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Sample records for barrier system ebs

  1. Disposal systems evaluations and tool development : Engineered Barrier System (EBS) evaluation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutqvist, Jonny (LBNL); Liu, Hui-Hai (LBNL); Steefel, Carl I. (LBNL); Serrano de Caro, M. A. (LLNL); Caporuscio, Florie Andre (LANL); Birkholzer, Jens T. (LBNL); Blink, James A. (LLNL); Sutton, Mark A. (LLNL); Xu, Hongwu (LANL); Buscheck, Thomas A. (LLNL); Levy, Schon S. (LANL); Tsang, Chin-Fu (LBNL); Sonnenthal, Eric (LBNL); Halsey, William G. (LLNL); Jove-Colon, Carlos F.; Wolery, Thomas J. (LLNL)

    2011-01-01

    Key components of the nuclear fuel cycle are short-term storage and long-term disposal of nuclear waste. The latter encompasses the immobilization of used nuclear fuel (UNF) and radioactive waste streams generated by various phases of the nuclear fuel cycle, and the safe and permanent disposition of these waste forms in geological repository environments. The engineered barrier system (EBS) plays a very important role in the long-term isolation of nuclear waste in geological repository environments. EBS concepts and their interactions with the natural barrier are inherently important to the long-term performance assessment of the safety case where nuclear waste disposition needs to be evaluated for time periods of up to one million years. Making the safety case needed in the decision-making process for the recommendation and the eventual embracement of a disposal system concept requires a multi-faceted integration of knowledge and evidence-gathering to demonstrate the required confidence level in a deep geological disposal site and to evaluate long-term repository performance. The focus of this report is the following: (1) Evaluation of EBS in long-term disposal systems in deep geologic environments with emphasis on the multi-barrier concept; (2) Evaluation of key parameters in the characterization of EBS performance; (3) Identification of key knowledge gaps and uncertainties; and (4) Evaluation of tools and modeling approaches for EBS processes and performance. The above topics will be evaluated through the analysis of the following: (1) Overview of EBS concepts for various NW disposal systems; (2) Natural and man-made analogs, room chemistry, hydrochemistry of deep subsurface environments, and EBS material stability in near-field environments; (3) Reactive Transport and Coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical-Chemical (THMC) processes in EBS; and (4) Thermal analysis toolkit, metallic barrier degradation mode survey, and development of a Disposal Systems

  2. Reactive Transport and Coupled THM Processes in Engineering Barrier Systems (EBS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steefel, Carl; Rutqvist, Jonny; Tsang, Chin-Fu; Liu, Hui-Hai; Sonnenthal, Eric; Houseworth, Jim; Birkholzer, Jens

    2010-08-31

    Geological repositories for disposal of high-level nuclear wastes generally rely on a multi-barrier system to isolate radioactive wastes from the biosphere. The multi-barrier system typically consists of a natural barrier system, including repository host rock and its surrounding subsurface environment, and an engineering barrier system (EBS). EBS represents the man-made, engineered materials placed within a repository, including the waste form, waste canisters, buffer materials, backfill and seals (OECD, 2003). EBS plays a significant role in the containment and long-term retardation of radionuclide release. EBS is involved in complex thermal, hydrogeological, mechanical, chemical and biological processes, such as heat release due to radionuclide decay, multiphase flow (including gas release due to canister corrosion), swelling of buffer materials, radionuclide diffusive transport, waste dissolution and chemical reactions. All these processes are related to each other. An in-depth understanding of these coupled processes is critical for the performance assessment (PA) for EBS and the entire repository. Within the EBS group of Used Fuel Disposition (UFD) Campaign, LBNL is currently focused on (1) thermal-hydraulic-mechanical-chemical (THMC) processes in buffer materials (bentonite) and (2) diffusive transport in EBS associated with clay host rock, with a long-term goal to develop a full understanding of (and needed modeling capabilities to simulate) impacts of coupled processes on radionuclide transport in different components of EBS, as well as the interaction between near-field host rock (e.g., clay) and EBS and how they effect radionuclide release. This final report documents the progress that LBNL has made in its focus areas. Specifically, Section 2 summarizes progress on literature review for THMC processes and reactive-diffusive radionuclide transport in bentonite. The literature review provides a picture of the state-of-the-art of the relevant research areas

  3. International Collaborations on Engineered Barrier Systems: Brief Overview of SKB-EBS Activities.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jove-Colon, Carlos F. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Research collaborations with international partners on the behavior and performance of engineered barrier systems (EBS) are an important aspect of the DOE-NE Used Fuel Disposition Campaign strategy in the evaluation of disposal design concepts. These international partnerships are a cost-effective way of engaging in key R&D activities with common goals resulting in effective scientific knowledge exchanges thus enhancing existing and future research programs in the USA. This report provides a brief description of the activities covered by the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) EBS Task Force (TF) (referred hereafter as SKB EBS TF) and potential future directions for engagement of the DOE-NE UFDC program in relevant R&D activities. Emphasis is given to SKB EBS TF activities that are still ongoing and aligned to the UFDC R&D program. This include utilization of data collected in the bentonite rock interaction experiment (BRIE) and data sets from benchmark experiments produced by the chemistry or “C” part of the SKB EBS TF. Potential applications of information generated by this program include comparisons/tests between model and data (e.g., reactive diffusion), development and implementation of coupled-process models (e.g., HM), and code/model benchmarking.

  4. Conceptual Model for Radionuclide Release from the Engineered Barrier Systems (EBS) at Yucca Mountain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan, L. K.; Walton, J.; Woocay, A.

    2008-12-01

    Over time, nuclear waste packages at Yucca Mountain repository are likely to fail gradually or in stages, due to general or localized corrosion. Rock fall and other physical (or chemical) disturbances will lead to different general corrosion rates and different times of penetration. In the long run, the waste package is likely to evolve into a combination of failure locations mixed with relicts of intact Alloy-22 (or other waste package materials). Release of radionuclides (mostly by dissolution in water) from the waste packages is one of the most important factors determining the performance of the proposed Yucca Mountain repository. In this paper we develop a conceptual model of radionuclide release from the EBS. In this system, residual heat release in the waste, in conjunction with the capillary effect, is anticipated to set up flow systems in the relict protected areas, where liquid water flows into the protected area toward the warmest region, and vapor flows outward away from the warmest region - effectively preventing release and sometimes sequestering radionuclides in the relict sheltered areas (dead ends). We derive a dimensionless group that specifies the condition for the internal heat driven flow system, and estimates the minimum size of the covered areas required to sequester radionuclides and prevent release. Over time, the minimum area required for protection slowly increases while general corrosion decreases the average size of relict areas. Convolution of the two processes suggests that radionuclide release from the flow-through system of partially failed waste packages will be gradual and long delayed (100,000 - 1,000,000 years), even in the case of early penetration by localized corrosion.

  5. Effect of precipitation, sorption and stable of isotope on maximum release rates of radionuclides from engineered barrier system (EBS) in deep repository.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malekifarsani, A; Skachek, M A

    2009-10-01

    The basic function of the engineered barrier system (EBS) in geological disposal is to prevent or limit the release of radionuclides into the underground environment. For this purpose, the vitrified waste is contained in an overpack to isolate it from contact with groundwater for a certain initial period of time. However, it is impossible to ensure complete containment for all time. Therefore, the eventual release of nuclides must be minimized after the overpack fails (AEC, 1984. Radioactive waste processing and disposal measures; JNC, 2000a. Project to establish the scientific and technical basis for HLW disposal in Japan--first progress report-H3. Geological Environment in Japan, JNC TN1410 2000-002; JNC, 2000b. H12: project to establish the scientific and technical basis for HLW disposal in Japan--repository design and engineering technology, JNC TN1410 2000-003.). Low-permeability buffer material is installed between the overpack and the host rock to ensure that radionuclide release from the vitrified waste is limited by diffusive transport rather than advective transport in groundwater. Nuclides released from the waste form precipitate when their concentrations in the porewater result in their elemental solubility limits being exceeded. This limits the concentrations of many nuclides in the buffer and thus limits the release rates to the surrounding rock. High sorption coefficients act to delay the transport of certain nuclides during their migration through the buffer (PNC, development and management of the technical knowledge base for the geological disposal of HLW. Supporting report 2: repository engineering technology). The presence of isotopes of the same element has the effect of reducing the effective solubility of some nuclides; a lower nuclide concentration is required for precipitation to occur if the presence of any isotopes of the same element is taken into account. The calculated release rates of radionuclides from the EBS (per waste package) are

