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Sample records for barrier system ebs

  1. Disposal systems evaluations and tool development : Engineered Barrier System (EBS) evaluation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutqvist, Jonny (LBNL); Liu, Hui-Hai (LBNL); Steefel, Carl I. (LBNL); Serrano de Caro, M. A. (LLNL); Caporuscio, Florie Andre (LANL); Birkholzer, Jens T. (LBNL); Blink, James A. (LLNL); Sutton, Mark A. (LLNL); Xu, Hongwu (LANL); Buscheck, Thomas A. (LLNL); Levy, Schon S. (LANL); Tsang, Chin-Fu (LBNL); Sonnenthal, Eric (LBNL); Halsey, William G. (LLNL); Jove-Colon, Carlos F.; Wolery, Thomas J. (LLNL)

    2011-01-01

    Key components of the nuclear fuel cycle are short-term storage and long-term disposal of nuclear waste. The latter encompasses the immobilization of used nuclear fuel (UNF) and radioactive waste streams generated by various phases of the nuclear fuel cycle, and the safe and permanent disposition of these waste forms in geological repository environments. The engineered barrier system (EBS) plays a very important role in the long-term isolation of nuclear waste in geological repository environments. EBS concepts and their interactions with the natural barrier are inherently important to the long-term performance assessment of the safety case where nuclear waste disposition needs to be evaluated for time periods of up to one million years. Making the safety case needed in the decision-making process for the recommendation and the eventual embracement of a disposal system concept requires a multi-faceted integration of knowledge and evidence-gathering to demonstrate the required confidence level in a deep geological disposal site and to evaluate long-term repository performance. The focus of this report is the following: (1) Evaluation of EBS in long-term disposal systems in deep geologic environments with emphasis on the multi-barrier concept; (2) Evaluation of key parameters in the characterization of EBS performance; (3) Identification of key knowledge gaps and uncertainties; and (4) Evaluation of tools and modeling approaches for EBS processes and performance. The above topics will be evaluated through the analysis of the following: (1) Overview of EBS concepts for various NW disposal systems; (2) Natural and man-made analogs, room chemistry, hydrochemistry of deep subsurface environments, and EBS material stability in near-field environments; (3) Reactive Transport and Coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical-Chemical (THMC) processes in EBS; and (4) Thermal analysis toolkit, metallic barrier degradation mode survey, and development of a Disposal Systems

  2. Engineered Barrier Systems (EBS) in the safety case: the role of modelling workshop proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the deep disposal of radioactive waste, the presence of several barriers serving complementary safety functions enhances confidence that the waste will be isolated and contained to protect human health and the environment. The barriers include the natural geological barrier and the engineered barrier system (EBS). The EBS itself may comprise a variety of sub-systems or components, such as the waste form, container, buffer, backfill, seals and plugs. The Integration Group for the Safety Case (IGSC) of the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) is co-sponsoring a series of workshops with the European Commission to develop greater understanding of how to achieve the necessary integration for the successful design, testing, modelling and performance assessment of engineered barrier systems (EBS) for deep underground disposal of radioactive waste. These proceedings include the main findings and presented papers from the third NEA-EC workshop on engineered barrier systems, which focused on the role of EBS modelling in the safety case for deep disposal. Some national programmes are placing increased emphasis on EBS and, as implementation of underground repositories approaches, more realistic assessments of EBS performance are needed. The workshop examined the modelling tools currently available and identified complex areas of assessment in which further dialogue is needed. (author)

  3. Reactive Transport and Coupled THM Processes in Engineering Barrier Systems (EBS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steefel, Carl; Rutqvist, Jonny; Tsang, Chin-Fu; Liu, Hui-Hai; Sonnenthal, Eric; Houseworth, Jim; Birkholzer, Jens

    2010-08-31

    Geological repositories for disposal of high-level nuclear wastes generally rely on a multi-barrier system to isolate radioactive wastes from the biosphere. The multi-barrier system typically consists of a natural barrier system, including repository host rock and its surrounding subsurface environment, and an engineering barrier system (EBS). EBS represents the man-made, engineered materials placed within a repository, including the waste form, waste canisters, buffer materials, backfill and seals (OECD, 2003). EBS plays a significant role in the containment and long-term retardation of radionuclide release. EBS is involved in complex thermal, hydrogeological, mechanical, chemical and biological processes, such as heat release due to radionuclide decay, multiphase flow (including gas release due to canister corrosion), swelling of buffer materials, radionuclide diffusive transport, waste dissolution and chemical reactions. All these processes are related to each other. An in-depth understanding of these coupled processes is critical for the performance assessment (PA) for EBS and the entire repository. Within the EBS group of Used Fuel Disposition (UFD) Campaign, LBNL is currently focused on (1) thermal-hydraulic-mechanical-chemical (THMC) processes in buffer materials (bentonite) and (2) diffusive transport in EBS associated with clay host rock, with a long-term goal to develop a full understanding of (and needed modeling capabilities to simulate) impacts of coupled processes on radionuclide transport in different components of EBS, as well as the interaction between near-field host rock (e.g., clay) and EBS and how they effect radionuclide release. This final report documents the progress that LBNL has made in its focus areas. Specifically, Section 2 summarizes progress on literature review for THMC processes and reactive-diffusive radionuclide transport in bentonite. The literature review provides a picture of the state-of-the-art of the relevant research areas

  4. Engineered Barrier Systems (EBS) in the safety case: design confirmation and demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presence of several barriers serving complementary safety functions enhances confidence that radioactive waste placed in deep geological repositories will be adequately isolated and contained to protect human health and the environment. The barriers include the natural geological barrier and the engineered barrier system (EBS). The EBS itself may comprise a variety of sub-systems or components, such as the waste form, container, buffer, backfill, seals and plugs. Given the importance of this subject, the Integration Group for the Safety Case (IGSC) of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) sponsored a series of workshops with the European Commission to develop greater understanding of how to achieve the necessary integration for the successful design, testing, modelling and performance assessment of EBS for deep underground disposal of radioactive waste. These proceedings present the main findings from, and the papers delivered at, the fourth NEA-EC workshop on EBS, which took place in Tokyo, Japan, in September 2006. This final workshop of the series focused on strategies and methods to demonstrate that EBS designs will fulfill the relevant requirements for long-term safety, engineering feasibility and quality assurance. The workshop highlighted that large-scale experiments have confirmed the feasibility of techniques for manufacturing and installing engineered components in disposal systems and have also provided valuable lessons to improve designs and refine practical aspects to construct and implement EBS. (author)

  5. International Collaborations on Engineered Barrier Systems: Brief Overview of SKB-EBS Activities.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jove-Colon, Carlos F. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Research collaborations with international partners on the behavior and performance of engineered barrier systems (EBS) are an important aspect of the DOE-NE Used Fuel Disposition Campaign strategy in the evaluation of disposal design concepts. These international partnerships are a cost-effective way of engaging in key R&D activities with common goals resulting in effective scientific knowledge exchanges thus enhancing existing and future research programs in the USA. This report provides a brief description of the activities covered by the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) EBS Task Force (TF) (referred hereafter as SKB EBS TF) and potential future directions for engagement of the DOE-NE UFDC program in relevant R&D activities. Emphasis is given to SKB EBS TF activities that are still ongoing and aligned to the UFDC R&D program. This include utilization of data collected in the bentonite rock interaction experiment (BRIE) and data sets from benchmark experiments produced by the chemistry or “C” part of the SKB EBS TF. Potential applications of information generated by this program include comparisons/tests between model and data (e.g., reactive diffusion), development and implementation of coupled-process models (e.g., HM), and code/model benchmarking.

  6. Effect of precipitation, sorption and stable of isotope on maximum release rates of radionuclides from engineered barrier system (EBS) in deep repository.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malekifarsani, A; Skachek, M A

    2009-10-01

    The basic function of the engineered barrier system (EBS) in geological disposal is to prevent or limit the release of radionuclides into the underground environment. For this purpose, the vitrified waste is contained in an overpack to isolate it from contact with groundwater for a certain initial period of time. However, it is impossible to ensure complete containment for all time. Therefore, the eventual release of nuclides must be minimized after the overpack fails (AEC, 1984. Radioactive waste processing and disposal measures; JNC, 2000a. Project to establish the scientific and technical basis for HLW disposal in Japan--first progress report-H3. Geological Environment in Japan, JNC TN1410 2000-002; JNC, 2000b. H12: project to establish the scientific and technical basis for HLW disposal in Japan--repository design and engineering technology, JNC TN1410 2000-003.). Low-permeability buffer material is installed between the overpack and the host rock to ensure that radionuclide release from the vitrified waste is limited by diffusive transport rather than advective transport in groundwater. Nuclides released from the waste form precipitate when their concentrations in the porewater result in their elemental solubility limits being exceeded. This limits the concentrations of many nuclides in the buffer and thus limits the release rates to the surrounding rock. High sorption coefficients act to delay the transport of certain nuclides during their migration through the buffer (PNC, development and management of the technical knowledge base for the geological disposal of HLW. Supporting report 2: repository engineering technology). The presence of isotopes of the same element has the effect of reducing the effective solubility of some nuclides; a lower nuclide concentration is required for precipitation to occur if the presence of any isotopes of the same element is taken into account. The calculated release rates of radionuclides from the EBS (per waste package) are

  7. Standard practice for prediction of the long-term behavior of materials, including waste forms, used in engineered barrier systems (EBS) for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    1.1 This practice describes test methods and data analyses used to develop models for the prediction of the long-term behavior of materials, such as engineered barrier system (EBS) materials and waste forms, used in the geologic disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and other high-level nuclear waste in a geologic repository. The alteration behavior of waste form and EBS materials is important because it affects the retention of radionuclides by the disposal system. The waste form and EBS materials provide a barrier to release either directly (as in the case of waste forms in which the radionuclides are initially immobilized), or indirectly (as in the case of containment materials that restrict the ingress of groundwater or the egress of radionuclides that are released as the waste forms and EBS materials degrade). 1.1.1 Steps involved in making such predictions include problem definition, testing, modeling, and model confirmation. 1.1.2 The predictions are based on models derived from theoretical considerat...

  8. The Influence of EB-Irradiated Treatment on Enhancing Barrier Property and Crystallization Behavior of Rubber-Toughened Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Jamal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Electron beam (EB irradiation technique was introduced to modify the crystallization and oxygen (O2 barrier properties of high density-polyethylene (HDPE/ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM matrix and HDPE/EPDM filled withorganophilic montmorillonite (OMMT. The absorbed dose for EB-irradiation was fixed at 100 kGy. HDPE/EPDM matrix and HDPE/EPDM filled with OMMT at 4 vol% loading were prepared via melt intercalation method. It was found that the barrier resistance of HDPE/EPDM filled withOMMT against oxygen (O2 transmission was significantly enhanced by EB-irradiation absorbed dose of 100 kGy as compared to the control system. The crystallization temperature, Tc, and melting temperature, Tm, were also improved with the addition of OMMT along with the aids of EB-irradiation technique. Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM revealed that the stacking condition of OMMT particles was greatly reduced by EB-irradiation treatment as evidenced by finer surface and less formation of voids.

  9. Crack prediction in EB-PVD thermal barrier coatings based on the simulation of residual stresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J. W.; Zhao, Y.; Liu, S.; Zhang, Z. Z.; Ma, J.

    2016-07-01

    Thermal barrier coatings systems (TBCs) are widely used in the field of aerospace. The durability and insulating ability of TBCs are highly dependent on the residual stresses of top coatings, thus the investigation of the residual stresses is helpful to understand the failure mechanisms of TBCs. The simulation of residual stresses evolution in electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) TBCs is described in this work. The interface morphology of TBCs subjected to cyclic heating and cooling is observed using scanning electron microscope (SEM). An interface model of TBCs is established based on thermal elastic-plastic finite method. Residual stress distributions in TBCs are obtained to reflect the influence of interfacial roughness. Both experimental and simulation results show that it is feasible to predict the crack location by stress analysis, which is crucial to failure prediction.

  10. THE CONCEPT OF INTEGRATED ENGINEERING AND BUSINESS (EB EDUCATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Charlak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In our approach to engineering and business education system an engineer is a man working as creator and user of technical products. We stress that the process of understanding and gaining knowledge of technical reality and creativity of engineers are the essential for EB concept . Next, we describe briefly three perspectives for building the system of innovative product origination as a basis for EB system: 1 designer’s perspective; 2 business perspective. 3 consumer perspective.

  11. Effect of Bond Coat Materials on Thermal Fatigue Failure of EB-PVD Thermal Barrier Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagishi, Satoshi; Okazaki, Masakazu; Sakaguchi, Motoki; Matsubara, Hideaki

    Effect of MCrAlY bond coat alloy systems on thermal fatigue failure of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) was investigated, where the TBC specimen consisted of Ni-based superalloy IN738LC substrate, bond coat, and 8 wt.% Y2O3-stabilized ZrO2 (YSZ) top coat. The top coat was fabricated by EB-PVD method with 250 μm in thickness. Three kinds of MCrAlY alloys were studied as the bond coat material. Employing the originally developed test equipment, thermal fatigue tests were carried out, by applying thermal cycles between 400 and 950°C in air. Special attention was paid not only to the failure life of the TBC specimen, but also the underlying failure mechanisms. The experimental results clearly demonstrated that the effect of MCrAlY bond coat alloys on the thermal fatigue life was very significant. Some discussions were made on the experimental results based on the measurements of mechanical and metallurgical properties of the bond coat alloys: i.e., elastic stiffness, thermal expansion coefficient and high temperature oxidation resistance.

  12. Thermal cycling behaviour of lanthanum zirconate as EB-PVD thermal barrier coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermal cycling tests with two different EB-PVD thermal barrier coatings (TBC) were performed in a furnace cycle test. The results of these tests showed an increase of endurable cycle number when pyrochloric La2Zr2O7 was used as TBC. 1865 cycles were reached with La2Zr2O7 and 1380 cycles with 7 weigth-% yttria stabilised zirconia (YSZ) EB-PVD TBC. Additional investigation was made with scanning electron microscope (SEM) to investigate morphology and to determine chemical composition by electron dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis. X-Ray diffraction was performed to analyze structural constitution of deposited coatings. (Abstract Copyright [2006], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  13. Anisotropic TGO rumpling in EB-PVD thermal barrier coatings under in-phase thermomechanical loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An electron beam physical vapor deposited (EB-PVD) Y2O3-ZrO2 thermal barrier system has been tested under in-phase thermomechanical fatigue (TMF) conditions with thermal gradient in the through-thickness direction. Undulations in the thermally grown oxide (TGO) were observed to have clear anisotropic behavior with respect to the directions parallel and perpendicular to the loading axis. It was found that undulation wavelengths were nearly the same in both directions but the amplitude in the perpendicular direction was much larger than in the parallel direction. A recent model of TGO rumpling was adapted and used to analyze and explain the origins of the observed rumpling behavior under TMF conditions. Methods for deducing variation in the coefficient of thermal expansion with temperature and in the creep properties of the substrate from the experimental strain data are also presented in the course of the derivations. Model results show that tensile stress applied in the loading direction can overcome the compression occurring from lateral expansion during oxide formation, causing undulations to flatten; undulations perpendicular to the loading axis are unaffected. However, ratcheting in the strain cycle experienced by the substrate, which occurs naturally by substrate creep, is necessary for anisotropic rumpling under cyclic stress conditions. Model predictions for constant applied stress are also presented, demonstrating a reversal in the direction of undulation alignment under compression. A threshold stress is identified, in both tension and compression, sufficient to produce appreciable anisotropic rumpling. The model predictions provide a clear mechanism for the anisotropy and further evidence that the lateral expansion strain in the oxide is the driving force for oxide rumpling.

  14. Adhesion and interface problems of EB-PVD thermal barrier coatings; Grenzschichtproblematik und Haftung von EB-PVD-Waermedaemmschichtsystemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritscher, K.; Leyens, C. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Koeln (Germany). Inst. fuer Werkstoff-Forschung

    1996-12-31

    Loss of adhesion in thermal insulation layers produced by EB-PVD may be caused by surface morphologies or oxide phases resulting from previous process stages, e.g. shot peening, or inappropriate annealing conditions. These undesirable oxide phases are mostly spinels and silicates which pose mechanical problems. Annealing and densification must be modified in order to promote the formation of {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layers. It may also be possible to avoid certain categories of flaws by changing one material partner (e.g. by using {beta}-NiAl-free adhesive layers). [Deutsch] Die Ursachen der Einbussen der Haftung in WDS-Systemen aus EB-PVD-Fertigung liegen oft in der Ausbildung von Oberflaechenmorphologien oder von Oxidphasen begruendet, die aus den der WDS-Beschichtung vorangehenden Verfahrensschritten wie z.B. des Glasperlstrahlens und von unangemessenen Gluehbedingungen herruehren koennen. Bei diesen unerwuenschten Oxidphasen handelt es sich u.a. um Spinelle und Silikate, die in mechanischer Hinsicht problematisch sind. Glueh- und Verdichtungsroutinen sind entsprechend zu modifizieren, um die Bildung von {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Schichten zu foerdern. Moeglicherweise sind gewisse Fehlerkategorien bereits dadurch zu umgehen, dass ein Materialpartner geaendert wird (Beispiel: {beta}-NiAl-freie Haftschichten anwenden). (orig.)

  15. Failure mechanism of EB-PVD thermal barrier coatings on NiAl substrate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Yttria stabilized zirconia(YSZ) was deposited on the line cut β-NiAl substrate by electron-beam physical vapour deposition(EB-PVD), and the cyclic oxidation behaviors of thermal barrier coatings on β-NiAl substrate were investigated in 1 h thermal cycles at 1 200 ℃ in air. The results show that the samples fail after 80-100 cycles. Sub-interface cavitations in the substrate develop due to depletion of Al in forming thermally grown oxides(TGOs). The collapse and closing up of cavities result in the ragged YSZ/TGO/substrate interface. Since the specific crack trajectories are quite sensitive to local geometry, cracks along the YSZ/TGO/substrate interfaces ultimately lead to YSZ spallation.

  16. Oxidation and Hot Corrosion of Gradient Thermal Barrier Coatings Prepared by EB-PVD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The performances of gradient thermal barrier coatings (GTBCs) produced by EB-PVD were evaluated by isothermaloxidation and cyclic hot corrosion (HTHC) tests. Compared with conventional two-layered TBCs, the GTBCs exhibitebetter resistance to not only oxidation but also hot-corrosion. A dense Al2O3 layer in the GTBCs effectively prohibitesinward diffusion of O and S and outward diffusion of Al and Cr during the tests. On the other hand, an "inlaid"interface, resulting from oxidation of the Al along the columnar grains of the bond coat, enhances the adherence ofAl2O3 layer. Failure of the GTBC finally occurred by cracking at the interface between the bond coat and Al2O3layer, due to the combined effect of sulfidation of the bond coat and thermal cycling.

  17. Thermal conductivity and thermal stability of zirconia and hafnia based thermal barrier coatings by EB-PVD for high temperature applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, J.; Wolfe, D.E.; Miller, R.; Eldridge, J.; Zhu Dong-Ming [Applied Research Lab., Penn State Univ., Univ. Park, PA and NASA-GRC, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2004-07-01

    Zirconia and hafnia based thermal barrier coating materials were produced by industrial prototype electron beam-physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD). Columnar microstructure of the thermal barrier coatings were modified with controlled microporosity and diffuse sub-interfaces resulting in lower thermal conductivity (20-30% depending up on microporosity volume fraction), higher thermal reflectance (15-20%) and more strain tolerance as compared with standard thermal barrier coatings (TBC). The novel processed coating systems were examined by various techniques including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction, and thermal conductivity by laser technique, hemispherical reflectance and thermal cyclic tests. The test results showed the tailored-microstructural TBC offered superior performance over the conventional thermal barrier coatings (ZrO{sub 2} -8 wt.% Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}). (orig.)

  18. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Schreiner

    2001-06-27

    The purpose of this work is to develop the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, as directed by a written development plan (CRWMS M&O 1999a). This abstraction is the conceptual model that will be used to determine the rate of release of radionuclides from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ) in the total system performance assessment-license application (TSPA-LA). In particular, this model will be used to quantify the time-dependent radionuclide releases from a failed waste package (WP) and their subsequent transport through the EBS to the emplacement drift wall/UZ interface. The development of this conceptual model will allow Performance Assessment Operations (PAO) and its Engineered Barrier Performance Department to provide a more detailed and complete EBS flow and transport abstraction. The results from this conceptual model will allow PA0 to address portions of the key technical issues (KTIs) presented in three NRC Issue Resolution Status Reports (IRSRs): (1) the Evolution of the Near-Field Environment (ENFE), Revision 2 (NRC 1999a), (2) the Container Life and Source Term (CLST), Revision 2 (NRC 1999b), and (3) the Thermal Effects on Flow (TEF), Revision 1 (NRC 1998). The conceptual model for flow and transport in the EBS will be referred to as the ''EBS RT Abstraction'' in this analysis/modeling report (AMR). The scope of this abstraction and report is limited to flow and transport processes. More specifically, this AMR does not discuss elements of the TSPA-SR and TSPA-LA that relate to the EBS but are discussed in other AMRs. These elements include corrosion processes, radionuclide solubility limits, waste form dissolution rates and concentrations of colloidal particles that are generally represented as boundary conditions or input parameters for the EBS RT Abstraction. In effect, this AMR provides the algorithms for transporting radionuclides using the flow geometry and radionuclide concentrations

  19. Mechanical properties of EB-PVD ZrO{sub 2} thermal barrier coatings; Mechanische Eigenschaften von EB-PVD ZrO{sub 2} Waermedaemmschichten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Held, Carolin

    2014-08-29

    In this work, the elastic properties of thermal barrier coatings which were produced by electron-beam enhanced physical vapour deposition were investigated, as well as the dependency of the properties on the sample microstructure, the thermal treatment and the test method. For this purpose, not only commercial coatings were characterized, but also special sample material was used which consists of a 1 mm thick layer of EB-PVD TBC. This material was isothermally heat treated for different times at 950 C, 1100 C and 1200 C and then tested in a specially developed miniaturized bend test and by dynamic mechanical analysis. The sample material was tested by nanoindentation in order to measure the Young's modulus on a local scale, and the porosity of the samples was determined by microstructure analysis and porosimetry. The decrease of porosity could be connected with sintering and subsequent stiffening of the material. The test results are dependent on the tested volume. A small test volume leads to larger measured Young's moduli, while a large test volume yields lower values. The test volume also has an influence on the increase of stiffness during thermal exposure. With a small tested volume, a quicker increase of the Young's modulus was registered, which could be associated to the sintering of local structures.

  20. Engineered Barrier System performance requirements systems study report. Revision 02

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study evaluates the current design concept for the Engineered Barrier System (EBS), in concert with the current understanding of the geologic setting to assess whether enhancements to the required performance of the EBS are necessary. The performance assessment calculations are performed by coupling the EBS with the geologic setting based on the models (some of which were updated for this study) and assumptions used for the 1995 Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA). The need for enhancements is determined by comparing the performance assessment results against the EBS related performance requirements. Subsystem quantitative performance requirements related to the EBS include the requirement to allow no more than 1% of the waste packages (WPs) to fail before 1,000 years after permanent closure of the repository, as well as a requirement to control the release rate of radionuclides from the EBS. The EBS performance enhancements considered included additional engineered components as well as evaluating additional performance available from existing design features but for which no performance credit is currently being taken

  1. Engineered Barrier System performance requirements systems study report. Revision 02

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balady, M.A.

    1997-01-14

    This study evaluates the current design concept for the Engineered Barrier System (EBS), in concert with the current understanding of the geologic setting to assess whether enhancements to the required performance of the EBS are necessary. The performance assessment calculations are performed by coupling the EBS with the geologic setting based on the models (some of which were updated for this study) and assumptions used for the 1995 Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA). The need for enhancements is determined by comparing the performance assessment results against the EBS related performance requirements. Subsystem quantitative performance requirements related to the EBS include the requirement to allow no more than 1% of the waste packages (WPs) to fail before 1,000 years after permanent closure of the repository, as well as a requirement to control the release rate of radionuclides from the EBS. The EBS performance enhancements considered included additional engineered components as well as evaluating additional performance available from existing design features but for which no performance credit is currently being taken.

  2. Engineered Barrier System Degradation, Flow, and Transport Process Model Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.L. Hardin

    2000-07-17

    The Engineered Barrier System Degradation, Flow, and Transport Process Model Report (EBS PMR) is one of nine PMRs supporting the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) being developed by the Yucca Mountain Project for the Site Recommendation Report (SRR). The EBS PMR summarizes the development and abstraction of models for processes that govern the evolution of conditions within the emplacement drifts of a potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada. Details of these individual models are documented in 23 supporting Analysis/Model Reports (AMRs). Nineteen of these AMRs are for process models, and the remaining 4 describe the abstraction of results for application in TSPA. The process models themselves cluster around four major topics: ''Water Distribution and Removal Model, Physical and Chemical Environment Model, Radionuclide Transport Model, and Multiscale Thermohydrologic Model''. One AMR (Engineered Barrier System-Features, Events, and Processes/Degradation Modes Analysis) summarizes the formal screening analysis used to select the Features, Events, and Processes (FEPs) included in TSPA and those excluded from further consideration. Performance of a potential Yucca Mountain high-level radioactive waste repository depends on both the natural barrier system (NBS) and the engineered barrier system (EBS) and on their interactions. Although the waste packages are generally considered as components of the EBS, the EBS as defined in the EBS PMR includes all engineered components outside the waste packages. The principal function of the EBS is to complement the geologic system in limiting the amount of water contacting nuclear waste. A number of alternatives were considered by the Project for different EBS designs that could provide better performance than the design analyzed for the Viability Assessment. The design concept selected was Enhanced Design Alternative II (EDA II).

  3. Engineered Barrier System Degradation, Flow, and Transport Process Model Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Engineered Barrier System Degradation, Flow, and Transport Process Model Report (EBS PMR) is one of nine PMRs supporting the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) being developed by the Yucca Mountain Project for the Site Recommendation Report (SRR). The EBS PMR summarizes the development and abstraction of models for processes that govern the evolution of conditions within the emplacement drifts of a potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada. Details of these individual models are documented in 23 supporting Analysis/Model Reports (AMRs). Nineteen of these AMRs are for process models, and the remaining 4 describe the abstraction of results for application in TSPA. The process models themselves cluster around four major topics: ''Water Distribution and Removal Model, Physical and Chemical Environment Model, Radionuclide Transport Model, and Multiscale Thermohydrologic Model''. One AMR (Engineered Barrier System-Features, Events, and Processes/Degradation Modes Analysis) summarizes the formal screening analysis used to select the Features, Events, and Processes (FEPs) included in TSPA and those excluded from further consideration. Performance of a potential Yucca Mountain high-level radioactive waste repository depends on both the natural barrier system (NBS) and the engineered barrier system (EBS) and on their interactions. Although the waste packages are generally considered as components of the EBS, the EBS as defined in the EBS PMR includes all engineered components outside the waste packages. The principal function of the EBS is to complement the geologic system in limiting the amount of water contacting nuclear waste. A number of alternatives were considered by the Project for different EBS designs that could provide better performance than the design analyzed for the Viability Assessment. The design concept selected was Enhanced Design Alternative II (EDA II)

  4. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers advective transport and diffusive transport

  5. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Prouty

    2006-07-14

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers advective transport and diffusive transport

  6. Residual stresses and structure of EB-PVD thermal barrier coatings exposed at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The substrate material was nickel based superalloy (In738LC), CoNiCrAlY was pressureless plasma-sprayed on the substrate as the bond coating. As the top coating, zirconia with 4 mol% yittria was made by a electron beam-physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) with a rotation. The thickness of the bond coating was about 0.18 mm, and the thickness of the top coating was about 0.12 mm. The rotation speeds of specimens in the EB-PVD process were 5 rpm, 10 rpm and 20 rpm. The specimens were exposed at 1273 K for 200 h. The in-plane residual stress was measured by a conventional X-ray method, and the out-of-plane residual strain was measured by a strain scanning method with hard synchrotron X-rays. For the specimens with 5 rpm and 10 rpm, the in-plane compressive residual stresses were released by the high temperature exposure. For the specimen with 20 rpm, the in-plane residual stress did not change by the high temperature exposure, because it was very small before the exposure. The in-plane residual stresses were large compression near the interface. For the specimens with 5 rpm and 10 rpm, the out-of plane stresses were small from the coating surface but became a compression near the interface. Both in-plane and out-of-plane residual stresses of the specimen with 20 rpm were very small. In the effect of decreasing the residual stress, the rotation speed of 20 rpm was the excellent condition. According to the observation with a scanning electron microscope, the feather-like columnar structure decreased the high temperature exposure. This volume decrease caused the release of the in-plane residual stresses. (author)

  7. Evaluation of the PetrifilmTM EB and TEMPO® EB systems with ISO 21528-2:2004 method for the count of Enterobacteriaceae in milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Cirolini

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The development of alternative microbiological techniques is driven by the necessity to meet the current needs to deliver rapid results in the manufacturing process of foods, but it is important that these methods be evaluated for each application. The objective of the present study was to assess the PetrifilmTM EB and the TEMPO® EB systems with ISO 21528-2:2004 for the count of Enterobacteriaceae in pasteurized and UHT milk samples. We analyzed the microflora of 141 pasteurized milk samples, 15 samples of artificially contaminated pasteurized milk and 15 samples of artificially contaminated UHT milk. Investigation of the method PetrifilmTM EB and ISO 21528:2 regression analysis showed a high correlation in the samples, r = 0.90 for the microflora of pasteurized milk, r = 0.98 for artificially contaminated pasteurized milk and r = 0.99 for the artificially contaminated UHT milk. In evaluating the system TEMPO EB ® method and ISO 21528:2 correlation was also significant in the analyzed samples, with r = 0.86 for the microflora of pasteurized milk, r = 0.96 for artificially contaminated pasteurized milk and r = 0.99 for artificially contaminated UHT milk. No statistically significant differences were observed between the three methods conducted to analyze artificially contaminated pasteurized and UHT milk at three inoculum levels. In conclusion, the PetrifilmTM EB system and the TEMPO® EB system may be an alternative to the ISO 21528-2:2004 for the Enterobacteriaceae assay for milk as because of the ease-of-operation and the time reduction achieved for conducting the microbiological assay using these systems.

  8. Evolution of photo-stimulated luminescence of EB-PVD/(Ni, Pt)Al thermal barrier coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen Mei [Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269 (United States); Jordan, Eric H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269 (United States)]. E-mail: jordan@engr.uconn.edu; Gell, Maurice [Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269 (United States)

    2005-05-25

    Experiments are described which were designed to assess the suitability of photo-stimulated luminescence piezo-spectroscopy (PLPS) measurements as a basis for non-destructive inspection (NDI) and determination of life remaining of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs). Thermal cyclic tests were conducted on 7 wt.% Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} stabilized ZrO{sub 2} (YSZ) electron beam physical vapor deposited (EB-PVD)/(Ni, Pt)Al/CMSX-4 TBCs at two temperatures 1151 and 1121 deg. C. The evolution of PLPS spectral characteristics (peak frequency shift, peak width and area ratio of peaks) was studied as a function of thermal cycles. It was observed that the average thermally grown oxide (TGO) stress and its standard deviation, and the area ratio of peaks show systematic change with thermal cycling, indicating that these characteristics can be used for NDI and determination of life remaining. The average TGO stress increases initially and then decreases monotonically with thermal cycling. The rate of change in the stress can be related to specimen life: the shallower the slope, the higher the life. The peak area ratio also decreases monotonically with cycling. The average TGO stress changes in a systematic manner versus remaining life fraction independent of temperature. Remaining life predictions were made based on average stress versus life fraction, which resulted in life assessments within {+-}13% of actual values excluding one specimen with abnormal behavior.

  9. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.D. Schreiber

    2005-08-25

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA-LA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport

  10. Engineered Barrier Systems Thermal-Hydraulic-Chemical Column Test Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W.E. Lowry

    2001-12-13

    The Engineered Barrier System (EBS) Thermal-Hydraulic-Chemical (THC) Column Tests provide data needed for model validation. The EBS Degradation, Flow, and Transport Process Modeling Report (PMR) will be based on supporting models for in-drift THC coupled processes, and the in-drift physical and chemical environment. These models describe the complex chemical interaction of EBS materials, including granular materials, with the thermal and hydrologic conditions that will be present in the repository emplacement drifts. Of particular interest are the coupled processes that result in mineral and salt dissolution/precipitation in the EBS environment. Test data are needed for thermal, hydrologic, and geochemical model validation and to support selection of introduced materials (CRWMS M&O 1999c). These column tests evaluated granular crushed tuff as potential invert ballast or backfill material, under accelerated thermal and hydrologic environments. The objectives of the THC column testing are to: (1) Characterize THC coupled processes that could affect performance of EBS components, particularly the magnitude of permeability reduction (increases or decreases), the nature of minerals produced, and chemical fractionation (i.e., concentrative separation of salts and minerals due to boiling-point elevation). (2) Generate data for validating THC predictive models that will support the EBS Degradation, Flow, and Transport PMR, Rev. 01.

  11. Engineered Barrier System Thermal-Hydraulic-Chemical Column Test Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Engineered Barrier System (EBS) Thermal-Hydraulic-Chemical (THC) Column Tests provide data needed for model validation. The EBS Degradation, Flow, and Transport Process Modeling Report (PMR) will be based on supporting models for in-drift THC coupled processes, and the in-drift physical and chemical environment. These models describe the complex chemical interaction of EBS materials, including granular materials, with the thermal and hydrologic conditions that will be present in the repository emplacement drifts. Of particular interest are the coupled processes that result in mineral and salt dissolution/precipitation in the EBS environment. Test data are needed for thermal, hydrologic, and geochemical model validation and to support selection of introduced materials (CRWMS M and O 1999c). These column tests evaluated granular crushed tuff as potential invert ballast or backfill material, under accelerated thermal and hydrologic environments. The objectives of the THC column testing are to: (1) Characterize THC coupled processes that could affect performance of EBS components, particularly the magnitude of permeability reduction (increases or decreases), the nature of minerals produced, and chemical fractionation (i.e., concentrative separation of salts and minerals due to boiling-point elevation). (2) Generate data for validating THC predictive models that will support the EBS Degradation, Flow, and Transport PMR, Rev. 01

  12. PEBS. Long-term performance of engineered barrier systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wieczorek, Klaus; Czaikowski, Oliver; Miehe, Ruediger

    2014-12-15

    The evolution of the engineered barrier system (EBS) of geological repositories for radioactive waste has been the subject of many national and international research programmes. The emphasis of the research activities was on the elaboration of a detailed understanding of the complex THMC processes, which are expected to evolve in the early post closure period in the near field. From the perspective of radiological long-term safety, an in-depth understanding of these coupled processes is of great significance, because the evolution of the EBS during the early post-closure phase may have a non-negligible impact on the radiological safety functions at the time when the canisters breach. Unexpected process interactions during the resaturation phase could impair the safety-relevant parameters in the EBS (e. g. swelling pressure, hydraulic conductivity, diffusivity).

  13. EB-PVD热障涂层热循环性能评价方法研究%Evaluation Method of Thermal Cycling Property of EB-PVD Thermal Barrier Coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈立强; 宫声凯; 徐惠彬

    2013-01-01

    制备8批次EB-PVD双层结构热障涂层试样,采用循环加热快速冷却实验装置模拟热障涂层服役环境,开展了热障涂层试样在不同热循环保温时间条件下的热循环性能评价实验,采用指数下降的数学模型对热循环实验数据进行拟合分析,获得了表征热障涂层试样静态氧化性能和热疲劳性能的物理量.结果表明,在本实验工艺条件下制备的不同批次热障涂层试样的静态氧化性能和热疲劳性能具有不同的匹配关系,热障涂层试样静态氧化性能总体估计值为(677±194)h,热疲劳性能总体估计值为(6789±1818)次.%Thermal cycling testing to the 8 batches of thermal barrier coating samples for different holding time was carried out by means of cycling heating and cooling apparatus to simulate TBCs service environment. Using a mathematical model of exponential decline to fit thermal cycle experimental data, characterization parameters of static oxidation performance and thermal fatigue performance of thermal barrier coated samples were obtained. The result indicates that static state oxidation performance and thermal fatigue performance of TBCs samples prepared under present experimental technology conditions have different match relation. The estimated value for static state oxidation performance is 677±194 h, and the estimated value for thermal fatigue performance is 6789±1818 times.

  14. ENGINEERED BARRIER SYSTEM FEATURES, EVENTS AND PROCESSES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate and document the inclusion or exclusion of engineered barrier system (EBS) features, events, and processes (FEPs) with respect to models and analyses used to support the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA). A screening decision, either Included or Excluded, is given for each FEP along with the technical basis for exclusion screening decisions. This information is required by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) at 10 CFR 63.114 (d, e, and f) [DIRS 173273]. The FEPs addressed in this report deal with those features, events, and processes relevant to the EBS focusing mainly on those components and conditions exterior to the waste package and within the rock mass surrounding emplacement drifts. The components of the EBS are the drip shield, waste package, waste form, cladding, emplacement pallet, emplacement drift excavated opening (also referred to as drift opening in this report), and invert. FEPs specific to the waste package, cladding, and drip shield are addressed in separate FEP reports: for example, ''Screening of Features, Events, and Processes in Drip Shield and Waste Package Degradation'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 174995]), ''Clad Degradation--FEPs Screening Arguments (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170019]), and Waste-Form Features, Events, and Processes'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170020]). For included FEPs, this report summarizes the implementation of the FEP in the TSPA-LA (i.e., how the FEP is included). For excluded FEPs, this analysis provides the technical basis for exclusion from TSPA-LA (i.e., why the FEP is excluded). This report also documents changes to the EBS FEPs list that have occurred since the previous versions of this report. These changes have resulted due to a reevaluation of the FEPs for TSPA-LA as identified in Section 1.2 of this report and described in more detail in Section 6.1.1. This revision addresses updates in Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) administrative procedures as they

  15. ENGINEERED BARRIER SYSTEM FEATURES, EVENTS AND PROCESSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaros, W.

    2005-08-30

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate and document the inclusion or exclusion of engineered barrier system (EBS) features, events, and processes (FEPs) with respect to models and analyses used to support the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA). A screening decision, either Included or Excluded, is given for each FEP along with the technical basis for exclusion screening decisions. This information is required by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) at 10 CFR 63.114 (d, e, and f) [DIRS 173273]. The FEPs addressed in this report deal with those features, events, and processes relevant to the EBS focusing mainly on those components and conditions exterior to the waste package and within the rock mass surrounding emplacement drifts. The components of the EBS are the drip shield, waste package, waste form, cladding, emplacement pallet, emplacement drift excavated opening (also referred to as drift opening in this report), and invert. FEPs specific to the waste package, cladding, and drip shield are addressed in separate FEP reports: for example, ''Screening of Features, Events, and Processes in Drip Shield and Waste Package Degradation'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 174995]), ''Clad Degradation--FEPs Screening Arguments (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170019]), and Waste-Form Features, Events, and Processes'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170020]). For included FEPs, this report summarizes the implementation of the FEP in the TSPA-LA (i.e., how the FEP is included). For excluded FEPs, this analysis provides the technical basis for exclusion from TSPA-LA (i.e., why the FEP is excluded). This report also documents changes to the EBS FEPs list that have occurred since the previous versions of this report. These changes have resulted due to a reevaluation of the FEPs for TSPA-LA as identified in Section 1.2 of this report and described in more detail in Section 6.1.1. This revision addresses updates in Yucca Mountain Project

  16. An ebCMOS camera system for marine bioluminescence observation: The LuSEApher prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominjon, A., E-mail: a.dominjon@ipnl.in2p3.fr [CNRS/IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon, Villeurbanne F-69622 (France); Ageron, M. [CNRS/IN2P3, Centre de Physique des Particules de Marseille, Marseille, F-13288 (France); Barbier, R. [CNRS/IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon, Villeurbanne F-69622 (France); Universite de Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, Lyon F-69003 (France); Billault, M.; Brunner, J. [CNRS/IN2P3, Centre de Physique des Particules de Marseille, Marseille, F-13288 (France); Cajgfinger, T. [CNRS/IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon, Villeurbanne F-69622 (France); Universite de Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, Lyon F-69003 (France); Calabria, P. [CNRS/IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon, Villeurbanne F-69622 (France); Chabanat, E. [CNRS/IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon, Villeurbanne F-69622 (France); Universite de Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, Lyon F-69003 (France); Chaize, D.; Doan, Q.T.; Guerin, C.; Houles, J.; Vagneron, L. [CNRS/IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon, Villeurbanne F-69622 (France)

    2012-12-11

    The ebCMOS camera, called LuSEApher, is a marine bioluminescence recorder device adapted to extreme low light level. This prototype is based on the skeleton of the LUSIPHER camera system originally developed for fluorescence imaging. It has been installed at 2500 m depth off the Mediterranean shore on the site of the ANTARES neutrino telescope. The LuSEApher camera is mounted on the Instrumented Interface Module connected to the ANTARES network for environmental science purposes (European Seas Observatory Network). The LuSEApher is a self-triggered photo detection system with photon counting ability. The presentation of the device is given and its performances such as the single photon reconstruction, noise performances and trigger strategy are presented. The first recorded movies of bioluminescence are analyzed. To our knowledge, those types of events have never been obtained with such a sensitivity and such a frame rate. We believe that this camera concept could open a new window on bioluminescence studies in the deep sea.

  17. An ebCMOS camera system for marine bioluminescence observation: The LuSEApher prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ebCMOS camera, called LuSEApher, is a marine bioluminescence recorder device adapted to extreme low light level. This prototype is based on the skeleton of the LUSIPHER camera system originally developed for fluorescence imaging. It has been installed at 2500 m depth off the Mediterranean shore on the site of the ANTARES neutrino telescope. The LuSEApher camera is mounted on the Instrumented Interface Module connected to the ANTARES network for environmental science purposes (European Seas Observatory Network). The LuSEApher is a self-triggered photo detection system with photon counting ability. The presentation of the device is given and its performances such as the single photon reconstruction, noise performances and trigger strategy are presented. The first recorded movies of bioluminescence are analyzed. To our knowledge, those types of events have never been obtained with such a sensitivity and such a frame rate. We believe that this camera concept could open a new window on bioluminescence studies in the deep sea.

  18. ENGINEERED BARRIER SYSTEM: PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL ENVIRONMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this model report is to describe the evolution of the physical and chemical environmental conditions within the waste emplacement drifts of the repository, including the drip shield and waste package surfaces. The resulting seepage evaporation and gas abstraction models are used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) to assess the performance of the engineered barrier system and the waste form. This report develops and documents a set of abstraction-level models that describe the engineered barrier system physical and chemical environment. Where possible, these models use information directly from other reports as input, which promotes integration among process models used for TSPA-LA. Specific tasks and activities of modeling the physical and chemical environment are included in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport In-Drift Geochemistry Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173782], Section 1.2.2). As described in the technical work plan, the development of this report is coordinated with the development of other engineered barrier system reports. To be consistent with other project documents that address features, events, and processes (FEPs), Table 6.14.1 of the current report includes updates to FEP numbers and FEP subjects for two FEPs identified in the technical work plan (TWP) governing this report (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173782]). FEP 2.1.09.06.0A (Reduction-oxidation potential in EBS), as listed in Table 2 of the TWP (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173782]), has been updated in the current report to FEP 2.1.09.06.0B (Reduction-oxidation potential in Drifts; see Table 6.14-1). FEP 2.1.09.07.0A (Reaction kinetics in EBS), as listed in Table 2 of the TWP (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173782]), has been updated in the current report to FEP 2.1.09.07.0B (Reaction kinetics in Drifts; see Table 6.14-1). These deviations from the TWP are justified because they improve integration with FEPs documents. The updates

  19. ENGINEERED BARRIER SYSTEM: PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL ENVIRONMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Jarek

    2005-08-29

    The purpose of this model report is to describe the evolution of the physical and chemical environmental conditions within the waste emplacement drifts of the repository, including the drip shield and waste package surfaces. The resulting seepage evaporation and gas abstraction models are used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) to assess the performance of the engineered barrier system and the waste form. This report develops and documents a set of abstraction-level models that describe the engineered barrier system physical and chemical environment. Where possible, these models use information directly from other reports as input, which promotes integration among process models used for TSPA-LA. Specific tasks and activities of modeling the physical and chemical environment are included in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport In-Drift Geochemistry Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173782], Section 1.2.2). As described in the technical work plan, the development of this report is coordinated with the development of other engineered barrier system reports. To be consistent with other project documents that address features, events, and processes (FEPs), Table 6.14.1 of the current report includes updates to FEP numbers and FEP subjects for two FEPs identified in the technical work plan (TWP) governing this report (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173782]). FEP 2.1.09.06.0A (Reduction-oxidation potential in EBS), as listed in Table 2 of the TWP (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173782]), has been updated in the current report to FEP 2.1.09.06.0B (Reduction-oxidation potential in Drifts; see Table 6.14-1). FEP 2.1.09.07.0A (Reaction kinetics in EBS), as listed in Table 2 of the TWP (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173782]), has been updated in the current report to FEP 2.1.09.07.0B (Reaction kinetics in Drifts; see Table 6.14-1). These deviations from the TWP are justified because they improve integration with FEPs

  20. Surface geometry and strain energy effects in the failure of a (Ni, Pt)Al/EB-PVD thermal barrier coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaidyanathan, Krishnakumar; Jordan, Eric H.; Gell, Maurice

    2004-03-08

    Thermal cycling tests were conducted on a commercial yttria-stabilized zirconia electron beam-physical vapor deposited thermal barrier coating (TBC) on a platinum aluminide ({beta}-(Ni, Pt)Al) bond coat. Surprisingly, the longest life sample lasted 10 times longer than the shortest life sample. Two distinct mechanisms have been found responsible for the observed damage initiation and progression at the thermally grown oxide (TGO)/bond coat interface. The first mechanism leads to localized debonding at the TGO/bond coat interface due to increasing out-of-plane tensile stresses at ridges that form along bond coat grain boundaries. The second mechanism is driven by cyclic plasticity of the bond coat that leads to cavity formation at the TGO/bond coat interface. The primary finding of this work is that the first mechanism, involving tensile stress at ridge tops, is life limiting. Based on this mechanism, it is demonstrated that the variation in bond coat ridge aspect ratio can explain the unusual 10x variation in observed sample life. It is proposed that ridge top spallation leads to debonds of sufficient size to result in unstable fracture driven by the strain energy stored in the TGO. The criticality of the flaw created by local debonding is supported by experimental determination of the strain energy available in the TGO through measurement of TGO stress and thickness combined with published fracture mechanics solutions of the relevant flaw geometry.

  1. Near field and altered zone environmental report Volume I: technical bases for EBS design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilder, D. G., LLNL

    1997-08-01

    This report presents an updated summary of results for the waste package (WP) and engineered barrier system (EBS) evaluations, including materials testing, waste-form characterization, EBS performance assessments, and near-field environment (NFE) characterization. Materials testing, design criteria and concept development, and waste-form characterization all require an understanding of the environmental conditions that will interact with the WP and EBS. The Near-Field Environment Report (NFER) was identified in the Waste Package Plan (WPP) (Harrison- Giesler, 1991) as the formal means for transmitting and documenting this information.

  2. Influences of specific ions in groundwater on concrete degradation in subsurface engineered barrier system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wen-Sheng; Liu, Chen-Wuing; Li, Ming-Hsu

    2016-01-01

    Many disposal concepts currently show that concrete is an effective confinement material used in engineered barrier systems (EBS) at a number of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal sites. Cement-based materials have properties for the encapsulation, isolation, or retardation of a variety of hazardous contaminants. The reactive chemical transport model of HYDROGEOCHEM 5.0 was applied to simulate the effect of hydrogeochemical processes on concrete barrier degradation in an EBS which has been proposed to use in the LLW disposal site in Taiwan. The simulated results indicated that the main processes that are responsible for concrete degradation are the species induced from hydrogen ion, sulfate, and chloride. The EBS with the side ditch drainage system effectively discharges the infiltrated water and lowers the solute concentrations that may induce concrete degradation. The redox processes markedly influence the formations of the degradation materials. The reductive environment in the EBS reduces the formation of ettringite in concrete degradation processes. Moreover, the chemical conditions in the concrete barriers maintain an alkaline condition after 300 years in the proposed LLW repository. This study provides a detailed picture of the long-term evolution of the hydrogeochemical environment in the proposed LLW disposal site in Taiwan. PMID:27376013

  3. Influences of specific ions in groundwater on concrete degradation in subsurface engineered barrier system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wen-Sheng; Liu, Chen-Wuing; Li, Ming-Hsu

    2016-01-01

    Many disposal concepts currently show that concrete is an effective confinement material used in engineered barrier systems (EBS) at a number of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal sites. Cement-based materials have properties for the encapsulation, isolation, or retardation of a variety of hazardous contaminants. The reactive chemical transport model of HYDROGEOCHEM 5.0 was applied to simulate the effect of hydrogeochemical processes on concrete barrier degradation in an EBS which has been proposed to use in the LLW disposal site in Taiwan. The simulated results indicated that the main processes that are responsible for concrete degradation are the species induced from hydrogen ion, sulfate, and chloride. The EBS with the side ditch drainage system effectively discharges the infiltrated water and lowers the solute concentrations that may induce concrete degradation. The redox processes markedly influence the formations of the degradation materials. The reductive environment in the EBS reduces the formation of ettringite in concrete degradation processes. Moreover, the chemical conditions in the concrete barriers maintain an alkaline condition after 300 years in the proposed LLW repository. This study provides a detailed picture of the long-term evolution of the hydrogeochemical environment in the proposed LLW disposal site in Taiwan.

  4. Development and installation of an advanced beam guidance system on Viking`s 2.4 megawatt EB furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motchenbacher, C.A.; Grosse, I.A. [Viking Metallurgical, Verdi, NV (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Viking Metallurgical is a manufacturer of titanium alloy and superalloy seamless ring forgings for the aerospace industry. For more than 20 years Viking has used electron beam cold hearth melting to recover titanium alloy scrap and to produce commercially pure titanium ingot for direct forging. In the 1970`s Viking pioneered electron beam cold hearth melting and in 1983 added a two-gun, 2.4 MW furnace. As part of Vikings efforts to improve process control we have commissioned and installed a new electron beam guidance system. The system is capable of generating virtually unlimited EB patterns resulting in improved melt control.

  5. Nissui Glucose Fermentative Gram-Negative Rod Identification System EB-20 Gives a Unique Profile for Typical Non-Sorbitol-Fermenting Escherichia coli O157:H7

    OpenAIRE

    Kodaka, H; Uesaka, Y; Kashitani, F

    2004-01-01

    The 98 non-sorbitol-fermenting (NSF) Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains identified on a Nissui glucose fermentative gram-negative rod identification system (EB-20) gave a unique biochemical profile number that was not detected in 85 pathogenic and 13 nonpathogenic E. coli strains. Thus, EB-20 is useful for the identification of NSF E. coli O157:H7 and provides a simple, cost-effective, and reliable tool for clinical laboratories.

  6. Experimental Studies of Engineered Barrier Systems Conducted at Los Alamos National Laboratory (FY16)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caporuscio, Florie Andre [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Norskog, Katherine Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Maner, James [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States). School of Geology and Geophysics; Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Palaich, Sarah [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Earth, Planetary, and Space Sciences; Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Cheshire, Michael C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-08-04

    Over the past five years the Used Fuel Campaign has investigated Engineered Barrier Systems (EBS) at higher heat loads (up to 300 ̊C) and pressure (150 bar). This past year experimental work was hindered due to a revamping of the hydrothermal lab. Regardless, two experiments were run this past year, EBS-18 and EBS-19. EBS-18 was run using Low Carbon Steel (LCS) and opalinus clay in addition to the bentonite and opalinus brine. Many of the past results were confirmed in EBS-18 such as the restriction of illite formation due to the bulk chemistry, pyrite degradation, and zeolite formation dependent on the bentonite and opalinus clay. The LCS show vast amounts of pit corrosion over 100μm of corrosion in six weeks, leading a corrosion rate of 1083 μm/year. In addition, a mineral goethite, an iron bearing hydroxide, formed in the pits of the LCS. Preliminary results from EBS-19 water chemistry are included but SEM imaging, micro probe and XRD are still needed for further results. Copper corrosion was investigated further and over 850 measurements were taken. It was concluded that pitting and pyrite degradation drastically increase the corrosion rate from 0.12 to 0.39 μm/day. However, the growth of a layer of the mineral chalcocite is thought to subdue the corrosion rate to 0.024 μm/day as observed in the EBS-13 a sixth month experiment. This document presents the findings of this past year.

  7. Engineered Barrier System - Long-term Stability of Buffer and Backfill. Synthesis and extended abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apted, Mick; Arthur, Randy [Monitor Scientific LLC, Denver, CO (United States); Savage, Dave [Quintessa Ltd., Nottingham (GB)] (eds.)

    2005-09-15

    SKI is preparing to review the license applications being developed by the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) for an encapsulation plant and a deep repository for the geological disposal of spent nuclear fuel. As part of its preparation, SKI is conducting a series of technical workshops on key aspects of the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) of the repository. This workshop concerns the longterm stability of the buffer and the backfill. Previous workshops have addressed the overall concept for long-term integrity of the EBS, the manufacturing, testing and QA of the EBS and the performance confirmation for the EBS. The goal of this work is to achieve a comprehensive overview of all aspects of SKB's EBS work prior to the handling of forthcoming license applications. The reports from the EBS workshops will be used as one important basis in future review work. The workshops involve the gathering of a sufficient number of independent experts in different subjects of relevance to the particular aspect of EBS. A workshop starts with presentations and discussions among these experts. Following this, SKB presents recent results and responds to questions as part of an informal hearing. Finally, the independent experts and the SKI staff examine the SKB responses from different viewpoints. This report aims to summarise the issues discussed at the buffer and backfill workshop and to extract the essential viewpoints that have been expressed. The report is not a comprehensive record of the discussions and individual statements made by workshop participants should be regarded as opinions rather than proven facts. This reports includes apart from the workshop synthesis, questions to SKB identified prior or during the workshop, and extended abstracts for introductory presentations.

  8. Experimental Studies of Engineered Barrier Systems Conducted at Los Alamos National Laboratory (FY16)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caporuscio, Florie Andre [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Norskog, Katherine Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Maner, James [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States). School of Geology and Geophysics; Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Palaich, Sarah [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Earth, Planetary, and Space Sciences; Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Cheshire, Michael C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-08-04

    Over the past five years the Used Fuel Campaign has investigated Engineered Barrier Systems (EBS) at higher heat loads (up to 300°C) and pressure (150 bar). This past year experimental work was hindered due to a revamping of the hydrothermal lab. Regardless, two experiments were run this past year, EBS-18 and EBS-19. EBS-18 was run using Low Carbon Steel (LCS) and opalinus clay in addition to the bentonite and opalinus brine. Many of the past results were confirmed in EBS-18 such as the restriction of illite formation due to the bulk chemistry, pyrite degradation, and zeolite formation dependent on the bentonite and opalinus clay. The LCS show vast amounts of pit corrosion over 100μm of corrosion in six weeks, leading a corrosion rate of 1083 μm/year. In addition, a mineral goethite, an iron bearing hydroxide, formed in the pits of the LCS. Preliminary results from EBS-19 water chemistry are included but SEM imaging, micro probe and XRD are still needed for further results. Copper corrosion was investigated further and over 850 measurements were taken. It was concluded that pitting and pyrite degradation drastically increase the corrosion rate from 0.12 to 0.39 μm/day. However, the growth of a layer of the mineral chalcocite is thought to subdue the corrosion rate to 0.024 μm/day as observed in the EBS-13 a sixth month experiment. This document presents the findings of this past year.

  9. EB-PVD梯度热障涂层的制备及其热疲劳性能%DEVELOPMENT OF EB-PVD GRADIENT THERMAL BARRIER COATINGS AND THEIR THERMAL-FATIGUE BEHAVIORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭洪波; 宫声凯; 徐惠彬; 刘福顺

    2000-01-01

    采用EB-PVD的方法,连续蒸发按一定组分比混合的Al+Al2O3+ZrO2混合源,在Ni基高温合金基体上制备了一种新型结构的热障涂层.SEM和EDS的观察、分析表明,这种涂层实现了由金属粘结层向陶瓷顶层的微观结构的梯度过渡和化学成分的连续变化.涂层的基本结构为NiCoCrAlY/Ni3Al/Ni3Al+Al2O3/Al2O3/Al2O3+ZrO2/ZrO2.这种梯度热障涂层在1050℃的抗高温氧化性能优于传统的二层结构的热障涂层.经1050℃保温30 min,迅速冷却至室温的热循环测试300次后,涂层没有发生剥落,显示了良好的抗热震性能.

  10. Diffusive Transport of Sulphide through an Engineering Barrier System in a Deep Geological Repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, S. A.; Sleep, B. E.; McKelvie, J. R. M.; Krol, M.

    2015-12-01

    Bentonite is a naturally occurring clay-rich sediment containing montmorillonite, a smectitic clay mineral that has a high cation exchange capacity and swells upon contact with water. Owing to these characteristics, highly compacted bentonite (HCB) is an often included component of engineered barrier systems (EBS) designed to protect used fuel containers (UFCs) in deep geological repositories (DGR) for high-level nuclear waste. The low water activity and high swelling pressure of HCB suppresses microbial activity and the related production of sulphide that could cause microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) of UFCs The Canadian Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO) has chosen a UFC that consists of an inner steel core and outer copper coating which is resistant to corrosion. However, under anaerobic conditions, MIC can still contribute to UFC corrosion if sulphides are present in the groundwater. Therefore the EBS consisting of bentonite blocks and pellets has been designed to impede the movement of sulphides to the UFC. In order to examine the effectiveness of the EBS, a 3D numerical model was developed capable of simulating the diffusive transport of sulphide within the NWMO EBS. The model was developed using COMSOL Multiphysics, a finite element software package and is parametric which allows the impact of different repository layouts to be assessed. The developed model was of the entire NWMO placement room, as well as, a stand-alone UFC and included conservative assumptions such as a fully saturated system and a constant concentration boundary condition. The results showed that the highest sulphide flux occurred at the semi-spherical end caps of the UFC. Further studies examined the effect of sulphide hotspots and fractures, representing possible EBS failure mechanisms. The model results highlight that even with conservative assumptions the chosen EBS will effectively protect the UFC from microbiologically influenced corrosion.

  11. Vitamin D analog EB1089 could repair the defective bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing-Jing; Sun, Yan-Bin; Zhang, Xiao-Li; Wang, Xiao-Fei

    2015-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) involves multiple factors, which result in the breakdown of self-tolerance and development of autoimmunity with organ damage. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) from the patients with SLE showed an impaired proliferative capacity compared with that from normal controls. In this study, we isolated BMMSCs from the patients with SLE and found that Vitamin D analog EB1089 could induce BMMSCs proliferation and mineralization deposition. Furthermore, we found that the expression of p-Smad 1/5/8 was promoted in BMMSCs with EB1089 treatment. In conclusion, our results support the notion that EB1089 promoted proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of BMMSCs by Smad 1/5/8 signaling pathway.

  12. Low Conductive Thermal Barrier Coatings Produced by Ion Beam Assisted EB-PVD with Controlled Porosity, Microstructure Refinement and Alloying Additions for High Temperature Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Douglas E.; Singh, Jogender

    2005-01-01

    Various advanced Hafnia-based thermal barrier coatings (TBC) were applied on nickel-based superalloy coupons by electron beam physical vapor deposition. In addition, microstructural modifications to the coating material were made in an effort to reduce the thermal conductivity of the coating materials. Various processing parameters and coating system modifications were made in order to deposit the alloyed TBC with the desired microstructure and thus coating performance, some of which include applying coatings at substrate temperatures of 1150 C on both PtAl and CoNiCrAlY bond coated samples, as well as using 8YSZ as a bond layer. In addition, various characterization techniques including thermal cyclic tests, scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, thermal conductivity, and reflectivity measurements were performed. Although the coating microstructure was never fully optimized due to funding being cut short, significant reductions in thermal conductivity were accomplished through both chemistry changes (composition) and microstructural modifications.

  13. FAILURE MECHANISM OF GRADIENT THERMAL BARRIER COATING SUBJECTED TO THERMAL CYCLING%EB-PVD梯度热障涂层的热循环失效机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭洪波; 徐惠彬; 宫声凯; 刘福顺

    2001-01-01

    研究了一种新型梯度结构的EB-PVD(电子束物理气相沉积)热障涂层的热循环性能,并分析了涂层的失效机制.结果表明,由于NiCoCrAlY粘结层以及在粘结层上形成的Ni3Al薄层发生了选择性氧化,从而在粘结层和梯度过渡层之间形成了一层Al2O3层.随着热循环时间增长,Al2O3层不断增厚,而且在热循环应力作用下,涂层最终沿Al2O3层内部断裂失效.

  14. Results of immediate loading for implant restoration in partially edentulous patients: a 6-month preliminary prospective study using SinusQuick™ EB implant system

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jong-Hwa; Kim, Young-Kyun; Yi, Yang-Jin; Yun, Pil-Young; Lee, Hyo-Jung; Kim, Myung-Jin; Yeo, In-Sung

    2009-01-01

    STATEMENT OF PROBLEM Many dental clinicians are concerned about immediate loading of inserted implants. However, there have been few clinical studies surveying the success rates of immediate loading, based on Korean implant systems. PURPOSE The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcome of immediate functional loading of the implant (SinusQuick™ EB, Neobiotech Co., Seoul, Korea) in partially edentulous maxilla or mandible. MATERIAL AND METHODS Total 15 implants were placed. Within 2 weeks ...

  15. Systems study on engineered barriers: barrier performance analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A performance assessment model for multiple barrier packages containing unreprocessed spent fuel has been modified and applied to several package designs. The objective of the study was to develop information to be used in programmatic decision making concerning engineered barrier package design and development. The assessment model, BARIER, was developed in previous tasks of the System Study on Engineered Barriers (SSEB). The new version discussed in this report contains a refined and expanded corrosion rate data base which includes pitting, crack growth, and graphitization as well as bulk corrosion. Corrosion rates for oxic and anoxic conditions at each of the two temperature ranges are supplied. Other improvements include a rigorous treatment of radionuclide release after package failure which includes resistance of damaged barriers and backfill, refined temperature calculations that account for convection and radiation, a subroutine to calculate nuclear gamma radiation field at each barrier surface, refined stress calculations with reduced conservatism and various coding improvements to improve running time and core usage. This report also contains discussion of alternative scenarios to the assumed flooded repository as well as the impact of water exclusion backfills. The model was used to assess post repository closure performance for several designs which were all variation of basic designs from the Spent Unreprocessed Fuel (SURF) program. Many designs were found to delay the onset of leaching by at least a few hundreds of years in all geologic media. Long delay times for radionuclide release were found for packages with a few inches of sorption backfill. Release of uranium, plutonium, and americium was assessed

  16. Systems study on engineered barriers: barrier performance analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stula, R.T.; Albert, T.E.; Kirstein, B.E.; Lester, D.H.

    1980-09-01

    A performance assessment model for multiple barrier packages containing unreprocessed spent fuel has been modified and applied to several package designs. The objective of the study was to develop information to be used in programmatic decision making concerning engineered barrier package design and development. The assessment model, BARIER, was developed in previous tasks of the System Study on Engineered Barriers (SSEB). The new version discussed in this report contains a refined and expanded corrosion rate data base which includes pitting, crack growth, and graphitization as well as bulk corrosion. Corrosion rates for oxic and anoxic conditions at each of the two temperature ranges are supplied. Other improvements include a rigorous treatment of radionuclide release after package failure which includes resistance of damaged barriers and backfill, refined temperature calculations that account for convection and radiation, a subroutine to calculate nuclear gamma radiation field at each barrier surface, refined stress calculations with reduced conservatism and various coding improvements to improve running time and core usage. This report also contains discussion of alternative scenarios to the assumed flooded repository as well as the impact of water exclusion backfills. The model was used to assess post repository closure performance for several designs which were all variation of basic designs from the Spent Unreprocessed Fuel (SURF) program. Many designs were found to delay the onset of leaching by at least a few hundreds of years in all geologic media. Long delay times for radionuclide release were found for packages with a few inches of sorption backfill. Release of uranium, plutonium, and americium was assessed.

