WorldWideScience

Sample records for barrier system features

  1. ENGINEERED BARRIER SYSTEM FEATURES, EVENTS AND PROCESSES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate and document the inclusion or exclusion of engineered barrier system (EBS) features, events, and processes (FEPs) with respect to models and analyses used to support the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA). A screening decision, either Included or Excluded, is given for each FEP along with the technical basis for exclusion screening decisions. This information is required by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) at 10 CFR 63.114 (d, e, and f) [DIRS 173273]. The FEPs addressed in this report deal with those features, events, and processes relevant to the EBS focusing mainly on those components and conditions exterior to the waste package and within the rock mass surrounding emplacement drifts. The components of the EBS are the drip shield, waste package, waste form, cladding, emplacement pallet, emplacement drift excavated opening (also referred to as drift opening in this report), and invert. FEPs specific to the waste package, cladding, and drip shield are addressed in separate FEP reports: for example, ''Screening of Features, Events, and Processes in Drip Shield and Waste Package Degradation'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 174995]), ''Clad Degradation--FEPs Screening Arguments (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170019]), and Waste-Form Features, Events, and Processes'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170020]). For included FEPs, this report summarizes the implementation of the FEP in the TSPA-LA (i.e., how the FEP is included). For excluded FEPs, this analysis provides the technical basis for exclusion from TSPA-LA (i.e., why the FEP is excluded). This report also documents changes to the EBS FEPs list that have occurred since the previous versions of this report. These changes have resulted due to a reevaluation of the FEPs for TSPA-LA as identified in Section 1.2 of this report and described in more detail in Section 6.1.1. This revision addresses updates in Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) administrative procedures as they

  2. ENGINEERED BARRIER SYSTEM FEATURES, EVENTS AND PROCESSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaros, W.

    2005-08-30

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate and document the inclusion or exclusion of engineered barrier system (EBS) features, events, and processes (FEPs) with respect to models and analyses used to support the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA). A screening decision, either Included or Excluded, is given for each FEP along with the technical basis for exclusion screening decisions. This information is required by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) at 10 CFR 63.114 (d, e, and f) [DIRS 173273]. The FEPs addressed in this report deal with those features, events, and processes relevant to the EBS focusing mainly on those components and conditions exterior to the waste package and within the rock mass surrounding emplacement drifts. The components of the EBS are the drip shield, waste package, waste form, cladding, emplacement pallet, emplacement drift excavated opening (also referred to as drift opening in this report), and invert. FEPs specific to the waste package, cladding, and drip shield are addressed in separate FEP reports: for example, ''Screening of Features, Events, and Processes in Drip Shield and Waste Package Degradation'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 174995]), ''Clad Degradation--FEPs Screening Arguments (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170019]), and Waste-Form Features, Events, and Processes'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170020]). For included FEPs, this report summarizes the implementation of the FEP in the TSPA-LA (i.e., how the FEP is included). For excluded FEPs, this analysis provides the technical basis for exclusion from TSPA-LA (i.e., why the FEP is excluded). This report also documents changes to the EBS FEPs list that have occurred since the previous versions of this report. These changes have resulted due to a reevaluation of the FEPs for TSPA-LA as identified in Section 1.2 of this report and described in more detail in Section 6.1.1. This revision addresses updates in Yucca Mountain Project

  3. ENGINEERED BARRIER SYSTEM FEATURES, EVENTS, AND PROCESSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    na

    2005-05-30

    This analysis report is one of the technical reports containing documentation of the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain, Nevada (ERMYN), a biosphere model supporting the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for the license application (LA) for the Yucca Mountain repository. This analysis report describes the development of biosphere dose conversion factors (BDCFs) for the volcanic ash exposure scenario, and the development of dose factors for calculating inhalation dose during volcanic eruption. A graphical representation of the documentation hierarchy for the ERMYN is presented in Figure 1 - 1. This figure shows the interrelationships among the products (i.e., analysis and model reports) developed for biosphere modeling and provides an understanding of how this analysis report contributes to biosphere modeling. This report is one of two reports that develop biosphere BDCFs, which are input parameters for the TSPA model. The ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169460]) describes in detail the ERMYN conceptual model and mathematical model. The input parameter reports, shown to the right of the Biosphere Model Report in Figure 1-1, contain detailed descriptions of the model input parameters, their development and the relationship between the parameters and specific features, events and processes (FEPs). This report describes biosphere model calculations and their output, the BDCFs, for the volcanic ash exposure scenario. This analysis receives direct input from the outputs of the ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169460]) and from the five analyses that develop parameter values for the biosphere model (BSC 2005 [DIRS 172827]; BSC 2004 [DIRS 169672]; BSC 2004 [DIRS 169673]; BSC 2004 [DIRS 169458]; and BSC 2004 [DIRS 169459]). The results of this report are further analyzed in the ''Biosphere Dose Conversion Factor Importance and Sensitivity Analysis'' (Figure 1 - 1). The

  4. Richards Barrier LA Reference Design Feature Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Richards Barrier is one of the design features of the repository to be considered for the License Application (LA), Richards was a soil scientist who first described the diversion of moisture between two materials with different hydrologic properties. In this report, a Richards Barrier is a special type of backfill with a fine-grained material (such as sand) overlaying a coarse-grained material (such as gravel). Water that enters an emplacement drift will first encounter the fine-grained material and be transported around the coarse-grained material covering the waste package, thus protecting the waste package from contact with most of the groundwater. The objective of this report is to discuss the benefits and liabilities to the repository by the inclusion of a Richards Barrier type backfill in emplacement drifts. The Richards Barrier can act as a barrier to water flow, can reduce the waste package material dissolution rate, limit mobilization of the radionuclides, and can provide structural protection for the waste package. The scope of this report is to: (1) Analyze the behavior of barrier materials following the intrusion of groundwater for influxes of 1 to 300 mm per year. The report will demonstrate diversion of groundwater intrusions into the barrier over an extended time period when seismic activity and consolidation may cause the potential for liquefaction and settlement of the Richards Barrier. (2) Review the thermal effects of the Richards Barrier on material behavior. (3) Analyze the effect of rockfall on the performance of the Richards Barrier and the depth of the barrier required to protect waste packages under the barrier. (4) Review radiological and heating conditions on placement of multiple layers of the barrier. Subsurface Nuclear Safety personnel will perform calculations to determine the radiation reduction-time relationship and shielding capacity of the barrier. (5) Evaluate the effects of ventilation on cooling of emplacement drifts and

  5. Transport barriers in helical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are some publications with indications that the formation of transport barriers in toroidal devices could take place in the vicinity of low order rational surfaces (RS). It is necessary to note that the environs of RS have very important peculiarities. In particular, a stochastic layer of magnetic field lines forms instead of separaterix which must separate the island surfaces from the adjacent to them non-island surfaces in stellarator magnetic configurations. The attempt to realize the formation of transport barriers near RS and to study their influence on the RF discharge plasma confinement was undertaken in presented experiments on the U-3M torsatron. The presupposition was made that the radial electric field profile would have sharp change on the width of stochastic layer near RS in the case of collisionless longitudinal motion of electrons in this layer. Experimental data obtained on the U-3M torsatron during the formation of interior and edge transport barriers are in a good agreement with this presupposition. The results of experiments on the U-3M torsatron are discussed in comparison with data of other helical systems. It is shown that the number of dependences (the threshold power and density, the time of barrier formation, the localization of radial electric field shear layer) are in a good agreement for all these systems. In conclusion, the common features of formation of transport barriers in non- axisymmetric and non-axisymmetric systems are discussed. (author)

  6. Multilayer thermal barrier coating systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vance, Steven J.; Goedjen, John G.; Sabol, Stephen M.; Sloan, Kelly M.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention generally describes multilayer thermal barrier coating systems and methods of making the multilayer thermal barrier coating systems. The thermal barrier coating systems comprise a first ceramic layer, a second ceramic layer, a thermally grown oxide layer, a metallic bond coating layer and a substrate. The thermal barrier coating systems have improved high temperature thermal and chemical stability for use in gas turbine applications.

  7. Eco-nomics: Are the Planet-Unfriendly Features of Capitalism Barriers to Sustainability?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merrill Singer

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that there are essential features of capitalist modes of production, consumption, and waste dispersal in interaction with the environment and its built-in systemic features that contradict long-term sustainable development. These features include: (a contradictions in the origin and meaning of sustainability; (b the central role of the productivity ethic in capitalism and its reproduction in emergent green capitalism; (c the commodification of nature and the continued promotion of expanding consumption; (d globalism and the contradictions of continued Western-style development; and (e the emergence of anthropogenic ecocrises and crises interaction. In light of these barriers to capitalist sustainability, an alternative social narrative is needed, one that embraces values, understandings, and relationships that promote ecological stability and justice.

  8. Systems study on engineered barriers: barrier performance analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A performance assessment model for multiple barrier packages containing unreprocessed spent fuel has been modified and applied to several package designs. The objective of the study was to develop information to be used in programmatic decision making concerning engineered barrier package design and development. The assessment model, BARIER, was developed in previous tasks of the System Study on Engineered Barriers (SSEB). The new version discussed in this report contains a refined and expanded corrosion rate data base which includes pitting, crack growth, and graphitization as well as bulk corrosion. Corrosion rates for oxic and anoxic conditions at each of the two temperature ranges are supplied. Other improvements include a rigorous treatment of radionuclide release after package failure which includes resistance of damaged barriers and backfill, refined temperature calculations that account for convection and radiation, a subroutine to calculate nuclear gamma radiation field at each barrier surface, refined stress calculations with reduced conservatism and various coding improvements to improve running time and core usage. This report also contains discussion of alternative scenarios to the assumed flooded repository as well as the impact of water exclusion backfills. The model was used to assess post repository closure performance for several designs which were all variation of basic designs from the Spent Unreprocessed Fuel (SURF) program. Many designs were found to delay the onset of leaching by at least a few hundreds of years in all geologic media. Long delay times for radionuclide release were found for packages with a few inches of sorption backfill. Release of uranium, plutonium, and americium was assessed

  9. Systems study on engineered barriers: barrier performance analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stula, R.T.; Albert, T.E.; Kirstein, B.E.; Lester, D.H.

    1980-09-01

    A performance assessment model for multiple barrier packages containing unreprocessed spent fuel has been modified and applied to several package designs. The objective of the study was to develop information to be used in programmatic decision making concerning engineered barrier package design and development. The assessment model, BARIER, was developed in previous tasks of the System Study on Engineered Barriers (SSEB). The new version discussed in this report contains a refined and expanded corrosion rate data base which includes pitting, crack growth, and graphitization as well as bulk corrosion. Corrosion rates for oxic and anoxic conditions at each of the two temperature ranges are supplied. Other improvements include a rigorous treatment of radionuclide release after package failure which includes resistance of damaged barriers and backfill, refined temperature calculations that account for convection and radiation, a subroutine to calculate nuclear gamma radiation field at each barrier surface, refined stress calculations with reduced conservatism and various coding improvements to improve running time and core usage. This report also contains discussion of alternative scenarios to the assumed flooded repository as well as the impact of water exclusion backfills. The model was used to assess post repository closure performance for several designs which were all variation of basic designs from the Spent Unreprocessed Fuel (SURF) program. Many designs were found to delay the onset of leaching by at least a few hundreds of years in all geologic media. Long delay times for radionuclide release were found for packages with a few inches of sorption backfill. Release of uranium, plutonium, and americium was assessed.

  10. Double barrier system for an in situ conversion process

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinzie, Billy John [Houston, TX; Vinegar, Harold J [Bellaire, TX; Cowan, Kenneth Michael [Sugar land, TX; Deeg, Wolfgang Friedrich Johann [Houston, TX; Wong, Sau-Wai [Rijswijk, NL

    2009-05-05

    A barrier system for a subsurface treatment area is described. The barrier system includes a first barrier formed around at least a portion of the subsurface treatment area. The first barrier is configured to inhibit fluid from exiting or entering the subsurface treatment area. A second barrier is formed around at least a portion of the first barrier. A separation space exists between the first barrier and the second barrier.

  11. ENGINEERED BARRIER SYSTEM: PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL ENVIRONMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Jarek

    2005-08-29

    The purpose of this model report is to describe the evolution of the physical and chemical environmental conditions within the waste emplacement drifts of the repository, including the drip shield and waste package surfaces. The resulting seepage evaporation and gas abstraction models are used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) to assess the performance of the engineered barrier system and the waste form. This report develops and documents a set of abstraction-level models that describe the engineered barrier system physical and chemical environment. Where possible, these models use information directly from other reports as input, which promotes integration among process models used for TSPA-LA. Specific tasks and activities of modeling the physical and chemical environment are included in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport In-Drift Geochemistry Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173782], Section 1.2.2). As described in the technical work plan, the development of this report is coordinated with the development of other engineered barrier system reports. To be consistent with other project documents that address features, events, and processes (FEPs), Table 6.14.1 of the current report includes updates to FEP numbers and FEP subjects for two FEPs identified in the technical work plan (TWP) governing this report (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173782]). FEP 2.1.09.06.0A (Reduction-oxidation potential in EBS), as listed in Table 2 of the TWP (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173782]), has been updated in the current report to FEP 2.1.09.06.0B (Reduction-oxidation potential in Drifts; see Table 6.14-1). FEP 2.1.09.07.0A (Reaction kinetics in EBS), as listed in Table 2 of the TWP (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173782]), has been updated in the current report to FEP 2.1.09.07.0B (Reaction kinetics in Drifts; see Table 6.14-1). These deviations from the TWP are justified because they improve integration with FEPs

  12. ENGINEERED BARRIER SYSTEM: PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL ENVIRONMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this model report is to describe the evolution of the physical and chemical environmental conditions within the waste emplacement drifts of the repository, including the drip shield and waste package surfaces. The resulting seepage evaporation and gas abstraction models are used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) to assess the performance of the engineered barrier system and the waste form. This report develops and documents a set of abstraction-level models that describe the engineered barrier system physical and chemical environment. Where possible, these models use information directly from other reports as input, which promotes integration among process models used for TSPA-LA. Specific tasks and activities of modeling the physical and chemical environment are included in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport In-Drift Geochemistry Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173782], Section 1.2.2). As described in the technical work plan, the development of this report is coordinated with the development of other engineered barrier system reports. To be consistent with other project documents that address features, events, and processes (FEPs), Table 6.14.1 of the current report includes updates to FEP numbers and FEP subjects for two FEPs identified in the technical work plan (TWP) governing this report (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173782]). FEP 2.1.09.06.0A (Reduction-oxidation potential in EBS), as listed in Table 2 of the TWP (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173782]), has been updated in the current report to FEP 2.1.09.06.0B (Reduction-oxidation potential in Drifts; see Table 6.14-1). FEP 2.1.09.07.0A (Reaction kinetics in EBS), as listed in Table 2 of the TWP (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173782]), has been updated in the current report to FEP 2.1.09.07.0B (Reaction kinetics in Drifts; see Table 6.14-1). These deviations from the TWP are justified because they improve integration with FEPs documents. The updates

  13. Vapor-barrier Vacuum Isolation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Leonard M. (Inventor); Taminger, Karen M. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A system includes a collimated beam source within a vacuum chamber, a condensable barrier gas, cooling material, a pump, and isolation chambers cooled by the cooling material to condense the barrier gas. Pressure levels of each isolation chamber are substantially greater than in the vacuum chamber. Coaxially-aligned orifices connect a working chamber, the isolation chambers, and the vacuum chamber. The pump evacuates uncondensed barrier gas. The barrier gas blocks entry of atmospheric vapor from the working chamber into the isolation chambers, and undergoes supersonic flow expansion upon entering each isolation chamber. A method includes connecting the isolation chambers to the vacuum chamber, directing vapor to a boundary with the working chamber, and supersonically expanding the vapor as it enters the isolation chambers via the orifices. The vapor condenses in each isolation chamber using the cooling material, and uncondensed vapor is pumped out of the isolation chambers via the pump.

  14. The Use of Feature Parameters to Asses Barrier Properties of ALD coatings for Flexible PV Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blunt, Liam; Robbins, David; Fleming, Leigh; Elrawemi, Mohamed

    2014-03-01

    This paper reports on the recent work carried out as part of the EU funded NanoMend project. The project seeks to develop integrated process inspection, cleaning, repair and control systems for nano-scale thin films on large area substrates. In the present study flexible photovoltaic films have been the substrate of interest. Flexible PV films are the subject of significant development at present and the latest films have efficiencies at or beyond the level of Si based rigid PV modules. These flexible devices are fabricated on polymer film by the repeated deposition, and patterning, of thin layer materials using roll-to-roll processes, where the whole film is approximately 3um thick prior to encapsulation. Whilst flexible films offer significant advantages in terms of mass and the possibility of building integration (BIPV) they are at present susceptible to long term environmental degradation as a result of water vapor transmission through the barrier layers to the CIGS (Copper Indium Gallium Selenide CuInxGa(1-x)Se2) PV cells thus causing electrical shorts and efficiency drops. Environmental protection of the GIGS cell is provided by a thin (40nm) barrier coating of Al2O3. The highly conformal aluminium oxide barrier layer is produced by atomic layer deposition (ALD) where, the ultra-thin Al2O3 layer is deposited onto polymer thin films before these films encapsulate the PV cell. The surface of the starting polymer film must be of very high quality in order to avoid creating defects in the device layers. Since these defects reduce manufacturing yield, in order to prevent them, a further thin polymer coating (planarization layer) is generally applied to the polymer film prior to deposition. The presence of surface irregularities on the uncoated film can create defects within the nanometre-scale, aluminium oxide, barrier layer and these are measured and characterised. This paper begins by reporting the results of early stage measurements conducted to characterise

  15. Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conceptual and predictive models documented in this Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment Model report describe the evolution of the physical and chemical conditions within the waste emplacement drifts of the repository. The modeling approaches and model output data will be used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA-LA) to assess the performance of the engineered barrier system and the waste form. These models evaluate the range of potential water compositions within the emplacement drifts, resulting from the interaction of introduced materials and minerals in dust with water seeping into the drifts and with aqueous solutions forming by deliquescence of dust (as influenced by atmospheric conditions), and from thermal-hydrological-chemical (THC) processes in the drift. These models also consider the uncertainty and variability in water chemistry inside the drift and the compositions of introduced materials within the drift. This report develops and documents a set of process- and abstraction-level models that constitute the engineered barrier system: physical and chemical environment model. Where possible, these models use information directly from other process model reports as input, which promotes integration among process models used for total system performance assessment. Specific tasks and activities of modeling the physical and chemical environment are included in the technical work plan ''Technical Work Plan for: In-Drift Geochemistry Modeling'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 166519]). As described in the technical work plan, the development of this report is coordinated with the development of other engineered barrier system analysis model reports

  16. Vulnerability of multiple-barrier systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Vulnerability' is defined as the ratio of the probability of failure of a damaged system to the probability of failure of the undamaged system. This definition applies to all engineered systems and can be specialized to particular system types. Some disastrous failures (e.g., Chernobyl) have shown that systems can be highly vulnerable. open-quotes Defense in depthclose quotes is a powerful design principle, reducing vulnerability when the consequences of failure can be catastrophic. In the nuclear industry, defense in depth is widely used in radiation protection, reactor control, and shutdown systems. A multiple-barrier system is a simple example of a system that has defense in depth. The idea is that the system is not vulnerable. It cannot fail if one barrier fails because there is another to take its place. This idea is untenable in waste management, but a quantified vulnerability of a system can help owners, designers, and regulators decide how much defense in depth is desirable or enough. Many multiple-barrier systems can be modeled as systems of components physically in a series, each individually able to prevent failure. Components typically have bimodal distributions of the service time to failure, as illustrated by an example of application to a hypothetical nuclear fuel waste repository

  17. Enhanced zirconia thermal barrier coating systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarke, D.; Levi, C.; Evans, A. [College of Engineering Santa Barbara (United States). University of California Materials Department

    2006-07-01

    The results of a research programme sponsored by the Department of Energy and directed at establishing some of the scientific issues underpinning the development of enhanced zirconia thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are reviewed. Our studies have established the stability ranges for both yttria stabilized and codoped zirconia coating materials and identified the mechanisms responsible for failure of current coating systems. These reveal that it is likely that present EB-PVD coatings systems are limited by the performance of current bond-coats and their oxidation behaviour, especially under thermal cycle conditions, rather than the zirconia coating material itself. These studies provide the scientific framework for the development of enhanced zirconia-based thermal barrier coating systems for advanced industrial gas turbine engine applications. (author)

  18. Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Dixon

    2004-04-26

    The conceptual and predictive models documented in this Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment Model report describe the evolution of the physical and chemical conditions within the waste emplacement drifts of the repository. The modeling approaches and model output data will be used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA-LA) to assess the performance of the engineered barrier system and the waste form. These models evaluate the range of potential water compositions within the emplacement drifts, resulting from the interaction of introduced materials and minerals in dust with water seeping into the drifts and with aqueous solutions forming by deliquescence of dust (as influenced by atmospheric conditions), and from thermal-hydrological-chemical (THC) processes in the drift. These models also consider the uncertainty and variability in water chemistry inside the drift and the compositions of introduced materials within the drift. This report develops and documents a set of process- and abstraction-level models that constitute the engineered barrier system: physical and chemical environment model. Where possible, these models use information directly from other process model reports as input, which promotes integration among process models used for total system performance assessment. Specific tasks and activities of modeling the physical and chemical environment are included in the technical work plan ''Technical Work Plan for: In-Drift Geochemistry Modeling'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 166519]). As described in the technical work plan, the development of this report is coordinated with the development of other engineered barrier system analysis model reports.

  19. Engineered Barrier System Degradation, Flow, and Transport Process Model Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.L. Hardin

    2000-07-17

    The Engineered Barrier System Degradation, Flow, and Transport Process Model Report (EBS PMR) is one of nine PMRs supporting the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) being developed by the Yucca Mountain Project for the Site Recommendation Report (SRR). The EBS PMR summarizes the development and abstraction of models for processes that govern the evolution of conditions within the emplacement drifts of a potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada. Details of these individual models are documented in 23 supporting Analysis/Model Reports (AMRs). Nineteen of these AMRs are for process models, and the remaining 4 describe the abstraction of results for application in TSPA. The process models themselves cluster around four major topics: ''Water Distribution and Removal Model, Physical and Chemical Environment Model, Radionuclide Transport Model, and Multiscale Thermohydrologic Model''. One AMR (Engineered Barrier System-Features, Events, and Processes/Degradation Modes Analysis) summarizes the formal screening analysis used to select the Features, Events, and Processes (FEPs) included in TSPA and those excluded from further consideration. Performance of a potential Yucca Mountain high-level radioactive waste repository depends on both the natural barrier system (NBS) and the engineered barrier system (EBS) and on their interactions. Although the waste packages are generally considered as components of the EBS, the EBS as defined in the EBS PMR includes all engineered components outside the waste packages. The principal function of the EBS is to complement the geologic system in limiting the amount of water contacting nuclear waste. A number of alternatives were considered by the Project for different EBS designs that could provide better performance than the design analyzed for the Viability Assessment. The design concept selected was Enhanced Design Alternative II (EDA II).

  20. Engineered Barrier System Degradation, Flow, and Transport Process Model Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Engineered Barrier System Degradation, Flow, and Transport Process Model Report (EBS PMR) is one of nine PMRs supporting the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) being developed by the Yucca Mountain Project for the Site Recommendation Report (SRR). The EBS PMR summarizes the development and abstraction of models for processes that govern the evolution of conditions within the emplacement drifts of a potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada. Details of these individual models are documented in 23 supporting Analysis/Model Reports (AMRs). Nineteen of these AMRs are for process models, and the remaining 4 describe the abstraction of results for application in TSPA. The process models themselves cluster around four major topics: ''Water Distribution and Removal Model, Physical and Chemical Environment Model, Radionuclide Transport Model, and Multiscale Thermohydrologic Model''. One AMR (Engineered Barrier System-Features, Events, and Processes/Degradation Modes Analysis) summarizes the formal screening analysis used to select the Features, Events, and Processes (FEPs) included in TSPA and those excluded from further consideration. Performance of a potential Yucca Mountain high-level radioactive waste repository depends on both the natural barrier system (NBS) and the engineered barrier system (EBS) and on their interactions. Although the waste packages are generally considered as components of the EBS, the EBS as defined in the EBS PMR includes all engineered components outside the waste packages. The principal function of the EBS is to complement the geologic system in limiting the amount of water contacting nuclear waste. A number of alternatives were considered by the Project for different EBS designs that could provide better performance than the design analyzed for the Viability Assessment. The design concept selected was Enhanced Design Alternative II (EDA II)

  1. ENGINEERED BARRIER SYSTEM: PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL ENVIRONMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Jarek

    2004-11-23

    The purpose of this report is to describe the evolution of the physical and chemical environmental conditions within the waste emplacement drifts of the repository, including the drip shield and waste package surfaces. The abstraction model is used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA LA) to assess the performance of the engineered barrier system and the waste form. This report develops and documents a set of these abstraction-level models that describe the engineered barrier system physical and chemical environment. Where possible, these models use information directly from other reports as input, which promotes integration among process models used for TSPA-LA. Specific tasks and activities of modeling the physical and chemical environment are included in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport In-Drift Geochemistry Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171156], Section 1.2.2). As described in the technical work plan, the development of this report is coordinated with the development of other engineered barrier system reports.

  2. ENGINEERED BARRIER SYSTEM: PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL ENVIRONMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report is to describe the evolution of the physical and chemical environmental conditions within the waste emplacement drifts of the repository, including the drip shield and waste package surfaces. The abstraction model is used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA LA) to assess the performance of the engineered barrier system and the waste form. This report develops and documents a set of these abstraction-level models that describe the engineered barrier system physical and chemical environment. Where possible, these models use information directly from other reports as input, which promotes integration among process models used for TSPA-LA. Specific tasks and activities of modeling the physical and chemical environment are included in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport In-Drift Geochemistry Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171156], Section 1.2.2). As described in the technical work plan, the development of this report is coordinated with the development of other engineered barrier system reports

  3. Diffusive Barrier and Getter Under Waste Packages VA Reference Design Feature Evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This technical document evaluates those aspects of the diffusive barrier and getter features which have the potential for enhancing the performance of the Viability Assessment Reference Design and are also directly related to the key attributes for the repository safety strategy of that design. The effects of advection, hydrodynamic dispersion, and diffusion on the radionuclide migration rates through the diffusive barrier were determined through the application of the one-dimensional, advection/dispersion/diffusion equation. The results showed that because advective flow described by the advection-dispersion equation dominates, the diffusive barrier feature alone would not be effective in retarding migration of radiocuclides. However, if the diffusive barrier were combined with one or more features that reduced the potential for advection, then transport of radionuclides would be dominated by diffusion and their migration from the EBS would be impeded. Apatite was chosen as the getter material used for this report. Two getter configurations were developed, Case 1 and Case 2. As in the evaluation of the diffusive barrier, the effects of advection, hydrodynamic dispersion, and diffusion on the migration of radionuclides through the getter are evaluated. However, in addition to these mechanisms, the one-dimensional advection/dispersion/diffusion model is modified to include the effect of sorption on radionuclide migration rates through the sorptive medium (getter). As a result of sorption, the longitudinal dispersion coefficient, and the average linear velocity are effectively reduced by the retardation factor. The retardation factor is a function of the getter material's dry bulk density, sorption coefficient and moisture content. The results of the evaluation showed that a significant delay in breakthrough through the getter can be achieved if the thickness of the getter barrier is increased

  4. Diffusive Barrier and Getter Under Waste Packages VA Reference Design Feature Evaluations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacNeil, K.

    1999-05-24

    This technical document evaluates those aspects of the diffusive barrier and getter features which have the potential for enhancing the performance of the Viability Assessment Reference Design and are also directly related to the key attributes for the repository safety strategy of that design. The effects of advection, hydrodynamic dispersion, and diffusion on the radionuclide migration rates through the diffusive barrier were determined through the application of the one-dimensional, advection/dispersion/diffusion equation. The results showed that because advective flow described by the advection-dispersion equation dominates, the diffusive barrier feature alone would not be effective in retarding migration of radiocuclides. However, if the diffusive barrier were combined with one or more features that reduced the potential for advection, then transport of radionuclides would be dominated by diffusion and their migration from the EBS would be impeded. Apatite was chosen as the getter material used for this report. Two getter configurations were developed, Case 1 and Case 2. As in the evaluation of the diffusive barrier, the effects of advection, hydrodynamic dispersion, and diffusion on the migration of radionuclides through the getter are evaluated. However, in addition to these mechanisms, the one-dimensional advection/dispersion/diffusion model is modified to include the effect of sorption on radionuclide migration rates through the sorptive medium (getter). As a result of sorption, the longitudinal dispersion coefficient, and the average linear velocity are effectively reduced by the retardation factor. The retardation factor is a function of the getter material's dry bulk density, sorption coefficient and moisture content. The results of the evaluation showed that a significant delay in breakthrough through the getter can be achieved if the thickness of the getter barrier is increased.

  5. 14 CFR 23.691 - Artificial stall barrier system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Artificial stall barrier system. 23.691... Construction Control Systems § 23.691 Artificial stall barrier system. If the function of an artificial stall barrier, for example, stick pusher, is used to show compliance with § 23.201(c), the system must...

  6. SUBSURFACE BARRIER VALIDATION WITH THE SEAFACE SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandra Dalvit Dunn

    1997-11-30

    The overall objective of the effort was to develop and demonstrate an integrated methodology and field system to evaluate the integrity of in situ, impermeable barriers constructed in the vadose zone. An autonomous, remotely accessible, automatic monitoring and analysis system was designed and fabricated. It was thoroughly tested under field conditions, and was able to function as designed throughout the test period. Data inversion software was developed with enhanced capabilities over the previous prototype version, and integrated with the monitoring system for real time operation. Analytical simulations were performed to determine the inversion code's sensitivity to model parameters. Numerical simulations were performed to better understand how typical field conditions differ from the ideal model(s) which are used (or have been developed for use) in the inversion code and to further validate the flux limited forward model developed for use with the system. Results from the analytical and numerical assessment of the inversion code showed that the SEAtrace{trademark} approach could locate leaks within 0.4 to 1.2 m. Leak size determination was less accurate, but produced results within a factor of 3 to 8 for leaks in the 2.5 to 10 cm diameter range. The smallest engineered leak in the test 1.1 cm diameter, could be located but its size estimate was high by a factor of 30. Data analysis was performed automatically after each gas scan was completed, yielding results in less than thirty minutes, although the bulk of the results reported required post test data analysis to remove effects of high background concentrations. The field test of the integrated system was problematic, primarily due to unanticipated, unintentional leaks formed in the impermeable liner. The test facility constructed to proof the system was ambitious, initially having 11 engineered leaks of various dimensions that could be independently operated. While a great deal of care went into the

  7. Failure mechanisms of thermal barrier systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tao

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are widely used in turbines for propulsion and power generation. The benefit results from their ability to sustain high thermal gradients in the presence of adequate backside cooling. Lowering the temperature of the metal substrate prolongs the life of the component: whether from environmental attack, creep rupture, or fatigue. Thermal barrier systems exhibit multiple failure mechanisms, depends on the deposition methods of the TBCs, chemical composition of the bond coats, and their working environments. Some of the most prevalent are studied in this thesis. There are two types of thermal barrier systems based on the chemical composition of the bond coats: Pt-aluminide and NiCoCrAlY bond coats. Ratcheting happens the most in the systems with Pt-aluminide bond coats; while edge delamination is considered a possible failure mechanism for the systems with NiCoCrAlY bond coats. Ratcheting is motivated by displacement instability in the thermally grown oxide (TGO). Interactions between cracks induced in TBCs upon thermal cycling have been calculated. Cracks that converge from neighboring imperfections exhibit a minimum energy release rate prior to coalescence. Equating this minimum to the toughness of the TBC provides a criterion for coalescence and failure. Imposing this criterion allows the change in crack length upon cycling and the number of cycles to failure to be ascertained. This simulation capability is used to explore various influences on durability. Samples with NiCoCrAlY bond coat are studied after subjected to thermal cycling in a burner rig. In each case, a dominant delamination has been identified, that extends primarily along the interface between the TGO and the bond coat. Calculations of the delamination energy release rate, upon comparison with the interface toughness, reveals a critical TGO thickness, (h tgo)c ≈ 3mum, comparable to that found experimentally.

  8. Engineered Barrier System performance requirements systems study report. Revision 02

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study evaluates the current design concept for the Engineered Barrier System (EBS), in concert with the current understanding of the geologic setting to assess whether enhancements to the required performance of the EBS are necessary. The performance assessment calculations are performed by coupling the EBS with the geologic setting based on the models (some of which were updated for this study) and assumptions used for the 1995 Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA). The need for enhancements is determined by comparing the performance assessment results against the EBS related performance requirements. Subsystem quantitative performance requirements related to the EBS include the requirement to allow no more than 1% of the waste packages (WPs) to fail before 1,000 years after permanent closure of the repository, as well as a requirement to control the release rate of radionuclides from the EBS. The EBS performance enhancements considered included additional engineered components as well as evaluating additional performance available from existing design features but for which no performance credit is currently being taken

  9. Engineered Barrier System performance requirements systems study report. Revision 02

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balady, M.A.

    1997-01-14

    This study evaluates the current design concept for the Engineered Barrier System (EBS), in concert with the current understanding of the geologic setting to assess whether enhancements to the required performance of the EBS are necessary. The performance assessment calculations are performed by coupling the EBS with the geologic setting based on the models (some of which were updated for this study) and assumptions used for the 1995 Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA). The need for enhancements is determined by comparing the performance assessment results against the EBS related performance requirements. Subsystem quantitative performance requirements related to the EBS include the requirement to allow no more than 1% of the waste packages (WPs) to fail before 1,000 years after permanent closure of the repository, as well as a requirement to control the release rate of radionuclides from the EBS. The EBS performance enhancements considered included additional engineered components as well as evaluating additional performance available from existing design features but for which no performance credit is currently being taken.

  10. Article Including Environmental Barrier Coating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang N. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An enhanced environmental barrier coating for a silicon containing substrate. The enhanced barrier coating may include a bond coat doped with at least one of an alkali metal oxide and an alkali earth metal oxide. The enhanced barrier coating may include a composite mullite bond coat including BSAS and another distinct second phase oxide applied over said surface.

  11. Energy Dependence of the Fusion Barrier for Heavy Nuclear Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIZhu-xia; WUXi-zhen; TIANJun-long; WANGNing

    2003-01-01

    The dynamical behavior of the fusion potential barrier for heavy nuclear systems is studied by means of the improved quantum molecular dynamics model. It is found that the fusion potential barrier experienced in a realistic fusion process (the dynamic fusion potential barrier) reduces with decrease of incident energies.

  12. Applications of barrier bucket RF systems at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhat, C.M.; /Fermilab

    2006-03-01

    In recent years, the barrier rf systems have become important tools in a variety of beam manipulation applications at synchrotrons. Four out of six proton synchrotrons at Fermilab are equipped with broad-band barrier rf systems. All of the beam manipulations pertaining to the longitudinal phase space in the Fermilab Recycler (synchrotron used for antiproton storage) are carried out using a barrier system. Recently, a number of new applications of barrier rf systems have been developed- the longitudinal momentum mining, longitudinal phase-space coating, antiproton stacking, fast bunch compression and more. Some of these techniques have been critical for the recent spectacular success of the collider performance at the Fermilab Tevatron. Barrier bunch coalescing to produce bright proton bunches has a high potential to increase proton antiproton luminosity significantly. In this paper, I will describe some of these techniques in detail. Finally, I make a few general remarks on issues related to barrier systems.

  13. Eco-nomics: Are the Planet-Unfriendly Features of Capitalism Barriers to Sustainability?

    OpenAIRE

    Merrill Singer

    2010-01-01

    This paper argues that there are essential features of capitalist modes of production, consumption, and waste dispersal in interaction with the environment and its built-in systemic features that contradict long-term sustainable development. These features include: (a) contradictions in the origin and meaning of sustainability; (b) the central role of the productivity ethic in capitalism and its reproduction in emergent green capitalism; (c) the commodification of nature and the continued pro...

  14. Prototype Engineered Barrier System Field Tests (PEBSFT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This progress report presents the interpretation of data obtained (up to November 1, 1988) from the Prototype Engineered Barrier System Field Tests (PEBSFT) that are being performed for the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) in G-Tunnel within the Nevada Test site. The PEBSFTs are being conducted to evaluate the applicability of measurement techniques, numerical models, and procedures developed for the field tests for future investigations that will be conducted in the Exploratory Shaft Facilities, at a potential high-level radioactive waste repository site in Yucca Mountain. The primary objective of the tests is to provide the basis for determining whether tests planned for Yucca Mountain have the potential to be successful. Thirteen chapters discuss the following: mapping the electromagnetic permittivity and attenuation rate of the rock mass; changes in moisture content detected by the neutron logging probe; characterization of the in-situ permeability of the fractured tuff around the heater borehole; electrical resistance heater installed in a 30-cm borehole; relative humidity measurements; the operation, design, construction, calibration, and installation of a microwave circuit that might provide partial pressure information at temperatures in excess of 200 degree C (392 degree F); pressure and temperature measurements in the G-Tunnel; the moisture collection system, which attempts to collect steam that migrates into the heater borehole; The borehole television and borescope surveys that were performed to map the location, orientation, and aperture of the fractures intersecting the boreholes; preliminary scoping calculations of the hydrothermal conditions expected for this prototype test; the Data Acquisition System; and the results of the PEBSFT, preliminary interpretations of these results, and plans for the remainder of the test. Chapters have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base

  15. Prototype Engineered Barrier System Field Test (PEBSFT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This final report represents a summary of data and interpretations obtained from the Prototype Engineered Barrier System Field Test (PEBSFT) performed in G-Tunnel within the Nevada Test Site. The PEBSFT was conducted to evaluate the applicability of measurement techniques, numerical models, and procedures developed for future field tests that will be conducted in the Exploratory Studies Facilities (ESF) at Yucca Mountain. The primary objective of the test was to provide a basis for determining whether tests planned for the ESF have the potential to be successful. Chapter 1 on high frequency electromagnetic tomography discusses the rock mass electromagnetic permittivity and attenuation rate changes that were measured to characterize the water distribution in the near field of a simulated waste container. The data are used to obtain quantitative estimates of how the moisture content in the rock mass changes during heating and to infer properties of the spatial variability of water distribution, leading to conclusions about the role of fractures in the system. Chapter 2 discusses the changes in rock moisture content detected by the neutron logging probe. Chapter 3 permeability tests discusses the characterization of the in-situ permeability of the fractured tuff around the borehole. The air permeability testing apparatus, the testing procedures, and the data analysis are presented. Chapter 4 describes the moisture collection system installed in the heater borehole to trap and measure the moisture volumes. Chapter 5 describes relative humidity measurements made with the thermocouple psychrometer and capacitance sensors. Chapter 6 discusses gas pressure measurements in the G-Tunnel, addressing the calibration and installation of piezoresistive-gaged transducers. Chapter 7 describes the calibration and installation of thermocouples for temperature measurements. Chapter 8 discusses the results of the PEBSFT

  16. Main Features of SMEs Organisation System

    OpenAIRE

    Ovidiu NICOLESCU

    2009-01-01

    SMEs present many particularities which influence to a large extend their functionality and performance. A very deep investigation of more than 60 SMEs has revealed what are the major variables having influence on SMEs organisation and the main features of organisation system. In the first part the paper indicate the variables influencing the SMEs. In the second part there are presented the nine main features of SMEs organisation system.

  17. Connection between electron surface barrier resonance states in metals and surface barrier features in VLEED (very-low-energy electron diffraction)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In the past there has been some uncertainty about whether the fine-structure features appearing in VLEED (very-low-energy electron diffraction) from metal surfaces are interference effects due to a few scattering events at the surface barrier, or are due to the electron temporarily occupying a surface barrier resonant state. We have calculated the reflectivity profiles for VLEED on W(001)-1x1 surface for polar angles of incidence of Θ = 0 deg to 48 deg and azimuthal angle of Φ = 0 deg for 00 beam from 0 to 13 eV using a realistic model for the surface barrier form. It is found that sustained multiple scattering occurs for Θ 6 deg to 26 deg from a detailed analysis of the number of scattering events between substrate and barrier and that the electron is temporarily trapped in a barrier resonance state. The angles of incidence used correspond to the electron having reduced momentum along Γ-bar(Δ-bar)X-bar. We have used our plane-wave scattering method to calculate the surface barrier resonance band structure of W(001)-1x1 for 10.5 eV above the vacuum level and along Γ-bar(Δ-bar)X-bar and using the same surface barrier model. We observe a strong resonance band starting at 10.2 eV at Γ-bar and which is most likely the lowest n = 1 member of the Rydberg series of image resonances. A Shockley resonance occurs between 0 and 4 eV. The correlation between the observable features in the two methods is discussed with a view to determining information about the structure of the surface barrier

  18. Fluctuating Potential Barrier System with Correlated Spatial Noises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jing-Hui

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we study a fluctuating potential barrier system with correlated spatial noises. Study shows that for this system, there is the resonant activation over the fluctuating potential barrier, and that the correlation between the different spatial noises can enhance (or weaken) the resonant activation.

  19. Brain barrier systems: a new frontier in metal neurotoxicological research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concept of brain barriers or a brain barrier system embraces the blood-brain interface, referred to as the blood-brain barrier, and the blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) interface, referred to as the blood-CSF barrier. These brain barriers protect the CNS against chemical insults, by different complementary mechanisms. Toxic metal molecules can either bypass these mechanisms or be sequestered in and therefore potentially deleterious to brain barriers. Supportive evidence suggests that damage to blood-brain interfaces can lead to chemical-induced neurotoxicities. This review article examines the unique structure, specialization, and function of the brain barrier system, with particular emphasis on its toxicological implications. Typical examples of metal transport and toxicity at the barriers, such as lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), iron (Fe), and manganese (Mn), are discussed in detail with a special focus on the relevance to their toxic neurological consequences. Based on these discussions, the emerging research needs, such as construction of the new concept of blood-brain regional barriers, understanding of chemical effect on aged or immature barriers, and elucidation of the susceptibility of tight junctions to toxicants, are identified and addressed in this newly evolving field of neurotoxicology. They represent both clear challenges and fruitful research domains not only in neurotoxicology, but also in neurophysiology and pharmacology

  20. Combustion chemical vapor desposited coatings for thermal barrier coating systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hampikian, J.M.; Carter, W.B. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The new deposition process, combustion chemical vapor deposition, shows a great deal of promise in the area of thermal barrier coating systems. This technique produces dense, adherent coatings, and does not require a reaction chamber. Coatings can therefore be applied in the open atmosphere. The process is potentially suitable for producing high quality CVD coatings for use as interlayers between the bond coat and thermal barrier coating, and/or as overlayers, on top of thermal barrier coatings.

  1. Fabrication of metallic single electron transistors featuring plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition of tunnel barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbasian, Golnaz

    The continuing increase of the device density in integrated circuits (ICs) gives rise to the high level of power that is dissipated per unit area and consequently a high temperature in the circuits. Since temperature affects the performance and reliability of the circuits, minimization of the energy consumption in logic devices is now the center of attention. According to the International Technology Roadmaps for Semiconductors (ITRS), single electron transistors (SETs) hold the promise of achieving the lowest power of any known logic device, as low as 1x10-18 J per switching event. Moreover, SETs are the most sensitive electrometers to date, and are capable of detecting a fraction of an electron charge. Despite their low power consumption and high sensitivity for charge detection, room temperature operation of these devices is quite challenging mainly due to lithographical constraints in fabricating structures with the required dimensions of less than 10 nm. Silicon based SETs have been reported to operate at room temperature. However, they all suffer from significant variation in batch-to-batch performance, low fabrication yield, and temperature-dependent tunnel barrier height. In this project, we explored the fabrication of SETs featuring metal-insulator-metal (MIM) tunnel junctions. While Si-based SETs suffer from undesirable effect of dopants that result in irregularities in the device behavior, in metal-based SETs the device components (tunnel barrier, island, and the leads) are well-defined. Therefore, metal SETs are potentially more predictable in behavior, making them easier to incorporate into circuits, and easier to check against theoretical models. Here, the proposed fabrication method takes advantage of unique properties of chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) and plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD). Chemical mechanical polishing provides a path for tuning the dimensions of the tunnel junctions, surpassing the limits imposed by electron beam

  2. Engineered barrier systems and the safety of deep geological repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Repositories for the disposal of radioactive waste generally rely on a multi-barrier system to isolate the waste from the biosphere. This multi-barrier system typically comprises the natural geological barrier provided by the repository host rock and an engineered barrier system (EBS). The EBS project being conducted by the NEA Integration Group for the Safety Case (IGSC) seeks to clarify the role that an EBS can play in the overall safety case for a deep geological repository. It is in this context that the European Commission and the NEA have prepared the present report, which describes the state of the art for engineered barrier systems and provides a common basis of understanding from which to plan future programmes. It is based on answers to a questionnaire received from 13 countries and 17 organisations. (author)

  3. Present SLAC accelerator computer control system features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current functional organization and state of software development of the computer control system of the Stanford Linear Accelerator is described. Included is a discussion of the distribution of functions throughout the system, the local controller features, and currently implemented features of the touch panel portion of the system. The functional use of our triplex of PDP11-34 computers sharing common memory is described. Also included is a description of the use of pseudopanel tables as data tables for closed loop control functions

  4. Phonon tunneling through a double barrier system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villegas, Diosdado [Departamento de Física, Universidad Central “Marta Abreu” de Las Villas, CP 54830, Santa Clara, Villa Clara (Cuba); Instituto de Física, Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, 18 Sur y San Claudio, Edif. 110A, Ciudad Universitaria, 72570 Puebla (Mexico); León-Pérez, Fernando de [Centro Universitario de la Defensa de Zaragoza, Ctra. de Huesca s/n, E-50090 Zaragoza (Spain); Pérez-Álvarez, R. [Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos, Av. Universidad 1001, CP 62209 Cuernavaca (Mexico); Arriaga, J., E-mail: arriaga@ifuap.buap.mx [Instituto de Física, Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, 18 Sur y San Claudio, Edif. 110A, Ciudad Universitaria, 72570 Puebla (Mexico)

    2015-04-15

    The tunneling of optical and acoustic phonons at normal incidence on a double-barrier is studied in this paper. Transmission coefficients and resonance conditions are derived theoretically under the assumption that the long-wavelength approximation is valid. It is shown that the behavior of the transmission coefficients for the symmetric double barrier has a Lorentzian form close to resonant frequencies and that Breit–Wigner's formula have a general validity in one-dimensional phonon tunneling. Authors also study the so-called generalized Hartman effect in the tunneling of long-wavelength phonons and show that this effect is a numerical artifact resulting from taking the opaque limit before exploring the variation with a finite barrier width. This study could be useful for the design of acoustic devices.

  5. Internal transport barrier physics in helical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electron internal transport barrier (eITB) has been observed in wide range of helical systems, such as CHS [eg.,1], LHD [eg., 2], TJ-II [eg., 3] and W7-AS [eg., 4]. The eITB isA defined as highly peaked electron temperature (Te) profile with strongly positive radial electric field (Er) in the central region. These observations are reviewed in this paper to understand the device-independent common findings and also to draw the main differences. This is the first report from the International Stellarator Profile Database Activity. The formation of the strong central positive Er has been understood mainly as a result of the ambipolarity of neoclassical electron and ion fluxes, although some additional convective electron flux such as driven by ECRH is required in some situations. This 'neoclassical' physics peculiar to low collisional regime of helical plasmas provides the commonly observed existence of the ECRH power threshold (which is also depending on the density). This is contrastive characteristics to the ITB observed in tokamaks. The dependence of the ECRH power threshold on the magnetic configuration and on the heating scenario among these devices are currently being examined by taking the effective ripple and the trapped particle fraction as parameters to achieve the comprehensive understanding. The roles of low order rational surfaces on the onset of eITB formation and also on its radial size (location of the footpoint of the eITB) have been indicated in inward shifted configurations in LHD (depending on the relative locations of heating position and 2/1 island) and TJ-II (eITB becomes possible at higher density when 3/2 rational is introduced in the plasma core region). It is speculated that, for the latter case, the resonance causes an extra electron flux to trigger the positive Er. The interplay between low order rational surfaces and the formation of eITB still waits for the systematic experiment and theoretical analysis. The external controllability

  6. Statistical feature extraction based iris recognition system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ATUL BANSAL; RAVINDER AGARWAL; R K SHARMA

    2016-05-01

    Iris recognition systems have been proposed by numerous researchers using different feature extraction techniques for accurate and reliable biometric authentication. In this paper, a statistical feature extraction technique based on correlation between adjacent pixels has been proposed and implemented. Hamming distance based metric has been used for matching. Performance of the proposed iris recognition system (IRS) has been measured by recording false acceptance rate (FAR) and false rejection rate (FRR) at differentthresholds in the distance metric. System performance has been evaluated by computing statistical features along two directions, namely, radial direction of circular iris region and angular direction extending from pupil tosclera. Experiments have also been conducted to study the effect of number of statistical parameters on FAR and FRR. Results obtained from the experiments based on different set of statistical features of iris images show thatthere is a significant improvement in equal error rate (EER) when number of statistical parameters for feature extraction is increased from three to six. Further, it has also been found that increasing radial/angular resolution,with normalization in place, improves EER for proposed iris recognition system

  7. Fingerprint matching system using Level 3 features

    OpenAIRE

    Prince; Manvjeet Kaur,; Ajay Mittal

    2010-01-01

    Fingerprint biometric security system identifies the unique property in human being and matching with template stored in database. Fingerprint details are generally defined in three levels i.e. Level 1 (Pattern), Level 2(Minutiae points) and Level 3 (pores and contour ridges). Level 3 features are barely used by automated fingerprintverification system. This research paper presents a Level 3 ingerprint matching system. In this paper, we deal with pores for matching with template. With the lo...

  8. Seismic impact on engineered barrier system of geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seismic impacts on the engineered barrier system of the geological disposal were examined by means of the three-dimensional elastic-plastic seismic response analysis based on effective stress method. In this study, it was evaluated against the largest ground motions recorded in Japan. The numerical analysis results showed that the engineered barrier system and the surrounding bedrock were shaken together and it had sufficient robustness for the failure state. Thus we confirmed the low possibility of a reduction in the mechanical stability of the engineered barrier system due to the ground motion. (author)

  9. Blood-retinal barrier in hypoxic ischaemic conditions: basic concepts, clinical features and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, C; Foulds, W S; Ling, E A

    2008-11-01

    The blood-retinal barrier (BRB) plays an important role in the homeostatic regulation of the microenvironment in the retina. It consists of inner and outer components, the inner BRB (iBRB) being formed by the tight junctions between neighbouring retinal capillary endothelial cells and the outer barrier (oBRB) by tight junctions between retinal pigment epithelial cells. Astrocytes, Müller cells and pericytes contribute to the proper functioning of the iBRB. In many clinically important conditions including diabetic retinopathy, ischaemic central retinal vein occlusion, and some respiratory diseases, retinal hypoxia results in a breakdown of the iBRB. Disruption of the iBRB associated with increased vascular permeability, results in vasogenic oedema and tissue damage, with consequent adverse effects upon vision. Factors such as enhanced production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), NO, oxidative stress and inflammation underlie the increased permeability of the iBRB and inhibition of these factors is beneficial. Experimental studies in our laboratory have shown melatonin to be a protective agent for the iBRB in hypoxic conditions. Although oBRB breakdown can occur in conditions such as accelerated hypertension and the toxaemia of pregnancy, both of which are associated with choroidal ischaemia and in age-related macular degeneration (ARMD), and is a feature of exudative (serous) retinal detachment, our studies have shown that the oBRB remains intact in hypoxic/ischaemic conditions. Clinically, anti-VEGF therapy has been shown to improve vision in diabetic maculopathy and in neovascular ARMD. The visual benefit in both conditions appears to arise from the restoration of BRB integrity with a reduction of retinal oedema. PMID:18940262

  10. John H. Chafee Coastal Barrier Resources System Approximate Polygons

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Coastal Barrier Resources System (CBRS) data set, produced by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), contains areas designated as undeveloped coastal...

  11. Effect of joint mechanism on vehicle redirectional capability of water-filled road safety barrier systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiyahuddin, M I; Thambiratnam, D P; Gu, Y T

    2014-10-01

    Portable water-filled barriers (PWFBs) are roadside appurtenances that prevent vehicles from penetrating into temporary construction zones on roadways. PWFBs are required to satisfy the strict regulations for vehicle re-direction in tests. However, many of the current PWFBs fail to re-direct the vehicle at high speeds due to the inability of the joints to provide appropriate stiffness. The joint mechanism hence plays a crucial role in the performance of a PWFB system at high speed impacts. This paper investigates the desired features of the joint mechanism in a PWFB system that can re-direct vehicles at high speeds, while limiting the lateral displacement to acceptable limits. A rectangular "wall" representative of a 30m long barrier system was modeled and a novel method of joining adjacent road barriers was introduced through appropriate pin-joint connections. The impact response of the barrier "wall" and the vehicle was obtained and the results show that a rotational stiffness of 3000kNm/rad at the joints seems to provide the desired features of the PWFB system to re-direct impacting vehicles and restrict the lateral deflection. These research findings will be useful to safety engineers and road barrier designers in developing a new generation of PWFBs for increased road safety. PMID:24887591

  12. Fingerprint matching system using Level 3 features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prince

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Fingerprint biometric security system identifies the unique property in human being and matching with template stored in database. Fingerprint details are generally defined in three levels i.e. Level 1 (Pattern, Level 2(Minutiae points and Level 3 (pores and contour ridges. Level 3 features are barely used by automated fingerprintverification system. This research paper presents a Level 3 ingerprint matching system. In this paper, we deal with pores for matching with template. With the local pore model, a SIFT algorithm is used to match the pores with template. Experiments on a good quality fingerprint dataset are performed and the results demonstrate that the proposed Level 3 features matching model performed more accurately and robustly.

  13. Special feature on imaging systems and techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wuqiang; Giakos, George

    2013-07-01

    The IEEE International Conference on Imaging Systems and Techniques (IST'2012) was held in Manchester, UK, on 16-17 July 2012. The participants came from 26 countries or regions: Austria, Brazil, Canada, China, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, India, Iran, Iraq, Italy, Japan, Korea, Latvia, Malaysia, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, Tunisia, UAE, UK and USA. The technical program of the conference consisted of a series of scientific and technical sessions, exploring physical principles, engineering and applications of new imaging systems and techniques, as reflected by the diversity of the submitted papers. Following a rigorous review process, a total of 123 papers were accepted, and they were organized into 30 oral presentation sessions and a poster session. In addition, six invited keynotes were arranged. The conference not only provided the participants with a unique opportunity to exchange ideas and disseminate research outcomes but also paved a way to establish global collaboration. Following the IST'2012, a total of 55 papers, which were technically extended substantially from their versions in the conference proceeding, were submitted as regular papers to this special feature of Measurement Science and Technology . Following a rigorous reviewing process, 25 papers have been finally accepted for publication in this special feature and they are organized into three categories: (1) industrial tomography, (2) imaging systems and techniques and (3) image processing. These papers not only present the latest developments in the field of imaging systems and techniques but also offer potential solutions to existing problems. We hope that this special feature provides a good reference for researchers who are active in the field and will serve as a catalyst to trigger further research. It has been our great pleasure to be the guest editors of this special feature. We would like to thank the authors for their contributions, without which it would

  14. High-resolution reconstruction of a coastal barrier system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fruergaard, Mikkel; Andersen, Thorbjørn Joest; Nielsen, Lars Henrik;

    2015-01-01

    This study presents a detailed reconstruction of the sedimentary effects of Holocene sea-level rise on a modern coastal barrier system (CBS). Increasing concern over the evolution of CBSs due to future accelerated rates of sea-level rise calls for a better understanding of coastal barriers respon...... accumulation shows considerable variation with periods of rapid sediment deposition and periods of non-deposition or erosion resulting in a highly punctuated sediment record....

  15. The role of plants on isolation barrier systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surface barriers are used to isolate buried wastes from the environment. Most have been built for short-term isolation. The need to isolate radioactive wastes from the environment requires that the functional integrity of a barrier be maintained for thousands of years. Barrier function strongly depends on vegetation. Plants reduce wind and water erosion and minimize drainage, but may transport contaminants if roots extend into buried wastes. Our review of the function of plants on surface barriers focuses on the role of plants across mesic to arid environments and gives special consideration to studies done at Hanford. The Hanford Barrier Development Program was created to design and test an earthen cover system to inhibit water infiltration, plant and animal intrusion, and wind and water erosion, while isolating buried wastes for at least 1000 years. Studies at the Hanford have shown that plants will significantly interact with the barrier. Plants transpire soil water back into the atmosphere. Deep-rooted perennials best recycle water; soil water may drain through the root zone of shallow-rooted annuals. Lysimeter studies indicate that a surface layer of fine soil with deep-rooted plants precludes drainage even with three times normal precipitation. The presence of vegetation greatly reduces water and wind erosion, but deep-rooted plants pose a threat of biointrusion and contaminant transport. The Hanford barrier includes a buried rock layer and asphalt layer to prevent biointrusion

  16. CULTURAL FEATURES SHARED BY INFORMATION SYSTEMS USERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilena Maldonado

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Problems may arise when organizational culture is not considered in the development of information systems, such as difficulties in system implementation, since users do not accept changes in their work cultures. However, current methodology designs do not contemplate cultural factors. The objective of this investigation was to identify the main cultural features shared by the users of information systems in an Argentinean university. As result of this work it was possible to identify the memes shared by the members of the community selected, and to categorize such memes according to their incidence grade. This work seeks to be an initial step towards the construction of systems that evolve along with the organizational culture they are an integral part of.