  6. Standard practice for prediction of the long-term behavior of materials, including waste forms, used in engineered barrier systems (EBS) for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    1.1 This practice describes test methods and data analyses used to develop models for the prediction of the long-term behavior of materials, such as engineered barrier system (EBS) materials and waste forms, used in the geologic disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and other high-level nuclear waste in a geologic repository. The alteration behavior of waste form and EBS materials is important because it affects the retention of radionuclides by the disposal system. The waste form and EBS materials provide a barrier to release either directly (as in the case of waste forms in which the radionuclides are initially immobilized), or indirectly (as in the case of containment materials that restrict the ingress of groundwater or the egress of radionuclides that are released as the waste forms and EBS materials degrade). 1.1.1 Steps involved in making such predictions include problem definition, testing, modeling, and model confirmation. 1.1.2 The predictions are based on models derived from theoretical considerat...

  7. The Influence of EB-Irradiated Treatment on Enhancing Barrier Property and Crystallization Behavior of Rubber-Toughened Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Jamal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Electron beam (EB irradiation technique was introduced to modify the crystallization and oxygen (O2 barrier properties of high density-polyethylene (HDPE/ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM matrix and HDPE/EPDM filled withorganophilic montmorillonite (OMMT. The absorbed dose for EB-irradiation was fixed at 100 kGy. HDPE/EPDM matrix and HDPE/EPDM filled with OMMT at 4 vol% loading were prepared via melt intercalation method. It was found that the barrier resistance of HDPE/EPDM filled withOMMT against oxygen (O2 transmission was significantly enhanced by EB-irradiation absorbed dose of 100 kGy as compared to the control system. The crystallization temperature, Tc, and melting temperature, Tm, were also improved with the addition of OMMT along with the aids of EB-irradiation technique. Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM revealed that the stacking condition of OMMT particles was greatly reduced by EB-irradiation treatment as evidenced by finer surface and less formation of voids.

  8. Oxidation and thermal fatigue of EB-PVD thermal barrier coatings on tube superalloy substrate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Yu; ZHANG Chun-xia; ZHOU Chun-gen; GONG Sheng-kai; XU Hui-bin

    2006-01-01

    Two-layer structure thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) (NiCoCrAlY (bond coat)+(6%-8%, mass fraction) Y2O3-stabilized ZrO2(YSZ top coat)) were deposited by electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) on tube superalloy substrates. The samples were investigated by isothermal oxidation and thermal shock tests. It is found that the mass gains of the substrate with and without TBCs are 0.165 and 7.34 mg/cm2, respectively. So the TBCs system is a suitable protection for the substrate. In thermal shock tests the vertical cracks initiate at the top coat and grow into the bond coat, causing the oxidation of the bond coat along the cracks. Failure of the TBCs system occurs by the spallation of the YSZ from the bond coat, and some micro-cracks are found at the location where the fragment of the YSZ top coat spalled from.

  9. Crack prediction in EB-PVD thermal barrier coatings based on the simulation of residual stresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J. W.; Zhao, Y.; Liu, S.; Zhang, Z. Z.; Ma, J.

    2016-07-01

    Thermal barrier coatings systems (TBCs) are widely used in the field of aerospace. The durability and insulating ability of TBCs are highly dependent on the residual stresses of top coatings, thus the investigation of the residual stresses is helpful to understand the failure mechanisms of TBCs. The simulation of residual stresses evolution in electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) TBCs is described in this work. The interface morphology of TBCs subjected to cyclic heating and cooling is observed using scanning electron microscope (SEM). An interface model of TBCs is established based on thermal elastic-plastic finite method. Residual stress distributions in TBCs are obtained to reflect the influence of interfacial roughness. Both experimental and simulation results show that it is feasible to predict the crack location by stress analysis, which is crucial to failure prediction.

  10. Failure of EB-PVD Thermal Barrier Coatings Subjected to Thermo-Mechanical Loading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Chen; ZHANG Chun-xia; GUO Hong-bo; GONG Sheng-kai; ZHANG Yue

    2006-01-01

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) were developed to protect metallic blades and vanes working in turbo-engines. The two-layered structure TBCs, consisting of NiCoCrAlY bond coat and yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ), were deposited on a cylinder of superalloy substrate by the electron beam-physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD). The failure mechanism of the TBCs was investigated with a thermo-mechanical fatigue testing system under the service condition similar to that for turbine blades. Non-destructive evaluation of the coated specimens was conducted through the impedance spectroscopy. It is found that the crack initiation mainly takes place on the top coat at the edge of the heated zones.

  11. THE CONCEPT OF INTEGRATED ENGINEERING AND BUSINESS (EB EDUCATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Charlak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In our approach to engineering and business education system an engineer is a man working as creator and user of technical products. We stress that the process of understanding and gaining knowledge of technical reality and creativity of engineers are the essential for EB concept . Next, we describe briefly three perspectives for building the system of innovative product origination as a basis for EB system: 1 designer’s perspective; 2 business perspective. 3 consumer perspective.

  12. Multilayer stacks obtained by ion assisted EB PVD aimed at thermal barrier coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roos, E.; Maile, K.; Lyutovich, A. [Stuttgart Univ. (DE). Materialpruefungsanstalt (MPA)

    2010-07-01

    Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) using Electron Beam Physical Vapour Deposition (EB PVD) is widely implemented, especially for aero-engine turbine blades. Generally, multilayer stacks are used for these aims. For the additional improvement of intermediate layers with graded transitions to the initial Ni-based alloy, the use of accelerated ions in the EBPVD-process is advantageous. The effect of the substrate bias potential, ion current density and deposition temperature on the structure and properties of Ti and Zr intermediate layers are investigated. The morphology of the films is studied using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). It is found that the surface morphology becomes smoother with rising bias potential and decreasing ion current density. Measurements of Vicker's micro-hardness performed on these coatings have shown its increase with higher values of the bias and its reduction with the growing temperature. This effect is caused by the observed decrease in grain size and higher porosity of the films. A multilayer coating system Ni (based substrate)-Si-Si{sub x}Al{sub y}-Al with graded transitions between the layers is obtained using ion assisted EBPVD. Architecture of a multilayer stack for TBC with graded transitions is proposed. (orig.)

  13. Anisotropic TGO rumpling in EB-PVD thermal barrier coatings under in-phase thermomechanical loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balint, D.S., E-mail: d.balint@imperial.ac.uk [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Kim, S.-S.; Liu Yufu; Kitazawa, R.; Kagawa, Y. [Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8409 (Japan); Evans, A.G. [College of Engineering, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States)

    2011-04-15

    An electron beam physical vapor deposited (EB-PVD) Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-ZrO{sub 2} thermal barrier system has been tested under in-phase thermomechanical fatigue (TMF) conditions with thermal gradient in the through-thickness direction. Undulations in the thermally grown oxide (TGO) were observed to have clear anisotropic behavior with respect to the directions parallel and perpendicular to the loading axis. It was found that undulation wavelengths were nearly the same in both directions but the amplitude in the perpendicular direction was much larger than in the parallel direction. A recent model of TGO rumpling was adapted and used to analyze and explain the origins of the observed rumpling behavior under TMF conditions. Methods for deducing variation in the coefficient of thermal expansion with temperature and in the creep properties of the substrate from the experimental strain data are also presented in the course of the derivations. Model results show that tensile stress applied in the loading direction can overcome the compression occurring from lateral expansion during oxide formation, causing undulations to flatten; undulations perpendicular to the loading axis are unaffected. However, ratcheting in the strain cycle experienced by the substrate, which occurs naturally by substrate creep, is necessary for anisotropic rumpling under cyclic stress conditions. Model predictions for constant applied stress are also presented, demonstrating a reversal in the direction of undulation alignment under compression. A threshold stress is identified, in both tension and compression, sufficient to produce appreciable anisotropic rumpling. The model predictions provide a clear mechanism for the anisotropy and further evidence that the lateral expansion strain in the oxide is the driving force for oxide rumpling.

