, Wolfgang

    2003-05-01

    The formation of suberized and lignified barriers in the exodermis is suggested to be part of a suite of adaptations to flooded or waterlogged conditions, adjusting transport of solutes and gases in and out of roots. In this study, the composition of apoplasmic barriers in hypodermal cell walls and oxygen profiles in roots and the surrounding medium of four Amazon tree species that are subjected to long-term flooding at their habitat was analyzed. In hypodermal cell walls of the deciduous tree Crateva benthami, suberization is very weak and dominated by monoacids, 2-hydroxy acids, and omega-hydroxycarboxylic acids. This species does not show any morphological adaptations to flooding and overcomes the aquatic period in a dormant state. Hypodermal cells of Tabernaemontana juruana, a tree which is able to maintain its leaf system during the aquatic phase, are characterized by extensively suberized walls, incrusted mainly by the unsaturated C(18) omega-hydroxycarboxylic acid and the alpha,omega-dicarboxylic acid analogon, known as typical suberin markers. Two other evergreen species, Laetia corymbulosa and Salix martiana, contained 3- to 4-fold less aliphatic suberin in the exodermis, but more than 85% of the aromatic moiety of suberin are composed of para-hydroxybenzoic acid, suggesting a function of suberin in pathogen defense. No major differences in the lignin content among the species were observed. Determination of oxygen distribution in the roots and rhizosphere of the four species revealed that radial loss of oxygen can be effectively restricted by the formation of suberized barriers but not by lignification of exodermal cell walls. PMID:12746526

  16. Gas Barrier and Separation Behavior of Graphene Oxide Nanobrick Wall Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunlan, Jaime

    2015-03-01

    In many cases, electronics packaging requires electrical conductivity and barrier to oxygen, even under humid conditions. These two properties have simultaneously been realized through the use of surfactant-free aqueous layer-by-layer (LbL) processing, in the form of a polymer composite nanocoating. By layering graphene oxide (GO) with polyethyleneimine (PEI), a ``nano brick wall'' structure has been created, imparting gas barrier properties to the film. Reducing the graphene oxide with a thermal treatment further produces high oxygen barrier in humid conditions and imparts high electrical conductivity (σ ~ 1750 S/m). These thin films (300), making them interesting for gas purification membranes. The flexible nature of the aforementioned thin films, along with their excellent combination of transport properties, make them ideal candidates for use in a broad range of electronics and other packaging applications.

  17. FACTORS AFFECTING THE HYDRAULIC BARRIER PERFORMANCE OF SOIL-BENTONITE MIXTURE CUT-OFF WALL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takai, Atsushi; Inui, Toru; Katsumi, Takeshi; Kamon, Masashi; Araki, Susumu

    Containment technique using cut-off walls is a valid method against contaminants in subsurface soil and/or groundwater. This paper states laboratory testing results on hydraulic barrier performance of Soil-Bentonite (SB), which is made by mixing bentonite with in-situ soil. Since the bentonite swelling is sensitive to chemicals, chemical compatibility is important for the hydraulic barrier performance of SB. Hydraulic conductivity tests using flexible-wall permeameter were conducted on SB specimens with various types and concentrations of chemicals in the pore water and/or in the permeant and with various bentonite powder contents. As a result, hydraulic barrier performance of SB was influenced by the chemical concentration in the pore water of original soil and bentonite powder content. In the case that SB specimens have damage parallel to the permeating direction, no significant leakage in the SB occurs by the self-sealing property of SB. In addition, the hydraulic conductivity values of SB have excellent correlation with their plastic indexes and swelling pr essures, thus these properties of SB have some possibility to be indicators for estimation of the hydraulic barrier performance of SB.

  18. Vapor-barrier Vacuum Isolation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Leonard M. (Inventor); Taminger, Karen M. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A system includes a collimated beam source within a vacuum chamber, a condensable barrier gas, cooling material, a pump, and isolation chambers cooled by the cooling material to condense the barrier gas. Pressure levels of each isolation chamber are substantially greater than in the vacuum chamber. Coaxially-aligned orifices connect a working chamber, the isolation chambers, and the vacuum chamber. The pump evacuates uncondensed barrier gas. The barrier gas blocks entry of atmospheric vapor from the working chamber into the isolation chambers, and undergoes supersonic flow expansion upon entering each isolation chamber. A method includes connecting the isolation chambers to the vacuum chamber, directing vapor to a boundary with the working chamber, and supersonically expanding the vapor as it enters the isolation chambers via the orifices. The vapor condenses in each isolation chamber using the cooling material, and uncondensed vapor is pumped out of the isolation chambers via the pump.

  19. Super hydrogen and helium barrier with polyelectolyte nanobrick wall thin film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzeng, Ping; Lugo, Elva L; Mai, Garret D; Wilhite, Benjamin A; Grunlan, Jaime C

    2015-01-01

    In an effort to impart light gas (i.e., H2 and He) barrier to polymer substrates, thin films of polyethylenimine (PEI), poly(acrylic acid) (PAA), and montmorrilonite (MMT) clay are deposited via layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly. A five "quadlayer" (122 nm) coating deposited on 51 μm polystyrene is shown to lower both hydrogen and helium permeability three orders of magnitude against bare polystyrene, demonstrating better performance than thick-laminated ethylene vinyl-alcohol (EVOH) copolymer film and even metallized polyolefin/polyester film. These excellent barrier properties are attributed to a "nanobrick wall" structure. This highly flexible coating represents the first demonstration of an LbL deposited film with low hydrogen and helium permeability and is an ideal candidate for several packaging and protection applications. PMID:25429915

  20. Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conceptual and predictive models documented in this Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment Model report describe the evolution of the physical and chemical conditions within the waste emplacement drifts of the repository. The modeling approaches and model output data will be used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA-LA) to assess the performance of the engineered barrier system and the waste form. These models evaluate the range of potential water compositions within the emplacement drifts, resulting from the interaction of introduced materials and minerals in dust with water seeping into the drifts and with aqueous solutions forming by deliquescence of dust (as influenced by atmospheric conditions), and from thermal-hydrological-chemical (THC) processes in the drift. These models also consider the uncertainty and variability in water chemistry inside the drift and the compositions of introduced materials within the drift. This report develops and documents a set of process- and abstraction-level models that constitute the engineered barrier system: physical and chemical environment model. Where possible, these models use information directly from other process model reports as input, which promotes integration among process models used for total system performance assessment. Specific tasks and activities of modeling the physical and chemical environment are included in the technical work plan ''Technical Work Plan for: In-Drift Geochemistry Modeling'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 166519]). As described in the technical work plan, the development of this report is coordinated with the development of other engineered barrier system analysis model reports

  1. Vulnerability of multiple-barrier systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Vulnerability' is defined as the ratio of the probability of failure of a damaged system to the probability of failure of the undamaged system. This definition applies to all engineered systems and can be specialized to particular system types. Some disastrous failures (e.g., Chernobyl) have shown that systems can be highly vulnerable. open-quotes Defense in depthclose quotes is a powerful design principle, reducing vulnerability when the consequences of failure can be catastrophic. In the nuclear industry, defense in depth is widely used in radiation protection, reactor control, and shutdown systems. A multiple-barrier system is a simple example of a system that has defense in depth. The idea is that the system is not vulnerable. It cannot fail if one barrier fails because there is another to take its place. This idea is untenable in waste management, but a quantified vulnerability of a system can help owners, designers, and regulators decide how much defense in depth is desirable or enough. Many multiple-barrier systems can be modeled as systems of components physically in a series, each individually able to prevent failure. Components typically have bimodal distributions of the service time to failure, as illustrated by an example of application to a hypothetical nuclear fuel waste repository

  2. Energy efficient residential house wall system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The energy consumption and greenhouse gas emission by the residential housing sector are considered to be one of the largest in economically developed countries. The larger energy consumption and greenhouse gas emission not only put additional pressure on finite fossil fuel resources but also cause global warming and climate change. Additionally, the residential housing sector will be consuming more energy as the house demand and average house floor area are progressively increasing. With currently used residential house wall systems, it is hard to reduce energy consumption for ongoing house space heating and cooling. A smart house wall envelope with optimal thermal masses and insulation materials is vital for reducing our increasing energy consumption. The major aim of this study is to investigate thermal performance and energy saving potential of a new house wall system for variable climate conditions. The thermal performance modelling was carried out using commercially developed software AccuRate®. The findings indicate that a notable energy savings can be accomplished if a smart house wall system is used. -- Highlights: • Smart house wall system. • Thermal performance modelling and star energy rating. • Energy savings and greenhouse gas reduction

  3. INTEGRATED ENERGY EFFICIENT WINDOW-WALL SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Arney, Ph.D.

    2002-12-31

    The building industry faces the challenge of reducing energy use while simultaneously improving construction methods and marketability. This paper describes the first phase of a project to address these concerns by designing an Integrated Window Wall System (IWWS) that can be commercialized. This work builds on previous research conducted during the 1990's by Lawrence Berkeley national Laboratories (LBNL). During this phase, the objective was to identify appropriate technologies, problems and issues and develop a number of design concepts. Four design concepts were developed into prototypes and preliminary energy analyses were conducted Three of these concepts (the foam wall, steel wall, and stiffened plate designs) showed particular potential for meeting the project objectives and will be continued into a second phase where one or two of the systems will be brought closer to commercialization.

  4. Enhanced zirconia thermal barrier coating systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarke, D.; Levi, C.; Evans, A. [College of Engineering Santa Barbara (United States). University of California Materials Department

    2006-07-01

    The results of a research programme sponsored by the Department of Energy and directed at establishing some of the scientific issues underpinning the development of enhanced zirconia thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are reviewed. Our studies have established the stability ranges for both yttria stabilized and codoped zirconia coating materials and identified the mechanisms responsible for failure of current coating systems. These reveal that it is likely that present EB-PVD coatings systems are limited by the performance of current bond-coats and their oxidation behaviour, especially under thermal cycle conditions, rather than the zirconia coating material itself. These studies provide the scientific framework for the development of enhanced zirconia-based thermal barrier coating systems for advanced industrial gas turbine engine applications. (author)

  5. Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Dixon

    2004-04-26

    The conceptual and predictive models documented in this Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment Model report describe the evolution of the physical and chemical conditions within the waste emplacement drifts of the repository. The modeling approaches and model output data will be used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA-LA) to assess the performance of the engineered barrier system and the waste form. These models evaluate the range of potential water compositions within the emplacement drifts, resulting from the interaction of introduced materials and minerals in dust with water seeping into the drifts and with aqueous solutions forming by deliquescence of dust (as influenced by atmospheric conditions), and from thermal-hydrological-chemical (THC) processes in the drift. These models also consider the uncertainty and variability in water chemistry inside the drift and the compositions of introduced materials within the drift. This report develops and documents a set of process- and abstraction-level models that constitute the engineered barrier system: physical and chemical environment model. Where possible, these models use information directly from other process model reports as input, which promotes integration among process models used for total system performance assessment. Specific tasks and activities of modeling the physical and chemical environment are included in the technical work plan ''Technical Work Plan for: In-Drift Geochemistry Modeling'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 166519]). As described in the technical work plan, the development of this report is coordinated with the development of other engineered barrier system analysis model reports.

  6. ENGINEERED BARRIER SYSTEM: PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL ENVIRONMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Jarek

    2004-11-23

    The purpose of this report is to describe the evolution of the physical and chemical environmental conditions within the waste emplacement drifts of the repository, including the drip shield and waste package surfaces. The abstraction model is used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA LA) to assess the performance of the engineered barrier system and the waste form. This report develops and documents a set of these abstraction-level models that describe the engineered barrier system physical and chemical environment. Where possible, these models use information directly from other reports as input, which promotes integration among process models used for TSPA-LA. Specific tasks and activities of modeling the physical and chemical environment are included in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport In-Drift Geochemistry Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171156], Section 1.2.2). As described in the technical work plan, the development of this report is coordinated with the development of other engineered barrier system reports.

  7. ENGINEERED BARRIER SYSTEM: PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL ENVIRONMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report is to describe the evolution of the physical and chemical environmental conditions within the waste emplacement drifts of the repository, including the drip shield and waste package surfaces. The abstraction model is used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA LA) to assess the performance of the engineered barrier system and the waste form. This report develops and documents a set of these abstraction-level models that describe the engineered barrier system physical and chemical environment. Where possible, these models use information directly from other reports as input, which promotes integration among process models used for TSPA-LA. Specific tasks and activities of modeling the physical and chemical environment are included in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport In-Drift Geochemistry Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171156], Section 1.2.2). As described in the technical work plan, the development of this report is coordinated with the development of other engineered barrier system reports

  8. 14 CFR 23.691 - Artificial stall barrier system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Artificial stall barrier system. 23.691... Construction Control Systems § 23.691 Artificial stall barrier system. If the function of an artificial stall barrier, for example, stick pusher, is used to show compliance with § 23.201(c), the system must...

  9. Developing innovative systems for reinforced masonry walls

    OpenAIRE

    Mosele, F.; Porto, F. da; Modena, C.; Fusco, A. di; Cesare, G. di; Vasconcelos, Graça; Haach, V.; Lourenço, Paulo B.; Beer, I; Schmidt, U.; Brameshuber, W.; Scheufler, W.; Schermer, D. C.; Zilch, K.

    2006-01-01

    The Commission of the European Communities has recently funded a CRAFT research project aimed at developing innovative systems for load and non-load-bearing reinforced masonry walls. The project involves twelve partners coming from four different European countries, among which there are universities and research centres, small and medium enterprises for the production of clay and concrete units and mortars, a company for advanced metal products and industrial associations of brick and block ...

  10. The development of blood-retinal barrier during the interaction of astrocytes with vascular wall cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huanling Yao; Tianshi Wang; Jiexin Deng; Ding Liu; Xiaofei Li; Jinbo Deng

    2014-01-01

    Astrocytes are intimately involved in the formation and development of retinal vessels. Astrocyte dysfunction is a major cause of blood-retinal barrier injury and other retinal vascular diseases. In this study, the development of the retinal vascular system and the formation of the blood-ret-inal barrier in mice were investigated using immunolfuorescence staining, gelatin-ink perfusion, and transmission electron microscopy. The results showed that the retinal vascular system of mice develops from the optic disc after birth, and radiates out gradually to cover the entire retina, taking the papilla optica as the center. First, the superifcial vasculature is formed on the inner retinal layer;then, the vasculature extends into the inner and outer edges of the retinal inner nuclear layer, forming the deep vasculature that is parallel to the superifcial vasculature. The blood-retinal barrier is mainly composed of endothelium, basal lamina and the end-feet of astrocytes, which become mature during mouse development. Initially, the naive endothelial cells were immature with few organelles and many microvilli. The basal lamina was uniform in thickness, and the glial end-feet surrounded the outer basal lamina incompletely. In the end, the blood-retinal barrier matures with smooth endothelia connected through tight junctions, rela-tively thin and even basal lamina, and relatively thin glial cell end-feet. These ifndings indicate that the development of the vasculature in the retina follows the rules of“center to periphery”and“superifcial layer to deep layers”. Its development and maturation are spatially and tempo-rally consistent with the functional performance of retinal neurons and photosensitivity. The blood-retinal barrier gradually becomes mature via the process of interactions between astro-cytes and blood vessel cells.

  11. Failure mechanisms of thermal barrier systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tao

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are widely used in turbines for propulsion and power generation. The benefit results from their ability to sustain high thermal gradients in the presence of adequate backside cooling. Lowering the temperature of the metal substrate prolongs the life of the component: whether from environmental attack, creep rupture, or fatigue. Thermal barrier systems exhibit multiple failure mechanisms, depends on the deposition methods of the TBCs, chemical composition of the bond coats, and their working environments. Some of the most prevalent are studied in this thesis. There are two types of thermal barrier systems based on the chemical composition of the bond coats: Pt-aluminide and NiCoCrAlY bond coats. Ratcheting happens the most in the systems with Pt-aluminide bond coats; while edge delamination is considered a possible failure mechanism for the systems with NiCoCrAlY bond coats. Ratcheting is motivated by displacement instability in the thermally grown oxide (TGO). Interactions between cracks induced in TBCs upon thermal cycling have been calculated. Cracks that converge from neighboring imperfections exhibit a minimum energy release rate prior to coalescence. Equating this minimum to the toughness of the TBC provides a criterion for coalescence and failure. Imposing this criterion allows the change in crack length upon cycling and the number of cycles to failure to be ascertained. This simulation capability is used to explore various influences on durability. Samples with NiCoCrAlY bond coat are studied after subjected to thermal cycling in a burner rig. In each case, a dominant delamination has been identified, that extends primarily along the interface between the TGO and the bond coat. Calculations of the delamination energy release rate, upon comparison with the interface toughness, reveals a critical TGO thickness, (h tgo)c ≈ 3mum, comparable to that found experimentally.

  12. Development of NRU reflector wall inspection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2009 May, the National Research Universal (NRU) calandria leaked. During the next year, the calandria was inspected with six new Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) techniques to determine the extent of the corrosion, repaired, and finally the repair was inspected with four additional new NDE techniques before the reactor was returned to service. The calandria is surrounded by a light-water reflector vessel fabricated from the same material as the calandria vessel. Concerns that the same corrosion mechanism had damaged the reflector vessel led to the development of a system to inspect the full circumference of the reflector wall for corrosion damage. The inspection region could only be accessed through 64 mm diameter ports, was 10 m below the port, and had to be inspected from the corroded surface. The ultrasonic technique was designed to produce a closely spaced wall thickness (WT) grid over an area of approximately 5 m2 on the corroded surface using a very small probe holder. This paper describes the Reflector Wall Inspection (RWI) development project and the system that resulted. (author)

  13. Development of NRU reflector wall inspection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumsden, R.H.; Luloff, B.V.; Zahn, N.; Simpson, N., E-mail: lumsdenr@aecl.ca [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    2013-06-15

    In 2009 May, the National Research Universal (NRU) calandria leaked. During the next year, the calandria was inspected with six new Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) techniques to determine the extent of the corrosion, repaired, and finally the repair was inspected with four additional new NDE techniques before the reactor was returned to service. The calandria is surrounded by a light-water reflector vessel fabricated from the same material as the calandria vessel. Concerns that the same corrosion mechanism had damaged the reflector vessel led to the development of a system to inspect the full circumference of the reflector wall for corrosion damage. The inspection region could only be accessed through 64 mm diameter ports, was 10 m below the port, and had to be inspected from the corroded surface. The ultrasonic technique was designed to produce a closely spaced wall thickness (WT) grid over an area of approximately 5 m2 on the corroded surface using a very small probe holder. This paper describes the Reflector Wall Inspection (RWI) development project and the system that resulted. (author)

  14. Article Including Environmental Barrier Coating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang N. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An enhanced environmental barrier coating for a silicon containing substrate. The enhanced barrier coating may include a bond coat doped with at least one of an alkali metal oxide and an alkali earth metal oxide. The enhanced barrier coating may include a composite mullite bond coat including BSAS and another distinct second phase oxide applied over said surface.

  15. ENGINEERED BARRIER SYSTEM: PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL ENVIRONMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Jarek

    2005-08-29

    The purpose of this model report is to describe the evolution of the physical and chemical environmental conditions within the waste emplacement drifts of the repository, including the drip shield and waste package surfaces. The resulting seepage evaporation and gas abstraction models are used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) to assess the performance of the engineered barrier system and the waste form. This report develops and documents a set of abstraction-level models that describe the engineered barrier system physical and chemical environment. Where possible, these models use information directly from other reports as input, which promotes integration among process models used for TSPA-LA. Specific tasks and activities of modeling the physical and chemical environment are included in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport In-Drift Geochemistry Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173782], Section 1.2.2). As described in the technical work plan, the development of this report is coordinated with the development of other engineered barrier system reports. To be consistent with other project documents that address features, events, and processes (FEPs), Table 6.14.1 of the current report includes updates to FEP numbers and FEP subjects for two FEPs identified in the technical work plan (TWP) governing this report (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173782]). FEP 2.1.09.06.0A (Reduction-oxidation potential in EBS), as listed in Table 2 of the TWP (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173782]), has been updated in the current report to FEP 2.1.09.06.0B (Reduction-oxidation potential in Drifts; see Table 6.14-1). FEP 2.1.09.07.0A (Reaction kinetics in EBS), as listed in Table 2 of the TWP (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173782]), has been updated in the current report to FEP 2.1.09.07.0B (Reaction kinetics in Drifts; see Table 6.14-1). These deviations from the TWP are justified because they improve integration with FEPs

  16. ENGINEERED BARRIER SYSTEM: PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL ENVIRONMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this model report is to describe the evolution of the physical and chemical environmental conditions within the waste emplacement drifts of the repository, including the drip shield and waste package surfaces. The resulting seepage evaporation and gas abstraction models are used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) to assess the performance of the engineered barrier system and the waste form. This report develops and documents a set of abstraction-level models that describe the engineered barrier system physical and chemical environment. Where possible, these models use information directly from other reports as input, which promotes integration among process models used for TSPA-LA. Specific tasks and activities of modeling the physical and chemical environment are included in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport In-Drift Geochemistry Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173782], Section 1.2.2). As described in the technical work plan, the development of this report is coordinated with the development of other engineered barrier system reports. To be consistent with other project documents that address features, events, and processes (FEPs), Table 6.14.1 of the current report includes updates to FEP numbers and FEP subjects for two FEPs identified in the technical work plan (TWP) governing this report (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173782]). FEP 2.1.09.06.0A (Reduction-oxidation potential in EBS), as listed in Table 2 of the TWP (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173782]), has been updated in the current report to FEP 2.1.09.06.0B (Reduction-oxidation potential in Drifts; see Table 6.14-1). FEP 2.1.09.07.0A (Reaction kinetics in EBS), as listed in Table 2 of the TWP (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173782]), has been updated in the current report to FEP 2.1.09.07.0B (Reaction kinetics in Drifts; see Table 6.14-1). These deviations from the TWP are justified because they improve integration with FEPs documents. The updates

  17. Energy Dependence of the Fusion Barrier for Heavy Nuclear Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIZhu-xia; WUXi-zhen; TIANJun-long; WANGNing

    2003-01-01

    The dynamical behavior of the fusion potential barrier for heavy nuclear systems is studied by means of the improved quantum molecular dynamics model. It is found that the fusion potential barrier experienced in a realistic fusion process (the dynamic fusion potential barrier) reduces with decrease of incident energies.

  18. The performance of in situ grown Schottky-barrier single wall carbon nanotube field-effect transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Zhixian [ORNL; Eres, Gyula [ORNL; Jin, Rongying [ORNL; Subedi, Alaska P [ORNL; Mandrus, David [ORNL; Kim, Eugene [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    Electrical transport measurements were used to study device behavior that results from the interplay of defects and inadvertent contact variance that develops in as-grown semiconducting single wall carbon nanotube devices with nominally identical Au contacts. The transport measurements reveal that as-grown nanotubes contain defects that limit the performance of field-effect transistors with ohmic contacts. In Schottky-barrier field-effect transistors the device performance is dominated by the Schottky barrier and the nanotube defects have little effect. We also observed strong rectifying behavior attributed to extreme contact asymmetry due to the different nanoscale roughness of the gold contacts formed during nanotube growth.

  19. The performance of in situ grown Schottky-barrier single wall carbon nanotube field-effect transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Zhixian [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Eres, Gyula; Jin Rongying; Subedi, Alaska; Mandrus, David [Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Kim, Eugene H [Department of Physics, University of Windsor, Windsor, ON, N9B 3P4 (Canada)], E-mail: zxzhou@wayne.edu

    2009-02-25

    Electrical transport measurements were used to study device behavior that results from the interplay of defects and inadvertent contact variance that develops in as-grown semiconducting single wall carbon nanotube devices with nominally identical Au contacts. The transport measurements reveal that as-grown nanotubes contain defects that limit the performance of field-effect transistors with ohmic contacts. In Schottky-barrier field-effect transistors the device performance is dominated by the Schottky barrier and the nanotube defects have little effect. We also observed strong rectifying behavior attributed to extreme contact asymmetry due to the different nanoscale roughness of the gold contacts formed during nanotube growth.

  20. The performance of in situ grown Schottky-barrier single wall carbon nanotube field-effect transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrical transport measurements were used to study device behavior that results from the interplay of defects and inadvertent contact variance that develops in as-grown semiconducting single wall carbon nanotube devices with nominally identical Au contacts. The transport measurements reveal that as-grown nanotubes contain defects that limit the performance of field-effect transistors with ohmic contacts. In Schottky-barrier field-effect transistors the device performance is dominated by the Schottky barrier and the nanotube defects have little effect. We also observed strong rectifying behavior attributed to extreme contact asymmetry due to the different nanoscale roughness of the gold contacts formed during nanotube growth.

  1. Effect of joint mechanism on vehicle redirectional capability of water-filled road safety barrier systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiyahuddin, M I; Thambiratnam, D P; Gu, Y T

    2014-10-01

    Portable water-filled barriers (PWFBs) are roadside appurtenances that prevent vehicles from penetrating into temporary construction zones on roadways. PWFBs are required to satisfy the strict regulations for vehicle re-direction in tests. However, many of the current PWFBs fail to re-direct the vehicle at high speeds due to the inability of the joints to provide appropriate stiffness. The joint mechanism hence plays a crucial role in the performance of a PWFB system at high speed impacts. This paper investigates the desired features of the joint mechanism in a PWFB system that can re-direct vehicles at high speeds, while limiting the lateral displacement to acceptable limits. A rectangular "wall" representative of a 30m long barrier system was modeled and a novel method of joining adjacent road barriers was introduced through appropriate pin-joint connections. The impact response of the barrier "wall" and the vehicle was obtained and the results show that a rotational stiffness of 3000kNm/rad at the joints seems to provide the desired features of the PWFB system to re-direct impacting vehicles and restrict the lateral deflection. These research findings will be useful to safety engineers and road barrier designers in developing a new generation of PWFBs for increased road safety. PMID:24887591

  2. Fire barrier evaluation of the wall between spent nuclear fuel storage basins and reactor areas, 105KE and 105KW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This evaluation is intended to provide a comprehensive assessment of the risks from fire and fire related perils for the fire barriers between spent nuclear fuel storage basins and reactor areas, 105KE and 105KW. As a result of this fire barrier evaluation the present walls and the components thereof are not a true listed fire rated assembly. However, due to the construction of these barriers and the components thereof, these barriers will provide an equivalent level of protection provided the recommendations in Section 8.0 of this report are completed. These recommended upgrades are based upon sound engineering practice by a Registered Fire Protection Engineer. The construction of the barrier are substantial enough to provide the required 2-hr fire resistance rating. The primary concern is the numerous penetrations in the barrier. There are many penetrations that are adequate and no additional work is required. These penetrations are the ones that were poured-in-place at the time of construction. The penetrations that are of concern are some of the doors, the HVAC ducts, and the unsealed piping and conduit penetrations. There are several metal doors that should be replaced because the existing doors have either a non-approved window or louver that will not limit the spread of fire to one side of the barrier. All unsealed piping and conduit penetrations should be firestopped with an approved firestopping material. The existing non-active ducts that pass through the barrier should be disconnected at the barrier and the opening sealed with an approved firestopping method

  3. Applications of barrier bucket RF systems at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhat, C.M.; /Fermilab

    2006-03-01

    In recent years, the barrier rf systems have become important tools in a variety of beam manipulation applications at synchrotrons. Four out of six proton synchrotrons at Fermilab are equipped with broad-band barrier rf systems. All of the beam manipulations pertaining to the longitudinal phase space in the Fermilab Recycler (synchrotron used for antiproton storage) are carried out using a barrier system. Recently, a number of new applications of barrier rf systems have been developed- the longitudinal momentum mining, longitudinal phase-space coating, antiproton stacking, fast bunch compression and more. Some of these techniques have been critical for the recent spectacular success of the collider performance at the Fermilab Tevatron. Barrier bunch coalescing to produce bright proton bunches has a high potential to increase proton antiproton luminosity significantly. In this paper, I will describe some of these techniques in detail. Finally, I make a few general remarks on issues related to barrier systems.

  4. How walls do work: Security barriers as devices of interruption and data capture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Pallister-Wilkins

    2016-01-01

    What do security barriers do beyond blockading or demarcating territory? This article argues for an understanding of security barriers as sociotechnical devices. It argues for a rearticulation of security barriers as more than territorial technologies or the products and producers of sovereign power

  5. Fabrication and characterization of tunnel barriers in a multi-walled carbon nanotube formed by argon atom beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have evaluated tunnel barriers formed in multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) by an Ar atom beam irradiation method and applied the technique to fabricate coupled double quantum dots. The two-terminal resistance of the individual MWNTs was increased owing to local damage caused by the Ar beam irradiation. The temperature dependence of the current through a single barrier suggested two different contributions to its Arrhenius plot, i.e., formed by direct tunneling through the barrier and by thermal activation over the barrier. The height of the formed barriers was estimated. The fabrication technique was used to produce coupled double quantum dots with serially formed triple barriers on a MWNT. The current measured at 1.5 K as a function of two side-gate voltages resulted in a honeycomb-like charge stability diagram, which confirmed the formation of the double dots. The characteristic parameters of the double quantum dots were calculated, and the feasibility of the technique is discussed

  6. Target or barrier? The cell wall of early- and later- diverging plants vs cadmium toxicity: differences in the response mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi eParrotta

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Increasing industrialization and urbanization result in emission of pollutants in the environment including toxic heavy metals, as cadmium and lead. Among the different heavy metals contaminating the environment, cadmium raises great concern, as it is ecotoxic and as such can heavily impact ecosystems. The cell wall is the first structure of plant cells to come in contact with heavy metals. Its composition, characterized by proteins, polysaccharides and in some instances lignin and other phenolic compounds, confers the ability to bind non-covalently and/or covalently heavy metals via functional groups. A strong body of evidence in the literature has shown the role of the cell wall in heavy metal response: it sequesters heavy metals, but at the same time its synthesis and composition can be severely affected. The present review analyzes the dual property of plant cell walls, i.e. barrier and target of heavy metals, by taking Cd toxicity as example. Following a summary of the known physiological and biochemical responses of plants to Cd, the review compares the wall-related mechanisms in early- and later-diverging land plants, by considering the diversity in cell wall composition. By doing so, common as well as unique response mechanisms to metal/cadmium toxicity are identified among plant phyla and discussed. After discussing the role of hyperaccumulators’ cell walls as a particular case, the review concludes by considering important aspects for plant engineering.

  7. Prototype Engineered Barrier System Field Tests (PEBSFT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This progress report presents the interpretation of data obtained (up to November 1, 1988) from the Prototype Engineered Barrier System Field Tests (PEBSFT) that are being performed for the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) in G-Tunnel within the Nevada Test site. The PEBSFTs are being conducted to evaluate the applicability of measurement techniques, numerical models, and procedures developed for the field tests for future investigations that will be conducted in the Exploratory Shaft Facilities, at a potential high-level radioactive waste repository site in Yucca Mountain. The primary objective of the tests is to provide the basis for determining whether tests planned for Yucca Mountain have the potential to be successful. Thirteen chapters discuss the following: mapping the electromagnetic permittivity and attenuation rate of the rock mass; changes in moisture content detected by the neutron logging probe; characterization of the in-situ permeability of the fractured tuff around the heater borehole; electrical resistance heater installed in a 30-cm borehole; relative humidity measurements; the operation, design, construction, calibration, and installation of a microwave circuit that might provide partial pressure information at temperatures in excess of 200 degree C (392 degree F); pressure and temperature measurements in the G-Tunnel; the moisture collection system, which attempts to collect steam that migrates into the heater borehole; The borehole television and borescope surveys that were performed to map the location, orientation, and aperture of the fractures intersecting the boreholes; preliminary scoping calculations of the hydrothermal conditions expected for this prototype test; the Data Acquisition System; and the results of the PEBSFT, preliminary interpretations of these results, and plans for the remainder of the test. Chapters have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base

  8. Prototype Engineered Barrier System Field Test (PEBSFT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This final report represents a summary of data and interpretations obtained from the Prototype Engineered Barrier System Field Test (PEBSFT) performed in G-Tunnel within the Nevada Test Site. The PEBSFT was conducted to evaluate the applicability of measurement techniques, numerical models, and procedures developed for future field tests that will be conducted in the Exploratory Studies Facilities (ESF) at Yucca Mountain. The primary objective of the test was to provide a basis for determining whether tests planned for the ESF have the potential to be successful. Chapter 1 on high frequency electromagnetic tomography discusses the rock mass electromagnetic permittivity and attenuation rate changes that were measured to characterize the water distribution in the near field of a simulated waste container. The data are used to obtain quantitative estimates of how the moisture content in the rock mass changes during heating and to infer properties of the spatial variability of water distribution, leading to conclusions about the role of fractures in the system. Chapter 2 discusses the changes in rock moisture content detected by the neutron logging probe. Chapter 3 permeability tests discusses the characterization of the in-situ permeability of the fractured tuff around the borehole. The air permeability testing apparatus, the testing procedures, and the data analysis are presented. Chapter 4 describes the moisture collection system installed in the heater borehole to trap and measure the moisture volumes. Chapter 5 describes relative humidity measurements made with the thermocouple psychrometer and capacitance sensors. Chapter 6 discusses gas pressure measurements in the G-Tunnel, addressing the calibration and installation of piezoresistive-gaged transducers. Chapter 7 describes the calibration and installation of thermocouples for temperature measurements. Chapter 8 discusses the results of the PEBSFT

  9. Fluctuating Potential Barrier System with Correlated Spatial Noises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jing-Hui

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we study a fluctuating potential barrier system with correlated spatial noises. Study shows that for this system, there is the resonant activation over the fluctuating potential barrier, and that the correlation between the different spatial noises can enhance (or weaken) the resonant activation.

  10. Life Cycle Assessment of Wall Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Sriranjani

    Natural resource depletion and environmental degradation are the stark realities of the times we live in. As awareness about these issues increases globally, industries and businesses are becoming interested in understanding and minimizing the ecological footprints of their activities. Evaluating the environmental impacts of products and processes has become a key issue, and the first step towards addressing and eventually curbing climate change. Additionally, companies are finding it beneficial and are interested in going beyond compliance using pollution prevention strategies and environmental management systems to improve their environmental performance. Life-cycle Assessment (LCA) is an evaluative method to assess the environmental impacts associated with a products' life-cycle from cradle-to-grave (i.e. from raw material extraction through to material processing, manufacturing, distribution, use, repair and maintenance, and finally, disposal or recycling). This study focuses on evaluating building envelopes on the basis of their life-cycle analysis. In order to facilitate this analysis, a small-scale office building, the University Services Building (USB), with a built-up area of 148,101 ft2 situated on ASU campus in Tempe, Arizona was studied. The building's exterior envelope is the highlight of this study. The current exterior envelope is made of tilt-up concrete construction, a type of construction in which the concrete elements are constructed horizontally and tilted up, after they are cured, using cranes and are braced until other structural elements are secured. This building envelope is compared to five other building envelope systems (i.e. concrete block, insulated concrete form, cast-in-place concrete, steel studs and curtain wall constructions) evaluating them on the basis of least environmental impact. The research methodology involved developing energy models, simulating them and generating changes in energy consumption due to the above mentioned

  11. Brain barrier systems: a new frontier in metal neurotoxicological research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concept of brain barriers or a brain barrier system embraces the blood-brain interface, referred to as the blood-brain barrier, and the blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) interface, referred to as the blood-CSF barrier. These brain barriers protect the CNS against chemical insults, by different complementary mechanisms. Toxic metal molecules can either bypass these mechanisms or be sequestered in and therefore potentially deleterious to brain barriers. Supportive evidence suggests that damage to blood-brain interfaces can lead to chemical-induced neurotoxicities. This review article examines the unique structure, specialization, and function of the brain barrier system, with particular emphasis on its toxicological implications. Typical examples of metal transport and toxicity at the barriers, such as lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), iron (Fe), and manganese (Mn), are discussed in detail with a special focus on the relevance to their toxic neurological consequences. Based on these discussions, the emerging research needs, such as construction of the new concept of blood-brain regional barriers, understanding of chemical effect on aged or immature barriers, and elucidation of the susceptibility of tight junctions to toxicants, are identified and addressed in this newly evolving field of neurotoxicology. They represent both clear challenges and fruitful research domains not only in neurotoxicology, but also in neurophysiology and pharmacology

  12. Combustion chemical vapor desposited coatings for thermal barrier coating systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hampikian, J.M.; Carter, W.B. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The new deposition process, combustion chemical vapor deposition, shows a great deal of promise in the area of thermal barrier coating systems. This technique produces dense, adherent coatings, and does not require a reaction chamber. Coatings can therefore be applied in the open atmosphere. The process is potentially suitable for producing high quality CVD coatings for use as interlayers between the bond coat and thermal barrier coating, and/or as overlayers, on top of thermal barrier coatings.

  13. Integrated Solar Wall System With Combined Electricity And Windows

    OpenAIRE

    P. Radhakrishnan; Mahesh, Priya L; S, Sowmya

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a study on the utilization of solar energy, and building solar wall system. A significant amount of research and development work has to be carried out in developed nations. Windows with power generation system is not developed. A range of theoretical model have investigated for and their appropriateness validated by simulation data. Improvement of the solar wall's performances can be obtained using double glazing. The results demonstrated that solar wall provides energy s...

  14. Engineered barrier systems and the safety of deep geological repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Repositories for the disposal of radioactive waste generally rely on a multi-barrier system to isolate the waste from the biosphere. This multi-barrier system typically comprises the natural geological barrier provided by the repository host rock and an engineered barrier system (EBS). The EBS project being conducted by the NEA Integration Group for the Safety Case (IGSC) seeks to clarify the role that an EBS can play in the overall safety case for a deep geological repository. It is in this context that the European Commission and the NEA have prepared the present report, which describes the state of the art for engineered barrier systems and provides a common basis of understanding from which to plan future programmes. It is based on answers to a questionnaire received from 13 countries and 17 organisations. (author)

  15. Field study of moisture damage in walls insulated without a vapor barrier. Final report for the Oregon Department of Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsongas, G.A.

    1980-05-01

    Considerable uncertainty has existed over whether or not wall insulation installed without a vapor barrier causes an increased risk of moisture damage (wood decay) within walls. This report describes the results of one of the first major studies in the country aimed at finding out if such a moisture problem really exists. The exterior walls of a total of 96 homes in Portland, Oregon were opened, of which 70 had retrofitted insulation and 26 were uninsulated and were a control group. The types of insulation included urea-formaldehyde foam (44), mineral wool (16), and cellulose (10). In each opened wall cavity the moisture content of wood was measured and insulation and wood samples were taken for laboratory analysis of moisture content and for the determination of the presence of absence of decay fungi. Foam shrinkage was also measured. To evaluate the possible influence of the relative air tightness of the homes, fan depressurization tests were run using a door blower unit. The field and laboratory test results indicating the lack of a moisture damage problem in existing homes with wood siding in climates similar to that of western Oregon are described along with results of a statistical analysis of the data. Related problems of interest to homeowners and insulation installers are noted. The standard operating procedures used throughout the study are discussed, including the home selection process, quantitative and qualitative techniques used to identify wall locations with the highest moisture content, wall opening and data/sample collection methodology, laboratory analysis of samples, data processing and analysis, and applicability of the results. Recommendations for furutre tests are made. Finally, the potential and desirability for future retrofitting of wall insulation is explored.

  16. wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irshad Kashif

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Maintaining indoor climatic conditions of buildings compatible with the occupant comfort by consuming minimum energy, especially in a tropical climate becomes a challenging problem for researchers. This paper aims to investigate this problem by evaluating the effect of different kind of Photovoltaic Trombe wall system (PV-TW on thermal comfort, energy consumption and CO2 emission. A detailed simulation model of a single room building integrated with PV-TW was modelled using TRNSYS software. Results show that 14-35% PMV index and 26-38% PPD index reduces as system shifted from SPV-TW to DGPV-TW as compared to normal buildings. Thermal comfort indexes (PMV and PPD lie in the recommended range of ASHARE for both DPV-TW and DGPV-TW except for the few months when RH%, solar radiation intensity and ambient temperature were high. Moreover PVTW system significantly reduces energy consumption and CO2 emission of the building and also 2-4.8 °C of temperature differences between indoor and outdoor climate of building was examined.

  17. Phonon tunneling through a double barrier system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villegas, Diosdado [Departamento de Física, Universidad Central “Marta Abreu” de Las Villas, CP 54830, Santa Clara, Villa Clara (Cuba); Instituto de Física, Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, 18 Sur y San Claudio, Edif. 110A, Ciudad Universitaria, 72570 Puebla (Mexico); León-Pérez, Fernando de [Centro Universitario de la Defensa de Zaragoza, Ctra. de Huesca s/n, E-50090 Zaragoza (Spain); Pérez-Álvarez, R. [Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos, Av. Universidad 1001, CP 62209 Cuernavaca (Mexico); Arriaga, J., E-mail: arriaga@ifuap.buap.mx [Instituto de Física, Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, 18 Sur y San Claudio, Edif. 110A, Ciudad Universitaria, 72570 Puebla (Mexico)

    2015-04-15

    The tunneling of optical and acoustic phonons at normal incidence on a double-barrier is studied in this paper. Transmission coefficients and resonance conditions are derived theoretically under the assumption that the long-wavelength approximation is valid. It is shown that the behavior of the transmission coefficients for the symmetric double barrier has a Lorentzian form close to resonant frequencies and that Breit–Wigner's formula have a general validity in one-dimensional phonon tunneling. Authors also study the so-called generalized Hartman effect in the tunneling of long-wavelength phonons and show that this effect is a numerical artifact resulting from taking the opaque limit before exploring the variation with a finite barrier width. This study could be useful for the design of acoustic devices.

  18. ENGINEERED BARRIER SYSTEM FEATURES, EVENTS AND PROCESSES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate and document the inclusion or exclusion of engineered barrier system (EBS) features, events, and processes (FEPs) with respect to models and analyses used to support the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA). A screening decision, either Included or Excluded, is given for each FEP along with the technical basis for exclusion screening decisions. This information is required by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) at 10 CFR 63.114 (d, e, and f) [DIRS 173273]. The FEPs addressed in this report deal with those features, events, and processes relevant to the EBS focusing mainly on those components and conditions exterior to the waste package and within the rock mass surrounding emplacement drifts. The components of the EBS are the drip shield, waste package, waste form, cladding, emplacement pallet, emplacement drift excavated opening (also referred to as drift opening in this report), and invert. FEPs specific to the waste package, cladding, and drip shield are addressed in separate FEP reports: for example, ''Screening of Features, Events, and Processes in Drip Shield and Waste Package Degradation'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 174995]), ''Clad Degradation--FEPs Screening Arguments (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170019]), and Waste-Form Features, Events, and Processes'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170020]). For included FEPs, this report summarizes the implementation of the FEP in the TSPA-LA (i.e., how the FEP is included). For excluded FEPs, this analysis provides the technical basis for exclusion from TSPA-LA (i.e., why the FEP is excluded). This report also documents changes to the EBS FEPs list that have occurred since the previous versions of this report. These changes have resulted due to a reevaluation of the FEPs for TSPA-LA as identified in Section 1.2 of this report and described in more detail in Section 6.1.1. This revision addresses updates in Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) administrative procedures as they

  19. Internal transport barrier physics in helical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electron internal transport barrier (eITB) has been observed in wide range of helical systems, such as CHS [eg.,1], LHD [eg., 2], TJ-II [eg., 3] and W7-AS [eg., 4]. The eITB isA defined as highly peaked electron temperature (Te) profile with strongly positive radial electric field (Er) in the central region. These observations are reviewed in this paper to understand the device-independent common findings and also to draw the main differences. This is the first report from the International Stellarator Profile Database Activity. The formation of the strong central positive Er has been understood mainly as a result of the ambipolarity of neoclassical electron and ion fluxes, although some additional convective electron flux such as driven by ECRH is required in some situations. This 'neoclassical' physics peculiar to low collisional regime of helical plasmas provides the commonly observed existence of the ECRH power threshold (which is also depending on the density). This is contrastive characteristics to the ITB observed in tokamaks. The dependence of the ECRH power threshold on the magnetic configuration and on the heating scenario among these devices are currently being examined by taking the effective ripple and the trapped particle fraction as parameters to achieve the comprehensive understanding. The roles of low order rational surfaces on the onset of eITB formation and also on its radial size (location of the footpoint of the eITB) have been indicated in inward shifted configurations in LHD (depending on the relative locations of heating position and 2/1 island) and TJ-II (eITB becomes possible at higher density when 3/2 rational is introduced in the plasma core region). It is speculated that, for the latter case, the resonance causes an extra electron flux to trigger the positive Er. The interplay between low order rational surfaces and the formation of eITB still waits for the systematic experiment and theoretical analysis. The external controllability

  20. ENGINEERED BARRIER SYSTEM FEATURES, EVENTS AND PROCESSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaros, W.

    2005-08-30

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate and document the inclusion or exclusion of engineered barrier system (EBS) features, events, and processes (FEPs) with respect to models and analyses used to support the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA). A screening decision, either Included or Excluded, is given for each FEP along with the technical basis for exclusion screening decisions. This information is required by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) at 10 CFR 63.114 (d, e, and f) [DIRS 173273]. The FEPs addressed in this report deal with those features, events, and processes relevant to the EBS focusing mainly on those components and conditions exterior to the waste package and within the rock mass surrounding emplacement drifts. The components of the EBS are the drip shield, waste package, waste form, cladding, emplacement pallet, emplacement drift excavated opening (also referred to as drift opening in this report), and invert. FEPs specific to the waste package, cladding, and drip shield are addressed in separate FEP reports: for example, ''Screening of Features, Events, and Processes in Drip Shield and Waste Package Degradation'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 174995]), ''Clad Degradation--FEPs Screening Arguments (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170019]), and Waste-Form Features, Events, and Processes'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170020]). For included FEPs, this report summarizes the implementation of the FEP in the TSPA-LA (i.e., how the FEP is included). For excluded FEPs, this analysis provides the technical basis for exclusion from TSPA-LA (i.e., why the FEP is excluded). This report also documents changes to the EBS FEPs list that have occurred since the previous versions of this report. These changes have resulted due to a reevaluation of the FEPs for TSPA-LA as identified in Section 1.2 of this report and described in more detail in Section 6.1.1. This revision addresses updates in Yucca Mountain Project

  1. Clay-chitosan nanobrick walls: completely renewable gas barrier and flame-retardant nanocoatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laufer, Galina; Kirkland, Christopher; Cain, Amanda A; Grunlan, Jaime C

    2012-03-01

    Thin films prepared via a layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly of renewable materials exhibit exceptional oxygen barrier and flame-retardant properties. Positively charged chitosan (CH), at two different pH levels (pH 3 and pH 6), was paired with anionic montmorillonite (MMT) clay nanoplatelets. Thin-film assemblies prepared with CH at high pH are thicker, because if the low polymer charge density. A 30-bilayer (CH pH 6-MMT) nanocoating (~100 nm thick) reduces the oxygen permeability of a 0.5-mm-thick polylactic acid film by four orders of magnitude. This same coating system completely stops the melting of a flexible polyurethane foam, when exposed to direct flame from a butane torch, with just 10 bilayers (~30 nm thick). Cone calorimetry confirms that this coated foam exhibited a reduced peak heat-release rate, by as much as 52%, relative to the uncoated control. These environmentally benign nanocoatings could prove beneficial for new types of food packaging or a replacement for environmentally persistent antiflammable compounds. PMID:22339671

  2. Seismic impact on engineered barrier system of geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seismic impacts on the engineered barrier system of the geological disposal were examined by means of the three-dimensional elastic-plastic seismic response analysis based on effective stress method. In this study, it was evaluated against the largest ground motions recorded in Japan. The numerical analysis results showed that the engineered barrier system and the surrounding bedrock were shaken together and it had sufficient robustness for the failure state. Thus we confirmed the low possibility of a reduction in the mechanical stability of the engineered barrier system due to the ground motion. (author)

  3. Impact of vertical barriers on performance of pump-and-treat systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although aquifer remediation by Pump-and-treat (PAT) is widely practiced, it is generally implemented as an effective means of plume containment, rather than as an efficient means of contaminant mass removal. The use of slurry cutoff walls has been recognized as a means of improving the performance of PAT with respect to hydraulic control. As part of a study on the use of decision analysis in the design of aquifer remediation systems, the economic tradeoffs between capital costs and risk reduction were compared for several alternative PAT strategies. This work included an evaluation of the use of vertical barriers as components of PAT systems, using numerical experiments to examine the impacts of vertical barriers on PAT reliability. The results indicated that the use of vertical barriers in conjunction with PAT can significantly improve the simulated system performance, but that the magnitude of the predicted enhancement and cost-effectiveness of the barrier system are dependent on site characteristics, barrier placement, and modeling assumptions

  4. Seismic behavior and design of wall-EDD-frame systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oren eLavan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Walls and frames have different deflection lines and, depending on the seismic mass they support, may often poses different natural periods. In many cases, wall-frame structures present an advantageous behavior. In these structures the walls and the frames are rigidly connected. Nevertheless, if the walls and the frames were not rigidly connected, an opportunity for an efficient passive control strategy would arise: Connecting the two systems by energy dissipation devices (EDDs to result in wall-EDD-frame systems. This, depending on the parameters of the system, is expected to lead to an efficient energy dissipation mechanism.This paper studies the seismic behavior of wall-EDD-frame systems in the context of retrofitting existing frame structures. The controlling non-dimensional parameters of such systems are first identified. This is followed by a rigorous and extensive parametric study that reveals the pros and cons of the new system versus wall-frame systems. The effect of the controlling parameters on the behavior of the new system are analyzed and discussed. Finally, tools are given for initial design of such retrofitting schemes. These enable both choosing the most appropriate retrofitting alternative and selecting initial values for its parameters.

  5. John H. Chafee Coastal Barrier Resources System Approximate Polygons

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Coastal Barrier Resources System (CBRS) data set, produced by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), contains areas designated as undeveloped coastal...

  6. Insulated Wall Systems to Tackle Global Warming

    OpenAIRE

    Saha, Swapan S.; W. Y. Tam, Vivian

    2012-01-01

    Brief introduction to the problem: the growing awareness of climate change and its link to carbon dioxide emissions have caused concerns in the community. A substantial amount of carbon dioxide emitted is due to the energy consumed by residential households. Heating/cooling of a residential house consumes a large proportion of the total household energy. Purpose: This paper explores the concept by comparing thermal efficiency of the four most common external wall structures, with varying ...

  7. High-resolution reconstruction of a coastal barrier system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fruergaard, Mikkel; Andersen, Thorbjørn Joest; Nielsen, Lars Henrik;

    2015-01-01

    This study presents a detailed reconstruction of the sedimentary effects of Holocene sea-level rise on a modern coastal barrier system (CBS). Increasing concern over the evolution of CBSs due to future accelerated rates of sea-level rise calls for a better understanding of coastal barriers respon...... accumulation shows considerable variation with periods of rapid sediment deposition and periods of non-deposition or erosion resulting in a highly punctuated sediment record....

  8. Thick growing multilayer nanobrick wall thin films: super gas barrier with very few layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guin, Tyler; Krecker, Michelle; Hagen, David Austin; Grunlan, Jaime C

    2014-06-24

    Recent work with multilayer nanocoatings composed of polyelectrolytes and clay has demonstrated the ability to prepare super gas barrier layers from water that rival inorganic CVD-based films (e.g., SiOx). In an effort to reduce the number of layers required to achieve a very low oxygen transmission rate (OTR (layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly. Buffering the chitosan solution and its rinse with 50 mM Trizma base increased the thickness of these films by an order of magnitude. The OTR of a 1.6-μm-thick, six-bilayer film was 0.009 cc/m(2)·day·atm, making this the best gas barrier reported for such a small number of layers. This simple modification to the LbL process could likely be applied more universally to produce films with the desired properties much more quickly. PMID:24914613

  9. The role of plants on isolation barrier systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surface barriers are used to isolate buried wastes from the environment. Most have been built for short-term isolation. The need to isolate radioactive wastes from the environment requires that the functional integrity of a barrier be maintained for thousands of years. Barrier function strongly depends on vegetation. Plants reduce wind and water erosion and minimize drainage, but may transport contaminants if roots extend into buried wastes. Our review of the function of plants on surface barriers focuses on the role of plants across mesic to arid environments and gives special consideration to studies done at Hanford. The Hanford Barrier Development Program was created to design and test an earthen cover system to inhibit water infiltration, plant and animal intrusion, and wind and water erosion, while isolating buried wastes for at least 1000 years. Studies at the Hanford have shown that plants will significantly interact with the barrier. Plants transpire soil water back into the atmosphere. Deep-rooted perennials best recycle water; soil water may drain through the root zone of shallow-rooted annuals. Lysimeter studies indicate that a surface layer of fine soil with deep-rooted plants precludes drainage even with three times normal precipitation. The presence of vegetation greatly reduces water and wind erosion, but deep-rooted plants pose a threat of biointrusion and contaminant transport. The Hanford barrier includes a buried rock layer and asphalt layer to prevent biointrusion

  10. Thin-walled compliant plastic structures for mesoscale fluidic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Robin R.; Schumann, Daniel L.

    1999-06-01

    Thin-walled, compliant plastic structures for meso-scale fluidic systems were fabricated, tested and used to demonstrate valving, pumping, metering and mixing. These structures permit the isolation of actuators and sensors form the working fluid, thereby reducing chemical compatibility issues. The thin-walled, compliant plastic structures can be used in either a permanent, reusable system or as an inexpensive disposable for single-use assay systems. The implementation of valving, pumping, mixing and metering operations involve only an elastic change in the mechanical shape of various portions of the structure. Advantages provided by the thin-walled plastic structures include reduced dead volume and rapid mixing. Five different methods for fabricating the thin-walled plastic structures discussed including laser welding, molding, vacuum forming, thermal heat staking and photolithographic patterning techniques.

  11. Subsurface barrier validation with the SEAtrace{trademark} system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandra Dalvit Dunn; William Lowry; Veraun Chipman

    1999-09-01

    Under contract to the Department of Energy, Science and Engineering Associates has completed development and testing of a subsurface barrier verification and monitoring system. This system, called SEAtrace{trademark}, is able to locate and size leaks with a high degree of accuracy in subsurface barriers that are emplaced in an unsaturated medium. It uses gaseous tracer injection, in-field real-time monitoring, and real time data analysis to evaluate barrier integrity. The approach is: Conservative as it measures vapor leaks in a containment system whose greatest risk is posed by liquid leaks; Applicable to any impermeable type of barrier emplacement technology in the unsaturated zone; Inexpensive as it uses readily available, non-toxic, nonhazardous gaseous tracers, does not require an inordinately large number of sampling points, and injection and sampling points can be emplaced by direct push techniques; Capable of assessing not only a barrier's initial integrity, but can also provide long-term monitoring. To date, six demonstrations of the system have been completed. Results from two of the demonstrations are detailed in this report. They include the final developmental demonstration of the SEAtrace system and a comparison demonstration of two tracer based verification technologies. The final developmental demonstration of SEAtrace was completed at a naval facility in Brunswick, Maine. The demonstration was funded solely by the DOE and was performed in cooperation with the US Navy, the Environmental Protection Agency, and the Maine Department of Environmental Protection.

  12. Multifunctional outer wall systems; Multifunktionale Aussenwandsysteme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahne, E.; Twerdy, C. [Zentrum fuer Sonnenenergie- und Wasserstoff-Forschung Baden-Wuerttemberg (ZSW), Stuttgart (Germany); Pfluger, R. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Thermodynamik und Waermetechnik

    1998-02-01

    Facades will have a multitude of functions in the future. All of them will be energy-oriented and overall energy balances considering production, utilization and destruction will become an important factor. For a detached house and multiple dwelling, examples of facade constructions and appliances are discussed. A `Solar Wall` facade provides preheating of combustion air in a combined heating/power station. Progressive facade elements are being investigated in so-called `Test Cells` for determining their heat transfer coefficient (k), their heat capacity (C) and their energy transport factor (g). PV modules are investigated in such cells in order to work out European Rules for the testing of PV-hybrid components. (orig.) [Deutsch] Fassaden werden in Zukunft eine Vielzahl von Funktionen zu erfuellen haben. Alle werden letztlich energieorientiert sein; gesamtheitliche Betrachtungen von der Produktion ueber die Nutzung bis zur Entsorgung werden eine wesentliche Rolle spielen. Fuer ein Ein- und Mehrfamilienhaus werden Beispiele fuer die Fassadenkonstruktion und Geraetschaften angefuehrt. In einem Fernheizkraftwerk dient eine `Solarwand` zur Vorwaermung der Verbrennungsluft. Fortschrittliche Fassaden-Elemente werden in sogenannten Testzellen untersucht hinsichtlich ihres Gesamtwaermedurchgangskoeffizienten, ihrer Waermekapazitaet und ihres Gesamtenergie-Durchlassgrads. PV-Module werden gegenwaertig in diesen Zellen untersucht, um Testregeln fuer PV-Hybridkomponenten fuer die Europaeische Union auszuarbeiten. (orig.)

  13. Integrated control of the wastewater system – potentials and barriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mollerup, Ane Loft; Grum, Morten; Muschalla, Dirk;

    2013-01-01

    Applying integrated control to a sewer system and wastewater treatment plant often leads to additional benefits for both systems when compared to controlling them independently. However, barriers such as a lack of incentive for utilities to put this type of control in place mean that in practice...

  14. Microstructural Evolution and interfacial motion in systems with diffusion barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perry H. Leo

    2009-03-05

    This research program was designed to model and simulate phase transformations in systems containing diffusion barriers. The modeling work included mass flow, phase formation, and microstructural evolution in interdiffusing systems. Simulation work was done by developing Cahn-Hilliard and phase field equations governing both the temporal and spatial evolution of the composition and deformation fields and other important phase variables.

  15. Strain effects on the performance of zero-Schottky-barrier double-walled carbon nanotube transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahab, Md. Abdul; Khosru, Quazi D. M.

    2010-08-01

    Schrodinger's equation is solved using recursive Green's function algorithm self-consistently with Poisson's equation to study the transport physics of uniaxial and torsional strained double-walled (DW) carbon nanotube (CNT) field-effect transistors (FETs) and to analyze their performance. The characteristics and performance of proposed DW CNTFET are compared with existing single-walled (SW) CNTFET. The strain has great impact on the I-V characteristics of both SW and DW CNT devices. Tensile and torsional strains improve greatly the off-state current and on/off current ratio of both devices. Compressive strain improves on-state current, but this improvement is comparatively small. The effect of strain on off-state current, on-state current, and on/off current ratio is higher in SW CNTFET. The inverse subthreshold slope of DW CNTFET is better than SW CNTFET. But the variation in inverse subthreshold slope with strain is smaller in DW CNTFET. Unlike SW CNTFET the on-state transconductance of DW CNTFET improves with tensile and torsional strains, and degrades with compressive strain. The on-state cut-off frequency of DW CNTFET also shows opposite behavior to SW CNTFET with strain following on-state transconductance. Concrete Physical description is provided to explain all above changes with strain.