  17. Subsurface barrier validation with the SEAtrace{trademark} system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandra Dalvit Dunn; William Lowry; Veraun Chipman

    1999-09-01

    Under contract to the Department of Energy, Science and Engineering Associates has completed development and testing of a subsurface barrier verification and monitoring system. This system, called SEAtrace{trademark}, is able to locate and size leaks with a high degree of accuracy in subsurface barriers that are emplaced in an unsaturated medium. It uses gaseous tracer injection, in-field real-time monitoring, and real time data analysis to evaluate barrier integrity. The approach is: Conservative as it measures vapor leaks in a containment system whose greatest risk is posed by liquid leaks; Applicable to any impermeable type of barrier emplacement technology in the unsaturated zone; Inexpensive as it uses readily available, non-toxic, nonhazardous gaseous tracers, does not require an inordinately large number of sampling points, and injection and sampling points can be emplaced by direct push techniques; Capable of assessing not only a barrier's initial integrity, but can also provide long-term monitoring. To date, six demonstrations of the system have been completed. Results from two of the demonstrations are detailed in this report. They include the final developmental demonstration of the SEAtrace system and a comparison demonstration of two tracer based verification technologies. The final developmental demonstration of SEAtrace was completed at a naval facility in Brunswick, Maine. The demonstration was funded solely by the DOE and was performed in cooperation with the US Navy, the Environmental Protection Agency, and the Maine Department of Environmental Protection.

  18. Integrated control of the wastewater system – potentials and barriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mollerup, Ane Loft; Grum, Morten; Muschalla, Dirk;

    2013-01-01

    Applying integrated control to a sewer system and wastewater treatment plant often leads to additional benefits for both systems when compared to controlling them independently. However, barriers such as a lack of incentive for utilities to put this type of control in place mean that in practice...

  19. Microstructural Evolution and interfacial motion in systems with diffusion barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perry H. Leo

    2009-03-05

    This research program was designed to model and simulate phase transformations in systems containing diffusion barriers. The modeling work included mass flow, phase formation, and microstructural evolution in interdiffusing systems. Simulation work was done by developing Cahn-Hilliard and phase field equations governing both the temporal and spatial evolution of the composition and deformation fields and other important phase variables.

  20. Features, Events, and Processes: system Level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this analysis report is to evaluate and document the inclusion or exclusion of the system-level features, events, and processes (FEPs) with respect to modeling used to support the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA). A screening decision, either Included or Excluded, is given for each FEP along with the technical basis for screening decisions. This information is required by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) at 10 CFR 63.113 (d, e, and f) (DIRS 156605). The system-level FEPs addressed in this report typically are overarching in nature, rather than being focused on a particular process or subsystem. As a result, they are best dealt with at the system level rather than addressed within supporting process-level or subsystem-level analyses and models reports. The system-level FEPs also tend to be directly addressed by regulations, guidance documents, or assumptions listed in the regulations; or are addressed in background information used in development of the regulations. For included FEPs, this analysis summarizes the implementation of the FEP in the TSPA-LA (i.e., how the FEP is included). For excluded FEPs, this analysis provides the technical basis for exclusion from the TSPA-LA (i.e., why the FEP is excluded). The initial version of this report (Revision 00) was developed to support the total system performance assessment for site recommendation (TSPA-SR). This revision addresses the license application (LA) FEP List (DIRS 170760)

  1. Features, Events, and Processes: system Level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. McGregor

    2004-10-15

    The purpose of this analysis report is to evaluate and document the inclusion or exclusion of the system-level features, events, and processes (FEPs) with respect to modeling used to support the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA). A screening decision, either Included or Excluded, is given for each FEP along with the technical basis for screening decisions. This information is required by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) at 10 CFR 63.113 (d, e, and f) (DIRS 156605). The system-level FEPs addressed in this report typically are overarching in nature, rather than being focused on a particular process or subsystem. As a result, they are best dealt with at the system level rather than addressed within supporting process-level or subsystem-level analyses and models reports. The system-level FEPs also tend to be directly addressed by regulations, guidance documents, or assumptions listed in the regulations; or are addressed in background information used in development of the regulations. For included FEPs, this analysis summarizes the implementation of the FEP in the TSPA-LA (i.e., how the FEP is included). For excluded FEPs, this analysis provides the technical basis for exclusion from the TSPA-LA (i.e., why the FEP is excluded). The initial version of this report (Revision 00) was developed to support the total system performance assessment for site recommendation (TSPA-SR). This revision addresses the license application (LA) FEP List (DIRS 170760).

  2. Migration and diffusion of radionuclides in engineered barrier system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the present status of the multibarrier system performance tests to provide a preliminary assessment of nuclide migration in the engineered barriers for shallow land burial of the low-level radioactive waste. Migration of radionuclides with seeped water through backfill and in subsequent diffusion in concrete pit are considered in this study. The results of laboratory investigations of unsaturated flow in backfill and radionuclides migration / diffusion in engineered barrier system are described and the calculated distribution of the radionuclides in backfill is presented

  3. Our Solar System Features Eight Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Our solar system features eight planets, seen in this artist's diagram. Although there is some debate within the science community as to whether Pluto should be classified as a Planet or a dwarf planet, the International Astronomical Union has decided on the term plutoid as a name for dwarf planets like Pluto. This representation is intentionally fanciful, as the planets are depicted far closer together than they really are. Similarly, the bodies' relative sizes are inaccurate. This is done for the purpose of being able to depict the solar system and still represent the bodies with some detail. (Otherwise the Sun would be a mere speck, and the planets even the majestic Jupiter would be far too small to be seen.)

  4. Microstructural features and properties of plasma sprayed YPSZ/NiCrAlY thermal barrier coating (TBC)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙大谦; 王文权; 宣兆志; 宫文彪

    2004-01-01

    The plasma sprayed thermal barrier coating (TBC) consists of NiCrAlY bond coating and yttria partially stabilized zirconia (YPSZ) top coating. NiCrAlY coating mainly contains Ni solid solution with face centered cubic lattice, Al2O3 oxides and pores. The most obvious feature of YPSZ coating with tetragonal zirconia is a lot of vertical microcracks in this coating. The thermal insulation capability of the TBC increased with an increase in YPSZ coating thickness, the temperature drop across the TBC increasing from 60℃ to 92℃ with increasing YPSZ coating thickness with increasing YPSZ coating thickness and cracks initiated mainly in original vertical microcrack tips of the YPSZ coating and propagated not only along YPSZ coating / NiCrAlY coating interface but also through into two stages: transient oxidation stage with rapid oxidation rate and steady oxidation stage with slow oxidation. Their transition time was favorable to increase YPSZ coating toughness and to decrease the pores and oxides of the TBC system for improving thermal shock resistance and oxidation resistance of the TBC.

  5. Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conceptual and predictive models documented in this Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment Model report describe the evolution of the physical and chemical conditions within the waste emplacement drifts of the repository. The modeling approaches and model output data will be used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA-LA) to assess the performance of the engineered barrier system and the waste form. These models evaluate the range of potential water compositions within the emplacement drifts, resulting from the interaction of introduced materials and minerals in dust with water seeping into the drifts and with aqueous solutions forming by deliquescence of dust (as influenced by atmospheric conditions), and from thermal-hydrological-chemical (THC) processes in the drift. These models also consider the uncertainty and variability in water chemistry inside the drift and the compositions of introduced materials within the drift. This report develops and documents a set of process- and abstraction-level models that constitute the engineered barrier system: physical and chemical environment model. Where possible, these models use information directly from other process model reports as input, which promotes integration among process models used for total system performance assessment. Specific tasks and activities of modeling the physical and chemical environment are included in the technical work plan ''Technical Work Plan for: In-Drift Geochemistry Modeling'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 166519]). As described in the technical work plan, the development of this report is coordinated with the development of other engineered barrier system analysis model reports

  6. Safety features of subcritical fluid fueled systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, C.R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Technology and Safety Assessment Div.

    1994-09-01

    Accelerator-driven transmutation technology has been under study at Los Alamos for several years for application to nuclear waste treatment, tritium production, energy generation, and recently, to the disposition of excess weapons plutonium. Studies and evaluations performed to date at Los Alamos have led to a current focus on a fluid-fuel, fission system operating in a neutron source-supported subcritical mode, using molten salt reactor technology and accelerator-driven proton-neutron spallation. In this paper, the safety features and characteristics of such systems are explored from the perspective of the fundamental nuclear safety objectives that any reactor-type system should address. This exploration is qualitative in nature and uses current vintage solid-fueled reactors as a baseline for comparison. Based on the safety perspectives presented, such systems should be capable of meeting the fundamental nuclear safety objectives. In addition, they should be able to provide the safety robustness desired for advanced reactors. However, the manner in which safety objectives and robustness are achieved in very different from that associated with conventional reactors. Also, there are a number of safety design and operational challenges that will have to be addressed for the safety potential of such systems to be credible.

  7. Complex systems: features, similarity and connectivity

    CERN Document Server

    Comin, Cesar H; Silva, Filipi N; Amancio, Diego R; Rodrigues, Francisco A; Costa, Luciano da F

    2016-01-01

    The increasing interest in complex networks research has been a consequence of several intrinsic features of this area, such as the generality of the approach to represent and model virtually any discrete system, and the incorporation of concepts and methods deriving from many areas, from statistical physics to sociology, which are often used in an independent way. Yet, for this same reason, it would be desirable to integrate these various aspects into a more coherent and organic framework, which would imply in several benefits normally allowed by the systematization in science, including the identification of new types of problems and the cross-fertilization between fields. More specifically, the identification of the main areas to which the concepts frequently used in complex networks can be applied paves the way to adopting and applying a larger set of concepts and methods deriving from those respective areas. Among the several areas that have been used in complex networks research, pattern recognition, op...

  8. Origin of Small Barriers in Jahn–Teller Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barriuso, M. T.; Ortiz-Sevilla, B.; Aramburu, J. A.;

    2013-01-01

    Despite its relevance, the microscopic origin of the energy barrier, B, between the compressed and elongated geometries of Jahn–Teller (JT) systems is not well understood yet because of a lack of quantitative data about its various contributions. Seeking to clear up this matter, we have carried o...

  9. Morphodynamics of the Wadden Sea and its barrier island system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Z.B.; Hoekstra, P.; Burchard, H.; Ridderinkhof, H.; Swart, H.E. de; Stive, M.J.F.

    2012-01-01

    The Wadden Sea and its associated barrier island system exhibit highly dynamic behaviour. Of major concern is the movement of water and air and the transport, erosion and deposition of sand and mud. These processes result in an ever-changing morphology (topography/bathymetry) of the islands, tidal c

  10. Experimental Study on Spiral Patterns in Dielectric Barrier Discharge System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Shu-Hua; DONG Li-Fang; LIU Fu-Cheng; LI Shu-Feng; LI Xue-Chen; WANG Hong-Fang

    2006-01-01

    Spiral patterns are obtained in a dielectric barrier discharge system with water electrodes. The dynamics of spiral formation and transition is investigated. Wavelength characteristic of spiral patterns is also studied. Correlation measurements indicate that the wavelength of spiral pattern increases with the increasing gas gap width and oscillates with the increasing drive frequency.

  11. Engineered barrier experiment. Power control and data acquisition systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The engineered barrier concept for the storage of radioactive wastes is being tested at almost full scale at CIEMAT facilities. A data acquisition and control is an element of this experiment. This system would be operating for next three years. (Author)

  12. Field testing of asphalt-emulsion radon-barrier system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three years of laboratory and field testing have demonstrated that asphalt emulsion seals are effective radon diffusion barriers. Both laboratory and field tests in 1979, 1980 and 1981 have shown that an asphalt emulsion seal can reduce radon fluxes by greater than 99.9%. The effective diffusion coefficient for the various asphalt emulsion admix seals averages about 10-6 cm2/s. The 1981 joint field test is a culmination of all the technology developed to date for asphalt emulsion radon barrier systems. Preliminary results of this field test and the results of the 1980 field test are presented. 18 figures, 6 tables

  13. Load management for refrigeration systems: Potentials and barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grein, Arne, E-mail: a.grein@tu-berlin.de [University of Technology Berlin, Institute for Energy Technology, Department of Energy Systems, Einsteinufer 25 (TA8), 10587 Berlin (Germany); Pehnt, Martin [Institute for Energy and Environmental Research Heidelberg (ifeu), Wilckensstr. 3, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2011-09-15

    As a strategy to deal with the increasing intermittent input of renewable energy sources in Germany, the adaptation of power consumption is complementary to power-plant regulation, grid expansion and physical energy storage. One demand sector that promises strong returns for load management efforts is cooling and refrigeration. In these processes, thermal inertia provides a temporal buffer for shifting and adjusting the power consumption of cooling systems. We have conducted an empirical investigation to obtain a detailed and time-resolved bottom-up analysis of load management for refrigeration systems in the city of Mannheim, Germany. We have extrapolated our results to general conditions in Germany. Several barriers inhibit the rapid adoption of load management strategies for cooling systems, including informational barriers, strict compliance with legal cooling requirements, liability issues, lack of technical experience, an inadequate rate of return and organizational barriers. Small commercial applications of refrigeration in the food-retailing and cold storage in hotels and restaurants are particularly promising starting points for intelligent load management. When our results are applied to Germany, suitable sectors for load management have theoretical and achievable potential values of 4.2 and 2.8 GW, respectively, amounting to about 4-6% of the maximum power demand in Germany. - Highlights: > Potential and barriers for implementation of load shifting for refrigeration. > Empirical investigation for time-resolved bottom-up analysis in Mannheim, Germany. > Suitable sectors and further recommendations for introducing load management.> Extrapolation of results from local to national level.

  14. An object-oriented feature-based design system face-based detection of feature interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents an object-oriented, feature-based design system which supports the integration of design and manufacture by ensuring that part descriptions fully account for any feature interactions. Manufacturing information is extracted from the feature descriptions in the form of volumes and Tool Access Directions, TADs. When features interact, both volumes and TADs are updated. This methodology has been demonstrated by developing a prototype system in which ACIS attributes are used to record feature information within the data structure of the solid model. The system implemented in the C++ programming language and embedded in a menu-driven X-windows user interface to the ACIS 3D Toolkit. (author)

  15. Horizontal flow barriers for the transient ground-water flow model, Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital dataset defines the surface traces of regional features simulated as horizontal flow barriers in the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system...

  16. DTR, Taut Wire System: An alarm barrier with experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Taut Wire Fence Alarm System concept was developed and introduced more that fifteen years ago in Israel. A sudden expansion of the nations's border lines, the difficulty to monitor intrusions along those elongated lines and the need for timely as well as accurate armed response to an intrusion attempt dictated the need for an alarming barrier. Traditionally, protection of perimeters was accomplished by the installation of a fence or other type obstacles (man made or natural) and surveillance by manned patrols, fixed observation posts, and/or electronic devices. Defense planners recognized therefore the need for an alarming barrier. A concentrated effort by scientists solved the problem by developing the first Taut Wire Fence Alarm System in a configuration of an alarm barrier. The system was specified to have an extremely low false alarm rate (FAR/NAR), high probability of detection, the capability to follow various terrains, operability in a wide range of environmental conditions, a capability to delay an intruder, ease of installation by unskilled labor, and low maintenance requirements. The authors try here to explain the various constraints and considerations given during the design stages of the Taut Wire Alarm System so as to bring the present magnitude of users to a better understanding of the system's operation

  17. Analysis of developed transition road safety barrier systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani, Mehrtash; Moghaddam, Taher Baghaee; Karim, Mohamed Rehan; Sulong, N H Ramli

    2013-10-01

    Road safety barriers protect vehicles from roadside hazards by redirecting errant vehicles in a safe manner as well as providing high levels of safety during and after impact. This paper focused on transition safety barrier systems which were located at the point of attachment between a bridge and roadside barriers. The aim of this study was to provide an overview of the behavior of transition systems located at upstream bridge rail with different designs and performance levels. Design factors such as occupant risk and vehicle trajectory for different systems were collected and compared. To achieve this aim a comprehensive database was developed using previous studies. The comparison showed that Test 3-21, which is conducted by impacting a pickup truck with speed of 100 km/h and angle of 25° to transition system, was the most severe test. Occupant impact velocity and ridedown acceleration for heavy vehicles were lower than the amounts for passenger cars and pickup trucks, and in most cases higher occupant lateral impact ridedown acceleration was observed on vehicles subjected to higher levels of damage. The best transition system was selected to give optimum performance which reduced occupant risk factors using the similar crashes in accordance with Test 3-21. PMID:23820073

  18. Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. M. Jolley; R. Jarek; P. Mariner

    2004-02-09

    The conceptual and predictive models documented in this Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment Model report describe the evolution of the physical and chemical conditions within the waste emplacement drifts of the repository. The modeling approaches and model output data will be used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA-LA) to assess the performance of the engineered barrier system and the waste form. These models evaluate the range of potential water compositions within the emplacement drifts, resulting from the interaction of introduced materials and minerals in dust with water seeping into the drifts and with aqueous solutions forming by deliquescence of dust (as influenced by atmospheric conditions), and from thermal-hydrological-chemical (THC) processes in the drift. These models also consider the uncertainty and variability in water chemistry inside the drift and the compositions of introduced materials within the drift. This report develops and documents a set of process- and abstraction-level models that constitute the engineered barrier system: physical and chemical environment model. Where possible, these models use information directly from other process model reports as input, which promotes integration among process models used for total system performance assessment. Specific tasks and activities of modeling the physical and chemical environment are included in the technical work plan ''Technical Work Plan for: In-Drift Geochemistry Modeling'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 166519]). As described in the technical work plan, the development of this report is coordinated with the development of other engineered barrier system analysis model reports.

  19. Emergent Behavior of Coupled Barrier Island - Resort Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, D. E.; Werner, B. T.

    2004-12-01

    Barrier islands are attractive sites for resorts. Natural barrier islands experience beach erosion and island overwash during storms, beach accretion and dune building during inter-storm periods, and migration up the continental shelf as sea level rises. Beach replenishment, artificial dune building, seawalls, jetties and groins have been somewhat effective in protecting resorts against erosion and overwash during storms, but it is unknown how the coupled system will respond to long-term sea level rise. We investigate coupled barrier island - resort systems using an agent-based model with three components: natural barrier islands divided into a series of alongshore cells; resorts controlled by markets for tourism and hotel purchases; and coupling via storm damage to resorts and resort protection by government agents. Modeled barrier islands change by beach erosion, island overwash and inlet cutting during storms, and beach accretion, tidal delta growth and dune and vegetation growth between storms. In the resort hotel market, developer agents build hotels and hotel owning agents purchase them using predictions of future revenue and property appreciation, with the goal of maximizing discounted utility. In the tourism market, hotel owning agents set room rental prices to maximize profit and tourist agents choose vacation destinations maximizing a utility based on beach width, price and word-of-mouth. Government agents build seawalls, groins and jetties, and widen the beach and build up dunes by adding sand to protect resorts from storms, enhance beach quality, and maximize resort revenue. Results indicate that barrier islands and resorts evolve in a coupled manner to resort size saturation, with resorts protected against small-to-intermediate-scale storms under fairly stable sea level. Under extended, rapidly rising sea level, protection measures enhance the effect of large storms, leading to emergent behavior in the form of limit cycles or barrier submergence

  20. Computational Design and Experimental Validation of New Thermal Barrier Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Shengmin; Yang, Shizhong; Khosravi, Ebrahim

    2014-04-01

    This project (10/01/2010-9/30/2014), “Computational Design and Experimental Validation of New Thermal Barrier Systems”, originates from Louisiana State University (LSU) Mechanical Engineering Department and Southern University (SU) Department of Computer Science. This project will directly support the technical goals specified in DE-FOA-0000248, Topic Area 3: Turbine Materials, by addressing key technologies needed to enable the development of advanced turbines and turbine-based systems that will operate safely and efficiently using coal-derived synthesis gases. In this project, the focus is to develop and implement novel molecular dynamics method to improve the efficiency of simulation on novel TBC materials; perform high performance computing (HPC) on complex TBC structures to screen the most promising TBC compositions; perform material characterizations and oxidation/corrosion tests; and demonstrate our new thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems experimentally under integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) environments.

  1. Safety Verification of Interconnected Hybrid Systems Using Barrier Certificates

    OpenAIRE

    Guobin Wang; Jifeng He; Jing Liu; Haiying Sun; Zuohua Ding; Miaomiao Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Safety verification determines whether any trajectory starting from admissible initial states would intersect with a set of unsafe states. In this paper, we propose a numerical method for verifying safety of a network of interconnected hybrid dynamical systems with a state constraint based on bilinear sum-of-squares programming. The safety verification is conducted by the construction of a function of states called barrier certificate. We consider a finite number of interconnected hybrid syst...

  2. Capacity Of Automated Highway Systems: Effect Of Platooning And Barriers

    OpenAIRE

    Tsao, H. S. Jacob; Hall, Randolph; Hongola, Bruce

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, the authors study the capacity of key Automated Highway Systems (AHS) operating scenarios. The effect of the lane-flow rule, platooning or free-agent, as well as the lane barriers, on AHS capacity are studied. Special attention is paid to the interaction between the lane-flow rule and the lane change requirement. The paper consists of two major components, analytical models and AHS simulation. After a brief introduction of AHS operating strategies, analytical models are develop...

  3. Facial Composite System Using Real Facial Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duchovičová Soňa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Facial feature points identification plays an important role in many facial image applications, like face detection, face recognition, facial expression classification, etc. This paper describes the early stages of the research in the field of evolving a facial composite, primarily the main steps of face detection and facial features extraction. Technological issues are identified and possible strategies to solve some of the problems are proposed.

  4. Facial Composite System Using Real Facial Features

    OpenAIRE

    Duchovičová Soňa; Zahradníková Barbora; Schreiber Peter

    2014-01-01

    Facial feature points identification plays an important role in many facial image applications, like face detection, face recognition, facial expression classification, etc. This paper describes the early stages of the research in the field of evolving a facial composite, primarily the main steps of face detection and facial features extraction. Technological issues are identified and possible strategies to solve some of the problems are proposed.

  5. Load management for refrigeration systems: Potentials and barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a strategy to deal with the increasing intermittent input of renewable energy sources in Germany, the adaptation of power consumption is complementary to power-plant regulation, grid expansion and physical energy storage. One demand sector that promises strong returns for load management efforts is cooling and refrigeration. In these processes, thermal inertia provides a temporal buffer for shifting and adjusting the power consumption of cooling systems. We have conducted an empirical investigation to obtain a detailed and time-resolved bottom-up analysis of load management for refrigeration systems in the city of Mannheim, Germany. We have extrapolated our results to general conditions in Germany. Several barriers inhibit the rapid adoption of load management strategies for cooling systems, including informational barriers, strict compliance with legal cooling requirements, liability issues, lack of technical experience, an inadequate rate of return and organizational barriers. Small commercial applications of refrigeration in the food-retailing and cold storage in hotels and restaurants are particularly promising starting points for intelligent load management. When our results are applied to Germany, suitable sectors for load management have theoretical and achievable potential values of 4.2 and 2.8 GW, respectively, amounting to about 4-6% of the maximum power demand in Germany. - Highlights: → Potential and barriers for implementation of load shifting for refrigeration. → Empirical investigation for time-resolved bottom-up analysis in Mannheim, Germany. → Suitable sectors and further recommendations for introducing load management.→ Extrapolation of results from local to national level.

  6. TRITIUM BARRIER MATERIALS AND SEPARATION SYSTEMS FOR THE NGNP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, S; Thad Adams, T

    2008-07-17

    Contamination of downstream hydrogen production plants or other users of high-temperature heat is a concern of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. Due to the high operating temperatures of the NGNP (850-900 C outlet temperature), tritium produced in the nuclear reactor can permeate through heat exchangers to reach the hydrogen production plant, where it can become incorporated into process chemicals or the hydrogen product. The concentration limit for tritium in the hydrogen product has not been established, but it is expected that any future limit on tritium concentration will be no higher than the air and water effluent limits established by the NRC and the EPA. A literature survey of tritium permeation barriers, capture systems, and mitigation measures is presented and technologies are identified that may reduce the movement of tritium to the downstream plant. Among tritium permeation barriers, oxide layers produced in-situ may provide the most suitable barriers, though it may be possible to use aluminized surfaces also. For tritium capture systems, the use of getters is recommended, and high-temperature hydride forming materials such as Ti, Zr, and Y are suggested. Tritium may also be converted to HTO in order to capture it on molecular sieves or getter materials. Counter-flow of hydrogen may reduce the flux of tritium through heat exchangers. Recommendations for research and development work are provided.

  7. Computational design and experimental validation of new thermal barrier systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Shengmin [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States)

    2015-03-31

    The focus of this project is on the development of a reliable and efficient ab initio based computational high temperature material design method which can be used to assist the Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) bond-coat and top-coat design. Experimental evaluations on the new TBCs are conducted to confirm the new TBCs’ properties. Southern University is the subcontractor on this project with a focus on the computational simulation method development. We have performed ab initio density functional theory (DFT) method and molecular dynamics simulation on screening the top coats and bond coats for gas turbine thermal barrier coating design and validation applications. For experimental validations, our focus is on the hot corrosion performance of different TBC systems. For example, for one of the top coatings studied, we examined the thermal stability of TaZr2.75O8 and confirmed it’s hot corrosion performance.

  8. Case history: Vertical barrier wall system for Superfund Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Design considerations and construction aspects are presented for the installation of a vertical barrier wall system for the Boeing Company at a Superfund Site near Seattle, WA. The construction was performed during 1996. The vertical barrier wall system included: (1) a soil-bentonite (SB) slurry wall, approximately 670 meters (2200 feet) in length, ranging from 12 to 21 meters (40 to 70 feet) in depth; (2) expansion of a cover system over the area enclosed by the SB wall; and (3) surface drainage improvements. Design and construction of the system addressed requirements of a Consent Decree for the site issued in 1993. The paper discusses the development of the design to meet remedial performance goals of preventing migration of contaminants in the soil/groundwater system and aiding aquifer restoration. Secondly, the paper details installation of the SB wall, highlighting the more significant construction issues, which included excavation of the wall through glacially deposited cobbles/boulders/till as well as addressing the severe elevation changes along the wall alignment. Thirdly, the paper presents Quality Assurance (QA) monitoring and testing performed during the construction phase

  9. M-Learning System Implementation and Features

    OpenAIRE

    Hrad, Jaromír; ZEMAN, Tomáš; Nevosad, Marek

    2015-01-01

    The article offers an insight into specific features of mobile e-learning (m-learning) in terms of technical implementation, available platforms and their related problems, and evaluates the practical experience. It also summarizes reasons for introduction of mobile learning and analyzes available options for its technical implementation. Specific example is used to demonstrate practical use of m-learning courses – learning of English language for a defined group of recipients within an inter...

  10. Protection against malevolent use of vehicles at Nuclear Power Plants. Vehicle barrier system selection guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This manual provides a simplified procedure for selecting land vehicle barriers that will stop the design basis vehicle threat adopted by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Proper selection and construction of vehicle barriers should prevent intrusion of the design basis vehicle. In addition, vital safety related equipment should survive a design basis vehicle bomb attack when vehicle barriers are properly selected, sited, and constructed. This manual addresses passive vehicle barriers, active vehicle barriers, and site design features that can be used to reduce vehicle impact velocity

  11. Novel spectral features of nanoelectromechanical systems

    KAUST Repository

    Tahir, M.

    2014-02-17

    Electron transport through a quantum dot or single molecule coupled to a quantum oscillator is studied by the Keldysh nonequilibrium Green\\'s function formalism to obtain insight into the quantum dynamics of the electronic and oscillator degrees of freedom. We tune the electronic level of the quantum dot by a gate voltage, where the leads are kept at zero temperature. Due to the nonequilibrium distribution of the electrons in the quantum dot, the spectral function becomes a function of the gate voltage. Novel spectral features are identified for the ground and excited states of nanomechanical oscillators that can be used to enhance the measurement sensitivity.

  12. Integrated modelling of near field and engineered barrier system processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Yucca Mountain Integrating Model (YMIM) is an integrated model of the Engineered Barrier System. It has been developed to assist project managers at LLNL in identifying areas where research emphasis should be placed. The model was designed to be highly modular so that a model of an individual process could be easily modified or replaced without interfering with the models of other processes. The modules modelling container failure and the dissolution of nuclides include particularly detailed, temperature dependent models of their corresponding processes

  13. FEATURES OF LOGISTIC SYSTEM ADAPTIVE MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Natalya VOZNENKO; Teodora ROMAN

    2015-01-01

    The study presents literature survey on enterprise logistic system adaptive management place and structure in the general enterprise management system. The theoretical basics of logistic system functioning, levels of its management and its effectiveness had been investigated. The role of adaptive management and its types had been scrutinized. The necessity of creating company’s adaptive regulator such as its economic mechanism had been proved.

  14. On Dynamic Systems with Piecewise Linear Feature

    OpenAIRE

    Amalia Ţîrdea; Cristina Opriţescu; Mihai Toader

    2010-01-01

    Impact dynamics is considered to be one of the most important problems which arise in vibrating systems. Such impact oscillator occurs in the motion with amplitude constraining stop. In the past years, this simple model has been found rich phenomena and given benefit for understanding of impact systems. Different types of impacting response, such as periodic and non-periodic oscillations, can be predicted by using bifurcation diagrams. Many mechanical systems in engineering applications repre...

  15. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Cultural Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  16. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Antarctica Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  17. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Landform Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  18. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Transportation Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  19. GNIS: Geographic Names Information Systems - All features

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) actively seeks data from and partnerships with Government agencies at all levels and other interested organizations....

  20. On Dynamic Systems with Piecewise Linear Feature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalia Ţîrdea

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Impact dynamics is considered to be one of the most important problems which arise in vibrating systems. Such impact oscillator occurs in the motion with amplitude constraining stop. In the past years, this simple model has been found rich phenomena and given benefit for understanding of impact systems. Different types of impacting response, such as periodic and non-periodic oscillations, can be predicted by using bifurcation diagrams. Many mechanical systems in engineering applications represent systems which are driven in some way and which undergo intermittent or a continuous sequence of contacts with limiting motion by constraints. For example, the principles of the operation of vibration hammers, impact dampers, inertial shakers, milling and forming machines etc, are based on the impact action for moving bodies. With other equipment, machines with clearances, heat exchangers, steam generator tubes, fuel rods in nuclear power plants, rolling railway wheel sets, piping systems, gear transmissions and so on, impacts also occur, but they are undesirable as they bring about failures, strains, and increased noise levels.

  1. Evolution of an intermittent lagoon-barrier system with rising sea level: observations and projections from the Muni-Pomadze lagoon, Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies-Vollum, Sian

    2016-04-01

    Intermittently closed lagoon-barrier systems are a transitory environment between land and sea that are influenced by fluvial and marine processes as well as human activities. Fluvial processes dominate most of the time, when the barrier is closed. However, when the barrier is breached an ephemeral connection between the lagoon and the ocean develops and estuarine-like conditions ensue. As sea level rises, the evolution of these systems from intermittently closed to open is dependent on multiple processes including barrier breaching, fragmentation and overwashing. Human intervention, often to prevent flooding, also has an impact. The Muni-Pomadze lagoon in central Ghana is a small, intermittently closed lagoon-barrier system that supports a local fishing community. A beach-barrier separates the lagoon from the ocean, impounding river water and sediment behind it for most of the year. At the end of a rainy season the barrier may be breached, either naturally or by human intervention to prevent flooding of dwellings on the barrier. Field observation, digital mapping and GIS analysis of the shoreline has enabled an understanding of how the barrier is evolving with rising sea level. The shore face of the barrier has shifted landwards with an average retreat rate of 0.22 m/yr. Small washover fans, developed at low points along the lagoon side of the barrier have developed. However, aerial photos reveal that these fans have remained stable since 1972 (earliest available air photos). The small size and stability of these fans suggests that overwashing is not an important factor in the evolution of the barrier and that the barrier is being eroded rather not moving landward. Erosion is particularly prevalent at the breach end of the barrier with an average rate of loss of 3 metres per year and palm trees that were providing stability to the barrier have been washed away. Unconsolidated sands forming a transient, spit-like feature have replaced the stable barrier, which

  2. Application of a three-feature dispersed-barrier hardening model to neutron-irradiated Fe–Cr model alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergner, F., E-mail: f.bergner@hzdr.de [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Bautzner Landstraße 400, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Pareige, C. [Groupe de Physique des Matériaux, Université et INSA de Rouen, UMR 6634 CNRS, Avenue de l’Université, BP 12, 76801 Saint Etienne du Rouvray (France); Hernández-Mayoral, M. [Division of Materials, CIEMAT, Avenida Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Malerba, L. [SCK-CEN, Nuclear Material Science Institute, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Heintze, C. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Bautzner Landstraße 400, 01328 Dresden (Germany)

    2014-05-01

    An attempt is made to quantify the contributions of different types of defect-solute clusters to the total irradiation-induced yield stress increase in neutron-irradiated (300 °C, 0.6 dpa), industrial-purity Fe–Cr model alloys (target Cr contents of 2.5, 5, 9 and 12 at.% Cr). Former work based on the application of transmission electron microscopy, atom probe tomography, and small-angle neutron scattering revealed the formation of dislocation loops, NiSiPCr-enriched clusters and α′-phase particles, which act as obstacles to dislocation glide. The values of the dimensionless obstacle strength are estimated in the framework of a three-feature dispersed-barrier hardening model. Special attention is paid to the effect of measuring errors, experimental details and model details on the estimates. The three families of obstacles and the hardening model are well capable of reproducing the observed yield stress increase as a function of Cr content, suggesting that the nanostructural features identified experimentally are the main, if not the only, causes of irradiation hardening in these model alloys.

  3. An Overview of Android Operating System and Its Security Features

    OpenAIRE

    Rajinder Singh

    2014-01-01

    Android operating system is one of the most widely used operating system these days. Android Operating System is mainly divided into four main layers: the kernel, libraries, application framework and applications. Its kernel is based on Linux. Linux kernel is used to manage core system services such as virtual memory, networking, drivers, and power management. In these paper different features of architecture of Android OS as well security features of Android OS are discussed.

  4. An Overview of Android Operating System and Its Security Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajinder Singh

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Android operating system is one of the most widely used operating system these days. Android Operating System is mainly divided into four main layers: the kernel, libraries, application framework and applications. Its kernel is based on Linux. Linux kernel is used to manage core system services such as virtual memory, networking, drivers, and power management. In these paper different features of architecture of Android OS as well security features of Android OS are discussed.

  5. Evolving Features and Emergency Management of Barrier Lakes%堰塞湖灾变特征与应急管理策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程卫帅; 陈进; 黄薇

    2012-01-01

    The emergency management of barrier lakes has attracted wide attention in China since the Wenchuan Earthquake in Sichuan province in 2008. The emergency management process is presented on the basis of analyzing the causes and evolving features of barrier lakes. The emergency management strategies system is discussed according to the principles of classified management, graded response and phased treatment. It is suggested that the emergency management system for barrier lakes should be involved in the national flood and drought management framework. Owing to its complexity, in the short term, the emergency management system should be more tightly associated with related administration departments especially in the field of monitoring and information sharing, whereas in the long term, regional integrated emergency management agency should be established. The emergency management should focus on mitigating the primary disasters to reduce the occurrence possibility of barrier lakes. Risk mapping, monitoring and information sharing network construction should be priorities on the agenda.%自2008年汶川大地震以来,堰塞湖灾害的应急管理引起了人们的广泛关注.在堰塞湖成因及其灾变特征分析的基础上,给出了堰塞湖应急管理的一般程序,根据分类管理、分级响应和分期处置的原则讨论了堰塞湖应急管理的基本策略.建议将堰塞湖应急管理纳入国家防汛抗旱应急体系的框架之中,但由于其复杂性,短期内应通过各级政府及其应急管理办公室与其他相关部门建立更强有力的协作关系,特别是在信息监测和共享方面,长期应考虑建立区域综合应急机构来应对堰塞湖以及其他灾害和事故.堰塞湖应急管理的重心应放在缓解原生灾害以减小堰塞湖出现几率方面,其中风险区划、监测和信息共享网络建设是应当优先完成的工作.

  6. System evaluation for the volume change of the engineered barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the emplaced waste in TRU waste disposal facility, it may have the void for waste bodies it. And, generating void which accompanies those component elution in concrete pit and filler in which the cement material becomes the candidate material is assumed. It is considered that the security of the diffusion control in the bentonite is not done when these voids collapsed, and when it generated the volume change inside the buffer material (bentonite). The imperfect blockage of the void by not obtaining, the sufficient swelling permeability swelling bentonite is a cause on this. Then, volume change of the bentonite inside is analyzed in this study under the conservative estimation. And the following are tested: Self-sealing, maximum swelling rate, density distribution change of the bentonite. Evaluation of the engineered barrier system for volume change from the result was carried out. Prior to the evaluation, generating void was calculated based on the conservative estimation. The density of the buffer material as it assumed the blocking by buffer material uniformly swelling using this calculated data, was obtained. By the permeability got from existing research result which shows the relationship between density and permeability of the bentonite, it was confirmed to become diffusion control in the buffer material inside, in existing engineered barrier specification. Next, it was tested, when the conservative void of the superscription was assumed, in order to confirm whether it does the security, as permeability necessary for maintaining diffusion control, puts it for the swelling of actual bentonite. As the result, it was possible to confirm sufficient swelling performance in order to do the security of the diffusion control in Na-bentonite. However, the swelling performance greatly lowered by comparing Na-bentonite in Ca-bentonite with under 1/6. The increase of the permeability not do the security of the diffusion control, when it was based on void quantity

  7. Micro-chemical and -morphological features of heat treated plasma sprayed zirconia-based thermal barrier coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zirconia-based plasma-sprayed coatings are extensively used in jet and land-based engines as thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) for protecting and insulating gas turbine metal components from the extreme temperature in the hot gas extending the engine life capabilities and service performances as well as reducing fuel consumption. Zirconia-based thermal barrier coatings stabilized with yttria and ceria were prepared by means of atmospheric plasma spray (APS) and thermal treated at different temperatures. The resulting fractured heated surfaces have been studied by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) combined with energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) in order to study the surface micro-chemical composition and morphology. The results disclose the variation of the stabilizing oxide amount, the occurrence of valence state modifications of cerium, impurity segregation phenomena and sintering. High temperature sintering influenced the porous microstructure leading to structural changes of the surface. This information confirmed that chemical and morphological aspects in plasma sprayed TBCs must be known in order to understand and predict relationships between the parameters of plasma spray process and TBC features, properties and performances for a better design of reliable TBCs. - Highlights: • Yttria and Ceria stabilized zirconia-based TBCs were prepared by means of atmospheric plasma spray (APS) and thermal treated at different temperatures. • The chemical and morphological structure of the fractured materials were analysed. • Morphology and structural changes of the coatings depended on the nucleation and temperature treatments. • Ceria stabilized TBCs showed higher phase stability than Yttria’s

  8. Ranking System for Opinion Mining of Features from Review Documents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanvir Ahmad

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available With the exponential growth of the web there has been explosive increase in the user generated contents in the form of customer reviews, blogs, discussion forums, social networks etc. Most of the contents are stored in the form of unstructured or semi structured data from where distillation of knowledge is a challenging task. In this paper we propose a feature wise opinion mining system which first extracts features from user generated contents, then determines the intensity of the opinions by giving emphasis to the modifier of the words, which expresses opinions. It finds the numeric score of all the features using Senti-WordNet and then calculates the overall orientation of the feature to determine how intense the opinion is for both the positive and negative features. The positive and negative features are identified by extracting the associated modifiers and opinions. The summary is presented by specifying the features in descending order of importance.

  9. PEBS. Long-term performance of engineered barrier systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wieczorek, Klaus; Czaikowski, Oliver; Miehe, Ruediger

    2014-12-15

    The evolution of the engineered barrier system (EBS) of geological repositories for radioactive waste has been the subject of many national and international research programmes. The emphasis of the research activities was on the elaboration of a detailed understanding of the complex THMC processes, which are expected to evolve in the early post closure period in the near field. From the perspective of radiological long-term safety, an in-depth understanding of these coupled processes is of great significance, because the evolution of the EBS during the early post-closure phase may have a non-negligible impact on the radiological safety functions at the time when the canisters breach. Unexpected process interactions during the resaturation phase could impair the safety-relevant parameters in the EBS (e. g. swelling pressure, hydraulic conductivity, diffusivity).

  10. Representing solute transport through the multi-barrier disposal system by simplified concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poteri, A.; Nordman, H.; Pulkkanen, V-M. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Kekaelaeinen, P. [Jyvaeskylae Univ. (Finland). Dept. pf Physics; Hautojaervi, A.

    2012-02-15

    The repository system chosen in Finland for spent nuclear fuel is composed of multiple successive transport barriers. If a waste canister is leaking, this multi-barrier system retards and limits the release rates of radionuclides into the biosphere. Analysis of radionuclide migration in the previous performance assessments has largely been based on numerical modelling of the repository system. The simplified analytical approach introduced here provides a tool to analyse the performance of the whole system using simplified representations of the individual transport barriers. This approach is based on the main characteristics of the individual barriers and on the generic nature of the coupling between successive barriers. In the case of underground repository the mass transfer between successive transport barriers is strongly restricted by the interfaces between barriers leading to well-mixed conditions in these barriers. The approach here simplifies the barrier system so that it can be described with a very simple compartment model, where each barrier is represented by a single, or in the case of buffer, by not more than two compartments. This system of compartments could be solved in analogy with a radioactive decay chain. The model of well mixed compartments lends itself to a very descriptive way to represent and analyse the barrier system because the relative efficiency of the different barriers in hindering transport of solutes can be parameterised by the solutes half-times in the corresponding compartments. In a real repository system there will also be a delay between the start of the inflow and the start of the outflow from the barrier. This delay can be important for the release rates of the short lived and sorbing radionuclides, and it was also included in the simplified representation of the barrier system. In a geological multi-barrier system, spreading of the outflowing release pulse is often governed by the typical behaviour of one transport barrier

  11. Development of a manufacturing feature-based design system

    OpenAIRE

    Hoque, A.S.M. Mojahidul

    2010-01-01

    Traditional CAD systems are based on the serial approach of the product development cycle: the design process is not integrated with other activities and thus it can not provide information for subsequent phases of product development. In order to eliminate this problem, many modern CAD systems allow the composition of designs from building blocks of higher level of abstraction called features. Although features used in current systems tend to be named after manufacturing processes, they do n...

  12. Characterization and modeling of the barrier properties in nanostructured systems

    OpenAIRE

    Minelli, Matteo

    2009-01-01

    The object of the present study is the process of gas transport in nano-sized materials, i.e. systems having structural elements of the order of nanometers. The aim of this work is to advance the understanding of the gas transport mechanism in such materials, for which traditional models are not often suitable, by providing a correct interpretation of the relationship between diffusive phenomena and structural features. This result would allow the development new materials with permeation pro...

  13. Numerical simulation of evolution features of the atmospheric-pressure CF4 plasma generated by the pulsed dielectric barrier discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jie; Li, Li; Chen, Bo; Song, Yuzhi; Zhao, Yuefeng; Xiu, Xianwu

    2016-06-01

    The atmospheric-pressure CF4 plasma has the high application potential in the field of semiconductor fabrication since it can combine the excellent capability for the CF4 plasma etching with the easy atmospheric-pressure operation. In this work, the fluid model has been carried out to numerically research evolution features of the atmospheric-pressure CF4 plasma generated by the pulsed dielectric barrier discharge. The computational results show that the averaged electron temperature dramatically increases during the rising and the falling phases of the applied voltage pulse, and then swiftly decreases. The discharge current density has the waveform of two bipolar short pulses. The electrons and CF3 + ions form the cathode sheath at the discharge duration. However, the CF3 - and F- negative ions take the place of the electrons to sustain the cathode sheath of the CF4 discharge plasma at the time interval between the two bipolar discharge pulses. During the time interval of the two adjacent applied voltage pulses the discharge region is the quasi-neutral plasma region, and meanwhile CF2 + and CF3 - are the dominated charged species. Moreover, F and CF3 maintain the relatively stable high densities and uniform axial distributions during the whole period of the applied voltage.

  14. System Entropy and Its Application in Feature Selection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Jun; WU Zhong-fu; LI Hua

    2004-01-01

    Feature selection is always an important issue in the research on data mining technologies. However, the problem of optimal feature selection is NP hard. Therefore, heuristic approaches are more practical to actual learning systems. Usually, that kind of algorithm selects features with the help of a heuristic metric compactum to measure the relative importance of features in a learning system. Here a new notion of 'system entropy' is described in terms of rough set theory, and then some of its algebraic characteristics are studied. After its intrinsic value biase is effectively counteracted, the system entropy is applied in BSE, a new heuristic algorithm for feature selection. BSE is efficient, whose time complexity is lower than that of analogous algorithms; BSE is also effective, which can produce the optimal results in the mini-feature biased sense from varieties of learning systems. Besides, BSE is tolerant and also flexible to the inconsistency of a learning system, consequently able to elegantly handle data noise in the learning system.

  15. Fingerprints, Iris and DNA Features based Multimodal Systems: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash Chandra Srivastava

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Biometric systems are alternates to the traditional identification systems. This paper provides an overview of single feature and multiple features based biometric systems, including the performance of physiological characteristics (such as fingerprint, hand geometry, head recognition, iris, retina, face recognition, DNA recognition, palm prints, heartbeat, finger veins, palates etc and behavioral characteristics (such as body language, facial expression, signature verification, speech recognition, Gait Signature etc.. The fingerprints, iris image, and DNA features based multimodal systems and their performances are analyzed in terms of security, reliability, accuracy, and long-term stability. The strengths and weaknesses of various multiple features based biometric approaches published so far are analyzed. The directions of future research work for robust personal identification is outlined.

  16. Development of a Feature Based CAM System for Rotational Parts

    OpenAIRE

    Yakup YILDIZ; İhsan KORKUT; ŞEKER, Ulvi

    2010-01-01

    Computer Aided Process Planning (CAPP) plays an  important role in the development of Computer Integrated Manufacturing systems (CIM) and provides a vital link  between Computer Aided Design (CAD) and Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM). Automatic extraction and recognition of part features directly from a CAD database also strengthen the link between CAD and CAPP. In this study, an automatic feature recognition and CNC code generation (AFR/ACCG) system  was developed for rotati...

  17. Features and Historical Aspects of the Philippines Educational System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musa, Sajid; Ziatdinov, Rushan

    2012-01-01

    This article deals with the features of the Philippine educational system. Additionally, brief and concise information will be given on how the educational system came into existence, the organization and the structure of the system itself. This paper also tackles the obstacles and problems observed in the past and up to the present, and gives…

  18. Negative Resistance in a Two-Dimensional System with Entropic Barrier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiao-Peng; BAO Jing-Dong

    2005-01-01

    @@ A phenomenon of negative resistance is found in two-dimensional bistable and periodic potentials via Langevin simulation, where output quantities for noise and signal driven system, such as the power-spectrum density modulus and the signal power amplification, can become minima at finite temperatures. In such a system, the curvature of the potential along non-transport degree of freedom at the barrier is larger than that at the local minima. The temperature-dependent effective barrier, i.e. entropic barrier, is introduced via integration over the non-transport variables. The system shows the negative resistance because of the competence between the signal and the entropic barrier.

  19. Iris Recognition System Based on Feature Level Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. S. R. Ganorkar

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Multibiometric systems utilize the evidence presented by multiple biometric sources (e.g., face and fingerprint, multiple fingers of a single user, multiple matchers, etc. in order to determine or verify the identity of an individual. Information from multiple sources can be consolidated in several distinct levels. But fusion of two different biometric traits are difficult due to (i the feature sets of multiple modalities may be incompatible (e.g., minutiae set of fingerprints and eigen-coefficients of face; (ii the relationship between the feature spaces of different biometric systems may not be known; (iii concatenating two feature vectors may result in a feature vector with very large dimensionality leading to the `curse of dimensionality problem, huge storage space and different processing algorithm. Also if we are use multiple images of single biometric trait, then it doesn’t show much variations. So in this paper, we present a efficient technique of feature-based fusion in a multimodal system where left eye and right eye are used as input. Iris recognition basically contains iris location, feature extraction, and identification. This algorithm uses canny edge detection to identify inner and outer boundary of iris. Then this image is feed to Gabor wavelet transform to extract the feature and finally matching is done by using indexing algorithm. The results from the analysis of works indicate that the proposed technique can lead to substantial improvement in performance.

  20. Engineered Barrier Systems Thermal-Hydraulic-Chemical Column Test Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W.E. Lowry

    2001-12-13

    The Engineered Barrier System (EBS) Thermal-Hydraulic-Chemical (THC) Column Tests provide data needed for model validation. The EBS Degradation, Flow, and Transport Process Modeling Report (PMR) will be based on supporting models for in-drift THC coupled processes, and the in-drift physical and chemical environment. These models describe the complex chemical interaction of EBS materials, including granular materials, with the thermal and hydrologic conditions that will be present in the repository emplacement drifts. Of particular interest are the coupled processes that result in mineral and salt dissolution/precipitation in the EBS environment. Test data are needed for thermal, hydrologic, and geochemical model validation and to support selection of introduced materials (CRWMS M&O 1999c). These column tests evaluated granular crushed tuff as potential invert ballast or backfill material, under accelerated thermal and hydrologic environments. The objectives of the THC column testing are to: (1) Characterize THC coupled processes that could affect performance of EBS components, particularly the magnitude of permeability reduction (increases or decreases), the nature of minerals produced, and chemical fractionation (i.e., concentrative separation of salts and minerals due to boiling-point elevation). (2) Generate data for validating THC predictive models that will support the EBS Degradation, Flow, and Transport PMR, Rev. 01.

  1. Engineered Barrier System Thermal-Hydraulic-Chemical Column Test Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Engineered Barrier System (EBS) Thermal-Hydraulic-Chemical (THC) Column Tests provide data needed for model validation. The EBS Degradation, Flow, and Transport Process Modeling Report (PMR) will be based on supporting models for in-drift THC coupled processes, and the in-drift physical and chemical environment. These models describe the complex chemical interaction of EBS materials, including granular materials, with the thermal and hydrologic conditions that will be present in the repository emplacement drifts. Of particular interest are the coupled processes that result in mineral and salt dissolution/precipitation in the EBS environment. Test data are needed for thermal, hydrologic, and geochemical model validation and to support selection of introduced materials (CRWMS M and O 1999c). These column tests evaluated granular crushed tuff as potential invert ballast or backfill material, under accelerated thermal and hydrologic environments. The objectives of the THC column testing are to: (1) Characterize THC coupled processes that could affect performance of EBS components, particularly the magnitude of permeability reduction (increases or decreases), the nature of minerals produced, and chemical fractionation (i.e., concentrative separation of salts and minerals due to boiling-point elevation). (2) Generate data for validating THC predictive models that will support the EBS Degradation, Flow, and Transport PMR, Rev. 01

  2. MERCURY OXIDIZATION IN NON-THERMAL PLASMA BARRIER DISCHARGE SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    V.K. Mathur

    2003-02-01

    In the past decade, the emission of toxic elements from human activities has become a matter of great public concern. Hg, As, Se and Cd typically volatilize during a combustion process and are not easily caught with conventional air pollution control techniques. In addition, there is no pollution prevention technique available now or likely be available in the foreseeable future that can prevent the emission of these trace elements. These trace elements pose additional scientific challenge as they are present at only ppb levels in large gas streams. Mercury, in particular, has attracted significant attention due to its high volatility, toxicity and potential threat to human health. In the present research work, a non-thermal plasma dielectric barrier discharge technique has been used to oxidize Hg{sup 0}(g) to HgO. The basic premise of this approach is that Hg{sup 0} in vapor form cannot be easily removed in an absorption tower whereas HgO as a particulate is amiable to water scrubbing. The work presented in this report consists of three steps: (1) setting-up of an experimental apparatus to generate mercury vapors at a constant rate and modifying the existing non-thermal plasma reactor system, (2) solving the analytical challenge for measuring mercury vapor concentration at ppb level, and (3) conducting experiments on mercury oxidation under plasma conditions to establish proof of concept.

  3. ARCTIC FOUNDATIONS, INC. FREEZE BARRIER SYSTEM - SITE TECHNOLOGY CAPSULE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arctic Foundations, Inc. (AFI), of Anchorage, Alaska has developed a freeze barrier technology designed to prevent the migration of contaminants in groundwater by completely isolating contaminant source areas until appropriate remediation techniques can be applied. With this tec...

  4. Digital signature systems based on smart card and fingerprint feature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    You Lin; Xu Maozhi; Zheng Zhiming

    2007-01-01

    Two signature systems based on smart cards and fingerprint features are proposed. In one signature system, the cryptographic key is stored in the smart card and is only accessible when the signer's extracted fingerprint features match his stored template. To resist being tampered on public channel, the user's message and the signed message are encrypted by the signer's public key and the user's public key, respectively. In the other signature system, the keys are generated by combining the signer's fingerprint features, check bits, and a rememberable key,and there are no matching process and keys stored on the smart card. Additionally, there is generally more than one public key in this system, that is, there exist some pseudo public keys except a real one.

  5. Fast Cycle Frequency Domain Feature Detection for Cognitive Radio Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Da, Shan; Xiaoying, Gan; Hsiao-Hwa, Chen; Liang, Qian

    2009-01-01

    In cognitive radio systems, one of the main requirements is to detect the presence of the primary users' transmission, especially in weak signal cases. Cyclostationary detection is always used to solve weak signal detection, however, the computational complexity prevents it from wide usage. In this paper, a fast cycle frequency domain feature detection algorithm has been proposed, in which only feature frequency with significant cyclic signature is considered for a certain modulation mode. Si...

  6. Ranking System for Opinion Mining of Features from Review Documents

    OpenAIRE

    Tanvir Ahmad; Mohammad Najmud Doja

    2012-01-01

    With the exponential growth of the web there has been explosive increase in the user generated contents in the form of customer reviews, blogs, discussion forums, social networks etc. Most of the contents are stored in the form of unstructured or semi structured data from where distillation of knowledge is a challenging task. In this paper we propose a feature wise opinion mining system which first extracts features from user generated contents, then determines the intensity of the opinions b...

  7. The Effects of information barrier requirements on the trilateral initiative attribute measurement system (AVNG)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although the detection techniques used for measuring classified materials are very similar to those used in unclassified measurements, the surrounding packaging is generally very different. If iZ classified item is to be measured, an information barrier is required to protect any classified data acquired. This information barrier must protect the classified information while giving the inspector confidence that the unclassified outputs accurately reflect the classified inputs, Both information barrier and authentication considerations must be considered during all phases of system design and fabrication. One example of such a measurement system is the attribute measurement system (termed the AVNG) designed for the: Trilateral Initiative. We will discuss the integration of information barrier components into this system as well as the effects of an information barrier (including authentication) concerns on the implementation of the detector systems.