  17. Gas migration through bentonitic engineered barrier systems and through non-indurated clays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This extended abstract summarises briefly the main conclusions and perspectives of the research work carried out in the frame of gas migration from a radioactive waste disposal through bentonitic engineered barrier systems (EBS) and non-indurated natural clay formations. After a description of the most important experimental results and the conceptual model evolution, we will focus on the safety relevant issues and the way the gas migration through such media is currently treated in performance assessment for different types of waste. Finally, the remaining open questions will be addressed at the end of this paper. Further insights are provided in the EC/NEA status report. (authors)

  18. ADVANCED NUCLEAR FUEL CYCLE EFFECTS ON THE TREATMENT OF UNCERTAINTY IN THE LONG-TERM ASSESSMENT OF GEOLOGIC DISPOSAL SYSTEMS - EBS INPUT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutton, M; Blink, J A; Greenberg, H R; Sharma, M

    2012-04-25

    The Used Fuel Disposition (UFD) Campaign within the Department of Energy's Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) Fuel Cycle Technology (FCT) program has been tasked with investigating the disposal of the nation's spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level nuclear waste (HLW) for a range of potential waste forms and geologic environments. The planning, construction, and operation of a nuclear disposal facility is a long-term process that involves engineered barriers that are tailored to both the geologic environment and the waste forms being emplaced. The UFD Campaign is considering a range of fuel cycles that in turn produce a range of waste forms. The UFD Campaign is also considering a range of geologic media. These ranges could be thought of as adding uncertainty to what the disposal facility design will ultimately be; however, it may be preferable to thinking about the ranges as adding flexibility to design of a disposal facility. For example, as the overall DOE-NE program and industrial actions result in the fuel cycles that will produce waste to be disposed, and the characteristics of those wastes become clear, the disposal program retains flexibility in both the choice of geologic environment and the specific repository design. Of course, other factors also play a major role, including local and State-level acceptance of the specific site that provides the geologic environment. In contrast, the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) repository license application (LA) is based on waste forms from an open fuel cycle (PWR and BWR assemblies from an open fuel cycle). These waste forms were about 90% of the total waste, and they were the determining waste form in developing the engineered barrier system (EBS) design for the Yucca Mountain Repository design. About 10% of the repository capacity was reserved for waste from a full recycle fuel cycle in which some actinides were extracted for weapons use, and the remaining fission products and some minor actinides were

  19. The Integration and Abstracyion of EBS Models in Yucca Mountain Performance Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.D. Sevougian; V. Jain; A.V. Luik

    2006-01-11

    The safety strategy for geological disposal of radioactive waste at Yucca Mountain relies on a multi-barrier system to contain the waste and isolate it from the biosphere. The multi-barrier system consists of the natural barrier provided by the geological setting and the engineered barrier system (EBS). In the case of Yucca Mountain (YM) the geologic setting is the unsaturated-zone host rock, consisting of about 600 meters of layered ash-flow volcanic tuffs above the water table, and the saturated zone beneath the water table. Both the unsaturated and saturated rocks are part of a closed hydrologic basin in a desert surface environment. The waste is to be buried about halfway between the desert surface and the water table. The primary engineered barriers at YM consist of metal components that are highly durable in an oxidizing environment. The two primary components of the engineered barrier system are highly corrosion-resistant metal waste packages, made from a nickel-chromium-molybdenum alloy, Alloy 22, and titanium drip shields that protect the waste packages from corrosive dripping water and falling rocks. Design and performance assessment of the EBS requires models that describe how the EBS and near field behave under anticipated repository-relevant conditions. These models must describe coupled hydrologic, thermal, chemical, and mechanical (THCM) processes that drive radionuclide transport in a highly fractured host rock, consisting of a relatively permeable network of conductive fractures in a setting of highly impermeable tuff rock matrix. An integrated performance assessment of the EBS must include a quantification of the uncertainties that arise from (1) incomplete understanding of processes and (2) from lack of data representative of the large spatial scales and long time scales relevant to radioactive waste disposal (e.g., long-term metal corrosion rates and heterogeneities in rock properties over the large 5 km{sup 2} emplacement area of the repository

  20. Double barrier system for an in situ conversion process

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinzie, Billy John [Houston, TX; Vinegar, Harold J [Bellaire, TX; Cowan, Kenneth Michael [Sugar land, TX; Deeg, Wolfgang Friedrich Johann [Houston, TX; Wong, Sau-Wai [Rijswijk, NL

    2009-05-05

    A barrier system for a subsurface treatment area is described. The barrier system includes a first barrier formed around at least a portion of the subsurface treatment area. The first barrier is configured to inhibit fluid from exiting or entering the subsurface treatment area. A second barrier is formed around at least a portion of the first barrier. A separation space exists between the first barrier and the second barrier.

  1. Single-photon sensitive fast ebCMOS camera system for multiple-target tracking of single fluorophores: application to nano-biophotonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cajgfinger, Thomas; Chabanat, Eric; Dominjon, Agnes; Doan, Quang T.; Guerin, Cyrille; Houles, Julien; Barbier, Remi

    2011-03-01

    Nano-biophotonics applications will benefit from new fluorescent microscopy methods based essentially on super-resolution techniques (beyond the diffraction limit) on large biological structures (membranes) with fast frame rate (1000 Hz). This trend tends to push the photon detectors to the single-photon counting regime and the camera acquisition system to real time dynamic multiple-target tracing. The LUSIPHER prototype presented in this paper aims to give a different approach than those of Electron Multiplied CCD (EMCCD) technology and try to answer to the stringent demands of the new nano-biophotonics imaging techniques. The electron bombarded CMOS (ebCMOS) device has the potential to respond to this challenge, thanks to the linear gain of the accelerating high voltage of the photo-cathode, to the possible ultra fast frame rate of CMOS sensors and to the single-photon sensitivity. We produced a camera system based on a 640 kPixels ebCMOS with its acquisition system. The proof of concept for single-photon based tracking for multiple single-emitters is the main result of this paper.

  2. Vapor-barrier Vacuum Isolation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Leonard M. (Inventor); Taminger, Karen M. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A system includes a collimated beam source within a vacuum chamber, a condensable barrier gas, cooling material, a pump, and isolation chambers cooled by the cooling material to condense the barrier gas. Pressure levels of each isolation chamber are substantially greater than in the vacuum chamber. Coaxially-aligned orifices connect a working chamber, the isolation chambers, and the vacuum chamber. The pump evacuates uncondensed barrier gas. The barrier gas blocks entry of atmospheric vapor from the working chamber into the isolation chambers, and undergoes supersonic flow expansion upon entering each isolation chamber. A method includes connecting the isolation chambers to the vacuum chamber, directing vapor to a boundary with the working chamber, and supersonically expanding the vapor as it enters the isolation chambers via the orifices. The vapor condenses in each isolation chamber using the cooling material, and uncondensed vapor is pumped out of the isolation chambers via the pump.

  3. UV/EB curing market in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most application of UV curing of surface coating in Indonesia are on fancy plywood, furniture and wood flooring industry. Other application are on papers, printing ink/labelling, printed circuit board/PCB and dental materials. At present, application of EB curing coating is still in a pilot plant scale due to the high cost of production. Limited number of application of EB curing by using low energy electron beam machine are on wood panels, ceramics and marbles. This paper describes the market and the problem faced by the largest user of radiation curing systems such as the secondary process plywood, furniture and paper industries

  4. Thermal cycling behaviour of thermal barrier coating systems based on first- and fourth-generation Ni-based superalloys

    OpenAIRE

    Duhamel, Cécilie; Chieux, Marion; Molins, Régine; Rémy, Luc; Monceau, Daniel; Rouaix-Vande Put, Aurélie; Guédou, Jean-Yves

    2012-01-01

    This study deals with the cyclic oxidation behaviour of thermal barrier coating systems. The systems consist of an yttria-stabilised zircona ceramic top coat deposited by EB-PVD, a b-(Ni,Pt)Al bond coat and a Ni-based superalloy. Two different superalloys are studied: a first-generation one and a fourthgeneration one containing Re, Ru and Hf. The aim of this work is to characterise the microstructural evolution of those systems and to correlate it to their resistance to spallation. Thermal cy...

  5. Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conceptual and predictive models documented in this Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment Model report describe the evolution of the physical and chemical conditions within the waste emplacement drifts of the repository. The modeling approaches and model output data will be used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA-LA) to assess the performance of the engineered barrier system and the waste form. These models evaluate the range of potential water compositions within the emplacement drifts, resulting from the interaction of introduced materials and minerals in dust with water seeping into the drifts and with aqueous solutions forming by deliquescence of dust (as influenced by atmospheric conditions), and from thermal-hydrological-chemical (THC) processes in the drift. These models also consider the uncertainty and variability in water chemistry inside the drift and the compositions of introduced materials within the drift. This report develops and documents a set of process- and abstraction-level models that constitute the engineered barrier system: physical and chemical environment model. Where possible, these models use information directly from other process model reports as input, which promotes integration among process models used for total system performance assessment. Specific tasks and activities of modeling the physical and chemical environment are included in the technical work plan ''Technical Work Plan for: In-Drift Geochemistry Modeling'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 166519]). As described in the technical work plan, the development of this report is coordinated with the development of other engineered barrier system analysis model reports

  6. Waste package/engineered barrier system design concepts for Yucca Mountain repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for the siting, construction and operation of mined geologic disposal system (MGDS) for high level waste. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has the responsibility for promulgating the technical requirements necessary to license all phases of repository operation. The development of MGDS has been delegated to the DOE's Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project Office. The B ampersand W Fuel Company, as part of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System Management and Operating Contractor, is responsible for designing the waste package (WP) and the engineered barrier system (EBS). The goal of the design effort is to achieve a conservative, licensable design that meets the regulatory requirements with sufficient margin for uncertainty. Attainment of this goal relies on a multibarrier approach, the unsaturated nature of the Yucca Mountain site, consideration of, technical alternatives, and sufficient resolution of technical and regulatory uncertainties

  7. EB Frond wave energy converter - phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The EB Frond project is a wave energy programme developed by The Engineering Business (EB) from an original idea at Lancaster University. The EB Frond is a wave generator with a collector vane on top of an arm that pivots near the seabed. Phase 1 of the project demonstrated the technical feasibility of the project and provided proof of concept. Phase 2 involved further assesment of the technical and commercial viability of the concept through the development of mathematical and physical modelling methods. The work involved small-scale (1/25th) testing in wave tanks at Newcastle and Lancaster Universities and the development, verification and validation of a time domain mathematical model. The decision by EB to put on hold its renewable generation programme meant that plans to test at an intermediate scale (1/16th), assess different survival strategies in extreme wave conditions, carry out site characterisation for full-scale systems and to produce a robust economic model were not fulfilled. However, the mathematical and physical modelling work was used to develop an economic model for the Frond system. This produced a predicted unit cost of electricity by a pre-commercial 5 MW demonstration farm of about 17 pence/kWh. The report discusses the small-scale testing, test results, mathematical modelling, analysis and interpretation, survivability, the economic model and the development route to full-scale production.

  8. Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Dixon

    2004-04-26

    The conceptual and predictive models documented in this Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment Model report describe the evolution of the physical and chemical conditions within the waste emplacement drifts of the repository. The modeling approaches and model output data will be used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA-LA) to assess the performance of the engineered barrier system and the waste form. These models evaluate the range of potential water compositions within the emplacement drifts, resulting from the interaction of introduced materials and minerals in dust with water seeping into the drifts and with aqueous solutions forming by deliquescence of dust (as influenced by atmospheric conditions), and from thermal-hydrological-chemical (THC) processes in the drift. These models also consider the uncertainty and variability in water chemistry inside the drift and the compositions of introduced materials within the drift. This report develops and documents a set of process- and abstraction-level models that constitute the engineered barrier system: physical and chemical environment model. Where possible, these models use information directly from other process model reports as input, which promotes integration among process models used for total system performance assessment. Specific tasks and activities of modeling the physical and chemical environment are included in the technical work plan ''Technical Work Plan for: In-Drift Geochemistry Modeling'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 166519]). As described in the technical work plan, the development of this report is coordinated with the development of other engineered barrier system analysis model reports.

  9. ENGINEERED BARRIER SYSTEM: PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL ENVIRONMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Jarek

    2004-11-23

    The purpose of this report is to describe the evolution of the physical and chemical environmental conditions within the waste emplacement drifts of the repository, including the drip shield and waste package surfaces. The abstraction model is used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA LA) to assess the performance of the engineered barrier system and the waste form. This report develops and documents a set of these abstraction-level models that describe the engineered barrier system physical and chemical environment. Where possible, these models use information directly from other reports as input, which promotes integration among process models used for TSPA-LA. Specific tasks and activities of modeling the physical and chemical environment are included in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport In-Drift Geochemistry Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171156], Section 1.2.2). As described in the technical work plan, the development of this report is coordinated with the development of other engineered barrier system reports.

  10. ENGINEERED BARRIER SYSTEM: PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL ENVIRONMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report is to describe the evolution of the physical and chemical environmental conditions within the waste emplacement drifts of the repository, including the drip shield and waste package surfaces. The abstraction model is used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA LA) to assess the performance of the engineered barrier system and the waste form. This report develops and documents a set of these abstraction-level models that describe the engineered barrier system physical and chemical environment. Where possible, these models use information directly from other reports as input, which promotes integration among process models used for TSPA-LA. Specific tasks and activities of modeling the physical and chemical environment are included in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport In-Drift Geochemistry Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171156], Section 1.2.2). As described in the technical work plan, the development of this report is coordinated with the development of other engineered barrier system reports

  11. 14 CFR 23.691 - Artificial stall barrier system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Artificial stall barrier system. 23.691... Construction Control Systems § 23.691 Artificial stall barrier system. If the function of an artificial stall barrier, for example, stick pusher, is used to show compliance with § 23.201(c), the system must...

  12. Application of EB in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation processing using electron beam (EB) facilities other than gamma-ray facilities in Japan is introduced. After briefly presented the features of EB compared with gamma ray, present status of EB application is described. Polymerized materials for use of wire, cable, radial tire, heat shrinkable tube, foam polyethylene, PTFE, battery separator, and adsorbent material are known to be resulting from cross-linking, decomposition, and graft polymerization reactions. Environmental preservation includes electron flue gas treatment in the coal- or oil-fired power plants, research for volatile organic compounds (VOC) and dioxins, as well as wastewater and sludge treatment. Finally activity of JAERI in the related fields is overviewed with the authors prospects for utilization of low energy EB with low cost for surface treatment and functional materials. (S. Ohno)

  13. Failure mechanisms of thermal barrier systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tao

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are widely used in turbines for propulsion and power generation. The benefit results from their ability to sustain high thermal gradients in the presence of adequate backside cooling. Lowering the temperature of the metal substrate prolongs the life of the component: whether from environmental attack, creep rupture, or fatigue. Thermal barrier systems exhibit multiple failure mechanisms, depends on the deposition methods of the TBCs, chemical composition of the bond coats, and their working environments. Some of the most prevalent are studied in this thesis. There are two types of thermal barrier systems based on the chemical composition of the bond coats: Pt-aluminide and NiCoCrAlY bond coats. Ratcheting happens the most in the systems with Pt-aluminide bond coats; while edge delamination is considered a possible failure mechanism for the systems with NiCoCrAlY bond coats. Ratcheting is motivated by displacement instability in the thermally grown oxide (TGO). Interactions between cracks induced in TBCs upon thermal cycling have been calculated. Cracks that converge from neighboring imperfections exhibit a minimum energy release rate prior to coalescence. Equating this minimum to the toughness of the TBC provides a criterion for coalescence and failure. Imposing this criterion allows the change in crack length upon cycling and the number of cycles to failure to be ascertained. This simulation capability is used to explore various influences on durability. Samples with NiCoCrAlY bond coat are studied after subjected to thermal cycling in a burner rig. In each case, a dominant delamination has been identified, that extends primarily along the interface between the TGO and the bond coat. Calculations of the delamination energy release rate, upon comparison with the interface toughness, reveals a critical TGO thickness, (h tgo)c ≈ 3mum, comparable to that found experimentally.

  14. Article Including Environmental Barrier Coating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang N. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An enhanced environmental barrier coating for a silicon containing substrate. The enhanced barrier coating may include a bond coat doped with at least one of an alkali metal oxide and an alkali earth metal oxide. The enhanced barrier coating may include a composite mullite bond coat including BSAS and another distinct second phase oxide applied over said surface.

  15. Energy Dependence of the Fusion Barrier for Heavy Nuclear Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIZhu-xia; WUXi-zhen; TIANJun-long; WANGNing

    2003-01-01

    The dynamical behavior of the fusion potential barrier for heavy nuclear systems is studied by means of the improved quantum molecular dynamics model. It is found that the fusion potential barrier experienced in a realistic fusion process (the dynamic fusion potential barrier) reduces with decrease of incident energies.

  16. The Role of the Engineered Barrier System in Safety Cases for Geological Radioactive Waste Repoitories: An NEA Initiaive in Co-Operations with the EC, Process Issues and Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.G. Bennett; A.J. Hooper; S. Voinis; H. Umeki; A.V. Luik; J. Alonso

    2006-02-07

    The Integration Group for the Safety Case (IGSC) of the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) Radioactive Waste Management Committee in co-operation with the European Commission (EC) is conducting a project to develop a greater understanding of how to achieve the necessary integration for successful design, construction, testing, modeling, and assessment of engineered barrier systems. The project also seeks to clarify the role that the EBS plays in assuring the overall safety of a repository. A framework for the EBS Project is provided by a series of workshops that allow discussion of the wide range of activities necessary for the design, assessment and optimization of the EBS, and the integration of this information into the safety case. The topics of this series of workshops have been planned so that the EBS project will work progressively through the main aspects comprising one cycle of the design and optimization process. This paper seeks to communicate key results from the EBS project to a wider audience. The paper focuses on two topics discussed at the workshops: process issues and the role of modeling.

  17. Potential for radionuclide immobilization in the EBS/NFE: solubility limiting phases for neptunium, plutonium, and uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rard, J. A., LLNL

    1997-10-01

    Retardation and dispersion in the far field of radionuclides released from the engineered barrier system/near field environment (EBS/NFE) may not be sufficient to prevent regulatory limits being exceeded at the accessible environment. Hence, a greater emphasis must be placed on retardation and/or immobilization of radionuclides in the EBS/NFE. The present document represents a survey of radionuclide-bearing solid phases that could potentially form in the EBS/NFE and immobilize radionuclides released from the waste package and significantly reduce the source term. A detailed literature search was undertaken for experimental solubilities of the oxides, hydroxides, and various salts of neptunium, plutonium, and uranium in aqueous solutions as functions of pH, temperature, and the concentrations of added electrolytes. Numerous solubility studies and reviews were identified and copies of most of the articles were acquired. However, this project was only two months in duration, and copies of some the identified solubility studies could not be obtained at short notice. The results of this survey are intended to be used to assess whether a more detailed study of identified low- solubility phase(s) is warranted, and not as a data base suitable for predicting radionuclide solubility. The results of this survey may also prove useful in a preliminary evaluation of the efficacy of incorporating chemical additives to the EBS/NFE that will enhance radionuclide immobilization.

  18. Applications of barrier bucket RF systems at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhat, C.M.; /Fermilab

    2006-03-01

    In recent years, the barrier rf systems have become important tools in a variety of beam manipulation applications at synchrotrons. Four out of six proton synchrotrons at Fermilab are equipped with broad-band barrier rf systems. All of the beam manipulations pertaining to the longitudinal phase space in the Fermilab Recycler (synchrotron used for antiproton storage) are carried out using a barrier system. Recently, a number of new applications of barrier rf systems have been developed- the longitudinal momentum mining, longitudinal phase-space coating, antiproton stacking, fast bunch compression and more. Some of these techniques have been critical for the recent spectacular success of the collider performance at the Fermilab Tevatron. Barrier bunch coalescing to produce bright proton bunches has a high potential to increase proton antiproton luminosity significantly. In this paper, I will describe some of these techniques in detail. Finally, I make a few general remarks on issues related to barrier systems.

  19. EB1 and EB3 promote cilia biogenesis by several centrosome-related mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Jacob M; Larsen, Jesper; Komarova, Yulia;

    2011-01-01

    surrounded by vesicles. Further, GST pull-down assays, mass spectrometry and immunoprecipitation indicated that EB1 and EB3 interact with proteins implicated in MT minus-end anchoring or vesicular trafficking to the cilia base, suggesting that EB1 and EB3 promote ciliogenesis by facilitating such trafficking...

  20. Monitoring fluid evolution in an Engineered Barrier System using NEO-magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigonat, N.; Butler, I. B.

    2015-12-01

    Long-term monitoring of the evolution of the engineered barrier system (EBS) of a Geological Disposal Facility (GDF) is important for establishing the safety case for deep disposal of the UK inventory of high level radioactive waste. With a view to developing techniques for remote fluid monitoring using magnetic properties, we have examined the correlation between the corrosion properties of NEO-magnets and related changes in the magnetic properties of the alloy with fluid chemistry and crystal-chemical changes of the Na-bentonite matrix. Batch experiments comprised fragments of NEO-magnets with deionised water, saline and alkaline solution both in the presence and absence of MX-80 bentonite, and were performed in sealed vessels for durations of up to 5 months at 70°C. This study combined PXRD, thermomagnetic and hysteresis analysis to demonstrate how progressive hydrogenation of the main magnetic phase led to a maximum loss of remanence and coercitivity and increasing Curie temperature in the samples reacted with deionised water with the samples reacted in saline and alkaline solutions showing smaller changes. Semi-quantitative analysis allowed comparison of the Curie temperatures with crystal-chemical parameters. This reveals a clear positive correlation of increasing lattice parameters a and c (and cell volume) with mean hydrogens per unit formula and the Curie temperature of the product NdFeB hydrides. Precipitation of Nd and Fe hydrides/oxyhydroxides is also demonstated by the PXRD data. A crucial role is played by the transformations occurring to the smectite matrix, in particular by the cation exchange in the interlayer, which causes precipitation of highly charged K- and Ca-smectites. This study demonstrates how NEO-magnets are capable of detecting water saturation in the EBS, and that the NdFeB corrosion properties are strongly controlled by the initial fluid composition and presence / absence of the bentonite matrix.

  1. Modelling approach for geochemical changes in the Prototype repository engineered barrier system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study deals with a full-scale test of a repository concept for nuclear waste. The work is motivated and targeted to the safety assessment of a final repository for highly active nuclear waste. Successive rounds of predictive modelling are confidence building steps if modelling results can be successfully compared to gradually growing up measured test data. Calculations consider geochemical changes during the wetting of repository tunnel backfill and canister buffer, and the time-dependent changes at the boundaries of a repository engineered barrier system (EBS). The backfill and buffer volumes are divided to uniform subsequent reaction cells. The modelling assumes only schematic coupling between geochemical reactions and hydrologic transport. During a wetting front advance, instant water saturation occurs in subsequent, initially undersaturated, cell volumes. However, a water parcel introduced into a cell is expected to stay within that cell until dissolved components, and solid phases are fully equilibrated. The approach concentrates on the major element compositions of porewaters, and the changes in solid phases of the repository. The initial properties of canister buffer resemble the estimations for compacted Wyoming MX-80 sodium bentonite. The tunnel backfill is assumed to consist of sodium bentonite (30%), and crushed Aespoe diorite (70%) components. The backfill composition has been estimated in accordance with mineral quantities present in the components of the backfill mixture. The initial groundwater sucked into the EBS at the repository boundaries is Na-Ca-(HCO3)-SO4-Cl -water having a reference to brackish seawater origin. The reactions considered are cation exchange, surface complexation, and dissolution/precipitation of certain minerals. Calculations assume also diffuse water layers to occur upon the clay platelet surfaces. As an initial condition, the undersaturated pore volumes of backfill and buffer contain entrapped air (O2 content 20%). In the

  2. Prototype Engineered Barrier System Field Tests (PEBSFT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This progress report presents the interpretation of data obtained (up to November 1, 1988) from the Prototype Engineered Barrier System Field Tests (PEBSFT) that are being performed for the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) in G-Tunnel within the Nevada Test site. The PEBSFTs are being conducted to evaluate the applicability of measurement techniques, numerical models, and procedures developed for the field tests for future investigations that will be conducted in the Exploratory Shaft Facilities, at a potential high-level radioactive waste repository site in Yucca Mountain. The primary objective of the tests is to provide the basis for determining whether tests planned for Yucca Mountain have the potential to be successful. Thirteen chapters discuss the following: mapping the electromagnetic permittivity and attenuation rate of the rock mass; changes in moisture content detected by the neutron logging probe; characterization of the in-situ permeability of the fractured tuff around the heater borehole; electrical resistance heater installed in a 30-cm borehole; relative humidity measurements; the operation, design, construction, calibration, and installation of a microwave circuit that might provide partial pressure information at temperatures in excess of 200 degree C (392 degree F); pressure and temperature measurements in the G-Tunnel; the moisture collection system, which attempts to collect steam that migrates into the heater borehole; The borehole television and borescope surveys that were performed to map the location, orientation, and aperture of the fractures intersecting the boreholes; preliminary scoping calculations of the hydrothermal conditions expected for this prototype test; the Data Acquisition System; and the results of the PEBSFT, preliminary interpretations of these results, and plans for the remainder of the test. Chapters have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base

  3. Fluctuating Potential Barrier System with Correlated Spatial Noises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jing-Hui

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we study a fluctuating potential barrier system with correlated spatial noises. Study shows that for this system, there is the resonant activation over the fluctuating potential barrier, and that the correlation between the different spatial noises can enhance (or weaken) the resonant activation.

  4. Combustion chemical vapor desposited coatings for thermal barrier coating systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hampikian, J.M.; Carter, W.B. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The new deposition process, combustion chemical vapor deposition, shows a great deal of promise in the area of thermal barrier coating systems. This technique produces dense, adherent coatings, and does not require a reaction chamber. Coatings can therefore be applied in the open atmosphere. The process is potentially suitable for producing high quality CVD coatings for use as interlayers between the bond coat and thermal barrier coating, and/or as overlayers, on top of thermal barrier coatings.

  5. Phonon tunneling through a double barrier system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villegas, Diosdado [Departamento de Física, Universidad Central “Marta Abreu” de Las Villas, CP 54830, Santa Clara, Villa Clara (Cuba); Instituto de Física, Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, 18 Sur y San Claudio, Edif. 110A, Ciudad Universitaria, 72570 Puebla (Mexico); León-Pérez, Fernando de [Centro Universitario de la Defensa de Zaragoza, Ctra. de Huesca s/n, E-50090 Zaragoza (Spain); Pérez-Álvarez, R. [Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos, Av. Universidad 1001, CP 62209 Cuernavaca (Mexico); Arriaga, J., E-mail: arriaga@ifuap.buap.mx [Instituto de Física, Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, 18 Sur y San Claudio, Edif. 110A, Ciudad Universitaria, 72570 Puebla (Mexico)

    2015-04-15

    The tunneling of optical and acoustic phonons at normal incidence on a double-barrier is studied in this paper. Transmission coefficients and resonance conditions are derived theoretically under the assumption that the long-wavelength approximation is valid. It is shown that the behavior of the transmission coefficients for the symmetric double barrier has a Lorentzian form close to resonant frequencies and that Breit–Wigner's formula have a general validity in one-dimensional phonon tunneling. Authors also study the so-called generalized Hartman effect in the tunneling of long-wavelength phonons and show that this effect is a numerical artifact resulting from taking the opaque limit before exploring the variation with a finite barrier width. This study could be useful for the design of acoustic devices.

  6. Moving HLW-EBS concepts into the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most national high-level waste (HLW) disposal programs actually reflect, or are based on, concepts which were developed during the '70s or early '80s. Although suitable for demonstration of concept feasibility, designs of the engineered barrier system (EBS) do not take into account the tremendous developments in system understanding and materials technology over the last two decades, the practicality (and cost) of their quality assurance and implementation on an industrial scale and the transparency of the demonstration of the safety case. In many ways, due to the increased significance of popular acceptance over the last decade, the last point may be of particular relevance This paper reviews the work already carried out on second generation concepts and extends this to identify the key attributes of an ideal design for the specific case of disposal of vitrified HLW from reprocessing in a 'wet' host rock (either crystalline or sedimentary). Based on the concept developed, key R and D requirements are identified. Copyright (2001) Material Research Society

  7. Seismic impact on engineered barrier system of geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seismic impacts on the engineered barrier system of the geological disposal were examined by means of the three-dimensional elastic-plastic seismic response analysis based on effective stress method. In this study, it was evaluated against the largest ground motions recorded in Japan. The numerical analysis results showed that the engineered barrier system and the surrounding bedrock were shaken together and it had sufficient robustness for the failure state. Thus we confirmed the low possibility of a reduction in the mechanical stability of the engineered barrier system due to the ground motion. (author)

  8. John H. Chafee Coastal Barrier Resources System Approximate Polygons

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Coastal Barrier Resources System (CBRS) data set, produced by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), contains areas designated as undeveloped coastal...

  9. Combustion chemical vapor deposited coatings for thermal barrier coating systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hampikian, J.M.; Carter, W.B. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Materials Science and Engineering

    1995-12-31

    The new deposition process, combustion chemical vapor deposition, shows a great deal of promise in the area of thermal barrier coating systems. This technique produces dense, adherent coatings, and does not require a reaction chamber. Coatings can therefore be applied in the open atmosphere. The process is potentially suitable for producing high quality CVD coatings for use as interlayers between the bond coat and thermal barrier coating, and/or as overlayers, on top of thermal barrier coatings. In this report, the evaluation of alumina and ceria coatings on a nickel-chromium alloy is described.

  10. The Leber congenital amaurosis protein AIPL1 and EB proteins co-localize at the photoreceptor cilium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Hidalgo-de-Quintana

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the interaction and co-localization of novel interacting proteins with the Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA associated protein aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein-like 1 (AIPL1.The CytoTrapXR yeast two-hybrid system was used to screen a bovine retinal cDNA library. A novel interaction between AIPL1 and members of the family of EB proteins was confirmed by directed yeast two-hybrid analysis and co-immunoprecipitation assays. The localization of AIPL1 and the EB proteins in cultured cells and in retinal cryosections was examined by immunofluorescence microscopy and cryo-immunogold electron microscopy.Yeast two-hybrid (Y2H analysis identified the interaction between AIPL1 and the EB proteins, EB1 and EB3. EB1 and EB3 were specifically co-immunoprecipitated with AIPL1 from SK-N-SH neuroblastoma cells. In directed 1:1 Y2H analysis, the interaction of EB1 with AIPL1 harbouring the LCA-causing mutations A197P, C239R and W278X was severely compromised. Immunofluorescent confocal microscopy revealed that AIPL1 did not co-localize with endogenous EB1 at the tips of microtubules, endogenous EB1 at the microtubule organising centre following disruption of the microtubule network, or with endogenous β-tubulin. Moreover, AIPL1 did not localize to primary cilia in ARPE-19 cells, whereas EB1 co-localized with the centrosomal marker pericentrin at the base of primary cilia. However, both AIPL1 and the EB proteins, EB1 and EB3, co-localized with centrin-3 in the connecting cilium of photoreceptor cells. Cryo-immunogold electron microscopy confirmed the co-localization of AIPL1 and EB1 in the connecting cilia in human retinal photoreceptors.AIPL1 and the EB proteins, EB1 and EB3, localize at the connecting cilia of retinal photoreceptor cells, but do not co-localize in the cellular microtubule network or in primary cilia in non-retinal cells. These findings suggest that AIPL1 function in these cells is not related

  11. Microstructural Evolution and interfacial motion in systems with diffusion barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perry H. Leo

    2009-03-05

    This research program was designed to model and simulate phase transformations in systems containing diffusion barriers. The modeling work included mass flow, phase formation, and microstructural evolution in interdiffusing systems. Simulation work was done by developing Cahn-Hilliard and phase field equations governing both the temporal and spatial evolution of the composition and deformation fields and other important phase variables.

  12. Integrated control of the wastewater system – potentials and barriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mollerup, Ane Loft; Grum, Morten; Muschalla, Dirk;

    2013-01-01

    Applying integrated control to a sewer system and wastewater treatment plant often leads to additional benefits for both systems when compared to controlling them independently. However, barriers such as a lack of incentive for utilities to put this type of control in place mean that in practice...

  13. Migration and diffusion of radionuclides in engineered barrier system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the present status of the multibarrier system performance tests to provide a preliminary assessment of nuclide migration in the engineered barriers for shallow land burial of the low-level radioactive waste. Migration of radionuclides with seeped water through backfill and in subsequent diffusion in concrete pit are considered in this study. The results of laboratory investigations of unsaturated flow in backfill and radionuclides migration / diffusion in engineered barrier system are described and the calculated distribution of the radionuclides in backfill is presented

  14. Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conceptual and predictive models documented in this Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment Model report describe the evolution of the physical and chemical conditions within the waste emplacement drifts of the repository. The modeling approaches and model output data will be used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA-LA) to assess the performance of the engineered barrier system and the waste form. These models evaluate the range of potential water compositions within the emplacement drifts, resulting from the interaction of introduced materials and minerals in dust with water seeping into the drifts and with aqueous solutions forming by deliquescence of dust (as influenced by atmospheric conditions), and from thermal-hydrological-chemical (THC) processes in the drift. These models also consider the uncertainty and variability in water chemistry inside the drift and the compositions of introduced materials within the drift. This report develops and documents a set of process- and abstraction-level models that constitute the engineered barrier system: physical and chemical environment model. Where possible, these models use information directly from other process model reports as input, which promotes integration among process models used for total system performance assessment. Specific tasks and activities of modeling the physical and chemical environment are included in the technical work plan ''Technical Work Plan for: In-Drift Geochemistry Modeling'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 166519]). As described in the technical work plan, the development of this report is coordinated with the development of other engineered barrier system analysis model reports

  15. The Electron Beam Semiconductor (EBS) amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    True, R. M.; Baxendale, J. F.

    1980-07-01

    The Electron Beam Semiconductor (EBS) concept has existed for three decades; but only within the last decade has an active, well-defined program been underway to develop devices that can operate as high-power radio frequency(RF) amplifiers, fast risetime switches, and current and voltage pulse amplifiers. This report discusses the test procedures, data and results of reliability testing of RF and video pulse EBS amplifiers at Electronics Research and Development Command (ERADCOM), Fort Monmouth, New Jersey. Also, the experimental analysis of the series connected diode EBS device is described in detail. Finally, the report concludes with a discussion of the state-of-the-art of EBS and future trends of the technology.

  16. Thermal cycling behavior and associated failure mechanism of EB-PVD thermal barrier coatings with CMAS deposits%CMAS环境下电子束物理气相沉积热障涂层的热循环行为及失效机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗文辉; 王璐; 郭洪波; 彭徽; 王凯; 宫声凯

    2012-01-01

    CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2 (CMAS in short) deposits are often generated on the surface of in-service aircraft engine blades. In this paper, the thermal cycling behavior and associated failure mechanism of EB-PVD zirconia-based thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) with CMAS deposits were investigated. The results show that the thermal cycling life of TBCs with CMAS deposits at 1200℃ is less than 100 cycles, whereas the life of TBCs without CMAS is more than 500 cycles. CMAS deposits accelerate the spallation failure of TBCs. After 210 thermal cycles at 1200℃, about 8 μm interaction layer is formed between CMAS and zirconia ceramic layer, which is mainly due to the inward diffusion of Ca^2+ from the CMAS deposits. A large number of transverse cracks are generated in the ceramic layer of TBCs with CMAS deposits. The failure of TBCs occurs mainly by chipping spallation of the ceramic layer.%航空发动机涡轮叶片工作时表面经常产生CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2(简称CMAS)等沉积物。本文中研究了电子束物理气相沉积(EB-PVD)制备ZrO2热障涂层(TBCs)在CMAS环境下的热循环行为及失效机制。结果表明, 在1200℃热冲击条件下, 表面涂覆CMAS的热障涂层的热循环寿命低于100次, 而未涂覆CMAS的涂层寿命达到500次以上, CMAS 的存在加速了热障涂层的剥落失效。在1200℃经过210次循环后, ZrO2陶瓷层与CMAS之间形成了约8 μm厚的互反应区, 其形成主要与CMAS中Ca^2+内扩散有关。CMAS环境下热障涂层陶瓷层产生大量横向裂纹, 涂层的失效主要以陶瓷层片状剥落为主。

  17. Engineered barrier experiment. Power control and data acquisition systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The engineered barrier concept for the storage of radioactive wastes is being tested at almost full scale at CIEMAT facilities. A data acquisition and control is an element of this experiment. This system would be operating for next three years. (Author)

  18. Morphodynamics of the Wadden Sea and its barrier island system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Z.B.; Hoekstra, P.; Burchard, H.; Ridderinkhof, H.; Swart, H.E. de; Stive, M.J.F.

    2012-01-01

    The Wadden Sea and its associated barrier island system exhibit highly dynamic behaviour. Of major concern is the movement of water and air and the transport, erosion and deposition of sand and mud. These processes result in an ever-changing morphology (topography/bathymetry) of the islands, tidal c

  19. Experimental Study on Spiral Patterns in Dielectric Barrier Discharge System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Shu-Hua; DONG Li-Fang; LIU Fu-Cheng; LI Shu-Feng; LI Xue-Chen; WANG Hong-Fang

    2006-01-01

    Spiral patterns are obtained in a dielectric barrier discharge system with water electrodes. The dynamics of spiral formation and transition is investigated. Wavelength characteristic of spiral patterns is also studied. Correlation measurements indicate that the wavelength of spiral pattern increases with the increasing gas gap width and oscillates with the increasing drive frequency.

  20. Field testing of asphalt-emulsion radon-barrier system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three years of laboratory and field testing have demonstrated that asphalt emulsion seals are effective radon diffusion barriers. Both laboratory and field tests in 1979, 1980 and 1981 have shown that an asphalt emulsion seal can reduce radon fluxes by greater than 99.9%. The effective diffusion coefficient for the various asphalt emulsion admix seals averages about 10-6 cm2/s. The 1981 joint field test is a culmination of all the technology developed to date for asphalt emulsion radon barrier systems. Preliminary results of this field test and the results of the 1980 field test are presented. 18 figures, 6 tables

  1. Barriers and Opportunities for Sustainable Food Systems in Northeastern Kansas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhonda Janke

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Survey responses of producers and institutional buyers in northeastern Kansas (United States were analyzed to understand barriers and opportunities for sustainable food systems in the region where their emergence has been limited. Producers and buyers identified barriers previously noted regarding mismatches of available quantities and prices. Producers’ enthusiasm to supply locally exceeded buyers’ interest to source locally. Transportation was identified as one of the major concerns by producers, and their responses to choice tasks revealed producers’ preferences to sell locally while pricing their products to secure sales revenue and to cover their logistics expenses at least partially.

  2. High-resolution reconstruction of a coastal barrier system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fruergaard, Mikkel; Andersen, Thorbjørn Joest; Nielsen, Lars Henrik;

    2015-01-01

    This study presents a detailed reconstruction of the sedimentary effects of Holocene sea-level rise on a modern coastal barrier system (CBS). Increasing concern over the evolution of CBSs due to future accelerated rates of sea-level rise calls for a better understanding of coastal barriers response...... to sea-level changes. The complex evolution and sequence stratigraphic framework of the investigated CBS is reconstructed using facies analysis, high-resolution OSL and radiocarbon datings. During the formation of the CBS starting 8−7 ka ago rapid relative sea-level rise outpaced sediment accumulation....... Not before rates of relative sea-level rise had decreased to ~2 mm yr-1 did sediment accumulation outpace sea-level rise. From about 5.5 ka ago rates of regionally-averaged sediment accumulation increased to 4.3 mm yr-1 and the back-barrier basin was filled in. This increase in sediment accumulation resulted...

  3. Load management for refrigeration systems: Potentials and barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grein, Arne, E-mail: a.grein@tu-berlin.de [University of Technology Berlin, Institute for Energy Technology, Department of Energy Systems, Einsteinufer 25 (TA8), 10587 Berlin (Germany); Pehnt, Martin [Institute for Energy and Environmental Research Heidelberg (ifeu), Wilckensstr. 3, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2011-09-15

    As a strategy to deal with the increasing intermittent input of renewable energy sources in Germany, the adaptation of power consumption is complementary to power-plant regulation, grid expansion and physical energy storage. One demand sector that promises strong returns for load management efforts is cooling and refrigeration. In these processes, thermal inertia provides a temporal buffer for shifting and adjusting the power consumption of cooling systems. We have conducted an empirical investigation to obtain a detailed and time-resolved bottom-up analysis of load management for refrigeration systems in the city of Mannheim, Germany. We have extrapolated our results to general conditions in Germany. Several barriers inhibit the rapid adoption of load management strategies for cooling systems, including informational barriers, strict compliance with legal cooling requirements, liability issues, lack of technical experience, an inadequate rate of return and organizational barriers. Small commercial applications of refrigeration in the food-retailing and cold storage in hotels and restaurants are particularly promising starting points for intelligent load management. When our results are applied to Germany, suitable sectors for load management have theoretical and achievable potential values of 4.2 and 2.8 GW, respectively, amounting to about 4-6% of the maximum power demand in Germany. - Highlights: > Potential and barriers for implementation of load shifting for refrigeration. > Empirical investigation for time-resolved bottom-up analysis in Mannheim, Germany. > Suitable sectors and further recommendations for introducing load management.> Extrapolation of results from local to national level.

  4. ENGINEERED BARRIER SYSTEM FEATURES, EVENTS, AND PROCESSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    na

    2005-05-30

    This analysis report is one of the technical reports containing documentation of the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain, Nevada (ERMYN), a biosphere model supporting the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for the license application (LA) for the Yucca Mountain repository. This analysis report describes the development of biosphere dose conversion factors (BDCFs) for the volcanic ash exposure scenario, and the development of dose factors for calculating inhalation dose during volcanic eruption. A graphical representation of the documentation hierarchy for the ERMYN is presented in Figure 1 - 1. This figure shows the interrelationships among the products (i.e., analysis and model reports) developed for biosphere modeling and provides an understanding of how this analysis report contributes to biosphere modeling. This report is one of two reports that develop biosphere BDCFs, which are input parameters for the TSPA model. The ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169460]) describes in detail the ERMYN conceptual model and mathematical model. The input parameter reports, shown to the right of the Biosphere Model Report in Figure 1-1, contain detailed descriptions of the model input parameters, their development and the relationship between the parameters and specific features, events and processes (FEPs). This report describes biosphere model calculations and their output, the BDCFs, for the volcanic ash exposure scenario. This analysis receives direct input from the outputs of the ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169460]) and from the five analyses that develop parameter values for the biosphere model (BSC 2005 [DIRS 172827]; BSC 2004 [DIRS 169672]; BSC 2004 [DIRS 169673]; BSC 2004 [DIRS 169458]; and BSC 2004 [DIRS 169459]). The results of this report are further analyzed in the ''Biosphere Dose Conversion Factor Importance and Sensitivity Analysis'' (Figure 1 - 1). The

  5. Analysis of developed transition road safety barrier systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani, Mehrtash; Moghaddam, Taher Baghaee; Karim, Mohamed Rehan; Sulong, N H Ramli

    2013-10-01

    Road safety barriers protect vehicles from roadside hazards by redirecting errant vehicles in a safe manner as well as providing high levels of safety during and after impact. This paper focused on transition safety barrier systems which were located at the point of attachment between a bridge and roadside barriers. The aim of this study was to provide an overview of the behavior of transition systems located at upstream bridge rail with different designs and performance levels. Design factors such as occupant risk and vehicle trajectory for different systems were collected and compared. To achieve this aim a comprehensive database was developed using previous studies. The comparison showed that Test 3-21, which is conducted by impacting a pickup truck with speed of 100 km/h and angle of 25° to transition system, was the most severe test. Occupant impact velocity and ridedown acceleration for heavy vehicles were lower than the amounts for passenger cars and pickup trucks, and in most cases higher occupant lateral impact ridedown acceleration was observed on vehicles subjected to higher levels of damage. The best transition system was selected to give optimum performance which reduced occupant risk factors using the similar crashes in accordance with Test 3-21. PMID:23820073

  6. Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. M. Jolley; R. Jarek; P. Mariner

    2004-02-09

    The conceptual and predictive models documented in this Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment Model report describe the evolution of the physical and chemical conditions within the waste emplacement drifts of the repository. The modeling approaches and model output data will be used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA-LA) to assess the performance of the engineered barrier system and the waste form. These models evaluate the range of potential water compositions within the emplacement drifts, resulting from the interaction of introduced materials and minerals in dust with water seeping into the drifts and with aqueous solutions forming by deliquescence of dust (as influenced by atmospheric conditions), and from thermal-hydrological-chemical (THC) processes in the drift. These models also consider the uncertainty and variability in water chemistry inside the drift and the compositions of introduced materials within the drift. This report develops and documents a set of process- and abstraction-level models that constitute the engineered barrier system: physical and chemical environment model. Where possible, these models use information directly from other process model reports as input, which promotes integration among process models used for total system performance assessment. Specific tasks and activities of modeling the physical and chemical environment are included in the technical work plan ''Technical Work Plan for: In-Drift Geochemistry Modeling'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 166519]). As described in the technical work plan, the development of this report is coordinated with the development of other engineered barrier system analysis model reports.

  7. Trapping of normal EB1 ligands in aggresomes formed by an EB1 deletion mutant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Askham Jon M

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background EB1 is a microtubule tip-associated protein that interacts with the APC tumour suppressor protein and the p150glued subunit of dynactin. We previously reported that an EB1 deletion mutant that retains both of these interactions but does not directly associate with microtubules (EB1-ΔN2-GFP spontaneously formed perinuclear aggregates when expressed in COS-7 cells. Results In the present study live imaging indicated that EB1-ΔN2-GFP aggregates underwent dynamic microtubule-dependent changes in morphology and appeared to be internally cohesive. EB1-ΔN2-GFP aggregates were phase-dense structures that displayed microtubule-dependent accumulation around the centrosome, were immunoreactive for both the 20s subunit of the proteasome and ubiquitin, and induced the collapse of the vimentin cytoskeleton. Fractionation studies revealed that a proportion of EB1-ΔN2-GFP was detergent-insoluble and ubiquitylated, indicating that EB1-ΔN2-GFP aggregates are aggresomes. Immunostaining also revealed that APC and p150glued were present in EB1-ΔN2-GFP aggregates, whereas EB3 was not. Furthermore, evidence for p150glued degradation was found in the insoluble fraction of EB1-ΔN2-GFP transfected cultures. Conclusion Our data indicate that aggresomes can be internally cohesive and may not represent a simple "aggregate of aggregates" assembled around the centrosome. Our observations also indicate that a partially misfolded protein may retain the ability to interact with its normal physiological ligands, leading to their co-assembly into aggresomes. This supports the idea that the trapping and degradation of co-aggregated proteins might contribute to human pathologies characterised by aggresome formation.

  8. Emergent Behavior of Coupled Barrier Island - Resort Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, D. E.; Werner, B. T.

    2004-12-01

    Barrier islands are attractive sites for resorts. Natural barrier islands experience beach erosion and island overwash during storms, beach accretion and dune building during inter-storm periods, and migration up the continental shelf as sea level rises. Beach replenishment, artificial dune building, seawalls, jetties and groins have been somewhat effective in protecting resorts against erosion and overwash during storms, but it is unknown how the coupled system will respond to long-term sea level rise. We investigate coupled barrier island - resort systems using an agent-based model with three components: natural barrier islands divided into a series of alongshore cells; resorts controlled by markets for tourism and hotel purchases; and coupling via storm damage to resorts and resort protection by government agents. Modeled barrier islands change by beach erosion, island overwash and inlet cutting during storms, and beach accretion, tidal delta growth and dune and vegetation growth between storms. In the resort hotel market, developer agents build hotels and hotel owning agents purchase them using predictions of future revenue and property appreciation, with the goal of maximizing discounted utility. In the tourism market, hotel owning agents set room rental prices to maximize profit and tourist agents choose vacation destinations maximizing a utility based on beach width, price and word-of-mouth. Government agents build seawalls, groins and jetties, and widen the beach and build up dunes by adding sand to protect resorts from storms, enhance beach quality, and maximize resort revenue. Results indicate that barrier islands and resorts evolve in a coupled manner to resort size saturation, with resorts protected against small-to-intermediate-scale storms under fairly stable sea level. Under extended, rapidly rising sea level, protection measures enhance the effect of large storms, leading to emergent behavior in the form of limit cycles or barrier submergence

  9. Computational Design and Experimental Validation of New Thermal Barrier Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Shengmin; Yang, Shizhong; Khosravi, Ebrahim

    2012-10-01

    This project (10/01/2010-9/30/2013), “Computational Design and Experimental Validation of New Thermal Barrier Systems”, originates from Louisiana State University (LSU) Mechanical Engineering Department and Southern University (SU) Department of Computer Science. This project will directly support the technical goals specified in DEFOA- 0000248, Topic Area 3: Turbine Materials, by addressing key technologies needed to enable the development of advanced turbines and turbine-based systems that will operate safely and efficiently using coal-derived synthesis gases. We will develop and implement novel molecular dynamics method to improve the efficiency of simulation on novel TBC materials; perform high performance computing (HPC) on complex TBC structures to screen the most promising TBC compositions; perform material characterizations and oxidation/corrosion tests; and demonstrate our new thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems experimentally under integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) environments. The durability of the coating will be examined using the proposed Durability Test Rig.

  10. Computational Design and Experimental Validation of New Thermal Barrier Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Shengmin; Yang, Shizhong; Khosravi, Ebrahim

    2014-04-01

    This project (10/01/2010-9/30/2014), “Computational Design and Experimental Validation of New Thermal Barrier Systems”, originates from Louisiana State University (LSU) Mechanical Engineering Department and Southern University (SU) Department of Computer Science. This project will directly support the technical goals specified in DE-FOA-0000248, Topic Area 3: Turbine Materials, by addressing key technologies needed to enable the development of advanced turbines and turbine-based systems that will operate safely and efficiently using coal-derived synthesis gases. In this project, the focus is to develop and implement novel molecular dynamics method to improve the efficiency of simulation on novel TBC materials; perform high performance computing (HPC) on complex TBC structures to screen the most promising TBC compositions; perform material characterizations and oxidation/corrosion tests; and demonstrate our new thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems experimentally under integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) environments.

  11. Capacity Of Automated Highway Systems: Effect Of Platooning And Barriers

    OpenAIRE

    Tsao, H. S. Jacob; Hall, Randolph; Hongola, Bruce

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, the authors study the capacity of key Automated Highway Systems (AHS) operating scenarios. The effect of the lane-flow rule, platooning or free-agent, as well as the lane barriers, on AHS capacity are studied. Special attention is paid to the interaction between the lane-flow rule and the lane change requirement. The paper consists of two major components, analytical models and AHS simulation. After a brief introduction of AHS operating strategies, analytical models are develop...

  12. UV/EB curing in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress in LTV/EB curing is reviewed in Australia. Generally the technology is used by those industries where curing is well developed in Europe and North America, however the scale is an order of magnitude lower due to the smaller market size. The Asian economic crisis does not appear to have affected expansion of the technology in Australia. EB continues to be successfully used in the packaging and foam fields whilst in UV, security devices, particularly banknotes are steadily expanding especially in export markets have been studied

  13. Load management for refrigeration systems: Potentials and barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a strategy to deal with the increasing intermittent input of renewable energy sources in Germany, the adaptation of power consumption is complementary to power-plant regulation, grid expansion and physical energy storage. One demand sector that promises strong returns for load management efforts is cooling and refrigeration. In these processes, thermal inertia provides a temporal buffer for shifting and adjusting the power consumption of cooling systems. We have conducted an empirical investigation to obtain a detailed and time-resolved bottom-up analysis of load management for refrigeration systems in the city of Mannheim, Germany. We have extrapolated our results to general conditions in Germany. Several barriers inhibit the rapid adoption of load management strategies for cooling systems, including informational barriers, strict compliance with legal cooling requirements, liability issues, lack of technical experience, an inadequate rate of return and organizational barriers. Small commercial applications of refrigeration in the food-retailing and cold storage in hotels and restaurants are particularly promising starting points for intelligent load management. When our results are applied to Germany, suitable sectors for load management have theoretical and achievable potential values of 4.2 and 2.8 GW, respectively, amounting to about 4-6% of the maximum power demand in Germany. - Highlights: → Potential and barriers for implementation of load shifting for refrigeration. → Empirical investigation for time-resolved bottom-up analysis in Mannheim, Germany. → Suitable sectors and further recommendations for introducing load management.→ Extrapolation of results from local to national level.

  14. Implementation of electronic data capture systems: barriers and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welker, James A

    2007-05-01

    Although increasing in pace, the conversion to Electronic Data Capture (EDC) has been a slow progression. The use of EDC systems should confer improved data integrity, cost savings and a shorter time to study database closure. This will reduce the time to market and cost of new medications. With the current sentiment of the industry suggesting the cost analysis has been accepted to be in favor of EDC, the likely limitation to disseminated use is an inability to implement these systems. If the leadership at the sponsor, clinical research organization and investigator site is cognizant of the barriers to implementation, they can anticipate and mitigate them prior to the users becoming disgruntled and resistant to the new method of data capture. Once understood, barriers such as user input, technical support, user motivation, regulatory requirements, communication with users, timing of implementation, software installation, graphical user interface, identification of bridgers, patient participation, availability of technology, and costs can be better addressed at the beginning of the implementation process and successfully averted. This review discusses these barriers and potential solutions that can assist the clinical trial industry in achieving more wide-spread EDC use and the resulting improvement in operating efficiencies.

  15. TRITIUM BARRIER MATERIALS AND SEPARATION SYSTEMS FOR THE NGNP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, S; Thad Adams, T

    2008-07-17

    Contamination of downstream hydrogen production plants or other users of high-temperature heat is a concern of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. Due to the high operating temperatures of the NGNP (850-900 C outlet temperature), tritium produced in the nuclear reactor can permeate through heat exchangers to reach the hydrogen production plant, where it can become incorporated into process chemicals or the hydrogen product. The concentration limit for tritium in the hydrogen product has not been established, but it is expected that any future limit on tritium concentration will be no higher than the air and water effluent limits established by the NRC and the EPA. A literature survey of tritium permeation barriers, capture systems, and mitigation measures is presented and technologies are identified that may reduce the movement of tritium to the downstream plant. Among tritium permeation barriers, oxide layers produced in-situ may provide the most suitable barriers, though it may be possible to use aluminized surfaces also. For tritium capture systems, the use of getters is recommended, and high-temperature hydride forming materials such as Ti, Zr, and Y are suggested. Tritium may also be converted to HTO in order to capture it on molecular sieves or getter materials. Counter-flow of hydrogen may reduce the flux of tritium through heat exchangers. Recommendations for research and development work are provided.

  16. Origin of Small Barriers in Jahn–Teller Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barriuso, M. T.; Ortiz-Sevilla, B.; Aramburu, J. A.;

    2013-01-01

    Despite its relevance, the microscopic origin of the energy barrier, B, between the compressed and elongated geometries of Jahn–Teller (JT) systems is not well understood yet because of a lack of quantitative data about its various contributions. Seeking to clear up this matter, we have carried out......, to values |B| ≤ 160 cm–1, which are certainly smaller than B = 500 cm–1 derived for NaCl:M2+ (M = Ag, Rh) or B = 1024 cm–1 obtained for KCl:Ag2+. As a salient feature, analysis of calculations carried out as a function of the Qθ (3z2 – r2) coordinate unveils the microscopic origin of the barrier...

  17. Computational design and experimental validation of new thermal barrier systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Shengmin [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States)

    2015-03-31

    The focus of this project is on the development of a reliable and efficient ab initio based computational high temperature material design method which can be used to assist the Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) bond-coat and top-coat design. Experimental evaluations on the new TBCs are conducted to confirm the new TBCs’ properties. Southern University is the subcontractor on this project with a focus on the computational simulation method development. We have performed ab initio density functional theory (DFT) method and molecular dynamics simulation on screening the top coats and bond coats for gas turbine thermal barrier coating design and validation applications. For experimental validations, our focus is on the hot corrosion performance of different TBC systems. For example, for one of the top coatings studied, we examined the thermal stability of TaZr2.75O8 and confirmed it’s hot corrosion performance.

  18. The Role of Microtubule End Binding (EB) Proteins in Ciliogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Jacob Morville

    EB1 is a small microtubule (MT)-binding protein that associates preferentially with MT plus ends. EB1 plays a role in regulating MT dynamics, localizing other MT-associated proteins to the plus end, and in regulating interactions of MTs with the cell cortex, mitotic kinetochores and different...... cellular organelles (Lansbergen and Akhmanova, 2006). EB1 also localizes to centrosomes and is required for centrosomal MT anchoring and organization of the MT network (Askham et al., 2002). Further, EB1 has been shown to localize to the flagellar tip and proximal region of the basal bodies......, are required for assembly of primary cilia in cultured human cells. The EB3 - siRNA ciliary phenotype could be rescued by GFP-EB1 expression, and GFP-EB3 over expression resulted in elongated cilia. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that EB3-depleted cells possess stumpy cilia, a disorganized...

  19. Technology and market of UV/EB curing in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electron-beam (EB) and ultra-violet (UV) radiation are the types of irradiation systems which are being used in Indonesia for curing application. Ultra-violet curing is widely used commercially particularly in surface coating of wood and paper, printing, adhesives and electronic industries. Up to now, electron-beam curing is still in a pilot-scale step due to the economic reason. Although the equipment and chemicals tend to be more expensive than conventional systems, but radiation curing technology has been believed as an efficient and environmentally friendly technology in industrial application. This paper describes the technology and market of radiation curing in Indonesia. (author)

  20. The EB Factory Project. II. Validation with the Kepler Field in Preparation for K2 and TESS

    CERN Document Server

    Parvizi, Mahmoud; Stassun, Keivan G

    2014-01-01

    Large repositories of high precision light curve data, such as the Kepler data set, provide the opportunity to identify astrophysically important eclipsing binary (EB) systems in large quantities. However, the rate of classical "by eye" human analysis restricts complete and efficient mining of EBs from these data using classical techniques. To prepare for mining EBs from the upcoming K2 mission as well as other current missions, we developed an automated end-to-end computational pipeline - the Eclipsing Binary Factory (EBF) - that automatically identifies EBs and classifies them into morphological types. The EBF has been previously tested on ground-based light curves. To assess the performance of the EBF in the context of space-based data, we apply the EBF to the full set of light curves in the Kepler "Q3" Data Release. We compare the EBs identified from this automated approach against the human generated Kepler EB Catalog of ~2,600 EBs. When we require EB classification with at least 90% confidence, we find ...

  1. EB推荐%EB Recommendation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    秀外慧中立式相机PowerShot TX1;猛虎下山IBM System x3650服务器;商务GPS导航 惠普iPAQ rw6965;高端轿车典范 沃尔沃S80;中小企业PC的创新时代 TCL精鼎C3;双核高性能商务PC 方正商祺N680(BSN680-S6);高性价比商务墨攻HP Officejet Pro K5300。

  2. Computational Design and Experimental Validation of New Thermal Barrier Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Shengmin; Yang, Shizhong; Khosravi, Ebrahim

    2011-12-31

    This project (10/01/2010-9/30/2013), “Computational Design and Experimental Validation of New Thermal Barrier Systems”, originates from Louisiana State University (LSU) Mechanical Engineering Department and Southern University (SU) Department of Computer Science. This proposal will directly support the technical goals specified in DE-FOA-0000248, Topic Area 3: Turbine Materials, by addressing key technologies needed to enable the development of advanced turbines and turbine-based systems that will operate safely and efficiently using coal-derived synthesis gases. We will develop novel molecular dynamics method to improve the efficiency of simulation on novel TBC materials; we will perform high performance computing (HPC) on complex TBC structures to screen the most promising TBC compositions; we will perform material characterizations and oxidation/corrosion tests; and we will demonstrate our new Thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems experimentally under Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) environments. The durability of the coating will be examined using the proposed High Temperature/High Pressure Durability Test Rig under real syngas product compositions.

  3. Factors influencing EB curing of epoxy matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effectiveness of electron beam (EB) curing of epoxy resins was found to be influenced by catalyst. In the presence of iodonium salt (diaryl iodonium hexafluoroantimonate, C3), the EB curing of epoxy resin is easier than in the presence of triaryl sulfonium hexafluoroantimonate (C1), or triaryl sulfonium hexafluorophosphate (C2), or iron arene containing cationic catalyst (Irgacure 261). The epoxy 616 (diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A) and 648 (diglycidyl ether of phenolic novolacs) can be cured by the above onium salts catalysts C1-C3. The epoxy with glycidyl amino epoxide group (such as AG 80; AFG 90) could not be cured by onium salts catalyst. The influence of irradiation dose, temperature and the effect of impurities on curing reaction were investigated

  4. Factors influencing EB curing of epoxy matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Fengmei E-mail: brc@bnu.edu.cn; Bao Jianwen; Chen Xiangbao; Bao Huaying; Wang Huiliang

    2002-03-01

    The effectiveness of electron beam (EB) curing of epoxy resins was found to be influenced by catalyst. In the presence of iodonium salt (diaryl iodonium hexafluoroantimonate, C3), the EB curing of epoxy resin is easier than in the presence of triaryl sulfonium hexafluoroantimonate (C1), or triaryl sulfonium hexafluorophosphate (C2), or iron arene containing cationic catalyst (Irgacure 261). The epoxy 616 (diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A) and 648 (diglycidyl ether of phenolic novolacs) can be cured by the above onium salts catalysts C1-C3. The epoxy with glycidyl amino epoxide group (such as AG 80; AFG 90) could not be cured by onium salts catalyst. The influence of irradiation dose, temperature and the effect of impurities on curing reaction were investigated.

  5. EB detoxification of liquid hazardous wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the work, an engineering approach to technical solutions, considering accelerated electron beams as radiation source, is carried out, in order to allow and evaluate an effective recovery of drinking water from highly chemically polluted groundwaters. In connection with different engineering technical and economic parameters (suitable doses, EB-machine type, plant features, etc.) and with reference to 1-100 ton/hr contaminated stream flowrate range (2-50 kGy as considered absorbed dose range), a specifically developed computer code was run. Analysis results, based on investment and functioning cost figures evaluated with reference to industrial plant management scenarios, are treatment unit costs showing a noticeable economic attractiveness of radiation EB-technologies in the field of considered applications

  6. EB detoxification of liquid hazardous wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tata, A.; Giuliani, S. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dip. Innovazione; Diaco, L. [Hitesys s.p.a., Aprilia, Rome (Italy)

    1996-07-01

    In the work, an engineering approach to technical solutions, considering accelerated electron beams as radiation source, is carried out, in order to allow and evaluate an effective recovery of drinking water from highly chemically polluted groundwaters. In connection with different engineering technical and economic parameters (suitable doses, EB-machine type, plant features, etc.) and with reference to 1-100 ton/hr contaminated stream flowrate range (2-50 kGy as considered absorbed dose range), a specifically developed computer code was run. Analysis results, based on investment and functioning cost figures evaluated with reference to industrial plant management scenarios, are treatment unit costs showing a noticeable economic attractiveness of radiation EB-technologies in the field of considered applications.

  7. Single photon detection and localization accuracy with an ebCMOS camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cajgfinger, T. [CNRS/IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucléaire de Lyon, Villeurbanne F-69622 (France); Dominjon, A., E-mail: agnes.dominjon@nao.ac.jp [Université de Lyon, Université de Lyon 1, Lyon 69003 France. (France); Barbier, R. [CNRS/IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucléaire de Lyon, Villeurbanne F-69622 (France); Université de Lyon, Université de Lyon 1, Lyon 69003 France. (France)

    2015-07-01

    The CMOS sensor technologies evolve very fast and offer today very promising solutions to existing issues facing by imaging camera systems. CMOS sensors are very attractive for fast and sensitive imaging thanks to their low pixel noise (1e-) and their possibility of backside illumination. The ebCMOS group of IPNL has produced a camera system dedicated to Low Light Level detection and based on a 640 kPixels ebCMOS with its acquisition system. After reminding the principle of detection of an ebCMOS and the characteristics of our prototype, we confront our camera to other imaging systems. We compare the identification efficiency and the localization accuracy of a point source by four different photo-detection devices: the scientific CMOS (sCMOS), the Charge Coupled Device (CDD), the Electron Multiplying CCD (emCCD) and the Electron Bombarded CMOS (ebCMOS). Our ebCMOS camera is able to identify a single photon source in less than 10 ms with a localization accuracy better than 1 µm. We report as well efficiency measurement and the false positive identification of the ebCMOS camera by identifying more than hundreds of single photon sources in parallel. About 700 spots are identified with a detection efficiency higher than 90% and a false positive percentage lower than 5. With these measurements, we show that our target tracking algorithm can be implemented in real time at 500 frames per second under a photon flux of the order of 8000 photons per frame. These results demonstrate that the ebCMOS camera concept with its single photon detection and target tracking algorithm is one of the best devices for low light and fast applications such as bioluminescence imaging, quantum dots tracking or adaptive optics.

  8. Single photon detection and localization accuracy with an ebCMOS camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cajgfinger, T.; Dominjon, A.; Barbier, R.

    2015-07-01

    The CMOS sensor technologies evolve very fast and offer today very promising solutions to existing issues facing by imaging camera systems. CMOS sensors are very attractive for fast and sensitive imaging thanks to their low pixel noise (1e-) and their possibility of backside illumination. The ebCMOS group of IPNL has produced a camera system dedicated to Low Light Level detection and based on a 640 kPixels ebCMOS with its acquisition system. After reminding the principle of detection of an ebCMOS and the characteristics of our prototype, we confront our camera to other imaging systems. We compare the identification efficiency and the localization accuracy of a point source by four different photo-detection devices: the scientific CMOS (sCMOS), the Charge Coupled Device (CDD), the Electron Multiplying CCD (emCCD) and the Electron Bombarded CMOS (ebCMOS). Our ebCMOS camera is able to identify a single photon source in less than 10 ms with a localization accuracy better than 1 μm. We report as well efficiency measurement and the false positive identification of the ebCMOS camera by identifying more than hundreds of single photon sources in parallel. About 700 spots are identified with a detection efficiency higher than 90% and a false positive percentage lower than 5. With these measurements, we show that our target tracking algorithm can be implemented in real time at 500 frames per second under a photon flux of the order of 8000 photons per frame. These results demonstrate that the ebCMOS camera concept with its single photon detection and target tracking algorithm is one of the best devices for low light and fast applications such as bioluminescence imaging, quantum dots tracking or adaptive optics.