  14. Oxidation and Hot Corrosion of Gradient Thermal Barrier Coatings Prepared by EB-PVD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The performances of gradient thermal barrier coatings (GTBCs) produced by EB-PVD were evaluated by isothermaloxidation and cyclic hot corrosion (HTHC) tests. Compared with conventional two-layered TBCs, the GTBCs exhibitebetter resistance to not only oxidation but also hot-corrosion. A dense Al2O3 layer in the GTBCs effectively prohibitesinward diffusion of O and S and outward diffusion of Al and Cr during the tests. On the other hand, an "inlaid"interface, resulting from oxidation of the Al along the columnar grains of the bond coat, enhances the adherence ofAl2O3 layer. Failure of the GTBC finally occurred by cracking at the interface between the bond coat and Al2O3layer, due to the combined effect of sulfidation of the bond coat and thermal cycling.

  15. Failure mechanism of EB-PVD thermal barrier coatings on NiAl substrate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Yttria stabilized zirconia(YSZ) was deposited on the line cut β-NiAl substrate by electron-beam physical vapour deposition(EB-PVD), and the cyclic oxidation behaviors of thermal barrier coatings on β-NiAl substrate were investigated in 1 h thermal cycles at 1 200 ℃ in air. The results show that the samples fail after 80-100 cycles. Sub-interface cavitations in the substrate develop due to depletion of Al in forming thermally grown oxides(TGOs). The collapse and closing up of cavities result in the ragged YSZ/TGO/substrate interface. Since the specific crack trajectories are quite sensitive to local geometry, cracks along the YSZ/TGO/substrate interfaces ultimately lead to YSZ spallation.

  16. Thermal conductivity and thermal stability of zirconia and hafnia based thermal barrier coatings by EB-PVD for high temperature applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, J.; Wolfe, D.E.; Miller, R.; Eldridge, J.; Zhu Dong-Ming [Applied Research Lab., Penn State Univ., Univ. Park, PA and NASA-GRC, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2004-07-01

    Zirconia and hafnia based thermal barrier coating materials were produced by industrial prototype electron beam-physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD). Columnar microstructure of the thermal barrier coatings were modified with controlled microporosity and diffuse sub-interfaces resulting in lower thermal conductivity (20-30% depending up on microporosity volume fraction), higher thermal reflectance (15-20%) and more strain tolerance as compared with standard thermal barrier coatings (TBC). The novel processed coating systems were examined by various techniques including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction, and thermal conductivity by laser technique, hemispherical reflectance and thermal cyclic tests. The test results showed the tailored-microstructural TBC offered superior performance over the conventional thermal barrier coatings (ZrO{sub 2} -8 wt.% Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}). (orig.)

  17. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Schreiner

    2001-06-27

    The purpose of this work is to develop the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, as directed by a written development plan (CRWMS M&O 1999a). This abstraction is the conceptual model that will be used to determine the rate of release of radionuclides from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ) in the total system performance assessment-license application (TSPA-LA). In particular, this model will be used to quantify the time-dependent radionuclide releases from a failed waste package (WP) and their subsequent transport through the EBS to the emplacement drift wall/UZ interface. The development of this conceptual model will allow Performance Assessment Operations (PAO) and its Engineered Barrier Performance Department to provide a more detailed and complete EBS flow and transport abstraction. The results from this conceptual model will allow PA0 to address portions of the key technical issues (KTIs) presented in three NRC Issue Resolution Status Reports (IRSRs): (1) the Evolution of the Near-Field Environment (ENFE), Revision 2 (NRC 1999a), (2) the Container Life and Source Term (CLST), Revision 2 (NRC 1999b), and (3) the Thermal Effects on Flow (TEF), Revision 1 (NRC 1998). The conceptual model for flow and transport in the EBS will be referred to as the ''EBS RT Abstraction'' in this analysis/modeling report (AMR). The scope of this abstraction and report is limited to flow and transport processes. More specifically, this AMR does not discuss elements of the TSPA-SR and TSPA-LA that relate to the EBS but are discussed in other AMRs. These elements include corrosion processes, radionuclide solubility limits, waste form dissolution rates and concentrations of colloidal particles that are generally represented as boundary conditions or input parameters for the EBS RT Abstraction. In effect, this AMR provides the algorithms for transporting radionuclides using the flow geometry and radionuclide concentrations

  18. Thermal barrier coatings of new rare-earth composite oxide by EB-PVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Z.H., E-mail: zhxubiam@sina.com; Zhou, X.; Wang, K.; Dai, J.W.; He, L.M.

    2014-02-25

    Highlights: • 3Y-LZ7C3 coating has a cyclic lifetime longer than that of LZ7C3 coating. • Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} helps to moderate the excessive vapor pressure condition during deposition. • 3Y-LZ7C3 coating is a mixture of pyrochlore and fluorite structures. • 3Y-LZ7C3 coating has a low sintering ability as compared with LZ7C3 coating. -- Abstract: Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) of La{sub 2}(Zr{sub 0.7}Ce{sub 0.3}){sub 2}O{sub 7} (LZ7C3) with the addition of 3 wt.% Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} (3Y-LZ7C3) were deposited by electron beam-physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD). The phase structures, surface and cross-sectional morphologies, thermal cycling behaviors of these coatings were studied in detail. The thermal cycling test at 1373 K in an air furnace indicates that the 3Y-LZ7C3 coating has a lifetime of 1134 cycles which is about 18% longer than that of LZ7C3 coating. The improvement of chemical homogeneity of the coating, the superior growth behavior of columns and the favorable mechanical properties are all very helpful to the prolongation of thermal cycling life of 3Y-LZ7C3 coating. The failure of 3Y-LZ7C3 coating is probably a result of the reduction–oxidation of cerium oxide (Ce{sub 2}O{sub 3} and CeO{sub 2}), the solid solution reactions between La{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} (or ZrO{sub 2}), the visible cracks initiation, propagation and extension, the abnormal oxidation of bond coat and the thermal expansion mismatch between ceramic coating and bond coat.

  19. Advanced neutron and X-ray techniques for insights into the microstructure of EB-PVD thermal barrier coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulkarni, Anand [State University of New York, Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States); Goland, Allen [State University of New York, Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States); Herman, Herbert [State University of New York, Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States)]. E-mail: hherman@ms.cc.sunysb.edu; Allen, Andrew J. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States); Dobbins, Tabbetha [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States); DeCarlo, Francesco [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Ilavsky, Jan [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Long, Gabrielle G. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Fang, Stacy [Chromalloy Gas Turbine Corporation, Orangeburg, NY 10962 (United States); Lawton, Paul [Chromalloy Gas Turbine Corporation, Orangeburg, NY 10962 (United States)

    2006-06-25

    The ongoing quest to increase gas turbine efficiency and performance (increased thrust) provides a driving force for materials development. While improved engine design and usage of novel materials provide solutions for increased engine operating temperatures, and hence fuel efficiency, reliability issues remain. Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs), deposited onto turbine components using the electron-beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) process, exhibit unique pore architectures capable of bridging the technological gap between insulation/life extension and prime reliance. This article explores the potential of advanced X-ray and neutron techniques for comprehension of an EB-PVD TBC coating microstructure. While conventional microscopy reveals a hierarchy of voids, complementary advanced techniques allow quantification of these voids in terms of component porosities, anisotropy, size and gradient through the coating thickness. In addition, the derived microstructural parameters obtained both further knowledge of the nature and architecture of the porosity, and help establish its influence on the resultant thermal and mechanical properties.

  20. Effects of interface morphology and TGO thickness on residual stress of EB-PVD thermal barrier coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianwei; Zhao, Yang; Ma, Jian

    2015-04-01

    The residual stress of electron beam-physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) thermal barrier coatings (TBC) is complex and difficult to be obtained. In this paper, the interface morphology of TBCs subjected to cyclic heating and cooling was observed by SEM. Based on the thermal elastic-plastic finite method, corresponding interface model of TBCs was established. The residual stress of EB-PVD TBCs with different interface morphologies and TGO thicknesses was calculated using the FE method without regard to the presence of cracks and defects. The result shows that the distribution of residual stress is significantly affected by the interface morphology, and the growth of TGO also has influence on the residual stress of TC and TGO.