  8. Unavailability Analysis of Digital Engineered Safety Feature Actuation System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper quantitatively presents the results of the fault tree analysis of Digital Engineered Safety Feature Actuation System which is one of the most important signal generation systems in nuclear power plant because it generates the signal for mitigating possible accidents. In this paper, as an example, we explore the case of auxiliary feedwater actuation signal. Based on the analysis results, we quantitatively explain the relationship between the important characteristics of digital systems and the system unavailability. We find out some factors which remarkably affect the system unavailability. They are the common cause failures and the coverage of fault tolerant mechanisms. Human operator's backup also plays very important role. In this analysis we ignore the effect of software failure. We also compare the result with the PSA result of conventional analog Engineered Safety Feature Actuation System. The result of Digital ESFAS is about 27% lower than in the analog system

  9. Effects of nuclear breakup channel on fusion of 6Li+64Zn system around barrier energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have studied the effects of breakup, occurring due to the nuclear interaction between weakly bound 6Li and tightly bound 64Zn isotopes, on the fusion reaction at near barrier energies within the framework of dynamic polarization potential (DPP) approach. When the nuclear induced dynamic polarization potential is taken into account sub barrier enhancement and above barrier suppression have been found which improves the matching between the fusion excitation function data and predictions for 6Li+64Zn system significantly. (author)

  10. Overcoming energy efficiency barriers through systems approach—A conceptual framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we propose a framework which categorizes energy efficiency barriers based on the stage at which the barriers exist. Barriers to energy efficiency have been widely studied but to our knowledge, except for a few studies, we found inadequate consideration for barrier–barrier interactions when proposing policy measures for improving energy efficiency. Leveraging systems thinking's power as a problem solver which identifies underlying structure that explains (similar) patterns of behavior in a variety of different situations, we attempted to identify patterns of barriers to adoption of energy efficiency measures in industrial companies. Inspired by systems thinking, the proposed framework has four stages, namely, Motivation, Capability, Implementation and Results, as well as a feedback loop. Using a case study, we show that following the four stages will lead to positive feedback for future energy efficiency implementations. The framework highlights the interconnected nature of the barriers and a need for policymakers to address these barriers in a holistic manner. We argue that the overall effectiveness of energy efficiency policies is only as strong as the weakest link in the four-stage framework. This differs from most prior research that addressed barriers in isolation, where a solution is proposed for each of the barriers without considering the relationship between the barriers. Our framework also offers a way to understand the roles and responsibilities of major stakeholders such as governments and energy service companies (ESCOs) in driving energy efficiency. This allows the assessment and identification of weak links in energy efficiency policies. - Highlights: ► We propose a systems approach to overcome energy efficiency barriers. ► Barriers are grouped into Motivation, Capability, Implementation and Results. ► Case study shows that there is a feedback loop from Results to Motivation. ► Current Results will affect future Motivation.

  11. Systems and processes for identifying features and determining feature associations in groups of documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Stuart J.; Cowley, Wendy E.; Crow, Vernon L.

    2016-01-12

    Systems and computer-implemented processes for identification of features and determination of feature associations in a group of documents can involve providing a plurality of keywords identified among the terms of at least some of the documents. A value measure can be calculated for each keyword. High-value keywords are defined as those keywords having value measures that exceed a threshold. For each high-value keyword, term-document associations (TDA) are accessed. The TDA characterize measures of association between each term and at least some documents in the group. A processor quantifies similarities between unique pairs of high-value keywords based on the TDA for each respective high-value keyword and generates a similarity matrix that indicates one or more sets that each comprise highly associated high-value keywords.

  12. Laboratory and field scale demonstration of reactive barrier systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an effort to devise a cost efficient technology for remediation of uranium contaminated groundwater, the Department of Energy's Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (DOE-UMTRA) Program through Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) fabricated a pilot scale research project utilizing reactive subsurface barriers at an UMTRA site in Durango, Colorado. A reactive subsurface barrier is produced by emplacing a reactant material (in this experiment metallic iron) in the flow path of the contaminated groundwater. The reactive media then removes and/or transforms the contaminant(s) to regulatory acceptable levels. Experimental design and results are discussed with regard to other potential applications of reactive barrier remediation strategies at other sites with contaminated groundwater problems

  13. Laboratory and field scale demonstration of reactive barrier systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an effort to devise a cost efficient technology for remediation of uranium contaminated groundwater, the Department of Energy's Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (DOE-UMTRA) Program through Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) fabricated a pilot scale research project utilizing reactive subsurface barriers at an UMTRA site in Durango, Colorado. A reactive subsurface barrier is produced by placing a reactant material (in this experiment, metallic iron) in the flow path of the contaminated groundwater. The reactive media then removes and/or transforms the contaminant(s) to regulatory acceptable levels. Experimental design and results are discussed with regard to other potential applications of reactive barrier remediation strategies at other sites with contaminated groundwater problems

  14. Escape for System with Non-Fluctuating Potential Barrier Only Driven by Three-State Noise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jing-Hui

    2007-01-01

    We study the escape for the mean first passage time (MFPT) over a potential barrier for a system with non-fluctuating potential barrier and only driven by a three-state noise. It is shown that in some circumstances, the three-state noise can induce the resonant activation for the MFPT over the potential barrier; but in other circumstances, it can not. There are three resonant activations for the MFPT over the potential barrier, which are respectively as the functions of the transition rates of the three-state noise.

  15. Preliminary engineering specifications for a test demonstration multilayer protective barrier cover system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents preliminary engineering specifications for a test protective barrier cover system and support radiohydrology facility to be constructed at the Hanford Protective Barrier Test Facility (PBTF). Construction of this test barrier and related radiohydrology facility is part of a continuing effort to provide construction experience and performance evaluation of alternative barrier designs used for long-term isolation of disposed radioactive waste materials. Design specifications given in this report are tentative, based on interim engineering and computer simulation design efforts. Final definitive design specifications and engineering prints will be produced in FY 1986. 6 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab

  16. Nonparametric statistical structuring of knowledge systems using binary feature matches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørup, Morten; Glückstad, Fumiko Kano; Herlau, Tue;

    2014-01-01

    matches and structure the data into groups at the level in which they have statistical support. The model naturally extends to structuring and aligning an arbitrary number of systems. We analyze three datasets on educational concepts and their features and demonstrate how the proposed model can both be...... statistical support and how this approach generalizes to the structuring and alignment of knowledge systems. We propose a non-parametric Bayesian generative model for structuring binary feature data that does not depend on a specific choice of similarity measure. We jointly model all combinations of binary...... used to structure each system separately or to jointly align two or more systems. The proposed method forms a promising new framework for the statistical modeling and alignment of structure across an arbitrary number of systems....

  17. Main features and potentialities of gas-blanket systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review is given of the features and potentialities of cold-blanket systems, with respect to plasma equilibrium, stability, and reactor technology. The treatment is concentrated on quasi-steady magnetized plasmas confined at moderately high beta values. The cold-blanket concept has specific potentialities as a fusion reactor, e.g. in connection with the desired densities and dimensions of full-scale systems, refuelling, as well as ash and impurity removal, and stability. (author)

  18. Safety systems and features of boiling and pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The safe operation of nuclear power plants (NPP) requires a deep understanding of the functioning of physical processes and systems involved. This study was carried out to present an overview of the features of safety systems of boiling and pressurized water reactors that are available commercially. Brief description of purposes and functions of the various safety systems that are employed in these reactors was discussed and a brief comparison between the safety systems of BWRs and PWRs was made in an effort to emphasize of safety in NPPs.(Author)

  19. Security features of a nuclear material accounting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Los Alamos Nuclear Material Accounting and Safeguards System (MASS) is a near-real-time accountability system for bulk materials, discrete items, and materials undergoing dynamic processing. MASS has evolved from a 80-column, card-based process control system to a very sophisticated computer system. Recently, the computer hardware was upgraded to a modern transaction oriented central computer system designed to accommodate extensive growth in the foreseeable future. The security of the MASS computer system is provided through various access controls. There are two kinds of access controls to be addressed. They are physical access control to the hardware which make up the system and access control to the software. There are many features which provide a measure of security to the hardware that are discussed. Access to the software is controlled by a security password. Access to various transaction activities in the system is controlled through the level of MASS under privilege. Details of MASS user privilege are discussed

  20. Information barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    measurement equipment, that the system is functioning properly and does not incorporate any hidden features (or 'switches') that allows the host to pass out-of-spec items. Authentication of information barrier systems is an extremely important concept to consider in designing and assembling these types of inspection systems. There are a limited set of straightforward approaches to authenticate such systems, when applied in conjunction with open and cooperative system design and fabrication, that will provide a high degree of confidence to both host and inspector that the system will prevent the release of classified information and yet still inspect items in a manner consistent with the objectives of an inspection agreement. These principles have been outlined in this paper, along with areas where additional studies would be helpful. (author)

  1. Complex Features in Lotka-Volterra Systems with Behavioral Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tebaldi, Claudio; Lacitignola, Deborah

    Lotka-Volterra systems have played a fundamental role for mathematical modelling in many branches of theoretical biology and proved to describe, at least qualitatively, the essential features of many phenomena, see for example Murray [Murray 2002]. Furthermore models of that kind have been considered successfully also in quite different and less mathematically formalized context: Goodwin' s model of economic growth cycles [Goodwin 1967] and urban dynamics [Dendrinos 1992] are only two of a number of examples. Such systems can certainly be defined as complex ones and in fact the aim of modelling was essentially to clarify mechanims rather than to provide actual precise simulations and predictions. With regards to complex systems, we recall that one of their main feature, no matter of the specific definition one has in mind, is adaptation, i. e. the ability to adjust.

  2. Environmental Management System and SMEs: EU Experience, Barriers and Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Iraldo, Fabio; Testa, Francesco; Frey, Marco

    2010-01-01

    In the authors’ intention this paper represents the attempt to identify solutions, tools and incentives for SMEs to overcome constraints and difficulties they experience by implementing an EMS. Removing potential barriers and reinforcing economic incentives should be main targets in order to allow for a wide diffusion of EMS among SMEs. Some methods and possible instruments have been dealt with in this paper: working by group seemed to be a good way to diffuse information and to share imple...

  3. Reactor protection system including engineered features actuation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The safety concept requires to ensure that - the reactor protection system - the active engineered safeguard - and the necessary auxiliary systems are so designed and interfaced in respect of design and mode of action that, in the event of single component failure reliable control of the consequences of accidents remains ensured at all times and that the availability of the power plant is not limited unnecessarily. In order to satisfy these requirements due, importance was attached to a consistent spacial separation of the mutually redundant subsystems of the active safety equipment. The design and layout of the reactor protection system, of the power supply (emergency power supply), and of the auxiliary systems important from the safety engineering point of view, are such that their subsystems also largely satisfy the requirements of independence and spacial separation. (orig./RW)

  4. Comparison of Windows and Linux Operating Systems in Advanced Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Abhilash

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Comparison between the Microsoft Windows and Linux computer operating systems is a long-running discussion topic within the personal computer industry .This technical paper is mainly going to focus on the differences between windows and linux in all fields. Both Windows and Linux Operating systems have their own advantages and differ in functionalities and user friendliness. Linux and Microsoft Windows differ in philosophy, cost, versatility and stability, with each seeking to improve in their perceived weaker areas. This paper is mainly going to focus on the advanced features that are uniquely present in one operating system and not in other one.

  5. Disposal systems evaluations and tool development: Engineered Barrier System (EBS) evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Key components of the nuclear fuel cycle are short-term storage and long-term disposal of nuclear waste. The latter encompasses the immobilization of used nuclear fuel (UNF) and radioactive waste streams generated by various phases of the nuclear fuel cycle, and the safe and permanent disposition of these waste forms in geological repository environments. The engineered barrier system (EBS) plays a very important role in the long-term isolation of nuclear waste in geological repository environments. EBS concepts and their interactions with the natural barrier are inherently important to the long-term performance assessment of the safety case where nuclear waste disposition needs to be evaluated for time periods of up to one million years. Making the safety case needed in the decision-making process for the recommendation and the eventual embracement of a disposal system concept requires a multi-faceted integration of knowledge and evidence-gathering to demonstrate the required confidence level in a deep geological disposal site and to evaluate long-term repository performance. The focus of this report is the following: (1) Evaluation of EBS in long-term disposal systems in deep geologic environments with emphasis on the multi-barrier concept; (2) Evaluation of key parameters in the characterization of EBS performance; (3) Identification of key knowledge gaps and uncertainties; and (4) Evaluation of tools and modeling approaches for EBS processes and performance. The above topics will be evaluated through the analysis of the following: (1) Overview of EBS concepts for various NW disposal systems; (2) Natural and man-made analogs, room chemistry, hydrochemistry of deep subsurface environments, and EBS material stability in near-field environments; (3) Reactive Transport and Coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical-Chemical (THMC) processes in EBS; and (4) Thermal analysis toolkit, metallic barrier degradation mode survey, and development of a Disposal Systems

  6. Disposal systems evaluations and tool development : Engineered Barrier System (EBS) evaluation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutqvist, Jonny (LBNL); Liu, Hui-Hai (LBNL); Steefel, Carl I. (LBNL); Serrano de Caro, M. A. (LLNL); Caporuscio, Florie Andre (LANL); Birkholzer, Jens T. (LBNL); Blink, James A. (LLNL); Sutton, Mark A. (LLNL); Xu, Hongwu (LANL); Buscheck, Thomas A. (LLNL); Levy, Schon S. (LANL); Tsang, Chin-Fu (LBNL); Sonnenthal, Eric (LBNL); Halsey, William G. (LLNL); Jove-Colon, Carlos F.; Wolery, Thomas J. (LLNL)

    2011-01-01

    Key components of the nuclear fuel cycle are short-term storage and long-term disposal of nuclear waste. The latter encompasses the immobilization of used nuclear fuel (UNF) and radioactive waste streams generated by various phases of the nuclear fuel cycle, and the safe and permanent disposition of these waste forms in geological repository environments. The engineered barrier system (EBS) plays a very important role in the long-term isolation of nuclear waste in geological repository environments. EBS concepts and their interactions with the natural barrier are inherently important to the long-term performance assessment of the safety case where nuclear waste disposition needs to be evaluated for time periods of up to one million years. Making the safety case needed in the decision-making process for the recommendation and the eventual embracement of a disposal system concept requires a multi-faceted integration of knowledge and evidence-gathering to demonstrate the required confidence level in a deep geological disposal site and to evaluate long-term repository performance. The focus of this report is the following: (1) Evaluation of EBS in long-term disposal systems in deep geologic environments with emphasis on the multi-barrier concept; (2) Evaluation of key parameters in the characterization of EBS performance; (3) Identification of key knowledge gaps and uncertainties; and (4) Evaluation of tools and modeling approaches for EBS processes and performance. The above topics will be evaluated through the analysis of the following: (1) Overview of EBS concepts for various NW disposal systems; (2) Natural and man-made analogs, room chemistry, hydrochemistry of deep subsurface environments, and EBS material stability in near-field environments; (3) Reactive Transport and Coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical-Chemical (THMC) processes in EBS; and (4) Thermal analysis toolkit, metallic barrier degradation mode survey, and development of a Disposal Systems

  7. Functions of an engineered barrier system for a nuclear waste repository in basalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Defined in this document are the functions of components selected for an engineered barrier system for a nuclear waste repository in basalt. The definitions provide a focal point for barrier material research and development by delineating the purpose and operative lifetime of each component of the engineered system. A five-component system (comprised of waste form, canister, buffer, overpack, and tailored backfill) is discussed in terms of effective operation throughout the course of repository history, recognizing that the emplacement environment changes with time. While components of the system are mutually supporting, redundancy is provided by subsystems of physical and chemical barriers which act in concert with the geology to provide a formidable barrier to transport of hazardous materials to the biosphere. The operating philosophy of the conceptual engineered barrier system is clarified by examples pertinent to storage in basalt, and a technical approach to barrier design and material selection is proposed. A method for system validation and qualification is also included which considers performance criteria proposed by external agencies in conjunction with site-specific models and risk assessment to define acceptable levels of system performance

  8. A path method for finding energy barriers and minimum energy paths in complex micromagnetic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minimum energy paths and energy barriers are calculated for complex micromagnetic systems. The method is based on the nudged elastic band method and uses finite-element techniques to represent granular structures. The method was found to be robust and fast for both simple test problems as well as for large systems such as patterned granular media. The method is used to estimate the energy barriers in CoCr-based perpendicular recording media

  9. Road marking features extraction using the VIAPIX® system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaddah, W.; Ouerhani, Y.; Alfalou, A.; Desthieux, M.; Brosseau, C.; Gutierrez, C.

    2016-07-01

    Precise extraction of road marking features is a critical task for autonomous urban driving, augmented driver assistance, and robotics technologies. In this study, we consider an autonomous system allowing us lane detection for marked urban roads and analysis of their features. The task is to relate the georeferencing of road markings from images obtained using the VIAPIX® system. Based on inverse perspective mapping and color segmentation to detect all white objects existing on this road, the present algorithm enables us to examine these images automatically and rapidly and also to get information on road marks, their surface conditions, and their georeferencing. This algorithm allows detecting all road markings and identifying some of them by making use of a phase-only correlation filter (POF). We illustrate this algorithm and its robustness by applying it to a variety of relevant scenarios.

  10. Iris Recognition System Based on Feature Level Fusion

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. S. R. Ganorkar; A. P. Ligade

    2013-01-01

    Multibiometric systems utilize the evidence presented by multiple biometric sources (e.g., face and fingerprint, multiple fingers of a single user, multiple matchers, etc.) in order to determine or verify the identity of an individual. Information from multiple sources can be consolidated in several distinct levels. But fusion of two different biometric traits are difficult due to (i) the feature sets of multiple modalities may be incompatible (e.g., minutiae set of fingerprints and eigen-coe...

  11. Features communikations media products and value system of teens

    OpenAIRE

    Гречаник, М. І.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the genesis of the features of the relationship of media products and values as a teenager in the light of current trends in contemporary global information society, found that media products can influence the formation and development of personal values yk adolescence, due to physiological characteristics age. Media products meets the needs of adolescents and penetrates the subconscious, thus affecting the value system, which can lead to deformation of values as a teenager fal...

  12. Design features of an automated entry control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Features of an entry control system designed to automatically control access to nuclear facilities is described. Control independent of variable human factors is stressed, but security force action is required for assessment and response as a result of an alarm. A design based on a distributed processing capability is utilized. Flexibility and generality are emphasized in an effort to maximize applicability to the entry-control problem faced by nuclear facilities upgrading security as a result of the Safeguards Program

  13. PCA Fault Feature Extraction in Complex Electric Power Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG, J.

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Electric power system is one of the most complex artificial systems in the world. The complexity is determined by its characteristics about constitution, configuration, operation, organization, etc. The fault in electric power system cannot be completely avoided. When electric power system operates from normal state to failure or abnormal, its electric quantities (current, voltage and angles, etc. may change significantly. Our researches indicate that the variable with the biggest coefficient in principal component usually corresponds to the fault. Therefore, utilizing real-time measurements of phasor measurement unit, based on principal components analysis technology, we have extracted successfully the distinct features of fault component. Of course, because of the complexity of different types of faults in electric power system, there still exists enormous problems need a close and intensive study.

  14. CHARACTERIZATION OF BENTONITE FOR ENGINEERED BARRIER SYSTEMS IN RADIOACTIVE WASTE DISPOSAL SITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubravko Domitrović

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Engineered barrier systems are used in radioactive waste disposal sites in order to provide better protection of humans and the environment from the potential hazards associated with the radioactive waste disposal. The engineered barrier systems usually contain cement or clay (bentonite because of their isolation properties and long term performance. Quality control tests of clays are the same for all engineering barrier systems. Differences may arise in the required criteria to be met due for different application. Prescribed clay properties depend also on the type of host rocks. This article presents radioactive waste management based on best international practice. Standard quality control procedures for bentonite used as a sealing barrier in radioactive waste disposal sites are described as some personal experiences and results of the index tests (free swelling index, water adsorption capacity, plasticity limits and hydraulic permeability of bentonite (the paper is published in Croatian.

  15. HYBRID FEATURE SELECTION ALGORITHM FOR INTRUSION DETECTION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Reza Hasani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Network security is a serious global concern. Usefulness Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS are increasing incredibly in Information Security research using Soft computing techniques. In the previous researches having irrelevant and redundant features are recognized causes of increasing the processing speed of evaluating the known intrusive patterns. In addition, an efficient feature selection method eliminates dimension of data and reduce redundancy and ambiguity caused by none important attributes. Therefore, feature selection methods are well-known methods to overcome this problem. There are various approaches being utilized in intrusion detections, they are able to perform their method and relatively they are achieved with some improvements. This work is based on the enhancement of the highest Detection Rate (DR algorithm which is Linear Genetic Programming (LGP reducing the False Alarm Rate (FAR incorporates with Bees Algorithm. Finally, Support Vector Machine (SVM is one of the best candidate solutions to settle IDSs problems. In this study four sample dataset containing 4000 random records are excluded randomly from this dataset for training and testing purposes. Experimental results show that the LGP_BA method improves the accuracy and efficiency compared with the previous related research and the feature subcategory offered by LGP_BA gives a superior representation of data.

  16. Separated feature display system for eddy current inspection data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A system is described which organizes the display of analog data on X-Y recorders or storage oscilloscopes. As many as 64 discrete X-Y plots may be displayed in a regular, repeatable 8x8 matrix format. Developed to rapidly display and plot eddy current inspection data from heat exchanger tubes, it may be used on line, but is more efficiently used to transcribe inspection data stored on magnetic tape. The value of the separated feature display system has been extensively demonstrated in field inspections; it generates permanent visible characteristics of anomalies and permits one data analyst to keep up with two inspection teams. (author)

  17. Project Guarantee 1985. Final repository for high-level radioactive wastes: The system of safety barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Final disposal of radioactive waste involves preventing the waste from returning from the repository location into the biosphere by means of successively arranged containment measures known as safety barriers. In the present volume NGB 85-04 of the series of reports for Project 'Guarantee' 1985, the safety barrier system for the type C repository for high-level waste is described. The barrier parameters which are relevant for safety analysis are quantified and associated error limits and data scatter are given. The aim of the report is to give a summary documentation of the safety analysis input data and their scientific background. For secure containment of radioactive waste safety barriers are used which effectively limit the release of radioactive material from the repository (release barriers) and effectively retard the entry of the original radioactive material into the biosphere (time barriers). Safety barriers take the form of both technically constructed containment measures and the siting of the repository in suitable geological formations. The technical safety barrier system in the case of high-level waste comprises: the waste solidification matrix (borosilicate glass), massive steel canisters, encasement of the waste canisters, encasement of the waste canisters in highly compacted bentonite, sealing of vacant storage space and access routes on repository closure. The natural geological safety barriers - the host rock and overlying formations provide sufficiently long deep groundwater flow times from the repository location to the earth's surface and for additional lengthening of radionuclide migration times by means of various chemical and physical retardation mechanisms. The stability of the geological formations is so great that hydrogeological system is protected for a sufficient length of time from deterioration caused, in particular, by erosion. Observations in the final section of the report indicate that input data for the type C repository safety

  18. A Bayesian network approach to predicting nest presence of thefederally-threatened piping plover (Charadrius melodus)using barrier island features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gieder, Katherina D.; Karpanty, Sarah M.; Frasera, James D.; Catlin, Daniel H.; Gutierrez, Benjamin T.; Plant, Nathaniel G.; Turecek, Aaron M.; Thieler, E. Robert

    2014-01-01

    Sea-level rise and human development pose significant threats to shorebirds, particularly for species that utilize barrier island habitat. The piping plover (Charadrius melodus) is a federally-listed shorebird that nests on barrier islands and rapidly responds to changes in its physical environment, making it an excellent species with which to model how shorebird species may respond to habitat change related to sea-level rise and human development. The uncertainty and complexity in predicting sea-level rise, the responses of barrier island habitats to sea-level rise, and the responses of species to sea-level rise and human development necessitate a modelling approach that can link species to the physical habitat features that will be altered by changes in sea level and human development. We used a Bayesian network framework to develop a model that links piping plover nest presence to the physical features of their nesting habitat on a barrier island that is impacted by sea-level rise and human development, using three years of data (1999, 2002, and 2008) from Assateague Island National Seashore in Maryland. Our model performance results showed that we were able to successfully predict nest presence given a wide range of physical conditions within the model’s dataset. We found that model predictions were more successful when the range of physical conditions included in model development was varied rather than when those physical conditions were narrow. We also found that all model predictions had fewer false negatives (nests predicted to be absent when they were actually present in the dataset) than false positives (nests predicted to be present when they were actually absent in the dataset), indicating that our model correctly predicted nest presence better than nest absence. These results indicated that our approach of using a Bayesian network to link specific physical features to nest presence will be useful for modelling impacts of sea-level rise- or human

  19. Systemic connective tissue features in women with fibromuscular dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Sarah; Kim, Esther Sh; Brinza, Ellen; Moran, Rocio; Fendrikova-Mahlay, Natalia; Wolski, Kathy; Gornik, Heather L

    2015-10-01

    Fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) is a non-atherosclerotic disease associated with hypertension, headache, dissection, stroke, and aneurysm. The etiology is unknown but hypothesized to involve genetic and environmental components. Previous studies suggest a possible overlap of FMD with other connective tissue diseases that present with dissections and aneurysms. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of connective tissue physical features in FMD. A total of 142 FMD patients were consecutively enrolled at a single referral center (97.9% female, 92.1% of whom had multifocal FMD). Data are reported for 139 female patients. Moderately severe myopia (29.1%), high palate (33.1%), dental crowding (29.7%), and early-onset arthritis (15.6%) were prevalent features. Classic connective features such as hypertelorism, cleft palate, and hypermobility were uncommon. The frequency of systemic connective tissue features was compared between FMD patients with a high vascular risk profile (having had ⩾1 dissection and/or ⩾2 aneurysms) and those with a standard vascular risk profile. A history of spontaneous pneumothorax (5.9% high risk vs 0% standard risk) and atrophic scarring (17.6% high risk vs 6.8% standard risk) were significantly more prevalent in the high risk group, p<0.05. High palate was observed in 43.1% of the high risk group versus 27.3% in the standard risk group, p=0.055. In conclusion, in a cohort of women with FMD, there was a prevalence of moderately severe myopia, high palate, dental crowding, and early-onset osteoarthritis. However, a characteristic phenotype was not discovered. Several connective tissue features such as high palate and pneumothorax were more prominent among FMD patients with a high vascular risk profile. PMID:26156071

  20. Response of a thermal barrier system to acoustic excitation in a gas turbine nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A gas turbine located within a High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) induces high acoustic sound pressure levels into the primary coolant (helium). This acoustic loading induces high cycle fatigue stresses which may control the design of the thermal barrier system. This study examines the dynamic response of a thermal barrier configuration consisting of a fibrous insulation compressed against the reactor vessel by a coverplate which is held in position by a central attachment fixture. The results of dynamic vibration analyses indicate the effect of the plate size and curvature and the attachment size on the response of the thermal barrier

  1. Prediction of atmospheric pressure glow discharge in dielectric-barrier system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Xiaoxi; He, Feng; Ouyang, Jiting

    2010-06-01

    A one-dimensional fluid model was used to investigate the breakdown mechanism and discharge mode in dielectric-barrier system. The results show that the dielectric barrier discharge mode depends strongly on the gas property (i.e., the electron multiplication). The atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier glow discharge could only be achieved in a gas (e.g., noble gas) in which the first Townsend ionization coefficient is sufficiently small and the electron multiplication does not rise up rapidly with the electric field, while could not be sustained in the gas (e.g., N2 and O2) in which the electron multiplication is sensitive to the field.

  2. Progress of the AVNG System - Attribute Verification System with Information Barriers for Mass Isotopics Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An attribute verification system (AVNG) with information barriers for mass and isotopics measurements has been designed and its fabrication is nearly completed. The AVNG is being built by scientists at the Russian Federal Nuclear Center-VNIIEF, with support of Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Such a system could be used to verify the presence of several unclassified attributes of classified material with no classified information release. The system is comprised of a neutron multiplicity counter and gamma-spectrometry system based on a high purity germanium gamma detector (nominal relative efficiency @ 1332 keV 50%) and digital gamma-ray spectrometer DSPECPLUS. The neutron multiplicity counter is a three ring counter with 164 3He tubes. The system was designed to measure prototype containers 491 mm in diameter and 503 mm high. This paper provides a brief history of the project and documents the progress of this effort with drawings and photographs.

  3. PROGRESS OF THE AVNG SYSTEM - ATTRIBUTE VERIFICATION SYSTEM WITH INFORMATION BARRIERS FOR MASS AND ISOTOPICS MEASUREMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An attribute verification system (AVNG) with information barriers for mass and isotopics measurements has been designed and its fabrication is nearly completed. The AVNG is being built by scientists at the Russian Federal Nuclear Center-VNIIEF, with support of Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Such a system could be used to verify the presence of several unclassified attributes of classified material with no classified information release. The system is comprised of a neutron multiplicity counter and gamma-spectrometry system based on a high purity germanium gamma detector (nominal relative efficiency (at) 1332 keV 50%) and digital gamma-ray spectrometer DSPECPLUS. The neutron multiplicity counter is a three ring counter with 164 3He tubes. The system was designed to measure prototype containers 491 mm in diameter and 503 mm high. This paper provides a brief history of the project and documents the progress of this effort with drawings and photographs

  4. Engineered Barrier Systems (EBS) in the safety case: the role of modelling workshop proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the deep disposal of radioactive waste, the presence of several barriers serving complementary safety functions enhances confidence that the waste will be isolated and contained to protect human health and the environment. The barriers include the natural geological barrier and the engineered barrier system (EBS). The EBS itself may comprise a variety of sub-systems or components, such as the waste form, container, buffer, backfill, seals and plugs. The Integration Group for the Safety Case (IGSC) of the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) is co-sponsoring a series of workshops with the European Commission to develop greater understanding of how to achieve the necessary integration for the successful design, testing, modelling and performance assessment of engineered barrier systems (EBS) for deep underground disposal of radioactive waste. These proceedings include the main findings and presented papers from the third NEA-EC workshop on engineered barrier systems, which focused on the role of EBS modelling in the safety case for deep disposal. Some national programmes are placing increased emphasis on EBS and, as implementation of underground repositories approaches, more realistic assessments of EBS performance are needed. The workshop examined the modelling tools currently available and identified complex areas of assessment in which further dialogue is needed. (author)

  5. Feature-based imaging system: The Peach Bottom field trials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feature-based systems that combine imaging and signal analysis capabilities may be useful for nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of plant components. This report describes the field evaluation of an integrated system at a plant site during a scheduled outage for pipe weld examination to discriminate intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGCSS) from benign, geometrical reflectors. The integrated system consisted of a personal computer (PC)-based system capable of detailed analysis of ultrasonic signal data and an in-service inspection (ISI) imaging system used in many commercial pipe examinations for IGSCC. The integrated system was trained to discriminate automatically IGSCC from other reflectors using EPRI NDE Center's inventory of field-removed samples. The methods and results of this training are described. Several classifiers were synthesized using mathematical features derived from signals that were collected to simulate field conditions. Data collection procedures were developed that required minimal operator training. Field data were collected and analyzed before and after pipe decontamination prior to pipe replacement. Automatic decision maps were generated for easier interpretation and comparison. The field trial was conducted in October 1987--January 1988. Select pipe specimens were decontaminated and shipped to a contractor's facility for detailed metallurgical and dye penetrant analysis. A comparison between reflector calls from the ultrasonic data and penetrant test results are provided in the final section. As a basis for comparison, the performance of the automated system was compared with manual calls. The automated technique results were better than manual; although both were well below acceptable standards as defined for IGSCC qualification. 2 refs., 174 figs., 10 tabs

  6. Protective barrier development: Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Protective barrier and warning marker systems are being developed to isolate wastes disposed of near the earth's surface at the Hanford Site. The barrier is designed to function in an arid to semiarid climate, to limit infiltration and percolation of water through the waste zone to near-zero, to be maintenance free, and to last up to 10,000 yr. Natural materials (e.g., fine soil, sand, gravel, riprap, clay, asphalt) have been selected to optimize barrier performance and longevity and to create an integrated structure with redundant features. These materials isolate wastes by limiting water drainage; reducing the likelihood of plant, animal, and human intrusion; controlling emission of noxious gases; and minimizing erosion. Westinghouse Hanford Company and Pacific Northwest Laboratory efforts to assess the performance of various barrier and marker designs will be discussed

  7. Formal Modeling and Verification of Interlocking Systems Featuring Sequential Release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vu, Linh Hong; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Peleska, Jan

    In this paper, we present a method and an associated tool suite for formal verification of the new ETCS level 2 based Danish railway interlocking systems. We have made a generic and reconfigurable model of the system behavior and generic high-level safety properties. This model accommodates...... sequential release – a feature in the new Danish interlocking systems. The generic model and safety properties can be instantiated with interlocking configuration data, resulting in a concrete model in the form of a Kripke structure, and in high-level safety properties expressed as state invariants. Using...... SMT based bounded model checking (BMC) and inductive reasoning, we are able to verify the properties for model instances corresponding to railway networks of industrial size. Experiments also show that BMC is efficient for finding bugs in the railway interlocking designs....

  8. Formal Modeling and Verification of Interlocking Systems Featuring Sequential Release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vu, Linh Hong; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Peleska, Jan

    In this paper, we present a method and an associated tool suite for formal verification of the new ETCS level 2 based Danish railway interlocking systems. We have made a generic and reconfigurable model of the system behavior and generic high-level safety properties. This model accommodates...... sequential release - a feature in the new Danish interlocking systems. The generic model and safety properties can be instantiated with interlocking configuration data, resulting in a concrete model in the form of a Kripke structure, and in high-level safety properties expressed as state invariants. Using...... SMT based bounded model checking (BMC) and inductive reasoning, we are able to verify the properties for model instances corresponding to railway networks of industrial size. Experiments also show that BMC is efficient for finding bugs in the railway interlocking designs....

  9. Noncontacting Laser Inspection System for Dimensional Profiling of Space Application Thermal Barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Shawn C.

    2011-01-01

    A noncontacting, two-dimensional (2-D) laser inspection system has been designed and implemented to dimensionally profile thermal barriers being developed for space vehicle applications. In a vehicle as-installed state, thermal barriers are commonly compressed between load sensitive thermal protection system (TPS) panels to prevent hot gas ingestion through the panel interface during flight. Loads required to compress the thermal barriers are functions of their construction, as well as their dimensional characteristics relative to the gaps in which they are installed. Excessive loads during a mission could damage surrounding TPS panels and have catastrophic consequences. As such, accurate dimensional profiling of thermal barriers prior to use is important. Due to the compliant nature of the thermal barriers, traditional contact measurement techniques (e.g., calipers and micrometers) are subjective and introduce significant error and variability into collected dimensional data. Implementation of a laser inspection system significantly enhanced the method by which thermal barriers are dimensionally profiled, and improved the accuracy and repeatability of collected data. A statistical design of experiments study comparing laser inspection and manual caliper measurement techniques verified these findings.

  10. Microscopic-macroscopic features in fusion reactions involving light systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental results obtained at Argonne and elsewhere for the fusion cross-section energy dependence for light to medium weight systems are presented. The most notable features in these data are the observation of (1) oscillatory structure in the fusion cross section excitation function for those systems involving the most tightly bound nuclei in the 1p shell and (2) sudden increases in the maximum fusion cross section for systems which involved nuclei differing only by one or two nucleons. Comparisons of the experimental cross-section behaviors in both the low-energy and high-energy regions with macroscopic model predictions show that significant discrepancies exist. The possible importance of the structure of the projectile and target on this cross-section behavior is discussed. From these data it appears that there is ample evidence that the detailed structure of the projectile and target play an important role in the fusion process. These results indicate that more high-quality data sensitive to these ''microscopic'' features, and theoretical calculations which attempt to include the detailed structure of the interacting ions are needed for progress in understanding these phenomena

  11. Main features of ECR ion source vacuum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a paper giving a view on the main features of vacuum systems of ECR (Electron Cyclotron Resonance) ion sources. It is still very interesting to use such a source as a possible source of high charge state ions at upgrading present heavy particle accelerators. Scaling relationships are given as a basis for understanding the vacuum configurations of ECR ion sources. The relevance of gas desorption effects to vacuum equilibrium and stability is also pointed out. Ion induced pressure instability, a model of hydrogen diffusion and influence of neutral gases on the vacuum stability of ECR ion sources are discussed. 23 refs.; 7 figs.; 3 tabs

  12. Ru/WCoCN as a seedless Cu barrier system for advanced Cu metallization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The properties of Ru(5 nm)/WCoCN(5 nm) stacked layers as a seedless Cu barrier system has been investigated. Its barrier properties compared to single 10 nm Ru film were investigated by sheet resistances, X-ray diffraction patterns, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectrometry spot analysis, line scans, and leakage currents. Thermal stability of the Ru(5 nm)/WCoCN(5 nm) improved by over 100 deg. C than that of Ru(10 nm) barrier. The results show that Ru(5 nm)/WCoCN(5 nm) can effectively block Cu diffusion up to 600 deg. C for 30 min. The Ru(5 nm)/WCoCN(5 nm) bilayer is a great Cu barrier candidate for seedless Cu interconnects.

  13. In-situ defect detection systems for R2R flexible PV barrier films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, F.; Muhamedsalih, H.; Tang, D.; Elrawemi, M.; Blunt, L.; Jiang, X.; Edge, S.; Bird, D.; Hollis, P.

    2015-08-01

    Film processing procedures by means of Roll-to-Roll (R2R) for barrier coatings can often result in PV barrier films being manufactured with significant quantities of defects, which results in lower efficiency and a short life span. In order to improve the process yield and product efficiency, it is desirable to develop an inspection system that can detect transparent barrier film defects in the production line during film processing. Off-line detection of defects in transparent PV barrier films is difficult and time consuming. Consequently, implementing an accurate in-situ defects inspection system in the production environment is even more challenging, since the requirements on positioning, fast measurement, long term stability and robustness against environmental disturbance are demanding. This paper reports on the development and deployment of two in-situ PV barrier films defect detection systems, one based on wavelength scanning interferometry (WSI) and the other on White Light Channeled Spectral Interferometry (WLCSI), and the integration into an R2R film processing line at the Centre for Process Innovation (CPI). The paper outlines the environmental vibration strategy for both systems, and the developed auto-focusing methodology for WSI. The systems have been tested and characterised and initial results compared to laboratory-based instrumentation are presented.

  14. Effect of vadose zone on the steady-state leakage rates from landfill barrier systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leakage rates are evaluated for a landfill barrier system having a compacted clay liner (CCL) underlain by a vadose zone of variable thickness. A numerical unsaturated flow model SEEP/W is used to simulate the moisture flow regime and steady-state leakage rates for the cases of unsaturated zones with different soil types and thicknesses. The results of the simulations demonstrate that harmonic mean hydraulic conductivity of coarse textured vadose zones is 3-4 orders of magnitude less than saturated hydraulic conductivity; whereas, the difference is only one order of magnitude for fine textured vadose zones. For both coarse and fine textured vadose zones, the effective hydraulic conductivity of the barrier system and the leakage rate to an underlying aquifer increases with increasing thickness of the vadose zone and ultimately reaches an asymptotic value for a coarse textured vadose zone thickness of about 10 m and a fine textured vadose zone thickness of about 5 m. Therefore, the fine and coarse textured vadose zones thicker than about 5 m and 10 m, respectively, act as an effective part of the barrier systems examined. Although the thickness of vadose zone affects the effective hydraulic conductivity of the overall barrier system, the results demonstrated that the hydraulic conductivity of the CCL is the dominant factor controlling the steady-state leakage rates through barrier systems having single low permeability clay layers

  15. Features of acid-saline systems of Southern Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The discovery of layered, SO4-rich sediments on the Meridiani Planum on Mars has focused attention on understanding the formation of acid-saline lakes. Many salt lakes have formed in southern Australia where regional groundwaters are characterized by acidity and high salinity and show features that might be expected in the Meridiani sediments. Many (but not all) of the acid-saline Australian groundwaters are found where underlying Tertiary sediments are sulfide-rich. When waters from the formations come to the surface or interact with oxidised meteoric water, acid groundwaters result. In this paper examples of such waters around Lake Tyrrell, Victoria, and Lake Dey-Dey, South Australia, are reviewed. The acid-saline groundwaters typically have dissolved solids of 30-60 g/L and pH commonly 4 and MgSO4) or differential separation of elements with differing solubility (K, Na, Ti, Cr). Thus, it is considered unlikely that groundwaters or evaporative salt-lake systems, as found on earth, were involved. Instead, these features point to a water-poor system with local alteration and very little mobilization of elements

  16. USNRC regulatory guidance for engineered safety feature air cleaning systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The need for clear, technically appropriate, and easily implementable guidance for the design, testing, and maintenance of nuclear air cleaning systems has long been recognized. Numerous industry consensus standards have been issued and revised over the last 30 years. Guidance has also been published by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission in the form of regulations, regulatory guides, standard review plans, NUREG documents, and information notices. This paper will summarize the latest revisions to these documents and emphasize Regulatory Guide 1.52, Design, Testing, and Maintenance Criteria for Post-Accident Engineered-Safety-Feature Atmosphere Cleanup System Air Filtration and Adsorption Units of Light-Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Plants, which was last revised in 1978. The USNRC has undertaken a project to revise this regulatory guide, and the status of that revision is highlighted

  17. FEATURES, EVENTS, AND PROCESSES: SYSTEM-LEVEL AND CRITICALITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to identify and document the screening analyses for the features, events, and processes (FEPs) that do not easily fit into the existing Process Model Report (PMR) structure. These FEPs include the 3 1 FEPs designated as System-Level Primary FEPs and the 22 FEPs designated as Criticality Primary FEPs. A list of these FEPs is provided in Section 1.1. This AMR (AN-WIS-MD-000019) documents the Screening Decision and Regulatory Basis, Screening Argument, and Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) Disposition for each of the subject Primary FEPs. This AMR provides screening information and decisions for the TSPA-SR report and provides the same information for incorporation into a project-specific FEPs database. This AMR may also assist reviewers during the licensing-review process

  18. FEATURES, EVENTS, AND PROCESSES: SYSTEM-LEVEL AND CRITICALITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.L. McGregor

    2000-12-20

    The primary purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to identify and document the screening analyses for the features, events, and processes (FEPs) that do not easily fit into the existing Process Model Report (PMR) structure. These FEPs include the 3 1 FEPs designated as System-Level Primary FEPs and the 22 FEPs designated as Criticality Primary FEPs. A list of these FEPs is provided in Section 1.1. This AMR (AN-WIS-MD-000019) documents the Screening Decision and Regulatory Basis, Screening Argument, and Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) Disposition for each of the subject Primary FEPs. This AMR provides screening information and decisions for the TSPA-SR report and provides the same information for incorporation into a project-specific FEPs database. This AMR may also assist reviewers during the licensing-review process.

  19. Near-barrier fusion of proton- and neutron-halo systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, E. F.

    2016-07-01

    It is shown that the behaviour of the fusion excitation functions for proton-halo and neutron-halo systems presents important differences, especially in the energy region slightly above the barrier. Measurements for 6He, 11Li and 11Be projectiles are discussed to exemplify the behaviour of neutron-halo systems, while experiments with 8B beams illustrate the situation for proton-halo nuclei. With respect to a standard benchmark, neutron- (proton-) halo systems show a fusion suppression (enhancement) above the barrier.

  20. Pathways and Hydrography in the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System Part 1: Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, L.; Johns, E. M.; Smith, R. H.; Lamkin, J. T.; Largier, J. L.

    2015-10-01

    Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) measurements and surface drifters released from two oceanographic cruises conducted during March 2006 and January/February 2007 are used to investigate the circulation off the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System (MBRS). We show that the MBRS circulation can be divided into two distinct regimes, a northern region dominated by the strong, northward-flowing Yucatan Current, and a southern region with weaker southward coastal currents and the presence of the Honduras Gyre. The latitude of impingement of the Cayman Current onto the coastline varies with time, and creates a third region, which acts as a boundary between the northern and southern circulation regimes. This circulation pattern yields two zones in terms of dispersal, with planktonic propagules in the northern region being rapidly exported to the north, whereas plankton in the southern and impingement regions may be retained locally or regionally. The latitude of the impingement region shifts interannually and intra-annually up to 3° in latitude. Sub-mesoscale features are observed in association with topography, e.g., flow bifurcation around Cozumel Island, flow wake north of Chinchorro Bank and separation of flow from the coast just north of Bahia de la Ascencion. This third feature is evident as cyclonic recirculation in coastal waters, which we call the Ascencion-Cozumel Coastal Eddy. An understanding of the implications of these different circulation regimes on water mass distributions, population connectivity, and the fate of land-based pollutants in the MBRS is critically important to better inform science-based resource management and conservation plans for the MBRS coral reefs.

  1. Impact of vertical barriers on performance of pump-and-treat systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although aquifer remediation by Pump-and-treat (PAT) is widely practiced, it is generally implemented as an effective means of plume containment, rather than as an efficient means of contaminant mass removal. The use of slurry cutoff walls has been recognized as a means of improving the performance of PAT with respect to hydraulic control. As part of a study on the use of decision analysis in the design of aquifer remediation systems, the economic tradeoffs between capital costs and risk reduction were compared for several alternative PAT strategies. This work included an evaluation of the use of vertical barriers as components of PAT systems, using numerical experiments to examine the impacts of vertical barriers on PAT reliability. The results indicated that the use of vertical barriers in conjunction with PAT can significantly improve the simulated system performance, but that the magnitude of the predicted enhancement and cost-effectiveness of the barrier system are dependent on site characteristics, barrier placement, and modeling assumptions

  2. Study of fusion barrier distribution from quasielastic scattering for 6,7Li + 197Au systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earlier we have reported breakup and fusion excitation function measurements in 6,7Li + 197Au systems. In this paper we present the fusion barrier distribution from QEL at backward angles for the same systems, namely, 6,7Li + 197Au

  3. Monitoring and analyzing features of electrical power quality system performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genci Sharko

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Power quality is a set of boundaries that allows electrical systems to function in their intended manner without significant loss of performance or life. The term is used to describe electric power that drives an electrical load and the load's ability to function properly with that electric power. Without the proper quality of the power, an electrical device may malfunction, fail prematurely or not operate at all. There are many reasons why the electric power can be of poor quality and many more causes of such poor quality power. Power quality of power systems, which affects all connected electrical and electronic equipment, is a measure of deviations in voltages, currents, frequency, temperatures, winding forces and torques of particular supply systems and their components. In recent years, a considerable increase in nonlinear loads has been experienced; in particular distributed loads, such as computers, monitors and lighting, and distributed sources. The aim of this paper is to display a way of monitoring and analyzing features of electrical power quality system. As a monitoring example is taken output from power transformer rated at 320 kVA, part of distribution grid of Durres City in Albania.

  4. FEATURES OF THE PROCESS MODEL FOR PENITENTIARY EDUCATION SYSTEM DIVERSIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neile Kayumovna Schepkina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article covers features of the process model for penitentiary education system diversification. Issues of prison inmate education are of contemporary relevance over the past 30 years since criminal-executive system has undergone a number of changes due to changes and amendments to criminal laws and rules of proceedings, including those affected by international standards, European Prison Rules ensuring the rights of imprisoned persons to education. Russian criminal-executive, court supervision and correctional system adopted to have been implemented till 2020 provides qualitative changes in approaches related to practices of serving sentences and measures to prevent recidivism.Creating a set of incentives for social adaptation of a special group of inmates, while serving their sentences and after it, is the basic category in the range of initiatives that currently have been considered in terms of developing penitentiary system. One of the most significant ones among them is the incentive to take advantage of the educational opportunities available to them in prison.

  5. Fault Feature Analysis of a Cracked Gear Coupled Rotor System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Ma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the misalignment of gear root circle and base circle and accurate transition curve, an improved mesh stiffness model for healthy gear is proposed, and it is validated by comparison with the finite element method. On the basis of the improved method, a mesh stiffness model for a cracked gear pair is built. Then a finite element model of a cracked gear coupled rotor system in a one-stage reduction gear box is established. The effects of crack depth, width, initial position, and crack propagation direction on gear mesh stiffness, fault features in time domain and frequency domain, and statistical indicators are investigated. Moreover, fault features are also validated by experiment. The results show that the improved mesh stiffness model is more accurate than the traditional mesh stiffness model. When the tooth root crack appears, distinct impulses are found in time domain vibration responses, and sidebands appear in frequency domain. Amplitudes of all the statistical indicators ascend gradually with the growth of crack depth and width, decrease with the increasing crack initial position angle, and firstly increase and then decrease with the growth of propagation direction angle.

  6. Barrier and system performances within a safety case: their functioning and evolution with time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following six questions were used as the basis for the discussions in a Working Group: - What is the role of each barrier as a function of time or in the different time frames? What is its contribution to the overall system performance or safety as a function of time? - Which are the main uncertainties on the performance of barriers in the timescales? To what extent should we enhance the robustness of barriers because of the uncertainties of some component behaviour with time? - What is the requested or required performance versus the expected realistic or conservative behaviour with time? How are these safety margins used as arguments in a safety case? - What is the issue associated with the geosphere stability for different geological systems? - How are barriers and system performances, as a function of time, evaluated (presented and communicated) in a safety case? - What kind of measures are used for siting, designing and optimising robust barriers corresponding to situations that can vary with time? Are human actions considered to be relevant? (authors)

  7. Preview control of vehicle suspension system featuring MR shock absorber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents control performance evaluation of optimal preview control algorithm for vehicle suspension featuring MR shock absorber. The optimal preview control algorithm has several advantages such as high control performance over that which is best for a non-preview system. In order to achieve this goal, a commercial MR shock absorber, Delphi MganerideTM, which is applicable to high class passenger vehicle, is adopted and its field-dependent damping force and dynamic responses are experimentally evaluated. Then the governing equation of motion for the full-vehicle model is established and integrated with the MR shock absorber. Subsequently, optimal controller with preview control algorithm is formulated and implemented for vibration suppression of the car body. Control performance of the preview controller is evaluated for the full-vehicle model under random road condition. In addition, the control performances depending on preview distances are evaluated.

  8. Central nervous system lymphoma: magnetic resonance imaging features at presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Schwingel

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This paper aimed at studying presentations of the central nervous system (CNS lymphoma using structural images obtained by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. METHODS: The MRI features at presentation of 15 patients diagnosed with CNS lymphoma in a university hospital, between January 1999 and March 2011, were analyzed by frequency and cross tabulation. RESULTS: All patients had supratentorial lesions; and four had infra- and supratentorial lesions. The signal intensity on T1 and T2 weighted images was predominantly hypo- or isointense. In the T2 weighted images, single lesions were associated with a hypointense signal component. Six patients presented necrosis, all of them showed perilesional abnormal white matter, nine had meningeal involvement, and five had subependymal spread. Subependymal spread and meningeal involvement tended to occur in younger patients. CONCLUSION: Presentations of lymphoma are very pleomorphic, but some of them should point to this diagnostic possibility.

  9. A study on safety assessment methodology of radioactive waste disposal facility with multiple engineered barrier system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A safety assessment methodology especially for radioactive waste disposal facility with multiple engineered barrier system is proposed in this paper. This proposed method is based on the concept of migration rate which had been used for the safety assessment for existing radioactive waste disposal facilities in Japan. The advantages of this proposed methodology are to calculate nuclides out fluxes from Engineered Barrier System (EBS) considering the effect of leaching rates of wastes without using complex numerical simulation, and to provide migration rates composed of three barrier performance indicators: retardation, impermeability and diffusivity. Additionally, several sensitivity analyses for radionuclides mass flux from a facility are carried out using this method and the phase diagrams of migration rate, leaching rate and maximum out flux from a facility are shown in this paper. (author)

  10. Method of in situ retrieval of contaminants or other substances using a barrier system and leaching solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickelson, Reva A.; Walsh, Stephanie; Richardson, John G.; Dick, John R.; Sloan, Paul A.

    2006-12-26

    Processes and methods relating to treating contaminants and collecting desired substances from a zone of interest using subterranean collection and containment barriers. Tubular casings having interlock structures are used to create subterranean barriers for containing and treating buried waste and its effluents. The subterranean barrier includes an effluent collection system. Treatment solutions provided to the zone of interest pass therethrough and are collected by the barrier and treated or recovered, allowing on-site remediation. Barrier components may be used to in the treatment by collecting or removing contaminants or other materials from the zone of interest.

  11. Drug Delivery Systems, CNS Protection, and the Blood Brain Barrier

    OpenAIRE

    Ravi Kant Upadhyay

    2014-01-01

    Present review highlights various drug delivery systems used for delivery of pharmaceutical agents mainly antibiotics, antineoplastic agents, neuropeptides, and other therapeutic substances through the endothelial capillaries (BBB) for CNS therapeutics. In addition, the use of ultrasound in delivery of therapeutic agents/biomolecules such as proline rich peptides, prodrugs, radiopharmaceuticals, proteins, immunoglobulins, and chimeric peptides to the target sites in deep tissue locations insi...

  12. Omnidirectional Thermal Imaging Surveillance System Featuring Trespasser and Faint Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong Wai Kit, Zeh-Yang Chew, Hong-Liang Lim, Chu-Kiong Loo, Way-Soong Lim

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposed an efficient omnidirectional thermal imaging surveillancesystem featuring trespasser and faint detection. In this thermal imaging system,the omnidirectional scenes in a monitored site such as old folks home, nursinghome, hospital etc. are first captured using a thermal camera attached to acustom made hyperbolic IR (infrared radiation reflected mirror. The capturedscenes to be monitored with trespasser or faint detection are then fed into alaptop computer for image processing and alarm purposes. Log-polar mapping isproposed to map the captured omnidirectional thermal image into panoramicimage, hence providing the observer or image processing tools a complete wideangle of view. Two effective human behavioral detection algorithms namely:Human head detection algorithm and home alone faint detection algorithm arealso designed for monitored the trespasser or fainted people detection. Theobserved significances of this new proposed omnidirectional thermal imagingsystem include: it can cover a wide angle of view (360º omnidirectional, usingminimum hardware, low cost and the output thermal images are with higher datacompression. Experimental results show that the proposed thermal imaging surveillance system achieves high accuracy in detecting trespasser andmonitoring faint detection for health care purpose.

  13. The Role of Backbarrier Filling in the Evolution of a Barrier Island System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, C. J.; Fitzgerald, D. M.; Stone, B. D.; Carruthers, E.; Gontz, A. M.

    2009-12-01

    Barrier islands develop through a variety of processes, including spit accretion, barrier elongation, breaching and inlet filling. New geophysical and sedimentological data collected along a barrier system in the western Gulf of Maine provide a means of documenting a unique process of barrier evolution involving backbarrier infilling and ensuing closure of an ancient tidal inlet. Plum Island is located along a mixed-energy, tide-dominated coastline bounded by estuaries and backed by an extensive system of salt marsh and tidal creeks. Following the regional glacioisostatic lowstand of approximately -45 m at 12 ka, the Holocene transgression reworked a late Pleistocene regressive braid plain and lowstand delta. Sediments driven onshore during the transgression and derived from the Merrimack River fed the developing barrier system. Radiocarbon dates suggests that backbarrier sands began accumulating at the modern site of Plum Island at approximately 9 ka. At this time, the barrier was composed of several discrete islands separated by inlets and situated offshore of modern Plum Island. Shallow seismic and ground penetrating radar (GPR) data confirm the existence of lower stand riverine/tidal channels extending onto the shallow shelf. Coincident with the slowing of relative sea level rise, Plum Island began to form in its current location approximately 5.5 ka, establishing its modern form by about 2.5 ka. Sediment cores and GPR data demonstrate that the barrier lithosome is 5 to 15 m thick and evolved through initial aggradation followed by southerly spit accretion and progradation. The discovery of a multiple inlet channel system reoccupying the area carved by the lowstand Parker River indicates that central Plum Island underwent a complex developmental history. Cores through the inlet sequence consist of fine to medium sand with repetitive interbedded coarse sand units, marking high-energy depositional events associated with spit accretion and displacement of the

  14. Organizational, interface, and financial barriers to the commercial development of community energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schladale, R.; Ritschard, R.

    1979-12-01

    The scope of this analysis was limited to systems producing electricity - the output of a community energy system typically falling in the range 10 kW to 150 MW. The purpose of this study was to identify the barriers that groups and individuals will face when attempting to commercialize community energy systems. Three particular classes of barriers were investigated: those within the organization attempting the commercialization, those that arise from attempts to link the community system with an electric utility, and those that impede the flow of investment capital into community energy systems. In summary, three general observations regarding community energy systems may be distilled from this study. First, although many barriers exist to the commercialization of the systems, few if any appear unresolvable. Perhaps most challenginng will be the problem of expanding the use of cogeneration and municipal sold waste while at the same time maintaining or improving ambient air quality. Second, the financial subsidies required to make community systems competitive are not extraordinary. Indeed, with the exception of photovoltaics they should not amount to more than about 10% of capital cost of the new systems, and mass production may eliminate the need for subsidies altogether at some point in the future. Third, the administrative and regulatory procedures required to make community energy systems viable appear to be taking shape in a positive and timely fashion.

  15. Simplifying solute transport modelling of the geological multi-barrier disposal system

    OpenAIRE

    Poteri, Antti

    2013-01-01

    A simplified model was developed to represent radionuclide migration from a deep geological nuclear waste repository system to the biosphere. The modelled repository system is based on the concept of multiple nested transport barriers. The model can be used to assess migration and migration properties of single nuclides (no decay chains) through the repository system. Radionuclide transport processes included to the model are diffusion and sorption in the repository near-field and advection, ...

  16. 7 CFR 1955.56 - Real property located in Coastal Barrier Resources System (CBRS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) PROPERTY MANAGEMENT Management of Property § 1955.56 Real property located in Coastal Barrier Resources System (CBRS). (a... repair and would result in the expansion of any roads, structures or facilities. Water and waste...