  9. The EB factory project. II. Validation with the Kepler field in preparation for K2 and TESS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parvizi, Mahmoud; Paegert, Martin; Stassun, Keivan G., E-mail: mahmoud.parvizi@vanderbilt.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, VU Station B 1807, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Large repositories of high precision light curve data, such as the Kepler data set, provide the opportunity to identify astrophysically important eclipsing binary (EB) systems in large quantities. However, the rate of classical “by eye” human analysis restricts complete and efficient mining of EBs from these data using classical techniques. To prepare for mining EBs from the upcoming K2 mission as well as other current missions, we developed an automated end-to-end computational pipeline—the Eclipsing Binary Factory (EBF)—that automatically identifies EBs and classifies them into morphological types. The EBF has been previously tested on ground-based light curves. To assess the performance of the EBF in the context of space-based data, we apply the EBF to the full set of light curves in the Kepler “Q3” Data Release. We compare the EBs identified from this automated approach against the human generated Kepler EB Catalog of ∼2600 EBs. When we require EB classification with ⩾90% confidence, we find that the EBF correctly identifies and classifies eclipsing contact (EC), eclipsing semi-detached (ESD), and eclipsing detached (ED) systems with a false positive rate of only 4%, 4%, and 8%, while complete to 64%, 46%, and 32%, respectively. When classification confidence is relaxed, the EBF identifies and classifies ECs, ESDs, and EDs with a slightly higher false positive rate of 6%, 16%, and 8%, while much more complete to 86%, 74%, and 62%, respectively. Through our processing of the entire Kepler “Q3” data set, we also identify 68 new candidate EBs that may have been missed by the human generated Kepler EB Catalog. We discuss the EBF's potential application to light curve classification for periodic variable stars more generally for current and upcoming surveys like K2 and the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite.

  10. Microtubule-Associated Protein EB3 Regulates IP3 Receptor Clustering and Ca2+ Signaling in Endothelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Geyer

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms by which the microtubule cytoskeleton regulates the permeability of endothelial barrier are not well understood. Here, we demonstrate that microtubule-associated end-binding protein 3 (EB3, a core component of the microtubule plus-end protein complex, binds to inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs through an S/TxIP EB-binding motif. In endothelial cells, α-thrombin, a pro-inflammatory mediator that stimulates phospholipase Cβ, increases the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration and elicits clustering of IP3R3s. These responses, and the resulting Ca2+-dependent phosphorylation of myosin light chain, are prevented by depletion of either EB3 or mutation of the TxIP motif of IP3R3 responsible for mediating its binding to EB3. We also show that selective EB3 gene deletion in endothelial cells of mice abrogates α-thrombin-induced increase in endothelial permeability. We conclude that the EB3-mediated interaction of IP3Rs with microtubules controls the assembly of IP3Rs into effective Ca2+ signaling clusters, which thereby regulate microtubule-dependent endothelial permeability.

  11. Using the scattered radiation energy in EB installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scattered electromagnetic and backscattered electrons ionizing radiation are present outside of the beam-target geometry in direct electron beam treatments and also with the use of X-Ray converters. Most industrial EB applications do not generate neutrons or radioisotopes and the scattered radiation is treated as X-Rays for shielding calculation purposes. This scattered ionizing power has been studied as the radiation to be attenuated by the shielding and mazes. The amount of scattered radiation generated depends mainly on the material being irradiated, beam energy and current and the overall geometry. It is not constant or isotropic and its spectrum is relatively wide but, for industrial applications were irradiation conditions are maintained in narrow ranges, the average scattered radiation behavior can be estimated by previous local measurements. The behavior of the scattered radiation field can be considered chaotic, but may be evened by fluids or fluidized systems and also by fixed exposure places around the target and scan-horn. The use of these EB applications 'side effects' may replace some radioisotope and lower dose rates EB applications. For example, based on the NCRP-51, for a 1.5MeV - 60mA accelerator with low-Z target, the estimated X-ray dose rate in sideward direction is higher than from a 75kCi Cobalt-60 source. This work intends to show empirical measurements using cellulose triacetate (CTA) films in a particular geometry, exposed during some hours for each assay to establish the repeatability of the scattered radiation dose averages. An industrial application, which is normally held in almost steady state operating condition, is performed during these measurements as main irradiation. The main objective of this work is to prove that the radiation scattered, mainly from the targets, in industrial electron beam accelerators may be used for other applications where lower dose rates are needed, instead of being simply absorbed by the shielding and

  12. The EB-ANUBAD translator: A hybrid scheme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    This article is aimed at describing a hybrid scheme for English to Bangla translation. The translated output in English scripts is useful for learning Bengali language. This is a significant contribution to Human Language Technology generation also.About two hundred million people in West Bengal and Tripura (two states in India) and in Bangladesh (a country whose people speak and write Bangla as their first language). This proposed translator would benefit Bengalee society because rural people are not usually very conversant with English. The English to Bangla Translator is being enhanced. This system (EnglishBangla-ANUBAD or EB-ANUBAD) takes a paragraph of English sentences as input sentences and produces equivalent Bangla sentences. EB-ANUBAD system is comprised of a preprocessor, morphological parser, semantic parser using English word ontology for context disambiguation, an electronic lexicon associated with grammatical information and a discourse processor,and also uses a lexical disambiguation analyzer. This system does not rely on a stochastic approach. Rather, it is based on a special kind of hybrid architecture of transformer and rule-based Natural Language Engineering (NLE) architectures along with various linguistic knowledge components of both English and Bangla.

  13. Representing solute transport through the multi-barrier disposal system by simplified concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poteri, A.; Nordman, H.; Pulkkanen, V-M. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Kekaelaeinen, P. [Jyvaeskylae Univ. (Finland). Dept. pf Physics; Hautojaervi, A.

    2012-02-15

    The repository system chosen in Finland for spent nuclear fuel is composed of multiple successive transport barriers. If a waste canister is leaking, this multi-barrier system retards and limits the release rates of radionuclides into the biosphere. Analysis of radionuclide migration in the previous performance assessments has largely been based on numerical modelling of the repository system. The simplified analytical approach introduced here provides a tool to analyse the performance of the whole system using simplified representations of the individual transport barriers. This approach is based on the main characteristics of the individual barriers and on the generic nature of the coupling between successive barriers. In the case of underground repository the mass transfer between successive transport barriers is strongly restricted by the interfaces between barriers leading to well-mixed conditions in these barriers. The approach here simplifies the barrier system so that it can be described with a very simple compartment model, where each barrier is represented by a single, or in the case of buffer, by not more than two compartments. This system of compartments could be solved in analogy with a radioactive decay chain. The model of well mixed compartments lends itself to a very descriptive way to represent and analyse the barrier system because the relative efficiency of the different barriers in hindering transport of solutes can be parameterised by the solutes half-times in the corresponding compartments. In a real repository system there will also be a delay between the start of the inflow and the start of the outflow from the barrier. This delay can be important for the release rates of the short lived and sorbing radionuclides, and it was also included in the simplified representation of the barrier system. In a geological multi-barrier system, spreading of the outflowing release pulse is often governed by the typical behaviour of one transport barrier

  14. Nanoscale drug delivery systems and the blood–brain barrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyautdin R

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Renad Alyautdin,1 Igor Khalin,2 Mohd Ismail Nafeeza,1 Muhammad Huzaimi Haron,1 Dmitry Kuznetsov31Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM, Sungai Buloh, Selangor, Malaysia; 2Faculty of Medicine and Defence Health, National Defence University of Malaysia (NDUM, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 3Department of Medicinal Nanobiotechnologies, N. I. Pirogoff Russian State Medical University, Moscow, RussiaAbstract: The protective properties of the blood–brain barrier (BBB are conferred by the intricate architecture of its endothelium coupled with multiple specific transport systems expressed on the surface of endothelial cells (ECs in the brain's vasculature. When the stringent control of the BBB is disrupted, such as following EC damage, substances that are safe for peripheral tissues but toxic to neurons have easier access to the central nervous system (CNS. As a consequence, CNS disorders, including degenerative diseases, can occur independently of an individual's age. Although the BBB is crucial in regulating the biochemical environment that is essential for maintaining neuronal integrity, it limits drug delivery to the CNS. This makes it difficult to deliver beneficial drugs across the BBB while preventing the passage of potential neurotoxins. Available options include transport of drugs across the ECs through traversing occludins and claudins in the tight junctions or by attaching drugs to one of the existing transport systems. Either way, access must specifically allow only the passage of a particular drug. In general, the BBB allows small molecules to enter the CNS; however, most drugs with the potential to treat neurological disorders other than infections have large structures. Several mechanisms, such as modifications of the built-in pumping-out system of drugs and utilization of nanocarriers and liposomes, are among the drug-delivery systems that have been tested; however, each has its limitations and constraints. This review

  15. Failure mechanism for thermal fatigue of thermal barrier coating systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giolli, C.; Scrivani, A.; Rizzi, G. [Turbocoating S.p.A., Rubbiano di Solignano (Italy); Borgioli, F. [Firenze Univ., Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Bolelli, G.; Lusvarghi, L. [Univ. di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Modena (Italy)

    2008-07-01

    High temperature thermal fatigue causes the failure of Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) systems. Due to the difference in thickness and microstructure between thick TBCs and traditional thin TBCs, they cannot be assumed a-priori to possess the same failure mechanisms. Thick TBCs, consisting of a CoNiCrAlY bond coat and Yttria Partially Stabilised Zirconia top coat with different values of porosity, were produced by Air Plasma Spray. Thermal fatigue resistance limit of TBCs was tested by Furnace Cycling Tests (FCT) according to the specifications of an Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM). TBC systems were analyzed before and after FCT. The morphological and chemical evolution of CoNiCrAlY/TGO microstructure was studied. Sintering effect, residual stress, phase transformation and fracture toughness were evaluated in the ceramic Top Coat. All the tested samples passed FCT according to the specification of an important OEM. Thermal fatigue resistance increases with the amount of porosity in the top coat. The compressive in-plane stresses increase in the TBC systems after thermal cycling, nevertheless the increasing rate has a trend contrary to the porosity level of top coat. The data suggest that the spallation happens at the TGO/Top Coat interface. The failure mechanism of thick TBCs subjected to thermal fatigue was eventually found to be similar to the failure mechanism of thin TBC systems made by APS. (orig.)

  16. EB1 is required for primary cilia assembly in fibroblasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Jacob M; Schneider, Linda; Christensen, Søren T;

    2007-01-01

    EB1 is a small microtubule (MT)-binding protein that associates preferentially with MT plus ends and plays a role in regulating MT dynamics. EB1 also targets other MT-associated proteins to the plus end and thereby regulates interactions of MTs with the cell cortex, mitotic kinetochores, and diff......EB1 is a small microtubule (MT)-binding protein that associates preferentially with MT plus ends and plays a role in regulating MT dynamics. EB1 also targets other MT-associated proteins to the plus end and thereby regulates interactions of MTs with the cell cortex, mitotic kinetochores......, and different cellular organelles [1, 2]. EB1 also localizes to centrosomes and is required for centrosomal MT anchoring and organization of the MT network [3, 4]. We previously showed that EB1 localizes to the flagellar tip and proximal region of the basal body in Chlamydomonas[5], but the function of EB1...... in the cilium/flagellum is unknown. We depleted EB1 from NIH3T3 fibroblasts by using siRNA and found that EB1 depletion causes a approximately 50% reduction in the efficiency of primary cilia assembly in serum-starved cells. Expression of dominant-negative EB1 also inhibited cilia formation, and expression...

  17. Nanoscale drug delivery systems and the blood-brain barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alyautdin, Renad; Khalin, Igor; Nafeeza, Mohd Ismail; Haron, Muhammad Huzaimi; Kuznetsov, Dmitry

    2014-01-01

    The protective properties of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) are conferred by the intricate architecture of its endothelium coupled with multiple specific transport systems expressed on the surface of endothelial cells (ECs) in the brain's vasculature. When the stringent control of the BBB is disrupted, such as following EC damage, substances that are safe for peripheral tissues but toxic to neurons have easier access to the central nervous system (CNS). As a consequence, CNS disorders, including degenerative diseases, can occur independently of an individual's age. Although the BBB is crucial in regulating the biochemical environment that is essential for maintaining neuronal integrity, it limits drug delivery to the CNS. This makes it difficult to deliver beneficial drugs across the BBB while preventing the passage of potential neurotoxins. Available options include transport of drugs across the ECs through traversing occludins and claudins in the tight junctions or by attaching drugs to one of the existing transport systems. Either way, access must specifically allow only the passage of a particular drug. In general, the BBB allows small molecules to enter the CNS; however, most drugs with the potential to treat neurological disorders other than infections have large structures. Several mechanisms, such as modifications of the built-in pumping-out system of drugs and utilization of nanocarriers and liposomes, are among the drug-delivery systems that have been tested; however, each has its limitations and constraints. This review comprehensively discusses the functional morphology of the BBB and the challenges that must be overcome by drug-delivery systems and elaborates on the potential targets, mechanisms, and formulations to improve drug delivery to the CNS.

  18. Negative Resistance in a Two-Dimensional System with Entropic Barrier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiao-Peng; BAO Jing-Dong

    2005-01-01

    @@ A phenomenon of negative resistance is found in two-dimensional bistable and periodic potentials via Langevin simulation, where output quantities for noise and signal driven system, such as the power-spectrum density modulus and the signal power amplification, can become minima at finite temperatures. In such a system, the curvature of the potential along non-transport degree of freedom at the barrier is larger than that at the local minima. The temperature-dependent effective barrier, i.e. entropic barrier, is introduced via integration over the non-transport variables. The system shows the negative resistance because of the competence between the signal and the entropic barrier.

  19. Study on the heat-resistant EB curing composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao Jianwen; Li Yang [Institute of Aeronautical Materials, Beijing (China); Li Fengmei [Institute of Low Energy Nuclear Physics, Beijing Normal Univ., Beijing (China)

    2000-03-01

    There are many advantages in the EB-curing process of composites. Heat-resistant EB-curing composites could substitute for polyimide composites used in aeronautical engine. The effects of catalyst and dose on the cured resin were investigated. The heat-resistance of the resin cured by EB was evaluated by dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA). The experiment result shows that the mechanical property of the composites cured by EB could meet the needs of the aeronautical engine in 250degC. (author)

  20. MERCURY OXIDIZATION IN NON-THERMAL PLASMA BARRIER DISCHARGE SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    V.K. Mathur

    2003-02-01

    In the past decade, the emission of toxic elements from human activities has become a matter of great public concern. Hg, As, Se and Cd typically volatilize during a combustion process and are not easily caught with conventional air pollution control techniques. In addition, there is no pollution prevention technique available now or likely be available in the foreseeable future that can prevent the emission of these trace elements. These trace elements pose additional scientific challenge as they are present at only ppb levels in large gas streams. Mercury, in particular, has attracted significant attention due to its high volatility, toxicity and potential threat to human health. In the present research work, a non-thermal plasma dielectric barrier discharge technique has been used to oxidize Hg{sup 0}(g) to HgO. The basic premise of this approach is that Hg{sup 0} in vapor form cannot be easily removed in an absorption tower whereas HgO as a particulate is amiable to water scrubbing. The work presented in this report consists of three steps: (1) setting-up of an experimental apparatus to generate mercury vapors at a constant rate and modifying the existing non-thermal plasma reactor system, (2) solving the analytical challenge for measuring mercury vapor concentration at ppb level, and (3) conducting experiments on mercury oxidation under plasma conditions to establish proof of concept.

  1. The Effects of information barrier requirements on the trilateral initiative attribute measurement system (AVNG)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although the detection techniques used for measuring classified materials are very similar to those used in unclassified measurements, the surrounding packaging is generally very different. If iZ classified item is to be measured, an information barrier is required to protect any classified data acquired. This information barrier must protect the classified information while giving the inspector confidence that the unclassified outputs accurately reflect the classified inputs, Both information barrier and authentication considerations must be considered during all phases of system design and fabrication. One example of such a measurement system is the attribute measurement system (termed the AVNG) designed for the: Trilateral Initiative. We will discuss the integration of information barrier components into this system as well as the effects of an information barrier (including authentication) concerns on the implementation of the detector systems.

  2. Effects of nuclear breakup channel on fusion of 6Li+64Zn system around barrier energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have studied the effects of breakup, occurring due to the nuclear interaction between weakly bound 6Li and tightly bound 64Zn isotopes, on the fusion reaction at near barrier energies within the framework of dynamic polarization potential (DPP) approach. When the nuclear induced dynamic polarization potential is taken into account sub barrier enhancement and above barrier suppression have been found which improves the matching between the fusion excitation function data and predictions for 6Li+64Zn system significantly. (author)

  3. Photospheric response to EB-like event

    CERN Document Server

    Danilovic, S; Barthol, P; Gandorfer, A; Gizon, L; Hirzberger, J; van Noort, T L Riethmüller M; Rodríguez, J Blanco; Iniesta, J C Del Toro; Suárez, D Orozco; Schmidt, W; Pillet, V Martínez; Knölker, M

    2016-01-01

    Ellerman Bombs are signatures of magnetic reconnection, which is an important physical process in the solar atmosphere. How and where they occur is a subject of debate. In this paper we analyse Sunrise/IMaX data together with 3D MHD simulations that aim to reproduce the exact scenario proposed for the formation of these features. Although the observed event seems to be more dynamic and violent than the simulated one, simulations clearly confirm the basic scenario for the production of EBs. The simulations also reveal the full complexity of the underlying process. The simulated observations show that the Fe I 525.02 nm line gives no information on the height where reconnection takes place. It can only give clues about the heating in the aftermath of the reconnection. The information on the magnetic field vector and velocity at this spatial resolution is, however, extremely valuable because it shows what numerical models miss and how they can be improved.

  4. An Auto Forecasting System for Rice Insect Based on WebGIS%基于W ebG IS的水稻害虫自动预警系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张谷丰; 易红娟; 朱先敏; 朱凤; 张志春

    2014-01-01

    According to the artificial influence factors and bad timeliness in rice insect control decision ,a WebGIS based system for the simulation and forecasting of rice insect was constructed .The system included the simulation module for the insect stage that based on the function of degree-days calculating ,that could automatically forecast the occurrence stage of insect ;the real-time weather information including the temperature and humdity could remind the users the suitability of the weather for the pest prevalence ,then provide decision support information for the guest ;and the pest information showed based on WebGIS could help the user to decide the control tactics for the large-scale field ,corrected the error decision .In 2012 ,the system forecasted the occurrence condition of for SBPH , WBPH ,BPH and the rice leaf-roller successfully in Jiangsu province and then the IPM methods to control the pest were applied .The system was based on the structure of Apache+PHP+MySQL+MapServer ,it was easy for the guest to use ,and it provided the powerful tool for the management of standard and information pest data ,precision control and support for pest forecasting .%针对当前水稻害虫防治决策人为因素影响大、时效性差的状况,应用网络平台,结合公共气象信息,开发应用于生产的水稻害虫自动预警系统。系统包括基于积温函数的害虫发育模拟系统,能自动根据天气预报值预警多种害虫的发生期,并据此给用户提供参考;实时的气象信息包括气温和湿度等可随时提醒用户当前气候条件对害虫发生的适宜度,辅助用户决策害虫的发生趋势;基于WebGIS的病虫信息展示预警可提供宏观大范围的决策,纠正害虫防治决策中的工作失误。2012年该系统在江苏省范围内成功进行了灰飞虱、白背飞虱、褐飞虱和纵卷叶螟等害虫综合防治的决策,取得了明显的效果。系统基于Apache+ PHP+ My

  5. 47 CFR 27.1203 - EBS programming requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false EBS programming requirements. 27.1203 Section 27.1203 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES....1203 EBS programming requirements. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (b), (c), and (d) of...

  6. Advanced thermal barrier coating system development. Technical progress report, January 1, 1996--March 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-08

    Objectives of this program are to provide a thermal barrier coating system with increased temperature capability and improved reliability relative to current state of the art systems. This report describes the bond coat deposition process, manufacturing, and repair.

  7. Laboratory and field scale demonstration of reactive barrier systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an effort to devise a cost efficient technology for remediation of uranium contaminated groundwater, the Department of Energy's Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (DOE-UMTRA) Program through Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) fabricated a pilot scale research project utilizing reactive subsurface barriers at an UMTRA site in Durango, Colorado. A reactive subsurface barrier is produced by emplacing a reactant material (in this experiment metallic iron) in the flow path of the contaminated groundwater. The reactive media then removes and/or transforms the contaminant(s) to regulatory acceptable levels. Experimental design and results are discussed with regard to other potential applications of reactive barrier remediation strategies at other sites with contaminated groundwater problems

  8. Escape for System with Non-Fluctuating Potential Barrier Only Driven by Three-State Noise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jing-Hui

    2007-01-01

    We study the escape for the mean first passage time (MFPT) over a potential barrier for a system with non-fluctuating potential barrier and only driven by a three-state noise. It is shown that in some circumstances, the three-state noise can induce the resonant activation for the MFPT over the potential barrier; but in other circumstances, it can not. There are three resonant activations for the MFPT over the potential barrier, which are respectively as the functions of the transition rates of the three-state noise.

  9. Preliminary engineering specifications for a test demonstration multilayer protective barrier cover system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents preliminary engineering specifications for a test protective barrier cover system and support radiohydrology facility to be constructed at the Hanford Protective Barrier Test Facility (PBTF). Construction of this test barrier and related radiohydrology facility is part of a continuing effort to provide construction experience and performance evaluation of alternative barrier designs used for long-term isolation of disposed radioactive waste materials. Design specifications given in this report are tentative, based on interim engineering and computer simulation design efforts. Final definitive design specifications and engineering prints will be produced in FY 1986. 6 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab

  10. An overview on novel thermal barrier coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN; Feng; YU; Yue-guang; JIANG; Xian-liang; ZENG; Ke-li; REN; Xian-jing

    2005-01-01

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) offer the potential to significantly improve efficiencies of aero engines as well as stationary gas turbines for power generation. On internally cooled turbine parts, temperature gradients of the order of 100-150℃ can be achieved. TBCs, typically consisting of an yttrium stabilized zirconia top coat and a metallic bond coat deposited onto a superalloy substrate, are mainly used to extend lifetime. Further efficiency improvements require TBCs being an integral part of the component which requires reliable and predictable TBC performance. TBCs produced by electron beam physical vapor deposition (EbPVD) or plasma spray (PS) deposition are favored for high performance applications. The paper highlights critical R&D needs for advanced TBC systems with a special focus on reduced thermal conductivity and life prediction needs. To further enhance the efficiency of gas turbines, higher temperature and a longer lifetime of the coating are needed for the next generation of TBCs. This paper presents the development of new materials, new deposition technologies, and new concept for application as novel TBCs. This paper summarizes the basic properties of conventional thermal barrier coatings. Based on our own investigation, we reviewed the progress on materials and technologies of novel thermal barrier coatings. Except yttria stabilized zirconia, other materials such as lanthanum zirconate and rare earth oxides are also promising materials for thermal barrier coatings. Nanostructure thermal barrier coating is presented as a new concept. This paper also summarizes the technologies for depositing the thermal barrier coatings.

  11. Multibarrier system preventing migration of radionuclides from radioactive waste repository

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olszewska Wioleta

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Safety of radioactive waste repositories operation is associated with a multibarrier system designed and constructed to isolate and contain the waste from the biosphere. Each of radioactive waste repositories is equipped with system of barriers, which reduces the possibility of release of radionuclides from the storage site. Safety systems may differ from each other depending on the type of repository. They consist of the natural geological barrier provided by host rocks of the repository and its surroundings, and an engineered barrier system (EBS. The EBS may itself comprise a variety of sub-systems or components, such as waste forms, canisters, buffers, backfills, seals and plugs. The EBS plays a major role in providing the required disposal system performance. It is assumed that the metal canisters and system of barriers adequately isolate waste from the biosphere. The evaluation of the multibarrier system is carried out after detailed tests to determine its parameters, and after analysis including mathematical modeling of migration of contaminants. To provide an assurance of safety of radioactive waste repository multibarrier system, detailed long term safety assessments are developed. Usually they comprise modeling of EBS stability, corrosion rate and radionuclide migration in near field in geosphere and biosphere. The principal goal of radionuclide migration modeling is assessment of the radionuclides release paths and rate from the repository, radionuclides concentration in geosphere in time and human exposure to ionizing radiation

  12. Characterization of Swelling Clays as Components of the Engineered Barrier System for Geological Repositories. Results of an IAEA Coordinated Research Project 2002-2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the request of the Member States, the IAEA coordinates research into subjects of common interest in the context of the peaceful application of nuclear technology. The coordinated research projects (CRPs) are intended to promote knowledge and technology transfer between Member States and are largely focused on subjects of prime interest to the international nuclear community. This report presents the results of a CRP carried out between 2002 and 2007 on the subject of swelling clays proposed for use as a component in the engineered barrier system (EBS) of the multibarrier concept for disposal of radioactive waste. In 2002, under the auspices of the IAEA, a number of Member States came together to form a Network of Centres of Excellence on Training in and Demonstration of Waste Disposal Technologies in Underground Research Facilities (URF Network). This network identified the general subject of the application of high swelling clays to seal repositories for radioactive waste, with specific emphasis on the isolation of high level radioactive waste from the biosphere, as being suitable for a CRP. Existing concepts for geological repositories for high level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel require the use of EBSs to ensure effective isolation of the radioactive waste. There are two major materials proposed for use in the EBS, swelling clay based materials and cementitious/concrete materials. These materials will be placed between the perimeter of the excavation and the waste container to fill the existing gap and ensure isolation of the waste within the canister (also referred to as a container in some EBS concepts) by supporting safety through retardation and confinement. Cementitious materials are industrially manufactured to consistent standards and are readily available in most locations and therefore their evaluation is of less value to Member States than that of swelling clays. There exists a considerable range of programme development regarding

  13. Antiviral activity of the EB peptide against zoonotic poxviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altmann Sharon E

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The EB peptide is a 20-mer that was previously shown to have broad spectrum in vitro activity against several unrelated viruses, including highly pathogenic avian influenza, herpes simplex virus type I, and vaccinia, the prototypic orthopoxvirus. To expand on this work, we evaluated EB for in vitro activity against the zoonotic orthopoxviruses cowpox and monkeypox and for in vivo activity in mice against vaccinia and cowpox. Findings In yield reduction assays, EB had an EC50 of 26.7 μM against cowpox and 4.4 μM against monkeypox. The EC50 for plaque reduction was 26.3 μM against cowpox and 48.6 μM against monkeypox. A scrambled peptide had no inhibitory activity against either virus. EB inhibited cowpox in vitro by disrupting virus entry, as evidenced by a reduction of the release of virus cores into the cytoplasm. Monkeypox was also inhibited in vitro by EB, but at the attachment stage of infection. EB showed protective activity in mice infected intranasally with vaccinia when co-administered with the virus, but had no effect when administered prophylactically one day prior to infection or therapeutically one day post-infection. EB had no in vivo activity against cowpox in mice. Conclusions While EB did demonstrate some in vivo efficacy against vaccinia in mice, the limited conditions under which it was effective against vaccinia and lack of activity against cowpox suggest EB may be more useful for studying orthopoxvirus entry and attachment in vitro than as a therapeutic against orthopoxviruses in vivo.

  14. EB1 is required for spindle symmetry in mammalian mitosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anke Brüning-Richardson

    Full Text Available Most information about the roles of the adenomatous polyposis coli protein (APC and its binding partner EB1 in mitotic cells has come from siRNA studies. These suggest functions in chromosomal segregation and spindle positioning whose loss might contribute to tumourigenesis in cancers initiated by APC mutation. However, siRNA-based approaches have drawbacks associated with the time taken to achieve significant expression knockdown and the pleiotropic effects of EB1 and APC gene knockdown. Here we describe the effects of microinjecting APC- or EB1- specific monoclonal antibodies and a dominant-negative EB1 protein fragment into mammalian mitotic cells. The phenotypes observed were consistent with the roles proposed for EB1 and APC in chromosomal segregation in previous work. However, EB1 antibody injection also revealed two novel mitotic phenotypes, anaphase-specific cortical blebbing and asymmetric spindle pole movement. The daughters of microinjected cells displayed inequalities in microtubule content, with the greatest differences seen in the products of mitoses that showed the severest asymmetry in spindle pole movement. Daughters that inherited the least mobile pole contained the fewest microtubules, consistent with a role for EB1 in processes that promote equality of astral microtubule function at both poles in a spindle. We propose that these novel phenotypes represent APC-independent roles for EB1 in spindle pole function and the regulation of cortical contractility in the later stages of mitosis. Our work confirms that EB1 and APC have important mitotic roles, the loss of which could contribute to CIN in colorectal tumour cells.

  15. Studies on EB radiation effect on PA610

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Kebin; Zhang Huaming; Li Xiurong; Xiong Ruilin [Sichuan Forever Group Co. Ltd., China Academy of Engineering Physics, Miangany (China)

    2000-03-01

    Radiation effect of PA610 with polyfunctional monomer trially isocyanurate (TAIC) was studied, the results show that crosslinking effect of EB radiation on PA610 is obvious. After the PA610 samples were radiated by EB with dosage 75KGY, the physical characters of PA610 materials were greatly improved, especially their tensile strength being increased about 18% and their impact strength about 50%, but their water and oil absorption were decreased. So, EB radiation can enhance PA610 materials physical strength, resistance to solvents and water and increase their thermal-deformation temperature. (author)

  16. Advanced thermal barrier coating system development. Technical progress report, September 1, 1996--November 30, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-11

    Objectives of this program are to provide an improved thermal barrier coating system with improved temperature capability and reliability. This report describes the bond/coating process and manufacturing.

  17. Advanced thermal barrier coating system development. Technical progress report, March 1, 1997--May 31, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-13

    Objectives of this program are to provide an improved thermal barrier coating system with improved reliability and temperature capability. This report describes progress in manufacturing, bonding, deposition, non-destructive evaluation, repair, and maintenance.

  18. Advanced thermal barrier coating system development. Technical progress report, August 1, 1996--September 30, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-04

    Objectives of this program are to provide an advanced thermal barrier coating system with improved reliability and temperature capability. This report describes the coating/deposition process, repair, and manufacturing.

  19. Functions of an engineered barrier system for a nuclear waste repository in basalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Defined in this document are the functions of components selected for an engineered barrier system for a nuclear waste repository in basalt. The definitions provide a focal point for barrier material research and development by delineating the purpose and operative lifetime of each component of the engineered system. A five-component system (comprised of waste form, canister, buffer, overpack, and tailored backfill) is discussed in terms of effective operation throughout the course of repository history, recognizing that the emplacement environment changes with time. While components of the system are mutually supporting, redundancy is provided by subsystems of physical and chemical barriers which act in concert with the geology to provide a formidable barrier to transport of hazardous materials to the biosphere. The operating philosophy of the conceptual engineered barrier system is clarified by examples pertinent to storage in basalt, and a technical approach to barrier design and material selection is proposed. A method for system validation and qualification is also included which considers performance criteria proposed by external agencies in conjunction with site-specific models and risk assessment to define acceptable levels of system performance

  20. CHARACTERIZATION OF BENTONITE FOR ENGINEERED BARRIER SYSTEMS IN RADIOACTIVE WASTE DISPOSAL SITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubravko Domitrović

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Engineered barrier systems are used in radioactive waste disposal sites in order to provide better protection of humans and the environment from the potential hazards associated with the radioactive waste disposal. The engineered barrier systems usually contain cement or clay (bentonite because of their isolation properties and long term performance. Quality control tests of clays are the same for all engineering barrier systems. Differences may arise in the required criteria to be met due for different application. Prescribed clay properties depend also on the type of host rocks. This article presents radioactive waste management based on best international practice. Standard quality control procedures for bentonite used as a sealing barrier in radioactive waste disposal sites are described as some personal experiences and results of the index tests (free swelling index, water adsorption capacity, plasticity limits and hydraulic permeability of bentonite (the paper is published in Croatian.

  1. Logistics IT Construction Based on ebXML%基于ebXML的物流信息化建设

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪健

    2011-01-01

    The paper introduces the principle and characteristics of ebXML and, in connection with the current status of modern logistics enterprises in China, analyzes the issues in its application, with suggestions for improvement offered at the end.%通过介绍ebXML的工作原理及其特点,阐述了ebxML技术构建物流信息交换平台的优势,并结合我国现代物流企业的现状.分析在应用ebXML中存在的问题,进而提出了对策与建议.

  2. Reactive barrier system for nitrate removal from mine effluents in northern Sweden: Laboratory experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Roger

    2010-05-01

    Laboratory column experiments have been conducted to determine nitrate removal rates from mine effluents by denitrification, with the purpose of providing initial data for the construction of a pilot scale reactive barrier system at the Malmberget iron mine, Sweden. Experiments were conducted at several different flow rates at 5C, 10C and room temperature; annual mean temperatures at the Malmberget site lie close to 0C. Columns were filled with an organic substrate consisting of sawdust mixed with sewage sludge, the source of denitrifying bacteria, supported by oven-dried clay pellets. Apparent denitrification rates, calculated from inflow and outflow nitrate concentrations and column hydraulic residence time, ranged from 5 to 13 mg N/L/d, with the lowest rates corresponding to the 5C experiments. These rates are, however, limited to a certain degree by the low flow rate and the supply of electrons acceptors (i.e. nitrate) to denitrifying bacteria. Results from the column experiment have been used to construct a barrier system in Malmberget, Sweden. Trial runs with the pilot-scale barrier will be conducted during 2010, with the purpose of determining the performance of the barrier as mean air temperatures increase from below to above 0C and saturated flow commences in the barrier. The barrier system is constructed as a rectangular container with steel sheet walls (9m length in flow direction, 1.5m deep), and the flow rate will be adjusted to a hydraulic residence time of 1 day. The pilot-scale barrier system currently lies above ground, but a permanent barrier system would be installed below the ground surface so that the system can be maintained at positive temperatures throughout the year.

  3. Project Guarantee 1985. Final repository for high-level radioactive wastes: The system of safety barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Final disposal of radioactive waste involves preventing the waste from returning from the repository location into the biosphere by means of successively arranged containment measures known as safety barriers. In the present volume NGB 85-04 of the series of reports for Project 'Guarantee' 1985, the safety barrier system for the type C repository for high-level waste is described. The barrier parameters which are relevant for safety analysis are quantified and associated error limits and data scatter are given. The aim of the report is to give a summary documentation of the safety analysis input data and their scientific background. For secure containment of radioactive waste safety barriers are used which effectively limit the release of radioactive material from the repository (release barriers) and effectively retard the entry of the original radioactive material into the biosphere (time barriers). Safety barriers take the form of both technically constructed containment measures and the siting of the repository in suitable geological formations. The technical safety barrier system in the case of high-level waste comprises: the waste solidification matrix (borosilicate glass), massive steel canisters, encasement of the waste canisters, encasement of the waste canisters in highly compacted bentonite, sealing of vacant storage space and access routes on repository closure. The natural geological safety barriers - the host rock and overlying formations provide sufficiently long deep groundwater flow times from the repository location to the earth's surface and for additional lengthening of radionuclide migration times by means of various chemical and physical retardation mechanisms. The stability of the geological formations is so great that hydrogeological system is protected for a sufficient length of time from deterioration caused, in particular, by erosion. Observations in the final section of the report indicate that input data for the type C repository safety

  4. Response of a thermal barrier system to acoustic excitation in a gas turbine nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A gas turbine located within a High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) induces high acoustic sound pressure levels into the primary coolant (helium). This acoustic loading induces high cycle fatigue stresses which may control the design of the thermal barrier system. This study examines the dynamic response of a thermal barrier configuration consisting of a fibrous insulation compressed against the reactor vessel by a coverplate which is held in position by a central attachment fixture. The results of dynamic vibration analyses indicate the effect of the plate size and curvature and the attachment size on the response of the thermal barrier

  5. Prediction of atmospheric pressure glow discharge in dielectric-barrier system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Xiaoxi; He, Feng; Ouyang, Jiting

    2010-06-01

    A one-dimensional fluid model was used to investigate the breakdown mechanism and discharge mode in dielectric-barrier system. The results show that the dielectric barrier discharge mode depends strongly on the gas property (i.e., the electron multiplication). The atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier glow discharge could only be achieved in a gas (e.g., noble gas) in which the first Townsend ionization coefficient is sufficiently small and the electron multiplication does not rise up rapidly with the electric field, while could not be sustained in the gas (e.g., N2 and O2) in which the electron multiplication is sensitive to the field.

  6. Progress of the AVNG System - Attribute Verification System with Information Barriers for Mass Isotopics Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An attribute verification system (AVNG) with information barriers for mass and isotopics measurements has been designed and its fabrication is nearly completed. The AVNG is being built by scientists at the Russian Federal Nuclear Center-VNIIEF, with support of Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Such a system could be used to verify the presence of several unclassified attributes of classified material with no classified information release. The system is comprised of a neutron multiplicity counter and gamma-spectrometry system based on a high purity germanium gamma detector (nominal relative efficiency @ 1332 keV 50%) and digital gamma-ray spectrometer DSPECPLUS. The neutron multiplicity counter is a three ring counter with 164 3He tubes. The system was designed to measure prototype containers 491 mm in diameter and 503 mm high. This paper provides a brief history of the project and documents the progress of this effort with drawings and photographs.

  7. PROGRESS OF THE AVNG SYSTEM - ATTRIBUTE VERIFICATION SYSTEM WITH INFORMATION BARRIERS FOR MASS AND ISOTOPICS MEASUREMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An attribute verification system (AVNG) with information barriers for mass and isotopics measurements has been designed and its fabrication is nearly completed. The AVNG is being built by scientists at the Russian Federal Nuclear Center-VNIIEF, with support of Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Such a system could be used to verify the presence of several unclassified attributes of classified material with no classified information release. The system is comprised of a neutron multiplicity counter and gamma-spectrometry system based on a high purity germanium gamma detector (nominal relative efficiency (at) 1332 keV 50%) and digital gamma-ray spectrometer DSPECPLUS. The neutron multiplicity counter is a three ring counter with 164 3He tubes. The system was designed to measure prototype containers 491 mm in diameter and 503 mm high. This paper provides a brief history of the project and documents the progress of this effort with drawings and photographs

  8. Superior Thermal Barrier Coatings Using Solution Precursor Plasma Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, E. H.; Xie, L.; Gell, M.; Padture, N. P.; Cetegen, B.; Ozturk, A.; Ma, X.; Roth, J.; Xiao, T. D.; Bryant, P. E. C.

    2004-03-01

    A novel process, solution precursor plasma spray (SPPS), is presented for depositing thermal barrier coatings (TBCs), in which aqueous chemical precursors are injected into a standard direct current plasma spray system. The resulting coatings microstructure has three unique features: (1) ultra fine splats (1 µm), (2) nanometer and micron-sized interconnected porosity, and (3) closely spaced, through-thickness cracks. Coatings over 3 mm thick can be readily deposited using the SPPS process. Coating durability is excellent, with SPPS coatings showing, in furnace cycling tests, 2.5 times the spallation life of air plasma coatings (APS) and 1.5 times the life of electron beam physical vapor deposited (EB-PVD) coatings. The conductivity of SPPS coatings is lower than EB-PVD coatings and higher than the best APS coatings. Manufacturing cost is expected to be similar to APS coatings and much lower than EB-PVD coatings. The SPPS deposition process includes droplet break-up and material arriving at the deposition surface in various physical states ranging from aqueous solution, gel phase, to fully-molten ceramic. The relation between the arrival state of the material and the microstructure is described.

  9. Noncontacting Laser Inspection System for Dimensional Profiling of Space Application Thermal Barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Shawn C.

    2011-01-01

    A noncontacting, two-dimensional (2-D) laser inspection system has been designed and implemented to dimensionally profile thermal barriers being developed for space vehicle applications. In a vehicle as-installed state, thermal barriers are commonly compressed between load sensitive thermal protection system (TPS) panels to prevent hot gas ingestion through the panel interface during flight. Loads required to compress the thermal barriers are functions of their construction, as well as their dimensional characteristics relative to the gaps in which they are installed. Excessive loads during a mission could damage surrounding TPS panels and have catastrophic consequences. As such, accurate dimensional profiling of thermal barriers prior to use is important. Due to the compliant nature of the thermal barriers, traditional contact measurement techniques (e.g., calipers and micrometers) are subjective and introduce significant error and variability into collected dimensional data. Implementation of a laser inspection system significantly enhanced the method by which thermal barriers are dimensionally profiled, and improved the accuracy and repeatability of collected data. A statistical design of experiments study comparing laser inspection and manual caliper measurement techniques verified these findings.

  10. Near-barrier fusion of proton- and neutron-halo systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, E. F.

    2016-07-01

    It is shown that the behaviour of the fusion excitation functions for proton-halo and neutron-halo systems presents important differences, especially in the energy region slightly above the barrier. Measurements for 6He, 11Li and 11Be projectiles are discussed to exemplify the behaviour of neutron-halo systems, while experiments with 8B beams illustrate the situation for proton-halo nuclei. With respect to a standard benchmark, neutron- (proton-) halo systems show a fusion suppression (enhancement) above the barrier.

  11. Advanced thermal barrier coating system development: Technical progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-11

    Objectives are to provide an improved TBC system with increased temperature capability and improved reliability. Such coating systems are essential to the ATS engine (gas turbine) meeting its objectives.

  12. Dissecting the nanoscale distributions and functions of microtubule-end-binding proteins EB1 and ch-TOG in interphase HeLa cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoko Nakamura

    Full Text Available Recently, the EB1 and XMAP215/TOG families of microtubule binding proteins have been demonstrated to bind autonomously to the growing plus ends of microtubules and regulate their behaviour in in vitro systems. However, their functional redundancy or difference in cells remains obscure. Here, we compared the nanoscale distributions of EB1 and ch-TOG along microtubules using high-resolution microscopy techniques, and also their roles in microtubule organisation in interphase HeLa cells. The ch-TOG accumulation sites protruded ∼100 nm from the EB1 comets. Overexpression experiments showed that ch-TOG and EB1 did not interfere with each other's localisation, confirming that they recognise distinct regions at the ends of microtubules. While both EB1 and ch-TOG showed similar effects on microtubule plus end dynamics and additively increased microtubule dynamicity, only EB1 exhibited microtubule-cell cortex attachment activity. These observations indicate that EB1 and ch-TOG regulate microtubule organisation differently via distinct regions in the plus ends of microtubules.

  13. Thermal barrier coating life prediction model development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strangman, T. E.; Neumann, J. F.; Liu, A.

    1986-01-01

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) for turbine airfoils in high-performance engines represent an advanced materials technology with both performance and durability benefits. The foremost TBC benefit is the reduction of heat transferred into air-cooled components, which yields performance and durability benefits. This program focuses on predicting the lives of two types of strain-tolerant and oxidation-resistant TBC systems that are produced by commercial coating suppliers to the gas turbine industry. The plasma-sprayed TBC system, composed of a low-pressure plasma-spray (LPPS) or an argon shrouded plasma-spray (ASPS) applied oxidation resistant NiCrAlY (or CoNiCrAlY) bond coating and an air-plasma-sprayed yttria (8 percent) partially stabilized zirconia insulative layer, is applied by Chromalloy, Klock, and Union Carbide. The second type of TBC is applied by the electron beam-physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) process by Temescal.

  14. EB-curing of coatings on wood composite boards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The industrial radiation processing using low energy electron beam (EB) accelerators lower than 300 keV offers high speed, safe technologies for the chemical conversion of thin layer coatings. Because of the nonselective mode of initiating chain reaction polymerization involving free radicals in synthetic coating layers and suitable substrates, the EB curing of the coatings on woods and papers has particular advantage. Hungary decided to start an up-to-date EB line to process cement-bound (CB) wood chipboards with pigmented acrylic coatings. The CB wood chipboards contain more than 60 % of portland cement and up to 40 % of wood particles. They are produced as large boads of 6 - 16 mm thickness. In their fireproof character and other aspects, they are similar to asbestos-cement boards without containing carcinagenic asbestos, and are stable against moisture and atmospheric influences. EB-cured acrylate coating improved further those properties, and makes them valuable structural material. Oligomers and monomers as the main components of EB curable coatings, the irradiation with a Van de Graaff type electron accelerator of 2 MeV and the results are reported. The oligomers play the most important role in the formation of radiation curable coatings. (K.I.)

  15. Proto-TGO formation in TBC systems fabricated by spark plasma sintering

    OpenAIRE

    Boidot, Mathieu; Selezneff, Serge; Monceau, Daniel; Oquab, Djar; Estournès, Claude

    2010-01-01

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBC) are commonly used in modern gas turbines for aeronautic and energy production applications. The conventional methods to fabricate such TBCs are EB-PVD or plasma spray deposition. Recently, the spark plasma sintering (SPS) technique was used to prepare new multilayered coatings. In this study, complete thermal barrier systems were fabricated on single crystal Ni-based superalloy (AM1®) substrate in a one-step SPS process. The lifetime of TBC systems is highly dep...

  16. Matched Bipartite Digraph Representation of Generalized Dynamical System Formed by One-way Barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, John; Mahoney, John; Mitchell, Kevin; Tom Solomon Collaboration

    2014-03-01

    We studied a dynamical system with stable and unstable manifolds that behave as one-way barriers, instead of separatrices in traditional dynamical system that are two-way barriers. This asymmetry gives rise to a richer dynamical behavior such as the overlapping of basins of attraction. The recently developed Burning Invariant Manifold (BIM) theory took a dynamical system approach to understand front propagation in Advection-Reaction-Diffusion systems, which have BIMs as the one-way barriers. Through numerical simulations under BIM theory, we found that although both unstable and stable BIMs are one-way barriers, unstable BIMs are the ones that we can experimentally observe the fronts converging onto, and the stable BIMs act as the basin boundaries. We further hypothesized a duality relation between the stable and unstable BIMs. Under the duality hypothesis, we developed a mechanism of the behavior of the system by reducing it back to a traditional system based on topology, and we found a simplification of the system by to summarize the topological information into a Matched Bipartite directed graph (MB digraph). This work was supported by the US National Science Foundation under grant PHY-0748828 and NSF Fellowship DGE-0937362.

  17. A Dynamic Self-Healing Key Management Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks Based on EBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaunting Ning

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A self-healing mechanism in key management is an important means for large-scale clustering wireless sensor networks that enable non-revoked nodes use their private information and the received broadcast messages to recover the lost session keys on their own. In this study, we propose a dynamic self-healing key management scheme for large-scale clustering wireless sensor networks that is based on Exclusion Basis System (EBS. We use forward and backward key chains to form cluster session key chain for self-healing, take t-degree polynomial keys to replace the original keys used in EBS. The analysis shows that the proposed scheme has the properties of forward and backward secrecy and resisting to a collusion attack, which is suitable for resource-constrained wireless sensor networks.

  18. A method of providing a barrier in a fracture-containing system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method of providing a barrier in a fracture-containing system, comprising: i) Providing a treatment fluid comprising: a) a base fluid; b) an elastomeric material, wherein said elastomeric material comprises at least one polymer capable of crosslinking into an el......The present invention relates to a method of providing a barrier in a fracture-containing system, comprising: i) Providing a treatment fluid comprising: a) a base fluid; b) an elastomeric material, wherein said elastomeric material comprises at least one polymer capable of crosslinking...

  19. Socio-cultural barriers to the development of a sustainable energy system - the case of hydrogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Kjerulf; Andersen, Anne Holst

    Any transition to a more sustainable energy system, radically reducing greenhouse gas emissions, is bound to run in to a host of different barriers - technological and economic, but also socio-cultural. This will also be the case for any large-scale application of hydrogen as energy carrier......, especially if the system is going to be based on renewable energy sources. The aim of these research notes is to review and discuss major socio-cultural barriers to new forms of energy supply in general and to hydrogen specifically. Reaching sufficient reductions in greenhouse gas emissions may require more...

  20. Structure and characteristics of EB-PVD thermal insulation layers; Struktur und Eigenschaften von EB-PVD-Waermedaemmschichten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, U. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Koeln (Germany). Inst. fuer Werkstoff-Forschung

    1996-12-31

    Thermal insulation layers for guide blades and rotor blades in the first two stages of a high-pressure turbines are produced by electron-beam physical vapour deposition for maximum quality. The layers have a lifetime that is longer by a factor of 2 to 10 than for plasma-sprayed layers. The following characteristics of the ceramic layer have a decisive influence on the life of the composite system: Phase composition, distribution and stability, microstructure, density, thickness, crack distribution and cohesive strength. Some selected aspects of the interdependence between production parameters, microstructure of the thermal insulation layer and service life are gone into. [Deutsch] Zur Herstellung von Waermedaemmschichten (WDS) fuer Turbinenleit- und Laufschaufeln der ersten beiden Stufen in der Hochdruckturbine wird fuer hoechste Ansprueche an die Schichtqualitaet das EB-PDV-Verfahren (electron-beam physical vapour deposition) eingesetzt. Die Lebensdauer dieser Schichten ist um den Faktor 2 bis 10 besser als beim Plasmaspritzen. Bei der keramischen Waermedaemmschicht selbst beeinflussen folgende Eigenschaften die Lebensdauer des Gesamtschichtsystems nachhaltig: Phasenzusammensetzung, -verteilung und -stabilitaet, Mikrogefuege, Dichte, Dicke, Rissverteilung und kohaesive Festigkeit. Auf einige ausgewaehlt Aspekte des Zusammenhangs zwischen Herstellungsparametern, Mikrostruktur der Waermedaemmschicht und Lebensdauer wird kurz eingegangen. (orig.)

  1. Advanced thermal barrier coating system development. Technical progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-04

    The objectives of the program are to provide an improved TBC system with increased temperature capability and improved reliability relative to current state of the art TBC systems. The development of such a coating system is essential to the ATS engine meeting its objectives. The base program consists of three phases: Phase 1: Program Planning--Complete; Phase 2: Development; Phase 3: Selected Specimen--Bench Test. Work is currently being performed in Phase 2 of the program. In Phase 2, process improvements will be married with new bond coat and ceramic materials systems to provide improvements over currently available TBC systems. Coating reliability will be further improved with the development of an improved lifing model and NDE techniques. This will be accomplished by conducting the following program tasks: II.1 Process Modeling; II.2 Bond Coat Development; II.3 Analytical Lifing Model; II.4 Process Development; II.5 NDE, Maintenance and Repair; II.6 New TBC Concepts. A brief summary of progress made in each of these 6 areas is given.

  2. The chemistry of UV and EB radiation curing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of photopolymerisation (UV) and electron beam (EB) technologies in radiation rapid cure (RRC) processing is discussed. The chemistry associated with such reactions and the mechanisms of the processes are treated. The occurrence of concurrent grafting to substrate with radiation curing of film is shown to be an advantage in enhancing the properties of certain finished products. The parameters influencing the optimum grafting yield in such RRC processes are discussed. In many applications, the chemistry of the process combined with the machine, expecially for EB, is shown a so-called ''turn-key'' operation. (author)

  3. PROGRESS OF THE AVNG SYSTEM - ATTRIBUTE VERIFICATION SYSTEM WITH INFORMATION BARRIERS FOR MASS AND ISOTOPICS MEASUREMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budnikov, D; Bulatov, M; Jarikhine, I; Lebedev, B; Livke, A; Modenov, A; Morkin, A; Razinkov, S; Safronov, S; Tsaregorodtsev, D; Vlokh, A; Yakovleva, S; Elmont, T; Langner, D; MacArthur, D; Mayo, D; Smith, M; Luke, S J

    2005-05-27

    An attribute verification system (AVNG) with information barriers for mass and isotopics measurements has been designed and its fabrication is nearly completed. The AVNG is being built by scientists at the Russian Federal Nuclear Center-VNIIEF, with support of Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Such a system could be used to verify the presence of several unclassified attributes of classified material with no classified information release. The system is comprised of a neutron multiplicity counter and gamma-spectrometry system based on a high purity germanium gamma detector (nominal relative efficiency {at} 1332 keV 50%) and digital gamma-ray spectrometer DSPEC{sup PLUS}. The neutron multiplicity counter is a three ring counter with 164 {sup 3}He tubes. The system was designed to measure prototype containers 491 mm in diameter and 503 mm high. This paper provides a brief history of the project and documents the progress of this effort with drawings and photographs.

  4. Progress of the AVNG System - Attribute Verification System with Information Barriers for Mass Isotopics Measurements.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budnikov, D. (Dmitry); Bulatov, M. (Mikhail); Jarikhine, I. (Igor); Lebedev, B. (Boris); Livke, A. (Alexander); Modenov, A.; Morkin, A. (Anton); Razinkov, S. (Sergei); Tsaregorodtsev, D. (Dmitry); Vlokh, A. (Andrey); Yakovleva, S. (Svetlana); Elmont, T. H. (Timothy H.); Langner, D. C. (Diana C.); MacArthur, D. W. (Duncan W.); Mayo, D. R. (Douglas R.); Smith, M. K. (Morag K.); Luke, S. J. (S. John)

    2005-01-01

    An attribute verification system (AVNG) with information barriers for mass and isotopics measurements has been designed and its fabrication is nearly completed. The AVNG is being built by scientists at the Russian Federal Nuclear Center-VNIIEF, with support of Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Such a system could be used to verify the presence of several unclassified attributes of classified material with no classified information release. The system is comprised of a neutron multiplicity counter and gamma-spectrometry system based on a high purity germanium gamma detector (nominal relative efficiency @ 1332 keV 50%) and digital gamma-ray spectrometer DSPEC{sup PLUS}. The neutron multiplicity counter is a three ring counter with 164 {sup 3}He tubes. The system was designed to measure prototype containers 491 mm in diameter and 503 mm high. This paper provides a brief history of the project and documents the progress of this effort with drawings and photographs.

  5. Method of in situ retrieval of contaminants or other substances using a barrier system and leaching solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickelson, Reva A.; Walsh, Stephanie; Richardson, John G.; Dick, John R.; Sloan, Paul A.

    2006-12-26

    Processes and methods relating to treating contaminants and collecting desired substances from a zone of interest using subterranean collection and containment barriers. Tubular casings having interlock structures are used to create subterranean barriers for containing and treating buried waste and its effluents. The subterranean barrier includes an effluent collection system. Treatment solutions provided to the zone of interest pass therethrough and are collected by the barrier and treated or recovered, allowing on-site remediation. Barrier components may be used to in the treatment by collecting or removing contaminants or other materials from the zone of interest.

  6. Drug Delivery Systems, CNS Protection, and the Blood Brain Barrier

    OpenAIRE

    Ravi Kant Upadhyay

    2014-01-01

    Present review highlights various drug delivery systems used for delivery of pharmaceutical agents mainly antibiotics, antineoplastic agents, neuropeptides, and other therapeutic substances through the endothelial capillaries (BBB) for CNS therapeutics. In addition, the use of ultrasound in delivery of therapeutic agents/biomolecules such as proline rich peptides, prodrugs, radiopharmaceuticals, proteins, immunoglobulins, and chimeric peptides to the target sites in deep tissue locations insi...

  7. Pathogensis-related proteins induced by endophytic bacteria EBS05 in tomato plant%内生细菌EBS05对番茄病程相关蛋白的诱导作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李俊州; 赵玉华; 文才艺; 臧睿; 张俊

    2014-01-01

    以番茄江蔬14为材料,研究了内生细菌EBS05对番茄病程相关蛋白基因表达的诱导作用,同时,测定了番茄体内β-1,3-葡聚糖酶和几丁质酶活性变化.结果表明,内生细菌EBS05可诱导番茄体内PR1,PR2和PR3基因持续增量表达,并有效激活PR5基因表达,进而提高番茄对番茄黄化曲叶病毒(TYLCCV)的系统抗性;内生细菌EBS05诱导处理再接种TYLCCV后,番茄体内β-1,3-葡聚糖酶和几丁质酶活性均明显高于对照,并分别于接种后第7d和第9d达到活性峰值.结合TYLCCV侵染番茄的病程分析,β-1,3-葡聚糖酶和几丁质酶活性的升高与内生细菌EBS05诱导番茄对TYLCCV的系统抗性呈正相关.%Genes expression of pathogensis-related proteins (PRPs) induced by endophytic bacteria EBS05 in tomato plant were investigated using var.Jiangshu 14 as test material,and the activities of β-1,3-glueanas and chitinase were determined too.The results showed that strain EBS05 could induce the overexpression of PR1,PR2 and PR3 genes,and activate the gene PR5 to high level expression in tomato plant,thus increasing the systemic resistance to Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl China virus (TYL-CCV).The activities of β-1,3-glueanas and chitinase in tomato plants inoculated with TYLCCV after pretreated by strain EBS05 were higher than those in the control plants,and the activity peak appeared at the 9th and 7th days post inoculation,respectively.The increase of β-1,3-glueanas and chitinase activities were positively correlated with the systemic resistance to TYLCCV in tomato plants mediated by strain EBS05 based on the pathogensis of TYLCCV-infected tomato plants.

  8. The Role of Backbarrier Filling in the Evolution of a Barrier Island System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, C. J.; Fitzgerald, D. M.; Stone, B. D.; Carruthers, E.; Gontz, A. M.

    2009-12-01

    Barrier islands develop through a variety of processes, including spit accretion, barrier elongation, breaching and inlet filling. New geophysical and sedimentological data collected along a barrier system in the western Gulf of Maine provide a means of documenting a unique process of barrier evolution involving backbarrier infilling and ensuing closure of an ancient tidal inlet. Plum Island is located along a mixed-energy, tide-dominated coastline bounded by estuaries and backed by an extensive system of salt marsh and tidal creeks. Following the regional glacioisostatic lowstand of approximately -45 m at 12 ka, the Holocene transgression reworked a late Pleistocene regressive braid plain and lowstand delta. Sediments driven onshore during the transgression and derived from the Merrimack River fed the developing barrier system. Radiocarbon dates suggests that backbarrier sands began accumulating at the modern site of Plum Island at approximately 9 ka. At this time, the barrier was composed of several discrete islands separated by inlets and situated offshore of modern Plum Island. Shallow seismic and ground penetrating radar (GPR) data confirm the existence of lower stand riverine/tidal channels extending onto the shallow shelf. Coincident with the slowing of relative sea level rise, Plum Island began to form in its current location approximately 5.5 ka, establishing its modern form by about 2.5 ka. Sediment cores and GPR data demonstrate that the barrier lithosome is 5 to 15 m thick and evolved through initial aggradation followed by southerly spit accretion and progradation. The discovery of a multiple inlet channel system reoccupying the area carved by the lowstand Parker River indicates that central Plum Island underwent a complex developmental history. Cores through the inlet sequence consist of fine to medium sand with repetitive interbedded coarse sand units, marking high-energy depositional events associated with spit accretion and displacement of the

  9. Organizational, interface, and financial barriers to the commercial development of community energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schladale, R.; Ritschard, R.

    1979-12-01

    The scope of this analysis was limited to systems producing electricity - the output of a community energy system typically falling in the range 10 kW to 150 MW. The purpose of this study was to identify the barriers that groups and individuals will face when attempting to commercialize community energy systems. Three particular classes of barriers were investigated: those within the organization attempting the commercialization, those that arise from attempts to link the community system with an electric utility, and those that impede the flow of investment capital into community energy systems. In summary, three general observations regarding community energy systems may be distilled from this study. First, although many barriers exist to the commercialization of the systems, few if any appear unresolvable. Perhaps most challenginng will be the problem of expanding the use of cogeneration and municipal sold waste while at the same time maintaining or improving ambient air quality. Second, the financial subsidies required to make community systems competitive are not extraordinary. Indeed, with the exception of photovoltaics they should not amount to more than about 10% of capital cost of the new systems, and mass production may eliminate the need for subsidies altogether at some point in the future. Third, the administrative and regulatory procedures required to make community energy systems viable appear to be taking shape in a positive and timely fashion.

  10. Characterization and modeling of the barrier properties in nanostructured systems

    OpenAIRE

    Minelli, Matteo

    2009-01-01

    The object of the present study is the process of gas transport in nano-sized materials, i.e. systems having structural elements of the order of nanometers. The aim of this work is to advance the understanding of the gas transport mechanism in such materials, for which traditional models are not often suitable, by providing a correct interpretation of the relationship between diffusive phenomena and structural features. This result would allow the development new materials with permeation pro...

  11. Simplifying solute transport modelling of the geological multi-barrier disposal system

    OpenAIRE

    Poteri, Antti

    2013-01-01

    A simplified model was developed to represent radionuclide migration from a deep geological nuclear waste repository system to the biosphere. The modelled repository system is based on the concept of multiple nested transport barriers. The model can be used to assess migration and migration properties of single nuclides (no decay chains) through the repository system. Radionuclide transport processes included to the model are diffusion and sorption in the repository near-field and advection, ...

  12. Underutilization of Mental Health Services among College Students: An Examination of System-Related Barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Carey N.; Wilcoxon, S. Allen

    2015-01-01

    Despite the documented benefits of counseling and mental health services on academic performance and degree attainment, only about 10% of psychologically distressed college students ever seek professional help. This investigation examined mental health care system-related barriers that might distinguish help seekers from nonhelp seekers among…

  13. The immune system mediates blood-brain barrier damage; Possible implications for pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric illnesses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VanderWerf, YD; DeJongste, MJL; terHorst, GJ

    1995-01-01

    The immune system mediates blood-brain barrier damage; possible implications for pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric illnesses. In this investigation the effects of immune activation on the brain are characterized In order to study this, we used a model for chronic immune activation, the myocardial

  14. An Activity Theory Approach to Analyze Barriers to a Virtual Management Information Systems (MIS) Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaradat, Suhair; Qablan, Ahmad; Barham, Areej

    2011-01-01

    This paper explains how the activity theory is used as a framework to analyze the barriers to a virtual Management Information Stream (MIS) Curriculum in Jordanian schools, from both the sociocultural and pedagogical perspectives. Taking the activity system as a unit of analysis, this study documents the processes by which activities shape and are…

  15. Personal health systems - Opportunities and barriers for adoption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhonen, Ilkka; Mattila, Elina M; Vam Gils, Mark

    2010-01-01

    INCREASING prevalence of lifestyle-related health risks and chronic diseases, coupled with limited resources in the healthcare system, calls for citizen-centric health promotion and disease prevention measures as well as new care models for management of chronic diseases. As a future scenario emphasis of the health care should gradually shift from treating and managing of diseases to their prevention and early interventions. The risk of chronic diseases begins to rise and physical capacity begins to decline after the age of 30. Therefore, working-age citizens are an important target group for health promotion and early interventions. PMID:21096056

  16. Time-dependent barrier passage of two-dimensional non-Ohmic damping system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chun-Yang

    2009-08-01

    The time-dependent barrier passage of two-dimensional non-Ohmic damping system is studied in the framework of statistical Langevin reactive dynamics. The stationary transmission coefficient is found to be a nonmonotonic function of the exponent delta which reveals an intrinsic effect of the friction's non-Markovian character on the two-dimensional reactive process; the coupling between nonreactive and reactive modes results in an optimal path for the reactant in all cases of non-Ohmic friction. A big net flux resulted from the less barrier recrossing behavior in the two-dimensional non-Ohmic friction case. PMID:19673571

  17. PILOT-SCALE EVALUATION OF ENGINEERED BARRIER SYSTEMS FOR THE YUCCA MOUNTAIN PROJECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes two quarter-scale experiments (1.4 m diameter) and associated numerical analyses on granular backfill engineered barrier systems in support of the Yucca Mountain Project for the potential repository. The two configurations include a sloped capillary barrier and a plain backfill. The tests involve application of dyed water as a constant line infiltration source along the top of the test set-up, monitoring water movement through the test, and measuring water exiting the experiments. A complete water balance estimate is made for each test, and observed water movement is compared with (1) detailed numerical analyses conducted using the TOUGH2 code for unsaturated flow in porous media and (2) posttest observations. The results of the testing and analyses show that for the injection rates and configuration applied, the capillary barrier design diverts a significant amount of all injected water and the TOUGH2 pretest predictions show qualitative and quantitative agreement with the experimental data

  18. Leading at the Front: How EB Proteins Regulate Microtubule Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Taviare

    2012-02-01

    Microtubules are the most rigid of the cytoskeletal filaments, they provide the cell's scaffolding, form the byways on which motor proteins transport intracellular cargo and reorganize to form the mitotic spindle when the cell needs to divide. These biopolymers are composed of alpha and beta tubulin monomers that create hollow cylindrical nanotubes with an outer diameter of 25 nm and an inner diameter of 17 nm. At steady state concentrations, microtubules undergo a process known as dynamic instability. During dynamic instability the length of individual microtubules is changing as the filament alternates between periods of growth to shrinkage (catastrophe) and shrinkage to growth (rescue). This process can be enhanced or diminished with the addition of microtubule associated proteins (MAPs). MAPs are microtubule binding proteins that stabilize, destabilize, or nucleate microtubules. We will discuss the effects of the stabilizing end-binding proteins (EB1, EB2 and EB3), on microtubule dynamics observed in vitro. The EBs are a unique family of MAPs known to tip track and enhance microtubule growth by stabilizing the ends. This is a different mechanism than those employed by structural MAPs such as tau or MAP4.