  1. Mechanical properties of EB-PVD ZrO{sub 2} thermal barrier coatings; Mechanische Eigenschaften von EB-PVD ZrO{sub 2} Waermedaemmschichten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Held, Carolin

    2014-08-29

    In this work, the elastic properties of thermal barrier coatings which were produced by electron-beam enhanced physical vapour deposition were investigated, as well as the dependency of the properties on the sample microstructure, the thermal treatment and the test method. For this purpose, not only commercial coatings were characterized, but also special sample material was used which consists of a 1 mm thick layer of EB-PVD TBC. This material was isothermally heat treated for different times at 950 C, 1100 C and 1200 C and then tested in a specially developed miniaturized bend test and by dynamic mechanical analysis. The sample material was tested by nanoindentation in order to measure the Young's modulus on a local scale, and the porosity of the samples was determined by microstructure analysis and porosimetry. The decrease of porosity could be connected with sintering and subsequent stiffening of the material. The test results are dependent on the tested volume. A small test volume leads to larger measured Young's moduli, while a large test volume yields lower values. The test volume also has an influence on the increase of stiffness during thermal exposure. With a small tested volume, a quicker increase of the Young's modulus was registered, which could be associated to the sintering of local structures.

  2. Character-Size Optimization for Reducing the Number of EB Shots of MCC Lithographic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugihara, Makoto

    We propose a character size optimization technique to reduce the number of EB shots of multi-column-cell (MCC) lithographic systems in which transistor patterns are projected with multiple column cells in parallel. Each and every column cell is capable of projecting patterns with character projection (CP) and variable shaped beam (VSB) methods. Seeking the optimal character size of characters contributes to minimizing the number of EB shots and reducing the fabrication cost for ICs. Experimental results show that the character size optimization achieved 70.6% less EB shots in the best case with an available electron beam (EB) size. Our technique also achieved 40.6% less EB shots in the best case than a conventional character sizing technique.

  3. Engineered Barrier System performance requirements systems study report. Revision 02

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balady, M.A.

    1997-01-14

    This study evaluates the current design concept for the Engineered Barrier System (EBS), in concert with the current understanding of the geologic setting to assess whether enhancements to the required performance of the EBS are necessary. The performance assessment calculations are performed by coupling the EBS with the geologic setting based on the models (some of which were updated for this study) and assumptions used for the 1995 Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA). The need for enhancements is determined by comparing the performance assessment results against the EBS related performance requirements. Subsystem quantitative performance requirements related to the EBS include the requirement to allow no more than 1% of the waste packages (WPs) to fail before 1,000 years after permanent closure of the repository, as well as a requirement to control the release rate of radionuclides from the EBS. The EBS performance enhancements considered included additional engineered components as well as evaluating additional performance available from existing design features but for which no performance credit is currently being taken.

  4. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Prouty

    2006-07-14

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers advective transport and diffusive transport

  5. The effect of thermal aging on the thermal conductivity of plasma sprayed and EB-PVD thermal barrier coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinwiddie, R.B.; Beecher, S.C.; Porter, W.D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Nagaraj, B.A. [General Electric Co., Cincinnati, OH (United States). Aircraft Engine Group

    1996-05-01

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) applied to the hot gas components of turbine engines lead to enhanced fuel efficiency and component reliability. Understanding the mechanisms which control the thermal transport behavior of the TBCs is of primary importance. Electron beam-physical vapor deposition (EV-PVD) and air plasma spraying (APS) are the two most commonly used coating techniques. These techniques produce coatings with unique microstructures which control their performance and stability. The density of the APS coatings was controlled by varying the spray parameters. The low density APS yttria-partially stabilized zirconia (yttria-PSZ) coatings yielded a thermal conductivity that is lower than both the high density APS coatings and the EB-PVD coatings. The thermal aging of both fully and partially stabilized zirconia are compared. The thermal conductivity of the coatings permanently increases upon exposure to high temperatures. These increases are attributed to microstructural changes within the coatings. This increase in thermal conductivity can be modeled using a relationship which depends on both the temperature and time of exposure. Although the EB-PVD coatings are less susceptible to thermal aging effects, results suggest that they typically have a higher thermal conductivity than APS coatings before thermal aging. The increases in thermal conductivity due to thermal aging for plasma sprayed partially stabilized zirconia have been found to be less than for plasma sprayed fully stabilized zirconia coatings.

  6. Engineered Barrier System Degradation, Flow, and Transport Process Model Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.L. Hardin

    2000-07-17

    The Engineered Barrier System Degradation, Flow, and Transport Process Model Report (EBS PMR) is one of nine PMRs supporting the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) being developed by the Yucca Mountain Project for the Site Recommendation Report (SRR). The EBS PMR summarizes the development and abstraction of models for processes that govern the evolution of conditions within the emplacement drifts of a potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada. Details of these individual models are documented in 23 supporting Analysis/Model Reports (AMRs). Nineteen of these AMRs are for process models, and the remaining 4 describe the abstraction of results for application in TSPA. The process models themselves cluster around four major topics: ''Water Distribution and Removal Model, Physical and Chemical Environment Model, Radionuclide Transport Model, and Multiscale Thermohydrologic Model''. One AMR (Engineered Barrier System-Features, Events, and Processes/Degradation Modes Analysis) summarizes the formal screening analysis used to select the Features, Events, and Processes (FEPs) included in TSPA and those excluded from further consideration. Performance of a potential Yucca Mountain high-level radioactive waste repository depends on both the natural barrier system (NBS) and the engineered barrier system (EBS) and on their interactions. Although the waste packages are generally considered as components of the EBS, the EBS as defined in the EBS PMR includes all engineered components outside the waste packages. The principal function of the EBS is to complement the geologic system in limiting the amount of water contacting nuclear waste. A number of alternatives were considered by the Project for different EBS designs that could provide better performance than the design analyzed for the Viability Assessment. The design concept selected was Enhanced Design Alternative II (EDA II).

  7. Evaluation of the PetrifilmTM EB and TEMPO® EB systems with ISO 21528-2:2004 method for the count of Enterobacteriaceae in milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Cirolini

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The development of alternative microbiological techniques is driven by the necessity to meet the current needs to deliver rapid results in the manufacturing process of foods, but it is important that these methods be evaluated for each application. The objective of the present study was to assess the PetrifilmTM EB and the TEMPO® EB systems with ISO 21528-2:2004 for the count of Enterobacteriaceae in pasteurized and UHT milk samples. We analyzed the microflora of 141 pasteurized milk samples, 15 samples of artificially contaminated pasteurized milk and 15 samples of artificially contaminated UHT milk. Investigation of the method PetrifilmTM EB and ISO 21528:2 regression analysis showed a high correlation in the samples, r = 0.90 for the microflora of pasteurized milk, r = 0.98 for artificially contaminated pasteurized milk and r = 0.99 for the artificially contaminated UHT milk. In evaluating the system TEMPO EB ® method and ISO 21528:2 correlation was also significant in the analyzed samples, with r = 0.86 for the microflora of pasteurized milk, r = 0.96 for artificially contaminated pasteurized milk and r = 0.99 for artificially contaminated UHT milk. No statistically significant differences were observed between the three methods conducted to analyze artificially contaminated pasteurized and UHT milk at three inoculum levels. In conclusion, the PetrifilmTM EB system and the TEMPO® EB system may be an alternative to the ISO 21528-2:2004 for the Enterobacteriaceae assay for milk as because of the ease-of-operation and the time reduction achieved for conducting the microbiological assay using these systems.

  8. 47 CFR 73.4097 - EBS (now EAS) attention signals on automated programing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false EBS (now EAS) attention signals on automated programing systems. 73.4097 Section 73.4097 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED... (now EAS) attention signals on automated programing systems. See Public Notice dated March 1, 1979....