  17. Underutilization of Mental Health Services among College Students: An Examination of System-Related Barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Carey N.; Wilcoxon, S. Allen

    2015-01-01

    Despite the documented benefits of counseling and mental health services on academic performance and degree attainment, only about 10% of psychologically distressed college students ever seek professional help. This investigation examined mental health care system-related barriers that might distinguish help seekers from nonhelp seekers among…

  18. An Activity Theory Approach to Analyze Barriers to a Virtual Management Information Systems (MIS) Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaradat, Suhair; Qablan, Ahmad; Barham, Areej

    2011-01-01

    This paper explains how the activity theory is used as a framework to analyze the barriers to a virtual Management Information Stream (MIS) Curriculum in Jordanian schools, from both the sociocultural and pedagogical perspectives. Taking the activity system as a unit of analysis, this study documents the processes by which activities shape and are…

  19. Today's Yucca mountain project and a new concept of multi-barrier system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper mainly deals with the current status of Yucca Mountain project and the progress in study on engineering barrier in Belgium and introduces the future plan for Yucca Mountain project, two reports on draft supplemental environmental impact statement, and the view of New York Sen. Hillary Clinton and Illinois Sen. Barack Obama during the 2008 president elections related to the building a nuclear waste repository in Nevada. In order to enhance the security of geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste, a new concept about multi-barrier system is given by Belgium and is concisely described here. (authors)

  20. Personal health systems - Opportunities and barriers for adoption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhonen, Ilkka; Mattila, Elina M; Vam Gils, Mark

    2010-01-01

    INCREASING prevalence of lifestyle-related health risks and chronic diseases, coupled with limited resources in the healthcare system, calls for citizen-centric health promotion and disease prevention measures as well as new care models for management of chronic diseases. As a future scenario emphasis of the health care should gradually shift from treating and managing of diseases to their prevention and early interventions. The risk of chronic diseases begins to rise and physical capacity begins to decline after the age of 30. Therefore, working-age citizens are an important target group for health promotion and early interventions. PMID:21096056

  1. Road Features Extraction Using Terrestrial Mobile Laser Scanning System

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Pankaj

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis, we present the experimental research and key contributions we have made in the field of road feature extraction from LiDAR data. We detail the development of three automated algorithms for the extraction of road features from terrestrial mobile LiDAR data. LiDAR data is a rich source of 3D geo-referenced information whose volume and scale have inhibited the development of automated algorithms. Automated feature extraction algorithms enable the wider geospatia...

  2. PILOT-SCALE EVALUATION OF ENGINEERED BARRIER SYSTEMS FOR THE YUCCA MOUNTAIN PROJECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes two quarter-scale experiments (1.4 m diameter) and associated numerical analyses on granular backfill engineered barrier systems in support of the Yucca Mountain Project for the potential repository. The two configurations include a sloped capillary barrier and a plain backfill. The tests involve application of dyed water as a constant line infiltration source along the top of the test set-up, monitoring water movement through the test, and measuring water exiting the experiments. A complete water balance estimate is made for each test, and observed water movement is compared with (1) detailed numerical analyses conducted using the TOUGH2 code for unsaturated flow in porous media and (2) posttest observations. The results of the testing and analyses show that for the injection rates and configuration applied, the capillary barrier design diverts a significant amount of all injected water and the TOUGH2 pretest predictions show qualitative and quantitative agreement with the experimental data

  3. Clinical and immunological features of retinal vasculitis in systemic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paović Jelena

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Vasculitis is a clinical, pathologic process characterized by inflammation and necrosis of blood vessel occurring anywhere in the body. The aim of the study was to present some clinical and immunologic features of retinal vasculitis in systemic diseases: systemic lupus erythematosus, multiple sclerosis, sarcoidosis, Behcet's diseases, and others. Methods. A total of 1 254 patients with uveitis were included in the study. The immunochemical diagnostic methods were used to determine the pathogenesis of ocular manifestations. Ocular manifestations were examined using biomicroscope, direct or indirect ophtalmoscopy. Results. Primary retinal vasculitis was diagnosed in 85/1254 (6.8% of total uveitis. In more than half of the cases of vasculitis (58.8%, both arteries and veins were involved in inflammatory process. Periphlebitis was diagnosed far more commonly (36.5% than periarteritis (4.7%. Retinal vasculitis associated with systemic lupus erythematosus was characterized by microinfarctions and the consequent foci of inflammatory cells or diseases of large arteries manifesting in vasospasm and occlusions. Cotton wool spots occurred in 38.3% and retinal hemorrhages in 34% of the cases. In this study periphlebitis of the retina was one of the less frequent ocular manifestations of multiple sclerosis. Comparing with the other changes of the retinal blood vessels, venous sheating occurred in 25.1% and occlusion and vein trombosis in 43.75% of the cases. Retinal vasculitis associated with chronic sarcoidosis occured in 37.5% of patients with sarcoidosis. The most frequent manifestation of ocular sarcoidosis was intermediary uveitis (43.75%. Anterior granulomatous uveitis occured in 37.5% of patients with sarcoidoses. Immune complexes occurred in 13/20 (65% of the patients. Antiretinal anti-S antibody in the serum occurred in 73% of the patients with retinal detachment as a complication of primary disease and in 25% those with vasculitis

  4. The EC/NEA engineered barrier systems project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents examples from various disposal programmes and discusses lessons that may be drawn relating to disposal system design and the use of underground tests. Many useful large-scale experiments have been conducted in underground laboratories that have allowed an assessment of the feasibility of methods for tunnel construction, waste package emplacement, buffer and backfill emplacement, tunnel seal construction, etc. In general, these tests have been successful and have shown that the necessary techniques for manufacturing and installing EBS components are feasible and available. In some cases, tests have shown that designs or techniques need to be adjusted, or have enabled identification of the factors to be taken into account in future optimisation studies. Further trials of some methods are still required, particularly at the repository or industrial scale. Further experiments are also likely to be required to increase understanding of the long-term behaviour of the EBS after installation. (author)

  5. Imaging features of central nervous system fungal infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jain Krishan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungal infections of the central nervous system (CNS are rare in the general population and are invariably secondary to primary focus elsewhere, usually in the lung or intestine. Except for people with longstanding diabetes, they are most frequently encountered in immunocompromised patients such as those with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome or after organ transplantation. Due to the lack of inflammatory response, neuroradiological findings are often nonspecific and are frequently mistaken for tuberculous meningitis, pyogenic abscess or brain tumor. Intracranial fungal infections are being identified more frequently due to the increased incidence of AIDS patients, better radiological investigations, more sensitive microbiological techniques and better critical care of moribund patients. Although almost any fungus may cause encephalitis, cryptococcal meningoencephalitis is most frequently seen, followed by aspergillosis and candidiasis. The biology, epidemiology and imaging features of the common fungal infections of the CNS will be reviewed. The radiographic appearance alone is often not specific, but the combination of the appropriate clinical setting along with computed tomography or magnetic resonance may help to suggest the correct diagnosis.

  6. Feature-based watermark localization in digital capture systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holub, Vojtech; Filler, Tomáš

    2014-02-01

    The "Internet of Things" is an appealing concept aiming to assign digital identity to both physical and digital everyday objects. One way of achieving this goal is to embed the identity in the object itself by using digital watermarking. In the case of printed physical objects, such as consumer packages, this identity can be later read from a digital image of the watermarked object taken by a camera. In many cases, the object might occupy only a small portion of the the image and an attempt to read the watermark payload from the whole image can lead to unnecessary processing. This paper proposes a statistical learning-based algorithm for localizing watermarked physical objects taken by a digital camera. The algorithm is specifically designed and tested on watermarked consumer packages read by an off-the-shelf barcode imaging scanner. By employing simple noise-sensitive features borrowed from blind image steganalysis and a linear classifier, we are able to estimate probabilities of watermark presence in every part of the image significantly faster than running a watermark detector. These probabilities are used to pinpoint areas that are recommended for further processing. We compare our adaptive approach with a system designed to read watermarks from a set of fixed locations and achieve significant savings in processing time while improving overall detector robustness.

  7. Engineered Barrier Systems (EBS) in the safety case: design confirmation and demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presence of several barriers serving complementary safety functions enhances confidence that radioactive waste placed in deep geological repositories will be adequately isolated and contained to protect human health and the environment. The barriers include the natural geological barrier and the engineered barrier system (EBS). The EBS itself may comprise a variety of sub-systems or components, such as the waste form, container, buffer, backfill, seals and plugs. Given the importance of this subject, the Integration Group for the Safety Case (IGSC) of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) sponsored a series of workshops with the European Commission to develop greater understanding of how to achieve the necessary integration for the successful design, testing, modelling and performance assessment of EBS for deep underground disposal of radioactive waste. These proceedings present the main findings from, and the papers delivered at, the fourth NEA-EC workshop on EBS, which took place in Tokyo, Japan, in September 2006. This final workshop of the series focused on strategies and methods to demonstrate that EBS designs will fulfill the relevant requirements for long-term safety, engineering feasibility and quality assurance. The workshop highlighted that large-scale experiments have confirmed the feasibility of techniques for manufacturing and installing engineered components in disposal systems and have also provided valuable lessons to improve designs and refine practical aspects to construct and implement EBS. (author)

  8. Drug Delivery Systems, CNS Protection, and the Blood Brain Barrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Kant Upadhyay

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Present review highlights various drug delivery systems used for delivery of pharmaceutical agents mainly antibiotics, antineoplastic agents, neuropeptides, and other therapeutic substances through the endothelial capillaries (BBB for CNS therapeutics. In addition, the use of ultrasound in delivery of therapeutic agents/biomolecules such as proline rich peptides, prodrugs, radiopharmaceuticals, proteins, immunoglobulins, and chimeric peptides to the target sites in deep tissue locations inside tumor sites of brain has been explained. In addition, therapeutic applications of various types of nanoparticles such as chitosan based nanomers, dendrimers, carbon nanotubes, niosomes, beta cyclodextrin carriers, cholesterol mediated cationic solid lipid nanoparticles, colloidal drug carriers, liposomes, and micelles have been discussed with their recent advancements. Emphasis has been given on the need of physiological and therapeutic optimization of existing drug delivery methods and their carriers to deliver therapeutic amount of drug into the brain for treatment of various neurological diseases and disorders. Further, strong recommendations are being made to develop nanosized drug carriers/vehicles and noninvasive therapeutic alternatives of conventional methods for better therapeutics of CNS related diseases. Hence, there is an urgent need to design nontoxic biocompatible drugs and develop noninvasive delivery methods to check posttreatment clinical fatalities in neuropatients which occur due to existing highly toxic invasive drugs and treatment methods.

  9. Investigation of thermal fatigue behavior of thermal barrier coating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study, the mechanisms of fatigue crack initiation and propagation, and of coating failure under thermal loads that simulate those in diesel engines are investigated. Surface cracks initiate early and grow continuously under thermal low cycle fatigue (LCF) and high cycle fatigue (HCF) stresses. It is found that, in the absence of interfacial oxidation, the failure associated with LCF is closely related to coating sintering and creep at high temperatures. Significant LCF and HCF interactions have been observed in the thermal fatigue tests. The fatigue crack growth rate in the ceramic coating strongly depends on the characteristic HCF cycle number, N*HCF which is defined as the number of HCF cycles per LCF cycle. The crack growth rate is increased from 0.36 μm/LCF cycle for a pure LCF test to 2.8 μm/LCF cycle for a combined LCF and HCF test at N*HCF about 20 000. A surface wedging model has been proposed to account for the HCF crack growth in the coating systems. This mechanism predicts that the HCF damage effect increases with heat flux and thus with increasing surface temperature swing, thermal expansion coefficient and elastic modulus of the ceramic coating, as well as with the HCF interacting depth. Good correlation has been found between the analysis and experimental evidence. (orig.)

  10. Acanthamoeba produces disseminated infection in locusts and traverses the locust blood-brain barrier to invade the central nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirk Ruth

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many aspects of Acanthamoeba granulomatous encephalitis remain poorly understood, including host susceptibility and chronic colonization which represent important features of the spectrum of host-pathogen interactions. Previous studies have suggested locusts as a tractable model in which to study Acanthamoeba pathogenesis. Here we determined the mode of parasite invasion of the central nervous system (CNS. Results Using Acanthamoeba isolates belonging to the T1 and T4 genotypes, the findings revealed that amoebae induced sickness behaviour in locusts, as evidenced by reduced faecal output and weight loss and, eventually, leading to 100% mortality. Significant degenerative changes of various tissues were observed by histological sectioning. Both isolates produced disseminated infection, with viable amoebae being recovered from various tissues. Histological examination of the CNS showed that Acanthamoeba invaded the locust CNS, and this is associated with disruption of the perineurium cell/glial cell complex, which constitutes the locust blood-brain barrier. Conclusions This is the first study to demonstrate that Acanthamoeba invades locust brain by modulating the integrity of the insect's blood-brain barrier, a finding that is consistent with the human infection. These observations support the idea that locusts provide a tractable model to study Acanthamoeba encephalitis in vivo. In this way the locust model may generate potentially useful leads that can be tested subsequently in mammalian systems, thus replacing the use of vertebrates at an early stage, and reducing the numbers of mammals required overall.

  11. 76 FR 56215 - John H. Chafee Coastal Barrier Resources System; Baldwin and Mobile Counties, AL; Availability of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-12

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service John H. Chafee Coastal Barrier Resources System; Baldwin and Mobile Counties... (Service), announce the availability of a John H. Chafee Coastal Barrier Resources System (CBRS) draft... aquatic habitat. These areas are depicted on a series of maps entitled ``John H. Chafee Coastal...

  12. Expression of Astrocytic Type 2 Angiotensin Receptor in Central Nervous System Inflammation Correlates With Blood-Brain Barrier Breakdown

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Füchtbauer, Laila; Toft-Hansen, Henrik; Khorooshi, Reza;

    2010-01-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB), a complex of endothelial and glial barriers, controls passage of cells and solutes between the blood and central nervous system (CNS). Blood-brain barrier breakdown refers to entry of cells and/or solutes. We were interested whether the renin-angiotensin system is...... involved during BBB breakdown. We studied the type 2 angiotensin receptor AT(2) because of its suggested neuroprotective role. Two models of brain inflammation were used to distinguish solute versus cellular barrier functions. Both leukocytes and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) accumulated in the perivascular...

  13. Combined local blood–brain barrier opening and systemic methotrexate for the treatment of brain tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, Itzik; Last, David; Guez, David; Sharabi, Shirley; Elhaik Goldman, Shirin; Lubitz, Irit; Daniels, Dianne; Salomon,Sharona; Tamar, Gregory; Tamir, Tzur; Mardor, Ronni; Fridkin, Mati; Shechter, Yoram; Mardor, Yael

    2015-01-01

    Despite aggressive therapy, existing treatments offer poor prognosis for glioblastoma multiforme patients, in part due to poor penetration of most drugs across the blood–brain barrier (BBB). We propose a minimal-invasive combined treatment approach consisting of local BBB disruption in the tumor in parallel to systemic drug administration. Local BBB disruption is obtained by convection-enhanced delivery of a novel BBB disruption agent, enabling efficient/targeted delivery of the systemically ...

  14. Motivators, Barriers and Concerns in Adoption of Electronic Filing System: Survey Evidence from Malaysian Professional Accountants

    OpenAIRE

    Ming-Ling Lai; Kwai-Fatt Choong

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: Worldwide, electronic filing (e-filing) system and its' adoption has attracted much attention, however, scholarly study on accounting professionals' acceptance of e-filing system is scant. Approach: This study aimed (i) to examine factors that motivated professional accountants to use e-filing (ii) to solicit their usage experience and (iii) to assess the barriers to adoption and other compliance considerations. The questionnaire survey was administered on 700 professionals...

  15. Dentists' practice behaviors and perceived barriers regarding oral-systemic evidence: implications for education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder, Rebecca S; Bell, Kathryn P; Phillips, Ceib; Paquette, David W; Offenbacher, Steven

    2014-09-01

    Observational studies consistently support a relationship between poor oral health and systemic diseases like cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus. The purpose of this study was to identify current practices and perceived barriers among North Carolina dentists regarding the incorporation of oral-systemic evidence into the delivery of patient care. A survey questionnaire was developed, pilot tested, revised, and mailed to 1,350 licensed dentists in North Carolina. The response rate was 49 percent. Bivariate analysis was used to compare practice behaviors and barriers among age, gender, practice type, and setting categorizations using the chi-square test. Respondents were predominantly male (77 percent), in solo practice (59.4 percent), and in urban or suburban settings (74 percent). Half (50 percent) reported updating medical histories at every patient visit. Younger dentists were significantly (ppatient blood glucose levels and utilize blood pressure guidelines. Perceived patient objections to additional fees and lack of patient acceptance were reported as significant barriers, especially among younger dentists. Significantly more rural dentists reported lack of appropriate referral options as a barrier (ppatients' objection to additional fees. Dental schools need to prepare dental students for future roles in the assessment, management, and interprofessional collaboration that will be needed in the future. PMID:25179921

  16. An evaluation of the fire barrier system thermo-lag 330-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results of three fire endurance tests and one ampacity derating test set of the fire barrier system Thermo-Lag 330-1 Subliming Coating. Each test was performed using cable tray specimens protected by a nominal three-hour fire barrier envelope comprised of two layers of nominal 1/2 inch thick material. The fire barrier systems for two of the three fire endurance test articles and for the ampacity derating test article were installed in accordance with the manufacturer's installations procedures. The barrier system for the third fire endurance test article was a full reproduction of one of the original manufacturer's qualification test articles. This final test article included certain installation enhancements not considered typical of current nuclear power plant installations. The primary criteria for fire endurance performance evaluation was based on cable circuit integrity testing. Secondary consideration was also given to the temperature rise limits set forth in the ASTM E119 standard fire barrier test procedure. All three of the fire endurance specimens failed prematurely. Circuit integrity failures for the two fire endurance test articles with procedures-based installations were recorded at approximately 76 and 59 minutes into the exposures for a 6 inch wide and 12 inch wide cable tray respectively. Temperature excursion failures (single point) for these two test articles were noted at approximately 65 and 56 minutes respectively. The first circuit integrity failure for the full reproduction test article was recorded approximately 119 minutes into the exposure, and the first temperature excursion failure for this test article was recorded approximately 110 minutes into the exposure

  17. Next generation of non-mammalian blood-brain barrier models to study parasitic infections of the central nervous system

    OpenAIRE

    Siddiqui, Ruqaiyyah; Edwards-Smallbone, James; Flynn, Robin; Khan, Naveed Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Transmigration of neuropathogens across the blood-brain barrier is a key step in the development of central nervous system infections, making it a prime target for drug development. The ability of neuropathogens to traverse the blood-brain barrier continues to inspire researchers to understand the specific strategies and molecular mechanisms that allow them to enter the brain. The availability of models of the blood-brain barrier that closely mimic the situation in vivo offers unprecedented o...

  18. Barriers to Implementing a Reporting and Learning Patient Safety System: Pediatric Chiropractic Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohlman, Katherine A; Carroll, Linda; Hartling, Lisa; Tsuyuki, Ross T; Vohra, Sunita

    2016-04-01

    A reporting and learning system is a method of monitoring the occurrence of incidents that affect patient safety. This cross-sectional survey asked pediatric chiropractors about factors that may limit their participation in such a system. The list of potential barriers for participation was developed using a systematic approach. All members of the 2 pediatric councils associated with US national chiropractic organizations were invited to complete the survey (N = 400). The cross-sectional survey was created using an online survey tool (REDCap) and sent directly to member emails addressed by the respective executive committees. Of the 400 potential respondents, 81 responded (20.3%). The most common limitations to participating were identified as time pressure (96%) and patient concerns (81%). Reporting and learning systems have been utilized to increase safety awareness in many high-risk industries. To be successful, future patient safety studies with pediatric chiropractors need to ensure these barriers are understood and addressed. PMID:26438719

  19. Rehabilitation of a house with high radon level, using a ground ventilation system with double barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A ground ventilation system has been designed and implemented in a town hall in Brittany. Radon concentration in the heating unit room of this building has been reduced from 10000 Bq/m3 to less than 200 Bq/m3 by the means of a depressurization system using a 32 W fan, which blows air into a permeable gravel layer intercalated between two radon barrier mylar films. Results show that passive systems should be applicable; for new buildings, very low energy consumption systems with 10 W fans, are easily implemented if designed before construction

  20. Reducing Barriers To The Use of High-Efficiency Lighting Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Morante

    2005-12-31

    With funding from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Lighting Research Center (LRC) at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute completed the four-year research project, Reducing Barriers to the Use of High-Efficiency Lighting Systems. The initial objectives were: (1) identifying barriers to widespread penetration of lighting controls in commercial/industrial (C/I) applications that employ fluorescent lamp technologies, and (2) making recommendations to overcome these barriers. The addition of a fourth year expanded the original project objectives to include an examination of the impact on fluorescent lamps from dimming utilizing different lamp electrode heating and dimming ratios. The scope of the project was narrowed to identify barriers to the penetration of lighting controls into commercial-industrial (C/I) applications that employ fluorescent lamp technologies, and to recommend means for overcoming these barriers. Working with lighting manufacturers, specifiers, and installers, the project identified technological and marketing barriers to the widespread use of lighting controls, specifically automatic-off controls, occupancy sensors, photosensors, dimming systems, communication protocols and load-shedding ballasts. The primary barriers identified include cost effectiveness of lighting controls to the building owner, lack of standard communication protocols to allow different part of the control system to communicate effectively, and installation and commissioning issues. Overcoming the identified barriers requires lighting control products on the market to achieve three main goals: (1) Achieve sufficient functionality to meet the key requirements of their main market. (2) Allow significant cost reduction compared to current market standard systems. Cost should consider: hardware capital cost including wiring, design time required by the specifier and the control system manufacturer, installation time required by the electrician, and commissioning time and

  1. Barriers in the Implementation of Health Information Systems: A Scoping Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin STAMATIAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Context. A well-developed health information system which is implemented according to present standards allows a healthcare quality increase. Our study aims at providing an overview of the barriers which were encountered in the process of implementing the health information systems by reviewing the literature connected to Europe and the United States of America. Methodology. We searched within five databases (Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, PubMed, ScienceDirect and Scopus for the exact phrase ‘implementation health information system’ along with the name of each European country/USA state. Relevance was then tested by scanning titles and abstracts. The third and final step involved assessing all the articles in order to set their relevance and a data extraction tool was created, containing the name of the state/country that the article reports data on, the article citation and the challenges identified. Results. The barriers identified were classified in four major categories: technical, organizational, behavioral/human and financial. Seemingly, Europe (41 articles and USA (20 articles are facing the same issues in the implementation of a health information system. No major difference between EU and non-EU countries was found after our analysis with regards to the identified barriers. Discussion. Even if recommendations and solutions are continuously being developed in order to solve these barriers, the implementation of a new health information system must be very detailed in order to face all these problems. Additionally, further research is required in order to evaluate their impact on the successful implementation of a health information system.

  2. Disposal Systems Evaluations and Tool Development - Engineered Barrier System Evaluation (Work Package LL1015080425)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Disposal Systems Evaluation Framework (DSEF) will use a logical process for developing one or more disposal system concepts (also referred to as repository system in this report) for any given waste form and geologic setting combination. In the Features, Events, and Processes (FEPs) group of work packages, there are seven categories of waste forms and eight categories of geologic setting being studied. The DSEF will also establish a Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC) knowledge management system to organize high-level information, data, and assumptions, thereby facilitating consistency in high-level system simulation and economic analyses. This system likely will be housed with the INL-based documentation system. Attention is given to lessons oearned from the systems used at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP). Where reference material from other programs (e.g., international) is used or cited, the knowledge-management system imports the reference material directly or refer to it in bibliography form. Alternative data sets (e.g., from other programs) will also be utilized to evaluate their influence on DSEF analyses for given waste form and disposal-system combinations. The knowledge-management system can also be used to maintain the results of DSEF realizations, enabling the comparison and ranking of various waste-form/disposal-system-environment/disposal-system-design options. Finally, the UFDC knowledge-management system will be able to provide a compendium of 'templates' that can be utilized, in a labor-efficient fashion, to build parallel DSEF analyses (e.g., 'one offs'). The DSEF will not be a stand-alone, push-the-button and wait for the results, item of software. it will use osftware (probably EXCEL, initially), to guide the team members through a logical process of evaluating combinations of waste-form, disposal-syste-environment, and disposal-system design. In later stages, it will utilize software developed

  3. Feature Detector: a support system for tracking satellite detected dynamic and permanent features

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobsen, Joakim

    2013-01-01

    Even with today's technologies many tasks relies on humans to be completed correctly. Engineers must monitor steps in large chains of operations, and verify the results before the next process is allowed to continue. In many such systems, a lot of useful data passes by without ever been stored for efficient future usage. Even though some operations must be verified by an experienced human eye, many, if not all, could benefit from computed assistance. When processing satellite i...

  4. Features preferred in-identification system based on computer mouse movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jašek, Roman; Kolařík, Martin

    2016-06-01

    Biometric identification systems build features, which describe people, using various data. Usually it is not known which of features could be chosen, and a dedicated process called a feature selection is applied to resolve this uncertainty. The relevant features, that are selected with this process, then describe the people in the system as well as possible. It is likely that the relevancy of selected features also mean that these features describe the important things in the measured behavior and that they partly reveal how the behavior works. This paper uses this idea and evaluates results of many runs of feature selection runs in a system, that identifies people using their moving a computer mouse. It has been found that the most frequently selected features repeat between runs, and that these features describe the similar things of the movements.

  5. Socio-cultural barriers to the development of a sustainable energy system - the case of hydrogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Kjerulf; Andersen, Anne Holst

    , especially if the system is going to be based on renewable energy sources. The aim of these research notes is to review and discuss major socio-cultural barriers to new forms of energy supply in general and to hydrogen specifically. Reaching sufficient reductions in greenhouse gas emissions may require more......Any transition to a more sustainable energy system, radically reducing greenhouse gas emissions, is bound to run in to a host of different barriers - technological and economic, but also socio-cultural. This will also be the case for any large-scale application of hydrogen as energy carrier...... than large-scale dissemination of renewable energy sources. Also reductions or moderations in energy demand may be necessary. Hence, a central point in the research notes is to consider not only socio-cultural obstacles for changing technologies in energy production, distribution and consumption but...

  6. Transfer reactions for the /sup 50/Ti + /sup 90/Zr system below the Coulomb barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analysis of quasielastic cross section data for the /sup 90/Zr projectile plus /sup 50/Ti target system shows that the probability for /sup 50/Ti(/sup 90/Zr, /sup 49/Ti)/sup 91/Zr, 1n-transfer reaction near the barrier is much larger than estimates based on semiclassical theory. The probability for /sup 50/Ti(/sup 90/Zr,/sup 51/V)/sup 89/Y, 1p-transfer reaction, on the other hand, agrees with the same theory. The internuclear distance where the 1n-transfer probability first deviates from tunneling predictions coincides with the threshold of the fusion barrier distribution deduced from the experimental fusion cross sections of the /sup 50/Ti+/sup 90/Zr system, suggesting a common mechanism for the large enhancement of 1n-transfer and fusion cross sections

  7. Systemic barriers accessing HIV treatment among people who inject drugs in Russia: a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Sarang, Anya; Rhodes, Tim; Sheon, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    Achieving ‘universal access’ to antiretroviral HIV treatment (ART) in lower income and transitional settings is a global target. Yet, access to ART is shaped by local social condition and is by no means universal. Qualitative studies are ideally suited to describing how access to ART is socially situated. We explored systemic barriers to accessing ART among people who inject drugs (PWID) in a Russian city (Ekaterinburg) with a large burden of HIV treatment demand. We undertook 42 in-depth qua...

  8. Burden of Circulatory System Diseases and Ignored Barriers ofKnowledge Translation

    OpenAIRE

    Hamed-Basir Ghafouri; Shahzad Saravani; Farhad Shokraneh

    2012-01-01

    Circulatory system disease raise third highest disability-adjusted life years among Iranians and ischemic cardiac diseases are main causes for such burden. Despite available evidences on risk factors of the disease, no effective intervention was implemented to control and prevent the disease. This paper non-systematically reviews available literature on the problem, solutions, and barriers of implementation of knowledge translation in Iran. It seems that there are ignored factors such as cult...

  9. Burden of Circulatory System Diseases and Ignored Barriers of Knowledge Translation

    OpenAIRE

    Ghafouri, Hamed-Basir; Saravani, Shahzad; Shokraneh, Farhad

    2012-01-01

    Circulatory system disease raise third highest disability-adjusted life years among Iranians and ischemic cardiac diseases are main causes for such burden. Despite available evidences on risk factors of the disease, no effective intervention was implemented to control and prevent the disease. This paper non-systematically reviews available literature on the problem, solutions, and barriers of implementation of knowledge translation in Iran. It seems that there are ignored factors such as cult...

  10. Barriers to the implementation of E-learning system with focus on organizational culture

    OpenAIRE

    Bashiruddin, Muhammad; Basit, Abdul; Naeem, Muhammad

    2010-01-01

    Title: Barriers to the implementation of E-learning system with focus on organizational culture Introduction: Nowadays, Information Technology has become a necessity for businesses not only to gain competitive advantage but also to survive. Strategic use of new educational technologies can enhance learning and teaching process. In order to stay viable in this intense competitive environment, providers of education and trainings have developed efficient and effective learning environment, call...

  11. Overcoming barriers to the implementation of a pharmacy bar code scanning system for medication dispensing: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanji, Karen C; Cina, Jennifer; Patel, Nirali; Churchill, William; Gandhi, Tejal K; Poon, Eric G

    2009-01-01

    Technology has great potential to reduce medication errors in hospitals. This case report describes barriers to, and facilitators of, the implementation of a pharmacy bar code scanning system to reduce medication dispensing errors at a large academic medical center. Ten pharmacy staff were interviewed about their experiences during the implementation. Interview notes were iteratively reviewed to identify common themes. The authors identified three main barriers to pharmacy bar code scanning system implementation: process (training requirements and process flow issues), technology (hardware, software, and the role of vendors), and resistance (communication issues, changing roles, and negative perceptions about technology). The authors also identified strategies to overcome these barriers. Adequate training, continuous improvement, and adaptation of workflow to address one's own needs mitigated process barriers. Ongoing vendor involvement, acknowledgment of technology limitations, and attempts to address them were crucial in overcoming technology barriers. Staff resistance was addressed through clear communication, identifying champions, emphasizing new information provided by the system, and facilitating collaboration. PMID:19567797

  12. Vegetation barrier and tillage effects on runoff and sediment in an alley crop system on a Luvisol in Burkina Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaan, W.P.; Sikking, A.F.S.; Hoogmoed, W.B.

    2005-01-01

    The effects of vegetation barriers and tillage on runoff and soil loss were evaluated in an alley crop system at a research station in central Burkina Faso. On a 2% slope of a sandy loam various local species (grasses, woody species and a succulent) were planted as conservation barriers in order to

  13. Immune cell trafficking across the barriers of the central nervous system in multiple sclerosis and stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes Pinheiro, Melissa A; Kooij, Gijs; Mizee, Mark R; Kamermans, Alwin; Enzmann, Gaby; Lyck, Ruth; Schwaninger, Markus; Engelhardt, Britta; de Vries, Helga E

    2016-03-01

    Each year about 650,000 Europeans die from stroke and a similar number lives with the sequelae of multiple sclerosis (MS). Stroke and MS differ in their etiology. Although cause and likewise clinical presentation set the two diseases apart, they share common downstream mechanisms that lead to damage and recovery. Demyelination and axonal injury are characteristics of MS but are also observed in stroke. Conversely, hallmarks of stroke, such as vascular impairment and neurodegeneration, are found in MS. However, the most conspicuous common feature is the marked neuroinflammatory response, marked by glia cell activation and immune cell influx. In MS and stroke the blood-brain barrier is disrupted allowing bone marrow-derived macrophages to invade the brain in support of the resident microglia. In addition, there is a massive invasion of auto-reactive T-cells into the brain of patients with MS. Though less pronounced a similar phenomenon is also found in ischemic lesions. Not surprisingly, the two diseases also resemble each other at the level of gene expression and the biosynthesis of other proinflammatory mediators. While MS has traditionally been considered to be an autoimmune neuroinflammatory disorder, the role of inflammation for cerebral ischemia has only been recognized later. In the case of MS the long track record as neuroinflammatory disease has paid off with respect to treatment options. There are now about a dozen of approved drugs for the treatment of MS that specifically target neuroinflammation by modulating the immune system. Interestingly, experimental work demonstrated that drugs that are in routine use to mitigate neuroinflammation in MS may also work in stroke models. Examples include Fingolimod, glatiramer acetate, and antibodies blocking the leukocyte integrin VLA-4. Moreover, therapeutic strategies that were discovered in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the animal model of MS, turned out to be also effective in experimental

  14. Biosensor method and system based on feature vector extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenbaum, Elias; Rodriguez, Jr., Miguel; Qi, Hairong; Wang, Xiaoling

    2012-04-17

    A method of biosensor-based detection of toxins comprises the steps of providing at least one time-dependent control signal generated by a biosensor in a gas or liquid medium, and obtaining a time-dependent biosensor signal from the biosensor in the gas or liquid medium to be monitored or analyzed for the presence of one or more toxins selected from chemical, biological or radiological agents. The time-dependent biosensor signal is processed to obtain a plurality of feature vectors using at least one of amplitude statistics and a time-frequency analysis. At least one parameter relating to toxicity of the gas or liquid medium is then determined from the feature vectors based on reference to the control signal.

  15. Project Guarantee 1985. Final repository for low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes: The system of safety barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The safety barrier system for the type B repository for low- and intermediate-level waste is described. The barrier parameters which are relevant for safety analysis are quantified and associated error limits and data scatter are given. The aim of the report is to give a summary documentation of the safety analysis input data and their scientific background. For secure containment of radioactive waste safety barriers are used which effectively limit the release of radioactive material from the repository (release barriers) and effectively retard the entry of the original radioactive material into the biosphere (time barriers). In the case of low- and intermediate-level waste the technical safety barrier system comprises: waste solidification matrix (cement, bitumen and resin), immobilisation of the waste packages in containers using liquid cement, concrete repository containers, backfilling of remaining vacant storage space with special concrete, concrete lining of the repository caverns, sealing of access tunnels on final closure of the repository. Natural geological safety barriers - host rock and overlying formations - have the following important functions. Because of its stability, the host rock in the repository zone protects the technical safety barrier system from destruction caused by climatic effects and erosion for a sufficient length of time. It also provides for low water flow and favourable chemistry (reducing conditions)

  16. Safety indicators used to prove the role of natural barrier for Saligny near surface disposal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The siting process for a near surface repository suitable for the radioactive waste resulted from Cernavoda NPP operation and decommissioning (low level radioactive waste with small amounts of long lived radionuclides) started in 1992 and it included the collection of data from specific field and laboratory works for each site selection stage as well as different safety performance evaluation. According to the IAEA standards (Safety Guide No.111-G-3.1, 1994), the purpose of the siting process is not to get the best solution but to find out 'an acceptable solution, with sufficient safety reserves'. Since 1996, detailed field and investigation works were performed in Saligny preferred site including an experimental area to test the improvement method proposed for the foundation ground of repository, as well as detailed performance assessments using specific computer codes. The paper presents the results of recent performance assessments for the natural barrier of disposal system. The calculations were done using HYDRUS 2D, FEHM and AMBER computer codes. The endpoint of the Safety Report for Siting a Near Surface Repository at Saligny Site [CITON and SCN, Safety Report for Siting a Near Surface Repository at Saligny Site, 2007, pages 8.2.1-1 to 8.2.1-22 and 8-63 to 8-70] was the assessment of safety indicators. Individual annual effective dose for exposed peoples (both workers and general public) was the main safety indicator. In the same document, the radionuclide concentration in the disposal system compartments has been evaluated, as supplementary safety indicator of repository barriers (especially to confirm the natural barrier performance). The results confirmed the performance of natural barrier: the maximum extension of H-3 and Co-60 contaminant plume after repository closure remains more above underground water level. In the aquifer, iodine concentration reaches a value of 10-15 mol/l, at the same magnitude order with the admitted limit from CFR 141

  17. Nuclear rainbow in the {sup 16}O + {sup 27}AL system: The role of couplings at energies far above the barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, D., E-mail: dpereira@dfn.if.usp.br [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Linares, R. [Instituto de Fisica da Universidade Federal Fluminense, Rio de Janeiro, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Oliveira, J.R.B. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Lubian, J. [Instituto de Fisica da Universidade Federal Fluminense, Rio de Janeiro, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Chamon, L.C. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Gomes, P.R.S. [Instituto de Fisica da Universidade Federal Fluminense, Rio de Janeiro, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Cunsolo, A. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, I-95125, Catania (Italy); Cappuzzello, F. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, I-95125, Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia Universita di Catania, I-95125, Catania (Italy); Cavallaro, M. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, I-95125, Catania (Italy); Carbone, D. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, I-95125, Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia Universita di Catania, I-95125, Catania (Italy); Foti, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia Universita di Catania, I-95125, Catania (Italy); INFN - Sez. Catania, via S. Sofia, 64, I-95125, Catania (Italy)

    2012-04-12

    High precision elastic and inelastic angular distributions have been measured for the {sup 16}O + {sup 27}Al system at a beam energy of 100 MeV. The data analysis confirms a rainbow formation as already predicted by parameter-free Coupled Channel calculations. It also helps to reveal the crucial role of inelastic couplings in the rainbow formation for heavier systems even at energies far above the Coulomb barrier. This feature, well known in atomic/molecular scattering, is experimentally studied for the first time in Nuclear Physics.

  18. The dynamical feature of transition of a Hamiltonian system to a dissipative system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Guang-Cai; Zhang Hong-Jun

    2004-01-01

    The mechanism of generation and annihilation of attractors during transition from a Hamiltonian system to a dissipative system is studied numerically using the dissipative standard map. The transient process related to the formationof attracting basins of periodic attractors is studied by discussing the evolution of the KAM tori of the standard map. The result shows that as damping increases, attractors are mainly generated from elliptic orbits of the Hamiltonian system and annihilated by colliding with unstable periodic orbits originating from the corresponding hyperbolic orbits of the Hamiltonian system. The transient process also exhibits the general feature of bifurcation.

  19. Organizational human factors as barriers to energy efficiency in electrical motors systems in industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a study accomplished in the State of Parana in Southern Brazil, aiming at verifying the correlation between organizational human factors (OHF) and the level of energy losses in organizations. The purpose is to subsidize the formularization of institutional policies in organizations to improve the energy efficiency in the productive sector. The research was carried out in ten industries of the following sectors: pulp and paper; food; wood and chemical products. The losses of electric energy were determined in motor systems with the aid of a mathematical model and the evaluation of 27 OHF identified in the literature review was made with the supervisors in the industries by means of a structurized questionnaire. Seven OHF had presented significant correlation with energy losses and six of them are inversely proportional to the losses, in accordance with linear regression analysis. The inversely proportional factors to the losses also with significant correlation are considered determinative OHF and constitute barriers for energy efficiency in organizations. These barriers are linked with the following organizational areas: management system; education of employees; strategical vision. The study recommends the implementation of the determinative OHF in organizations as a way to transpose the human barriers for energy efficiency

  20. Influences of specific ions in groundwater on concrete degradation in subsurface engineered barrier system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wen-Sheng; Liu, Chen-Wuing; Li, Ming-Hsu

    2016-01-01

    Many disposal concepts currently show that concrete is an effective confinement material used in engineered barrier systems (EBS) at a number of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal sites. Cement-based materials have properties for the encapsulation, isolation, or retardation of a variety of hazardous contaminants. The reactive chemical transport model of HYDROGEOCHEM 5.0 was applied to simulate the effect of hydrogeochemical processes on concrete barrier degradation in an EBS which has been proposed to use in the LLW disposal site in Taiwan. The simulated results indicated that the main processes that are responsible for concrete degradation are the species induced from hydrogen ion, sulfate, and chloride. The EBS with the side ditch drainage system effectively discharges the infiltrated water and lowers the solute concentrations that may induce concrete degradation. The redox processes markedly influence the formations of the degradation materials. The reductive environment in the EBS reduces the formation of ettringite in concrete degradation processes. Moreover, the chemical conditions in the concrete barriers maintain an alkaline condition after 300 years in the proposed LLW repository. This study provides a detailed picture of the long-term evolution of the hydrogeochemical environment in the proposed LLW disposal site in Taiwan. PMID:27376013

  1. Simplification process of safety assessment model for engineered barrier system by using adjoint sensitivity analysis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sensitivity analyses for mass transport model in porous media were performed by using adjoint method. The mass transport model employed is to evaluate the performance of engineered barrier of shallow land disposal, assuming that water flows through a cylinder packed with sand. In this model instantaneous sorption equilibrium between liquid and solid phases is assumed and two types of boundary conditions which represent the nuclide release from waste package, i.e. solubility-limited case and constant leaching case, are considered. From the sensitivity analysis, it was shown that the effect of longitudinal dispersion on performance measure is very small and calculated normalized sensitivity is in the order 10-4∼10-3 around the most probable value of longitudinal dispersion coefficient. This suggests that the term of longitudinal dispersion can be removed from the original model. In this case analytical solution is easily introduced for two boundary conditions respectively to evaluate the performance measure of the barrier system. These simplified models, in fact, gives larger estimate of the nuclide release from the engineered barrier system than that calculated from the model considering the longitudinal dispersion. They are acceptable from the standpoint of conservatism of safety assessment. (author)

  2. Effects of sea-level rise on barrier island groundwater system dynamics: ecohydrological implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterson, John P.; Fienen, Michael N.; Thieler, E. Robert; Gesch, Dean B.; Gutierrez, Benjamin T.; Plant, Nathaniel G.

    2014-01-01

    We used a numerical model to investigate how a barrier island groundwater system responds to increases of up to 60 cm in sea level. We found that a sea-level rise of 20 cm leads to substantial changes in the depth of the water table and the extent and depth of saltwater intrusion, which are key determinants in the establishment, distribution and succession of vegetation assemblages and habitat suitability in barrier islands ecosystems. In our simulations, increases in water-table height in areas with a shallow depth to water (or thin vadose zone) resulted in extensive groundwater inundation of land surface and a thinning of the underlying freshwater lens. We demonstrated the interdependence of the groundwater response to island morphology by evaluating changes at three sites. This interdependence can have a profound effect on ecosystem composition in these fragile coastal landscapes under long-term changing climatic conditions.

  3. Development and preliminary evaluation of double roof prototypes incorporating RBS (radiant barrier system)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pei-Chi Chang [National Yunlin Univ. of Science and Technology, Taiwan (China). Graduate School of Engineering Science and Technology; Che-Ming Chiang [National Cheng-Kung Univ., Taiwan (China). Dept. of Architecture; Chi-Ming Lai [National Chung-Hsing Univ., Taiwan (China). Graduate Inst. of Rural Planning

    2008-07-01

    Double-skin roof is known as a very effective way to reduce both the conduction and convection heat transfers from roof to the ceiling of building, on the other hand, RBS (radiant barrier system) is very effective in blocking the radiation heat transfer between roof and ceiling. In this study, prototypical double roofs inspired by the concepts of both double-skin structure and RBS technique was specifically designed to cut down the solar heat gain from roof. The effect of energy saving was experimentally measured. A double roof structure, formed by a roof plate and an aluminum foil-PP (polypropylene) board-RC slab, can achieve good performance of heat barrier and is highly recommended. (author)

  4. Breakup mechanisms for 7Li + 197Au, 204Pb systems at sub-barrier energies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luong D.H.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Coincidence measurements of breakup fragments were carried out for the 7Li + 197Au and 204Pb systems at sub-barrier energies. The mechanisms triggering breakup, and time-scales of each process, were identified through the reaction Q-values and the relative energy of the breakup fragments. Binary breakup of 7Li were found to be predominantly triggered by nucleon transfer, with p-pickup leading to 8Be → α + α decay being the preferred breakup mode. From the time-scales of each process, the coincidence yields were separated into prompt and delayed components, allowing the identification of breakup process important in the suppression of complete fusion of 7Li at above-barrier energies.

  5. A Comprhensive CBVR System Based on Spatiotemporal Features Such as Motion,Quantized Color and Edge Density Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana M.Rajurkar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Rapid development of the multimedia and the associated technologies urge the processing of a huge database of video clips. The processing efficiency depends on the search methodologies utilized in the video processing system. Use of inappropriate search methodologies may make the processing system ineffective. Hence, an effective video retrieval system is an essential pre-requisite for searching relevant videos from a huge collection of videos. In this paper, an effective content based video retrieval system based on some dominant features such as motion, color and edge is proposed. The system is evaluated using the video clips of format MPEG-2 and then precision-recall is determined for the test clip.

  6. Development of backfill material as an engineered barrier in the waste package system. Interim topical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A backfill barrier, emplaced between the containerized waste and the host rock, can both protect the other engineered barriers and act as a primary barrier to the release of radionuclides from the waste package. Attributes that a backfill should provide in order to carry out its required function have been identified. Primary attributes are those that have a direct effect upon the release and transport of radionuclides from the waste package. Supportive attributes do not directly affect radionuclide release but are necessary to support the primary attributes. The primary attributes, in order of importance, are: minimize (retard or exclude) the migration of ground water between the host rock and the waste canister system; retard the migration of selected chemical species (corrosive species and radionuclides) in the ground water; control the Eh and pH of the ground water within the waste-package environment. The supportive attributes are: self-seal any cracks or discontinuities in the backfill or interfacing host geology; retain performance properties at all repository temperatures; retain peformance properties during and after receiving repository levels of gamma radiation; conduct heat from the canister system to the host geology; retain mechanical properties and provide resistance to applied mechanical forces; retain morphological stability and compatibility with structural barriers and with the host geology for required period of time. Screening and selection of candidate backfill materials has resulted in a preliminary list of materials for testing. Primary emphasis has been placed on sodium and calcium bentonites and zeolites used in conjunction with quartz sand or crushed host rock. Preliminary laboratory studies have concentrated on permeability, sorption, swelling pressure, and compaction properties of candidate backfill materials

  7. Development of backfill material as an engineered barrier in the waste package system- Interim topical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheelwright, E.J.; Hodges, F.N.; Bray, L.A.; Westsik, J.H. Jr.; Lester, D.H.; Nakai, T.L.; Spaeth, M.E.; Stula, R.T.

    1981-09-01

    A backfill barrier, emplaced between the containerized waste and the host rock, can both protect the other engineered barriers and act as a primary barrier to the release of radionuclides from the waste package. Attributes that a backfill should provide in order to carry out its required function have been identified. Primary attributes are those that have a direct effect upon the release and transport of radionuclides from the waste package. Supportive attributes do not directly affect radionuclide release but are necessary to support the primary attributes. The primary attributes, in order of importance, are: minimize (retard or exclude) the migration of ground water between the host rock and the waste canister system; retard the migration of selected chemical species (corrosive species and radionuclides) in the ground water; control the Eh and pH of the ground water within the waste-package environment. The supportive attributes are: self-seal any cracks or discontinuities in the backfill or interfacing host geology; retain performance properties at all repository temperatures; retain peformance properties during and after receiving repository levels of gamma radiation; conduct heat from the canister system to the host geology; retain mechanical properties and provide resistance to applied mechanical forces; retain morphological stability and compatibility with structural barriers and with the host geology for required period of time. Screening and selection of candidate backfill materials has resulted in a preliminary list of materials for testing. Primary emphasis has been placed on sodium and calcium bentonites and zeolites used in conjunction with quartz sand or crushed host rock. Preliminary laboratory studies have concentrated on permeability, sorption, swelling pressure, and compaction properties of candidate backfill materials.

  8. STS [supernatant treatment system] confinement barrier integrity review for the West Valley Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary Supernatant Treatment System (STS) confinement barriers have sufficient reserve capacity, due to the inherent safety factors associated with this type of construction, to survive extreme environmental loading (e.g., design basis earthquake and tornado events) without structural failure and leakage of high-level wastes into the environment. The primary confinement barriers of highest reliability under earthquake and tornado loading are the reinforced concrete vaults and chambers that enclose the STS process vessels and piping. These buildings and tank vaults have been designed to higher structural safety standards than required for life safety by local building codes used in the design of industrial process plants in New York state. The radiological shielding requirements generally resulted in structural member sizes and wall thicknesses that were larger and consequently stronger than found in conventional industrial plant building design. The margin of safety against failure of the reinforced concrete barriers is conservatively estimated at 2 to 4 times the design basis earthquake. The least predictable element in the building barrier is the PVC water stop between the STS building and the shield structure on tank vault 8D-1. Tests and analysis indicate the water stop has an estimated safety factor against rupture under earthquake of 3 or greater. In terms of the internal piping and vessel systems that confine the raw supernatant in its process flow path, the connecting piping between the valve aisle, pipeway and shield structure appears to be the most vulnerable under earthquake. The safety factor for the piping appears to be on the order of 3. 26 refs

  9. Information features laboratory information system «Uranium»

    OpenAIRE

    Zyablitsev, S. V.; Novoselskaya, V. V.; Chernobrivtsev, P. A.

    2013-01-01

    Determined the importance of the implementation of laboratory information system in the laboratory, the main principles of information on the characteristics of the laboratory information system «URANIUM».

  10. PCA Fault Feature Extraction in Complex Electric Power Systems

    OpenAIRE

    ZHANG, J.; Z. Wang; Zhang, Y.; J. MA

    2010-01-01

    Electric power system is one of the most complex artificial systems in the world. The complexity is determined by its characteristics about constitution, configuration, operation, organization, etc. The fault in electric power system cannot be completely avoided. When electric power system operates from normal state to failure or abnormal, its electric quantities (current, voltage and angles, etc.) may change significantly. Our researches indicate that the variable with the biggest coeffic...

  11. Throughput Enhancement Using Adaptive Delay Barrier Function over HSDPA System in Mixed Traffic Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Seok

    In this paper, we consider a method to enhance the throughput of HSDPA systems in the mixed traffic scenario. A channel-dependent adaptive delay barrier (DB) function is proposed to maximize throughput of best-effort (BE) traffic while satisfying the delay latency of voice over internet protocol (VoIP) service. Simulations show that the proposed channel-adaptive DB function raises the throughput of BE traffic service by 30% compared to the conventional scheme, without degrading the capacity of VoIP service over HSDPA system.

  12. Corner Feature Extraction: Techniques for Landmark Based Navigation Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Namoshe, Molaletsa; Matsebe, Oudetse; Tlale, Nkgatho

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we discussed the results of an EKF SLAM using real data logged and computed offline. One of the most important parts of the SLAM process is to accurately map the environment the robot is exploring and localize in it. To achieve this however, is depended on the precise acquirement of features extracted from the external sensor. We looked at corner detection methods and we proposed an improved version of the method discussed in section 2.1.1. It transpired that methods found in th...

  13. A case-based reasoning system using feature scaling for computer aided breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper a CBR system for mammography CAD that uses feature scaling to improve the systems classification performance is proposed. The CBR system was evaluated on the public DDSM mammography database. We use ROC analysis and leaving-one-out sampling to show that the feature weighting approach results in improved ROC performance. (orig.)

  14. [Pärtel Lippus. The acoustic features and perception of the Estonian quantity system] / Stefan Werner

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Werner, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Arvustus: Pärtel Lippus. The acoustic features and perception of the Estonian quantity system. Tartu : Tartu University Press, 2011. (Dissertationes philologiae estonicae Universitatis Tartuensis ; 29)

  15. Statistical Features of Complex Systems ---Toward Establishing Sociological Physics---

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Naoki; Kuninaka, Hiroto; Wakita, Jun-ichi; Matsushita, Mitsugu

    2011-07-01

    Complex systems have recently attracted much attention, both in natural sciences and in sociological sciences. Members constituting a complex system evolve through nonlinear interactions among each other. This means that in a complex system the multiplicative experience or, so to speak, the history of each member produces its present characteristics. If attention is paid to any statistical property in any complex system, the lognormal distribution is the most natural and appropriate among the standard or ``normal'' statistics to overview the whole system. In fact, the lognormality emerges rather conspicuously when we examine, as familiar and typical examples of statistical aspects in complex systems, the nursing-care period for the aged, populations of prefectures and municipalities, and our body height and weight. Many other examples are found in nature and society. On the basis of these observations, we discuss the possibility of sociological physics.

  16. Trap Cropping Systems and a Physical Barrier for Suppression of Stink Bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in Cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, P G; Khrimian, A; Cottrell, T E; Lou, X; Mizell, R F; Johnson, C J

    2015-10-01

    Euschistus servus (Say), Nezara viridula (L.), and Chinavia hilaris (Say) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) are economic pests of cotton in the coastal plain of the southeastern United States. The objective of this 2-yr study was to determine the ability of trap cropping systems, pheromone-baited stink bug traps, and a synthetic physical barrier at the peanut-to-cotton interface to manage stink bugs in cotton. The physical barrier was the most effective management tactic. Stink bug density in cotton was lowest for this treatment. In 2010, boll injury was lower for the physical barrier compared to the other treatments except for soybean with stink bug traps. In 2011, boll injury was lower for this treatment compared to the control. Soybean was an effective trap crop, reducing both stink bug density in cotton and boll injury regardless if used alone or in combination with either stink bug traps or buckwheat. Incorporation of buckwheat in soybean enhanced parasitism of E. servus egg masses by Telenomus podisi Ashmead in cotton. The insertion of eyelets in the lid of the insect-collecting device of a stink bug trap allowed adult stink bug parasitoids, but not E. servus, to escape. Stand-alone stink bug traps were not very effective in deterring colonization of cotton by stink bugs or reducing boll injury. The paucity of effective alternative control measures available for stink bug management justifies further full-scale evaluations into these management tactics for control of these pests in crops. PMID:26453721

  17. [Female migrants in the health care system. Health care utilisation, access barriers and health promotion strategies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimmer-Puchinger, B; Wolf, H; Engleder, A

    2006-09-01

    Due to the evident interaction between social factors and health, migrants are exposed to specific risk factors and access barriers to health services. Some examples are the lower education level, the low social position and/or the insufficient language skills. This concept is further elaborated in the multi-factorial impacts of health literacy. Female migrants often experience additional discrimination because of their gender. Despite the lack of representative data, consistent studies show that female migrants do not regularly take advantage of health care prevention and present themselves with higher degrees of stress. The current "inadequate health care" manifests itself in a lack of care in the areas of prevention and health education and an abundance in the context of medication and diagnostic procedures. To meet these demands and to further reduce barriers, in particular language barriers, specific strategies for this target group involving both politics and the health care system have to be developed. Besides the employment of interpreters with a native cultural background and the distribution of information booklets, it is an important strategy to reduce structural obstacles such as cultural diversity. To contact these women in their living environment should help to increase their self-determined health promotion. Selected models of good practice in Austria with regard to the themes of FGM (female genital mutilation), violence, heart disease and breast cancer are presented to highlight the specific health situation and risk factors of female migrants as well as successful strategies to confront them. PMID:16927035

  18. Investigating Barriers to Tuberculosis Evaluation in Uganda Using Geographic Information Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Jennifer M; Cattamanchi, Adithya; Miller, Cecily R; Tatem, Andrew J; Katamba, Achilles; Haguma, Priscilla; Handley, Margaret A; Davis, J Lucian

    2015-10-01

    Reducing geographic barriers to tuberculosis (TB) care is a priority in high-burden countries where patients frequently initiate, but do not complete, the multi-day TB evaluation process. Using routine cross-sectional study from six primary-health clinics in rural Uganda from 2009 to 2012, we explored whether geographic barriers affect completion of TB evaluation among adults with unexplained chronic cough. We measured distance from home parish to health center and calculated individual travel time using a geographic information systems technique incorporating roads, land cover, and slope, and measured its association with completion of TB evaluation. In 264,511 patient encounters, 4,640 adults (1.8%) had sputum smear microscopy ordered; 2,783 (60%) completed TB evaluation. Median travel time was 68 minutes for patients with TB examination ordered compared with 60 minutes without (P < 0.010). Travel time differed between those who did and did not complete TB evaluation at only one of six clinics, whereas distance to care did not differ at any of them. Neither distance nor travel time predicted completion of TB evaluation in rural Uganda, although limited detail in road and village maps restricted full implementation of these mapping techniques. Better data are needed on geographic barriers to access clinics offering TB services to improve TB diagnosis. PMID:26217044

  19. Asphalt emulsion radon barrier systems for uranium mill tailings: an overview of the technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, E.G.; Hartley, J.N.; Freeman, H.D.; Gates, T.E.; Nelson, D.A.; Dunning, R.L.

    1984-03-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), under contract to the US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP) office, has developed an asphalt emulsion cover system to reduce the release of radon from uranium mill tailings. The system has been field tested at Grand Junction, Colorado. Results from laboratory and field tests indicate that this system is effective in reducing radon release to near-background levels (<2.5 pCi m/sup -2/s/sup -1/) and has the properties required for long-term effectiveness and stability. Engineering specifications have been developed, and analysis indicates that asphalt emulsion covers are cost-competitive with other cover systems. This report summarizes the technology for asphalt emulsion radon barrier systems. 59 references, 45 figures, 36 tables.