  16. Migration and diffusion of radionuclides in engineered barrier system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the present status of the multibarrier system performance tests to provide a preliminary assessment of nuclide migration in the engineered barriers for shallow land burial of the low-level radioactive waste. Migration of radionuclides with seeped water through backfill and in subsequent diffusion in concrete pit are considered in this study. The results of laboratory investigations of unsaturated flow in backfill and radionuclides migration / diffusion in engineered barrier system are described and the calculated distribution of the radionuclides in backfill is presented

  17. Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conceptual and predictive models documented in this Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment Model report describe the evolution of the physical and chemical conditions within the waste emplacement drifts of the repository. The modeling approaches and model output data will be used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA-LA) to assess the performance of the engineered barrier system and the waste form. These models evaluate the range of potential water compositions within the emplacement drifts, resulting from the interaction of introduced materials and minerals in dust with water seeping into the drifts and with aqueous solutions forming by deliquescence of dust (as influenced by atmospheric conditions), and from thermal-hydrological-chemical (THC) processes in the drift. These models also consider the uncertainty and variability in water chemistry inside the drift and the compositions of introduced materials within the drift. This report develops and documents a set of process- and abstraction-level models that constitute the engineered barrier system: physical and chemical environment model. Where possible, these models use information directly from other process model reports as input, which promotes integration among process models used for total system performance assessment. Specific tasks and activities of modeling the physical and chemical environment are included in the technical work plan ''Technical Work Plan for: In-Drift Geochemistry Modeling'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 166519]). As described in the technical work plan, the development of this report is coordinated with the development of other engineered barrier system analysis model reports

  18. N-Springs barrier wall drilling program data package. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This revision provides results of geotechnical site characterization field work performed from September 1994 to February 1995 by the Environmental Restoration Contractor (ERC) to support the proposed installation of 3,000-ft-long sheet-pile wall at N-Springs. N-Springs, which is located along the banks of the Columbia River at 100-N Area, was contaminated during the operation of the 1301-N and 1325-N liquid waste disposal facilities (LWDF). The work scope included the following: blow count sampling to determine relative penetration resistance of formation; geologic logging of the Hanford formation, the Ringold Formation, and the Ringold upper mud; geohydrologic characterization of the Ringold upper mud and unit E; soil chemistry; and elevation of the Ringold upper mud. The purpose of this report is to present a compilation of data gathered during field activities

  19. Engineered Barrier System performance requirements systems study report. Revision 02

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study evaluates the current design concept for the Engineered Barrier System (EBS), in concert with the current understanding of the geologic setting to assess whether enhancements to the required performance of the EBS are necessary. The performance assessment calculations are performed by coupling the EBS with the geologic setting based on the models (some of which were updated for this study) and assumptions used for the 1995 Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA). The need for enhancements is determined by comparing the performance assessment results against the EBS related performance requirements. Subsystem quantitative performance requirements related to the EBS include the requirement to allow no more than 1% of the waste packages (WPs) to fail before 1,000 years after permanent closure of the repository, as well as a requirement to control the release rate of radionuclides from the EBS. The EBS performance enhancements considered included additional engineered components as well as evaluating additional performance available from existing design features but for which no performance credit is currently being taken

  20. Engineered Barrier System performance requirements systems study report. Revision 02

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balady, M.A.

    1997-01-14

    This study evaluates the current design concept for the Engineered Barrier System (EBS), in concert with the current understanding of the geologic setting to assess whether enhancements to the required performance of the EBS are necessary. The performance assessment calculations are performed by coupling the EBS with the geologic setting based on the models (some of which were updated for this study) and assumptions used for the 1995 Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA). The need for enhancements is determined by comparing the performance assessment results against the EBS related performance requirements. Subsystem quantitative performance requirements related to the EBS include the requirement to allow no more than 1% of the waste packages (WPs) to fail before 1,000 years after permanent closure of the repository, as well as a requirement to control the release rate of radionuclides from the EBS. The EBS performance enhancements considered included additional engineered components as well as evaluating additional performance available from existing design features but for which no performance credit is currently being taken.

  1. Contributing to Net Zero Building: High Energy Efficient EIFS Wall Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbary, Lawrence D. [Dow Corning Corporation; Perkins, Laura L. [Dow Corning Corporation; Serino, Roland [Dryvit Systems, Inc; Preston, Bill [Dryvit Systems, Inc; Kosny, Jan [Fraunhofer USA, Inc. CSE

    2014-01-29

    The team led by Dow Corning collaborated to increase the thermal performance of exterior insulation and finishing systems (EIFS) to reach R-40 performance meeting the needs for high efficiency insulated walls. Additionally, the project helped remove barriers to using EIFS on retrofit commercial buildings desiring high insulated walls. The three wall systems developed within the scope of this project provide the thermal performance of R-24 to R-40 by incorporating vacuum insulation panels (VIPs) into an expanded polystyrene (EPS) encapsulated vacuum insulated sandwich element (VISE). The VISE was incorporated into an EIFS as pre-engineered insulation boards. The VISE is installed using typical EIFS details and network of trained installers. These three wall systems were tested and engineered to be fully code compliant as an EIFS and meet all of the International Building Code structural, durability and fire test requirements for a code compliant exterior wall cladding system. This system is being commercialized under the trade name Dryvit® Outsulation® HE system. Full details, specifications, and application guidelines have been developed for the system. The system has been modeled both thermally and hygrothermally to predict condensation potential. Based on weather models for Baltimore, MD; Boston, MA; Miami, FL; Minneapolis, MN; Phoenix, AZ; and Seattle, WA; condensation and water build up in the wall system is not a concern. Finally, the team conducted a field trial of the system on a building at the former Brunswick Naval Air Station which is being redeveloped by the Midcoast Regional Redevelopment Authority (Brunswick, Maine). The field trial provided a retrofit R-30 wall onto a wood frame construction, slab on grade, 1800 ft2 building, that was monitored over the course of a year. Simultaneous with the façade retrofit, the building’s windows were upgraded at no charge to this program. The retrofit building used 49% less natural gas during the winter of

  2. Experimental evaluation of an active solar thermoelectric radiant wall system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A novel active solar thermoelectric radiant wall are proposed and tested. • The novel wall can control thermal flux of building envelope by using solar energy. • The novel wall can eliminate building envelop thermal loads and provide cooling capacity for space cooling. • Typical application issues including connection strategies, coupling with PV system etc. are discussed. - Abstract: Active solar thermoelectric radiant wall (ASTRW) system is a new solar wall technology which integrates thermoelectric radiant cooling and photovoltaic (PV) technologies. In ASTRW system, a PV system transfers solar energy directly into electrical energy to power thermoelectric cooling modes. Both the thermoelectric cooling modes and PV system are integrated into one enclosure surface as radiant panel for space cooling and heating. Hence, ASTRW system presents fundamental shift from minimizing building envelope energy losses by optimizing the insulation thickness to a new regime where active solar envelop is designed to eliminate thermal loads and increase the building’s solar gains while providing occupant comfort in all seasons. This article presents an experimental study of an ASTRW system with a dimension of 1580 × 810 mm. Experimental results showed that the inner surface temperature of the ASTRW is 3–8 °C lower than the indoor temperature of the test room, which indicated that the ASTRW system has the ability to control thermal flux of building envelope by using solar energy and reduce the air conditioning system requirements. Based on the optimal operating current of TE modules and the analysis based upon PV modeling theories, the number and type of the electrical connections for the TE modules in ASTRW system are discussed in order to get an excellent performance in the operation of the ASTRW system

  3. Origin of Small Barriers in Jahn–Teller Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barriuso, M. T.; Ortiz-Sevilla, B.; Aramburu, J. A.;

    2013-01-01

    Despite its relevance, the microscopic origin of the energy barrier, B, between the compressed and elongated geometries of Jahn–Teller (JT) systems is not well understood yet because of a lack of quantitative data about its various contributions. Seeking to clear up this matter, we have carried o...

  4. Morphodynamics of the Wadden Sea and its barrier island system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Z.B.; Hoekstra, P.; Burchard, H.; Ridderinkhof, H.; Swart, H.E. de; Stive, M.J.F.

    2012-01-01

    The Wadden Sea and its associated barrier island system exhibit highly dynamic behaviour. Of major concern is the movement of water and air and the transport, erosion and deposition of sand and mud. These processes result in an ever-changing morphology (topography/bathymetry) of the islands, tidal c

  5. Experimental Study on Spiral Patterns in Dielectric Barrier Discharge System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Shu-Hua; DONG Li-Fang; LIU Fu-Cheng; LI Shu-Feng; LI Xue-Chen; WANG Hong-Fang

    2006-01-01

    Spiral patterns are obtained in a dielectric barrier discharge system with water electrodes. The dynamics of spiral formation and transition is investigated. Wavelength characteristic of spiral patterns is also studied. Correlation measurements indicate that the wavelength of spiral pattern increases with the increasing gas gap width and oscillates with the increasing drive frequency.

  6. Engineered barrier experiment. Power control and data acquisition systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The engineered barrier concept for the storage of radioactive wastes is being tested at almost full scale at CIEMAT facilities. A data acquisition and control is an element of this experiment. This system would be operating for next three years. (Author)

  7. Field testing of asphalt-emulsion radon-barrier system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three years of laboratory and field testing have demonstrated that asphalt emulsion seals are effective radon diffusion barriers. Both laboratory and field tests in 1979, 1980 and 1981 have shown that an asphalt emulsion seal can reduce radon fluxes by greater than 99.9%. The effective diffusion coefficient for the various asphalt emulsion admix seals averages about 10-6 cm2/s. The 1981 joint field test is a culmination of all the technology developed to date for asphalt emulsion radon barrier systems. Preliminary results of this field test and the results of the 1980 field test are presented. 18 figures, 6 tables

  8. Load management for refrigeration systems: Potentials and barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grein, Arne, E-mail: a.grein@tu-berlin.de [University of Technology Berlin, Institute for Energy Technology, Department of Energy Systems, Einsteinufer 25 (TA8), 10587 Berlin (Germany); Pehnt, Martin [Institute for Energy and Environmental Research Heidelberg (ifeu), Wilckensstr. 3, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2011-09-15

    As a strategy to deal with the increasing intermittent input of renewable energy sources in Germany, the adaptation of power consumption is complementary to power-plant regulation, grid expansion and physical energy storage. One demand sector that promises strong returns for load management efforts is cooling and refrigeration. In these processes, thermal inertia provides a temporal buffer for shifting and adjusting the power consumption of cooling systems. We have conducted an empirical investigation to obtain a detailed and time-resolved bottom-up analysis of load management for refrigeration systems in the city of Mannheim, Germany. We have extrapolated our results to general conditions in Germany. Several barriers inhibit the rapid adoption of load management strategies for cooling systems, including informational barriers, strict compliance with legal cooling requirements, liability issues, lack of technical experience, an inadequate rate of return and organizational barriers. Small commercial applications of refrigeration in the food-retailing and cold storage in hotels and restaurants are particularly promising starting points for intelligent load management. When our results are applied to Germany, suitable sectors for load management have theoretical and achievable potential values of 4.2 and 2.8 GW, respectively, amounting to about 4-6% of the maximum power demand in Germany. - Highlights: > Potential and barriers for implementation of load shifting for refrigeration. > Empirical investigation for time-resolved bottom-up analysis in Mannheim, Germany. > Suitable sectors and further recommendations for introducing load management.> Extrapolation of results from local to national level.

  9. ENGINEERED BARRIER SYSTEM FEATURES, EVENTS, AND PROCESSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    na

    2005-05-30

    This analysis report is one of the technical reports containing documentation of the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain, Nevada (ERMYN), a biosphere model supporting the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for the license application (LA) for the Yucca Mountain repository. This analysis report describes the development of biosphere dose conversion factors (BDCFs) for the volcanic ash exposure scenario, and the development of dose factors for calculating inhalation dose during volcanic eruption. A graphical representation of the documentation hierarchy for the ERMYN is presented in Figure 1 - 1. This figure shows the interrelationships among the products (i.e., analysis and model reports) developed for biosphere modeling and provides an understanding of how this analysis report contributes to biosphere modeling. This report is one of two reports that develop biosphere BDCFs, which are input parameters for the TSPA model. The ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169460]) describes in detail the ERMYN conceptual model and mathematical model. The input parameter reports, shown to the right of the Biosphere Model Report in Figure 1-1, contain detailed descriptions of the model input parameters, their development and the relationship between the parameters and specific features, events and processes (FEPs). This report describes biosphere model calculations and their output, the BDCFs, for the volcanic ash exposure scenario. This analysis receives direct input from the outputs of the ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169460]) and from the five analyses that develop parameter values for the biosphere model (BSC 2005 [DIRS 172827]; BSC 2004 [DIRS 169672]; BSC 2004 [DIRS 169673]; BSC 2004 [DIRS 169458]; and BSC 2004 [DIRS 169459]). The results of this report are further analyzed in the ''Biosphere Dose Conversion Factor Importance and Sensitivity Analysis'' (Figure 1 - 1). The

  10. Electrical conduction and photoresponses of gamma-ray-irradiated single-stranded DNA/single-walled carbon nanotube composite systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, W.; Lee, E.M.; Kim, D.W.; Lee, Cheol Eui, E-mail: rscel@korea.ac.kr

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: •Effects of gamma-ray irradiation on single-stranded DNA (ssDNA)/single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) composite films. •Barrier for thermally activated conduction in the composite systems modified by the gamma-ray irradiation. •Photoresponses reveal photoexcitation and oxygen photodesorption modified by gamma-ray irradiation. -- Abstract: Effects of gamma-ray irradiation on the electrical conductivity and photoresponse have been studied for single-stranded DNA (ssDNA)/single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) composite films. The temperature-dependent electrical conductivity of the ssDNA/SWNT composite films, well described by a fluctuation-induced tunneling model, indicated modification of the barrier for thermally activated conduction by the gamma-ray irradiation. Besides, the photoresponse measurements indicated modified photoexcited charge carrier generation and oxygen photodesorption in the composite systems due to the gamma-ray irradiation.

  11. DTR, Taut Wire System: An alarm barrier with experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Taut Wire Fence Alarm System concept was developed and introduced more that fifteen years ago in Israel. A sudden expansion of the nations's border lines, the difficulty to monitor intrusions along those elongated lines and the need for timely as well as accurate armed response to an intrusion attempt dictated the need for an alarming barrier. Traditionally, protection of perimeters was accomplished by the installation of a fence or other type obstacles (man made or natural) and surveillance by manned patrols, fixed observation posts, and/or electronic devices. Defense planners recognized therefore the need for an alarming barrier. A concentrated effort by scientists solved the problem by developing the first Taut Wire Fence Alarm System in a configuration of an alarm barrier. The system was specified to have an extremely low false alarm rate (FAR/NAR), high probability of detection, the capability to follow various terrains, operability in a wide range of environmental conditions, a capability to delay an intruder, ease of installation by unskilled labor, and low maintenance requirements. The authors try here to explain the various constraints and considerations given during the design stages of the Taut Wire Alarm System so as to bring the present magnitude of users to a better understanding of the system's operation

  12. Analysis of developed transition road safety barrier systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani, Mehrtash; Moghaddam, Taher Baghaee; Karim, Mohamed Rehan; Sulong, N H Ramli

    2013-10-01

    Road safety barriers protect vehicles from roadside hazards by redirecting errant vehicles in a safe manner as well as providing high levels of safety during and after impact. This paper focused on transition safety barrier systems which were located at the point of attachment between a bridge and roadside barriers. The aim of this study was to provide an overview of the behavior of transition systems located at upstream bridge rail with different designs and performance levels. Design factors such as occupant risk and vehicle trajectory for different systems were collected and compared. To achieve this aim a comprehensive database was developed using previous studies. The comparison showed that Test 3-21, which is conducted by impacting a pickup truck with speed of 100 km/h and angle of 25° to transition system, was the most severe test. Occupant impact velocity and ridedown acceleration for heavy vehicles were lower than the amounts for passenger cars and pickup trucks, and in most cases higher occupant lateral impact ridedown acceleration was observed on vehicles subjected to higher levels of damage. The best transition system was selected to give optimum performance which reduced occupant risk factors using the similar crashes in accordance with Test 3-21. PMID:23820073

  13. Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. M. Jolley; R. Jarek; P. Mariner

    2004-02-09

    The conceptual and predictive models documented in this Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment Model report describe the evolution of the physical and chemical conditions within the waste emplacement drifts of the repository. The modeling approaches and model output data will be used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA-LA) to assess the performance of the engineered barrier system and the waste form. These models evaluate the range of potential water compositions within the emplacement drifts, resulting from the interaction of introduced materials and minerals in dust with water seeping into the drifts and with aqueous solutions forming by deliquescence of dust (as influenced by atmospheric conditions), and from thermal-hydrological-chemical (THC) processes in the drift. These models also consider the uncertainty and variability in water chemistry inside the drift and the compositions of introduced materials within the drift. This report develops and documents a set of process- and abstraction-level models that constitute the engineered barrier system: physical and chemical environment model. Where possible, these models use information directly from other process model reports as input, which promotes integration among process models used for total system performance assessment. Specific tasks and activities of modeling the physical and chemical environment are included in the technical work plan ''Technical Work Plan for: In-Drift Geochemistry Modeling'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 166519]). As described in the technical work plan, the development of this report is coordinated with the development of other engineered barrier system analysis model reports.

  14. Engineered Barrier System Degradation, Flow, and Transport Process Model Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.L. Hardin

    2000-07-17

    The Engineered Barrier System Degradation, Flow, and Transport Process Model Report (EBS PMR) is one of nine PMRs supporting the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) being developed by the Yucca Mountain Project for the Site Recommendation Report (SRR). The EBS PMR summarizes the development and abstraction of models for processes that govern the evolution of conditions within the emplacement drifts of a potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada. Details of these individual models are documented in 23 supporting Analysis/Model Reports (AMRs). Nineteen of these AMRs are for process models, and the remaining 4 describe the abstraction of results for application in TSPA. The process models themselves cluster around four major topics: ''Water Distribution and Removal Model, Physical and Chemical Environment Model, Radionuclide Transport Model, and Multiscale Thermohydrologic Model''. One AMR (Engineered Barrier System-Features, Events, and Processes/Degradation Modes Analysis) summarizes the formal screening analysis used to select the Features, Events, and Processes (FEPs) included in TSPA and those excluded from further consideration. Performance of a potential Yucca Mountain high-level radioactive waste repository depends on both the natural barrier system (NBS) and the engineered barrier system (EBS) and on their interactions. Although the waste packages are generally considered as components of the EBS, the EBS as defined in the EBS PMR includes all engineered components outside the waste packages. The principal function of the EBS is to complement the geologic system in limiting the amount of water contacting nuclear waste. A number of alternatives were considered by the Project for different EBS designs that could provide better performance than the design analyzed for the Viability Assessment. The design concept selected was Enhanced Design Alternative II (EDA II).

  15. Engineered Barrier System Degradation, Flow, and Transport Process Model Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Engineered Barrier System Degradation, Flow, and Transport Process Model Report (EBS PMR) is one of nine PMRs supporting the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) being developed by the Yucca Mountain Project for the Site Recommendation Report (SRR). The EBS PMR summarizes the development and abstraction of models for processes that govern the evolution of conditions within the emplacement drifts of a potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada. Details of these individual models are documented in 23 supporting Analysis/Model Reports (AMRs). Nineteen of these AMRs are for process models, and the remaining 4 describe the abstraction of results for application in TSPA. The process models themselves cluster around four major topics: ''Water Distribution and Removal Model, Physical and Chemical Environment Model, Radionuclide Transport Model, and Multiscale Thermohydrologic Model''. One AMR (Engineered Barrier System-Features, Events, and Processes/Degradation Modes Analysis) summarizes the formal screening analysis used to select the Features, Events, and Processes (FEPs) included in TSPA and those excluded from further consideration. Performance of a potential Yucca Mountain high-level radioactive waste repository depends on both the natural barrier system (NBS) and the engineered barrier system (EBS) and on their interactions. Although the waste packages are generally considered as components of the EBS, the EBS as defined in the EBS PMR includes all engineered components outside the waste packages. The principal function of the EBS is to complement the geologic system in limiting the amount of water contacting nuclear waste. A number of alternatives were considered by the Project for different EBS designs that could provide better performance than the design analyzed for the Viability Assessment. The design concept selected was Enhanced Design Alternative II (EDA II)

  16. Emergent Behavior of Coupled Barrier Island - Resort Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, D. E.; Werner, B. T.

    2004-12-01

    Barrier islands are attractive sites for resorts. Natural barrier islands experience beach erosion and island overwash during storms, beach accretion and dune building during inter-storm periods, and migration up the continental shelf as sea level rises. Beach replenishment, artificial dune building, seawalls, jetties and groins have been somewhat effective in protecting resorts against erosion and overwash during storms, but it is unknown how the coupled system will respond to long-term sea level rise. We investigate coupled barrier island - resort systems using an agent-based model with three components: natural barrier islands divided into a series of alongshore cells; resorts controlled by markets for tourism and hotel purchases; and coupling via storm damage to resorts and resort protection by government agents. Modeled barrier islands change by beach erosion, island overwash and inlet cutting during storms, and beach accretion, tidal delta growth and dune and vegetation growth between storms. In the resort hotel market, developer agents build hotels and hotel owning agents purchase them using predictions of future revenue and property appreciation, with the goal of maximizing discounted utility. In the tourism market, hotel owning agents set room rental prices to maximize profit and tourist agents choose vacation destinations maximizing a utility based on beach width, price and word-of-mouth. Government agents build seawalls, groins and jetties, and widen the beach and build up dunes by adding sand to protect resorts from storms, enhance beach quality, and maximize resort revenue. Results indicate that barrier islands and resorts evolve in a coupled manner to resort size saturation, with resorts protected against small-to-intermediate-scale storms under fairly stable sea level. Under extended, rapidly rising sea level, protection measures enhance the effect of large storms, leading to emergent behavior in the form of limit cycles or barrier submergence

  17. Computational Design and Experimental Validation of New Thermal Barrier Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Shengmin; Yang, Shizhong; Khosravi, Ebrahim

    2014-04-01

    This project (10/01/2010-9/30/2014), “Computational Design and Experimental Validation of New Thermal Barrier Systems”, originates from Louisiana State University (LSU) Mechanical Engineering Department and Southern University (SU) Department of Computer Science. This project will directly support the technical goals specified in DE-FOA-0000248, Topic Area 3: Turbine Materials, by addressing key technologies needed to enable the development of advanced turbines and turbine-based systems that will operate safely and efficiently using coal-derived synthesis gases. In this project, the focus is to develop and implement novel molecular dynamics method to improve the efficiency of simulation on novel TBC materials; perform high performance computing (HPC) on complex TBC structures to screen the most promising TBC compositions; perform material characterizations and oxidation/corrosion tests; and demonstrate our new thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems experimentally under integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) environments.

  18. Safety Verification of Interconnected Hybrid Systems Using Barrier Certificates

    OpenAIRE

    Guobin Wang; Jifeng He; Jing Liu; Haiying Sun; Zuohua Ding; Miaomiao Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Safety verification determines whether any trajectory starting from admissible initial states would intersect with a set of unsafe states. In this paper, we propose a numerical method for verifying safety of a network of interconnected hybrid dynamical systems with a state constraint based on bilinear sum-of-squares programming. The safety verification is conducted by the construction of a function of states called barrier certificate. We consider a finite number of interconnected hybrid syst...

  19. Capacity Of Automated Highway Systems: Effect Of Platooning And Barriers

    OpenAIRE

    Tsao, H. S. Jacob; Hall, Randolph; Hongola, Bruce

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, the authors study the capacity of key Automated Highway Systems (AHS) operating scenarios. The effect of the lane-flow rule, platooning or free-agent, as well as the lane barriers, on AHS capacity are studied. Special attention is paid to the interaction between the lane-flow rule and the lane change requirement. The paper consists of two major components, analytical models and AHS simulation. After a brief introduction of AHS operating strategies, analytical models are develop...

  20. Load management for refrigeration systems: Potentials and barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a strategy to deal with the increasing intermittent input of renewable energy sources in Germany, the adaptation of power consumption is complementary to power-plant regulation, grid expansion and physical energy storage. One demand sector that promises strong returns for load management efforts is cooling and refrigeration. In these processes, thermal inertia provides a temporal buffer for shifting and adjusting the power consumption of cooling systems. We have conducted an empirical investigation to obtain a detailed and time-resolved bottom-up analysis of load management for refrigeration systems in the city of Mannheim, Germany. We have extrapolated our results to general conditions in Germany. Several barriers inhibit the rapid adoption of load management strategies for cooling systems, including informational barriers, strict compliance with legal cooling requirements, liability issues, lack of technical experience, an inadequate rate of return and organizational barriers. Small commercial applications of refrigeration in the food-retailing and cold storage in hotels and restaurants are particularly promising starting points for intelligent load management. When our results are applied to Germany, suitable sectors for load management have theoretical and achievable potential values of 4.2 and 2.8 GW, respectively, amounting to about 4-6% of the maximum power demand in Germany. - Highlights: → Potential and barriers for implementation of load shifting for refrigeration. → Empirical investigation for time-resolved bottom-up analysis in Mannheim, Germany. → Suitable sectors and further recommendations for introducing load management.→ Extrapolation of results from local to national level.

  1. Dynamic modeling and response of soil-wall systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study reported herein is the third in a series of investigations motivated by need to gain improved understanding of the responses to earthquakes of deeply embedded and underground tanks storing radioactive wastes, and to develop rational but simple methods of analysis and design for such systems. Following a brief review of the errors that may result from the use of a popular model for evaluating the dynamic soil forces induced in a base-excited rigid wall retaining an elastic stratum, the sources of the errors are identified and a modification is proposed which defines correctly the action of the system. In the proposed modification, the stratum is modeled by a series of elastically supported, semi-infinite horizontal bars with distributed mass instead of massless springs. The concepts involved are introduced by reference to a system composed of a fixed-based wall and a homogeneous elastic stratum, and are then applied to the analysis of more complex soil-wall systems. Both harmonic and transient excitations are considered, and comprehensive numerical solutions are presented which elucidate the actions involved and the effects and relative importance of the relevant parameters

  2. The Cellulose System in the Cell Wall of Micrasterias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim; Herth; Vuong; Chanzy

    1996-11-01

    The cellulose system of the cell wall of Micrasterias denticulata and Micrasterias rotata was analyzed by diffraction contrast transmission electron microscopy, electron diffraction, and X-ray analysis. The studies, achieved on disencrusted cell ghosts, confirmed that the cellulose microfibrils occurred in crisscrossed bands consisting of a number of parallel ribbon-like microfibrils. The individual microfibrils had thicknesses of 5 nm for a width of around 20 nm, but in some instances, two or three microfibrils merged into one another to yield larger monocrystalline domains reaching up to 60 nm in lateral size. The orientation of the cellulose of Micrasterias is very unusual, as it was found that in the cell wall, the equatorial crystallographic planes of cellulose having a d-spacing of 0.60 nm [(11;0) in the Ibeta cellulose unit cell defined by Sugiyama et al., 1991, Macromolecules 24, 4168-4175] were oriented perpendicular to the cell wall surface. Up to now, such orientation has been found only in Spirogyra, another member of the Zygnemataceae group. The unusual structure of the secondary wall cellulose of Micrasterias may be tentatively correlated with the unique organization of the terminal complexes, which in this alga occur as hexagonal arrays of rosettes. PMID:8986649

  3. TRITIUM BARRIER MATERIALS AND SEPARATION SYSTEMS FOR THE NGNP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, S; Thad Adams, T

    2008-07-17

    Contamination of downstream hydrogen production plants or other users of high-temperature heat is a concern of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. Due to the high operating temperatures of the NGNP (850-900 C outlet temperature), tritium produced in the nuclear reactor can permeate through heat exchangers to reach the hydrogen production plant, where it can become incorporated into process chemicals or the hydrogen product. The concentration limit for tritium in the hydrogen product has not been established, but it is expected that any future limit on tritium concentration will be no higher than the air and water effluent limits established by the NRC and the EPA. A literature survey of tritium permeation barriers, capture systems, and mitigation measures is presented and technologies are identified that may reduce the movement of tritium to the downstream plant. Among tritium permeation barriers, oxide layers produced in-situ may provide the most suitable barriers, though it may be possible to use aluminized surfaces also. For tritium capture systems, the use of getters is recommended, and high-temperature hydride forming materials such as Ti, Zr, and Y are suggested. Tritium may also be converted to HTO in order to capture it on molecular sieves or getter materials. Counter-flow of hydrogen may reduce the flux of tritium through heat exchangers. Recommendations for research and development work are provided.

  4. Computational design and experimental validation of new thermal barrier systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Shengmin [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States)

    2015-03-31

    The focus of this project is on the development of a reliable and efficient ab initio based computational high temperature material design method which can be used to assist the Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) bond-coat and top-coat design. Experimental evaluations on the new TBCs are conducted to confirm the new TBCs’ properties. Southern University is the subcontractor on this project with a focus on the computational simulation method development. We have performed ab initio density functional theory (DFT) method and molecular dynamics simulation on screening the top coats and bond coats for gas turbine thermal barrier coating design and validation applications. For experimental validations, our focus is on the hot corrosion performance of different TBC systems. For example, for one of the top coatings studied, we examined the thermal stability of TaZr2.75O8 and confirmed it’s hot corrosion performance.

  5. STS [supernatant treatment system] confinement barrier integrity review for the West Valley Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary Supernatant Treatment System (STS) confinement barriers have sufficient reserve capacity, due to the inherent safety factors associated with this type of construction, to survive extreme environmental loading (e.g., design basis earthquake and tornado events) without structural failure and leakage of high-level wastes into the environment. The primary confinement barriers of highest reliability under earthquake and tornado loading are the reinforced concrete vaults and chambers that enclose the STS process vessels and piping. These buildings and tank vaults have been designed to higher structural safety standards than required for life safety by local building codes used in the design of industrial process plants in New York state. The radiological shielding requirements generally resulted in structural member sizes and wall thicknesses that were larger and consequently stronger than found in conventional industrial plant building design. The margin of safety against failure of the reinforced concrete barriers is conservatively estimated at 2 to 4 times the design basis earthquake. The least predictable element in the building barrier is the PVC water stop between the STS building and the shield structure on tank vault 8D-1. Tests and analysis indicate the water stop has an estimated safety factor against rupture under earthquake of 3 or greater. In terms of the internal piping and vessel systems that confine the raw supernatant in its process flow path, the connecting piping between the valve aisle, pipeway and shield structure appears to be the most vulnerable under earthquake. The safety factor for the piping appears to be on the order of 3. 26 refs

  6. Degradation of Organic Compounds by Active Species Sprayed in a Dielectric Barrier Corona Discharge System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jie; SONG Ling; LIU Qiang; QU Guangzhou; LI Guofeng; WU Yan

    2009-01-01

    Investigation was made into the degradation of organic compounds by a dielectric barrier corona discharge (DBCD) system. The DBCD, consisting of a quartz tube, a concentric high voltage electrode and a net wrapped to the external wall (used as ground electrode), was introduced to generate active species which were sprayed into the organic solution through an aerator fixed on the bottom of the tube. The effect of four factors-the discharge voltage, gas flow rate, solution conductivity, and pH of wastewater, on the degradation efficiency of phenol was assessed. The obtained results demonstrated that this process was an effective method for phenol degradation. The degradation rate was enhanced with the increase in power supplied. The degradation efficiency in alkaline conditions was higher than those in acid and neutral conditions.The optimal gas flow rate for phenol degradation in the system was 1.6 L/min, while the solution conductivity had little effect on the degradation.

  7. Machine vision system for inner-wall surface inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Bao Hua; Zhang, Wenwei

    1998-02-01

    A non-contact laser sensor based on the circular optical cutting image is developed to measure the size and the profile of the pipe inner wall. The sensor consists of a laser diode light source, an optical ring pattern generator and a CCD camera. The circular light from the optical ring pattern generator projects onto the pipe inner wall, which is then viewed by the CCD camera. The adapt weighted average value filter and subpixel technique in several step computing and half Gauss fitting are put forward to obtain the edge and the center of the circular image in order to filter the noise of the image and raise the resolution of the measuring system. The experimental results show that the principle is correct and the techniques are realizable.

  8. Integrated modelling of near field and engineered barrier system processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Yucca Mountain Integrating Model (YMIM) is an integrated model of the Engineered Barrier System. It has been developed to assist project managers at LLNL in identifying areas where research emphasis should be placed. The model was designed to be highly modular so that a model of an individual process could be easily modified or replaced without interfering with the models of other processes. The modules modelling container failure and the dissolution of nuclides include particularly detailed, temperature dependent models of their corresponding processes

  9. Thermal performance of a vegetated cladding system on facade walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, C.Y.; Chu, L.M. [Department of Biology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Science Center, Shatin, NT, Hong Kong (China); Cheung, Ken K.S. [Housing Department, Hong Kong SAR Government, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)

    2010-08-15

    An experimental approach is used to assess the effect of vegetation on the thermal performance of a vertical greening system, which comprised of turf-based vertical planting modules, on an elevated facade wall of a public housing apartment. Despite temperature fluctuations in the various compartments external and internal to a concrete wall, the vegetated cladding reduced interior temperatures and delayed the transfer of solar heat, which consequently reduced power consumption in air-conditioning compared with a building envelope with bare concrete. Vegetation cover led to a different pattern of temperature fluctuations on wall surfaces, which may affect the comfort of occupants even after sunset. The cooling effect which was closely associated with the area covered by living plants and moisture in the growth medium, demonstrated the value of maintaining a healthy vegetation cover beyond visual amenity. Marked variation in moisture distribution along the vertical profile of the growth medium highlighted a concern rarely addressed in planting on ground. Substrate moisture measured at randomly selected locations would underestimate the water stress in some plants and impair their survival. (author)

  10. The Invisible Wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenger, John H.

    1997-01-01

    The barrier to a company's performance may be a conflict of organizational values and culture with those of the training profession. Elements of this value system that create the invisible wall are egalitarianism, people focus, "guerilla" training tactics, and emphasis on human interaction. (JOW)

  11. First wall/blanket/shield design and optimization system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    First wall/blanket/shield design and optimization system (BSDOS) has been developed to provide a state-of-the-art design tool for fast accurate analysis. In addition, it has been designed to perform several other functions: (1) allowing comparison and evaluation studies for different concepts using the same data bases and ground rules, (2) permitting the use of any figure of merit in the evaluation studies, (3) optimizing the first wall/blanket/shield design parameters for any figure of merit under several design constraints, (4) permitting the use of different reactor parameters in the evaluation and optimization analyses, (5) allowing the use of improved eingineering data bases to study the impact on the design performance for planning future research and development, and (6) evaluating the effect of the data base uncertainties on the design performance. BSDOS is the first design and optimization system to couple the highly interacting neutronics, heat transfer, thermal hydraulics, stress analysis, radioactivity and decay-heat analyses, tritium balance, and capital cost. A brief description of the main features of BSDOS is given in this paper. Also, results from using BSDOS to perform design analysis for several reactor components are presented. 17 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  12. Terahertz inline wall thickness monitoring system for plastic pipe extrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauck, J.; Stich, D.; Heidemeyer, P.; Bastian, M.; Hochrein, T.

    2014-05-01

    Conventional and commercially available inline wall thickness monitoring systems for pipe extrusion are usually based on ultrasonic or x-ray technology. Disadvantages of ultrasonic systems are the usual need of water as a coupling media and the high damping in thick walled or foamed pipes. For x-ray systems special safety requirements have to be taken into account because of the ionizing radiation. The terahertz (THz) technology offers a novel approach to solve these problems. THz waves have many properties which are suitable for the non-destructive testing of plastics. The absorption of electrical isolators is typically very low and the radiation is non-ionizing in comparison to x-rays. Through the electromagnetic origin of the THz waves they can be used for contact free measurements. Foams show a much lower absorption in contrast to acoustic waves. The developed system uses THz pulses which are generated by stimulating photoconductive switches with femtosecond laser pulses. The time of flight of THz pulses can be determined with a resolution in the magnitude of several ten femtoseconds. Hence the thickness of an object like plastic pipes can be determined with a high accuracy by measuring the time delay between two reflections on materials interfaces e.g. at the pipe's inner and outer surface, similar to the ultrasonic technique. Knowing the refractive index of the sample the absolute layer thickness from the transit time difference can be calculated easily. This method in principle also allows the measurement of multilayer systems and the characterization of foamed pipes.

  13. System evaluation for the volume change of the engineered barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the emplaced waste in TRU waste disposal facility, it may have the void for waste bodies it. And, generating void which accompanies those component elution in concrete pit and filler in which the cement material becomes the candidate material is assumed. It is considered that the security of the diffusion control in the bentonite is not done when these voids collapsed, and when it generated the volume change inside the buffer material (bentonite). The imperfect blockage of the void by not obtaining, the sufficient swelling permeability swelling bentonite is a cause on this. Then, volume change of the bentonite inside is analyzed in this study under the conservative estimation. And the following are tested: Self-sealing, maximum swelling rate, density distribution change of the bentonite. Evaluation of the engineered barrier system for volume change from the result was carried out. Prior to the evaluation, generating void was calculated based on the conservative estimation. The density of the buffer material as it assumed the blocking by buffer material uniformly swelling using this calculated data, was obtained. By the permeability got from existing research result which shows the relationship between density and permeability of the bentonite, it was confirmed to become diffusion control in the buffer material inside, in existing engineered barrier specification. Next, it was tested, when the conservative void of the superscription was assumed, in order to confirm whether it does the security, as permeability necessary for maintaining diffusion control, puts it for the swelling of actual bentonite. As the result, it was possible to confirm sufficient swelling performance in order to do the security of the diffusion control in Na-bentonite. However, the swelling performance greatly lowered by comparing Na-bentonite in Ca-bentonite with under 1/6. The increase of the permeability not do the security of the diffusion control, when it was based on void quantity

  14. Diastolic timed Vibro-Percussion at 50 Hz delivered across a chest wall sized meat barrier enhances clot dissolution and remotely administered Streptokinase effectiveness in an in-vitro model of acute coronary thrombosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoffmann Andrew

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low Frequency Vibro-Percussion (LFVP assists clearance of thrombi in catheter systems and when applied to the heart and timed to diastole is known to enhance coronary flow. However LFVP on a clotted coronary like vessel given engagement over a chest wall sized barrier (to resemble non-invasive heart attack therapy requires study. Methods One hour old clots (n=16 were dispensed within a flexible segment of Soft-Flo catheter (4 mm lumen, weighted, interfaced with Heparinized Saline (HS, secured atop a curved dampening base, and photographed. A ~4 cm meat slab was placed over the segment and randomized to receive intermittent LFVP (engaged, - disengaged at 1 second intervals, or no LFVP for 20 minutes. HS was pulsed (~120/80 mmHg, with the diastolic phase coordinated to match LFVP delivery. The segment was then re-photographed and aspirated of fluid to determine post clot weight. The trial was then repeated with 0.5 mls of Streptokinase (15,000 IU/100 microlitre delivered ~ 2 cm upstream from the clot. Results LFVP - HS only samples (vs. controls showed; a development of clot length fluid channels absent in the control group (p Conclusion Diastolic timed LFVP (50 Hz engaged across a chest wall sized barrier enhances clot disruptive effects to an underlying coronary like system.

  15. PEBS. Long-term performance of engineered barrier systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wieczorek, Klaus; Czaikowski, Oliver; Miehe, Ruediger

    2014-12-15

    The evolution of the engineered barrier system (EBS) of geological repositories for radioactive waste has been the subject of many national and international research programmes. The emphasis of the research activities was on the elaboration of a detailed understanding of the complex THMC processes, which are expected to evolve in the early post closure period in the near field. From the perspective of radiological long-term safety, an in-depth understanding of these coupled processes is of great significance, because the evolution of the EBS during the early post-closure phase may have a non-negligible impact on the radiological safety functions at the time when the canisters breach. Unexpected process interactions during the resaturation phase could impair the safety-relevant parameters in the EBS (e. g. swelling pressure, hydraulic conductivity, diffusivity).

  16. Honeycomb and triangular domain wall networks in heteroepitaxial systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, K. R.; Chen, Z.; Elder, K. L. M.; Hirvonen, P.; Mkhonta, S. K.; Ying, S.-C.; Granato, E.; Huang, Zhi-Feng; Ala-Nissila, T.

    2016-05-01

    A comprehensive study is presented for the influence of misfit strain, adhesion strength, and lattice symmetry on the complex Moiré patterns that form in ultrathin films of honeycomb symmetry adsorbed on compact triangular or honeycomb substrates. The method used is based on a complex Ginzburg-Landau model of the film that incorporates elastic strain energy and dislocations. The results indicate that different symmetries of the heteroepitaxial systems lead to distinct types of domain wall networks and phase transitions among various surface Moiré patterns and superstructures. More specifically, the results show a dramatic difference between the phase diagrams that emerge when a honeycomb film is adsorbed on substrates of honeycomb versus triangular symmetry. It is also shown that in the small deformation limit, the complex Ginzburg-Landau model reduces to a two-dimensional sine-Gordon free energy form. This free energy can be solved exactly for one dimensional patterns and reveals the role of domains walls and their crossings in determining the nature of the phase diagrams.

  17. Representing solute transport through the multi-barrier disposal system by simplified concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poteri, A.; Nordman, H.; Pulkkanen, V-M. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Kekaelaeinen, P. [Jyvaeskylae Univ. (Finland). Dept. pf Physics; Hautojaervi, A.

    2012-02-15

    The repository system chosen in Finland for spent nuclear fuel is composed of multiple successive transport barriers. If a waste canister is leaking, this multi-barrier system retards and limits the release rates of radionuclides into the biosphere. Analysis of radionuclide migration in the previous performance assessments has largely been based on numerical modelling of the repository system. The simplified analytical approach introduced here provides a tool to analyse the performance of the whole system using simplified representations of the individual transport barriers. This approach is based on the main characteristics of the individual barriers and on the generic nature of the coupling between successive barriers. In the case of underground repository the mass transfer between successive transport barriers is strongly restricted by the interfaces between barriers leading to well-mixed conditions in these barriers. The approach here simplifies the barrier system so that it can be described with a very simple compartment model, where each barrier is represented by a single, or in the case of buffer, by not more than two compartments. This system of compartments could be solved in analogy with a radioactive decay chain. The model of well mixed compartments lends itself to a very descriptive way to represent and analyse the barrier system because the relative efficiency of the different barriers in hindering transport of solutes can be parameterised by the solutes half-times in the corresponding compartments. In a real repository system there will also be a delay between the start of the inflow and the start of the outflow from the barrier. This delay can be important for the release rates of the short lived and sorbing radionuclides, and it was also included in the simplified representation of the barrier system. In a geological multi-barrier system, spreading of the outflowing release pulse is often governed by the typical behaviour of one transport barrier

  18. Crucial role of the biological barrier at the primary targeted organs in controlling the translocation and toxicity of multi-walled carbon nanotubes in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiuli; Li, Yinxia; Li, Yiping; Zhao, Yunli; Ge, Ling; Wang, Haifang; Wang, Dayong

    2013-10-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) can be translocated into the targeted organs of organisms. We employed a model organism of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans to investigate the role of a biological barrier at the primary targeted organs in regulating the translocation and toxicity formation of MWCNTs. A prolonged exposure to MWCNTs at predicted environmental relevant concentrations caused adverse effects associated with both the primary and secondary targeted organs on nematodes. The function of PEGylated modification in reducing MWCNTs toxicity might be mainly due to the suppression of their translocation into secondary targeted organs through the primary targeted organs. A biological barrier at the primary targeted organs contributed greatly to the control of MWCNTs translocation into secondary targeted organs, as indicated by functions of Mn-SODs required for prevention of oxidative stress in the primary targeted organs. Over-expression of Mn-SODs in primary targeted organs effectively suppressed the translocation and toxicity of MWCNTs. Our work highlights the crucial role of the biological barrier at the primary targeted organs in regulating the translocation and toxicity formation of MWCNTs. Our data also shed light on the future development of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) with improved biocompatibility and design of prevention strategies against ENMs toxicity.Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) can be translocated into the targeted organs of organisms. We employed a model organism of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans to investigate the role of a biological barrier at the primary targeted organs in regulating the translocation and toxicity formation of MWCNTs. A prolonged exposure to MWCNTs at predicted environmental relevant concentrations caused adverse effects associated with both the primary and secondary targeted organs on nematodes. The function of PEGylated modification in reducing MWCNTs toxicity might be mainly due to the suppression

  19. Interactions of micro-organisms near a wall in Stokes flow using a regularized image system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jianjun; Olson, Sarah

    2015-11-01

    We present an extension of the regularized image system for Stokeslets, where regularization functions and parameters are chosen to satisfy zero flow at the wall for several different fundamental solutions. We study elastic rods near a wall using a Kirchhoff rod formulation. Results are presented for equilibrium states of straight rods and the effect of wall to the time required to reach equilibrium.

  20. Design of a Wearable, Low-Cost, Through-Wall Doppler Radar System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Agneessens

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel, low-cost, low-weight, wearable Doppler radar system composed of textile materials and capable of detecting moving objects behind a barrier is presented. The system operates at 2.35 GHz and is integrable into garments, making it well-suited for usage in difficult to access terrain, such as disaster areas or burning buildings. Wearability is maximized by relying on flexible, low-weight, and breathable materials to manufacture the key parts of the system. The low-complexity Doppler radar system makes use of an array of four textile-transmit antennas to scan the surroundings. The beam emitted by this array is right-hand circularly polarized along all scanning angles and provides a measured gain of 9.2 dBi. At the receiving end, textile materials are used to develop an active wearable receive antenna, with 15.7 dBi gain, 1.1 dB noise figure, left-hand circular polarization, and a 3 dB axial ratio beamwidth larger than 50°. Several measurement setups demonstrate that the onbody system is capable of detecting multiple moving subjects in indoor environments, including through-wall scenarios.

  1. Negative Resistance in a Two-Dimensional System with Entropic Barrier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiao-Peng; BAO Jing-Dong

    2005-01-01

    @@ A phenomenon of negative resistance is found in two-dimensional bistable and periodic potentials via Langevin simulation, where output quantities for noise and signal driven system, such as the power-spectrum density modulus and the signal power amplification, can become minima at finite temperatures. In such a system, the curvature of the potential along non-transport degree of freedom at the barrier is larger than that at the local minima. The temperature-dependent effective barrier, i.e. entropic barrier, is introduced via integration over the non-transport variables. The system shows the negative resistance because of the competence between the signal and the entropic barrier.

  2. Block survey of wall covered with plant in the city of Tokyo [Japan] and evaluation of thermal environment of wall greening system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There were 384 (8877 square m) walls which covered with plant on 10 square km in the city of Tokyo, and the green wall rate in the city of Tokyo was 0.88%. Vines, for example Parthenocissus tricuspidata and Hedera helix, were widely used. The factor of thinking better of the landscape in urban area was one of the easily management of plants. The three wall greening systems, a wall covered with hanging climbers and two types of self-contained living wall, mitigated the thermal environment. However its degree can be depended on the greening method and the greenery occupancy rate of wall

  3. Metals attenuation in minerally-enhanced slurry walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, J.C.; Prince, M.J. [Bucknell Univ., Lewisburg, PA (United States); Adams, T.L. [Woodward-Clyde Consultants, Blue Bell, PA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    In current practice, a soil-bentonite slurry trench cutoff wall is a mixture of water, soil, and bentonite that is designed to serve as a passive barrier to ground water and contaminant transport. This study evaluated the transformation of a passive slurry trench cutoff wall barrier to an active barrier system. Conventional soil-bentonite vertical barriers presently serve as passive barriers to contaminated ground water. An active barrier will not only fulfill the functions of the present passive barrier system, but also retard contaminant transport by adsorptive processes. Attapulgite, Na-chabazite, and Ca-chabazite were added to {open_quotes}activate{close_quotes} the conventional soil-bentonite backfill. Batch extraction tests were performed to determine the partitioning coefficients of cadmium and zinc between the liquid and solid phase when in contact with the backfill mixes. Batch extraction and mathematical modeling results demonstrate the ability of an active barrier to retard the transport of cadmium and zinc. The reactivity of the soil-bentonite vertical barrier depends heavily on the inorganic being adsorbed. The reactivity of the barrier also depends on the adsorptive capabilities of the clay minerals added to the conventional soil-bentonite vertical barrier. The results of laboratory studies suggest that passive barrier systems can be transformed to active systems. Further, the data suggests that although conventional soil-bentonite vertical barriers are presently designed as passive barriers, they already have adsorptive capacity associated with active barriers.

  4. Engineered Barrier Systems Thermal-Hydraulic-Chemical Column Test Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W.E. Lowry

    2001-12-13

    The Engineered Barrier System (EBS) Thermal-Hydraulic-Chemical (THC) Column Tests provide data needed for model validation. The EBS Degradation, Flow, and Transport Process Modeling Report (PMR) will be based on supporting models for in-drift THC coupled processes, and the in-drift physical and chemical environment. These models describe the complex chemical interaction of EBS materials, including granular materials, with the thermal and hydrologic conditions that will be present in the repository emplacement drifts. Of particular interest are the coupled processes that result in mineral and salt dissolution/precipitation in the EBS environment. Test data are needed for thermal, hydrologic, and geochemical model validation and to support selection of introduced materials (CRWMS M&O 1999c). These column tests evaluated granular crushed tuff as potential invert ballast or backfill material, under accelerated thermal and hydrologic environments. The objectives of the THC column testing are to: (1) Characterize THC coupled processes that could affect performance of EBS components, particularly the magnitude of permeability reduction (increases or decreases), the nature of minerals produced, and chemical fractionation (i.e., concentrative separation of salts and minerals due to boiling-point elevation). (2) Generate data for validating THC predictive models that will support the EBS Degradation, Flow, and Transport PMR, Rev. 01.

  5. Engineered Barrier System Thermal-Hydraulic-Chemical Column Test Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Engineered Barrier System (EBS) Thermal-Hydraulic-Chemical (THC) Column Tests provide data needed for model validation. The EBS Degradation, Flow, and Transport Process Modeling Report (PMR) will be based on supporting models for in-drift THC coupled processes, and the in-drift physical and chemical environment. These models describe the complex chemical interaction of EBS materials, including granular materials, with the thermal and hydrologic conditions that will be present in the repository emplacement drifts. Of particular interest are the coupled processes that result in mineral and salt dissolution/precipitation in the EBS environment. Test data are needed for thermal, hydrologic, and geochemical model validation and to support selection of introduced materials (CRWMS M and O 1999c). These column tests evaluated granular crushed tuff as potential invert ballast or backfill material, under accelerated thermal and hydrologic environments. The objectives of the THC column testing are to: (1) Characterize THC coupled processes that could affect performance of EBS components, particularly the magnitude of permeability reduction (increases or decreases), the nature of minerals produced, and chemical fractionation (i.e., concentrative separation of salts and minerals due to boiling-point elevation). (2) Generate data for validating THC predictive models that will support the EBS Degradation, Flow, and Transport PMR, Rev. 01

  6. MERCURY OXIDIZATION IN NON-THERMAL PLASMA BARRIER DISCHARGE SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    V.K. Mathur

    2003-02-01

    In the past decade, the emission of toxic elements from human activities has become a matter of great public concern. Hg, As, Se and Cd typically volatilize during a combustion process and are not easily caught with conventional air pollution control techniques. In addition, there is no pollution prevention technique available now or likely be available in the foreseeable future that can prevent the emission of these trace elements. These trace elements pose additional scientific challenge as they are present at only ppb levels in large gas streams. Mercury, in particular, has attracted significant attention due to its high volatility, toxicity and potential threat to human health. In the present research work, a non-thermal plasma dielectric barrier discharge technique has been used to oxidize Hg{sup 0}(g) to HgO. The basic premise of this approach is that Hg{sup 0} in vapor form cannot be easily removed in an absorption tower whereas HgO as a particulate is amiable to water scrubbing. The work presented in this report consists of three steps: (1) setting-up of an experimental apparatus to generate mercury vapors at a constant rate and modifying the existing non-thermal plasma reactor system, (2) solving the analytical challenge for measuring mercury vapor concentration at ppb level, and (3) conducting experiments on mercury oxidation under plasma conditions to establish proof of concept.

  7. ARCTIC FOUNDATIONS, INC. FREEZE BARRIER SYSTEM - SITE TECHNOLOGY CAPSULE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arctic Foundations, Inc. (AFI), of Anchorage, Alaska has developed a freeze barrier technology designed to prevent the migration of contaminants in groundwater by completely isolating contaminant source areas until appropriate remediation techniques can be applied. With this tec...

  8. The Effects of information barrier requirements on the trilateral initiative attribute measurement system (AVNG)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although the detection techniques used for measuring classified materials are very similar to those used in unclassified measurements, the surrounding packaging is generally very different. If iZ classified item is to be measured, an information barrier is required to protect any classified data acquired. This information barrier must protect the classified information while giving the inspector confidence that the unclassified outputs accurately reflect the classified inputs, Both information barrier and authentication considerations must be considered during all phases of system design and fabrication. One example of such a measurement system is the attribute measurement system (termed the AVNG) designed for the: Trilateral Initiative. We will discuss the integration of information barrier components into this system as well as the effects of an information barrier (including authentication) concerns on the implementation of the detector systems.

  9. Conceptual design of the INTOR first-wall system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design concept and performance characteristics of the first-wall design for the phase-1 INTOR (International Tokamak Reactor) study is described. The reference design consists of a water-cooled stainless steel panel. The major uncertainty regarding the performance of the bare stainless steel wall relates to the response of a thin-melt layer predicted to form on limited regions during a plasma disruption. A more-complex backup design, which incorporates radiatively cooled graphite tiles on the inboard wall, is briefly described

  10. Domain walls and vortices in linearly coupled systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate one- and two-dimensional radial domain-wall (DW) states in the system of two nonlinear-Schroedinger (NLS) or Gross-Pitaevskii (GP) equations, which are couple by linear mixing and by nonlinear XPM (cross-phase-modulation). The system has straightforward applications to two-component Bose-Einstein condensates, and to bimodal light propagation in nonlinear optics. In the former case the two components represent different hyperfine atomic states, while in the latter setting they correspond to orthogonal polarizations of light. Conditions guaranteeing the stability of flat continuous wave (CW) asymmetric bimodal states are established, followed by the study of families of the corresponding DW patterns. Approximate analytical solutions for the DWs are found near the point of the symmetry-breaking bifurcation of the CW states. An exact DW solution is produced for ratio 3:1 of the XPM and SPM (self-phase modulation) coefficients. The DWs between flat asymmetric states, which are mirror images of each other, are completely stable, and all other species of the DWs, with zero crossings in one or two components, are fully unstable. Interactions between two DWs are considered too, and an effective potential accounting for the attraction between them is derived analytically. Direct simulations demonstrate merger and annihilation of the interacting DWs. The analysis is extended for the system including single- and double-peak external potentials. Generic solutions for trapped DWs are obtained in a numerical form, and their stability is investigated. An exact stable solution is found for the DW trapped by a single-peak potential. In the 2D geometry, stable two-component vortices are found, with topological charges s=1,2,3. Radial oscillations of annular DW-shaped pulsons, with s=0,1,2, are studied too. A linear relation between the period of the oscillations and the mean radius of the DW ring is derived analytically.

  11. Effects of nuclear breakup channel on fusion of 6Li+64Zn system around barrier energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have studied the effects of breakup, occurring due to the nuclear interaction between weakly bound 6Li and tightly bound 64Zn isotopes, on the fusion reaction at near barrier energies within the framework of dynamic polarization potential (DPP) approach. When the nuclear induced dynamic polarization potential is taken into account sub barrier enhancement and above barrier suppression have been found which improves the matching between the fusion excitation function data and predictions for 6Li+64Zn system significantly. (author)

  12. Overcoming energy efficiency barriers through systems approach—A conceptual framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we propose a framework which categorizes energy efficiency barriers based on the stage at which the barriers exist. Barriers to energy efficiency have been widely studied but to our knowledge, except for a few studies, we found inadequate consideration for barrier–barrier interactions when proposing policy measures for improving energy efficiency. Leveraging systems thinking's power as a problem solver which identifies underlying structure that explains (similar) patterns of behavior in a variety of different situations, we attempted to identify patterns of barriers to adoption of energy efficiency measures in industrial companies. Inspired by systems thinking, the proposed framework has four stages, namely, Motivation, Capability, Implementation and Results, as well as a feedback loop. Using a case study, we show that following the four stages will lead to positive feedback for future energy efficiency implementations. The framework highlights the interconnected nature of the barriers and a need for policymakers to address these barriers in a holistic manner. We argue that the overall effectiveness of energy efficiency policies is only as strong as the weakest link in the four-stage framework. This differs from most prior research that addressed barriers in isolation, where a solution is proposed for each of the barriers without considering the relationship between the barriers. Our framework also offers a way to understand the roles and responsibilities of major stakeholders such as governments and energy service companies (ESCOs) in driving energy efficiency. This allows the assessment and identification of weak links in energy efficiency policies. - Highlights: ► We propose a systems approach to overcome energy efficiency barriers. ► Barriers are grouped into Motivation, Capability, Implementation and Results. ► Case study shows that there is a feedback loop from Results to Motivation. ► Current Results will affect future Motivation.

  13. Load-sharing mechanism in timber-steel hybrid shear wall systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng LI[1; Minjuan HE[1; Frank LAM[2; Minghao LI[3

    2015-01-01

    The lateral performance of timber-steel hybrid shear wall systems with regard to the interaction between the steel frame and the intill wood shear wall was investigated in this paper. A numerical model for the timber-steel hybrid shear wall system was developed and verified against test results. Design parameters, such as the lateral infill-to-frame stiffness ratio and the arrangements of wood-steel bolted connections were studied using the numerical model. Some design recommendations were also proposed based on the parametric analysis. In the hybrid shear wall system, the infill wood wall was found to resist a major part of the lateral load within relatively small wall drifts, and then the steel frame provided more lateral resistance. Under seismic loads, the infill wood wall could significantly reduce the inter-story drift of the hybrid system, and a complementary effect between the infill wood wall and the steel frame was observed through different lateral load resisting mechanisms, which provided robustness to the hybrid shear wall systems.

  14. Energy barriers for bit-encoding states based on 360° domain walls in ultrathin ferromagnetic nanorings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratov, C. B.; Osipov, V. V.; Vanden-Eijnden, E.

    2015-05-01

    A numerical thermal stability study of the bit-encoding states in a proposed multi-level magnetic storage element based on an ultrathin ferromagnetic nanoring is presented. The material parameters and the ring dimensions for which there are five distinct metastable magnetization configurations separated by energy barriers exceeding 50kBT at room temperature are identified. The results are obtained, using the string method for the study of rare events to locate the transition states separating the metastable states and to identify the most likely thermally activated pathways.

  15. Laboratory and field scale demonstration of reactive barrier systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an effort to devise a cost efficient technology for remediation of uranium contaminated groundwater, the Department of Energy's Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (DOE-UMTRA) Program through Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) fabricated a pilot scale research project utilizing reactive subsurface barriers at an UMTRA site in Durango, Colorado. A reactive subsurface barrier is produced by emplacing a reactant material (in this experiment metallic iron) in the flow path of the contaminated groundwater. The reactive media then removes and/or transforms the contaminant(s) to regulatory acceptable levels. Experimental design and results are discussed with regard to other potential applications of reactive barrier remediation strategies at other sites with contaminated groundwater problems

  16. Laboratory and field scale demonstration of reactive barrier systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an effort to devise a cost efficient technology for remediation of uranium contaminated groundwater, the Department of Energy's Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (DOE-UMTRA) Program through Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) fabricated a pilot scale research project utilizing reactive subsurface barriers at an UMTRA site in Durango, Colorado. A reactive subsurface barrier is produced by placing a reactant material (in this experiment, metallic iron) in the flow path of the contaminated groundwater. The reactive media then removes and/or transforms the contaminant(s) to regulatory acceptable levels. Experimental design and results are discussed with regard to other potential applications of reactive barrier remediation strategies at other sites with contaminated groundwater problems

  17. Escape for System with Non-Fluctuating Potential Barrier Only Driven by Three-State Noise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jing-Hui

    2007-01-01

    We study the escape for the mean first passage time (MFPT) over a potential barrier for a system with non-fluctuating potential barrier and only driven by a three-state noise. It is shown that in some circumstances, the three-state noise can induce the resonant activation for the MFPT over the potential barrier; but in other circumstances, it can not. There are three resonant activations for the MFPT over the potential barrier, which are respectively as the functions of the transition rates of the three-state noise.