  9. FEM ANALYSIS OF THERMAL STRESSES IN GRADIENT THERMAL BARRIER COATINGS PRODUCED BY EB-PVD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H.B. Guo; H.B. Xu; S.K. Gong

    2001-01-01

    Gradient thermal barrier coatings (GTBCs) produced by co-deposition of mixtures ofAl-Al2 O3-YSZ onto metallic bond coat exhibited longer lifetimes than the two-layeredTBCs. The finite element method (FEM) numerical models were used to investigatestress and strain states in the GTBCs and traditional two-layered TBCs as they cooledto 750℃ from a stress-free state at 850℃.

  10. Evolution of photo-stimulated luminescence of EB-PVD/(Ni, Pt)Al thermal barrier coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen Mei [Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269 (United States); Jordan, Eric H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269 (United States)]. E-mail: jordan@engr.uconn.edu; Gell, Maurice [Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269 (United States)

    2005-05-25

    Experiments are described which were designed to assess the suitability of photo-stimulated luminescence piezo-spectroscopy (PLPS) measurements as a basis for non-destructive inspection (NDI) and determination of life remaining of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs). Thermal cyclic tests were conducted on 7 wt.% Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} stabilized ZrO{sub 2} (YSZ) electron beam physical vapor deposited (EB-PVD)/(Ni, Pt)Al/CMSX-4 TBCs at two temperatures 1151 and 1121 deg. C. The evolution of PLPS spectral characteristics (peak frequency shift, peak width and area ratio of peaks) was studied as a function of thermal cycles. It was observed that the average thermally grown oxide (TGO) stress and its standard deviation, and the area ratio of peaks show systematic change with thermal cycling, indicating that these characteristics can be used for NDI and determination of life remaining. The average TGO stress increases initially and then decreases monotonically with thermal cycling. The rate of change in the stress can be related to specimen life: the shallower the slope, the higher the life. The peak area ratio also decreases monotonically with cycling. The average TGO stress changes in a systematic manner versus remaining life fraction independent of temperature. Remaining life predictions were made based on average stress versus life fraction, which resulted in life assessments within {+-}13% of actual values excluding one specimen with abnormal behavior.

  11. AUTOMATED EB BILLING SYSTEM USING GSM AND AD-HOC WIRELESS ROUTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.Saravanan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available With the passage of time, technology has merged itself with the daily life of humans. We have seen so much progress in the field of science and technology but we are not able to make full use of it. One such area for improvement is the Electricity board billing system. Our existing electricity board billing system in India is obsolete and time consuming. We are proposing a system through which electricity billing becomes fully automated and communication is made possiblevia wireless networks. The existing manual system in India has major drawbacks. This system is prone to errors and can also be easily manipulated. The prevailing manual system also requires lot of human workforce. The major disadvantage in this system is that the meter cannot be accessed by the meter reader if the customer is not present at home. In our system the central EB office has immediate access to all consumer homes in a locality with the help of an RF system. The EB meter present in each house is connected by wireless network with the EB office which periodically gets updates from the meter. The EB office using a backend database calculates the amount to be paid according to the number of units consumed and sends it back to the meter for display and also to the user’s mobile phone. The advantages of the proposed system make the existing system incompetent. It ispossible to connect to remote areas even when there is a power failure as it employs wireless technology. The new system is user friendly, easy to access and far more efficient than the existing system.

  12. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.D. Schreiber

    2005-08-25

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA-LA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport

  13. Engineered Barrier Systems Thermal-Hydraulic-Chemical Column Test Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W.E. Lowry

    2001-12-13

    The Engineered Barrier System (EBS) Thermal-Hydraulic-Chemical (THC) Column Tests provide data needed for model validation. The EBS Degradation, Flow, and Transport Process Modeling Report (PMR) will be based on supporting models for in-drift THC coupled processes, and the in-drift physical and chemical environment. These models describe the complex chemical interaction of EBS materials, including granular materials, with the thermal and hydrologic conditions that will be present in the repository emplacement drifts. Of particular interest are the coupled processes that result in mineral and salt dissolution/precipitation in the EBS environment. Test data are needed for thermal, hydrologic, and geochemical model validation and to support selection of introduced materials (CRWMS M&O 1999c). These column tests evaluated granular crushed tuff as potential invert ballast or backfill material, under accelerated thermal and hydrologic environments. The objectives of the THC column testing are to: (1) Characterize THC coupled processes that could affect performance of EBS components, particularly the magnitude of permeability reduction (increases or decreases), the nature of minerals produced, and chemical fractionation (i.e., concentrative separation of salts and minerals due to boiling-point elevation). (2) Generate data for validating THC predictive models that will support the EBS Degradation, Flow, and Transport PMR, Rev. 01.

  14. PEBS. Long-term performance of engineered barrier systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wieczorek, Klaus; Czaikowski, Oliver; Miehe, Ruediger

    2014-12-15

    The evolution of the engineered barrier system (EBS) of geological repositories for radioactive waste has been the subject of many national and international research programmes. The emphasis of the research activities was on the elaboration of a detailed understanding of the complex THMC processes, which are expected to evolve in the early post closure period in the near field. From the perspective of radiological long-term safety, an in-depth understanding of these coupled processes is of great significance, because the evolution of the EBS during the early post-closure phase may have a non-negligible impact on the radiological safety functions at the time when the canisters breach. Unexpected process interactions during the resaturation phase could impair the safety-relevant parameters in the EBS (e. g. swelling pressure, hydraulic conductivity, diffusivity).

  15. EB-PVD热障涂层热循环性能评价方法研究%Evaluation Method of Thermal Cycling Property of EB-PVD Thermal Barrier Coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈立强; 宫声凯; 徐惠彬

    2013-01-01

    制备8批次EB-PVD双层结构热障涂层试样,采用循环加热快速冷却实验装置模拟热障涂层服役环境,开展了热障涂层试样在不同热循环保温时间条件下的热循环性能评价实验,采用指数下降的数学模型对热循环实验数据进行拟合分析,获得了表征热障涂层试样静态氧化性能和热疲劳性能的物理量.结果表明,在本实验工艺条件下制备的不同批次热障涂层试样的静态氧化性能和热疲劳性能具有不同的匹配关系,热障涂层试样静态氧化性能总体估计值为(677±194)h,热疲劳性能总体估计值为(6789±1818)次.%Thermal cycling testing to the 8 batches of thermal barrier coating samples for different holding time was carried out by means of cycling heating and cooling apparatus to simulate TBCs service environment. Using a mathematical model of exponential decline to fit thermal cycle experimental data, characterization parameters of static oxidation performance and thermal fatigue performance of thermal barrier coated samples were obtained. The result indicates that static state oxidation performance and thermal fatigue performance of TBCs samples prepared under present experimental technology conditions have different match relation. The estimated value for static state oxidation performance is 677±194 h, and the estimated value for thermal fatigue performance is 6789±1818 times.

  16. ENGINEERED BARRIER SYSTEM FEATURES, EVENTS AND PROCESSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaros, W.

    2005-08-30

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate and document the inclusion or exclusion of engineered barrier system (EBS) features, events, and processes (FEPs) with respect to models and analyses used to support the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA). A screening decision, either Included or Excluded, is given for each FEP along with the technical basis for exclusion screening decisions. This information is required by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) at 10 CFR 63.114 (d, e, and f) [DIRS 173273]. The FEPs addressed in this report deal with those features, events, and processes relevant to the EBS focusing mainly on those components and conditions exterior to the waste package and within the rock mass surrounding emplacement drifts. The components of the EBS are the drip shield, waste package, waste form, cladding, emplacement pallet, emplacement drift excavated opening (also referred to as drift opening in this report), and invert. FEPs specific to the waste package, cladding, and drip shield are addressed in separate FEP reports: for example, ''Screening of Features, Events, and Processes in Drip Shield and Waste Package Degradation'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 174995]), ''Clad Degradation--FEPs Screening Arguments (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170019]), and Waste-Form Features, Events, and Processes'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170020]). For included FEPs, this report summarizes the implementation of the FEP in the TSPA-LA (i.e., how the FEP is included). For excluded FEPs, this analysis provides the technical basis for exclusion from TSPA-LA (i.e., why the FEP is excluded). This report also documents changes to the EBS FEPs list that have occurred since the previous versions of this report. These changes have resulted due to a reevaluation of the FEPs for TSPA-LA as identified in Section 1.2 of this report and described in more detail in Section 6.1.1. This revision addresses updates in Yucca Mountain Project