  20. Asphalt emulsion radon barrier systems for uranium mill tailings: an overview of the technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), under contract to the US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP) office, has developed an asphalt emulsion cover system to reduce the release of radon from uranium mill tailings. The system has been field tested at Grand Junction, Colorado. Results from laboratory and field tests indicate that this system is effective in reducing radon release to near-background levels (-2s-1) and has the properties required for long-term effectiveness and stability. Engineering specifications have been developed, and analysis indicates that asphalt emulsion covers are cost-competitive with other cover systems. This report summarizes the technology for asphalt emulsion radon barrier systems. 59 references, 45 figures, 36 tables

  1. Integrated system of safety features for spent fuel interim storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design of the spent fuel interim storage facility (SFISF) must meet the applicable safety requirements in order to ensure radiological protection of the personnel, public and environment during all phases of the facility. To elaborate the safety documentation necessary for licensing, we were trying to chose the most appropriate approach related to safety features for SFISF, based on national and international regulations, standards and recommendations, as well as on the experience of other countries with similar facilities and finally, on our own experience in designing other nuclear objectives in Romania. The paper presents the issues that we consider important for the safety evaluation and are developed as a detailed diagram. The diagram contains in a logical succession the following issues: - fundamental principles of radioprotection; - fundamental safety principles of radioactive waste management; - safety objectives of SFISF; - safety criteria for SFISF; - safety requirements for SFISF; - siting criteria for SFISF; - siting requirements for SFISF. (authors)

  2. Information barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An information barrier (IB) consists of procedures and technology that prevent the release of sensitive information during a joint inspection of a sensitive nuclear item, and provides confidence that the measurement system into which it has been integrated functions exactly as designed and constructed. Work in the U.S. on radiation detection system information barriers dates back at least to 1990, even though the term is more recent. In January 1999, an Information Barrier Working Group (IBWG) was formed in the United States to help coordinate technical efforts related to information barrier research and development (R and D). This paper presents an overview of the efforts of this group, by its present and former Chairs, as well as recommendations for further information barrier R and D. Progress on the demonstration of monitoring systems containing IBs is also provided. From the U.S. IBWG perspective, the top-level functional requirements for the information barrier portion of an integrated radiation signature-information barrier inspection system are twofold: The host must be assured that its classified information is protected from disclosure to the inspecting party; and The inspecting party must be confident that the integrated inspection system measures, processes, and presents the radiation-signature-based measurement conclusion in an accurate and reproducible manner. It is the position in the United States that in the absence of any agreement to share classified nuclear weapons design information while implementing an inspection regime, the need to protect host country classified warhead design information is paramount and overrules the need to provide confidence to the inspecting party regarding the accuracy and reproducibility of the measurements. The U.S. IBWG has reached a consensus on several critical design elements that define a general standard for radiation signature information barrier design. Technical specialists from cooperating parties must be

  3. Supporting the material control and accountancy system with physical protection system features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most physical security functions can be accomplished by a range of alternative features. Careful design can provide comparable levels of security regardless of which option is chosen, albeit with possible differences in cost and efficiency. However, the effectiveness and especially the cost and efficiency of the material control and accounting system may be strongly influenced by the selection of a particular design approach to physical security. In this paper, a series of examples are cited to illustrate the effects that particular physical protection design choices may have. The examples have been chosen from several systems engineering projects at facilities within the DOE nuclear community. These examples are generalized, and a series of design principles are proposed for integrating physical security with material control and accounting by appropriate selection of alternative features. 2 references, 6 figures

  4. Supporting the material control and accountancy system with physical protection system features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most physical security functions can be accomplished by a range of alternative features. Careful design can provide comparable levels of security regardless of which option is chosen, albeit with possible differences in cost and efficiency. However, the effectiveness and especially the cost and efficiency of the material control and accounting system may be strongly influenced by the selection of a particular design approach to physical security. In this paper, a series of examples are cited to illustrate the effects that particular physical protection design choices may have. The examples have been chosen from several systems engineering projects at facilities within the DOE nuclear community. These examples are generalized, and a series of design principles are proposed for integrating physical security with MC and A by appropriate selection of alternative features

  5. Design features of the laboratory-scale radiochemical immobilization system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under the High-Level Waste Immobilization Program, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is studying various ways to solidify high-level nuclear wastes. A variety of waste forms and processes are being investigated, with the most highly developed process being spray calcination coupled with in-can melting. This report describes a remote laboratory-scale system that was designed for the purpose of investigating the effects of different operating conditions and waste compositions on the product and on the effluents generated. It is termed laboratory-scale because of its nominal 1 L/h feed rate as compared to well over 300 L/h for full-scale equipment at PNL. The equipment currently consists of a feed system, a spray calciner, an in-can melter, and an effluent control system. It is operated in a shielded radiochemical hot cell using radioactive high-level liquid waste (HLLW) to answer questions on the deposition of radiochemicals during actual waste processing. The effluent control system can be modified in order to test different effluent systems, one of which has been proposed by the Savannah River Laboratories (SRL) for use in the Savannah River Plant vitrification system. The laboratory-scale system can also be used to test alternative immobilization processes, since spray calcination is a common processing step in many alternative waste form flowsheets. Thus, only the addition of a specific forming step such as pelletizing or sintering is necessary

  6. Omnidirectional vision systems calibration, feature extraction and 3D information

    CERN Document Server

    Puig, Luis

    2013-01-01

    This work focuses on central catadioptric systems, from the early step of calibration to high-level tasks such as 3D information retrieval. The book opens with a thorough introduction to the sphere camera model, along with an analysis of the relation between this model and actual central catadioptric systems. Then, a new approach to calibrate any single-viewpoint catadioptric camera is described.  This is followed by an analysis of existing methods for calibrating central omnivision systems, and a detailed examination of hybrid two-view relations that combine images acquired with uncalibrated

  7. Formal modelling and verification of interlocking systems featuring sequential release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vu, Linh Hong; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Peleska, Jan

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we present a method and an associated toolchain for the formal verification of the new Danish railway interlocking systems that are compatible with the European Train Control System (ETCS) Level 2. We have made a generic and reconfigurable model of the system behaviour and generic...... checking (BMC) and inductive reasoning, it is verified that the generated model instance satisfies the generated safety properties. Using this method, we are able to verify the safety properties for model instances corresponding to railway networks of industrial size. Experiments show that BMC is also...

  8. Development of a coincidence system for radio-nuclide standardization using surface barrier detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A system for the standardization of alpha-gamma or electron-X radionuclide emitters has been developed in the present work. The system consists of one or two surface barrier detectors for alpha or electron detection which are coupled to thin-window NaI (T1) crystals suitable for low energy X or gamma ray detection. The performance of the system has been verified by means of the standardization of 241Am, 137Cs and 109Cd solutions. The activity has been obtained using the extrapolation method applied to the 4Πα-γ and 2Πec-X coincidence technique. The surface barrier detection efficiency was varied by placing absorbers over the radioactive sources or by changing the source to detector distance. The results were compared to those obtained using conventional absolute systems based on gas-flow and pressurized 4Π proportional counters, or using radioactive solutions standardized in international comparisons spondored by the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures. The expect and measured activities agree within the experimental uncertainties which were: 0.2 % for 241Am, 0.7% for 137Cs and 0.6% for 109Cd. The ratio between the probabilities of (electron capture + internal conversion) and internal conversion for the K-shell of 109Cd has been determined. The result is: 2.8883 ± 0.016. (author)

  9. The prospects for an expansion of biogas systems in Sweden-Incentives, barriers and potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biogas is a renewable, high-quality fuel, currently produced at more than 200 locations in Sweden. The present production is some 5 PJ/year but the potential is approximately 10 times higher. Biogas can be produced from a wide range of raw materials, from organic waste to dedicated energy crops, and can be utilised for various energy services such as heat, combined heat and power or as a vehicle fuel. Biogas systems are therefore affected by a number of different incentives and barriers, including energy-, waste treatment- and agricultural policies. In this paper, different policies and policy instruments, as well as other factors, which influence a potential expansion of Swedish biogas systems, are identified and evaluated. Existing incentives and barriers can be divided into those affecting the production of biogas, and those affecting the utilisation of the biogas. Only a few types of biogas systems are competitive in Sweden today, while the majority needs increased incentives of different kinds to reach profitability. Such incentives are often motivated from an energy and environmental point of view. Due to the complexity of the biogas systems and the many actors involved, all with different interests, the process of implementing adequate policy instruments will require concerted efforts

  10. GNIS: Geographic Names Information Systems - All features (2013)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  11. Distributed linac control system featuring SDLC loop communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A distributed control system has been designed as a possible replacement for the existing analog and digital interface equipment in use at the Fermilab 200-MeV linear accelerator. In addition to replacing the present interface the present interface equipment that is no longer supported by the manufacturer, the goals for a new system include improved reliability, easier maintenance and faster monitoring of accelerator parameters. About 15 local microcomputers, one for each major linac system, would be fabricated from commercially available Multibus-compatible hardware. These local stations can operate as stand-alone systems, providing control and readout of parameters to facilitate maintenance of the accelerator components. Values of all critical devices can be monitored at the accelerator repetition rate (15 Hz), so that beam may be inhibited by any out-of-tolerance reading on a pulse-to-pulse basis, to prevent unnecessary and damaging beam loss

  12. The design features of forecasting support systems and their effectiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Lawrence, M.; Goodwin, P; R A Fildes

    2003-01-01

    Forecasts play a key role in the management of the supply chain. In most organisations such forecasts form part of an information system on which other functions such as scheduling, resource planning and marketing depend. Forecast accuracy is, therefore, an important component in the delivery of an effective supply chain. Typically, the forecasts are produced by integrating managerial judgment with quantitative forecasts within a forecasting support system (FSS). However, there is much eviden...

  13. A New Feature in Some Quasi-discontinuous Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Shun-Guang; HE Da-Ren

    2000-01-01

    Many systems can display a very short, rapid changing stage (quasi-discontinuous region) inside a relatively very long and slowly changing process. A quantitative definition for the "quasi-discontinuity" in these systems has been introduced. We have shown by a simplified model that extra-large Feigenbaum constants can be found inside some period-doubling cascades due to the quasi-discontinuity. As an example, this phenomenon has also been observed in Rose-Hindmash model describing neuron activities.

  14. Combined photovoltaic and solar-thermal systems: overcoming barriers to market acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combined Photovoltaic and Solar-Thermal Systems (PV/T Systems) combine Photovoltaic (PV) and solar thermal technologies into one system with both electrical and thermal energy output. PV/T systems have several perceived advantages to stand-alone PV or solar-thermal systems. The increased efficiency and dual nature of the systems make suitable for situations where installation space is limited, and for homeowners who are forced to decide between meeting thermal or electrical needs. The financial benefit of the combined system is also significant, as the long payback of PV systems is joined with a relatively short payback of solar thermal systems. A background of PV/T was presented, with details of classifications and the International Energy Association's program to evaluate the technical status of PV/T systems and formulate a roadmap for future development. It was noted that input from the Solar Heating and Cooling Program (SHCP) is needed to help identify market barriers in PV/T systems. This paper reviewed existing and potential PV/T systems and their technical status, and reported on the methodology established by IEA group 35. The systems were grouped according to thermal collector types of unglazed water collectors, glazed water collectors, unglazed air collectors, glazed air collectors, air-flow windows, and concentrating collectors. It was noted that a number of new systems are currently being developed, including concentrating collectors with water and air heating, unglazed air heating systems, and unglazed water heating systems. It was noted that apart from technical barriers, efficient design and performance prediction are also problematic, as tools for predicting performance do not exist. The same tools will be used to optimize PV/T system designs. It was suggested that standardized reporting methods, simulation and sizing tools and demonstration products need to be created and that regional certification issues need to be identified. Environmental

  15. Evolution of fusion hindrance for asymmetric systems at deep sub barrier energies

    CERN Document Server

    Shrivastavaa, A; Pandit, S K; Nanal, V; Ichikawa, T; Hagino, K; Navin, A; Palshetkar, C S; Parkar, V V; Ramachandran, K; Rout, P C; Kumar, Abhinav; Chatterjee, A; Kailas, S

    2016-01-01

    Measurements of fusion cross-sections of 7Li and 12C with 198Pt at deep sub-barrier energies are reported to unravel the role of the entrance channel in the occurrence of fusion hindrance. The onset of fusion hindrance has been clearly observed in 12C + 198Pt system but not in 7Li + 198Pt system, within the measured energy range. Emergence of the hindrance, moving from lighter (6,7Li) to heavier (12C,16O) projectiles is explained employing a model that considers a gradual transition from a sudden to adiabatic regime at low energies. The model calculation reveals a weak effect of the damping of coupling to collective motion for the present systems as compared to that obtained for systems with heavier projectiles.

  16. OVERCOMING THE METER BARRIER AND THE FORMATION OF SYSTEMS WITH TIGHTLY PACKED INNER PLANETS (STIPs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boley, A. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of British Columbia, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, B.C. V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Morris, M. A. [Center for Meteorite Studies, Arizona State University, P.O. Box 876004, Tempe, AZ 88287-6004 (United States); Ford, E. B. [Center for Exoplanets and Habitable Worlds, The Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Laboratory, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2014-09-10

    We present a solution to the long outstanding meter barrier problem in planet formation theory. As solids spiral inward due to aerodynamic drag, they will enter disk regions that are characterized by high temperatures, densities, and pressures. High partial pressures of rock vapor can suppress solid evaporation, and promote collisions between partially molten solids, allowing rapid growth. This process should be ubiquitous in planet-forming disks, which may be evidenced by the abundant class of Systems with Tightly packed Inner Planets discovered by the NASA Kepler Mission.

  17. Technical position on postclosure seals, barriers, and drainage system in an unsaturated medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this technical position is to provide guidance with respect to the current Department of Energy sealing and drainage concepts for a geologic repository in an unsaturated medium. Section 2.0 of the technical position provides a listing of the 10 CFR 60 regulations which are applicable to the design, testing, selection of materials and placement of the postclosure seals, barriers and drainage system. Staff position statements and the corresponding discussions are presented in Sections 3.0 and 4.0, respectively. Technical positions are organized according to the following topics: (1) design consideration, (2) site characterization considerations, (3) performance confirmation considerations, and (4) performance analysis considerations. 6 refs

  18. Dissipative tunneling through a potential barrier in the Lindblad theory of open quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of Lindblad theory for open quantum systems, based on quantum dynamical semi-groups, using the general form of the master equation in the Markov approximation, an analytical expression of the tunneling probability through an inverted parabola is obtained. This penetration probability depends on the environment coefficients and it is shown that it increases with the dissipation and the temperature of the thermal bath. The study of dissipative tunneling can be applied to problems of nuclear fragmentation, fission and fusion, considered as a tunneling process through the nuclear barrier defined in the space of collective coordinates, like charge and mass asymmetry or the distance between the fission fragments. (author)

  19. Gas migration through bentonitic engineered barrier systems and through non-indurated clays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This extended abstract summarises briefly the main conclusions and perspectives of the research work carried out in the frame of gas migration from a radioactive waste disposal through bentonitic engineered barrier systems (EBS) and non-indurated natural clay formations. After a description of the most important experimental results and the conceptual model evolution, we will focus on the safety relevant issues and the way the gas migration through such media is currently treated in performance assessment for different types of waste. Finally, the remaining open questions will be addressed at the end of this paper. Further insights are provided in the EC/NEA status report. (authors)

  20. Engineered barrier system and waste package design concepts for a potential geologic repository at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We are using an iterative process to develop preliminary concept descriptions for the Engineered Barrier System and waste-package components for the potential geologic repository at Yucca Mountain. The process allows multiple design concepts to be developed subject to major constraints, requirements, and assumptions. Involved in the highly interactive and interdependent steps of the process are technical specialists in engineering, metallic and nonmetallic materials, chemistry, geomechanics, hydrology, and geochemistry. We have developed preliminary design concepts that satisfy both technical and nontechnical (e.g., programmatic or policy) requirements

  1. Role of barrier layer on dielectric function of graphene double layer system at finite temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Digish K.; Ambavale, Sagar K.; Prajapati, Ketan; Sharma, A. C.

    2016-05-01

    We have theoretically investigated the static dielectric function of graphene double layer system (GDLS) at finite temperatures within the random phase approximation. GDLS has been suspended on a substrate and barrier layer of three different materials; h-BN, Al2O3 and HfO2 has been introduced between two graphene sheets of GDLS. We have reported dependence of the overall dielectric function of GDLS on interlayer distance and the effect of the dielectric environment at finite temperatures. Results show close relation between changing environment and behavior of dielectric constant of GDLS.

  2. Nanofiber-based filters as novel barrier systems for nanomaterial exposure scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faccini, M; Amantia, D; Vazquez-Campos, S; Aubouy, L [LEITAT Technological Center, Passeig 22 de Juliol, 218, 08221 Terrassa (Spain); Vaquero, C; Lopez de Ipina, J M, E-mail: mfaccini@leitat.org [Tecnalia, P.T. Alava - C/ Leonardo Da Vinci, 11, 01510 Minano (Alava) (Spain)

    2011-07-06

    In this article our latest advances in the development of efficient barrier systems against micro- and nano-particulate materials are presented. Nanofibrous polyamide 6 (PA6) mats were fabricated by electrospinning onto a nonwoven viscose substrate. The influence of electrospinning parameters including solution concentration, viscosity, and conductivity, were studied for the production of nonwovens with different fiber size distribution ranging from 74 to 261 nm in diameters. Moreover, the formation of nanowebs (30-40 nm) which are widely distributed among fibers was observed. By varying several process parameters, membranes with different thickness of the nanofiber layer and therefore air permeability and nanoparticle filtration efficiency were obtained.

  3. Reactive Transport and Coupled THM Processes in Engineering Barrier Systems (EBS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geological repositories for disposal of high-level nuclear wastes generally rely on a multi-barrier system to isolate radioactive wastes from the biosphere. The multi-barrier system typically consists of a natural barrier system, including repository host rock and its surrounding subsurface environment, and an engineering barrier system (EBS). EBS represents the man-made, engineered materials placed within a repository, including the waste form, waste canisters, buffer materials, backfill and seals (OECD, 2003). EBS plays a significant role in the containment and long-term retardation of radionuclide release. EBS is involved in complex thermal, hydrogeological, mechanical, chemical and biological processes, such as heat release due to radionuclide decay, multiphase flow (including gas release due to canister corrosion), swelling of buffer materials, radionuclide diffusive transport, waste dissolution and chemical reactions. All these processes are related to each other. An in-depth understanding of these coupled processes is critical for the performance assessment (PA) for EBS and the entire repository. Within the EBS group of Used Fuel Disposition (UFD) Campaign, LBNL is currently focused on (1) thermal-hydraulic-mechanical-chemical (THMC) processes in buffer materials (bentonite) and (2) diffusive transport in EBS associated with clay host rock, with a long-term goal to develop a full understanding of (and needed modeling capabilities to simulate) impacts of coupled processes on radionuclide transport in different components of EBS, as well as the interaction between near-field host rock (e.g., clay) and EBS and how they effect radionuclide release. This final report documents the progress that LBNL has made in its focus areas. Specifically, Section 2 summarizes progress on literature review for THMC processes and reactive-diffusive radionuclide transport in bentonite. The literature review provides a picture of the state-of-the-art of the relevant research areas

  4. Reactive Transport and Coupled THM Processes in Engineering Barrier Systems (EBS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steefel, Carl; Rutqvist, Jonny; Tsang, Chin-Fu; Liu, Hui-Hai; Sonnenthal, Eric; Houseworth, Jim; Birkholzer, Jens

    2010-08-31

    Geological repositories for disposal of high-level nuclear wastes generally rely on a multi-barrier system to isolate radioactive wastes from the biosphere. The multi-barrier system typically consists of a natural barrier system, including repository host rock and its surrounding subsurface environment, and an engineering barrier system (EBS). EBS represents the man-made, engineered materials placed within a repository, including the waste form, waste canisters, buffer materials, backfill and seals (OECD, 2003). EBS plays a significant role in the containment and long-term retardation of radionuclide release. EBS is involved in complex thermal, hydrogeological, mechanical, chemical and biological processes, such as heat release due to radionuclide decay, multiphase flow (including gas release due to canister corrosion), swelling of buffer materials, radionuclide diffusive transport, waste dissolution and chemical reactions. All these processes are related to each other. An in-depth understanding of these coupled processes is critical for the performance assessment (PA) for EBS and the entire repository. Within the EBS group of Used Fuel Disposition (UFD) Campaign, LBNL is currently focused on (1) thermal-hydraulic-mechanical-chemical (THMC) processes in buffer materials (bentonite) and (2) diffusive transport in EBS associated with clay host rock, with a long-term goal to develop a full understanding of (and needed modeling capabilities to simulate) impacts of coupled processes on radionuclide transport in different components of EBS, as well as the interaction between near-field host rock (e.g., clay) and EBS and how they effect radionuclide release. This final report documents the progress that LBNL has made in its focus areas. Specifically, Section 2 summarizes progress on literature review for THMC processes and reactive-diffusive radionuclide transport in bentonite. The literature review provides a picture of the state-of-the-art of the relevant research areas

  5. Burden of Circulatory System Diseases and Ignored Barriers ofKnowledge Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed-Basir Ghafouri

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Circulatory system disease raise third highest disability-adjusted life years among Iranians and ischemic cardiac diseases are main causes for such burden. Despite available evidences on risk factors of the disease, no effective intervention was implemented to control and prevent the disease. This paper non-systematically reviews available literature on the problem, solutions, and barriers of implementation of knowledge translation in Iran. It seems that there are ignored factors such as cultural and motivational issues in knowledge translation interventions but there are hopes for implementation of started projects and preparation of students as next generation of knowledge transferors.

  6. An integrated database with system optimization and design features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabyan, A.; Nikravesh, P. E.; Vincent, T. L.

    1992-01-01

    A customized, mission-specific relational database package was developed to allow researchers working on the Mars oxygen manufacturing plant to enter physical description, engineering, and connectivity data through a uniform, graphical interface and to store the data in formats compatible with other software also developed as part of the project. These latter components include an optimization program to maximize or minimize various criteria as the system evolves into its final design; programs to simulate the behavior of various parts of the plant in Martian conditions; an animation program which, in different modes, provides visual feedback to designers and researchers about the location of and temperature distribution among components as well as heat, mass, and data flow through the plant as it operates in different scenarios; and a control program to investigate the stability and response of the system under different disturbance conditions. All components of the system are interconnected so that changes entered through one component are reflected in the others.

  7. The Australian REEFREP System: A Coastal Vessel Traffic Information Service and Ship Reporting System for the Torres Strait Region and the Inner Route of the Great Barrier Reef

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, John C.

    The new Australian ship reporting system, identifier , will be the core component of a Vessel Traffic Information Service (VTIS) covering the Torres Strait region and the Great Barrier Reef (GBR). It is the first such system to be considered by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) under the terms of the new SOLAS 74 regulation v/8-1, which entered into force on 1 January 1996 and allows for ship reporting systems adopted by the Organization to be made mandatory for all, or certain categories of vessels.The REEFREP system, planned for implementation on 1 January 1997, extends for some 900 n.m. or about 1500 km along the Queensland coastline. It will be a VHF radio-based system with radars covering three selected focal points in the Torres Strait, off Cairns and in the southern approaches to the inner route. The system will provide a capability for a single Ship Reporting Centre to interact with shipping, enabling the provision of improved information on the presence, movements and patterns of shipping in the area and the ability to respond more quickly to an incident or pollution should this occur.An interesting feature and a major factor in the system design is the remoteness of most equipment sites and the limited infrastructure available to support communications and data transmission requiring the application of advanced technology and video transmission, solar power generation and software engineering skills of a high order.

  8. A Novel Feature Selection Strategy for Enhanced Biomedical Event Extraction Using the Turku System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingbo Xia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Feature selection is of paramount importance for text-mining classifiers with high-dimensional features. The Turku Event Extraction System (TEES is the best performing tool in the GENIA BioNLP 2009/2011 shared tasks, which relies heavily on high-dimensional features. This paper describes research which, based on an implementation of an accumulated effect evaluation (AEE algorithm applying the greedy search strategy, analyses the contribution of every single feature class in TEES with a view to identify important features and modify the feature set accordingly. With an updated feature set, a new system is acquired with enhanced performance which achieves an increased F-score of 53.27% up from 51.21% for Task 1 under strict evaluation criteria and 57.24% according to the approximate span and recursive criterion.

  9. Pancreatic Pseudocyst as Presenting Feature in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We report of a case of 16-year-old young tribal girl from rural Maharashtra who had fever, abdominal pain and vomiting. She was first diagnosed with pseudocyst of pancreas by computerized tomography and then with Systemic lupus erythematosus after further investigations. There has been no reported case of SLE and pancreatic pseudocysts here in India, who was treated conservatively.

  10. Intelligent Learning Management Systems: Definition, Features and Measurement of Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fardinpour, Ali; Pedram, Mir Mohsen; Burkle, Martha

    2014-01-01

    Virtual Learning Environments have been the center of attention in the last few decades and help educators tremendously with providing students with educational resources. Since artificial intelligence was used for educational proposes, learning management system developers showed much interest in making their products smarter and more…

  11. Error analysis of rigid body posture measurement system based on circular feature points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Ju; Cui, Jishan; Yang, Ning

    2015-02-01

    For monocular vision pose parameters determine the problem, feature-based target feature points on the plane quadrilateral, an improved two-stage iterative algorithm is proposed to improve the optimization of rigid body posture measurement calculating model. Monocular vision rigid body posture measurement system is designed; experimentally in each coordinate system determined coordinate a unified method to unify the each feature point measure coordinates; theoretical analysis sources of error from rigid body posture measurement system simulation experiments. Combined with the actual experimental analysis system under the condition of simulation error of pose accuracy of measurement, gives the comprehensive error of measurement system, for improving measurement precision of certain theoretical guiding significance.

  12. Single-system ureteroceles in infants and children: imaging features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose. The purpose of this manuscript is to describe the clinical and imaging findings in children who have single-system ureteroceles.Materials and methods. We reviewed the urology records and imaging studies in 32 consecutive infants and children who were diagnosed in our department with single-system ureteroceles.Results. There were 35 ureteroceles in the 32 patients - 29 were unilateral (14 right-sided, 15 left-sided) and 3 were bilateral. Twenty-five patients were boys (78 %) and 7 girls. Mean age at presentation was 0.7 years (0-9.2 years). Prenatally detected hydronephrosis or cystic renal dysplasia was the most common presentation (24 patients). Four presented with urinary infection, 2 with abdominal mass, 1 had myelomeningocele, and 1 had hypospadias. Three patients also had multiple non-urologic, congenital anomalies. Thirty-three ureteroceles were intravesical, and 2 were ectopic to the bladder neck. Twenty-four ureteroceles were associated with ipsilateral hydroureteronephrosis and 10 with ipsilateral multicystic dysplastic kidney. One patient had a normal ipsilateral kidney and a contralateral multicystic dysplastic kidney. The ureterocele was identified on at least one imaging study in each patient. Sixteen ureteroceles (47 %) everted at VCUG, mimicking paraureteral diverticula. Other variations included ureterocele prolapse and inadvertent ureterocele catheterization (1 each).Conclusions. Single-system ureterocele is an important, although uncommon cause of hydronephrosis and renal dysplasia in infants and children. Single-system ureterocele is distinguished clinically from the more common duplex-system ureterocele by its frequent occurrence in boys and its association with multicystic dysplastic kidney. Because these ureteroceles are frequently small and have a propensity to evert at VCUG, they can be mistaken for paraureteral diverticula. (orig.)

  13. Single-system ureteroceles in infants and children: imaging features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zerin, J.M.; Baker, D.R. [Dept. of Radiology, Indiana University Medical Center, James Whitcomb Riley Hospital for Children, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Casale, J.A. [Dept. of Urology, Indiana University Medical Center, James Whitcomb Riley Hospital for Children, Indianapolis, IN (United States)

    2000-03-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this manuscript is to describe the clinical and imaging findings in children who have single-system ureteroceles.Materials and methods. We reviewed the urology records and imaging studies in 32 consecutive infants and children who were diagnosed in our department with single-system ureteroceles.Results. There were 35 ureteroceles in the 32 patients - 29 were unilateral (14 right-sided, 15 left-sided) and 3 were bilateral. Twenty-five patients were boys (78 %) and 7 girls. Mean age at presentation was 0.7 years (0-9.2 years). Prenatally detected hydronephrosis or cystic renal dysplasia was the most common presentation (24 patients). Four presented with urinary infection, 2 with abdominal mass, 1 had myelomeningocele, and 1 had hypospadias. Three patients also had multiple non-urologic, congenital anomalies. Thirty-three ureteroceles were intravesical, and 2 were ectopic to the bladder neck. Twenty-four ureteroceles were associated with ipsilateral hydroureteronephrosis and 10 with ipsilateral multicystic dysplastic kidney. One patient had a normal ipsilateral kidney and a contralateral multicystic dysplastic kidney. The ureterocele was identified on at least one imaging study in each patient. Sixteen ureteroceles (47 %) everted at VCUG, mimicking paraureteral diverticula. Other variations included ureterocele prolapse and inadvertent ureterocele catheterization (1 each).Conclusions. Single-system ureterocele is an important, although uncommon cause of hydronephrosis and renal dysplasia in infants and children. Single-system ureterocele is distinguished clinically from the more common duplex-system ureterocele by its frequent occurrence in boys and its association with multicystic dysplastic kidney. Because these ureteroceles are frequently small and have a propensity to evert at VCUG, they can be mistaken for paraureteral diverticula. (orig.)

  14. Technical and Economical Aspects of Current Thermal Barrier Coating Systems for Gas Turbine Engines by Thermal Spray and EBPVD: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuerstein, Albert; Knapp, James; Taylor, Thomas; Ashary, Adil; Bolcavage, Ann; Hitchman, Neil

    2008-06-01

    The most advanced thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems for aircraft engine and power generation hot section components consist of electron beam physical vapor deposition (EBPVD) applied yttria-stabilized zirconia and platinum modified diffusion aluminide bond coating. Thermally sprayed ceramic and MCrAlY bond coatings, however, are still used extensively for combustors and power generation blades and vanes. This article highlights the key features of plasma spray and HVOF, diffusion aluminizing, and EBPVD coating processes. The coating characteristics of thermally sprayed MCrAlY bond coat as well as low density and dense vertically cracked (DVC) Zircoat TBC are described. Essential features of a typical EBPVD TBC coating system, consisting of a diffusion aluminide and a columnar TBC, are also presented. The major coating cost elements such as material, equipment and processing are explained for the different technologies, with a performance and cost comparison given for selected examples.

  15. Next generation of non-mammalian blood-brain barrier models to study parasitic infections of the central nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Ruqaiyyah; Edwards-Smallbone, James; Flynn, Robin; Khan, Naveed Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Transmigration of neuropathogens across the blood-brain barrier is a key step in the development of central nervous system infections, making it a prime target for drug development. The ability of neuropathogens to traverse the blood-brain barrier continues to inspire researchers to understand the specific strategies and molecular mechanisms that allow them to enter the brain. The availability of models of the blood-brain barrier that closely mimic the situation in vivo offers unprecedented opportunities for the development of novel therapeutics. PMID:21921682

  16. A Feature Based Navigation System for an Autonomous Underwater Robot

    OpenAIRE

    Folkesson, John; Leederkerken, Jacques; Williams, Rob; Patrikalakis, Andrew; Leonard, John,

    2008-01-01

    International audience We present a system for autonomous underwater navigation as implemented on a Nekton Ranger autonomous underwater vehicle, AUV. This is one of the first implementations of a practical application for simultaneous localization and mapping on an AUV. Besides being an application of real-time SLAM, the implemtation demonstrates a novel data fusion solution where data from 7 sources are fused at different time scales in 5 separate estimators. By modularizing the data fusi...

  17. Residential Building Management System Features and Underlying Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Puķīte, I; Geipele, I

    2015-01-01

    For the implementation of real estate management, in accordance with the legislative framework of good practice and quality management, a system is required that helps the processes to be arranged according to their fundamental values, criteria and functions. The study sets residential property management elements and factors influencing them. The significance of the topic is set by the developing industry and the requirement for quality and sustainable management model that includes all inte...

  18. Fault detection in mechanical systems based on subspace features

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Viet Ha; Rutten, Christophe; Golinval, Jean-Claude

    2010-01-01

    In the field of structural health monitoring or machine condition monitoring, the activation of nonlinear dynamic behavior complicates the procedure of damage or fault detection. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is known as an efficient method for damage diagnosis. However, two drawbacks of PCA are the assumption of the linearity of the system and the need of many sensors. This article presents industrial applications of two possible extensions of PCA: Null subspace analysis (NSA) and Kerne...

  19. Multiple-Feature Extracting Modules Based Leak Mining System Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Chiang Cho

    2013-01-01

    mining system that is equipped with SQL injection vulnerability detection, by means of an algorithm developed for the web crawler. In addition, we analyze portal sites of the governments of various countries or regions in order to investigate the information leaking status of each site. Subsequently, we analyze the database structure and content of each site, using the data collected. Thus, we make use of practical verification in order to focus on information security and privacy through black-box testing.

  20. Adaptive electrocardiogram feature extraction on distributed embedded systems

    OpenAIRE

    Jafari, R.; Noshadi, H; Ghiasi, S; Sarrafzadeh, M.

    2006-01-01

    Tiny embedded systems have not been an ideal outfit for high performance computing due to their constrained resources. Limitations in processing power, battery life, communication bandwidth, and memory constrain the applicability of existing complex medical analysis algorithms such as the Electrocardiogram ( ECG) analysis. Among various limitations, battery lifetime has been a major key technological constraint. In this paper, we address the issue of partitioning such a complex algorithm whil...

  1. Barriers of Referral System to Health Care Provision in Rural Societies in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manijeh Eskandari

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Health care delivery systems in rural areas face numerous challenges in meeting the community's needs. This study aimed to describe barriers of health care process in rural societies in Iran. Methods: In this qualitative study, 26 participants (21 rural health care providers and five rural patients were selected through purposive sampling. The data was collected via semi-structured individual interviews and small focus group discussions. Data was analyzed with qualitative content analysis.Results: One category, “ineffective referral system”, and five subcategories, i.e. being far from the ideal referral system, lack of adequate governmental referral system, lack of connection between different levels of the referral system, self-referential and bypassing the referral system, and insufficient knowledge about the referral system, were found. Conclusion: Considering the obstacles to the referral system, improvements in its structure are necessary to promote the quality of health care in rural areas. Such changes require coordination between the three levels of the referral system, strengthening the public sector of the system, increasing public awareness about the referral system, and prevention of self-referential.

  2. Waste package/engineered barrier system design concepts for Yucca Mountain repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for the siting, construction and operation of mined geologic disposal system (MGDS) for high level waste. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has the responsibility for promulgating the technical requirements necessary to license all phases of repository operation. The development of MGDS has been delegated to the DOE's Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project Office. The B ampersand W Fuel Company, as part of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System Management and Operating Contractor, is responsible for designing the waste package (WP) and the engineered barrier system (EBS). The goal of the design effort is to achieve a conservative, licensable design that meets the regulatory requirements with sufficient margin for uncertainty. Attainment of this goal relies on a multibarrier approach, the unsaturated nature of the Yucca Mountain site, consideration of, technical alternatives, and sufficient resolution of technical and regulatory uncertainties

  3. Changes in skin barrier during treatment with systemic alitretinoin: focus on skin susceptibility and stratum corneum ceramides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jungersted, J.M.; Høgh, Julie Kaae; Hellgren, Lars;

    2010-01-01

    Alitretinoin is a new drug for systemic treatment of chronic hand eczema. Previous functional tests of skin topically treated with retinoids have indicated impaired skin barrier function, but no data are available on barrier parameters after systemic alitretinoin treatment. To investigate the...... effect of systemic alitretinoin on skin barrier function and response to irritants, a secondary objective was to determine if changes occur in the lipid profile of stratum corneum after treatment with systemic alitretinoin. We conducted an open clinical intervention study on eight people ascribed to...... systemic alitretinoin treatment. The criteria for being ascribed to alitretinoin were chronic hand eczema and insufficient therapeutic response to potent topical corticosteroids. Before initiation and after 2 months of systemic treatment with 30 mg alitretinoin, a challenge with sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS...

  4. Features of damage of cardiovascular system in perimenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tainkin A.A.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Modern pathophysiological mechanisms, which lead to the damage of cardiovascular system in perimenopausal women are represented in review. The most significant of them are hormonal imbalances, inflammation, and psycho-emotional disorders, as well as disturbances of energy metabolism, endothelial dysfunction, electrolyte and vegetative disorders, apoptosis, acceleration of atherosclerosis, obesity and insulin resistance. We conducted random search of the literature on the subject in scientific journals, electronic libraries. The selection of material for the review has been carried out concerning the clinical relevance.

  5. Performance Confirmation for the Engineered Barrier System. Report of a Workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of preparations for review of future license applications, the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) organised a workshop on the engineered barrier system for the KBS-3 concept, focused on Performance Confirmation (PC). The workshop was held during 12 - 14 May, 2004 at Oskarshamn. The main purpose of the workshop was to identify key issues relating to the demonstration of long-term safety using a system of engineered barriers. The workshop began with introductory presentations on Performance Confirmation, on monitoring, and on long-term experiments in underground research laboratories. Working groups were then convened to discuss these topics and identify questions to put to the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) the following day. On the second day, SKB made several presentations, mainly on long-term experiments conducted at the Aespoe underground research laboratory. These presentations were followed by an informal session during which the questions identified by the working groups on the first day were discussed with SKB and its representatives. This report includes the questions identified by the working groups and a summary of the workshop discussions. Extended abstracts for the introductory presentations are included in an appendix. The conclusions and viewpoints presented in this report are those of one or several workshop participants. They do not necessarily coincide with those of SKI

  6. Socio-cultural barriers to the development of a sustainable energy system - the case of hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjerulf Petersen, L.; Holst Andersen, A.

    2009-02-15

    Any transition to a more sustainable energy system, radically reducing greenhouse gas emissions, is bound to run in to a host of different barriers - technological and economic, but also socio-cultural. This will also be the case for any large-scale application of hydrogen as energy carrier, especially if the system is going to be based on renewable energy sources. The aim of these research notes is to review and discuss major socio-cultural barriers to new forms of energy supply in general and to hydrogen specifically. Reaching sufficient reductions in greenhouse gas emissions may require more than large-scale dissemination of renewable energy sources. Also reductions or moderations in energy demand may be necessary. Hence, a central point in the research note is to consider not only socio-cultural obstacles for changing technologies in energy production, distribution and consumption but also obstacles for changing the scale of energy consumption, i.e. moderating the growth in how much energy is consumed or even reducing consumption volumes. (au)

  7. Our Selections and Decisions: Inherent Features of the Nervous System?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rösler, Frank

    The chapter summarizes findings on the neuronal bases of decisionmaking. Taking the phenomenon of selection it will be explained that systems built only from excitatory and inhibitory neuron (populations) have the emergent property of selecting between different alternatives. These considerations suggest that there exists a hierarchical architecture with central selection switches. However, in such a system, functions of selection and decision-making are not localized, but rather emerge from an interaction of several participating networks. These are, on the one hand, networks that process specific input and output representations and, on the other hand, networks that regulate the relative activation/inhibition of the specific input and output networks. These ideas are supported by recent empirical evidence. Moreover, other studies show that rather complex psychological variables, like subjective probability estimates, expected gains and losses, prediction errors, etc., do have biological correlates, i.e., they can be localized in time and space as activation states of neural networks and single cells. These findings suggest that selections and decisions are consequences of an architecture which, seen from a biological perspective, is fully deterministic. However, a transposition of such nomothetic functional principles into the idiographic domain, i.e., using them as elements for comprehensive 'mechanistic' explanations of individual decisions, seems not to be possible because of principle limitations. Therefore, individual decisions will remain predictable by means of probabilistic models alone.

  8. Overcoming Barriers to the Implementation of a Pharmacy Bar Code Scanning System for Medication Dispensing: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Nanji, Karen C.; Cina, Jennifer; Patel, Nirali; Churchill, William; Gandhi, Tejal K.; Poon, Eric G.

    2009-01-01

    Technology has great potential to reduce medication errors in hospitals. This case report describes barriers to, and facilitators of, the implementation of a pharmacy bar code scanning system to reduce medication dispensing errors at a large academic medical center. Ten pharmacy staff were interviewed about their experiences during the implementation. Interview notes were iteratively reviewed to identify common themes. The authors identified three main barriers to pharmacy bar code scanning s...

  9. Diagonal Based Feature Extraction for Handwritten Alphabets Recognition System using Neural Network

    CERN Document Server

    Pradeep, J; Himavathi, S; 10.5121/ijcsit.2011.3103

    2011-01-01

    An off-line handwritten alphabetical character recognition system using multilayer feed forward neural network is described in the paper. A new method, called, diagonal based feature extraction is introduced for extracting the features of the handwritten alphabets. Fifty data sets, each containing 26 alphabets written by various people, are used for training the neural network and 570 different handwritten alphabetical characters are used for testing. The proposed recognition system performs quite well yielding higher levels of recognition accuracy compared to the systems employing the conventional horizontal and vertical methods of feature extraction. This system will be suitable for converting handwritten documents into structural text form and recognizing handwritten names.

  10. The PENELOPE code system. Specific features and recent improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since its first release, back in 1996, the Monte Carlo code system PENELOPE has evolved into a flexible and reliable tool for describing coupled electron-photon transport in complex material structures. The present article contains an overview of the physical interaction models, particle tracking methods, geometry tools, and variance-reduction techniques implemented in PENELOPE. Recent refinements aimed at improving the accuracy of the code, and its stability under variations of user-defined simulation parameters, are also described. These include the use of reliable cross sections for the ionization of inner atomic electron shells by electron/positron impact, a reformulation of the random-hinge method, and the use of fuzzy quadric surfaces in the description of the geometry. (author)

  11. Universal features of localized eigenstates in disordered systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Localization-delocalization transitions occur in problems ranging from semiconductor-device physics to propagation of disease in plants and viruses on the internet. Here, we report calculations of localized electronic and vibrational eigenstates for remarkably different, mostly realistic, disordered systems and point out similar characteristics in the cases studied. We show in each case that the eigenstates may be decomposed into exponentially localized islands which may appear in many different eigenstates. In all cases, the decay length of the islands increases only modestly near the localization-delocalization transition; the eigenstates become extended primarily by proliferation (growth in number) of islands near the transition. Recently, microphotoluminescence experiments (Guillet et al 2003 Phys. Rev. B 68 045319) have imaged exciton states in disordered quantum wires, and these bear a strong qualitative resemblance to the island structure of eigenstates that we have studied theoretically. (letter to the editor)

  12. Graphene as a diffusion barrier for isomorphous systems: Cu-Ni system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Apurba; Punith Kumar, M. K.; Srivastava, Chandan

    2016-02-01

    Electrochemical exfoliation technique using the pyrophosphate anion derived from tetra sodium pyrophosphate was employed to produce graphene. As-synthesized graphene was then drop dried over a cold rolled Cu sheet. Ni coating was then electrodeposited over bare Cu and graphene-Cu substrates. Both substrates were then isothermally annealed at 800 °C for 3 h. WDS analysis showed substantial atomic diffusion in annealed Ni-Cu sample. Cu-graphene-Ni sample, on the other hand, showed negligible diffusion illustrating the diffusion barrier property of the graphene coating.

  13. Mouse-adapted scrapie strains 139A and ME7 overcome species barrier to induce experimental scrapie in hamsters and changed their pathogenic features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Qi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE diseases are known to be zoonotic diseases that can infect different kinds of animals. The transmissibility of TSE, like that of other infectious diseases, shows marked species barrier, either being unable to infect heterologous species or difficult to form transmission experimentally. The similarity of the amino acid sequences of PrP among species is believed to be one of the elements in controlling the transmission TSE interspecies. Other factors, such as prion strains and host's microenvironment, may also participate in the process. Methods Two mouse-adapted strains 139A and ME7 were cerebrally inoculated to Golden hamsters. Presences of scrapie associate fibril (SAF and PrPSc in brains of the infected animals were tested by TEM assays and Western blots dynamically during the incubation periods. The pathogenic features of the novel prions in hamsters, including electrophoretic patterns, glycosylating profiles, immunoreactivities, proteinase K-resistances and conformational stabilities were comparatively evaluated. TSE-related neuropathological changes were assayed by histological examinations. Results After long incubation times, mouse-adapted agents 139A and ME7 induced experimental scrapie in hamsters, respectively, showing obvious spongiform degeneration and PrPSc deposits in brains, especially in cortex regions. SAF and PrPSc in brains were observed much earlier than the onset of clinical symptoms. The molecular characteristics of the newly-formed PrPSc in hamsters, 139A-ha and ME7-ha, were obviously distinct from the original mouse agents, however, greatly similar as that of a hamster-adapted scrapie strain 263 K. Although the incubation times and main disease signs of the hamsters of 139A-ha and ME7-ha were different, the pathogenic characteristics and neuropathological changes were highly similar. Conclusions This finding concludes that mouse-adapted agents 139A and ME7

  14. Mean First Passage Time for System with Fluctuating Potential Barrier and Coupled Noise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jing-Hui; HAN Yin-Xia

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we study the mean first passage time (MFPT) over a fluctuation potential barrier driven by a coupled noise. It is shown that the MFPT over the fluctuation potential barrier displays resonant activations as the function of the flipping rate of the fluctuation potential barrier, and as the function of the dichotomous noise transition rate.

  15. Generalized Discriminant Analysis algorithm for feature reduction in Cyber Attack Detection System

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Shailendra

    2009-01-01

    This Generalized Discriminant Analysis (GDA) has provided an extremely powerful approach to extracting non linear features. The network traffic data provided for the design of intrusion detection system always are large with ineffective information, thus we need to remove the worthless information from the original high dimensional database. To improve the generalization ability, we usually generate a small set of features from the original input variables by feature extraction. The conventional Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) feature reduction technique has its limitations. It is not suitable for non linear dataset. Thus we propose an efficient algorithm based on the Generalized Discriminant Analysis (GDA) feature reduction technique which is novel approach used in the area of cyber attack detection. This not only reduces the number of the input features but also increases the classification accuracy and reduces the training and testing time of the classifiers by selecting most discriminating features. We...

  16. The PENELOPE code system. Specific features and recent improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • PENELOPE implements state-of-the-art models for electron and photon interactions. • It is characterized by a systematic use of class-II tracking of charged particles. • The code includes elaborate variance reduction methods and flexible geometry tools. - Abstract: Since its first release, back in 1996, the Monte Carlo code system PENELOPE has evolved into both a flexible and reliable tool for describing coupled electron–photon transport in complex material structures. The present article contains an overview of the physical interaction models, particle tracking methods, geometry tools, and variance-reduction techniques implemented in PENELOPE. Recent refinements aimed at improving the accuracy of the code, and its stability under variations of user-defined simulation parameters, are also described. These include the use of reliable cross sections for the ionization of inner atomic electron shells by electron/positron impact, a reformulation of the random-hinge method, and the use of fuzzy quadric surfaces in the description of the geometry

  17. The structural features of distributed programmable wireless systems

    OpenAIRE

    Зайцев, С. В.; НАУ; Приступа, В. В.; НАУ

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates the structural characteristics of distributed programmable wireless systems based on the principles of Software Defined Radio with open architecture Software Communication Architecture Исследовано структурные особенности распределенных программируемых беспроводных систем, базирующихся на принципах Software Defined Radio с открытой архитектурой Software Communication Architecture Досліджено структурні особливості розподілених програмованих безпровідних систем, я...

  18. Multiple-feature extracting modules based leak mining system design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Ying-Chiang; Pan, Jen-Yi

    2013-01-01

    Over the years, human dependence on the Internet has increased dramatically. A large amount of information is placed on the Internet and retrieved from it daily, which makes web security in terms of online information a major concern. In recent years, the most problematic issues in web security have been e-mail address leakage and SQL injection attacks. There are many possible causes of information leakage, such as inadequate precautions during the programming process, which lead to the leakage of e-mail addresses entered online or insufficient protection of database information, a loophole that enables malicious users to steal online content. In this paper, we implement a crawler mining system that is equipped with SQL injection vulnerability detection, by means of an algorithm developed for the web crawler. In addition, we analyze portal sites of the governments of various countries or regions in order to investigate the information leaking status of each site. Subsequently, we analyze the database structure and content of each site, using the data collected. Thus, we make use of practical verification in order to focus on information security and privacy through black-box testing. PMID:24453892

  19. CHAIN CODE AND HOLISTIC FEATURES BASED OCR SYSTEM FOR PRINTED DEVANAGARI SCRIPT USING ANN AND SVM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunvantsinh Gohil

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Optical Character Recognition Systems are getting more and more attention in recent decade. In manycountries, OCR has been a part of their government sectors like post offices, Library automation, LicensePlate Recognition, Defence organization etc. According to recent survey, there are at least 550 millionpeople are using Devanagari script for communication. Hindi is one of the language, which is derived fromDevanagari script. For any character recognition system, essential step is to identify individual characterand find features to compare it with the template features. In this paper, we have proposed histogram basedhierarchical approach for isolating individual character from the image document. We have used PrincipleComponent Analysis and Fisher Discriminant Analysis kind of holistic features for recognition. We havedone the comparisons of such holistic features with geometric features like binary features and chain code.

  20. Chain Code and Holistic Features Based OCR System for Printed Devanagari Script Using ANN and SVM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunvantsinh Gohil

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Optical Character Recognition Systems are getting more and more attention in recent decade. In many countries, OCR has been a part of their government sectors like post offices, Library automation, License Plate Recognition, Defence organization etc. According to recent survey, there are at least 550 million people are using Devanagari script for communication. Hindi is one of the language, which is derived from Devanagari script. For any character recognition system, essential step is to identify individual character and find features to compare it with the template features. In this paper, we have proposed histogram based hierarchical approach for isolating individual character from the image document. We have used Principle Component Analysis and Fisher Discriminant Analysis kind of holistic features for recognition. We have done the comparisons of such holistic features with geometric features like binary features and chain code.

  1. Strategies to overcome barriers for cleaner generation technologies in small developing power systems: Sri Lanka case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The penetration of cleaner and energy efficient technologies in small power systems such as the one in Sri Lanka has encountered many problems. This has caused major concerns among the policy makers, mainly in the context of the growing need to reduce harmful emissions in the electricity supply industry from the point of view of both local environmental pollution as well as the global warming concerns. This paper presents the outcome of a study involved in identifying and ranking the barriers to the promotion of cleaner and energy efficient technologies and strategies to overcome these barriers in Sri Lanka. Barriers for renewable energy based systems such as wind and wood fuel fired plants (dendro thermal power) and cleaner technologies such as liquefied natural gas (LNG) fired combined cycle and IGCC (coal) were identified based on a survey. A direct assessment multi-criteria decision making method called Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) was used to rank the barriers. The most effective strategies are proposed to address the three major barriers for each of these technologies based on extensive discussions with all the stakeholders in the electricity industry. It was found that lack of financing instruments, high initial cost and lack of assurance of resource supply or availability are the main barriers for renewable technologies. As for cleaner fuel and technology options associated with conventional generation systems, the lack of a clear government policy, uncertainty of fuel supplies and their prices and the reliability of the technologies themselves are the major barriers. Strategies are identified to overcome the above barriers. Establishment of a proper feed in tariff, geographical diversification of installations and capacity building in commercial banks are suggested for wind power. Investment incentives, streamlining of wood production and research on site identification are proposed for wood fuel fired plants. Also the study suggests delayed

  2. Degradation of Organic Compounds by Active Species Sprayed in a Dielectric Barrier Corona Discharge System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jie; SONG Ling; LIU Qiang; QU Guangzhou; LI Guofeng; WU Yan

    2009-01-01

    Investigation was made into the degradation of organic compounds by a dielectric barrier corona discharge (DBCD) system. The DBCD, consisting of a quartz tube, a concentric high voltage electrode and a net wrapped to the external wall (used as ground electrode), was introduced to generate active species which were sprayed into the organic solution through an aerator fixed on the bottom of the tube. The effect of four factors-the discharge voltage, gas flow rate, solution conductivity, and pH of wastewater, on the degradation efficiency of phenol was assessed. The obtained results demonstrated that this process was an effective method for phenol degradation. The degradation rate was enhanced with the increase in power supplied. The degradation efficiency in alkaline conditions was higher than those in acid and neutral conditions.The optimal gas flow rate for phenol degradation in the system was 1.6 L/min, while the solution conductivity had little effect on the degradation.

  3. Detection of hydroxyl radicals during regeneration of granular activated carbon in dielectric barrier discharge plasma system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To understand the reactions taking place in the dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma system of activated carbon regeneration, the determination of active species is necessary. A method based on High Performance Liquid Chromatography with radical trapping by salicylic acid, has been developed to measure hydroxyl radical (.OH) in the DBD plasma reactor. The effects of applied voltage, treatment time, and gas flow rate and atmosphere were investigated. Experimental results indicated that increasing voltage, treatment time and air flow rate could enhance the formation of .OH. Oxygen atmosphere and a suitable GAC water content were contributed to .OH generation. The results give an insight into plasma chemical processes, and can be helpful to optimize the design and application for the plasma system.

  4. Robot Vision System for Coordinate Measurement of Feature Points on Large Scale Automobile Part

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pongsak Joompolpong; Pradit Mittrapiyanuruk; Pakorn Keawtrakulpong

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present a robot vision based system for coordinate measurement of feature points on large scale automobile parts. Our system consists of an industrial 6-DOF robot mounted with a CCD camera and a PC. The system controls the robot into the area of feature points. The images of measuring feature points are acquired by the camera mounted on the robot. 3D positions of the feature points are obtained from a model based pose estimation that applies to the images. The measured positions of all feature points are then transformed to the reference coordinate of feature points whose positions are obtained from the coordinate measuring machine (CMM). Finally, the point-to-point distances between the measured feature points and the reference feature points are calculated and reported. The results show that the root mean square error (RMSE) of measure values obtained by our system is less than 0.5mm. Our system is adequate for automobile assembly and can perform faster than conventional methods.

  5. Regulated competition in health care: Switching and barriers to switching in the Dutch health insurance system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rijken Mieke

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2006, a number of changes in the Dutch health insurance system came into effect. In this new system mobility of insured is important. The idea is that insured switch insurers because they are not satisfied with quality of care and the premium of their insurance. As a result, insurers will in theory strive for a better balance between price and quality. The Dutch changes have caught the attention, internationally, of both policy makers and researchers. In our study we examined switching behaviour over three years (2007-2009. We tested if there are differences in the numbers of switchers between groups defined by socio-demographic and health characteristics and between the general population and people with chronic illness or disability. We also looked at reasons for (not-switching and at perceived barriers to switching. Methods Switching behaviour and reasons for (not-switching were measured over three years (2007-2009 by sending postal questionnaires to members of the Dutch Health Care Consumer Panel and of the National Panel of people with Chronic illness or Disability. Data were available for each year and for each panel for at least 1896 respondents - a response of between 71% and 88%. Results The percentages of switchers are low; 6% in 2007, 4% in 2008 and 3% in 2009. Younger and higher educated people switch more often than older and lower educated people and women switch more often than men. There is no difference in the percentage of switchers between the general population and people with chronic illness or disability. People with a bad self-perceived health, and chronically ill and disabled, perceive more barriers to switching than others. Conclusion The percentages of switchers are comparable to the old system. Switching is not based on quality of care and thus it can be questioned whether it will lead to a better balance between price and quality. Although there is no difference in the frequency of switching

  6. Anthrax lethal toxin disrupts intestinal barrier function and causes systemic infections with enteric bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Sun

    Full Text Available A variety of intestinal pathogens have virulence factors that target mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling pathways, including Bacillus anthracis. Anthrax lethal toxin (LT has specific proteolytic activity against the upstream regulators of MAPKs, the MAPK kinases (MKKs. Using a murine model of intoxication, we show that LT causes the dose-dependent disruption of intestinal epithelial integrity, characterized by mucosal erosion, ulceration, and bleeding. This pathology correlates with an LT-dependent blockade of intestinal crypt cell proliferation, accompanied by marked apoptosis in the villus tips. C57BL/6J mice treated with intravenous LT nearly uniformly develop systemic infections with commensal enteric organisms within 72 hours of administration. LT-dependent intestinal pathology depends upon its proteolytic activity and is partially attenuated by co-administration of broad spectrum antibiotics, indicating that it is both a cause and an effect of infection. These findings indicate that targeting of MAPK signaling pathways by anthrax LT compromises the structural integrity of the mucosal layer, serving to undermine the effectiveness of the intestinal barrier. Combined with the well-described immunosuppressive effects of LT, this disruption of the intestinal barrier provides a potential mechanism for host invasion via the enteric route, a common portal of entry during the natural infection cycle of Bacillus anthracis.