  18. Preliminary engineering specifications for a test demonstration multilayer protective barrier cover system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents preliminary engineering specifications for a test protective barrier cover system and support radiohydrology facility to be constructed at the Hanford Protective Barrier Test Facility (PBTF). Construction of this test barrier and related radiohydrology facility is part of a continuing effort to provide construction experience and performance evaluation of alternative barrier designs used for long-term isolation of disposed radioactive waste materials. Design specifications given in this report are tentative, based on interim engineering and computer simulation design efforts. Final definitive design specifications and engineering prints will be produced in FY 1986. 6 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab

  19. PTC-6 vacuum system: WallWaler trademark Blastrac reg-sign shot blast cleaning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The LTC Americas, Inc. wall decontamination technology consisted of two pneumatic hand-held tools: (1) a roto-peen scaler that used star cutters and (2) a 3-piston hammer with reciprocating bits. The hand-held tools were used in conjunction with the LTC PTC-6 vacuum system which captured dust and debris as the wall decontamination took place. Recommendations for improved worker safety and health during use of the PTC-6 vacuum system with hand-held tools include: (1) keeping all hoses and lines as orderly as possible in compliance with good housekeeping requirements; (2) ergonomic training to include techniques in lifting, bending, stooping, twisting, etc.; (3) use of a clamping system to hold hoses to the vacuum system; (4) a safety line on the air line connections; (5) use of a mechanical lifting system for waste drum removal; and (6) the use of ergonomically designed tools

  20. Advanced Extended Plate and Beam Wall System in a Cold-Climate House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallay, Dave [Partnership for Home Innovation, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Wiehagen, Joseph [Partnership for Home Innovation, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Kochkin, Vladimir [Partnership for Home Innovation, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This report presents the design and evaluation of an innovative wall system. This highly insulated (high-R) light-frame wall system for use above grade in residential buildings is referred to as Extended Plate & Beam (EP&B). The EP&B design is the first of its kind to be featured in a new construction test house (NCTH) for the DOE Building America program. The EP&B wall design integrates standard building methods and common building products to construct a high-R wall that minimizes transition risks and costs to builders.

  1. Retrofit wall system for insulation and lead encasement in older multi-family housing.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendt, R. L.

    1998-08-11

    This paper presents an approach to modernization or rehabilitation of buildings with uninsulated masonry walls that have lead-based paint hazards or deteriorated plaster walls. The approach provides a solution to lead contamination on the walls, increased energy efficiency and comfort improvements associated with better insulated building envelopes. The system sheaths or replaces damaged or contaminated walls with a tight, well-insulated, durable interior surface. The costs of this system are estimated to be less than those of other insulated wall systems. Modeling of the impact of this system shows significant improvement in energy performance. The energy savings over the life of this durable system contribute to significantly offset the often-times sizeable cost of lead hazard remediation.

  2. The JET real-time plasma-wall load monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The paper describes the JET real-time system monitoring the first-wall plasma loads. • It presents the motivation, physics basis, design and implementation of the system. • It also presents the integration in the JET CODAS. • Operational results are presented. - Abstract: In the past, the Joint European Torus (JET) has operated with a first-wall composed of Carbon Fibre Composite (CFC) tiles. The thermal properties of the wall were monitored in real-time during plasma operations by the WALLS system. This software routinely performed model-based thermal calculations of the divertor and Inner Wall Guard Limiter (IWGL) tiles calculating bulk temperatures and strike-point positions as well as raising alarms when these were beyond operational limits. Operation with the new ITER-like wall presents a whole new set of challenges regarding machine protection. One example relates to the new beryllium limiter tiles with a melting point of 1278 °C, which can be achieved during a plasma discharge well before the bulk temperature rises to this value. This requires new and accurate power deposition and thermal diffusion models. New systems were deployed for safe operation with the new wall: the Real-time Protection Sequencer (RTPS) and the Vessel Thermal Map (VTM). The former allows for a coordinated stop of the pulse and the latter uses the surface temperature map, measured by infra-red (IR) cameras, to raise alarms in case of hot-spots. Integration of WALLS with these systems is required as RTPS responds to raised alarms and VTM, the primary protection system for the ITER-like wall, can use WALLS as a vessel temperature provider. This paper presents the engineering design, implementation and results of WALLS towards D-T operation, where it will act as a primary protection system when the IR cameras are blinded by the fusion reaction neutrons. The first operational results, with emphasis on its performance, are also presented

  3. Experimental and Numerical Analyses of New Massive Wooden Shear-Wall Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Pozza

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Three innovative massive wooden shear-wall systems (Cross-Laminated-Glued Wall, Cross-Laminated-Stapled Wall, Layered Wall with dovetail inserts were tested and their structural behaviour under seismic action was assessed with numerical simulations. The wall specimens differ mainly in the method used to assemble the layers of timber boards composing them. Quasi-static cyclic loading tests were carried out and then reproduced with a non-linear numerical model calibrated on the test results to estimate the most appropriate behaviour factor for each system. Non-linear dynamic simulations of 15 artificially generated seismic shocks showed that these systems have good dissipative capacity when correctly designed and that they can be assigned to the medium ductility class of Eurocode 8. This work also shows the influence of deformations in wooden panels and base connectors on the behaviour factor and dissipative capacity of the system.

  4. Power Efficiency of Systems Applied for Heating Building and Structure External Walls with Ventilated Air Spaces

    OpenAIRE

    I. F. Fialko; A. S. Statsenko

    2014-01-01

    The paper considers power-efficient systems applied for heating building and structure external walls with ventilated air spaces and prescribes directions and problems pertaining to power-efficiency improvement of such systems.

  5. Segmentation, statistical analysis, and modelling of the wall system in ceramic foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Closed walls in otherwise open foam structures may have a great impact on macroscopic properties of the materials. In this paper, we present two algorithms for the segmentation of such closed walls from micro-computed tomography images of the foam structure. The techniques are compared on simulated data and applied to tomographic images of ceramic filters. This allows for a detailed statistical analysis of the normal directions and sizes of the walls. Finally, we explain how the information derived from the segmented wall system can be included in a stochastic microstructure model for the foam.

  6. Environmental Management System and SMEs: EU Experience, Barriers and Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Iraldo, Fabio; Testa, Francesco; Frey, Marco

    2010-01-01

    In the authors’ intention this paper represents the attempt to identify solutions, tools and incentives for SMEs to overcome constraints and difficulties they experience by implementing an EMS. Removing potential barriers and reinforcing economic incentives should be main targets in order to allow for a wide diffusion of EMS among SMEs. Some methods and possible instruments have been dealt with in this paper: working by group seemed to be a good way to diffuse information and to share imple...

  7. Disposal systems evaluations and tool development: Engineered Barrier System (EBS) evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Key components of the nuclear fuel cycle are short-term storage and long-term disposal of nuclear waste. The latter encompasses the immobilization of used nuclear fuel (UNF) and radioactive waste streams generated by various phases of the nuclear fuel cycle, and the safe and permanent disposition of these waste forms in geological repository environments. The engineered barrier system (EBS) plays a very important role in the long-term isolation of nuclear waste in geological repository environments. EBS concepts and their interactions with the natural barrier are inherently important to the long-term performance assessment of the safety case where nuclear waste disposition needs to be evaluated for time periods of up to one million years. Making the safety case needed in the decision-making process for the recommendation and the eventual embracement of a disposal system concept requires a multi-faceted integration of knowledge and evidence-gathering to demonstrate the required confidence level in a deep geological disposal site and to evaluate long-term repository performance. The focus of this report is the following: (1) Evaluation of EBS in long-term disposal systems in deep geologic environments with emphasis on the multi-barrier concept; (2) Evaluation of key parameters in the characterization of EBS performance; (3) Identification of key knowledge gaps and uncertainties; and (4) Evaluation of tools and modeling approaches for EBS processes and performance. The above topics will be evaluated through the analysis of the following: (1) Overview of EBS concepts for various NW disposal systems; (2) Natural and man-made analogs, room chemistry, hydrochemistry of deep subsurface environments, and EBS material stability in near-field environments; (3) Reactive Transport and Coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical-Chemical (THMC) processes in EBS; and (4) Thermal analysis toolkit, metallic barrier degradation mode survey, and development of a Disposal Systems

  8. Disposal systems evaluations and tool development : Engineered Barrier System (EBS) evaluation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutqvist, Jonny (LBNL); Liu, Hui-Hai (LBNL); Steefel, Carl I. (LBNL); Serrano de Caro, M. A. (LLNL); Caporuscio, Florie Andre (LANL); Birkholzer, Jens T. (LBNL); Blink, James A. (LLNL); Sutton, Mark A. (LLNL); Xu, Hongwu (LANL); Buscheck, Thomas A. (LLNL); Levy, Schon S. (LANL); Tsang, Chin-Fu (LBNL); Sonnenthal, Eric (LBNL); Halsey, William G. (LLNL); Jove-Colon, Carlos F.; Wolery, Thomas J. (LLNL)

    2011-01-01

    Key components of the nuclear fuel cycle are short-term storage and long-term disposal of nuclear waste. The latter encompasses the immobilization of used nuclear fuel (UNF) and radioactive waste streams generated by various phases of the nuclear fuel cycle, and the safe and permanent disposition of these waste forms in geological repository environments. The engineered barrier system (EBS) plays a very important role in the long-term isolation of nuclear waste in geological repository environments. EBS concepts and their interactions with the natural barrier are inherently important to the long-term performance assessment of the safety case where nuclear waste disposition needs to be evaluated for time periods of up to one million years. Making the safety case needed in the decision-making process for the recommendation and the eventual embracement of a disposal system concept requires a multi-faceted integration of knowledge and evidence-gathering to demonstrate the required confidence level in a deep geological disposal site and to evaluate long-term repository performance. The focus of this report is the following: (1) Evaluation of EBS in long-term disposal systems in deep geologic environments with emphasis on the multi-barrier concept; (2) Evaluation of key parameters in the characterization of EBS performance; (3) Identification of key knowledge gaps and uncertainties; and (4) Evaluation of tools and modeling approaches for EBS processes and performance. The above topics will be evaluated through the analysis of the following: (1) Overview of EBS concepts for various NW disposal systems; (2) Natural and man-made analogs, room chemistry, hydrochemistry of deep subsurface environments, and EBS material stability in near-field environments; (3) Reactive Transport and Coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical-Chemical (THMC) processes in EBS; and (4) Thermal analysis toolkit, metallic barrier degradation mode survey, and development of a Disposal Systems

  9. Functions of an engineered barrier system for a nuclear waste repository in basalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Defined in this document are the functions of components selected for an engineered barrier system for a nuclear waste repository in basalt. The definitions provide a focal point for barrier material research and development by delineating the purpose and operative lifetime of each component of the engineered system. A five-component system (comprised of waste form, canister, buffer, overpack, and tailored backfill) is discussed in terms of effective operation throughout the course of repository history, recognizing that the emplacement environment changes with time. While components of the system are mutually supporting, redundancy is provided by subsystems of physical and chemical barriers which act in concert with the geology to provide a formidable barrier to transport of hazardous materials to the biosphere. The operating philosophy of the conceptual engineered barrier system is clarified by examples pertinent to storage in basalt, and a technical approach to barrier design and material selection is proposed. A method for system validation and qualification is also included which considers performance criteria proposed by external agencies in conjunction with site-specific models and risk assessment to define acceptable levels of system performance

  10. A path method for finding energy barriers and minimum energy paths in complex micromagnetic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minimum energy paths and energy barriers are calculated for complex micromagnetic systems. The method is based on the nudged elastic band method and uses finite-element techniques to represent granular structures. The method was found to be robust and fast for both simple test problems as well as for large systems such as patterned granular media. The method is used to estimate the energy barriers in CoCr-based perpendicular recording media

  11. Gypsum plasterboard walls: inspection, pathological characterization and statistical survey using an expert system

    OpenAIRE

    Gaião, C.; Brito, J.; Silvestre, J. D.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an expert system to support the inspection and diagnosis of partition walls or wall coverings mounted using the Drywall (DW) construction method. This system includes a classification of anomalies in DW and their probable causes. This inspection system was used in a field work that included the observation of 121 DWs. This paper includes a statistical analysis of the anomalies observed during these inspections and their probable causes. The correlation between a...

  12. Boundary Wall Shear Measurement with an Automated LDV-Based System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modarress, Darius; Jeon, David; Svitek, Pavel; Gharib, Morteza

    2014-11-01

    Wall shear stress is one of the most important measurements in boundary layer flows. Getting wall shear measurements is generally quite difficult due to the need to measure very close to the wall, where poor optical access, particle seeding, and wall effects can bias the results. To simplify that process, a novel system was developed by Measurement Science Enterprise (MSE). The microPro consists of a 12 mm diameter miniLDV attached to a micro-translation stage assembled inside a sealed housing. The microPro automatically locates the wall and measures the mean flow speed profile from a point as close as 50 microns from the window. Accurate estimate of the mean wall shear is obtained from the calculation of the wall velocity gradient obtained from the velocity profile data. We measured wall shear stress on a boundary layer plate mounted in a water tunnel across a range of Reynolds numbers and compared the results against skin friction coefficient models. We also introduced bubbles into the boundary layer to measure the change in wall shear stress with changing void fraction. The measurements show good agreement with established data. This work is supported by the Office of Naval Research (Grant ONR-N00014-11-1-0031) and MSE.

  13. CHARACTERIZATION OF BENTONITE FOR ENGINEERED BARRIER SYSTEMS IN RADIOACTIVE WASTE DISPOSAL SITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubravko Domitrović

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Engineered barrier systems are used in radioactive waste disposal sites in order to provide better protection of humans and the environment from the potential hazards associated with the radioactive waste disposal. The engineered barrier systems usually contain cement or clay (bentonite because of their isolation properties and long term performance. Quality control tests of clays are the same for all engineering barrier systems. Differences may arise in the required criteria to be met due for different application. Prescribed clay properties depend also on the type of host rocks. This article presents radioactive waste management based on best international practice. Standard quality control procedures for bentonite used as a sealing barrier in radioactive waste disposal sites are described as some personal experiences and results of the index tests (free swelling index, water adsorption capacity, plasticity limits and hydraulic permeability of bentonite (the paper is published in Croatian.

  14. Project Guarantee 1985. Final repository for high-level radioactive wastes: The system of safety barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Final disposal of radioactive waste involves preventing the waste from returning from the repository location into the biosphere by means of successively arranged containment measures known as safety barriers. In the present volume NGB 85-04 of the series of reports for Project 'Guarantee' 1985, the safety barrier system for the type C repository for high-level waste is described. The barrier parameters which are relevant for safety analysis are quantified and associated error limits and data scatter are given. The aim of the report is to give a summary documentation of the safety analysis input data and their scientific background. For secure containment of radioactive waste safety barriers are used which effectively limit the release of radioactive material from the repository (release barriers) and effectively retard the entry of the original radioactive material into the biosphere (time barriers). Safety barriers take the form of both technically constructed containment measures and the siting of the repository in suitable geological formations. The technical safety barrier system in the case of high-level waste comprises: the waste solidification matrix (borosilicate glass), massive steel canisters, encasement of the waste canisters, encasement of the waste canisters in highly compacted bentonite, sealing of vacant storage space and access routes on repository closure. The natural geological safety barriers - the host rock and overlying formations provide sufficiently long deep groundwater flow times from the repository location to the earth's surface and for additional lengthening of radionuclide migration times by means of various chemical and physical retardation mechanisms. The stability of the geological formations is so great that hydrogeological system is protected for a sufficient length of time from deterioration caused, in particular, by erosion. Observations in the final section of the report indicate that input data for the type C repository safety

  15. Advanced Extended Plate and Beam Wall System in a Cold-Climate House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallay, Dave [Home Innovation Research Labs, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Wiehagen, Joseph [Home Innovation Research Labs, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Kochkin, Vladimir [Home Innovation Research Labs, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States)

    2016-01-29

    This report presents the design and evaluation of an innovative wall system. This highly insulated (high-R) light-frame wall system for use above grade in residential buildings is referred to as Extended Plate & Beam (EP&B). The EP&B design is the first of its kind to be featured in a new construction test house (NCTH) for the DOE Building America program. The EP&B wall design integrates standard building methods and common building products to construct a high-R wall that minimizes transition risks and costs to builders. The EP&B design combines optimized framing with integrated rigid foam sheathing to increase the wall system's R-value and reduce thermal bridging. The foam sheathing is installed between the wall studs and structural wood sheathing. The exterior wood sheathing is attached directly to a framing extension formed by extended top and bottom plates. The exterior wood sheathing can dry to the exterior and provides bracing, a clear drainage plane and flashing surface for window and door openings, and a nailing surface for siding attachment. With support of the DOE Building America program, Home Innovation Research Labs partnered with Lancaster County Career and Technology Center (LCCTC) to build a NCTH in Lancaster, PA to demonstrate the EP&B wall design in a cold climate (IECC climate zone 5A). The results of the study confirmed the benefits of the systems and the viability of its integration into the house construction process.

  16. PHYSICAL BASES OF SYSTEMS CREATION FOR MAGNETIC-IMPULSIVE ATTRACTION OF THIN-WALLED SHEET METALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Batygin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The work is dedicated to the physical base of systems creating for the thin-walled sheet metals magnetic pulse attraction. Some practical realization models of the author’s suggestions are represented.

  17. System performances of the HADES-tRPC wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Diaz, Diego [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    The HADES-tRPC is a Time-of-Flight wall in an end-cap configuration, designed for reaching a global time resolution of the order of 100 ps({sigma}) and an efficiency close to 100% over 8 m{sup 2}, with an average 180 tracks load, at a particle flux of several hundreds of Hz/cm{sup 2}. The design of the HADES experiment emphasizes a ToF wall that makes a cost-effective use of the electronic channels (2400 channels, 1ch/35 cm{sup 2}) in order to keep the average channel occupancy below 10%, without further requirements on space resolution (kept in the current design at modest levels of 40-80 mm{sup 2}). Based on that, phenomena like charge sharing, and of course cross-talk or electric coupling in between channels cannot be tolerated and are therefore suppressed to a large extent, through the careful electrical shielding of each individual tRPC cell. We present in-beam measurements (October 2007) at nominal flux loads, from a fully equipped sextant (1.3 m{sup 2}), focusing on the time resolution and efficiency for different primary ionizations, together with performance studies at high local track density (that we refer as multi-hit capability). The preliminary achieved global time resolution of 85 ps({sigma}), efficiency above 98% with a comfortable plateau, self-calibration capability, stability and low cross-talk (below 1%) together with capability for double-hit recovery and compact FEE electronics with Q-ToT conversion on-board and high dynamic range are the main features of this new ToF wall.

  18. System performances of the HADES-tRPC wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The HADES-tRPC is a Time-of-Flight wall in an end-cap configuration, designed for reaching a global time resolution of the order of 100 ps(σ) and an efficiency close to 100% over 8 m2, with an average 180 tracks load, at a particle flux of several hundreds of Hz/cm2. The design of the HADES experiment emphasizes a ToF wall that makes a cost-effective use of the electronic channels (2400 channels, 1ch/35 cm2) in order to keep the average channel occupancy below 10%, without further requirements on space resolution (kept in the current design at modest levels of 40-80 mm2). Based on that, phenomena like charge sharing, and of course cross-talk or electric coupling in between channels cannot be tolerated and are therefore suppressed to a large extent, through the careful electrical shielding of each individual tRPC cell. We present in-beam measurements (October 2007) at nominal flux loads, from a fully equipped sextant (1.3 m2), focusing on the time resolution and efficiency for different primary ionizations, together with performance studies at high local track density (that we refer as multi-hit capability). The preliminary achieved global time resolution of 85 ps(σ), efficiency above 98% with a comfortable plateau, self-calibration capability, stability and low cross-talk (below 1%) together with capability for double-hit recovery and compact FEE electronics with Q-ToT conversion on-board and high dynamic range are the main features of this new ToF wall

  19. Response of a thermal barrier system to acoustic excitation in a gas turbine nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A gas turbine located within a High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) induces high acoustic sound pressure levels into the primary coolant (helium). This acoustic loading induces high cycle fatigue stresses which may control the design of the thermal barrier system. This study examines the dynamic response of a thermal barrier configuration consisting of a fibrous insulation compressed against the reactor vessel by a coverplate which is held in position by a central attachment fixture. The results of dynamic vibration analyses indicate the effect of the plate size and curvature and the attachment size on the response of the thermal barrier

  20. Prediction of atmospheric pressure glow discharge in dielectric-barrier system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Xiaoxi; He, Feng; Ouyang, Jiting

    2010-06-01

    A one-dimensional fluid model was used to investigate the breakdown mechanism and discharge mode in dielectric-barrier system. The results show that the dielectric barrier discharge mode depends strongly on the gas property (i.e., the electron multiplication). The atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier glow discharge could only be achieved in a gas (e.g., noble gas) in which the first Townsend ionization coefficient is sufficiently small and the electron multiplication does not rise up rapidly with the electric field, while could not be sustained in the gas (e.g., N2 and O2) in which the electron multiplication is sensitive to the field.

  1. Progress of the AVNG System - Attribute Verification System with Information Barriers for Mass Isotopics Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An attribute verification system (AVNG) with information barriers for mass and isotopics measurements has been designed and its fabrication is nearly completed. The AVNG is being built by scientists at the Russian Federal Nuclear Center-VNIIEF, with support of Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Such a system could be used to verify the presence of several unclassified attributes of classified material with no classified information release. The system is comprised of a neutron multiplicity counter and gamma-spectrometry system based on a high purity germanium gamma detector (nominal relative efficiency @ 1332 keV 50%) and digital gamma-ray spectrometer DSPECPLUS. The neutron multiplicity counter is a three ring counter with 164 3He tubes. The system was designed to measure prototype containers 491 mm in diameter and 503 mm high. This paper provides a brief history of the project and documents the progress of this effort with drawings and photographs.

  2. PROGRESS OF THE AVNG SYSTEM - ATTRIBUTE VERIFICATION SYSTEM WITH INFORMATION BARRIERS FOR MASS AND ISOTOPICS MEASUREMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An attribute verification system (AVNG) with information barriers for mass and isotopics measurements has been designed and its fabrication is nearly completed. The AVNG is being built by scientists at the Russian Federal Nuclear Center-VNIIEF, with support of Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Such a system could be used to verify the presence of several unclassified attributes of classified material with no classified information release. The system is comprised of a neutron multiplicity counter and gamma-spectrometry system based on a high purity germanium gamma detector (nominal relative efficiency (at) 1332 keV 50%) and digital gamma-ray spectrometer DSPECPLUS. The neutron multiplicity counter is a three ring counter with 164 3He tubes. The system was designed to measure prototype containers 491 mm in diameter and 503 mm high. This paper provides a brief history of the project and documents the progress of this effort with drawings and photographs

  3. Photoinduced Absorption within Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Glanzmann, Livia Noëmi; Mowbray, Duncan John; del Valle, Diana Gisell Figueroa; Scotognella, Francesco; Lanzani, Guglielmo; Rubio, Angel

    2016-01-01

    We study the photoabsorption properties of photoactive bulk polymer/ fullerene/nanotube heterojunctions in the near-infrared region. By combining pump-probe spectroscopy and linear response time-dependent density functional theory within the random phase approximation (TDDFT-RPA) we elucidate the excited state dynamics of the $E_{11}$ transition within (6,5) and (7,5) single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and combined with poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl-C$_{61}$-buty...

  4. Engineered Barrier Systems (EBS) in the safety case: the role of modelling workshop proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the deep disposal of radioactive waste, the presence of several barriers serving complementary safety functions enhances confidence that the waste will be isolated and contained to protect human health and the environment. The barriers include the natural geological barrier and the engineered barrier system (EBS). The EBS itself may comprise a variety of sub-systems or components, such as the waste form, container, buffer, backfill, seals and plugs. The Integration Group for the Safety Case (IGSC) of the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) is co-sponsoring a series of workshops with the European Commission to develop greater understanding of how to achieve the necessary integration for the successful design, testing, modelling and performance assessment of engineered barrier systems (EBS) for deep underground disposal of radioactive waste. These proceedings include the main findings and presented papers from the third NEA-EC workshop on engineered barrier systems, which focused on the role of EBS modelling in the safety case for deep disposal. Some national programmes are placing increased emphasis on EBS and, as implementation of underground repositories approaches, more realistic assessments of EBS performance are needed. The workshop examined the modelling tools currently available and identified complex areas of assessment in which further dialogue is needed. (author)

  5. Wall Sampling of Suspensions from Liquid-solid Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stipisic, R.

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The problem of an adequate sampling from slurry handling equipment is present in many branches of the chemical and related industries. It is often very important to know the solid concentration and the particle size distribution in the apparatus of this kind, in order to control and operate them. For this purpose, wall sampling is widely adopted in industrial practice for its simplicity and versatility. Serious errors in measuring solids concentration can arise from unsuitable sampling. This work reports the main factors that may cause these deviations from ideal wall sampling during work with slurry handling equipment. Up to now, some authors have thoroughly studied the problem of isokinetic and anisokinetic sampling from slurry pipelines, both theoretically and experimentally. However, little work was dedicated to the withdrawal of solid suspensions from stirred vessels. The main sources of sampling errors occur because of particle inertia, particle bouncing effects and flow structure ahead of the sampling device. The results of experimental work of different authors indicate that the solid concentration in the sample, i. e. sampling efficiency, depends strongly on the sample tube design, withdrawal velocity and sampling device location as well.

  6. Developing Innovative Wall Systems that Improve Hygrothermal Performance of Residential Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Tichy; Chuck Murray

    2006-05-31

    This document serves as the Topical Report documenting work completed by Washington State University (WSU) under U.S. Department of Energy Grant, Developing Innovative Wall Systems that Improve Hygrothermal Performance of Residential Buildings. This project was conducted in collaboration with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and includes the participation of several industry partners including Weyerhaeuser, APA - The Engineered Wood Association, CertainTeed Corporation and Fortifiber. This document summarizes work completed by Washington State University August 2002 through June 2006. WSU's primary experimental role is the design and implementation of a field testing protocol that monitored long term changes in the hygrothermal response of wall systems. During the project period WSU constructed a test facility, developed a matrix of test wall designs, constructed and installed test walls in the test facility, installed instrumentation in the test walls and recorded data from the test wall specimens. Each year reports were published documenting the hygrothermal response of the test wall systems. Public presentation of the results was, and will continue to be, made available to the building industry at large by industry partners and the University.

  7. A research program on thinned wall piping systems under seismic events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experimental and analytical research program on piping systems with wall thinning has been conducted to clarify the effect of degradation on the dynamic behavior and the failure mode of the piping system. The degradation conditions considered in the program was wall thinning. From the results of cyclic bending tests on the pipe elements and the shake table tests on the simply-designed piping system models with wall thinning, it is shown that the failure mode of the degraded piping system is mainly fatigue failure with ratchet deformation. Finite element method (FEM) analyses were also conducted to reproduce the experimental results. The analytical results show that the failure mode and the lives of the thinned wall pipes subjected to cyclic load would be estimated reasonably based on the analyses. The experimental results show that the effect of wall thinning on the dynamic characteristics and the failure mode of piping system should be clarified quantitatively to estimate the seismic safety of the thinned wall piping systems through the experimental and analytical survey. (authors)

  8. Four loss-of-flow accidents in the SEAFP first wall/blanket cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the thermal-hydraulic analysis of four Loss-of-Flow Accidents (LOFAs) in the first wall/blanket cooling system of the alternative SEAFP reactor design. The LOFAs considered result from a loss of electrical power for the recirculation pump in the primary cooling circuit. The analyses have been performed using the thermal-hydraulic system analysis code RELAP5/MOD3. In the analyses, special attention has been paid to the transient thermal-hydraulic behaviour of the cooling system and the temperature development in the first wall and blanket. For the LOFA without plasma shutdown, significant loss of heat removal due to dryout occurs at the midplane of the outboard first wall cooling pipes about 41 s after pump trip. For the three LOFA cases with emergency plasma shutdown that have been studied, the temperature increase in the Be-coating at the midplane of the outboard first wall is limited to about 30 K. (orig.)

  9. Noncontacting Laser Inspection System for Dimensional Profiling of Space Application Thermal Barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Shawn C.

    2011-01-01

    A noncontacting, two-dimensional (2-D) laser inspection system has been designed and implemented to dimensionally profile thermal barriers being developed for space vehicle applications. In a vehicle as-installed state, thermal barriers are commonly compressed between load sensitive thermal protection system (TPS) panels to prevent hot gas ingestion through the panel interface during flight. Loads required to compress the thermal barriers are functions of their construction, as well as their dimensional characteristics relative to the gaps in which they are installed. Excessive loads during a mission could damage surrounding TPS panels and have catastrophic consequences. As such, accurate dimensional profiling of thermal barriers prior to use is important. Due to the compliant nature of the thermal barriers, traditional contact measurement techniques (e.g., calipers and micrometers) are subjective and introduce significant error and variability into collected dimensional data. Implementation of a laser inspection system significantly enhanced the method by which thermal barriers are dimensionally profiled, and improved the accuracy and repeatability of collected data. A statistical design of experiments study comparing laser inspection and manual caliper measurement techniques verified these findings.

  10. Ru/WCoCN as a seedless Cu barrier system for advanced Cu metallization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The properties of Ru(5 nm)/WCoCN(5 nm) stacked layers as a seedless Cu barrier system has been investigated. Its barrier properties compared to single 10 nm Ru film were investigated by sheet resistances, X-ray diffraction patterns, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectrometry spot analysis, line scans, and leakage currents. Thermal stability of the Ru(5 nm)/WCoCN(5 nm) improved by over 100 deg. C than that of Ru(10 nm) barrier. The results show that Ru(5 nm)/WCoCN(5 nm) can effectively block Cu diffusion up to 600 deg. C for 30 min. The Ru(5 nm)/WCoCN(5 nm) bilayer is a great Cu barrier candidate for seedless Cu interconnects.

  11. In-situ defect detection systems for R2R flexible PV barrier films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, F.; Muhamedsalih, H.; Tang, D.; Elrawemi, M.; Blunt, L.; Jiang, X.; Edge, S.; Bird, D.; Hollis, P.

    2015-08-01

    Film processing procedures by means of Roll-to-Roll (R2R) for barrier coatings can often result in PV barrier films being manufactured with significant quantities of defects, which results in lower efficiency and a short life span. In order to improve the process yield and product efficiency, it is desirable to develop an inspection system that can detect transparent barrier film defects in the production line during film processing. Off-line detection of defects in transparent PV barrier films is difficult and time consuming. Consequently, implementing an accurate in-situ defects inspection system in the production environment is even more challenging, since the requirements on positioning, fast measurement, long term stability and robustness against environmental disturbance are demanding. This paper reports on the development and deployment of two in-situ PV barrier films defect detection systems, one based on wavelength scanning interferometry (WSI) and the other on White Light Channeled Spectral Interferometry (WLCSI), and the integration into an R2R film processing line at the Centre for Process Innovation (CPI). The paper outlines the environmental vibration strategy for both systems, and the developed auto-focusing methodology for WSI. The systems have been tested and characterised and initial results compared to laboratory-based instrumentation are presented.

  12. Effect of vadose zone on the steady-state leakage rates from landfill barrier systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leakage rates are evaluated for a landfill barrier system having a compacted clay liner (CCL) underlain by a vadose zone of variable thickness. A numerical unsaturated flow model SEEP/W is used to simulate the moisture flow regime and steady-state leakage rates for the cases of unsaturated zones with different soil types and thicknesses. The results of the simulations demonstrate that harmonic mean hydraulic conductivity of coarse textured vadose zones is 3-4 orders of magnitude less than saturated hydraulic conductivity; whereas, the difference is only one order of magnitude for fine textured vadose zones. For both coarse and fine textured vadose zones, the effective hydraulic conductivity of the barrier system and the leakage rate to an underlying aquifer increases with increasing thickness of the vadose zone and ultimately reaches an asymptotic value for a coarse textured vadose zone thickness of about 10 m and a fine textured vadose zone thickness of about 5 m. Therefore, the fine and coarse textured vadose zones thicker than about 5 m and 10 m, respectively, act as an effective part of the barrier systems examined. Although the thickness of vadose zone affects the effective hydraulic conductivity of the overall barrier system, the results demonstrated that the hydraulic conductivity of the CCL is the dominant factor controlling the steady-state leakage rates through barrier systems having single low permeability clay layers

  13. Extended Plate and Beam Wall System: Concept Investigation and Initial Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiehagen, J. [Partnership for Home Innovation, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Kochkin, V. [Partnership for Home Innovation, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States)

    2015-08-01

    A new and innovative High-R wall design, referred to as the Extended Plate & Beam (EP&B), is under development. The EP&B system uniquely integrates foam sheathing insulation with wall framing such that wood structural panels are installed exterior of the foam sheathing, enabling the use of standard practices for installation of drainage plane, windows and doors, claddings, cavity insulation, and the standard exterior foam sheathing installation approach prone to damage of the foam during transportation of prefabricated wall panels. As part of the ongoing work, the EP&B wall system concept has undergone structural verification testing and has been positively vetted by a group of industry stakeholders. Having passed these initial milestone markers, the advanced wall system design has been analyzed to assess cost implications relative to other advanced wall systems, undergone design assessment to develop construction details, and has been evaluated to develop representative prescriptive requirements for the building code. This report summarizes the assessment steps conducted to-date and provides details of the concept development.

  14. Near-barrier fusion of proton- and neutron-halo systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, E. F.

    2016-07-01

    It is shown that the behaviour of the fusion excitation functions for proton-halo and neutron-halo systems presents important differences, especially in the energy region slightly above the barrier. Measurements for 6He, 11Li and 11Be projectiles are discussed to exemplify the behaviour of neutron-halo systems, while experiments with 8B beams illustrate the situation for proton-halo nuclei. With respect to a standard benchmark, neutron- (proton-) halo systems show a fusion suppression (enhancement) above the barrier.

  15. Study of fusion barrier distribution from quasielastic scattering for 6,7Li + 197Au systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earlier we have reported breakup and fusion excitation function measurements in 6,7Li + 197Au systems. In this paper we present the fusion barrier distribution from QEL at backward angles for the same systems, namely, 6,7Li + 197Au

  16. Insulated Concrete Form Walls Integrated With Mechanical Systems in a Cold Climate Test House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallay, D.; Wiehagen, J.

    2014-09-01

    Transitioning from standard light frame to a thermal mass wall system in a high performance home will require a higher level of design integration with the mechanical systems. The much higher mass in the ICF wall influences heat transfer through the wall and affects how the heating and cooling system responds to changing outdoor conditions. This is even more important for efficient, low-load homes with efficient heat pump systems in colder climates where the heating and cooling peak loads are significantly different from standard construction. This report analyzes a range of design features and component performance estimates in an effort to select practical, cost-effective solutions for high performance homes in a cold climate. Of primary interest is the influence of the ICF walls on developing an effective air sealing strategy and selecting an appropriate heating and cooling equipment type and capacity. The domestic water heating system is analyzed for costs and savings to investigate options for higher efficiency electric water heating. A method to ensure mechanical ventilation air flows is examined. The final solution package includes high-R mass walls, very low infiltration rates, multi-stage heat pump heating, solar thermal domestic hot water system, and energy recovery ventilation. This solution package can be used for homes to exceed 2012 International Energy Conservation Code requirements throughout all climate zones and achieves the DOE Challenge Home certification.

  17. Barrier and system performances within a safety case: their functioning and evolution with time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following six questions were used as the basis for the discussions in a Working Group: - What is the role of each barrier as a function of time or in the different time frames? What is its contribution to the overall system performance or safety as a function of time? - Which are the main uncertainties on the performance of barriers in the timescales? To what extent should we enhance the robustness of barriers because of the uncertainties of some component behaviour with time? - What is the requested or required performance versus the expected realistic or conservative behaviour with time? How are these safety margins used as arguments in a safety case? - What is the issue associated with the geosphere stability for different geological systems? - How are barriers and system performances, as a function of time, evaluated (presented and communicated) in a safety case? - What kind of measures are used for siting, designing and optimising robust barriers corresponding to situations that can vary with time? Are human actions considered to be relevant? (authors)

  18. Insulated Concrete Form Walls Integrated With Mechanical Systems in a Cold Climate Test House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallay, D. [Home Innovation Research Labs, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Wiehagen, J. [Home Innovation Research Labs, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Transitioning from standard light frame to a thermal mass wall system in a high performance home will require a higher level of design integration with the mechanical systems. The much higher mass in the ICF wall influences heat transfer through the wall and affects how the heating and cooling system responds to changing outdoor conditions. This is even more important for efficient, low-load homes with efficient heat pump systems in colder climates where the heating and cooling peak loads are significantly different from standard construction. This report analyzes a range of design features and component performance estimates in an effort to select practical, cost-effective solutions for high performance homes in a cold climate.

  19. A study on safety assessment methodology of radioactive waste disposal facility with multiple engineered barrier system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A safety assessment methodology especially for radioactive waste disposal facility with multiple engineered barrier system is proposed in this paper. This proposed method is based on the concept of migration rate which had been used for the safety assessment for existing radioactive waste disposal facilities in Japan. The advantages of this proposed methodology are to calculate nuclides out fluxes from Engineered Barrier System (EBS) considering the effect of leaching rates of wastes without using complex numerical simulation, and to provide migration rates composed of three barrier performance indicators: retardation, impermeability and diffusivity. Additionally, several sensitivity analyses for radionuclides mass flux from a facility are carried out using this method and the phase diagrams of migration rate, leaching rate and maximum out flux from a facility are shown in this paper. (author)

  20. Experimental investigation on the thermal performance of heat storage walls coupled with active solar systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chunyu; You, Shijun; Zhu, Chunying; Yu, Wei

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents an experimental investigation of the performance of a system combining a low-temperature water wall radiant heating system and phase change energy storage technology with an active solar system. This system uses a thermal storage wall that is designed with multilayer thermal storage plates. The heat storage material is expanded graphite that absorbs a mixture of capric acid and lauric acid. An experiment is performed to study the actual effect. The following are studied under winter conditions: (1) the temperature of the radiation wall surface, (2) the melting status of the thermal storage material in the internal plate, (3) the density of the heat flux, and (4) the temperature distribution of the indoor space. The results reveal that the room temperature is controlled between 16 and 20 °C, and the thermal storage wall meets the heating and temperature requirements. The following are also studied under summer conditions: (1) the internal relationship between the indoor temperature distribution and the heat transfer within the regenerative plates during the day and (2) the relationship between the outlet air temperature and inlet air temperature in the thermal storage wall in cooling mode at night. The results indicate that the indoor temperature is approximately 27 °C, which satisfies the summer air-conditioning requirements.

  1. Method of in situ retrieval of contaminants or other substances using a barrier system and leaching solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickelson, Reva A.; Walsh, Stephanie; Richardson, John G.; Dick, John R.; Sloan, Paul A.

    2006-12-26

    Processes and methods relating to treating contaminants and collecting desired substances from a zone of interest using subterranean collection and containment barriers. Tubular casings having interlock structures are used to create subterranean barriers for containing and treating buried waste and its effluents. The subterranean barrier includes an effluent collection system. Treatment solutions provided to the zone of interest pass therethrough and are collected by the barrier and treated or recovered, allowing on-site remediation. Barrier components may be used to in the treatment by collecting or removing contaminants or other materials from the zone of interest.

  2. Drug Delivery Systems, CNS Protection, and the Blood Brain Barrier

    OpenAIRE

    Ravi Kant Upadhyay

    2014-01-01

    Present review highlights various drug delivery systems used for delivery of pharmaceutical agents mainly antibiotics, antineoplastic agents, neuropeptides, and other therapeutic substances through the endothelial capillaries (BBB) for CNS therapeutics. In addition, the use of ultrasound in delivery of therapeutic agents/biomolecules such as proline rich peptides, prodrugs, radiopharmaceuticals, proteins, immunoglobulins, and chimeric peptides to the target sites in deep tissue locations insi...

  3. Damage monitoring of refractory wall in a generic entrained-bed slagging gasification system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborty, S.; Sarkar, S.; Gupta, S.; Ray, A. [Penn State University, University Park, PA (USA). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2008-12-15

    The main cause of performance degradation in entrained-bed slagging gasification systems is attributed to evolution of structural damage in the refractory walls. Early detection of such damage is necessary to avert unscheduled shutdown of a gasification plant. This paper develops an integrated computer simulation model of a generic entrained-bed slagging gasifier for formulation of a damage prediction algorithm with the objective of real-time degradation monitoring and condition-based maintenance of refractory walls. The integrated simulation model yields: (a) quasi-steady-state spatial temperature profiles at any cross-section of the gasification system, and (b) dynamic response of the refractory wall temperature that is measured by an array of sensors installed at specified locations on the external surface of the gasifier wall. The key idea for early detection of refractory-wall damage is built upon the fact that a local anomaly (i.e. deviation from the nominal condition) is likely to influence the temperature gradient in the refractory wall due to changes in the thermal impedance. The information from dynamic response of refractory temperature is extracted in a compressed form as statistical patterns of evolving anomaly through usage of a recently reported data-driven pattern identification tool called symbolic dynamic filtering (SDF). The results of this model-based investigation show that the proposed anomaly detection and damage prediction method is potentially capable of characterizing the health status of refractory walls in particular and the entire gasification system in general. The SDF algorithms in this paper are implemented on the MATLAB platform and are interfaced with the gasification plant simulation model for emulation of real-time degradation monitoring.

  4. The Role of Backbarrier Filling in the Evolution of a Barrier Island System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, C. J.; Fitzgerald, D. M.; Stone, B. D.; Carruthers, E.; Gontz, A. M.

    2009-12-01

    Barrier islands develop through a variety of processes, including spit accretion, barrier elongation, breaching and inlet filling. New geophysical and sedimentological data collected along a barrier system in the western Gulf of Maine provide a means of documenting a unique process of barrier evolution involving backbarrier infilling and ensuing closure of an ancient tidal inlet. Plum Island is located along a mixed-energy, tide-dominated coastline bounded by estuaries and backed by an extensive system of salt marsh and tidal creeks. Following the regional glacioisostatic lowstand of approximately -45 m at 12 ka, the Holocene transgression reworked a late Pleistocene regressive braid plain and lowstand delta. Sediments driven onshore during the transgression and derived from the Merrimack River fed the developing barrier system. Radiocarbon dates suggests that backbarrier sands began accumulating at the modern site of Plum Island at approximately 9 ka. At this time, the barrier was composed of several discrete islands separated by inlets and situated offshore of modern Plum Island. Shallow seismic and ground penetrating radar (GPR) data confirm the existence of lower stand riverine/tidal channels extending onto the shallow shelf. Coincident with the slowing of relative sea level rise, Plum Island began to form in its current location approximately 5.5 ka, establishing its modern form by about 2.5 ka. Sediment cores and GPR data demonstrate that the barrier lithosome is 5 to 15 m thick and evolved through initial aggradation followed by southerly spit accretion and progradation. The discovery of a multiple inlet channel system reoccupying the area carved by the lowstand Parker River indicates that central Plum Island underwent a complex developmental history. Cores through the inlet sequence consist of fine to medium sand with repetitive interbedded coarse sand units, marking high-energy depositional events associated with spit accretion and displacement of the

  5. Organizational, interface, and financial barriers to the commercial development of community energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schladale, R.; Ritschard, R.

    1979-12-01

    The scope of this analysis was limited to systems producing electricity - the output of a community energy system typically falling in the range 10 kW to 150 MW. The purpose of this study was to identify the barriers that groups and individuals will face when attempting to commercialize community energy systems. Three particular classes of barriers were investigated: those within the organization attempting the commercialization, those that arise from attempts to link the community system with an electric utility, and those that impede the flow of investment capital into community energy systems. In summary, three general observations regarding community energy systems may be distilled from this study. First, although many barriers exist to the commercialization of the systems, few if any appear unresolvable. Perhaps most challenginng will be the problem of expanding the use of cogeneration and municipal sold waste while at the same time maintaining or improving ambient air quality. Second, the financial subsidies required to make community systems competitive are not extraordinary. Indeed, with the exception of photovoltaics they should not amount to more than about 10% of capital cost of the new systems, and mass production may eliminate the need for subsidies altogether at some point in the future. Third, the administrative and regulatory procedures required to make community energy systems viable appear to be taking shape in a positive and timely fashion.

  6. Characterization and modeling of the barrier properties in nanostructured systems

    OpenAIRE

    Minelli, Matteo

    2009-01-01

    The object of the present study is the process of gas transport in nano-sized materials, i.e. systems having structural elements of the order of nanometers. The aim of this work is to advance the understanding of the gas transport mechanism in such materials, for which traditional models are not often suitable, by providing a correct interpretation of the relationship between diffusive phenomena and structural features. This result would allow the development new materials with permeation pro...

  7. Simplifying solute transport modelling of the geological multi-barrier disposal system

    OpenAIRE

    Poteri, Antti

    2013-01-01

    A simplified model was developed to represent radionuclide migration from a deep geological nuclear waste repository system to the biosphere. The modelled repository system is based on the concept of multiple nested transport barriers. The model can be used to assess migration and migration properties of single nuclides (no decay chains) through the repository system. Radionuclide transport processes included to the model are diffusion and sorption in the repository near-field and advection, ...

  8. Single bunch intensity monitoring system using an improved wall current monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Important parameters in collider operations are the length and intensity of individual beam bunches. A system to automatically measure these parameters has been developed using a wall current monitor signal digitized by a 1 GHz sampling oscilloscope under microprocessor control. Bunch length and intensity are computed by the microprocessor and presented to the host computer. To verify the required accuracy, attention has been paid to the calibration and frequency response of the system. Design and performance of a new wall current monitor with improved bandwidth is presented. 4 refs., 3 figs

  9. Wall thickness measurements of tubes by Internal Rotary Inspection System (IRIS)- a comparative study with metallography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Internal Rotary Inspection System (IRIS) is a relatively new ultrasonic system of heat exchanger/ steam condenser tubes and pipelines for measurement of wall thinning and pitting due to corrosion. The wall thickness measurements made during a scan around the circumference of the tube are displayed as a stationary rectilinear display of circumferential cross section (Bscan) of the tube. The paper describes the results obtained on tubes of various materials used in process industries having corrosion on inner and outer surfaces of the tube. (author)

  10. 7 CFR 1955.56 - Real property located in Coastal Barrier Resources System (CBRS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) PROPERTY MANAGEMENT Management of Property § 1955.56 Real property located in Coastal Barrier Resources System (CBRS). (a... repair and would result in the expansion of any roads, structures or facilities. Water and waste...

  11. Underutilization of Mental Health Services among College Students: An Examination of System-Related Barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Carey N.; Wilcoxon, S. Allen

    2015-01-01

    Despite the documented benefits of counseling and mental health services on academic performance and degree attainment, only about 10% of psychologically distressed college students ever seek professional help. This investigation examined mental health care system-related barriers that might distinguish help seekers from nonhelp seekers among…

  12. An Activity Theory Approach to Analyze Barriers to a Virtual Management Information Systems (MIS) Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaradat, Suhair; Qablan, Ahmad; Barham, Areej

    2011-01-01

    This paper explains how the activity theory is used as a framework to analyze the barriers to a virtual Management Information Stream (MIS) Curriculum in Jordanian schools, from both the sociocultural and pedagogical perspectives. Taking the activity system as a unit of analysis, this study documents the processes by which activities shape and are…

  13. Today's Yucca mountain project and a new concept of multi-barrier system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper mainly deals with the current status of Yucca Mountain project and the progress in study on engineering barrier in Belgium and introduces the future plan for Yucca Mountain project, two reports on draft supplemental environmental impact statement, and the view of New York Sen. Hillary Clinton and Illinois Sen. Barack Obama during the 2008 president elections related to the building a nuclear waste repository in Nevada. In order to enhance the security of geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste, a new concept about multi-barrier system is given by Belgium and is concisely described here. (authors)

  14. Personal health systems - Opportunities and barriers for adoption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhonen, Ilkka; Mattila, Elina M; Vam Gils, Mark

    2010-01-01

    INCREASING prevalence of lifestyle-related health risks and chronic diseases, coupled with limited resources in the healthcare system, calls for citizen-centric health promotion and disease prevention measures as well as new care models for management of chronic diseases. As a future scenario emphasis of the health care should gradually shift from treating and managing of diseases to their prevention and early interventions. The risk of chronic diseases begins to rise and physical capacity begins to decline after the age of 30. Therefore, working-age citizens are an important target group for health promotion and early interventions. PMID:21096056

  15. Dynamic Insulation Systems: Experimental Analysis on a Parietodynamic Wall

    OpenAIRE

    Serra, Valentina; Fantucci, Stefano; Perino, Marco

    2015-01-01

    This paper shows the results of an extensive experimental campaign on a ventilated opaque double skin façade based on hollow clay bricks. The winter thermal performances of the dynamic insulated systems were investigated on two different full scale façade configurations through an experimental campaign in double climatic chamber and guarded heat flow meter apparatus. The laboratory tests on dynamic insulated façade (DIF) in both exhaust and supply configurations show respectively an effective...

  16. PILOT-SCALE EVALUATION OF ENGINEERED BARRIER SYSTEMS FOR THE YUCCA MOUNTAIN PROJECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes two quarter-scale experiments (1.4 m diameter) and associated numerical analyses on granular backfill engineered barrier systems in support of the Yucca Mountain Project for the potential repository. The two configurations include a sloped capillary barrier and a plain backfill. The tests involve application of dyed water as a constant line infiltration source along the top of the test set-up, monitoring water movement through the test, and measuring water exiting the experiments. A complete water balance estimate is made for each test, and observed water movement is compared with (1) detailed numerical analyses conducted using the TOUGH2 code for unsaturated flow in porous media and (2) posttest observations. The results of the testing and analyses show that for the injection rates and configuration applied, the capillary barrier design diverts a significant amount of all injected water and the TOUGH2 pretest predictions show qualitative and quantitative agreement with the experimental data

  17. The EC/NEA engineered barrier systems project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents examples from various disposal programmes and discusses lessons that may be drawn relating to disposal system design and the use of underground tests. Many useful large-scale experiments have been conducted in underground laboratories that have allowed an assessment of the feasibility of methods for tunnel construction, waste package emplacement, buffer and backfill emplacement, tunnel seal construction, etc. In general, these tests have been successful and have shown that the necessary techniques for manufacturing and installing EBS components are feasible and available. In some cases, tests have shown that designs or techniques need to be adjusted, or have enabled identification of the factors to be taken into account in future optimisation studies. Further trials of some methods are still required, particularly at the repository or industrial scale. Further experiments are also likely to be required to increase understanding of the long-term behaviour of the EBS after installation. (author)

  18. Engineered Barrier Systems (EBS) in the safety case: design confirmation and demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presence of several barriers serving complementary safety functions enhances confidence that radioactive waste placed in deep geological repositories will be adequately isolated and contained to protect human health and the environment. The barriers include the natural geological barrier and the engineered barrier system (EBS). The EBS itself may comprise a variety of sub-systems or components, such as the waste form, container, buffer, backfill, seals and plugs. Given the importance of this subject, the Integration Group for the Safety Case (IGSC) of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) sponsored a series of workshops with the European Commission to develop greater understanding of how to achieve the necessary integration for the successful design, testing, modelling and performance assessment of EBS for deep underground disposal of radioactive waste. These proceedings present the main findings from, and the papers delivered at, the fourth NEA-EC workshop on EBS, which took place in Tokyo, Japan, in September 2006. This final workshop of the series focused on strategies and methods to demonstrate that EBS designs will fulfill the relevant requirements for long-term safety, engineering feasibility and quality assurance. The workshop highlighted that large-scale experiments have confirmed the feasibility of techniques for manufacturing and installing engineered components in disposal systems and have also provided valuable lessons to improve designs and refine practical aspects to construct and implement EBS. (author)

  19. Drug Delivery Systems, CNS Protection, and the Blood Brain Barrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Kant Upadhyay

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Present review highlights various drug delivery systems used for delivery of pharmaceutical agents mainly antibiotics, antineoplastic agents, neuropeptides, and other therapeutic substances through the endothelial capillaries (BBB for CNS therapeutics. In addition, the use of ultrasound in delivery of therapeutic agents/biomolecules such as proline rich peptides, prodrugs, radiopharmaceuticals, proteins, immunoglobulins, and chimeric peptides to the target sites in deep tissue locations inside tumor sites of brain has been explained. In addition, therapeutic applications of various types of nanoparticles such as chitosan based nanomers, dendrimers, carbon nanotubes, niosomes, beta cyclodextrin carriers, cholesterol mediated cationic solid lipid nanoparticles, colloidal drug carriers, liposomes, and micelles have been discussed with their recent advancements. Emphasis has been given on the need of physiological and therapeutic optimization of existing drug delivery methods and their carriers to deliver therapeutic amount of drug into the brain for treatment of various neurological diseases and disorders. Further, strong recommendations are being made to develop nanosized drug carriers/vehicles and noninvasive therapeutic alternatives of conventional methods for better therapeutics of CNS related diseases. Hence, there is an urgent need to design nontoxic biocompatible drugs and develop noninvasive delivery methods to check posttreatment clinical fatalities in neuropatients which occur due to existing highly toxic invasive drugs and treatment methods.

  20. Investigation of thermal fatigue behavior of thermal barrier coating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study, the mechanisms of fatigue crack initiation and propagation, and of coating failure under thermal loads that simulate those in diesel engines are investigated. Surface cracks initiate early and grow continuously under thermal low cycle fatigue (LCF) and high cycle fatigue (HCF) stresses. It is found that, in the absence of interfacial oxidation, the failure associated with LCF is closely related to coating sintering and creep at high temperatures. Significant LCF and HCF interactions have been observed in the thermal fatigue tests. The fatigue crack growth rate in the ceramic coating strongly depends on the characteristic HCF cycle number, N*HCF which is defined as the number of HCF cycles per LCF cycle. The crack growth rate is increased from 0.36 μm/LCF cycle for a pure LCF test to 2.8 μm/LCF cycle for a combined LCF and HCF test at N*HCF about 20 000. A surface wedging model has been proposed to account for the HCF crack growth in the coating systems. This mechanism predicts that the HCF damage effect increases with heat flux and thus with increasing surface temperature swing, thermal expansion coefficient and elastic modulus of the ceramic coating, as well as with the HCF interacting depth. Good correlation has been found between the analysis and experimental evidence. (orig.)

  1. Experimental study and advanced CFD simulation of fire safety performance of building external wall insulation system

    OpenAIRE

    Yan Zhenghua; Zhao Chenggang; Liu Yan; Deng Xiaobing; Ceng Xubin; Liu Songlin; Lan Bin; Nilsson Richard; Jeansson Sebastian

    2013-01-01

    Large scale fire tests of building external wall insulation system were conducted. In the experiment, thermal-couples were mounted to measure the insulation system surface temperature and the gas temperature inside rooms at the second and third floors. Photos were also taken during the fire tests. The measurement provides information of the ignition and fire spread of the external insulation system which consists of surface protection layer, glass fibre net, bonding thin layer, anchor and the...

  2. Structural performance of new thin-walled concrete sandwich panel system reinforced with bfrp shear connectors

    OpenAIRE

    Hodicky, Kamil; Hulin, Thomas; Schmidt, Jacob Wittrup; Stang, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new thin-walled concrete sandwich panel system reinforced with basalt fiber-reinforced plastic (BFRP) with optimum structural performances and a high thermal resistance developed by Connovate and Technical University of Denmark. The shear connecting system made of a BFRP grid is described and provides information on the structural design with its advantages. Experimental and numerical investigations of the BFRP connecting systems were performed. The experimental program ...

  3. Reconstruction of St. Petersburg roofs based on light steel thin-walled structures and de-icing system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.I. Vatin

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Insecurity of applied coatings and low service lives of St. Petersburg roofs generate the development of new technological solutions. Necessity of roof protection from the ice dams is a special factor in selecting technological solutions of the roof structure.The aim is selection of an optimal design solution for the roof and the device against the ice based on the parameters of efficiency and effectiveness. After completion of research as a design of the roof system was chosen light steel thin-walled structures (LSTC. As the device against the ice is proposed a constructive adaptation of drainage, which includes the transfer of the gutter from the roof edge closer to Snow barriers. Herewith downspouts must finish in the system and urban runoff.Efficiency of this method is confirmed by mathematical calculations and trial operation of such existing systems in the Nordic countries. The combination of the device against the ice with modern technology LSTC solve the problem of icicles, and generally can guarantee continuous and reliable operation of the roof.

  4. 76 FR 56215 - John H. Chafee Coastal Barrier Resources System; Baldwin and Mobile Counties, AL; Availability of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-12

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service John H. Chafee Coastal Barrier Resources System; Baldwin and Mobile Counties... (Service), announce the availability of a John H. Chafee Coastal Barrier Resources System (CBRS) draft... aquatic habitat. These areas are depicted on a series of maps entitled ``John H. Chafee Coastal...

  5. New Whole-House Solutions Case Study: Advanced Extended Plate and Beam Wall System in a Cold-Climate House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-02-10

    A zero energy ready home was recently completed that features an innovative wall system. This highly insulated (high-R) light-frame wall system, called the extended plate and beam, is for use above grade in residential buildings. The Building America research team Home Innovation Research Labs featured this system in a new construction test house.

  6. Development of an underwater AUT system for reactor walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KAERI(Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) developed the KSNP(Korea Standard Nuclear Power Plant) in 1984. It was designed to generate 100MKw of electric power. The first KSNP was Ulchin Unit 3 constructed by Kepco(Korea Electric Power Corporation) in 1998. Korea has 6 KSNPs now. These NPPs have pressurized water reactors. It must stand a 150-160 air pressure and 300 degrees centigrade heat. If there are some defects in the reactor, these conditions may cause serious accidents such as a loss of national electric power and human lives. The reactor is made of carbon steel. It consists of a head, a body and a bottom head. There are welding areas on the body and bottom head. These welding areas are the weak points of the pressurized water reactor. The regular maintenance procedures for the nuclear power plant safety instruments are executed during the overhaul period every fourteen months in a KSNP. The duration of an overhaul is 3 weeks. The reactor inspection is executed based on an international standard code such as the ASME(American Society of Mechanical Engineers) code. The UT inspection method is adapted for a reactor welding area inspection. It must be executed in radioactive water because contaminated water can not be moved to on other place. It takes a long time to execute this inspection by the traditional equipment. We developed an automated and compact system to inspect the KSNP reactor welding areas

  7. Expression of Astrocytic Type 2 Angiotensin Receptor in Central Nervous System Inflammation Correlates With Blood-Brain Barrier Breakdown

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Füchtbauer, Laila; Toft-Hansen, Henrik; Khorooshi, Reza;

    2010-01-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB), a complex of endothelial and glial barriers, controls passage of cells and solutes between the blood and central nervous system (CNS). Blood-brain barrier breakdown refers to entry of cells and/or solutes. We were interested whether the renin-angiotensin system is...... involved during BBB breakdown. We studied the type 2 angiotensin receptor AT(2) because of its suggested neuroprotective role. Two models of brain inflammation were used to distinguish solute versus cellular barrier functions. Both leukocytes and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) accumulated in the perivascular...