  19. Drug Delivery Systems, CNS Protection, and the Blood Brain Barrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Kant Upadhyay

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Present review highlights various drug delivery systems used for delivery of pharmaceutical agents mainly antibiotics, antineoplastic agents, neuropeptides, and other therapeutic substances through the endothelial capillaries (BBB for CNS therapeutics. In addition, the use of ultrasound in delivery of therapeutic agents/biomolecules such as proline rich peptides, prodrugs, radiopharmaceuticals, proteins, immunoglobulins, and chimeric peptides to the target sites in deep tissue locations inside tumor sites of brain has been explained. In addition, therapeutic applications of various types of nanoparticles such as chitosan based nanomers, dendrimers, carbon nanotubes, niosomes, beta cyclodextrin carriers, cholesterol mediated cationic solid lipid nanoparticles, colloidal drug carriers, liposomes, and micelles have been discussed with their recent advancements. Emphasis has been given on the need of physiological and therapeutic optimization of existing drug delivery methods and their carriers to deliver therapeutic amount of drug into the brain for treatment of various neurological diseases and disorders. Further, strong recommendations are being made to develop nanosized drug carriers/vehicles and noninvasive therapeutic alternatives of conventional methods for better therapeutics of CNS related diseases. Hence, there is an urgent need to design nontoxic biocompatible drugs and develop noninvasive delivery methods to check posttreatment clinical fatalities in neuropatients which occur due to existing highly toxic invasive drugs and treatment methods.

  20. Application of CFRP with High Hydrogen Gas Barrier Characteristics to Fuel Tanks of Space Transportation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonemoto, Koichi; Yamamoto, Yuta; Okuyama, Keiichi; Ebina, Takeo

    In the future, carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRPs) with high hydrogen gas barrier performance will find wide applications in all industrial hydrogen tanks that aim at weight reduction; the use of such materials will be preferred to the use of conventional metallic materials such as stainless steel or aluminum. The hydrogen gas barrier performance of CFRP will become an important issue with the introduction of hydrogen-fuel aircraft. It will also play an important role in realizing fully reusable space transportation system that will have high specific tensile CFRP structures. Such materials are also required for the manufacture of high-pressure hydrogen gas vessels for use in the fuel cell systems of automobiles. This paper introduces a new composite concept that can be used to realize CFRPs with high hydrogen gas barrier performance for applications in the cryogenic tanks of fully reusable space transportation system by the incorporation of a nonmetallic crystal layer, which is actually a dense and highly oriented clay crystal laminate. The preliminary test results show that the hydrogen gas barrier characteristics of this material after cryogenic heat shocks and cyclic loads are still better than those of other polymer materials by approximately two orders of magnitude.

  1. 76 FR 56215 - John H. Chafee Coastal Barrier Resources System; Baldwin and Mobile Counties, AL; Availability of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-12

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service John H. Chafee Coastal Barrier Resources System; Baldwin and Mobile Counties... (Service), announce the availability of a John H. Chafee Coastal Barrier Resources System (CBRS) draft... aquatic habitat. These areas are depicted on a series of maps entitled ``John H. Chafee Coastal...

  2. Combined local blood–brain barrier opening and systemic methotrexate for the treatment of brain tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, Itzik; Last, David; Guez, David; Sharabi, Shirley; Elhaik Goldman, Shirin; Lubitz, Irit; Daniels, Dianne; Salomon,Sharona; Tamar, Gregory; Tamir, Tzur; Mardor, Ronni; Fridkin, Mati; Shechter, Yoram; Mardor, Yael

    2015-01-01

    Despite aggressive therapy, existing treatments offer poor prognosis for glioblastoma multiforme patients, in part due to poor penetration of most drugs across the blood–brain barrier (BBB). We propose a minimal-invasive combined treatment approach consisting of local BBB disruption in the tumor in parallel to systemic drug administration. Local BBB disruption is obtained by convection-enhanced delivery of a novel BBB disruption agent, enabling efficient/targeted delivery of the systemically ...

  3. Motivators, Barriers and Concerns in Adoption of Electronic Filing System: Survey Evidence from Malaysian Professional Accountants

    OpenAIRE

    Ming-Ling Lai; Kwai-Fatt Choong

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: Worldwide, electronic filing (e-filing) system and its' adoption has attracted much attention, however, scholarly study on accounting professionals' acceptance of e-filing system is scant. Approach: This study aimed (i) to examine factors that motivated professional accountants to use e-filing (ii) to solicit their usage experience and (iii) to assess the barriers to adoption and other compliance considerations. The questionnaire survey was administered on 700 professionals...

  4. An evaluation of the fire barrier system thermo-lag 330-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results of three fire endurance tests and one ampacity derating test set of the fire barrier system Thermo-Lag 330-1 Subliming Coating. Each test was performed using cable tray specimens protected by a nominal three-hour fire barrier envelope comprised of two layers of nominal 1/2 inch thick material. The fire barrier systems for two of the three fire endurance test articles and for the ampacity derating test article were installed in accordance with the manufacturer's installations procedures. The barrier system for the third fire endurance test article was a full reproduction of one of the original manufacturer's qualification test articles. This final test article included certain installation enhancements not considered typical of current nuclear power plant installations. The primary criteria for fire endurance performance evaluation was based on cable circuit integrity testing. Secondary consideration was also given to the temperature rise limits set forth in the ASTM E119 standard fire barrier test procedure. All three of the fire endurance specimens failed prematurely. Circuit integrity failures for the two fire endurance test articles with procedures-based installations were recorded at approximately 76 and 59 minutes into the exposures for a 6 inch wide and 12 inch wide cable tray respectively. Temperature excursion failures (single point) for these two test articles were noted at approximately 65 and 56 minutes respectively. The first circuit integrity failure for the full reproduction test article was recorded approximately 119 minutes into the exposure, and the first temperature excursion failure for this test article was recorded approximately 110 minutes into the exposure

  5. Next generation of non-mammalian blood-brain barrier models to study parasitic infections of the central nervous system

    OpenAIRE

    Siddiqui, Ruqaiyyah; Edwards-Smallbone, James; Flynn, Robin; Khan, Naveed Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Transmigration of neuropathogens across the blood-brain barrier is a key step in the development of central nervous system infections, making it a prime target for drug development. The ability of neuropathogens to traverse the blood-brain barrier continues to inspire researchers to understand the specific strategies and molecular mechanisms that allow them to enter the brain. The availability of models of the blood-brain barrier that closely mimic the situation in vivo offers unprecedented o...

  6. Application of calorimeters for 5 MeV EB and bremsstrahlung dosimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sato, T.; Takahashi, T.; Saito, T.;

    1993-01-01

    Graphite and water calorimeters, which were developed for use a 10 MeV electron beams (EB) at Riso National Laboratory, were used for process validation and routine dosimeter calibration at a 5 MeV EB. Water calorimeters were used for reference measurements for 5 MeV EB, the response was found...... at 5 MeV EB. Graphite calorimeters gave reproducible readings within 3.3 % relative errors (95 % confidence level) for X-ray measurement....

  7. Reducing Barriers To The Use of High-Efficiency Lighting Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Morante

    2005-12-31

    With funding from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Lighting Research Center (LRC) at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute completed the four-year research project, Reducing Barriers to the Use of High-Efficiency Lighting Systems. The initial objectives were: (1) identifying barriers to widespread penetration of lighting controls in commercial/industrial (C/I) applications that employ fluorescent lamp technologies, and (2) making recommendations to overcome these barriers. The addition of a fourth year expanded the original project objectives to include an examination of the impact on fluorescent lamps from dimming utilizing different lamp electrode heating and dimming ratios. The scope of the project was narrowed to identify barriers to the penetration of lighting controls into commercial-industrial (C/I) applications that employ fluorescent lamp technologies, and to recommend means for overcoming these barriers. Working with lighting manufacturers, specifiers, and installers, the project identified technological and marketing barriers to the widespread use of lighting controls, specifically automatic-off controls, occupancy sensors, photosensors, dimming systems, communication protocols and load-shedding ballasts. The primary barriers identified include cost effectiveness of lighting controls to the building owner, lack of standard communication protocols to allow different part of the control system to communicate effectively, and installation and commissioning issues. Overcoming the identified barriers requires lighting control products on the market to achieve three main goals: (1) Achieve sufficient functionality to meet the key requirements of their main market. (2) Allow significant cost reduction compared to current market standard systems. Cost should consider: hardware capital cost including wiring, design time required by the specifier and the control system manufacturer, installation time required by the electrician, and commissioning time and

  8. 47 CFR 27.1214 - EBS spectrum leasing arrangements and grandfathered leases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false EBS spectrum leasing arrangements and... Educational Broadband Service § 27.1214 EBS spectrum leasing arrangements and grandfathered leases. (a) A licensee in the EBS that is solely utilizing analog transmissions may enter into a spectrum...

  9. Barriers in the Implementation of Health Information Systems: A Scoping Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin STAMATIAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Context. A well-developed health information system which is implemented according to present standards allows a healthcare quality increase. Our study aims at providing an overview of the barriers which were encountered in the process of implementing the health information systems by reviewing the literature connected to Europe and the United States of America. Methodology. We searched within five databases (Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, PubMed, ScienceDirect and Scopus for the exact phrase ‘implementation health information system’ along with the name of each European country/USA state. Relevance was then tested by scanning titles and abstracts. The third and final step involved assessing all the articles in order to set their relevance and a data extraction tool was created, containing the name of the state/country that the article reports data on, the article citation and the challenges identified. Results. The barriers identified were classified in four major categories: technical, organizational, behavioral/human and financial. Seemingly, Europe (41 articles and USA (20 articles are facing the same issues in the implementation of a health information system. No major difference between EU and non-EU countries was found after our analysis with regards to the identified barriers. Discussion. Even if recommendations and solutions are continuously being developed in order to solve these barriers, the implementation of a new health information system must be very detailed in order to face all these problems. Additionally, further research is required in order to evaluate their impact on the successful implementation of a health information system.

  10. Transfer reactions for the /sup 50/Ti + /sup 90/Zr system below the Coulomb barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analysis of quasielastic cross section data for the /sup 90/Zr projectile plus /sup 50/Ti target system shows that the probability for /sup 50/Ti(/sup 90/Zr, /sup 49/Ti)/sup 91/Zr, 1n-transfer reaction near the barrier is much larger than estimates based on semiclassical theory. The probability for /sup 50/Ti(/sup 90/Zr,/sup 51/V)/sup 89/Y, 1p-transfer reaction, on the other hand, agrees with the same theory. The internuclear distance where the 1n-transfer probability first deviates from tunneling predictions coincides with the threshold of the fusion barrier distribution deduced from the experimental fusion cross sections of the /sup 50/Ti+/sup 90/Zr system, suggesting a common mechanism for the large enhancement of 1n-transfer and fusion cross sections

  11. Barriers to the implementation of E-learning system with focus on organizational culture

    OpenAIRE

    Bashiruddin, Muhammad; Basit, Abdul; Naeem, Muhammad

    2010-01-01

    Title: Barriers to the implementation of E-learning system with focus on organizational culture Introduction: Nowadays, Information Technology has become a necessity for businesses not only to gain competitive advantage but also to survive. Strategic use of new educational technologies can enhance learning and teaching process. In order to stay viable in this intense competitive environment, providers of education and trainings have developed efficient and effective learning environment, call...

  12. Overcoming barriers to the implementation of a pharmacy bar code scanning system for medication dispensing: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanji, Karen C; Cina, Jennifer; Patel, Nirali; Churchill, William; Gandhi, Tejal K; Poon, Eric G

    2009-01-01

    Technology has great potential to reduce medication errors in hospitals. This case report describes barriers to, and facilitators of, the implementation of a pharmacy bar code scanning system to reduce medication dispensing errors at a large academic medical center. Ten pharmacy staff were interviewed about their experiences during the implementation. Interview notes were iteratively reviewed to identify common themes. The authors identified three main barriers to pharmacy bar code scanning system implementation: process (training requirements and process flow issues), technology (hardware, software, and the role of vendors), and resistance (communication issues, changing roles, and negative perceptions about technology). The authors also identified strategies to overcome these barriers. Adequate training, continuous improvement, and adaptation of workflow to address one's own needs mitigated process barriers. Ongoing vendor involvement, acknowledgment of technology limitations, and attempts to address them were crucial in overcoming technology barriers. Staff resistance was addressed through clear communication, identifying champions, emphasizing new information provided by the system, and facilitating collaboration. PMID:19567797

  13. Vegetation barrier and tillage effects on runoff and sediment in an alley crop system on a Luvisol in Burkina Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaan, W.P.; Sikking, A.F.S.; Hoogmoed, W.B.

    2005-01-01

    The effects of vegetation barriers and tillage on runoff and soil loss were evaluated in an alley crop system at a research station in central Burkina Faso. On a 2% slope of a sandy loam various local species (grasses, woody species and a succulent) were planted as conservation barriers in order to

  14. Project Guarantee 1985. Final repository for low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes: The system of safety barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The safety barrier system for the type B repository for low- and intermediate-level waste is described. The barrier parameters which are relevant for safety analysis are quantified and associated error limits and data scatter are given. The aim of the report is to give a summary documentation of the safety analysis input data and their scientific background. For secure containment of radioactive waste safety barriers are used which effectively limit the release of radioactive material from the repository (release barriers) and effectively retard the entry of the original radioactive material into the biosphere (time barriers). In the case of low- and intermediate-level waste the technical safety barrier system comprises: waste solidification matrix (cement, bitumen and resin), immobilisation of the waste packages in containers using liquid cement, concrete repository containers, backfilling of remaining vacant storage space with special concrete, concrete lining of the repository caverns, sealing of access tunnels on final closure of the repository. Natural geological safety barriers - host rock and overlying formations - have the following important functions. Because of its stability, the host rock in the repository zone protects the technical safety barrier system from destruction caused by climatic effects and erosion for a sufficient length of time. It also provides for low water flow and favourable chemistry (reducing conditions)

  15. Safety indicators used to prove the role of natural barrier for Saligny near surface disposal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The siting process for a near surface repository suitable for the radioactive waste resulted from Cernavoda NPP operation and decommissioning (low level radioactive waste with small amounts of long lived radionuclides) started in 1992 and it included the collection of data from specific field and laboratory works for each site selection stage as well as different safety performance evaluation. According to the IAEA standards (Safety Guide No.111-G-3.1, 1994), the purpose of the siting process is not to get the best solution but to find out 'an acceptable solution, with sufficient safety reserves'. Since 1996, detailed field and investigation works were performed in Saligny preferred site including an experimental area to test the improvement method proposed for the foundation ground of repository, as well as detailed performance assessments using specific computer codes. The paper presents the results of recent performance assessments for the natural barrier of disposal system. The calculations were done using HYDRUS 2D, FEHM and AMBER computer codes. The endpoint of the Safety Report for Siting a Near Surface Repository at Saligny Site [CITON and SCN, Safety Report for Siting a Near Surface Repository at Saligny Site, 2007, pages 8.2.1-1 to 8.2.1-22 and 8-63 to 8-70] was the assessment of safety indicators. Individual annual effective dose for exposed peoples (both workers and general public) was the main safety indicator. In the same document, the radionuclide concentration in the disposal system compartments has been evaluated, as supplementary safety indicator of repository barriers (especially to confirm the natural barrier performance). The results confirmed the performance of natural barrier: the maximum extension of H-3 and Co-60 contaminant plume after repository closure remains more above underground water level. In the aquifer, iodine concentration reaches a value of 10-15 mol/l, at the same magnitude order with the admitted limit from CFR 141

  16. Nanoparticles and blood-brain barrier: the key to central nervous system diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, Alazne; Suárez-Merino, Blanca; Goñi-de-Cerio, Felipe

    2014-01-01

    Major central nervous system disorders represent a significant and worldwide public health problem. In fact, the therapeutic success of many pharmaceuticals developed to treat central nervous system diseases is still moderate, since the blood-brain barrier (BBB) limits the access of systemically administered compounds to the brain. Therefore, they require the application of a large total dose of a drug, and cause numerous toxic effects. The development of nanotechnological systems are useful tools to deliver therapeutics and/or diagnostic probes to the brain due to nanocarriers having the potential to improve the therapeutic effect of drugs and to reduce their side effects. This review provides a brief overview of the variety of carriers employed for central nervous system drug and diagnostic probes delivery. Further, this paper focuses on the novel nanocarriers developed to enhance brain delivery across the blood-brain barrier. Special attention is paid to liposomes, micelles, polymeric and lipid-based nanoparticles, dendrimers and carbon nanotubes. The recent developments in nanocarrier implementation through size/charge optimization and surface modifications (PEGylation, targeting delivery, and coating with surfactants) have been discussed. And a detailed description of the nanoscaled pharmaceutical delivery devices employed for the treatment of central nervous system disorders have also been defined. The aim of the review is to evaluate the nanotechnology-based drug delivery strategies to treat different central nervous system disorders.

  17. Breakup mechanisms for 7Li + 197Au, 204Pb systems at sub-barrier energies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luong D.H.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Coincidence measurements of breakup fragments were carried out for the 7Li + 197Au and 204Pb systems at sub-barrier energies. The mechanisms triggering breakup, and time-scales of each process, were identified through the reaction Q-values and the relative energy of the breakup fragments. Binary breakup of 7Li were found to be predominantly triggered by nucleon transfer, with p-pickup leading to 8Be → α + α decay being the preferred breakup mode. From the time-scales of each process, the coincidence yields were separated into prompt and delayed components, allowing the identification of breakup process important in the suppression of complete fusion of 7Li at above-barrier energies.

  18. Effects of sea-level rise on barrier island groundwater system dynamics: ecohydrological implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterson, John P.; Fienen, Michael N.; Thieler, E. Robert; Gesch, Dean B.; Gutierrez, Benjamin T.; Plant, Nathaniel G.

    2014-01-01

    We used a numerical model to investigate how a barrier island groundwater system responds to increases of up to 60 cm in sea level. We found that a sea-level rise of 20 cm leads to substantial changes in the depth of the water table and the extent and depth of saltwater intrusion, which are key determinants in the establishment, distribution and succession of vegetation assemblages and habitat suitability in barrier islands ecosystems. In our simulations, increases in water-table height in areas with a shallow depth to water (or thin vadose zone) resulted in extensive groundwater inundation of land surface and a thinning of the underlying freshwater lens. We demonstrated the interdependence of the groundwater response to island morphology by evaluating changes at three sites. This interdependence can have a profound effect on ecosystem composition in these fragile coastal landscapes under long-term changing climatic conditions.

  19. Cap-Gly proteins at microtubule plus ends: is EB1 detyrosination involved?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anouk Bosson

    Full Text Available Localization of CAP-Gly proteins such as CLIP170 at microtubule+ends results from their dual interaction with α-tubulin and EB1 through their C-terminal amino acids -EEY. Detyrosination (cleavage of the terminal tyrosine of α-tubulin by tubulin-carboxypeptidase abolishes CLIP170 binding. Can detyrosination affect EB1 and thus regulate the presence of CLIP170 at microtubule+ends as well? We developed specific antibodies to discriminate tyrosinated vs detyrosinated forms of EB1 and detected only tyrosinated EB1 in fibroblasts, astrocytes, and total brain tissue. Over-expressed EB1 was not detyrosinated in cells and chimeric EB1 with the eight C-terminal amino acids of α-tubulin was only barely detyrosinated. Our results indicate that detyrosination regulates CLIPs interaction with α-tubulin, but not with EB1. They highlight the specificity of carboxypeptidase toward tubulin.

  20. Development of backfill material as an engineered barrier in the waste package system. Interim topical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A backfill barrier, emplaced between the containerized waste and the host rock, can both protect the other engineered barriers and act as a primary barrier to the release of radionuclides from the waste package. Attributes that a backfill should provide in order to carry out its required function have been identified. Primary attributes are those that have a direct effect upon the release and transport of radionuclides from the waste package. Supportive attributes do not directly affect radionuclide release but are necessary to support the primary attributes. The primary attributes, in order of importance, are: minimize (retard or exclude) the migration of ground water between the host rock and the waste canister system; retard the migration of selected chemical species (corrosive species and radionuclides) in the ground water; control the Eh and pH of the ground water within the waste-package environment. The supportive attributes are: self-seal any cracks or discontinuities in the backfill or interfacing host geology; retain performance properties at all repository temperatures; retain peformance properties during and after receiving repository levels of gamma radiation; conduct heat from the canister system to the host geology; retain mechanical properties and provide resistance to applied mechanical forces; retain morphological stability and compatibility with structural barriers and with the host geology for required period of time. Screening and selection of candidate backfill materials has resulted in a preliminary list of materials for testing. Primary emphasis has been placed on sodium and calcium bentonites and zeolites used in conjunction with quartz sand or crushed host rock. Preliminary laboratory studies have concentrated on permeability, sorption, swelling pressure, and compaction properties of candidate backfill materials

  1. Quantifying system safety: A comparison of the SBOAT & Safety Barrier Manager tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee; Duijm, Nijs Jan; Markert, Frank;

    2015-01-01

    of valid safety-barrier diagrams and allows the quantitative analysis of the probability of all possible end states of the barrier diagram, i.e. the outcomes if one or several of the barriers fail to perform their barrier function. We compare the foundations of these tools and describe how they can be used...

  2. Trap Cropping Systems and a Physical Barrier for Suppression of Stink Bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in Cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, P G; Khrimian, A; Cottrell, T E; Lou, X; Mizell, R F; Johnson, C J

    2015-10-01

    Euschistus servus (Say), Nezara viridula (L.), and Chinavia hilaris (Say) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) are economic pests of cotton in the coastal plain of the southeastern United States. The objective of this 2-yr study was to determine the ability of trap cropping systems, pheromone-baited stink bug traps, and a synthetic physical barrier at the peanut-to-cotton interface to manage stink bugs in cotton. The physical barrier was the most effective management tactic. Stink bug density in cotton was lowest for this treatment. In 2010, boll injury was lower for the physical barrier compared to the other treatments except for soybean with stink bug traps. In 2011, boll injury was lower for this treatment compared to the control. Soybean was an effective trap crop, reducing both stink bug density in cotton and boll injury regardless if used alone or in combination with either stink bug traps or buckwheat. Incorporation of buckwheat in soybean enhanced parasitism of E. servus egg masses by Telenomus podisi Ashmead in cotton. The insertion of eyelets in the lid of the insect-collecting device of a stink bug trap allowed adult stink bug parasitoids, but not E. servus, to escape. Stand-alone stink bug traps were not very effective in deterring colonization of cotton by stink bugs or reducing boll injury. The paucity of effective alternative control measures available for stink bug management justifies further full-scale evaluations into these management tactics for control of these pests in crops. PMID:26453721

  3. Investigating Barriers to Tuberculosis Evaluation in Uganda Using Geographic Information Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Jennifer M; Cattamanchi, Adithya; Miller, Cecily R; Tatem, Andrew J; Katamba, Achilles; Haguma, Priscilla; Handley, Margaret A; Davis, J Lucian

    2015-10-01

    Reducing geographic barriers to tuberculosis (TB) care is a priority in high-burden countries where patients frequently initiate, but do not complete, the multi-day TB evaluation process. Using routine cross-sectional study from six primary-health clinics in rural Uganda from 2009 to 2012, we explored whether geographic barriers affect completion of TB evaluation among adults with unexplained chronic cough. We measured distance from home parish to health center and calculated individual travel time using a geographic information systems technique incorporating roads, land cover, and slope, and measured its association with completion of TB evaluation. In 264,511 patient encounters, 4,640 adults (1.8%) had sputum smear microscopy ordered; 2,783 (60%) completed TB evaluation. Median travel time was 68 minutes for patients with TB examination ordered compared with 60 minutes without (P < 0.010). Travel time differed between those who did and did not complete TB evaluation at only one of six clinics, whereas distance to care did not differ at any of them. Neither distance nor travel time predicted completion of TB evaluation in rural Uganda, although limited detail in road and village maps restricted full implementation of these mapping techniques. Better data are needed on geographic barriers to access clinics offering TB services to improve TB diagnosis. PMID:26217044

  4. [Female migrants in the health care system. Health care utilisation, access barriers and health promotion strategies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimmer-Puchinger, B; Wolf, H; Engleder, A

    2006-09-01

    Due to the evident interaction between social factors and health, migrants are exposed to specific risk factors and access barriers to health services. Some examples are the lower education level, the low social position and/or the insufficient language skills. This concept is further elaborated in the multi-factorial impacts of health literacy. Female migrants often experience additional discrimination because of their gender. Despite the lack of representative data, consistent studies show that female migrants do not regularly take advantage of health care prevention and present themselves with higher degrees of stress. The current "inadequate health care" manifests itself in a lack of care in the areas of prevention and health education and an abundance in the context of medication and diagnostic procedures. To meet these demands and to further reduce barriers, in particular language barriers, specific strategies for this target group involving both politics and the health care system have to be developed. Besides the employment of interpreters with a native cultural background and the distribution of information booklets, it is an important strategy to reduce structural obstacles such as cultural diversity. To contact these women in their living environment should help to increase their self-determined health promotion. Selected models of good practice in Austria with regard to the themes of FGM (female genital mutilation), violence, heart disease and breast cancer are presented to highlight the specific health situation and risk factors of female migrants as well as successful strategies to confront them. PMID:16927035

  5. Marsh Edge Erosion Effects in Coupled Barrier Island-Marsh Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauzon, R.; Moore, L. J.; Murray, A. B.; Walters, D.; Fagherazzi, S.; Mariotti, G.

    2014-12-01

    While until recently marsh loss was largely thought to be due to an inability for vertical accretion rates to match rates of sea level rise, marsh edge erosion by wind waves is now thought to be the leading cause of marsh loss worldwide. To better understand the response of coastal ecosystems to future changes in sea level and storm intensity, we further develop the coupled barrier-island marsh evolution model GEOMBEST+. We use the relationship between wave height (and therefore energy) and fetch and wind speed to add marsh edge erosion to the model, as well as to provide a more physical formulation for bay bottom erosion. Previous research addressing marshes in isolation from barrier islands (Mariotti and Fagherazzi, 2013) suggests that the existence of a backbarrier marsh is an unstable state, tending to either grow laterally to completely fill an adjacent basin or to erode away completely. Previous results of GEOMBEST+ experiments (Walters et al., in review) suggest that couplings with an adjacent barrier island can add an additional alternate long-lasting state: a narrow marsh supported by sediment influx from overwash. Here we present the results of new GEOMBEST+ model experiments that address how the addition of lateral erosion by wind waves affects the existence and characteristics of the narrow marsh state. Specifically, we seek to address how the frequency and characteristic time and space scales of the narrow march state are affected. Model experiments also explore more broadly the importance of wind wave effects in understanding the coupled dynamics of marsh-barrier island systems.

  6. Asphalt emulsion radon barrier systems for uranium mill tailings: an overview of the technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), under contract to the US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP) office, has developed an asphalt emulsion cover system to reduce the release of radon from uranium mill tailings. The system has been field tested at Grand Junction, Colorado. Results from laboratory and field tests indicate that this system is effective in reducing radon release to near-background levels (-2s-1) and has the properties required for long-term effectiveness and stability. Engineering specifications have been developed, and analysis indicates that asphalt emulsion covers are cost-competitive with other cover systems. This report summarizes the technology for asphalt emulsion radon barrier systems. 59 references, 45 figures, 36 tables

  7. Asphalt emulsion radon barrier systems for uranium mill tailings: an overview of the technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, E.G.; Hartley, J.N.; Freeman, H.D.; Gates, T.E.; Nelson, D.A.; Dunning, R.L.

    1984-03-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), under contract to the US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP) office, has developed an asphalt emulsion cover system to reduce the release of radon from uranium mill tailings. The system has been field tested at Grand Junction, Colorado. Results from laboratory and field tests indicate that this system is effective in reducing radon release to near-background levels (<2.5 pCi m/sup -2/s/sup -1/) and has the properties required for long-term effectiveness and stability. Engineering specifications have been developed, and analysis indicates that asphalt emulsion covers are cost-competitive with other cover systems. This report summarizes the technology for asphalt emulsion radon barrier systems. 59 references, 45 figures, 36 tables.

  8. Experimental Research Of Charged Particles Streams, Emitted From Area Of Eb Acting On Material, In Order To Estimate The Possibilities Of Using Them To Eb Welding Control

    CERN Document Server

    Olszewska, K

    2001-01-01

    The basic parameters of electron beam (EB) welding process are position and dimensions of so called EB active zone. Wrong position of active zone make impossible to obtain desirable shape of a weld and may cause various defects of a weld. Relatively reach source of information about EB welding process are charged particles emitted from the area of EB acting on material. The measurements of various types of signals for the three largest groups of charged particles: back-scattered electrons, really secondary electrons and ions were carried out. It was estimated that practically none of them could be used directly in procedures of EB active zone position control. It is result of ambiguous of information, they contain and susceptibility to interferences or impossibility of real time data acquisition. Using the neural networks can solve this problem. The computer simulations of various models of neural networks were done. The best result was obtained for network, which has as input signals: accelerating voltage, E...

  9. Development and Performance Evaluations of HfO2-Si and Rare Earth-Si Based Environmental Barrier Bond Coat Systems for SiC/SiC Ceramic Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming

    2014-01-01

    Ceramic environmental barrier coatings (EBC) and SiCSiC ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) will play a crucial role in future aircraft propulsion systems because of their ability to significantly increase engine operating temperatures, improve component durability, reduce engine weight and cooling requirements. Advanced EBC systems for SiCSiC CMC turbine and combustor hot section components are currently being developed to meet future turbine engine emission and performance goals. One of the significant material development challenges for the high temperature CMC components is to develop prime-reliant, high strength and high temperature capable environmental barrier coating bond coat systems, since the current silicon bond coat cannot meet the advanced EBC-CMC temperature and stability requirements. In this paper, advanced NASA HfO2-Si based EBC bond coat systems for SiCSiC CMC combustor and turbine airfoil applications are investigated. The coating design approach and stability requirements are specifically emphasized, with the development and implementation focusing on Plasma Sprayed (PS) and Electron Beam-Physic Vapor Deposited (EB-PVD) coating systems and the composition optimizations. High temperature properties of the HfO2-Si based bond coat systems, including the strength, fracture toughness, creep resistance, and oxidation resistance were evaluated in the temperature range of 1200 to 1500 C. Thermal gradient heat flux low cycle fatigue and furnace cyclic oxidation durability tests were also performed at temperatures up to 1500 C. The coating strength improvements, degradation and failure modes of the environmental barrier coating bond coat systems on SiCSiC CMCs tested in simulated stress-environment interactions are briefly discussed and supported by modeling. The performance enhancements of the HfO2-Si bond coat systems with rare earth element dopants and rare earth-silicon based bond coats are also highlighted. The advanced bond coat systems, when

  10. Evolution of fusion hindrance for asymmetric systems at deep sub barrier energies

    CERN Document Server

    Shrivastavaa, A; Pandit, S K; Nanal, V; Ichikawa, T; Hagino, K; Navin, A; Palshetkar, C S; Parkar, V V; Ramachandran, K; Rout, P C; Kumar, Abhinav; Chatterjee, A; Kailas, S

    2016-01-01

    Measurements of fusion cross-sections of 7Li and 12C with 198Pt at deep sub-barrier energies are reported to unravel the role of the entrance channel in the occurrence of fusion hindrance. The onset of fusion hindrance has been clearly observed in 12C + 198Pt system but not in 7Li + 198Pt system, within the measured energy range. Emergence of the hindrance, moving from lighter (6,7Li) to heavier (12C,16O) projectiles is explained employing a model that considers a gradual transition from a sudden to adiabatic regime at low energies. The model calculation reveals a weak effect of the damping of coupling to collective motion for the present systems as compared to that obtained for systems with heavier projectiles.

  11. Role of histaminergic system in blood-brain barrier dysfunction associated with neurological disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bañuelos-Cabrera, Ivette; Valle-Dorado, María Guadalupe; Aldana, Blanca Irene; Orozco-Suárez, Sandra Adela; Rocha, Luisa

    2014-11-01

    Blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption has been associated with several acute and chronic brain disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and epilepsy. This represents a critical situation because damaged integrity of the BBB is related to the influx of immune mediators, plasma proteins and other outside elements from blood to the central nervous system (CNS) that may trigger a cascade of events that leads to neuroinflammation. In this review, evidence that mast cells and the release of factors such as histamine play an important role in the neuroinflammatory process associated with brain disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and epilepsy is presented.

  12. Role of barrier layer on dielectric function of graphene double layer system at finite temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Digish K.; Ambavale, Sagar K.; Prajapati, Ketan; Sharma, A. C.

    2016-05-01

    We have theoretically investigated the static dielectric function of graphene double layer system (GDLS) at finite temperatures within the random phase approximation. GDLS has been suspended on a substrate and barrier layer of three different materials; h-BN, Al2O3 and HfO2 has been introduced between two graphene sheets of GDLS. We have reported dependence of the overall dielectric function of GDLS on interlayer distance and the effect of the dielectric environment at finite temperatures. Results show close relation between changing environment and behavior of dielectric constant of GDLS.

  13. Burden of Circulatory System Diseases and Ignored Barriers ofKnowledge Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed-Basir Ghafouri

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Circulatory system disease raise third highest disability-adjusted life years among Iranians and ischemic cardiac diseases are main causes for such burden. Despite available evidences on risk factors of the disease, no effective intervention was implemented to control and prevent the disease. This paper non-systematically reviews available literature on the problem, solutions, and barriers of implementation of knowledge translation in Iran. It seems that there are ignored factors such as cultural and motivational issues in knowledge translation interventions but there are hopes for implementation of started projects and preparation of students as next generation of knowledge transferors.

  14. Technical position on postclosure seals, barriers, and drainage system in an unsaturated medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this technical position is to provide guidance with respect to the current Department of Energy sealing and drainage concepts for a geologic repository in an unsaturated medium. Section 2.0 of the technical position provides a listing of the 10 CFR 60 regulations which are applicable to the design, testing, selection of materials and placement of the postclosure seals, barriers and drainage system. Staff position statements and the corresponding discussions are presented in Sections 3.0 and 4.0, respectively. Technical positions are organized according to the following topics: (1) design consideration, (2) site characterization considerations, (3) performance confirmation considerations, and (4) performance analysis considerations. 6 refs

  15. Overcoming the Meter Barrier and The Formation of Systems with Tightly-packed Inner Planets (STIPs)

    CERN Document Server

    Boley, Aaron C; Ford, Eric B

    2014-01-01

    We present a solution to the long outstanding meter barrier problem in planet formation theory. As solids spiral inward due to aerodynamic drag, they will enter disk regions that are characterized by high temperatures, densities, and pressures. High partial pressures of rock vapor can suppress solid evaporation, and promote collisions between partially molten solids, allowing rapid growth. This process should be ubiquitous in planet-forming disks, which may be evidenced by the abundant class of Systems with Tightly-packed Inner Planets (STIPs) discovered by the NASA Kepler mission.

  16. OVERCOMING THE METER BARRIER AND THE FORMATION OF SYSTEMS WITH TIGHTLY PACKED INNER PLANETS (STIPs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boley, A. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of British Columbia, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, B.C. V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Morris, M. A. [Center for Meteorite Studies, Arizona State University, P.O. Box 876004, Tempe, AZ 88287-6004 (United States); Ford, E. B. [Center for Exoplanets and Habitable Worlds, The Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Laboratory, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2014-09-10

    We present a solution to the long outstanding meter barrier problem in planet formation theory. As solids spiral inward due to aerodynamic drag, they will enter disk regions that are characterized by high temperatures, densities, and pressures. High partial pressures of rock vapor can suppress solid evaporation, and promote collisions between partially molten solids, allowing rapid growth. This process should be ubiquitous in planet-forming disks, which may be evidenced by the abundant class of Systems with Tightly packed Inner Planets discovered by the NASA Kepler Mission.

  17. Engineered barrier system and waste package design concepts for a potential geologic repository at Yucca Mountain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Short, D.W.; Ruffner, D.J.; Jardine, L.J.

    1991-10-01

    We are using an iterative process to develop preliminary concept descriptions for the Engineered Barrier System and waste-package components for the potential geologic repository at Yucca Mountain. The process allows multiple design concepts to be developed subject to major constraints, requirements, and assumptions. Involved in the highly interactive and interdependent steps of the process are technical specialists in engineering, metallic and nonmetallic materials, chemistry, geomechanics, hydrology, and geochemistry. We have developed preliminary design concepts that satisfy both technical and nontechnical (e.g., programmatic or policy) requirements.

  18. Nanofiber-based filters as novel barrier systems for nanomaterial exposure scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faccini, M; Amantia, D; Vazquez-Campos, S; Aubouy, L [LEITAT Technological Center, Passeig 22 de Juliol, 218, 08221 Terrassa (Spain); Vaquero, C; Lopez de Ipina, J M, E-mail: mfaccini@leitat.org [Tecnalia, P.T. Alava - C/ Leonardo Da Vinci, 11, 01510 Minano (Alava) (Spain)

    2011-07-06

    In this article our latest advances in the development of efficient barrier systems against micro- and nano-particulate materials are presented. Nanofibrous polyamide 6 (PA6) mats were fabricated by electrospinning onto a nonwoven viscose substrate. The influence of electrospinning parameters including solution concentration, viscosity, and conductivity, were studied for the production of nonwovens with different fiber size distribution ranging from 74 to 261 nm in diameters. Moreover, the formation of nanowebs (30-40 nm) which are widely distributed among fibers was observed. By varying several process parameters, membranes with different thickness of the nanofiber layer and therefore air permeability and nanoparticle filtration efficiency were obtained.

  19. The Design and Implementation of Monitoring System Based on SolarWeb%基于 SolarW eb 的监控系统设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王浩诒

    2013-01-01

    As a kind of renewable new resource,the value of solar energy has been emphasized.Con-temporarily,the application of solar energy is developing rapidly in China.The grid connection and the gen-eration rate of large-scale photovoltaic power stations are escalating.Consequently,it is necessary to utilize an intelligent system for the management and maintenance of power stations.This article will introduce the construction of the management platform of SolarWeb Photovoltaic Monitoring System.In this system,the requirements of safety and reliability for the operation of power station equipments are adequately considered with the characteristics of the precision management of distributed grids.A new type of direct,efficient man-agement platform will be introduced to the management of power station.%当前国内太阳能的应用正处于大力发展阶段,大型光伏电站并网和发电逐步增多,因此必须对电站进行专业化和智能化的管理与维护。文章重点介绍了SolarWeb光伏监控系统管理平台的构成。该系统充分考虑电站设备运行的安全性和可靠性,结合智能电网对分布式发电网精细管理的特点,为电站管理提供全新的全面管理平台。

  20. Next generation of non-mammalian blood-brain barrier models to study parasitic infections of the central nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Ruqaiyyah; Edwards-Smallbone, James; Flynn, Robin; Khan, Naveed Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Transmigration of neuropathogens across the blood-brain barrier is a key step in the development of central nervous system infections, making it a prime target for drug development. The ability of neuropathogens to traverse the blood-brain barrier continues to inspire researchers to understand the specific strategies and molecular mechanisms that allow them to enter the brain. The availability of models of the blood-brain barrier that closely mimic the situation in vivo offers unprecedented opportunities for the development of novel therapeutics. PMID:21921682

  1. Systems and methods for measuring a parameter of a landfill including a barrier cap and wireless sensor systems and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunerth, Dennis C.; Svoboda, John M.; Johnson, James T.

    2007-03-06

    A method of measuring a parameter of a landfill including a cap, without passing wires through the cap, includes burying a sensor apparatus in the landfill prior to closing the landfill with the cap; providing a reader capable of communicating with the sensor apparatus via radio frequency (RF); placing an antenna above the barrier, spaced apart from the sensor apparatus; coupling the antenna to the reader either before or after placing the antenna above the barrier; providing power to the sensor apparatus, via the antenna, by generating a field using the reader; accumulating and storing power in the sensor apparatus; sensing a parameter of the landfill using the sensor apparatus while using power; and transmitting the sensed parameter to the reader via a wireless response signal. A system for measuring a parameter of a landfill is also provided.

  2. Improving vascular access outcomes: a systems approach to eliminating structural barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sands, Jeffrey J; Perry, Michael A

    2003-01-01

    Maximizing AV fistula creation, regular access monitoring, prompt outpatient interventions and minimizing catheter use are well-accepted approaches for vascular access management. Systemic barriers impede the application of these strategies. A misaligned reimbursement system coupled with educational deficits and a lack of accountability has contributed to the institutionalization of substandard vascular access care. The hallmark of performance management is to create systems in which incentives are aligned to produce desired behaviors. Realigning reimbursement through a combination of pre-ESRD funding, enhancements to the composite rate to reward outcomes and cover vascular access monitoring and updated reimbursement for outpatient vascular access procedures would improve care and decrease unnecessary hospitalizations. This should be coupled with clearly defined outcome standards and accountability incorporated into hospital accreditation and credentialing. Capitation may provide alternative solutions. A two-phased approach including reimbursement reform while exploring capitation represents a prudent course with the best likelihood of success. PMID:12596756

  3. Effects of EB irradiation on stress-strain curves for carbon fiber reinforced composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, H.; Yamada, K.; Mizutani, A.; Uchida, N.; Tanaka, K.; Nishi, Yoshitake

    2004-02-01

    In order to evaluate influence of electron beam (EB) irradiation on elasticity and stress- strain curve of composite materials reinforced by carbon fiber (CF), carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) and carbon fiber reinforced graphite (C/C) were treated by EB irradiation of 0.3 MGy. Since the EB strengthening was mainly dominated by the ductility enhancements of carbon fiber and matrix of epoxy resin, EB irradiation enlarged fracture stress and enhanced fracture strain of CFRP. Furthermore, EB irradiation slightly enhanced bending elasticity of CFRP and largely enhanced the initial spring constant related to elasticity of C/C coil. Although the elasticity enhancement of carbon fibers did not largely contribute that of CFRP, that of treated graphite matrix in C/C mainly caused the C/C coil elasticity enhancement by EB irradiation. Such a new treatment is a dream-worthy technology for structural materials to be applied in the fields of future engineering.

  4. Changes in skin barrier during treatment with systemic alitretinoin: focus on skin susceptibility and stratum corneum ceramides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jungersted, J.M.; Høgh, Julie Kaae; Hellgren, Lars;

    2010-01-01

    Alitretinoin is a new drug for systemic treatment of chronic hand eczema. Previous functional tests of skin topically treated with retinoids have indicated impaired skin barrier function, but no data are available on barrier parameters after systemic alitretinoin treatment. To investigate the...... effect of systemic alitretinoin on skin barrier function and response to irritants, a secondary objective was to determine if changes occur in the lipid profile of stratum corneum after treatment with systemic alitretinoin. We conducted an open clinical intervention study on eight people ascribed to...... systemic alitretinoin treatment. The criteria for being ascribed to alitretinoin were chronic hand eczema and insufficient therapeutic response to potent topical corticosteroids. Before initiation and after 2 months of systemic treatment with 30 mg alitretinoin, a challenge with sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS...

  5. Proceedings of the FNCA 2004 workshop on application of electron accelerator. EB treatment of flue gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Forum for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia (FNCA) Workshop on Application of Electron Accelerator' was sponsored by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT). The 2004 workshop was jointly organized by China Atomic Energy Authority (CAEA), Institute of Modern Physics/Chinese Academy of Sciences(IMP-CAS) and Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). It was held at Prime Hotel, Beijing, China from 6 to 10 September 2004. The Workshop was attended by 28 experts on application of electron accelerator from each of the participating countries, i.e., China, Indonesia, Korea, Malaysia, The Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam, and 10 participants from Japan. On the first day, a National Executive Management Seminar on Application of Electron Accelerator was held and attended by 67 participants. Total of 20 papers including Seminar lectures, invited papers on flue gas treatment by electron beam, and country reports on EB irradiation system were presented. The major areas of interest of FNCA member states for cooperation were identified for application of low energy electron accelerator as liquid (natural polymer, wastewater), solid (hydrogel, thin film) and gases (flue gas). Based on the proposal from the participating countries, discussions were carried out to re-formulate the work plan of the project for three years until FY 2005. It was agreed the FNCA 2005 workshop on EB treatment of wastewater will be held in Korea. All manuscripts submitted by every speaker were included in the proceedings. The 20 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  6. EBS/C proton spectra from a virgin diamond crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erich, M.; Kokkoris, M.; Fazinić, S.; Petrović, S.

    2016-08-01

    In the present work, elastic backscattering channeling spectra, EBS/C, of protons in a diamond crystal were experimentally and theoretically studied via a new computer simulation code. Proton incident energies for EBS/C spectra were in the energy range from 1.0 MeV to 1.9 MeV. The energy range was chosen in order to explore a distinct strong resonance of the 12C(p,p0)12C elastic scattering at 1737 keV. The computer simulation code applied for the fitting of the experimental spectra in the random mode was compared with the corresponding SIMNRA results. In the channeling mode, it assumes a Gompertz type sigmoidal dechanneling function, which has two fitting parameters, xc and k, the dechanneling range and rate, respectively. It also uses α, ratio of the channeling to random energy losses, as a fitting parameter. It was observed that xc increases, k decreases and α stays relatively constant with the proton incident energy. These observations confirm the physical interpretation of the fitting parameters. Also, they constitute the basics for the further development of the code for the quantification of induced amorphization and depth profiling of implanted ions.

  7. Socio-cultural barriers to the development of a sustainable energy system - the case of hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjerulf Petersen, L.; Holst Andersen, A.

    2009-02-15

    Any transition to a more sustainable energy system, radically reducing greenhouse gas emissions, is bound to run in to a host of different barriers - technological and economic, but also socio-cultural. This will also be the case for any large-scale application of hydrogen as energy carrier, especially if the system is going to be based on renewable energy sources. The aim of these research notes is to review and discuss major socio-cultural barriers to new forms of energy supply in general and to hydrogen specifically. Reaching sufficient reductions in greenhouse gas emissions may require more than large-scale dissemination of renewable energy sources. Also reductions or moderations in energy demand may be necessary. Hence, a central point in the research note is to consider not only socio-cultural obstacles for changing technologies in energy production, distribution and consumption but also obstacles for changing the scale of energy consumption, i.e. moderating the growth in how much energy is consumed or even reducing consumption volumes. (au)

  8. Performance Confirmation for the Engineered Barrier System. Report of a Workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of preparations for review of future license applications, the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) organised a workshop on the engineered barrier system for the KBS-3 concept, focused on Performance Confirmation (PC). The workshop was held during 12 - 14 May, 2004 at Oskarshamn. The main purpose of the workshop was to identify key issues relating to the demonstration of long-term safety using a system of engineered barriers. The workshop began with introductory presentations on Performance Confirmation, on monitoring, and on long-term experiments in underground research laboratories. Working groups were then convened to discuss these topics and identify questions to put to the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) the following day. On the second day, SKB made several presentations, mainly on long-term experiments conducted at the Aespoe underground research laboratory. These presentations were followed by an informal session during which the questions identified by the working groups on the first day were discussed with SKB and its representatives. This report includes the questions identified by the working groups and a summary of the workshop discussions. Extended abstracts for the introductory presentations are included in an appendix. The conclusions and viewpoints presented in this report are those of one or several workshop participants. They do not necessarily coincide with those of SKI

  9. Smart parking barrier

    KAUST Repository

    Alharbi, Abdulrazaq M.

    2016-05-06

    Various methods and systems are provided for smart parking barriers. In one example, among others, a smart parking barrier system includes a movable parking barrier located at one end of a parking space, a barrier drive configured to control positioning of the movable parking barrier, and a parking controller configured to initiate movement of the parking barrier, via the barrier drive. The movable parking barrier can be positioned between a first position that restricts access to the parking space and a second position that allows access to the parking space. The parking controller can initiate movement of the movable parking barrier in response to a positive identification of an individual allowed to use the parking space. The parking controller can identify the individual through, e.g., a RFID tag, a mobile device (e.g., a remote control, smartphone, tablet, etc.), an access card, biometric information, or other appropriate identifier.

  10. Overcoming Barriers to the Implementation of a Pharmacy Bar Code Scanning System for Medication Dispensing: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Nanji, Karen C.; Cina, Jennifer; Patel, Nirali; Churchill, William; Gandhi, Tejal K.; Poon, Eric G.

    2009-01-01

    Technology has great potential to reduce medication errors in hospitals. This case report describes barriers to, and facilitators of, the implementation of a pharmacy bar code scanning system to reduce medication dispensing errors at a large academic medical center. Ten pharmacy staff were interviewed about their experiences during the implementation. Interview notes were iteratively reviewed to identify common themes. The authors identified three main barriers to pharmacy bar code scanning s...

  11. Graphene as a diffusion barrier for isomorphous systems: Cu-Ni system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Apurba; Punith Kumar, M. K.; Srivastava, Chandan

    2016-02-01

    Electrochemical exfoliation technique using the pyrophosphate anion derived from tetra sodium pyrophosphate was employed to produce graphene. As-synthesized graphene was then drop dried over a cold rolled Cu sheet. Ni coating was then electrodeposited over bare Cu and graphene-Cu substrates. Both substrates were then isothermally annealed at 800 °C for 3 h. WDS analysis showed substantial atomic diffusion in annealed Ni-Cu sample. Cu-graphene-Ni sample, on the other hand, showed negligible diffusion illustrating the diffusion barrier property of the graphene coating.

  12. Residual stress measurement of EB-welded plates with contour method. Part 2: FEM analysis of contour profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romppanen, A.-J.; Immonen, E. [Process Flow Oy, Turku (Finland)

    2013-12-15

    The residual stresses formed as a result of Electronic Beam welding (EB-welding) in copper are investigated by Posiva. In the present study, residual stresses of EB-welded copper plates were studied with contour method. In the method eleven copper plates (X436 - X440 and X453 - X458) were cut in half with wire electric discharge machining (EDM) after which the deformation due to stress relaxation was measured with coordinate measurement system. The measured data was then used as boundary displacement data for the FEM analyses, in which the corresponding residual stresses were calculated. Before giving the corresponding displacement boundary conditions to the FE models, the deformation data was processed and smoothed appropriately. The residual stress levels of the copper plates were found to be around 40 - 55 MPa at maximum. This corresponds to other reported residual stress measurements and current state of knowledge with this material in Posiva. (orig.)

  13. The advantages and barriers in the implementation of a substance dependence treatment information system (SDTIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajami, Sima; Mellat-Karkevandi, Zahra

    2015-11-01

    Addiction is a phenomenon that causes structural changes in different systems of society. Studies show for planning of addiction prevention and treatment, it is necessary to create an information management system. Substance dependence information systems refer to systems which collect, analyse and report data related to substance dependence information. The aim of this study was to identify advantages and barriers to implement Substance Dependence Treatment Information System (SDTIS). This study was a narrative review. Our review divided into three phases: literature collection, assessing, and selection. We employed the following keywords and their combinations in different areas of articles. In this study, 22 of collected articles and reports were selected based on their relevancy. We found many advantages for a substance dependence treatment information system such as recording sufficient, complete and accurate information and easy and timely access to them and monitoring and enhancing the quality of care received by patients. But we may face some concerns for implementing this information system like taking time and funds from client services, being expensive or even problems regarding the quality of data contained in these information systems. There are some important problems in the way of implementing. In order to overcome these issues, we need to raise community awareness.

  14. The advantages and barriers in the implementation of a substance dependence treatment information system (SDTIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima Ajami

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Addiction is a phenomenon that causes structural changes in different systems of society. Studies show for planning of addiction prevention and treatment, it is necessary to create an information management system. Substance dependence information systems refer to systems which collect, analyse and report data related to substance dependence information. The aim of this study was to identify advantages and barriers to implement Substance Dependence Treatment Information System (SDTIS. This study was a narrative review. Our review divided into three phases: literature collection, assessing, and selection. We employed the following keywords and their combinations in different areas of articles. In this study, 22 of collected articles and reports were selected based on their relevancy. We found many advantages for a substance dependence treatment information system such as recording sufficient, complete and accurate information and easy and timely access to them and monitoring and enhancing the quality of care received by patients. But we may face some concerns for implementing this information system like taking time and funds from client services, being expensive or even problems regarding the quality of data contained in these information systems. There are some important problems in the way of implementing. In order to overcome these issues, we need to raise community awareness.

  15. Mean First Passage Time for System with Fluctuating Potential Barrier and Coupled Noise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jing-Hui; HAN Yin-Xia

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we study the mean first passage time (MFPT) over a fluctuation potential barrier driven by a coupled noise. It is shown that the MFPT over the fluctuation potential barrier displays resonant activations as the function of the flipping rate of the fluctuation potential barrier, and as the function of the dichotomous noise transition rate.

  16. Degradation of Organic Compounds by Active Species Sprayed in a Dielectric Barrier Corona Discharge System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jie; SONG Ling; LIU Qiang; QU Guangzhou; LI Guofeng; WU Yan

    2009-01-01

    Investigation was made into the degradation of organic compounds by a dielectric barrier corona discharge (DBCD) system. The DBCD, consisting of a quartz tube, a concentric high voltage electrode and a net wrapped to the external wall (used as ground electrode), was introduced to generate active species which were sprayed into the organic solution through an aerator fixed on the bottom of the tube. The effect of four factors-the discharge voltage, gas flow rate, solution conductivity, and pH of wastewater, on the degradation efficiency of phenol was assessed. The obtained results demonstrated that this process was an effective method for phenol degradation. The degradation rate was enhanced with the increase in power supplied. The degradation efficiency in alkaline conditions was higher than those in acid and neutral conditions.The optimal gas flow rate for phenol degradation in the system was 1.6 L/min, while the solution conductivity had little effect on the degradation.

  17. Strategies to overcome barriers for cleaner generation technologies in small developing power systems: Sri Lanka case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The penetration of cleaner and energy efficient technologies in small power systems such as the one in Sri Lanka has encountered many problems. This has caused major concerns among the policy makers, mainly in the context of the growing need to reduce harmful emissions in the electricity supply industry from the point of view of both local environmental pollution as well as the global warming concerns. This paper presents the outcome of a study involved in identifying and ranking the barriers to the promotion of cleaner and energy efficient technologies and strategies to overcome these barriers in Sri Lanka. Barriers for renewable energy based systems such as wind and wood fuel fired plants (dendro thermal power) and cleaner technologies such as liquefied natural gas (LNG) fired combined cycle and IGCC (coal) were identified based on a survey. A direct assessment multi-criteria decision making method called Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) was used to rank the barriers. The most effective strategies are proposed to address the three major barriers for each of these technologies based on extensive discussions with all the stakeholders in the electricity industry. It was found that lack of financing instruments, high initial cost and lack of assurance of resource supply or availability are the main barriers for renewable technologies. As for cleaner fuel and technology options associated with conventional generation systems, the lack of a clear government policy, uncertainty of fuel supplies and their prices and the reliability of the technologies themselves are the major barriers. Strategies are identified to overcome the above barriers. Establishment of a proper feed in tariff, geographical diversification of installations and capacity building in commercial banks are suggested for wind power. Investment incentives, streamlining of wood production and research on site identification are proposed for wood fuel fired plants. Also the study suggests delayed

  18. Regulated competition in health care: Switching and barriers to switching in the Dutch health insurance system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rijken Mieke

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2006, a number of changes in the Dutch health insurance system came into effect. In this new system mobility of insured is important. The idea is that insured switch insurers because they are not satisfied with quality of care and the premium of their insurance. As a result, insurers will in theory strive for a better balance between price and quality. The Dutch changes have caught the attention, internationally, of both policy makers and researchers. In our study we examined switching behaviour over three years (2007-2009. We tested if there are differences in the numbers of switchers between groups defined by socio-demographic and health characteristics and between the general population and people with chronic illness or disability. We also looked at reasons for (not-switching and at perceived barriers to switching. Methods Switching behaviour and reasons for (not-switching were measured over three years (2007-2009 by sending postal questionnaires to members of the Dutch Health Care Consumer Panel and of the National Panel of people with Chronic illness or Disability. Data were available for each year and for each panel for at least 1896 respondents - a response of between 71% and 88%. Results The percentages of switchers are low; 6% in 2007, 4% in 2008 and 3% in 2009. Younger and higher educated people switch more often than older and lower educated people and women switch more often than men. There is no difference in the percentage of switchers between the general population and people with chronic illness or disability. People with a bad self-perceived health, and chronically ill and disabled, perceive more barriers to switching than others. Conclusion The percentages of switchers are comparable to the old system. Switching is not based on quality of care and thus it can be questioned whether it will lead to a better balance between price and quality. Although there is no difference in the frequency of switching

  19. Protection against malevolent use of vehicles at Nuclear Power Plants. Vehicle barrier system selection guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This manual provides a simplified procedure for selecting land vehicle barriers that will stop the design basis vehicle threat adopted by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Proper selection and construction of vehicle barriers should prevent intrusion of the design basis vehicle. In addition, vital safety related equipment should survive a design basis vehicle bomb attack when vehicle barriers are properly selected, sited, and constructed. This manual addresses passive vehicle barriers, active vehicle barriers, and site design features that can be used to reduce vehicle impact velocity

  20. Anthrax lethal toxin disrupts intestinal barrier function and causes systemic infections with enteric bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Sun

    Full Text Available A variety of intestinal pathogens have virulence factors that target mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling pathways, including Bacillus anthracis. Anthrax lethal toxin (LT has specific proteolytic activity against the upstream regulators of MAPKs, the MAPK kinases (MKKs. Using a murine model of intoxication, we show that LT causes the dose-dependent disruption of intestinal epithelial integrity, characterized by mucosal erosion, ulceration, and bleeding. This pathology correlates with an LT-dependent blockade of intestinal crypt cell proliferation, accompanied by marked apoptosis in the villus tips. C57BL/6J mice treated with intravenous LT nearly uniformly develop systemic infections with commensal enteric organisms within 72 hours of administration. LT-dependent intestinal pathology depends upon its proteolytic activity and is partially attenuated by co-administration of broad spectrum antibiotics, indicating that it is both a cause and an effect of infection. These findings indicate that targeting of MAPK signaling pathways by anthrax LT compromises the structural integrity of the mucosal layer, serving to undermine the effectiveness of the intestinal barrier. Combined with the well-described immunosuppressive effects of LT, this disruption of the intestinal barrier provides a potential mechanism for host invasion via the enteric route, a common portal of entry during the natural infection cycle of Bacillus anthracis.

  1. Monitoring Local Strain in a Thermal Barrier Coating System Under Thermal Mechanical Gas Turbine Operating Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manero, Albert; Sofronsky, Stephen; Knipe, Kevin; Meid, Carla; Wischek, Janine; Okasinski, John; Almer, Jonathan; Karlsson, Anette M.; Raghavan, Seetha; Bartsch, Marion

    2015-07-01

    Advances in aircraft and land-based turbine engines have been increasing the extreme loading conditions on traditional engine components and have incited the need for improved performance with the use of protective coatings. These protective coatings shield the load-bearing super alloy blades from the high-temperature combustion gases by creating a thermal gradient over their thickness. This addition extends the life and performance of blades. A more complete understanding of the behavior, failure mechanics, and life expectancy for turbine blades and their coatings is needed to enhance and validate simulation models. As new thermal-barrier-coated materials and deposition methods are developed, strides to effectively test, evaluate, and prepare the technology for industry deployment are of paramount interest. Coupling the experience and expertise of researchers at the University of Central Florida, The German Aerospace Center, and Cleveland State University with the world-class synchrotron x-ray beam at the Advanced Photon Source in Argonne National Laboratory, the synergistic collaboration has yielded previously unseen measurements to look inside the coating layer system for in situ strain measurements during representative service loading. These findings quantify the in situ strain response on multilayer thermal barrier coatings and shed light on the elastic and nonelastic properties of the layers and the role of mechanical load and internal cooling variations on the response. The article discusses the experimental configuration and development of equipment to perform in situ strain measurements on multilayer thin coatings and provides an overview of the achievements thus far.

  2. Examining the Uptake of Central Nervous System Drugs and Candidates across the Blood-Brain Barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summerfield, Scott G; Zhang, Yanyan; Liu, Houfu

    2016-08-01

    Assessing the equilibration of the unbound drug concentrations across the blood-brain barrier (Kp,uu) has progressively replaced the partition coefficient based on the ratio of the total concentration in brain tissue to blood (Kp). Here, in vivo brain distribution studies were performed on a set of central nervous system (CNS)-targeted compounds in both rats and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) genetic knockout mice. Several CNS drugs are characterized by Kp,uu values greater than unity, inferring facilitated uptake across the rodent blood-brain barrier (BBB). Examples are shown in which Kp,uu also increases above unity on knockout of P-gp, highlighting the composite nature of this parameter with respect to facilitated BBB uptake, efflux, and passive diffusion. Several molecules with high Kp,uu values share common structural elements, whereas uptake across the BBB appears more prevalent in the CNS-targeted drug set than the chemical templates being generated within the current lead optimization paradigm. Challenges for identifying high Kp,uu compounds are discussed in the context of acute versus steady-state data and cross-species differences. Evidently, there is a need for better predictive models of human brain Kp,uu. PMID:27194478

  3. Assessing the use of poplar tree systems as a landfill evapotranspiration barrier with the SHAW model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, G M; McBride, R A

    2004-08-01

    The use of poplar tree systems (PTS) as evapotranspiration barriers on decommissioned landfills is gaining attention as an option for leachate management. This study involved field-testing the Simultaneous Heat and Water (SHAW) model for its ability to reliably estimate poplar transpiration, volumetric soil water content, and soil temperature at a landfill located in southern Ontario, Canada. The model was then used to estimate deep drainage and to ascertain the influence of a young PTS on the soil water balance of the landfill cover. The SHAW model tended to underestimate poplar transpiration [mean difference (MD) ranged from 0.33 to 3.55 mm on a daily total basis] and overestimate volumetric soil water content by up to 0.10 m3 m(-3). The model estimated soil temperature very well, particularly in the upper 1 m of the landfill cover (MD ranged from -0.1 to 1.6 x degrees C in this layer). The SHAW model simulations showed that deep drainage decreased appreciably with the presence of a young PTS largely through increased interception of rainfall, and that PTS have a good potential to act as effective evapotranspiration barriers in northern temperate climate zones. PMID:15462337

  4. 系统性红斑狼疮患者并发 EB 病毒或巨细胞病毒感染的回顾性分析%Retrospective Analysis of Epstein Barr Virus or Cytomegalovirus Infection in Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋宏岩; 王红; 李雷; 魏红霞; 陈军浩; 王庆飞

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨系统性红斑狼疮(systemic lupus erythematosus,SLE)患者并发 EB 病毒(epstein barr virus,EBV)或巨细胞病毒(cytomegalovirus,CMV)感染的流行病学特征,为临床提供参考。方法回顾性分析2012年1月~2015年4月在南京大学医学院附属鼓楼医院就诊入院的202例女性 SLE 患者(SLE 组)的相关临床资料,以同期的女性肾移植供者和妇产科送检标本共203例作为对照组;根据实时荧光定量 PCR 检测外周血中 EB 病毒 DNA 和巨细胞病毒 DNA 结果,分析、比较 SLE 组和对照组的感染发生率。结果 SLE 患者中 EBV-DNA 的阳性率(11.39%)显著高于对照组的阳性率(3.45%),差异具有统计学意义(χ2=8.28,P <0.01);SLE 组 CMV-DNA 的阳性率(7.92%)显著高于对照组的阳性率(1.97%),差异具有统计学意义(χ2=7.64,P <0.05)。128例育龄期 SLE 患者 EBV-DNA 的阳性率(10.94%)显著高于对照组的阳性率(3.45%),差异具有统计学意义(χ2=4.99,P <0.05);育龄期 SLE 组 CMV-DNA 的阳性率(7.75%)显著高于对照组的阳性率(2.22%),差异具有统计学意义(χ2=4.31,P <0.05)。结论SLE 患者易并发 EB 病毒或巨细胞病毒感染,提示 SLE 与病毒感染可能具有相关性,在临床工作中应加以重视。%Objective To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of Epstein Barr virus (EBV)or cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)patients in order to provide reference for clinic.Methods The clinical data of 202 female cases in-patients diagnosed with SLE (SLE group)from January 2012 to May 2015 in Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital were analyzed retrospectively.Meanwhile,203 cases including female renal transplant donors,obstetrics and gyne-cology in-patients selected randomly were enrolled as control group.The infection rate between SLE and control groups was

  5. Burning Invariant Manifold Theory and the Bipartite Digraph Representation of Generalized Dynamical System Formed by One-way Barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, John; Mahoney, John; Mitchell, Kevin; Solomon, Tom

    2013-11-01

    The recently developed Burning Invariant Manifold (BIM) theory took a dynamical system approach to understand front propagation in Advection-Reaction-Diffusion systems and successfully predicted both the short-term and asymptotic front behavior by finding the unstable BIMs which act as barriers to front propagation. Unlike separatrices in traditional dynamical system being two-way barriers, the BIMs are one-way barriers. This asymmetry gives rise to a much richer dynamical behavior than traditional dynamical systems. Through numerical simulations, we found that the stable BIMs are the basin boundaries. Based on the properties of BIM theory, we further derived a theory to investigate a dynamical system consists of one-way barriers and the cooperative behavior of these barriers. This theory reveals the global structure of both stable and unstable BIMs by first using a systematic algorithm to convert the flow to a bipartite digraph and then extracting information of the steady states of fronts and corresponding basins of attraction from the digraph. This work was supported by the US National Science Foundation under grant PHY-0748828 and NSF Fellowship DGE-0937362.