  17. An ebCMOS camera system for marine bioluminescence observation: The LuSEApher prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominjon, A., E-mail: a.dominjon@ipnl.in2p3.fr [CNRS/IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon, Villeurbanne F-69622 (France); Ageron, M. [CNRS/IN2P3, Centre de Physique des Particules de Marseille, Marseille, F-13288 (France); Barbier, R. [CNRS/IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon, Villeurbanne F-69622 (France); Universite de Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, Lyon F-69003 (France); Billault, M.; Brunner, J. [CNRS/IN2P3, Centre de Physique des Particules de Marseille, Marseille, F-13288 (France); Cajgfinger, T. [CNRS/IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon, Villeurbanne F-69622 (France); Universite de Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, Lyon F-69003 (France); Calabria, P. [CNRS/IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon, Villeurbanne F-69622 (France); Chabanat, E. [CNRS/IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon, Villeurbanne F-69622 (France); Universite de Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, Lyon F-69003 (France); Chaize, D.; Doan, Q.T.; Guerin, C.; Houles, J.; Vagneron, L. [CNRS/IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon, Villeurbanne F-69622 (France)

    2012-12-11

    The ebCMOS camera, called LuSEApher, is a marine bioluminescence recorder device adapted to extreme low light level. This prototype is based on the skeleton of the LUSIPHER camera system originally developed for fluorescence imaging. It has been installed at 2500 m depth off the Mediterranean shore on the site of the ANTARES neutrino telescope. The LuSEApher camera is mounted on the Instrumented Interface Module connected to the ANTARES network for environmental science purposes (European Seas Observatory Network). The LuSEApher is a self-triggered photo detection system with photon counting ability. The presentation of the device is given and its performances such as the single photon reconstruction, noise performances and trigger strategy are presented. The first recorded movies of bioluminescence are analyzed. To our knowledge, those types of events have never been obtained with such a sensitivity and such a frame rate. We believe that this camera concept could open a new window on bioluminescence studies in the deep sea.

  18. ENGINEERED BARRIER SYSTEM: PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL ENVIRONMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Jarek

    2005-08-29

    The purpose of this model report is to describe the evolution of the physical and chemical environmental conditions within the waste emplacement drifts of the repository, including the drip shield and waste package surfaces. The resulting seepage evaporation and gas abstraction models are used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) to assess the performance of the engineered barrier system and the waste form. This report develops and documents a set of abstraction-level models that describe the engineered barrier system physical and chemical environment. Where possible, these models use information directly from other reports as input, which promotes integration among process models used for TSPA-LA. Specific tasks and activities of modeling the physical and chemical environment are included in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport In-Drift Geochemistry Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173782], Section 1.2.2). As described in the technical work plan, the development of this report is coordinated with the development of other engineered barrier system reports. To be consistent with other project documents that address features, events, and processes (FEPs), Table 6.14.1 of the current report includes updates to FEP numbers and FEP subjects for two FEPs identified in the technical work plan (TWP) governing this report (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173782]). FEP 2.1.09.06.0A (Reduction-oxidation potential in EBS), as listed in Table 2 of the TWP (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173782]), has been updated in the current report to FEP 2.1.09.06.0B (Reduction-oxidation potential in Drifts; see Table 6.14-1). FEP 2.1.09.07.0A (Reaction kinetics in EBS), as listed in Table 2 of the TWP (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173782]), has been updated in the current report to FEP 2.1.09.07.0B (Reaction kinetics in Drifts; see Table 6.14-1). These deviations from the TWP are justified because they improve integration with FEPs

  19. Surface geometry and strain energy effects in the failure of a (Ni, Pt)Al/EB-PVD thermal barrier coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaidyanathan, Krishnakumar; Jordan, Eric H.; Gell, Maurice

    2004-03-08

    Thermal cycling tests were conducted on a commercial yttria-stabilized zirconia electron beam-physical vapor deposited thermal barrier coating (TBC) on a platinum aluminide ({beta}-(Ni, Pt)Al) bond coat. Surprisingly, the longest life sample lasted 10 times longer than the shortest life sample. Two distinct mechanisms have been found responsible for the observed damage initiation and progression at the thermally grown oxide (TGO)/bond coat interface. The first mechanism leads to localized debonding at the TGO/bond coat interface due to increasing out-of-plane tensile stresses at ridges that form along bond coat grain boundaries. The second mechanism is driven by cyclic plasticity of the bond coat that leads to cavity formation at the TGO/bond coat interface. The primary finding of this work is that the first mechanism, involving tensile stress at ridge tops, is life limiting. Based on this mechanism, it is demonstrated that the variation in bond coat ridge aspect ratio can explain the unusual 10x variation in observed sample life. It is proposed that ridge top spallation leads to debonds of sufficient size to result in unstable fracture driven by the strain energy stored in the TGO. The criticality of the flaw created by local debonding is supported by experimental determination of the strain energy available in the TGO through measurement of TGO stress and thickness combined with published fracture mechanics solutions of the relevant flaw geometry.

  20. Near field and altered zone environmental report Volume I: technical bases for EBS design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilder, D. G., LLNL

    1997-08-01

    This report presents an updated summary of results for the waste package (WP) and engineered barrier system (EBS) evaluations, including materials testing, waste-form characterization, EBS performance assessments, and near-field environment (NFE) characterization. Materials testing, design criteria and concept development, and waste-form characterization all require an understanding of the environmental conditions that will interact with the WP and EBS. The Near-Field Environment Report (NFER) was identified in the Waste Package Plan (WPP) (Harrison- Giesler, 1991) as the formal means for transmitting and documenting this information.

  1. Development and installation of an advanced beam guidance system on Viking`s 2.4 megawatt EB furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motchenbacher, C.A.; Grosse, I.A. [Viking Metallurgical, Verdi, NV (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Viking Metallurgical is a manufacturer of titanium alloy and superalloy seamless ring forgings for the aerospace industry. For more than 20 years Viking has used electron beam cold hearth melting to recover titanium alloy scrap and to produce commercially pure titanium ingot for direct forging. In the 1970`s Viking pioneered electron beam cold hearth melting and in 1983 added a two-gun, 2.4 MW furnace. As part of Vikings efforts to improve process control we have commissioned and installed a new electron beam guidance system. The system is capable of generating virtually unlimited EB patterns resulting in improved melt control.

  2. Influences of specific ions in groundwater on concrete degradation in subsurface engineered barrier system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wen-Sheng; Liu, Chen-Wuing; Li, Ming-Hsu

    2016-01-01

    Many disposal concepts currently show that concrete is an effective confinement material used in engineered barrier systems (EBS) at a number of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal sites. Cement-based materials have properties for the encapsulation, isolation, or retardation of a variety of hazardous contaminants. The reactive chemical transport model of HYDROGEOCHEM 5.0 was applied to simulate the effect of hydrogeochemical processes on concrete barrier degradation in an EBS which has been proposed to use in the LLW disposal site in Taiwan. The simulated results indicated that the main processes that are responsible for concrete degradation are the species induced from hydrogen ion, sulfate, and chloride. The EBS with the side ditch drainage system effectively discharges the infiltrated water and lowers the solute concentrations that may induce concrete degradation. The redox processes markedly influence the formations of the degradation materials. The reductive environment in the EBS reduces the formation of ettringite in concrete degradation processes. Moreover, the chemical conditions in the concrete barriers maintain an alkaline condition after 300 years in the proposed LLW repository. This study provides a detailed picture of the long-term evolution of the hydrogeochemical environment in the proposed LLW disposal site in Taiwan.