  8. Combined local blood–brain barrier opening and systemic methotrexate for the treatment of brain tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, Itzik; Last, David; Guez, David; Sharabi, Shirley; Elhaik Goldman, Shirin; Lubitz, Irit; Daniels, Dianne; Salomon,Sharona; Tamar, Gregory; Tamir, Tzur; Mardor, Ronni; Fridkin, Mati; Shechter, Yoram; Mardor, Yael

    2015-01-01

    Despite aggressive therapy, existing treatments offer poor prognosis for glioblastoma multiforme patients, in part due to poor penetration of most drugs across the blood–brain barrier (BBB). We propose a minimal-invasive combined treatment approach consisting of local BBB disruption in the tumor in parallel to systemic drug administration. Local BBB disruption is obtained by convection-enhanced delivery of a novel BBB disruption agent, enabling efficient/targeted delivery of the systemically ...

  9. Motivators, Barriers and Concerns in Adoption of Electronic Filing System: Survey Evidence from Malaysian Professional Accountants

    OpenAIRE

    Ming-Ling Lai; Kwai-Fatt Choong

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: Worldwide, electronic filing (e-filing) system and its' adoption has attracted much attention, however, scholarly study on accounting professionals' acceptance of e-filing system is scant. Approach: This study aimed (i) to examine factors that motivated professional accountants to use e-filing (ii) to solicit their usage experience and (iii) to assess the barriers to adoption and other compliance considerations. The questionnaire survey was administered on 700 professionals...

  10. Extending image processing strain measurement system to evaluate fracture behavior of wall-thinned pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → An image processing strain measurement system was proposed. → The system can measure (1) out-of-plane deformation and (2) large strain. → System was applied to wall-thinned pipe (WTP) burst test, which bulging is observed. → System was effective for understanding the unexpected burst location in a WTP. - Abstract: In this paper, an image processing strain measurement system was extended so that fracture behavior of wall-thinned pipes, such as out of plane and large plastic deformation observed in bulging, can be evaluated by the system. Regular grids with nominal size of 10 mm x 10 mm were marked on 100A carbon steel pipes and the images taken with 6 CCD cameras of 15 million pixels were correlated to achieve resolution of 0.3% strain. Strain of the cylinder's outer surface was evaluated by (1) modeling the grids as a cylindrical shell, (2) measuring deformation of the grid on a projected plane, and (3) applying an updated Lagrangian method. The validity of the system was confirmed by applying the proposed system to the burst tests of a wall-thinned cylinder. In addition, the system measured the non-uniform strain distribution that explained the unexpected cracking location.

  11. PECULIARITIES OF DESIGN OF CURTAIN WALL SYSTEMS TO ASSURE THERMAL INSULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golunov Sergej Anatolevich

    2012-10-01

    The results of laboratory tests (given the adjustments for permissible tolerances may be regarded as the principal criteria in the assessment of applicability of a curtain wall system in the course of a major building repair project or a new construction to assure the required reliability and durability.

  12. Experimental Investigation on Space-dispersed Double-wall Jet Combustion System for DI Diesel Engine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭鹏江; 高希彦

    2012-01-01

    A space-dispersed double-wall jet combustion system was developed by adopting the wall-guiding spray method and the stratification theory.The experimental test was carried out to optimize the structural parameters of the diesel-engine combustion system,including chamber structure,swirl ratio of cylinder head,included angle of jet orifice,number and diameter of jet orifice,fuel injection pressure and timing.The effect of double-wall jet combustion system on combustion and engine performance was tested to obtain the best performance indexes,and the double-wall jet combustion system was compared to the prototype.The results show that NOx is reduced from 712 PPm to 487 PPm at 2 100 r/min,and from 593 PPm to 369 PPm at 3 000 r/min,which are reduced by 31.6% and 37.7%,respectively.The smoke intensity was reduced form 3.67 BSU to 2.1 BSU,and the oil consumption was reduced from 240.5 g/(kW·h) to 225.4 g/(kW·h),which was decreased by 6.3% at low speed.The pressure in the cylinder was obviously reduced from 115 bar to 108 bar,which was reduced by 6%.

  13. Comparison for the interfacial and wall friction models in thermal-hydraulic system analysis codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Moon Kyu; Park, Jee Won; Chung, Bub Dong; Kim, Soo Hyung; Kim, See Dal

    2007-07-15

    The average equations employed in the current thermal hydraulic analysis codes need to be closed with the appropriate models and correlations to specify the interphase phenomena along with fluid/structure interactions. This includes both thermal and mechanical interactions. Among the closure laws, an interfacial and wall frictions, which are included in the momentum equations, not only affect pressure drops along the fluid flow, but also have great effects for the numerical stability of the codes. In this study, the interfacial and wall frictions are reviewed for the commonly applied thermal-hydraulic system analysis codes, i.e. RELAP5-3D, MARS-3D, TRAC-M, and CATHARE.

  14. Comparison for the interfacial and wall friction models in thermal-hydraulic system analysis codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The average equations employed in the current thermal hydraulic analysis codes need to be closed with the appropriate models and correlations to specify the interphase phenomena along with fluid/structure interactions. This includes both thermal and mechanical interactions. Among the closure laws, an interfacial and wall frictions, which are included in the momentum equations, not only affect pressure drops along the fluid flow, but also have great effects for the numerical stability of the codes. In this study, the interfacial and wall frictions are reviewed for the commonly applied thermal-hydraulic system analysis codes, i.e. RELAP5-3D, MARS-3D, TRAC-M, and CATHARE

  15. Dentists' practice behaviors and perceived barriers regarding oral-systemic evidence: implications for education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder, Rebecca S; Bell, Kathryn P; Phillips, Ceib; Paquette, David W; Offenbacher, Steven

    2014-09-01

    Observational studies consistently support a relationship between poor oral health and systemic diseases like cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus. The purpose of this study was to identify current practices and perceived barriers among North Carolina dentists regarding the incorporation of oral-systemic evidence into the delivery of patient care. A survey questionnaire was developed, pilot tested, revised, and mailed to 1,350 licensed dentists in North Carolina. The response rate was 49 percent. Bivariate analysis was used to compare practice behaviors and barriers among age, gender, practice type, and setting categorizations using the chi-square test. Respondents were predominantly male (77 percent), in solo practice (59.4 percent), and in urban or suburban settings (74 percent). Half (50 percent) reported updating medical histories at every patient visit. Younger dentists were significantly (ppatient blood glucose levels and utilize blood pressure guidelines. Perceived patient objections to additional fees and lack of patient acceptance were reported as significant barriers, especially among younger dentists. Significantly more rural dentists reported lack of appropriate referral options as a barrier (ppatients' objection to additional fees. Dental schools need to prepare dental students for future roles in the assessment, management, and interprofessional collaboration that will be needed in the future. PMID:25179921

  16. An evaluation of the fire barrier system thermo-lag 330-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results of three fire endurance tests and one ampacity derating test set of the fire barrier system Thermo-Lag 330-1 Subliming Coating. Each test was performed using cable tray specimens protected by a nominal three-hour fire barrier envelope comprised of two layers of nominal 1/2 inch thick material. The fire barrier systems for two of the three fire endurance test articles and for the ampacity derating test article were installed in accordance with the manufacturer's installations procedures. The barrier system for the third fire endurance test article was a full reproduction of one of the original manufacturer's qualification test articles. This final test article included certain installation enhancements not considered typical of current nuclear power plant installations. The primary criteria for fire endurance performance evaluation was based on cable circuit integrity testing. Secondary consideration was also given to the temperature rise limits set forth in the ASTM E119 standard fire barrier test procedure. All three of the fire endurance specimens failed prematurely. Circuit integrity failures for the two fire endurance test articles with procedures-based installations were recorded at approximately 76 and 59 minutes into the exposures for a 6 inch wide and 12 inch wide cable tray respectively. Temperature excursion failures (single point) for these two test articles were noted at approximately 65 and 56 minutes respectively. The first circuit integrity failure for the full reproduction test article was recorded approximately 119 minutes into the exposure, and the first temperature excursion failure for this test article was recorded approximately 110 minutes into the exposure

  17. Single-Walled Carbon Nano tubes as Fluorescence Biosensors for Pathogen Recognition in Water Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility of using single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) aggregates as fluorescence sensors for pathogen recognition in drinking water treatment applications has been studied. Batch adsorption study is conducted to adsorb large concentrations of Staphylococcus aureus aureus SH 1000 and Escherichia coli pKV-11 on single-walled carbon nanotubes. Subsequently the immobilized bacteria are detected with confocal microscopy by coating the nanotubes with fluorescence emitting antibodies. The Freundlich adsorption equilibrium constant (k) for S.aureus and E.coli determined from batch adsorption study was found to be 9 x108 and 2 x108 ml/g, respectively. The visualization of bacterial cells adsorbed on fluorescently modified carbon nanotubes is also clearly seen. The results indicate that hydrophobic single-walled carbon nanotubes have excellent bacterial adsorption capacity and fluorescent detection capability. This is an important advancement in designing fluorescence biosensors for pathogen recognition in water systems.

  18. Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes as Fluorescence Biosensors for Pathogen Recognition in Water Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkata K. K. Upadhyayula

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of using single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs aggregates as fluorescence sensors for pathogen recognition in drinking water treatment applications has been studied. Batch adsorption study is conducted to adsorb large concentrations of Staphylococcus aureus aureus SH 1000 and Escherichia coli pKV-11 on single-walled carbon nanotubes. Subsequently the immobilized bacteria are detected with confocal microscopy by coating the nanotubes with fluorescence emitting antibodies. The Freundlich adsorption equilibrium constant (k for S.aureus and E.coli determined from batch adsorption study was found to be 9×108 and 2×108 ml/g, respectively. The visualization of bacterial cells adsorbed on fluorescently modified carbon nanotubes is also clearly seen. The results indicate that hydrophobic single-walled carbon nanotubes have excellent bacterial adsorption capacity and fluorescent detection capability. This is an important advancement in designing fluorescence biosensors for pathogen recognition in water systems.

  19. Next generation of non-mammalian blood-brain barrier models to study parasitic infections of the central nervous system

    OpenAIRE

    Siddiqui, Ruqaiyyah; Edwards-Smallbone, James; Flynn, Robin; Khan, Naveed Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Transmigration of neuropathogens across the blood-brain barrier is a key step in the development of central nervous system infections, making it a prime target for drug development. The ability of neuropathogens to traverse the blood-brain barrier continues to inspire researchers to understand the specific strategies and molecular mechanisms that allow them to enter the brain. The availability of models of the blood-brain barrier that closely mimic the situation in vivo offers unprecedented o...

  20. Barriers to Implementing a Reporting and Learning Patient Safety System: Pediatric Chiropractic Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohlman, Katherine A; Carroll, Linda; Hartling, Lisa; Tsuyuki, Ross T; Vohra, Sunita

    2016-04-01

    A reporting and learning system is a method of monitoring the occurrence of incidents that affect patient safety. This cross-sectional survey asked pediatric chiropractors about factors that may limit their participation in such a system. The list of potential barriers for participation was developed using a systematic approach. All members of the 2 pediatric councils associated with US national chiropractic organizations were invited to complete the survey (N = 400). The cross-sectional survey was created using an online survey tool (REDCap) and sent directly to member emails addressed by the respective executive committees. Of the 400 potential respondents, 81 responded (20.3%). The most common limitations to participating were identified as time pressure (96%) and patient concerns (81%). Reporting and learning systems have been utilized to increase safety awareness in many high-risk industries. To be successful, future patient safety studies with pediatric chiropractors need to ensure these barriers are understood and addressed. PMID:26438719

  1. A hybrid wall panel HVAC system. Paper no. IGEC-1-ID05

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A hybrid wall panel system was developed, which can optimally integrate heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning functions at moderate temperatures so that low-enthalpy energy resources can be directly utilized in high-performance buildings. The result will be the elimination of costly equipment over sizing and resource temperature conditioning required when conventional HVAC systems are connected to low enthalpy energy resources. Other attributes include cost effective and direct substitution of fossil fuels, and proportional reduction of harmful emissions. An analytical life-cycle-cost minimization algorithm was developed in order to optimize the system, which is demonstrated with a design example that involves heat pipes, wind energy, solar collectors, and desiccant cooling unit for a residential home. Results indicate that an optimum design may minimize or sometimes eliminate fossil fuel dependency in building HVAC. This paper discusses the technical details, economic and environmental benefits of a hybrid wall panel HVAC system. (author)

  2. Rehabilitation of a house with high radon level, using a ground ventilation system with double barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A ground ventilation system has been designed and implemented in a town hall in Brittany. Radon concentration in the heating unit room of this building has been reduced from 10000 Bq/m3 to less than 200 Bq/m3 by the means of a depressurization system using a 32 W fan, which blows air into a permeable gravel layer intercalated between two radon barrier mylar films. Results show that passive systems should be applicable; for new buildings, very low energy consumption systems with 10 W fans, are easily implemented if designed before construction

  3. Reducing Barriers To The Use of High-Efficiency Lighting Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Morante

    2005-12-31

    With funding from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Lighting Research Center (LRC) at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute completed the four-year research project, Reducing Barriers to the Use of High-Efficiency Lighting Systems. The initial objectives were: (1) identifying barriers to widespread penetration of lighting controls in commercial/industrial (C/I) applications that employ fluorescent lamp technologies, and (2) making recommendations to overcome these barriers. The addition of a fourth year expanded the original project objectives to include an examination of the impact on fluorescent lamps from dimming utilizing different lamp electrode heating and dimming ratios. The scope of the project was narrowed to identify barriers to the penetration of lighting controls into commercial-industrial (C/I) applications that employ fluorescent lamp technologies, and to recommend means for overcoming these barriers. Working with lighting manufacturers, specifiers, and installers, the project identified technological and marketing barriers to the widespread use of lighting controls, specifically automatic-off controls, occupancy sensors, photosensors, dimming systems, communication protocols and load-shedding ballasts. The primary barriers identified include cost effectiveness of lighting controls to the building owner, lack of standard communication protocols to allow different part of the control system to communicate effectively, and installation and commissioning issues. Overcoming the identified barriers requires lighting control products on the market to achieve three main goals: (1) Achieve sufficient functionality to meet the key requirements of their main market. (2) Allow significant cost reduction compared to current market standard systems. Cost should consider: hardware capital cost including wiring, design time required by the specifier and the control system manufacturer, installation time required by the electrician, and commissioning time and

  4. Barriers in the Implementation of Health Information Systems: A Scoping Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin STAMATIAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Context. A well-developed health information system which is implemented according to present standards allows a healthcare quality increase. Our study aims at providing an overview of the barriers which were encountered in the process of implementing the health information systems by reviewing the literature connected to Europe and the United States of America. Methodology. We searched within five databases (Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, PubMed, ScienceDirect and Scopus for the exact phrase ‘implementation health information system’ along with the name of each European country/USA state. Relevance was then tested by scanning titles and abstracts. The third and final step involved assessing all the articles in order to set their relevance and a data extraction tool was created, containing the name of the state/country that the article reports data on, the article citation and the challenges identified. Results. The barriers identified were classified in four major categories: technical, organizational, behavioral/human and financial. Seemingly, Europe (41 articles and USA (20 articles are facing the same issues in the implementation of a health information system. No major difference between EU and non-EU countries was found after our analysis with regards to the identified barriers. Discussion. Even if recommendations and solutions are continuously being developed in order to solve these barriers, the implementation of a new health information system must be very detailed in order to face all these problems. Additionally, further research is required in order to evaluate their impact on the successful implementation of a health information system.

  5. Optimum Design of Gravity Retaining Walls Using Charged System Search Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Talatahari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the optimum design retaining walls, as one of the familiar types of the retaining walls which may be constructed of stone masonry, unreinforced concrete, or reinforced concrete. The material cost is one of the major factors in the construction of gravity retaining walls therefore, minimizing the weight or volume of these systems can reduce the cost. To obtain an optimal seismic design of such structures, this paper proposes a method based on a novel meta-heuristic algorithm. The algorithm is inspired by the Coulomb's and Gauss’s laws of electrostatics in physics, and it is called charged system search (CSS. In order to evaluate the efficiency of this algorithm, an example is utilized. Comparing the results of the retaining wall designs obtained by the other methods illustrates a good performance of the CSS. In this paper, we used the Mononobe-Okabe method which is one of the pseudostatic approaches to determine the dynamic earth pressure.

  6. Socio-cultural barriers to the development of a sustainable energy system - the case of hydrogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Kjerulf; Andersen, Anne Holst

    , especially if the system is going to be based on renewable energy sources. The aim of these research notes is to review and discuss major socio-cultural barriers to new forms of energy supply in general and to hydrogen specifically. Reaching sufficient reductions in greenhouse gas emissions may require more......Any transition to a more sustainable energy system, radically reducing greenhouse gas emissions, is bound to run in to a host of different barriers - technological and economic, but also socio-cultural. This will also be the case for any large-scale application of hydrogen as energy carrier...... than large-scale dissemination of renewable energy sources. Also reductions or moderations in energy demand may be necessary. Hence, a central point in the research notes is to consider not only socio-cultural obstacles for changing technologies in energy production, distribution and consumption but...

  7. Transfer reactions for the /sup 50/Ti + /sup 90/Zr system below the Coulomb barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analysis of quasielastic cross section data for the /sup 90/Zr projectile plus /sup 50/Ti target system shows that the probability for /sup 50/Ti(/sup 90/Zr, /sup 49/Ti)/sup 91/Zr, 1n-transfer reaction near the barrier is much larger than estimates based on semiclassical theory. The probability for /sup 50/Ti(/sup 90/Zr,/sup 51/V)/sup 89/Y, 1p-transfer reaction, on the other hand, agrees with the same theory. The internuclear distance where the 1n-transfer probability first deviates from tunneling predictions coincides with the threshold of the fusion barrier distribution deduced from the experimental fusion cross sections of the /sup 50/Ti+/sup 90/Zr system, suggesting a common mechanism for the large enhancement of 1n-transfer and fusion cross sections

  8. Development of laser cladding system to repair wall thinning of 1-inch heat exchanger tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We developed a laser cladding system to repair the inner wall wastage of heat exchanger tubes. Our system, which is designed to repair thinning tube walls within 100 mm from the edge of a heat exchanger tube, consists of a fiber laser, a composite-type optical fiberscope, a coupling device, a laser processing head, and a wire-feeding device. All of these components were reconfigured from the technologies of FBR maintenance. The laser processing head, which has a 15-mm outer diameter, was designed to be inserted into a 1-inch heat exchanger tube. We mounted a heatproof broadband mirror for laser cladding and fiberscope observation with visible light inside the laser processing head. The wire-feeding device continuously supplied 0.4-mm wire to the laser irradiation spot with variable feeding speeds from 0.5 to 20 mm/s. We are planning to apply our proposed system to the maintenance of aging industrial plants. (author)

  9. Systemic barriers accessing HIV treatment among people who inject drugs in Russia: a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Sarang, Anya; Rhodes, Tim; Sheon, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    Achieving ‘universal access’ to antiretroviral HIV treatment (ART) in lower income and transitional settings is a global target. Yet, access to ART is shaped by local social condition and is by no means universal. Qualitative studies are ideally suited to describing how access to ART is socially situated. We explored systemic barriers to accessing ART among people who inject drugs (PWID) in a Russian city (Ekaterinburg) with a large burden of HIV treatment demand. We undertook 42 in-depth qua...

  10. Burden of Circulatory System Diseases and Ignored Barriers ofKnowledge Translation

    OpenAIRE

    Hamed-Basir Ghafouri; Shahzad Saravani; Farhad Shokraneh

    2012-01-01

    Circulatory system disease raise third highest disability-adjusted life years among Iranians and ischemic cardiac diseases are main causes for such burden. Despite available evidences on risk factors of the disease, no effective intervention was implemented to control and prevent the disease. This paper non-systematically reviews available literature on the problem, solutions, and barriers of implementation of knowledge translation in Iran. It seems that there are ignored factors such as cult...

  11. Burden of Circulatory System Diseases and Ignored Barriers of Knowledge Translation

    OpenAIRE

    Ghafouri, Hamed-Basir; Saravani, Shahzad; Shokraneh, Farhad

    2012-01-01

    Circulatory system disease raise third highest disability-adjusted life years among Iranians and ischemic cardiac diseases are main causes for such burden. Despite available evidences on risk factors of the disease, no effective intervention was implemented to control and prevent the disease. This paper non-systematically reviews available literature on the problem, solutions, and barriers of implementation of knowledge translation in Iran. It seems that there are ignored factors such as cult...

  12. Barriers to the implementation of E-learning system with focus on organizational culture

    OpenAIRE

    Bashiruddin, Muhammad; Basit, Abdul; Naeem, Muhammad

    2010-01-01

    Title: Barriers to the implementation of E-learning system with focus on organizational culture Introduction: Nowadays, Information Technology has become a necessity for businesses not only to gain competitive advantage but also to survive. Strategic use of new educational technologies can enhance learning and teaching process. In order to stay viable in this intense competitive environment, providers of education and trainings have developed efficient and effective learning environment, call...

  13. Overcoming barriers to the implementation of a pharmacy bar code scanning system for medication dispensing: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanji, Karen C; Cina, Jennifer; Patel, Nirali; Churchill, William; Gandhi, Tejal K; Poon, Eric G

    2009-01-01

    Technology has great potential to reduce medication errors in hospitals. This case report describes barriers to, and facilitators of, the implementation of a pharmacy bar code scanning system to reduce medication dispensing errors at a large academic medical center. Ten pharmacy staff were interviewed about their experiences during the implementation. Interview notes were iteratively reviewed to identify common themes. The authors identified three main barriers to pharmacy bar code scanning system implementation: process (training requirements and process flow issues), technology (hardware, software, and the role of vendors), and resistance (communication issues, changing roles, and negative perceptions about technology). The authors also identified strategies to overcome these barriers. Adequate training, continuous improvement, and adaptation of workflow to address one's own needs mitigated process barriers. Ongoing vendor involvement, acknowledgment of technology limitations, and attempts to address them were crucial in overcoming technology barriers. Staff resistance was addressed through clear communication, identifying champions, emphasizing new information provided by the system, and facilitating collaboration. PMID:19567797

  14. Vegetation barrier and tillage effects on runoff and sediment in an alley crop system on a Luvisol in Burkina Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaan, W.P.; Sikking, A.F.S.; Hoogmoed, W.B.

    2005-01-01

    The effects of vegetation barriers and tillage on runoff and soil loss were evaluated in an alley crop system at a research station in central Burkina Faso. On a 2% slope of a sandy loam various local species (grasses, woody species and a succulent) were planted as conservation barriers in order to

  15. An Inquiry into the Life Cycle of Systems of Inner Walls: Comparison of Masonry and Drywall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Condeixa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Life Cycle Assessment is a methodology that investigates impacts linked to a product or service during its entire life cycle. Life Cycle Assessment studies investigate processes and sub-processes in a fragmented way to ascertain their inputs, outputs and emissions and get an overview of the generating sources of their environmental loads. The lifecycle concept involves all direct and indirect processes of the studied object. This article aims to model the material flows in the masonry and drywall systems and internal walls in a Brazilian scenario, and calculate the climate change impacts generated by the transport of the component materials of the systems. Internal walls of a residential dwelling in Rio de Janeiro are analyzed from a qualitative inventory of all life cycles with an analysis of material flows, based on technical and academic literature. All Life Cycle Impact Assessment of the systems is carried out with international data from the database, and using the IPCC2013 method for climate change impacts. This study disregards the refurbishment and possible extensions within the use phase. Thus, the inventory identifies weaknesses of the systems while the impact assessment validates the results. This study allows us a complete understanding about the inner walls systems in the Brazilian scenario, evidencing its main weaknesses and subsidizes decision-making for the industry and for planning of the new buildings.

  16. Neutronic studies for the optimization of shield wall penetrations for laser IFE systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lafuente, A., E-mail: Lafuentemazu2@llnl.gov [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Latkowski, J.F.; Kramer, K.J.; Dunne, A.M. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We provide insight on the impact of wall shield penetrations for IFE systems. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We establish guidelines for the selection of different variables linked to the pinhole's design. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We identify the requirements to enable manual maintenance during operation and propose the use of non-aligned double shield walls with pinholes. - Abstract: Building upon the inertial confinement fusion (ICF) technology developed for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), a laser-driven inertial fusion energy (LIFE) power plant is being designed. In this pre-conceptual design, the final optic is exposed to a variety of threats originating from the fusion target. These include prompt neutron and gamma fluxes, x-ray and ionic emissions. While x-rays and ions are stopped by the low-density chamber fill gas (6 {mu}g/cc xenon), neutrons and gamma-rays are not significantly attenuated. In order to limit the consequences of such threats onto the penultimate optic and the rest of the laser systems, a shielding wall stands between the target chamber area and the laser bay. An optical telescope arrangement allows for the laser beam propagation from the penultimate to the final optic, through a pinhole in the shielding wall. These pinholes attenuate the neutron flux and reduce effective dose rates such that laser bay maintenance can be performed by humans. An optimum design of this laser pinhole requires a good understanding of the different design trade-offs that exist between shielding performance and survivability of the laser optical elements and are outlined in this work. This paper provides insight on the impact and influence of the pinholes on the radiation doses in the laser bay, which is located on the opposite side of the concrete shielding wall. After addressing the difficulties of evaluating shields containing penetrations, it establishes a

  17. Electrodiffusion Method of Near-Wall Flow Diagnostics in Microfluidic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tihona J.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The electrodiffusion technique has been mostly used for the near-wall flow diagnostics on large scales. A novel technique for fabrication of plastic microfluidic systems with integrated metal microelectrodes (called technique of sacrificed substrate enables us to produce microfluidic devices with precisely shaped sensors for wall shear stress measurements. Several micrometer thick gold sensors, which are built-in a plastic substrate, exhibit good mechanical resistance and smoothness. Proper functioning of prepared chips with microsensors has been first tested in various calibration experiments (polarization curve, sensor response to polarization set-up, steady flow calibration, temperature dependence of diffusivity. Our first results obtained for separating/reattaching flow behind a backward-facing step and for gas-liquid Taylor flow in microchannels then demonstrate its applicability for the detection of near-wall flow reversal, the delimitation of flow - recirculation zones, and the determination of wall shear stress response to moving bubbles. Other applications of these sensors in microfluidics (e.g. characterization of liquid films, capillary waves, bubbles or drops can be also envisaged.

  18. Domain-wall melting in ultracold-boson systems with hole and spin-flip defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halimeh, Jad C.; Wöllert, Anton; McCulloch, Ian; Schollwöck, Ulrich; Barthel, Thomas

    2014-06-01

    Quantum magnetism is a fundamental phenomenon of nature. As of late, it has garnered a lot of interest because experiments with ultracold atomic gases in optical lattices could be used as a simulator for phenomena of magnetic systems. A paradigmatic example is the time evolution of a domain-wall state of a spin-1/2 Heisenberg chain, the so-called domain-wall melting. The model can be implemented by having two species of bosonic atoms with unity filling and strong on-site repulsion U in an optical lattice. In this paper, we study the domain-wall melting in such a setup on the basis of the time-dependent density matrix renormalization group (tDMRG). We are particularly interested in the effects of defects that originate from an imperfect preparation of the initial state. Typical defects are holes (empty sites) and flipped spins. We show that the dominating effects of holes on observables like the spatially resolved magnetization can be taken account of by a linear combination of spatially shifted observables from the clean case. For sufficiently large U, further effects due to holes become negligible. In contrast, the effects of spin flips are more severe as their dynamics occur on the same time scale as that of the domain-wall melting itself. It is hence advisable to avoid preparation schemes that are based on spin flips.

  19. Critical Oxide Thickness for Efficient Single-walled Carbon Nanotube Growth on Silicon Using Thin SiO2 Diffusion Barriers

    OpenAIRE

    Simmons, J. M.; Nichols, B. M.; Marcus, Matthew S.; Castellini, O. M.; Hamers, R. J.; Eriksson, M. A.

    2007-01-01

    The ability to integrate carbon nanotubes, especially single-walled carbon nanotubes, seamlessly onto silicon would expand the range of applications considerably. Though direct integration using chemical vapor deposition is the simplest method, the growth of single-walled carbon nanotubes on bare silicon and on ultra-thin oxides is greatly inhibited due to the formation of a non-catalytic silicide. Using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, we show that silicide formation occurs on ultra-thin ox...

  20. Project Guarantee 1985. Final repository for low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes: The system of safety barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The safety barrier system for the type B repository for low- and intermediate-level waste is described. The barrier parameters which are relevant for safety analysis are quantified and associated error limits and data scatter are given. The aim of the report is to give a summary documentation of the safety analysis input data and their scientific background. For secure containment of radioactive waste safety barriers are used which effectively limit the release of radioactive material from the repository (release barriers) and effectively retard the entry of the original radioactive material into the biosphere (time barriers). In the case of low- and intermediate-level waste the technical safety barrier system comprises: waste solidification matrix (cement, bitumen and resin), immobilisation of the waste packages in containers using liquid cement, concrete repository containers, backfilling of remaining vacant storage space with special concrete, concrete lining of the repository caverns, sealing of access tunnels on final closure of the repository. Natural geological safety barriers - host rock and overlying formations - have the following important functions. Because of its stability, the host rock in the repository zone protects the technical safety barrier system from destruction caused by climatic effects and erosion for a sufficient length of time. It also provides for low water flow and favourable chemistry (reducing conditions)

  1. Safety indicators used to prove the role of natural barrier for Saligny near surface disposal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The siting process for a near surface repository suitable for the radioactive waste resulted from Cernavoda NPP operation and decommissioning (low level radioactive waste with small amounts of long lived radionuclides) started in 1992 and it included the collection of data from specific field and laboratory works for each site selection stage as well as different safety performance evaluation. According to the IAEA standards (Safety Guide No.111-G-3.1, 1994), the purpose of the siting process is not to get the best solution but to find out 'an acceptable solution, with sufficient safety reserves'. Since 1996, detailed field and investigation works were performed in Saligny preferred site including an experimental area to test the improvement method proposed for the foundation ground of repository, as well as detailed performance assessments using specific computer codes. The paper presents the results of recent performance assessments for the natural barrier of disposal system. The calculations were done using HYDRUS 2D, FEHM and AMBER computer codes. The endpoint of the Safety Report for Siting a Near Surface Repository at Saligny Site [CITON and SCN, Safety Report for Siting a Near Surface Repository at Saligny Site, 2007, pages 8.2.1-1 to 8.2.1-22 and 8-63 to 8-70] was the assessment of safety indicators. Individual annual effective dose for exposed peoples (both workers and general public) was the main safety indicator. In the same document, the radionuclide concentration in the disposal system compartments has been evaluated, as supplementary safety indicator of repository barriers (especially to confirm the natural barrier performance). The results confirmed the performance of natural barrier: the maximum extension of H-3 and Co-60 contaminant plume after repository closure remains more above underground water level. In the aquifer, iodine concentration reaches a value of 10-15 mol/l, at the same magnitude order with the admitted limit from CFR 141

  2. PREREQUISITES TO UNCOVERING THE REGULARITIES OF THE FATIGUE RESISTANCE OF ANCHORAGE OF CURTAIN WALL SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisultanov Ramidin Semedovich

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Curtain wall systems are subjected to the influence of air flow, which is changing in its direction and speed. Such an influence gives rise to variable forces, which leads to fluctuating stresses in the structures of curtain wall systems. In case of fluctuating stresses the structural element is destroyed at lower loads, than in case of constant stresses. This fracture is called the fatigue. The fatigue fractures lead to drastic consequences because of their sudden emergence. The fracture mode of structural materials depends on the number of loading cycles. The authors state the notions of multicycle and low-cycle fatigue of materials. Some types of fatigue curves are offered. The authors hypothesize on the absence of horizontal areas of Wehler curve in case of plastic materials.

  3. Numerical investigation of thermal response of basement wall systems with low emissivity material and furred airspace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saber, Hamed H.; Maref, Wahid; Swinton, Michael C. [Institute for Research in Construction, National Research Council Canada (Canada)], email: hamed.saber@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca

    2011-07-01

    In Canada, most basements are used as a living space rather than a utility area and they are presumed to be inside the envelope. Basements account for significant heat loss and it is therefore crucial to improve their thermal resistance. The aim of this paper is to present a new method for increasing a basement's insulation by using foil in a furred-assembly with airspace next to the foil. The steady-state and transient thermal performance of this system was modeled using hygIRC-C and compared to a wall without furred airspace assembly. Results showed that the thermal performance of the system depends on the soil, outdoor and indoor temperatures, and that it can provide 17.7% energy savings compared to a wall without furred airspace assembly. This study highlighted that using foil in a furred-assembly with airspace next to the foil in basements can help reduce energy consumption.

  4. PTC-6 vacuum system: WallWalker{trademark} and Blastrac{reg_sign} shot blast cleaning system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    The LTC Americas, Inc. wall decontamination technology consisted of two pneumatic hand-held tools: (1) a roto-peen scaler that used star cutters and (2) a 3-piston hammer with reciprocating bits. The hand-held tools were used in conjunction with the LTC PTC-6 vacuum system which captured dust and debris as the wall decontamination took place. Recommendations for improved worker safety and health during use of the PTC-6 vacuum system with hand-held tools include: (1) keeping all hoses and lines as orderly as possible in compliance with good housekeeping requirements; (2) ergonomic training to include techniques in lifting, bending, stooping, twisting, etc.; (3) use of a clamping system to hold hoses to the vacuum system; (4) a safety line on the air line connections; (5) use of a mechanical lifting system for waste drum removal; and (6) the use of ergonomically designed tools.

  5. Organizational human factors as barriers to energy efficiency in electrical motors systems in industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a study accomplished in the State of Parana in Southern Brazil, aiming at verifying the correlation between organizational human factors (OHF) and the level of energy losses in organizations. The purpose is to subsidize the formularization of institutional policies in organizations to improve the energy efficiency in the productive sector. The research was carried out in ten industries of the following sectors: pulp and paper; food; wood and chemical products. The losses of electric energy were determined in motor systems with the aid of a mathematical model and the evaluation of 27 OHF identified in the literature review was made with the supervisors in the industries by means of a structurized questionnaire. Seven OHF had presented significant correlation with energy losses and six of them are inversely proportional to the losses, in accordance with linear regression analysis. The inversely proportional factors to the losses also with significant correlation are considered determinative OHF and constitute barriers for energy efficiency in organizations. These barriers are linked with the following organizational areas: management system; education of employees; strategical vision. The study recommends the implementation of the determinative OHF in organizations as a way to transpose the human barriers for energy efficiency

  6. Influences of specific ions in groundwater on concrete degradation in subsurface engineered barrier system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wen-Sheng; Liu, Chen-Wuing; Li, Ming-Hsu

    2016-01-01

    Many disposal concepts currently show that concrete is an effective confinement material used in engineered barrier systems (EBS) at a number of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal sites. Cement-based materials have properties for the encapsulation, isolation, or retardation of a variety of hazardous contaminants. The reactive chemical transport model of HYDROGEOCHEM 5.0 was applied to simulate the effect of hydrogeochemical processes on concrete barrier degradation in an EBS which has been proposed to use in the LLW disposal site in Taiwan. The simulated results indicated that the main processes that are responsible for concrete degradation are the species induced from hydrogen ion, sulfate, and chloride. The EBS with the side ditch drainage system effectively discharges the infiltrated water and lowers the solute concentrations that may induce concrete degradation. The redox processes markedly influence the formations of the degradation materials. The reductive environment in the EBS reduces the formation of ettringite in concrete degradation processes. Moreover, the chemical conditions in the concrete barriers maintain an alkaline condition after 300 years in the proposed LLW repository. This study provides a detailed picture of the long-term evolution of the hydrogeochemical environment in the proposed LLW disposal site in Taiwan. PMID:27376013

  7. Simplification process of safety assessment model for engineered barrier system by using adjoint sensitivity analysis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sensitivity analyses for mass transport model in porous media were performed by using adjoint method. The mass transport model employed is to evaluate the performance of engineered barrier of shallow land disposal, assuming that water flows through a cylinder packed with sand. In this model instantaneous sorption equilibrium between liquid and solid phases is assumed and two types of boundary conditions which represent the nuclide release from waste package, i.e. solubility-limited case and constant leaching case, are considered. From the sensitivity analysis, it was shown that the effect of longitudinal dispersion on performance measure is very small and calculated normalized sensitivity is in the order 10-4∼10-3 around the most probable value of longitudinal dispersion coefficient. This suggests that the term of longitudinal dispersion can be removed from the original model. In this case analytical solution is easily introduced for two boundary conditions respectively to evaluate the performance measure of the barrier system. These simplified models, in fact, gives larger estimate of the nuclide release from the engineered barrier system than that calculated from the model considering the longitudinal dispersion. They are acceptable from the standpoint of conservatism of safety assessment. (author)

  8. Effects of sea-level rise on barrier island groundwater system dynamics: ecohydrological implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterson, John P.; Fienen, Michael N.; Thieler, E. Robert; Gesch, Dean B.; Gutierrez, Benjamin T.; Plant, Nathaniel G.

    2014-01-01

    We used a numerical model to investigate how a barrier island groundwater system responds to increases of up to 60 cm in sea level. We found that a sea-level rise of 20 cm leads to substantial changes in the depth of the water table and the extent and depth of saltwater intrusion, which are key determinants in the establishment, distribution and succession of vegetation assemblages and habitat suitability in barrier islands ecosystems. In our simulations, increases in water-table height in areas with a shallow depth to water (or thin vadose zone) resulted in extensive groundwater inundation of land surface and a thinning of the underlying freshwater lens. We demonstrated the interdependence of the groundwater response to island morphology by evaluating changes at three sites. This interdependence can have a profound effect on ecosystem composition in these fragile coastal landscapes under long-term changing climatic conditions.

  9. Development and preliminary evaluation of double roof prototypes incorporating RBS (radiant barrier system)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pei-Chi Chang [National Yunlin Univ. of Science and Technology, Taiwan (China). Graduate School of Engineering Science and Technology; Che-Ming Chiang [National Cheng-Kung Univ., Taiwan (China). Dept. of Architecture; Chi-Ming Lai [National Chung-Hsing Univ., Taiwan (China). Graduate Inst. of Rural Planning

    2008-07-01

    Double-skin roof is known as a very effective way to reduce both the conduction and convection heat transfers from roof to the ceiling of building, on the other hand, RBS (radiant barrier system) is very effective in blocking the radiation heat transfer between roof and ceiling. In this study, prototypical double roofs inspired by the concepts of both double-skin structure and RBS technique was specifically designed to cut down the solar heat gain from roof. The effect of energy saving was experimentally measured. A double roof structure, formed by a roof plate and an aluminum foil-PP (polypropylene) board-RC slab, can achieve good performance of heat barrier and is highly recommended. (author)

  10. Breakup mechanisms for 7Li + 197Au, 204Pb systems at sub-barrier energies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luong D.H.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Coincidence measurements of breakup fragments were carried out for the 7Li + 197Au and 204Pb systems at sub-barrier energies. The mechanisms triggering breakup, and time-scales of each process, were identified through the reaction Q-values and the relative energy of the breakup fragments. Binary breakup of 7Li were found to be predominantly triggered by nucleon transfer, with p-pickup leading to 8Be → α + α decay being the preferred breakup mode. From the time-scales of each process, the coincidence yields were separated into prompt and delayed components, allowing the identification of breakup process important in the suppression of complete fusion of 7Li at above-barrier energies.

  11. Development of backfill material as an engineered barrier in the waste package system. Interim topical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A backfill barrier, emplaced between the containerized waste and the host rock, can both protect the other engineered barriers and act as a primary barrier to the release of radionuclides from the waste package. Attributes that a backfill should provide in order to carry out its required function have been identified. Primary attributes are those that have a direct effect upon the release and transport of radionuclides from the waste package. Supportive attributes do not directly affect radionuclide release but are necessary to support the primary attributes. The primary attributes, in order of importance, are: minimize (retard or exclude) the migration of ground water between the host rock and the waste canister system; retard the migration of selected chemical species (corrosive species and radionuclides) in the ground water; control the Eh and pH of the ground water within the waste-package environment. The supportive attributes are: self-seal any cracks or discontinuities in the backfill or interfacing host geology; retain performance properties at all repository temperatures; retain peformance properties during and after receiving repository levels of gamma radiation; conduct heat from the canister system to the host geology; retain mechanical properties and provide resistance to applied mechanical forces; retain morphological stability and compatibility with structural barriers and with the host geology for required period of time. Screening and selection of candidate backfill materials has resulted in a preliminary list of materials for testing. Primary emphasis has been placed on sodium and calcium bentonites and zeolites used in conjunction with quartz sand or crushed host rock. Preliminary laboratory studies have concentrated on permeability, sorption, swelling pressure, and compaction properties of candidate backfill materials

  12. Development of backfill material as an engineered barrier in the waste package system- Interim topical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheelwright, E.J.; Hodges, F.N.; Bray, L.A.; Westsik, J.H. Jr.; Lester, D.H.; Nakai, T.L.; Spaeth, M.E.; Stula, R.T.

    1981-09-01

    A backfill barrier, emplaced between the containerized waste and the host rock, can both protect the other engineered barriers and act as a primary barrier to the release of radionuclides from the waste package. Attributes that a backfill should provide in order to carry out its required function have been identified. Primary attributes are those that have a direct effect upon the release and transport of radionuclides from the waste package. Supportive attributes do not directly affect radionuclide release but are necessary to support the primary attributes. The primary attributes, in order of importance, are: minimize (retard or exclude) the migration of ground water between the host rock and the waste canister system; retard the migration of selected chemical species (corrosive species and radionuclides) in the ground water; control the Eh and pH of the ground water within the waste-package environment. The supportive attributes are: self-seal any cracks or discontinuities in the backfill or interfacing host geology; retain performance properties at all repository temperatures; retain peformance properties during and after receiving repository levels of gamma radiation; conduct heat from the canister system to the host geology; retain mechanical properties and provide resistance to applied mechanical forces; retain morphological stability and compatibility with structural barriers and with the host geology for required period of time. Screening and selection of candidate backfill materials has resulted in a preliminary list of materials for testing. Primary emphasis has been placed on sodium and calcium bentonites and zeolites used in conjunction with quartz sand or crushed host rock. Preliminary laboratory studies have concentrated on permeability, sorption, swelling pressure, and compaction properties of candidate backfill materials.

  13. Concept of operation and preliminary experimental results of the DRDC through-wall SAR system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sévigny, Pascale; DiFilippo, David J.; Laneve, Tony; Chan, Brigitte; Fournier, Jonathan; Roy, Simon; Ricard, Benoît; Maheux, Jean

    2010-04-01

    Mapping the interior of buildings is of great interest to military forces operating in an urban battlefield. Throughwall radars have the potential of mapping interior room layout, including the location of walls, doors and furniture. They could provide information on the in-wall structure, and detect objects of interest concealed in buildings, such as persons and arms caches. We are proposing to provide further context to the end user by fusing the radar data with LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) images of the building exterior. In this paper, we present our system concept of operation, which involves a vehicle driven along a path in front of a building of interest. The vehicle is equipped with both radar and LIDAR systems, as well as a motion compensation unit. We describe our ultra wideband through-wall L-band radar system which uses stretch processing techniques to obtain high range resolution, and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) techniques to achieve good azimuth resolution. We demonstrate its current 2-D capabilities with experimental data, and discuss the current progress in using array processing in elevation to provide a 3-D image. Finally, we show preliminary data fusion of SAR and LIDAR data.

  14. Experimental study and advanced CFD simulation of fire safety performance of building external wall insulation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhenghua

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Large scale fire tests of building external wall insulation system were conducted. In the experiment, thermal-couples were mounted to measure the insulation system surface temperature and the gas temperature inside rooms at the second and third floors. Photos were also taken during the fire tests. The measurement provides information of the ignition and fire spread of the external insulation system which consists of surface protection layer, glass fibre net, bonding thin layer, anchor and the load bearing wall. Comprehensive simulations of the fire tests were carried out using an advanced CFD fire simulation software Simtec (Simulation of Thermal Engineering Complex [1, 2], which is now released by Simtec Soft Sweden, with the turbulent flow, turbulent combustion, thermal radiation, soot formation, convective heat transfer, the fully coupled three dimensional heat transfer inside solid materials, the ‘burn-out' of the surface protection layer and the pyrolysis of the insulation layer, etc, all computed. The simulation is compared with experimental measurement for validation. The simulation well captured the burning and fire spread of the external insulation wall.

  15. Test techniques: A survey paper on cryogenic tunnels, adaptive wall test sections, and magnetic suspension and balance systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilgore, Robert A.; Dress, David A.; Wolf, Stephen W. D.; Britcher, Colin P.

    1989-01-01

    The ability to get good experimental data in wind tunnels is often compromised by things seemingly beyond our control. Inadequate Reynolds number, wall interference, and support interference are three of the major problems in wind tunnel testing. Techniques for solving these problems are available. Cryogenic wind tunnels solve the problem of low Reynolds number. Adaptive wall test sections can go a long way toward eliminating wall interference. A magnetic suspension and balance system (MSBS) completely eliminates support interference. Cryogenic tunnels, adaptive wall test sections, and MSBS are surveyed. A brief historical overview is given and the present state of development and application in each area is described.

  16. Throughput Enhancement Using Adaptive Delay Barrier Function over HSDPA System in Mixed Traffic Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Seok

    In this paper, we consider a method to enhance the throughput of HSDPA systems in the mixed traffic scenario. A channel-dependent adaptive delay barrier (DB) function is proposed to maximize throughput of best-effort (BE) traffic while satisfying the delay latency of voice over internet protocol (VoIP) service. Simulations show that the proposed channel-adaptive DB function raises the throughput of BE traffic service by 30% compared to the conventional scheme, without degrading the capacity of VoIP service over HSDPA system.

  17. Trap Cropping Systems and a Physical Barrier for Suppression of Stink Bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in Cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, P G; Khrimian, A; Cottrell, T E; Lou, X; Mizell, R F; Johnson, C J

    2015-10-01

    Euschistus servus (Say), Nezara viridula (L.), and Chinavia hilaris (Say) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) are economic pests of cotton in the coastal plain of the southeastern United States. The objective of this 2-yr study was to determine the ability of trap cropping systems, pheromone-baited stink bug traps, and a synthetic physical barrier at the peanut-to-cotton interface to manage stink bugs in cotton. The physical barrier was the most effective management tactic. Stink bug density in cotton was lowest for this treatment. In 2010, boll injury was lower for the physical barrier compared to the other treatments except for soybean with stink bug traps. In 2011, boll injury was lower for this treatment compared to the control. Soybean was an effective trap crop, reducing both stink bug density in cotton and boll injury regardless if used alone or in combination with either stink bug traps or buckwheat. Incorporation of buckwheat in soybean enhanced parasitism of E. servus egg masses by Telenomus podisi Ashmead in cotton. The insertion of eyelets in the lid of the insect-collecting device of a stink bug trap allowed adult stink bug parasitoids, but not E. servus, to escape. Stand-alone stink bug traps were not very effective in deterring colonization of cotton by stink bugs or reducing boll injury. The paucity of effective alternative control measures available for stink bug management justifies further full-scale evaluations into these management tactics for control of these pests in crops. PMID:26453721

  18. [Female migrants in the health care system. Health care utilisation, access barriers and health promotion strategies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimmer-Puchinger, B; Wolf, H; Engleder, A

    2006-09-01

    Due to the evident interaction between social factors and health, migrants are exposed to specific risk factors and access barriers to health services. Some examples are the lower education level, the low social position and/or the insufficient language skills. This concept is further elaborated in the multi-factorial impacts of health literacy. Female migrants often experience additional discrimination because of their gender. Despite the lack of representative data, consistent studies show that female migrants do not regularly take advantage of health care prevention and present themselves with higher degrees of stress. The current "inadequate health care" manifests itself in a lack of care in the areas of prevention and health education and an abundance in the context of medication and diagnostic procedures. To meet these demands and to further reduce barriers, in particular language barriers, specific strategies for this target group involving both politics and the health care system have to be developed. Besides the employment of interpreters with a native cultural background and the distribution of information booklets, it is an important strategy to reduce structural obstacles such as cultural diversity. To contact these women in their living environment should help to increase their self-determined health promotion. Selected models of good practice in Austria with regard to the themes of FGM (female genital mutilation), violence, heart disease and breast cancer are presented to highlight the specific health situation and risk factors of female migrants as well as successful strategies to confront them. PMID:16927035

  19. Investigating Barriers to Tuberculosis Evaluation in Uganda Using Geographic Information Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Jennifer M; Cattamanchi, Adithya; Miller, Cecily R; Tatem, Andrew J; Katamba, Achilles; Haguma, Priscilla; Handley, Margaret A; Davis, J Lucian

    2015-10-01

    Reducing geographic barriers to tuberculosis (TB) care is a priority in high-burden countries where patients frequently initiate, but do not complete, the multi-day TB evaluation process. Using routine cross-sectional study from six primary-health clinics in rural Uganda from 2009 to 2012, we explored whether geographic barriers affect completion of TB evaluation among adults with unexplained chronic cough. We measured distance from home parish to health center and calculated individual travel time using a geographic information systems technique incorporating roads, land cover, and slope, and measured its association with completion of TB evaluation. In 264,511 patient encounters, 4,640 adults (1.8%) had sputum smear microscopy ordered; 2,783 (60%) completed TB evaluation. Median travel time was 68 minutes for patients with TB examination ordered compared with 60 minutes without (P < 0.010). Travel time differed between those who did and did not complete TB evaluation at only one of six clinics, whereas distance to care did not differ at any of them. Neither distance nor travel time predicted completion of TB evaluation in rural Uganda, although limited detail in road and village maps restricted full implementation of these mapping techniques. Better data are needed on geographic barriers to access clinics offering TB services to improve TB diagnosis. PMID:26217044

  20. Asphalt emulsion radon barrier systems for uranium mill tailings: an overview of the technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, E.G.; Hartley, J.N.; Freeman, H.D.; Gates, T.E.; Nelson, D.A.; Dunning, R.L.

    1984-03-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), under contract to the US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP) office, has developed an asphalt emulsion cover system to reduce the release of radon from uranium mill tailings. The system has been field tested at Grand Junction, Colorado. Results from laboratory and field tests indicate that this system is effective in reducing radon release to near-background levels (<2.5 pCi m/sup -2/s/sup -1/) and has the properties required for long-term effectiveness and stability. Engineering specifications have been developed, and analysis indicates that asphalt emulsion covers are cost-competitive with other cover systems. This report summarizes the technology for asphalt emulsion radon barrier systems. 59 references, 45 figures, 36 tables.

  1. Asphalt emulsion radon barrier systems for uranium mill tailings: an overview of the technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), under contract to the US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP) office, has developed an asphalt emulsion cover system to reduce the release of radon from uranium mill tailings. The system has been field tested at Grand Junction, Colorado. Results from laboratory and field tests indicate that this system is effective in reducing radon release to near-background levels (-2s-1) and has the properties required for long-term effectiveness and stability. Engineering specifications have been developed, and analysis indicates that asphalt emulsion covers are cost-competitive with other cover systems. This report summarizes the technology for asphalt emulsion radon barrier systems. 59 references, 45 figures, 36 tables

  2. Real-time dielectric-film thickness measurement system for plasma processing chamber wall monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Yong; Chung, Chin-Wook

    2015-12-01

    An in-situ real-time processing chamber wall monitoring system was developed. In order to measure the thickness of the dielectric film, two frequencies of small sinusoidal voltage (∼1 V) signals were applied to an electrically floated planar type probe, which is positioned at chamber wall surface, and the amplitudes of the currents and the phase differences between the voltage and current were measured. By using an equivalent sheath circuit model including a sheath capacitance, the dielectric thickness can be obtained. Experiments were performed in various plasma condition, and reliable dielectric film thickness was obtained regardless of the plasma properties. In addition, availability in commercial chamber for plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition was verified. This study is expected to contribute to the control of etching and deposition processes and optimization of periodic maintenance in semiconductor manufacturing process. PMID:26724022

  3. Real-time dielectric-film thickness measurement system for plasma processing chamber wall monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Yong; Chung, Chin-Wook

    2015-12-01

    An in-situ real-time processing chamber wall monitoring system was developed. In order to measure the thickness of the dielectric film, two frequencies of small sinusoidal voltage (˜1 V) signals were applied to an electrically floated planar type probe, which is positioned at chamber wall surface, and the amplitudes of the currents and the phase differences between the voltage and current were measured. By using an equivalent sheath circuit model including a sheath capacitance, the dielectric thickness can be obtained. Experiments were performed in various plasma condition, and reliable dielectric film thickness was obtained regardless of the plasma properties. In addition, availability in commercial chamber for plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition was verified. This study is expected to contribute to the control of etching and deposition processes and optimization of periodic maintenance in semiconductor manufacturing process.

  4. Information barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An information barrier (IB) consists of procedures and technology that prevent the release of sensitive information during a joint inspection of a sensitive nuclear item, and provides confidence that the measurement system into which it has been integrated functions exactly as designed and constructed. Work in the U.S. on radiation detection system information barriers dates back at least to 1990, even though the term is more recent. In January 1999, an Information Barrier Working Group (IBWG) was formed in the United States to help coordinate technical efforts related to information barrier research and development (R and D). This paper presents an overview of the efforts of this group, by its present and former Chairs, as well as recommendations for further information barrier R and D. Progress on the demonstration of monitoring systems containing IBs is also provided. From the U.S. IBWG perspective, the top-level functional requirements for the information barrier portion of an integrated radiation signature-information barrier inspection system are twofold: The host must be assured that its classified information is protected from disclosure to the inspecting party; and The inspecting party must be confident that the integrated inspection system measures, processes, and presents the radiation-signature-based measurement conclusion in an accurate and reproducible manner. It is the position in the United States that in the absence of any agreement to share classified nuclear weapons design information while implementing an inspection regime, the need to protect host country classified warhead design information is paramount and overrules the need to provide confidence to the inspecting party regarding the accuracy and reproducibility of the measurements. The U.S. IBWG has reached a consensus on several critical design elements that define a general standard for radiation signature information barrier design. Technical specialists from cooperating parties must be

  5. Development of a coincidence system for radio-nuclide standardization using surface barrier detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A system for the standardization of alpha-gamma or electron-X radionuclide emitters has been developed in the present work. The system consists of one or two surface barrier detectors for alpha or electron detection which are coupled to thin-window NaI (T1) crystals suitable for low energy X or gamma ray detection. The performance of the system has been verified by means of the standardization of 241Am, 137Cs and 109Cd solutions. The activity has been obtained using the extrapolation method applied to the 4Πα-γ and 2Πec-X coincidence technique. The surface barrier detection efficiency was varied by placing absorbers over the radioactive sources or by changing the source to detector distance. The results were compared to those obtained using conventional absolute systems based on gas-flow and pressurized 4Π proportional counters, or using radioactive solutions standardized in international comparisons spondored by the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures. The expect and measured activities agree within the experimental uncertainties which were: 0.2 % for 241Am, 0.7% for 137Cs and 0.6% for 109Cd. The ratio between the probabilities of (electron capture + internal conversion) and internal conversion for the K-shell of 109Cd has been determined. The result is: 2.8883 ± 0.016. (author)

  6. The prospects for an expansion of biogas systems in Sweden-Incentives, barriers and potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biogas is a renewable, high-quality fuel, currently produced at more than 200 locations in Sweden. The present production is some 5 PJ/year but the potential is approximately 10 times higher. Biogas can be produced from a wide range of raw materials, from organic waste to dedicated energy crops, and can be utilised for various energy services such as heat, combined heat and power or as a vehicle fuel. Biogas systems are therefore affected by a number of different incentives and barriers, including energy-, waste treatment- and agricultural policies. In this paper, different policies and policy instruments, as well as other factors, which influence a potential expansion of Swedish biogas systems, are identified and evaluated. Existing incentives and barriers can be divided into those affecting the production of biogas, and those affecting the utilisation of the biogas. Only a few types of biogas systems are competitive in Sweden today, while the majority needs increased incentives of different kinds to reach profitability. Such incentives are often motivated from an energy and environmental point of view. Due to the complexity of the biogas systems and the many actors involved, all with different interests, the process of implementing adequate policy instruments will require concerted efforts

  7. Combined photovoltaic and solar-thermal systems: overcoming barriers to market acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combined Photovoltaic and Solar-Thermal Systems (PV/T Systems) combine Photovoltaic (PV) and solar thermal technologies into one system with both electrical and thermal energy output. PV/T systems have several perceived advantages to stand-alone PV or solar-thermal systems. The increased efficiency and dual nature of the systems make suitable for situations where installation space is limited, and for homeowners who are forced to decide between meeting thermal or electrical needs. The financial benefit of the combined system is also significant, as the long payback of PV systems is joined with a relatively short payback of solar thermal systems. A background of PV/T was presented, with details of classifications and the International Energy Association's program to evaluate the technical status of PV/T systems and formulate a roadmap for future development. It was noted that input from the Solar Heating and Cooling Program (SHCP) is needed to help identify market barriers in PV/T systems. This paper reviewed existing and potential PV/T systems and their technical status, and reported on the methodology established by IEA group 35. The systems were grouped according to thermal collector types of unglazed water collectors, glazed water collectors, unglazed air collectors, glazed air collectors, air-flow windows, and concentrating collectors. It was noted that a number of new systems are currently being developed, including concentrating collectors with water and air heating, unglazed air heating systems, and unglazed water heating systems. It was noted that apart from technical barriers, efficient design and performance prediction are also problematic, as tools for predicting performance do not exist. The same tools will be used to optimize PV/T system designs. It was suggested that standardized reporting methods, simulation and sizing tools and demonstration products need to be created and that regional certification issues need to be identified. Environmental

  8. Evolution of fusion hindrance for asymmetric systems at deep sub barrier energies

    CERN Document Server

    Shrivastavaa, A; Pandit, S K; Nanal, V; Ichikawa, T; Hagino, K; Navin, A; Palshetkar, C S; Parkar, V V; Ramachandran, K; Rout, P C; Kumar, Abhinav; Chatterjee, A; Kailas, S

    2016-01-01

    Measurements of fusion cross-sections of 7Li and 12C with 198Pt at deep sub-barrier energies are reported to unravel the role of the entrance channel in the occurrence of fusion hindrance. The onset of fusion hindrance has been clearly observed in 12C + 198Pt system but not in 7Li + 198Pt system, within the measured energy range. Emergence of the hindrance, moving from lighter (6,7Li) to heavier (12C,16O) projectiles is explained employing a model that considers a gradual transition from a sudden to adiabatic regime at low energies. The model calculation reveals a weak effect of the damping of coupling to collective motion for the present systems as compared to that obtained for systems with heavier projectiles.

  9. AVD: A new system for computer-aided analysis of wall movement abnormalities; first results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A man-machine comparison proves the reliability of the new computer-based system. The results with and without the ADV-system agree to a high degree. The computer-aided analysis with two different models yields qualitatively and quantitatively similar results. With the computer-aided system one can save 90% of the time, compared to the manual technique; this is an essential prerequisite for the wide application of quantitative analysis of wall movements. The possibility for a quantitative analysis of wall movements is the basis for inter- and intraindividual comparisons after interventions, i.e. exercise tests, applications of pharmaceuticals or after by-pass surgery. The flexibility of the system allows checks of the result by a repetition of the analysis with a different model. This way the reliability of the findings is improved. The ADV-system in its present shape needs some changes in its program, improved handling and a faster graphic terminal. Common plotters are better than the currently used modified printer. Also, the program should be extended in its new version for batch-processing, i.e. independent of the operator it should process serial analysis of patient collectives. These suggestions have been accepted by the manufacturer in the meantime, and modifications will be made. (orig.)