  6. Strategies to overcome barriers for cleaner generation technologies in small developing power systems: Sri Lanka case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wijayatunga, P.D.C.; Siriwardena, K.; Fernando, W.J.L.S.; Shrestha, R.M.; Attalage, R.A.

    2006-06-15

    This paper presents the outcome of a study involved in identifying and ranking the barriers to the promotion of cleaner and energy efficient technologies and strategies to overcome these barriers in Sri Lanka. Barriers for renewable energy based systems such as wind and wood fuel fired plants (dendro thermal power) and cleaner technologies such as liquefied natural gas (LNG) fired combined cycle and IGCC (coal) were identified based on a survey. A direct assessment multi-criteria decision making method called Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) was used to rank the barriers. The most effective strategies are proposed to address the three major barriers for each of these technologies based on extensive discussions with all the stakeholders in the electricity industry. It was found that lack of financing instruments, high initial cost and lack of assurance of resource supply or availability are the main barriers for renewable technologies. As for cleaner fuel and technology options associated with conventional generation systems, the lack of a clear government policy, uncertainty of fuel supplies and their prices and the reliability of the technologies themselves are the major barriers. Strategies are identified to overcome the above barriers. Establishment of a proper feed in tariff, geographical diversification of installations and capacity building in commercial banks are suggested for wind power. Investment incentives, streamlining of wood production and research on site identification are proposed for wood fuel fired plants. Also the study suggests delayed implementation, combined planning with other sectors of the economy, incorporating environmental cost in planning and investment incentives as strategies for IGCC and LNG based technologies.

  7. DSC analysis of EB-cured polyurethane-acrylate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The gel films obtained by electron beam (EB) solid-state polymerization of urethane-acrylate prepolymers were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Two kinds of urethane-acrylates were synthesized by reaction of poly(butylene adipate)diol (PBAD), 4,4'-diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI) and 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate (HEA) for this purpose. One is a semicrystalline prepolymer (UA-251M) with a number average molecular weight (M-barn) of 3200, and the other is an amorphous one (UA-071M) with M-barn of 1450. The M-barn varied by changing M-barn of PBAD. UA-251M gel film decreased in glass transition temperature (Tg) and increased in heat capacity change (ΔCp) at Tg with increasing irradiation dose, while the Tg and ΔCp values of UA-071M gel film changed in the opposite way to those of UA-251M gel film. Above 5 Mrad, gel fraction reached more than 90 %, and the Tg and ΔCp values changed steeply for both prepolymers. This steep change in Tg and ΔCp was attributed to the crosslinking of PBAD chains as well as of terminal acryloyl groups. Since the Tg change of UA-071M gel film depends merely on the crosslinking, the crosslinking structure was evaluated using two equations which relate the shift in Tg to crosslinking. The molecular weight between crosslinking junctions was found to be larger than the M-barn of the prepolymer. The crosslinking by the EB polymerization restricted the mobility of the polymer chain less strongly than the crosslinking by the three-functional isocyanate and α,ω-dihydroxy(polypropylene oxide) with a molecular weight of 1000 did. (author)

  8. DSC analysis of EB-cured polyurethane-acrylate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ando, Masayuki; Uryu, Toshiyuki

    1987-10-01

    The gel films obtained by electron beam (EB) solid-state polymerization of urethane-acrylate prepolymers were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Two kinds of urethane-acrylates were synthesized by reaction of poly(butylene adipate)diol (PBAD), 4,4'-diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI) and 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate (HEA) for this purpose. One is a semicrystalline prepolymer (UA-251M) with a number average molecular weight (M-bar/sub n/) of 3200, and the other is an amorphous one (UA-071M) with M-bar/sub n/ of 1450. The M-bar/sub n/ varied by changing M-bar/sub n/ of PBAD. UA-251M gel film decreased in glass transition temperature (T/sub g/) and increased in heat capacity change (..delta..C/sub p/) at T/sub g/ with increasing irradiation dose, while the T/sub g/ and ..delta..C/sub p/ values of UA-071M gel film changed in the opposite way to those of UA-251M gel film. Above 5 Mrad, gel fraction reached more than 90 %, and the T/sub g/ and ..delta..C/sub p/ values changed steeply for both prepolymers. This steep change in T/sub g/ and ..delta..C/sub p/ was attributed to the crosslinking of PBAD chains as well as of terminal acryloyl groups. Since the T/sub g/ change of UA-071M gel film depends merely on the crosslinking, the crosslinking structure was evaluated using two equations which relate the shift in T/sub g/ to crosslinking. The molecular weight between crosslinking junctions was found to be larger than the M-bar/sub n/ of the prepolymer. The crosslinking by the EB polymerization restricted the mobility of the polymer chain less strongly than the crosslinking by the three-functional isocyanate and ..cap alpha..,..omega..-dihydroxy(polypropylene oxide) with a molecular weight of 1000 did.

  9. Changes in skin barrier during treatment with systemic alitretinoin: focus on skin susceptibility and stratum corneum ceramides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jungersted, Jakob Mutanu; Høgh, Julie Kaae; Hellgren, Lars;

    2010-01-01

    the effect of systemic alitretinoin on skin barrier function and response to irritants, a secondary objective was to determine if changes occur in the lipid profile of stratum corneum after treatment with systemic alitretinoin. We conducted an open clinical intervention study on eight people ascribed...

  10. Evaluation of the Lifetime and Thermal Conductivity of Dysprosia-Stabilized Thermal Barrier Coating Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Nicholas; Markocsan, Nicolaie; Östergren, Lars; Li, Xin-Hai; Dorfman, Mitch

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was the further development of dysprosia-stabilized zirconia coatings for gas turbine applications. The target for these coatings was a longer lifetime and higher insulating performance compared to today's industrial standard thermal barrier coating. Two morphologies of ceramic top coat were studied: one using a dual-layer system and the second using a polymer to generate porosity. Evaluations were carried out using a laser flash technique to measure thermal properties. Lifetime testing was conducted using thermo-cyclic fatigue testing. Microstructure was assessed with SEM and Image analysis was used to characterize porosity content. The results show that coatings with an engineered microstructure give performance twice that of the present reference coating.

  11. Reuse and recycling of secondary effluents in refineries employing advanced multi-barrier systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahnsteiner, J; Mittal, R

    2010-01-01

    In this paper the reclamation and reuse of municipal secondary effluents, as well as the reclamation and recycling of refinery secondary effluents, are technically and economically evaluated. It is shown that both practices are feasible and sustainable, and that the reclamation costs depend largely on specific circumstances such as legal requirements, price policy, reuse application, raw water composition, etc. The reclaimed water is reused, or respectively recycled, as boiler make-up. Therefore both reclamation plants employ advanced multi-barrier systems including ultra-filtration and reverse osmosis. The employed processes have shown excellent performance with regard to the removal of critical parameters such as silica. For example, this parameter was reduced from 13 mg/l in the raw water to 7 μg/l in the boiler make-up.

  12. A commercial 1kW CPV system that breaks the $2/W price barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earl, D. Duncan; Cangelosi, Michael J.; Shaw, Tyler L.

    2008-08-01

    We present performance and cost data on a distributed concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) system that is commercially available in 2008 and will break the long pursued $2/W price barrier. This technology was developed from an existing product platform used originally for solar fiber optic lighting applications and includes a novel segmented plastic mirror that concentrates sunlight into a dense-array CPV module at 600 suns. The design's segmented plastic mirror and high-precision, low-cost tracking unit are presented as a flexible hardware platform evolved in response to market pressure over the past two years and suitable for multiple applications being developed in the concentrating solar field. To illustrate the economic benefits of this solar collection platform, the specific costs related to COGS and installation activities associated with a commercial CPV product available in 2008 are presented.

  13. On the near-barrier fusion of the proton-halo {sup 8}B + {sup 58}Ni system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rangel, J.; Lubian, J.; Gomes, P.R.S. [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Instituto de Fisica, Gragoata, Niteroi, R.J. (Brazil); Carlson, B.V. [Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica, Departamento de Fisica, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Chamon, L.C. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Instituto de Fisica, CP 66318, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Gomez Camacho, A. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones, Departamento de Aceleradores, Apartado Postal 18-1027, C.P. 11801, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2013-05-15

    We have performed two independent calculations, without any free parameter, to predict the near-barrier fusion cross section for the proton-halo {sup 8}B + {sup 58}Ni system, for which data were recently reported. Standard coupled channel calculations predict fusion cross sections smaller than the data, while CDCC calculations for the absorption cross section (fusion + transfer + inelastic cross sections) agree with the data above the barrier, although transfer cross sections are calculated to have non-negligible cross section at this energy regime. At sub-barrier energies, region where transfer cross sections are particularly important, the CDCC calculations overpredict the data. The fusion data of the {sup 8}B + {sup 58}Ni system fail to follow the systematics of other weakly bound nuclei and the UFF curve and do not agree with the fusion data of the {sup 8}B + {sup 28}Si system. We try to explain this anomalous behaviour. (orig.)

  14. Creep Behavior of Hafnia and Ytterbium Silicate Environmental Barrier Coating Systems on SiC/SiC Ceramic Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming; Fox, Dennis S.; Ghosn, Louis J.; Harder, Bryan

    2011-01-01

    Environmental barrier coatings will play a crucial role in future advanced gas turbine engines because of their ability to significantly extend the temperature capability and stability of SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composite (CMC) engine components, thus improving the engine performance. In order to develop high performance, robust coating systems for engine components, appropriate test approaches simulating operating temperature gradient and stress environments for evaluating the critical coating properties must be established. In this paper, thermal gradient mechanical testing approaches for evaluating creep and fatigue behavior of environmental barrier coated SiC/SiC CMC systems will be described. The creep and fatigue behavior of Hafnia and ytterbium silicate environmental barrier coatings on SiC/SiC CMC systems will be reported in simulated environmental exposure conditions. The coating failure mechanisms will also be discussed under the heat flux and stress conditions.

  15. "Show me a justice system that's open, transparent, accessible and inclusive" : barriers to access in the criminal justice system for people with disabilities as victims of crime

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Claire; Harold, Gill; Kilcommins, Shane

    2015-01-01

    peer-reviewed This paper considers the barriers that people with disabilities in Ireland face in accessing justice through the criminal justice system when they are victims of crime. It draws on qualitative research with key actors working within the agencies of the Irish criminal justice system, along with disability organisations, victim support organisations and health and social care providers. The research identifies a number of barriers which can be differentiated in terms of those o...

  16. Thermal barrier coating life-prediction model development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strangman, T. E.; Neumann, J.; Liu, A.

    1986-01-01

    The program focuses on predicting the lives of two types of strain-tolerant and oxidation-resistant thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems that are produced by commercial coating suppliers to the gas turbine industry. The plasma-sprayed TBC system, composed of a low-pressure plasma-spray (LPPS) or an argon shrouded plasma-spray (ASPS) applied oxidation resistant NiCrAlY or (CoNiCrAlY) bond coating and an air-plasma-sprayed yttria partially stabilized zirconia insulative layer, is applied by both Chromalloy, Klock, and Union Carbide. The second type of TBS is applied by the electron beam-physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) process by Temescal. The second year of the program was focused on specimen procurement, TMC system characterization, nondestructive evaluation methods, life prediction model development, and TFE731 engine testing of thermal barrier coated blades. Materials testing is approaching completion. Thermomechanical characterization of the TBC systems, with toughness, and spalling strain tests, was completed. Thermochemical testing is approximately two-thirds complete. Preliminary materials life models for the bond coating oxidation and zirconia sintering failure modes were developed. Integration of these life models with airfoil component analysis methods is in progress. Testing of high pressure turbine blades coated with the program TBS systems is in progress in a TFE731 turbofan engine. Eddy current technology feasibility was established with respect to nondestructively measuring zirconia layer thickness of a TBC system.

  17. 76 FR 61288 - Treatment of Aliens Whose Employment Creation Immigrant (EB-5) Petitions Were Approved After...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-04

    ... FR 59927 proposing to amend its regulations governing the employment creation (EB-5) immigrant... SECURITY 8 CFR Parts 216 and 245 RIN 1615-AA90 Treatment of Aliens Whose Employment Creation Immigrant (EB... Homeland Security corrects an inadvertent error contained in the proposed rule titled Treatment of...

  18. Informatization barriers of logistics process management in production company

    OpenAIRE

    Joanna WALASEK

    2015-01-01

    This article is an attempt to characterize informatization barriers of logistics processes management in a production company which provides automotive parts. Threats of successful implementation of Enterprise Resource Planning Systems include: community barriers; organizational barriers; communication barriers; formal barriers; legal barriers; not prepared implementation team barrier; substantive barrier. Proper identification of barriers and solving them are the right way to implement Enter...

  19. Evolution of an intermittent lagoon-barrier system with rising sea level: observations and projections from the Muni-Pomadze lagoon, Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies-Vollum, Sian

    2016-04-01

    Intermittently closed lagoon-barrier systems are a transitory environment between land and sea that are influenced by fluvial and marine processes as well as human activities. Fluvial processes dominate most of the time, when the barrier is closed. However, when the barrier is breached an ephemeral connection between the lagoon and the ocean develops and estuarine-like conditions ensue. As sea level rises, the evolution of these systems from intermittently closed to open is dependent on multiple processes including barrier breaching, fragmentation and overwashing. Human intervention, often to prevent flooding, also has an impact. The Muni-Pomadze lagoon in central Ghana is a small, intermittently closed lagoon-barrier system that supports a local fishing community. A beach-barrier separates the lagoon from the ocean, impounding river water and sediment behind it for most of the year. At the end of a rainy season the barrier may be breached, either naturally or by human intervention to prevent flooding of dwellings on the barrier. Field observation, digital mapping and GIS analysis of the shoreline has enabled an understanding of how the barrier is evolving with rising sea level. The shore face of the barrier has shifted landwards with an average retreat rate of 0.22 m/yr. Small washover fans, developed at low points along the lagoon side of the barrier have developed. However, aerial photos reveal that these fans have remained stable since 1972 (earliest available air photos). The small size and stability of these fans suggests that overwashing is not an important factor in the evolution of the barrier and that the barrier is being eroded rather not moving landward. Erosion is particularly prevalent at the breach end of the barrier with an average rate of loss of 3 metres per year and palm trees that were providing stability to the barrier have been washed away. Unconsolidated sands forming a transient, spit-like feature have replaced the stable barrier, which

  20. A method for risk analysis across governance systems: a Great Barrier Reef case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Healthy governance systems are key to delivering sound environmental management outcomes from global to local scales. There are, however, surprisingly few risk assessment methods that can pinpoint those domains and sub-domains within governance systems that are most likely to influence good environmental outcomes at any particular scale, or those if absent or dysfunctional, most likely to prevent effective environmental management. This paper proposes a new risk assessment method for analysing governance systems. This method is then tested through its preliminary application to a significant real-world context: governance as it relates to the health of Australia’s Great Barrier Reef (GBR). The GBR exists at a supra-regional scale along most of the north eastern coast of Australia. Brodie et al (2012 Mar. Pollut. Bull. 65 81–100) have recently reviewed the state and trend of the health of the GBR, finding that overall trends remain of significant concern. At the same time, official international concern over the governance of the reef has recently been signalled globally by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN). These environmental and political contexts make the GBR an ideal candidate for use in testing and reviewing the application of improved tools for governance risk assessment. (letter)

  1. Pathways and hydrography in the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System Part 2: Water masses and thermohaline structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, L.; Johns, E. M.; Smith, R. H.; Lamkin, J. T.; Largier, J. L.

    2016-06-01

    Hydrographic data from two oceanographic cruises conducted during March 2006 and January/February 2007 are used to investigate the thermohaline structure related to the observed circulation along the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System (MBRS). From our observations we identify three water masses in the MBRS: the Caribbean Surface Water (CSW), North Atlantic Subtropical Underwater (SUW), and Tropical Atlantic Central Water (TACW). Little vertical structure in temperature is observed in the upper 100 m of the water column, but important differences are observed in the salinity distribution both horizontally and with depth. Freshwater inputs to the system from the mainland can be traced in the surface layer, with two possible sources: one from surface rivers located along the southern portion of the MBRS, and the other originating from an underground river system located along the northern portion of the MBRS. The thermohaline structure in the MBRS reflects the dynamics of the observed circulation. Uplifted isopycnals along most of the central and northern coastline of the MBRS reflect the effects of the strong geostrophic circulation flowing northward, i.e. the Yucatan Current. To the south along the MBRS, much weaker velocities are observed, with the Honduras Gyre dominating the flow in this region as presented during January/February 2007. These two regions are separated by onshore and divergent alongshore flow associated with the impingement of the Cayman Current on the shore and the MBRS.

  2. Examining Barriers to Internationalisation Created by Diverse Systems and Structures in Vocational Education and Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Joy Shaw

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In a global society, all educational sectors need to recognise internationalism as a core, foundational principle. Whilst most educational sectors are taking up that challenge, vocational education and training (VET is still being pulled towards the national agenda in terms of its structures and systems, and the policies driving it, disadvantaging those who graduate from VET, those who teach in it, and the businesses and countries that connect with it. This paper poses questions about the future of internationalisation in the sector. It examines whether there is a way to create a VET system that meets its primary point of value, to produce skilled workers for the local labour market, while still benefitting those graduates by providing international skills and knowledge, gained from VET institutions that are international in their outlook. The paper examines some of the key barriers created by systems and structures in VET to internationalisation and suggests that the efforts which have been made to address the problem have had limited success. It suggests that only a model which gives freedom to those with a direct vested interest, students, teachers, trainers and employers, to pursue international co-operation and liaison will have the opportunity to succeed.

  3. A method for risk analysis across governance systems: a Great Barrier Reef case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Allan; Vella, Karen; Pressey, Robert L.; Brodie, Jon; Yorkston, Hugh; Potts, Ruth

    2013-03-01

    Healthy governance systems are key to delivering sound environmental management outcomes from global to local scales. There are, however, surprisingly few risk assessment methods that can pinpoint those domains and sub-domains within governance systems that are most likely to influence good environmental outcomes at any particular scale, or those if absent or dysfunctional, most likely to prevent effective environmental management. This paper proposes a new risk assessment method for analysing governance systems. This method is then tested through its preliminary application to a significant real-world context: governance as it relates to the health of Australia’s Great Barrier Reef (GBR). The GBR exists at a supra-regional scale along most of the north eastern coast of Australia. Brodie et al (2012 Mar. Pollut. Bull. 65 81-100) have recently reviewed the state and trend of the health of the GBR, finding that overall trends remain of significant concern. At the same time, official international concern over the governance of the reef has recently been signalled globally by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN). These environmental and political contexts make the GBR an ideal candidate for use in testing and reviewing the application of improved tools for governance risk assessment.

  4. An exploration of the enablers and barriers in access to the Dutch healthcare system among Ghanaians in Amsterdam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boateng Linda

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sub-Saharan African populations are growing in many European countries. Data on the health of these populations are rare. Additionally, many sub-Saharan African migrants are confronted with issues of low socio-economic status, acculturation and language difficulties, which may hamper their access to health care. Despite the identification of some of those barriers, little is known about the enabling factors. Knowledge about the enablers and barriers in access to healthcare experienced is important in addressing their health needs and promoting healthcare access. This study aimed to investigate the enabling factors as well as barriers in access to the Dutch healthcare system among the largest sub-Saharan African migrant group (Ghanaians living in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Methods Six focus groups were conducted from November 2009 to February 2010. A semi-structured interview guideline was used. Discussions were conducted in English or Twi (Ghanaian dialect, recorded and transcribed verbatim. Analysis was based on the Andersen model of healthcare utilisation using MAXQDA software. Results Knowledge and perceived quality of the health system, awareness of diseases, family and community support, community initiatives and availability of social support were the main enablers to the healthcare system. Difficulties with the Dutch language and mistrust in health care providers were major barriers in access to healthcare. Conclusions Access to healthcare is facilitated mainly by knowledge of and the perceived efficiency and quality of the Dutch healthcare system. However, poor Dutch language proficiency and mistrust in health care providers appear to be important barriers in accessing healthcare. The enablers and barriers identified by this study provide useful information for promoting healthcare access among this and similar Sub-Saharan African communities.

  5. Motivators, Barriers and Concerns in Adoption of Electronic Filing System: Survey Evidence from Malaysian Professional Accountants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Ling Lai

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Worldwide, electronic filing (e-filing system and its' adoption has attracted much attention, however, scholarly study on accounting professionals' acceptance of e-filing system is scant. Approach: This study aimed (i to examine factors that motivated professional accountants to use e-filing (ii to solicit their usage experience and (iii to assess the barriers to adoption and other compliance considerations. The questionnaire survey was administered on 700 professionals from tax practice and commercial sectors who attended "Budget 2008" Tax Seminars, organized by the Malaysian Institute of Accountants in Peninsular Malaysia. In total, 456 usable responses from accounting and tax professionals were collected and analyzed. Results: The survey found out of 456 respondents, just 23.7% had used e-filing in 2007 to file personal tax return forms. Majority of the e-filers opted to use e-filing for the sake of convenience (55.8%, in faith to get faster tax refund (16.8% and speed of filing (15.9%. For those who did not use e-filing, the key impediments were concerned over the security and did not trust of e-filing system. Some (4.8% were unable to access to the e-filing website. Overall, just 26.1% of the professionals surveyed had confidence in the IRBM in managing the e-filing system successfully. Majority (41.2% thought that 'speedy tax refund' to be the most desirable incentive to motivate individuals to use e-filing. Conclusion: As the IRBM is counting on professional accountants to promote the usage of e-filing system, this study provided important insights to the IRBM to developing marketing and business strategies to motivate professional accountant in business to use e-filing in order to accelerate the diffusion of e-filing system in a developing country like Malaysia.

  6. Thermal response of the waste package/MPC and EBS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermal evaluations of the multi-Purpose Canister in repository emplacement have been performed by the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project Managing and Operating Contractor (YMP-M ampersand O). Thermal effects have been a major study area of the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS). In the past the project has concentrated primarily on borehole-emplaced waste packages, but the Multi-Purpose Canister (MPC) with a capacity of twenty-one pressurized water reactor (PWR) fuel assemblies (or more) will likely be drift emplaced with a multi-barrier disposal container or overpack. This study investigates the thermal behavior of the waste package/MPC and its effect on the repository near-field. Results indicate that peak internal temperatures occur one to five years post emplacement, and the timing of the peak is highly dependent on the choice of design basis fuel and thermal loading. The maximum acceptable capacity of the MPC, with ten year old fuel, was determined to be twenty-one PWRs based on the current peak temperature goal of 350 degrees C; however, higher capacities can be achieved if older fuel is substituted

  7. AVNG SYSTEM SOFTWARE - ATTRIBUTE VERIFICATION SYSTEM WITH INFORMATION BARRIERS FOR MASS AND ISOTOPICS MEASUREMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the software development for the plutonium attribute verification system--AVNG. A brief synopsis of the technical solution for the measurement system is presented. The main tasks for the software development that is underway are formulated. The development tasks are shown in software structural flowcharts, measurement system state diagram and a description of the software. The current status of the AVNG software development is elucidated

  8. AVNG System Software-Attribute Verification System with Information Barriers for Mass Isotopic Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the software development for the plutonium attribute verification system - AVNG. A brief synopsis of the technical solution for the measurement system is presented. The main tasks for the software development that is underway are formulated. The development tasks are shown in software structural flowcharts, measurement system state diagram and a description of the software. The current status of the AVNG software development is elucidated.

  9. Nano-carrier systems: Strategies to overcome the mucus gel barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dünnhaupt, S; Kammona, O; Waldner, C; Kiparissides, C; Bernkop-Schnürch, A

    2015-10-01

    The present review provides an overview of nanotechnology-based strategies to overcome various mucus gel barriers including the intestinal, nasal, ocular, vaginal, buccal and pulmonary mucus layer without destroying them. It focuses on the one hand on strategies to improve the mucus permeation behavior of particles and on the other hand on systems avoiding the back-diffusion of particles out of the mucus gel layer. Nanocarriers with improved mucus permeation behavior either exhibit a high density of positive and negative charges, bearing mucolytic enzymes such as papain and bromelain on their surface or display a slippery surface due to PEG-ylation. Furthermore, self-nanoemulsifying-drug-delivery-systems (SNEDDS) turned out to exhibit comparatively high mucus permeating properties. Strategies in order to avoid back-diffusion are based on thiolated polymers reacting to a higher extent with cysteine subunits of the mucus at pH 7 in deeper mucus regions than at pH 5 being prevalent in luminal mucus regions of the intestinal and vaginal mucosa. Furthermore, particles changing their zeta potential from negative to positive once they have reached the epithelium seem to be promising carriers. The summarized knowledge should provide a good starting point for further developments in this field. PMID:25712487

  10. Spatiotemporal variability of sedimentology and morphology in the East Frisian barrier island system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrling, Gerald; Winter, Christian

    2016-08-01

    The highly dynamic East Frisian barrier island system (southern North Sea) is characterized by a complex morphology of tidal inlets, ebb-tidal deltas and foreshore beaches that reacts to storms and fair-weather conditions with characteristic patterns of sediment grain-size distributions. The morphological and sedimentological response to varying hydrodynamic conditions yet occurs in short time spans that are not covered by common monitoring strategies with measuring intervals typically of years. This study applies process-based numerical modelling with multiple sediment fractions to interpolate morphological states in time between bathymetrical surveys conducted in the summer months of 2004 and 2006. Morphodynamic simulations driven by real-time boundary conditions of tides, wind and waves are carried out for a representative period of 2 years. The spatiotemporal variability of the nearshore sedimentology and morphology is assessed by graded ranges of bed dynamics (i.e. bed elevation range) and the definition of sediment grain-size variability (i.e. mean diameter range). The effect of storm events and timescales of the sedimentological adaptation after storms to typical fair-weather conditions are exemplified at an ebb-tidal delta lobe where the morphological and sedimentological variability is found to be largest in the study area. The proposed method may serve to identify areas of high sedimentological and morphological activity for system understanding or in the framework of coastal monitoring strategies.

  11. The socio-technical barriers to Solar Home Systems (SHS) in Papua New Guinea: 'Choosing pigs, prostitutes, and poker chips over panels'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study explores the socio-technical barriers to Solar Home Systems (SHS) in Papua New Guinea. The authors collected primary data through semi-structured research interviews conducted over the course of February 2010-April 2010. Respondents included government officials, financiers, planners, commercial distributors and companies, teachers and rural villagers in addition to members of civil society, academics, consultants, and trainers. These interviews were supplemented with site visits to Port Moresby, Goroka, and Madang, and field research in the villages of Akameku, Asaroka, Lufa, Kundiawa, Okifa, Simbu, and Talidig. The study draws from these interviews and visits to discuss four types of barriers. Technical barriers relate to substandard equipment and logistical problems. Economic barriers include high rates of poverty, misconceptions about the role of currency, and lack of financing. Political barriers include poor institutional capacity and a government commitment to fossil-fueled grid electrification. Social barriers encompass unrealistic expectations about what SHS can provide along with jealousy, theft, vandalism, and unfamiliarity with solar technology. - Research highlights: → Solar Home Systems (SHS) are impeded by a collection of different barriers in Papua New Guinea. → Technical barriers relate to substandard equipment and logistical problems. → Economic barriers include high rates of poverty, misconceptions about the role of currency, and lack of financing.→ Political barriers include poor institutional capacity and a government commitment to fossil-fueled grid electrification. → Social barriers encompass unrealistic expectations about what SHS can provide along with jealousy, theft, vandalism, and unfamiliarity with solar technology.

  12. Implementation of multiple-domain covering computerized decision support systems in primary care: a focus group study on perceived barriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lugtenberg, M.; Weenink, J.W.; Weijden, T. van der; Westert, G.P.; Kool, R.B.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite the widespread availability of computerized decision support systems (CDSSs) in various healthcare settings, evidence on their uptake and effectiveness is still limited. Most barrier studies focus on CDSSs that are aimed at a limited number of decision points within selected smal

  13. Implementation of multiple-domain covering computerized decision support systems in primary care : A focus group study on perceived barriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lugtenberg, M.; Weenink, Jan-Willem; van der Weijden, Trudy; Westert, G.P.; Kool, Rudolf B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite the widespread availability of computerized decision support systems (CDSSs) in various healthcare settings, evidence on their uptake and effectiveness is still limited. Most barrier studies focus on CDSSs that are aimed at a limited number of decision points within selected small

  14. Study of nuclear structure effect on fusion through barrier distribution for the system 28Si+154Sm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaur Gurpreet

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We plan to perform large angle quasi-elastic scattering experiments using a 28Si beam on heavy targets in order to study the nuclear dynamics and structure effects. As a prelude to our first test experiment with a 154Sm target, we study here the existing fusion data for the same system through the barrier distribution.

  15. Review of underground logistic systems in the Netherlands: an ex-post evaluation of barriers, enablers and spin-offs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegmans, B.W.; Visser, J.; Konings, R.; Pielage, B.J.A.

    2010-01-01

    Now, 10 years after the first plans, we analyse in this paper what has happened with Underground Logistic Systems (ULS). The major question in this paper is: Which barriers and enablers led to the failure of ULS and what ULS spin-offs can be found nowadays? Several factors can be classified as barri

  16. Proceedings of the FNCA 2005 workshop on application of electron accelerator. EB treatment of wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Forum for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia (FNCA) Workshop on Application of Electron Accelerator' was sponsored by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT), Japan. The 2005 workshop was jointly organized by the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST), Korea, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute and Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). It was held at the International Nuclear Technology and Education Center (INTEC/KAERI), Daejeon, Korea from 14 to 18 November 2005. The Workshop was attended by 32 experts on application of electron accelerator from each of the participating countries, i.e., China (1), Indonesia (1), Korea (18), Malaysia (2), Philippines (1), Thailand (1) and Vietnam (1), and 7 participants from Japan. On the first day, a National Executive Management Seminar on Application of Electron Accelerator was held and attended by 45 participants. Total of 20 papers including Seminar lectures, invited papers on wastewater treatment by electron beam, and country reports on EB irradiation system were presented. The major areas of interest of FNCA member states for cooperation were identified for application of low energy electron accelerator to liquids (natural polymer, wastewater), solids (hydrogel, thin film) and gases (flue gas). Based on the evaluation and proposal from the participating countries, discussions were carried out to re-formulate the work plan of the project on natural polymers and wastewater for three years until FY 2008. It was agreed the FNCA 2006 workshop on EB crosslinking of natural polymers would be held in Malaysia. All manuscripts submitted by every speaker were included in the proceedings. The 18 presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  17. Health system and societal barriers for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) services - lessons from World Diabetes Foundation supported GDM projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Karoline Kragelund; de Courten, Maximilian; Kapur, Anil

    2012-01-01

    Background Maternal mortality and morbidity remains high in many low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) represents an underestimated and unrecognised impediment to optimal maternal health in LMIC; left untreated – it also has severe consequences...... for the offspring. A better understanding of the barriers hindering detection and treatment of GDM is needed. Based on experiences from World Diabetes Foundation (WDF) supported GDM projects this paper seeks to investigate societal and health system barriers to such efforts. Methods Questionnaires were filled out...

  18. Reducing barriers to interoperability through collaborative development of standards for Earth science information systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percivall, G. S.; Arctur, D. K.

    2010-12-01

    Increasingly, Earth science research must make effective use of interdisciplinary data sources and processes. Non-interoperability impedes sharing of data and computing resources. Standards from the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) and other organizations are the basis for successfully deploying a seamless, distributed information infrastructure for the geosciences. Collaborative development of the standards has proven effective in reducing barriers to standards adoption. Standards are the basis for the success of the Internet and the World Wide Web. A standard describes a set of rules that have been agreed to in some consensus forum, such as the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), or the OGC. As described in The Importance of Going Open, “non-interoperability causes organizations to spend much more than necessary on geospatial information technology development”. In the context of e-Science, the National Science Foundation’s Cyberinfrastructure Council argues that “The use of standards creates economies of scale and scope for developing and deploying common resources, tools, software, and services that enhance the use of cyberinfrastructure in multiple science and engineering communities.” Barriers to adoption include misperceptions and misuse of standards. “Adhering to standards costs more” - typically this statement is made when a research program considers implementing standards as a one-time modification to an existing system. Multiple economic studies have shown lower development costs when using standards over the life of a project. “Standards stifle innovation” - a key decision in research is to consider what assumptions to consider fixed and what to challenge. The long history of standards in research, e.g., SI units, is fundamental to assessing repeatable results by independent researchers. Similar need for common standards exist in the information systems used for Earth

  19. Novel targeted approach to better understand how natural structural barriers govern carotenoid in vitro bioaccessibility in vegetable-based systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmero, Paola; Lemmens, Lien; Ribas-Agustí, Albert; Sosa, Carola; Met, Kristof; de Dieu Umutoni, Jean; Hendrickx, Marc; Van Loey, Ann

    2013-12-01

    An experimental approach, allowing us to understand the effect of natural structural barriers (cell walls, chromoplast substructures) on carotenoid bioaccessibility, was developed. Different fractions with different levels of carotenoid bio-encapsulation (carotenoid-enriched oil, chromoplasts, small cell clusters, and large cell clusters) were isolated from different types of carrots and tomatoes. An in vitro method was used to determine carotenoid bioaccessibility. In the present work, a significant decrease in carotenoid in vitro bioaccessibility could be observed with an increasing level of bio-encapsulation. Differences in cell wall material and chromoplast substructure between matrices influenced carotenoid release and inclusion in micelles. For carrots, cell walls and chromoplast substructure were important barriers for carotenoid bioaccessibility while, in tomatoes, the chromoplast substructure represented the most important barrier governing bioaccessibility. The highest increase in carotenoid bioaccessibility, for all matrices, was obtained after transferring carotenoids into the oil phase, a system lacking cell walls and chromoplast substructures that could hamper carotenoid release.

  20. Microtubule +TIP protein EB1 binds to GTP and undergoes dissociation from dimer to monomer on binding GTP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gireesh, K K; Sreeja, Jamuna S; Chakraborti, Soumyananda; Singh, Puja; Thomas, Geethu Emily; Gupta, Hindol; Manna, Tapas

    2014-09-01

    The +TIP protein EB1 autonomously tracks the growing plus end of microtubules and regulates plus-end dynamics. Previous studies have indicated that EB1 can recognize GTP-bound tubulin structures at the plus end, and it localizes on the microtubule surface at a site close to the exchangeable GTP-binding site of tubulin. Although the GTP-dependent structural change in tubulin has been demonstrated to be a critical determinant for recognition of plus ends by EB1, the effect of GTP on the structure of EB1 has remained unclear. Here, we have used spectroscopic, calorimetric, and biochemical methods to analyze the effect of GTP on EB1 in vitro. Isothermal titration calorimetry and tryptophan fluorescence quenching experiments demonstrated that EB1 binds to GTP with a dissociation constant ~30 μM. Circular dichroism measurements showed that EB1 undergoes changes in its secondary structure on binding GTP. Size-exclusion chromatography and urea-induced unfolding analyses revealed that GTP binding induces dissociation of the EB1 dimer to monomers. Size-exclusion chromatography followed by biochemical analysis further determined that EB1-GTP binding involves association of approximately one molecule of GTP per EB1 monomer. The results reveal a hitherto unknown GTP-dependent mechanism of dimer-to-monomer transition in EB1 and further implicate its possible role in regulating the stability of the EB1 dimer vs monomer as well as plus-end regulation in cells. PMID:25111064

  1. Technical Work Plan for: Near Field Environment: Engineered System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.D. Schreiber

    2006-12-08

    This technical work plan (TWP) describes work activities to be performed by the Near-Field Environment Team. The objective of the work scope covered by this TWP is to generate Revision 03 of EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction, referred to herein as the radionuclide transport abstraction (RTA) report. The RTA report is being revised primarily to address condition reports (CRs), to address issues identified by the Independent Validation Review Team (IVRT), to address the potential impact of transport, aging, and disposal (TAD) canister design on transport models, and to ensure integration with other models that are closely associated with the RTA report and being developed or revised in other analysis/model reports in response to IVRT comments. The RTA report will be developed in accordance with the most current version of LP-SIII.10Q-BSC and will reflect current administrative procedures (LP-3.15Q-BSC, ''Managing Technical Product Inputs''; LP-SIII.2Q-BSC, ''Qualification of Unqualified Data''; etc.), and will develop related Document Input Reference System (DIRS) reports and data qualifications as applicable in accordance with prevailing procedures. The RTA report consists of three models: the engineered barrier system (EBS) flow model, the EBS transport model, and the EBS-unsaturated zone (UZ) interface model. The flux-splitting submodel in the EBS flow model will change, so the EBS flow model will be validated again. The EBS transport model and validation of the model will be substantially revised in Revision 03 of the RTA report, which is the main subject of this TWP. The EBS-UZ interface model may be changed in Revision 03 of the RTA report due to changes in the conceptualization of the UZ transport abstraction model (a particle tracker transport model based on the discrete fracture transfer function will be used instead of the dual-continuum transport model previously used). Validation of the EBS-UZ interface model

  2. Synergetic aspects of gas-discharge: lateral patterns in dc systems with a high ohmic barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purwins, H.-G.; Stollenwerk, L.

    2014-12-01

    The understanding of self-organized patterns in spatially extended nonlinear dissipative systems is one of the most challenging subjects in modern natural sciences. Such patterns are also referred to as dissipative structures. We review this phenomenon in planar low temperature dc gas-discharge devices with a high ohmic barrier. It is demonstrated that for these systems a deep qualitative understanding of dissipative structures can be obtained from the point of view of synergetics. At the same time, a major contribution can be made to the general understanding of dissipative structures. The discharge spaces of the experimentally investigated systems, to good approximation, have translational and rotational symmetry by contraction. Nevertheless, a given system may exhibit stable current density distributions and related patterns that break these symmetries. Among the experimentally observed fundamental patterns one finds homogeneous isotropic states, fronts, periodic patterns, labyrinth structures, rotating spirals, target patterns and localized filaments. In addition, structures are observed that have the former as elementary building blocks. Finally, defect structures as well as irregular patterns are common phenomena. Such structures have been detected in numerous other driven nonlinear dissipative systems, as there are ac gas-discharge devices, semiconductors, chemical solutions, electrical networks and biological systems. Therefore, from the experimental observations it is concluded that the patterns in planar low temperature dc gas-discharge devices exhibit universal behavior. From the theoretical point of view, dissipative structures of the aforementioned kind are also referred to as attractors. The possible sets of attractors are an important characteristic of the system. The number and/or qualitative nature of attractors may change when changing parameters. The related bifurcation behavior is a central issue of the synergetic approach chosen in the present

  3. The density-driven circulation of the coastal hypersaline system of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamena, Gerry G; Martins, Flávio; Ridd, Peter V

    2016-04-15

    The coastal hypersaline system of the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) in the dry season, was investigated for the first time using a 3D baroclinic model. In the shallow coastal embayments, salinity increases to c.a. 1‰ above typical offshore salinity (~35.4‰). This salinity increase is due to high evaporation rates and negligible freshwater input. The hypersalinity drifts longshore north-westward due to south-easterly trade winds and may eventually pass capes or headlands, e.g. Cape Cleveland, where the water is considerably deeper (c.a. 15m). Here, a pronounced thermohaline circulation is predicted to occur which flushes the hypersalinity offshore at velocities of up to 0.08m/s. Flushing time of the coastal embayments is around 2-3weeks. During the dry season early summer, the thermohaline circulation reduces and therefore, flushing times are predicted to be slight longer due to the reduced onshore-offshore density gradient compared to that in the dry season winter period.

  4. Mini-med school for Aboriginal youth: experiential science outreach to tackle systemic barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita I. Henderson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Addressing systemic barriers experienced by low-income and minority students to accessing medical school, the University of Calgary's Cumming School of Medicine has spearheaded a year-round, mini-med school outreach initiative for Aboriginal students. Method: Junior and senior high school youth generally attend the half-day program in classes or camps of 15–25, breaking into small groups for multisession activities. Undergraduate medical education students mentor the youth in stations offering experiential lessons in physical examination, reading x-rays, and anatomy. All resources from the medical school are offered in-kind, including a pizza lunch at midday, whereas community partners organize transportation for the attendees. Results: Opening the medical school and its resources to the community offers great benefits to resource-constrained schools often limited in terms of science education resources. The model is also an effort to address challenges among the medical professions around attracting and retaining students from underserved populations. Conclusion: The prospect of increasing admission rates and successful completion of medical education among students from marginalized communities poses a real, though difficult-to-measure, possibility of increasing the workforce most likely to return to and work in such challenging contexts. A mini-medical school for Aboriginal youth highlights mutual, long-term benefit for diverse partners, encouraging medical educators and community-based science educators to explore the possibilities for deepening partnerships in their own regions.

  5. DETERMINATION OF CREEP PROPERTIES OF THERMAL BARRIER COATING(TBC) SYSTEMS FROM THE INDENTATION CREEP TESTING WITH ROUND FLAT INDENTERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B. Zhao; B.X. Xu; J. Liu; Z.F. Yue

    2004-01-01

    Indentation creep behavior with cylindrical flat indenters on the thermal barrier coating (TBC) was studied by finite element method (FEM). On the constant applied indentation creep stress, there is a steady creep rate for each case studied for different creep properties of the TBC system. The steady creep depth rate depends on the applied indentation creep stress and size of the indenters as well as the creep properties of the bond coat of the TBC and the substrate. The possibilities to determine the creep properties of a thermal barrier system from indention creep testing were discussed. As an example, with two different size indenters, the creep properties of bond coat of the TBC system can be derived by an inverse FEM method. This study not only provides a numerical method to obtain the creep properties of the TBC system, but also extends the application of indentation creep method with cylindrical flat indenters.

  6. Health system and societal barriers for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM services - lessons from World Diabetes Foundation supported GDM projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nielsen Karoline Kragelund

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal mortality and morbidity remains high in many low- and middle-income countries (LMIC. Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM represents an underestimated and unrecognised impediment to optimal maternal health in LMIC; left untreated – it also has severe consequences for the offspring. A better understanding of the barriers hindering detection and treatment of GDM is needed. Based on experiences from World Diabetes Foundation (WDF supported GDM projects this paper seeks to investigate societal and health system barriers to such efforts. Methods Questionnaires were filled out by 10 WDF supported GDM project partners implementing projects in eight different LMIC. In addition, interviews were conducted with the project partners. The interviews were analysed using content analysis. Results Barriers to improving maternal health related to GDM nominated by project implementers included lack of trained health care providers - especially female doctors; high staff turnover; lack of standard protocols, consumables and equipment; financing of health services and treatment; lack of or poor referral systems, feedback mechanisms and follow-up systems; distance to health facility; perceptions of female body size and weight gain/loss in relation to pregnancy; practices related to pregnant women’s diet; societal negligence of women’s health; lack of decision-making power among women regarding their own health; stigmatisation; role of women in society and expectations that the pregnant woman move to her maternal home for delivery. Conclusions A number of barriers within the health system and society exist. Programmes need to consider and address these barriers in order to improve GDM care and thereby maternal health in LMIC.

  7. Improving energy efficiency in industrial energy systems an interdisciplinary perspective on barriers, energy audits, energy management, policies, and programs

    CERN Document Server

    Thollander, Patrik

    2012-01-01

    Industrial energy efficiency is one of the most important means of reducing the threat of increased global warming. Research however states that despite the existence of numerous technical energy efficiency measures, its deployment is hindered by the existence of various barriers to energy efficiency. The complexity of increasing energy efficiency in manufacturing industry calls for an interdisciplinary approach to the issue. Improving energy efficiency in industrial energy systems applies an interdisciplinary perspective in examining energy efficiency in industrial energy systems, and discuss

  8. ebXML中CPP文档框架模板的研究%Study on CPP Document Framework Template Under ebXML

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖胜强; 郭荷清

    2002-01-01

    在近期所确定的ebXML规范中,CPP规范(Collaboration-Protocol Profile and Agreement Specification),即合作描述协议是ebXML整个体系中重要的一环.交易双方如何撰写合格的CPP文档是当前一个研究的重点,该文通过对CPP文档格式的分析,提出了一个CPP文档框架模板的概念,并且利用XMLDOM的接口,成功地实现了一个利用该模板的生成及书写器,使得交易双方都可以较为容易地撰写各自的CPP文档,为最终基于ebXML进行交易奠定了基础.

  9. Political, policy and social barriers to health system interoperability: emerging opportunities of Web 2.0 and 3.0.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juzwishin, Donald W M

    2009-01-01

    Achieving effective health informatics interoperability in a fragmented and uncoordinated health system is by definition not possible. Interoperability requires the simultaneous integration of health care processes and information across different types and levels of care (systems thinking). The fundamental argument of this paper is that information system interoperability will remain an unfulfilled hope until health reforms effectively address the governance (accountability), structural and process barriers to interoperability of health care delivery. The ascendency of Web 2.0 and 3.0, although still unproven, signals the opportunity to accelerate patients' access to health information and their health record. Policy suggestions for simultaneously advancing health system delivery and information system interoperability are posited.

  10. Interactions between barrier islands and backbarrier marshes affect island system response to sea level rise: Insights from a coupled model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, David; Moore, Laura J.; Duran Vinent, Orencio; Fagherazzi, Sergio; Mariotti, Giulio

    2014-09-01

    Interactions between backbarrier marshes and barrier islands will likely play an important role in determining how low-lying coastal systems respond to sea level rise and changes in storminess in the future. To assess the role of couplings between marshes and barrier islands under changing conditions, we develop and apply a coupled barrier island-marsh model (GEOMBEST+) to assess the impact of overwash deposition on backbarrier marsh morphology and of marsh morphology on rates of island migration. Our model results suggest that backbarrier marsh width is in a constant state of change until either the backbarrier basin becomes completely filled or backbarrier marsh deposits have completely eroded away. Results also suggest that overwash deposition is an important source of sediment, which allows existing narrow marshes to be maintained in a long-lasting alternate state (~500 m wide in the Virginia Barrier Islands) within a range of conditions under which they would otherwise disappear. The existence of a narrow marsh state is supported by observations of backbarrier marshes along the eastern shore of Virginia. Additional results suggest that marshes reduce accommodation in the backbarrier bay, which, in turn, decreases island migration rate. As climate change results in sea level rise, and the increased potential for intense hurricanes resulting in overwash, it is likely that these couplings will become increasingly important in determining future system behavior.

  11. Towards energy efficient climate control in storage of tulip bulbs. Pilot EB-01; Naar een energiezuiniger klimaatbeheersing bij de bewaring van tulpenbollen. Praktijkproef EB-01

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gude, H.; Dijkema, M.

    2005-09-15

    The aim of this project is to enable energy conservation in the storage of tulip bulbs. To this end, it should be examined if the agent EB-01 (1-methylcycloprene, a protection agent for plants) can be used in practical cells that are not entirely leak proof and if it offers sufficient protection against ethylene damage [Dutch] Doel van dit project is om energiebesparing bij de bewaring van tulpenbollen mogelijk te maken. Om dat te realiseren wordt onderzocht of het middel EB-01 (1- methylcyclopropeen, een beschermingsmiddel voor planten) toepasbaar is in niet volledig lekdichte praktijkcellen en voldoende bescherming tegen ethyleenschade biedt.

  12. Decontamination systems information and research program -- Literature review in support of development of standard test protocols and barrier design models for in situ formed barriers project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-01

    The US Department of Energy is responsible for approximately 3,000 sites in which contaminants such as carbon tetrachloride, trichlorethylene, perchlorethylene, non-volatile and soluble organic and insoluble organics (PCBs and pesticides) are encountered. In specific areas of these sites radioactive contaminants are stored in underground storage tanks which were originally designed and constructed with a 30-year projected life. Many of these tanks are now 10 years beyond the design life and failures have occurred allowing the basic liquids (ph of 8 to 9) to leak into the unconsolidated soils below. Nearly one half of the storage tanks located at the Hanford Washington Reservation are suspected of leaking and contaminating the soils beneath them. The Hanford site is located in a semi-arid climate region with rainfall of less than 6 inches annually, and studies have indicated that very little of this water finds its way to the groundwater to move the water down gradient toward the Columbia River. This provides the government with time to develop a barrier system to prevent further contamination of the groundwater, and to develop and test remediation systems to stabilize or remove the contaminant materials. In parallel to remediation efforts, confinement and containment technologies are needed to retard or prevent the advancement of contamination plumes through the environment until the implementation of remediation technology efforts are completed. This project examines the various confinement and containment technologies and protocols for testing the materials in relation to their function in-situ.

  13. Decontamination systems information and research program -- Literature review in support of development of standard test protocols and barrier design models for in situ formed barriers project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy is responsible for approximately 3,000 sites in which contaminants such as carbon tetrachloride, trichlorethylene, perchlorethylene, non-volatile and soluble organic and insoluble organics (PCBs and pesticides) are encountered. In specific areas of these sites radioactive contaminants are stored in underground storage tanks which were originally designed and constructed with a 30-year projected life. Many of these tanks are now 10 years beyond the design life and failures have occurred allowing the basic liquids (ph of 8 to 9) to leak into the unconsolidated soils below. Nearly one half of the storage tanks located at the Hanford Washington Reservation are suspected of leaking and contaminating the soils beneath them. The Hanford site is located in a semi-arid climate region with rainfall of less than 6 inches annually, and studies have indicated that very little of this water finds its way to the groundwater to move the water down gradient toward the Columbia River. This provides the government with time to develop a barrier system to prevent further contamination of the groundwater, and to develop and test remediation systems to stabilize or remove the contaminant materials. In parallel to remediation efforts, confinement and containment technologies are needed to retard or prevent the advancement of contamination plumes through the environment until the implementation of remediation technology efforts are completed. This project examines the various confinement and containment technologies and protocols for testing the materials in relation to their function in-situ

  14. Perceived barriers of heart failure nurses and cardiologists in using clinical decision support systems in the treatment of heart failure patients

    OpenAIRE

    Vries, Arjen E. de; van der Wal, Martje H. L.; Nieuwenhuis, Maurice M. W.; Richard M. de Jong; Rene B. van Dijk; Jaarsma, Tiny; Hillege, Hans L; Jorna, Rene J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Clinical Decision Support Systems (CDSSs) can support guideline adherence in heart failure (HF) patients. However, the use of CDSSs is limited and barriers in working with CDSSs have been described as a major obstacle. It is unknown if barriers to CDSSs are present and differ between HF nurses and cardiologists. Therefore the aims of this study are; 1. Explore the type and number of perceived barriers of HF nurses and cardiologists to use a CDSS in the treatment of HF patients. 2. ...

  15. EB welding and quality control of nuclear reactor fuel rods at ASEA-ATOM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fourteen years ago ASEA-ATOM chose EB welding for fuel rod plug/tube welds. This choice was made on the basis of 7 years of experience of EB-welding of fuel rods in a pilot plant. The specific reasons were the high quality and the high process yield, which are made possible by the great degree of controlability and reproducibility of this process and because the welds are suitable for QC inspection by an inline ultrasonic method which we developed at the same time. To date ASEA-ATOM has manufactured approximately 600,000 fuel rods with 1,200,000 EB-welds. The results have met expections as regards quality, process yield and service in BWR and PWR reactors. Descriptions are given of the automatic Sciaky EB welding machines, of the ultrasonic inspection equipment and of their process qualification. Some comments are made on quality and process yield

  16. Current and future market of UV/EB curing in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current status and future market of UV/EB curing in Thailand were presented. Included number of printing houses, export, main export market and the role of radiation curing in printing and packaging industries of Thailand

  17. Nanograined Net-Shaped Fabrication of Rhenium Components by EB-PVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cost-effective net-shaped forming components have brought considerable interest into DoD, NASA and DoE. Electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) offers flexibility in forming net-shaped components with tailored microstructure and chemistry. High purity rhenium (Re) components including rhenium-coated graphite balls, Re- plates and tubes have been successfully manufactured by EB-PVD. EB-PVD Re components exhibited sub-micron and nano-sized grains with high hardness and strength as compared to CVD. It is estimated that the cost of Re components manufactured by EB-PVD would be less than the current CVD and powder-HIP Technologies

  18. Barriers to radiant barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henke, C.

    Radiant barriers are an energy saving device which decrease the heat lost through radiant heat transfer. The primary reason to install it is to save on air conditioning costs, as it prevents the loss of heat through the attic. They have been the subject of much controversy, as the claims made by many manufacturers were extreme (up to 100% heat shielding), with the consumer paying high prices for ineffective devices. The authors outline criteria for the consumer to consider when buying radiant warmers and then give installation tips for both new constructions and retrofits.

  19. Barrier distribution of quasi-elastic backward scattering in very heavy reaction systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have measured quasi-elastic backward scattering in the reactions of 48Ti, 54Cr, 56Fe, 64Ni, 70Zn, 76Ge and 86Kr + 208Pb to study the nucleus-nucleus interaction in Pb-based cold fusion. The barrier distributions were obtained from the first derivative of the measured excitation functions of quasi-elastic scattering cross sections normalized to the Rutherford scattering cross sections. The centroids of the barrier distributions showed deviations from several predicted barrier heights toward the low energy side except for the Christensen-Winther potential and the Akuez-Winther potential. The shapes of the barrier distributions were well reproduced by the results of a coupled-channel calculation taking account of the coupling effects of multi-phonon excitations of the quadrupole vibration for the projectiles and of the octupole vibration for the 208Pb target. The present barrier distributions were also well reproduced by a semiclassical calculation taking into account the couplings of transfer channels and single-phonon excitations in the projectiles and the target. (author)

  20. Overview of total system model used for the 2008 performance assessment for the proposed high-level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A summary is presented for the total system model used to represent physical processes associated with the seven scenario classes (i.e., nominal conditions, early waste package (WP) failure, early drip shield (DS) failure, igneous intrusive events, igneous eruptive events, seismic ground motion events and seismic fault displacement events) considered in the 2008 performance assessment for the proposed repository for high-level radioactive waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The total system model estimates dose to an exposed individual resulting from radionuclide movement through the repository system and biosphere. Components of the total system model described in this presentation include models for (i) climate analysis, (ii) land surface infiltration and associated unsaturated zone flow, (iii) multi-scale thermal hydrology and engineered barrier system (EBS) thermal–hydrologic environment, (iv) EBS physical and chemical environment, (v) WP and DS degradation, (vi) drift seepage and drift wall condensation, (vii) waste form degradation and mobilization, (viii) water and radionuclide movement in the EBS and underlying unsaturated and saturated zones, (ix) radionuclide movement in the biosphere and resultant human exposure, and (x) processes specific to early WP and DS failures, intrusive and eruptive igneous events, and seismic ground motion and fault displacement events. - Highlights: • The models indicated below associated with four scenario classes are described: (i) nominal conditions, (ii) early waste package (WP) and/or early drip shield (DS) failure, (iii) igneous events, and (iv) seismic events. • Models for (i) multi-scale thermal hydrology and engineered barrier system (EBS) thermal-hydrologic environment, (ii) EBS physical and chemical environment, (iii) WP and DS degradation, (iv) drift seepage and drift wall condensation, and (vi) waste form degradation and mobilization. • Models for processes specific to (i) early WP and DS failures, (ii

  1. Thermal High- and Low-Cycle Fatigue Behavior of Thick Thermal Barrier Coating Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Robert A.

    1998-01-01

    Ceramic thermal barrier coatings have received increasing attention for advanced gas turbine and diesel engine applications because of their ability to provide thermal insulation to engine components. However, the durability of these coatings under the severe thermal cycling conditions encountered in a diesel engine (ref. 1) still remains a major issue. In this research at the NASA Lewis Research Center, a high-power laser was used to investigate the thermal fatigue behavior of a yttria-stabilized zirconia coating system under simulated diesel engine conditions. The mechanisms of fatigue crack initiation and propagation, and of coating failure under complex thermal low-cycle fatigue (LCF, representing stop/start cycles) and thermal high-cycle fatigue (HCF, representing operation at 1300 rpm) are described. Continuous wave and pulse laser modes were used to simulate pure LCF and combined LCF/HCF, respectively (ref. 2). The LCF mechanism was found to be closely related to the coating sintering and creep at high temperatures. These creep strains in the ceramic coating led to a tensile stress state during cooling, thus providing the major driving force for crack growth under LCF conditions. The combined LCF/HCF tests induced more severe coating surface cracking, microspallation, and accelerated crack growth than did the pure LCF test. HCF thermal loads also facilitated lateral crack branching and ceramic/bond coat interface delaminations. HCF is associated with the cyclic stresses originating from the high-frequency temperature fluctuation at the ceramic coating surface. The HCF thermal loads act on the crack by a wedging mechanism (ref. 1), resulting in continuous crack growth at temperature. The HCF stress intensity factor amplitude increases with the interaction depth and temperature swing, and decreases with the crack depth. HCF damage also increases with the thermal expansion coefficient and the Young's modulus of the ceramic coating (refs. 1 and 3).

  2. Pathways and Hydrography in the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System Part 1: Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, L.; Johns, E. M.; Smith, R. H.; Lamkin, J. T.; Largier, J. L.

    2015-10-01

    Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) measurements and surface drifters released from two oceanographic cruises conducted during March 2006 and January/February 2007 are used to investigate the circulation off the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System (MBRS). We show that the MBRS circulation can be divided into two distinct regimes, a northern region dominated by the strong, northward-flowing Yucatan Current, and a southern region with weaker southward coastal currents and the presence of the Honduras Gyre. The latitude of impingement of the Cayman Current onto the coastline varies with time, and creates a third region, which acts as a boundary between the northern and southern circulation regimes. This circulation pattern yields two zones in terms of dispersal, with planktonic propagules in the northern region being rapidly exported to the north, whereas plankton in the southern and impingement regions may be retained locally or regionally. The latitude of the impingement region shifts interannually and intra-annually up to 3° in latitude. Sub-mesoscale features are observed in association with topography, e.g., flow bifurcation around Cozumel Island, flow wake north of Chinchorro Bank and separation of flow from the coast just north of Bahia de la Ascencion. This third feature is evident as cyclonic recirculation in coastal waters, which we call the Ascencion-Cozumel Coastal Eddy. An understanding of the implications of these different circulation regimes on water mass distributions, population connectivity, and the fate of land-based pollutants in the MBRS is critically important to better inform science-based resource management and conservation plans for the MBRS coral reefs.

  3. Facilitators and barriers to doing workplace mental health research: Case study of acute psychological trauma in a public transit system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Links, Paul S; Bender, Ash; Eynan, Rahel; O'Grady, John; Shah, Ravi

    2016-03-10

    The Acute Psychological Trauma (APT) Study was a collaboration between an acute care hospital, a specialized multidisciplinary program designed to meet the mental health needs of injured workers, and a large urban public transit system. The overall purpose was to evaluate a Best Practices Intervention (BPI) for employees affected by acute psychological trauma compared to a Treatment as Usual (TAU) group. The specific purpose is to discuss facilitators and barriers that were recognized in implementing and carrying out mental health research in a workplace setting. Over the course of the APT study, a joint implementation committee was responsible for day-to-day study operations and made regular observations on the facilitators and barriers that arose throughout the study. The facilitators to this study included the longstanding relationships among the partners, increased recognition for the need of mental health research in the workplace, and the existence of a community advisory committee. The significant barriers to doing this study of mental health research in the workplace included differences in organizational culture, inconsistent union support, co-interventions, and stigma. Researchers and funding agencies need to be flexible and provide additional resources in order to overcome the barriers that can exist doing workplace mental health research.

  4. Blood-brain barrier models and their relevance for a successful development of CNS drug delivery systems: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicker, Joana; Alves, Gilberto; Fortuna, Ana; Falcão, Amílcar

    2014-08-01

    During the research and development of new drugs directed at the central nervous system, there is a considerable attrition rate caused by their hampered access to the brain by the blood-brain barrier. Throughout the years, several in vitro models have been developed in an attempt to mimic critical functionalities of the blood-brain barrier and reliably predict the permeability of drug candidates. However, the current challenge lies in developing a model that retains fundamental blood-brain barrier characteristics and simultaneously remains compatible with the high throughput demands of pharmaceutical industries. This review firstly describes the roles of all elements of the neurovascular unit and their influence on drug brain penetration. In vitro models, including non-cell based and cell-based models, and in vivo models are herein presented, with a particular emphasis on their methodological aspects. Lastly, their contribution to the improvement of brain drug delivery strategies and drug transport across the blood-brain barrier is also discussed.

  5. Current Status and Performance Tests of Korea Heat Load Test Facility KoHLT-EB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A commissioning test has been scheduled to establish the installation and preliminary performance experiments of the copper hypervapotron mockups. And a qualification test will be performed to evaluate the CuCrZr duct liner in the ITER neutral beam injection facility and the ITER first wall small-scale mockups of the semi-prototype, at up to 1.5 and 5 MW/m2 high heat flux. Also, this system will be used to test other PFCs for ITER and materials for tokamak reactors. Korean high heat flux test facility(KoHLT-EB; Korea Heat Load Test facility - Electron Beam) by using an electron beam system has been constructed in KAERI to perform the qualification test for ITER blanket FW semi-prototype mockups, hypervapotron cooling devices in fusion devices, and other ITER plasma facing components. The commissioning and performance tests with the supplier of e-gun system have been performed on November 2012. The high heat flux test for hypervapotron cooling device and calorimetry were performed to measure the surface heat flux, the temperature profile and cooling performance. Korean high heat flux test facility for the plasma facing components of nuclear fusion machines will be constructed to evaluate the performance of each component. This facility for the plasma facing materials will be equipped with an electron beam system with a 60 kV acceleration gun

  6. Current Status and Performance Tests of Korea Heat Load Test Facility KoHLT-EB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sukkwon; Jin, Hyunggon; Shin, Kyuin; Choi, Boguen; Lee, Eohwak; Yoon, Jaesung; Lee, Dongwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Duckhoi; Cho, Seungyon [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    A commissioning test has been scheduled to establish the installation and preliminary performance experiments of the copper hypervapotron mockups. And a qualification test will be performed to evaluate the CuCrZr duct liner in the ITER neutral beam injection facility and the ITER first wall small-scale mockups of the semi-prototype, at up to 1.5 and 5 MW/m{sup 2} high heat flux. Also, this system will be used to test other PFCs for ITER and materials for tokamak reactors. Korean high heat flux test facility(KoHLT-EB; Korea Heat Load Test facility - Electron Beam) by using an electron beam system has been constructed in KAERI to perform the qualification test for ITER blanket FW semi-prototype mockups, hypervapotron cooling devices in fusion devices, and other ITER plasma facing components. The commissioning and performance tests with the supplier of e-gun system have been performed on November 2012. The high heat flux test for hypervapotron cooling device and calorimetry were performed to measure the surface heat flux, the temperature profile and cooling performance. Korean high heat flux test facility for the plasma facing components of nuclear fusion machines will be constructed to evaluate the performance of each component. This facility for the plasma facing materials will be equipped with an electron beam system with a 60 kV acceleration gun.

  7. Functionally gradient materials for thermal barrier coatings in advanced gas turbine systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banovic, S.W.; Barmak, K.; Chan, H.M. [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    New designs for advanced gas turbine engines for power production are required to have higher operating temperatures in order to increase efficiency. However, elevated temperatures will increase the magnitude and severity of environmental degradation of critical turbine components (e.g. combustor parts, turbine blades, etc{hor_ellipsis}). To offset this problem, the usage of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) has become popular by allowing an increase in maximum inlet temperatures for an operating engine. Although thermal barrier technology is over thirty years old, the principle failure mechanism is the spallation of the ceramic coating at or near the ceramic/bond coat interface. Therefore, it is desirable to develop a coating that combines the thermal barrier qualities of the ceramic layer and the corrosion protection by the metallic bond coat without the detrimental effects associated with the localization of the ceramic/metal interface to a single plane.

  8. Method of installing subsurface barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickelson, Reva A.; Richardson, John G.; Kostelnik, Kevin M.; Sloan, Paul A.

    2007-10-09

    Systems, components, and methods relating to subterranean containment barriers. Laterally adjacent tubular casings having male interlock structures and multiple female interlock structures defining recesses for receiving a male interlock structure are used to create subterranean barriers for containing and treating buried waste and its effluents. The multiple female interlock structures enable the barriers to be varied around subsurface objects and to form barrier sidewalls. The barrier may be used for treating and monitoring a zone of interest.

  9. The Development of Environmental Barrier Coating Systems for SiC-SiC Ceramic Matrix Composites: Environment Effects on the Creep and Fatigue Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming; Ghosn, Louis J.