  3. International Collaboration Activities on Engineered Barrier Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jove-Colon, Carlos F. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-08-31

    The Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC) within the DOE Fuel Cycle Technologies (FCT) program has been engaging in international collaborations between repository R&D programs for high-level waste (HLW) disposal to leverage on gathered knowledge and laboratory/field data of near- and far-field processes from experiments at underground research laboratories (URL). Heater test experiments at URLs provide a unique opportunity to mimetically study the thermal effects of heat-generating nuclear waste in subsurface repository environments. Various configurations of these experiments have been carried out at various URLs according to the disposal design concepts of the hosting country repository program. The FEBEX (Full-scale Engineered Barrier Experiment in Crystalline Host Rock) project is a large-scale heater test experiment originated by the Spanish radioactive waste management agency (Empresa Nacional de Residuos Radiactivos S.A. – ENRESA) at the Grimsel Test Site (GTS) URL in Switzerland. The project was subsequently managed by CIEMAT. FEBEX-DP is a concerted effort of various international partners working on the evaluation of sensor data and characterization of samples obtained during the course of this field test and subsequent dismantling. The main purpose of these field-scale experiments is to evaluate feasibility for creation of an engineered barrier system (EBS) with a horizontal configuration according to the Spanish concept of deep geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste in crystalline rock. Another key aspect of this project is to improve the knowledge of coupled processes such as thermal-hydro-mechanical (THM) and thermal-hydro-chemical (THC) operating in the near-field environment. The focus of these is on model development and validation of predictions through model implementation in computational tools to simulate coupled THM and THC processes.

  4. Engineered Barrier System - Long-term Stability of Buffer and Backfill. Synthesis and extended abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apted, Mick; Arthur, Randy [Monitor Scientific LLC, Denver, CO (United States); Savage, Dave [Quintessa Ltd., Nottingham (GB)] (eds.)

    2005-09-15

    SKI is preparing to review the license applications being developed by the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) for an encapsulation plant and a deep repository for the geological disposal of spent nuclear fuel. As part of its preparation, SKI is conducting a series of technical workshops on key aspects of the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) of the repository. This workshop concerns the longterm stability of the buffer and the backfill. Previous workshops have addressed the overall concept for long-term integrity of the EBS, the manufacturing, testing and QA of the EBS and the performance confirmation for the EBS. The goal of this work is to achieve a comprehensive overview of all aspects of SKB's EBS work prior to the handling of forthcoming license applications. The reports from the EBS workshops will be used as one important basis in future review work. The workshops involve the gathering of a sufficient number of independent experts in different subjects of relevance to the particular aspect of EBS. A workshop starts with presentations and discussions among these experts. Following this, SKB presents recent results and responds to questions as part of an informal hearing. Finally, the independent experts and the SKI staff examine the SKB responses from different viewpoints. This report aims to summarise the issues discussed at the buffer and backfill workshop and to extract the essential viewpoints that have been expressed. The report is not a comprehensive record of the discussions and individual statements made by workshop participants should be regarded as opinions rather than proven facts. This reports includes apart from the workshop synthesis, questions to SKB identified prior or during the workshop, and extended abstracts for introductory presentations.

  5. Experimental Studies of Engineered Barrier Systems Conducted at Los Alamos National Laboratory (FY16)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caporuscio, Florie Andre [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Norskog, Katherine Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Maner, James [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States). School of Geology and Geophysics; Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Palaich, Sarah [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Earth, Planetary, and Space Sciences; Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Cheshire, Michael C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-08-04

    Over the past five years the Used Fuel Campaign has investigated Engineered Barrier Systems (EBS) at higher heat loads (up to 300°C) and pressure (150 bar). This past year experimental work was hindered due to a revamping of the hydrothermal lab. Regardless, two experiments were run this past year, EBS-18 and EBS-19. EBS-18 was run using Low Carbon Steel (LCS) and opalinus clay in addition to the bentonite and opalinus brine. Many of the past results were confirmed in EBS-18, such as the restriction of illite formation due to the bulk chemistry, pyrite degradation, and zeolite formation dependent on the bentonite and opalinus clay. The LCS show vast amounts of pit corrosion (over 100μm of corrosion in six weeks), leading a corrosion rate of 1083 μm/year. In addition, a mineral goethite, an iron-bearing hydroxide, formed in the pits of the LCS. Preliminary results from EBS-19 water chemistry are included but SEM imaging, micro probe and XRD are still needed for further results. Copper corrosion was investigated further and over 850 measurements were taken. It was concluded that pitting and pyrite degradation drastically increase the corrosion rate from 0.12 to 0.39 μm/day. However, the growth of a layer of the mineral chalcocite is thought to subdue the corrosion rate to 0.024 μm/day as observed in the EBS-13, a sixth month experiment. This document presents the findings of this past year.

  6. Experimental Studies of Engineered Barrier Systems Conducted at Los Alamos National Laboratory (FY16)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caporuscio, Florie Andre [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Norskog, Katherine Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Maner, James [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States). School of Geology and Geophysics; Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Palaich, Sarah [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Earth, Planetary, and Space Sciences; Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Cheshire, Michael C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-08-04

    Over the past five years the Used Fuel Campaign has investigated Engineered Barrier Systems (EBS) at higher heat loads (up to 300°C) and pressure (150 bar). This past year experimental work was hindered due to a revamping of the hydrothermal lab. Regardless, two experiments were run this past year, EBS-18 and EBS-19. EBS-18 was run using Low Carbon Steel (LCS) and opalinus clay in addition to the bentonite and opalinus brine. Many of the past results were confirmed in EBS-18 such as the restriction of illite formation due to the bulk chemistry, pyrite degradation, and zeolite formation dependent on the bentonite and opalinus clay. The LCS show vast amounts of pit corrosion over 100μm of corrosion in six weeks, leading a corrosion rate of 1083 μm/year. In addition, a mineral goethite, an iron bearing hydroxide, formed in the pits of the LCS. Preliminary results from EBS-19 water chemistry are included but SEM imaging, micro probe and XRD are still needed for further results. Copper corrosion was investigated further and over 850 measurements were taken. It was concluded that pitting and pyrite degradation drastically increase the corrosion rate from 0.12 to 0.39 μm/day. However, the growth of a layer of the mineral chalcocite is thought to subdue the corrosion rate to 0.024 μm/day as observed in the EBS-13 a sixth month experiment. This document presents the findings of this past year.

  7. Vitamin D analog EB1089 could repair the defective bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing-Jing; Sun, Yan-Bin; Zhang, Xiao-Li; Wang, Xiao-Fei

    2015-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) involves multiple factors, which result in the breakdown of self-tolerance and development of autoimmunity with organ damage. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) from the patients with SLE showed an impaired proliferative capacity compared with that from normal controls. In this study, we isolated BMMSCs from the patients with SLE and found that Vitamin D analog EB1089 could induce BMMSCs proliferation and mineralization deposition. Furthermore, we found that the expression of p-Smad 1/5/8 was promoted in BMMSCs with EB1089 treatment. In conclusion, our results support the notion that EB1089 promoted proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of BMMSCs by Smad 1/5/8 signaling pathway.

  8. Simulations for EBS Task Force BMT 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lempinen, A. [Marintel Ky, Turku (Finland)

    2006-12-15

    The Aespoe HRL International Joint Committee has set up a Task Force on Engineered Barrier Systems (EBS). Its long time objective is to develop effective tools for analysis of THM(C) behaviour of buffer and backfill. The idea of the Task Force is to offer a forum to develop the tools of the work groups. This BMT has two parts: BMT 1.1 and BMT 1.2 based on the performance of THM mock-up experiments on MX-80 bentonite by CEA and FEBEX bentonite by CIEMAT, respectively. Simulation results are presented here. These simulations are performed with Freefem++ software, which is a high-level programming language for solving partiel differential equations with finite element method. The mathematical model used is based on continuum thermodynamics. The simulations repeat the evolution of relevant THM variables of the experiments fairly well, but some modificatios of parameters is needed, especially in hydraulic behaviour. (orig.)