  10. OVERCOMING THE METER BARRIER AND THE FORMATION OF SYSTEMS WITH TIGHTLY PACKED INNER PLANETS (STIPs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boley, A. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of British Columbia, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, B.C. V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Morris, M. A. [Center for Meteorite Studies, Arizona State University, P.O. Box 876004, Tempe, AZ 88287-6004 (United States); Ford, E. B. [Center for Exoplanets and Habitable Worlds, The Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Laboratory, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2014-09-10

    We present a solution to the long outstanding meter barrier problem in planet formation theory. As solids spiral inward due to aerodynamic drag, they will enter disk regions that are characterized by high temperatures, densities, and pressures. High partial pressures of rock vapor can suppress solid evaporation, and promote collisions between partially molten solids, allowing rapid growth. This process should be ubiquitous in planet-forming disks, which may be evidenced by the abundant class of Systems with Tightly packed Inner Planets discovered by the NASA Kepler Mission.

  11. Technical position on postclosure seals, barriers, and drainage system in an unsaturated medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this technical position is to provide guidance with respect to the current Department of Energy sealing and drainage concepts for a geologic repository in an unsaturated medium. Section 2.0 of the technical position provides a listing of the 10 CFR 60 regulations which are applicable to the design, testing, selection of materials and placement of the postclosure seals, barriers and drainage system. Staff position statements and the corresponding discussions are presented in Sections 3.0 and 4.0, respectively. Technical positions are organized according to the following topics: (1) design consideration, (2) site characterization considerations, (3) performance confirmation considerations, and (4) performance analysis considerations. 6 refs

  12. Dissipative tunneling through a potential barrier in the Lindblad theory of open quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of Lindblad theory for open quantum systems, based on quantum dynamical semi-groups, using the general form of the master equation in the Markov approximation, an analytical expression of the tunneling probability through an inverted parabola is obtained. This penetration probability depends on the environment coefficients and it is shown that it increases with the dissipation and the temperature of the thermal bath. The study of dissipative tunneling can be applied to problems of nuclear fragmentation, fission and fusion, considered as a tunneling process through the nuclear barrier defined in the space of collective coordinates, like charge and mass asymmetry or the distance between the fission fragments. (author)

  13. Gas migration through bentonitic engineered barrier systems and through non-indurated clays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This extended abstract summarises briefly the main conclusions and perspectives of the research work carried out in the frame of gas migration from a radioactive waste disposal through bentonitic engineered barrier systems (EBS) and non-indurated natural clay formations. After a description of the most important experimental results and the conceptual model evolution, we will focus on the safety relevant issues and the way the gas migration through such media is currently treated in performance assessment for different types of waste. Finally, the remaining open questions will be addressed at the end of this paper. Further insights are provided in the EC/NEA status report. (authors)

  14. Engineered barrier system and waste package design concepts for a potential geologic repository at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We are using an iterative process to develop preliminary concept descriptions for the Engineered Barrier System and waste-package components for the potential geologic repository at Yucca Mountain. The process allows multiple design concepts to be developed subject to major constraints, requirements, and assumptions. Involved in the highly interactive and interdependent steps of the process are technical specialists in engineering, metallic and nonmetallic materials, chemistry, geomechanics, hydrology, and geochemistry. We have developed preliminary design concepts that satisfy both technical and nontechnical (e.g., programmatic or policy) requirements

  15. Role of barrier layer on dielectric function of graphene double layer system at finite temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Digish K.; Ambavale, Sagar K.; Prajapati, Ketan; Sharma, A. C.

    2016-05-01

    We have theoretically investigated the static dielectric function of graphene double layer system (GDLS) at finite temperatures within the random phase approximation. GDLS has been suspended on a substrate and barrier layer of three different materials; h-BN, Al2O3 and HfO2 has been introduced between two graphene sheets of GDLS. We have reported dependence of the overall dielectric function of GDLS on interlayer distance and the effect of the dielectric environment at finite temperatures. Results show close relation between changing environment and behavior of dielectric constant of GDLS.

  16. Nanofiber-based filters as novel barrier systems for nanomaterial exposure scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faccini, M; Amantia, D; Vazquez-Campos, S; Aubouy, L [LEITAT Technological Center, Passeig 22 de Juliol, 218, 08221 Terrassa (Spain); Vaquero, C; Lopez de Ipina, J M, E-mail: mfaccini@leitat.org [Tecnalia, P.T. Alava - C/ Leonardo Da Vinci, 11, 01510 Minano (Alava) (Spain)

    2011-07-06

    In this article our latest advances in the development of efficient barrier systems against micro- and nano-particulate materials are presented. Nanofibrous polyamide 6 (PA6) mats were fabricated by electrospinning onto a nonwoven viscose substrate. The influence of electrospinning parameters including solution concentration, viscosity, and conductivity, were studied for the production of nonwovens with different fiber size distribution ranging from 74 to 261 nm in diameters. Moreover, the formation of nanowebs (30-40 nm) which are widely distributed among fibers was observed. By varying several process parameters, membranes with different thickness of the nanofiber layer and therefore air permeability and nanoparticle filtration efficiency were obtained.

  17. Reactive Transport and Coupled THM Processes in Engineering Barrier Systems (EBS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geological repositories for disposal of high-level nuclear wastes generally rely on a multi-barrier system to isolate radioactive wastes from the biosphere. The multi-barrier system typically consists of a natural barrier system, including repository host rock and its surrounding subsurface environment, and an engineering barrier system (EBS). EBS represents the man-made, engineered materials placed within a repository, including the waste form, waste canisters, buffer materials, backfill and seals (OECD, 2003). EBS plays a significant role in the containment and long-term retardation of radionuclide release. EBS is involved in complex thermal, hydrogeological, mechanical, chemical and biological processes, such as heat release due to radionuclide decay, multiphase flow (including gas release due to canister corrosion), swelling of buffer materials, radionuclide diffusive transport, waste dissolution and chemical reactions. All these processes are related to each other. An in-depth understanding of these coupled processes is critical for the performance assessment (PA) for EBS and the entire repository. Within the EBS group of Used Fuel Disposition (UFD) Campaign, LBNL is currently focused on (1) thermal-hydraulic-mechanical-chemical (THMC) processes in buffer materials (bentonite) and (2) diffusive transport in EBS associated with clay host rock, with a long-term goal to develop a full understanding of (and needed modeling capabilities to simulate) impacts of coupled processes on radionuclide transport in different components of EBS, as well as the interaction between near-field host rock (e.g., clay) and EBS and how they effect radionuclide release. This final report documents the progress that LBNL has made in its focus areas. Specifically, Section 2 summarizes progress on literature review for THMC processes and reactive-diffusive radionuclide transport in bentonite. The literature review provides a picture of the state-of-the-art of the relevant research areas

  18. Reactive Transport and Coupled THM Processes in Engineering Barrier Systems (EBS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steefel, Carl; Rutqvist, Jonny; Tsang, Chin-Fu; Liu, Hui-Hai; Sonnenthal, Eric; Houseworth, Jim; Birkholzer, Jens

    2010-08-31

    Geological repositories for disposal of high-level nuclear wastes generally rely on a multi-barrier system to isolate radioactive wastes from the biosphere. The multi-barrier system typically consists of a natural barrier system, including repository host rock and its surrounding subsurface environment, and an engineering barrier system (EBS). EBS represents the man-made, engineered materials placed within a repository, including the waste form, waste canisters, buffer materials, backfill and seals (OECD, 2003). EBS plays a significant role in the containment and long-term retardation of radionuclide release. EBS is involved in complex thermal, hydrogeological, mechanical, chemical and biological processes, such as heat release due to radionuclide decay, multiphase flow (including gas release due to canister corrosion), swelling of buffer materials, radionuclide diffusive transport, waste dissolution and chemical reactions. All these processes are related to each other. An in-depth understanding of these coupled processes is critical for the performance assessment (PA) for EBS and the entire repository. Within the EBS group of Used Fuel Disposition (UFD) Campaign, LBNL is currently focused on (1) thermal-hydraulic-mechanical-chemical (THMC) processes in buffer materials (bentonite) and (2) diffusive transport in EBS associated with clay host rock, with a long-term goal to develop a full understanding of (and needed modeling capabilities to simulate) impacts of coupled processes on radionuclide transport in different components of EBS, as well as the interaction between near-field host rock (e.g., clay) and EBS and how they effect radionuclide release. This final report documents the progress that LBNL has made in its focus areas. Specifically, Section 2 summarizes progress on literature review for THMC processes and reactive-diffusive radionuclide transport in bentonite. The literature review provides a picture of the state-of-the-art of the relevant research areas

  19. Burden of Circulatory System Diseases and Ignored Barriers ofKnowledge Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed-Basir Ghafouri

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Circulatory system disease raise third highest disability-adjusted life years among Iranians and ischemic cardiac diseases are main causes for such burden. Despite available evidences on risk factors of the disease, no effective intervention was implemented to control and prevent the disease. This paper non-systematically reviews available literature on the problem, solutions, and barriers of implementation of knowledge translation in Iran. It seems that there are ignored factors such as cultural and motivational issues in knowledge translation interventions but there are hopes for implementation of started projects and preparation of students as next generation of knowledge transferors.

  20. Development of remote replacement system for armor tiles of first wall of FER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A remote system has been developed to replace automatically armor tiles of first walls with a single manipulator arm for the Fusion Experimental Reactor (FER). The system is composed of a manipulator arm and an end-effector (a tile replacement hand), which have a gripper of the tiles, a nutrunner to rotate attatching bolts of them and a vision sensor to measure positions of them. The system can replace the tiles by means of a visual feedback system using vision sensor, even if the positions of the tiles would have changed. As a result of tests, it has been proved that the end-effector is useful and the control system is practicable. (author)

  1. Pigments identification in Havana Colonial wall painting by portable XRF System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Havana City historical center is being recuperated in the las years. Numerous are the colonial houses with values typical wall painting as internal decoration that need to be investigated and restored. The pigment identification is essential to have knowledge about pictorial technique and to help and monitor the restoration process. The identification of inorganic pigments in the Havana colonial wall painting has been not almost studied. The opportunity to have a new Portable XRF system in the Archaeometry laboratory of the Conservation and Restoration Gabinet of Havana Historitian Office allows to investigate the wall painting, samples that because of its more of this nature it would be impossible to move to the laboratory for non destructive analysis. The most of the pigment are made of inorganic elements and they can be identified property by XRF technique. All complete archaeometric investigation has to use several technique and to work in a multidisciplinary research team to give a fundamental answer about the past, The suitable techniques selection to employ depends of the art Historitian and archaeologist's questions. The pictorial technique are traditionally investigated using stratigraphical information obtained by Optical Microscopy and organic compound determination by Gas Chromatography. The global analysis of the results from the different employed techniques and the discussion from the restaurateur point of view is presented

  2. Interventional heart wall motion analysis with cardiac C-arm CT systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Today, quantitative analysis of three-dimensional (3D) dynamics of the left ventricle (LV) cannot be performed directly in the catheter lab using a current angiographic C-arm system, which is the workhorse imaging modality for cardiac interventions. Therefore, myocardial wall analysis is completely based on the 2D angiographic images or pre-interventional 3D/4D imaging. In this paper, we present a complete framework to study the ventricular wall motion in 4D (3D+t) directly in the catheter lab. From the acquired 2D projection images, a dynamic 3D surface model of the LV is generated, which is then used to detect ventricular dyssynchrony. Different quantitative features to evaluate LV dynamics known from other modalities (ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging) are transferred to the C-arm CT data. We use the ejection fraction, the systolic dyssynchrony index a 3D fractional shortening and the phase to maximal contraction (ϕi, max) to determine an indicator of LV dyssynchrony and to discriminate regionally pathological from normal myocardium. The proposed analysis tool was evaluated on simulated phantom LV data with and without pathological wall dysfunctions. The LV data used is publicly available online at https://conrad.stanford.edu/data/heart. In addition, the presented framework was tested on eight clinical patient data sets. The first clinical results demonstrate promising performance of the proposed analysis tool and encourage the application of the presented framework to a larger study in clinical practice. (paper)

  3. Interventional heart wall motion analysis with cardiac C-arm CT systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Kerstin; Maier, Andreas K.; Zheng, Yefeng; Wang, Yang; Lauritsch, Günter; Schwemmer, Chris; Rohkohl, Christopher; Hornegger, Joachim; Fahrig, Rebecca

    2014-05-01

    Today, quantitative analysis of three-dimensional (3D) dynamics of the left ventricle (LV) cannot be performed directly in the catheter lab using a current angiographic C-arm system, which is the workhorse imaging modality for cardiac interventions. Therefore, myocardial wall analysis is completely based on the 2D angiographic images or pre-interventional 3D/4D imaging. In this paper, we present a complete framework to study the ventricular wall motion in 4D (3D+t) directly in the catheter lab. From the acquired 2D projection images, a dynamic 3D surface model of the LV is generated, which is then used to detect ventricular dyssynchrony. Different quantitative features to evaluate LV dynamics known from other modalities (ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging) are transferred to the C-arm CT data. We use the ejection fraction, the systolic dyssynchrony index a 3D fractional shortening and the phase to maximal contraction (ϕi, max) to determine an indicator of LV dyssynchrony and to discriminate regionally pathological from normal myocardium. The proposed analysis tool was evaluated on simulated phantom LV data with and without pathological wall dysfunctions. The LV data used is publicly available online at https://conrad.stanford.edu/data/heart. In addition, the presented framework was tested on eight clinical patient data sets. The first clinical results demonstrate promising performance of the proposed analysis tool and encourage the application of the presented framework to a larger study in clinical practice.

  4. Effects of Gamma irradiation on uronic acid sugars as cell wall polysaccharide model systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation is an alternative preservation method with can be utilized to extend the self-life of agricultural products by eliminating number of insects, and decreasing microbial growth effectively. Cell wall polysaccharides which mainly consist of pectic substances, hemicelluloses and cellulose play a major role on the immediate fruits. their degradation mechanism can be elucidates by studying their degradation products resulting from the irradiated cell wall or cell wall components. Isolated apple pectin and alginates as different in solid state by gamma irradiation at 15-30 kGy under two different humidities. The parameters observed were viscosity, β-elimination in the ester groups of pectin, and distribution of molecular weight. Irradiation with the doses of 15-30 kGy could reduce the viscosity of pectin and alginates, while irradiation did not cause β-elimination in the ester groups of pectin as confirmed by titration and ion exchange chromatography methods. The formation of 4,5-unsaturated uronosyl residues as a product of cleavage of the pectin backbone via- β-elimination was not found in irradiated pectin as confirmed by thio barbiture acid (TBA) test. High Performance Size Exclusion Chromatography (HPSEC) analysis for the irradiated polysaccharide model systems revealed that the average number of molecular weight showed a decrease by increasing radiation dose. Storage condition in two different relative humidities affected significantly the degree of polymerization of pectin and alginates in solid state

  5. Optimized feedback control system modeling of resistive wall modes for burning plasmas experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsuro-Hopkins, Oksana Nikolaevna

    A numerical study of active feedback control system performance and optimization for tokamak Resistive Wall Modes (RWM) is the subject of this thesis. The ability to accurately model and predict the performance of an active MHD control systems is critical to present and future advanced confinement scenarios and fusion reactor design studies. The computer code VALEN has been designed to calculate the performance of a MHD feedback control system in an arbitrary geometry. The simulation of realistic effects in feedback systems, such as noise, time delays and filters is of particular importance. In this work realistic measurement noise analysis was added to VALEN and used to design the RWM feedback control amplifier power level for the DIII-D experiment. Modern control theory based on a state-space formulation obtained from VALEN was applied to design an Optimal Controller and Observer based on a reduced VALEN model. A quantitative low order model of the VALEN state space was derived from the high dimensional intrinsic state space structure of the VALEN using methods of a balanced realization and matched DC gain truncation. These techniques for the design of an optimal controller and optimal observer were applied to models of the DIII-D and ITER experiments and showed an order of magnitude reduction of the required control coil current and voltage in the presence of white noise as compared to a traditional, classical PID controller. This optimal controller for the ITER burning plasma experiment was robust from the no-wall pressure limit to a pressure value well above those achieved with a classical PID controller and could approach the ideal wall limit.

  6. Thermal-hydraulics and its capability of external water wall type passive containment cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An external water wall type containment cooling system is one of the passive containment cooling systems (PCCSs) which use no active components and are intended as a countermeasure to deal with severe accidents in the next generation power reactors. The core decay heat during a postulated accident is accumulated in the suppression pool (S/P) and transferred to the outer pool (O/P), which is a cooling pool located outside and adjacent to the S/P, by only natural phenomena such as natural convection, heat conduction and evaporation. The thermal-hydraulics, temperature profiles, convection heat transfer coefficients in the pools, and heat transfer coefficients of condensation on the containment vessel wall and evaporation on the S/P surface under a noncondensable gas presence, were measured using a 5m high apparatus. The formation of a thermal stratification boundary at the vent outlets which restricts the effective heat transfer area between pools was clarified and a correlation for each heat transfer coefficient was obtained. Heat removal evaluation models, which analyze the trends of temperatures and pressures, were developed and verified with system tests. As for improvement of the heat removal capability, two procedures were proposed. One is installation of a baffle plate to mitigate thermal stratification in the S/P and enlarge the effective heat transfer area between the pools. The second procedure is employment of a divided wetwell to avoid noncondensable gas effects. The thermal-hydraulic behavior caused by these procedures and their effectiveness were experimentally and analytically confirmed. The capability of the external water wall type containment cooling system during severe accidents for a 1350MWe plant was also analyzed based on the obtained results, and the containment vessel pressure could be suppressed below the allowable pressure during accidents without venting from the containment vessel. (author)

  7. Building America Case Study: Advanced Extended Plate and Beam Wall System in a Cold-Climate House, Mount Joy, Pennsylvania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-01-01

    This report presents the design and evaluation of a innovative wall system. This highly insulated (high-R) light-frame wall system for use above grade in residential buildings is referred to as Extended Plate & Beam (EP&B). The EP&B design is the first of its kind to be featured in a new construction test house (NCTH) for the DOE Building America program. The EP&B wall design integrates standard building methods and common building products to construct a high-R wall that minimizes transition risks and costs to builders. The EP&B design combines optimized framing with integrated rigid foam sheathing to increase the wall system's R-value and reduce thermal bridging. The foam sheathing is installed between the wall studs and structural wood sheathing. The exterior wood sheathing is attached directly to a framing extension formed by extended top and bottom plates. The exterior wood sheathing can dry to the exterior and provides bracing, a clear drainage plane and flashing surface for window and door openings, and a nailing surface for siding attachment. With support of the DOE Building America program, Home Innovation Research Labs partnered with Lancaster County Career and Technology Center (LCCTC) to build a NCTH in Lancaster, PA to demonstrate the EP&B wall design in a cold climate (IECC climate zone 5A). The results of the study confirmed the benefits of the systems and the viability of its integration into the house construction process.

  8. Numerical investigations of cooling holes system role in the protection of the walls of a gas turbine combustion chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Sik Ali, Ahlem; Kriaa, Wassim; Mhiri, Hatem [Ecole Nationale D' Ingenieurs de Monastir, Unite de Thermique et Thermodynamique des Procedes industriels, Monastir (Tunisia); Bournot, Philippe [IUSTI, UMR CNRS 6595, Marseille (France)

    2012-05-15

    Numerical simulations in a gas turbine Swirl stabilized combustor were conducted to investigate the effectiveness of a cooling system in the protection of combustor walls. The studied combustion chamber has a high degree of geometrical complexity related to the injection system as well as the cooling system based on a big distribution of small holes (about 3,390 holes) bored on the flame tube walls. Two cases were considered respectively the flame tube without and with its cooling system. The calculations were carried out using the industrial CFD code FLUENT 6.2. The various simulations made it possible to highlight the role of cooling holes in the protection of the flame tube walls against the high temperatures of the combustion products. In fact, the comparison between the results of the two studied cases demonstrated that the walls temperature can be reduced by about 800 C by the mean of cooling holes technique. (orig.)

  9. Next generation of non-mammalian blood-brain barrier models to study parasitic infections of the central nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Ruqaiyyah; Edwards-Smallbone, James; Flynn, Robin; Khan, Naveed Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Transmigration of neuropathogens across the blood-brain barrier is a key step in the development of central nervous system infections, making it a prime target for drug development. The ability of neuropathogens to traverse the blood-brain barrier continues to inspire researchers to understand the specific strategies and molecular mechanisms that allow them to enter the brain. The availability of models of the blood-brain barrier that closely mimic the situation in vivo offers unprecedented opportunities for the development of novel therapeutics. PMID:21921682

  10. Validation of a pulsed eddy current system for measuring wall thinning through insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett, Colin R.; de Raad, Jan A.

    1996-11-01

    There have been several failures in power plant feedwater piping systems due to wall thinning caused by flow- accelerated corrosion of the inner surface. Detection of wastage in susceptible pipes is costly as traditional NDE methods such as ultrasonic testing entail removal and reinstallation of insulation over many meters of pipework. Radiography is one solution to this problem, but it is slow to apply and requires careful attention to safety. The RTD Incotest system uses pulsed eddy current technology to measure pipewall thickness through insulation and external cladding. The technology has been licensed from Arco, Inc., who originally developed the technique for large diameter pipelines and storage tanks where the area interrogated was made deliberately large. This paper describes an optimized Incotest systems which can detect and measure internal or external wall wastage which is more localized and typical of flow-accelerated corrosion. Improvements have also been made to the inspection and data acquisition in order to increase the inspection rate and overall productivity. Ultimately the performance of the optimized Incotest system has been verified on samples which contain artificial and real corrosion.

  11. Barriers of Referral System to Health Care Provision in Rural Societies in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manijeh Eskandari

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Health care delivery systems in rural areas face numerous challenges in meeting the community's needs. This study aimed to describe barriers of health care process in rural societies in Iran. Methods: In this qualitative study, 26 participants (21 rural health care providers and five rural patients were selected through purposive sampling. The data was collected via semi-structured individual interviews and small focus group discussions. Data was analyzed with qualitative content analysis.Results: One category, “ineffective referral system”, and five subcategories, i.e. being far from the ideal referral system, lack of adequate governmental referral system, lack of connection between different levels of the referral system, self-referential and bypassing the referral system, and insufficient knowledge about the referral system, were found. Conclusion: Considering the obstacles to the referral system, improvements in its structure are necessary to promote the quality of health care in rural areas. Such changes require coordination between the three levels of the referral system, strengthening the public sector of the system, increasing public awareness about the referral system, and prevention of self-referential.

  12. Waste package/engineered barrier system design concepts for Yucca Mountain repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for the siting, construction and operation of mined geologic disposal system (MGDS) for high level waste. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has the responsibility for promulgating the technical requirements necessary to license all phases of repository operation. The development of MGDS has been delegated to the DOE's Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project Office. The B ampersand W Fuel Company, as part of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System Management and Operating Contractor, is responsible for designing the waste package (WP) and the engineered barrier system (EBS). The goal of the design effort is to achieve a conservative, licensable design that meets the regulatory requirements with sufficient margin for uncertainty. Attainment of this goal relies on a multibarrier approach, the unsaturated nature of the Yucca Mountain site, consideration of, technical alternatives, and sufficient resolution of technical and regulatory uncertainties

  13. Changes in skin barrier during treatment with systemic alitretinoin: focus on skin susceptibility and stratum corneum ceramides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jungersted, J.M.; Høgh, Julie Kaae; Hellgren, Lars;

    2010-01-01

    Alitretinoin is a new drug for systemic treatment of chronic hand eczema. Previous functional tests of skin topically treated with retinoids have indicated impaired skin barrier function, but no data are available on barrier parameters after systemic alitretinoin treatment. To investigate the...... effect of systemic alitretinoin on skin barrier function and response to irritants, a secondary objective was to determine if changes occur in the lipid profile of stratum corneum after treatment with systemic alitretinoin. We conducted an open clinical intervention study on eight people ascribed to...... systemic alitretinoin treatment. The criteria for being ascribed to alitretinoin were chronic hand eczema and insufficient therapeutic response to potent topical corticosteroids. Before initiation and after 2 months of systemic treatment with 30 mg alitretinoin, a challenge with sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS...

  14. Performance Confirmation for the Engineered Barrier System. Report of a Workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of preparations for review of future license applications, the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) organised a workshop on the engineered barrier system for the KBS-3 concept, focused on Performance Confirmation (PC). The workshop was held during 12 - 14 May, 2004 at Oskarshamn. The main purpose of the workshop was to identify key issues relating to the demonstration of long-term safety using a system of engineered barriers. The workshop began with introductory presentations on Performance Confirmation, on monitoring, and on long-term experiments in underground research laboratories. Working groups were then convened to discuss these topics and identify questions to put to the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) the following day. On the second day, SKB made several presentations, mainly on long-term experiments conducted at the Aespoe underground research laboratory. These presentations were followed by an informal session during which the questions identified by the working groups on the first day were discussed with SKB and its representatives. This report includes the questions identified by the working groups and a summary of the workshop discussions. Extended abstracts for the introductory presentations are included in an appendix. The conclusions and viewpoints presented in this report are those of one or several workshop participants. They do not necessarily coincide with those of SKI

  15. Socio-cultural barriers to the development of a sustainable energy system - the case of hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjerulf Petersen, L.; Holst Andersen, A.

    2009-02-15

    Any transition to a more sustainable energy system, radically reducing greenhouse gas emissions, is bound to run in to a host of different barriers - technological and economic, but also socio-cultural. This will also be the case for any large-scale application of hydrogen as energy carrier, especially if the system is going to be based on renewable energy sources. The aim of these research notes is to review and discuss major socio-cultural barriers to new forms of energy supply in general and to hydrogen specifically. Reaching sufficient reductions in greenhouse gas emissions may require more than large-scale dissemination of renewable energy sources. Also reductions or moderations in energy demand may be necessary. Hence, a central point in the research note is to consider not only socio-cultural obstacles for changing technologies in energy production, distribution and consumption but also obstacles for changing the scale of energy consumption, i.e. moderating the growth in how much energy is consumed or even reducing consumption volumes. (au)

  16. Overcoming Barriers to the Implementation of a Pharmacy Bar Code Scanning System for Medication Dispensing: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Nanji, Karen C.; Cina, Jennifer; Patel, Nirali; Churchill, William; Gandhi, Tejal K.; Poon, Eric G.

    2009-01-01

    Technology has great potential to reduce medication errors in hospitals. This case report describes barriers to, and facilitators of, the implementation of a pharmacy bar code scanning system to reduce medication dispensing errors at a large academic medical center. Ten pharmacy staff were interviewed about their experiences during the implementation. Interview notes were iteratively reviewed to identify common themes. The authors identified three main barriers to pharmacy bar code scanning s...

  17. Graphene as a diffusion barrier for isomorphous systems: Cu-Ni system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Apurba; Punith Kumar, M. K.; Srivastava, Chandan

    2016-02-01

    Electrochemical exfoliation technique using the pyrophosphate anion derived from tetra sodium pyrophosphate was employed to produce graphene. As-synthesized graphene was then drop dried over a cold rolled Cu sheet. Ni coating was then electrodeposited over bare Cu and graphene-Cu substrates. Both substrates were then isothermally annealed at 800 °C for 3 h. WDS analysis showed substantial atomic diffusion in annealed Ni-Cu sample. Cu-graphene-Ni sample, on the other hand, showed negligible diffusion illustrating the diffusion barrier property of the graphene coating.

  18. Mean First Passage Time for System with Fluctuating Potential Barrier and Coupled Noise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jing-Hui; HAN Yin-Xia

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we study the mean first passage time (MFPT) over a fluctuation potential barrier driven by a coupled noise. It is shown that the MFPT over the fluctuation potential barrier displays resonant activations as the function of the flipping rate of the fluctuation potential barrier, and as the function of the dichotomous noise transition rate.

  19. Structural performance of new thin-walled concrete sandwich panel system reinforced with bfrp shear connectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hodicky, Kamil; Hulin, Thomas; Schmidt, Jacob Wittrup;

    2013-01-01

    is described and provides information on the structural design with its advantages. Experimental and numerical investigations of the BFRP connecting systems were performed. The experimental program included testing of small scale specimens by applying shear (push-off) loading and semi-full scale...... specimens by flexural loading. Numerical investigations were based on 3-D linear elastic finite element analysis. Results from the numerical investigations were compared with experimental results of small and semi-scale specimens for the validation of the design procedure. Experimental and numerical results......This paper presents a new thin-walled concrete sandwich panel system reinforced with basalt fiber-reinforced plastic (BFRP) with optimum structural performances and a high thermal resistance developed by Connovate and Technical University of Denmark. The shear connecting system made of a BFRP grid...

  20. Erosion corrosion in power plant piping systems - Calculation code for predicting wall thinning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extensive experimental and theoretical investigations have been performed to develop a calculation code for wall thinning due to erosion corrosion in power plant piping systems. The so-called WATHEC code can be applied to single-phase water flow as well as to two-phase water/steam flow. Only input data which are available to the operator of the plant are taken into consideration. Together with a continuously updated erosion corrosion data base the calculation code forms one element of a weak point analysis for power plant piping systems which can be applied to minimize material loss due to erosion corrosion, reduce non-destructive testing and curtail monitoring programs for piping systems, recommend life-extending measures. (author). 12 refs, 17 figs

  1. Strategies to overcome barriers for cleaner generation technologies in small developing power systems: Sri Lanka case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The penetration of cleaner and energy efficient technologies in small power systems such as the one in Sri Lanka has encountered many problems. This has caused major concerns among the policy makers, mainly in the context of the growing need to reduce harmful emissions in the electricity supply industry from the point of view of both local environmental pollution as well as the global warming concerns. This paper presents the outcome of a study involved in identifying and ranking the barriers to the promotion of cleaner and energy efficient technologies and strategies to overcome these barriers in Sri Lanka. Barriers for renewable energy based systems such as wind and wood fuel fired plants (dendro thermal power) and cleaner technologies such as liquefied natural gas (LNG) fired combined cycle and IGCC (coal) were identified based on a survey. A direct assessment multi-criteria decision making method called Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) was used to rank the barriers. The most effective strategies are proposed to address the three major barriers for each of these technologies based on extensive discussions with all the stakeholders in the electricity industry. It was found that lack of financing instruments, high initial cost and lack of assurance of resource supply or availability are the main barriers for renewable technologies. As for cleaner fuel and technology options associated with conventional generation systems, the lack of a clear government policy, uncertainty of fuel supplies and their prices and the reliability of the technologies themselves are the major barriers. Strategies are identified to overcome the above barriers. Establishment of a proper feed in tariff, geographical diversification of installations and capacity building in commercial banks are suggested for wind power. Investment incentives, streamlining of wood production and research on site identification are proposed for wood fuel fired plants. Also the study suggests delayed

  2. Detection of hydroxyl radicals during regeneration of granular activated carbon in dielectric barrier discharge plasma system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To understand the reactions taking place in the dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma system of activated carbon regeneration, the determination of active species is necessary. A method based on High Performance Liquid Chromatography with radical trapping by salicylic acid, has been developed to measure hydroxyl radical (.OH) in the DBD plasma reactor. The effects of applied voltage, treatment time, and gas flow rate and atmosphere were investigated. Experimental results indicated that increasing voltage, treatment time and air flow rate could enhance the formation of .OH. Oxygen atmosphere and a suitable GAC water content were contributed to .OH generation. The results give an insight into plasma chemical processes, and can be helpful to optimize the design and application for the plasma system.

  3. Regulated competition in health care: Switching and barriers to switching in the Dutch health insurance system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rijken Mieke

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2006, a number of changes in the Dutch health insurance system came into effect. In this new system mobility of insured is important. The idea is that insured switch insurers because they are not satisfied with quality of care and the premium of their insurance. As a result, insurers will in theory strive for a better balance between price and quality. The Dutch changes have caught the attention, internationally, of both policy makers and researchers. In our study we examined switching behaviour over three years (2007-2009. We tested if there are differences in the numbers of switchers between groups defined by socio-demographic and health characteristics and between the general population and people with chronic illness or disability. We also looked at reasons for (not-switching and at perceived barriers to switching. Methods Switching behaviour and reasons for (not-switching were measured over three years (2007-2009 by sending postal questionnaires to members of the Dutch Health Care Consumer Panel and of the National Panel of people with Chronic illness or Disability. Data were available for each year and for each panel for at least 1896 respondents - a response of between 71% and 88%. Results The percentages of switchers are low; 6% in 2007, 4% in 2008 and 3% in 2009. Younger and higher educated people switch more often than older and lower educated people and women switch more often than men. There is no difference in the percentage of switchers between the general population and people with chronic illness or disability. People with a bad self-perceived health, and chronically ill and disabled, perceive more barriers to switching than others. Conclusion The percentages of switchers are comparable to the old system. Switching is not based on quality of care and thus it can be questioned whether it will lead to a better balance between price and quality. Although there is no difference in the frequency of switching

  4. Protection against malevolent use of vehicles at Nuclear Power Plants. Vehicle barrier system selection guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This manual provides a simplified procedure for selecting land vehicle barriers that will stop the design basis vehicle threat adopted by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Proper selection and construction of vehicle barriers should prevent intrusion of the design basis vehicle. In addition, vital safety related equipment should survive a design basis vehicle bomb attack when vehicle barriers are properly selected, sited, and constructed. This manual addresses passive vehicle barriers, active vehicle barriers, and site design features that can be used to reduce vehicle impact velocity

  5. Monte Carlo calculations on the magnetization profile and domain wall structure in bulk systems and nanoconstricitons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serena, P. A. [Instituto de Ciencias de Materiales de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Costa-Kraemer, J. L. [Instituto de Microelectronica de Madrid, Madrid (Spain)

    2001-03-01

    A Monte Carlo algorithm suitable to study systems described by an anisotropic Heisenberg Hamiltonian is presented. This technique has been tested successfully with 3D and 2D systems, illustrating how magnetic properties depend on the dimensionality and the coordination number. We have found that magnetic properties of constrictions differ from those appearing in bulk. In particular, spin fluctuations are considerable larger than those calculated for bulk materials. In addition, domain walls are strongly modified when a constriction is present, with a decrease of the domain-wall width. This decrease is explained in terms of previous theoretical works. [Spanish] Se presenta un algoritmo de Monte Carlo para estudiar sistemas discritos por un hamiltoniano anisotropico de Heisenburg. Esta tecnica ha sido probada exitosamente con sistemas de dos y tres dimensiones, ilustrado con las propiedades magneticas dependen de la dimensionalidad y el numero de coordinacion. Hemos encontrado que las propiedades magneticas de constricciones difieren de aquellas del bulto. En particular, las fluctuaciones de espin son considerablemente mayores. Ademas, las paredes de dominio son fuertemente modificadas cuando una construccion esta presente, originando un decrecimiento del ancho de la pared de dominio. Damos cuenta de este decrecimiento en terminos de un trabajo teorico previo.

  6. Anthrax lethal toxin disrupts intestinal barrier function and causes systemic infections with enteric bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Sun

    Full Text Available A variety of intestinal pathogens have virulence factors that target mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling pathways, including Bacillus anthracis. Anthrax lethal toxin (LT has specific proteolytic activity against the upstream regulators of MAPKs, the MAPK kinases (MKKs. Using a murine model of intoxication, we show that LT causes the dose-dependent disruption of intestinal epithelial integrity, characterized by mucosal erosion, ulceration, and bleeding. This pathology correlates with an LT-dependent blockade of intestinal crypt cell proliferation, accompanied by marked apoptosis in the villus tips. C57BL/6J mice treated with intravenous LT nearly uniformly develop systemic infections with commensal enteric organisms within 72 hours of administration. LT-dependent intestinal pathology depends upon its proteolytic activity and is partially attenuated by co-administration of broad spectrum antibiotics, indicating that it is both a cause and an effect of infection. These findings indicate that targeting of MAPK signaling pathways by anthrax LT compromises the structural integrity of the mucosal layer, serving to undermine the effectiveness of the intestinal barrier. Combined with the well-described immunosuppressive effects of LT, this disruption of the intestinal barrier provides a potential mechanism for host invasion via the enteric route, a common portal of entry during the natural infection cycle of Bacillus anthracis.

  7. Monitoring Local Strain in a Thermal Barrier Coating System Under Thermal Mechanical Gas Turbine Operating Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manero, Albert; Sofronsky, Stephen; Knipe, Kevin; Meid, Carla; Wischek, Janine; Okasinski, John; Almer, Jonathan; Karlsson, Anette M.; Raghavan, Seetha; Bartsch, Marion

    2015-07-01

    Advances in aircraft and land-based turbine engines have been increasing the extreme loading conditions on traditional engine components and have incited the need for improved performance with the use of protective coatings. These protective coatings shield the load-bearing super alloy blades from the high-temperature combustion gases by creating a thermal gradient over their thickness. This addition extends the life and performance of blades. A more complete understanding of the behavior, failure mechanics, and life expectancy for turbine blades and their coatings is needed to enhance and validate simulation models. As new thermal-barrier-coated materials and deposition methods are developed, strides to effectively test, evaluate, and prepare the technology for industry deployment are of paramount interest. Coupling the experience and expertise of researchers at the University of Central Florida, The German Aerospace Center, and Cleveland State University with the world-class synchrotron x-ray beam at the Advanced Photon Source in Argonne National Laboratory, the synergistic collaboration has yielded previously unseen measurements to look inside the coating layer system for in situ strain measurements during representative service loading. These findings quantify the in situ strain response on multilayer thermal barrier coatings and shed light on the elastic and nonelastic properties of the layers and the role of mechanical load and internal cooling variations on the response. The article discusses the experimental configuration and development of equipment to perform in situ strain measurements on multilayer thin coatings and provides an overview of the achievements thus far.

  8. The Great Barrier Reef Ocean Observing System Mooring array: Monitoring the Western Boundary Currents of the Coral Sea and Impacts on the Great Barrier Reef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, C. R.; McAllister, F.; Brinkman, B. W.; Pitcher, C.; Luetchford, J.; Rigby, P.

    2009-05-01

    Since 1987 Great Barrier Reef weather and water temperature observations have been transmitted in near real time using HF radio from pontoons or towers on coral reefs by AIMS. In contrast oceanographic measurements have however been restricted to loggers serviced at quarterly to half yearly downloads. The Great Barrier Reef Ocean Observing System (GBROOS) is a regional node of the Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS). IMOS is an Australian Government initiative established under the National Collaborative Research Infrastructure Strategy and has been supported by Queensland Government since 2006. GBROOS comprises real time observations from weather stations, oceanographic moorings, underway ship observations, ocean surface radar, satellite image reception and reef based sensor networks. This paper focuses on an array of in-line moorings that have been deployed along the outer Great Barrier Reef in order to monitor the Western Boundary currents of the Coral Sea. The Westward flowing Southern Equatorial Current bifurcates into the poleward flowing East Australian Current and the equatorward North Queensland Current. The 4 mooring pairs consist of a continental slope mooring, nominally in 200m of water and one on the outer continental shelf within the GBR matrix in depths of 30 to 70m. The array is designed to detect any changes in circulation, temperature response, mixed layer depth and ocean-shelf interactions. A review of likely impacts of climate change on the physical oceanography of the GBR is providing a basis upon which to explore what processes may be affected by climate change. Sample data and results from the initial year of observations will be presented.

  9. Strategies to overcome barriers for cleaner generation technologies in small developing power systems: Sri Lanka case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wijayatunga, P.D.C.; Siriwardena, K.; Fernando, W.J.L.S.; Shrestha, R.M.; Attalage, R.A.

    2006-06-15

    This paper presents the outcome of a study involved in identifying and ranking the barriers to the promotion of cleaner and energy efficient technologies and strategies to overcome these barriers in Sri Lanka. Barriers for renewable energy based systems such as wind and wood fuel fired plants (dendro thermal power) and cleaner technologies such as liquefied natural gas (LNG) fired combined cycle and IGCC (coal) were identified based on a survey. A direct assessment multi-criteria decision making method called Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) was used to rank the barriers. The most effective strategies are proposed to address the three major barriers for each of these technologies based on extensive discussions with all the stakeholders in the electricity industry. It was found that lack of financing instruments, high initial cost and lack of assurance of resource supply or availability are the main barriers for renewable technologies. As for cleaner fuel and technology options associated with conventional generation systems, the lack of a clear government policy, uncertainty of fuel supplies and their prices and the reliability of the technologies themselves are the major barriers. Strategies are identified to overcome the above barriers. Establishment of a proper feed in tariff, geographical diversification of installations and capacity building in commercial banks are suggested for wind power. Investment incentives, streamlining of wood production and research on site identification are proposed for wood fuel fired plants. Also the study suggests delayed implementation, combined planning with other sectors of the economy, incorporating environmental cost in planning and investment incentives as strategies for IGCC and LNG based technologies.

  10. Homogenization of a system of elastic and reaction-diffusion equations modelling plant cell wall biomechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Ptashnyk, Mariya; Seguin, Brian

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present a derivation and multiscale analysis of a mathematical model for plant cell wall biomechanics that takes into account both the microscopic structure of a cell wall coming from the cellulose microfibrils and the chemical reactions between the cell wall's constituents. Particular attention is paid to the role of pectin and the impact of calcium-pectin cross-linking chemistry on the mechanical properties of the cell wall. We prove the existence and uniqueness of the stro...

  11. LONG-TERM GEOCHEMICAL BEHAVIOR OF A ZEROVALENT IRON PERMEABLE REACTIVE BARRIER FOR THE TREATMENT OF HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM IN GROUNDWATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passive, in-situ reactive barriers have proven to be viable, cost-effective systems for the remediation of Cr-contaminated groundwater at some sites. Permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) are installed in the flow-path of groundwater, most typically as vertical treatment walls. Re...

  12. Catalyst size effects on the growth of single-walled nanotubes in neutral and plasma systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Eugene; Ostrikov, Kostya Ken

    2009-09-01

    The results of large-scale (~109 atoms) numerical simulations of the growth of different-diameter vertically-aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes in plasma systems with different sheath widths and in neutral gases with the same operating parameters are reported. It is shown that the nanotube lengths and growth rates can be effectively controlled by varying the process conditions. The SWCNT growth rates in the plasma can be up to two orders of magnitude higher than in the equivalent neutral gas systems. Under specific process conditions, thin SWCNTs can grow much faster than their thicker counterparts despite the higher energies required for catalyst activation and nanotube nucleation. This selective growth of thin SWCNTs opens new avenues for the solution of the currently intractable problem of simultaneous control of the nanotube chirality and length during the growth stage.

  13. Catalyst size effects on the growth of single-walled nanotubes in neutral and plasma systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tam, Eugene; Ostrikov, Kostya, E-mail: et@physics.usyd.edu.a, E-mail: Kostya.Ostrikov@csiro.a [Plasma Nanoscience, School of Physics, University of Sydney, Sydney NSW 2006 (Australia); CSIRO Materials Science and Engineering, PO Box 218, Lindfield NSW 2070 (Australia)

    2009-09-16

    The results of large-scale ({approx}10{sup 9} atoms) numerical simulations of the growth of different-diameter vertically-aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes in plasma systems with different sheath widths and in neutral gases with the same operating parameters are reported. It is shown that the nanotube lengths and growth rates can be effectively controlled by varying the process conditions. The SWCNT growth rates in the plasma can be up to two orders of magnitude higher than in the equivalent neutral gas systems. Under specific process conditions, thin SWCNTs can grow much faster than their thicker counterparts despite the higher energies required for catalyst activation and nanotube nucleation. This selective growth of thin SWCNTs opens new avenues for the solution of the currently intractable problem of simultaneous control of the nanotube chirality and length during the growth stage.

  14. Mechanical design and analysis for a EPR first wall/blanket/shield system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Continuing studies are in progress at ANL to expand upon the design of a first wall/blanket/shield FW/B/S system and power conversion for a tokamak type Experimental Power Reactor (EPR). The FW/B/S system has evolved from an earlier design for a low beta, circular cross section plasma (major radius = 6 m) to one for a higher beta elongated plasma with a 4.7 m major radius. Basic mechanical design and layout features of the old and new EPR designs showing some of the more important design developments are given. These developments are aimed at simplifying the design, reducing the costs and in addition, improving the plant thermal efficiency and overall maintainability. In the area of the reactor blanket, significant thermal hydraulic and stress analysis have been performed to substantiate the integrity of the chosen concept. This paper deals with the discussion of these improved features

  15. Mechanical design and analysis for a EPR first wall/blanket/shield system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, H.C.; Misra, B.; Youngdahl, C.K.

    1977-01-01

    Continuing studies are in progress at ANL to expand upon the design of a first wall/blanket/shield FW/B/S system and power conversion for a tokamak type Experimental Power Reactor (EPR). The FW/B/S system has evolved from an earlier design for a low beta, circular cross section plasma (major radius = 6 m) to one for a higher beta elongated plasma with a 4.7 m major radius. Basic mechanical design and layout features of the old and new EPR designs showing some of the more important design developments are depicted. These developments are aimed at simplifying the design, reducing the costs and, in addition, improving the plant thermal efficiency and overall maintainability. In the area of the reactor blanket, significant thermal hydraulic and stress analysis have been performed to substantiate the integrity of the chosen concept. This paper deals with the discussion of these improved features.

  16. Information barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: An information barrier (IB) consists of procedures and technology that prevent the release of sensitive information during a joint inspection of a sensitive nuclear item, and provides confidence that the measurement system into which it has been integrated functions exactly as designed and constructed. Work in the U.S. on radiation detection system information barriers dates back at least to 1990, even though the terminology is more recent. In January 1999 the Joint DoD-DOE Information Barrier Working Group was formed in the United States to help coordinate technical efforts related to information barrier R and D. This paper presents an overview of the efforts of this group, by its Chairs, as well as recommendations for further information barrier R and D. Progress on the demonstration of monitoring systems containing IBs is also provided. From the U.S. perspective, the basic, top-level functional requirements for the information barrier portion of an integrated radiation signature-information barrier inspection system are twofold: The host must be assured that his classified information is protected from disclosure to the inspecting party; and The inspecting party must be confident that the integrated inspection system measures, processes, and presents the radiation-signature-based measurement conclusion in an accurate and reproducible manner. It is the position of the United States that in the absence of any agreement to share classified nuclear weapons design information in the conduct of an inspection regime, the requirement to protect host country classified warhead design information is paramount and admits no tradeoff versus the confidence provided to the inspecting party in the accuracy and reproducibility of the measurements. The U.S. has reached an internal consensus on several critical design elements that define a general standard for radiation signature information barrier design. These criteria have stood the test of time under intense

  17. Thermal hydraulics of an external water wall type passive containment cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An external water wall type containment cooling system is one of the passive containment cooling systems that use no active components and are intended for system simplification in the next generation power reactors. The core decay heat during a postulated loss-of-coolant accident is accumulated in the suppression pool (SP) and transferred to the outer pool, which is a cooling pool located outside and adjacent to the SP, by only natural phenomena such as natural convection, heat conduction, and evaporation. The temperature profiles and the convection heat transfer coefficients in the pools were measured using a 5-m height apparatus. The formation of a thermal stratification boundary at the vent outlets, which restricts the effective heat transfer area between pools, was clarified, and a correlation for natural convection heat transfer coefficients was obtained. Condensation heat transfer coefficients on the containment vessel wall and evaporation heat transfer coefficients on the SP surface under a noncondensable gas presence, which strongly affected the heat removal from the wet well, were evaluated based on the test results, and the correlations were obtained. The heat removal evaluation models, which analyze the trends of the temperatures and pressure, were developed and verified with system tests. As for the improvement of heat removal capability, two methods were proposed. One is a baffle plate to mitigate thermal stratification in the SP and enlarge the effective heat transfer area between pools. The second method is a divided wet well to avoid noncondensable gas effects. The thermal-hydraulic behavior in the SP with a baffle plate was clarified by three-dimensional analysis, and the effectiveness of these methods was experimentally confirmed

  18. A commercial 1kW CPV system that breaks the $2/W price barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earl, D. Duncan; Cangelosi, Michael J.; Shaw, Tyler L.

    2008-08-01

    We present performance and cost data on a distributed concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) system that is commercially available in 2008 and will break the long pursued $2/W price barrier. This technology was developed from an existing product platform used originally for solar fiber optic lighting applications and includes a novel segmented plastic mirror that concentrates sunlight into a dense-array CPV module at 600 suns. The design's segmented plastic mirror and high-precision, low-cost tracking unit are presented as a flexible hardware platform evolved in response to market pressure over the past two years and suitable for multiple applications being developed in the concentrating solar field. To illustrate the economic benefits of this solar collection platform, the specific costs related to COGS and installation activities associated with a commercial CPV product available in 2008 are presented.

  19. Evaluation of mechanical effects of the fault movement on the engineered barrier system - 16269

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments and numerical analyses have been conducted to investigate the consequences of an active fault crosscutting the engineered barrier system (EBS) of a high-level radioactive waste (HLW) repository. Experiments were performed using laboratory simulation test equipment at a scale of 1:20, which can simulate the chosen shear displacements of 80 % and 140 % of the buffer thickness, and the chosen shear rates of 0.1 m/s, 0.05 m/s and 0.01 m/s. The experiments have so far demonstrated that the metal overpack will be rotated, but not breached, due to the plasticity of the surrounding bentonite buffer. The total pressure on the bentonite buffer increases with an increase in the shear rate. Numerical analyses were carried out using a finite element method assuming the constitutive model of modified Cam-clay, which was used to assess elasto-plastic behavior of the bentonite buffer. (authors)

  20. Creep Behavior of Hafnia and Ytterbium Silicate Environmental Barrier Coating Systems on SiC/SiC Ceramic Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming; Fox, Dennis S.; Ghosn, Louis J.; Harder, Bryan

    2011-01-01

    Environmental barrier coatings will play a crucial role in future advanced gas turbine engines because of their ability to significantly extend the temperature capability and stability of SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composite (CMC) engine components, thus improving the engine performance. In order to develop high performance, robust coating systems for engine components, appropriate test approaches simulating operating temperature gradient and stress environments for evaluating the critical coating properties must be established. In this paper, thermal gradient mechanical testing approaches for evaluating creep and fatigue behavior of environmental barrier coated SiC/SiC CMC systems will be described. The creep and fatigue behavior of Hafnia and ytterbium silicate environmental barrier coatings on SiC/SiC CMC systems will be reported in simulated environmental exposure conditions. The coating failure mechanisms will also be discussed under the heat flux and stress conditions.

  1. Experimental Studies of New Joint System for Thin-Walled Steel Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavian Roşca

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The results and conclusions regarding the experimental test of the joint assembly of thin walled steel profile with and without strengthening elements (stiffeners are presented. The entire test series have been performed using the 5 mm thick KB600 thin-walled profiles and 3.5 mm thick KB450. In the paper will be presented the analysis of the joints connecting the KB600-5.5 steel profiles. The KONTIBEAM system is primarily made of two galvanized sheet profiles so denominated as KB, which are joined by means of steel sheets (usually of 10mm thickness, placed in between them. Connecting of this assembly (KB’s and connectors is realized by using M20 bolts put in φ22 holes, which work in friction with two contact planes. The tested joints are connected by means of 8.8 class HSFG bolts (High Strength Friction Grip. The main conclusions of the tests are that the contour bolted connections assure a good behavior between the KB profiles and the joint element. Due to their position the strengthening elements lead to an increase of the bearing capacity up to 30…35%with respect to the yield limit of the KB material. The use of such strengthening elements allows the optimum use of the KB profiles, thus leading to the reduction of the material consumption.

  2. "Show me a justice system that's open, transparent, accessible and inclusive" : barriers to access in the criminal justice system for people with disabilities as victims of crime

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Claire; Harold, Gill; Kilcommins, Shane

    2015-01-01

    peer-reviewed This paper considers the barriers that people with disabilities in Ireland face in accessing justice through the criminal justice system when they are victims of crime. It draws on qualitative research with key actors working within the agencies of the Irish criminal justice system, along with disability organisations, victim support organisations and health and social care providers. The research identifies a number of barriers which can be differentiated in terms of those o...

  3. Inelastic scattering and nucleon transfer in the system 232Th+206Pb at the Coulomb barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By the experiment performed in the present thesis on the example of the system 232Th+206Pb the onset of the nuclear interaction in the region of the Coulomb barrier was studied at an incident energy of 6.3 MeV/nucleon. In the range of distances of closest approximation 15.5 fm ≤ D ≤ 38.7 fm respectively 28deg ≤ ΘCM ≤ 150deg the Coulomb excitation of the target isotope was observed. The strong absorption for 'small' distances from the reaction channel of the Coulomb excitation is confirmed by the occurrence of transfer reactions. In the studied thorium-lead system the transfer of one and two neutrons could be detected by means of the characteristic γ radiation of the isotopes 230Th and 207,208Pb with a cross section of 500 mb summed over the measurement range. The possibilities of an evaporation of neutrons from highly excited target nuclei, which could also lead to the isotope 230Th and by this influence the measurement of the 2n transfer, was also studied. The contribution of these processes to the transfer could be estimated to less than 5%. For the determination of the excitation energy, at which the transfer takes place, the transfer probabilities experimentally determined as functions of the distance of closest approximation were compared with the barrier-penetration model originally developed for sub-Coulomb transfer. Small effective neutron-binding energies of 0.6-0.8 MeV and by this high excitation energies resulted in contradiction to our model-independent measurement by means of the mean γ multiplicity and mean γ energies. (orig./HSI)

  4. Quantitative common cause failure modeling for auxiliary feedwater system involving the seismic-induced degradation of flood barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flood barriers are important defenses which will reduce the internal flood-induced failure risk of safety-related equipment in the turbine building. Contrarily, the degradation of flood barriers will increase the risk of internal flood-induced common cause failure (CCF). Two layouts of auxiliary feedwater pumps system are compared to demonstrate the quantitative risk assessment of the possible degradation of flood barriers. The alpha decomposition method has been developed by the authors in order to quantitatively evaluate the CCF parameters based on the causal inference. Occurrence frequency and CCF triggering ability are two important elements which will decide the CCF risk significance of potential common causes. The seismic-induced internal flood combining with the degradation of flood barriers is analyzed. The degradation of flood barriers is treated as a stochastic process and a Markov model is applied to consider the time-dependent states. The failure time of three auxiliary feedwater pumps is calculated based on the water flow rate through flood barriers. CCF triggering abilities of internal floods are calculated which are represented as decomposed alpha factors. This article shows the updating process of CCF parameters according to Bayesian inference and hypothetical databases. It is concluded that the issue of CCF modeling is not only decided by the number of redundant components but also decided by causes and plant-specific design. (author)

  5. Building materials and systems with vacuum insulation panels for external walls; Bauelemente und Systeme mit VIP fuer Aussenwandkonstruktionen - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binz, A.; Steinke, G.

    2007-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at materials and systems using vacuum insulation panels (VIP) for the construction of external walls. The aim of this research project was the development, practical use and market introduction of VIP systems that take account of the special properties of VIP. Along with partners in industry, applications involving external and internal insulation were examined. The need for protecting the vacuum panels against mechanical damage is stressed. The specific needs for the protection of external and internal applications are discussed. The dynamic developments in this relatively new area are commented on. Various mounting systems are examined and commented on. The thermal properties of such insulation systems and applications are noted and commented on.

  6. Preliminary evaluation of predicted peak release rates from the engineered barrier system for a potential repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Any potential repository for the ultimate disposal of the nation's high-level radioactive wastes is subject to meeting post-closure regulatory requirements as specified by the NRC. Three NRC sub-system performance measures are relevant to the evaluation of the Yucca Mountain site and possible engineered barriers. These performance requirements are specified in 10 CFR 60. These include the substantially complete containment requirement, the engineered barrier system (EBS) release requirement, and the pre-waste emplacement groundwater travel time requirement. The present paper documents an initial evaluation of the peak EBS release rates. A number of key factors significantly impact the maximum release rate from the engineered barrier system. The authors have conducted four simulations to approximate the effects of delaying and spreading out the failure distribution that are based on different thermal loads and criteria for the initiation of aqueous corrosion. Using an assumed outer barrier of 10 cm and an inner barrier of 0.95 cm and the Stahl model for aqueous pitting corrosion, they have analyzed the EBS release rates for thermal loads of 28.5, 57 and 83 kW/Ac using temperature as the corrosion limiting factor and at 57 kW/Ac for saturation limiting the initiation of corrosion. The later had the earliest failures and the most rapid failure rates observed in the TSPA-1993 analyses so provides the upper bound on the release rates

  7. Barrier Certificates Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Dai, Liyun; Gan, Ting; Xia, Bican; Zhan, Naijun

    2013-01-01

    A barrier certificate can separate the state space of a con- sidered hybrid system (HS) into safe and unsafe parts ac- cording to the safety property to be verified. Therefore this notion has been widely used in the verification of HSs. A stronger condition on barrier certificates means that less expressive barrier certificates can be synthesized. On the other hand, synthesizing more expressive barrier certificates often means high complexity. In [9], Kong et al consid- ered how to relax the ...

  8. Probabilistic common cause failure modeling for auxiliary feedwater system after the introduction of flood barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Causal inference is capable of assessing common cause failure (CCF) events from the viewpoint of causes' risk significance. Authors proposed the alpha decomposition method for probabilistic CCF analysis, in which the classical alpha factor model and causal inference are integrated to conduct a quantitative assessment of causes' CCF risk significance. The alpha decomposition method includes a hybrid Bayesian network for revealing the relationship between component failures and potential causes, and a regression model in which CCF parameters (global alpha factors) are expressed by explanatory variables (causes' occurrence frequencies) and parameters (decomposed alpha factors). This article applies this method and associated databases needed to predict CCF parameters of auxiliary feedwater (AFW) system when defense barriers against internal flood are introduced. There is scarce operation data for functionally modified safety systems and the utilization of generic CCF databases is of unknown uncertainty. The alpha decomposition method has the potential of analyzing the CCF risk of modified AFW system reasonably based on generic CCF databases. Moreover, the sources of uncertainty in parameter estimation can be studied. An example is presented to demonstrate the process of applying Bayesian inference in the alpha decomposition process. The results show that the system-specific posterior distributions for CCF parameters can be predicted. (author)

  9. Optimized Simulation Design of Double Glass Curtain Wall Shading System in Hot Summer and Cold Winter Zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Sha He; Lin-Sen Mu; Jie Shen

    2014-01-01

    The glass curtain wall is widely favored by the owners for its good appearance modeling effect. In using process, however, excessive energy consumption, low level indoor comfort and other problems of glass curtain wall are often exposed. Aiming at office buildings in hot Summer and cold Winter zone, taking the optimization of thermal comfort of double glass curtain wall in the summer and the reduction of building energy consumption throughout the year as the breakthrough point, using the method of energy simulation analysis, through changing the size of internal shading component in the simulated room, this paper analyzes and summarizes the variation law of its energy consumption value, to explore the relatively reasonable design plan of shading systems of the building with glass curtain wall.