    2014-01-01

    Topics covered include: Environmental barrier coating system development: needs, challenges and limitations; Advanced environmental barrier coating systems (EBCs) for CMC airfoils and combustors; NASA EBC systems and material system evolutions, Current turbine and combustor EBC coating emphases, Advanced development, processing, testing and modeling, EBC and EBC bond coats: recent advances; Design tool and life prediction of coated CMC components; Advanced CMC-EBC rig demonstrations; Summary and future directions.

  10. Identification of barriers and monitored the implementation of electronic training system and provide solutions to fix it

    OpenAIRE

    HELMİ, Shamameh

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Barriers to implementing e-learning systems may be related to the organization, manpower or technology-related factors. Given the many obstacles that have been detected, managerial and human factors are the main obstacles in this study.A reliable and valid questionnaire was distributed among management organizational development and human capital Tehran University of Medical Sciences staff. For analysis of data obtained through questionnaires SPSS statistical software is used. The m...

  11. Evaluation of Perivascular Adhesion Formation in New Zealand White Rabbits Using Oxiplex and DuraSeal Xact Adhesion Barrier System

    OpenAIRE

    Mo, Fred; Yue, James; Zhang, Jianghui; Howk, Kreg; Williams, Allister

    2009-01-01

    Background Adhesion formation after spine surgery is a result of normal wound healing that may place patients at increased risk for complications during revision surgery. Preventing adhesions could reduce the risk of complications during revision surgery, and possibly reduce the need for revision procedures. This study evaluates the ability of DuraSeal Xact Adhesion Barrier System (DSX) (Covidien, Mansfield, Massachusetts) and Oxiplex/SP gel (OX) (FzioMed, San Luis Obispo, California) to affe...

  12. Ultrasound-mediated blood-brain barrier disruption for targeted drug delivery in the central nervous system

    OpenAIRE

    Aryal, Muna; Arvanitis, Costas D.; Alexander, Phillip M.; McDannold, Nathan

    2014-01-01

    The physiology of the vasculature in the central nervous system (CNS), which includes the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and other factors, complicates the delivery of most drugs to the brain. Different methods have been used to bypass the BBB, but they have limitations such as being invasive, non-targeted or requiring the formulation of new drugs. Focused ultrasound (FUS), when combined with circulating microbubbles, is a noninvasive method to locally and transiently disrupt the BBB at discrete t...

  13. Effects of barrier fluctuation on the tunneling dynamics in the presence of classical chaos in a mixed quantum-classical system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Aparna Saha; Bidhan Chandra Bag; Pranab Sarkar

    2007-03-01

    We present a numerical investigation of the tunneling dynamics of a particle moving in a bistable potential with fluctuating barrier which is coupled to a non-integrable classical system and study the interplay between classical chaos and barrier fluctuation in the tunneling dynamics. We found that the coupling of the quantum system with the classical subsystem decreases the tunneling rate irrespective of whether the classical subsystem is regular or chaotic and also irrespective of the fact that whether the barrier fluctuates or not. Presence of classical chaos always enhances the tunneling rate constant. The effect of barrier fluctuation on the tunneling rate in a mixed quantum-classical system is to suppress the tunneling rate. In contrast to the case of regular subsystem, the suppression arising due to barrier fluctuation is more visible when the subsystem is chaotic.

  14. International Expert Review of SRCan: Engineered Barrier Issues. External review contribution in support of SKI's and SSI's review of SR-Can

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) has recently submitted a license application for the construction of a spent fuel encapsulation plant. SKB plans to submit a further license application in 2009 for the construction of a repository for the disposal spent nuclear fuel. In connection with the first of these applications, SKB published a safety report, known as SR-Can, which assessed the safety of a spent-fuel repository. The Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) and the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI) (the Authorities) will make formal reviews of the licence applications, and have, therefore, jointly commissioned a team of independent experts to assess and provide comments on SKB's safety reports. The Authorities will consider the views of the independent review team in completing their own reviews. This document presents the comments and findings of the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) review group on SR-Can. The SR-Can safety report includes an examination of EBS design and performance for a range of scenarios, including expected repository evolution and possible variant scenarios, that together address processes and events that might result in the loss of certain repository safety functions. Furthermore, a series of sensitivity analyses is also presented that provides helpful insights into the relative importance of many key parameters and processes related to the EBS. In general, the explanatory text of the SR-Can safety report is clear, and the cited references provide adequate technical justifications for the assumptions, models, and data that are abstracted into the SR-Can safety report. The review group considers, therefore, that SKB's development of SR-Can has been a very valuable exercise, and that SKB should be congratulated on the breadth, depth and general clarity of its research and development and safety assessment programmes. Notwithstanding these successes, the EBS review group has identified a range of

  15. Perceived barriers of heart failure nurses and cardiologists in using clinical decision support systems in the treatment of heart failure patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Arjen E.; van der Wal, Martje H. L.; Nieuwenhuis, Maurice M. W.; de Jong, Richard M.; van Dijk, Rene B.; Jaarsma, Tiny; Hillege, Hans L.; Jorna, Rene J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Clinical Decision Support Systems (CDSSs) can support guideline adherence in heart failure (HF) patients. However, the use of CDSSs is limited and barriers in working with CDSSs have been described as a major obstacle. It is unknown if barriers to CDSSs are present and differ between HF

  16. Bond strength and stress measurements in thermal barrier coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gell, M.; Jordan, E. [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Thermal barrier coatings have been used extensively in aircraft gas turbines for more than 15 years to insulate combustors and turbine vanes from the hot gas stream. Plasma sprayed thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) provide metal temperature reductions as much as 300{degrees}F, with improvements in durability of two times or more being achieved. The introduction of TBCs deposited by electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) processes in the last five years has provided a major improvement in durability and also enabled TBCs to be applied to turbine blades for improved engine performance. To meet the aggressive Advanced Turbine Systems goals for efficiency, durability and the environment, it will be necessary to employ thermal barrier coatings on turbine airfoils and other hot section components. For The successful application of TBCs to ATS engines with 2600{degrees}F turbine inlet temperatures and required component lives 10 times greater than those for aircraft gas turbine engines, it is necessary to develop quantitative assessment techniques for TBC coating integrity with time and cycles in ATS engines. Thermal barrier coatings in production today consist of a metallic bond coat, such as an MCrAlY overlay coating or a platinum aluminide (Pt-Al) diffusion coating. During heat treatment, both these coatings form a thin, tightly adherent alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) film. Failure of TBC coatings in engine service occurs by spallation of the ceramic coating at or near the bond coat to alumina or the alumina to zirconia bonds. Thus, it is the initial strength of these bonds and the stresses at the bond plane, and their changes with engine exposure, that determines coating durability. The purpose of this program is to provide, for the first time, a quantitative assessment of TBC bond strength and bond plane stresses as a function of engine time and cycles.

  17. No runoff, no soil loss: soil and water conservation in hedgerow barrier systems.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiepe, P.

    1995-01-01

    Land degradation by water erosion represents a serious, and fast increasing, environmental threat. Hedgerow barriers control water erosion through the presence of the tree stem and through an increase in infiltration beneath the hedgerow. The infiltration rate beneath hedgerows is 3-8 times higher t

  18. The Development of HfO2-Rare Earth Based Oxide Materials and Barrier Coatings for Thermal Protection Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming; Harder, Bryan James

    2014-01-01

    Advanced hafnia-rare earth oxides, rare earth aluminates and silicates have been developed for thermal environmental barrier systems for aerospace propulsion engine and thermal protection applications. The high temperature stability, low thermal conductivity, excellent oxidation resistance and mechanical properties of these oxide material systems make them attractive and potentially viable for thermal protection systems. This paper will focus on the development of the high performance and high temperature capable ZrO2HfO2-rare earth based alloy and compound oxide materials, processed as protective coating systems using state-or-the-art processing techniques. The emphasis has been in particular placed on assessing their temperature capability, stability and suitability for advanced space vehicle entry thermal protection systems. Fundamental thermophysical and thermomechanical properties of the material systems have been investigated at high temperatures. Laser high-heat-flux testing has also been developed to validate the material systems, and demonstrating durability under space entry high heat flux conditions.

  19. Converse Barrier Certificate Theorem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafael; Sloth, Christoffer

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a converse barrier certificate theorem for a generic dynamical system.We show that a barrier certificate exists for any safe dynamical system defined on a compact manifold. Other authors have developed a related result, by assuming that the dynamical system has no singular...... points in the considered subset of the state space. In this paper, we redefine the standard notion of safety to comply with generic dynamical systems with multiple singularities. Afterwards, we prove the converse barrier certificate theorem and illustrate the differences between ours and previous work by...

  20. A Study on the Thermal-Hydro-Mechanical Behaviors in the Engineered Barrier System of a HLW Repository: Engineering-scale Validation Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae-Owan; Kwon, S. K.; Park, J. H.; Cho, W. J.; Lee, Jae-Owan

    2007-06-15

    The T-H-M processes in the engineered barrier system are one of the major issues in the performance assessment of a HLW repository. In this study, it was conducted to design and construct the engineering-scale test facility which was a third-scale of the reference disposal system, and to investigate THM behavior of the engineered barrier system using the test facility. The computer modeling and interpreting methodology for THM behavior were also developed.

  1. Numerical determination of the interfacial energy and nucleation barrier of curved solid-liquid interfaces in binary systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundin, Julia; Choudhary, Muhammad Ajmal

    2016-07-01

    The phase-field crystal (PFC) technique is a widely used approach for modeling crystal growth phenomena with atomistic resolution on mesoscopic time scales. We use a two-dimensional PFC model for a binary system based on the work of Elder et al. [Phys. Rev. B 75, 064107 (2007), 10.1103/PhysRevB.75.064107] to study the effect of the curved, diffuse solid-liquid interface on the interfacial energy as well as the nucleation barrier. The calculation of the interfacial energy and the nucleation barrier certainly depends on the proper definition of the solid-liquid dividing surface and the corresponding nucleus size. We define the position of the sharp interface at which the interfacial energy is to be evaluated by using the concept of equimolar dividing surface (re) and the minimization of the interfacial energy (rs). The comparison of the results based on both radii shows that the difference re-rs is always positive and has a limit for large cluster sizes which is comparable to the Tolman length. Furthermore, we found the real nucleation barrier for small cluster sizes, which is defined as a function of the radius rs, and compared it with the classical nucleation theory. The simulation results also show that the extracted interfacial energy as function of both radii is independent of system size, and this dependence can be reasonably described by the nonclassical Tolman formula with a positive Tolman length.

  2. Numerical determination of the interfacial energy and nucleation barrier of curved solid-liquid interfaces in binary systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundin, Julia; Choudhary, Muhammad Ajmal

    2016-07-01

    The phase-field crystal (PFC) technique is a widely used approach for modeling crystal growth phenomena with atomistic resolution on mesoscopic time scales. We use a two-dimensional PFC model for a binary system based on the work of Elder et al. [Phys. Rev. B 75, 064107 (2007)PRBMDO1098-012110.1103/PhysRevB.75.064107] to study the effect of the curved, diffuse solid-liquid interface on the interfacial energy as well as the nucleation barrier. The calculation of the interfacial energy and the nucleation barrier certainly depends on the proper definition of the solid-liquid dividing surface and the corresponding nucleus size. We define the position of the sharp interface at which the interfacial energy is to be evaluated by using the concept of equimolar dividing surface (r^{e}) and the minimization of the interfacial energy (r^{s}). The comparison of the results based on both radii shows that the difference r^{e}-r^{s} is always positive and has a limit for large cluster sizes which is comparable to the Tolman length. Furthermore, we found the real nucleation barrier for small cluster sizes, which is defined as a function of the radius r^{s}, and compared it with the classical nucleation theory. The simulation results also show that the extracted interfacial energy as function of both radii is independent of system size, and this dependence can be reasonably described by the nonclassical Tolman formula with a positive Tolman length.

  3. Health system barriers and facilitators to medication adherence for the secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Amitava; Khandelwal, Shweta; Nambiar, Lavanya; Saxena, Malvika; Peck, Victoria; Moniruzzaman, Mohammed; Faria Neto, Jose Rocha; Quinto, Katherine Curi; Smyth, Andrew; Leong, Darryl; Werba, José Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Background Secondary prevention is cost-effective for cardiovascular disease (CVD), but uptake is suboptimal. Understanding barriers and facilitators to adherence to secondary prevention for CVD at multiple health system levels may inform policy. Objectives To conduct a systematic review of barriers and facilitators to adherence/persistence to secondary CVD prevention medications at health system level. Methods Included studies reported effects of health system level factors on adherence/persistence to secondary prevention medications for CVD (coronary artery or cerebrovascular disease). Studies considered at least one of β blockers, statins, angiotensin–renin system blockers and aspirin. Relevant databases were searched from 1 January 1966 until 1 October 2015. Full texts were screened for inclusion by 2 independent reviewers. Results Of 2246 screened articles, 25 studies were included (12 trials, 11 cohort studies, 1 cross-sectional study and 1 case–control study) with 132 140 individuals overall (smallest n=30, largest n=63 301). 3 studies included upper middle-income countries, 1 included a low middle-income country and 21 (84%) included high-income countries (9 in the USA). Studies concerned established CVD (n=4), cerebrovascular disease (n=7) and coronary heart disease (n=14). Three studies considered persistence and adherence. Quantity and quality of evidence was limited for adherence, persistence and across drug classes. Studies were concerned with governance and delivery (n=19, including 4 trials of fixed-dose combination therapy, FDC), intellectual resources (n=1), human resources (n=1) and health system financing (n=4). Full prescription coverage, reduced copayments, FDC and counselling were facilitators associated with higher adherence. Conclusions High-quality evidence on health system barriers and facilitators to adherence to secondary prevention medications for CVD is lacking, especially for low-income settings. Full prescription coverage

  4. Blanch Resistant and Thermal Barrier NiAl Coating Systems for Advanced Copper Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Sai V. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A method of forming an environmental resistant thermal barrier coating on a copper alloy is disclosed. The steps include cleansing a surface of a copper alloy, depositing a bond coat on the cleansed surface of the copper alloy, depositing a NiAl top coat on the bond coat and consolidating the bond coat and the NiAl top coat to form the thermal barrier coating. The bond coat may be a nickel layer or a layer composed of at least one of copper and chromium-copper alloy and either the bond coat or the NiAl top coat or both may be deposited using a low pressure or vacuum plasma spray.

  5. Disentangling complete and incomplete fusion for 9Be+187Re system at near barrier energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The breakup of projectile before fusion leads to some unusual fusion mechanisms like incomplete fusion (ICF) and sequential complete fusion (SCF). Experimentally, it is not possible to separate SCF events from direct complete fusion (DCF). However, the complete fusion and incomplete fusion can be measured separately. Theoretically it is very difficult to calculate the complete and incomplete fusion cross section separately using different models. Very recently A. Diaz-Torres has developed a computer code platypus based on classical dynamical model wherein the complete and incomplete fusion cross sections are calculated separately. But this model is found to work very well at energies above the barrier energy. Here we have attempted to extrapolate the results of the code platypus by using simple Wong's formula in conjunction with the energy dependent Woods-Saxon potential (EDWSP) in the below barrier energy region

  6. Integrity of the alveolar-capillary barrier and alveolar surfactant system in smokers.

    OpenAIRE

    Schmekel, B; Bos, J.A.; A. R. Khan; Wohlfart, B; Lachmann, B.; Wollmer, P.

    1992-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The permeability of the alveolar-capillary barrier to technetium-99m labelled diethylenetriamine pentaacetate (99mTc DTPA) is known to be greatly increased in smokers, but the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. Abnormal permeability of the alveolar epithelium as well as impaired surfactant function has been suggested. The purpose of this study was to examine transudation of urea and albumin into the alveoli and alveolar surfactant function in smokers and non-smokers and to...

  7. Isolation and characterization of Bacillus subtilis EB-28, an endophytic bacterium strain displaying biocontrol activity against Botrytis cinerea Pers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shutong WANG; Tongle HU; Yanling JIAO; Jianjian WEI; Keqiang CAO

    2009-01-01

    The fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea Pers. causes severe rotting on tomato fruits during storage and shelf life. As a biological control agent, endophytic bacterium was regarded as an effective alternative to chemical control. Out of 238 endophytic bacterial isolates, three strains (EB-15, EB-28, and EB-122) isolated from Lycopersicum esculentum Mill., Speranskia tuberculata (Bge.) Baill, and Dictamnus dasycarpus Turcz. respectively were found to be strongly antagonistic to the pathogen in vitro and were selected for further in vivo tests. One endophytic bacterium strain, encoded EB-28, was selected from the three in vivo tested isolates. The inhibitive rate of EB-28 reached 71.1% in vitro and 52.4% in vivo. EB-28 was identified as Bacillus subtilis according to its morphological, physiological, and biochemical characteristics and 16S rDNA sequence analysis.

  8. Horizontal flow barriers for the transient ground-water flow model, Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital dataset defines the surface traces of regional features simulated as horizontal flow barriers in the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system...

  9. Political, policy and social barriers to health system interoperability: emerging opportunities of Web 2.0 and 3.0.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juzwishin, Donald W M

    2009-01-01

    Achieving effective health informatics interoperability in a fragmented and uncoordinated health system is by definition not possible. Interoperability requires the simultaneous integration of health care processes and information across different types and levels of care (systems thinking). The fundamental argument of this paper is that information system interoperability will remain an unfulfilled hope until health reforms effectively address the governance (accountability), structural and process barriers to interoperability of health care delivery. The ascendency of Web 2.0 and 3.0, although still unproven, signals the opportunity to accelerate patients' access to health information and their health record. Policy suggestions for simultaneously advancing health system delivery and information system interoperability are posited. PMID:20166516

  10. An electrokinetic/Fe0 permeable reactive barrier system for the treatment of nitrate-contaminated subsurface soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Tasuma; Oyama, Yukinori; Moribe, Mai; Niinae, Masakazu

    2012-03-01

    Effective nitrate removal by Fe(0) permeable reactive barriers (Fe(0) PRB) has been recognized as a challenging task because the iron corrosion product foamed on Fe(0) hinders effective electron transfer from Fe(0) to surface-bound nitrate. The objectives of this study were (i) to demonstrate the effectiveness of an electrokinetic/Fe(0) PRB system for remediating nitrate-contaminated low permeability soils using a bench-scale system and (ii) to deepen the understanding of the behavior and fate of nitrate in the system. Bench-scale laboratory experiments were designed to investigate the influence of the Fe(0) content in the permeable reactive barrier, the pH in the anode well, and the applied voltage on remediation efficiency. The experimental results showed that the major reaction product of nitrate reduction by Fe(0) was ammonium and that nitrate reduction efficiency was significantly influenced by the variables investigated in this study. Nitrate reduction efficiency was enhanced by either increasing the Fe(0) content in the Fe(0) reactive barrier or decreasing the initial anode pH. However, nitrate reduction efficiency was reduced by increasing the applied voltage from 10 V to 40 V due to the insufficient reaction time during nitrate migration through the Fe(0) PRB. For all experimental conditions, nearly all nitrate nitrogen was recovered in either anode or cathode wells as nitrate or ammonium within 100 h, demonstrating the effectiveness of the system for remediating nitrate-contaminated subsurface soils. PMID:22153957

  11. Identifying barriers to mental health system improvements: an examination of community participation in assertive community treatment programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wakefield Patricia A

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Integrating the best available evidence into program standards is essential if system-wide improvements in the delivery of community-based mental health services are to be achieved. Since the beginning of the Assertive Community Treatment (ACT program movement, program standards have included a role for the community. In particular, ACT program standards have sought to ensure that members of the local community are involved in governance and that former clients participate in service delivery as "Peer Support Specialists". This paper reports on the extent to which ACT program standards related to community participation have been implemented and identifies barriers to full compliance. Methods Qualitative and quantitative data were collected through a telephone survey of ACT Program Coordinators in Ontario, Canada, using a census sample of the existing 66 ACT programs. A thematic approach to content analysis was used to analyze respondents' qualitative comments. Quantitative data were analyzed using SPSS 16.0 and included means, frequencies, independent t-tests and Pearson Correlations. Results An 85% response rate was achieved. Of the 33 program standards, the two that received the lowest perceived compliance ratings were the two standards directly concerning community participation. Specifically, the standard to have a functioning Community Advisory Body and the standard requiring the inclusion of a Peer Support Specialist. The three major themes that emerged from the survey data with respect to the barriers to fully implementing the Community Advisory Body were: external issues; standard related issues; and, organizational/structural related issues. The three major themes concerning barriers to implementing the Peer Support Specialist role were: human resource related issues; organizational/structural related issues; and, standard related issues. Conclusions The reasons for low compliance of ACT programs with community

  12. Development of an Integrated Natural Barrier Database System for Site Evaluation of a Deep Geologic Repository in Korea - 13527

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korea Radioactive-waste Management Corporation (KRMC) established in 2009 has started a new project to collect information on long-term stability of deep geological environments on the Korean Peninsula. The information has been built up in the integrated natural barrier database system available on web (www.deepgeodisposal.kr). The database system also includes socially and economically important information, such as land use, mining area, natural conservation area, population density, and industrial complex, because some of this information is used as exclusionary criteria during the site selection process for a deep geological repository for safe and secure containment and isolation of spent nuclear fuel and other long-lived radioactive waste in Korea. Although the official site selection process has not been started yet in Korea, current integrated natural barrier database system and socio-economic database is believed that the database system will be effectively utilized to narrow down the number of sites where future investigation is most promising in the site selection process for a deep geological repository and to enhance public acceptance by providing readily-available relevant scientific information on deep geological environments in Korea. (authors)

  13. Potential and barrier study. Energy efficiency of Norwegian homes; Potensial- og barrierestudie. Energieffektivisering av norske boliger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Enova has identified potentials and barriers for energy efficiency in Norwegian buildings. This report summarizes the results of this work. Efficient energy in buildings is important to ensure that future economic activity and growth can occur in a way that reduces the possibilities for an environmentally and economically sound development. (eb)

  14. Thermal/residual stress in an electron beam physical vapor deposited thermal barrier coating system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, J.; Jordan, E.H.; Barber, B.; Gell, M. [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States)

    1998-10-09

    Elastic-plastic finite element models are used to define the thermal/residual stress state responsible for the observed failure behavior of an electron beam physical vapor deposited yttria stabilized zirconia thermal barrier coating on a Pt-Al bond coat. The failures were observed to start at grain boundary ridges, some of which evolved into oxide filled cavities. Finite element models are made of the actual interface geometries through the use of metallographic sectioning and imaging processing. There is a one to one correspondence of calculated tension in the oxide layer and the observed localized damage. Purely elastic analysis failed to show some important tensile regions associated with the observed failure.

  15. The evaluation of the effects of buffer thickness and dry density on radionuclides migration in engineered barrier system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evaluation of the effects of buffer thickness and dry density, one of the buffer design, on radionuclides migration behavior is important from the viewpoint of performance assessment since they have relation to radionuclides migration retardation. It is also considered to help investigation of buffer design that satisfy both safety and economy to condition of the disposal site, which may be required with development of disposal project in the future. Therefore we have performed a sensitivity analysis used buffer thickness and dry density as parameter and considered their combination in this report. Based on this, we have evaluated the effects of buffer thickness and dry density on radionuclides migration in engineered barrier system. And, we have considered about radionuclides migration retardation quality of the buffer which is based on the design (relationship between thickness and dry density) set in the second progress report on research and development for the geological disposal of HLW in Japan. In results, the maximum release rates from the engineered barrier system for the nuclides which have high distribution coefficients and short half lives are sensitive to changes in buffer thickness and dry density. And, using dose converted from the nuclide release rates from the engineered barrier system as a convenient index, it is almost shown that the maximum of total dose is less than 10 μ Sv/y in the cases which buffer thickness and dry density are based on the buffer design set in the second progress report on research and development for the geological disposal of HLW in Japan. These can be used as an information when design of buffer thickness and dry density is set by synthetically judgement of balance of safety and economy. (author)

  16. Geological Disposal of Nuclear Waste: Investigating the Thermo-Hygro-Mechanical-Chemical (THMC) Coupled Processes at the Waste Canister- Bentonite Barrier Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, C. W.; Davie, D. C.; Charles, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    Geological disposal of nuclear waste is being increasingly considered to deal with the growing volume of waste resulting from the nuclear legacy of numerous nations. Within the UK there is 650,000 cubic meters of waste safely stored and managed in near-surface interim facilities but with no conclusive permanent disposal route. A Geological Disposal Facility with incorporated Engineered Barrier Systems are currently being considered as a permanent waste management solution (Fig.1). This research focuses on the EBS bentonite buffer/waste canister interface, and experimentally replicates key environmental phases that would occur after canister emplacement. This progresses understanding of the temporal evolution of the EBS and the associated impact on its engineering, mineralogical and physicochemical state and considers any consequences for the EBS safety functions of containment and isolation. Correlation of engineering properties to the physicochemical state is the focus of this research. Changes to geotechnical properties such as Atterberg limits, swelling pressure and swelling kinetics are measured after laboratory exposure to THMC variables from interface and batch experiments. Factors affecting the barrier, post closure, include corrosion product interaction, precipitation of silica, near-field chemical environment, groundwater salinity and temperature. Results show that increasing groundwater salinity has a direct impact on the buffer, reducing swelling capacity and plasticity index by up to 80%. Similarly, thermal loading reduces swelling capacity by 23% and plasticity index by 5%. Bentonite/steel interaction studies show corrosion precipitates diffusing into compacted bentonite up to 3mm from the interface over a 4 month exposure (increasing with temperature), with reduction in swelling capacity in the affected zone, probably due to the development of poorly crystalline iron oxides. These results indicate that groundwater conditions, temperature and corrosion

  17. Three New Pierce's Disease Pathogenicity Effectors Identified Using Xylella fastidiosa Biocontrol Strain EB92-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shujian Zhang

    Full Text Available Xylella fastidiosa (X. fastidiosa infects a wide range of plant hosts and causes economically serious diseases, including Pierce's Disease (PD of grapevines. X. fastidiosa biocontrol strain EB92-1 was isolated from elderberry and is infectious and persistent in grapevines but causes only very slight symptoms under ideal conditions. The draft genome of EB92-1 revealed that it appeared to be missing genes encoding 10 potential PD pathogenicity effectors found in Temecula1. Subsequent PCR and sequencing analyses confirmed that EB92-1 was missing the following predicted effectors found in Temecula1: two type II secreted enzymes, including a lipase (LipA; PD1703 and a serine protease (PD0956; two identical genes encoding proteins similar to Zonula occludens toxins (Zot; PD0915 and PD0928, and at least one relatively short, hemagglutinin-like protein (PD0986. Leaves of tobacco and citrus inoculated with cell-free, crude protein extracts of E. coli BL21(DE3 overexpressing PD1703 exhibited a hypersensitive response (HR in less than 24 hours. When cloned into shuttle vector pBBR1MCS-5, PD1703 conferred strong secreted lipase activity to Xanthomonas citri, E. coli and X. fastidiosa EB92-1 in plate assays. EB92-1/PD1703 transformants also showed significantly increased disease symptoms on grapevines, characteristic of PD. Genes predicted to encode PD0928 (Zot and a PD0986 (hemagglutinin were also cloned into pBBR1MCS-5 and moved into EB92-1; both transformants also showed significantly increased symptoms on V. vinifera vines, characteristic of PD. Together, these results reveal that PD effectors include at least a lipase, two Zot-like toxins and a possibly redundant hemagglutinin, none of which are necessary for parasitic survival of X. fastidiosa populations in grapevines or elderberry.

  18. Three New Pierce's Disease Pathogenicity Effectors Identified Using Xylella fastidiosa Biocontrol Strain EB92-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shujian; Chakrabarty, Pranjib K; Fleites, Laura A; Rayside, Patricia A; Hopkins, Donald L; Gabriel, Dean W

    2015-01-01

    Xylella fastidiosa (X. fastidiosa) infects a wide range of plant hosts and causes economically serious diseases, including Pierce's Disease (PD) of grapevines. X. fastidiosa biocontrol strain EB92-1 was isolated from elderberry and is infectious and persistent in grapevines but causes only very slight symptoms under ideal conditions. The draft genome of EB92-1 revealed that it appeared to be missing genes encoding 10 potential PD pathogenicity effectors found in Temecula1. Subsequent PCR and sequencing analyses confirmed that EB92-1 was missing the following predicted effectors found in Temecula1: two type II secreted enzymes, including a lipase (LipA; PD1703) and a serine protease (PD0956); two identical genes encoding proteins similar to Zonula occludens toxins (Zot; PD0915 and PD0928), and at least one relatively short, hemagglutinin-like protein (PD0986). Leaves of tobacco and citrus inoculated with cell-free, crude protein extracts of E. coli BL21(DE3) overexpressing PD1703 exhibited a hypersensitive response (HR) in less than 24 hours. When cloned into shuttle vector pBBR1MCS-5, PD1703 conferred strong secreted lipase activity to Xanthomonas citri, E. coli and X. fastidiosa EB92-1 in plate assays. EB92-1/PD1703 transformants also showed significantly increased disease symptoms on grapevines, characteristic of PD. Genes predicted to encode PD0928 (Zot) and a PD0986 (hemagglutinin) were also cloned into pBBR1MCS-5 and moved into EB92-1; both transformants also showed significantly increased symptoms on V. vinifera vines, characteristic of PD. Together, these results reveal that PD effectors include at least a lipase, two Zot-like toxins and a possibly redundant hemagglutinin, none of which are necessary for parasitic survival of X. fastidiosa populations in grapevines or elderberry. PMID:26218423

  19. Ultrasound-mediated blood-brain barrier disruption for targeted drug delivery in the central nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDannold, Nathan; Zhang, Yongzhi; Power, Chanikarn; Arvanitis, Costas D.; Vykhodtseva, Natalia; Livingstone, Margaret

    2015-05-01

    The physiology of the vasculature in the central nervous system (CNS), which includes the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and other factors, complicates the delivery of most drugs to the brain. Different methods have been used to bypass the BBB, but they have limitations such as being invasive, non-targeted or requiring the formulation of new drugs. Focused ultrasound (FUS), when combined with circulating microbubbles, is a noninvasive method to locally and transiently disrupt the BBB at discrete targets. The method presents new opportunities for the use of drugs and for the study of the brain.

  20. Validade convergente do tipo de vivência (EB no teste de Zulliger/SC = Convergent validity evidence of the personality Style (EB in Z-test/SC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villemor-Amaral, Anna Elisa de

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O Zulliger foi adaptado para o Sistema Compreensivo de Exner numa amostra brasileira, pois embora o Sistema Compreensivo tenha sido desenvolvido para codificação e interpretação do método de Rorschach, a semelhança entre as duas técnicas levou a supor que o Zulliger poderia se beneficiar das mesmas vantagens alcançadas para o Rorschach. Esse estudo tem por objetivo verificar evidências de validade convergente para a classificação do Tipo de Vivência (EB no Zulliger, por meio de correlações com o indicador EB do Rorschach. Selecionaram-se de um banco de dados 51 protocolos de adultos, de ambos os sexos, com idade, escolaridade e nível socioeconômicos variados. As pessoas responderam a técnica de Zulliger e do Rorschach em dias consecutivos, alternando-se a ordem de aplicação das técnicas. Os resultados indicaram correlações significativas, mas apontam à necessidade de estabelecer novas proporções das variáveis que compõe o EB para a técnica de Zulliger

  1. Ultrasonic examination of stainless steel EB welds by an immersion technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors report the development of an ultrasonic examination method of austenitic stainless steel electron beam (EB) welds. This method is based on an automatic immersion technique employing focused transducers and is aimed at detecting both the weld soundness and penetration. The authors describe the examination procedure with a calibration of the ultrasonic equipment, a complete weld scanning, and a repetition of the calibration for matters of verification. They also describe how results are interpreted in terms of wave soundness (attenuation) and weld penetration. They discuss the reliability of the examination procedure. They comment results obtained for EB butt welds in a AISI 304 pipe

  2. Information barriers and authentication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acceptance of nuclear materials into a monitoring regime is complicated if the materials are in classified shapes or have classified composition. An attribute measurement system with an information barrier can be emplo,yed to generate an unclassified display from classified measurements. This information barrier must meet two criteria: (1) classified information cannot be released to the monitoring party, and (2) the monitoring party must be convinced that the unclassified output accurately represents the classified input. Criterion 1 is critical to the host country to protect the classified information. Criterion 2 is critical to the monitoring party and is often termed the 'authentication problem.' Thus, the necessity for authentication of a measurement system with an information barrier stems directly from the description of a useful information barrier. Authentication issues must be continually addressed during the entire development lifecycle of the measurement system as opposed to being applied only after the system is built.

  3. Recycler barrier RF buckets

    CERN Document Server

    Bhat, C M

    2012-01-01

    The Recycler Ring at Fermilab uses a barrier rf system for all of its rf manipulations. In this paper, I will give an overview of historical perspective on barrier rf systems, the longitudinal beam dynamics issues, aspects of rf linearization to produce long flat bunches and methods used for emittance measurements of the beam in the RR barrier rf buckets. Current rf manipulation schemes used for antiproton beam stacking and longitudinal momentum mining of the RR beam for the Tevatron collider operation are explained along with their importance in spectacular success of the Tevatron luminosity performance.

  4. Recycler barrier RF buckets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhat, C.M.; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01

    The Recycler Ring at Fermilab uses a barrier rf systems for all of its rf manipulations. In this paper, I will give an overview of historical perspective on barrier rf system, the longitudinal beam dynamics issues, aspects of rf linearization to produce long flat bunches and methods used for emittance measurements of the beam in the RR barrier rf buckets. Current rf manipulation schemes used for antiproton beam stacking and longitudinal momentum mining of the RR beam for the Tevatron collider operation are explained along with their importance in spectacular success of the Tevatron luminosity performance.

  5. Self-incompatibility systems: barriers to self-fertilization in flowering plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rea, Anne C; Nasrallah, June B

    2008-01-01

    Flowering plants (angiosperms) are the most prevalent and evolutionarily advanced group of plants. Success of these plants is owed to several unique evolutionary adaptations that aid in reproduction: the flower, the closed carpel, double fertilization, and the ultimate products of fertilization, seeds enclosed in the fruit. Angiosperms exhibit a vast array of reproductive strategies, including both asexual and sexual, the latter of which includes both self-fertilization and cross-fertilization. Asexual reproduction and self-fertilization are important reproductive strategies in a variety of situations, such as when mates are scarce or when the environment remains relatively stable. However, reproductive strategies promoting cross-fertilization are critical to angiosperm success, since they contribute to the creation of genetically diverse populations, which increase the probability that at least one individual in a population will survive given changing environmental conditions. The evolution of several physical and genetic barriers to self-fertilization or fertilization among closely related individuals is thus widespread in angiosperms. A major genetic barrier to self-fertilization is self-incompatibility (SI), which allows female reproductive cells to discriminate between "self" and "non-self" pollen, and specifically reject self pollen. Evidence for the importance of SI in angiosperm evolution lies in the highly diverse set of mechanisms used by various angiosperm families for recognition of self pollen tube development and preventing self-fertilization.

  6. The fibrinolytic system facilitates tumor cell migration across the blood-brain barrier in experimental melanoma brain metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patients with metastatic tumors to the brain have a very poor prognosis. Increased metastatic potential has been associated with the fibrinolytic system. We investigated the role of the fibrinolytic enzyme plasmin in tumor cell migration across brain endothelial cells and growth of brain metastases in an experimental metastatic melanoma model. Metastatic tumors to the brain were established by direct injection into the striatum or by intracarotid injection of B16F10 mouse melanoma cells in C57Bl mice. The role of plasminogen in the ability of human melanoma cells to cross a human blood-brain barrier model was studied on a transwell system. Wild type mice treated with the plasmin inhibitor epsilon-aminocaproic acid (EACA) and plg-/- mice developed smaller tumors and survived longer than untreated wild type mice. Tumors metastasized to the brain of wild type mice treated with EACA and plg-/- less efficiently than in untreated wild type mice. No difference was observed in the tumor growth in any of the three groups of mice. Human melanoma cells were able to cross the human blood-brain barrier model in a plasmin dependent manner. Plasmin facilitates the development of tumor metastasis to the brain. Inhibition of the fibrinolytic system could be considered as means to prevent tumor metastasis to the brain

  7. Aircraft engine-mounted camera system for long wavelength infrared imaging of in-service thermal barrier coated turbine blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markham, James; Cosgrove, Joseph; Scire, James; Haldeman, Charles; Agoos, Ian

    2014-12-01

    This paper announces the implementation of a long wavelength infrared camera to obtain high-speed thermal images of an aircraft engine's in-service thermal barrier coated turbine blades. Long wavelength thermal images were captured of first-stage blades. The achieved temporal and spatial resolutions allowed for the identification of cooling-hole locations. The software and synchronization components of the system allowed for the selection of any blade on the turbine wheel, with tuning capability to image from leading edge to trailing edge. Its first application delivered calibrated thermal images as a function of turbine rotational speed at both steady state conditions and during engine transients. In advance of presenting these data for the purpose of understanding engine operation, this paper focuses on the components of the system, verification of high-speed synchronized operation, and the integration of the system with the commercial jet engine test bed.

  8. Effect of radiant barriers and attic ventilation on residential attics and attic duct systems: New tools for measuring and modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrie, T.W.; Childs, P.W.; Christian, J.E.; Wilkes, K.E.

    1998-07-01

    A simple duct system was installed in an attic test module for a large scale climate simulator at a US national laboratory. The goal of the tests and subsequent modeling was to develop an accurate method of assessing duct system performance in the laboratory, enabling limiting conditions to be imposed at will and results to be applied to residential attics with attic duct systems. Steady-state tests were done at a severe summer and a mild winter condition. In all tests the roof surface was heated above ambient air temperatures by infrared lights. The attic test module first included then did not include the duct system. Attic ventilation from eave vents to a ridge vent was varied from none to values achievable by a high level of power ventilation. A radiant barrier was attached to the underside of the roof deck, both with and without the duct system in place. Tests were also done without the radiant barrier, both with and without the duct system. When installed, the insulated ducts ran along the floor of the attic, just above the attic insulation and along the edge of the attic near the eaves and one gable. These tests in a climate simulator achieved careful control and reproducibility of conditions. This elucidated dependencies that would otherwise be hidden by variations in uncontrolled variables. Based on the comparisons with the results of the tests at the mild winter condition and the severe summer condition, model predictions for attic air and insulation temperatures should be accurate within {+-} 10 F ({+-} 6 C). This is judged adequate for design purposes and could be better when exploring the effect of changes in attic and duct parameters at fixed climatic conditions.

  9. Acanthamoeba produces disseminated infection in locusts and traverses the locust blood-brain barrier to invade the central nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirk Ruth

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many aspects of Acanthamoeba granulomatous encephalitis remain poorly understood, including host susceptibility and chronic colonization which represent important features of the spectrum of host-pathogen interactions. Previous studies have suggested locusts as a tractable model in which to study Acanthamoeba pathogenesis. Here we determined the mode of parasite invasion of the central nervous system (CNS. Results Using Acanthamoeba isolates belonging to the T1 and T4 genotypes, the findings revealed that amoebae induced sickness behaviour in locusts, as evidenced by reduced faecal output and weight loss and, eventually, leading to 100% mortality. Significant degenerative changes of various tissues were observed by histological sectioning. Both isolates produced disseminated infection, with viable amoebae being recovered from various tissues. Histological examination of the CNS showed that Acanthamoeba invaded the locust CNS, and this is associated with disruption of the perineurium cell/glial cell complex, which constitutes the locust blood-brain barrier. Conclusions This is the first study to demonstrate that Acanthamoeba invades locust brain by modulating the integrity of the insect's blood-brain barrier, a finding that is consistent with the human infection. These observations support the idea that locusts provide a tractable model to study Acanthamoeba encephalitis in vivo. In this way the locust model may generate potentially useful leads that can be tested subsequently in mammalian systems, thus replacing the use of vertebrates at an early stage, and reducing the numbers of mammals required overall.

  10. Fusion and peripheral reactions in the systems /sup 16/O+sup(148,152)Sm at sub-barrier energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kittl, J.A.; Testoni, J.E.

    1986-05-12

    Cross sections for fusion and peripheral reactions in the sub-barrier region obtained with the coupled-channel and equivalent-spheres methods are compared for the systems /sup 16/O+sup(148,152)Sm. A barrier-like real potential plus a residual surface-imaginary potential is introduced as an alternative approach which allows the simultaneous fit of elastic, inelastic, fusion and peripheral reaction cross sections.

  11. Regulation of brain copper homeostasis by the brain barrier systems: Effects of Fe-overload and Fe-deficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monnot, Andrew D.; Behl, Mamta; Ho, Sanna; Zheng, Wei, E-mail: wzheng@purdue.edu

    2011-11-15

    Maintaining brain Cu homeostasis is vital for normal brain function. The role of systemic Fe deficiency (FeD) or overload (FeO) due to metabolic diseases or environmental insults in Cu homeostasis in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and brain tissues remains unknown. This study was designed to investigate how blood-brain barrier (BBB) and blood-SCF barrier (BCB) regulated Cu transport and how FeO or FeD altered brain Cu homeostasis. Rats received an Fe-enriched or Fe-depleted diet for 4 weeks. FeD and FeO treatment resulted in a significant increase (+ 55%) and decrease (- 56%) in CSF Cu levels (p < 0.05), respectively; however, neither treatment had any effect on CSF Fe levels. The FeD, but not FeO, led to significant increases in Cu levels in brain parenchyma and the choroid plexus. In situ brain perfusion studies demonstrated that the rate of Cu transport into the brain parenchyma was significantly faster in FeD rats (+ 92%) and significantly slower (- 53%) in FeO rats than in controls. In vitro two chamber Transwell transepithelial transport studies using primary choroidal epithelial cells revealed a predominant efflux of Cu from the CSF to blood compartment by the BCB. Further ventriculo-cisternal perfusion studies showed that Cu clearance by the choroid plexus in FeD animals was significantly greater than control (p < 0.05). Taken together, our results demonstrate that both the BBB and BCB contribute to maintain a stable Cu homeostasis in the brain and CSF. Cu appears to enter the brain primarily via the BBB and is subsequently removed from the CSF by the BCB. FeD has a more profound effect on brain Cu levels than FeO. FeD increases Cu transport at the brain barriers and prompts Cu overload in the CNS. The BCB plays a key role in removing the excess Cu from the CSF.

  12. 76 FR 59927 - Treatment of Aliens Whose Employment Creation Immigrant (EB-5) Petitions Were Approved After...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-28

    ... SECURITY 8 CFR Parts 216 and 245 RIN 1615-AA90 Treatment of Aliens Whose Employment Creation Immigrant (EB... applications and petitions of qualifying aliens whose employment-creation immigrant petitions were approved by...-273 Provisions C. Summary of the Adjudications Required by Public Law 107-273 III. Aliens Eligible...

  13. Narvas näeb Eesti tantsuauhinna võitnud tantsulavastust / Rene Nõmmik ; intervjueerinud Tiia Linnart

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nõmmik, Rene, 1962-

    2015-01-01

    Narva kultuurimajas Rugodiv näeb Fine5 tantsuteatri lavastust "...and blue", mis võitis tänavu Eesti teatriauhinna. Etenduse koreograafideks ja lavastajateks on Tiina Ollesk ja Rene Nõmmik, keda on palutud lavastama ka Venemaale. Intervjuu Rene Nõmmikuga

  14. Enhanced -->E*-->B drift effects in the TCV snowflake divertor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.P. Canal,; Lunt, T.; Reimerdes, H.; Duval, B. P.; Labit, B.; Vijvers, W. A. J.; TCV team,

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of various plasma parameters at the divertor targets of snowflake (SF) and conventional single-null configurations indicate an enhanced effect of the -->E*-->B drift in the scrape-off layer of plasmas in the SF configuration. Plasma boundary transport simulations using the EMC3-Ei

  15. Geophysical characterization of subsurface barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borns, D.J.

    1995-08-01

    An option for controlling contaminant migration from plumes and buried waste sites is to construct a subsurface barrier of a low-permeability material. The successful application of subsurface barriers requires processes to verify the emplacement and effectiveness of barrier and to monitor the performance of a barrier after emplacement. Non destructive and remote sensing techniques, such as geophysical methods, are possible technologies to address these needs. The changes in mechanical, hydrologic and chemical properties associated with the emplacement of an engineered barrier will affect geophysical properties such a seismic velocity, electrical conductivity, and dielectric constant. Also, the barrier, once emplaced and interacting with the in situ geologic system, may affect the paths along which electrical current flows in the subsurface. These changes in properties and processes facilitate the detection and monitoring of the barrier. The approaches to characterizing and monitoring engineered barriers can be divided between (1) methods that directly image the barrier using the contrasts in physical properties between the barrier and the host soil or rock and (2) methods that reflect flow processes around or through the barrier. For example, seismic methods that delineate the changes in density and stiffness associated with the barrier represents a direct imaging method. Electrical self potential methods and flow probes based on heat flow methods represent techniques that can delineate the flow path or flow processes around and through a barrier.

  16. Geophysical characterization of subsurface barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An option for controlling contaminant migration from plumes and buried waste sites is to construct a subsurface barrier of a low-permeability material. The successful application of subsurface barriers requires processes to verify the emplacement and effectiveness of barrier and to monitor the performance of a barrier after emplacement. Non destructive and remote sensing techniques, such as geophysical methods, are possible technologies to address these needs. The changes in mechanical, hydrologic and chemical properties associated with the emplacement of an engineered barrier will affect geophysical properties such a seismic velocity, electrical conductivity, and dielectric constant. Also, the barrier, once emplaced and interacting with the in situ geologic system, may affect the paths along which electrical current flows in the subsurface. These changes in properties and processes facilitate the detection and monitoring of the barrier. The approaches to characterizing and monitoring engineered barriers can be divided between (1) methods that directly image the barrier using the contrasts in physical properties between the barrier and the host soil or rock and (2) methods that reflect flow processes around or through the barrier. For example, seismic methods that delineate the changes in density and stiffness associated with the barrier represents a direct imaging method. Electrical self potential methods and flow probes based on heat flow methods represent techniques that can delineate the flow path or flow processes around and through a barrier

  17. International Expert Review of SRCan: Engineered Barrier Issues. External review contribution in support of SKI's and SSI's review of SR-Can

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savage, David (Quintessa Limited, Henley-on-Thames (GB)); Bennett, David (TerraSalus Limited, Oakham (GB)); Apted, Mick (Monitor Scientific LLC, Denver, CO (US)); Saellfors, Goeran (Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (SE)); Saario, Timo (VTT Materials and Building (FI)); Segle, Peter (Inspecta, Stockholm (SE))

    2008-03-15

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) has recently submitted a license application for the construction of a spent fuel encapsulation plant. SKB plans to submit a further license application in 2009 for the construction of a repository for the disposal spent nuclear fuel. In connection with the first of these applications, SKB published a safety report, known as SR-Can, which assessed the safety of a spent-fuel repository. The Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) and the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI) (the Authorities) will make formal reviews of the licence applications, and have, therefore, jointly commissioned a team of independent experts to assess and provide comments on SKB's safety reports. The Authorities will consider the views of the independent review team in completing their own reviews. This document presents the comments and findings of the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) review group on SR-Can. The SR-Can safety report includes an examination of EBS design and performance for a range of scenarios, including expected repository evolution and possible variant scenarios, that together address processes and events that might result in the loss of certain repository safety functions. Furthermore, a series of sensitivity analyses is also presented that provides helpful insights into the relative importance of many key parameters and processes related to the EBS. In general, the explanatory text of the SR-Can safety report is clear, and the cited references provide adequate technical justifications for the assumptions, models, and data that are abstracted into the SR-Can safety report. The review group considers, therefore, that SKB's development of SR-Can has been a very valuable exercise, and that SKB should be congratulated on the breadth, depth and general clarity of its research and development and safety assessment programmes. Notwithstanding these successes, the EBS review group has identified a range

  18. Development Status and Performance Comparisons of Environmental Barrier Coating Systems for SiCSiC Ceramic Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming; Harder, Bryan

    2016-01-01

    Environmental barrier coatings (EBC) and SiCSiC ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) will play a crucial role in future aircraft turbine engine systems, because of their ability to significantly increase engine operating temperatures, reduce engine weight and cooling requirements. This paper presents current NASA EBC-CMC development emphases including: the coating composition and processing improvements, laser high heat flux-thermal gradient thermo-mechanical fatigue - environmental testing methodology development, and property evaluations for next generation EBC-CMC systems. EBCs processed with various deposition techniques including Plasma Spray, Electron Beam - Physical Vapor Deposition, and Plasma Spray Physical Vapor Deposition (PS-PVD) will be particularly discussed. The testing results and demonstrations of advanced EBCs-CMCs in complex simulated engine thermal gradient cyclic fatigue, oxidizing-steam and CMAS environments will help provide insights into the coating development strategies to meet long-term engine component durability goals.

  19. Perceived barriers of heart failure nurses and cardiologists in using clinical decision support systems in the treatment of heart failure patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Clinical Decision Support Systems (CDSSs) can support guideline adherence in heart failure (HF) patients. However, the use of CDSSs is limited and barriers in working with CDSSs have been described as a major obstacle. It is unknown if barriers to CDSSs are present and differ between HF nurses and cardiologists. Therefore the aims of this study are; 1. Explore the type and number of perceived barriers of HF nurses and cardiologists to use a CDSS in the treatment of HF patients. 2. Explore possible differences in perceived barriers between two groups. 3. Assess the relevance and influence of knowledge management (KM) on Responsibility/Trust (R&T) and Barriers/Threats (B&T). Methods A questionnaire was developed including; B&T, R&T, and KM. For analyses, descriptive techniques, 2-tailed Pearson correlation tests, and multiple regression analyses were performed. Results The response- rate of 220 questionnaires was 74%. Barriers were found for cardiologists and HF nurses in all the constructs. Sixty-five percent did not want to be dependent on a CDSS. Nevertheless thirty-six percent of HF nurses and 50% of cardiologists stated that a CDSS can optimize HF medication. No relationship between constructs and age; gender; years of work experience; general computer experience and email/internet were observed. In the group of HF nurses a positive correlation (r .33, PKM was associated with the constructs B&T (B=.55, P=barriers in working with a CDSS in all of the examined constructs. KM has a strong positive correlation with perceived barriers, indicating that increasing knowledge about CDSSs can decrease their barriers. PMID:23622342

  20. To Develop Nanostructured Thermal Barrier Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Zhao, Weixun; Wang, Ping; Wei, Zheng

    Advanced turbine engines require the application of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) to provide still higher reliability, thermal insulation effect and longer lifetime under harsh operating conditions. TBCs with nanostructure proved to be promising to deliver the desired property and performance. To exploit full potentials of the current widely used yttria-partially-stabilized zirconia (YSZ), nano-sized YSZ powders were developed and used as the ceramic source material. By controlling the deposition processes, novel TBCs with outstanding nanostructure such as nano-sized grains and pores were produced by atmospheric plasma spray (APS) and electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD), respectively. The incorporated nanostructure in TBCs resulted in substantial increase in thermal barrier effect and their lifetime. The long-term microstructure stability of the nanocoating was also investigated.

  1. Physical and numerical modeling of an inclined three-layer (silt/gravelly sand/clay) capillary barrier cover system under extreme rainfall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Charles W W; Liu, Jian; Chen, Rui; Xu, Jie

    2015-04-01

    As an extension of the two-layer capillary barrier, a three-layer capillary barrier landfill cover system is proposed for minimizing rainfall infiltration in humid climates. This system consists of a compacted clay layer lying beneath a conventional cover with capillary barrier effects (CCBE), which is in turn composed of a silt layer sitting on top of a gravelly sand layer. To explore the effectiveness of the new system in minimizing rainfall infiltration, a flume model (3.0 m × 1.0 m × 1.1 m) was designed and set up in this study. This physical model was heavily instrumented to monitor pore water pressure, volumetric water content, surface runoff, infiltration and lateral drainage of each layer, and percolation of the cover system. The cover system was subjected to extreme rainfall followed by evaporation. The experiment was also back-analyzed using a piece of finite element software called CODE_BRIGHT to simulate transient water flows in the test. Based on the results obtained from various instruments, it was found that breakthrough of the two upper layers occurred for a 4-h rainfall event having a 100-year return period. Due to the presence of the newly introduced clay layer, the percolation of the three-layer capillary barrier cover system was insignificant because the clay layer enabled lateral diversion in the gravelly sand layer above. In other words, the gravelly sand layer changed from being a capillary barrier in a convention CCBE cover to being a lateral diversion passage after the breakthrough of the two upper layers. Experimental and back-analysis results confirm that no infiltrated water seeped through the proposed three-layer barrier system. The proposed system thus represents a promising alternative landfill cover system for use in humid climates. PMID:25582391

  2. Alumina and quartz as dielectrics in a dielectric barrier discharges DBD system for CO2 hydrogenation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, E. Y.; Sarmiento, A.; Vera, E.

    2016-02-01

    In this work was studied the CO2 carbon dioxide treatment, which is a pollutant gas and the main cause of global warming. For this aim, plasma was generated, through dielectric barrier discharges DBD, using hydrogen H2 together with the CO2 as reaction gases. There were used as dielectrics, alumina and quartz tubes of identical geometry. It was studied the CO2 conversion in function of mixture composition CO2+H2, of the electrical power and the operation frequency, for three different gas flows. In all cases it was achieved better conversion levels with the alumina; this is because the alumina has a relative dielectric permittivity coefficient higher than the quartz. As products of CO2 conversion in the chemical reactions, water H2O and methane gas CH4 were identified. The CO2 conversion percentage to fixed work conditions was higher with the decrease the quantity of this gas in the mixture, with increase the active electrical power, and with decrease the operation electrical frequency.

  3. Blood-Brain Barrier Disruption and Oxidative Stress in Guinea Pig after Systemic Exposure to Modified Cell-Free Hemoglobin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, Omer I.; Buehler, Paul W.; D'Agnillo, Felice

    2011-01-01

    Systemic exposure to cell-free hemoglobin (Hb) or its breakdown products after hemolysis or with the use of Hb-based oxygen therapeutics may alter the function and integrity of the blood-brain barrier. Using a guinea pig exchange transfusion model, we investigated the effect of a polymerized cell-free Hb (HbG) on the expression of endothelial tight junction proteins (zonula occludens 1, claudin-5, and occludin), astrocyte activation, IgG extravasation, heme oxygenase (HO), iron deposition, oxidative end products (4-hydroxynonenal adducts and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine), and apoptosis (cleaved caspase 3). Reduced zonula occludens 1 expression was observed after HbG transfusion as evidenced by Western blot and confocal microscopy. Claudin-5 distribution was altered in small- to medium-sized vessels. However, total expression of claudin-5 and occludin remained unchanged except for a notable increase in occludin 72 hours after HbG transfusion. HbG-transfused animals also showed increased astrocytic glial fibrillary acidic protein expression and IgG extravasation after 72 hours. Increased HO activity and HO-1 expression with prominent enhancement of HO-1 immunoreactivity in CD163-expressing perivascular cells and infiltrating monocytes/macrophages were also observed. Consistent with oxidative stress, HbG increased iron deposition, 4-hydroxynonenal and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine immunoreactivity, and cleaved caspase-3 expression. Systemic exposure to an extracellular Hb triggers blood-brain barrier disruption and oxidative stress, which may have important implications for the use of Hb-based therapeutics and may provide indirect insight on the central nervous system vasculopathies associated with excessive hemolysis. PMID:21356382

  4. Software pro elektronickou evidenci tržeb

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Viet Bach

    2016-01-01

    One of the key elements of retail facilities is a cash register system because it optimizes the checkout process. Even though retail firms usually present a conservative behavior towards innovations, they still need both human resources and high-quality machines to help maintain the smoothness of daily processes, especially with cash registers and POS systems since they carry out the most crucial process in the whole establishment. Law and regulations are also an issue that firms must deal wi...

  5. Barriers and motivations affecting Information Systems usage by Hajj–Umrah religious tourism operators in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hani Brdesee

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Hajj & Umrah religious tourism accounts for seven million visitors each year in Saudi Arabia. The government has recently taken initiatives to promote the use of Information Systems (IS in the religious tourism industry, encouraging firms to adopt IS innovations like e-commerce and enforcing the use of the Makha’a information system in Umrah for external pilgrims and the Yosr information system in Hajj for internal pilgrims. This study outlines the motivations and challenges that affect the utilisation of various IS services in the Saudi religious tourism industry through a qualitative analysis of the views and perceptions of senior executives and owners of travel firms. The findings suggest that while government initiatives and industry competitiveness were two positive factors promoting IS use, there are some major barriers preventing private firms from fully utilising the advantages of information systems. These include external factors such as lack of support from the IT industry and access to IT resources as well as internal factors within an organisation such as lack of commitment or the need for professional IT expertise. The study finds that relative advantage is a critical contributor to IS utilisation which depends on information systems characteristics.

  6. Benefits and Barriers of Implementation and Utilization of Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID) Systems in Transfusion Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coustasse, Alberto; Cunningham, Brian; Deslich, Stacie; Willson, Eric; Meadows, Pamela

    2015-01-01

    Radio-frequency identification (RFID) technology is used by hospital supply chains to track medical products and monitor inventories. Hospitals have also begun incorporating RFID technology as part of their transfusion processes. The purpose of this review was to analyze how healthcare organization supply chains can benefit from the utilization of RFID systems in transfusion service departments. The methodology for this study was a literature review following the steps of a systematic review with a total of 52 sources referenced. RFID technology is used to manage and track blood products from the initial donor phlebotomy to final disposition or product transfusion. RFID-enabled transfusion practices have successfully increased provider productivity and product quality through work-time reduction and error reduction. Findings of this research study suggest that RFID has provided improvements in quality of care and efficiency, while initial costs, security, and privacy appear to be the principal barriers to adoption. PMID:26396555

  7. Benefits and Barriers of Implementation and Utilization of Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID) Systems in Transfusion Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coustasse, Alberto; Cunningham, Brian; Deslich, Stacie; Willson, Eric; Meadows, Pamela

    2015-01-01

    Radio-frequency identification (RFID) technology is used by hospital supply chains to track medical products and monitor inventories. Hospitals have also begun incorporating RFID technology as part of their transfusion processes. The purpose of this review was to analyze how healthcare organization supply chains can benefit from the utilization of RFID systems in transfusion service departments. The methodology for this study was a literature review following the steps of a systematic review with a total of 52 sources referenced. RFID technology is used to manage and track blood products from the initial donor phlebotomy to final disposition or product transfusion. RFID-enabled transfusion practices have successfully increased provider productivity and product quality through work-time reduction and error reduction. Findings of this research study suggest that RFID has provided improvements in quality of care and efficiency, while initial costs, security, and privacy appear to be the principal barriers to adoption.

  8. Analysis of VIA and EbA in a River Bank Erosion Prone Area of Bangladesh Applying DPSIR Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Hafizur Rahman

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to set up a comprehensive approach to the Vulnerability and Impact Assessment (VIA of river erosion and to suggest Ecosystem-based Adaptation (EbA practices. Based on the analysis of vulnerability using the Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR framework, this paper discusses some of the significant climatic (rainfall pattern, temperature, seasonal drift, cold wave and heat wave and non-climatic (river erosion, repetitive death of field crops and agrochemicals forces in the Kazipur Upazila (Sirajganj District—a river erosion-prone area of Bangladesh. Both primary (Key Informants Interview, Household Survey, and Focus Group Discussion and secondary (climatic, literature review data have been used in revealing the scenario of climatic stress. The analysis revealed a slightly increasing trend of mean annual temperature, and a decreasing trend of total annual rainfall from 1981 to 2015, which have been supported by people’s perception. This study found that river erosion, the increase of temperature and the late arrival of monsoon rain, excessive monsoon rainfall, high use of agrochemicals, and flow alterations are major drivers in the riverine ecosystem. These drivers are creating pressures on agricultural land, soil fertility, water availability and livelihood patterns of affected communities. Hence, floating bed cultivation, integrated pest management, use of cover crops, reforestation, the introduction of an agro-weather forecasting system, and a new variety of flood tolerant species have been suggested as potential EbA to cope with river bank erosion and to increase the capacity of the affected ecosystem.

  9. Barriers to control syphilis and HIV vertical transmission in the health care system in the city of Sao Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdete Maria Ramos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to identify possible barriers to control vertical transmission of syphilis and HIV through the analysis of the orientation process of pregnant women from prenatal care to the obstetric center at an university hospital in Sao Paulo (Reference and their return (with their exposed babies for follow-up after hospital discharge (counter-reference. METHODS: It is a retrospective cross-sectional study including interviews with healthcare personnel. Pregnant women with syphilis and/or HIV-infection admitted for labor or miscarriage were identified from August 2006 to August 2007. Routine care for mothers and babies were analyzed. RESULTS: 56 pregnant women were identified: 43 were HIV-infected, 11 had syphilis and two were coinfected (syphilis/HIV; 22 health care professionals were interviewed. Prenatal care was identified in 91.1% of these women: 7/11 (63.6% with syphilis; 44/45 (97.8% HIV-infected or coinfected. The reference for delivery was satisfactory for 57.7% of the syphilis-infected women and 97.7% of the HIV-infected ones. The counter-reference was satisfactory for all babies and mothers at hospital discharge, besides the non-adherence to this recommendation. Interviews with health care professionals showed there are better routines for assisting and following-up pregnant women, puerperal women and HIV-infected or exposed babies than for those infected with syphilis. The epidemiological report and surveillance system are also better for HIV-infected patients. CONCLUSION: The difficulties in the reference and counter-reference system of these women and their babies are evident barriers to control the vertical transmission of these infectious diseases.

  10. Asphalt emulsion radon barrier systems for uranium mill tailings - a summary of the technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), has developed an asphalt emulsion cover system to reduce the release of radon from uranium mill tailings. The system has been field-tested at the tailings site in Grand Junction, Colorado. Results from laboratory and field tests indicate that this system effectively reduces radon release to near-background levels (-2s-1) and has the properties required for long-term effectiveness and stability. Engineering specifications have been developed, and a cost analysis indicates that asphalt emulsion covers are competitive with other cover systems. 6 references, 2 figures, 4 tables

  11. Asphalt emulsion radon barrier systems for uranium mill tailings: A summary of the technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP) office, has developed an asphalt emulsion cover system to reduce the release of radon from uranium mill tailings. The system has been field-tested at the tailings site in Grand Junction, Colorado. Results from laboratory and field tests indicate that this system effectively reduces radon release to near-background levels (-2s-1) and has the properties required for long-term effectiveness and stability. Engineering specifications have been developed, and a cost analysis indicates that asphalt emulsion covers are competitive with other cover systems

  12. Electro-enhanced Permeable Reactive Barrier : Optimal Design of PRB System With External Current for Effective TCE Removal From Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, J.; Moon, H.; Roh, Y.; Kim, H.; Song, Y.

    2002-12-01

    The objective of this study was to design an optimal electro-enhanced permeable reactive barrier (E2PRB) system for remediation of trichloroethylene (TCE)-contaminated water using zero valent iron (ZVI) and direct current (DC). A series of column experiments were conducted to evaluate the location of Fe0 permeable reactive barrier (PRB) and the effects of electrode arrangement in the column on the TCE removal efficiency and iron corrosion processes. In twelve different combinations of ZVI and/or DC application in the test columns, the rate of reductive dechlorination of TCE was improved with simultaneous application of both ZVI and DC compared to that used ZVI only to evaluate the synergistic effect (SE). The most effective arrangement of electrode and ZVI for TCE removal from simulated groundwater was a column set with ZVI and cathode installed at the down gradient (outlet side). Based on the electrochemical study in the E2PRB system, application of direct current provided external electrons to the system so that the system did not depend entirely on the oxidation of the medium for the reductive dechlorination of TCE. The enhanced dechlorination rate of TCE in ZVI-DC systems is considered to attributed to more generation and fast formation kinetic of electron by following reactions: (1) direct supply of electrons from external DC source (2) the electrolysis of water generating additional electrons at the vicinity of the anode (3) the electro-reduction of the compound by released electrons on the ZVI surfaces by oxidation (4) released electron through oxidation of dissolved ferrous iron, and (5) oxidation of atomic hydrogen at the cathode. The competition between five different electron sources generated from five sources evidently influenced on the TCE removal efficiency, valid lifetime of E2PRB system, and reduction of energy expenditure in both of electrochemical and electrokinetic aspects. The results from a series of experiments with twelve columns showed a

  13. Rozvoj služeb eGovernmentu

    OpenAIRE

    Masáková, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    The thesis deals with the matter of development of eGovernment services. It concetrates on the services provided by the electronic delivery system called Data Box – specifically on the provision of Postal Data Messages which allow private communication between Data Box users. The thesis examines if (eventually under which conditions) it is advantageous for companies and firms to use the Postal Data Message service. The results of the thesis indicate the conditions under which firms might bene...