  7. Monitoring Local Strain in a Thermal Barrier Coating System Under Thermal Mechanical Gas Turbine Operating Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manero, Albert; Sofronsky, Stephen; Knipe, Kevin; Meid, Carla; Wischek, Janine; Okasinski, John; Almer, Jonathan; Karlsson, Anette M.; Raghavan, Seetha; Bartsch, Marion

    2015-07-01

    Advances in aircraft and land-based turbine engines have been increasing the extreme loading conditions on traditional engine components and have incited the need for improved performance with the use of protective coatings. These protective coatings shield the load-bearing super alloy blades from the high-temperature combustion gases by creating a thermal gradient over their thickness. This addition extends the life and performance of blades. A more complete understanding of the behavior, failure mechanics, and life expectancy for turbine blades and their coatings is needed to enhance and validate simulation models. As new thermal-barrier-coated materials and deposition methods are developed, strides to effectively test, evaluate, and prepare the technology for industry deployment are of paramount interest. Coupling the experience and expertise of researchers at the University of Central Florida, The German Aerospace Center, and Cleveland State University with the world-class synchrotron x-ray beam at the Advanced Photon Source in Argonne National Laboratory, the synergistic collaboration has yielded previously unseen measurements to look inside the coating layer system for in situ strain measurements during representative service loading. These findings quantify the in situ strain response on multilayer thermal barrier coatings and shed light on the elastic and nonelastic properties of the layers and the role of mechanical load and internal cooling variations on the response. The article discusses the experimental configuration and development of equipment to perform in situ strain measurements on multilayer thin coatings and provides an overview of the achievements thus far.

  8. Automated cervical precancerous cells screening system based on Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jusman, Yessi; Mat Isa, Nor Ashidi; Ng, Siew-Cheok; Hasikin, Khairunnisa; Abu Osman, Noor Azuan

    2016-07-01

    Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy technique can detect the abnormality of a cervical cell that occurs before the morphological change could be observed under the light microscope as employed in conventional techniques. This paper presents developed features extraction for an automated screening system for cervical precancerous cell based on the FTIR spectroscopy as a second opinion to pathologists. The automated system generally consists of the developed features extraction and classification stages. Signal processing techniques are used in the features extraction stage. Then, discriminant analysis and principal component analysis are employed to select dominant features for the classification process. The datasets of the cervical precancerous cells obtained from the feature selection process are classified using a hybrid multilayered perceptron network. The proposed system achieved 92% accuracy.

  9. Advances in research on labyrinth membranous barriers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenfang Sun; Wuqing Wang

    2015-01-01

    Integrity of the membranous labyrinth barrier system is of critical importance, which promotes inner ear homeostasis and maintains its features. The membranous labyrinth barrier system is divided into several subsets of barriers which, although independent from each other, are interrelated. The same substance may demonstrate different permeability characteristics through different barriers and under different conditions, while different substances can have different permeability features even in the same barrier under the same condition. All parts of the mem-branous labyrinth barrier structure, including their morphology, enzymes and channel proteins, and theirs permeability characteristics under various physiological and pathological conditions are reviewed in this paper. Infections, noise exposure, ototoxicity may all increase perme-ability of the barriers and lead to disturbances in inner ear homeostasis. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Production & hosting by Elsevier (Singapore) Pte Ltd On behalf of PLA General Hospital Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

  10. Biointrusion test plan for the Permanent Isolation Surface Barrier Prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides a testing and monitoring plan for the biological component of the prototype barrier slated for construction at the Hanford Site. The prototype barrier is an aboveground structure engineered to demonstrate the basic features of an earthen cover system. It is designed to permanently isolate waste from the biosphere. The features of the barrier include multiple layers of soil and rock materials and a low-permeability asphalt sublayer. The surface of the barrier consists of silt loam soil, covered with plants. The barrier sides are reinforced with rock or coarse earthen-fill to protect against wind and water erosion. The sublayers inhibit plant and animal intrusion and percolation of water. A series of tests will be conducted on the prototype barrier over the next several years to evaluate barrier performance under extreme climatic conditions. Plants and animals will play a significant role in the hydrologic and water and wind erosion characteristics of the prototype barrier. Studies on the biological component of the prototype barrier will include work on the initial revegetation of the surface, continued monitoring of the developing plant community, rooting depth and dispersion in the context of biointrusion potential, the role of plants in the hydrology of the surface and toe regions of the barrier, the role of plants in stabilizing the surface against water and wind erosion, and the role of burrowing animals in the hydrology and water and wind erosion of the barrier

  11. The Great Barrier Reef Ocean Observing System Mooring array: Monitoring the Western Boundary Currents of the Coral Sea and Impacts on the Great Barrier Reef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, C. R.; McAllister, F.; Brinkman, B. W.; Pitcher, C.; Luetchford, J.; Rigby, P.

    2009-05-01

    Since 1987 Great Barrier Reef weather and water temperature observations have been transmitted in near real time using HF radio from pontoons or towers on coral reefs by AIMS. In contrast oceanographic measurements have however been restricted to loggers serviced at quarterly to half yearly downloads. The Great Barrier Reef Ocean Observing System (GBROOS) is a regional node of the Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS). IMOS is an Australian Government initiative established under the National Collaborative Research Infrastructure Strategy and has been supported by Queensland Government since 2006. GBROOS comprises real time observations from weather stations, oceanographic moorings, underway ship observations, ocean surface radar, satellite image reception and reef based sensor networks. This paper focuses on an array of in-line moorings that have been deployed along the outer Great Barrier Reef in order to monitor the Western Boundary currents of the Coral Sea. The Westward flowing Southern Equatorial Current bifurcates into the poleward flowing East Australian Current and the equatorward North Queensland Current. The 4 mooring pairs consist of a continental slope mooring, nominally in 200m of water and one on the outer continental shelf within the GBR matrix in depths of 30 to 70m. The array is designed to detect any changes in circulation, temperature response, mixed layer depth and ocean-shelf interactions. A review of likely impacts of climate change on the physical oceanography of the GBR is providing a basis upon which to explore what processes may be affected by climate change. Sample data and results from the initial year of observations will be presented.

  12. Strategies to overcome barriers for cleaner generation technologies in small developing power systems: Sri Lanka case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wijayatunga, P.D.C.; Siriwardena, K.; Fernando, W.J.L.S.; Shrestha, R.M.; Attalage, R.A.

    2006-06-15

    This paper presents the outcome of a study involved in identifying and ranking the barriers to the promotion of cleaner and energy efficient technologies and strategies to overcome these barriers in Sri Lanka. Barriers for renewable energy based systems such as wind and wood fuel fired plants (dendro thermal power) and cleaner technologies such as liquefied natural gas (LNG) fired combined cycle and IGCC (coal) were identified based on a survey. A direct assessment multi-criteria decision making method called Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) was used to rank the barriers. The most effective strategies are proposed to address the three major barriers for each of these technologies based on extensive discussions with all the stakeholders in the electricity industry. It was found that lack of financing instruments, high initial cost and lack of assurance of resource supply or availability are the main barriers for renewable technologies. As for cleaner fuel and technology options associated with conventional generation systems, the lack of a clear government policy, uncertainty of fuel supplies and their prices and the reliability of the technologies themselves are the major barriers. Strategies are identified to overcome the above barriers. Establishment of a proper feed in tariff, geographical diversification of installations and capacity building in commercial banks are suggested for wind power. Investment incentives, streamlining of wood production and research on site identification are proposed for wood fuel fired plants. Also the study suggests delayed implementation, combined planning with other sectors of the economy, incorporating environmental cost in planning and investment incentives as strategies for IGCC and LNG based technologies.

  13. Nuclear rainbow in the 16O+27Al system: the role of couplings at energies far above the barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The 16O + 27Al elastic and inelastic angular distributions have been measured in a broad angular range (13 deg ≤ θ ≤52 deg) at 100 MeV incident energy at INFN-LNS (Italy). The use of the MAGNEX large acceptance magnetic spectrometer [1] and of the ray-reconstruction analysis technique was crucial in order to provide, in the same experiment, high-resolution energy spectra and cross-section measurements distributed over more than seven orders of magnitude, down to hundreds of nb/sr [2]. The data analysis confirms a rainbow formation as predicted by parameter-free Coupled Channel calculations obtained with the parameter free double folding Sao Paulo optical potential [3]. It also reveals the crucial role of inelastic couplings in the rainbow formation for heavy systems even at energies far above the Coulomb barrier. This behavior is also observed at higher bombarding energy as revealed by a preliminary analysis of a very recent experiment performed at INFN-LNS at 280 MeV. This feature, well known in atomic/molecular scattering, is experimentally found for the first time in Nuclear Physics. [1] F. Cappuzzello et al., MAGNEX: an innovative large acceptance spectrometer for nuclear reaction studies in: Magnets: Types, Uses and Safety, Nova Publisher Inc., New York, 2011, pp 1-63. [2] M.Cavallaro, et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 648 (2011) 46. [3] L.C. Chamon, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 79 (1997) 5218. (author)

  14. A HYBRID APPROACH BASED MEDICAL IMAGE RETRIEVAL SYSTEM USING FEATURE OPTIMIZED CLASSIFICATION SIMILARITY FRAMEWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogapriya Jaganathan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available For the past few years, massive upgradation is obtained in the pasture of Content Based Medical Image Retrieval (CBMIR for effective utilization of medical images based on visual feature analysis for the purpose of diagnosis and educational research. The existing medical image retrieval systems are still not optimal to solve the feature dimensionality reduction problem which increases the computational complexity and decreases the speed of a retrieval process. The proposed CBMIR is used a hybrid approach based on Feature Extraction, Optimization of Feature Vectors, Classification of Features and Similarity Measurements. This type of CBMIR is called Feature Optimized Classification Similarity (FOCS framework. The selected features are Textures using Gray level Co-occurrence Matrix Features (GLCM and Tamura Features (TF in which extracted features are formed as feature vector database. The Fuzzy based Particle Swarm Optimization (FPSO technique is used to reduce the feature vector dimensionality and classification is performed using Fuzzy based Relevance Vector Machine (FRVM to form groups of relevant image features that provide a natural way to classify dimensionally reduced feature vectors of images. The Euclidean Distance (ED is used as similarity measurement to measure the significance between the query image and the target images. This FOCS approach can get the query from the user and has retrieved the needed images from the databases. The retrieval algorithm performances are estimated in terms of precision and recall. This FOCS framework comprises several benefits when compared to existing CBMIR. GLCM and TF are used to extract texture features and form a feature vector database. Fuzzy-PSO is used to reduce the feature vector dimensionality issues while selecting the important features in the feature vector database in which computational complexity is decreased. Fuzzy based RVM is used for feature classification in which it increases the

  15. A commercial 1kW CPV system that breaks the $2/W price barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earl, D. Duncan; Cangelosi, Michael J.; Shaw, Tyler L.

    2008-08-01

    We present performance and cost data on a distributed concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) system that is commercially available in 2008 and will break the long pursued $2/W price barrier. This technology was developed from an existing product platform used originally for solar fiber optic lighting applications and includes a novel segmented plastic mirror that concentrates sunlight into a dense-array CPV module at 600 suns. The design's segmented plastic mirror and high-precision, low-cost tracking unit are presented as a flexible hardware platform evolved in response to market pressure over the past two years and suitable for multiple applications being developed in the concentrating solar field. To illustrate the economic benefits of this solar collection platform, the specific costs related to COGS and installation activities associated with a commercial CPV product available in 2008 are presented.

  16. Evaluation of mechanical effects of the fault movement on the engineered barrier system - 16269

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments and numerical analyses have been conducted to investigate the consequences of an active fault crosscutting the engineered barrier system (EBS) of a high-level radioactive waste (HLW) repository. Experiments were performed using laboratory simulation test equipment at a scale of 1:20, which can simulate the chosen shear displacements of 80 % and 140 % of the buffer thickness, and the chosen shear rates of 0.1 m/s, 0.05 m/s and 0.01 m/s. The experiments have so far demonstrated that the metal overpack will be rotated, but not breached, due to the plasticity of the surrounding bentonite buffer. The total pressure on the bentonite buffer increases with an increase in the shear rate. Numerical analyses were carried out using a finite element method assuming the constitutive model of modified Cam-clay, which was used to assess elasto-plastic behavior of the bentonite buffer. (authors)

  17. REVIEW: I -THE ORGANISATION AND FUNCTIONING OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM: PARTICULAR FEATURES OF THE RABBIT""

    OpenAIRE

    Drouet-Viard, F; Fortun-Lamothe, L.

    2002-01-01

    Abstract not available. Drouet-Viard, F.; Fortun-Lamothe, L. (2002). REVIEW: I -THE ORGANISATION AND FUNCTIONING OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM: PARTICULAR FEATURES OF THE RABBIT"". http://hdl.handle.net/10251/10009.

  18. Features of application of E-codes of Welti for radar systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. D. Mrachkovsky

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The ambiguity function of quaternary phase E-codes of Welti is considered. Features of application this signals for radar systems are showed. The detector of the signals of this type is presented.

  19. Creep Behavior of Hafnia and Ytterbium Silicate Environmental Barrier Coating Systems on SiC/SiC Ceramic Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming; Fox, Dennis S.; Ghosn, Louis J.; Harder, Bryan

    2011-01-01

    Environmental barrier coatings will play a crucial role in future advanced gas turbine engines because of their ability to significantly extend the temperature capability and stability of SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composite (CMC) engine components, thus improving the engine performance. In order to develop high performance, robust coating systems for engine components, appropriate test approaches simulating operating temperature gradient and stress environments for evaluating the critical coating properties must be established. In this paper, thermal gradient mechanical testing approaches for evaluating creep and fatigue behavior of environmental barrier coated SiC/SiC CMC systems will be described. The creep and fatigue behavior of Hafnia and ytterbium silicate environmental barrier coatings on SiC/SiC CMC systems will be reported in simulated environmental exposure conditions. The coating failure mechanisms will also be discussed under the heat flux and stress conditions.

  20. "Show me a justice system that's open, transparent, accessible and inclusive" : barriers to access in the criminal justice system for people with disabilities as victims of crime

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Claire; Harold, Gill; Kilcommins, Shane

    2015-01-01

    peer-reviewed This paper considers the barriers that people with disabilities in Ireland face in accessing justice through the criminal justice system when they are victims of crime. It draws on qualitative research with key actors working within the agencies of the Irish criminal justice system, along with disability organisations, victim support organisations and health and social care providers. The research identifies a number of barriers which can be differentiated in terms of those o...

  1. Inelastic scattering and nucleon transfer in the system 232Th+206Pb at the Coulomb barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By the experiment performed in the present thesis on the example of the system 232Th+206Pb the onset of the nuclear interaction in the region of the Coulomb barrier was studied at an incident energy of 6.3 MeV/nucleon. In the range of distances of closest approximation 15.5 fm ≤ D ≤ 38.7 fm respectively 28deg ≤ ΘCM ≤ 150deg the Coulomb excitation of the target isotope was observed. The strong absorption for 'small' distances from the reaction channel of the Coulomb excitation is confirmed by the occurrence of transfer reactions. In the studied thorium-lead system the transfer of one and two neutrons could be detected by means of the characteristic γ radiation of the isotopes 230Th and 207,208Pb with a cross section of 500 mb summed over the measurement range. The possibilities of an evaporation of neutrons from highly excited target nuclei, which could also lead to the isotope 230Th and by this influence the measurement of the 2n transfer, was also studied. The contribution of these processes to the transfer could be estimated to less than 5%. For the determination of the excitation energy, at which the transfer takes place, the transfer probabilities experimentally determined as functions of the distance of closest approximation were compared with the barrier-penetration model originally developed for sub-Coulomb transfer. Small effective neutron-binding energies of 0.6-0.8 MeV and by this high excitation energies resulted in contradiction to our model-independent measurement by means of the mean γ multiplicity and mean γ energies. (orig./HSI)

  2. Quantitative common cause failure modeling for auxiliary feedwater system involving the seismic-induced degradation of flood barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flood barriers are important defenses which will reduce the internal flood-induced failure risk of safety-related equipment in the turbine building. Contrarily, the degradation of flood barriers will increase the risk of internal flood-induced common cause failure (CCF). Two layouts of auxiliary feedwater pumps system are compared to demonstrate the quantitative risk assessment of the possible degradation of flood barriers. The alpha decomposition method has been developed by the authors in order to quantitatively evaluate the CCF parameters based on the causal inference. Occurrence frequency and CCF triggering ability are two important elements which will decide the CCF risk significance of potential common causes. The seismic-induced internal flood combining with the degradation of flood barriers is analyzed. The degradation of flood barriers is treated as a stochastic process and a Markov model is applied to consider the time-dependent states. The failure time of three auxiliary feedwater pumps is calculated based on the water flow rate through flood barriers. CCF triggering abilities of internal floods are calculated which are represented as decomposed alpha factors. This article shows the updating process of CCF parameters according to Bayesian inference and hypothetical databases. It is concluded that the issue of CCF modeling is not only decided by the number of redundant components but also decided by causes and plant-specific design. (author)

  3. Classification of multipartite systems featuring only $|W\\rangle$ and $|GHZ\\rangle$ genuine entangled states

    OpenAIRE

    Holweck, Frédéric; Lévay, Péter

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present several multipartite quantum systems featuring the same type of genuine (tripartite) entanglement. Based on a geometric interpretation of the so-called $|W\\rangle$ and $|GHZ\\rangle$ states we show that the classification of all multipartite systems featuring those and only those two classes of genuine entanglement can be deduced from earlier work of algebraic geometers. This classification corresponds in fact to classification of fundamental subadjoint varieties and e...

  4. Preliminary evaluation of predicted peak release rates from the engineered barrier system for a potential repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Any potential repository for the ultimate disposal of the nation's high-level radioactive wastes is subject to meeting post-closure regulatory requirements as specified by the NRC. Three NRC sub-system performance measures are relevant to the evaluation of the Yucca Mountain site and possible engineered barriers. These performance requirements are specified in 10 CFR 60. These include the substantially complete containment requirement, the engineered barrier system (EBS) release requirement, and the pre-waste emplacement groundwater travel time requirement. The present paper documents an initial evaluation of the peak EBS release rates. A number of key factors significantly impact the maximum release rate from the engineered barrier system. The authors have conducted four simulations to approximate the effects of delaying and spreading out the failure distribution that are based on different thermal loads and criteria for the initiation of aqueous corrosion. Using an assumed outer barrier of 10 cm and an inner barrier of 0.95 cm and the Stahl model for aqueous pitting corrosion, they have analyzed the EBS release rates for thermal loads of 28.5, 57 and 83 kW/Ac using temperature as the corrosion limiting factor and at 57 kW/Ac for saturation limiting the initiation of corrosion. The later had the earliest failures and the most rapid failure rates observed in the TSPA-1993 analyses so provides the upper bound on the release rates

  5. An Effective CBVR System Based on Motion, Quantized Color and Edge Density Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalpana Thakre

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Rapid development of the multimedia and the associated technologies urge the processing of a hugedatabase of video clips. The processing efficiency lies on the search methodologies utilized in the videoprocessing system. Usage of inappropriate search methodologies may make the processing systemineffective. Hence, an effective video retrieval system is an essential pre-requisite for searching a relevantvideo from a huge collection of videos. In this paper, an effective content based video retrieval systembased on some dominant features such as motion, color and edge is proposed. The system is comprised oftwo stages, namely, feature extraction and retrieval of similar video clips for the given query clip. Priorto perform the feature extraction, the database video clips are segmented into different shots. In thefeature extraction, firstly, the motion feature is extracted using Squared Euclidean distance. Secondly,color feature is extracted based on color quantization. Thirdly, edge density feature is extracted for theobjects present in the database video clips. When a video clip is queried in the system, the second stage ofthe system retrieves a given number of video clips from the database that are similar to the query clip.The retrieval is performed based on the Latent Semantic Indexing, which measures the similarity betweenthe database video clips and the query clip. The system is evaluated using the video clips of formatMPEG-2 and then precision-recall is determined for the test clip.

  6. Barrier Certificates Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Dai, Liyun; Gan, Ting; Xia, Bican; Zhan, Naijun

    2013-01-01

    A barrier certificate can separate the state space of a con- sidered hybrid system (HS) into safe and unsafe parts ac- cording to the safety property to be verified. Therefore this notion has been widely used in the verification of HSs. A stronger condition on barrier certificates means that less expressive barrier certificates can be synthesized. On the other hand, synthesizing more expressive barrier certificates often means high complexity. In [9], Kong et al consid- ered how to relax the ...

  7. Probabilistic common cause failure modeling for auxiliary feedwater system after the introduction of flood barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Causal inference is capable of assessing common cause failure (CCF) events from the viewpoint of causes' risk significance. Authors proposed the alpha decomposition method for probabilistic CCF analysis, in which the classical alpha factor model and causal inference are integrated to conduct a quantitative assessment of causes' CCF risk significance. The alpha decomposition method includes a hybrid Bayesian network for revealing the relationship between component failures and potential causes, and a regression model in which CCF parameters (global alpha factors) are expressed by explanatory variables (causes' occurrence frequencies) and parameters (decomposed alpha factors). This article applies this method and associated databases needed to predict CCF parameters of auxiliary feedwater (AFW) system when defense barriers against internal flood are introduced. There is scarce operation data for functionally modified safety systems and the utilization of generic CCF databases is of unknown uncertainty. The alpha decomposition method has the potential of analyzing the CCF risk of modified AFW system reasonably based on generic CCF databases. Moreover, the sources of uncertainty in parameter estimation can be studied. An example is presented to demonstrate the process of applying Bayesian inference in the alpha decomposition process. The results show that the system-specific posterior distributions for CCF parameters can be predicted. (author)

  8. Development of a alpha spectrometer system with the surface barrier detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work is the development of an α spectrometer of low cost and home made technology. The spectrometer is mounted in a double NIM module and includes a surface barrier detector and dedicate electronic system. Six barrier surface detectors were made, three of which with η type silicon wafer 3350 Ω.cm, 270mm2 and three other with ρ type silicon wafer 5850 Ω.cm and 220mm2. The rectifier and the ohmic contacts were prepared at high vacuum (10-2 to 10-3 Pa) evaporation with 40μg/cm2 of Au and Al respectively for the η type detectors, and with Al and Au respectively for the ρ type detectors. The electronic system is composed by a low noise charge sensitive preamplifier with the operational amplifier LF-356 mounted with 1OOMΩ feedback resistor and a 0.5 pF capacitor. The linear amplifier is also based in the LF-356 and the LM-310 operational amplifier. The bipolar output is formatted through a (CR)2-(RC)4 shaping network and the unipolar output is obtained through a CR-(RC)4 shaping system which is sufficient to realize a almost true Gaussian shaping pulse with a time constant of 3.0μs. This format was chosen because we can expect a low counting rate and the gaussian pulse can improve the signal/noise ratio. The first CR differentiation has also a active pole-zero cancellation network.The resolution of detectors for 241Am α particles at room temperature (24 degree) vary 21 to 44 keV FWHM. The electronic noise of the noise of the system is 7.5 keV FWHM at OpF input capacitance. The overall resolution of the spectrometer was found to be 62 keV FWHM at room temperature. The simplicity of the electronic system, the low cost of the construction and the overall resolution show that this alpha spectrometer can be readily used in measurements where high resolution is not a premium. (author)

  9. Combined photovoltaic and solar-thermal systems: overcoming barriers to market acceptance. Paper no. IGEC-1-136

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1997, the International Energy Association's (IEA) Photovoltaic Power Systems Program (PVSP) initiated IEA Task 7 to evaluate the technical status of combined Photovoltaic and Solar-Thermal systems (PV/T), and to formulate a roadmap for future development. Because the Task was initiated by the PVSP, however, individuals from the Solar Heating and Cooling Program (SHCP) were not invited to participate, and the Task Group lacked any significant expertise with solar-thermal systems. When the Task submitted its final report in 2002, it consisted of an accounting of existing systems and a list of the perceived market barriers. Without input from the SHCP, however, no move could be made to actually address those barriers. IEA Task 7, however, did recognize that the participation of the SHCP was needed, and in 1999 made an effort to initiate some discussion between the PVSP and the SHCP. The result was IEA Task 35 - PV/T Systems, which met for the first time in January of 2005. The new group intends to reevaluate the findings of Task 7, and to develop the means by which these market barriers can be overcome. The current discussion will provide an overview of existing and potential PV/T systems and their technical status. Further, it will report on the methodology established by the Task 35 work group to overcome the aforementioned market barriers. (author)

  10. Survey on the state of the art of development of gas migration models in barrier system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suitable modeling of gas production and migration behaviour is strongly required for performance assessment of radioactive waste disposal in a geological repository. Especially for gas migration in buffer materials, it is very important to examine their ability to reproduce inherent gas migration behaviour which is caused by creation of discrete pathways in clay materials. JNC has examined the limitation of reproducibility of conventional two-phase flow model and enhanced TOUGH2 which has newly developed module implemented expanded Dozeny-Carman relationship and pathway dilation/resealing model. JNC also surveyed the state of the art of model development of gas migration in multi-barriers. In FY2003, the surveillance of gas migration modeling was continued and handled migration mechanisms, basic mathematical models, strength and weakness of each developed gas migration models were extracted and tabulated. Based on these outcomes, the basic correspondence of models to barrier materials, which should apply to performance assessment for a near-field system, was examined. In consequence, conventional two-phase flow models of gas migration are generally applicable for cementitious materials and rocks without mudrocks. But if it is required to understand more precisely the distribution of gas release at the surface, then more detailed understanding of flow in fractures would be required. For clay and mudrocks, it is necessary that comparison of applicability with three types of models, which include GAMBIT-GWS model, conventional two-phase flow models coupled with effect of stress field and expanded Kozeny-Carman relationship with pathway dilation/resealing model. (author)

  11. A method for risk analysis across governance systems: a Great Barrier Reef case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Healthy governance systems are key to delivering sound environmental management outcomes from global to local scales. There are, however, surprisingly few risk assessment methods that can pinpoint those domains and sub-domains within governance systems that are most likely to influence good environmental outcomes at any particular scale, or those if absent or dysfunctional, most likely to prevent effective environmental management. This paper proposes a new risk assessment method for analysing governance systems. This method is then tested through its preliminary application to a significant real-world context: governance as it relates to the health of Australia’s Great Barrier Reef (GBR). The GBR exists at a supra-regional scale along most of the north eastern coast of Australia. Brodie et al (2012 Mar. Pollut. Bull. 65 81–100) have recently reviewed the state and trend of the health of the GBR, finding that overall trends remain of significant concern. At the same time, official international concern over the governance of the reef has recently been signalled globally by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN). These environmental and political contexts make the GBR an ideal candidate for use in testing and reviewing the application of improved tools for governance risk assessment. (letter)

  12. Pathways and hydrography in the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System Part 2: Water masses and thermohaline structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, L.; Johns, E. M.; Smith, R. H.; Lamkin, J. T.; Largier, J. L.

    2016-06-01

    Hydrographic data from two oceanographic cruises conducted during March 2006 and January/February 2007 are used to investigate the thermohaline structure related to the observed circulation along the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System (MBRS). From our observations we identify three water masses in the MBRS: the Caribbean Surface Water (CSW), North Atlantic Subtropical Underwater (SUW), and Tropical Atlantic Central Water (TACW). Little vertical structure in temperature is observed in the upper 100 m of the water column, but important differences are observed in the salinity distribution both horizontally and with depth. Freshwater inputs to the system from the mainland can be traced in the surface layer, with two possible sources: one from surface rivers located along the southern portion of the MBRS, and the other originating from an underground river system located along the northern portion of the MBRS. The thermohaline structure in the MBRS reflects the dynamics of the observed circulation. Uplifted isopycnals along most of the central and northern coastline of the MBRS reflect the effects of the strong geostrophic circulation flowing northward, i.e. the Yucatan Current. To the south along the MBRS, much weaker velocities are observed, with the Honduras Gyre dominating the flow in this region as presented during January/February 2007. These two regions are separated by onshore and divergent alongshore flow associated with the impingement of the Cayman Current on the shore and the MBRS.

  13. Pattern Recognition Methods and Features Selection for Speech Emotion Recognition System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavol Partila

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of the classification method and features selection for the speech emotion recognition accuracy is discussed in this paper. Selecting the correct parameters in combination with the classifier is an important part of reducing the complexity of system computing. This step is necessary especially for systems that will be deployed in real-time applications. The reason for the development and improvement of speech emotion recognition systems is wide usability in nowadays automatic voice controlled systems. Berlin database of emotional recordings was used in this experiment. Classification accuracy of artificial neural networks, k-nearest neighbours, and Gaussian mixture model is measured considering the selection of prosodic, spectral, and voice quality features. The purpose was to find an optimal combination of methods and group of features for stress detection in human speech. The research contribution lies in the design of the speech emotion recognition system due to its accuracy and efficiency.

  14. A SCHEME FOR TEMPLATE SECURITY AT FEATURE FUSION LEVEL IN MULTIMODAL BIOMETRIC SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvind Selwal

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Biometric is the science of human recognition based upon using their biological, chemical or behavioural traits. These systems are used in many real life applications simply from biometric based attendance system to providing security at very sophisticated level. A biometric system deals with raw data captured using a sensor and feature template extracted from raw image. One of the challenges being faced by designers of these systems is to secure template data extracted from the biometric modalities of the user and protect the raw images. To minimize spoof attacks on biometric systems by unauthorised users one of the solutions is to use multi-biometric systems. Multi-modal biometric system works by using fusion technique to merge feature templates generated from different modalities of the human. In this work a new scheme is proposed to secure template during feature fusion level. Scheme is based on union operation of fuzzy relations of templates of modalities during fusion process of multimodal biometric systems. This approach serves dual purpose of feature fusion as well as transformation of templates into a single secured non invertible template. The proposed technique is cancelable and experimentally tested on a bimodal biometric system comprising of fingerprint and hand geometry. Developed scheme removes the problem of an attacker learning the original minutia position in fingerprint and various measurements of hand geometry. Given scheme provides improved performance of the system with reduction in false accept rate and improvement in genuine accept rate.

  15. An exploration of the enablers and barriers in access to the Dutch healthcare system among Ghanaians in Amsterdam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boateng Linda

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sub-Saharan African populations are growing in many European countries. Data on the health of these populations are rare. Additionally, many sub-Saharan African migrants are confronted with issues of low socio-economic status, acculturation and language difficulties, which may hamper their access to health care. Despite the identification of some of those barriers, little is known about the enabling factors. Knowledge about the enablers and barriers in access to healthcare experienced is important in addressing their health needs and promoting healthcare access. This study aimed to investigate the enabling factors as well as barriers in access to the Dutch healthcare system among the largest sub-Saharan African migrant group (Ghanaians living in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Methods Six focus groups were conducted from November 2009 to February 2010. A semi-structured interview guideline was used. Discussions were conducted in English or Twi (Ghanaian dialect, recorded and transcribed verbatim. Analysis was based on the Andersen model of healthcare utilisation using MAXQDA software. Results Knowledge and perceived quality of the health system, awareness of diseases, family and community support, community initiatives and availability of social support were the main enablers to the healthcare system. Difficulties with the Dutch language and mistrust in health care providers were major barriers in access to healthcare. Conclusions Access to healthcare is facilitated mainly by knowledge of and the perceived efficiency and quality of the Dutch healthcare system. However, poor Dutch language proficiency and mistrust in health care providers appear to be important barriers in accessing healthcare. The enablers and barriers identified by this study provide useful information for promoting healthcare access among this and similar Sub-Saharan African communities.

  16. Experimental study of insulating properties and behaviour of thermal barrier coating systems in thermo cyclic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Three TBC systems deposited using atmospheric plasma spray process were tested. • Microhardness and temperature difference between the surfaces were measured. • Network of microcracks was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy. • Correlation between the substrate temperature and coating quality is established. • Stabilizers have great influence on the insulating properties of the coatings. - Abstract: The aim of this study was to improve the resistance of turbo jet engine parts exposed to high temperatures and overheating and sudden changes in temperature. For this purpose, three thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems NiCrAlCoY2O3/ZrO2MgO, NiCrAlCoY2O3/ZrO2Y2O3 and NiCrAlCoY2O3/ZrO2CeO2Y2O3 were tested. They were deposited using the atmospheric plasma spray process (APS). In order to develop a TBC with the best thermal insulating properties and the highest reliability in relation to aging of materials under the influence of sudden changes in temperature, TBC systems that were deposited on cold and preheated substrates were tested. The network of microcracks on the surfaces of the ceramic layers in deposited condition was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Insulating characteristics of TBC systems were examined by measuring the temperature difference ΔT between the top and bottom surfaces of the samples at a temperature of 1200 °C. Testing of TBC for resistance to thermal cyclic behaviour was performed by exposing samples to alternate heating at 1200 °C and rapid cooling of the samples to 180 °C. Microhardnesses of the TBC system, after completion of thermal cycles, were compared with the values in deposited state. Analyses of thermal insulation properties and thermal cyclic behaviour have shown a correlation between the substrate temperature and quality of the TBC system in thermal cyclic conditions

  17. Motivators, Barriers and Concerns in Adoption of Electronic Filing System: Survey Evidence from Malaysian Professional Accountants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Ling Lai

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Worldwide, electronic filing (e-filing system and its' adoption has attracted much attention, however, scholarly study on accounting professionals' acceptance of e-filing system is scant. Approach: This study aimed (i to examine factors that motivated professional accountants to use e-filing (ii to solicit their usage experience and (iii to assess the barriers to adoption and other compliance considerations. The questionnaire survey was administered on 700 professionals from tax practice and commercial sectors who attended "Budget 2008" Tax Seminars, organized by the Malaysian Institute of Accountants in Peninsular Malaysia. In total, 456 usable responses from accounting and tax professionals were collected and analyzed. Results: The survey found out of 456 respondents, just 23.7% had used e-filing in 2007 to file personal tax return forms. Majority of the e-filers opted to use e-filing for the sake of convenience (55.8%, in faith to get faster tax refund (16.8% and speed of filing (15.9%. For those who did not use e-filing, the key impediments were concerned over the security and did not trust of e-filing system. Some (4.8% were unable to access to the e-filing website. Overall, just 26.1% of the professionals surveyed had confidence in the IRBM in managing the e-filing system successfully. Majority (41.2% thought that 'speedy tax refund' to be the most desirable incentive to motivate individuals to use e-filing. Conclusion: As the IRBM is counting on professional accountants to promote the usage of e-filing system, this study provided important insights to the IRBM to developing marketing and business strategies to motivate professional accountant in business to use e-filing in order to accelerate the diffusion of e-filing system in a developing country like Malaysia.

  18. Courier Receipts Retrieval System Design Combining the Inverse Zernike Moments and the SIFT Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenyin Ni

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In response to the demand of the logistics industry’s application, a retrieval algorithm for logistics bill is proposed which combines the local feature with the global feature of images, which solved the problem of rotation positioning and applied to a set of practical courier receipts retrieval system. By using the scale invariance principle of the local features combined with Zernike invariant moments of the global features, we can quickly calculate the image rotating angle and make the exact match. Experimental results show that this method not only keeps the well precision and recall ratio ability of SIFT features, but also reduces the counting times which are required by fine matching.

  19. Water permeability of the mammalian cochlea : functional features of an aquaporin-facilitated water shunt at the perilymph-endolymph barrier

    OpenAIRE

    Eckhard, A.; Müller, M.; Salt, A; Smolders, J.; Rask-Andersen, Helge; Löwenheim, H

    2014-01-01

    The cochlear duct epithelium (CDE) constitutes a tight barrier that effectively separates the inner ear fluids, endolymph and perilymph, thereby maintaining distinct ionic and osmotic gradients that are essential for auditory function. However, in vivo experiments have demonstrated that the CDE allows for rapid water exchange between fluid compartments. The molecular mechanism governing water permeation across the CDE remains elusive. We computationally determined the diffusional (P D) and os...

  20. Examining Barriers in Technology-Enhanced Problem-Based Learning: Using a Performance Support Systems Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung Hee; Ertmer, Peggy A.

    2008-01-01

    This study focused on the barriers that middle school teachers faced when implementing technology-enhanced problem-based learning (PBL) in their classrooms. Using a human performance-based model, we interviewed teachers, administrators, university faculty and technical support staff to determine the perceived importance of multiple barriers to the…

  1. Engineered Barrier System - Manufacturing, Testing and Quality Assurance. Report from a Workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of preparations for review of future license applications, the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) organised a workshop on the engineered barrier system for the KBS-3 concept, with the focus on manufacturing, testing and quality assurance. The main purpose of the workshop was to identify critical issues in the demonstration of how long-term safety requirements could be fulfilled for the engineered barriers. The workshop included presentations related to engineered barrier manufacturing and testing held by external experts, and working group sessions to prepare questions to the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co. (SKB). SKB presentations were followed by an informal questioning and discussion with SKB representatives. This report includes a presentation of the questions posed by the working groups, SKB's replies to these questions as well as a summary of the working group discussions. The conclusions and viewpoints presented in this report are those of one or several workshop participants. During the workshop many issues regarding manufacturing, testing and quality assurance of the engineered barriers were discussed. The central themes in the questions and discussions are summarised as follows: There is a need to specify how the functional requirements for the buffer and backfill will be achieved in practise. Issues of particular interest are material selection, compaction density, initial water content and manufacturing methods for bentonite blocks. A major problem that must be addressed is the long period required to obtain relevant results from large-scale testing. The uncertainties relating to the wetting and subsequent swelling processes of the bentonite buffer have implications for analysis of the canister. It is necessary to know now non-uniform the bentonite swelling pressure could be in a worst case pressure differential, in order to evaluate the sufficiency of 'as tested' canister performance. Regarding the copper shell of the

  2. AVNG SYSTEM SOFTWARE - ATTRIBUTE VERIFICATION SYSTEM WITH INFORMATION BARRIERS FOR MASS AND ISOTOPICS MEASUREMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the software development for the plutonium attribute verification system--AVNG. A brief synopsis of the technical solution for the measurement system is presented. The main tasks for the software development that is underway are formulated. The development tasks are shown in software structural flowcharts, measurement system state diagram and a description of the software. The current status of the AVNG software development is elucidated

  3. AVNG System Software-Attribute Verification System with Information Barriers for Mass Isotopic Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the software development for the plutonium attribute verification system - AVNG. A brief synopsis of the technical solution for the measurement system is presented. The main tasks for the software development that is underway are formulated. The development tasks are shown in software structural flowcharts, measurement system state diagram and a description of the software. The current status of the AVNG software development is elucidated.

  4. Quantifying system safety: A comparison of the SBOAT & Safety Barrier Manager tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee; Duijm, Nijs Jan; Markert, Frank;

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents two software tools for analyzing safety risks, SBOAT (Stochastic BPMN Optimisation and Analysis Tool) and SBM (SafetyBarrierManagerr). SBOAT employs principles from stochastic model checking to allow for the quantitative verification of workflows. SBM supports the creation...... of valid safety-barrier diagrams and allows the quantitative analysis of the probability of all possible end states of the barrier diagram, i.e. the outcomes if one or several of the barriers fail to perform their barrier function. We compare the foundations of these tools and describe how they can be used...... and how they complement each other by means of the analysis of a production workflow inspired by a real-world industry case....

  5. Market and policy barriers to energy storage deployment : a study for the energy storage systems program.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatnagar, Dhruv; Currier, Aileen B.; Hernandez, Jacquelynne; Ma, Ookie [U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C.; Kirby, Brendan [U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C.

    2013-09-01

    Electric energy storage technologies have recently been in the spotlight, discussed as essential grid assets that can provide services to increase the reliability and resiliency of the grid, including furthering the integration of variable renewable energy resources. Though they can provide numerous grid services, there are a number of factors that restrict their current deployment. The most significant barrier to deployment is high capital costs, though several recent deployments indicate that capital costs are decreasing and energy storage may be the preferred economic alternative in certain situations. However, a number of other market and regulatory barriers persist, limiting further deployment. These barriers can be categorized into regulatory barriers, market (economic) barriers, utility and developer business model barriers, crosscutting barriers and technology barriers. This report, through interviews with stakeholders and review of regulatory filings in four regions roughly representative of the United States, identifies the key barriers restricting further energy storage development in the country. The report also includes a discussion of possible solutions to address these barriers and a review of initiatives around the country at the federal, regional and state levels that are addressing some of these issues. Energy storage could have a key role to play in the future grid, but market and regulatory issues have to be addressed to allow storage resources open market access and compensation for the services they are capable of providing. Progress has been made in this effort, but much remains to be done and will require continued engagement from regulators, policy makers, market operators, utilities, developers and manufacturers.

  6. A Neuro-Fuzzy System for Extracting Environment Features Based on Ultrasonic Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelio José González

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a method to extract features of the environment based on ultrasonic sensors is presented. A 3D model of a set of sonar systems and a workplace has been developed. The target of this approach is to extract in a short time, while the vehicle is moving, features of the environment. Particularly, the approach shown in this paper has been focused on determining walls and corners, which are very common environment features. In order to prove the viability of the devised approach, a 3D simulated environment has been built. A Neuro-Fuzzy strategy has been used in order to extract environment features from this simulated model. Several trials have been carried out, obtaining satisfactory results in this context. After that, some experimental tests have been conducted using a real vehicle with a set of sonar systems. The obtained results reveal the satisfactory generalization properties of the approach in this case.

  7. A process planning system with feature based neural network search strategy for aluminum extrusion die manufacturing

    CERN Document Server

    Butdee, S; Tichkiewitch, Serge

    2009-01-01

    Aluminum extrusion die manufacturing is a critical task for productive improvement and increasing potential of competition in aluminum extrusion industry. It causes to meet the efficiency not only consistent quality but also time and production cost reduction. Die manufacturing consists first of die design and process planning in order to make a die for extruding the customer's requirement products. The efficiency of die design and process planning are based on the knowledge and experience of die design and die manufacturer experts. This knowledge has been formulated into a computer system called the knowledge-based system. It can be reused to support a new die design and process planning. Such knowledge can be extracted directly from die geometry which is composed of die features. These features are stored in die feature library to be prepared for producing a new die manufacturing. Die geometry is defined according to the characteristics of the profile so we can reuse die features from the previous similar p...

  8. Multilayer moisture barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pankow, Joel W; Jorgensen, Gary J; Terwilliger, Kent M; Glick, Stephen H; Isomaki, Nora; Harkonen, Kari; Turkulainen, Tommy

    2015-04-21

    A moisture barrier, device or product having a moisture barrier or a method of fabricating a moisture barrier having at least a polymer layer, and interfacial layer, and a barrier layer. The polymer layer may be fabricated from any suitable polymer including, but not limited to, fluoropolymers such as polyethylene terephthalate (PET) or polyethylene naphthalate (PEN), or ethylene-tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE). The interfacial layer may be formed by atomic layer deposition (ALD). In embodiments featuring an ALD interfacial layer, the deposited interfacial substance may be, but is not limited to, Al.sub.2O.sub.3, AlSiO.sub.x, TiO.sub.2, and an Al.sub.2O.sub.3/TiO.sub.2 laminate. The barrier layer associated with the interfacial layer may be deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). The barrier layer may be a SiO.sub.xN.sub.y film.

  9. A CAD system for B-mode fatty liver ultrasound images using texture features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanya, M B; Kumar, Vinod; Mukherjee, Shaktidev; Saini, Manju

    2015-02-01

    The present study proposes a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system for the diagnosis of grades of fatty liver disease, namely mild, moderate and severe fatty liver along with normal liver tissue. Fifty-three B-mode ultrasound images consisting of 12 normal, 14 mild, 14 moderate and 13 severe fatty liver images are used. Based on the visual interpretations by the radiologists, region of interests (ROIs) from within the liver and one ROI from the diaphragm region are considered from each image. The texture features of these ROIs are combined in three ways to form ratio features, inverse ratio features and additive features. The sub-sets of optimal features are obtained by a differential evolution feature selection (DEFS) algorithm and a support vector machine (SVM) has been used for the classification task. The Laws ratio features have shown better performance with an average accuracy and standard deviation of 84.9±3.2. Hence, the CAD system could be useful to the radiologists in diagnosing grades of fatty liver disease. PMID:25522808

  10. A Study of Various Feature Extraction Methods on a Motor Imagery Based Brain Computer Interface System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resalat, Seyed Navid; Saba, Valiallah

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Brain Computer Interface (BCI) systems based on Movement Imagination (MI) are widely used in recent decades. Separate feature extraction methods are employed in the MI data sets and classified in Virtual Reality (VR) environments for real-time applications. Methods: This study applied wide variety of features on the recorded data using Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) classifier to select the best feature sets in the offline mode. The data set was recorded in 3-class tasks of the left hand, the right hand, and the foot motor imagery. Results: The experimental results showed that Auto-Regressive (AR), Mean Absolute Value (MAV), and Band Power (BP) features have higher accuracy values,75% more than those for the other features. Discussion: These features were selected for the designed real-time navigation. The corresponding results revealed the subject-specific nature of the MI-based BCI system; however, the Power Spectral Density (PSD) based α-BP feature had the highest averaged accuracy.

  11. The socio-technical barriers to Solar Home Systems (SHS) in Papua New Guinea: 'Choosing pigs, prostitutes, and poker chips over panels'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study explores the socio-technical barriers to Solar Home Systems (SHS) in Papua New Guinea. The authors collected primary data through semi-structured research interviews conducted over the course of February 2010-April 2010. Respondents included government officials, financiers, planners, commercial distributors and companies, teachers and rural villagers in addition to members of civil society, academics, consultants, and trainers. These interviews were supplemented with site visits to Port Moresby, Goroka, and Madang, and field research in the villages of Akameku, Asaroka, Lufa, Kundiawa, Okifa, Simbu, and Talidig. The study draws from these interviews and visits to discuss four types of barriers. Technical barriers relate to substandard equipment and logistical problems. Economic barriers include high rates of poverty, misconceptions about the role of currency, and lack of financing. Political barriers include poor institutional capacity and a government commitment to fossil-fueled grid electrification. Social barriers encompass unrealistic expectations about what SHS can provide along with jealousy, theft, vandalism, and unfamiliarity with solar technology. - Research highlights: → Solar Home Systems (SHS) are impeded by a collection of different barriers in Papua New Guinea. → Technical barriers relate to substandard equipment and logistical problems. → Economic barriers include high rates of poverty, misconceptions about the role of currency, and lack of financing.→ Political barriers include poor institutional capacity and a government commitment to fossil-fueled grid electrification. → Social barriers encompass unrealistic expectations about what SHS can provide along with jealousy, theft, vandalism, and unfamiliarity with solar technology.

  12. Research on Wind Turbine Generator Dynamic Reliability Test System Based on Feature Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Wang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Wind power resource development is increasingly becoming the focus of the current research and development in various countries' relevant scientific institutions. To make sure the secure and reliable operation of wind turbine generator, the study develops the wind turbine generator dynamic reliability test system. When the fault of gearbox and spindle occurs, their features of vibration signals are special. According to the feature recognition technology, the application of time and frequency domain model identification method has practical significance to the test system. Based on Bayesian network fault diagnosis method, the vibration feature recognition system of wind turbine generator is constructed. Finally, the paper uses GPRS technology to realize the wireless transmission of operation information. The wind turbine generator dynamic reliability test system is built based on GPRS technology to realize automatic control and remote intelligent monitoring and to ensure the safe and stable operation of wind farms.

  13. Technical considerations for the development of an engineering safety features control system with PLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technical considerations are summarized for the development of an ESFCS(Engineered Safety Features Control System) with PLC (Programmable Logic Controller). The ESFCS is required for the mitigation of plant accident conditions and therefore developed in conformance with the design requirements applied to the safety critical system. The design of ESFCS primarily considered its safety, and the system has an architecture that will be able to minimize spurious actuation. The PLC based functional distribution and redundant design features are adopted, and the fieldbus is applied in the communication of information and control signals between PLC processors. It is expected that the ESFCS will have several advanced design features compared with the conventional systems supplied by foreign vendors

  14. Analysis of features of water circulating system in Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design features of GNPS water circulating system and the difference between this design and large size inland fossil fired power station are presented. This features have been listed as follows: (1) the CW system has adopted unit type arrangement, (2) in pumping station the drum type rotating screens have been used, (3) the CW pumps are of vertical concrete vobute type pumps, (4) in CW system, chlorination of CW water to a concentration of lppm will be achieved by means of electrolysis of sea water, (5) debris filters will be installed in the CW pipe at the condenser inlet

  15. Solving problems in social-ecological systems: definition, practice and barriers of transdisciplinary research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelstam, Per; Andersson, Kjell; Annerstedt, Matilda; Axelsson, Robert; Elbakidze, Marine; Garrido, Pablo; Grahn, Patrik; Jönsson, K Ingemar; Pedersen, Simen; Schlyter, Peter; Skärbäck, Erik; Smith, Mike; Stjernquist, Ingrid

    2013-03-01

    Translating policies about sustainable development as a social process and sustainability outcomes into the real world of social-ecological systems involves several challenges. Hence, research policies advocate improved innovative problem-solving capacity. One approach is transdisciplinary research that integrates research disciplines, as well as researchers and practitioners. Drawing upon 14 experiences of problem-solving, we used group modeling to map perceived barriers and bridges for researchers' and practitioners' joint knowledge production and learning towards transdisciplinary research. The analysis indicated that the transdisciplinary research process is influenced by (1) the amount of traditional disciplinary formal and informal control, (2) adaptation of project applications to fill the transdisciplinary research agenda, (3) stakeholder participation, and (4) functional team building/development based on self-reflection and experienced leadership. Focusing on implementation of green infrastructure policy as a common denominator for the delivery of ecosystem services and human well-being, we discuss how to diagnose social-ecological systems, and use knowledge production and collaborative learning as treatments. PMID:23475660

  16. Nano-carrier systems: Strategies to overcome the mucus gel barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dünnhaupt, S; Kammona, O; Waldner, C; Kiparissides, C; Bernkop-Schnürch, A

    2015-10-01

    The present review provides an overview of nanotechnology-based strategies to overcome various mucus gel barriers including the intestinal, nasal, ocular, vaginal, buccal and pulmonary mucus layer without destroying them. It focuses on the one hand on strategies to improve the mucus permeation behavior of particles and on the other hand on systems avoiding the back-diffusion of particles out of the mucus gel layer. Nanocarriers with improved mucus permeation behavior either exhibit a high density of positive and negative charges, bearing mucolytic enzymes such as papain and bromelain on their surface or display a slippery surface due to PEG-ylation. Furthermore, self-nanoemulsifying-drug-delivery-systems (SNEDDS) turned out to exhibit comparatively high mucus permeating properties. Strategies in order to avoid back-diffusion are based on thiolated polymers reacting to a higher extent with cysteine subunits of the mucus at pH 7 in deeper mucus regions than at pH 5 being prevalent in luminal mucus regions of the intestinal and vaginal mucosa. Furthermore, particles changing their zeta potential from negative to positive once they have reached the epithelium seem to be promising carriers. The summarized knowledge should provide a good starting point for further developments in this field. PMID:25712487

  17. Barriers and enablers to geothermal district heating system development in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the US Energy Information Administration, space and hot water heating represented about 20% of total US energy demand in 2006. Given that most of this demand is met by burning natural gas, propane, and fuel oil, an enormous opportunity exists for directly utilizing indigenous geothermal energy as a cleaner, nearly emissions-free renewable alternative. Although the US is rich in geothermal energy resources, they have been frequently undervalued in America's portfolio of options as a means of offsetting fossil fuel emissions while providing a local, reliable energy source for communities. Currently, there are only 21 operating GDHS in the US with a capacity of about 100 MW thermal. Interviews with current US district heating operators were used to collect data on and analyze the development of these systems. This article presents the current structure of the US regulatory and market environment for GDHS along with a comparative study of district heating in Iceland where geothermal energy is extensively utilized. It goes on to review the barriers and enablers to utilizing geothermal district heating systems (GDHS) in the US for space and hot water heating and provides policy recommendations on how to advance this energy sector in the US.

  18. Research on Wind Turbine Generator Dynamic Reliability Test System Based on Feature Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Bin Wang(Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China); Yuemiao Wang; Xinbo Chen

    2013-01-01

    Wind power resource development is increasingly becoming the focus of the current research and development in various countries' relevant scientific institutions. To make sure the secure and reliable operation of wind turbine generator, the study develops the wind turbine generator dynamic reliability test system. When the fault of gearbox and spindle occurs, their features of vibration signals are special. According to the feature recognition technology, the application of time and frequency...

  19. Reducing barriers to interoperability through collaborative development of standards for Earth science information systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percivall, G. S.; Arctur, D. K.

    2010-12-01

    Increasingly, Earth science research must make effective use of interdisciplinary data sources and processes. Non-interoperability impedes sharing of data and computing resources. Standards from the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) and other organizations are the basis for successfully deploying a seamless, distributed information infrastructure for the geosciences. Collaborative development of the standards has proven effective in reducing barriers to standards adoption. Standards are the basis for the success of the Internet and the World Wide Web. A standard describes a set of rules that have been agreed to in some consensus forum, such as the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), or the OGC. As described in The Importance of Going Open, “non-interoperability causes organizations to spend much more than necessary on geospatial information technology development”. In the context of e-Science, the National Science Foundation’s Cyberinfrastructure Council argues that “The use of standards creates economies of scale and scope for developing and deploying common resources, tools, software, and services that enhance the use of cyberinfrastructure in multiple science and engineering communities.” Barriers to adoption include misperceptions and misuse of standards. “Adhering to standards costs more” - typically this statement is made when a research program considers implementing standards as a one-time modification to an existing system. Multiple economic studies have shown lower development costs when using standards over the life of a project. “Standards stifle innovation” - a key decision in research is to consider what assumptions to consider fixed and what to challenge. The long history of standards in research, e.g., SI units, is fundamental to assessing repeatable results by independent researchers. Similar need for common standards exist in the information systems used for Earth

  20. Combined heat and power systems: economic and policy barriers to growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalam Adil

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Combined Heat and Power (CHP systems can provide a range of benefits to users with regards to efficiency, reliability, costs and environmental impact. Furthermore, increasing the amount of electricity generated by CHP systems in the United States has been identified as having significant potential for impressive economic and environmental outcomes on a national scale. Given the benefits from increasing the adoption of CHP technologies, there is value in improving our understanding of how desired increases in CHP adoption can be best achieved. These obstacles are currently understood to stem from regulatory as well as economic and technological barriers. In our research, we answer the following questions: Given the current policy and economic environment facing the CHP industry, what changes need to take place in this space in order for CHP systems to be competitive in the energy market? Methods We focus our analysis primarily on Combined Heat and Power Systems that use natural gas turbines. Our analysis takes a two-pronged approach. We first conduct a statistical analysis of the impact of state policies on increases in electricity generated from CHP system. Second, we conduct a Cost-Benefit analysis to determine in which circumstances funding incentives are necessary to make CHP technologies cost-competitive. Results Our policy analysis shows that regulatory improvements do not explain the growth in adoption of CHP technologies but hold the potential to encourage increases in electricity generated from CHP system in small-scale applications. Our Cost-Benefit analysis shows that CHP systems are only cost competitive in large-scale applications and that funding incentives would be necessary to make CHP technology cost-competitive in small-scale applications. Conclusion From the synthesis of these analyses we conclude that because large-scale applications of natural gas turbines are already cost-competitive, policy initiatives

  1. Design of the Control System for Engineered Safety Features of KIJANG Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hagtae; Kim, Jun-Yeon; Chae, Hee-Taek [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The purpose of this paper is to design an effective control system for the Engineered Safety Features (ESF) of KJRR such as the Safety Residual Heat Removal System (SRHRS) pumps and Siphon Break Valve (SBV) without an Engineered Safety Features-Component Control System (ESF-CCS). This control system is called a 'local motor starter', because this system controls motors in the SRHRS pumps and SBVs by receiving the signal from Reactor Protection System (RPS) and Alternate Protection System (APS) when the differential pressure or pool level reach the set points. In this paper, the design concepts and requirements of the local motor starter based on the design features of KJRR is proposed. An ESF is a safety system that mitigates consequences of the Anticipated Operational Occurrence (AOO) and Design Basis Accident (DBA). The results of this paper are able to be used for the development of control systems for research reactors similar to KJRR. The precondition for such application is to have a few ESFs and conduct simple logic. The proposed control system called a local motor starter is being designed, and a manufacture of the actual systems is expected in the foreseeable future.