  10. Development of a alpha spectrometer system with the surface barrier detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work is the development of an α spectrometer of low cost and home made technology. The spectrometer is mounted in a double NIM module and includes a surface barrier detector and dedicate electronic system. Six barrier surface detectors were made, three of which with η type silicon wafer 3350 Ω.cm, 270mm2 and three other with ρ type silicon wafer 5850 Ω.cm and 220mm2. The rectifier and the ohmic contacts were prepared at high vacuum (10-2 to 10-3 Pa) evaporation with 40μg/cm2 of Au and Al respectively for the η type detectors, and with Al and Au respectively for the ρ type detectors. The electronic system is composed by a low noise charge sensitive preamplifier with the operational amplifier LF-356 mounted with 1OOMΩ feedback resistor and a 0.5 pF capacitor. The linear amplifier is also based in the LF-356 and the LM-310 operational amplifier. The bipolar output is formatted through a (CR)2-(RC)4 shaping network and the unipolar output is obtained through a CR-(RC)4 shaping system which is sufficient to realize a almost true Gaussian shaping pulse with a time constant of 3.0μs. This format was chosen because we can expect a low counting rate and the gaussian pulse can improve the signal/noise ratio. The first CR differentiation has also a active pole-zero cancellation network.The resolution of detectors for 241Am α particles at room temperature (24 degree) vary 21 to 44 keV FWHM. The electronic noise of the noise of the system is 7.5 keV FWHM at OpF input capacitance. The overall resolution of the spectrometer was found to be 62 keV FWHM at room temperature. The simplicity of the electronic system, the low cost of the construction and the overall resolution show that this alpha spectrometer can be readily used in measurements where high resolution is not a premium. (author)

  11. Barriers and post-closure monitoring (AL121125)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project focuses on the rapid implementation of near-surface barriers, biotreatment, and post-closure monitoring technology. It uses water-permeable and biologic barriers that chemically capture and/or degrade contaminants without significantly altering the natural water flow regime. Barrier approaches are being tested for two different applications. The first is the use of barriers for confinement of chemical contaminants for in-trench treatments with leach systems or an in-place bioreactor. The second is an enhancement of the current practice of emplacing grout or clay slurry walls into direct horizontal surface and subsurface water flows around a contaminated area by integrating permeable reactive barriers and petroleum reservoir gel/foam/polymer technology

  12. Permeable reactive barriers for pollutant removal from groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The removal of pollutants from the groundwater using permeable reactive barriers is a novel in-situ groundwater remediation technology. The most relevant decontamination processes used are chemical reduction, oxidation, precipitation and sorption, for which examples are given. Some common organic pollutants are halogenated hydrocarbons, aromatic and nitroaromatic compounds which can be treated in reactive barriers successfully. Lead, chromium and, in particular, uranium are dealt with in great detail among inorganic pollutants because of their occurrence in many European countries. Construction methods for cut-off walls and reactive barriers exhibit similar features. Apart from conventional methods, drilling, deep soil mixing, jet technology, arrays of wells, injected systems and biobarriers are applied to construct permeable reactive barriers. Permeable reactive barriers bear great potential for the future in remediation engineering. (orig.)

  13. Combined photovoltaic and solar-thermal systems: overcoming barriers to market acceptance. Paper no. IGEC-1-136

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1997, the International Energy Association's (IEA) Photovoltaic Power Systems Program (PVSP) initiated IEA Task 7 to evaluate the technical status of combined Photovoltaic and Solar-Thermal systems (PV/T), and to formulate a roadmap for future development. Because the Task was initiated by the PVSP, however, individuals from the Solar Heating and Cooling Program (SHCP) were not invited to participate, and the Task Group lacked any significant expertise with solar-thermal systems. When the Task submitted its final report in 2002, it consisted of an accounting of existing systems and a list of the perceived market barriers. Without input from the SHCP, however, no move could be made to actually address those barriers. IEA Task 7, however, did recognize that the participation of the SHCP was needed, and in 1999 made an effort to initiate some discussion between the PVSP and the SHCP. The result was IEA Task 35 - PV/T Systems, which met for the first time in January of 2005. The new group intends to reevaluate the findings of Task 7, and to develop the means by which these market barriers can be overcome. The current discussion will provide an overview of existing and potential PV/T systems and their technical status. Further, it will report on the methodology established by the Task 35 work group to overcome the aforementioned market barriers. (author)

  14. Systems Level Engineering of Plant Cell Wall Biosynthesis to Improve Biofuel Feedstock Quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazen, Samuel

    2013-09-27

    Our new regulatory model of cell wall biosynthesis proposes original network architecture with several newly incorporated components. The mapped set of protein-DNA interactions will serve as a foundation for 1) understanding the regulation of a complex and integral plant component and 2) the manipulation of crop species for biofuel and biotechnology purposes. This study revealed interesting and novel aspects of grass growth and development and further enforce the importance of a grass model system. By functionally characterizing a suite of genes, we have begun to improve the sparse model for transcription regulation of biomass accumulation in grasses. In the process, we have advanced methodology and brachy molecular genetic tools that will serve as valuable community resource.

  15. Survey on the state of the art of development of gas migration models in barrier system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suitable modeling of gas production and migration behaviour is strongly required for performance assessment of radioactive waste disposal in a geological repository. Especially for gas migration in buffer materials, it is very important to examine their ability to reproduce inherent gas migration behaviour which is caused by creation of discrete pathways in clay materials. JNC has examined the limitation of reproducibility of conventional two-phase flow model and enhanced TOUGH2 which has newly developed module implemented expanded Dozeny-Carman relationship and pathway dilation/resealing model. JNC also surveyed the state of the art of model development of gas migration in multi-barriers. In FY2003, the surveillance of gas migration modeling was continued and handled migration mechanisms, basic mathematical models, strength and weakness of each developed gas migration models were extracted and tabulated. Based on these outcomes, the basic correspondence of models to barrier materials, which should apply to performance assessment for a near-field system, was examined. In consequence, conventional two-phase flow models of gas migration are generally applicable for cementitious materials and rocks without mudrocks. But if it is required to understand more precisely the distribution of gas release at the surface, then more detailed understanding of flow in fractures would be required. For clay and mudrocks, it is necessary that comparison of applicability with three types of models, which include GAMBIT-GWS model, conventional two-phase flow models coupled with effect of stress field and expanded Kozeny-Carman relationship with pathway dilation/resealing model. (author)

  16. Evolution of an intermittent lagoon-barrier system with rising sea level: observations and projections from the Muni-Pomadze lagoon, Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies-Vollum, Sian

    2016-04-01

    Intermittently closed lagoon-barrier systems are a transitory environment between land and sea that are influenced by fluvial and marine processes as well as human activities. Fluvial processes dominate most of the time, when the barrier is closed. However, when the barrier is breached an ephemeral connection between the lagoon and the ocean develops and estuarine-like conditions ensue. As sea level rises, the evolution of these systems from intermittently closed to open is dependent on multiple processes including barrier breaching, fragmentation and overwashing. Human intervention, often to prevent flooding, also has an impact. The Muni-Pomadze lagoon in central Ghana is a small, intermittently closed lagoon-barrier system that supports a local fishing community. A beach-barrier separates the lagoon from the ocean, impounding river water and sediment behind it for most of the year. At the end of a rainy season the barrier may be breached, either naturally or by human intervention to prevent flooding of dwellings on the barrier. Field observation, digital mapping and GIS analysis of the shoreline has enabled an understanding of how the barrier is evolving with rising sea level. The shore face of the barrier has shifted landwards with an average retreat rate of 0.22 m/yr. Small washover fans, developed at low points along the lagoon side of the barrier have developed. However, aerial photos reveal that these fans have remained stable since 1972 (earliest available air photos). The small size and stability of these fans suggests that overwashing is not an important factor in the evolution of the barrier and that the barrier is being eroded rather not moving landward. Erosion is particularly prevalent at the breach end of the barrier with an average rate of loss of 3 metres per year and palm trees that were providing stability to the barrier have been washed away. Unconsolidated sands forming a transient, spit-like feature have replaced the stable barrier, which

  17. Use of mixed solvent systems to eliminate sorption of strongly hydrophobic organic chemicals on container walls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muwamba, Augustine; Nkedi-Kizza, Peter; Rhue, Roy Dean; Keaffaber, Jeffrey J

    2009-01-01

    Strongly hydrophobic organic chemicals (SHOCs) can be defined as neutral organic chemicals that have soil organic carbon (OC) normalized sorption coefficient (K(OC)) >10,000. Sorption isotherms of SHOCs are normally measured in aqueous systems to determine K(OC). Since SHOCs can adsorb on container walls leading to overestimation of K(OC), we used mixed solvent systems to characterize this potential error. Sorption coefficient (K(M)) and percent recovery (%R(M)) of anthracene, DDT, and dieldrin during sorption on centrifuge tubes made of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), polycarbonate (PC), polypropylene copolymer (PPCO), and glass high pressure liquid chromatography vials (HPLCV) were measured in volume ratio-varied methanol-water mixtures until 100% recovery of the sorbate was achieved. The data were evaluated using the Solvophobic theory. The K(M) values of the entire test SHOCs decreased exponentially with increasing fraction of methanol (f(c)). For sorption on PTFE, 100% recovery of the three chemicals was at f(c) > 0.45. However, 100% recovery of DDT and anthracene from PC and PPCO was at f(c) > 0.90. The 100% recovery of dieldrin from HPLC vials was at f(c) > 0.70. In water the calculated recoveries of DDT, dieldrin, and anthracene from PTFE were 32, 43, and 48%, respectively. However, the recoveries of dieldrin from HPLC vials and DDT and anthracene from PC and PPCO ranged from 2 to 14%. The data demonstrate that sorption on container walls is a source of error that can reduce the integrity of the analyte and might be one of the causes for the large variability in literature K(OC) values for SHOCs. PMID:19398514

  18. A method for risk analysis across governance systems: a Great Barrier Reef case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Healthy governance systems are key to delivering sound environmental management outcomes from global to local scales. There are, however, surprisingly few risk assessment methods that can pinpoint those domains and sub-domains within governance systems that are most likely to influence good environmental outcomes at any particular scale, or those if absent or dysfunctional, most likely to prevent effective environmental management. This paper proposes a new risk assessment method for analysing governance systems. This method is then tested through its preliminary application to a significant real-world context: governance as it relates to the health of Australia’s Great Barrier Reef (GBR). The GBR exists at a supra-regional scale along most of the north eastern coast of Australia. Brodie et al (2012 Mar. Pollut. Bull. 65 81–100) have recently reviewed the state and trend of the health of the GBR, finding that overall trends remain of significant concern. At the same time, official international concern over the governance of the reef has recently been signalled globally by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN). These environmental and political contexts make the GBR an ideal candidate for use in testing and reviewing the application of improved tools for governance risk assessment. (letter)

  19. Pathways and hydrography in the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System Part 2: Water masses and thermohaline structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, L.; Johns, E. M.; Smith, R. H.; Lamkin, J. T.; Largier, J. L.

    2016-06-01

    Hydrographic data from two oceanographic cruises conducted during March 2006 and January/February 2007 are used to investigate the thermohaline structure related to the observed circulation along the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System (MBRS). From our observations we identify three water masses in the MBRS: the Caribbean Surface Water (CSW), North Atlantic Subtropical Underwater (SUW), and Tropical Atlantic Central Water (TACW). Little vertical structure in temperature is observed in the upper 100 m of the water column, but important differences are observed in the salinity distribution both horizontally and with depth. Freshwater inputs to the system from the mainland can be traced in the surface layer, with two possible sources: one from surface rivers located along the southern portion of the MBRS, and the other originating from an underground river system located along the northern portion of the MBRS. The thermohaline structure in the MBRS reflects the dynamics of the observed circulation. Uplifted isopycnals along most of the central and northern coastline of the MBRS reflect the effects of the strong geostrophic circulation flowing northward, i.e. the Yucatan Current. To the south along the MBRS, much weaker velocities are observed, with the Honduras Gyre dominating the flow in this region as presented during January/February 2007. These two regions are separated by onshore and divergent alongshore flow associated with the impingement of the Cayman Current on the shore and the MBRS.

  20. An exploration of the enablers and barriers in access to the Dutch healthcare system among Ghanaians in Amsterdam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boateng Linda

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sub-Saharan African populations are growing in many European countries. Data on the health of these populations are rare. Additionally, many sub-Saharan African migrants are confronted with issues of low socio-economic status, acculturation and language difficulties, which may hamper their access to health care. Despite the identification of some of those barriers, little is known about the enabling factors. Knowledge about the enablers and barriers in access to healthcare experienced is important in addressing their health needs and promoting healthcare access. This study aimed to investigate the enabling factors as well as barriers in access to the Dutch healthcare system among the largest sub-Saharan African migrant group (Ghanaians living in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Methods Six focus groups were conducted from November 2009 to February 2010. A semi-structured interview guideline was used. Discussions were conducted in English or Twi (Ghanaian dialect, recorded and transcribed verbatim. Analysis was based on the Andersen model of healthcare utilisation using MAXQDA software. Results Knowledge and perceived quality of the health system, awareness of diseases, family and community support, community initiatives and availability of social support were the main enablers to the healthcare system. Difficulties with the Dutch language and mistrust in health care providers were major barriers in access to healthcare. Conclusions Access to healthcare is facilitated mainly by knowledge of and the perceived efficiency and quality of the Dutch healthcare system. However, poor Dutch language proficiency and mistrust in health care providers appear to be important barriers in accessing healthcare. The enablers and barriers identified by this study provide useful information for promoting healthcare access among this and similar Sub-Saharan African communities.

  1. Phosphorous adsorption and precipitation in a permeable reactive wall: Applications for wastewater disposal systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, M.J. [Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada); Blowes, D.W. [Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada)]|[Waterloo Centre for Groundwater Research, Ontario (Canada); Placek, C.J. [National Water Research Institute, Burlington, Ontario (Canada)]|[Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada)

    1997-12-31

    A permeable reactive mixture has been developed using low cost, readily available materials that is capable of providing effective, long-term phosphorous treatment in areas impacted by on-land wastewater disposal. The reactive mixture creates a geochemical environment suitable for P-attenuation by both adsorption and precipitation reactions. Potential benefits include significant reductions in phosphorous loading to receiving groundwater and surface water systems, and the accumulation of P-mass in a finite and accessible volume of material. The mixture may be applied as a component within surface treatment systems or in subsurface applications such as horizontal or vertical permeable reactive walls. The mixture averaged > 90% treatment efficiency over 3.6 years of continuous-flow laboratory column experiments. The mixture was further evaluated at the pilot-scale to treat municipal wastewater, and the field-scale to treat a well-characterized septic system plume using an in situ funnel and gate system. Average PO{sub 4}-P concentrations in effluent exiting the reactive mixture range between 0 - 0.3 mg/L. Mineralogical analyses have isolated the phases responsible for phosphorous uptake, and discrete phosphate precipitates have been identified.

  2. Experimental study of insulating properties and behaviour of thermal barrier coating systems in thermo cyclic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Three TBC systems deposited using atmospheric plasma spray process were tested. • Microhardness and temperature difference between the surfaces were measured. • Network of microcracks was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy. • Correlation between the substrate temperature and coating quality is established. • Stabilizers have great influence on the insulating properties of the coatings. - Abstract: The aim of this study was to improve the resistance of turbo jet engine parts exposed to high temperatures and overheating and sudden changes in temperature. For this purpose, three thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems NiCrAlCoY2O3/ZrO2MgO, NiCrAlCoY2O3/ZrO2Y2O3 and NiCrAlCoY2O3/ZrO2CeO2Y2O3 were tested. They were deposited using the atmospheric plasma spray process (APS). In order to develop a TBC with the best thermal insulating properties and the highest reliability in relation to aging of materials under the influence of sudden changes in temperature, TBC systems that were deposited on cold and preheated substrates were tested. The network of microcracks on the surfaces of the ceramic layers in deposited condition was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Insulating characteristics of TBC systems were examined by measuring the temperature difference ΔT between the top and bottom surfaces of the samples at a temperature of 1200 °C. Testing of TBC for resistance to thermal cyclic behaviour was performed by exposing samples to alternate heating at 1200 °C and rapid cooling of the samples to 180 °C. Microhardnesses of the TBC system, after completion of thermal cycles, were compared with the values in deposited state. Analyses of thermal insulation properties and thermal cyclic behaviour have shown a correlation between the substrate temperature and quality of the TBC system in thermal cyclic conditions

  3. Motivators, Barriers and Concerns in Adoption of Electronic Filing System: Survey Evidence from Malaysian Professional Accountants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Ling Lai

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Worldwide, electronic filing (e-filing system and its' adoption has attracted much attention, however, scholarly study on accounting professionals' acceptance of e-filing system is scant. Approach: This study aimed (i to examine factors that motivated professional accountants to use e-filing (ii to solicit their usage experience and (iii to assess the barriers to adoption and other compliance considerations. The questionnaire survey was administered on 700 professionals from tax practice and commercial sectors who attended "Budget 2008" Tax Seminars, organized by the Malaysian Institute of Accountants in Peninsular Malaysia. In total, 456 usable responses from accounting and tax professionals were collected and analyzed. Results: The survey found out of 456 respondents, just 23.7% had used e-filing in 2007 to file personal tax return forms. Majority of the e-filers opted to use e-filing for the sake of convenience (55.8%, in faith to get faster tax refund (16.8% and speed of filing (15.9%. For those who did not use e-filing, the key impediments were concerned over the security and did not trust of e-filing system. Some (4.8% were unable to access to the e-filing website. Overall, just 26.1% of the professionals surveyed had confidence in the IRBM in managing the e-filing system successfully. Majority (41.2% thought that 'speedy tax refund' to be the most desirable incentive to motivate individuals to use e-filing. Conclusion: As the IRBM is counting on professional accountants to promote the usage of e-filing system, this study provided important insights to the IRBM to developing marketing and business strategies to motivate professional accountant in business to use e-filing in order to accelerate the diffusion of e-filing system in a developing country like Malaysia.

  4. Examining Barriers in Technology-Enhanced Problem-Based Learning: Using a Performance Support Systems Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung Hee; Ertmer, Peggy A.

    2008-01-01

    This study focused on the barriers that middle school teachers faced when implementing technology-enhanced problem-based learning (PBL) in their classrooms. Using a human performance-based model, we interviewed teachers, administrators, university faculty and technical support staff to determine the perceived importance of multiple barriers to the…

  5. Engineered Barrier System - Manufacturing, Testing and Quality Assurance. Report from a Workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of preparations for review of future license applications, the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) organised a workshop on the engineered barrier system for the KBS-3 concept, with the focus on manufacturing, testing and quality assurance. The main purpose of the workshop was to identify critical issues in the demonstration of how long-term safety requirements could be fulfilled for the engineered barriers. The workshop included presentations related to engineered barrier manufacturing and testing held by external experts, and working group sessions to prepare questions to the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co. (SKB). SKB presentations were followed by an informal questioning and discussion with SKB representatives. This report includes a presentation of the questions posed by the working groups, SKB's replies to these questions as well as a summary of the working group discussions. The conclusions and viewpoints presented in this report are those of one or several workshop participants. During the workshop many issues regarding manufacturing, testing and quality assurance of the engineered barriers were discussed. The central themes in the questions and discussions are summarised as follows: There is a need to specify how the functional requirements for the buffer and backfill will be achieved in practise. Issues of particular interest are material selection, compaction density, initial water content and manufacturing methods for bentonite blocks. A major problem that must be addressed is the long period required to obtain relevant results from large-scale testing. The uncertainties relating to the wetting and subsequent swelling processes of the bentonite buffer have implications for analysis of the canister. It is necessary to know now non-uniform the bentonite swelling pressure could be in a worst case pressure differential, in order to evaluate the sufficiency of 'as tested' canister performance. Regarding the copper shell of the

  6. Modelling and Simulation of UWB Radar System for Through the Wall Imaging and Doppler Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Ayesha Qamar; Umar Faruq

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, Through the Wall Imaging (TWI) has become a topic of research interest due to its promising applications in home-land security situations. In this paper, the basic concept of Stepped-Frequency Continuous Wave (SFCW) for ranging the targets behind the wall is described. Imaging of targets is implemented using the back-projection algorithm. This paper also brings out the received signal model for detection of stationary human being behind the wall using SFCW approach. The detec...

  7. Reply to "Domain-growth kinetics of systems with soft walls''

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouritsen, Ole G.; Præstgaard, Eigil

    1988-01-01

    On the basis of computer-simulation results for three different models with soft domain walls it is argued that the zero-temperature domain-growth kinetics falls in a separate universality class characterized by a kinetic growth exponent n≃0.25. However, for finite temperatures there is a distinct...... crossover to Lifshitz-Allen-Cahn kinetics n=0.50, thus suggesting that the soft-wall and hard-wall universality classes become identical at finite temperatures....

  8. Disposal Systems Evaluations and Tool Development - Engineered Barrier System Evaluation (Work Package LL1015080425)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Disposal Systems Evaluation Framework (DSEF) will use a logical process for developing one or more disposal system concepts (also referred to as repository system in this report) for any given waste form and geologic setting combination. In the Features, Events, and Processes (FEPs) group of work packages, there are seven categories of waste forms and eight categories of geologic setting being studied. The DSEF will also establish a Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC) knowledge management system to organize high-level information, data, and assumptions, thereby facilitating consistency in high-level system simulation and economic analyses. This system likely will be housed with the INL-based documentation system. Attention is given to lessons oearned from the systems used at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP). Where reference material from other programs (e.g., international) is used or cited, the knowledge-management system imports the reference material directly or refer to it in bibliography form. Alternative data sets (e.g., from other programs) will also be utilized to evaluate their influence on DSEF analyses for given waste form and disposal-system combinations. The knowledge-management system can also be used to maintain the results of DSEF realizations, enabling the comparison and ranking of various waste-form/disposal-system-environment/disposal-system-design options. Finally, the UFDC knowledge-management system will be able to provide a compendium of 'templates' that can be utilized, in a labor-efficient fashion, to build parallel DSEF analyses (e.g., 'one offs'). The DSEF will not be a stand-alone, push-the-button and wait for the results, item of software. it will use osftware (probably EXCEL, initially), to guide the team members through a logical process of evaluating combinations of waste-form, disposal-syste-environment, and disposal-system design. In later stages, it will utilize software developed

  9. Vessel wall enhancement in the diagnosis and management of primary angiitis of the central nervous system in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Koyo; Saito, Yoshiaki; Kurata, Hirofumi; Saiki, Yusuke; Ohtahara, Hiroko; Yoshioka, Hiroki; Yamashita, Eijiro; Fujii, Shinya; Maegaki, Yoshihiro

    2016-08-01

    We describe two cases of primary angiitis of the central nervous system in children (cPACNS) diagnosed by vessel wall contrast enhancement on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Both patients developed acute cerebral infarction after fever and malaise. In patient 1, a 7-month-old boy, MRI revealed extensive cerebral infarction in the right middle cerebral artery (MCA) area and stenosis at the M1 portion of the right MCA. Oral glucocorticoid therapy was initiated. Vessel wall enhancement was ameliorated 3months after onset, and stenosis was mostly restored. Patient 2, a 5-year-old boy, suffered from cerebral infarction in the left MCA area, and stenosis was identified in the left internal carotid artery, left MCA, and left posterior cerebral artery. Although vessel wall enhancement was reduced after glucocorticoid therapy, vessel wall enhancement of left MCA re-emerged, accompanied by increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and, decreased cerebral blood flow (CBF) in the affected hemisphere. Intravenous methylprednisolone therapy followed by oral glucocorticoid and mycophenolate mofetil resulted in resolution of these findings. Vessel wall enhancement is a promising finding in the diagnosis of cPACNS. Disease flares occur rarely in medium-to-large vessel cPACNS during dose tapering. Vessel wall enhancement, ESR, and CBF may be useful for the assessment of the activity of angiitis. PMID:26852378

  10. A custom acoustic emission monitoring system for harsh environments: application to freezing-induced damage in alpine rock walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Girard

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a custom acoustic emission (AE monitoring system designed to perform long-term measurements on high-alpine rock walls. AE monitoring is a common technique for characterizing damage evolution in solid materials. The system is based on a two-channel AE sensor node (AE-node integrated into a wireless sensor network (WSN customized for operation in harsh environments. This wireless architecture offers flexibility in the deployment of AE-nodes at any position of the rock wall that needs to be monitored, within a range of a few hundred meters from a core station connected to the internet. The system achieves near real-time data delivery and allows the user to remotely control the AE detection threshold. In order to protect AE sensors and capture acoustic signals from specific depths of the rock wall, a special casing was developed. The monitoring system is completed by two probes that measure rock temperature and liquid water content, both probes being also integrated into the WSN. We report a first deployment of the monitoring system on a rock wall at Jungfraujoch, 3500 m a.s.l., Switzerland. While this first deployment of the monitoring system aims to support fundamental research on processes that damage rock under cold climate, the system could serve a number of other applications, including rock fall hazard surveillance or structural monitoring of concrete structures.

  11. A custom acoustic emission monitoring system for harsh environments: application to freezing-induced damage in alpine rock-walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Girard

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a custom acoustic emission (AE monitoring system designed to perform long-term measurements on high-alpine rock-walls. AE monitoring is a common technique for characterizing damage evolution in solid materials. The system is based on a two-channel AE sensor node (AE-node integrated into a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN customized for operation in harsh environments. This wireless architecture offers flexibility in the deployment of AE-nodes at any position of the rock-wall that needs to be monitored, within a range of a few hundred meters from a core station connected to the internet. The system achieves near real-time data delivery and allows the user to remotely control the AE detection threshold. In order to protect AE sensors and capture acoustic signals from specific depths of the rock-wall, a special casing was developed. The monitoring system is completed by two probes that measure rock temperature and liquid water content, both probes being also integrated into the WSN. We report a first deployment of the monitoring system on a rock-wall at Jungfraujoch, 3500 m a.s.l., Switzerland. While this first deployment of the monitoring system aims to support fundamental research on processes that damage rock under cold climate, the system could serve a number of other applications, including rock-fall hazard surveillance or structural monitoring of concrete structures.

  12. AVNG SYSTEM SOFTWARE - ATTRIBUTE VERIFICATION SYSTEM WITH INFORMATION BARRIERS FOR MASS AND ISOTOPICS MEASUREMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the software development for the plutonium attribute verification system--AVNG. A brief synopsis of the technical solution for the measurement system is presented. The main tasks for the software development that is underway are formulated. The development tasks are shown in software structural flowcharts, measurement system state diagram and a description of the software. The current status of the AVNG software development is elucidated

  13. AVNG System Software-Attribute Verification System with Information Barriers for Mass Isotopic Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the software development for the plutonium attribute verification system - AVNG. A brief synopsis of the technical solution for the measurement system is presented. The main tasks for the software development that is underway are formulated. The development tasks are shown in software structural flowcharts, measurement system state diagram and a description of the software. The current status of the AVNG software development is elucidated.

  14. Quantifying system safety: A comparison of the SBOAT & Safety Barrier Manager tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee; Duijm, Nijs Jan; Markert, Frank;

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents two software tools for analyzing safety risks, SBOAT (Stochastic BPMN Optimisation and Analysis Tool) and SBM (SafetyBarrierManagerr). SBOAT employs principles from stochastic model checking to allow for the quantitative verification of workflows. SBM supports the creation...... of valid safety-barrier diagrams and allows the quantitative analysis of the probability of all possible end states of the barrier diagram, i.e. the outcomes if one or several of the barriers fail to perform their barrier function. We compare the foundations of these tools and describe how they can be used...... and how they complement each other by means of the analysis of a production workflow inspired by a real-world industry case....

  15. Market and policy barriers to energy storage deployment : a study for the energy storage systems program.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatnagar, Dhruv; Currier, Aileen B.; Hernandez, Jacquelynne; Ma, Ookie [U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C.; Kirby, Brendan [U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C.

    2013-09-01

    Electric energy storage technologies have recently been in the spotlight, discussed as essential grid assets that can provide services to increase the reliability and resiliency of the grid, including furthering the integration of variable renewable energy resources. Though they can provide numerous grid services, there are a number of factors that restrict their current deployment. The most significant barrier to deployment is high capital costs, though several recent deployments indicate that capital costs are decreasing and energy storage may be the preferred economic alternative in certain situations. However, a number of other market and regulatory barriers persist, limiting further deployment. These barriers can be categorized into regulatory barriers, market (economic) barriers, utility and developer business model barriers, crosscutting barriers and technology barriers. This report, through interviews with stakeholders and review of regulatory filings in four regions roughly representative of the United States, identifies the key barriers restricting further energy storage development in the country. The report also includes a discussion of possible solutions to address these barriers and a review of initiatives around the country at the federal, regional and state levels that are addressing some of these issues. Energy storage could have a key role to play in the future grid, but market and regulatory issues have to be addressed to allow storage resources open market access and compensation for the services they are capable of providing. Progress has been made in this effort, but much remains to be done and will require continued engagement from regulators, policy makers, market operators, utilities, developers and manufacturers.

  16. The socio-technical barriers to Solar Home Systems (SHS) in Papua New Guinea: 'Choosing pigs, prostitutes, and poker chips over panels'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study explores the socio-technical barriers to Solar Home Systems (SHS) in Papua New Guinea. The authors collected primary data through semi-structured research interviews conducted over the course of February 2010-April 2010. Respondents included government officials, financiers, planners, commercial distributors and companies, teachers and rural villagers in addition to members of civil society, academics, consultants, and trainers. These interviews were supplemented with site visits to Port Moresby, Goroka, and Madang, and field research in the villages of Akameku, Asaroka, Lufa, Kundiawa, Okifa, Simbu, and Talidig. The study draws from these interviews and visits to discuss four types of barriers. Technical barriers relate to substandard equipment and logistical problems. Economic barriers include high rates of poverty, misconceptions about the role of currency, and lack of financing. Political barriers include poor institutional capacity and a government commitment to fossil-fueled grid electrification. Social barriers encompass unrealistic expectations about what SHS can provide along with jealousy, theft, vandalism, and unfamiliarity with solar technology. - Research highlights: → Solar Home Systems (SHS) are impeded by a collection of different barriers in Papua New Guinea. → Technical barriers relate to substandard equipment and logistical problems. → Economic barriers include high rates of poverty, misconceptions about the role of currency, and lack of financing.→ Political barriers include poor institutional capacity and a government commitment to fossil-fueled grid electrification. → Social barriers encompass unrealistic expectations about what SHS can provide along with jealousy, theft, vandalism, and unfamiliarity with solar technology.

  17. Solving problems in social-ecological systems: definition, practice and barriers of transdisciplinary research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelstam, Per; Andersson, Kjell; Annerstedt, Matilda; Axelsson, Robert; Elbakidze, Marine; Garrido, Pablo; Grahn, Patrik; Jönsson, K Ingemar; Pedersen, Simen; Schlyter, Peter; Skärbäck, Erik; Smith, Mike; Stjernquist, Ingrid

    2013-03-01

    Translating policies about sustainable development as a social process and sustainability outcomes into the real world of social-ecological systems involves several challenges. Hence, research policies advocate improved innovative problem-solving capacity. One approach is transdisciplinary research that integrates research disciplines, as well as researchers and practitioners. Drawing upon 14 experiences of problem-solving, we used group modeling to map perceived barriers and bridges for researchers' and practitioners' joint knowledge production and learning towards transdisciplinary research. The analysis indicated that the transdisciplinary research process is influenced by (1) the amount of traditional disciplinary formal and informal control, (2) adaptation of project applications to fill the transdisciplinary research agenda, (3) stakeholder participation, and (4) functional team building/development based on self-reflection and experienced leadership. Focusing on implementation of green infrastructure policy as a common denominator for the delivery of ecosystem services and human well-being, we discuss how to diagnose social-ecological systems, and use knowledge production and collaborative learning as treatments. PMID:23475660

  18. Nano-carrier systems: Strategies to overcome the mucus gel barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dünnhaupt, S; Kammona, O; Waldner, C; Kiparissides, C; Bernkop-Schnürch, A

    2015-10-01

    The present review provides an overview of nanotechnology-based strategies to overcome various mucus gel barriers including the intestinal, nasal, ocular, vaginal, buccal and pulmonary mucus layer without destroying them. It focuses on the one hand on strategies to improve the mucus permeation behavior of particles and on the other hand on systems avoiding the back-diffusion of particles out of the mucus gel layer. Nanocarriers with improved mucus permeation behavior either exhibit a high density of positive and negative charges, bearing mucolytic enzymes such as papain and bromelain on their surface or display a slippery surface due to PEG-ylation. Furthermore, self-nanoemulsifying-drug-delivery-systems (SNEDDS) turned out to exhibit comparatively high mucus permeating properties. Strategies in order to avoid back-diffusion are based on thiolated polymers reacting to a higher extent with cysteine subunits of the mucus at pH 7 in deeper mucus regions than at pH 5 being prevalent in luminal mucus regions of the intestinal and vaginal mucosa. Furthermore, particles changing their zeta potential from negative to positive once they have reached the epithelium seem to be promising carriers. The summarized knowledge should provide a good starting point for further developments in this field. PMID:25712487

  19. Barriers and enablers to geothermal district heating system development in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the US Energy Information Administration, space and hot water heating represented about 20% of total US energy demand in 2006. Given that most of this demand is met by burning natural gas, propane, and fuel oil, an enormous opportunity exists for directly utilizing indigenous geothermal energy as a cleaner, nearly emissions-free renewable alternative. Although the US is rich in geothermal energy resources, they have been frequently undervalued in America's portfolio of options as a means of offsetting fossil fuel emissions while providing a local, reliable energy source for communities. Currently, there are only 21 operating GDHS in the US with a capacity of about 100 MW thermal. Interviews with current US district heating operators were used to collect data on and analyze the development of these systems. This article presents the current structure of the US regulatory and market environment for GDHS along with a comparative study of district heating in Iceland where geothermal energy is extensively utilized. It goes on to review the barriers and enablers to utilizing geothermal district heating systems (GDHS) in the US for space and hot water heating and provides policy recommendations on how to advance this energy sector in the US.

  20. Development of remote dimensional measurement system for first wall of Fusion Experimental Reactor (FER)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A remote system has been developed for detection and dimensional measurement of the eroded defect of protection tiles attached to first walls of the Fusion Experimental Reactor (FER). The test system is composed of a vision sensor and a robot to move it. The sensor uses a laser slit projector and an TV camera, and measures the tile surface three-dimensionally and untouchly based on the triangulation method. In order to protect sensitive components such as a semiconductor laser source and a CCD camera from high radiation field in the vacuum vessel, a sensor head to be inserted in the vacuum vessel is equipped with only the projector and a zoom lens, which are connected to the laser source and the camera by a light guide and an imagefiber respectively. A defect, which has been detected from measurement in wide area of the tiles with the zoom lens of wide position, is measured with the zoom lens of telescopic position by execution of the robot motion planned autonomously. As a result of measurement tests, it has been proved that the system can detect the defect with sufficient precision and is, therefore, practicable. (author)

  1. Reducing barriers to interoperability through collaborative development of standards for Earth science information systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percivall, G. S.; Arctur, D. K.

    2010-12-01

    Increasingly, Earth science research must make effective use of interdisciplinary data sources and processes. Non-interoperability impedes sharing of data and computing resources. Standards from the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) and other organizations are the basis for successfully deploying a seamless, distributed information infrastructure for the geosciences. Collaborative development of the standards has proven effective in reducing barriers to standards adoption. Standards are the basis for the success of the Internet and the World Wide Web. A standard describes a set of rules that have been agreed to in some consensus forum, such as the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), or the OGC. As described in The Importance of Going Open, “non-interoperability causes organizations to spend much more than necessary on geospatial information technology development”. In the context of e-Science, the National Science Foundation’s Cyberinfrastructure Council argues that “The use of standards creates economies of scale and scope for developing and deploying common resources, tools, software, and services that enhance the use of cyberinfrastructure in multiple science and engineering communities.” Barriers to adoption include misperceptions and misuse of standards. “Adhering to standards costs more” - typically this statement is made when a research program considers implementing standards as a one-time modification to an existing system. Multiple economic studies have shown lower development costs when using standards over the life of a project. “Standards stifle innovation” - a key decision in research is to consider what assumptions to consider fixed and what to challenge. The long history of standards in research, e.g., SI units, is fundamental to assessing repeatable results by independent researchers. Similar need for common standards exist in the information systems used for Earth

  2. Combined heat and power systems: economic and policy barriers to growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalam Adil

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Combined Heat and Power (CHP systems can provide a range of benefits to users with regards to efficiency, reliability, costs and environmental impact. Furthermore, increasing the amount of electricity generated by CHP systems in the United States has been identified as having significant potential for impressive economic and environmental outcomes on a national scale. Given the benefits from increasing the adoption of CHP technologies, there is value in improving our understanding of how desired increases in CHP adoption can be best achieved. These obstacles are currently understood to stem from regulatory as well as economic and technological barriers. In our research, we answer the following questions: Given the current policy and economic environment facing the CHP industry, what changes need to take place in this space in order for CHP systems to be competitive in the energy market? Methods We focus our analysis primarily on Combined Heat and Power Systems that use natural gas turbines. Our analysis takes a two-pronged approach. We first conduct a statistical analysis of the impact of state policies on increases in electricity generated from CHP system. Second, we conduct a Cost-Benefit analysis to determine in which circumstances funding incentives are necessary to make CHP technologies cost-competitive. Results Our policy analysis shows that regulatory improvements do not explain the growth in adoption of CHP technologies but hold the potential to encourage increases in electricity generated from CHP system in small-scale applications. Our Cost-Benefit analysis shows that CHP systems are only cost competitive in large-scale applications and that funding incentives would be necessary to make CHP technology cost-competitive in small-scale applications. Conclusion From the synthesis of these analyses we conclude that because large-scale applications of natural gas turbines are already cost-competitive, policy initiatives

  3. 3D GeoWall Analysis System for Shuttle External Tank Foreign Object Debris Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Richard; Navard, Andrew; Spruce, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    An analytical, advanced imaging method has been developed for the initial monitoring and identification of foam debris and similar anomalies that occur post-launch in reference to the space shuttle s external tank (ET). Remote sensing technologies have been used to perform image enhancement and analysis on high-resolution, true-color images collected with the DCS 760 Kodak digital camera located in the right umbilical well of the space shuttle. Improvements to the camera, using filters, have added sharpness/definition to the image sets; however, image review/analysis of the ET has been limited by the fact that the images acquired by umbilical cameras during launch are two-dimensional, and are usually nonreferenceable between frames due to rotation translation of the ET as it falls away from the space shuttle. Use of stereo pairs of these images can enable strong visual indicators that can immediately portray depth perception of damaged areas or movement of fragments between frames is not perceivable in two-dimensional images. A stereoscopic image visualization system has been developed to allow 3D depth perception of stereo-aligned image pairs taken from in-flight umbilical and handheld digital shuttle cameras. This new system has been developed to augment and optimize existing 2D monitoring capabilities. Using this system, candidate sequential image pairs are identified for transformation into stereo viewing pairs. Image orientation is corrected using control points (similar points) between frames to place the two images in proper X-Y viewing perspective. The images are then imported into the WallView stereo viewing software package. The collected control points are used to generate a transformation equation that is used to re-project one image and effectively co-register it to the other image. The co-registered, oriented image pairs are imported into a WallView image set and are used as a 3D stereo analysis slide show. Multiple sequential image pairs can be used

  4. Gypsum plasterboard walls: inspection, pathological characterization and statistical survey using an expert system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaião, C.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an expert system to support the inspection and diagnosis of partition walls or wall coverings mounted using the Drywall (DW construction method. This system includes a classification of anomalies in DW and their probable causes. This inspection system was used in a field work that included the observation of 121 DWs. This paper includes a statistical analysis of the anomalies observed during these inspections and their probable causes. The correlation between anomalies and causes in the sample is also thoroughly analyzed. Anomalies are also evaluated for area affected, size, repair urgency and aesthetic value of the affected area. The conclusions of the statistical analysis allowed the creation of an inventory of preventive measures to be implemented in the design, execution and use phases in order to lessen the magnitude or eradicate the occurrence of anomalies in DW. These measures could directly help improve the quality of construction.

    Este trabajo presenta un sistema experto de apoyo a la inspección y diagnóstico de tabiques o revestimientos de yeso laminado. Dicho sistema, que permite la clasificación de las anomalías del yeso laminado y sus causas probables, se empleó en un trabajo de campo en el que se estudiaron 121 elementos construidos con este material. El trabajo incluye el análisis estadístico de las anomalías detectadas durante las inspecciones y sus motivos probables. También se analizó en detalle la correlación entre las anomalías y sus causas, evaluándose aquellas en función de la superficie afectada, la urgencia de las reparaciones y el valor estético de la zona implicada. Las conclusiones del análisis estadístico permitieron la elaboración de un inventario de medidas preventivas que deberían implantarse en las fases de proyecto, ejecución y utilización de estos elementos a fin de erradicar la aparición de anomalías en el yeso laminado o reducir su frecuencia. Dichas

  5. The development of a under-water robot system for inspection of the contaminated inner wall of nuclear research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, an under-water robot system is developed in order to inspect the radiation level and decontaminate the contaminated inner wall of nuclear research reactor, TRIGA MARK III. This system is composed of the mobile robot which navigates autonomously under the water and the ground control unit which monitors and commands the motion of mobile robot. The mobile robot can move on the wall surface with five thruster systems and is composed of three parts, i.e., mechanical, control, and sensory parts. The five thruster system is configured such as one main thruster, two wall adhesion thruster, and two turning/buoyancy compensation thruster. The control part has 4 CPU boards and each board is configured such that one is in charge of supervisory control mode which controls the position of mobile robot and communicates with the ground control unit and the other board is designed to have motor control mode which drives two motors simultaneously. In secondary part, the laser scanner and fluorescent reflectors and the incilinometer are designed. The laser scanner with fluorescent reflectors provides the current position of the mobile robot on the wall surface and by incilinometer, the moving direction can be obtained. This paper describes the design and configuration procedures of under-water robot in detail and presents the experimental results for characteristic test of the thruster system. 11 refs., 4 tabs., 7 figs

  6. The development of a under-water robot system for inspection of the contaminated inner wall of nuclear research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyung Hoon; Kim, Byung Man; Cho, Hyung Suk; Park, Ki Yong [Korea Advanced Inst. of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Young Soo; Yoon, Ji Sup; Lee, Byung Jik [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    In this paper, an under-water robot system is developed in order to inspect the radiation level and decontaminate the contaminated inner wall of nuclear research reactor, TRIGA MARK III. This system is composed of the mobile robot which navigates autonomously under the water and the ground control unit which monitors and commands the motion of mobile robot. The mobile robot can move on the wall surface with five thruster systems and is composed of three parts, i.e., mechanical, control, and sensory parts. The five thruster system is configured such as one main thruster, two wall adhesion thruster, and two turning/buoyancy compensation thruster. The control part has 4 CPU boards and each board is configured such that one is in charge of supervisory control mode which controls the position of mobile robot and communicates with the ground control unit and the other board is designed to have motor control mode which drives two motors simultaneously. In secondary part, the laser scanner and fluorescent reflectors and the incilinometer are designed. The laser scanner with fluorescent reflectors provides the current position of the mobile robot on the wall surface and by incilinometer, the moving direction can be obtained. This paper describes the design and configuration procedures of under-water robot in detail and presents the experimental results for characteristic test of the thruster system. 11 refs., 4 tabs., 7 figs.

  7. Design of the PDX Tokamak wall armor and inner limiter system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The inner wall protective plates for the PDX Tokamak are designed to absorb 8 MW of neutral deuterium beam power at maximum power densities of 3 kW/cm2 for pulse lengths of 0.5 sec. Preliminary studies indicate that the design could survive several pulses of 1 sec duration. The design consists of a tile and mounting plate structure. The mounting plates are water cooled to allow short duty cycles and beam calorimetry. The temperature and flow of the coolant is measured to obtain the injected power. A thermocouple array on the tiles provides beam position and power density profiles. Several material combinations for the tiles were subjected to thermal tests using both electron and neutral beams, and titanium carbide coated graphite was selected as the tile material. The heat transfer coefficient of the tile backing plate structure was measured to determine the maximum pulse rate allowable. The design of the armor system allows the structure to be used as a neutral beam power diagnostic and as an inner plasma limiter. The electrical and cooling systems external to the vacuum vessel are discussed

  8. Practical designs for clay based engineered barrier systems for heat emitting radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many of the present designs of repositories for radioactive wastes derive from generic feasibility studies which emphasize post-closure safety. These include little (or no) treatment of the practicality of safe and quality-assured construction of engineered barriers under the conditions (humidity, dust, etc.) and requirements (emplacement rate, remote handling, etc.) of an operational underground facility. Indeed, as soon as attempts are made to demonstrate such concepts in-situ at full scale, considerable practical problems are encountered and, in many cases, additional engineering components are introduced (liners, borehole caps, grouts, rock-bolts, drainage systems, etc.) which could be detrimental to - or at leas t complicate - the long-term safety case. As the discrepancy between the idealized concepts illustrated in performance assessment and the actual systems which are shown to be feasible grows, there is a critical need for design rationalization. Such a process needs to include careful balancing of factors influencing safety during the operational phase - which should not be compromised - with those which contribute to potential hazards which occur only in the distant future. Apart from such almost philosophical considerations, the robustness of the EBS construction procedure to possible operational perturbations needs serious consideration. Even if closed and sealed repositories are very insensitive to disruptive events such as earthquakes, hurricanes, industrial actions and terrorist actions, the operational system may be more vulnerable to perturbation. Designs should be introduced which, to the greatest extent possible, not only fail safe, but are also easy to remedy (or reverse) in case the assurance of EBS quality is lost. This paper will expand on ideas for a second generation of clay-based EBS designs, which are both practical and safe. Associated requirements for R and D and performance assessment model development will also be outlined, with a

  9. Chest-wall thickness and percent thoracic fat estimation by B-mode ultrasound: system and procedure review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accurate measurement of chest wall thickness is necessary for estimation of lung burden of transuranic elements in humans. To achieve tis capability, the ORNL Whole Body Counter has acquired a B-mode ultrasonic imaging system for defining the structure within the thorax of the body. This report contains a review of the ultrasound system in use at the ORNL Whole Body Counter, including its theory of operation, and te procedure for use of the system. Future developmental plans are also presented

  10. Changes in skin barrier during treatment with systemic alitretinoin: focus on skin susceptibility and stratum corneum ceramides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jungersted, Jakob Mutanu; Høgh, Julie Kaae; Hellgren, Lars;

    2010-01-01

    Alitretinoin is a new drug for systemic treatment of chronic hand eczema. Previous functional tests of skin topically treated with retinoids have indicated impaired skin barrier function, but no data are available on barrier parameters after systemic alitretinoin treatment. To investigate the...... systemic alitretinoin treatment. The criteria for being ascribed to alitretinoin were chronic hand eczema and insufficient therapeutic response to potent topical corticosteroids. Before initiation and after 2 months of systemic treatment with 30 mg alitretinoin, a challenge with sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS......) was performed on the volar forearm and evaluated by trans-epidermal water loss (TEWL), erythema, and a cyanoacrylate skin sample was obtained for lipid analysis. We found no significant changes in response to SLS irritation as evaluated by TEWL and erythema, after treatment with alitretinoin for 2...

  11. International Collaborations on Engineered Barrier Systems: Brief Overview of SKB-EBS Activities.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jove-Colon, Carlos F. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Research collaborations with international partners on the behavior and performance of engineered barrier systems (EBS) are an important aspect of the DOE-NE Used Fuel Disposition Campaign strategy in the evaluation of disposal design concepts. These international partnerships are a cost-effective way of engaging in key R&D activities with common goals resulting in effective scientific knowledge exchanges thus enhancing existing and future research programs in the USA. This report provides a brief description of the activities covered by the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) EBS Task Force (TF) (referred hereafter as SKB EBS TF) and potential future directions for engagement of the DOE-NE UFDC program in relevant R&D activities. Emphasis is given to SKB EBS TF activities that are still ongoing and aligned to the UFDC R&D program. This include utilization of data collected in the bentonite rock interaction experiment (BRIE) and data sets from benchmark experiments produced by the chemistry or “C” part of the SKB EBS TF. Potential applications of information generated by this program include comparisons/tests between model and data (e.g., reactive diffusion), development and implementation of coupled-process models (e.g., HM), and code/model benchmarking.

  12. Preliminary test on filling gap behavior of the swollen buffer in the engineering barrier system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In geological disposal of the high-level radioactive waste (HLW), the engineered barrier system (EBS) (buffer, waste packages (capsulate the vitrified waste)) is installed in the space of a repository using the remote control technique due to protect workers from radiation. The block type buffer, as one of the candidate options of the installation of the buffer, has the gap between buffer and rock or waste package. In this case, the highly compacted buffer will be used to fill the gap by the swollen buffer. Swelling of the buffer is considered to begin from the surface of the buffer where groundwater infiltrates. Infiltration of groundwater into the buffer is considered to be 3 dimensional, because the gap and the infiltration points of the buffer are distributed spatially. Therefore, the scatter of the swelling points of the buffer causes the non-uniformity of the swelling of the buffer. Such non-uniformity of the swelling of the buffer will affect the thickness of the buffer between waste package and rock mass. Then, preliminary tests that simulate 3 dimensional filling gap behavior of the swollen buffer were performed. The test results showed the swollen buffer filled the gap rapidly. There is scatter of the density of the buffer early, but the tendency that the density of the buffer became uniformity with time was observed. It is considered that the swelling and fluidity of the buffer occurs simultaneously, the swelling of the buffer for filling the gap will affect the thickness of the buffer. (author)

  13. Mini-med school for Aboriginal youth: experiential science outreach to tackle systemic barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita I. Henderson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Addressing systemic barriers experienced by low-income and minority students to accessing medical school, the University of Calgary's Cumming School of Medicine has spearheaded a year-round, mini-med school outreach initiative for Aboriginal students. Method: Junior and senior high school youth generally attend the half-day program in classes or camps of 15–25, breaking into small groups for multisession activities. Undergraduate medical education students mentor the youth in stations offering experiential lessons in physical examination, reading x-rays, and anatomy. All resources from the medical school are offered in-kind, including a pizza lunch at midday, whereas community partners organize transportation for the attendees. Results: Opening the medical school and its resources to the community offers great benefits to resource-constrained schools often limited in terms of science education resources. The model is also an effort to address challenges among the medical professions around attracting and retaining students from underserved populations. Conclusion: The prospect of increasing admission rates and successful completion of medical education among students from marginalized communities poses a real, though difficult-to-measure, possibility of increasing the workforce most likely to return to and work in such challenging contexts. A mini-medical school for Aboriginal youth highlights mutual, long-term benefit for diverse partners, encouraging medical educators and community-based science educators to explore the possibilities for deepening partnerships in their own regions.

  14. Health system and societal barriers for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM services - lessons from World Diabetes Foundation supported GDM projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nielsen Karoline Kragelund

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal mortality and morbidity remains high in many low- and middle-income countries (LMIC. Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM represents an underestimated and unrecognised impediment to optimal maternal health in LMIC; left untreated – it also has severe consequences for the offspring. A better understanding of the barriers hindering detection and treatment of GDM is needed. Based on experiences from World Diabetes Foundation (WDF supported GDM projects this paper seeks to investigate societal and health system barriers to such efforts. Methods Questionnaires were filled out by 10 WDF supported GDM project partners implementing projects in eight different LMIC. In addition, interviews were conducted with the project partners. The interviews were analysed using content analysis. Results Barriers to improving maternal health related to GDM nominated by project implementers included lack of trained health care providers - especially female doctors; high staff turnover; lack of standard protocols, consumables and equipment; financing of health services and treatment; lack of or poor referral systems, feedback mechanisms and follow-up systems; distance to health facility; perceptions of female body size and weight gain/loss in relation to pregnancy; practices related to pregnant women’s diet; societal negligence of women’s health; lack of decision-making power among women regarding their own health; stigmatisation; role of women in society and expectations that the pregnant woman move to her maternal home for delivery. Conclusions A number of barriers within the health system and society exist. Programmes need to consider and address these barriers in order to improve GDM care and thereby maternal health in LMIC.

  15. Active load management with advanced window wall systems: Research and industry perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eleanor S.; Selkowitz, Stephen E.; Levi, Mark S.; Blanc, Steven L.; McConahey, Erin; McClintock, Maurya; Hakkarainen, Pekka; Sbar, Neil L.; Myser, Michael P.

    2002-06-01

    Advanced window wall systems have the potential to provide demand response by reducing peak electric loads by 20-30% in many commercial buildings through the active control of motorized shading systems, switchable window coatings, operable windows, and ventilated double-skin facade systems. These window strategies involve balancing daylighting and solar heat gains, heat rejection through ventilation, and night-time natural ventilation to achieve space-conditioning and lighting energy use reductions without the negative impacts on occupants associated with other demand responsive (DR) strategies. This paper explores conceptually how advanced window systems fit into the context of active load management programs, which cause customers to directly experience the time-varying costs of their consumption decisions. Technological options are suggested. We present pragmatic criteria that building owners use to determine whether to deploy such strategies. A utility's perspective is given. Industry also provides their perspectives on where the technology is today and what needs to happen to implement such strategies more broadly in the US. While there is significant potential for these advanced window concepts, widespread deployment is unlikely to occur with business-as-usual practice. Technologically, integrated window-lighting-HVAC products are underdeveloped. Implementation is hindered by fragmented labor practices, non-standard communication protocols, and lack of technical expertise. Design tools and information products that quantify energy performance, occupant impacts, reliability, and other pragmatic concerns are not available. Interest within the building industry in sustainability, energy-efficiency, and increased occupant amenity, comfort, and productivity will be the driving factors for these advanced facades in the near term--at least until the dust settles on the deregulated electricity market.

  16. Plato (power load analysis tool) - a module of west wall monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mandate of the WEST (W Environment for Steady-state Tokamak) project, is to upgrade the medium- sized superconducting Tokamak, Tore Supra in a major scale. One of it's objectives, is to also act as a test-bed for ITER divertor components, to be procured and used in ITER. WEST would be installing actively cooled Tungsten divertor elements, like the ones to be used in ITER. These components would be tested under two experimental scenarios: high power (Ip = 0.8MA, lasting 30s with 15MW injected power) and high fluence (Ip = 0.6 MA, lasting 1000s with 12 MW injected power). Heat load on the divertor target will range from a few MW/m2 up to 20 MW/m2 depending on the X point location and the heat flux decay length. The tungsten Plasma Facing Components (PFCs) are less tolerant to overheating than their Carbon counterparts and prevention of their burnout is a major concern. It is in this context that the Wall Monitoring System (WMS) - a software framework aimed at monitoring the health of the Wall components, was conceived. WMS has been divided into three parts: a) a pre-discharge power load analysis tool to check compatibility between plasma scenario and PFC's operational limits in terms of heat flux b) a real-time system during discharge, to take into account all necessary measurements involved in the PFCs protection c) a set of analysis tools that would be used post-discharge, that would access WEST database and compare predicted and experimental results. This paper presents an overview of PLATo - the pre-pulse module of WMS that has been recently developed under IPR-IRFM research collaboration. PLAto has two major components - one that produces heat flux information of the PFCS and the other that produces energy graphs depending on shot profile defined by time variant magnetic equilibrium and injected power profiles. Preliminary results will be presented based on foreseen WEST plasma reference scenarios. (author)

  17. Feasibility study of tank leakage mitigation using subsurface barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has established the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) to satisfy manage and dispose of the waste currently stored in the underground storage tanks. The retrieval element of TWRS includes a work scope to develop subsurface impermeable barriers beneath SSTs. The barriers could serve as a means to contain leakage that may result from waste retrieval operations and could also support site closure activities by facilitating cleanup. Three types of subsurface barrier systems have emerged for further consideration: (1) chemical grout, (2) freeze walls, and (3) desiccant, represented in this feasibility study as a circulating air barrier. This report contains analyses of the costs and relative risks associated with combinations retrieval technologies and barrier technologies that from 14 alternatives. Eight of the alternatives include the use of subsurface barriers; the remaining six nonbarrier alternative are included in order to compare the costs, relative risks and other values of retrieval with subsurface barriers. Each alternative includes various combinations of technologies that can impact the risks associated with future contamination of the groundwater beneath the Hanford Site to varying degrees. Other potential risks associated with these alternatives, such as those related to accidents and airborne contamination resulting from retrieval and barrier emplacement operations, are not quantitatively evaluated in this report

  18. Feasibility study of tank leakage mitigation using subsurface barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treat, R.L.; Peters, B.B.; Cameron, R.J.; McCormak, W.D.; Trenkler, T.; Walters, M.F. [Ensearch Environmental, Inc. (United States); Rouse, J.K.; McLaughlin, T.J. [Bovay Northwest, Inc., Richland, WA (United States); Cruse, J.M. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-09-21

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has established the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) to satisfy manage and dispose of the waste currently stored in the underground storage tanks. The retrieval element of TWRS includes a work scope to develop subsurface impermeable barriers beneath SSTs. The barriers could serve as a means to contain leakage that may result from waste retrieval operations and could also support site closure activities by facilitating cleanup. Three types of subsurface barrier systems have emerged for further consideration: (1) chemical grout, (2) freeze walls, and (3) desiccant, represented in this feasibility study as a circulating air barrier. This report contains analyses of the costs and relative risks associated with combinations retrieval technologies and barrier technologies that from 14 alternatives. Eight of the alternatives include the use of subsurface barriers; the remaining six nonbarrier alternative are included in order to compare the costs, relative risks and other values of retrieval with subsurface barriers. Each alternative includes various combinations of technologies that can impact the risks associated with future contamination of the groundwater beneath the Hanford Site to varying degrees. Other potential risks associated with these alternatives, such as those related to accidents and airborne contamination resulting from retrieval and barrier emplacement operations, are not quantitatively evaluated in this report.

  19. Improving energy efficiency in industrial energy systems an interdisciplinary perspective on barriers, energy audits, energy management, policies, and programs

    CERN Document Server

    Thollander, Patrik

    2012-01-01

    Industrial energy efficiency is one of the most important means of reducing the threat of increased global warming. Research however states that despite the existence of numerous technical energy efficiency measures, its deployment is hindered by the existence of various barriers to energy efficiency. The complexity of increasing energy efficiency in manufacturing industry calls for an interdisciplinary approach to the issue. Improving energy efficiency in industrial energy systems applies an interdisciplinary perspective in examining energy efficiency in industrial energy systems, and discuss

  20. Contaminant fluxes through site containment barriers: Performance assessment and illustrative results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contaminant mass flux by advective and diffusive transport is predicted for five containment barriers that use one or more clay liners, flexible membrane liners (FMLs), or liquid collection and removal systems (LCRS)s. Barriers are engineered systems intended to contain and isolate site contaminants from the environment. Barriers include liners, caps, and cutoff walls. Barriers may be used in contaminated-site cleanups (including CERCLA and RCRA), RCRA landfills, or other RCRA TSDFs. Concepts are provided for barrier performance assessment, including analysis and optimization, for meeting performance requirements and controlling risk at minimum cost. Concepts and results can help in planning, designing, or evaluating and communicating, the use or effectiveness of proposed or existing barriers for site cleanups or waste containment. 15 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs

  1. Drywall construction as a dental radiation barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Six typical forms of drywall construction have been tested as barriers against primary and secondary dental x-radiation. It is concluded that this widely used type of wall construction is generally effective for this purpose, but with a heavy workload two thicknesses of wallboard on each side of the wall are required to provide a sufficient barrier. In general, no lead need be incorporated in the walls

  2. Drywall construction as a dental radiation barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, J C; Reid, J A; Berthoty, D

    1983-03-01

    Six typical forms of drywall construction have been tested as barriers against primary and secondary dental x-radiation. It is concluded that this widely used type of wall construction is generally effective for this purpose, but with a heavy workload two thicknesses of wallboard on each side of the wall are required to provide a sufficient barrier. In general, no lead need be incorporated in the walls. PMID:6572885

  3. PRACTICAL EARTH ANCHORING TECHNOLOGY FOR STRENGTHENING SLOPE WALL PROTECTION (CASE STUDY: DG. SIRUA ROAD POST CONSTRUCTION FAILURE WITH SKYHOOK ??? GRID BEAM TECHNOLOGY IN MAKASSAR CITY ??? INDONESIA)

    OpenAIRE

    Samang, Lawalenna; Hino, Takenori; Harianto, Tri; Ramli, Muhammad Isran; Walenna, Muhammad Akbar

    2013-01-01

    The application of soil anchoring system and grid beam method of strengthening protection wall post construction failure was observed in this research. The construction of the slope wall protection is situated to suit the existence of barrier made for aqueduct. Based on the numerical simulation on scenario of potential causes of slope failure, it indicates several phenomena such as the stability of barrier foundation experiences drastic drop. Scrutinizing the result of investigation and ideal...