  14. Breaking down the barriers of using strong authentication and encryption in resource constrained embedded systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobler, Ron; Scheffel, Peter; Jackson, Scott; Gaj, Kris; Kaps, Jens Peter

    2013-05-01

    Various embedded systems, such as unattended ground sensors (UGS), are deployed in dangerous areas, where they are subject to compromise. Since numerous systems contain a network of devices that communicate with each other (often times with commercial off the shelf [COTS] radios), an adversary is able to intercept messages between system devices, which jeopardizes sensitive information transmitted by the system (e.g. location of system devices). Secret key algorithms such as AES are a very common means to encrypt all system messages to a sufficient security level, for which lightweight implementations exist for even very resource constrained devices. However, all system devices must use the appropriate key to encrypt and decrypt messages from each other. While traditional public key algorithms (PKAs), such as RSA and Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC), provide a sufficiently secure means to provide authentication and a means to exchange keys, these traditional PKAs are not suitable for very resource constrained embedded systems or systems which contain low reliability communication links (e.g. mesh networks), especially as the size of the network increases. Therefore, most UGS and other embedded systems resort to pre-placed keys (PPKs) or other naïve schemes which greatly reduce the security and effectiveness of the overall cryptographic approach. McQ has teamed with the Cryptographic Engineering Research Group (CERG) at George Mason University (GMU) to develop an approach using revolutionary cryptographic techniques that provides both authentication and encryption, but on resource constrained embedded devices, without the burden of large amounts of key distribution or storage.

  15. Important contribution of the novel locus comEB to extracellular DNA-dependent Staphylococcus lugdunensis biofilm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendran, Nithya Babu; Eikmeier, Julian; Becker, Karsten; Hussain, Muzaffar; Peters, Georg; Heilmann, Christine

    2015-12-01

    The coagulase-negative species Staphylococcus lugdunensis is an emerging cause of serious and potentially life-threatening infections, such as infective endocarditis. The pathogenesis of these infections is characterized by the ability of S. lugdunensis to form biofilms on either biotic or abiotic surfaces. To elucidate the genetic basis of biofilm formation in S. lugdunensis, we performed transposon (Tn917) mutagenesis. One mutant had a significantly reduced biofilm-forming capacity and carried a Tn917 insertion within the competence gene comEB. Site-directed mutagenesis and subsequent complementation with a functional copy of comEB verified the importance of comEB in biofilm formation. In several bacterial species, natural competence stimulates DNA release via lysis-dependent or -independent mechanisms. Extracellular DNA (eDNA) has been demonstrated to be an important structural component of many bacterial biofilms. Therefore, we quantified the eDNA in the biofilms and found diminished eDNA amounts in the comEB mutant biofilm. High-resolution images and three-dimensional data obtained via confocal laser scanning microscopy (CSLM) visualized the impact of the comEB mutation on biofilm integrity. The comEB mutant did not show reduced expression of autolysin genes, decreased autolytic activities, or increased cell viability, suggesting a cell lysis-independent mechanism of DNA release. Furthermore, reduced amounts of eDNA in the comEB mutant biofilms did not result from elevated levels or activity of the S. lugdunensis thermonuclease NucI. In conclusion, we defined here, for the first time, a role for the competence gene comEB in staphylococcal biofilm formation. Our findings indicate that comEB stimulates biofilm formation via a lysis-independent mechanism of DNA release.

  16. Barriers to Healthcare in a Multiethnic Cohort of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) Patients: Patient and Physician Perceptions

    OpenAIRE

    Genevieve Law; Janet Pope; Sheliza Lalani; Earl Silverman; Glinda Cooper; Paul Fortin; Michel Zummer; C. Douglas Smith; Ross Petty; Lori Tucker; Lori Albert; Adam Huber; Susanne Ramsey; Hector Arbillaga; Gaëlle Chedéville

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Barriers to medical care may influence health status. It is unclear whether problems with access can predict clinical outcomes in lupus. This study aimed to determine whether care barriers are associated with increased disease activity and damage in a multi-center, multiethnic SLE cohort. We also compared concordance between care barriers as reported by the patient and lupus specialist.Methods: Data from SLE patients in 12 Canadian centers collected at annual visits, including dem...

  17. Experiments on high power EB evaporation of niobium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The versatility of electron beam evaporation makes the deposition of many new and unusual materials possible. This technique offers freedom from contamination and precise control. High power electron guns are especially used for obtaining high evaporation rates for large area coatings. This paper deals with the coating experiments carried out on an indigenously developed high power strip electron gun with niobium as evaporant at 40 kW on S.S. substrate. The practical problems of conditioning the gun and venting the vacuum system after the high power operation are also discussed. The coating rate was calculated by weight difference method

  18. Elastic scattering for the system {sup 6}Li+p at near barrier energies with MAGNEX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soukeras, V.; Pakou, A.; Sgouros, O. [Department of Physics and HINP, The University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece); Cappuzzello, F.; Bondi, M.; Nicolosi, D. [INFN Laboratory Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia 62, 95125, Catania, Italy and Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita di Catania, via S. Sofia 64, 95125, Catania (Italy); Acosta, L.; Marquinez-Duran, G.; Martel, I. [Departamento di Fisica Aplicada, Universidad de Huelva, E-21071, Huelva (Spain); Agodi, C.; Carbone, D.; Cavallaro, M.; Cunsolo, A.; Di Pietro, A.; Fernández-García, J. P.; Figuera, P.; Fisichella, M. [INFN Laboratory Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia 62, 95125, Catania (Italy); Alamanos, N. [CEA-Saclay, DAPNIA-SPhN, 91191, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); De Napoli, M. [INFN - Sezione di Catania, via S. Sofia 64, 95125, Catania (Italy); Foti, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita di Catania, via S. Sofia 64, 95125, Catania, Italy and INFN - Sezione di Catania, via S. Sofia 64, 95125, Catania (Italy); and others

    2015-02-24

    Elastic scattering measurements have been performed for the {sup 6}Li+p system in inverse kinematics at the energies of 16, 20, 25 and 29 MeV. The heavy ejectile was detected by the large acceptance MAGNEX spectrometer at the Laboratori Nazionali del Sud (LNS) in Catania, in the angular range between ∼2{sup 0} and 12{sup 0} in the laboratory system, giving us the possibility to span almost a full angular range in the center of mass system. Results will be presented and discussed for one of the energies.

  19. Protection of blood retinal barrier and systemic vasculature by insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yagna P R Jarajapu

    Full Text Available Previously, we showed that insulin growth factor (IGF-1 binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3, independent of IGF-1, reduces pathological angiogenesis in a mouse model of the oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR. The current study evaluates novel endothelium-dependent functions of IGFBP-3 including blood retinal barrier (BRB integrity and vasorelaxation. To evaluate vascular barrier function, either plasmid expressing IGFBP-3 under the regulation of an endothelial-specific promoter or a control plasmid was injected into the vitreous humor of mouse pups (P1 and compared to the non-injected eyes of the same pups undergoing standard OIR protocol. Prior to sacrifice, the mice were given an injection of horseradish peroxidase (HRP. IGFBP-3 plasmid-injected eyes displayed near-normal vessel morphology and enhanced vascular barrier function. Further, in vitro IGFBP-3 protects retinal endothelial cells from VEGF-induced loss of junctional integrity by antagonizing the dissociation of the junctional complexes. To assess the vasodilatory effects of IGFBP-3, rat posterior cerebral arteries were examined in vitro. Intraluminal IGFBP-3 decreased both pressure- and serotonin-induced constrictions by stimulating nitric oxide (NO release that were blocked by L-NAME or scavenger receptor-B1 neutralizing antibody (SRB1-Ab. Both wild-type and IGF-1-nonbinding mutant IGFBP-3 (IGFBP-3NB stimulated eNOS activity/NO release to a similar extent in human microvascular endothelial cells (HMVECs. NO release was neither associated with an increase in intracellular calcium nor decreased by Ca(2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CamKII blockade; however, dephosphorylation of eNOS-Thr(495 was observed. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K activity and Akt-Ser(473 phosphorylation were both increased by IGFBP-3 and selectively blocked by the SRB1-Ab or PI3K blocker LY294002. In conclusion, IGFBP-3 mediates protective effects on BRB integrity and mediates robust NO release to stimulate

  20. EB treatment of carbon nanotube-reinforced polymer composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szebényi, G.; Romhány, G.; Vajna, B.; Czvikovszky, T.

    2012-09-01

    A small amount — less than 0.5% — carbon nanotube reinforcement may improve the mechanical properties of epoxy based composite materials significantly. The basic technical problem on one side is the dispersion of the nanotubes into the viscous matrix resin, namely, the fine powder-like — less than 100 nanometer diameter — nanotubes are prone to form aggregates. On the other side, the good connection between the nanofiber and matrix, which is determining the success of the reinforcement, requires some efficient adhesion promoting treatment. The goal of our research was to give one such treatment capable of industrial size application. A two step curing epoxy/vinylester resin process technology has been developed where the epoxy component has been cured conventionally, while the vinylester has been cured by electron treatment afterwards. The sufficient irradiation dose has been selected according to Raman spectroscopy characterization. Using the developed hybrid resin system hybrid composites containing carbon fibers and multiwalled carbon nanotubes have been prepared. The effect of the electron beam induced curing of the vinylester resin on the mechanical properties of the composites has been characterized by three point bending and interlaminar shear tests, which showed clearly the superiority of the developed resin system. The results of the mechanical tests have been supported by AFM studies of the samples, which showed that the difference in the viscoelastic properties of the matrix constituents decreased significantly by the electron beam treatment.

  1. Decentralizing decision making in modularization strategies: Overcoming barriers from dysfunctional accounting systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Israelsen, Poul; Jørgensen, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Research on product modularity is dominated by an operations management (OM) perspective, through which numerous models to predict optimal modularization strategies have been developed. However, we argue that implementation of these predictions is hampered by prevailing project accounting systems...

  2. [Research on Barrier-free Home Environment System Based on Speech Recognition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Husheng; Yu, Hongliu; Shi, Ping; Fang, Youfang; Jian, Zhuo

    2015-10-01

    The number of people with physical disabilities is increasing year by year, and the trend of population aging is more and more serious. In order to improve the quality of the life, a control system of accessible home environment for the patients with serious disabilities was developed to control the home electrical devices with the voice of the patients. The control system includes a central control platform, a speech recognition module, a terminal operation module, etc. The system combines the speech recognition control technology and wireless information transmission technology with the embedded mobile computing technology, and interconnects the lamp, electronic locks, alarms, TV and other electrical devices in the home environment as a whole system through a wireless network node. The experimental results showed that speech recognition success rate was more than 84% in the home environment. PMID:26964305

  3. Regulated competition in health care: switching and barriers to switching in the Dutch health insurance system.

    OpenAIRE

    Rijken Mieke; de Jong Judith D; Rooijen Margreet

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background In 2006, a number of changes in the Dutch health insurance system came into effect. In this new system mobility of insured is important. The idea is that insured switch insurers because they are not satisfied with quality of care and the premium of their insurance. As a result, insurers will in theory strive for a better balance between price and quality. The Dutch changes have caught the attention, internationally, of both policy makers and researchers. In our study we ex...

  4. Combined heat and power systems: economic and policy barriers to growth

    OpenAIRE

    Kalam Adil; King Abigail; Moret Ellen; Weerasinghe Upekha

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Combined Heat and Power (CHP) systems can provide a range of benefits to users with regards to efficiency, reliability, costs and environmental impact. Furthermore, increasing the amount of electricity generated by CHP systems in the United States has been identified as having significant potential for impressive economic and environmental outcomes on a national scale. Given the benefits from increasing the adoption of CHP technologies, there is value in improving our unde...

  5. 论"EB"环境中消费合同的履行——从消费者权益救济视角%Discussion on the Performance of Consumer Contract in the "EB" Environment: From the Perspective of Consumer Right Relieving

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温晓芸

    2011-01-01

    我国相关电子商务立法的缺位是导致消费者知情权遭受损害的根本原因.鉴于"EB"环境中消费者求偿权实现的特殊性,立法要在交易后保障消费者求偿权的实现,完善"EB"环境中消费合同履行制度设计,促进我国电子商务行业的有序发展.%The absence of relevant e-commerce legislation is the root cause which result in the damage to the consumer's right to know. In view of the specificity of the realization of the consumer's right of claim, the legislation must ensure the realization of consumer's right of claim after transaction and improve the design for the performance system of consumer contract under "EB" environment, in order to promote the order development of ecommerce industry.

  6. Influence of surface modification on isothermal oxidation behavior of EB-PVD NiAl coating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI He-fei; TAO Shu-feng; JIANG Kuo; A. HESNAWI; GONG Sheng-kai

    2006-01-01

    The isothermal oxidation behaviors of the as-deposited NiAl coating on the nickel-based superalloy by electron beam physical vapour deposition(EB-PVD) and the NiAl coating after surface modifications of grinding and polishing were investigated. The as-deposited coating shows the least mass gain, the initially formed θ-Al2O3 scale spalls after only 1 h, and the succeeding scale formed is coarse and discontinuous and thus can not be used as protective coatings. Among the two surface-modified coatings, the ground coating results in the highest oxide growth rate, which is consistent with the SEM results where the scale spalls heavily and many voids appear between the scale and the NiAl coating. The scale spallation and void formation mechanisms during isothermal oxidation test of EB-PVD NiAl coating were also discussed.

  7. PLANET FORMATION IN STELLAR BINARIES. II. OVERCOMING THE FRAGMENTATION BARRIER IN α CENTAURI AND γ CEPHEI-LIKE SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafikov, Roman R.; Silsbee, Kedron, E-mail: rrr@astro.princeton.edu [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Ivy Lane, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States)

    2015-01-10

    Planet formation in small-separation (∼20 AU) eccentric binaries such as γ Cephei or α Centauri is believed to be adversely affected by the presence of the stellar companion. Strong dynamical excitation of planetesimals by the eccentric companion can result in collisional destruction (rather than growth) of 1-100 km objects, giving rise to the ''fragmentation barrier'' for planet formation. We revise this issue using a novel description of secular dynamics of planetesimals in binaries, which accounts for the gravity of the eccentric, coplanar protoplanetary disk, as well as gas drag. By studying planetesimal collision outcomes, we show, in contrast to many previous studies, that planetesimal growth and subsequent formation of planets (including gas giants) in AU-scale orbits within ∼20 AU separation binaries may be possible, provided that the protoplanetary disks are massive (≳ 10{sup –2} M {sub ☉}) and only weakly eccentric (disk eccentricity ≲ 0.01). These requirements are compatible with both the existence of massive (several M{sub J} ) planets in γ Cep-like systems and the results of recent simulations of gaseous disks in eccentric binaries. Terrestrial and Neptune-like planets can also form in lower-mass disks at small (sub-AU) radii. We find that the fragmentation barrier is less of a problem in eccentric disks that are apsidally aligned with the binary orbit. Alignment gives rise to special locations, where (1) relative planetesimal velocities are low and (2) the timescale of their drag-induced radial drift is long. This causes planetesimal pileup at such locations in the disk and promotes their growth locally, helping to alleviate the timescale problem for core formation.

  8. Electro-Catalysis System for Biodiesel Synthesis from Palm Oil over Dielectric-Barrier Discharge Plasma Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Istadi Istadi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel synthesis reaction routes from palm oil using plasma electro-catalysis process over Dielectric-Barrier Discharge (DBD plasma reactor were studied. The study was focused on finding possible reaction mechanism route during plasma electro-catalysis process. The prediction was performed based on the changes of Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS and Fourier Transform Infra Red (FT-IR analyses to the biodiesel products with respect to time length of plasma treatment. It was found that main reaction mechanism occurred in the plasma electro-catalysis system was non-thermal pyrolysis rather than transesterification. The main reactions within the plasma treatment were due to collision between high energetic electrons (supplied from high voltage power supply through high voltage electrode and the reaction mixtures. The high energetic electrons affected the electrons pair of covalent bonding to be excited or dissociated even ionized at higher energy. Therefore, this plasma electro-catalysis system was promising for biodiesel synthesis from vegetable oils due to only very short time reaction was needed, even no need a catalyst, no soap formation, and no glycerol by-product. This system could produce fatty acid methyl ester yield of 75.65% at 120 seconds and other possible chemicals, such as alkynes, alkanes, esters, carboxylic acid, and aldehydes. However, during the plasma process, the reaction mechanisms were still difficult to be controlled due the action of available high energetic electrons. The advanced studies on how to control the reaction mechanism selectively in the plasma electro-catalysis will be published elsewhere. © 2014 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 23rd January 2014; Revised: 20th March 2014; Accepted: 23rd March 2014[How to Cite: Istadi, I., Yudhistira, A.D., Anggoro, D.D., Buchori, L. (2014. Electro-Catalysis System for Biodiesel Synthesis from Palm Oil over Dielectric-Barrier Discharge Plasma Reactor

  9. Evaluation of Titanium Nitride-Modified Bondcoat System Used in Thermal Barrier Coating in Corrosive Salts Environment at High Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Imran Nazir; Shahid, Muhammad; Nusair Khan, A.; Durrani, Yaseer A.

    2015-12-01

    Thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems were produced by air plasma spraying system on nickel base superalloy. These coatings were composed of a Y2O3-stabilized ZrO2 topcoat and a CoNiCrAlY bondcoat and are known as standard TBC. In this paper, standard TBC samples were compared with TiN-modified bondcoat TBC samples. Titanium nitride was deposited by utilizing a physical vapor deposition technique. Both TBC systems were exposed to high temperature in the presence of corrosive salts, i.e. a mixture of V2O5 and Na2SO4 (50:50) for 50 h. It was observed that the TiN-modified samples showed better results in terms of oxidation resistance and delamination. The formation of Cr2Ti n-2O2 n-1 phases at the interface of the topcoat-bondcoat, in TiN-modified samples were found to enhance the thermal and oxidation properties of the TBC.

  10. Investigations on the efficacy of geological and geotechnical barrier systems with respect to the site selection in magmatic rocks. WIBASTA. Final report; Untersuchungen zur Wirksamkeit des geologischen und geotechnischen Barrieresystems im Hinblick auf die Standortauswahl in magmatischen Gesteinen. WIBASTA. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jobmann, M.; Keesmann, S.; Krone, J.; Ziegenhagen, J. [DBE Technology GmbH, Peine (Germany); Brewitz, W.; Fahrenholz, C.; Fein, E.; Wolf, J. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH (GRS), Berlin (Germany); Hammer, J.; Mrugalla, S. [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe, Hannover (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    In the frame of the cooperation between the Federal Republic of Germany and the Russian Federation concerning the peaceful use of nuclear energy a joint research project is focused on the site selection requirements for radioactive waste repositories. The final report covers the following chapters: introduction; safety assessment of the barrier system; fundamentals concerning the safety analysis and verification (characterization of the geological barrier of the pre-selected site, characterization of the technical and geotechnical barrier, safety analysis methodology; structural integrity assessment of the barrier components); analysis of the barrier component efficacy; conclusions and recommendations.

  11. Paradigms, Mental Models, and Mindsets: Triple Barriers to Transformational Change in School Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Francis M.

    2009-01-01

    For more than a century the American education system has been guided by the Industrial Age world view (the controlling paradigm) that delivers education services to children by teaching them in groups, by requiring them to learn a fixed amount of content in a fixed amount of time, and by having their teachers serve as center stage directors of…

  12. FEBEX-DP. Dismantling the ''full-scale engineered barrier experiment'' after 18 years of operation at the Grimsel Test Site, Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kober, Florian; Gaus, Irina [Nagra, Wettingen (Switzerland)

    2015-07-01

    The FEBEX experiment at the Grimsel Test Site (GTS) consists of an in-situ full-scale engineered barrier system (EBS) test for the disposal of high-level waste (HLW). It is performed under natural conditions in crystalline rock in which the canisters are placed horizontally in drifts and are surrounded by a clay barrier constructed of highly compacted bentonite blocks. A partial dismantling and sampling of the EBS was carried out during 2002. Heating of the FEBEX started in 1997 and since then a constant temperature of 100 deg C has been maintained, while the bentonite buffer has been slowly hydrating in a natural way. A total of 632 sensors in the bentonite barrier, the rock mass, the heaters and the service zone record temperature, water saturation, humidity, total pressure, displacement, and water pressure. The hydration pattern is relatively symmetric, with no major differences along the axis. Although the host rock is characterized by heterogeneities with zones of higher permeability, the resaturation process is driven by the suction of the bentonite rather than by the availability of water in the rock, especially in the early phase. After 17 years, the water content in the buffer close to the heater still continues to increase slowly. The hydraulic pore pressures in the buffer and the geosphere have practically stabilized. The total pressure in general continues to increase in most points into the buffer, where in some parts pressures of over 6 MPa are registered. The long monitoring phase and the partial dismantling in 2002 indicate that the EBS has largely performed as expected and the major processes and couplings affecting the buffer saturation during the initial thermal period identified prior to the start of the experiment have been confirmed. A comprehensive report documents and reviews the state of the FEBEX (Lanyon and Gaus, 2013). After 18 years of operation the experiment will be excavated and dismantled in 2015. The main objectives of the FEBEX

  13. FEBEX-DP. Dismantling the ''full-scale engineered barrier experiment'' after 18 years of operation at the Grimsel Test Site, Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The FEBEX experiment at the Grimsel Test Site (GTS) consists of an in-situ full-scale engineered barrier system (EBS) test for the disposal of high-level waste (HLW). It is performed under natural conditions in crystalline rock in which the canisters are placed horizontally in drifts and are surrounded by a clay barrier constructed of highly compacted bentonite blocks. A partial dismantling and sampling of the EBS was carried out during 2002. Heating of the FEBEX started in 1997 and since then a constant temperature of 100 deg C has been maintained, while the bentonite buffer has been slowly hydrating in a natural way. A total of 632 sensors in the bentonite barrier, the rock mass, the heaters and the service zone record temperature, water saturation, humidity, total pressure, displacement, and water pressure. The hydration pattern is relatively symmetric, with no major differences along the axis. Although the host rock is characterized by heterogeneities with zones of higher permeability, the resaturation process is driven by the suction of the bentonite rather than by the availability of water in the rock, especially in the early phase. After 17 years, the water content in the buffer close to the heater still continues to increase slowly. The hydraulic pore pressures in the buffer and the geosphere have practically stabilized. The total pressure in general continues to increase in most points into the buffer, where in some parts pressures of over 6 MPa are registered. The long monitoring phase and the partial dismantling in 2002 indicate that the EBS has largely performed as expected and the major processes and couplings affecting the buffer saturation during the initial thermal period identified prior to the start of the experiment have been confirmed. A comprehensive report documents and reviews the state of the FEBEX (Lanyon and Gaus, 2013). After 18 years of operation the experiment will be excavated and dismantled in 2015. The main objectives of the FEBEX

  14. Laboratory column studies for evaluating a barrier system for providing oxygen and substrate for TCE biodegradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, C M; Chen, S C; Su, M C

    2001-08-01

    The industrial solvent trichloroethylene (TCE) is among the most ubiquitous chlorinated compounds found in groundwater contamination. The objective of this study was to develop a biobarrier system containing oxygen-organic releasing material to enhance the aerobic cometabolism of TCE in situ. The oxygen-organic material, which contains calcium peroxide and peat, is able to release oxygen and primary substrates continuously upon contact with water. Batch experiments were conducted to design and identify the components of the oxygen-organic releasing material, and evaluate the oxygen and organic substrate (presented as COD equivalent) release from the designed oxygen-organic material. The observed oxygen and chemical oxygen demand (COD) release rates were approximately 0.0246 and 0.052 mg/d/g of material, respectively. A laboratory-scale column experiment was then conducted to evaluate the feasibility of this proposed system for the bioremediation of TCE-contaminated groundwater. This system was performed using a series of continuous-flow glass columns including a soil column, an oxygen-organic material column, followed by two consecutive soil columns. Aerobic acclimated sludges were inoculated in all three soil columns to provide microbial consortia for TCE biodegradation. Simulated TCE-contaminated groundwater with a flow rate of 0.25 l/day was pumped into this system. Effluent samples from each column were analyzed for TCE and other indicating parameters (e.g., pH, dissolved oxygen). Results show that the decreases in TCE concentrations were observed over a 4-month operating period. Up to 99% of TCE removal efficiency was obtained in this passive system. Results indicate that the continuously released oxygen and organic substrates from the oxygen-organic materials enhanced TCE biotransformation. Thus, the biobarrier treatment scheme has the potential to be developed into an environmentally and economically acceptable remediation technology.

  15. Research of Register and Federal Query based ebXML R/R%基于ebXML R/R注册与联合查询的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏显鄂; 窦竹梅; 朱兴国

    2011-01-01

    研究ebXML R/R的规范,元数据服务类似于图书馆管理,概括ebXML R/R模型和接口协议原理.完成元数据注册中心的实现方案,以ebXML R/R为后台服务端建立元数据注册中心,客户端运行于Web应用服务器,提出以压缩包zip文件和xml描述文件的方法提交元数据的方式,将提交论文数据库元数据为例加以说明.描述与ebXML R/R服务端的交互、注册服务和联合查询的程序步骤、执行方式和机理.%ebXML R/R Specifications were studied. Metadata service was similar with library management. Information models and interfaces, protocols were generalized. Metadata registry center was implemented, an ebXML R/R server as background, an ebXML R/R client running on the Web application server. The methods of submitting metadata with zip package and xml file were put forward, and explained by the example of submitting the paper database metadata. Program step, performing manner and mechanism of interacting with the ebXML R/R server, registering service and federal query were described.

  16. Potential and barrier study. Passive house and near-zero energy buildings; Potensial- og barrierestudie. Passivhus og naer nullenergibygninger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    The main conclusion from the analysis is that the barriers to realize both passive and near zero-energy buildings are significant. In addition to being a mere economic assessment indicates that 30-70% of the technical potential is not profitable depending on energy price levels, the barriers is reducing the economic potential with approximately another half as a realistic market potential.(eb)

  17. Understanding critical barriers to implementing a clinical information system in a nursing home through the lens of a socio-technical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Or, Calvin; Dohan, Michael; Tan, Joseph

    2014-09-01

    This paper addresses key barriers to implementing a clinical information system (CIS) in a Hong Kong nursing home setting, from a healthcare specific socio-technical perspective. Data was collected through field observations (n = 12) and semi-structured individual interviews (n = 18) of CIS stakeholders in a Hong Kong nursing home, and analyzed using the immersion/crystallization approach. Complex interactions relevant to our case were contextualized and interpreted within the perspective of the Sittig-Singh Healthcare Socio-Technical Framework (HSTF). Three broad clusters of implementation barriers from the eight HSTF dimensions were identified: (a) Infrastructure-based barriers, which relate to conflict between government regulations and system functional needs of users; lack of financial support; inconsistency between workflow, work policy, and procedures; and inadequacy of hardware-software infrastructural and technical support; (b) Process-based barriers, which relate to mismatch between the technology, existing work practice and workflow, and communication; low system speed, accessibility, and stability; deficient computer literacy; more experience in health care profession; clinical content inadequacy and unavailability; as well as poor system usefulness and user interface design; and (c) Outcome-based barriers, which relate to the lack of measurement and monitoring of system effectiveness. Two additional dimensions underlining the importance of the ability of a CIS to change are proposed to extend the Sittig-Singh HSTF. First, advocacy would promote the articulation and influence of changes in the system and subsequent outcomes by CIS stakeholders, and second, adaptability would ensure the ability of the system to adjust to emerging needs. The broad set of discovered implementation shortcomings expands prior research on why CIS can fail in nursing home settings. Moreover, our investigation offers a knowledge base and recommendations that can serve

  18. Sub-barrier fusion of 1632S + 4094Zr system and energy dependent Woods-Saxon potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heavy ion fusion reactions have received extensive attention during past few decades as they explore the nuclear structure of participating nuclei besides providing decent description of nuclear interactions. In fusion process, two colliding nuclei come close together to form a compound nucleus either by overcoming or by quantum tunneling through the potential barrier. Theoretically, the simplest way to describe the fusion mechanism is the barrier penetration model (BPM), wherein the collision partners are assumed to penetrate through the fusion barrier and form a composite nucleus. However, an anomalously large enhancement in the fusion cross-section over the predictions of one dimensional barrier penetration model at sub-barrier energies has been observed during last two decades. In general, this fusion enhancement is found to have link with the coupling of relative motion to internal structure of the fusing nuclei such as nuclear shape deformation, inelastic surface vibration of nuclear surface, rotation of nuclei during collision, neck formation, nucleon transfer reactions etc.

  19. Barriers to the implementation of quality management system in media organizations in pakistan: an empirical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Naveed Anwar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Quality management system has played pivotal role in establishing organizational functions and processes in the very right perspective of a very well knitted system of documentation, training and implementation. Media organizations are so close in their very existence and social structure and they are more than needed to stream line their processes as their impact on social life is significant and considerable. This study encompasses the top news channels in Pakistan and recorded the views of their top management with respect to their feelings pertaining to QMS. This study is very first one of its kinds in Pakistan and it is hoped that it may open more doors for future research avenues in this very area.

  20. When health systems are barriers to health care: challenges faced by uninsured Mexican kidney patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciara Kierans

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronic Kidney Disease disproportionately affects the poor in Low and Middle Income Countries (LMICs. Mexico exemplifies the difficulties faced in supporting Renal Replacement Therapy (RRT and providing equitable patient care, despite recent attempts at health reform. The objective of this study is to document the challenges faced by uninsured, poor Mexican families when attempting to access RRT. METHODS: The article takes an ethnographic approach, using interviewing and observation to generate detailed accounts of the problems that accompany attempts to secure care. The study, based in the state of Jalisco, comprised interviews with patients, their caregivers, health and social care professionals, among others. Observations were carried out in both clinical and social settings. RESULTS: In the absence of organised health information and stable pathways to renal care, patients and their families work extraordinarily hard and at great expense to secure care in a mixed public-private healthcare system. As part of this work, they must navigate challenging health and social care environments, negotiate treatments and costs, resource and finance healthcare and manage a wide range of formal and informal health information. CONCLUSIONS: Examining commonalities across pathways to adequate healthcare reveals major failings in the Mexican system. These systemic problems serve to reproduce and deepen health inequalities. A system, in which the costs of renal care are disproportionately borne by those who can least afford them, faces major difficulties around the sustainability and resourcing of RRTs. Attempts to increase access to renal therapies, therefore, need to take into account the complex social and economic demands this places on those who need access most. This paper further shows that ethnographic studies of the concrete ways in which healthcare is accessed in practice provide important insights into the plight of CKD patients and so

  1. Asymmetric Barrier Lyapunov Function-Based Wheel Slip Control for Antilock Braking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolei Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As an important device of the aircraft landing system, the antilock braking system (ABS has a function to avoid aircraft wheels self-locking. To deal with the strong nonlinear characteristics, complex nonlinear control schemes are applied in ABS. However, none of existing control schemes focus on the braking operating status, which directly reflects wheels self-locking degree. In this paper, the braking operating status region is divided into three regions: the healthy region, the light slip region, and the deep slip region. An ABLF-based wheel slip controller is proposed for ABS to constrain the braking system operating status in the healthy region and the light slip region. Therefore the ABS will be prevented from operating in the deep slip region. Under the proposed control scheme, self-locking is avoided completely and zero steady state error tracking of the wheel optimal slip ratio is implemented. The Hardware-In-Loop (HIL experiments have validated the effectiveness of the proposed controller.

  2. The influence of bond coat surface roughness and structure on the oxidation of a thermal barrier coating system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, M.P.; Evans, H.E. [Birmingham Univ. (United Kingdom)

    2001-07-01

    The results of a study on two thermal barrier coating systems, oxidised isothermally in thermobalances at 1000 C, show that the surface roughness of the bond coat and its density have a significant effect on the oxidation behaviour. The particular system examined is composed of the Haynes 230 alloy substrate with CoNiCrAlY bond coat and yttria stabilised zirconia ceramic outer layer. Coatings were applied either using air- plasma spraying for both layers in the sample type with the coarsest interfacial roughness or electroplating deposition for the bond coat in the sample with the smoothest interface. Weight gain per unit geometric area is higher for the plasma-sprayed bond coat due both to its larger effective surface area and because of gas access into the structure and consequent internal oxidation. This enhanced oxidation results in a much more rapid depletion of aluminium within the bond coat and an earlier transition into chemical failure. The consequences of this on the formation of delamination cracks is discussed. (orig.)

  3. Suppression of fibrotic scar formation promotes axonal regeneration without disturbing blood-brain barrier repair and withdrawal of leukocytes after traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, Nozomu; Hisanaga, Shin-Ichi; Kawano, Hitoshi

    2010-09-15

    The fibrotic scar containing type IV collagen (Col IV) formed in a lesion site is considered as an obstacle to axonal regeneration, because intracerebral injection of 2,2'-dipyridyl (DPY), an inhibitor of Col IV triple-helix formation, suppresses fibrotic scar formation in the lesion site and promotes axonal regeneration. To determine the role of the fibrotic scar on the healing process of injured central nervous system (CNS), the restoration of blood-brain barrier (BBB) and withdrawal of inflammatory leukocytes were examined in mice subjected to unilateral transection of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway and intracerebral DPY injection. At 5 days after injury, destruction of BBB represented by leakage of Evans blue (EB) and widespread infiltration of CD45-immunoreactive leukocytes was observed around the lesion site, whereas reactive astrocytes increased surrounding the BBB-destroyed area. By 2 weeks after injury, the region of EB leakage and the diffusion of leukocytes were restricted to the inside of the fibrotic scar, and reactive astrocytes gathered around the fibrotic scar. In the DPY-treated lesion site, formation of the fibrotic scar was suppressed (84% decrease in Col IV-deposited area), reactive astrocytes occupied the lesion center, and areas of both EB leakage and leukocyte infiltration decreased by 86%. DPY treatment increased the number of regenerated dopaminergic axons by 2.53-fold. These results indicate that suppression of fibrotic scar formation does not disturb the healing process in damaged CNS, and suggest that this strategy is a reliable tool to promote axonal regeneration after traumatic injury in the CNS.

  4. Barrier mechanisms in the Drosophila blood-brain barrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Jane Hindle

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The invertebrate blood-brain barrier field is growing at a rapid pace and, in recent years, studies have shown a physiologic and molecular complexity that has begun to rival its vertebrate counterpart. Novel mechanisms of paracellular barrier maintenance through GPCR signaling were the first demonstrations of the complex adaptive mechanisms of barrier physiology. Building upon this work, the integrity of the invertebrate blood-brain barrier has recently been shown to require coordinated function of all layers of the compound barrier structure, analogous to signaling between the layers of the vertebrate neurovascular unit. These findings strengthen the notion that many blood-brain barrier mechanisms are conserved between vertebrates and invertebrates, and suggest that novel findings in invertebrate model organisms will have a significant impact on the understanding of vertebrate BBB functions. In this vein, important roles in coordinating localized and systemic signaling to dictate organism development and growth are beginning to show how the blood-brain barrier can govern whole animal physiologies. This includes novel functions of blood-brain barrier gap junctions in orchestrating synchronized neuroblast proliferation, and of blood-brain barrier secreted antagonists of insulin receptor signaling. These advancements and others are pushing the field forward in exciting new directions. In this review, we provide a synopsis of invertebrate blood-brain barrier anatomy and physiology, with a focus on insights from the past 5 years, and highlight important areas for future study.

  5. The EcoKI Type I Restriction-Modification System in Escherichia coli Affects but Is Not an Absolute Barrier for Conjugation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roer, Louise; Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Hasman, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    results about restriction-modification systems based on phenotypic studies have been presented as reasons for a barrier to conjugation with and other means of uptake of exogenous DNA. In this study, we show that inactivation of the R.EcoKI restriction enzyme in strain Escherichia coli K-12 strain MG1655...... of the mutant recipient with a disrupted hsdR gene. This leads to the conclusion that EcoKI restriction-modification affects the uptake of DNA by conjugation but is not a major barrier to plasmid transfer....

  6. Hydrogen Bound Complexes with Tropolone: Binding Motifs, Barrier Heights, and the Search for Bifurcating Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemchick, Deacon; Chew, Kathryn; Vaccaro, Patrick

    2014-06-01

    The potentially frustrated transfer of a proton between the hydroxylic (proton-donating) and ketonic (proton-accepting) oxygen atom centers in tropolone (TrOH) long has served as a model system for the study of coherent (symmetrical) proton-transfer events. A litany of hydrogen-bound complexes [TrOH \\cdot Xn] can be formed in situ by docking amphoteric ligands onto the TrOH substrate under supersonic free-jet expansion conditions. Binary (n = 1) and higher order (n = 2, 3, ldots) complexes formed with formic acid, hydrogen fluoride, acetic acid and propiolic acid (X = FA, HF, AA, and PA) have been synthesized and interrogated using a variety of spectroscopic probes built upon the intense ˜{A1}B2-˜{X1}{A}1 (π *←π) near-ultraviolet absorption system of bare tropolone, thereby providing vibronically resolved information through combined use of laser-induced fluorescence (LIF), dispersed fluorescence (DF), fluorescence hole-burning (FHB), and stimulated emission pumping (SEP) methods. Experimental results reveal the propensity for binary complexes to adopt a higher-energy external binding motif (ligand attached to the seven membered aromatic ring) over the energetically preferred internal form (ligand bound to the O-H\\cdotsO reaction center), where the latter cleft-bound species can undergo unique symmetric (coherent) double proton-transfer reactions. These findings will be discussed in light of supporting quantum-chemical calculations.

  7. Electronic clinical decision support systems attitudes and barriers to use in the oncology setting.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Collins, I M

    2012-03-02

    BACKGROUND: There is little evidence regarding attitudes to clinical decision support systems (CDSS) in oncology. AIMS: We examined the current usage, awareness, and concerns of Irish medical oncologists and oncology pharmacists in this area. METHODS: A questionnaire was sent to 27 medical oncologists and 34 oncology pharmacists, identified through professional interest groups. Respondents ranked concerns regarding their use of a CDSS on a scale from 1 to 4, with 4 being most important. RESULTS: Overall, 67% (41\\/61) responded, 48% (13\\/27) of oncologists and 82% (28\\/34) of pharmacists surveyed. Concerns included "difficulty defining complex clinical situations with a set of rules" (mean ± SD) (3.2 ± 0.9), "ensuring evidence base is up to date and relevant" (3.2 ± 0.9) and "lack of clinically relevant suggestions" (2.9 ± 0.9). Ninety-three percent reported using a CDSS but 54% were unaware of this. CONCLUSION: While there are benefits to using a CDSS, concerns must be addressed through user education. This may be a starting point for a user-centred design approach to the development of future local systems through a consultative process.

  8. Protective effects of ebselen (Ebs) and para-aminosalicylic acid (PAS) against manganese (Mn)-induced neurotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marreilha dos Santos, A.P., E-mail: apsantos@ff.ul.pt [I-Med.UL, Department of Toxicology and Food Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Lisbon, Lisbon (Portugal); Lucas, Rui L.; Andrade, Vanda; Mateus, M. Luísa [I-Med.UL, Department of Toxicology and Food Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Lisbon, Lisbon (Portugal); Milatovic, Dejan; Aschner, Michael [Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Batoreu, M. Camila [I-Med.UL, Department of Toxicology and Food Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Lisbon, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2012-02-01

    Chronic, excessive exposure to manganese (Mn) may induce neurotoxicity and cause an irreversible brain disease, referred to as manganism. Efficacious therapies for the treatment of Mn are lacking, mandating the development of new interventions. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the efficacy of ebselen (Ebs) and para-aminosalicylic acid (PAS) in attenuating the neurotoxic effects of Mn in an in vivo rat model. Exposure biomarkers, inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers, as well as behavioral parameters were evaluated. Co-treatment with Mn plus Ebs or Mn plus PAS caused a significant decrease in blood and brain Mn concentrations (compared to rats treated with Mn alone), concomitant with reduced brain E{sub 2} prostaglandin (PGE{sub 2}) and enhanced brain glutathione (GSH) levels, decreased serum prolactin (PRL) levels, and increased ambulation and rearing activities. Taken together, these results establish that both PAS and Ebs are efficacious in reducing Mn body burden, neuroinflammation, oxidative stress and locomotor activity impairments in a rat model of Mn-induced toxicity. -- Highlights: ► The manuscript is unique in its approach to the neurotoxicity of Mn. ► The manuscript incorporates molecular, cellular and functional (behavioral) analyses. ► Both PAS and Ebs are effective in restoring Mn behavioral function. ► Both PAS and Ebs are effective in reducing Mn-induced oxidative stress. ► Both PAS and Ebs led to a decrease in Mn-induced neuro-inflammation.

  9. Biogeographic barriers drive co-diversification within associated eukaryotes of the Sarracenia alata pitcher plant system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satler, Jordan D; Zellmer, Amanda J; Carstens, Bryan C

    2016-01-01

    Understanding if the members of an ecological community have co-diversified is a central concern of evolutionary biology, as co-diversification suggests prolonged association and possible coevolution. By sampling associated species from an ecosystem, researchers can better understand how abiotic and biotic factors influence diversification in a region. In particular, studies of co-distributed species that interact ecologically can allow us to disentangle the effect of how historical processes have helped shape community level structure and interactions. Here we investigate the Sarracenia alata pitcher plant system, an ecological community where many species from disparate taxonomic groups live inside the fluid-filled pitcher leaves. Direct sequencing of the eukaryotes present in the pitcher plant fluid enables us to better understand how a host plant can shape and contribute to the genetic structure of its associated inquilines, and to ask whether genetic variation in the taxa are structured in a similar manner to the host plant. We used 454 amplicon-based metagenomics to demonstrate that the pattern of genetic diversity in many, but not all, of the eukaryotic community is similar to that of S. alata, providing evidence that associated eukaryotes share an evolutionary history with the host pitcher plant. Our work provides further evidence that a host plant can influence the evolution of its associated commensals. PMID:26788436

  10. Infringement of the barriers of cancer via dietary phytoconstituents capsaicin through novel drug delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, Tapan Kumar; Alexander, Amit; Ajazuddin; Barman, Tapan Kumar; Maity, Subhasis

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is the major cause of fatality and the number of new cases is increasing incessantly. Conventional therapies and existing anticancer agents cause serious side effects and expand the patient's lifespan by a few years. There is the need to exploit alternative anticancer agents and novel drug delivery system to deliver these agents to the tumor site for the prevention of cancer. Recently, biologically active compounds isolated from plants used for the management of cancer have been the heart of interest. Capsaicin is a major pungent agent present in the chili peppers that is heavily consumed in the world. Capsaicin has demonstrated effectiveness as an anticancer agent, but a restraining factor is its pungency, extremely low aqueous solubility, and poor oral bioavailability which impede its use as an anticancer agent. Many technologies have been developed and applied to conquer this drawback. We bring to light the benefits of this phytoconstituent for treating different types of cancer. We also discussed some of the delivery approaches that have already made an impact by either delivering a drug to target tissue or increasing its bioavailability by many folds. PMID:26036845

  11. Sustainable fuel, food, fertilizer and ecosystems through a global artificial photosynthetic system: overcoming anticompetitive barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Alex; Faunce, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses challenges that artificial photosynthetic (AP) systems will face when entering and competing in a global market characterized by established fossil fuel technology. It provides a perspective on the neoliberal principles underpinning much policy entrenching such environmentally destructive technology and outlines how competition law could aid overcoming these hurdles for AP development. In particular, it critiques the potential for competition law to promote a global AP initiative with greater emphasis on atmospheric carbon dioxide and nitrogen fixation (as well as solar-driven water splitting) to produce an equitable, globally distributed source of human food, fertilizer and biosphere sustainability, as well as hydrogen-based fuel. Some relevant strategies of competition law evaluated in this context include greater citizen–consumer involvement in shaping market values, legal requirements to factor services from the natural environment (i.e. provision of clean air, water, soil pollution degradation) into corporate costs, reform of corporate taxation and requirements to balance maximization of shareholder profit with contribution to a nominated public good, a global financial transactions tax, as well as prohibiting horizontal cartels, vertical agreements and unilateral misuse of market power. PMID:26052427

  12. Mechanisms of spallation of electron beam physical vapor deposited thermal barrier coatings with and without platinum aluminide bond coat ridges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaidyanathan, K.; Gell, M. [Connecticut Univ., Storrs, CT (United States). Dept. of Metallurgy; Jordan, E. [Dept. Mechanical Engineering, University of Connecticut, CT-06269, Storrs (United States)

    2000-11-01

    Grain boundary ridges, that form on the surface of platinum aluminide [(Ni,Pt)Al] bond coats prior to the deposition of the yttria stabilized zirconia ceramic layer by the electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) process, were shown to be the sites for spallation damage initiation in (Ni,Pt)Al/EB-PVD thermal barrier coatings. When these ridges are removed prior to deposition of the ceramic layer, a 3 x life improvement is achieved. This study compares the spallation mechanisms in specimens with and without bond coat ridges, in order to explain the improvement in spallation life. (orig.)

  13. The Australian REEFREP System: A Coastal Vessel Traffic Information Service and Ship Reporting System for the Torres Strait Region and the Inner Route of the Great Barrier Reef

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, John C.

    The new Australian ship reporting system, identifier , will be the core component of a Vessel Traffic Information Service (VTIS) covering the Torres Strait region and the Great Barrier Reef (GBR). It is the first such system to be considered by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) under the terms of the new SOLAS 74 regulation v/8-1, which entered into force on 1 January 1996 and allows for ship reporting systems adopted by the Organization to be made mandatory for all, or certain categories of vessels.The REEFREP system, planned for implementation on 1 January 1997, extends for some 900 n.m. or about 1500 km along the Queensland coastline. It will be a VHF radio-based system with radars covering three selected focal points in the Torres Strait, off Cairns and in the southern approaches to the inner route. The system will provide a capability for a single Ship Reporting Centre to interact with shipping, enabling the provision of improved information on the presence, movements and patterns of shipping in the area and the ability to respond more quickly to an incident or pollution should this occur.An interesting feature and a major factor in the system design is the remoteness of most equipment sites and the limited infrastructure available to support communications and data transmission requiring the application of advanced technology and video transmission, solar power generation and software engineering skills of a high order.

  14. Failure analysis of high-temperature oxidation for plasma sprayed thermal barrier coating systems with different coating characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, S.; Yoshiba, M. [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Tokyo Metropolitan Univ. (Japan); Harada, Y. [Thermal Spraying Technology R and D Lab., Tocalo Co., Ltd., Kobe (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    In order to evaluate the durability of plasma sprayed thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems with different coating characteristics such as the coating defect structures and interfacial natures, high-temperature oxidation tests were conducted at 1000 and 1100 C under both the isothermal and thermal cycle conditions. High-temperature oxidation behavior was found to differ depending strongly on the top-coat (TC) microstructure and the reheat-treatment (RHT) conditions after spraying; namely on a combination of the treatment temperature and atmosphere. It was clarified, in particular, that the TC microstructure with the improved strain accommodation (stress relief) function, such as the porous or segmented TC layer is much effective in suppressing the TC spalling. For TBC systems with Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-stabilized ZrO{sub 2} as the TC, furthermore, the RHT at an appropriate temperature in Ar was found to be also effective for an improvement of the oxidation property, since the RHT in Ar is attainable for the continuous Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer at the TC/ bond-coat (BC) interface so as to reduce effectively the growth rate of thermally grown oxide (TGO) during high-temperature oxidation. For TBC systems with TC of CaO-SiO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2}, on the contrary, it was found to be difficult to improve the oxidation property by any RHT processes, mainly due to the high reactivity of CaO in TC with the CoNiCrAlY-BC. The affecting factors for the high-temperature oxidation property were discussed on the basis of such a failure analysis. (orig.)

  15. Identifying the Barriers to Women's Agency in Domestic Violence: The Tensions between Women's Personal Experiences and Systemic Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jo Aldridge

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite advances in knowledge and understanding about the impacts of domestic violence on women's lives, global research on violence against women shows there is a need for research that not only places women centre stage in research praxis, but also that involves them more collaboratively in genuine dialogue about their experiences, including their agentic stances. This is especially the case for marginalised and socially excluded women victims of domestic violence, such as those who are not known or do not present to services and who survive abusive relationships alone or with little outside support. Evidence from two studies reported here—secondary analysis of women with severe and enduring mental health problems and a collaborative narrative project with unsupported women victims of domestic violence—suggest that women's capacity for agency are compromised by a number of critical factors, and that these are also reflected in the tensions between micro–macro analyses and understanding of the impact of domestic violence on women. This article considers the barriers to women's agency from the women's perspective and in the context of broader, systemic dynamics, including the denial or obscuring of abuse by governments and states and the consequences of stringent fiscal retrenchment that put women at increased risk of domestic violence.

  16. Nuclear rainbow in the 16O+27Al system: the role of couplings at energies far above the barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The 16O + 27Al elastic and inelastic angular distributions have been measured in a broad angular range (13 deg ≤ θ ≤52 deg) at 100 MeV incident energy at INFN-LNS (Italy). The use of the MAGNEX large acceptance magnetic spectrometer [1] and of the ray-reconstruction analysis technique was crucial in order to provide, in the same experiment, high-resolution energy spectra and cross-section measurements distributed over more than seven orders of magnitude, down to hundreds of nb/sr [2]. The data analysis confirms a rainbow formation as predicted by parameter-free Coupled Channel calculations obtained with the parameter free double folding Sao Paulo optical potential [3]. It also reveals the crucial role of inelastic couplings in the rainbow formation for heavy systems even at energies far above the Coulomb barrier. This behavior is also observed at higher bombarding energy as revealed by a preliminary analysis of a very recent experiment performed at INFN-LNS at 280 MeV. This feature, well known in atomic/molecular scattering, is experimentally found for the first time in Nuclear Physics. [1] F. Cappuzzello et al., MAGNEX: an innovative large acceptance spectrometer for nuclear reaction studies in: Magnets: Types, Uses and Safety, Nova Publisher Inc., New York, 2011, pp 1-63. [2] M.Cavallaro, et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 648 (2011) 46. [3] L.C. Chamon, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 79 (1997) 5218. (author)

  17. Effects of a Pre-Filter and Electrolysis Systems on the Reuse of Brine in the Chinese Cabbage Salting Process

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Dong-Ho; Yoo, Jae Yeol; Jang, Keum-Il

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the effects of a pre-filter system and electrolysis system on the safe and efficient reuse of brine in the cabbage salting process were investigated. First, sediment filter-electrolyzed brine (SF-EB) was selected as brine for reuse. Then, we evaluated the quality and microbiological properties of SF-EB and Chinese cabbage salted with SF-EB. The salinity (9.4%) and pH (4.63) of SF-EB were similar to those of control brine (CB). SF-EB turbidity was decreased (from 0.112 to 0.062)...

  18. Evidence for sites of methylmercury formation in a flowing water system: Impact of anthropogenic barriers and water management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Truckee River, California-Nevada, USA is impacted by mercury (Hg) contamination associated with legacy gold mining. In this work, we investigated the potential for hot-spots of methylmercury (MeHg) formation in the river. Mercury concentrations in multiple media were also used to assess the impacts of anthropogenic barriers, restoration, and water management in this flowing water ecosystem. Water samples were collected on a seasonal time step over 3 years, and analyzed for total Hg (THg) and MeHg concentrations, along with a variety of other water quality parameters. In addition, we measured THg and MeHg in sediments, THg in macroinvertebrates, and THg and δ15N and δ13C concentrations in fish. Differences in stable isotopes and Hg concentrations in fish were applied to understand the mobility of fish in the river. Mercury concentrations of specific macroinvertebrate species were used to identify sites of MeHg production. In general, loads of Hg and nutrients in the river reach above the Reno–Sparks metropolitan area were similar to that reported for pristine systems, while within and below the city, water quality impacts were observed. Fish isotope data showed that in the city reach food resources were different than those upriver and downriver. Based on Hg and isotope data, mobility of the fish in the river is impacted by anthropogenic obstructions and water manipulation. Below the city, particle bound Hg, derived from the legacy mining, continues to be input to the Truckee River. This Hg is deposited in riparian habitats and areas of river restoration, where it is methylated and becomes available to biota. During spring, when flows were highest, MeHg produced and stored in the sediments is mobilized and transported downriver. Fish and macroinvertebrate concentrations increased downriver indicating passive uptake from water. The information presented here could be useful for those doing river restoration and water manipulation in mercury contaminated

  19. Exploring barriers to participation and adoption of telehealth and telecare within the Whole System Demonstrator trial: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanders Caroline

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Telehealth (TH and telecare (TC interventions are increasingly valued for supporting self-care in ageing populations; however, evaluation studies often report high rates of non-participation that are not well understood. This paper reports from a qualitative study nested within a large randomised controlled trial in the UK: the Whole System Demonstrator (WSD project. It explores barriers to participation and adoption of TH and TC from the perspective of people who declined to participate or withdrew from the trial. Methods Qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted with 22 people who declined to participate in the trial following explanations of the intervention (n = 19, or who withdrew from the intervention arm (n = 3. Participants were recruited from the four trial groups (with diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, heart failure, or social care needs; and all came from the three trial areas (Cornwall, Kent, east London. Observations of home visits where the trial and interventions were first explained were also conducted by shadowing 8 members of health and social care staff visiting 23 people at home. Field notes were made of observational visits and explored alongside interview transcripts to elicit key themes. Results Barriers to adoption of TH and TC associated with non-participation and withdrawal from the trial were identified within the following themes: requirements for technical competence and operation of equipment; threats to identity, independence and self-care; expectations and experiences of disruption to services. Respondents held concerns that special skills were needed to operate equipment but these were often based on misunderstandings. Respondents’ views were often explained in terms of potential threats to identity associated with positive ageing and self-reliance, and views that interventions could undermine self-care and coping. Finally, participants were reluctant to

  20. Potential structural barriers to ground-water flow, Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital dataset defines the surface traces of regional geologic structures designated as potential ground-water flow barriers in an approximately 45,000...

  1. Breaking Down Barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Beverly T.

    1994-01-01

    Faculty at 11 higher education institutions in California, New Mexico, Texas, and northern Mexico have been experimenting with computer conferencing on the BESTNET (Bilingual English-Spanish Telecommunications Network). The growing system is credited with creating an international student-faculty community that crosses cultural barriers for…

  2. Making Questionnaire for Studying Barriers of Utilizing the Scientific Evidence in Health Care System in Islamic Republic of Iran from the View point of Decision Makers

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Zakaria Pezeshki; Hossein Jabbari; Barmak Yaaghoobian

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Inappropriate utilization of scientific evidence in health systems has led to a motivation for designing different studies by various stakeholders to identify the dimensions of this problem and the proper solution for them. In health system of Islamic republic of Iran, among the most important stakeholders are senior and middle managers whose opinions about barriers of utilization of scientific evidence can be studied by questionnaire. This study has been done to make this quest...

  3. Coupled modelling (transport-reaction) of the fluid-clay interactions and their feed back on the physical properties of the bentonite engineered clay barrier system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The originality of this work is to process feed back effects of mineralogical and chemical modifications of clays, in storage conditions, on their physical properties and therefore on their transport characteristics (porosity, molecular diffusion, permeability). These feed back effects are modelled using the KIRMAT code (Kinetic of Reaction and MAss Transfer) developed from the kinetic code KINDIS by adding the effect of water renewal in the mineral-solution reactive cells. KIRMAT resolves mass balance equations associated with mass transport together with the geochemical reactions in a 1D approach. After 100 000 years of simulated interaction at 100 C, with the fluid of the Callovo-Oxfordian geological level (COX) and with iron provided by the steel overpack corrosion, the montmorillonite of the clay barrier is only partially transformed (into illite, chlorite, saponite...). Only outer parts of the modelled profile seem to be significantly affected by smectite dissolution processes, mainly at the interface with the geological environment. The modifications of physical properties show a closure of the porosity at the boundaries of the barrier, by creating a decrease of mass transport by molecular diffusion, essentially at the interface with the iron. Permeability laws applied to this system show a decrease of the hydraulic conductivity correlated with the porosity evolution. Near the COX, the swelling pressure of the clays from the barrier decreases. In the major part of the modelled profile, the engineered clay barrier system seems to keep its initial physical properties (porosity, molecular diffusion, permeability, swelling pressure) and functionalities. (author)

  4. Barriers in access to healthcare in countries with different health systems. A cross-sectional study in municipalities of central Colombia and north-eastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Subirats, Irene; Vargas, Ingrid; Mogollón-Pérez, Amparo Susana; De Paepe, Pierre; da Silva, Maria Rejane Ferreira; Unger, Jean Pierre; Vázquez, María Luisa

    2014-04-01

    There are few comprehensive studies available on barriers encountered from the initial seeking of healthcare through to the resolution of the health problem; in other words, on access in its broad domain. For Colombia and Brazil, countries with different healthcare systems but common stated principles, there have been no such analyses to date. This paper compares factors that influence access in its broad domain in two municipalities of each country, by means of a cross-sectional study based on a survey of a multistage probability sample of people who had had at least one health problem within the last three months (2163 in Colombia and 2155 in Brazil). The results reveal important barriers to healthcare access in both samples, with notable differences between and within countries, once differences in sociodemographic characteristics and health needs are accounted for. In the Colombian study areas, the greatest barriers were encountered in initial access to healthcare and in resolving the problem, and similarly when entering the health service in the Brazilian study areas. Differences can also be detected in the use of services: in Colombia greater geographical and economic barriers and the need for authorization from insurers are more relevant, whereas in Brazil, it is the limited availability of health centres, doctors and drugs that leads to longer waiting times. There are also differences according to enrolment status and insurance scheme in Colombia, and between areas in Brazil. The barriers appear to be related to the Colombian system's segmented, non-universal nature, and to the involvement of insurance companies, and to chronic underfunding of the public system in Brazil. Further research is required, but the results obtained reveal critical points to be tackled by health policies in both countries.

  5. A mutation of the fission yeast EB1 overcomes negative regulation by phosphorylation and stabilizes microtubules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iimori, Makoto; Ozaki, Kanako [Graduate School of Biostudies, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwake cho, Sakyo ku, Kyoto, 606-8502 (Japan); Chikashige, Yuji [Kobe Advanced ICT Research Center, National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, Kobe, 651-2492 (Japan); Habu, Toshiyuki [Graduate School of Biostudies, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwake cho, Sakyo ku, Kyoto, 606-8502 (Japan); Radiation Biology Center, Kyoto University, Yoshida-Konoe cho, Sakyo ku, Kyoto, 606-8501 (Japan); Hiraoka, Yasushi [Kobe Advanced ICT Research Center, National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, Kobe, 651-2492 (Japan); Graduate School of Frontier Biosciences, Osaka University, 1-3 Yamadaoka, Suita, 565-0871 (Japan); Maki, Takahisa; Hayashi, Ikuko [Graduate School of Nanobioscience, Yokohama City University, Tsurumi, Yokohama, 230-0045 (Japan); Obuse, Chikashi [Graduate School of Life Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 001-0021 (Japan); Matsumoto, Tomohiro, E-mail: tmatsumo@house.rbc.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Biostudies, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwake cho, Sakyo ku, Kyoto, 606-8502 (Japan); Radiation Biology Center, Kyoto University, Yoshida-Konoe cho, Sakyo ku, Kyoto, 606-8501 (Japan)

    2012-02-01

    Mal3 is a fission yeast homolog of EB1, a plus-end tracking protein (+ TIP). We have generated a mutation (89R) replacing glutamine with arginine in the calponin homology (CH) domain of Mal3. Analysis of the 89R mutant in vitro has revealed that the mutation confers a higher affinity to microtubules and enhances the intrinsic activity to promote the microtubule-assembly. The mutant Mal3 is no longer a + TIP, but binds strongly the microtubule lattice. Live cell imaging has revealed that while the wild type Mal3 proteins dissociate from the tip of the growing microtubules before the onset of shrinkage, the mutant Mal3 proteins persist on microtubules and reduces a rate of shrinkage after a longer pausing period. Consequently, the mutant Mal3 proteins cause abnormal elongation of microtubules composing the spindle and aster. Mal3 is phosphorylated at a cluster of serine/threonine residues in the linker connecting the CH and EB1-like C-terminal motif domains. The phosphorylation occurs in a microtubule-dependent manner and reduces the affinity of Mal3 to microtubules. We propose that because the 89R mutation is resistant to the effect of phosphorylation, it can associate persistently with microtubules and confers a stronger stability of microtubules likely by reinforcing the cylindrical structure. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We characterize a mutation (mal3-89R) in fission yeast homolog of EB1. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The mutation enhances the activity to assemble microtubules. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mal3 is phosphorylated in a microtubule-dependent manner. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The phosphorylation negatively regulates the Mal3 activity.

  6. Chlamydophila psittaci genotype E/B transmission from African grey parrots to humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkinezhad, Taher; Verminnen, Kristel; Van Droogenbroeck, Caroline; Vanrompay, Daisy

    2007-08-01

    Thirty-six birds from a parrot relief and breeding centre, as well as the manager, were examined for the presence of Chlamydophila psittaci. In the relief unit, 5 of 20 African grey parrots showed depression, ruffled feathers, loss of weight and mild dyspnoea. The birds received no antibiotic treatment. Birds of the breeding unit, 14 blue and gold macaws and 2 green-winged macaws, were healthy. They received doxycycline at the start of each breeding season. The manager complained of shortness of breath but took no medication. Using a nested PCR enzyme immunoassay (EIA), Cp. psittaci was detected in the faeces of all five sick birds, as well as in a nasal and pharyngeal swab from the manager. The veterinarian and her assistant became infected while sampling the parrots, as pharyngeal and nasal swabs from both were positive by nested PCR/EIA after visiting the parrot relief and breeding centre, but they showed no clinical signs of infection. Bacteria could be isolated from three of five nested PCR/EIA-positive birds, the manager and the veterinarian, but not from the veterinary assistant. Using an ompA genotype-specific real-time PCR, Cp. psittaci genotype E/B was identified as the transmitted strain. All breeding birds tested negative for Cp. psittaci. This is believed to be the first report on Cp. psittaci genotype E/B transmission from parrots to humans. In contradiction to genotype A strains, which are thought to be highly virulent to both birds and men, the currently described genotype E/B strain apparently caused no severe clinical symptoms in either parrots or humans.

  7. The status of UV/EB curable product in North America: 1998-1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This author has previously reported survey results showing that the use of UV/EB materials has grown at a compound rate of about 10% per annum over the last decade. Together, with about 130 members of RadTech International North America, representing 90 organizations, we have updated and assessed the growth and activities of the industry. The panelists represent a cross section of end users, raw material and equipment suppliers, as well as formulators and consultants. Using a modified Delphi process with five separate survey rounds, a reasonable assessment was made of the advantages, disadvantages, growth rate and growth opportunities of this exciting technology

  8. Dual AO/EB Staining to Detect Apoptosis in Osteosarcoma Cells Compared with Flow Cytometry

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Kuan; Liu, Peng-Cheng; Liu, Run; Wu, Xing

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of dual acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB) staining to detect tumor cell apoptosis. According to apoptosis-associated changes of cell membranes during the process of apoptosis, a clear distinction is made between normal cells, early and late apoptotic cells, and necrotic cells. Material/Method We cultured human osteosarcoma cells with 30, 60, and 120 μg/ml kappa-selenocarrageenan. To assess the rates of cell proliferation and ...

  9. Creep properties of EB welded copper overpack at 125-175 deg C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electron Beam welds (EBW) chosen as primary sealing method by Posiva welding the over-pack canister lids of oxygen-free phosphorus micro-alloyed copper (OFP) have been tested for material properties relevant to long term creep life prediction. Creep rupture results are presented for the ruptured 175 deg C tests and for the ongoing long term tests at 150 deg C and 125 deg C. The current status (test time, creep strain and strain rate) of the ongoing tests are reported. The initial (175 deg C) results indicate that the EB welds are weaker than the parent material and that both round bar and spark eroded square test specimens produce weld strengths of about 0.75 at tests durations of 5000 h. The downward trend is however expected to continue for the longer test durations. The creep ductility shows decrease for the longer tests. Life estimates for the EB weld have been calculated at 100 deg C for both 50 and 80 MPa with the so far lowest measured EB weld strength factor (WSF=0.77). The state-of-the-art model on the available data give estimated lives of 21000 and 3000 years correspondingly. However, simulated to the expected temperature profile of the repository service the life fraction reached after 10000 years of service is 1 % and 7 % for the same stress levels. It is though important to remembered that the 80 MPa assumption is very conservative in nature and that the predictions do not take into account relaxation of stresses, further decline of the WSF or anisotropy of the weld and are therefore still to be considered indicative only. It is also to be remembered that there is only limited data in the long term regime for the weldments and that the estimates are based on the few EB data available in the public domain added with the Posiva data of this project. Improvement of the models and predictions are expected from the ongoing 125 deg C and 150 deg C long term tests. (orig.)