  2. Design of the Control System for Engineered Safety Features of KIJANG Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to design an effective control system for the Engineered Safety Features (ESF) of KJRR such as the Safety Residual Heat Removal System (SRHRS) pumps and Siphon Break Valve (SBV) without an Engineered Safety Features-Component Control System (ESF-CCS). This control system is called a 'local motor starter', because this system controls motors in the SRHRS pumps and SBVs by receiving the signal from Reactor Protection System (RPS) and Alternate Protection System (APS) when the differential pressure or pool level reach the set points. In this paper, the design concepts and requirements of the local motor starter based on the design features of KJRR is proposed. An ESF is a safety system that mitigates consequences of the Anticipated Operational Occurrence (AOO) and Design Basis Accident (DBA). The results of this paper are able to be used for the development of control systems for research reactors similar to KJRR. The precondition for such application is to have a few ESFs and conduct simple logic. The proposed control system called a local motor starter is being designed, and a manufacture of the actual systems is expected in the foreseeable future

  3. AN INTEGRATED FRAMEWORK BASED ON TEXTURE FEATURES, CUCKOO SEARCH AND RELEVANCE VECTOR MACHINE FOR MEDICAL IMAGE RETRIEVAL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogapriya Jaganathan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available As medical images are widely used in healthcare applications, Content Based Medical Image Retrieval (CBMIR system is needed for physicians to convey effective decisions to patients and for medical research students to learn imaging characteristics for their extensive research based on visual features. However the performance of the retrieval is restricted due to high feature dimensionality of visual features. To reduce the high feature dimension, an integrated approach is proposed such as Visual feature extraction, Feature selection, Feature Classification and Similarity measurements. The selected feature is texture features by using Local Binary Patterns (LBP in which extracted texture features are designed as feature vector database. Fuzzy based Cuckoo Search (FCKS techniques are applied for feature selection to reduce the high feature vector dimensionality and addresses the difficulty of feature vectors being surrounded in local feature optima also the global optimum feature position to be special for all feature cuckoo hosts. Fuzzy based Relevance Vector Machine (FRVM classification is an proficient method to customize the collections of relevant image features that would classify dimensionally determined optimized feature vectors of images. The Euclidean Distance (ED is a standard technique for similarity measurement between the query image and the image database. The proposed system is implemented on thousands of medical images and achieved a high retrieval precision and recall compared with other two methods as validated through experiments.

  4. US National Geothermal Data System: Web feature services and system operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Stephen; Clark, Ryan; Allison, M. Lee; Anderson, Arlene

    2013-04-01

    The US National Geothermal Data System is being developed with support from the US Department of Energy to reduce risk in geothermal energy development by providing online access to the body of geothermal data available in the US. The system is being implemented using Open Geospatial Consortium web services for catalog search (CSW), map browsing (WMS), and data access (WFS). The catalog now includes 2427 registered resources, mostly individual documents accessible via URL. 173 WMS and WFS services are registered, hosted by 4 NGDS system nodes, as well as 6 other state geological surveys. Simple feature schema for interchange formats have been developed by an informal community process in which draft content models are developed based on the information actually available in most data provider's internal datasets. A template pattern is used for the content models so that commonly used content items have the same name and data type across models. Models are documented in Excel workbooks and posted for community review with a deadline for comment; at the end of the comment period a technical working group reviews and discusses comments and votes on adoption. When adopted, an XML schema is implemented for the content model. Our approach has been to keep the focus of each interchange schema narrow, such that simple-feature (flat file) XML schema are sufficient to implement the content model. Keeping individual interchange formats simple, and allowing flexibility to introduce new content models as needed have both assisted in adoption of the service architecture. One problem that remains to be solved is that off-the-shelf server packages (GeoServer, ArcGIS server) do not permit configuration of a normative schema location to be bound with XML namespaces in instance documents. Such configuration is possible with GeoServer using a more complex deployment process. XML interchange format schema versions are indicated by the namespace URI; because of the schema location

  5. Feature - Based Approach to Automatic Fixturing System Planning ForUniform Polyhedra Workpiece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amjad Barzan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper demonstrates the design of an algorithm to represent the design stages of fixturing system that serve in increasing the flexibility and automation of fixturing system planning for uniform polyhedral part. This system requires building a manufacturing feature recognition algorithm to present or describe inputs such as (configuration of workpiece and built database system to represents (production plan and fixturing system exiting to this algorithm. Also knowledge – base system was building or developed to find the best fixturing analysis (workpiece setup, constraints of workpiece and arrangement the contact on this workpiece to workpiece.

  6. Elementary Analysis on the Technological Features of an Engineering Equipment Facile Diagnosis System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    From the point of systemic engineering, the general properties of an engineering equipment fault diagnosis system and the studying object of diagnosis engineering were discussed. With the developing course of fault diagnosis technology, the relationship be-tween facile diagnosis system and diagnosis engineering were also discussed. The basic structure and feature of a facile diagnosis system were discussed, and the isomorphic of a facile diagnosis system and precise diagnosis system was presented. The facile diagnosis requires the perfection of method, pertinence and apriority of knowledge , adaptability of the object being diagnosed and the approach to the aim of the diagnosis result, as well as the outstanding of main functions.

  7. Enhanced cancer recognition system based on random forests feature elimination algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcift, Akin

    2012-08-01

    Accurate classifiers are vital to design precise computer aided diagnosis (CADx) systems. Classification performances of machine learning algorithms are sensitive to the characteristics of data. In this aspect, determining the relevant and discriminative features is a key step to improve performance of CADx. There are various feature extraction methods in the literature. However, there is no universal variable selection algorithm that performs well in every data analysis scheme. Random Forests (RF), an ensemble of trees, is used in classification studies successfully. The success of RF algorithm makes it eligible to be used as kernel of a wrapper feature subset evaluator. We used best first search RF wrapper algorithm to select optimal features of four medical datasets: colon cancer, leukemia cancer, breast cancer and lung cancer. We compared accuracies of 15 widely used classifiers trained with all features versus to extracted features of each dataset. The experimental results demonstrated the efficiency of proposed feature extraction strategy with the increase in most of the classification accuracies of the algorithms. PMID:21567124

  8. Generalized Discriminant Analysis algorithm for feature reduction in Cyber Attack Detection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailendra Singh

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This Generalized Discriminant Analysis (GDA has provided an extremely powerful approach to extracting non-linear features. The network traffic data provided for the design of intrusion detection system always are large with ineffective information, thus we need to remove the worthless information from the original high dimensional database. To improve the generalization ability, we usually generate a small set of features from the original input variables by feature extraction. The conventional Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA feature reduction technique has its limitations. It is not suitable for non-linear dataset. Thus we propose an efficient algorithm based on the Generalized Discriminant Analysis (GDA feature reduction technique which is novel approach used in the area of cyber attack detection. This not only reduces the number of the input features but also increases the classification accuracy and reduces the training and testing time of the classifiers by selecting most discriminating features. We use Artificial Neural Network (ANN and C4.5 classifiers to compare the performance of the proposed technique. The result indicates the superiority of algorithm.

  9. Practical designs for clay based engineered barrier systems for heat emitting radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many of the present designs of repositories for radioactive wastes derive from generic feasibility studies which emphasize post-closure safety. These include little (or no) treatment of the practicality of safe and quality-assured construction of engineered barriers under the conditions (humidity, dust, etc.) and requirements (emplacement rate, remote handling, etc.) of an operational underground facility. Indeed, as soon as attempts are made to demonstrate such concepts in-situ at full scale, considerable practical problems are encountered and, in many cases, additional engineering components are introduced (liners, borehole caps, grouts, rock-bolts, drainage systems, etc.) which could be detrimental to - or at leas t complicate - the long-term safety case. As the discrepancy between the idealized concepts illustrated in performance assessment and the actual systems which are shown to be feasible grows, there is a critical need for design rationalization. Such a process needs to include careful balancing of factors influencing safety during the operational phase - which should not be compromised - with those which contribute to potential hazards which occur only in the distant future. Apart from such almost philosophical considerations, the robustness of the EBS construction procedure to possible operational perturbations needs serious consideration. Even if closed and sealed repositories are very insensitive to disruptive events such as earthquakes, hurricanes, industrial actions and terrorist actions, the operational system may be more vulnerable to perturbation. Designs should be introduced which, to the greatest extent possible, not only fail safe, but are also easy to remedy (or reverse) in case the assurance of EBS quality is lost. This paper will expand on ideas for a second generation of clay-based EBS designs, which are both practical and safe. Associated requirements for R and D and performance assessment model development will also be outlined, with a

  10. A Registration Scheme for Multispectral Systems Using Phase Correlation and Scale Invariant Feature Matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanlun Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past few years, many multispectral systems which consist of several identical monochrome cameras equipped with different bandpass filters have been developed. However, due to the significant difference in the intensity between different band images, image registration becomes very difficult. Considering the common structural characteristic of the multispectral systems, this paper proposes an effective method for registering different band images. First we use the phase correlation method to calculate the parameters of a coarse-offset relationship between different band images. Then we use the scale invariant feature transform (SIFT to detect the feature points. For every feature point in a reference image, we can use the coarse-offset parameters to predict the location of its matching point. We only need to compare the feature point in the reference image with the several near feature points from the predicted location instead of the feature points all over the input image. Our experiments show that this method does not only avoid false matches and increase correct matches, but also solve the matching problem between an infrared band image and a visible band image in cases lacking man-made objects.

  11. Omnidirectional multi-view systems: Calibration, features and 3D information

    OpenAIRE

    Puig Morales, Luis; Guerrero Campo, José Jesús

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis we focus on omnidirectional multi-view systems, in particular central catadioptric systems. We go from the very early step of calibration to the high level task of 3D information recovery. We also consider a very important intermediate step, which is the development of properly adapted features for central catadioptric systems. In the following paragraphs we describe in moredetail the goals reached on this thesis. We selected the sphere camera model to deal with the central cat...

  12. Chi Square Feature Extraction Based Svms Arabic Language Text Categorization System

    OpenAIRE

    Abdelwadood M.A. MESLEH

    2007-01-01

    This paper aims to implement a Support Vector Machines (SVMs) based text classification system for Arabic language articles. This classifier uses CHI square method as a feature selection method in the pre-processing step of the Text Classification system design procedure. Comparing to other classification methods, our system shows a high classification effectiveness for Arabic data set in term of F-measure (F=88.11).

  13. Image retrieval system based on machine learning and using color features

    OpenAIRE

    Demšar, Janez; Radolović, Dragan; Solina, Franc

    2014-01-01

    We describe an interactive system for content based image retrieval. The system presents the user with 15 randomly selected images from the database. The user grades the images with one of five possible grades (YES, yes, neutral, no, NO) according to what he is looking for. The system returns the first 15 images with the highest probability of YES grade. The attributes used are a combination of color features. Three different machine learning techniques are compared.

  14. A Soft Computing Based Approach Using Modified Selection Strategy for Feature Reduction of Medical Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Kursat Zuhtuogullari; Novruz Allahverdi; Nihat Arikan

    2013-01-01

    The systems consisting high input spaces require high processing times and memory usage. Most of the attribute selection algorithms have the problems of input dimensions limits and information storage problems. These problems are eliminated by means of developed feature reduction software using new modified selection mechanism with middle region solution candidates adding. The hybrid system software is constructed for reducing the input attributes of the systems with large number of input var...

  15. Changes in skin barrier during treatment with systemic alitretinoin: focus on skin susceptibility and stratum corneum ceramides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jungersted, Jakob Mutanu; Høgh, Julie Kaae; Hellgren, Lars;

    2010-01-01

    Alitretinoin is a new drug for systemic treatment of chronic hand eczema. Previous functional tests of skin topically treated with retinoids have indicated impaired skin barrier function, but no data are available on barrier parameters after systemic alitretinoin treatment. To investigate the...... systemic alitretinoin treatment. The criteria for being ascribed to alitretinoin were chronic hand eczema and insufficient therapeutic response to potent topical corticosteroids. Before initiation and after 2 months of systemic treatment with 30 mg alitretinoin, a challenge with sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS......) was performed on the volar forearm and evaluated by trans-epidermal water loss (TEWL), erythema, and a cyanoacrylate skin sample was obtained for lipid analysis. We found no significant changes in response to SLS irritation as evaluated by TEWL and erythema, after treatment with alitretinoin for 2...

  16. International Collaborations on Engineered Barrier Systems: Brief Overview of SKB-EBS Activities.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jove-Colon, Carlos F. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Research collaborations with international partners on the behavior and performance of engineered barrier systems (EBS) are an important aspect of the DOE-NE Used Fuel Disposition Campaign strategy in the evaluation of disposal design concepts. These international partnerships are a cost-effective way of engaging in key R&D activities with common goals resulting in effective scientific knowledge exchanges thus enhancing existing and future research programs in the USA. This report provides a brief description of the activities covered by the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) EBS Task Force (TF) (referred hereafter as SKB EBS TF) and potential future directions for engagement of the DOE-NE UFDC program in relevant R&D activities. Emphasis is given to SKB EBS TF activities that are still ongoing and aligned to the UFDC R&D program. This include utilization of data collected in the bentonite rock interaction experiment (BRIE) and data sets from benchmark experiments produced by the chemistry or “C” part of the SKB EBS TF. Potential applications of information generated by this program include comparisons/tests between model and data (e.g., reactive diffusion), development and implementation of coupled-process models (e.g., HM), and code/model benchmarking.

  17. Preliminary test on filling gap behavior of the swollen buffer in the engineering barrier system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In geological disposal of the high-level radioactive waste (HLW), the engineered barrier system (EBS) (buffer, waste packages (capsulate the vitrified waste)) is installed in the space of a repository using the remote control technique due to protect workers from radiation. The block type buffer, as one of the candidate options of the installation of the buffer, has the gap between buffer and rock or waste package. In this case, the highly compacted buffer will be used to fill the gap by the swollen buffer. Swelling of the buffer is considered to begin from the surface of the buffer where groundwater infiltrates. Infiltration of groundwater into the buffer is considered to be 3 dimensional, because the gap and the infiltration points of the buffer are distributed spatially. Therefore, the scatter of the swelling points of the buffer causes the non-uniformity of the swelling of the buffer. Such non-uniformity of the swelling of the buffer will affect the thickness of the buffer between waste package and rock mass. Then, preliminary tests that simulate 3 dimensional filling gap behavior of the swollen buffer were performed. The test results showed the swollen buffer filled the gap rapidly. There is scatter of the density of the buffer early, but the tendency that the density of the buffer became uniformity with time was observed. It is considered that the swelling and fluidity of the buffer occurs simultaneously, the swelling of the buffer for filling the gap will affect the thickness of the buffer. (author)

  18. Mini-med school for Aboriginal youth: experiential science outreach to tackle systemic barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita I. Henderson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Addressing systemic barriers experienced by low-income and minority students to accessing medical school, the University of Calgary's Cumming School of Medicine has spearheaded a year-round, mini-med school outreach initiative for Aboriginal students. Method: Junior and senior high school youth generally attend the half-day program in classes or camps of 15–25, breaking into small groups for multisession activities. Undergraduate medical education students mentor the youth in stations offering experiential lessons in physical examination, reading x-rays, and anatomy. All resources from the medical school are offered in-kind, including a pizza lunch at midday, whereas community partners organize transportation for the attendees. Results: Opening the medical school and its resources to the community offers great benefits to resource-constrained schools often limited in terms of science education resources. The model is also an effort to address challenges among the medical professions around attracting and retaining students from underserved populations. Conclusion: The prospect of increasing admission rates and successful completion of medical education among students from marginalized communities poses a real, though difficult-to-measure, possibility of increasing the workforce most likely to return to and work in such challenging contexts. A mini-medical school for Aboriginal youth highlights mutual, long-term benefit for diverse partners, encouraging medical educators and community-based science educators to explore the possibilities for deepening partnerships in their own regions.

  19. Health system and societal barriers for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM services - lessons from World Diabetes Foundation supported GDM projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nielsen Karoline Kragelund

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal mortality and morbidity remains high in many low- and middle-income countries (LMIC. Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM represents an underestimated and unrecognised impediment to optimal maternal health in LMIC; left untreated – it also has severe consequences for the offspring. A better understanding of the barriers hindering detection and treatment of GDM is needed. Based on experiences from World Diabetes Foundation (WDF supported GDM projects this paper seeks to investigate societal and health system barriers to such efforts. Methods Questionnaires were filled out by 10 WDF supported GDM project partners implementing projects in eight different LMIC. In addition, interviews were conducted with the project partners. The interviews were analysed using content analysis. Results Barriers to improving maternal health related to GDM nominated by project implementers included lack of trained health care providers - especially female doctors; high staff turnover; lack of standard protocols, consumables and equipment; financing of health services and treatment; lack of or poor referral systems, feedback mechanisms and follow-up systems; distance to health facility; perceptions of female body size and weight gain/loss in relation to pregnancy; practices related to pregnant women’s diet; societal negligence of women’s health; lack of decision-making power among women regarding their own health; stigmatisation; role of women in society and expectations that the pregnant woman move to her maternal home for delivery. Conclusions A number of barriers within the health system and society exist. Programmes need to consider and address these barriers in order to improve GDM care and thereby maternal health in LMIC.

  20. Perspective on Secure Development Activities and Features of Safety I and C Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Enforcement Decree of the Act on Physical Protection and Radiological Emergency (ED-APPRE) was revised December 2013 to include security requirements on computer systems at nuclear facilities to protect those systems against malicious cyber-attacks. It means Cyber-Security-related measures, controls and activities of safety I and C systems against cyber-attacks shall meet the requirements of ED-APPRE. Still regulation upon inadvertent access or non-malicious modifications to the safety I and C systems is covered under the Nuclear Safety Act. The objective of this paper is to propose KINS' regulatory perspective on secure development and features against non-malicious access or modification of safety I and C systems. Secure development activities and features aim to prevent inadvertent and non-malicious access, and to prevent unwanted action from personnel or connected systems for ensuring reliable operation of safety I and C systems. Secure development activities of safety I and C systems are life cycle activities to ensure unwanted, unneeded and undocumented code is not incorporated into the systems. Secure features shall be developed, verified and qualified throughout the development life cycle

  1. Perspective on Secure Development Activities and Features of Safety I and C Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Youngdoo; Yu, Yeong Jin; Kim, Hyungtae; Kwon, Yong il; Park, Yeunsoo; Choo, Jaeyul; Son, Jun Young; Jeong, Choong Heui [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The Enforcement Decree of the Act on Physical Protection and Radiological Emergency (ED-APPRE) was revised December 2013 to include security requirements on computer systems at nuclear facilities to protect those systems against malicious cyber-attacks. It means Cyber-Security-related measures, controls and activities of safety I and C systems against cyber-attacks shall meet the requirements of ED-APPRE. Still regulation upon inadvertent access or non-malicious modifications to the safety I and C systems is covered under the Nuclear Safety Act. The objective of this paper is to propose KINS' regulatory perspective on secure development and features against non-malicious access or modification of safety I and C systems. Secure development activities and features aim to prevent inadvertent and non-malicious access, and to prevent unwanted action from personnel or connected systems for ensuring reliable operation of safety I and C systems. Secure development activities of safety I and C systems are life cycle activities to ensure unwanted, unneeded and undocumented code is not incorporated into the systems. Secure features shall be developed, verified and qualified throughout the development life cycle.

  2. Improving energy efficiency in industrial energy systems an interdisciplinary perspective on barriers, energy audits, energy management, policies, and programs

    CERN Document Server

    Thollander, Patrik

    2012-01-01

    Industrial energy efficiency is one of the most important means of reducing the threat of increased global warming. Research however states that despite the existence of numerous technical energy efficiency measures, its deployment is hindered by the existence of various barriers to energy efficiency. The complexity of increasing energy efficiency in manufacturing industry calls for an interdisciplinary approach to the issue. Improving energy efficiency in industrial energy systems applies an interdisciplinary perspective in examining energy efficiency in industrial energy systems, and discuss

  3. Dynamic features analysis for the large-scale logistics system warehouse-out operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Can-Zhong; Lin, Ji-Nan; Liu, Xiao-Feng; Zheng, Xu-Zhou

    2014-12-01

    In the paper, we research on the behavior dynamics for the large-scale logistics system warehouse-out operation systematically. First, we discover that steel products warehouse-out of different warehouses in a large-scale logistics system can be characterized by burst, and the warehouse-out inter-event time follows the power-law distribution with exponents close to α=2.5, which differs from the two classical models proposed by Barabasi (2005) and Vazquez (2005) respectively. By analyzing the warehouse-out inter-event time distribution of the products in one certain large-scale logistics system, we further discuss burst features and mechanisms of logistics system. Additionally, we find that in population behaviors, burst features can be explained by the priority that rooted in holidays and interior task scheduling. However, warehouse-out behaviors of active individuals do not show any features of burst. Further, we find that warehouse-out quantity of steel products follows Fractal Brownian motion with the HURST exponent higher than 0.5 by means of R/S, which infers that the quantity of products in a logistics system is not only guided by prices in the present market, but also related closely to the previous quantity of warehouse-out. Based on V statistic, we compare memory length of different products in warehouses. Finally, we apply complex networks visibility graphs for further validation of fractal features in a logistics system and find that almost every visibility graph exhibits small-world and scale-free features. Both R/S and complex networks visibility graphs reinforce that the warehouse-out quantity of products in a logistics system is not a random walk process, but contains intrinsic regularities and long-term correlation between present and previous warehouse-out quantity.

  4. Diffusive Transport of Sulphide through an Engineering Barrier System in a Deep Geological Repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, S. A.; Sleep, B. E.; McKelvie, J. R. M.; Krol, M.

    2015-12-01

    Bentonite is a naturally occurring clay-rich sediment containing montmorillonite, a smectitic clay mineral that has a high cation exchange capacity and swells upon contact with water. Owing to these characteristics, highly compacted bentonite (HCB) is an often included component of engineered barrier systems (EBS) designed to protect used fuel containers (UFCs) in deep geological repositories (DGR) for high-level nuclear waste. The low water activity and high swelling pressure of HCB suppresses microbial activity and the related production of sulphide that could cause microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) of UFCs The Canadian Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO) has chosen a UFC that consists of an inner steel core and outer copper coating which is resistant to corrosion. However, under anaerobic conditions, MIC can still contribute to UFC corrosion if sulphides are present in the groundwater. Therefore the EBS consisting of bentonite blocks and pellets has been designed to impede the movement of sulphides to the UFC. In order to examine the effectiveness of the EBS, a 3D numerical model was developed capable of simulating the diffusive transport of sulphide within the NWMO EBS. The model was developed using COMSOL Multiphysics, a finite element software package and is parametric which allows the impact of different repository layouts to be assessed. The developed model was of the entire NWMO placement room, as well as, a stand-alone UFC and included conservative assumptions such as a fully saturated system and a constant concentration boundary condition. The results showed that the highest sulphide flux occurred at the semi-spherical end caps of the UFC. Further studies examined the effect of sulphide hotspots and fractures, representing possible EBS failure mechanisms. The model results highlight that even with conservative assumptions the chosen EBS will effectively protect the UFC from microbiologically influenced corrosion.

  5. THE APPLICATION OF FEATURE TECHNOLOGY IN DEVELOPING A CAD-BASED HIGH LEVEL PROCESS PLANNING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ade Febransyah

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available High-level process planning plays an important role in determining candidate process domains at the configuration design stage. Changing the process domains later increases the product development cycle and the product development cost. Therefore, determining the most appropriate manufacturing processes at the beginning stages of the design process becomes critical. However, high-level process planning systems have traditionally lacked integration of design synthesis and design evaluation. The objective of this paper is to propose a CAD-based high-level process planning system that will help designers decide whether or not the designs are worth pursuing. A hybrid approach incorporating design by feature and feature recognition approaches is proposed and implemented. Synergizing both advantages of both approaches will reduce the complexity of feature recognition algorithm without sacrificing the flexibility in creating a part model.

  6. An Igneous Origin for Features of a Candidate Crater-Lake System in Western Memnonia, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leverington, D. W.; Maxwell, T. A.

    2004-01-01

    The association of channels, inner terraces, and delta-like features with Martian impact craters has previously been interpreted as evidence in favor of the past existence of crater lakes on Mars. However, examination of a candidate crater-lake system in western Memnonia suggests instead that its features may have formed through igneous processes involving the flow and ponding of lava. Accumulations of material in craters and other topographic lows throughout much of the study region have characteristics consistent with those of volcanic deposits, and terraces found along the inner flanks of some of these craters are interpreted as having formed through drainage or subsidence of volcanic materials. Channels previously identified as inlets and outlets of the crater-lake system are interpreted instead as volcanic rilles. These results challenge previous interpretations of terrace and channel features in the study region and suggest that candidate crater lakes located elsewhere should be reexamined.

  7. Decontamination systems information and research program -- Literature review in support of development of standard test protocols and barrier design models for in situ formed barriers project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy is responsible for approximately 3,000 sites in which contaminants such as carbon tetrachloride, trichlorethylene, perchlorethylene, non-volatile and soluble organic and insoluble organics (PCBs and pesticides) are encountered. In specific areas of these sites radioactive contaminants are stored in underground storage tanks which were originally designed and constructed with a 30-year projected life. Many of these tanks are now 10 years beyond the design life and failures have occurred allowing the basic liquids (ph of 8 to 9) to leak into the unconsolidated soils below. Nearly one half of the storage tanks located at the Hanford Washington Reservation are suspected of leaking and contaminating the soils beneath them. The Hanford site is located in a semi-arid climate region with rainfall of less than 6 inches annually, and studies have indicated that very little of this water finds its way to the groundwater to move the water down gradient toward the Columbia River. This provides the government with time to develop a barrier system to prevent further contamination of the groundwater, and to develop and test remediation systems to stabilize or remove the contaminant materials. In parallel to remediation efforts, confinement and containment technologies are needed to retard or prevent the advancement of contamination plumes through the environment until the implementation of remediation technology efforts are completed. This project examines the various confinement and containment technologies and protocols for testing the materials in relation to their function in-situ

  8. Decontamination systems information and research program -- Literature review in support of development of standard test protocols and barrier design models for in situ formed barriers project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-01

    The US Department of Energy is responsible for approximately 3,000 sites in which contaminants such as carbon tetrachloride, trichlorethylene, perchlorethylene, non-volatile and soluble organic and insoluble organics (PCBs and pesticides) are encountered. In specific areas of these sites radioactive contaminants are stored in underground storage tanks which were originally designed and constructed with a 30-year projected life. Many of these tanks are now 10 years beyond the design life and failures have occurred allowing the basic liquids (ph of 8 to 9) to leak into the unconsolidated soils below. Nearly one half of the storage tanks located at the Hanford Washington Reservation are suspected of leaking and contaminating the soils beneath them. The Hanford site is located in a semi-arid climate region with rainfall of less than 6 inches annually, and studies have indicated that very little of this water finds its way to the groundwater to move the water down gradient toward the Columbia River. This provides the government with time to develop a barrier system to prevent further contamination of the groundwater, and to develop and test remediation systems to stabilize or remove the contaminant materials. In parallel to remediation efforts, confinement and containment technologies are needed to retard or prevent the advancement of contamination plumes through the environment until the implementation of remediation technology efforts are completed. This project examines the various confinement and containment technologies and protocols for testing the materials in relation to their function in-situ.

  9. A new approach to the non-oxidative conversion of gaseous alkanes in a barrier discharge and features of the reaction mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudryashov, S.; Ryabov, A.; Shchyogoleva, G.

    2016-01-01

    A new approach to the non-oxidative conversion of C1-C4 alkanes into gaseous and liquid products in a barrier discharge is proposed. It consists in inhibiting the formation of deposits on the reactor electrode surfaces due to the addition of distilled water into the flow of hydrocarbon gases. The energy consumption on hydrocarbon conversion decreases from methane to n-butane from ~46 to 35 eV molecule-1. The main gaseous products of the conversion of light alkanes are hydrogen and C2-C4 hydrocarbons. The liquid reaction products contain C5+ alkanes with a predominantly isomeric structure. The results of modeling the kinetics of chemical reactions show that an increase in the molecular weight of the reaction products is mainly due to processes involving CH2 radical and the recombination of alkyl radicals.

  10. An Educational System to Help Students Assess Website Features and Identify High-Risk Websites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajiyama, Tomoko; Echizen, Isao

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to propose an effective educational system to help students assess Web site risk by providing an environment in which students can better understand a Web site's features and determine the risks of accessing the Web site for themselves. Design/methodology/approach: The authors have enhanced a prototype…

  11. Local Area Network Material Accounting System (LANMAS) Functions and Features Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Local Area Network Material Accounting System (LANMAS) application is a standardized approach to comply with the DOE Order 5633.3B, control and Accountability of Nuclear Material, material accounting requirements. This paper provides a general overview of the functions and features included in the LANMAS application

  12. MEMBRANOUS FLOWS IN GAS-LIQUID COLLECTORS-REGENERATORS OF SOLAR ABSORPTIVE SYSTEMS FEATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doroshenko А.V.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Article is devoted to the creation of new generation of solar collectors of the gas-liquid type, intended for use in alternative refrigerating and conditioning systems of drying-evaporating type with direct solar regeneration of absorbent. Special attention is given to the study of membranous flows features on inclined surfaces, including questions of such flows stability.

  13. The Use of a Parametric Feature Based CAD System to Teach Introductory Engineering Graphics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Steven K.

    1995-01-01

    Describes the use of a parametric-feature-based computer-aided design (CAD) System, AutoCAD Designer, in teaching concepts of three dimensional geometrical modeling and design. Allows engineering graphics to go beyond the role of documentation and communication and allows an engineer to actually build a virtual prototype of a design idea and…

  14. The intrinsic features of Environmental Management Systems that facilitate adoption and encourage innovation in primary industries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carruthers, Genevieve; Vanclay, Frank

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the theoretical underpinnings of the adoption of innovations, and applies this knowledge to the uptake of Environmental Management Systems (EMS) amongst Australian farmers. We examine the specific features of the EMS process that might encourage or inhibit EMS adoption. We also c

  15. Image reporting and characterization system for ultrasound features of thyroid nodules: Multicentric Korean retrospective study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, Jin Young [Dept. of Radiology, Severance Hospital, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jung, In Kyung [Dept. of Biostatistics, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Beak, Jung Hwan [Dept. of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seou (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2013-01-15

    The objective of this retrospective study was to develop and validate a simple diagnostic prediction model by using ultrasound (US) features of thyroid nodules obtained from multicenter retrospective data. Patient data were collected from 20 different institutions and the data included 2000 thyroid nodules from 1796 patients. For developing a diagnostic prediction model to estimate the malignant risk of thyroid nodules using suspicious malignant US features, we developed a training model in a subset of 1402 nodules from 1260 patients. Several suspicious malignant US features were evaluated to create the prediction model using a scoring tool. The scores for such US features were estimated by calculating odds ratios, and the risk score of malignancy for each thyroid nodule was defined as the sum of these individual scores. Later, we verified the usefulness of developed scoring system by applying into the remaining 598 nodules from 536 patients. Among 2000 tumors, 1268 were benign and 732 were malignant. In our multiple regression analysis models, the following US features were statistically significant for malignant nodules when using the training data set: hypoechogenicity, marked hypoechogenicity, non-parallel orientation, microlobulated or spiculated margin, ill-defined margins, and microcalcifications. The malignancy rate was 7.3% in thyroid nodules that did not have suspicious-malignant features on US. Area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was 0.867, which shows that the US risk score help predict thyroid malignancy well. In the test data set, the malignancy rates were 6.2% in thyroid nodules without malignant features on US. Area under the ROC curve of the test set was 0.872 when using the prediction model. The predictor model using suspicious malignant US features may be helpful in risk stratification of thyroid nodules.

  16. Image reporting and characterization system for ultrasound features of thyroid nodules: Multicentric Korean retrospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this retrospective study was to develop and validate a simple diagnostic prediction model by using ultrasound (US) features of thyroid nodules obtained from multicenter retrospective data. Patient data were collected from 20 different institutions and the data included 2000 thyroid nodules from 1796 patients. For developing a diagnostic prediction model to estimate the malignant risk of thyroid nodules using suspicious malignant US features, we developed a training model in a subset of 1402 nodules from 1260 patients. Several suspicious malignant US features were evaluated to create the prediction model using a scoring tool. The scores for such US features were estimated by calculating odds ratios, and the risk score of malignancy for each thyroid nodule was defined as the sum of these individual scores. Later, we verified the usefulness of developed scoring system by applying into the remaining 598 nodules from 536 patients. Among 2000 tumors, 1268 were benign and 732 were malignant. In our multiple regression analysis models, the following US features were statistically significant for malignant nodules when using the training data set: hypoechogenicity, marked hypoechogenicity, non-parallel orientation, microlobulated or spiculated margin, ill-defined margins, and microcalcifications. The malignancy rate was 7.3% in thyroid nodules that did not have suspicious-malignant features on US. Area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was 0.867, which shows that the US risk score help predict thyroid malignancy well. In the test data set, the malignancy rates were 6.2% in thyroid nodules without malignant features on US. Area under the ROC curve of the test set was 0.872 when using the prediction model. The predictor model using suspicious malignant US features may be helpful in risk stratification of thyroid nodules.

  17. Feature test report for the Small Debris Collection and Packaging System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brisbin, S.A.

    1995-03-17

    The Spent Nuclear Fuel Equipment Engineering group performed feature testing of the Small Debris Collection and Packaging System (SDCPS) in the 305 Cold Test Facility from January 30, 1995, to February 1, 1995. Feature testing of the Small Debris Collection and Packaging System (SDCPS) was performed for the following reasons: To assess the feasibility of using ``drop-out`` vessels to collect small debris (<2.5 cm) in MK-II fuel canisters while transferring sludge to the Weasel Pit. To evaluate system performance under conditions similar to those in the K-Basins (e.g. submerged under 4.9 meters of water and operated with long handled tools) while using a surrogate sludge mixed with debris. To determine if canister weight could be used to predict the volume of sludge and/or debris contained within the canisters during system operation.

  18. Quality control and patient dosimetry in digital radiology. On line system: New features and transportability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New features have been added to a system (QCONLINE) for auditing patient dosimetric and technical parameters 'on line', working on a digital radiology department and using the information contained in the DICOM header of some modalities. The audit of other parameters than patient doses have been included, setting alarm conditions to alert on malfunction of the X-ray system or bad operation modes, in addition to the evaluation of patient doses. A new module to analyse, collect and process the relevant information transferred by the modality performed procedure step (MPPS) service has been launched. Several examples with the exploitation of the new features are presented. The transportability of the system has been tested in two remote hospitals during several months. The new MPPS module has demonstrated to be a good tool to complement the information existing in the DICOM header. The system allows to help in the optimisation of digital radiology departments managing patient dosimetry and procedure data in real time. (authors)

  19. Feature test report for the Small Debris Collection and Packaging System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Spent Nuclear Fuel Equipment Engineering group performed feature testing of the Small Debris Collection and Packaging System (SDCPS) in the 305 Cold Test Facility from January 30, 1995, to February 1, 1995. Feature testing of the Small Debris Collection and Packaging System (SDCPS) was performed for the following reasons: To assess the feasibility of using ''drop-out'' vessels to collect small debris (<2.5 cm) in MK-II fuel canisters while transferring sludge to the Weasel Pit. To evaluate system performance under conditions similar to those in the K-Basins (e.g. submerged under 4.9 meters of water and operated with long handled tools) while using a surrogate sludge mixed with debris. To determine if canister weight could be used to predict the volume of sludge and/or debris contained within the canisters during system operation

  20. Barrier distribution of quasi-elastic backward scattering in very heavy reaction systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have measured quasi-elastic backward scattering in the reactions of 48Ti, 54Cr, 56Fe, 64Ni, 70Zn, 76Ge and 86Kr + 208Pb to study the nucleus-nucleus interaction in Pb-based cold fusion. The barrier distributions were obtained from the first derivative of the measured excitation functions of quasi-elastic scattering cross sections normalized to the Rutherford scattering cross sections. The centroids of the barrier distributions showed deviations from several predicted barrier heights toward the low energy side except for the Christensen-Winther potential and the Akuez-Winther potential. The shapes of the barrier distributions were well reproduced by the results of a coupled-channel calculation taking account of the coupling effects of multi-phonon excitations of the quadrupole vibration for the projectiles and of the octupole vibration for the 208Pb target. The present barrier distributions were also well reproduced by a semiclassical calculation taking into account the couplings of transfer channels and single-phonon excitations in the projectiles and the target. (author)

  1. Inherent Safety Features and Passive Prevention Approaches for Pb/Bi-cooled Accelerator-Driven Systems

    OpenAIRE

    CARLSSON Johan

    2003-01-01

    This thesis is devoted to the investigation of passivesafety and inherent features of subcritical nucleartransmutation systems - accelerator-driven systems. The generalobjective of this research has been to improve the safetyperformance and avoid elevated coolant temperatures inworst-case scenarios like unprotected loss-of-ow accidents,loss-of-heat-sink accidents, and a combination of both theseaccident initiators. The specific topics covered are emergencydecay heat removal by reactor vessel ...

  2. The development of a preliminary ultrasonographic scoring system for features of hand osteoarthritis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Keen, H I

    2008-05-01

    Painful osteoarthritis (OA) of the hand is common and a validated ultrasound (US) scoring system would be valuable for epidemiological and therapeutic outcome studies. US is increasingly used to assess peripheral joints, though most of the US focus in rheumatic diseases has been on rheumatoid arthritis. We aimed to develop a preliminary US hand OA scoring system, initially focusing on relevant pathological features with potentially high reliability.

  3. Motivating University Students Using a Location-Aware Time Management System with Social Networking Features

    OpenAIRE

    Rebenich, Till; Gravell, Andrew; Tiropanis, Thanassis

    2010-01-01

    Time management in university learning environments can be different from that in the professional workplace or at school. Students are required to learn independently, many learning activities take place outside the formal teaching timetable, and students might require additional motivation to embark on learning tasks. In this paper, we present the design of a time management system prototype addressing these special requirements. Our system incorporates social networking features, enhanced ...

  4. Feature engineering and a proposed decision-support system for systematic reviewers of medical evidence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Bekhuis

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Evidence-based medicine depends on the timely synthesis of research findings. An important source of synthesized evidence resides in systematic reviews. However, a bottleneck in review production involves dual screening of citations with titles and abstracts to find eligible studies. For this research, we tested the effect of various kinds of textual information (features on performance of a machine learning classifier. Based on our findings, we propose an automated system to reduce screeing burden, as well as offer quality assurance. METHODS: We built a database of citations from 5 systematic reviews that varied with respect to domain, topic, and sponsor. Consensus judgments regarding eligibility were inferred from published reports. We extracted 5 feature sets from citations: alphabetic, alphanumeric(+, indexing, features mapped to concepts in systematic reviews, and topic models. To simulate a two-person team, we divided the data into random halves. We optimized the parameters of a Bayesian classifier, then trained and tested models on alternate data halves. Overall, we conducted 50 independent tests. RESULTS: All tests of summary performance (mean F3 surpassed the corresponding baseline, P<0.0001. The ranks for mean F3, precision, and classification error were statistically different across feature sets averaged over reviews; P-values for Friedman's test were .045, .002, and .002, respectively. Differences in ranks for mean recall were not statistically significant. Alphanumeric(+ features were associated with best performance; mean reduction in screening burden for this feature type ranged from 88% to 98% for the second pass through citations and from 38% to 48% overall. CONCLUSIONS: A computer-assisted, decision support system based on our methods could substantially reduce the burden of screening citations for systematic review teams and solo reviewers. Additionally, such a system could deliver quality assurance both by

  5. Engineered Barrier System - Long-term Stability of Buffer and Backfill. Synthesis and extended abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apted, Mick; Arthur, Randy [Monitor Scientific LLC, Denver, CO (United States); Savage, Dave [Quintessa Ltd., Nottingham (GB)] (eds.)

    2005-09-15

    SKI is preparing to review the license applications being developed by the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) for an encapsulation plant and a deep repository for the geological disposal of spent nuclear fuel. As part of its preparation, SKI is conducting a series of technical workshops on key aspects of the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) of the repository. This workshop concerns the longterm stability of the buffer and the backfill. Previous workshops have addressed the overall concept for long-term integrity of the EBS, the manufacturing, testing and QA of the EBS and the performance confirmation for the EBS. The goal of this work is to achieve a comprehensive overview of all aspects of SKB's EBS work prior to the handling of forthcoming license applications. The reports from the EBS workshops will be used as one important basis in future review work. The workshops involve the gathering of a sufficient number of independent experts in different subjects of relevance to the particular aspect of EBS. A workshop starts with presentations and discussions among these experts. Following this, SKB presents recent results and responds to questions as part of an informal hearing. Finally, the independent experts and the SKI staff examine the SKB responses from different viewpoints. This report aims to summarise the issues discussed at the buffer and backfill workshop and to extract the essential viewpoints that have been expressed. The report is not a comprehensive record of the discussions and individual statements made by workshop participants should be regarded as opinions rather than proven facts. This reports includes apart from the workshop synthesis, questions to SKB identified prior or during the workshop, and extended abstracts for introductory presentations.

  6. Monitoring fluid evolution in an Engineered Barrier System using NEO-magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigonat, N.; Butler, I. B.

    2015-12-01

    Long-term monitoring of the evolution of the engineered barrier system (EBS) of a Geological Disposal Facility (GDF) is important for establishing the safety case for deep disposal of the UK inventory of high level radioactive waste. With a view to developing techniques for remote fluid monitoring using magnetic properties, we have examined the correlation between the corrosion properties of NEO-magnets and related changes in the magnetic properties of the alloy with fluid chemistry and crystal-chemical changes of the Na-bentonite matrix. Batch experiments comprised fragments of NEO-magnets with deionised water, saline and alkaline solution both in the presence and absence of MX-80 bentonite, and were performed in sealed vessels for durations of up to 5 months at 70°C. This study combined PXRD, thermomagnetic and hysteresis analysis to demonstrate how progressive hydrogenation of the main magnetic phase led to a maximum loss of remanence and coercitivity and increasing Curie temperature in the samples reacted with deionised water with the samples reacted in saline and alkaline solutions showing smaller changes. Semi-quantitative analysis allowed comparison of the Curie temperatures with crystal-chemical parameters. This reveals a clear positive correlation of increasing lattice parameters a and c (and cell volume) with mean hydrogens per unit formula and the Curie temperature of the product NdFeB hydrides. Precipitation of Nd and Fe hydrides/oxyhydroxides is also demonstated by the PXRD data. A crucial role is played by the transformations occurring to the smectite matrix, in particular by the cation exchange in the interlayer, which causes precipitation of highly charged K- and Ca-smectites. This study demonstrates how NEO-magnets are capable of detecting water saturation in the EBS, and that the NdFeB corrosion properties are strongly controlled by the initial fluid composition and presence / absence of the bentonite matrix.

  7. Thermal High- and Low-Cycle Fatigue Behavior of Thick Thermal Barrier Coating Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Robert A.

    1998-01-01

    Ceramic thermal barrier coatings have received increasing attention for advanced gas turbine and diesel engine applications because of their ability to provide thermal insulation to engine components. However, the durability of these coatings under the severe thermal cycling conditions encountered in a diesel engine (ref. 1) still remains a major issue. In this research at the NASA Lewis Research Center, a high-power laser was used to investigate the thermal fatigue behavior of a yttria-stabilized zirconia coating system under simulated diesel engine conditions. The mechanisms of fatigue crack initiation and propagation, and of coating failure under complex thermal low-cycle fatigue (LCF, representing stop/start cycles) and thermal high-cycle fatigue (HCF, representing operation at 1300 rpm) are described. Continuous wave and pulse laser modes were used to simulate pure LCF and combined LCF/HCF, respectively (ref. 2). The LCF mechanism was found to be closely related to the coating sintering and creep at high temperatures. These creep strains in the ceramic coating led to a tensile stress state during cooling, thus providing the major driving force for crack growth under LCF conditions. The combined LCF/HCF tests induced more severe coating surface cracking, microspallation, and accelerated crack growth than did the pure LCF test. HCF thermal loads also facilitated lateral crack branching and ceramic/bond coat interface delaminations. HCF is associated with the cyclic stresses originating from the high-frequency temperature fluctuation at the ceramic coating surface. The HCF thermal loads act on the crack by a wedging mechanism (ref. 1), resulting in continuous crack growth at temperature. The HCF stress intensity factor amplitude increases with the interaction depth and temperature swing, and decreases with the crack depth. HCF damage also increases with the thermal expansion coefficient and the Young's modulus of the ceramic coating (refs. 1 and 3).

  8. Engineered Barrier System - Long-term Stability of Buffer and Backfill. Synthesis and extended abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SKI is preparing to review the license applications being developed by the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) for an encapsulation plant and a deep repository for the geological disposal of spent nuclear fuel. As part of its preparation, SKI is conducting a series of technical workshops on key aspects of the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) of the repository. This workshop concerns the longterm stability of the buffer and the backfill. Previous workshops have addressed the overall concept for long-term integrity of the EBS, the manufacturing, testing and QA of the EBS and the performance confirmation for the EBS. The goal of this work is to achieve a comprehensive overview of all aspects of SKB's EBS work prior to the handling of forthcoming license applications. The reports from the EBS workshops will be used as one important basis in future review work. The workshops involve the gathering of a sufficient number of independent experts in different subjects of relevance to the particular aspect of EBS. A workshop starts with presentations and discussions among these experts. Following this, SKB presents recent results and responds to questions as part of an informal hearing. Finally, the independent experts and the SKI staff examine the SKB responses from different viewpoints. This report aims to summarise the issues discussed at the buffer and backfill workshop and to extract the essential viewpoints that have been expressed. The report is not a comprehensive record of the discussions and individual statements made by workshop participants should be regarded as opinions rather than proven facts. This reports includes apart from the workshop synthesis, questions to SKB identified prior or during the workshop, and extended abstracts for introductory presentations

  9. EFFECTIVENESS OF FEATURE DETECTION OPERATORS ON THE PERFORMANCE OF IRIS BIOMETRIC RECOGNITION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binsu C. Kovoor

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Iris Recognition is a highly efficient biometric identification system with great possibilities for future in the security systems area.Its robustness and unobtrusiveness, as opposed tomost of the currently deployed systems, make it a good candidate to replace most of thesecurity systems around. By making use of the distinctiveness of iris patterns, iris recognition systems obtain a unique mapping for each person.Identification of this person is possible by applying appropriate matching algorithm.In this paper, Daugman’s Rubber Sheet model is employed for irisnormalization and unwrapping, descriptive statistical analysis of different feature detection operators is performed, features extracted is encoded using Haar wavelets and for classification hammingdistance as a matching algorithm is used. The system was tested on the UBIRIS database. The edge detection algorithm, Canny, is found to be the best one to extract most ofthe iris texture. The success rate of feature detection using canny is 81%, False Accept Rate is 9% and False Reject Rate is 10%.

  10. System and Patient Barriers to Care among People Living with HIV/AIDS in Houston/Harris County, Texas: HIV Medical Care Providers' Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mgbere, Osaro; Khuwaja, Salma; Bell, Tanvir K; Rodriguez-Barradas, Maria C; Arafat, Raouf; Essien, Ekere James; Singh, Mamta; Aguilar, Jonathan; Roland, Eric

    2015-01-01

    In the United States, a considerable number of people diagnosed with HIV are not receiving HIV medical care due to some barriers. Using data from the Medical Monitoring Project survey of HIV medical care providers in Houston/Harris County, Texas, we assessed the HIV medical care providers' perspectives of the system and patient barriers to HIV care experienced by people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). The study findings indicate that of the 14 HIV care barriers identified, only 1 system barrier and 7 patient barriers were considered of significant (P ≤ .05) importance, with the proportion of HIV medical care providers' agreement to these barriers ranging from 73.9% (cost of health care) to 100% (lack of social support systems and drug abuse problems). Providers' perception of important system and patient barriers varied significantly (P ≤ .05) by profession, race/ethnicity, and years of experience in HIV care. To improve access to and for consistent engagement in HIV care, effective intervention programs are needed to address the barriers identified especially in the context of the new health care delivery system. PMID:24943655

  11. Natural Barriers of the Geosphere at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlt, H.; Kotra, J.; Mohanty, S.; Winterle, J.

    2005-05-01

    Geological repositories designed to isolate high-level radioactive waste need natural and engineered barriers that prevent or slow the release of radioactive elements into the accessible environment to acceptable regulatory limits. Under the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) regulations, a barrier is any material, structure, or feature that prevents or substantially reduces the rate of movement of water or radionuclides from the repository to the accessible environment. In 1982, Congress passed the Nuclear Waste Policy Act which directed the NRC to include multiple barriers in regulating geologic disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Accordingly, as provided in 10 CFR Part 63, the NRC's regulations for Yucca Mountain require a repository to include multiple barriers to ensure the system is robust and not wholly dependent on any single barrier. Any potential license application to construct a repository at Yucca Mountain must identify the multiple barriers (both natural and engineered), describe the capabilities of each barrier, and provide the technical bases for the capabilities of the barriers. The NRC believes that understanding the capability of the repository's component barriers improves understanding of the overall system. The objective of this paper is to discuss potential natural barriers of the geosphere at Yucca Mountain and describe the NRC regulatory requirements for such barriers. To better understand the natural barriers of the geosphere, it helps to divide the barriers into groups of features and their associated processes. Natural barriers, i.e., barriers not constructed by man, ideally include processes that delay the transport of radionuclides from reaching the accessible environment or limit the amount of water that can seep from a ground surface to the depth of an underground repository. Natural barriers at Yucca Mountain may include: topographic influences on precipitation runoff; soil and plants influences on evaporation and

  12. Feature Selection Software to Improve Accuracy and Reduce Cost in Automated Recognition Systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Somol, Petr

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 2011, č. 84 (2011), s. 54-54. ISSN 0926-4981 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0572 Grant ostatní: GA MŠk(CZ) 2C06019 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : feature selection * software library * machine learning Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2011/RO/somol-feature selection software to improve accuracy and reduce cost in automated recognition systems.pdf

  13. Autonomous Feature Following for Visual Surveillance Using a Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle with Gimbaled Camera System

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Deok-Jin; Kaminer, Isaac; Dobrokhodov, Vladimir; Jones, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    The article of record as published may be located at http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12555-010-0504-1 This paper represents the development of feature following control and distributed navigation algorithms for visual surveillance using a small unmanned aerial vehicle equipped with a low-cost imaging sensor unit. An efficient map-based feature generation and following control algorithm is developed to make an onboard imaging sensor to track a target. An efficient navigation system is a...

  14. A CAD System for Lesion Detection in Cervigram Based on Laws Textural Feature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RamaPraba P.S

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among the women worldwide. A computer aided diagnosis system can help colposcopist to analyze cervical images more accurately. This work aims to detect lesion in cervical images based on Laws textural feature and nearest neighbor classifier and it can be used as a diagnostic tool. The images used for the detection of cervical cancer are taken by using colposcope which magnifies the cells of cervix. The Laws textural features are extracted from the cervical images and input to nearest neighbor classifier. A totally 240 images are used for the evaluation and an overall accuracy of 96% is obtained.

  15. Method of installing subsurface barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickelson, Reva A.; Richardson, John G.; Kostelnik, Kevin M.; Sloan, Paul A.

    2007-10-09

    Systems, components, and methods relating to subterranean containment barriers. Laterally adjacent tubular casings having male interlock structures and multiple female interlock structures defining recesses for receiving a male interlock structure are used to create subterranean barriers for containing and treating buried waste and its effluents. The multiple female interlock structures enable the barriers to be varied around subsurface objects and to form barrier sidewalls. The barrier may be used for treating and monitoring a zone of interest.

  16. Functionally gradient materials for thermal barrier coatings in advanced gas turbine systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banovic, S.W.; Barmak, K.; Chan, H.M. [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    New designs for advanced gas turbine engines for power production are required to have higher operating temperatures in order to increase efficiency. However, elevated temperatures will increase the magnitude and severity of environmental degradation of critical turbine components (e.g. combustor parts, turbine blades, etc{hor_ellipsis}). To offset this problem, the usage of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) has become popular by allowing an increase in maximum inlet temperatures for an operating engine. Although thermal barrier technology is over thirty years old, the principle failure mechanism is the spallation of the ceramic coating at or near the ceramic/bond coat interface. Therefore, it is desirable to develop a coating that combines the thermal barrier qualities of the ceramic layer and the corrosion protection by the metallic bond coat without the detrimental effects associated with the localization of the ceramic/metal interface to a single plane.

  17. The Development of Environmental Barrier Coating Systems for SiC-SiC Ceramic Matrix Composites: Environment Effects on the Creep and Fatigue Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming; Ghosn, Louis J.

    2014-01-01

    Topics covered include: Environmental barrier coating system development: needs, challenges and limitations; Advanced environmental barrier coating systems (EBCs) for CMC airfoils and combustors; NASA EBC systems and material system evolutions, Current turbine and combustor EBC coating emphases, Advanced development, processing, testing and modeling, EBC and EBC bond coats: recent advances; Design tool and life prediction of coated CMC components; Advanced CMC-EBC rig demonstrations; Summary and future directions.

  18. Geometric and featural systems, separable and combined: Evidence from reorientation in people with Williams syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, Katrina; Landau, Barbara

    2015-11-01

    Spatial reorientation by humans and other animals engages geometric representations of surface layouts as well as featural landmarks; however, the two types of information are thought to be behaviorally and neurally separable. In this paper, we examine the use of these two types of information during reorientation among children and adults with Williams syndrome (WS), a genetic disorder accompanied by abnormalities in brain regions that support use of both geometry and landmarks. Previous studies of reorientation in adolescents and adults with WS have shown deficits in the ability to use geometry for reorientation, but intact ability to use features, suggesting that the two systems can be differentially impaired by genetic disorder. Using a slightly modified layout, we found that many WS participants could use geometry, and most could use features along with geometry. However, the developmental trajectories for the two systems were quite different from one other, and different from those found in typical development. Purely geometric responding was not correlated with age in WS, and search processes appeared similar to those in typically developing (TD) children. In contrast, use of features in combination with geometry was correlated with age in WS, and search processes were distinctly different from TD children. The results support the view that use of geometry and features stem from different underlying mechanisms, that the developmental trajectories and operation of each are altered in WS, and that combination of information from the two systems is atypical. Given brain abnormalities in regions supporting the two kinds of information, our findings suggest that the co-operation of the two systems is functionally altered in this genetic syndrome. PMID:26275835

  19. Exploring Barriers of the Health System to Rehabilitation Services for People with Disabilities in Iran: A Qualitative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Abdi, Kianoush; Arab, Mohammad; Rashidian, Arash; Kamali, Mohammad; Khankeh, Hamid Reza; Farahani, Farideh Khalajabadi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The United Nations (UN) identified health as a basic human right, but, unfortunately, the evidence shows that people with disabilities (PWD) often have lower levels of health than the general population. This can be associated with problems in access to the services and programs. The aim of this study was to explore barriers of the health system to rehabilitation services for PWD in Iran. Methods This was a qualitative study conducted on 21 participants using semi-structured, in-...

  20. Evaluation of Perivascular Adhesion Formation in New Zealand White Rabbits Using Oxiplex and DuraSeal Xact Adhesion Barrier System

    OpenAIRE

    Mo, Fred; Yue, James; Zhang, Jianghui; Howk, Kreg; Williams, Allister

    2009-01-01

    Background Adhesion formation after spine surgery is a result of normal wound healing that may place patients at increased risk for complications during revision surgery. Preventing adhesions could reduce the risk of complications during revision surgery, and possibly reduce the need for revision procedures. This study evaluates the ability of DuraSeal Xact Adhesion Barrier System (DSX) (Covidien, Mansfield, Massachusetts) and Oxiplex/SP gel (OX) (FzioMed, San Luis Obispo, California) to affe...

  1. Ultrasound-mediated blood-brain barrier disruption for targeted drug delivery in the central nervous system

    OpenAIRE

    Aryal, Muna; Arvanitis, Costas D.; Alexander, Phillip M.; McDannold, Nathan

    2014-01-01

    The physiology of the vasculature in the central nervous system (CNS), which includes the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and other factors, complicates the delivery of most drugs to the brain. Different methods have been used to bypass the BBB, but they have limitations such as being invasive, non-targeted or requiring the formulation of new drugs. Focused ultrasound (FUS), when combined with circulating microbubbles, is a noninvasive method to locally and transiently disrupt the BBB at discrete t...

  2. Identification of barriers and monitored the implementation of electronic training system and provide solutions to fix it

    OpenAIRE

    HELMİ, Shamameh

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Barriers to implementing e-learning systems may be related to the organization, manpower or technology-related factors. Given the many obstacles that have been detected, managerial and human factors are the main obstacles in this study.A reliable and valid questionnaire was distributed among management organizational development and human capital Tehran University of Medical Sciences staff. For analysis of data obtained through questionnaires SPSS statistical software is used. The m...

  3. Practical application of passive safety features for the advanced neutron source cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of a conceptual design study leading to the definition of a reference design for the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) heavy water cooling system are presented. The objective of this study was to define a cooling system that not only met the ANS goals for operating parameters, reliability, availability, and maintainability, but also used inherent, passive, and diverse features and characteristics to satisfy the ANS internal events core melt goal of -5/yr. The approach taken in this study was to define a cooling system configuration having the minimum basic components and characteristics to satisfy the requirements for normal operation, and then to add only those features necessary to meet the requirements for all emergency design-basis events

  4. FUSING SPEECH SIGNAL AND PALMPRINT FEATURES FOR AN SECURED AUTHENTICATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.K. Mahesh

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In the application of Biometric authentication, personal identification is regarded as an effective method for automatic recognition, with a high confidence, a person’s identity. Using multimodal biometric systems we typically get better performance compare to single biometric modality. This paper proposes the multimodal biometrics system for identity verification using two traits, i.e., speech signal and palmprint. Integrating the palmprint and speech information increases robustness of person authentication. The proposed system is designed for applications where the training data contains a speech signal and palmprint. It is well known that the performance of person authentication using only speech signal or palmprint is deteriorated by feature changes with time. The final decision is made by fusion at matching score level architecture in which feature vectors are created independently for query measures and are then compared to the enrolment templates, which are stored during database preparation.