  4. Conceptual Design and Feasibility Analyses of a Robotic System for Automated Exterior Wall Painting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young S. Kim

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available There are approximately 6,677,000 apartment housing units in South Korea. Exterior wall painting for such multi-dwelling apartment housings in South Korea represents a typical area to which construction automation technology can be applied for improvement in safety, productivity, quality, and cost over the conventional method. The conventional exterior wall painting is costly and labor-intensive, and it especially exposes workers to significant health and safety risks. The primary objective of this study is to design a conceptual model of an exterior wall painting robot which is applicable to apartment housing construction and maintenance, and to conduct its technical?economical feasibility analyses. In this study, a design concept using a high ladder truck is proposed as the best alternative for automation of the exterior wall painting. Conclusions made in this study show that the proposed exterior wall painting robot is technically and economically feasible, and can greatly enhance safety, productivity, and quality compared to the conventional method. Finally, it is expected that the conceptual model of the exterior wall painting robot would be efficiently used in various applications in exterior wall finishing and maintenance of other architectural and civil structures such as commercial buildings, towers, and high-rise storage tanks.

  5. Comparison of Interfacial and Wall Friction Models in Thermal-Hydraulic System Analysis Codes (Rev1.0)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This reports is a literature survey on models and correlations for interfacial and wall friction models that are used to simulate thermal-hydraulics in nuclear reactors. The interfacial and wall frictions are needed to solve the momentum equations of gas, continuous liquid and droplet. Not only existing system codes, such as RELAP5-3D, TRAC-M, MARS, TRACE, CATHARE) but also up-to-date researches were reviewed. This report is a revised version of the previous technical report(KAERI/TR-3437/2007)

  6. Large eddy simulation of compressible turbulent channel and annular pipe flows with system and wall rotations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joon Sang

    The compressible filtered Navier-Stokes equations were solved using a second order accurate finite volume method with low Mach number preconditioning. A dynamic subgrid-scale stress model accounted for the subgrid-scale turbulence. The study focused on the effects of buoyancy and rotation on the structure of turbulence and transport processes including heat transfer. Several different physical arrangements were studied as outlined below. The effects of buoyancy were first studied in a vertical channel using large eddy simulation (LES). The walls were maintained at constant temperatures, one heated and the other cooled. Results showed that aiding and opposing buoyancy forces emerge near the heated and cooled walls, respectively. In the aiding flow, the turbulent intensities and heat transfer were suppressed at large values of Grashof number. In the opposing flow, however, turbulence was enhanced with increased velocity fluctuations. Another buoyancy study considered turbulent flow in a vertically oriented annulus. Isoflux wall boundary conditions with low and high heating were imposed on the inner wall while the outer wall was adiabatic. The results showed that the strong heating and buoyancy force caused distortions of the flow structure resulting in reduction of turbulent intensities, shear stress, and turbulent heat flux, particularly near the heated wall. Flow in an annular pipe with and without an outer wall rotation about its axis was first investigated at moderate Reynolds numbers. When the outer pipe wall was rotated, a significant reduction of turbulent kinetic energy was realized near the rotating wall. Secondly, a large eddy simulation has been performed to investigate the effect of swirl on the heat and momentum transfer in an annular pipe flow with a rotating inner wall. The simulations indicated that the Nusselt number and the wall friction coefficient increased with increasing rotation speed of the wall. It was also observed that the axial velocity

  7. Diffusive Transport of Sulphide through an Engineering Barrier System in a Deep Geological Repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, S. A.; Sleep, B. E.; McKelvie, J. R. M.; Krol, M.

    2015-12-01

    Bentonite is a naturally occurring clay-rich sediment containing montmorillonite, a smectitic clay mineral that has a high cation exchange capacity and swells upon contact with water. Owing to these characteristics, highly compacted bentonite (HCB) is an often included component of engineered barrier systems (EBS) designed to protect used fuel containers (UFCs) in deep geological repositories (DGR) for high-level nuclear waste. The low water activity and high swelling pressure of HCB suppresses microbial activity and the related production of sulphide that could cause microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) of UFCs The Canadian Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO) has chosen a UFC that consists of an inner steel core and outer copper coating which is resistant to corrosion. However, under anaerobic conditions, MIC can still contribute to UFC corrosion if sulphides are present in the groundwater. Therefore the EBS consisting of bentonite blocks and pellets has been designed to impede the movement of sulphides to the UFC. In order to examine the effectiveness of the EBS, a 3D numerical model was developed capable of simulating the diffusive transport of sulphide within the NWMO EBS. The model was developed using COMSOL Multiphysics, a finite element software package and is parametric which allows the impact of different repository layouts to be assessed. The developed model was of the entire NWMO placement room, as well as, a stand-alone UFC and included conservative assumptions such as a fully saturated system and a constant concentration boundary condition. The results showed that the highest sulphide flux occurred at the semi-spherical end caps of the UFC. Further studies examined the effect of sulphide hotspots and fractures, representing possible EBS failure mechanisms. The model results highlight that even with conservative assumptions the chosen EBS will effectively protect the UFC from microbiologically influenced corrosion.

  8. Heat insulating closing system for pressure relief openings in partition walls, especially in nuclear reactor buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The invention refers to a heat insulating closing system for pressure relief openings in partition walls, especially those of nuclear reactor buildings in the region where the reactor coolant pipe nozzle of the reactor pressure vessel penetrates the biological shield, by means of closing elements fabricated from leightweight material, which are pressed out of their anchorage in case of an overpressure at the reactor side. The invention consists in the closing elements being designed as heat insulating modular inserts contacting at their front side by means of a circumferential shear edge an exterior sealing burst membrane, whose strength in the direction of the differential pressured is such that, if the admissible differential pressure is reached or exceeded the burst membrane is sheared off by the modular insert, which itself is pressed out of its seat. The modular insert may contain mineral fibers as insulating material or may totally consists of metal containing inside stratified insulating foils that are arranged at some distance with respect to each other in the insulating direction and which form insulting cells. (orig./RW)

  9. Activated corrosion products in ITER first wall and shielding blanket heat transfer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corrosion and erosion phenomena play an important role in mobilizing activated materials in fusion machines. This paper deals with the assessment of the activated corrosion products (ACPs) related to the primary heat transfer system (PHTS) of the first wall/shielding blanket (FW/SB) of the ITER plant. ACPs could be a cause for concern in terms of occupational radiation exposure (ORE) in maintenance scenarios. They could also be relevant in the case of severe accidents, such as ex-vessel LOCAs. The assessment mainly refers to the TAC-4 design developed for ITER. The mobilization of the activated material has been estimated with the qualified CEA code PACTOLE. It considers all the chemical and physical phenomena responsible for corrosion, activation and transport of corrosion products in cooling loops. The XSDNRPM-S code is used for neutronic calculations; the ANITA-2 code for activation calculations. The results obtained show the improvement gained, in terms of corrosion and radioactive inventory reduction, by avoiding the use of the boron as additive. Results obtained point out the impact of the main water chemistry parameters (e.g., water temperature and pH) on ACP production, transport and deposition. A parametric comparison has been carried out considering the coolant flowing during dwell periods, two different in-vessel FW/SB AISI 316L compositions and two fluences: 0.3 and 3 MW·y/m2

  10. Concrete Open-Wall Systems Wrapped with FRP under Torsional Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentino P. Berardi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The static behavior of reinforced concrete (RC beams plated with layers of fiber-reinforced composite material (FRP is widely investigated in current literature, which deals with both its numerical modeling as well as experiments. Scientific interest in this topic is explained by the increasing widespread use of composite materials in retrofitting techniques, as well as the consolidation and upgrading of existing reinforced concrete elements to new service conditions. The effectiveness of these techniques is typically influenced by the debonding of the FRP at the interface with concrete, where the transfer of stresses occurs from one element (RC member to the other (FRP strengthening. In fact, the activation of the well-known premature failure modes can be regarded as a consequence of high peak values of the interfacial interactions. Until now, typical applications of FRP structural plating have included cases of flexural or shear-flexural strengthening. Within this context, the present study aims at extending the investigation to the case of wall-systems with open cross-section under torsional loads. It includes the results of some numerical analyses carried out by means of a finite element approximation.

  11. Decontamination systems information and research program -- Literature review in support of development of standard test protocols and barrier design models for in situ formed barriers project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy is responsible for approximately 3,000 sites in which contaminants such as carbon tetrachloride, trichlorethylene, perchlorethylene, non-volatile and soluble organic and insoluble organics (PCBs and pesticides) are encountered. In specific areas of these sites radioactive contaminants are stored in underground storage tanks which were originally designed and constructed with a 30-year projected life. Many of these tanks are now 10 years beyond the design life and failures have occurred allowing the basic liquids (ph of 8 to 9) to leak into the unconsolidated soils below. Nearly one half of the storage tanks located at the Hanford Washington Reservation are suspected of leaking and contaminating the soils beneath them. The Hanford site is located in a semi-arid climate region with rainfall of less than 6 inches annually, and studies have indicated that very little of this water finds its way to the groundwater to move the water down gradient toward the Columbia River. This provides the government with time to develop a barrier system to prevent further contamination of the groundwater, and to develop and test remediation systems to stabilize or remove the contaminant materials. In parallel to remediation efforts, confinement and containment technologies are needed to retard or prevent the advancement of contamination plumes through the environment until the implementation of remediation technology efforts are completed. This project examines the various confinement and containment technologies and protocols for testing the materials in relation to their function in-situ

  12. Decontamination systems information and research program -- Literature review in support of development of standard test protocols and barrier design models for in situ formed barriers project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-01

    The US Department of Energy is responsible for approximately 3,000 sites in which contaminants such as carbon tetrachloride, trichlorethylene, perchlorethylene, non-volatile and soluble organic and insoluble organics (PCBs and pesticides) are encountered. In specific areas of these sites radioactive contaminants are stored in underground storage tanks which were originally designed and constructed with a 30-year projected life. Many of these tanks are now 10 years beyond the design life and failures have occurred allowing the basic liquids (ph of 8 to 9) to leak into the unconsolidated soils below. Nearly one half of the storage tanks located at the Hanford Washington Reservation are suspected of leaking and contaminating the soils beneath them. The Hanford site is located in a semi-arid climate region with rainfall of less than 6 inches annually, and studies have indicated that very little of this water finds its way to the groundwater to move the water down gradient toward the Columbia River. This provides the government with time to develop a barrier system to prevent further contamination of the groundwater, and to develop and test remediation systems to stabilize or remove the contaminant materials. In parallel to remediation efforts, confinement and containment technologies are needed to retard or prevent the advancement of contamination plumes through the environment until the implementation of remediation technology efforts are completed. This project examines the various confinement and containment technologies and protocols for testing the materials in relation to their function in-situ.

  13. Barrier distribution of quasi-elastic backward scattering in very heavy reaction systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have measured quasi-elastic backward scattering in the reactions of 48Ti, 54Cr, 56Fe, 64Ni, 70Zn, 76Ge and 86Kr + 208Pb to study the nucleus-nucleus interaction in Pb-based cold fusion. The barrier distributions were obtained from the first derivative of the measured excitation functions of quasi-elastic scattering cross sections normalized to the Rutherford scattering cross sections. The centroids of the barrier distributions showed deviations from several predicted barrier heights toward the low energy side except for the Christensen-Winther potential and the Akuez-Winther potential. The shapes of the barrier distributions were well reproduced by the results of a coupled-channel calculation taking account of the coupling effects of multi-phonon excitations of the quadrupole vibration for the projectiles and of the octupole vibration for the 208Pb target. The present barrier distributions were also well reproduced by a semiclassical calculation taking into account the couplings of transfer channels and single-phonon excitations in the projectiles and the target. (author)

  14. Engineered Barrier System - Long-term Stability of Buffer and Backfill. Synthesis and extended abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apted, Mick; Arthur, Randy [Monitor Scientific LLC, Denver, CO (United States); Savage, Dave [Quintessa Ltd., Nottingham (GB)] (eds.)

    2005-09-15

    SKI is preparing to review the license applications being developed by the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) for an encapsulation plant and a deep repository for the geological disposal of spent nuclear fuel. As part of its preparation, SKI is conducting a series of technical workshops on key aspects of the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) of the repository. This workshop concerns the longterm stability of the buffer and the backfill. Previous workshops have addressed the overall concept for long-term integrity of the EBS, the manufacturing, testing and QA of the EBS and the performance confirmation for the EBS. The goal of this work is to achieve a comprehensive overview of all aspects of SKB's EBS work prior to the handling of forthcoming license applications. The reports from the EBS workshops will be used as one important basis in future review work. The workshops involve the gathering of a sufficient number of independent experts in different subjects of relevance to the particular aspect of EBS. A workshop starts with presentations and discussions among these experts. Following this, SKB presents recent results and responds to questions as part of an informal hearing. Finally, the independent experts and the SKI staff examine the SKB responses from different viewpoints. This report aims to summarise the issues discussed at the buffer and backfill workshop and to extract the essential viewpoints that have been expressed. The report is not a comprehensive record of the discussions and individual statements made by workshop participants should be regarded as opinions rather than proven facts. This reports includes apart from the workshop synthesis, questions to SKB identified prior or during the workshop, and extended abstracts for introductory presentations.

  15. Monitoring fluid evolution in an Engineered Barrier System using NEO-magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigonat, N.; Butler, I. B.

    2015-12-01

    Long-term monitoring of the evolution of the engineered barrier system (EBS) of a Geological Disposal Facility (GDF) is important for establishing the safety case for deep disposal of the UK inventory of high level radioactive waste. With a view to developing techniques for remote fluid monitoring using magnetic properties, we have examined the correlation between the corrosion properties of NEO-magnets and related changes in the magnetic properties of the alloy with fluid chemistry and crystal-chemical changes of the Na-bentonite matrix. Batch experiments comprised fragments of NEO-magnets with deionised water, saline and alkaline solution both in the presence and absence of MX-80 bentonite, and were performed in sealed vessels for durations of up to 5 months at 70°C. This study combined PXRD, thermomagnetic and hysteresis analysis to demonstrate how progressive hydrogenation of the main magnetic phase led to a maximum loss of remanence and coercitivity and increasing Curie temperature in the samples reacted with deionised water with the samples reacted in saline and alkaline solutions showing smaller changes. Semi-quantitative analysis allowed comparison of the Curie temperatures with crystal-chemical parameters. This reveals a clear positive correlation of increasing lattice parameters a and c (and cell volume) with mean hydrogens per unit formula and the Curie temperature of the product NdFeB hydrides. Precipitation of Nd and Fe hydrides/oxyhydroxides is also demonstated by the PXRD data. A crucial role is played by the transformations occurring to the smectite matrix, in particular by the cation exchange in the interlayer, which causes precipitation of highly charged K- and Ca-smectites. This study demonstrates how NEO-magnets are capable of detecting water saturation in the EBS, and that the NdFeB corrosion properties are strongly controlled by the initial fluid composition and presence / absence of the bentonite matrix.

  16. Thermal High- and Low-Cycle Fatigue Behavior of Thick Thermal Barrier Coating Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Robert A.

    1998-01-01

    Ceramic thermal barrier coatings have received increasing attention for advanced gas turbine and diesel engine applications because of their ability to provide thermal insulation to engine components. However, the durability of these coatings under the severe thermal cycling conditions encountered in a diesel engine (ref. 1) still remains a major issue. In this research at the NASA Lewis Research Center, a high-power laser was used to investigate the thermal fatigue behavior of a yttria-stabilized zirconia coating system under simulated diesel engine conditions. The mechanisms of fatigue crack initiation and propagation, and of coating failure under complex thermal low-cycle fatigue (LCF, representing stop/start cycles) and thermal high-cycle fatigue (HCF, representing operation at 1300 rpm) are described. Continuous wave and pulse laser modes were used to simulate pure LCF and combined LCF/HCF, respectively (ref. 2). The LCF mechanism was found to be closely related to the coating sintering and creep at high temperatures. These creep strains in the ceramic coating led to a tensile stress state during cooling, thus providing the major driving force for crack growth under LCF conditions. The combined LCF/HCF tests induced more severe coating surface cracking, microspallation, and accelerated crack growth than did the pure LCF test. HCF thermal loads also facilitated lateral crack branching and ceramic/bond coat interface delaminations. HCF is associated with the cyclic stresses originating from the high-frequency temperature fluctuation at the ceramic coating surface. The HCF thermal loads act on the crack by a wedging mechanism (ref. 1), resulting in continuous crack growth at temperature. The HCF stress intensity factor amplitude increases with the interaction depth and temperature swing, and decreases with the crack depth. HCF damage also increases with the thermal expansion coefficient and the Young's modulus of the ceramic coating (refs. 1 and 3).

  17. Engineered Barrier System - Long-term Stability of Buffer and Backfill. Synthesis and extended abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SKI is preparing to review the license applications being developed by the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) for an encapsulation plant and a deep repository for the geological disposal of spent nuclear fuel. As part of its preparation, SKI is conducting a series of technical workshops on key aspects of the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) of the repository. This workshop concerns the longterm stability of the buffer and the backfill. Previous workshops have addressed the overall concept for long-term integrity of the EBS, the manufacturing, testing and QA of the EBS and the performance confirmation for the EBS. The goal of this work is to achieve a comprehensive overview of all aspects of SKB's EBS work prior to the handling of forthcoming license applications. The reports from the EBS workshops will be used as one important basis in future review work. The workshops involve the gathering of a sufficient number of independent experts in different subjects of relevance to the particular aspect of EBS. A workshop starts with presentations and discussions among these experts. Following this, SKB presents recent results and responds to questions as part of an informal hearing. Finally, the independent experts and the SKI staff examine the SKB responses from different viewpoints. This report aims to summarise the issues discussed at the buffer and backfill workshop and to extract the essential viewpoints that have been expressed. The report is not a comprehensive record of the discussions and individual statements made by workshop participants should be regarded as opinions rather than proven facts. This reports includes apart from the workshop synthesis, questions to SKB identified prior or during the workshop, and extended abstracts for introductory presentations

  18. Pathways and Hydrography in the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System Part 1: Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, L.; Johns, E. M.; Smith, R. H.; Lamkin, J. T.; Largier, J. L.

    2015-10-01

    Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) measurements and surface drifters released from two oceanographic cruises conducted during March 2006 and January/February 2007 are used to investigate the circulation off the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System (MBRS). We show that the MBRS circulation can be divided into two distinct regimes, a northern region dominated by the strong, northward-flowing Yucatan Current, and a southern region with weaker southward coastal currents and the presence of the Honduras Gyre. The latitude of impingement of the Cayman Current onto the coastline varies with time, and creates a third region, which acts as a boundary between the northern and southern circulation regimes. This circulation pattern yields two zones in terms of dispersal, with planktonic propagules in the northern region being rapidly exported to the north, whereas plankton in the southern and impingement regions may be retained locally or regionally. The latitude of the impingement region shifts interannually and intra-annually up to 3° in latitude. Sub-mesoscale features are observed in association with topography, e.g., flow bifurcation around Cozumel Island, flow wake north of Chinchorro Bank and separation of flow from the coast just north of Bahia de la Ascencion. This third feature is evident as cyclonic recirculation in coastal waters, which we call the Ascencion-Cozumel Coastal Eddy. An understanding of the implications of these different circulation regimes on water mass distributions, population connectivity, and the fate of land-based pollutants in the MBRS is critically important to better inform science-based resource management and conservation plans for the MBRS coral reefs.

  19. System and Patient Barriers to Care among People Living with HIV/AIDS in Houston/Harris County, Texas: HIV Medical Care Providers' Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mgbere, Osaro; Khuwaja, Salma; Bell, Tanvir K; Rodriguez-Barradas, Maria C; Arafat, Raouf; Essien, Ekere James; Singh, Mamta; Aguilar, Jonathan; Roland, Eric

    2015-01-01

    In the United States, a considerable number of people diagnosed with HIV are not receiving HIV medical care due to some barriers. Using data from the Medical Monitoring Project survey of HIV medical care providers in Houston/Harris County, Texas, we assessed the HIV medical care providers' perspectives of the system and patient barriers to HIV care experienced by people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). The study findings indicate that of the 14 HIV care barriers identified, only 1 system barrier and 7 patient barriers were considered of significant (P ≤ .05) importance, with the proportion of HIV medical care providers' agreement to these barriers ranging from 73.9% (cost of health care) to 100% (lack of social support systems and drug abuse problems). Providers' perception of important system and patient barriers varied significantly (P ≤ .05) by profession, race/ethnicity, and years of experience in HIV care. To improve access to and for consistent engagement in HIV care, effective intervention programs are needed to address the barriers identified especially in the context of the new health care delivery system. PMID:24943655

  20. Cell Wall

    OpenAIRE

    Jamet, Elisabeth; Canut, Hervé; Boudart, Georges; Albenne, Cécile; Pont-Lezica, Rafael F

    2008-01-01

    This chapter covers our present knowledge of cell wall proteomics highlighting the distinctive features of cell walls and cell wall proteins in relation to problems encountered for protein extraction, separation and identification. It provides clues to design strategies for efficient cell wall proteomic studies. It gives an overview of the kinds of proteins that have yet been identified: the expected proteins vs the identified proteins. Finally, the new vision of the cell wall proteome, and t...

  1. Method of installing subsurface barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickelson, Reva A.; Richardson, John G.; Kostelnik, Kevin M.; Sloan, Paul A.

    2007-10-09

    Systems, components, and methods relating to subterranean containment barriers. Laterally adjacent tubular casings having male interlock structures and multiple female interlock structures defining recesses for receiving a male interlock structure are used to create subterranean barriers for containing and treating buried waste and its effluents. The multiple female interlock structures enable the barriers to be varied around subsurface objects and to form barrier sidewalls. The barrier may be used for treating and monitoring a zone of interest.

  2. Functionally gradient materials for thermal barrier coatings in advanced gas turbine systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banovic, S.W.; Barmak, K.; Chan, H.M. [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    New designs for advanced gas turbine engines for power production are required to have higher operating temperatures in order to increase efficiency. However, elevated temperatures will increase the magnitude and severity of environmental degradation of critical turbine components (e.g. combustor parts, turbine blades, etc{hor_ellipsis}). To offset this problem, the usage of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) has become popular by allowing an increase in maximum inlet temperatures for an operating engine. Although thermal barrier technology is over thirty years old, the principle failure mechanism is the spallation of the ceramic coating at or near the ceramic/bond coat interface. Therefore, it is desirable to develop a coating that combines the thermal barrier qualities of the ceramic layer and the corrosion protection by the metallic bond coat without the detrimental effects associated with the localization of the ceramic/metal interface to a single plane.

  3. The Development of Environmental Barrier Coating Systems for SiC-SiC Ceramic Matrix Composites: Environment Effects on the Creep and Fatigue Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming; Ghosn, Louis J.

    2014-01-01

    Topics covered include: Environmental barrier coating system development: needs, challenges and limitations; Advanced environmental barrier coating systems (EBCs) for CMC airfoils and combustors; NASA EBC systems and material system evolutions, Current turbine and combustor EBC coating emphases, Advanced development, processing, testing and modeling, EBC and EBC bond coats: recent advances; Design tool and life prediction of coated CMC components; Advanced CMC-EBC rig demonstrations; Summary and future directions.

  4. Cell walls of Saccharomyces cerevisiae differentially modulated innate immunity and glucose metabolism during late systemic inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bushansingh Baurhoo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Salmonella causes acute systemic inflammation by using its virulence factors to invade the intestinal epithelium. But, prolonged inflammation may provoke severe body catabolism and immunological diseases. Salmonella has become more life-threatening due to emergence of multiple-antibiotic resistant strains. Mannose-rich oligosaccharides (MOS from cells walls of Saccharomyces cerevisiae have shown to bind mannose-specific lectin of Gram-negative bacteria including Salmonella, and prevent their adherence to intestinal epithelial cells. However, whether MOS may potentially mitigate systemic inflammation is not investigated yet. Moreover, molecular events underlying innate immune responses and metabolic activities during late inflammation, in presence or absence of MOS, are unknown. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using a Salmonella LPS-induced systemic inflammation chicken model and microarray analysis, we investigated the effects of MOS and virginiamycin (VIRG, a sub-therapeutic antibiotic on innate immunity and glucose metabolism during late inflammation. Here, we demonstrate that MOS and VIRG modulated innate immunity and metabolic genes differently. Innate immune responses were principally mediated by intestinal IL-3, but not TNF-α, IL-1 or IL-6, whereas glucose mobilization occurred through intestinal gluconeogenesis only. MOS inherently induced IL-3 expression in control hosts. Consequent to LPS challenge, IL-3 induction in VIRG hosts but not differentially expressed in MOS hosts revealed that MOS counteracted LPS's detrimental inflammatory effects. Metabolic pathways are built to elucidate the mechanisms by which VIRG host's higher energy requirements were met: including gene up-regulations for intestinal gluconeogenesis (PEPCK and liver glycolysis (ENO2, and intriguingly liver fatty acid synthesis through ATP citrate synthase (CS down-regulation and ATP citrate lyase (ACLY and malic enzyme (ME up-regulations. However, MOS host

  5. Ultrasonic Digital Communication System for a Steel Wall Multipath Channel: Methods and Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TL Murphy

    2006-02-16

    As of the development of this thesis, no commercially available products have been identified for the digital communication of instrumented data across a thick ({approx} 6 n.) steel wall using ultrasound. The specific goal of the current research is to investigate the application of methods for digital communication of instrumented data (i.e., temperature, voltage, etc.) across the wall of a steel pressure vessel. The acoustic transmission of data using ultrasonic transducers prevents the need to breach the wall of such a pressure vessel which could ultimately affect its safety or lifespan, or void the homogeneity of an experiment under test. Actual digital communication paradigms are introduced and implemented for the successful dissemination of data across such a wall utilizing solely an acoustic ultrasonic link. The first, dubbed the ''single-hop'' configuration, can communicate bursts of digital data one-way across the wall using the Differential Binary Phase-Shift Keying (DBPSK) modulation technique as fast as 500 bps. The second, dubbed the ''double-hop'' configuration, transmits a carrier into the vessel, modulates it, and retransmits it externally. Using a pulsed carrier with Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM), this technique can communicate digital data as fast as 500 bps. Using a CW carrier, Least Mean-Squared (LMS) adaptive interference suppression, and DBPSK, this method can communicate data as fast as 5 kbps. A third technique, dubbed the ''reflected-power'' configuration, communicates digital data by modulating a pulsed carrier by varying the acoustic impedance at the internal transducer-wall interface. The paradigms of the latter two configurations are believed to be unique. All modulation methods are based on the premise that the wall cannot be breached in any way and can therefore be viably implemented with power delivered wirelessly through the acoustic channel using ultrasound. Methods

  6. Exploring Barriers of the Health System to Rehabilitation Services for People with Disabilities in Iran: A Qualitative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Abdi, Kianoush; Arab, Mohammad; Rashidian, Arash; Kamali, Mohammad; Khankeh, Hamid Reza; Farahani, Farideh Khalajabadi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The United Nations (UN) identified health as a basic human right, but, unfortunately, the evidence shows that people with disabilities (PWD) often have lower levels of health than the general population. This can be associated with problems in access to the services and programs. The aim of this study was to explore barriers of the health system to rehabilitation services for PWD in Iran. Methods This was a qualitative study conducted on 21 participants using semi-structured, in-...

  7. Evaluation of Perivascular Adhesion Formation in New Zealand White Rabbits Using Oxiplex and DuraSeal Xact Adhesion Barrier System

    OpenAIRE

    Mo, Fred; Yue, James; Zhang, Jianghui; Howk, Kreg; Williams, Allister

    2009-01-01

    Background Adhesion formation after spine surgery is a result of normal wound healing that may place patients at increased risk for complications during revision surgery. Preventing adhesions could reduce the risk of complications during revision surgery, and possibly reduce the need for revision procedures. This study evaluates the ability of DuraSeal Xact Adhesion Barrier System (DSX) (Covidien, Mansfield, Massachusetts) and Oxiplex/SP gel (OX) (FzioMed, San Luis Obispo, California) to affe...

  8. Ultrasound-mediated blood-brain barrier disruption for targeted drug delivery in the central nervous system

    OpenAIRE

    Aryal, Muna; Arvanitis, Costas D.; Alexander, Phillip M.; McDannold, Nathan

    2014-01-01

    The physiology of the vasculature in the central nervous system (CNS), which includes the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and other factors, complicates the delivery of most drugs to the brain. Different methods have been used to bypass the BBB, but they have limitations such as being invasive, non-targeted or requiring the formulation of new drugs. Focused ultrasound (FUS), when combined with circulating microbubbles, is a noninvasive method to locally and transiently disrupt the BBB at discrete t...

  9. Identification of barriers and monitored the implementation of electronic training system and provide solutions to fix it

    OpenAIRE

    HELMİ, Shamameh

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Barriers to implementing e-learning systems may be related to the organization, manpower or technology-related factors. Given the many obstacles that have been detected, managerial and human factors are the main obstacles in this study.A reliable and valid questionnaire was distributed among management organizational development and human capital Tehran University of Medical Sciences staff. For analysis of data obtained through questionnaires SPSS statistical software is used. The m...

  10. Effects of barrier fluctuation on the tunneling dynamics in the presence of classical chaos in a mixed quantum-classical system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Aparna Saha; Bidhan Chandra Bag; Pranab Sarkar

    2007-03-01

    We present a numerical investigation of the tunneling dynamics of a particle moving in a bistable potential with fluctuating barrier which is coupled to a non-integrable classical system and study the interplay between classical chaos and barrier fluctuation in the tunneling dynamics. We found that the coupling of the quantum system with the classical subsystem decreases the tunneling rate irrespective of whether the classical subsystem is regular or chaotic and also irrespective of the fact that whether the barrier fluctuates or not. Presence of classical chaos always enhances the tunneling rate constant. The effect of barrier fluctuation on the tunneling rate in a mixed quantum-classical system is to suppress the tunneling rate. In contrast to the case of regular subsystem, the suppression arising due to barrier fluctuation is more visible when the subsystem is chaotic.

  11. Immune cell trafficking across the barriers of the central nervous system in multiple sclerosis and stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes Pinheiro, Melissa A; Kooij, Gijs; Mizee, Mark R; Kamermans, Alwin; Enzmann, Gaby; Lyck, Ruth; Schwaninger, Markus; Engelhardt, Britta; de Vries, Helga E

    2016-03-01

    Each year about 650,000 Europeans die from stroke and a similar number lives with the sequelae of multiple sclerosis (MS). Stroke and MS differ in their etiology. Although cause and likewise clinical presentation set the two diseases apart, they share common downstream mechanisms that lead to damage and recovery. Demyelination and axonal injury are characteristics of MS but are also observed in stroke. Conversely, hallmarks of stroke, such as vascular impairment and neurodegeneration, are found in MS. However, the most conspicuous common feature is the marked neuroinflammatory response, marked by glia cell activation and immune cell influx. In MS and stroke the blood-brain barrier is disrupted allowing bone marrow-derived macrophages to invade the brain in support of the resident microglia. In addition, there is a massive invasion of auto-reactive T-cells into the brain of patients with MS. Though less pronounced a similar phenomenon is also found in ischemic lesions. Not surprisingly, the two diseases also resemble each other at the level of gene expression and the biosynthesis of other proinflammatory mediators. While MS has traditionally been considered to be an autoimmune neuroinflammatory disorder, the role of inflammation for cerebral ischemia has only been recognized later. In the case of MS the long track record as neuroinflammatory disease has paid off with respect to treatment options. There are now about a dozen of approved drugs for the treatment of MS that specifically target neuroinflammation by modulating the immune system. Interestingly, experimental work demonstrated that drugs that are in routine use to mitigate neuroinflammation in MS may also work in stroke models. Examples include Fingolimod, glatiramer acetate, and antibodies blocking the leukocyte integrin VLA-4. Moreover, therapeutic strategies that were discovered in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the animal model of MS, turned out to be also effective in experimental

  12. Evaluation of Three Cases Using a Novel Titanium Mesh System-Skull-Fit with Orbital Wall (Skull-Fit WOW)-For Cranial Base Reconstructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Noriko; Nakajima, Hideo; Tamada, Ikkei; Sakamoto, Yoshiaki; Ohira, Takayuki; Yoshida, Kazunari; Kawase, Takeshi; Kishi, Kazuo

    2011-09-01

    Cranial base reconstructions associated with tumor resections around the orbital wall often require that both the upper and lateral orbital walls be reconstructed during a single procedure. Previously, we used titanium mesh plates that were preoperatively fabricated based on three-dimensional models. Although these plates are precise and do not increase the probability of infection, we still had to use autologous bones to reconstruct the orbital walls. Recently, we developed a new titanium mesh plate-called Skull-Fit(®)-with orbital wall (Skull-Fit WOW(®)), enabling us to reconstruct the cranial base and orbital walls without bone grafts. Here, we report on three reconstruction cases in which the novel titanium mesh-orbital wall system was used. In all three cases, the customized titanium mesh system performed satisfactorily with little, if any, complications. PMID:22451827

  13. Modelling Coupled Processes in the Evolution of Repository Engineered Barrier Systems using QPAC-EBS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A satisfactory understanding of the evolution of repository engineered barrier systems (EBS) is an essential part of the safety case for the repository. This involves consideration of coupled Thermal (T), Hydro (H), Mechanical (M) and Chemical (C) processes. Quintessa's general-purpose modelling code QPAC is capable of representing strongly coupled non-linear processes and has been used in a wide range of applications. This code is the basis for software used by Quintessa in studies of the evolution of the EBS in a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel undertaken for SKI and then SSM since 2007. The collection of software components employed has been referred to collectively as QPAC-EBS, consisting of the core QPAC code together with relevant modules for T, H, M and C processes. QPAC-EBS employs a fundamentally different approach from dedicated codes that model such processes (although few codes can represent each type of process), enabling the specification of new processes and the associated governing equations in code input. Studies undertaken to date have demonstrated that QPAC-EBS can be used effectively to investigate both the early evolution of the EBS and important scenarios for the later evolution of the system when buffer erosion and canister corrosion may occur. A key issue for modelling EBS evolution is the satisfactory modelling of the behaviour of the bentonite buffer. Bentonite is a difficult material to model, partly because of the complex coupled mechanical, hydro and chemical processes involved in swelling during resaturation. Models employed to date have generally taken an empirical approach, but a new model developed during the EU THERESA project could be further developed to provide a better representation of these processes. QPAC-EBS could play an important role in supporting SSM.s review of the forthcoming SR-Site assessment by SKB if used by Quintessa in independent supporting calculations. To date radionuclide transport calculations

  14. Thermal cycling behaviour of thermal barrier coating systems based on first- and fourth-generation Ni-based superalloys

    OpenAIRE

    Duhamel, Cécilie; Chieux, Marion; Molins, Régine; Rémy, Luc; Monceau, Daniel; Rouaix-Vande Put, Aurélie; Guédou, Jean-Yves

    2012-01-01

    This study deals with the cyclic oxidation behaviour of thermal barrier coating systems. The systems consist of an yttria-stabilised zircona ceramic top coat deposited by EB-PVD, a b-(Ni,Pt)Al bond coat and a Ni-based superalloy. Two different superalloys are studied: a first-generation one and a fourthgeneration one containing Re, Ru and Hf. The aim of this work is to characterise the microstructural evolution of those systems and to correlate it to their resistance to spallation. Thermal cy...

  15. Experimental and modelling study on the long-term performance of the engineering barrier system of tru waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The long-term properties of the barrier system of the TRU waste repository will be assessed using the model that analyzes the geochemical reaction and the mass transport in that system. But there are data and models whose validity isn't adequately clear yet. RWMC had started the project of laboratory scale tests, natural analogous studies and numerical model analysis to improve the reliability of that model. The result of the four years of the study made it possible to change some conservative assumption to more realistic ones, and to show longer time stabilities of the repository system. (author)

  16. Natural Barriers of the Geosphere at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlt, H.; Kotra, J.; Mohanty, S.; Winterle, J.

    2005-05-01

    Geological repositories designed to isolate high-level radioactive waste need natural and engineered barriers that prevent or slow the release of radioactive elements into the accessible environment to acceptable regulatory limits. Under the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) regulations, a barrier is any material, structure, or feature that prevents or substantially reduces the rate of movement of water or radionuclides from the repository to the accessible environment. In 1982, Congress passed the Nuclear Waste Policy Act which directed the NRC to include multiple barriers in regulating geologic disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Accordingly, as provided in 10 CFR Part 63, the NRC's regulations for Yucca Mountain require a repository to include multiple barriers to ensure the system is robust and not wholly dependent on any single barrier. Any potential license application to construct a repository at Yucca Mountain must identify the multiple barriers (both natural and engineered), describe the capabilities of each barrier, and provide the technical bases for the capabilities of the barriers. The NRC believes that understanding the capability of the repository's component barriers improves understanding of the overall system. The objective of this paper is to discuss potential natural barriers of the geosphere at Yucca Mountain and describe the NRC regulatory requirements for such barriers. To better understand the natural barriers of the geosphere, it helps to divide the barriers into groups of features and their associated processes. Natural barriers, i.e., barriers not constructed by man, ideally include processes that delay the transport of radionuclides from reaching the accessible environment or limit the amount of water that can seep from a ground surface to the depth of an underground repository. Natural barriers at Yucca Mountain may include: topographic influences on precipitation runoff; soil and plants influences on evaporation and

  17. An evaluation of force-based design vs. direct displacement-based design of jointed precast post-tensioned wall systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. Ataur Rahman; Sri Sritharan

    2006-01-01

    The unique features of jointed post-tensioned wall systems, which include minimum structural damage and re-centering capability when subjected to earthquake lateral loads, are the result of using unbonded post-tensioning to attach the walls to the foundation, along with employing energy dissipating shear connectors between the walls. Using acceptance criteria defined in terms of inter-story drift, residual drift, and floor acceleration, this study presents a multiplelevel performance-based seismic evaluation of two five-story unbonded post-tensioned jointed precast wall systems. The design and analysis of these two wall systems, established as the direct displacement-based and force-based solutions for a prototype building used in the PREcast Seismic Structural Systems (PRESSS) program, were performed at 60% scale so that the analysis model could be validated using the PRESSS test data. Both buildings satisfied the performance criteria at four levels of earthquake motions although the design base shear of the direct displacement-based jointed wall system was 50%of that demanded by the force-based design method. The study also investigated the feasibility of controlling the maximum transient inter-story drift in a jointed wall system by increasing the number of energy dissipating shear connectors between the walls but without significantly affecting its re-centering capability.

  18. Exploring Barriers of the Health System to Rehabilitation Services for People with Disabilities in Iran: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdi, Kianoush; Arab, Mohammad; Rashidian, Arash; Kamali, Mohammad; Khankeh, Hamid Reza; Farahani, Farideh Khalajabadi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The United Nations (UN) identified health as a basic human right, but, unfortunately, the evidence shows that people with disabilities (PWD) often have lower levels of health than the general population. This can be associated with problems in access to the services and programs. The aim of this study was to explore barriers of the health system to rehabilitation services for PWD in Iran. Methods This was a qualitative study conducted on 21 participants using semi-structured, in-depth interviews and content analysis from June 2014 to July 2015. Data analysis was performed by MAXQDA version 10. Results “Barriers” were the most prominent challenge of people with disabilities that needed access to rehabilitation services. These barriers were categorized into eight concepts of deficiency in the system that provides rehabilitation services, defect of education, deficiency in detecting and screening of people with disability, defect of stewardship in rehabilitation, ignoring socio-cultural factors, accessibility hardships, lack of identification, and financial hardships in rehabilitation. Conclusions An efficient rehabilitation plan requires a common understanding, considering the long-term complications involved in addressing the barriers. Understanding the barriers of the health system to rehabilitation services requires comprehensive management that first should be familiar with all of PWD, providers, policy makers, and other beneficiaries. It also is necessary for policy makers to consider rehabilitation services as a main part of the health plan; especially, they must change their oversight of rehabilitation services and programs. Thus, policy makers should have need comprehensive management and recommended further research. PMID:26767101

  19. Modeling the Hydrogeochemical Transport of Radionuclides through Engineered Barriers System in the Proposed LLW Disposal Site of Taiwan - 12082

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Wen-Sheng [Hydrotech Research Institute, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Liu, Chen-Wuing; Tsao, Jui-Hsuan [Department of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Li, Ming-Hsu [Institute of Hydrological and Oceanic Sciences, National Central University, Jhongli, Taiwan (China)

    2012-07-01

    A proposed site for final disposal of low-level radioactive waste located in Daren Township of Taitung County along the southeastern coast has been on the selected list in Taiwan. The geology of the Daren site consists of argillite and meta-sedimentary rocks. A mined cavern design with a tunnel system of 500 m below the surface is proposed. Concrete is used as the main confinement material for the engineered barrier. To investigate the hydrogeochemical transport of radionuclides through engineered barriers system, HYDROGEOCHEM5.0 model was applied to simulate the complex chemical interactions among radionuclides, the cement minerals of the concrete, groundwater flow, and transport in the proposed site. The simulation results showed that the engineered barriers system with the side ditch efficiently drained the ground water and lowered the concentration of the concrete degradation induced species (e.g., hydrogen ion, sulfate, and chloride). The velocity of groundwater observed at side ditch gradually decreased with time due to the fouling of pore space by the mineral formation of ettringite and thaumasite. The short half-life of Co-60, Sr-90 and Cs-137 significantly reduced the concentrations, whereas the long half-life of I-129(1.57x10{sup 7} years) and Am-241(432 years) remain stable concentrations at the interface of waste canister and concrete barrier after 300 years. The mineral saturation index (SI) was much less than zero due to the low aqueous concentration of radionuclide, so that the precipitation formation of Co-60, Sr-90, I-129, Cs-137 and Am-241 related minerals were not found. The effect of adsorption/desorption (i.e., surface complexation model) could be a crucial geochemical mechanism for the modeling of liquid-solid phase behavior of radionuclide in geochemically dynamic environments. Moreover, the development of advanced numerical models that are coupled with hydrogeochemical transport and dose assessment of radionuclide is required in the future

  20. Upgrade of the protection system for the first wall at JET in the ITER Be and W tiles perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At JET the increase of the additional heating power and the first wall upgrade with a new Be and W tiles in preparation for ITER will require improving the protection system in order to guarantee the integrity of the wall. An accurate estimation of the power load and the temperature of the tiles during a discharge will become crucial to prevent damage to the structure. In that perspective the JET protection system (WALLS) has been substantially improved and is now running at JET. The plasma magnetic information and the input power to the plasma are used to evaluate the thermal load all along the first wall. The evolution of the power distribution and tile temperature during and after a discharge are then calculated by the system. A termination of the discharge is required if a thermal limit is reached or if a vulnerable area of the vessel is exposed to an excessive level of power. An improvement in the results has been obtained using more accurate plasma boundary and magnetic information [L.Zabeo et al.'A new approach to the solution of the vacuum magnetic problem in fusion machines' this conference], developing a detailed physical model (state space) for the heat diffusion for the tiles and having a better estimation of the power deposition and distribution. The real-time data provided by the bolometry has also been taken into the account in order to evaluate the radiated power. The calibration and validation of the system have been achieved with a systematic comparison between the implemented models and the temperatures provided by the thermocouples and the new Infrared Camera. In this paper a description of the structure of the system will be briefly summarized. The models adopted to estimate the power distribution and the thermal diffusion and the comparison with IR camera will be also reported, followed by some experimental examples. (author)

  1. An On-line Monitoring System for Hydrogen Distribution in the Metallic Wall Caused by Hydrogen Permeation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Based on the electrochemical permeation technique and the patent by Du, an intelligent electrochemical measurement system for determination of the hydrogen distribution in the wall of hydrogenation reactor has been developed and tested. lt consists of a PC computer, a single chip unit, an I/V converter and an electrochemical hydrogen probe. The construction of the electrochemical hydrogen probe is described and the features of the measured system are given.The diffusion coefficient of 2.25Cr1Mo steel determined with present system was in good agreement with the value in the literature. Experimental results of hydrogen concentration in a wall of hydrogen charged testing autoclave made of AlSl 321 stainless steel are presented. The present system can intelligently display hydrogen amount-of-substance concentration and mass fraction concentration, hydrogen concentration distribution curves in steels, permeation current density curve. An intelligent detection technique can be provided for predicting the susceptibility to hydrogen-induced cracks owing to hydrogen permeation in the wall of hydrogenation reactor in the field.

  2. Semimanufacture intended to be mounted on a vibrating wall or a vibrating panel for actively damping vibrations of the wall, wall or panel provided with such semimanufacture, system provided with a semimanufacture and a control unit, wall or panel provided with a control unit and method for damping audible vibrations of a wall or panel

    OpenAIRE

    Goeje, de, Marius; Overbeek, van, Wendy M.; Waal, de, P.R.; Berkhoff, Arthur P.; Nederveen, Peter J.

    2006-01-01

    A semimanufacture intended to be mounted on a vibrating wall or a vibrating panel for actively damping the vibrations in the wall or the panel with frequencies which are at least partly audible, wherein the semimanufacture is provided with a plate wherein the plate is integrated with: at least one vibration source for generating vibrations which, in use, damp the vibrations of the wall or the panel, at least one vibration sensor for detecting the vibrations in the wall or in the panel and wir...

  3. Concept for testing fusion first wall/blanket systems in existing nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel concept to produce a reasonable simulation of a fusion first wall/blanket test environment (except the 14 MeV neutron component) employing an existing nuclear facility is presented. Preliminary results show that an asymmetric, nuclear test environment with surface and volumetric heating rates similar to those expected in a fusion first wall/blanket or divertor chamber surface appears feasible. The proposed concept takes advantage of nuclear reactions within the annulus of a test space (15 cm in diameter and approximately 100 cm high) to provide an energy flux to the surface of a test module

  4. ESTIMATION OF ENERGY COSTS OF EXTERNAL WALL SYSTEM ALTERNATIVES FOR DIFFERENT FUEL TYPES

    OpenAIRE

    Gülten, Ayça Aytaç

    2007-01-01

    In Turkey, most of the produced energy is used for heating. This situation emphasizes the need for insulation on buildings in Turkey because of the high cost of fuel. On the other hand it must be considered to select the appropriate materials for different building envelopes. In this study, payback periods were calculated on different 4 wall types, for the same insulation thickness and for the optimum insulation thickness of walls and for five different fuels. As a result, it was seen that wh...

  5. The Humming Wall

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morrison, Ann Judith; Manresa-Yee, Cristina; Jensen, Brian Walther Skovgaard; Eshraghi, Neda

    2016-01-01

    We observed interactions with The Humming Wall, a vibrotactile and vibroacoustic interactive artifact placed in an urban park. Prior studies have focused on interactivity with primarily vision based systems (or with this system, the interaction between the wall and a wearable vibrotactile vest...

  6. Fabrication and Characterization of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube (MWCNT) and Ni-Coated Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube (Ni-MWCNT) Repair Patches for Carbon Fiber Reinforced Composite Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Brienne; Caraccio, Anne; Tate, LaNetra; Jackson, Dionne

    2011-01-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)/epoxy and nickel-coated multi-walled carbon nanotube (Ni-MWCNT)/epoxy systems were fabricated into carbon fiber composite repair patches via vacuum resin infusion. Two 4 ply patches were manufactured with fiber orientations of [90/ 90/ 4590] and [0/90/ +45/ -45]. Prior to resin infusion, the MWCNT/Epoxy system and NiMWCNT/ epoxy systems were optimized for dispersion quality. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical microscopy (OM) were used to determine the presence ofcarbon nanotubes and assess dispersion quality. Decomposition temperatures were determined via thermogravametric analysis (TGA). SEM and TGA were also used to evaluate the composite repair patches.

  7. D-chart: a simple design method of the partial solar space heating system using a collector-storage wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khedari, J.; Daguenet, M. (Perpignan Univ., 66 (France)); Hirunlabh, J. (King Mongkut' s Institute of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok (Thailand))

    1993-05-01

    A new method, namely D-chart, is proposed for predicting the long term performance of solar space heating system using a collector-storage wall. The results of many simulations allow to develop a simple graphical method, represented by charts or polynomial relations. These charts establish relations between the annual fraction of heating supplied by solar energy and the surface area of collector-storage wall and the interior volume of the individual house. The charts are made by using the average annual values for a moderate climate (Perpignan, France) and the limits values of the volumic heat coefficients fixed by the French rules. The system operates from 6 a.m. to 12 p.m. (author). 8 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. The Development of HfO2-Rare Earth Based Oxide Materials and Barrier Coatings for Thermal Protection Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming; Harder, Bryan James

    2014-01-01

    Advanced hafnia-rare earth oxides, rare earth aluminates and silicates have been developed for thermal environmental barrier systems for aerospace propulsion engine and thermal protection applications. The high temperature stability, low thermal conductivity, excellent oxidation resistance and mechanical properties of these oxide material systems make them attractive and potentially viable for thermal protection systems. This paper will focus on the development of the high performance and high temperature capable ZrO2HfO2-rare earth based alloy and compound oxide materials, processed as protective coating systems using state-or-the-art processing techniques. The emphasis has been in particular placed on assessing their temperature capability, stability and suitability for advanced space vehicle entry thermal protection systems. Fundamental thermophysical and thermomechanical properties of the material systems have been investigated at high temperatures. Laser high-heat-flux testing has also been developed to validate the material systems, and demonstrating durability under space entry high heat flux conditions.

  9. A Study on the Thermal-Hydro-Mechanical Behaviors in the Engineered Barrier System of a HLW Repository: Engineering-scale Validation Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae-Owan; Kwon, S. K.; Park, J. H.; Cho, W. J.; Lee, Jae-Owan

    2007-06-15

    The T-H-M processes in the engineered barrier system are one of the major issues in the performance assessment of a HLW repository. In this study, it was conducted to design and construct the engineering-scale test facility which was a third-scale of the reference disposal system, and to investigate THM behavior of the engineered barrier system using the test facility. The computer modeling and interpreting methodology for THM behavior were also developed.

  10. Converse Barrier Certificate Theorem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafael; Sloth, Christoffer

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a converse barrier certificate theorem for a generic dynamical system.We show that a barrier certificate exists for any safe dynamical system defined on a compact manifold. Other authors have developed a related result, by assuming that the dynamical system has no singular...... points in the considered subset of the state space. In this paper, we redefine the standard notion of safety to comply with generic dynamical systems with multiple singularities. Afterwards, we prove the converse barrier certificate theorem and illustrate the differences between ours and previous work by...

  11. Radiation profile measurements for edge transport barrier discharges in Compact Helical System using AXUV photodiode arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The formation of edge transport barrier (ETB) has recently been found in Compact Helical System (CHS) plasmas heated by co-injected neutral beam injection (NBI) with strong gas puffing. This regime is characterized by the appearance of the steep gradient of the electron density near the edge following the abrupt drop of hydrogen Balmer alpha (Hα) line intensity. In addition to single channel pyroelectric detector as a conventional bolometer, we have employed unfiltered absolute extreme ultraviolet (AXUV) photodiode arrays as a simple and low-cost diagnostic to investigate spatial and temporal variations of radiation emissivity in the ETB discharges. A compact mounting module for a 20 channel AXUV photodiode array including an in-vacuum preamplifier for immediate current-voltage conversion has successfully been designed and fabricated. Two identical modules installed in the upper and lower viewports provide 40 lines of sight covering the inboard and outboard sides within the horizontally elongated cross section of the CHS plasma with wide viewing angle. Although spectral uniformity of the detector sensitivity of the AXUV photodiode is unsatisfied for photon energies lower than 200 eV, it has been confirmed that the signals of AXUV photodiode and pyroelectric detector in the ETB discharges show roughly the same behavior except for the very beginning and end of the discharges. The results of the measurements in typical ETB discharges show that the signals of all the channels of the AXUV photodiode arrays begin to increase more rapidly at the moment of the transition than before. The rate of the increase is larger for the edge viewing chords than for the center viewing ones, which indicates the flattening of the radiation profile following the change in the electron density profile after the formation of the ETB. However, the signals for the edge chords tend to saturate after several tens of milliseconds, while they still continue to increase for the central chords

  12. Modelling approach for geochemical changes in the Prototype repository engineered barrier system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study deals with a full-scale test of a repository concept for nuclear waste. The work is motivated and targeted to the safety assessment of a final repository for highly active nuclear waste. Successive rounds of predictive modelling are confidence building steps if modelling results can be successfully compared to gradually growing up measured test data. Calculations consider geochemical changes during the wetting of repository tunnel backfill and canister buffer, and the time-dependent changes at the boundaries of a repository engineered barrier system (EBS). The backfill and buffer volumes are divided to uniform subsequent reaction cells. The modelling assumes only schematic coupling between geochemical reactions and hydrologic transport. During a wetting front advance, instant water saturation occurs in subsequent, initially undersaturated, cell volumes. However, a water parcel introduced into a cell is expected to stay within that cell until dissolved components, and solid phases are fully equilibrated. The approach concentrates on the major element compositions of porewaters, and the changes in solid phases of the repository. The initial properties of canister buffer resemble the estimations for compacted Wyoming MX-80 sodium bentonite. The tunnel backfill is assumed to consist of sodium bentonite (30%), and crushed Aespoe diorite (70%) components. The backfill composition has been estimated in accordance with mineral quantities present in the components of the backfill mixture. The initial groundwater sucked into the EBS at the repository boundaries is Na-Ca-(HCO3)-SO4-Cl -water having a reference to brackish seawater origin. The reactions considered are cation exchange, surface complexation, and dissolution/precipitation of certain minerals. Calculations assume also diffuse water layers to occur upon the clay platelet surfaces. As an initial condition, the undersaturated pore volumes of backfill and buffer contain entrapped air (O2 content 20%). In the

  13. Numerical determination of the interfacial energy and nucleation barrier of curved solid-liquid interfaces in binary systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundin, Julia; Choudhary, Muhammad Ajmal

    2016-07-01

    The phase-field crystal (PFC) technique is a widely used approach for modeling crystal growth phenomena with atomistic resolution on mesoscopic time scales. We use a two-dimensional PFC model for a binary system based on the work of Elder et al. [Phys. Rev. B 75, 064107 (2007), 10.1103/PhysRevB.75.064107] to study the effect of the curved, diffuse solid-liquid interface on the interfacial energy as well as the nucleation barrier. The calculation of the interfacial energy and the nucleation barrier certainly depends on the proper definition of the solid-liquid dividing surface and the corresponding nucleus size. We define the position of the sharp interface at which the interfacial energy is to be evaluated by using the concept of equimolar dividing surface (re) and the minimization of the interfacial energy (rs). The comparison of the results based on both radii shows that the difference re-rs is always positive and has a limit for large cluster sizes which is comparable to the Tolman length. Furthermore, we found the real nucleation barrier for small cluster sizes, which is defined as a function of the radius rs, and compared it with the classical nucleation theory. The simulation results also show that the extracted interfacial energy as function of both radii is independent of system size, and this dependence can be reasonably described by the nonclassical Tolman formula with a positive Tolman length.

  14. The role of intestinal barrier failure and bacterial translocation in the development of systemic infection and multiple organ failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deitch, E A

    1990-03-01

    Traditionally, evaluation of intestinal function has been limited largely to monitoring gastric pH and intestinal motility. This clinical approach has led clinicians to equate normal intestinal motility with normal intestinal function and to assume that if stress-induced gastric bleeding can be prevented, all will be well. However, it is becoming increasingly clear that the gastrointestinal tract is not a passive organ and that intestinal dysfunction is not limited to ileus and upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Instead, the gastrointestinal tract is recognized as having important endocrine, metabolic, immunologic, and barrier functions, as well as its traditional role in nutrient absorption. Over the last 5 years, there has been a resurgence of interest in the role of intestinal barrier failure in the development of systemic infection and multiple organ failure in the critically ill or injured patient. PMID:2407230

  15. A system for identification of candidate genes controlling cell wall synthesis in alfalfa stems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usefulness of alfalfa for livestock feeding and production of lignocellulose-derived ethanol would be improved by genetic alteration of stem cell wall concentration and composition. This could be accomplished through selective breeding and transgenic technologies. However, development of alfalfa cel...

  16. Measurement of Wall-thinning Defect in Pipeline for Circulation System of Nuclear Power Plant using Shearography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Chan Geun; Kim, Snag Chae; Kim, Hyun Ho; Jung, Hyun Chul; Na, Man Gyun; Kim, Kyeong Suk [Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    Shearography was developed by Leendertz based on the concept to derive derivative for deformation after configuring proper optical interferometry. Where defect exists at rigid object, external force will create stress concentration. Rigid body deformation does not involve change in strain rate, and shearography method will be highly suitable to measure the defect in object, and it has less influence from disturbance. In this paper, shearography is used to measure wall-thinning defect according to internal temperature change in pipeline for circulation system of nuclear power plant. 2.5 inch pipeline specimen is prepared, and wall-thinning depth is 50% and 75%, respectively. Using pipeline circulation system, internal temperature of pipeline specimen to 50 ∼ 200 is changed 50, and blower is used to quench the specimen for measuring defect shape. With the experiment results, 50%,75% of the depth of the defect is possible to measure the size and shape. Thus, the actual circulatory system can be measured by applying the wall thinning defects.

  17. Measurement of Wall-thinning Defect in Pipeline for Circulation System of Nuclear Power Plant using Shearography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shearography was developed by Leendertz based on the concept to derive derivative for deformation after configuring proper optical interferometry. Where defect exists at rigid object, external force will create stress concentration. Rigid body deformation does not involve change in strain rate, and shearography method will be highly suitable to measure the defect in object, and it has less influence from disturbance. In this paper, shearography is used to measure wall-thinning defect according to internal temperature change in pipeline for circulation system of nuclear power plant. 2.5 inch pipeline specimen is prepared, and wall-thinning depth is 50% and 75%, respectively. Using pipeline circulation system, internal temperature of pipeline specimen to 50 ∼ 200 is changed 50, and blower is used to quench the specimen for measuring defect shape. With the experiment results, 50%,75% of the depth of the defect is possible to measure the size and shape. Thus, the actual circulatory system can be measured by applying the wall thinning defects

  18. Informatization barriers of logistics process management in production company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna WALASEK

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article is an attempt to characterize informatization barriers of logistics processes management in a production company which provides automotive parts. Threats of successful implementation of Enterprise Resource Planning Systems include: community barriers; organizational barriers; communication barriers; formal barriers; legal barriers; not prepared implementation team barrier; substantive barrier. Proper identification of barriers and solving them are the right way to implement Enterprise Resource Planning Systems in a company.

  19. Long term performance of the Waterloo denitrification barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, W.D.; Cherry, J.A. [Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada)

    1997-12-31

    Beginning in 1991 a series of laboratory tests and small scale field trials were initiated to test the performance of an innovative permeable reactive barrier for treatment of nitrate from septic systems. The barrier promotes denitrification by providing an energy source in the form of solid organic carbon mixed into the porous media material. Advantages of the system for nitrate treatment are that the reaction is passive and in situ and it is possible to incorporate sufficient carbon mass in conveniently sized barriers to potentially provide treatment for long periods (decades) without the necessity for maintenance. However, longevity can only be demonstrated by careful long term monitoring of field installations. This paper documents four years of operating history at three small scale field trials; two where the denitrification barrier is installed as a horizontal layer positioned in the unsaturated zone below conventional septic system infiltration beds and one where the barrier is installed as a vertical wall intercepting a septic system plume at a downgradient location. The barriers have successfully attenuated 50-100% of NO{sup -}{sub 3}-N levels of up to 170 mg/L and treatment has remained consistent over the four year period in each case, thus considerable longevity is indicated. Other field trials have demonstrated this technology to be equally effective in treating nitrogen contamination from other sources such as landfill leachate and farm field runoff.