  10. Efficiency of drug delivery enhanced by acoustic pressure during blood–brain barrier disruption induced by focused ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang FY

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Feng-Yi Yang, Pei-Yi LeeDepartment of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, TaiwanPurpose: We evaluated the delivery efficiency of intravenously injected large molecular agents, before and after disruption of the blood–brain barrier (BBB-D, induced by focused ultrasound (FUS using various acoustic parameters.Materials and methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were injected intravenously with Evans blue (EB before or after BBB-D induction by pulsed FUS. We used a 1.0 MHz pulsed FUS with four acoustic power settings and an ultrasound contrast agent (UCA at four different doses to induce BBB-D resulting from cavitation. The permeability of the BBB was assessed quantitatively based on the extravasation of EB. Contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI was used to monitor the gadolinium deposition associated with FUS. Histological analysis was performed to examine tissue damage.Results: The accumulation of EB in rat brain was found to be dependent on acoustic power and UCA dosage, regardless of whether EB administration occurred before or after FUS-induced BBB-D. Administration of EB followed by sonication resulted in greater EB extravasation than that for rats subjected to sonication prior to EB injection. To reduce tissue damage, EB extravasation was enhanced by first administering EB by intravenous injection, followed by sonication at reduced acoustic power or UCA dosage. The normalized signal intensity change in rat brains that received the same dose of UCA and sonicated after gadolinium injection was significantly greater than in rats undergoing sonication followed by gadolinium administration. Moreover, contrast enhanced MRI showed a more precise distribution of gadolinium in the brain when gadolinium was administered before sonication.Conclusion: We demonstrated that a compound administered prior to sonication treatment promotes extravasation of the sonicated region. Thus, it is possible to

  11. Opportunities for functional oxides in yttrium oxide-titanium oxide-zirconium oxide system: Applications for novel thermal barrier coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francillon, Wesley

    This dissertation is an investigation of materials and processed under consideration for next generation thermal structural oxides with potential applications as thermal barrier coatings; wherein, high temperature stability and mechanical properties affect durability. Two notable next generation materials systems under investigation are pyrochlore and co-doped zirconia oxides. The motivation for this work is based on current limitations of the currently used thermal barrier material of yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) deposited by the plasma spray processes. The rapid quenching associated with the plasma spray process, results in a metastable structure that is a non-transformable tetragonal structure in the yttria partially stabilized zirconia system rather than the equilibrium anticipated two phase mixture of cubic and monoclinic phases. It has been shown that this metastable structure offers enhanced toughness and thus durability during thermomechanical cycling from the operating temperatures in excess of 1000C to ambient. However, the metastable oxides are susceptible to partitioning at temperatures greater than 1200C, thus resulting in a transformation of the tetragonal phase oxides. Transformations of the tetragonal prime phase into the parent cubic and tetragonal prime phase result in coating degradation. Several of the emerging oxides are based on rare earth additions to zirconia. However, there is limited information of the high temperature stability of these oxide coatings and more notably these compositions exhibit limited toughness for durable performance. A potential ternary composition based on the YSZ system that offers the ability to tailor the phase structure is based YO1.5-TiO2 -ZrO2. The ternary of YO1.5-TiO2-ZrO 2 has the current TBC composition of seven molar percent yttria stabilized zirconia, pyrochlore phase oxide and zirconia doped with yttria and titania additions (Ti-YSZ). The Ti-YSZ phase field is of interest because at equilibrium it is

  12. Mont Terri Project - Engineered barrier emplacement experiment in Opalinus Clay for the disposal of radioactive waste in underground repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayor, J. C. [Empresa Nacional de Residuos Radioactivos SA (ENRESA), Madrid (Spain); Garcia-Sineriz, J. [Asociacion para la Investigacion y Desarollo Industrial de los Recursos Naturales (AITEMIN), Madrid (Spain); Alonso, E. [Centre Internacional de Metodos Numerics en Ingenyeria (CIMNE), Barcelona (Spain); Alheid, H.-J. [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (BGR), Hannover (Germany); Bluemling, P. [National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (Nagra), Wettingen (Switzerland)

    2007-07-01

    The Engineered Barrier (EB) experiment was a full-scale test for the demonstration, in a horizontal drift, of an emplacement technics of the clay barrier, using a granular bentonite material in the upper part of this barrier and bentonite blocks at the bottom. The test has been carried out in a 6 m long section of a niche excavated in Opalinus Clay of the Mont Terri underground laboratory. A steel dummy canister, with the same dimensions and weight as the real reference canisters, was placed on top of a bed of highly compacted bentonite blocks (in turn lying on a concrete bed), and the rest of the clay barrier volume was backfilled with a Granular Bentonite Material (GBM), made of very highly compacted pellets of different sizes. Hydro-mechanical instrumentation and an artificial hydration system (to accelerate the saturation of the clay barrier) were installed, and the test section sealed with a concrete plug. The evolution of the hydro-mechanical parameters along the hydration, both in the barrier and in the clayey rock formation, has been monitored during about 1.5 years, and modelled using the CODE-BRIGHT code. The EB experiment has proved that fully automated production of a Granular Bentonite Material (GBM) is possible and large quantities can be produced in due time in the required quality. Only minor modifications of existing production lines in industry for other applications were necessary to achieve this result. In the EB test section, a dry density of 1.36 g/cm{sup 3} of the emplaced GBM has been obtained. With this value it is estimated that the hydraulic conductivity of this material is lower than 5 x 10{sup -12} m/s and the swelling pressure is about 1.3 MPa. Even though the EB test section conditions are now not considered as representative of a true demonstration, it is deemed that the model emplacement testing results (dry density of about 1.40 g/cm{sup 3}) serve well to demonstrate the achievable densities expected in the real world setting. The

  13. A single-photon sensitive ebCMOS camera: The LUSIPHER prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbier, R., E-mail: rbarbier@ipnl.in2p3.fr [Universite de Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, Lyon F-69003 (France); CNRS/IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon, Villeurbanne F-69622 (France); Cajgfinger, T.; Calabria, P.; Chabanat, E.; Chaize, D.; Depasse, P.; Doan, Q.T.; Dominjon, A.; Guerin, C.; Houles, J.; Vagneron, L. [Universite de Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, Lyon F-69003 (France); CNRS/IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon, Villeurbanne F-69622 (France); Baudot, J.; Dorokhov, A.; Dulinski, W.; Winter, M. [Universite Louis Pasteur Strasbourg, Strasbourg (France); CNRS/IN2P3, Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien, Strasbourg F-67037 (France); Kaiser, C.T. [PHOTONIS Netherlands BV, Roden B.O. Box 60, 9300 AB Roden (Netherlands)

    2011-08-21

    Processing high-definition images with single-photon sensitivity acquired above 500 frames per second (fps) will certainly find ground-breaking applications in scientific and industrial domains such as nano-photonics. However, current technologies for low light imaging suffer limitations above the standard 30 fps to keep providing both excellent spatial resolution and signal-over-noise. This paper presents the state of the art on a promising way to answer this challenge, the electron bombarded CMOS (ebCMOS) detector. A large-scale ultra fast single-photon tracker camera prototype produced with an industrial partner is described. The full characterization of the back-thinned CMOS sensor is presented and a method for Point Spread Function measurements is elaborated. Then the study of the ebCMOS performance is presented for two different multi-alkali cathodes, S20 and S25. Point Spread Function measurements carried out on an optical test bench are analysed to extract the PSF of the tube by deconvolution. The resolution of the tube is studied as a function of temperature, high voltage and incident wavelength. Results are discussed for both multi-alkali cathodes as well as a Maxwellian modelization of the radial initial energy of the photo-electrons.

  14. The biological significance of brain barrier mechanisms: help or hindrance in drug delivery to the central nervous system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Norman R; Habgood, Mark D; Møllgård, Kjeld; Dziegielewska, Katarzyna M

    2016-01-01

    Barrier mechanisms in the brain are important for its normal functioning and development. Stability of the brain's internal environment, particularly with respect to its ionic composition, is a prerequisite for the fundamental basis of its function, namely transmission of nerve impulses. In addition, the appropriate and controlled supply of a wide range of nutrients such as glucose, amino acids, monocarboxylates, and vitamins is also essential for normal development and function. These are all cellular functions across the interfaces that separate the brain from the rest of the internal environment of the body. An essential morphological component of all but one of the barriers is the presence of specialized intercellular tight junctions between the cells comprising the interface: endothelial cells in the blood-brain barrier itself, cells of the arachnoid membrane, choroid plexus epithelial cells, and tanycytes (specialized glial cells) in the circumventricular organs. In the ependyma lining the cerebral ventricles in the adult brain, the cells are joined by gap junctions, which are not restrictive for intercellular movement of molecules. But in the developing brain, the forerunners of these cells form the neuroepithelium, which restricts exchange of all but the smallest molecules between cerebrospinal fluid and brain interstitial fluid because of the presence of strap junctions between the cells. The intercellular junctions in all these interfaces are the physical basis for their barrier properties. In the blood-brain barrier proper, this is combined with a paucity of vesicular transport that is a characteristic of other vascular beds. Without such a diffusional restrain, the cellular transport mechanisms in the barrier interfaces would be ineffective. Superimposed on these physical structures are physiological mechanisms as the cells of the interfaces contain various metabolic transporters and efflux pumps, often ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, that

  15. Health system barriers to implementation of collaborative TB and HIV activities including prevention of mother to child transmission in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uwimana, J; Jackson, D; Hausler, H; Zarowsky, C

    2012-05-01

    In South Africa, the control of TB and HIV co-infection remains a major challenge despite the availability of international and national guidelines for integration of TB and HIV services. This study was undertaken in KwaZulu-Natal, one of the provinces most affected by both TB and HIV, to identify and understand managers' and community care workers' (CCWs) perceptions of health systems barriers related to the implementation of collaborative TB/HIV activities, including prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV (PMTCT). We conducted 29 in-depth interviews with health managers at provincial, district and facility level and with managers of NGOs involved in TB and HIV care, as well as six focus group discussions with CCWs. Thematic analysis of transcripts revealed a convergence of perspectives on the process and the level of the implementation of policy directives on collaborative TB and HIV activities across all categories of respondents (i.e. province-, district-, facility- and community-based organizations). The majority of participants felt that the implementation of the policy was insufficiently consultative and that leadership and political will were lacking. The predominant themes related to health systems barriers include challenges related to structure and organisational culture; management, planning and power issues; unequal financing; and human resource capacity and regulatory problems notably relating to scope of practice of nurses and CCWs. Accelerated implementation of collaborative TB/HIV activities including PMTCT will require political will and leadership to address these health systems barriers. PMID:22394016

  16. Targeted proteolysis of plectin isoform 1a accounts for hemidesmosome dysfunction in mice mimicking the dominant skin blistering disease EBS-Ogna.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gernot Walko

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Autosomal recessive mutations in the cytolinker protein plectin account for the multisystem disorders epidermolysis bullosa simplex (EBS associated with muscular dystrophy (EBS-MD, pyloric atresia (EBS-PA, and congenital myasthenia (EBS-CMS. In contrast, a dominant missense mutation leads to the disease EBS-Ogna, manifesting exclusively as skin fragility. We have exploited this trait to study the molecular basis of hemidesmosome failure in EBS-Ogna and to reveal the contribution of plectin to hemidesmosome homeostasis. We generated EBS-Ogna knock-in mice mimicking the human phenotype and show that blistering reflects insufficient protein levels of the hemidesmosome-associated plectin isoform 1a. We found that plectin 1a, in contrast to plectin 1c, the major isoform expressed in epidermal keratinocytes, is proteolytically degraded, supporting the notion that degradation of hemidesmosome-anchored plectin is spatially controlled. Using recombinant proteins, we show that the mutation renders plectin's 190-nm-long coiled-coil rod domain more vulnerable to cleavage by calpains and other proteases activated in the epidermis but not in skeletal muscle. Accordingly, treatment of cultured EBS-Ogna keratinocytes as well as of EBS-Ogna mouse skin with calpain inhibitors resulted in increased plectin 1a protein expression levels. Moreover, we report that plectin's rod domain forms dimeric structures that can further associate laterally into remarkably stable (paracrystalline polymers. We propose focal self-association of plectin molecules as a novel mechanism contributing to hemidesmosome homeostasis and stabilization.

  17. Overexpression of EB1 in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) may promote cellular growth by activating beta-catenin/TCF pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yihua; Zhou, Xiaobo; Zhu, Hongxia; Liu, Shuang; Zhou, Cuiqi; Zhang, Guo; Xue, Liyan; Lu, Ning; Quan, Lanping; Bai, Jinfeng; Zhan, Qimin; Xu, Ningzhi

    2005-10-01

    Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) has a multifactorial etiology involving environmental and/or genetic factors. End-binding protein 1 (EB1), which was cloned as an interacting partner of the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) tumor suppressor protein, was previously found overexpressed in ESCC. However, the precise role of EB1 in the development of this malignancy has not yet been elucidated. In this study, we analysed freshly resected ESCC specimens and demonstrated that EB1 was overexpressed in approximately 63% of tumor samples compared to matched normal tissue. We report that overexpression of EB1 in the ESCC line EC9706 significantly promotes cell growth, whereas suppression of EB1 protein level by RNA interference significantly inhibited growth of esophageal tumor cells. In addition, EB1 overexpression induced nuclear accumulation of beta-catenin and promoted the transcriptional activity of beta-catenin/T-cell factor (TCF). These effects were partially or completely abolished by coexpression of APC or DeltaN TCF4, respectively. Also, we found that EB1 affected the interaction between beta-catenin and APC. Furthermore, EB1 overexpression was correlated with cytoplasmic/nuclear accumulation of beta-catenin in primary human ESCC. Taken together, these results support the novel hypothesis that EB1 overexpression may play a role in the development of ESCC by affecting APC function and activating the beta-catenin/TCF pathway.

  18. The Functional Role of eL19 and eB12 Intersubunit Bridge in the Eukaryotic Ribosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisly, Ivan; Gulay, Suna P; Mäeorg, Uno; Dinman, Jonathan D; Remme, Jaanus; Tamm, Tiina

    2016-05-22

    During translation, the two eukaryotic ribosomal subunits remain associated through 17 intersubunit bridges, five of which are eukaryote specific. These are mainly localized to the peripheral regions and are believed to stabilize the structure of the ribosome. The functional importance of these bridges remains largely unknown. Here, the essentiality of the eukaryote-specific bridge eB12 has been investigated. The main component of this bridge is ribosomal protein eL19 that is composed of an N-terminal globular domain, a middle region, and a long C-terminal α-helix. The analysis of deletion mutants demonstrated that the globular domain and middle region of eL19 are essential for cell viability, most likely functioning in ribosome assembly. The eB12 bridge, formed by contacts between the C-terminal α-helix of eL19 and 18S rRNA in concert with additional stabilizing interactions involving either eS7 or uS17, is dispensable for viability. Nevertheless, eL19 mutants impaired in eB12 bridge formation displayed slow growth phenotypes, altered sensitivity/resistance to translational inhibitors, and enhanced hyperosmotic stress tolerance. Biochemical analyses determined that the eB12 bridge contributes to the stability of ribosome subunit interactions in vitro. 60S subunits containing eL19 variants defective in eB12 bridge formation failed to form 80S ribosomes regardless of Mg(2+) concentration. The reassociation of 40S and mutant 60S subunits was markedly improved in the presence of deacetylated tRNA, emphasizing the importance of tRNAs during the subunit association. We propose that the eB12 bridge plays an important role in subunit joining and in optimizing ribosome functionality. PMID:27038511

  19. Nuclear rainbow in the {sup 16}O + {sup 27}AL system: The role of couplings at energies far above the barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, D., E-mail: dpereira@dfn.if.usp.br [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Linares, R. [Instituto de Fisica da Universidade Federal Fluminense, Rio de Janeiro, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Oliveira, J.R.B. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Lubian, J. [Instituto de Fisica da Universidade Federal Fluminense, Rio de Janeiro, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Chamon, L.C. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Gomes, P.R.S. [Instituto de Fisica da Universidade Federal Fluminense, Rio de Janeiro, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Cunsolo, A. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, I-95125, Catania (Italy); Cappuzzello, F. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, I-95125, Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia Universita di Catania, I-95125, Catania (Italy); Cavallaro, M. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, I-95125, Catania (Italy); Carbone, D. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, I-95125, Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia Universita di Catania, I-95125, Catania (Italy); Foti, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia Universita di Catania, I-95125, Catania (Italy); INFN - Sez. Catania, via S. Sofia, 64, I-95125, Catania (Italy)

    2012-04-12

    High precision elastic and inelastic angular distributions have been measured for the {sup 16}O + {sup 27}Al system at a beam energy of 100 MeV. The data analysis confirms a rainbow formation as already predicted by parameter-free Coupled Channel calculations. It also helps to reveal the crucial role of inelastic couplings in the rainbow formation for heavier systems even at energies far above the Coulomb barrier. This feature, well known in atomic/molecular scattering, is experimentally studied for the first time in Nuclear Physics.

  20. Perception of community pharmacists towards the barriers to enhanced pharmacy services in the healthcare system of Dubai: a quantitative approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rayes IK

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: In many developing countries, pharmacists are facing many challenges while they try to enhance the quality of services provided to patients approaching community pharmacies. Objective: To explore perception of community pharmacists in Dubai regarding the obstacles to enhanced pharmacy services using a part of the results from a nation-wide quantitative survey. Methods: A questionnaire was distributed to 281 full-time licensed community pharmacists in Dubai. The questionnaire had 5 inter-linked sections: demographic information, information about the pharmacy, interaction with physicians, pharmacists’ current professional role, and barriers to enhanced pharmacy services. Results: About half of the respondents (45.4%, n=90 agreed that pharmacy clients under-estimate them and 52.5% (n=104 felt the same by physicians. About 47.5% (n=94 of the respondents felt that they are legally unprotected against profession’s malpractice. Moreover, 64.7% (n=128 stated that pharmacy practice in Dubai turned to be business-focused. In addition, 76.8% (n=252 found that one of the major barriers to enhanced pharmacy services is the high business running cost. Pharmacists screened tried to prove that they are not one of the barriers to optimized pharmacy services as 62.7% (n=124 disagreed that they lack appropriate knowledge needed to serve community and 67.7% (n=134 gave the same response when asked whether pharmacy staff lack confidence when treating consumers or not. Conclusions: Although being well established within the community, pharmacists in Dubai negatively perceived their own professional role. They stated that there are number of barriers which hinder optimized delivery of pharmacy services like under-estimation by pharmacy clients and other healthcare professionals, pressure to make sales, and high running cost.

  1. Prototype Hanford Surface Barrier: Design basis document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hanford Site Surface Barrier Development Program (BDP) was organized in 1985 to develop the technology needed to provide a long-term surface barrier capability for the Hanford Site and other arid sites. This document provides the basis of the prototype barrier. Engineers and scientists have momentarily frozen evolving barrier designs and incorporated the latest findings from BDP tasks. The design and construction of the prototype barrier has required that all of the various components of the barrier be brought together into an integrated system. This integration is particularly important because some of the components of the protective barreir have been developed independently of other barreir components. This document serves as the baseline by which future modifications or other barrier designs can be compared. Also, this document contains the minutes of meeting convened during the definitive design process in which critical decisions affecting the prototype barrier's design were made and the construction drawings

  2. Uplatnění marketingu v sektoru služeb

    OpenAIRE

    Pluháček, Stanislav

    2012-01-01

    Tato diplomová práce se zabývá marketingem hotelových služeb pro Hotel Celnice, který se nachází ve městě Břeclav, v srdci Lednicko-valtického areálu. Pojednává o marketingovém mixu hotelu a snaží se najít nedostatky v této oblasti a navrhnout zlepšení, které by vedlo k lepším komunikačním i ekonomickým výsledkům. This thesis deals with marketing of hotel services for the Hotel Celnice, located in the town of Breclav in the heart of the Lednice-Valtice area. It discusses the marketing mix ...

  3. Globální marketing internetových služeb

    OpenAIRE

    Číp, Vojtěch

    2011-01-01

    Cílem této práce je provést analýzu globálních marketingových strategií korporací zabývajících se poskytovaním služeb na internetu. Tyto společnosti poté konfrontovat s českými podniky působícím v obdobných oblastech a odhadnout budoucí vývoj. Nakonec pak nalézt takový podnikatelský model, který by uspěl, ne je na českém trhu, ale i v globální konkurenci. Abstract (annotation): Subject of this thesis is to analyze the marketing strategy of corporations working in the internet environment. ...

  4. Study on mechanical influence of gas generation and migration on engineered barrier system in radioactive waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Japan, some radioactive waste with a relatively higher radioactivity concentration from nuclear facilities is to be packaged in rectangle steel containers and disposed of in subsurface disposal facilities, where normal human intrusion rarely occurs. After the closure of a facility, its pore is saturated with groundwater. If the dissolved oxygen of the pore water is consumed by steel corrosion, hydrogen gas will be generated from the metallic waste, steel containers, and reinforcing bars of concrete mainly by anaerobic corrosion. If the generated gas accumulates and the gas pressure increases excessively in the facility, the facility's barrier performance might be degraded by mechanical influences such as crack formation in cementitious material or deformation of bentonite material. Firstly, in this study, we assessed the time evolution of the gas pressure and the water saturation in a sub-surface disposal facility by using a multi-phase flow numerical analysis code, GETFLOWS, in which a pathway dilation model is introduced and modified in order to reproduce the gas migration mechanism through the highly compacted bentonite. Next, we calculated the stress applied to the engineered barriers of the facility from the results of the time evolution of the pressure and the saturation. Then, we conducted a mechanical stability analysis of the engineered barriers by using a nonlinear finite element code, ABAQUS, in order to evaluate their performances after the closure of the facility. (author)

  5. Evaluation of Factors Affecting Polyhydroxyalkanoates Production by Comamonas sp. EB172 Using Central Composite Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Azman Mohd Johar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Statistical approach, central composite design (CCD was used to investigate the complex interaction among temperature (25-37 °C, initial medium pH (5-9, inoculum size (4-10 % (v/v, concentration of (NH42SO4 (0-1 g/L and concentration of mixed organic acids (5-10 g/L in the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates by Comamonas sp. EB172.Methodology and Results: Mixed organic acids derived from anaerobically treated palm oil mill effluent (POME containing acetic:propionic:butyric (ratio of 3:1:1 were used as carbon source in the batch culture of Comamonas sp. EB172 to produce polyhydoxyalkanoates (PHAs. The analysis of variance (ANOVA showed that all five factors were significantly important in the batch fermentation by shake flask with a P value of less than 0.001. The optimal temperature, initial medium pH, inoculum size, concentration of (NH42SO4 and concentration of mixed organic acids were 30 °C, 7.04, 4.0 % (v/v, 0.01 g/L and 5.05 g/L respectively.Conclusion, significance and impact of study: Optimization of the production medium containing mixed organic acids has improved the PHA production for more than 2 folds. Under optimal condition in the shake flask fermentation, the predicted growth is 2.98 g/L of dry cell weight (DCW with 47.07 wt % of PHA content. The highest yield of PHA was 0.28 g of PHA per g mixed organic acids.

  6. Bond strength and stress measurements in thermal barrier coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gell, M.; Jordan, E.

    1995-12-31

    Thermal barrier coatings have been used extensively in aircraft gas turbines for more than 15 years to insulate combustors and turbine vanes from the hot gas stream. Plasma sprayed thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) provide metal temperature reductions as much as 300{degrees}F, with improvements in durability of two times or more being achieved. The introduction of TBCs deposited by electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) processes in the last five years has provided a major improvement in durability and also enabled TBCs to be applied to turbine blades for improved engine performance. This program evaluates the bond strength of yttria stabilized zirconia coatings with MCrAlY and Pt-Al bond coats utilizing diffraction and fluorescence methods.

  7. Drivers and barriers among householders to managing domestic wastewater treatment systems in the Republic of Ireland; implications for risk prevention behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devitt, Catherine; O'Neill, Eoin; Waldron, Richard

    2016-04-01

    Septic systems that are malfunctioning, improperly sited or designed, present a contamination risk to drinking water sources, and subsequently, to human health. However, the international literature identifies gaps in householder knowledge regarding the function and maintenance requirements of septic systems, and also the potential health and environmental risk implications. Allied with householder fears related to the financial cost of risk management, these factors tend to reduce concern to recognise a malfunctioning system. In the Republic of Ireland, three-quarters of households in rural areas utilise an individual domestic wastewater treatment system (or septic system). Consequently, a significant portion of rural households that rely on groundwater sources via private-well use are at risk. Ireland reports one of the highest crude incidence rates of Verotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC) infection in the European Union, and waterborne transmission related to contact with untreated or poorly treated water from private water sources is a factor in its transmission. Following recent Irish legislative change that places a duty of care on individual householders to ensure a proper system functioning, this exploratory study examines perceptions towards the risk management of septic systems among Irish householders. Using qualitative research methods, four focus groups selected on the basis of geographical variation, and two semi-structured interviews were conducted. While most householders agreed that poorly maintained septic systems represented a threat to the environment and to public health, none reported to having a regular maintenance routine in place. Thematic analysis revealed the drivers and barriers to septic system maintenance, and preferences of householders pertaining to communication on septic systems. The Health Belief Model is employed to help understand results. Results suggest that householder capacity to engage in regular risk management is reduced

  8. Removal of metal ions from wastewater using EB irradiation in combination with HA/TiO₂/UV treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaki, A A; El-Gendy, Naima A

    2014-04-30

    The electron beam (EB) irradiation technology was applied for removal of Cu(2+), Sr(2+), and Co(2+) ions from wastewater. The aim of this study is to achieve an efficient treatment process of wastewater using EB and introducing a combination of humic acid (HA) as a natural organic polymer and ultraviolet irradiation of a TiO2 (TiO2/UV), as a suspended catalyst in the treatment of wastewater solutions (TiO2/UV+HA). The experimental results showed that the percentage removal of Cu(2+), Sr(2+), and Co(2+)ions was 41%, 87% and 75% respectively, at 125 kGy. In the presence of TiO2 photocatalyst and exposure of the investigated wastewater to ultraviolet rays before irradiation by the EB the percentage removal of Cu(2+) ions became 51%, while the percentage removal of both Sr(2+) and Co(2+) ions was slightly improved; was 87% and 75%, respectively at the same EB dose. On the other hand, by introducing the combination of TiO2/UV+HA, only an irradiation dose of about 50kGy led to removal of Cu(2+), Sr(2+), and Co(2+) completely from the wastewater. Mechanisms of interactions between HA and Cu(2+), Co(2+) and Sr(2+) metal ions were suggested and discussed.

  9. Expression of Astrocytic Type 2 Angiotensin Receptor in Central Nervous System Inflammation Correlates With Blood-Brain Barrier Breakdown

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Füchtbauer, Laila; Toft-Hansen, Henrik; Khorooshi, Reza;

    2010-01-01

    is involved during BBB breakdown. We studied the type 2 angiotensin receptor AT(2) because of its suggested neuroprotective role. Two models of brain inflammation were used to distinguish solute versus cellular barrier functions. Both leukocytes and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) accumulated in the perivascular...... space of transgenic mice expressing the chemokine CCL2 in the CNS, indicating selective endothelial effects. Cellular infiltration and HRP leakage across the glia limitans to the parenchyma were induced by pertussis toxin (PTx) treatment. By contrast, there was no detectable HRP leakage...

  10. Observation of "wired" cell communication over 10-μm and 20-μm poly(dimethylsiloxane) barriers in tetracycline inducible expression systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Ching-Te; Chi, Cheng-Yu; Wu, Pei-Yi; Chuang, Fang-Tzu; Lin, Yueh-Chien; Liu, Hao-Kai; Huang, Guan-Syuan; Tsai, Tzu-Ching; Wo, Andrew M.; Lee, Hsinyu; Lee, Si-Chen

    2016-01-01

    Communication between cells and extracellular environments is of interest because of its critical roles in cell development and differentiation. Particularly, this signal transduction is commonly believed to rely on the contact and binding of the participating molecules/proteins, suggesting that the binding distance needed is less than a few nanometers. However, it is difficult to precisely match the rapidly binding interaction which depends on the probability of molecular collision in living systems, raising a hypothesis that another mechanism exists, could promote this signal communication, and remains unknown. Here we report that a long-range signal delivery over 10-μm and 20-μm polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) barriers can be observed in microfluidically tetracycline (Tet) inducible expression systems. Results show that a significant increment of the long-range induced green fluorescent protein in human embryonic kidney 293T (HEK 293T) cells by the stimulation of Tet is demonstrated, and that such a signal induction is not dominated by Tet diffusion and displays a specific bindingless property. In addition, our experimental results, combined with theoretical modeling, suggest that this communication exhibits a bump-shaped characteristic depending on barrier thickness, materially structural property, surface roughness, and agonist concentration. It strongly relies on the PDMS barrier to delivery signal; therefore, we call such a mechanism as "wired" cell communication instead of wireless. These results could ignite interests in the novel and "wired" cell communication, which we call it X-signal, and in the use of such systems for the study of cellular biology and development of new drug.

  11. Recruitment of EB1, a master regulator of microtubule dynamics, to the surface of the Theileria annulata schizont.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry L Woods

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The apicomplexan parasite Theileria annulata transforms infected host cells, inducing uncontrolled proliferation and clonal expansion of the parasitized cell population. Shortly after sporozoite entry into the target cell, the surrounding host cell membrane is dissolved and an array of host cell microtubules (MTs surrounds the parasite, which develops into the transforming schizont. The latter does not egress to invade and transform other cells. Instead, it remains tethered to host cell MTs and, during mitosis and cytokinesis, engages the cell's astral and central spindle MTs to secure its distribution between the two daughter cells. The molecular mechanism by which the schizont recruits and stabilizes host cell MTs is not known. MT minus ends are mostly anchored in the MT organizing center, while the plus ends explore the cellular space, switching constantly between phases of growth and shrinkage (called dynamic instability. Assuming the plus ends of growing MTs provide the first point of contact with the parasite, we focused on the complex protein machinery associated with these structures. We now report how the schizont recruits end-binding protein 1 (EB1, a central component of the MT plus end protein interaction network and key regulator of host cell MT dynamics. Using a range of in vitro experiments, we demonstrate that T. annulata p104, a polymorphic antigen expressed on the schizont surface, functions as a genuine EB1-binding protein and can recruit EB1 in the absence of any other parasite proteins. Binding strictly depends on a consensus SxIP motif located in a highly disordered C-terminal region of p104. We further show that parasite interaction with host cell EB1 is cell cycle regulated. This is the first description of a pathogen-encoded protein to interact with EB1 via a bona-fide SxIP motif. Our findings provide important new insight into the mode of interaction between Theileria and the host cell cytoskeleton.

  12. Recruitment of EB1, a Master Regulator of Microtubule Dynamics, to the Surface of the Theileria annulata Schizont

    KAUST Repository

    Woods, Kerry L.

    2013-05-09

    The apicomplexan parasite Theileria annulata transforms infected host cells, inducing uncontrolled proliferation and clonal expansion of the parasitized cell population. Shortly after sporozoite entry into the target cell, the surrounding host cell membrane is dissolved and an array of host cell microtubules (MTs) surrounds the parasite, which develops into the transforming schizont. The latter does not egress to invade and transform other cells. Instead, it remains tethered to host cell MTs and, during mitosis and cytokinesis, engages the cell\\'s astral and central spindle MTs to secure its distribution between the two daughter cells. The molecular mechanism by which the schizont recruits and stabilizes host cell MTs is not known. MT minus ends are mostly anchored in the MT organizing center, while the plus ends explore the cellular space, switching constantly between phases of growth and shrinkage (called dynamic instability). Assuming the plus ends of growing MTs provide the first point of contact with the parasite, we focused on the complex protein machinery associated with these structures. We now report how the schizont recruits end-binding protein 1 (EB1), a central component of the MT plus end protein interaction network and key regulator of host cell MT dynamics. Using a range of in vitro experiments, we demonstrate that T. annulata p104, a polymorphic antigen expressed on the schizont surface, functions as a genuine EB1-binding protein and can recruit EB1 in the absence of any other parasite proteins. Binding strictly depends on a consensus SxIP motif located in a highly disordered C-terminal region of p104. We further show that parasite interaction with host cell EB1 is cell cycle regulated. This is the first description of a pathogen-encoded protein to interact with EB1 via a bona-fide SxIP motif. Our findings provide important new insight into the mode of interaction between Theileria and the host cell cytoskeleton. 2013 Woods et al.

  13. Solid-liquid surface tensions of critical nuclei and nucleation barriers from a phase-field-crystal study of a model binary alloy using finite system sizes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Muhammad Ajmal; Kundin, Julia; Emmerich, Heike; Oettel, Martin

    2014-08-01

    Phase-field-crystal (PFC) modeling has emerged as a computationally efficient tool to address crystal growth phenomena on atomistic length and diffusive time scales. We use a two-dimensional phase-field-crystal model for a binary system based on Elder et al. [Phys. Rev. B 75, 064107 (2007), 10.1103/PhysRevB.75.064107] to study critical nuclei and their liquid-solid phase boundaries, in particular the nucleus size dependence of the liquid-solid interface tension as well as of the nucleation barrier. Critical nuclei are stabilized in finite systems of various sizes, however, the extracted interface tension as function of the nucleus radius r is independent of system size. We suggest a phenomenological expression to describe the dependence of the extracted interface tension on the nucleus radius r for the liquid-solid system. Moreover, the numerical PFC results show that this dependency can not be fully described by the nonclassical Tolman formula.

  14. Disruption of the blood–brain barrier in pigs naturally infected with Taenia solium, untreated and after anthelmintic treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-Giraldez, Cristina; Marzal, Miguel; Cangalaya, Carla; Balboa, Diana; Orrego, Miguel Ángel; Paredes, Adriana; Gonzales-Gustavson, Eloy; Arroyo, Gianfranco; García, Hector H.; González, Armando E.; Mahanty, Siddhartha; Nash, Theodore E.

    2014-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis is a widely prevalent disease in the tropics that causes seizures and a variety of neurological symptoms in most of the world. Experimental models are limited and do not allow assessment of the degree of inflammation around brain cysts. The vital dye Evans Blue (EB) was injected into 11 pigs naturally infected with Taenia solium cysts to visually identify the extent of disruption of the blood brain barrier. A total of 369 cysts were recovered from the 11 brains and classified according to the staining of their capsules as blue or unstained. The proportion of cysts with blue capsules was significantly higher in brains from pigs that had received anthelmintic treatment 48 and 120 h before the EB infusion, indicating a greater compromise of the blood brain barrier due to treatment. The model could be useful for understanding the pathology of treatment-induced inflammation in neurocysticercosis. PMID:23684909

  15. 1300 km long late Pleistocene-Holocene shelf edge barrier reef system along the western continental shelf of India: Occurrence and significance

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vora, K.H.; Wagle, B.G.; Veerayya, M.; Almeida, F.; Karisiddaiah, S.M.

    .A. Arthur for their extensive suggestions for improvements of the manuscript. Thanks are also due to colleagues who helped in the data collection. References Adey, W.H., Macintyre, LG. and Stuckenrath, R., 1977. Relict Barrier reef system off St. Croix...-1107. Hashimi, N.H., Nigam, R., Nair, R.R. and Rajagopalan, G., 1995. Holocene sea level fluctuations on western Indian con- tinental margin-an update. J. Geol. Sot. Ind., 46(2): 157-162. Macintyre, LG., 1967. Submerged coral reefs-west of Barba- dos, West...

  16. Microtubule dynamics control HGF-induced lung endothelial barrier enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xinyong; Tian, Yufeng; Moldobaeva, Nurgul; Sarich, Nicolene; Birukova, Anna A

    2014-01-01

    Microtubules (MT) play a vital role in many cellular functions, but their role in peripheral actin cytoskeletal dynamics which is essential for control of endothelial barrier and monolayer integrity is less understood. We have previously described the enhancement of lung endothelial cell (EC) barrier by hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) which was associated with Rac1-mediated remodeling of actin cytoskeleton. This study investigated involvement of MT-dependent mechanisms in the HGF-induced enhancement of EC barrier. HGF-induced Rac1 activation was accompanied by phosphorylation of stathmin, a regulator of MT dynamics. HGF also stimulated MT peripheral growth monitored by time lapse imaging and tracking analysis of EB-1-decorated MT growing tips, and increased the pool of acetylated tubulin. These effects were abolished by EC pretreatment with HGF receptor inhibitor, downregulation of Rac1 pathway, or by expression of a stathmin-S63A phosphorylation deficient mutant. Expression of stathmin-S63A abolished the HGF protective effects against thrombin-induced activation of RhoA cascade, permeability increase, and EC barrier dysfunction. These results demonstrate a novel MT-dependent mechanism of HGF-induced EC barrier regulation via Rac1/PAK1/stathmin-dependent control of MT dynamics. PMID:25198505

  17. Microtubule dynamics control HGF-induced lung endothelial barrier enhancement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyong Tian

    Full Text Available Microtubules (MT play a vital role in many cellular functions, but their role in peripheral actin cytoskeletal dynamics which is essential for control of endothelial barrier and monolayer integrity is less understood. We have previously described the enhancement of lung endothelial cell (EC barrier by hepatocyte growth factor (HGF which was associated with Rac1-mediated remodeling of actin cytoskeleton. This study investigated involvement of MT-dependent mechanisms in the HGF-induced enhancement of EC barrier. HGF-induced Rac1 activation was accompanied by phosphorylation of stathmin, a regulator of MT dynamics. HGF also stimulated MT peripheral growth monitored by time lapse imaging and tracking analysis of EB-1-decorated MT growing tips, and increased the pool of acetylated tubulin. These effects were abolished by EC pretreatment with HGF receptor inhibitor, downregulation of Rac1 pathway, or by expression of a stathmin-S63A phosphorylation deficient mutant. Expression of stathmin-S63A abolished the HGF protective effects against thrombin-induced activation of RhoA cascade, permeability increase, and EC barrier dysfunction. These results demonstrate a novel MT-dependent mechanism of HGF-induced EC barrier regulation via Rac1/PAK1/stathmin-dependent control of MT dynamics.

  18. Desiccation-Induced Volumetric Shrinkage of Compacted Metakaolin-Treated Black Cotton Soil for a Hydraulic Barriers System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, George; Peter, Oriola F. O.; Osinubi, Kolawole J.

    2016-03-01

    Black cotton soil treated with up to 24% metakaolin (MCL) content was prepared by molding water contents of -2, 0, 2, 4 and 6% of optimum moisture content (OMC) and compacted with British Standard Light (BSL) and West African Standard (WAS) or `Intermediate' energies. The specimens were extruded from the compaction molds and allowed to air dry in a laboratory in order to assess the effect of desiccation-induced shrinkage on the compacted mix for use as a hydraulic barrier in a waste containment application. The results recorded show that the volumetric shrinkage strain (VSS) values were large within the first 10 days of drying; the VSS values increased with a higher molding of the water content, relative to the OMC. The VSS generally increased with a higher initial degree of saturation for the two compactive efforts, irrespective of the level of MCL treatment. Generally, the VSS decreased with an increasing MCL content. Only specimens treated with a minimum 20% MCL content and compacted with the WAS energy satisfied the regulatory maximum VSS of 4% for use as a hydraulic barrier.

  19. Efficiency of drug delivery enhanced by acoustic pressure during blood–brain barrier disruption induced by focused ultrasound

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Feng-Yi

    2012-01-01

    Feng-Yi Yang, Pei-Yi LeeDepartment of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, TaiwanPurpose: We evaluated the delivery efficiency of intravenously injected large molecular agents, before and after disruption of the blood–brain barrier (BBB-D), induced by focused ultrasound (FUS) using various acoustic parameters.Materials and methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were injected intravenously with Evans blue (EB) before or after BBB-D induction...

  20. Multi-Barrier Protection of Drinking Water Systems in Ontario: A Comparison of First Nation and Non-First Nation Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budhendra Singh

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In some way or another, all levels of government in Canada and First Nations share responsibility to implement multi-barrier protection of drinking water. The goal is to protect water from source to tap to minimize risk so that people have access to adequate and safe drinking water. The federal government has committed to assist First Nations achieve comparable levels of service standards available to non-First Nation communities. However, several recent reports on the status of drinking water services standards in First Nations indicate that people in these communities often experience greater health risks than those living off reserves. Using the federal drinking water risk evaluation guidelines, the capacities of First Nations and non-First Nations in Ontario to implement multi-barrier protection of their drinking water systems are compared. The Risk Level Evaluation Guidelines for Water and Wastewater Treatment in First Nation Communities rank drinking water systems as low, medium, or high risk based on information about source water, system design, system operation, reporting, and operator expertise. The risk evaluation scores for First Nations drinking water systems were obtained from Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada. A survey based on the federal Risk Level Evaluation Guidelines was sent to non-First Nation communities throughout Ontario with 54 communities responding. The capacity among First Nations was variable throughout the province, whereas all of the municipalities were in the low risk category, even small and northern non-First Nation community water systems. It is clear that the financial and technological capacity issues should be addressed regardless of the legislative and regulatory regime that is established. The current governance and management structure does not appear to be significantly reducing the gap in service standards despite financial investment. Exploring social or other underlying determinants

  1. Planet formation in stellar binaries II: overcoming the fragmentation barrier in alpha Centauri and gamma Cephei-like systems

    CERN Document Server

    Rafikov, Roman R

    2014-01-01

    Planet formation in small-separation (~20 AU) eccentric binaries such as gamma Cephei or alpha Centauri is believed to be adversely affected by the presence of the stellar companion. Strong dynamical excitation of planetesimals by the eccentric companion can result in collisional destruction (rather than growth) of 1-100 km objects, giving rise to the "fragmentation barrier" for planet formation. We revise this issue using a novel description of secular dynamics of planetesimals in binaries, which accounts for the gravity of the eccentric, coplanar protoplanetary disk, as well as gas drag. By studying planetesimal collision outcomes we show, in contrast to many previous studies, that planetesimal growth and subsequent formation of planets (including gas giants) in AU-scale orbits within ~20 AU separation binaries may be possible, provided that the protoplanetary disks are massive (>10^{-2}M_\\odot) and only weakly eccentric (disk eccentricity <0.01). These requirements are compatible with both the existence...

  2. Drug Delivery Through the Skin: Molecular Simulations of Barrier Lipids to Design more Effective Noninvasive Dermal and Transdermal Delivery Systems for Small Molecules Biologics and Cosmetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J Torin Huzil; S Sivaloganathan; M Kohandel; M Foldvari

    2011-12-31

    The delivery of drugs through the skin provides a convenient route of administration that is often preferable to injection because it is noninvasive and can typically be self-administered. These two factors alone result in a significant reduction of medical complications and improvement in patient compliance. Unfortunately, a significant obstacle to dermal and transdermal drug delivery alike is the resilient barrier that the epidermal layers of the skin, primarily the stratum corneum, presents for the diffusion of exogenous chemical agents. Further advancement of transdermal drug delivery requires the development of novel delivery systems that are suitable for modern, macromolecular protein and nucleotide therapeutic agents. Significant effort has already been devoted to obtain a functional understanding of the physical barrier properties imparted by the epidermis, specifically the membrane structures of the stratum corneum. However, structural observations of membrane systems are often hindered by low resolutions, making it difficult to resolve the molecular mechanisms related to interactions between lipids found within the stratum corneum. Several models describing the molecular diffusion of drug molecules through the stratum corneum have now been postulated, where chemical permeation enhancers are thought to disrupt the underlying lipid structure, resulting in enhanced permeability. Recent investigations using biphasic vesicles also suggested a possibility for novel mechanisms involving the formation of complex polymorphic lipid phases. In this review, we discuss the advantages and limitations of permeation-enhancing strategies and how computational simulations, at the atomic scale, coupled with physical observations can provide insight into the mechanisms of diffusion through the stratum corneum.

  3. Kinetic Monte Carlo Simulation of EB-PVD Film: Effects of Substrate Temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAN Ying-chun; HE Xiao-dong; LI Ming-wei; LI Yao; XU Jiu-jun

    2006-01-01

    The 2D kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulation was used to study the effects of different substrate temperatures on the microstructure of Ni-Cr films in the process of deposition by the electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD). In the KMC model, substrate was assumed to be a "surface" of tight-packed rows, and the simulation includes two phenomena: adatom-surface collision and adatom diffusion. While the interaction between atoms was described by the embedded atom method, the jumping energy was calculated by the molecular static (MS) calculation. The initial location of the adatom was defined by the Momentum Scheme. The results reveal that there exists a critical substrate temperature which means that the lowest packing density and the highest surface roughness structure will be achieved when the temperature is lower than the smaller critical value, while the roughness of both surfaces and the void contents keep decreasing with the substrate temperature increasing until it reaches the higher critical value. The results also indicate that the critical substrate temperature rises as the deposition rate increases.

  4. Tumor Suppressor RARRES1 Regulates DLG2, PP2A, VCP, EB1, and Ankrd26

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziad J. Sahab, Michael D. Hall, Lihua Zhang, Amrita K. Cheema, Stephen W. Byers

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Retinoic Acid Receptor Responder (RARRES1 initially identified as a novel retinoic acid receptor regulated gene in the skin is a putative tumor suppressor of unknown function. RARRES1 was knocked down in immortalized human prostatic epithelial cell line PWR-1E cells and differential protein expression was identified using differential in-gel electrophoresis (DIGE followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI mass spectrometry and western Blot analysis excluding highly abundant proteins routinely identified in almost all proteomics projects. Knock-down of RARRES1: 1- down-regulates PP2A, an enzyme involved in the negative regulation of the growth hormone-stimulated signal transduction pathways; 2- down-regulates Valosin-containing protein causing impaired autophagy; 3- up-regulates the tumor suppressor disks large 2; 4- up-regulates Ankrd26 that belongs to the POTE family of genes that are highly expressed in cancer patients with poor outcome; and 5- down-regulates EB1, a protein that is involved in spindle dynamics and chromosome alignment during mitosis.

  5. Biohydrogen production by Clostridium butyricum EB6 from palm oil mill effluent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chong, Mei-Ling; Rahim, Raha Abdul; Hassan, Mohd Ali [Department of Bioprocess Technology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Shirai, Yoshihito [Graduate School of Life Sciences and System Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, 808-0196 Hibikimo 2-4, Wakamatsu-ku, Kitakyushu-shi, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2009-01-15

    A hydrogen producer was successfully isolated from anaerobic digested palm oil mill effluent (POME) sludge. The strain, designated as Clostridium butyricum EB6, efficiently produced hydrogen concurrently with cell growth. A controlled study was done on a synthetic medium at an initial pH value of 6.0 with 10 g/L glucose with the maximum hydrogen production at 948 mL H{sub 2}/L-medium and the volumetric hydrogen production rate at 172 mL H{sub 2}/L-medium/h. The supplementation of yeast extract was shown to have a significant effect with a maximum hydrogen production of 992 mL H{sub 2}/L-medium at 4 g/L of yeast extract added. The effect of pH on hydrogen production from POME was investigated. Experimental results showed that the optimum hydrogen production ability occurred at pH 5.5. The maximum hydrogen production and maximum volumetric hydrogen production rate were at 3195 mL H{sub 2}/L-medium and 1034 mL H{sub 2}/L-medium/h, respectively. The hydrogen content in the biogas produced was in the range of 60-70%. (author)

  6. Global interrupt and barrier networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumrich, Matthias A.; Chen, Dong; Coteus, Paul W.; Gara, Alan G.; Giampapa, Mark E; Heidelberger, Philip; Kopcsay, Gerard V.; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D.; Takken, Todd E.

    2008-10-28

    A system and method for generating global asynchronous signals in a computing structure. Particularly, a global interrupt and barrier network is implemented that implements logic for generating global interrupt and barrier signals for controlling global asynchronous operations performed by processing elements at selected processing nodes of a computing structure in accordance with a processing algorithm; and includes the physical interconnecting of the processing nodes for communicating the global interrupt and barrier signals to the elements via low-latency paths. The global asynchronous signals respectively initiate interrupt and barrier operations at the processing nodes at times selected for optimizing performance of the processing algorithms. In one embodiment, the global interrupt and barrier network is implemented in a scalable, massively parallel supercomputing device structure comprising a plurality of processing nodes interconnected by multiple independent networks, with each node including one or more processing elements for performing computation or communication activity as required when performing parallel algorithm operations. One multiple independent network includes a global tree network for enabling high-speed global tree communications among global tree network nodes or sub-trees thereof. The global interrupt and barrier network may operate in parallel with the global tree network for providing global asynchronous sideband signals.

  7. Mechanisms Responsible for the Large Piezoelectricity at the Tetragonal-Orthorhombic Phase Boundary of (1-x)BaZr0.2Ti0.8O3-xBa0.7Ca0.3TiO3 System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tao; Ke, Xiaoqin; Wang, Yunzhi

    2016-01-01

    Recently it was found that in the lead-free (1-x)BaZr0.2Ti0.8O3-xBa0.7Ca0.3TiO3 (BZT-xBCT) system, the highest piezoelectric d33 coefficient appears at the tetragonal (T) - orthorhombic (O) phase boundary rather than the O - rhombohedral (R) phase boundary, but the physical origin of it is still unclear. In this work we construct the phase diagram of the BZT-xBCT system using a generic sixth-order Landau free energy polynomial and calculate the energy barrier (EB) for direct domain switching between two variants of the stable low-symmetry ferroelectric phase. We find that the EB at the T-O phase boundary is lower than that at the O-R phase boundary and EB may serve as a rigorous quantitative measure of the degree of polarization anisotropy through Landau potential. The calculations may shed some light on the physical origin of the highest piezoelectric coefficients as well as the softest elastic compliance at the T-O phase boundary observed in experiments. PMID:27633664

  8. Mechanisms Responsible for the Large Piezoelectricity at the Tetragonal-Orthorhombic Phase Boundary of (1-x)BaZr0.2Ti0.8O3-xBa0.7Ca0.3TiO3 System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tao; Ke, Xiaoqin; Wang, Yunzhi

    2016-09-01

    Recently it was found that in the lead-free (1-x)BaZr0.2Ti0.8O3-xBa0.7Ca0.3TiO3 (BZT-xBCT) system, the highest piezoelectric d33 coefficient appears at the tetragonal (T) – orthorhombic (O) phase boundary rather than the O – rhombohedral (R) phase boundary, but the physical origin of it is still unclear. In this work we construct the phase diagram of the BZT-xBCT system using a generic sixth-order Landau free energy polynomial and calculate the energy barrier (EB) for direct domain switching between two variants of the stable low-symmetry ferroelectric phase. We find that the EB at the T-O phase boundary is lower than that at the O-R phase boundary and EB may serve as a rigorous quantitative measure of the degree of polarization anisotropy through Landau potential. The calculations may shed some light on the physical origin of the highest piezoelectric coefficients as well as the softest elastic compliance at the T-O phase boundary observed in experiments.

  9. Mechanisms Responsible for the Large Piezoelectricity at the Tetragonal-Orthorhombic Phase Boundary of (1-x)BaZr0.2Ti0.8O3-xBa0.7Ca0.3TiO3 System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tao; Ke, Xiaoqin; Wang, Yunzhi

    2016-09-16

    Recently it was found that in the lead-free (1-x)BaZr0.2Ti0.8O3-xBa0.7Ca0.3TiO3 (BZT-xBCT) system, the highest piezoelectric d33 coefficient appears at the tetragonal (T) - orthorhombic (O) phase boundary rather than the O - rhombohedral (R) phase boundary, but the physical origin of it is still unclear. In this work we construct the phase diagram of the BZT-xBCT system using a generic sixth-order Landau free energy polynomial and calculate the energy barrier (EB) for direct domain switching between two variants of the stable low-symmetry ferroelectric phase. We find that the EB at the T-O phase boundary is lower than that at the O-R phase boundary and EB may serve as a rigorous quantitative measure of the degree of polarization anisotropy through Landau potential. The calculations may shed some light on the physical origin of the highest piezoelectric coefficients as well as the softest elastic compliance at the T-O phase boundary observed in experiments.

  10. Interaction at the barrier in the systems 9,10,11Be+209Bi: Well-established facts and open questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experimental data relative to the interaction for the systems 9,10,11Be+209Bi at the Coulomb barrier are critically discussed and compared also with present theories. The break-up (BU) of the two loosely bound projectiles, 9,11Be, seems to influence the fusion process by ''hindering'' the fusion cross-sections; but, contrary to expectations, the 11Be halo structure has no influence, since no ''enhancement'' is evident from the existing data. Attempt to describe simultaneously all the 9Be+209Bi system data: fusion, elastic scattering and BU, within a coupled-channel (CC) approach is only partly successful. It is important, from a theoretical viewpoint, to include in the CC formalism as well as possible the BU process both to continuum states as well as to unbound resonances. More accurate and well-focused experiments are also necessary to pin down this problem. (orig.)

  11. Technical and Economical Aspects of Current Thermal Barrier Coating Systems for Gas Turbine Engines by Thermal Spray and EBPVD: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuerstein, Albert; Knapp, James; Taylor, Thomas; Ashary, Adil; Bolcavage, Ann; Hitchman, Neil

    2008-06-01

    The most advanced thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems for aircraft engine and power generation hot section components consist of electron beam physical vapor deposition (EBPVD) applied yttria-stabilized zirconia and platinum modified diffusion aluminide bond coating. Thermally sprayed ceramic and MCrAlY bond coatings, however, are still used extensively for combustors and power generation blades and vanes. This article highlights the key features of plasma spray and HVOF, diffusion aluminizing, and EBPVD coating processes. The coating characteristics of thermally sprayed MCrAlY bond coat as well as low density and dense vertically cracked (DVC) Zircoat TBC are described. Essential features of a typical EBPVD TBC coating system, consisting of a diffusion aluminide and a columnar TBC, are also presented. The major coating cost elements such as material, equipment and processing are explained for the different technologies, with a performance and cost comparison given for selected examples.

  12. Targeting FMS-related tyrosine kinase receptor 3 with the human immunoglobulin G1 monoclonal antibody IMC-EB10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssoufian, Hagop; Rowinsky, Eric K; Tonra, James; Li, Yiwen

    2010-02-15

    FMS-related tyrosine kinase receptor 3 (FLT3) is a class III receptor tyrosine kinase that holds considerable promise as a therapeutic target in hematologic malignancies. Current efforts directed toward the development of small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors of FLT3 may be limited by off-target toxicities and the development of drug resistance. Target-specific antibodies could overcome these hurdles and provide additional mechanisms to enhance the antitumor efficacy of FLT3 inhibitors. IMC-EB10 is a novel antibody directed against FLT3. The binding of IMC-EB10 to FLT3 results in antiproliferative effects in vitro and in mouse models engrafted with human leukemia cells that harbor wild-type or constitutively activated FLT3. Future clinical trials will test these notions formally and will identify the most appropriate opportunities for this member of a new generation of antileukemic therapies.

  13. Thermal cycling behavior of EB-PVD TBCs on CVD platinum modified aluminide coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Zhenhua, E-mail: zhxubiam@aliyun.com; Wang, Zhankao; Huang, Guanghong; Mu, Rende; He, Limin

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • The removed ridges at the grain boundaries with grit blasting. • The ridge, oxidation and cracking are features of damage initiation in TBCs. • Spalled location either at TGO/bond coat interface or inside of TGO layer. • The lower strain energy release rate within TGO layer can prolong of TBCs life. - Abstract: Thermal barrier coating systems (TBCs) including of chemical vapor deposited (Ni, Pt)Al bond coat with grit blasting process and electron beam physical vapor deposited Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-stabilized-ZrO{sub 2} (YSZ) ceramic coating were investigated. The phase structures, surface and cross-sectional morphologies, cyclic oxidation behaviors and residual stresses of the TBCs were studied in detail. It was found that the fracture path traverses through the ceramic coating to TGO interface, as well as at the TGO to bond coat interface is obviously detected. The change in fracture plane occurs at grain boundaries. The ridge top spallation leads to separate of sufficient size to result in unstable fracture driven by the strain energy stored in the TGO. The bond coat can undergo a volume increase upon oxidation, so that a cavity, enlarged strictly by oxidation would be full to overflowing with TGO layer. The spalled location of the TBCs probably occurs either at the interface of TGO layer and bond coat or inside of TGO layer. The lower strain energy release rate within TGO layer during thermal cycling is beneficial to prolong of TBCs life. The lower is the compressive stress within TGO layer, the longer is the lifetime of TBCs.

  14. Thermal cycling behavior of EB-PVD TBCs on CVD platinum modified aluminide coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The removed ridges at the grain boundaries with grit blasting. • The ridge, oxidation and cracking are features of damage initiation in TBCs. • Spalled location either at TGO/bond coat interface or inside of TGO layer. • The lower strain energy release rate within TGO layer can prolong of TBCs life. - Abstract: Thermal barrier coating systems (TBCs) including of chemical vapor deposited (Ni, Pt)Al bond coat with grit blasting process and electron beam physical vapor deposited Y2O3-stabilized-ZrO2 (YSZ) ceramic coating were investigated. The phase structures, surface and cross-sectional morphologies, cyclic oxidation behaviors and residual stresses of the TBCs were studied in detail. It was found that the fracture path traverses through the ceramic coating to TGO interface, as well as at the TGO to bond coat interface is obviously detected. The change in fracture plane occurs at grain boundaries. The ridge top spallation leads to separate of sufficient size to result in unstable fracture driven by the strain energy stored in the TGO. The bond coat can undergo a volume increase upon oxidation, so that a cavity, enlarged strictly by oxidation would be full to overflowing with TGO layer. The spalled location of the TBCs probably occurs either at the interface of TGO layer and bond coat or inside of TGO layer. The lower strain energy release rate within TGO layer during thermal cycling is beneficial to prolong of TBCs life. The lower is the compressive stress within TGO layer, the longer is the lifetime of TBCs

  15. Hybridization of natural systems with advanced treatment processes for organic micropollutant removals: new concepts in multi-barrier treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhakaran, Sairam; Maeng, Sung Kyu; Amy, Gary

    2013-07-01

    Organic micropollutants (OMPs) represent a major constraint in drinking water supply. In the past, emphasis has been on individual treatment processes comprising conventional treatment (coagulation, sedimentation, and filtration) followed by advanced treatment processes (adsorption, ion-exchange, oxidation, and membrane separation). With the depletion of water resources and high demand for power and chemical usage, efforts need to be made to judiciously use advanced treatment processes. There is a new interest in multiple barriers with synergies in which two coupled processes can function as a hybrid process. Within the context of this paper, the hybrid processes include a natural treatment process coupled with an advanced process. Pilot/full-scale studies have shown efficient removal of OMPs by these hybrid processes. With this hybridization, the usage of resources such as power and chemicals can be reduced. In this study, coupling/hybridization of aquifer recharge and recovery (ARR) with oxidation (O3), advanced oxidation process which involves OH radicals (AOP), nanofiltration (NF), reverse osmosis (RO) and granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption for OMP removal was studied. O3 or AOP as a pre-treatment and GAC, NF, RO, or UV/chlorination as a post-treatment to ARR was studied. NF can be replaced by RO for removal of OMPs since studies have shown similar performance of NF to RO for removal of many OMPs, thereby reducing costs and providing a more sustainable approach.

  16. Hybridization of natural systems with advanced treatment processes for organic micropollutant removals: new concepts in multi-barrier treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhakaran, Sairam; Maeng, Sung Kyu; Amy, Gary

    2013-07-01

    Organic micropollutants (OMPs) represent a major constraint in drinking water supply. In the past, emphasis has been on individual treatment processes comprising conventional treatment (coagulation, sedimentation, and filtration) followed by advanced treatment processes (adsorption, ion-exchange, oxidation, and membrane separation). With the depletion of water resources and high demand for power and chemical usage, efforts need to be made to judiciously use advanced treatment processes. There is a new interest in multiple barriers with synergies in which two coupled processes can function as a hybrid process. Within the context of this paper, the hybrid processes include a natural treatment process coupled with an advanced process. Pilot/full-scale studies have shown efficient removal of OMPs by these hybrid processes. With this hybridization, the usage of resources such as power and chemicals can be reduced. In this study, coupling/hybridization of aquifer recharge and recovery (ARR) with oxidation (O3), advanced oxidation process which involves OH radicals (AOP), nanofiltration (NF), reverse osmosis (RO) and granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption for OMP removal was studied. O3 or AOP as a pre-treatment and GAC, NF, RO, or UV/chlorination as a post-treatment to ARR was studied. NF can be replaced by RO for removal of OMPs since studies have shown similar performance of NF to RO for removal of many OMPs, thereby reducing costs and providing a more sustainable approach. PMID:23664475

  17. Hybridization of natural systems with advanced treatment processes for organic micropollutant removals: New concepts in multi-barrier treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Sudhakaran, Sairam

    2013-07-01

    In the past, emphasis has been on individual treatment processes comprising conventional treatment (coagulation, sedimentation, and filtration) followed by advanced treatment processes (adsorption, ion-exchange, oxidation, and membrane separation). With the depletion of water resources and high demand for power and chemical usage, efforts need to be made to judiciously use advanced treatment processes. There is a new interest in multiple barriers with synergies in which two coupled processes can function as a hybrid process. Within the context of this paper, the hybrid processes include a natural treatment process coupled with an advanced process. Pilot/full-scale studies have shown efficient removal of OMPs by these hybrid processes. With this hybridization, the usage of resources such as power and chemicals can be reduced. In this study, coupling/hybridization of aquifer recharge and recovery (ARR) with oxidation (O3), advanced oxidation process which involves OH radicals (AOP), nanofiltration (NF), reverse osmosis (RO) and granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption for OMP removal was studied. O3 or AOP as a pre-treatment and GAC, NF, RO, or UV/chlorination as a post-treatment to ARR was studied. NF can be replaced by RO for removal of OMPs since studies have shown similar performance of NF to RO for removal of many OMPs, thereby reducing costs and providing a more sustainable approach. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Integrated geological-engineering model of Patrick Draw field and examples of similarities and differences among various shoreline barrier systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schatzinger, R.A.; Szpakiewicz, M.J.; Jackson, S.R.; Chang, M.M.; Sharma, B.; Tham, M.K.; Cheng, A.M.

    1992-04-01

    The Reservoir Assessment and Characterization Research Program at NIPER employs an interdisciplinary approach that focuses on the high priority reservoir class of shoreline barrier deposits to: (1) determine the problems specific to this class of reservoirs by identifying the reservoir heterogeneities that influence the movement and trapping of fluids; and (2) develop methods to characterize effectively this class of reservoirs to predict residual oil saturation (ROS) on interwell scales and improve prediction of the flow patterns of injected and produced fluids. Accurate descriptions of the spatial distribution of critical reservoir parameters (e.g., permeability, porosity, pore geometry, mineralogy, and oil saturation) are essential for designing and implementing processes to improve sweep efficiency and thereby increase oil recovery. The methodologies and models developed in this program will, in the near- to mid-term, assist producers in the implementation of effective reservoir management strategies such as location of infill wells and selection of optimum enhanced oil recovery methods to maximize oil production from their reservoirs.

  19. Thermal sensor properties of PANI(EB)–CSA ( = 0.4 ± 0.1 mol) polymer thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T Prakash; S A K Narayan Dass; K Prem Nazeer

    2002-11-01

    Films of polyaniline(EB) doped with camphor sulfonic acid (CSA) from -cresol on glass substrates exhibit considerable metallic properties. Such polymer metallic films have thermal sensitivity superior to ceramic metal (Cermet) films, prepared by metallo organic deposition (MOD) technique on silicon substrates. These PANI(EB)–CSA ( = 0.5, 0.4, 0.3 mol) polymer films were developed through controlled temperature atmosphere 60 ± 2°C for 60 min, and with the help of temperature dependence of resistivity (ρ) values, high temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) i.e. values, and figure of merit (ρ ) values of these films, thermal sensitivity were compared from that we observed. Among the three doping ratios the PANI(EB)–CSA$_{0.3 mol}$ film (4.4 m thick) on glass substrate resistivity (ρ) values in the range of 838–1699 .m with high TCR i.e. = 10,291 ppm/°C and figure of merit (ρ ) value in range of 8.62–17.48 m/°C seems to be the best. This paper deals with these superior thermal-sensing properties together with optical studies and surface topography by atomic force microscopy (AFM). These polymer films offer design advantages in developing ‘thin film polymer thermal sensor’.

  20. Elemental imaging of organic matter and associated metals in ore deposits using micro PIXE and micro-EBS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchs, S., E-mail: fuchs@geomin.eu [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, McGill University, 3450 University Street, Montreal H3A 0E8 (Canada); Przybylowicz, W.J., E-mail: przybylowicz@tlabs.ac.za [Materials Research Department, iThemba LABS, National Research Foundation, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa); AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, Al. A. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Williams-Jones, A.E., E-mail: anthony.williams-jones@mcgill.ca [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, McGill University, 3450 University Street, Montreal H3A 0E8 (Canada)

    2014-01-01

    Micro-PIXE and micro-EBS analyses were carried out on samples from the Au–U-bearing Carbon Leader Reef of the Witwatersrand in South Africa to investigate the role of organic matter in the formation of this deposit. Micro-PIXE and Micro-EBS shows a very complex metal distribution within the bitumen nodules and their interstitial spaces. The style of the gold distribution and its association with epigenetic minerals (REE phosphates, phyllosilicates) indicates that all observed gold migrated in aqueous solution and precipitated by reduction on the surfaces of the bitumen nodules. Uraninite occurrences are confined to the bitumen nodules, which supports the argument of a uraninite paleo-placer; however the pervasive distribution of uranium also supports the argument that uraninite is derived from organo-metallic complexes. This study shows that micro-PIXE is a powerful tool to characterize metals associated with hydrocarbons. However, the organic matrix, the complexity of the obtained spectra and the small size of the minerals have significant influence on the reliability of the quantitative data. Due to highly variable amounts of heavy metals (U, Au, Pb) the obtained micro-EBS results are of questionable quality.