  5. Effects of barrier fluctuation on the tunneling dynamics in the presence of classical chaos in a mixed quantum-classical system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Aparna Saha; Bidhan Chandra Bag; Pranab Sarkar

    2007-03-01

    We present a numerical investigation of the tunneling dynamics of a particle moving in a bistable potential with fluctuating barrier which is coupled to a non-integrable classical system and study the interplay between classical chaos and barrier fluctuation in the tunneling dynamics. We found that the coupling of the quantum system with the classical subsystem decreases the tunneling rate irrespective of whether the classical subsystem is regular or chaotic and also irrespective of the fact that whether the barrier fluctuates or not. Presence of classical chaos always enhances the tunneling rate constant. The effect of barrier fluctuation on the tunneling rate in a mixed quantum-classical system is to suppress the tunneling rate. In contrast to the case of regular subsystem, the suppression arising due to barrier fluctuation is more visible when the subsystem is chaotic.

  6. Design features of the radioactive Liquid-Fed Ceramic Melter system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During 1983, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), at the request of the Department of Energy (DOE), undertook a program with the principal objective of testing the Liquid-Fed Ceramic Melter (LFCM) process in actual radioactive operations. This activity, termed the Radioactive LFCM (RLFCM) Operations is being conducted in existing shielded hot-cell facilities in B-Cell of the 324 Building, 300 Area, located at Hanford, Washington. This report summarizes the design features of the RLFCM system. These features include: a waste preparation and feed system which uses pulse-agitated waste preparation tanks for waste slurry agitation and an air displacement slurry pump for transferring waste slurries to the LFCM; a waste vitrification system (LFCM) - the design features, design approach, and reasoning for the design of the LFCM are described; a canister-handling turntable for positioning canisters underneath the RLFCM discharge port; a gamma source positioning and detection system for monitoring the glass fill level of the product canisters; and a primary off-gas treatment system for removing the majority of the radionuclide contamination from the RLFCM off gas. 8 refs., 48 figs., 6 tabs

  7. Design Features behind Success of the Ecosystem Management Decision Support System and Future Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Reynolds

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Ecosystem Management Decision Support (EMDS system is an application framework for designing and implementing spatially enabled knowledge-based decision support systems for environmental analysis and planning at any geographic scale(s. The system integrates state-of-the-art geographic information system, as well as knowledge-based reasoning and decision modeling, technologies to provide decision support for the adaptive management process of ecosystem management. It integrates a logic engine to perform landscape evaluations, and a decision engine for developing management priorities. The logic component: (1 reasons about large, abstract, multi-faceted ecosystem management problems; (2 performs useful evaluations with incomplete information; (3 evaluates the influence of missing information, and (4 determines priorities for missing information. The planning component determines priorities for management activities, taking into account not only ecosystem condition, but also criteria that account for logistical concerns of potential management actions. Both components include intuitive diagnostic features that facilitate communicating modeling results to a broad audience. Features of the system design that have figured in its success over the past 20 years are highlighted, together with design features planned for the next several versions needed to provide spatial decision support for adaptive management under climate change.

  8. Software feature enhancements for automated scanning of multiple surface geometry objects using ultrasonic imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electronics Division, BARC in association with Metallic Fuels Division has developed an Ultrasonic Imaging System suitable for automated inspection of metallic objects with multiple surface geometry. The electronics hardware and application software for this system has been developed by Electronics Division and the design and development of the mechanical scanner was done by Metallic Fuels Division, BARC. The scanner has been successfully interfaced with the high-resolution ultrasonic imaging system (ULTIMA-200SP). A very significant feature of the ULTIMA-200SP system is the application software which performs various tasks of controlling various motors of scanner in addition to data acquisition, processing, analysis and information display. All these tasks must be carried out in a well synchronized manner for generating high resolution B Scan and C Scan images of test objects. In order to meet stringent requirements of the user, ULTIMA software has been extensively upgraded with new advanced features viz. Fast (coarse) and Slow (fine) scan for the speed optimization, Scanning of Cuboids and Cylindrical objects in the user defined region of interest, 3D view of the C-Scan, gray level, dual or multiple color plot in B-Scan, C-Scan and 3D views. This paper describes the advanced Windows based application software package developed at ED, BARC and highlights its salient features along with a brief description of the system hardware and relevant information. (author)

  9. Radar seeker based autonomous navigation update system using topography feature matching techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerche, H. D.; Tumbreagel, F.

    1992-11-01

    The discussed navigation update system was designed for an unmanned platform with fire and forget capability. It meets the requirement due to fully autonomous operation. The system concept will be characterized by complementary use of the radar seeker for target identification as well as for navigation function. The system works in the navigation mode during preprogrammable phases where the primary target identification function is not active or in parallel processing. The dual function radar seeker system navigates the drone during the midcourse and terminal phases of the mission. Its high resolution due to range measurement and doppler beam sharpening in context with its radar reflectivity sensing capability are the basis for topography referenced navigation computation. The detected height jumps (coming from terrain elevation and cultural objects) and radar reflectivity features will be matched together with topography referenced features. The database comprises elevation data and selected radar reflectivity features that are robust against seasonal influences. The operational benefits of the discussed system are as follows: (1) the improved navigation performance with high probability of position fixing, even over flat terrain; (2) the operation within higher altitudes; and (3) bad weather capability. The developed software modules were verified with captive flight test data running in a hardware-in-the-loop simulation.

  10. A Probabilistic Feature Map-Based Localization System Using a Monocular Camera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyungjin Kim

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Image-based localization is one of the most widely researched localization techniques in the robotics and computer vision communities. As enormous image data sets are provided through the Internet, many studies on estimating a location with a pre-built image-based 3D map have been conducted. Most research groups use numerous image data sets that contain sufficient features. In contrast, this paper focuses on image-based localization in the case of insufficient images and features. A more accurate localization method is proposed based on a probabilistic map using 3D-to-2D matching correspondences between a map and a query image. The probabilistic feature map is generated in advance by probabilistic modeling of the sensor system as well as the uncertainties of camera poses. Using the conventional PnP algorithm, an initial camera pose is estimated on the probabilistic feature map. The proposed algorithm is optimized from the initial pose by minimizing Mahalanobis distance errors between features from the query image and the map to improve accuracy. To verify that the localization accuracy is improved, the proposed algorithm is compared with the conventional algorithm in a simulation and realenvironments

  11. A Probabilistic Feature Map-Based Localization System Using a Monocular Camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyungjin; Lee, Donghwa; Oh, Taekjun; Choi, Hyun-Taek; Myung, Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Image-based localization is one of the most widely researched localization techniques in the robotics and computer vision communities. As enormous image data sets are provided through the Internet, many studies on estimating a location with a pre-built image-based 3D map have been conducted. Most research groups use numerous image data sets that contain sufficient features. In contrast, this paper focuses on image-based localization in the case of insufficient images and features. A more accurate localization method is proposed based on a probabilistic map using 3D-to-2D matching correspondences between a map and a query image. The probabilistic feature map is generated in advance by probabilistic modeling of the sensor system as well as the uncertainties of camera poses. Using the conventional PnP algorithm, an initial camera pose is estimated on the probabilistic feature map. The proposed algorithm is optimized from the initial pose by minimizing Mahalanobis distance errors between features from the query image and the map to improve accuracy. To verify that the localization accuracy is improved, the proposed algorithm is compared with the conventional algorithm in a simulation and realenvironments. PMID:26404284

  12. Modelling Coupled Processes in the Evolution of Repository Engineered Barrier Systems using QPAC-EBS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A satisfactory understanding of the evolution of repository engineered barrier systems (EBS) is an essential part of the safety case for the repository. This involves consideration of coupled Thermal (T), Hydro (H), Mechanical (M) and Chemical (C) processes. Quintessa's general-purpose modelling code QPAC is capable of representing strongly coupled non-linear processes and has been used in a wide range of applications. This code is the basis for software used by Quintessa in studies of the evolution of the EBS in a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel undertaken for SKI and then SSM since 2007. The collection of software components employed has been referred to collectively as QPAC-EBS, consisting of the core QPAC code together with relevant modules for T, H, M and C processes. QPAC-EBS employs a fundamentally different approach from dedicated codes that model such processes (although few codes can represent each type of process), enabling the specification of new processes and the associated governing equations in code input. Studies undertaken to date have demonstrated that QPAC-EBS can be used effectively to investigate both the early evolution of the EBS and important scenarios for the later evolution of the system when buffer erosion and canister corrosion may occur. A key issue for modelling EBS evolution is the satisfactory modelling of the behaviour of the bentonite buffer. Bentonite is a difficult material to model, partly because of the complex coupled mechanical, hydro and chemical processes involved in swelling during resaturation. Models employed to date have generally taken an empirical approach, but a new model developed during the EU THERESA project could be further developed to provide a better representation of these processes. QPAC-EBS could play an important role in supporting SSM.s review of the forthcoming SR-Site assessment by SKB if used by Quintessa in independent supporting calculations. To date radionuclide transport calculations

  13. Application of a hybrid wavelet feature selection method in the design of a self-paced brain interface system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birch Gary E

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, successful applications of the discrete wavelet transform have been reported in brain interface (BI systems with one or two EEG channels. For a multi-channel BI system, however, the high dimensionality of the generated wavelet features space poses a challenging problem. Methods In this paper, a feature selection method that effectively reduces the dimensionality of the feature space of a multi-channel, self-paced BI system is proposed. The proposed method uses a two-stage feature selection scheme to select the most suitable movement-related potential features from the feature space. The first stage employs mutual information to filter out the least discriminant features, resulting in a reduced feature space. Then a genetic algorithm is applied to the reduced feature space to further reduce its dimensionality and select the best set of features. Results An offline analysis of the EEG signals (18 bipolar EEG channels of four able-bodied subjects showed that the proposed method acquires low false positive rates at a reasonably high true positive rate. The results also show that features selected from different channels varied considerably from one subject to another. Conclusion The proposed hybrid method effectively reduces the high dimensionality of the feature space. The variability in features among subjects indicates that a user-customized BI system needs to be developed for individual users.

  14. Thermal cycling behaviour of thermal barrier coating systems based on first- and fourth-generation Ni-based superalloys

    OpenAIRE

    Duhamel, Cécilie; Chieux, Marion; Molins, Régine; Rémy, Luc; Monceau, Daniel; Rouaix-Vande Put, Aurélie; Guédou, Jean-Yves

    2012-01-01

    This study deals with the cyclic oxidation behaviour of thermal barrier coating systems. The systems consist of an yttria-stabilised zircona ceramic top coat deposited by EB-PVD, a b-(Ni,Pt)Al bond coat and a Ni-based superalloy. Two different superalloys are studied: a first-generation one and a fourthgeneration one containing Re, Ru and Hf. The aim of this work is to characterise the microstructural evolution of those systems and to correlate it to their resistance to spallation. Thermal cy...

  15. Experimental and modelling study on the long-term performance of the engineering barrier system of tru waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The long-term properties of the barrier system of the TRU waste repository will be assessed using the model that analyzes the geochemical reaction and the mass transport in that system. But there are data and models whose validity isn't adequately clear yet. RWMC had started the project of laboratory scale tests, natural analogous studies and numerical model analysis to improve the reliability of that model. The result of the four years of the study made it possible to change some conservative assumption to more realistic ones, and to show longer time stabilities of the repository system. (author)

  16. Special Features of Polarization-Induced Relaxation in Structurally Disordered Finely Dispersed Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherbachenko, L. A.; Tanaev, A. B.; Bezrukova, Ya. V.; Ezhova, L. I.; Baryshnikov, D. S.; Marchuk, S. D.; Berezovskii, P. P.

    2015-04-01

    Dielectric characteristics of finely dispersed hydrated natural coal from the Krasnoyarsk Strip Mine are measured in wide ranges of external measuring electric field frequencies, environmental temperatures, and humidities. The frequency, temperature, and concentration dispersions of the dielectric permittivity are revealed for the examined structures. An analysis of the results obtained demonstrates that a cluster layer of the polar aqueous matrix characterized by rigid fixing of water molecules is formed at the interphase boundaries of the examined system. It is demonstrated that this layer plays the role of the potential barrier that complicates transitions for both free water molecules and surface active dispersed coals oriented by the electric field. This layer can increase the electric strength of the examined disordered finely dispersed structures.

  17. A two-view ultrasound CAD system for spina bifida detection using Zernike features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konur, Umut; Gürgen, Fikret; Varol, Füsun

    2011-03-01

    In this work, we address a very specific CAD (Computer Aided Detection/Diagnosis) problem and try to detect one of the relatively common birth defects - spina bifida, in the prenatal period. To do this, fetal ultrasound images are used as the input imaging modality, which is the most convenient so far. Our approach is to decide using two particular types of views of the fetal neural tube. Transcerebellar head (i.e. brain) and transverse (axial) spine images are processed to extract features which are then used to classify healthy (normal), suspicious (probably defective) and non-decidable cases. Decisions raised by two independent classifiers may be individually treated, or if desired and data related to both modalities are available, those decisions can be combined to keep matters more secure. Even more security can be attained by using more than two modalities and base the final decision on all those potential classifiers. Our current system relies on feature extraction from images for cases (for particular patients). The first step is image preprocessing and segmentation to get rid of useless image pixels and represent the input in a more compact domain, which is hopefully more representative for good classification performance. Next, a particular type of feature extraction, which uses Zernike moments computed on either B/W or gray-scale image segments, is performed. The aim here is to obtain values for indicative markers that signal the presence of spina bifida. Markers differ depending on the image modality being used. Either shape or texture information captured by moments may propose useful features. Finally, SVM is used to train classifiers to be used as decision makers. Our experimental results show that a promising CAD system can be actualized for the specific purpose. On the other hand, the performance of such a system would highly depend on the qualities of image preprocessing, segmentation, feature extraction and comprehensiveness of image data.

  18. Magnetic resonance features of primary central nervous system lymphoma in the immunocompetent patient: a pictorial essay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is an uncommon but important variant of non-Hodgkin lymphoma and represents up to 6% of all primary central nervous system (CNS) malignancies. Recognition of this entity by radiologist on MRI may avoid unnecessary neurosurgical resection and redirect to biopsy. The pretreatment MRI of patients with biopsy proven PCNSL from the last 5 years at our institution was reviewed. Selected examples were used to construct a pictorial essay to illustrate some of the typical and atypical MR features of PCNSL. MRI of other CNS conditions with imaging similarities to PCNSL was included to demonstrate possible mimics. The typical features of PCNSL lymphoma are intra-axial homogenous single or multiple contrast enhancing lesions, with marked surrounding oedema and restricted diffusion, usually contacting a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) surface. Necrosis, peripheral enhancement, haemorrhage or calcification are unusual and other diagnoses should be considered if any of these features are present. Potential mimics include high grade glioma, infarcts, metastatic disease, demyelination, abscess and secondary lymphoma. Careful assessment of the MR features and correlation with the clinical findings should enable the radiologists to raise the possibility of PCNSL and minimise the risk of unnecessary resection.

  19. Exploring Barriers of the Health System to Rehabilitation Services for People with Disabilities in Iran: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdi, Kianoush; Arab, Mohammad; Rashidian, Arash; Kamali, Mohammad; Khankeh, Hamid Reza; Farahani, Farideh Khalajabadi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The United Nations (UN) identified health as a basic human right, but, unfortunately, the evidence shows that people with disabilities (PWD) often have lower levels of health than the general population. This can be associated with problems in access to the services and programs. The aim of this study was to explore barriers of the health system to rehabilitation services for PWD in Iran. Methods This was a qualitative study conducted on 21 participants using semi-structured, in-depth interviews and content analysis from June 2014 to July 2015. Data analysis was performed by MAXQDA version 10. Results “Barriers” were the most prominent challenge of people with disabilities that needed access to rehabilitation services. These barriers were categorized into eight concepts of deficiency in the system that provides rehabilitation services, defect of education, deficiency in detecting and screening of people with disability, defect of stewardship in rehabilitation, ignoring socio-cultural factors, accessibility hardships, lack of identification, and financial hardships in rehabilitation. Conclusions An efficient rehabilitation plan requires a common understanding, considering the long-term complications involved in addressing the barriers. Understanding the barriers of the health system to rehabilitation services requires comprehensive management that first should be familiar with all of PWD, providers, policy makers, and other beneficiaries. It also is necessary for policy makers to consider rehabilitation services as a main part of the health plan; especially, they must change their oversight of rehabilitation services and programs. Thus, policy makers should have need comprehensive management and recommended further research. PMID:26767101

  20. Modeling the Hydrogeochemical Transport of Radionuclides through Engineered Barriers System in the Proposed LLW Disposal Site of Taiwan - 12082

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Wen-Sheng [Hydrotech Research Institute, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Liu, Chen-Wuing; Tsao, Jui-Hsuan [Department of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Li, Ming-Hsu [Institute of Hydrological and Oceanic Sciences, National Central University, Jhongli, Taiwan (China)

    2012-07-01

    A proposed site for final disposal of low-level radioactive waste located in Daren Township of Taitung County along the southeastern coast has been on the selected list in Taiwan. The geology of the Daren site consists of argillite and meta-sedimentary rocks. A mined cavern design with a tunnel system of 500 m below the surface is proposed. Concrete is used as the main confinement material for the engineered barrier. To investigate the hydrogeochemical transport of radionuclides through engineered barriers system, HYDROGEOCHEM5.0 model was applied to simulate the complex chemical interactions among radionuclides, the cement minerals of the concrete, groundwater flow, and transport in the proposed site. The simulation results showed that the engineered barriers system with the side ditch efficiently drained the ground water and lowered the concentration of the concrete degradation induced species (e.g., hydrogen ion, sulfate, and chloride). The velocity of groundwater observed at side ditch gradually decreased with time due to the fouling of pore space by the mineral formation of ettringite and thaumasite. The short half-life of Co-60, Sr-90 and Cs-137 significantly reduced the concentrations, whereas the long half-life of I-129(1.57x10{sup 7} years) and Am-241(432 years) remain stable concentrations at the interface of waste canister and concrete barrier after 300 years. The mineral saturation index (SI) was much less than zero due to the low aqueous concentration of radionuclide, so that the precipitation formation of Co-60, Sr-90, I-129, Cs-137 and Am-241 related minerals were not found. The effect of adsorption/desorption (i.e., surface complexation model) could be a crucial geochemical mechanism for the modeling of liquid-solid phase behavior of radionuclide in geochemically dynamic environments. Moreover, the development of advanced numerical models that are coupled with hydrogeochemical transport and dose assessment of radionuclide is required in the future

  1. A Kinect based sign language recognition system using spatio-temporal features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memiş, Abbas; Albayrak, Songül

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents a sign language recognition system that uses spatio-temporal features on RGB video images and depth maps for dynamic gestures of Turkish Sign Language. Proposed system uses motion differences and accumulation approach for temporal gesture analysis. Motion accumulation method, which is an effective method for temporal domain analysis of gestures, produces an accumulated motion image by combining differences of successive video frames. Then, 2D Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) is applied to accumulated motion images and temporal domain features transformed into spatial domain. These processes are performed on both RGB images and depth maps separately. DCT coefficients that represent sign gestures are picked up via zigzag scanning and feature vectors are generated. In order to recognize sign gestures, K-Nearest Neighbor classifier with Manhattan distance is performed. Performance of the proposed sign language recognition system is evaluated on a sign database that contains 1002 isolated dynamic signs belongs to 111 words of Turkish Sign Language (TSL) in three different categories. Proposed sign language recognition system has promising success rates.

  2. Exponential decay of spatial correlation in driven diffusive system: A universal feature of macroscopic homogeneous state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Qing-Yi; Jiang, Rui; Hu, Mao-Bin; Jia, Bin; Wang, Wen-Xu

    2016-01-01

    Driven diffusive systems have been a paradigm for modelling many physical, chemical, and biological transport processes. In the systems, spatial correlation plays an important role in the emergence of a variety of nonequilibrium phenomena and exhibits rich features such as pronounced oscillations. However, the lack of analytical results of spatial correlation precludes us from fully understanding the effect of spatial correlation on the dynamics of the system. Here we offer precise analytical predictions of the spatial correlation in a typical driven diffusive system, namely facilitated asymmetric exclusion process. We find theoretically that the correlation between two sites decays exponentially as their distance increases, which is in good agreement with numerical simulations. Furthermore, we find the exponential decay is a universal property of macroscopic homogeneous state in a broad class of 1D driven diffusive systems. Our findings deepen the understanding of many nonequilibrium phenomena resulting from spatial correlation in driven diffusive systems. PMID:26804770

  3. Annexes to the lecture on reactor protection system including engineered features actuation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper deals with the fundamentals for a reactor protection system and discusses the following topics: - System lay-out - Analog measured data acquisition - Analog measured data processing - Limit value generation and logical gating - Procesing of the reactor protection actuation signals - Decoupling of the reactor protection system - Mechanical lay-out - Monitoring system and - Emergency control station. (orig./RW)

  4. The Development of HfO2-Rare Earth Based Oxide Materials and Barrier Coatings for Thermal Protection Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming; Harder, Bryan James

    2014-01-01

    Advanced hafnia-rare earth oxides, rare earth aluminates and silicates have been developed for thermal environmental barrier systems for aerospace propulsion engine and thermal protection applications. The high temperature stability, low thermal conductivity, excellent oxidation resistance and mechanical properties of these oxide material systems make them attractive and potentially viable for thermal protection systems. This paper will focus on the development of the high performance and high temperature capable ZrO2HfO2-rare earth based alloy and compound oxide materials, processed as protective coating systems using state-or-the-art processing techniques. The emphasis has been in particular placed on assessing their temperature capability, stability and suitability for advanced space vehicle entry thermal protection systems. Fundamental thermophysical and thermomechanical properties of the material systems have been investigated at high temperatures. Laser high-heat-flux testing has also been developed to validate the material systems, and demonstrating durability under space entry high heat flux conditions.

  5. A Study on the Thermal-Hydro-Mechanical Behaviors in the Engineered Barrier System of a HLW Repository: Engineering-scale Validation Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae-Owan; Kwon, S. K.; Park, J. H.; Cho, W. J.; Lee, Jae-Owan

    2007-06-15

    The T-H-M processes in the engineered barrier system are one of the major issues in the performance assessment of a HLW repository. In this study, it was conducted to design and construct the engineering-scale test facility which was a third-scale of the reference disposal system, and to investigate THM behavior of the engineered barrier system using the test facility. The computer modeling and interpreting methodology for THM behavior were also developed.

  6. Converse Barrier Certificate Theorem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafael; Sloth, Christoffer

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a converse barrier certificate theorem for a generic dynamical system.We show that a barrier certificate exists for any safe dynamical system defined on a compact manifold. Other authors have developed a related result, by assuming that the dynamical system has no singular...... points in the considered subset of the state space. In this paper, we redefine the standard notion of safety to comply with generic dynamical systems with multiple singularities. Afterwards, we prove the converse barrier certificate theorem and illustrate the differences between ours and previous work by...

  7. Radiation profile measurements for edge transport barrier discharges in Compact Helical System using AXUV photodiode arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The formation of edge transport barrier (ETB) has recently been found in Compact Helical System (CHS) plasmas heated by co-injected neutral beam injection (NBI) with strong gas puffing. This regime is characterized by the appearance of the steep gradient of the electron density near the edge following the abrupt drop of hydrogen Balmer alpha (Hα) line intensity. In addition to single channel pyroelectric detector as a conventional bolometer, we have employed unfiltered absolute extreme ultraviolet (AXUV) photodiode arrays as a simple and low-cost diagnostic to investigate spatial and temporal variations of radiation emissivity in the ETB discharges. A compact mounting module for a 20 channel AXUV photodiode array including an in-vacuum preamplifier for immediate current-voltage conversion has successfully been designed and fabricated. Two identical modules installed in the upper and lower viewports provide 40 lines of sight covering the inboard and outboard sides within the horizontally elongated cross section of the CHS plasma with wide viewing angle. Although spectral uniformity of the detector sensitivity of the AXUV photodiode is unsatisfied for photon energies lower than 200 eV, it has been confirmed that the signals of AXUV photodiode and pyroelectric detector in the ETB discharges show roughly the same behavior except for the very beginning and end of the discharges. The results of the measurements in typical ETB discharges show that the signals of all the channels of the AXUV photodiode arrays begin to increase more rapidly at the moment of the transition than before. The rate of the increase is larger for the edge viewing chords than for the center viewing ones, which indicates the flattening of the radiation profile following the change in the electron density profile after the formation of the ETB. However, the signals for the edge chords tend to saturate after several tens of milliseconds, while they still continue to increase for the central chords

  8. Modelling approach for geochemical changes in the Prototype repository engineered barrier system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study deals with a full-scale test of a repository concept for nuclear waste. The work is motivated and targeted to the safety assessment of a final repository for highly active nuclear waste. Successive rounds of predictive modelling are confidence building steps if modelling results can be successfully compared to gradually growing up measured test data. Calculations consider geochemical changes during the wetting of repository tunnel backfill and canister buffer, and the time-dependent changes at the boundaries of a repository engineered barrier system (EBS). The backfill and buffer volumes are divided to uniform subsequent reaction cells. The modelling assumes only schematic coupling between geochemical reactions and hydrologic transport. During a wetting front advance, instant water saturation occurs in subsequent, initially undersaturated, cell volumes. However, a water parcel introduced into a cell is expected to stay within that cell until dissolved components, and solid phases are fully equilibrated. The approach concentrates on the major element compositions of porewaters, and the changes in solid phases of the repository. The initial properties of canister buffer resemble the estimations for compacted Wyoming MX-80 sodium bentonite. The tunnel backfill is assumed to consist of sodium bentonite (30%), and crushed Aespoe diorite (70%) components. The backfill composition has been estimated in accordance with mineral quantities present in the components of the backfill mixture. The initial groundwater sucked into the EBS at the repository boundaries is Na-Ca-(HCO3)-SO4-Cl -water having a reference to brackish seawater origin. The reactions considered are cation exchange, surface complexation, and dissolution/precipitation of certain minerals. Calculations assume also diffuse water layers to occur upon the clay platelet surfaces. As an initial condition, the undersaturated pore volumes of backfill and buffer contain entrapped air (O2 content 20%). In the

  9. Numerical determination of the interfacial energy and nucleation barrier of curved solid-liquid interfaces in binary systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundin, Julia; Choudhary, Muhammad Ajmal

    2016-07-01

    The phase-field crystal (PFC) technique is a widely used approach for modeling crystal growth phenomena with atomistic resolution on mesoscopic time scales. We use a two-dimensional PFC model for a binary system based on the work of Elder et al. [Phys. Rev. B 75, 064107 (2007), 10.1103/PhysRevB.75.064107] to study the effect of the curved, diffuse solid-liquid interface on the interfacial energy as well as the nucleation barrier. The calculation of the interfacial energy and the nucleation barrier certainly depends on the proper definition of the solid-liquid dividing surface and the corresponding nucleus size. We define the position of the sharp interface at which the interfacial energy is to be evaluated by using the concept of equimolar dividing surface (re) and the minimization of the interfacial energy (rs). The comparison of the results based on both radii shows that the difference re-rs is always positive and has a limit for large cluster sizes which is comparable to the Tolman length. Furthermore, we found the real nucleation barrier for small cluster sizes, which is defined as a function of the radius rs, and compared it with the classical nucleation theory. The simulation results also show that the extracted interfacial energy as function of both radii is independent of system size, and this dependence can be reasonably described by the nonclassical Tolman formula with a positive Tolman length.

  10. Sensor-Based Auto-Focusing System Using Multi-Scale Feature Extraction and Phase Correlation Matching

    OpenAIRE

    Jinbeum Jang; Yoonjong Yoo; Jongheon Kim; Joonki Paik

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a novel auto-focusing system based on a CMOS sensor containing pixels with different phases. Robust extraction of features in a severely defocused image is the fundamental problem of a phase-difference auto-focusing system. In order to solve this problem, a multi-resolution feature extraction algorithm is proposed. Given the extracted features, the proposed auto-focusing system can provide the ideal focusing position using phase correlation matching. The proposed auto-focu...

  11. The role of intestinal barrier failure and bacterial translocation in the development of systemic infection and multiple organ failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deitch, E A

    1990-03-01

    Traditionally, evaluation of intestinal function has been limited largely to monitoring gastric pH and intestinal motility. This clinical approach has led clinicians to equate normal intestinal motility with normal intestinal function and to assume that if stress-induced gastric bleeding can be prevented, all will be well. However, it is becoming increasingly clear that the gastrointestinal tract is not a passive organ and that intestinal dysfunction is not limited to ileus and upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Instead, the gastrointestinal tract is recognized as having important endocrine, metabolic, immunologic, and barrier functions, as well as its traditional role in nutrient absorption. Over the last 5 years, there has been a resurgence of interest in the role of intestinal barrier failure in the development of systemic infection and multiple organ failure in the critically ill or injured patient. PMID:2407230

  12. Water permeability of the mammalian cochlea: functional features of an aquaporin-facilitated water shunt at the perilymph-endolymph barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckhard, A; Müller, M; Salt, A; Smolders, J; Rask-Andersen, H; Löwenheim, H

    2014-10-01

    The cochlear duct epithelium (CDE) constitutes a tight barrier that effectively separates the inner ear fluids, endolymph and perilymph, thereby maintaining distinct ionic and osmotic gradients that are essential for auditory function. However, in vivo experiments have demonstrated that the CDE allows for rapid water exchange between fluid compartments. The molecular mechanism governing water permeation across the CDE remains elusive. We computationally determined the diffusional (PD) and osmotic (Pf) water permeability coefficients for the mammalian CDE based on in silico simulations of cochlear water dynamics integrating previously derived in vivo experimental data on fluid flow with expression sites of molecular water channels (aquaporins, AQPs). The PD of the entire CDE (PD = 8.18 × 10(-5) cm s(-1)) and its individual partitions including Reissner's membrane (PD = 12.06 × 10(-5) cm s(-1)) and the organ of Corti (PD = 10.2 × 10(-5) cm s(-1)) were similar to other epithelia with AQP-facilitated water permeation. The Pf of the CDE (Pf = 6.15 × 10(-4) cm s(-1)) was also in the range of other epithelia while an exceptionally high Pf was determined for an epithelial subdomain of outer sulcus cells in the cochlear apex co-expressing AQP4 and AQP5 (OSCs; Pf = 156.90 × 10(-3) cm s(-1)). The Pf/PD ratios of the CDE (Pf/PD = 7.52) and OSCs (Pf/PD = 242.02) indicate an aqueous pore-facilitated water exchange and reveal a high-transfer region or "water shunt" in the cochlear apex. This "water shunt" explains experimentally determined phenomena of endolymphatic longitudinal flow towards the cochlear apex. The water permeability coefficients of the CDE emphasise the physiological and pathophysiological relevance of water dynamics in the cochlea in particular for endolymphatic hydrops and Ménière's disease. PMID:24385019

  13. Informatization barriers of logistics process management in production company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna WALASEK

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article is an attempt to characterize informatization barriers of logistics processes management in a production company which provides automotive parts. Threats of successful implementation of Enterprise Resource Planning Systems include: community barriers; organizational barriers; communication barriers; formal barriers; legal barriers; not prepared implementation team barrier; substantive barrier. Proper identification of barriers and solving them are the right way to implement Enterprise Resource Planning Systems in a company.

  14. Comparison between wavelet and wavelet packet transform features for classification of faults in distribution system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvind, Pratul

    2012-11-01

    The ability to identify and classify all ten types of faults in a distribution system is an important task for protection engineers. Unlike transmission system, distribution systems have a complex configuration and are subjected to frequent faults. In the present work, an algorithm has been developed for identifying all ten types of faults in a distribution system by collecting current samples at the substation end. The samples are subjected to wavelet packet transform and artificial neural network in order to yield better classification results. A comparison of results between wavelet transform and wavelet packet transform is also presented thereby justifying the feature extracted from wavelet packet transform yields promising results. It should also be noted that current samples are collected after simulating a 25kv distribution system in PSCAD software.

  15. AN INTEGRATED FRAMEWORK BASED ON TEXTURE FEATURES, CUCKOO SEARCH AND RELEVANCE VECTOR MACHINE FOR MEDICAL IMAGE RETRIEVAL SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Yogapriya Jaganathan; Ila Vennila

    2013-01-01

    As medical images are widely used in healthcare applications, Content Based Medical Image Retrieval (CBMIR) system is needed for physicians to convey effective decisions to patients and for medical research students to learn imaging characteristics for their extensive research based on visual features. However the performance of the retrieval is restricted due to high feature dimensionality of visual features. To reduce the high feature dimension, an integrated approach is proposed such as Vi...

  16. Integration of New Features for Telerobotic Surgery into The Mirosurge System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Konietschke

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Minimally invasive robotic surgery has gained wide acceptance recently. Computer-aided features to assist the surgeon during these interventions may help to develop safer, faster, and more accurate procedures. Especially physiological motion compensation of the beating heart and online soft tissue modelling are promising features that were developed recently. This paper presents the integration of these new features into the minimally invasive robotic surgery platform MiroSurge. A central aim of this research platform is to enable evaluation and comparison of new functionalities for minimally invasive robotic surgery. The system structure of MiroSurge is presented as well as the interfaces for the new functionalities. Some details about the modules for motion tracking and for soft tissue simulation are given. Results are shown with an experimental setup that includes a heart motion simulator and dedicated silicone organ models. Both features are integrated seamlessly and work reliably in the chosen setup. The MiroSurge platform thus shows the potential to provide valuable results in evaluating new functionalities for minimally invasive robotic surgery.

  17. Disentangling complete and incomplete fusion for 9Be+187Re system at near barrier energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The breakup of projectile before fusion leads to some unusual fusion mechanisms like incomplete fusion (ICF) and sequential complete fusion (SCF). Experimentally, it is not possible to separate SCF events from direct complete fusion (DCF). However, the complete fusion and incomplete fusion can be measured separately. Theoretically it is very difficult to calculate the complete and incomplete fusion cross section separately using different models. Very recently A. Diaz-Torres has developed a computer code platypus based on classical dynamical model wherein the complete and incomplete fusion cross sections are calculated separately. But this model is found to work very well at energies above the barrier energy. Here we have attempted to extrapolate the results of the code platypus by using simple Wong's formula in conjunction with the energy dependent Woods-Saxon potential (EDWSP) in the below barrier energy region

  18. A global vision system: using hue thresholds to exact feature and recognize

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The fast-paced nature of robotic soccer necessitates real-time sensing coupled with quick behaving and decision-making. In the field with real robots, it is important to well perceive the location of ball, team ro bots and opponent robots through the vision system in real time. In this paper the architecture of global vision system of our small size robotic team and the process of object recognition is described. According to the study on color distribution in different color space and quantitative investigation, a method which uses H(Hue) thresholds as the major thresholds to feature exact and recognize object in real-time is presented.

  19. A simulation of remote sensor systems and data processing algorithms for spectral feature classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arduini, R. F.; Aherron, R. M.; Samms, R. W.

    1984-01-01

    A computational model of the deterministic and stochastic processes involved in multispectral remote sensing was designed to evaluate the performance of sensor systems and data processing algorithms for spectral feature classification. Accuracy in distinguishing between categories of surfaces or between specific types is developed as a means to compare sensor systems and data processing algorithms. The model allows studies to be made of the effects of variability of the atmosphere and of surface reflectance, as well as the effects of channel selection and sensor noise. Examples of these effects are shown.

  20. Feature extraction from time domain acoustic signatures of weapons systems fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Christine; Goldman, Geoffrey H.

    2014-06-01

    The U.S. Army is interested in developing algorithms to classify weapons systems fire based on their acoustic signatures. To support this effort, an algorithm was developed to extract features from acoustic signatures of weapons systems fire and applied to over 1300 signatures. The algorithm filtered the data using standard techniques then estimated the amplitude and time of the first five peaks and troughs and the location of the zero crossing in the waveform. The results were stored in Excel spreadsheets. The results are being used to develop and test acoustic classifier algorithms.

  1. Integrity of the alveolar-capillary barrier and alveolar surfactant system in smokers.

    OpenAIRE

    Schmekel, B; Bos, J.A.; A. R. Khan; Wohlfart, B; Lachmann, B.; Wollmer, P.

    1992-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The permeability of the alveolar-capillary barrier to technetium-99m labelled diethylenetriamine pentaacetate (99mTc DTPA) is known to be greatly increased in smokers, but the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. Abnormal permeability of the alveolar epithelium as well as impaired surfactant function has been suggested. The purpose of this study was to examine transudation of urea and albumin into the alveoli and alveolar surfactant function in smokers and non-smokers and to...

  2. Formation of white-eye pattern with microdischarge in an air dielectric barrier discharge system

    OpenAIRE

    He, Yafeng; Dong, Lifang; Liu, Weili; Wang, Hongfang; Zhao, Zengchao; FAN, WEILI

    2011-01-01

    We report on the first observation of white-eye pattern in an air dielectric barrier discharge. The patterned discharges undergo a development as following: random spots - quasihexagonal pattern - hexagonal pattern (type I) - hexagonal pattern (type II) - white-eye pattern - chaos as the voltage is increased. The spatiotemporal characteristics of patterned discharges are investigated by using an optical method. Results show that the two discharge modes, uniform mode and filamentary mode, are ...

  3. Theoretical and Numerical Analysis for the Design of a Safety Barrier as Road Restraint System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Vasile Bîtea

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with a theoretical background and with numerical studies achieved on an N2 safety barrier, with normal protection. In order to determine the impact force, a model at a reduced scale was proposed. For the calculus of the dynamic load due to the impact, the corresponding maximum deflection was determined. In the same time, the equivalent stress distribution was plotted for the examined case.

  4. Chemical buffering in natural and engineered barrier systems: Thermodynamic constraints and performance assessment consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermodynamic and kinetic constraints on the chemical buffering properties of natural and engineered-barrier systems are derived in this study from theoretical descriptions, incorporated in the reaction-path model, of reversible and irreversible mass transfer in multicomponent, multiphase systems. The buffering properties of such systems are conditional properties because they refer to a specific aqueous species in a system that is open with respect to a specific reactant. The solution to a mathematical statement of this concept requires evaluation of the dependence of the activity of the buffered species on incremental changes in the overall reaction-progress variable. This dependence can be represented by a truncated Taylor's series expansion, where the values of associated derivatives are calculated using finite-difference techniques and mass-balance, charge-balance and mass-action constraints. Kinetic constraints on buffering behavior can also be described if the relation between reactant flux and reaction rate is well defined. This relation is explicit for the important case of advective groundwater flow and water-rock interaction. We apply the theoretical basis of the chemical buffering concept to processes that could affect the performance of a deep geologic repository for nuclear waste. Specifically, we focus on the likelihood that an inverse relation must exist between the buffer intensity and the migration velocity of reaction fronts in systems involving advective or diffusive mass transport. A quantitative understanding of this relation would provide the basis for evaluating the potential role of chemical buffering in achieving the isolation and retardation functions, of the EBS and geosphere in a KBS-3 repository. Our preliminary evaluation of this role considers the effects of chemical buffering on the propagation velocity of a pH front in both the near- and far field. We use a geochemical modeling technique compatible with the reaction-path model to

  5. Chemical buffering in natural and engineered barrier systems: Thermodynamic constraints and performance assessment consequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur, R.C.; Wei Zhou [Monitor Scientific, LLC, Denver, CO (United States)

    2000-12-01

    Thermodynamic and kinetic constraints on the chemical buffering properties of natural and engineered-barrier systems are derived in this study from theoretical descriptions, incorporated in the reaction-path model, of reversible and irreversible mass transfer in multicomponent, multiphase systems. The buffering properties of such systems are conditional properties because they refer to a specific aqueous species in a system that is open with respect to a specific reactant. The solution to a mathematical statement of this concept requires evaluation of the dependence of the activity of the buffered species on incremental changes in the overall reaction-progress variable. This dependence can be represented by a truncated Taylor's series expansion, where the values of associated derivatives are calculated using finite-difference techniques and mass-balance, charge-balance and mass-action constraints. Kinetic constraints on buffering behavior can also be described if the relation between reactant flux and reaction rate is well defined. This relation is explicit for the important case of advective groundwater flow and water-rock interaction. We apply the theoretical basis of the chemical buffering concept to processes that could affect the performance of a deep geologic repository for nuclear waste. Specifically, we focus on the likelihood that an inverse relation must exist between the buffer intensity and the migration velocity of reaction fronts in systems involving advective or diffusive mass transport. A quantitative understanding of this relation would provide the basis for evaluating the potential role of chemical buffering in achieving the isolation and retardation functions, of the EBS and geosphere in a KBS-3 repository. Our preliminary evaluation of this role considers the effects of chemical buffering on the propagation velocity of a pH front in both the near- and far field. We use a geochemical modeling technique compatible with the reaction-path model

  6. Histogram of Intensity Feature Extraction for Automatic Plastic Bottle Recycling System Using Machine Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzaimah Ramli

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, many recycling activities adopt manual sorting for plastic recycling that relies on plant personnel who visually identify and pick plastic bottles as they travel along the conveyor belt. These bottles are then sorted into the respective containers. Manual sorting may not be a suitable option for recycling facilities of high throughput. It has also been noted that the high turnover among sorting line workers had caused difficulties in achieving consistency in the plastic separation process. As a result, an intelligent system for automated sorting is greatly needed to replace manual sorting system. The core components of machine vision for this intelligent sorting system is the image recognition and classification. In this research, the overall plastic bottle sorting system is described. Additionally, the feature extraction algorithm used is discussed in detail since it is the core component of the overall system that determines the success rate. The performance of the proposed feature extractions were evaluated in terms of classification accuracy and result obtained showed an accuracy of more than 80%.

  7. Design and implementation of a contactless multiple hand feature acquisition system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qiushi; Bu, Wei; Wu, Xiangqian; Zhang, David

    2012-06-01

    In this work, an integrated contactless multiple hand feature acquisition system is designed. The system can capture palmprint, palm vein, and palm dorsal vein images simultaneously. Moreover, the images are captured in a contactless manner, that is, users need not to touch any part of the device when capturing. Palmprint is imaged under visible illumination while palm vein and palm dorsal vein are imaged under near infrared (NIR) illumination. The capturing is controlled by computer and the whole process is less than 1 second, which is sufficient for online biometric systems. Based on this device, this paper also implements a contactless hand-based multimodal biometric system. Palmprint, palm vein, palm dorsal vein, finger vein, and hand geometry features are extracted from the captured images. After similarity measure, the matching scores are fused using weighted sum fusion rule. Experimental results show that although the verification accuracy of each uni-modality is not as high as that of state-of-the-art, the fusion result is superior to most of the existing hand-based biometric systems. This result indicates that the proposed device is competent in the application of contactless multimodal hand-based biometrics.

  8. Iris Recognition System with Frequency Domain Features optimized with PCA and SVM Classifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K N Pushpalatha

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Applications such as immigration control, aviation security, bank and other financial transactions, access to defence organization requires a more reliable and authentic identification system. Iris is now considered to be one of the most time invariable biometric features of a person for recognition. Several iris recognition techniques were proposed with considerable focus on improving the false acceptance rate and minimizing false rejection rate. Most of the proposed techniques are tested with Mat lab and not keeping the detection and recognition time in mind. In this work we propose a novel iris recognition system with iris localization to segment and recognize color iris with highest speed and accuracy. Custom software for iris image processing is developed in C#.Net (.Net 3.5. Frequency domain magnitude and phase features are used for image feature representation. Support vector machines with winner takes it all configuration are used for classification. Tests shows 97% accuracy with average time of 31 milliseconds seconds for classifying each test image.

  9. Groundwater Systems and Eco-hydrological Features in the Main Karst Regions of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Yaoru; ZHANG Feng'e; LIU Changli; TONG Guobang; ZHANG Yun

    2006-01-01

    Different karst water features and related water resources are present both in southern and northern China. There are over 3,358 well-developed karst ground river systems with total discharges in the dry season of about 420×108 m3 in the main karst regions in the southern part of China.Exploitation rates are only 8-15%. Over 100 larger karst spring systems in the main karst regions of northern China cover a catchment area from 500 km2 to over 4,000 km2, of which the average discharge appears to be from about 1 m3/s to 13 m3/s and the exploitation rates are 70-80%. Six aspects of the ecohydrological features of some typical karst regions in China comprising water environment, ecological features, materials and structures between parent rock and soil, bio-geological processes and palynological studies (spore-pollen) are discussed. Qualitative evaluation of eco-geology and rocky desertification in the karst regions should be based on the main karst ecological conditions as well as artificial, i.e., man-made impacts.

  10. TELEPERM XS: I and C systems for safety application in NPP's - features, developments, references and feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the field of digital I and C AREVA NP is focused on concepts that on the one hand make allowance for development cycles getting shorter in the technology competition and on the other hand assure a long-term system support with the ability to deliver spare parts in the long run. The system platform TELEPERM XS, which was developed especially for safety I and C application of nuclear power plants, meets requirements effectively and thus provides a great benefit for the customer. The typical applications of TELEPERM XS are in the field of Reactor Protection and ESFAS functions (Engineered Safety Features Actuation System). High demands are defined for system reliability and availability, as well as for failure prevention and tolerance. The requirements of corresponding international codes and standards of nuclear installations are also implemented in the development and engineering processes of TELEPERM XS. The system platform is integrated into a sustainable program for service life management of electronic systems and equipment. Its ongoing future-oriented development ensures the long-term availability of hardware and software components for installed TELEPERM XS applications already installed in the plants. The further development of platform and components continues to be based on the robust, service-proven TELEPERM XS architecture, with the aim of minimizing the risks associated with equipment qualification and project licensing. A further development feature is the completion and extension of TELEPERM XS applications. This continuous innovation process, combined with maximized compatibility, makes TELEPERM XS unique, and provides the basis for a sustainable system with a service life guaranteed for the long term. Within the past 10 years, the majority of all comprehensive modernization projects worldwide were implemented or are contracted using TELEPERM XS. TELEPERM XS has been implemented in two new nuclear power plants and there are orders for four more

  11. Political, policy and social barriers to health system interoperability: emerging opportunities of Web 2.0 and 3.0.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juzwishin, Donald W M

    2009-01-01

    Achieving effective health informatics interoperability in a fragmented and uncoordinated health system is by definition not possible. Interoperability requires the simultaneous integration of health care processes and information across different types and levels of care (systems thinking). The fundamental argument of this paper is that information system interoperability will remain an unfulfilled hope until health reforms effectively address the governance (accountability), structural and process barriers to interoperability of health care delivery. The ascendency of Web 2.0 and 3.0, although still unproven, signals the opportunity to accelerate patients' access to health information and their health record. Policy suggestions for simultaneously advancing health system delivery and information system interoperability are posited. PMID:20166516

  12. Permeable reactive barriers for pollutant removal from groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The removal of pollutants from the groundwater using permeable reactive barriers is a novel in-situ groundwater remediation technology. The most relevant decontamination processes used are chemical reduction, oxidation, precipitation and sorption, for which examples are given. Some common organic pollutants are halogenated hydrocarbons, aromatic and nitroaromatic compounds which can be treated in reactive barriers successfully. Lead, chromium and, in particular, uranium are dealt with in great detail among inorganic pollutants because of their occurrence in many European countries. Construction methods for cut-off walls and reactive barriers exhibit similar features. Apart from conventional methods, drilling, deep soil mixing, jet technology, arrays of wells, injected systems and biobarriers are applied to construct permeable reactive barriers. Permeable reactive barriers bear great potential for the future in remediation engineering. (orig.)

  13. An electrokinetic/Fe0 permeable reactive barrier system for the treatment of nitrate-contaminated subsurface soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Tasuma; Oyama, Yukinori; Moribe, Mai; Niinae, Masakazu

    2012-03-01

    Effective nitrate removal by Fe(0) permeable reactive barriers (Fe(0) PRB) has been recognized as a challenging task because the iron corrosion product foamed on Fe(0) hinders effective electron transfer from Fe(0) to surface-bound nitrate. The objectives of this study were (i) to demonstrate the effectiveness of an electrokinetic/Fe(0) PRB system for remediating nitrate-contaminated low permeability soils using a bench-scale system and (ii) to deepen the understanding of the behavior and fate of nitrate in the system. Bench-scale laboratory experiments were designed to investigate the influence of the Fe(0) content in the permeable reactive barrier, the pH in the anode well, and the applied voltage on remediation efficiency. The experimental results showed that the major reaction product of nitrate reduction by Fe(0) was ammonium and that nitrate reduction efficiency was significantly influenced by the variables investigated in this study. Nitrate reduction efficiency was enhanced by either increasing the Fe(0) content in the Fe(0) reactive barrier or decreasing the initial anode pH. However, nitrate reduction efficiency was reduced by increasing the applied voltage from 10 V to 40 V due to the insufficient reaction time during nitrate migration through the Fe(0) PRB. For all experimental conditions, nearly all nitrate nitrogen was recovered in either anode or cathode wells as nitrate or ammonium within 100 h, demonstrating the effectiveness of the system for remediating nitrate-contaminated subsurface soils. PMID:22153957

  14. Designing a Tourism Recommender System Based on Location, Mobile Device and User Features in Museum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maede Kiani Sarkaleh

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Today, mobile devices are widely used by many tourists. They can use mobile for accessing information about all sightseeing around the world. On the other hand, it seems essential to personalize the content due to diversity of learners and variation of the tools they use. On the whole, the goal for personalization is to suggest a collection of comprehensive activities, taking into consideration factors such as location, user preferences and interests and so on. One of the applications of recommender systems is in tourism industry. Mobile devices can be used in sites such as museums. Demands of different people such as students, tourists and ordinary people can be met in spite of their diverse features and preferences. The purpose of this paper is to give a model which is able to recommend new locations to visitors in a museum while the visitor is given essential information about the certain features of the suggested site.

  15. Features of a knowledge based system REPSA1ES for probabilistic safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper addresses the description of features of a knowledge based system REPSA1ES (Reliability Evaluation and Probabilistic Safety Analysis - level 1 - Expert System). The prototype software system has been designed for facilitating the probabilistic safety analysis (PSA) of complex hazardous industrial systems and to support the safety oriented decision making, during the design phase and operation of process systems. Taking into account known difficulties to manage complexity of logical and probabilistic modelling of nuclear power plants using the conventional PSA software packages we decided to represent information in a graphical form, whenever it is justified, and to automate the process of coding of objects to avoid errors. The software system consists of CAD modules, data bases, a shell for building expert systems and several other modules to enable: the effective communication with the user, data and knowledge acquisition, the initiation of inferring to support logical modelling of safety oriented systems, selection of reliability models with input parameters as well as the quantitative probabilistic evaluation of accident sequences. Due to the fact that the modelling and assessment process in PSA including the human reliability analysis (HRA) is complex and iterative, and can be automated only in some of its parts, it was assumed that the user can build the logic models himself or modify, in permissible cases, the event and fault trees created by relevant modules of the expert system. (author). 46 refs, 9 figs

  16. Identifying barriers to mental health system improvements: an examination of community participation in assertive community treatment programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wakefield Patricia A

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Integrating the best available evidence into program standards is essential if system-wide improvements in the delivery of community-based mental health services are to be achieved. Since the beginning of the Assertive Community Treatment (ACT program movement, program standards have included a role for the community. In particular, ACT program standards have sought to ensure that members of the local community are involved in governance and that former clients participate in service delivery as "Peer Support Specialists". This paper reports on the extent to which ACT program standards related to community participation have been implemented and identifies barriers to full compliance. Methods Qualitative and quantitative data were collected through a telephone survey of ACT Program Coordinators in Ontario, Canada, using a census sample of the existing 66 ACT programs. A thematic approach to content analysis was used to analyze respondents' qualitative comments. Quantitative data were analyzed using SPSS 16.0 and included means, frequencies, independent t-tests and Pearson Correlations. Results An 85% response rate was achieved. Of the 33 program standards, the two that received the lowest perceived compliance ratings were the two standards directly concerning community participation. Specifically, the standard to have a functioning Community Advisory Body and the standard requiring the inclusion of a Peer Support Specialist. The three major themes that emerged from the survey data with respect to the barriers to fully implementing the Community Advisory Body were: external issues; standard related issues; and, organizational/structural related issues. The three major themes concerning barriers to implementing the Peer Support Specialist role were: human resource related issues; organizational/structural related issues; and, standard related issues. Conclusions The reasons for low compliance of ACT programs with community

  17. Report to Congress: Coastal Barrier Resources System with recommendations as required by Section 10 of Public Law 97-348, the Coastal Barrier Resources Act of 1982. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. shoreline bordering the Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico contains one of the longest and best defined chains of coastal barriers in the world. In recognition of the fact, the Coastal Barrier Resources Act (CBRA) (16 U.S.C. 3501 et seq.) was enacted in October 1982. The Act established the Coastal Barrier Resources System (CBRS) consisting of 186 coastal barrier units along 670 mi of shoreline on the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts. The philosophy behind the CBRA is that the risk associated with new development in these areas should be borne by those who choose to live and work along the coast, and not by all American taxpayers. By restricting Federal expenditures and financial assistance on specific undeveloped coastal barriers, the Federal Government can minimize the loss of human life, reduce the wasteful expenditure of Federal revenues, and reduce the damage to fish and wildlife and other natural resources that can accompany development of these fragile areas. Section 10 of the CBRA directs the Department of the Interior to study the CBRS and prepare for Congress a report which includes recommendations for changes in the CBRS based on an evaluation of management alternatives that would foster conservation of the natural resources of the CBRS

  18. Africa's Incorporation into the World Capitalist System: The Substantive Features and Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajayi, T.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade of the 20th century, African scholars and patriotic leaders of the continent kept vigil and hoped for remarkable changes in the political economy of African States through what was popularly called the New International Economic Order (N.I.E.O. Similarly, in the first ten years of the new millennium, Africans waited eagerly for positive and favourable changes in the operational philosophy of the World Trade Organization (WTO, General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs (GATT and International Labour Organization (ILO. These faithful years produced very little to excite or meet the aspirations of the developing nations. The question then is: have these cosmetic amendments really affected the economic fortunes of African States which were incorporated into the lowest rung of the world capitalist system? Can we say that the progress of countries like India, China, Malaysia and Indonesia from the under developed world into the class of fully industrialized nations, reflect the liberal changes to the operations of the world capitalist system? At any rate, an examination of the major features and substantive issues which still dominate the political economy of African States (of the 21st century would clearly show if the developed nations of the north have removed the structural impediments and operational obstacles preventing Africa from deriving commensurate benefits from global capitalist system. Herein lays the motivation or essence of this study Africa’s Incorporation into the world capitalist system: the substantive features and issues.

  19. Quality control and patient dosimetry in digital radiology. On line system: new features and transportability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vano, E; Ten, J I; Fernandez, J M; Prieto, C; Ordiales, J M; Martinez, D

    2008-01-01

    New features have been added to a system (QCONLINE) for auditing patient dosimetric and technical parameters 'on line', working on a digital radiology department and using the information contained in the DICOM header of some modalities. The audit of other parameters than patient doses have been included, setting alarm conditions to alert on malfunction of the X-ray system or bad operation modes, in addition to the evaluation of patient doses. A new module to analyse, collect and process the relevant information transferred by the modality performed procedure step (MPPS) service has been launched. Several examples with the exploitation of the new features are presented. The transportability of the system has been tested in two remote hospitals during several months. The new MPPS module has demonstrated to be a good tool to complement the information existing in the DICOM header. The system allows to help in the optimisation of digital radiology departments managing patient dosimetry and procedure data in real time. PMID:18283057

  20. Development of an Integrated Natural Barrier Database System for Site Evaluation of a Deep Geologic Repository in Korea - 13527

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korea Radioactive-waste Management Corporation (KRMC) established in 2009 has started a new project to collect information on long-term stability of deep geological environments on the Korean Peninsula. The information has been built up in the integrated natural barrier database system available on web (www.deepgeodisposal.kr). The database system also includes socially and economically important information, such as land use, mining area, natural conservation area, population density, and industrial complex, because some of this information is used as exclusionary criteria during the site selection process for a deep geological repository for safe and secure containment and isolation of spent nuclear fuel and other long-lived radioactive waste in Korea. Although the official site selection process has not been started yet in Korea, current integrated natural barrier database system and socio-economic database is believed that the database system will be effectively utilized to narrow down the number of sites where future investigation is most promising in the site selection process for a deep geological repository and to enhance public acceptance by providing readily-available relevant scientific information on deep geological environments in Korea. (authors)