  20. Long term performance of the Waterloo denitrification barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beginning in 1991 a series of laboratory tests and small scale field trials were initiated to test the performance of an innovative permeable reactive barrier for treatment of nitrate from septic systems. The barrier promotes denitrification by providing an energy source in the form of solid organic carbon mixed into the porous media material. Advantages of the system for nitrate treatment are that the reaction is passive and in situ and it is possible to incorporate sufficient carbon mass in conveniently sized barriers to potentially provide treatment for long periods (decades) without the necessity for maintenance. However, longevity can only be demonstrated by careful long term monitoring of field installations. This paper documents four years of operating history at three small scale field trials; two where the denitrification barrier is installed as a horizontal layer positioned in the unsaturated zone below conventional septic system infiltration beds and one where the barrier is installed as a vertical wall intercepting a septic system plume at a downgradient location. The barriers have successfully attenuated 50-100% of NO-3-N levels of up to 170 mg/L and treatment has remained consistent over the four year period in each case, thus considerable longevity is indicated. Other field trials have demonstrated this technology to be equally effective in treating nitrogen contamination from other sources such as landfill leachate and farm field runoff

  1. Semimanufacture intended to be mounted on a vibrating wall or a vibrating panel for actively damping vibrations of the wall, wall or panel provided with such semimanufacture, system provided with a semimanufacture and a control unit, wall or panel provided with a control unit and method for damping audible vibrations of a wall or panel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goeje, de Marius; Overbeek, van Michiel Wilbert R.M.; Waal, van der Adri; Berkhoff, Arthur P.; Nederveen, Peter J.

    2006-01-01

    A semimanufacture intended to be mounted on a vibrating wall or a vibrating panel for actively damping the vibrations in the wall or the panel with frequencies which are at least partly audible, wherein the semimanufacture is provided with a plate wherein the plate is integrated with: at least one v

  2. Electrochemical and thermodynamic properties of hexacyanoferrate(II)/(III) redox system on multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► MWCNT-based films were produced. ► [Fe(CN)6]3−/4− is reversible on MWCNTs. ► Barrier for electron transfer decreases with rise in temperature. ► Reversibility of [Fe(CN)6]3−/4− is enhanced with rise in temperature. ► Equilibrium of redox process shifts towards [Fe(CN)6]3− at elevated temperatures. - Abstract: Novel films consist of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) were fabricated by means of catalytic chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique with decomposition of either acetonitrile (ACN) or benzene (BZ) using ferrocene (FeCp2) as catalyst. The electrochemical and thermodynamic behavior of the ferrocyanide/ferricyanide, [Fe(CN)6]3−/4− redox couple on synthesized MWCNT-based films was investigated by means of cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques at T = (278.15, 283.15, 293.15, and 303.15) K. The redox couple [Fe(CN)6]3−/4− behaves quasi-reversibly on fabricated MWCNT-based films and its reversibility is enhanced upon increasing temperature. Namely, the findings establish that with the rise in temperature the barrier for interfacial electron transfer decreases, leading, consequently, to an enhancement of the kinetics of the charge transfer process. According to thermodynamics the equilibrium of the redox process is shifted towards the formation of [Fe(CN)6]3− at elevated temperatures.

  3. Disentangling complete and incomplete fusion for 9Be+187Re system at near barrier energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The breakup of projectile before fusion leads to some unusual fusion mechanisms like incomplete fusion (ICF) and sequential complete fusion (SCF). Experimentally, it is not possible to separate SCF events from direct complete fusion (DCF). However, the complete fusion and incomplete fusion can be measured separately. Theoretically it is very difficult to calculate the complete and incomplete fusion cross section separately using different models. Very recently A. Diaz-Torres has developed a computer code platypus based on classical dynamical model wherein the complete and incomplete fusion cross sections are calculated separately. But this model is found to work very well at energies above the barrier energy. Here we have attempted to extrapolate the results of the code platypus by using simple Wong's formula in conjunction with the energy dependent Woods-Saxon potential (EDWSP) in the below barrier energy region

  4. Integrity of the alveolar-capillary barrier and alveolar surfactant system in smokers.

    OpenAIRE

    Schmekel, B; Bos, J.A.; A. R. Khan; Wohlfart, B; Lachmann, B.; Wollmer, P.

    1992-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The permeability of the alveolar-capillary barrier to technetium-99m labelled diethylenetriamine pentaacetate (99mTc DTPA) is known to be greatly increased in smokers, but the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. Abnormal permeability of the alveolar epithelium as well as impaired surfactant function has been suggested. The purpose of this study was to examine transudation of urea and albumin into the alveoli and alveolar surfactant function in smokers and non-smokers and to...

  5. Formation of white-eye pattern with microdischarge in an air dielectric barrier discharge system

    OpenAIRE

    He, Yafeng; Dong, Lifang; Liu, Weili; Wang, Hongfang; Zhao, Zengchao; FAN, WEILI

    2011-01-01

    We report on the first observation of white-eye pattern in an air dielectric barrier discharge. The patterned discharges undergo a development as following: random spots - quasihexagonal pattern - hexagonal pattern (type I) - hexagonal pattern (type II) - white-eye pattern - chaos as the voltage is increased. The spatiotemporal characteristics of patterned discharges are investigated by using an optical method. Results show that the two discharge modes, uniform mode and filamentary mode, are ...

  6. Theoretical and Numerical Analysis for the Design of a Safety Barrier as Road Restraint System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Vasile Bîtea

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with a theoretical background and with numerical studies achieved on an N2 safety barrier, with normal protection. In order to determine the impact force, a model at a reduced scale was proposed. For the calculus of the dynamic load due to the impact, the corresponding maximum deflection was determined. In the same time, the equivalent stress distribution was plotted for the examined case.

  7. Investigation of molybdenum-44.5%rhenium as cell wall material in an AMTEC based space power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new generation of radioisotope space power systems based on AMTEC (Alkali Metal Thermal to Electrical Conversion) technology is presently being developed. The future application of this technology, as the electrical power system for outer planet deep space missions, is ultimately dependent on it being robust enough to withstand the mission's operational environments (high temperatures, dynamic loadings, long mission durations etc). One of the critical material selections centers on the cell wall whose physical and chemical properties must provide it with sufficient strength and material compatibility to successfully complete the mission. Niobium-1%zirconium has been selected as the baseline cell wall material with a molybdenum/rhenium alloy being the cell wall backup material. While these refractory materials have been commercially available for a number of years, several of their physical and mechanical properties have not been completely characterized especially within the expected operating parameters of an AMTEC based space power system. Additional characterization of the selected refractory alloys was initiated by fabricating mechanical test specimens out of ∼0.5 mm (0.020'') thick sheets of material. Test specimens were heat treated at 1073K and 1198K for up to 150 hours under an argon cover gas containing small concentrations of oxygen. Room temperature and high temperature (1073K/1198K) mechanical tests were performed to determine the effect of time, temperature, and atmosphere on the mechanical properties of the refractory alloys. In addition, since the fabrication of AMTEC cell walls requires the welding of sheet material into a cylindrical shape, preliminary electron beam welding studies were performed. Comparison of the various test results obtained on Mo-44.5%Re and Nb-1%Zr samples are discussed

  8. Chemical buffering in natural and engineered barrier systems: Thermodynamic constraints and performance assessment consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermodynamic and kinetic constraints on the chemical buffering properties of natural and engineered-barrier systems are derived in this study from theoretical descriptions, incorporated in the reaction-path model, of reversible and irreversible mass transfer in multicomponent, multiphase systems. The buffering properties of such systems are conditional properties because they refer to a specific aqueous species in a system that is open with respect to a specific reactant. The solution to a mathematical statement of this concept requires evaluation of the dependence of the activity of the buffered species on incremental changes in the overall reaction-progress variable. This dependence can be represented by a truncated Taylor's series expansion, where the values of associated derivatives are calculated using finite-difference techniques and mass-balance, charge-balance and mass-action constraints. Kinetic constraints on buffering behavior can also be described if the relation between reactant flux and reaction rate is well defined. This relation is explicit for the important case of advective groundwater flow and water-rock interaction. We apply the theoretical basis of the chemical buffering concept to processes that could affect the performance of a deep geologic repository for nuclear waste. Specifically, we focus on the likelihood that an inverse relation must exist between the buffer intensity and the migration velocity of reaction fronts in systems involving advective or diffusive mass transport. A quantitative understanding of this relation would provide the basis for evaluating the potential role of chemical buffering in achieving the isolation and retardation functions, of the EBS and geosphere in a KBS-3 repository. Our preliminary evaluation of this role considers the effects of chemical buffering on the propagation velocity of a pH front in both the near- and far field. We use a geochemical modeling technique compatible with the reaction-path model to

  9. Chemical buffering in natural and engineered barrier systems: Thermodynamic constraints and performance assessment consequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur, R.C.; Wei Zhou [Monitor Scientific, LLC, Denver, CO (United States)

    2000-12-01

    Thermodynamic and kinetic constraints on the chemical buffering properties of natural and engineered-barrier systems are derived in this study from theoretical descriptions, incorporated in the reaction-path model, of reversible and irreversible mass transfer in multicomponent, multiphase systems. The buffering properties of such systems are conditional properties because they refer to a specific aqueous species in a system that is open with respect to a specific reactant. The solution to a mathematical statement of this concept requires evaluation of the dependence of the activity of the buffered species on incremental changes in the overall reaction-progress variable. This dependence can be represented by a truncated Taylor's series expansion, where the values of associated derivatives are calculated using finite-difference techniques and mass-balance, charge-balance and mass-action constraints. Kinetic constraints on buffering behavior can also be described if the relation between reactant flux and reaction rate is well defined. This relation is explicit for the important case of advective groundwater flow and water-rock interaction. We apply the theoretical basis of the chemical buffering concept to processes that could affect the performance of a deep geologic repository for nuclear waste. Specifically, we focus on the likelihood that an inverse relation must exist between the buffer intensity and the migration velocity of reaction fronts in systems involving advective or diffusive mass transport. A quantitative understanding of this relation would provide the basis for evaluating the potential role of chemical buffering in achieving the isolation and retardation functions, of the EBS and geosphere in a KBS-3 repository. Our preliminary evaluation of this role considers the effects of chemical buffering on the propagation velocity of a pH front in both the near- and far field. We use a geochemical modeling technique compatible with the reaction-path model

  10. Horizontal flow barriers for the transient ground-water flow model, Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital dataset defines the surface traces of regional features simulated as horizontal flow barriers in the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system...

  11. Stretchable gas barrier achieved with partially hydrogen-bonded multilayer nanocoating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holder, Kevin M; Spears, Benjamin R; Huff, Molly E; Priolo, Morgan A; Harth, Eva; Grunlan, Jaime C

    2014-05-01

    Super gas barrier nanocoatings are recently demonstrated by combining polyelectrolytes and clay nanoplatelets with layer-by-layer deposition. These nanobrick wall thin films match or exceed the gas barrier of SiOx and metallized films, but they are relatively stiff and lose barrier with significant stretching (≥ 10% strain). In an effort to impart stretchability, hydrogen-bonding polyglycidol (PGD) layers are added to an electrostatically bonded thin film assembly of polyethylenimine (PEI) and montmorillonite (MMT) clay. The oxygen transmission rate of a 125-nm thick PEI-MMT film increases more than 40x after being stretched 10%, while PGD-PEI-MMT trilayers of the same thickness maintain its gas barrier. This stretchable trilayer system has an OTR three times lower than the PEI-MMT bilayer system after stretching. This report marks the first stretchable high gas barrier thin film, which is potentially useful for applications that require pressurized elastomers. PMID:24700525

  12. Political, policy and social barriers to health system interoperability: emerging opportunities of Web 2.0 and 3.0.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juzwishin, Donald W M

    2009-01-01

    Achieving effective health informatics interoperability in a fragmented and uncoordinated health system is by definition not possible. Interoperability requires the simultaneous integration of health care processes and information across different types and levels of care (systems thinking). The fundamental argument of this paper is that information system interoperability will remain an unfulfilled hope until health reforms effectively address the governance (accountability), structural and process barriers to interoperability of health care delivery. The ascendency of Web 2.0 and 3.0, although still unproven, signals the opportunity to accelerate patients' access to health information and their health record. Policy suggestions for simultaneously advancing health system delivery and information system interoperability are posited. PMID:20166516

  13. An electrokinetic/Fe0 permeable reactive barrier system for the treatment of nitrate-contaminated subsurface soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Tasuma; Oyama, Yukinori; Moribe, Mai; Niinae, Masakazu

    2012-03-01

    Effective nitrate removal by Fe(0) permeable reactive barriers (Fe(0) PRB) has been recognized as a challenging task because the iron corrosion product foamed on Fe(0) hinders effective electron transfer from Fe(0) to surface-bound nitrate. The objectives of this study were (i) to demonstrate the effectiveness of an electrokinetic/Fe(0) PRB system for remediating nitrate-contaminated low permeability soils using a bench-scale system and (ii) to deepen the understanding of the behavior and fate of nitrate in the system. Bench-scale laboratory experiments were designed to investigate the influence of the Fe(0) content in the permeable reactive barrier, the pH in the anode well, and the applied voltage on remediation efficiency. The experimental results showed that the major reaction product of nitrate reduction by Fe(0) was ammonium and that nitrate reduction efficiency was significantly influenced by the variables investigated in this study. Nitrate reduction efficiency was enhanced by either increasing the Fe(0) content in the Fe(0) reactive barrier or decreasing the initial anode pH. However, nitrate reduction efficiency was reduced by increasing the applied voltage from 10 V to 40 V due to the insufficient reaction time during nitrate migration through the Fe(0) PRB. For all experimental conditions, nearly all nitrate nitrogen was recovered in either anode or cathode wells as nitrate or ammonium within 100 h, demonstrating the effectiveness of the system for remediating nitrate-contaminated subsurface soils. PMID:22153957

  14. Wall-plug efficiency analysis of semi-active piezoelectric shunt damping systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Václavík, Jan; Kodejška, M.; Mokrý, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 20, September (2014), 1077546314548910. ISSN 1077-5463 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1206; GA ČR GA13-10365S Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Piezoelectric shunt damping * vibration isolation * negative capacitor * wall-plug efficiency * mechanical power measurement * power supply optimization Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics Impact factor: 4.355, year: 2013 http://jvc.sagepub.com/content/early/2014/09/17/1077546314548910

  15. Identifying barriers to mental health system improvements: an examination of community participation in assertive community treatment programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wakefield Patricia A

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Integrating the best available evidence into program standards is essential if system-wide improvements in the delivery of community-based mental health services are to be achieved. Since the beginning of the Assertive Community Treatment (ACT program movement, program standards have included a role for the community. In particular, ACT program standards have sought to ensure that members of the local community are involved in governance and that former clients participate in service delivery as "Peer Support Specialists". This paper reports on the extent to which ACT program standards related to community participation have been implemented and identifies barriers to full compliance. Methods Qualitative and quantitative data were collected through a telephone survey of ACT Program Coordinators in Ontario, Canada, using a census sample of the existing 66 ACT programs. A thematic approach to content analysis was used to analyze respondents' qualitative comments. Quantitative data were analyzed using SPSS 16.0 and included means, frequencies, independent t-tests and Pearson Correlations. Results An 85% response rate was achieved. Of the 33 program standards, the two that received the lowest perceived compliance ratings were the two standards directly concerning community participation. Specifically, the standard to have a functioning Community Advisory Body and the standard requiring the inclusion of a Peer Support Specialist. The three major themes that emerged from the survey data with respect to the barriers to fully implementing the Community Advisory Body were: external issues; standard related issues; and, organizational/structural related issues. The three major themes concerning barriers to implementing the Peer Support Specialist role were: human resource related issues; organizational/structural related issues; and, standard related issues. Conclusions The reasons for low compliance of ACT programs with community

  16. Report to Congress: Coastal Barrier Resources System with recommendations as required by Section 10 of Public Law 97-348, the Coastal Barrier Resources Act of 1982. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. shoreline bordering the Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico contains one of the longest and best defined chains of coastal barriers in the world. In recognition of the fact, the Coastal Barrier Resources Act (CBRA) (16 U.S.C. 3501 et seq.) was enacted in October 1982. The Act established the Coastal Barrier Resources System (CBRS) consisting of 186 coastal barrier units along 670 mi of shoreline on the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts. The philosophy behind the CBRA is that the risk associated with new development in these areas should be borne by those who choose to live and work along the coast, and not by all American taxpayers. By restricting Federal expenditures and financial assistance on specific undeveloped coastal barriers, the Federal Government can minimize the loss of human life, reduce the wasteful expenditure of Federal revenues, and reduce the damage to fish and wildlife and other natural resources that can accompany development of these fragile areas. Section 10 of the CBRA directs the Department of the Interior to study the CBRS and prepare for Congress a report which includes recommendations for changes in the CBRS based on an evaluation of management alternatives that would foster conservation of the natural resources of the CBRS

  17. Evaluation of the fracture resistance of remaining thin-walled roots restored with different post systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Gustavo Nunes Dias Pinho

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was evaluating the fracture strength of bovine roots weakened experimentally, restored with two different techniques: internal reinforcement of root canal walls with composite resin and a cast metal post and core or anatomic post (glass fiber post associated with composite resin. Thirty bovine lower central incisive were selected and transversally sectioned, remaining 14 mm of root in order to approximate to the human maxillary central incisive.  A sequence of standardized wear was used to weak the root until the walls remaining achieved from 0.5 to 0.7 mm of thickness at the cervical edge. Two groups were separated randomly (n=15 in order to test the roots reinforced with composite resin associated with cast metal post and core (CMP, or roots restored with composite resin associated to the glass fiber post (GFP. The test were applied in a Universal Test Machine (EMIC with tangential compressive loading focused on the lingual face of core in an angle of 135° with the long axis of the tooth at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min until failure occurred. The results showed that the fracture strength of remaining roots with weakened walls was influenced by the restorative technique, and the higher values of strength fractures were observed in the group of roots reinforced by composite resin associated with CMP (p<0.001 when compared to the group of roots restored with anatomic post.

  18. Development of an Integrated Natural Barrier Database System for Site Evaluation of a Deep Geologic Repository in Korea - 13527

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korea Radioactive-waste Management Corporation (KRMC) established in 2009 has started a new project to collect information on long-term stability of deep geological environments on the Korean Peninsula. The information has been built up in the integrated natural barrier database system available on web (www.deepgeodisposal.kr). The database system also includes socially and economically important information, such as land use, mining area, natural conservation area, population density, and industrial complex, because some of this information is used as exclusionary criteria during the site selection process for a deep geological repository for safe and secure containment and isolation of spent nuclear fuel and other long-lived radioactive waste in Korea. Although the official site selection process has not been started yet in Korea, current integrated natural barrier database system and socio-economic database is believed that the database system will be effectively utilized to narrow down the number of sites where future investigation is most promising in the site selection process for a deep geological repository and to enhance public acceptance by providing readily-available relevant scientific information on deep geological environments in Korea. (authors)

  19. The evaluation of the effects of buffer thickness and dry density on radionuclides migration in engineered barrier system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evaluation of the effects of buffer thickness and dry density, one of the buffer design, on radionuclides migration behavior is important from the viewpoint of performance assessment since they have relation to radionuclides migration retardation. It is also considered to help investigation of buffer design that satisfy both safety and economy to condition of the disposal site, which may be required with development of disposal project in the future. Therefore we have performed a sensitivity analysis used buffer thickness and dry density as parameter and considered their combination in this report. Based on this, we have evaluated the effects of buffer thickness and dry density on radionuclides migration in engineered barrier system. And, we have considered about radionuclides migration retardation quality of the buffer which is based on the design (relationship between thickness and dry density) set in the second progress report on research and development for the geological disposal of HLW in Japan. In results, the maximum release rates from the engineered barrier system for the nuclides which have high distribution coefficients and short half lives are sensitive to changes in buffer thickness and dry density. And, using dose converted from the nuclide release rates from the engineered barrier system as a convenient index, it is almost shown that the maximum of total dose is less than 10 μ Sv/y in the cases which buffer thickness and dry density are based on the buffer design set in the second progress report on research and development for the geological disposal of HLW in Japan. These can be used as an information when design of buffer thickness and dry density is set by synthetically judgement of balance of safety and economy. (author)

  20. Coupled thermo-hydro-geochemical models of engineered barrier systems: the FEBEX project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FEBEX (Full-scale Engineered Barrier Experiment) is a demonstration and research project dealing with the bentonite engineered barrier designed for sealing and containment of waste in a high level radioactive waste repository (HLWR). It includes two main experiments: an situ full-scale test performed at Grimsel (GTS) and a mock-up test operating since February 1997 at CIEMAT facilities in Madrid (Spain). One of the objectives of FEBEX is the development and testing of conceptual and numerical models for the thermal, hydrodynamic, and geochemical (THG) processes expected to take place in engineered clay barriers. A significant improvement in coupled THG modeling of the clay barrier has been achieved both in terms of a better understanding of THG processes and more sophisticated THG computer codes. The ability of these models to reproduce the observed THG patterns in a wide range of THG conditions enhances the confidence in their prediction capabilities. Numerical THG models of heating and hydration experiments performed on small-scale lab cells provide excellent results for temperatures, water inflow and final water content in the cells. Calculated concentrations at the end of the experiments reproduce most of the patterns of measured data. In general, the fit of concentrations of dissolved species is better than that of exchanged cations. These models were later used to simulate the evolution of the large-scale experiments (in situ and mock-up). Some thermo-hydrodynamic hypotheses and bentonite parameters were slightly revised during TH calibration of the mock-up test. The results of the reference model reproduce simultaneously the observed water inflows and bentonite temperatures and relative humidities. Although the model is highly sensitive to one-at-a-time variations in model parameters, the possibility of parameter combinations leading to similar fits cannot be precluded. The TH model of the 'in situ' test is based on the same bentonite TH parameters and

  1. Formation of white-eye pattern with microdischarge in an air dielectric barrier discharge system

    CERN Document Server

    He, Yafeng; Liu, Weili; Wang, Hongfang; Zhao, Zengchao; Fan, Weili

    2011-01-01

    We report on the first observation of white-eye pattern in an air dielectric barrier discharge. The patterned discharges undergo a development as following: random spots - quasihexagonal pattern - hexagonal pattern (type I) - hexagonal pattern (type II) - white-eye pattern - chaos as the voltage is increased. The spatiotemporal characteristics of patterned discharges are investigated by using an optical method. Results show that the two discharge modes, uniform mode and filamentary mode, are actually two different spatial presentations of the same origin: the microdischarge. From the viewpoint of pattern dynamics, the white-eye pattern results from a 3-wave resonance interaction.

  2. DESIGN CRITERIA OF SOIL-FIBER MIXTURES AS A MATERIAL FOR LANDFILL COVER BARRIER SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Harianto, Tri

    2014-01-01

    The design criteria were introduced in this paper to design a landfill cover barrier layer using the compacted soil-fiber mixture for the future application (i.e. park, residential, etc.). Polypropylene (C3H6) fiber was used as an additive material for soil samples. The soil specimens compacted under the conditions of maximum dry density and optimum water content. In this study, the design objective in using the compacted soil-fiber mixture is to determine the range of fiber conte...

  3. International Divider Walls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruis, A.; Sneller, A.C.W.(L.)

    2013-01-01

    The subject of this teaching case is the Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system implementation at International Divider Walls, the world market leader in design, production, and sales of divider walls. The implementation in one of the divisions of this multinational company had been successful, a

  4. Enhancement of sub-barrier fusion cross section in the weakly bound neutron system, 11Be + 10Be

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sub-barrier fusion cross section for the weakly bound neutron system, 11Be + 10Be is discussed in the framework of the coupled-reaction-channel approach for the valence neutron in 11Be and in connection with the molecular orbital formation. In the calculation we observed a big enhancement of the fusion process, due to very strong multi-step processes in the inelastic and transfer transitions of the active neutron, which lead to the formation of a covalent molecule, 10Be + n + 10Be. (author)

  5. Study of plasma convection and wall interactions in magnetic-confinement systems. Progress report, October 1, 1980-September 30, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental and analytical studies of plasma interactions with magnetic fields and end walls have been carried out. The final effort for studying flow on open-ended theta pinches has resulted in: (1) new understanding of collisional flow processes; and (2) has presented unique measurements of density and temperature near the end wall. An orignal effort to use Nd-glass lasers for Thomson scattering diagnostics is reported. Laser system conversion and efficiencies of frequency doubling are reported. The development of a compact toroid discharged is reported; this will be used as a plasma source to study transport, convection and wass interactions at plasma conditions appropriate for large scale fusion experiments. Computer codes predict compact toroid plasma scaling and magnetic field distribution resulting from guiding coils added at the ends of the theta pinch coil. The development of a multi-pass Fabry-Perot interferometer using visible light from a He-Ne laser is reported here. Theoretical study has been completed on an extension of a collisionless plasma flow model to include collision effects. Initial studies directed to analysis of plasma wall interactions are reported

  6. On the manufacturing process and the quality assurance system of thin wall welded titanium tubes for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the important machinery constituting nuclear power plants is condensers, and it has become the current of the times to use titanium tubes having excellent corrosion resistance and other characteristics as condenser tubes in view of heightening the reliability against seawater leak. Recently, the delivery of the titanium thin wall welded tubes manufactured by Furukawa Electric Co., Ltd., for the condenser of No. 2 plant in the Sendai Nuclear Power Station, Kyushu Electric Power Co., Inc., has been finished. When the titanium thin wall welded tubes for nuclear power plants have been manufactured, close attention has been paid, and in this paper, the manufacturing process and the quality assurance system are reported. The titanium welded tubes are of 25.4 mm outside diameter, 0.7 mm wall thickness and 17058 mm length, and there are 26190 tubes in one condenser. The production procedure for the titanium welded tubes is the acceptance inspection of titanium bands, tube forming, high frequency pulsed DC TIG welding with argon shield, cleanliness control and so on. The results of the dimensions, strength and amount of residual oil of the products are shown. (Kako, I.)

  7. Contaminant Interactions and Biological Effects of Single-walled Carbon Nanotubes in a Benthic Estuarine System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Ashley Nicole

    The fate, bioavailability, bioaccumulation and toxicity of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) have not been extensively studied to date. Pristine SWNT are highly hydrophobic and have been shown to strongly associate with natural particulate matter in aquatic environments. In light of this, I have focused my research to examine the influence of sediment and food exposure routes on bioavailability, bioaccumulation, and toxicity of structurally diverse SWNT in several ecologically-important marine invertebrate species. No significant mortality was observed in any organism at concentrations up to 1000 mg/kg. Evidence of biouptake after ingestion was observed for pristine semiconducting SWNT using NIRF spectroscopy and for oxidized 14C-SWNT using liquid scintillation counting. After a 24 hour depuration period, the pristine semiconducting SWNT were eliminated from organisms to below the method detection limit (5 microg/mL), and the 14C-SWNT body burden was decreased by an order of magnitude to a bioaccumulation factor (BAF) of invertebrates. Overall, the SWNT were not bioavailable and appear to associate with the sediment. In addition to investigating the toxicity and bioaccumulation of SWNT as an independent toxicant, it is important to consider how they will interact with other contaminants in the environment (i.e., increase or decrease toxicity and bioaccumulation of co-contaminants, alter the environmental transport of co-contaminants, induce degradation of co-contaminants, etc.). I wanted to investigate the effects of SWNT on a complex mixture of contaminants already present in a natural system. New Bedford Harbor (NBH) sediment, which is contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), was amended with pristine SWNT to determine if the presence of SWNT would mitigate the toxicity and bioaccumulation of the PCBs in deposit-feeding invertebrates. A dilution series of the NBH sediment was created using uncontaminated Long Island Sound (LIS) sediment to test 25

  8. Recycler barrier RF buckets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhat, C.M.; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01

    The Recycler Ring at Fermilab uses a barrier rf systems for all of its rf manipulations. In this paper, I will give an overview of historical perspective on barrier rf system, the longitudinal beam dynamics issues, aspects of rf linearization to produce long flat bunches and methods used for emittance measurements of the beam in the RR barrier rf buckets. Current rf manipulation schemes used for antiproton beam stacking and longitudinal momentum mining of the RR beam for the Tevatron collider operation are explained along with their importance in spectacular success of the Tevatron luminosity performance.

  9. Recycler barrier RF buckets

    CERN Document Server

    Bhat, C M

    2012-01-01

    The Recycler Ring at Fermilab uses a barrier rf system for all of its rf manipulations. In this paper, I will give an overview of historical perspective on barrier rf systems, the longitudinal beam dynamics issues, aspects of rf linearization to produce long flat bunches and methods used for emittance measurements of the beam in the RR barrier rf buckets. Current rf manipulation schemes used for antiproton beam stacking and longitudinal momentum mining of the RR beam for the Tevatron collider operation are explained along with their importance in spectacular success of the Tevatron luminosity performance.

  10. Information barriers and authentication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acceptance of nuclear materials into a monitoring regime is complicated if the materials are in classified shapes or have classified composition. An attribute measurement system with an information barrier can be emplo,yed to generate an unclassified display from classified measurements. This information barrier must meet two criteria: (1) classified information cannot be released to the monitoring party, and (2) the monitoring party must be convinced that the unclassified output accurately represents the classified input. Criterion 1 is critical to the host country to protect the classified information. Criterion 2 is critical to the monitoring party and is often termed the 'authentication problem.' Thus, the necessity for authentication of a measurement system with an information barrier stems directly from the description of a useful information barrier. Authentication issues must be continually addressed during the entire development lifecycle of the measurement system as opposed to being applied only after the system is built.

  11. The fibrinolytic system facilitates tumor cell migration across the blood-brain barrier in experimental melanoma brain metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patients with metastatic tumors to the brain have a very poor prognosis. Increased metastatic potential has been associated with the fibrinolytic system. We investigated the role of the fibrinolytic enzyme plasmin in tumor cell migration across brain endothelial cells and growth of brain metastases in an experimental metastatic melanoma model. Metastatic tumors to the brain were established by direct injection into the striatum or by intracarotid injection of B16F10 mouse melanoma cells in C57Bl mice. The role of plasminogen in the ability of human melanoma cells to cross a human blood-brain barrier model was studied on a transwell system. Wild type mice treated with the plasmin inhibitor epsilon-aminocaproic acid (EACA) and plg-/- mice developed smaller tumors and survived longer than untreated wild type mice. Tumors metastasized to the brain of wild type mice treated with EACA and plg-/- less efficiently than in untreated wild type mice. No difference was observed in the tumor growth in any of the three groups of mice. Human melanoma cells were able to cross the human blood-brain barrier model in a plasmin dependent manner. Plasmin facilitates the development of tumor metastasis to the brain. Inhibition of the fibrinolytic system could be considered as means to prevent tumor metastasis to the brain

  12. Barriers and drivers of new interconnections between EU and non-EU electricity systems. Economic and regulatory aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interconnection of different electricity systems offers several advantages and benefits. In the first place it provides reliability and increases the robustness of the system. Furthermore, it increases economic efficiency and reduces the possibility to abuse market power. Price differences are the signal that efficiency gains can be obtained. To make a sound decision whether to invest in new interconnection capacity, the causes behind the price differences should be well understood. Price differences must originate from structural, long-term causes. Differences in primary resources, fuel mix and load patterns are such causes. It is important to note that price differences that result from the difference between regulatory structures (lack of level playing field) may not be structural and therefore may not justify investment in interconnection capacity. Next to advantages and benefits, interconnection is faced with costs and barriers. Firstly, there are investment costs, which are high for building new interconnections, and there are energy losses that are caused by transporting electricity. A third possible barrier is congestion within the EU, which impedes the imported electricity to freely flow to demand areas (and hinders the export of electricity to neighbouring regions). Furthermore, interconnection may create loop flows. In addition, interconnection could lead to an increasing import dependency, which may create political resistance. And finally, there may be opposition from residents in the areas where the transmission and interconnection lines have to be built. Concerning regulatory issues, trade between markets is more likely to be impeded or distorted if market designs and rules between countries/regions differ substantially. Regulatory issues that are of relevance comprise rules concerning the timing of gate closure, imbalance arrangements, the firmness of transmission access rights, the type of tariff regulation, unbundling, the ownership of

  13. Czech contribution to the solution of the limit states of thin-walled structural systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Škaloud, Miroslav; Zörnerová, Marie

    Praha : ČVUT, 2008 - (Kohoutková, A.), s. 17-26 ISBN 978-80-01-04143-7. [Beton 08. Praha (CZ), 23.09.2008-24.09.2008] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA103/06/0064; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA200710603 Grant ostatní: GA ČR(CZ) GA103/08/0275 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20710524 Keywords : thin-walled construction * post-buckled behaviour * repeated loading Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering

  14. Electrodiffusion Method of Near-Wall Flow Diagnostics in Microfluidic Systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tihon, Jaroslav; Pěnkavová, Věra; Stanovský, Petr; Vejražka, Jiří

    CEDEX A: E D P SCIENCES, 2015 - (Dančová, P.; Vít, T.), 02098. (EFM - Experimental Fluid Mechanics). ISSN 2100-014X. [Experimental Fluid Mechanics 2014. Český Krumlov (CZ), 18.11.2014-21.11.2014] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP101/12/0585 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : microfluidics * electrodiffusion method * wall shear stress Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering http://www.epj-conferences.org/articles/epjconf/abs/2015/11/contents/contents.html

  15. Electrodiffusion Method of Near-Wall Flow Diagnostics in Microfluidic Systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tihon, Jaroslav; Pěnkavová, Věra; Stanovský, Petr; Vejražka, Jiří

    CEDEX A : E D P SCIENCES, 2015 - (Dančová, P.; Vít, T.), 02098 ISSN 2100-014X. - (EFM - Experimental Fluid Mechanics). [Experimental Fluid Mechanics 2014. Český Krumlov (CZ), 18.11.2014-21.11.2014] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP101/12/0585 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : microfluidics * electrodiffusion method * wall shear stress Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering http://www.epj-conferences.org/articles/epjconf/abs/2015/11/contents/contents.html

  16. Development of pressing machine with a die wall lubrication system for the simplified MOX pellet fabrication method in the FaCT project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simplified MOX pellet fabrication method has been developed for fast reactor fuels. As part of the development, the die wall lubrication pressing system was developed and tested to evaluate application feasibility to an engineering scale MOX production process. Basic properties of the die wall lubrication system were obtained, and MOX granule powder was pressed and sintered into annular pellets with good appearance and high density. (author)

  17. Loss-of-coolant and loss-of-flow accident in the ITER-EDA first wall/blanket cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the analysis of the transient thermal-hydraulic system behaviour inside the first wall/blanket cooling system and the resulting temperature response inside the first wall and blanket of the ITER-EDA (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor - Engineering Design Activities) reactor design during a: - Loss-of-coolant accident caused by a reputure of the pump suction pipe; - loss-of-flow accident caused by a trip of the recirculation pump. (orig.)

  18. Loss-of-coolant and loss-of-flow accident in the ITER-EDA first wall/blanket cooling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komen, E.M.J.; Koning, H.

    1995-05-01

    This report presents the analysis of the transient thermal-hydraulic system behaviour inside the first wall/blanket cooling system and the resulting temperature response inside the first wall and blanket of the ITER-EDA (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor - Engineering Design Activities) reactor design during a: - Loss-of-coolant accident caused by a reputure of the pump suction pipe; - loss-of-flow accident caused by a trip of the recirculation pump. (orig.).

  19. Microencapsulation of Lactobacillus plantarum MTCC 5422 in fructooligosaccharide and whey protein wall systems and its impact on noodle quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajam, R; Kumar, S Bharath; Prabhasankar, P; Anandharamakrishnan, C

    2015-07-01

    Noodles are staple cereal food in many countries; however addition of encapsulated probiotics into noodle formulation, its effect on noodle quality and cell viability has not yet been reported. The aim of this study was to prepare microencapsulated Lactobacillus plantarum (MTCC 5422) by freeze drying with wall material combinations such as fructooligosaccharide (FOS), FOS + whey protein isolate (WPI), and FOS + denatured whey protein isolate (DWPI) to evaluate best wall system. Results showed that FOS + DWPI wall system provided better protection to cells after drying, during storage (60 days, 4 °C) and in simulated acidic and bile conditions. Further, FOS + DWPI encapsulates were incorporated into noodle formulation and evaluated the noodle quality and probiotic cell viability of cooked noodle obtained from two different production methods: (i) fresh and (ii) dried (room temperature dried - RTD, 28 °C and high temperature dried - HTD, 55 °C). The quality characteristics (cooking time, solid loss, texture, colour and sensory profiles) of FOS + DWPI encapsulates incorporated cooked noodles (both fresh and dried) were found to be acceptable. On evaluation of encapsulated probiotic bacteriaL. plantarum cell viability, 93.63 % and 62.42 % cell survival was obtained in fresh noodles before and after cooking respectively. However, 80.29 % (RTD) and 64.74 % (HTD) of encapsulated cells were viable in dried noodles, after cooking there was complete survival loss. This study suggested that fresh noodle was found to be a suitable carrier system to deliver viable cells. This is first report on influence of probiotic microcapsules in noodle processing. PMID:26139869

  20. Effect of radiant barriers and attic ventilation on residential attics and attic duct systems: New tools for measuring and modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrie, T.W.; Childs, P.W.; Christian, J.E.; Wilkes, K.E.

    1998-07-01

    A simple duct system was installed in an attic test module for a large scale climate simulator at a US national laboratory. The goal of the tests and subsequent modeling was to develop an accurate method of assessing duct system performance in the laboratory, enabling limiting conditions to be imposed at will and results to be applied to residential attics with attic duct systems. Steady-state tests were done at a severe summer and a mild winter condition. In all tests the roof surface was heated above ambient air temperatures by infrared lights. The attic test module first included then did not include the duct system. Attic ventilation from eave vents to a ridge vent was varied from none to values achievable by a high level of power ventilation. A radiant barrier was attached to the underside of the roof deck, both with and without the duct system in place. Tests were also done without the radiant barrier, both with and without the duct system. When installed, the insulated ducts ran along the floor of the attic, just above the attic insulation and along the edge of the attic near the eaves and one gable. These tests in a climate simulator achieved careful control and reproducibility of conditions. This elucidated dependencies that would otherwise be hidden by variations in uncontrolled variables. Based on the comparisons with the results of the tests at the mild winter condition and the severe summer condition, model predictions for attic air and insulation temperatures should be accurate within {+-} 10 F ({+-} 6 C). This is judged adequate for design purposes and could be better when exploring the effect of changes in attic and duct parameters at fixed climatic conditions.

  1. Demonstration of close-coupled barriers for subsurface containment of buried waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A close-coupled barrier is produced by first installing a conventional cement grout curtain followed by a thin inner lining of a polymer grout. The resultant barrier is a cement polymer composite that has economic benefits derived from the cement and performance benefits from the durable and resistant polymer layer. Close-coupled barrier technology is applicable for final, interim, or emergency containment of subsurface waste forms. Consequently, when considering the diversity of technology application, the construction emplacement and material technology maturity, general site operational requirements, and regulatory compliance incentives, the close-coupled barrier system provides an alternative for any hazardous or mixed waste remediation plan. This paper discusses the installation of a close-coupled barrier and the subsequent integrity verification. The demonstration was installed at a benign site at the Hanford Geotechnical Test Facility, 400 Area, Hanford, Washington. The composite barrier was emplaced beneath a 7,500 liter tank. The tank was chosen to simulate a typical DOE Complex waste form. The stresses induced on the waste form were evaluated during barrier construction. The barrier was constructed using conventional jet grouting techniques. Drilling was completed at a 45 degree angle to the ground, forming a conical shaped barrier with the waste form inside the cone. Two overlapping rows of cylindrical cement columns were grouted in a honeycomb fashion to form the secondary backdrop barrier layer. The primary barrier, a high molecular weight polymer manufactured by 3M Company, was then installed providing a relatively thin inner liner for the secondary barrier. The primary barrier was emplaced by panel jet grouting with a dual wall drill stem, two phase jet grouting system

  2. Acanthamoeba produces disseminated infection in locusts and traverses the locust blood-brain barrier to invade the central nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirk Ruth

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many aspects of Acanthamoeba granulomatous encephalitis remain poorly understood, including host susceptibility and chronic colonization which represent important features of the spectrum of host-pathogen interactions. Previous studies have suggested locusts as a tractable model in which to study Acanthamoeba pathogenesis. Here we determined the mode of parasite invasion of the central nervous system (CNS. Results Using Acanthamoeba isolates belonging to the T1 and T4 genotypes, the findings revealed that amoebae induced sickness behaviour in locusts, as evidenced by reduced faecal output and weight loss and, eventually, leading to 100% mortality. Significant degenerative changes of various tissues were observed by histological sectioning. Both isolates produced disseminated infection, with viable amoebae being recovered from various tissues. Histological examination of the CNS showed that Acanthamoeba invaded the locust CNS, and this is associated with disruption of the perineurium cell/glial cell complex, which constitutes the locust blood-brain barrier. Conclusions This is the first study to demonstrate that Acanthamoeba invades locust brain by modulating the integrity of the insect's blood-brain barrier, a finding that is consistent with the human infection. These observations support the idea that locusts provide a tractable model to study Acanthamoeba encephalitis in vivo. In this way the locust model may generate potentially useful leads that can be tested subsequently in mammalian systems, thus replacing the use of vertebrates at an early stage, and reducing the numbers of mammals required overall.

  3. Implementing a Measurement Feedback System in Community Mental Health Clinics: A Case Study of Multilevel Barriers and Facilitators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleacher, Alissa A; Olin, Serene S; Nadeem, Erum; Pollock, Michele; Ringle, Vanesa; Bickman, Leonard; Douglas, Susan; Hoagwood, Kimberly

    2016-05-01

    Measurement feedback systems (MFSs) have been proposed as a means of improving practice. The present study examined the implementation of a MFS, the Contextualized Feedback System (CFS), in two community-based clinic sites. Significant implementation differences across sites provided a basis for examining factors that influenced clinician uptake of CFS. Following the theoretical implementation framework of Aarons et al. (Adm Policy Mental Health Mental Health Serv Res 38(1):4-23, 2011), we coded qualitative data collected from eighteen clinicians (13 from Clinic U and 5 from Clinic R) who participated in semi-structured interviews about their experience with CFS implementation. Results suggest that clinicians at both clinics perceived more barriers than facilitators to CFS implementation. Interestingly, clinicians at the higher implementing clinic reported a higher proportion of barriers to facilitators (3:1 vs. 2:1); however, these clinicians also reported a significantly higher level of organizational and leadership supports for CFS implementation. Implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:25735619

  4. Office building wall and space HVAC systems: Retrofitting with advanced systems. Applicazione di criteri avanzati nel progetto di ristrutturazione degli impianti di un edificio del terziario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cattaneo, P. (Intertecno, Milan (Italy)); Gasparini, R.; Paoletti Gualandi, M. (Ente Nazionale per l' Energia Elettrica, Rome (Italy)); Del Bufalo, L. (LDB, Rome (Italy))

    1992-08-01

    The office building housing the headquarters of the Italian National Electricity Board (ENEL) in Rome is being restructured with a new energy efficient exterior wall system. Built during the early 1960's, this office building's space heating ventilation and air conditioning system is also being replaced by an energy efficient system of innovative design. This paper outlines the national utility's planned energy conservation program, which includes the computerization of all building systems so as to allow integrated building services/energy management, and indicates the logic behind design choices that were made.

  5. Fusion and peripheral reactions in the systems /sup 16/O+sup(148,152)Sm at sub-barrier energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kittl, J.A.; Testoni, J.E.

    1986-05-12

    Cross sections for fusion and peripheral reactions in the sub-barrier region obtained with the coupled-channel and equivalent-spheres methods are compared for the systems /sup 16/O+sup(148,152)Sm. A barrier-like real potential plus a residual surface-imaginary potential is introduced as an alternative approach which allows the simultaneous fit of elastic, inelastic, fusion and peripheral reaction cross sections.

  6. Determining through numerical modeling the effective thermal resistance of a foundation wall system with low emissivity material and furred-airspace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabed, Hamed H.; Swinton, M. [National Research Council Canada, Institute for Reserch in Construction, Ottawa, (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This paper determined the effective thermal resistance of a foundation wall system with low emissivity material and furred airspace through numerical modelling. The model hygIRC-C , a 2D and 3D hygrothermal model, was used to conduct numerical simulations to determine the effective thermal resistance of a foundation wall system having a furred airspace assembly and incorporating low emissivity foil materials. This model accounts for surface-to-surface radiation between the surfaces of the furring, gypsum board and foil. A parametric was conducted to determine the effective thermal resistance of the foundation wall system as a function of foil emissivity. The results showed that, with the furring installed horizontally, a low foil emissivity of 0.05 can increase the wall R-value by as much as approximately 10%. A benchmarking of the present model against experimental data is currently being performed.

  7. Mould resistance design for external wood frame wall systems : Simulation and evaluation of wall structures under varying conditions of exposure using the MRD model

    OpenAIRE

    Dahlström, Carl; Giesen, Emma

    2015-01-01

    Moisture induced damages to building envelopes can result in microbial growth possibly affecting the health and wellbeing of occupants. Recent failing structures and damaged buildings indicate a lack of tools to estimate risk of mould growth and moisture damage. In this work a so-called mould resistance design (MRD) model has been applied for mapping the risk for mould growth on a number of wood-containing wall structures. The MRD model introduces an engineering approach to moisture safety de...

  8. Regulation of brain copper homeostasis by the brain barrier systems: Effects of Fe-overload and Fe-deficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monnot, Andrew D.; Behl, Mamta; Ho, Sanna; Zheng, Wei, E-mail: wzheng@purdue.edu

    2011-11-15

    Maintaining brain Cu homeostasis is vital for normal brain function. The role of systemic Fe deficiency (FeD) or overload (FeO) due to metabolic diseases or environmental insults in Cu homeostasis in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and brain tissues remains unknown. This study was designed to investigate how blood-brain barrier (BBB) and blood-SCF barrier (BCB) regulated Cu transport and how FeO or FeD altered brain Cu homeostasis. Rats received an Fe-enriched or Fe-depleted diet for 4 weeks. FeD and FeO treatment resulted in a significant increase (+ 55%) and decrease (- 56%) in CSF Cu levels (p < 0.05), respectively; however, neither treatment had any effect on CSF Fe levels. The FeD, but not FeO, led to significant increases in Cu levels in brain parenchyma and the choroid plexus. In situ brain perfusion studies demonstrated that the rate of Cu transport into the brain parenchyma was significantly faster in FeD rats (+ 92%) and significantly slower (- 53%) in FeO rats than in controls. In vitro two chamber Transwell transepithelial transport studies using primary choroidal epithelial cells revealed a predominant efflux of Cu from the CSF to blood compartment by the BCB. Further ventriculo-cisternal perfusion studies showed that Cu clearance by the choroid plexus in FeD animals was significantly greater than control (p < 0.05). Taken together, our results demonstrate that both the BBB and BCB contribute to maintain a stable Cu homeostasis in the brain and CSF. Cu appears to enter the brain primarily via the BBB and is subsequently removed from the CSF by the BCB. FeD has a more profound effect on brain Cu levels than FeO. FeD increases Cu transport at the brain barriers and prompts Cu overload in the CNS. The BCB plays a key role in removing the excess Cu from the CSF.

  9. Adrenergic-induced enhancement of brain barrier system permeability to small nonelectrolytes: choroid plexus versus cerebral capillaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acute hypertension induced by adrenergic agents opens up the blood-CSF barrier (choroid plexus) to nonelectrolyte and protein tracers. Sprague-Dawley adult rats anesthetized with ketamine were given an intravenous bolus of either epinephrine (10 micrograms/kg), phenylephrine (100 micrograms/kg), isoproterenol (10 micrograms/kg), or D,L-amphetamine (2 mg/kg). Tracers were injected simultaneously with test agents, and the animals killed 10 min later. Epinephrine raised MABP by 57 mm Hg, to a peak pressure of 160 mm Hg; and it increased the volume of distribution (Vd) of urea, mannitol, and 125I-bovine serum albumin in CSF by 1.5-, 2.7-, and 30-fold, respectively. There was enhanced uptake by lateral and fourth ventricle choroid plexuses, cerebral cortex, cerebellum, medulla, and thalamus. Phenylephrine also elevated MABP to 160 mm Hg, but it increased permeation of tracers into CSF (and several brain regions) to a lesser extent than epinephrine, attributable to protective vasoconstriction associated with alpha-agonist activity. Ratio analysis of Vd data provides evidence that augmented permeation of nonelectrolyte tracers in acute hypertension occurs predominantly by diffusion rather than vesicular transport. It is postulated that elevated MABP distends the central cores of choroid plexus villi and cerebral capillaries, with resultant stretching and opening of tight junctions in both barrier systems; with less hindrance to diffusion, urea and mannitol are cleared at rates closer to free diffusion. Neither isoproterenol (decreased MABP by 40 mm Hg) nor amphetamine (did not alter MABP) significantly opened the choroid plexus or blood-brain barrier to tracers

  10. Verification of FAC mitigation effect by water chemistry improvement in PWR secondary system using continuous monitoring system of wall thickness of carbon steel piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flow Accelerated Corrosion (FAC) of carbon steel (CS) piping is one of main issues in secondary system of Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) nuclear power plant. Wall thinning of CS piping due to FAC increases potential risk of pipe rupture, cost for inspection and replacement of damaged pipes. In particular, corrosion products generated by FAC of CS piping brought steam generator (SG) tube corrosion and degradation of thermal performance, when it intruded and accumulated in secondary side of PWR. Therefore, we estimated an applicability and effectiveness of Oxygenated Water Chemistry (OWC) as a new approach to FAC suppression for PWR secondary system by experiment in laboratory and demonstration test at Tsuruga-2 (1160 MWe PWR, commercial operation started in 1987). Based on this result, OWC has been applied to condensate system in Tsuruga-2 from Jan. 2011. And, to evaluate the FAC mitigation effect of OWC, wall thickness of actual condensate piping in Tsuruga-2 after OWC application was measured by continuous monitoring system, using high-temperature and high-resolution ultrasonic probe. In this paper, behavior of actual wall thinning rate of condensate piping in Tsuruga-2 under various pH and DO concentration is discussed. (author)

  11. Geophysical characterization of subsurface barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An option for controlling contaminant migration from plumes and buried waste sites is to construct a subsurface barrier of a low-permeability material. The successful application of subsurface barriers requires processes to verify the emplacement and effectiveness of barrier and to monitor the performance of a barrier after emplacement. Non destructive and remote sensing techniques, such as geophysical methods, are possible technologies to address these needs. The changes in mechanical, hydrologic and chemical properties associated with the emplacement of an engineered barrier will affect geophysical properties such a seismic velocity, electrical conductivity, and dielectric constant. Also, the barrier, once emplaced and interacting with the in situ geologic system, may affect the paths along which electrical current flows in the subsurface. These changes in properties and processes facilitate the detection and monitoring of the barrier. The approaches to characterizing and monitoring engineered barriers can be divided between (1) methods that directly image the barrier using the contrasts in physical properties between the barrier and the host soil or rock and (2) methods that reflect flow processes around or through the barrier. For example, seismic methods that delineate the changes in density and stiffness associated with the barrier represents a direct imaging method. Electrical self potential methods and flow probes based on heat flow methods represent techniques that can delineate the flow path or flow processes around and through a barrier

  12. Ambiguous walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mody, Astrid

    2012-01-01

    The introduction of Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) in the built environment has encouraged myriad applications, often embedded in surfaces as an integrated part of the architecture. Thus the wall as responsive luminous skin is becoming, if not common, at least familiar. Taking into account how wall...

  13. High-R Walls for Remodeling: Wall Cavity Moisture Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiehagen, J.; Kochkin, V.

    2012-12-01

    The focus of the study is on the performance of wall systems, and in particular, the moisture characteristics inside the wall cavity and in the wood sheathing. Furthermore, while this research will initially address new home construction, the goal is to address potential moisture issues in wall cavities of existing homes when insulation and air sealing improvements are made.

  14. High-R Walls for Remodeling. Wall Cavity Moisture Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiehagen, J. [NAHB Research Center Industry Partnership, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Kochkin, V. [NAHB Research Center Industry Partnership, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States)

    2012-12-01

    The focus of the study is on the performance of wall systems, and in particular, the moisture characteristics inside the wall cavity and in the wood sheathing. Furthermore, while this research will initially address new home construction, the goal is to address potential moisture issues in wall cavities of existing homes when insulation and air sealing improvements are made.

  15. FLOW CHARACTERISTICS OF WALL-FLOW DIESEL PARTICULATE FILTER SYSTEM WITH REVERSE PULSE AIR REGENERATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yao Chunde; Shao Yuping; Zhang Chunrun; Zi XinYun; Jiang Dahai; Deng Chenglin

    2005-01-01

    To simulate steady airflows inside of wall-flow diesel particulate filters (DPF) with different reverse blowing pipes collocation, a mathematical model of the flow in a DPF is established by an equivalent continuum approach. The experimental results agree well with the theoretical values calculated from the model. Simulation shows that the velocity and the pressure distribution of the filters in the regenerative process are key factors to the filter's regeneration. How to decrease the mal-distribution of the flow in the filter and how to achieve the better regenerative performance at the least cost of air consumption in the regenerative process are the ultimate goals of the study. Calculation and experiments show that the goals can be realized through adjusting the angle of two reverse blowing pipes and their relative location suitably.

  16. Asthma: the importance of dysregulated barrier immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambrecht, Bart N; Hammad, Hamida

    2013-12-01

    Chronic asthma is an inflammatory disease of the airway wall that leads to bronchial smooth muscle hyperreactivity and airway obstruction, caused by inflammation, goblet cell metaplasia, and airway wall remodeling. In response to allergen presentation by airway DCs, T-helper lymphocytes of the adaptive immune system control many aspects of the disease through secretion of IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, IL-17, and IL-22, and these are counterbalanced by cytokines produced by Treg cells. Many cells of the innate immune system such as mast cells, basophils, neutrophils, eosinophils, and innate lymphoid cells also play an important role in disease pathogenesis. Barrier epithelial cells are being ever more implicated in disease pathogenesis than previously thought, as these cells have in recent years been shown to sense exposure to allergens via pattern recognition receptors and to activate conventional and inflammatory-type DCs and other innate immune cells through the secretion of thymic stromal lymphopoietin, granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor, IL-1, IL-33, and IL-25. Understanding this cytokine crosstalk between barrier epithelial cells, DCs, and immune cells provides important insights into the mechanisms of allergic sensitization and asthma progression as discussed in this review. PMID:24165907

  17. Hindrance of Heavy-ion Fusion at Extreme Sub-Barrier Energies in Open-shell Colliding Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, C L; Esbensen, H; Janssens, R V F; Back, B B; Collon, P; Davids, C N; Greene, J P; Henderson, D J; Lister, C J; Kurtz, S; Pardo, R C; Pennington, T; Paul, M; Peterson, D; Seweryniak, D; Shumard, B; Sinha, S; Tang, X D; Tanihata, I; Zhu, S

    2004-01-01

    The excitation function for the fusion-evaporation reaction 64Ni+100Mo has been measured down to a cross-section of ~5 nb. Extensive coupled-channels calculations have been performed, which cannot reproduce the steep fall-off of the excitation function at extreme sub-barrier energies. Thus, this system exhibits a hindrance for fusion, a phenomenon that has been discovered only recently. In the S-factor representation introduced to quantify the hindrance, a maximum is observed at E_s=120.6 MeV, which corresponds to 90% of the reference energy E_s^ref, a value expected from systematics of closed-shell systems. A systematic analysis of Ni-induced fusion reactions leading to compound nuclei with mass A=100-200 is presented in order to explore a possible dependence of the fusion hindrance on nuclear structure.

  18. Development Status and Performance Comparisons of Environmental Barrier Coating Systems for SiCSiC Ceramic Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming; Harder, Bryan

    2016-01-01

    Environmental barrier coatings (EBC) and SiCSiC ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) will play a crucial role in future aircraft turbine engine systems, because of their ability to significantly increase engine operating temperatures, reduce engine weight and cooling requirements. This paper presents current NASA EBC-CMC development emphases including: the coating composition and processing improvements, laser high heat flux-thermal gradient thermo-mechanical fatigue - environmental testing methodology development, and property evaluations for next generation EBC-CMC systems. EBCs processed with various deposition techniques including Plasma Spray, Electron Beam - Physical Vapor Deposition, and Plasma Spray Physical Vapor Deposition (PS-PVD) will be particularly discussed. The testing results and demonstrations of advanced EBCs-CMCs in complex simulated engine thermal gradient cyclic fatigue, oxidizing-steam and CMAS environments will help provide insights into the coating development strategies to meet long-term engine component durability goals.

  19. Studies on the requirements of the power supply system for the resistive-wall-mode control in JT-60SA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► The new design of the JT-60SA coil system for RWM control requires high dynamics. ► The electrical characterization of coils and feeders is performed with FE analyses. ► Voltage induced in the coils in case of fast plasma transients is quantified. ► Possible connections among PS and coils are analyzed to optimize the system. ► Reasonable voltage margins to cope with load uncertainties are considered. -- Abstract: The JT-60SA satellite tokamak will be built in Naka, Japan. One of the main aims of this machine is to achieve steady-state high-beta plasmas. To reach this result, passive stabilizing plate (SP) and resistive wall modes (RWM) active control system based on 18 in-vessel coils will be installed. In the present design, these coils are placed on the plasma side of the SP, behind the first wall. This solution maximizes the efficiency in producing fast magnetic fields into the plasma by minimizing the shielding effect of the passive structures. Then, if the power supply (PS) and the control system have sufficient dynamic performance, it is possible to control the RWM with very low magnetic fields. This allows minimizing the Ampere-turns and the power requested to control the RWM. Conversely, the very fast dynamics required represents one of the main issues for the design of the RWM control system. This paper, after having recalled the main specification data for the RWM control system deriving from the physics studies, describes the analyses performed to complete the set of requirements necessary for the PS design. The characterization of coils and feeders is shown and the voltage necessary to produce the required current and bandwidth is quantified. Possible connections among PS and coils are analyzed in order to achieve the highest possible flexibility in controlling the RWM with a reduced set of independent PS. Finally, considerations on reasonable voltage margins to cope with load uncertainties are given

  20. Through-the-Wall Localization of a Moving Target by Two Independent Ultra Wideband (UWB Radar Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Rovňáková

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the case of through-the-wall localization of moving targets by ultra wideband (UWB radars, there are applications in which handheld sensors equipped only with one transmitting and two receiving antennas are applied. Sometimes, the radar using such a small antenna array is not able to localize the target with the required accuracy. With a view to improve through-the-wall target localization, cooperative positioning based on a fusion of data retrieved from two independent radar systems can be used. In this paper, the novel method of the cooperative localization referred to as joining intersections of the ellipses is introduced. This method is based on a geometrical interpretation of target localization where the target position is estimated using a properly created cluster of the ellipse intersections representing potential positions of the target. The performance of the proposed method is compared with the direct calculation method and two alternative methods of cooperative localization using data obtained by measurements with the M-sequence UWB radars. The direct calculation method is applied for the target localization by particular radar systems. As alternative methods of cooperative localization, the arithmetic average of the target coordinates estimated by two single independent UWB radars and the Taylor series method is considered.