  9. Improvement of data transfer speed and development of an EB data verification system in a VSB mask writer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakimoto, Osamu; Manabe, Hironobu; Hoshi, Hiromichi; Samoto, Norihiko; Komagata, Tadashi; Nakagawa, Yasutoshi; Yamabe, Masaki

    2009-04-01

    To extend the effectiveness of photo lithography, Optical Proximity Effect Correction (OPC) and Resolution Enhancement Technique (RET) incorporate increasingly complicated process steps, handling large volumes of data. This poses a challenge for mask making with EB lithography in two areas: data transfer speed and the reliability of pattern data processed by hardware. Traditionally, JEOL's variable shaped beam mask writers used single board CPU control to save in buffer memory pattern data per field on a magnetic disk. We developed a new parallel transfer technique using a dual board CPU to enhance the data transfer speed to buffer memory. This technique improved the data transfer speed from 40 MB/sec to 80 MB/sec or higher. To insure the reliability of pattern data processed by hardware, we also devised a way to save in the hard disk the shot position, size, and dose of patterns processed in the data transfer system. We verified that the system was able to record in real time 250G shot pattern data (size and positional data of figures to be exposed).

  10. Microstructural, mechanical and oxidation features of NiCoCrAlY coating produced by plasma activated EB-PVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Jian; Guo, Hongbo, E-mail: guo.hongbo@buaa.edu.cn; Peng, Hui; Gong, Shengkai

    2013-06-01

    NiCoCrAlY coatings produced by electron beam-physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) have been extensively used as the oxidation resistance coatings or suitable bond coats in thermal barrier coating (TBC) system. However, the inherent imperfections caused by EB-PVD process degrade the oxidation resistance of the coatings. In the present work, NiCoCrAlY coatings were creatively produced by plasma activated electron beam-physical vapor deposition (PA EB-PVD). The novel coatings showed a terraced substructure on the surface of each grain due to the increased energy of metal ions and enhanced mobility of adatoms. Also a strong (1 1 1) crystallographic texture of γ/γ′ grains was observed. The toughness of the coatings got remarkably improved compared with the coatings deposited by conventional EB-PVD and the oxidation behavior at 1373 K showed that the novel coatings had excellent oxidation resistance. The possible mechanism was finally discussed.

  11. Advanced thermal barrier coating systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorfman, M. R.; Reardon, J. D.

    1985-01-01

    Current state-of-the-art thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems consist of partially stabilized zirconia coatings plasma sprayed over a MCrAlY bond coat. Although these systems have excellent thermal shock properties, they have shown themselves to be deficient for a number of diesel and aircraft applications. Two ternary ceramic plasma coatings are discussed with respect to their possible use in TBC systems. Zirconia-ceria-yttria (ZCY) coatings were developed with low thermal conductivities, good thermal shock resistance and improved resistance to vanadium containing environments, when compared to the baseline yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) coatings. In addition, dense zirconia-titania-yttria (ZTY) coatings were developed with particle erosion resistance exceeding conventional stabilized zirconia coatings. Both coatings were evaluated in conjunction with a NiCr-Al-Co-Y2O3 bond coat. Also, multilayer or hybrid coatings consisting of the bond coat with subsequent coatings of zirconia-ceria-yttria and zirconia-titania-yttria were evaluated. These coatings combine the enhanced performance characteristics of ZCY with the improved erosion resistance of ZTY coatings. Improvement in the erosion resistance of the TBC system should result in a more consistent delta T gradient during service. Economically, this may also translate into increased component life simply because the coating lasts longer.

  12. ADVANCED NUCLEAR FUEL CYCLE EFFECTS ON THE TREATMENT OF UNCERTAINTY IN THE LONG-TERM ASSESSMENT OF GEOLOGIC DISPOSAL SYSTEMS - EBS INPUT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutton, M; Blink, J A; Greenberg, H R; Sharma, M

    2012-04-25

    The Used Fuel Disposition (UFD) Campaign within the Department of Energy's Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) Fuel Cycle Technology (FCT) program has been tasked with investigating the disposal of the nation's spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level nuclear waste (HLW) for a range of potential waste forms and geologic environments. The planning, construction, and operation of a nuclear disposal facility is a long-term process that involves engineered barriers that are tailored to both the geologic environment and the waste forms being emplaced. The UFD Campaign is considering a range of fuel cycles that in turn produce a range of waste forms. The UFD Campaign is also considering a range of geologic media. These ranges could be thought of as adding uncertainty to what the disposal facility design will ultimately be; however, it may be preferable to thinking about the ranges as adding flexibility to design of a disposal facility. For example, as the overall DOE-NE program and industrial actions result in the fuel cycles that will produce waste to be disposed, and the characteristics of those wastes become clear, the disposal program retains flexibility in both the choice of geologic environment and the specific repository design. Of course, other factors also play a major role, including local and State-level acceptance of the specific site that provides the geologic environment. In contrast, the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) repository license application (LA) is based on waste forms from an open fuel cycle (PWR and BWR assemblies from an open fuel cycle). These waste forms were about 90% of the total waste, and they were the determining waste form in developing the engineered barrier system (EBS) design for the Yucca Mountain Repository design. About 10% of the repository capacity was reserved for waste from a full recycle fuel cycle in which some actinides were extracted for weapons use, and the remaining fission products and some minor actinides were

  13. The Integration and Abstracyion of EBS Models in Yucca Mountain Performance Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.D. Sevougian; V. Jain; A.V. Luik

    2006-01-11

    The safety strategy for geological disposal of radioactive waste at Yucca Mountain relies on a multi-barrier system to contain the waste and isolate it from the biosphere. The multi-barrier system consists of the natural barrier provided by the geological setting and the engineered barrier system (EBS). In the case of Yucca Mountain (YM) the geologic setting is the unsaturated-zone host rock, consisting of about 600 meters of layered ash-flow volcanic tuffs above the water table, and the saturated zone beneath the water table. Both the unsaturated and saturated rocks are part of a closed hydrologic basin in a desert surface environment. The waste is to be buried about halfway between the desert surface and the water table. The primary engineered barriers at YM consist of metal components that are highly durable in an oxidizing environment. The two primary components of the engineered barrier system are highly corrosion-resistant metal waste packages, made from a nickel-chromium-molybdenum alloy, Alloy 22, and titanium drip shields that protect the waste packages from corrosive dripping water and falling rocks. Design and performance assessment of the EBS requires models that describe how the EBS and near field behave under anticipated repository-relevant conditions. These models must describe coupled hydrologic, thermal, chemical, and mechanical (THCM) processes that drive radionuclide transport in a highly fractured host rock, consisting of a relatively permeable network of conductive fractures in a setting of highly impermeable tuff rock matrix. An integrated performance assessment of the EBS must include a quantification of the uncertainties that arise from (1) incomplete understanding of processes and (2) from lack of data representative of the large spatial scales and long time scales relevant to radioactive waste disposal (e.g., long-term metal corrosion rates and heterogeneities in rock properties over the large 5 km{sup 2} emplacement area of the repository

  14. Systems study on engineered barriers: barrier performance analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stula, R.T.; Albert, T.E.; Kirstein, B.E.; Lester, D.H.

    1980-09-01

    A performance assessment model for multiple barrier packages containing unreprocessed spent fuel has been modified and applied to several package designs. The objective of the study was to develop information to be used in programmatic decision making concerning engineered barrier package design and development. The assessment model, BARIER, was developed in previous tasks of the System Study on Engineered Barriers (SSEB). The new version discussed in this report contains a refined and expanded corrosion rate data base which includes pitting, crack growth, and graphitization as well as bulk corrosion. Corrosion rates for oxic and anoxic conditions at each of the two temperature ranges are supplied. Other improvements include a rigorous treatment of radionuclide release after package failure which includes resistance of damaged barriers and backfill, refined temperature calculations that account for convection and radiation, a subroutine to calculate nuclear gamma radiation field at each barrier surface, refined stress calculations with reduced conservatism and various coding improvements to improve running time and core usage. This report also contains discussion of alternative scenarios to the assumed flooded repository as well as the impact of water exclusion backfills. The model was used to assess post repository closure performance for several designs which were all variation of basic designs from the Spent Unreprocessed Fuel (SURF) program. Many designs were found to delay the onset of leaching by at least a few hundreds of years in all geologic media. Long delay times for radionuclide release were found for packages with a few inches of sorption backfill. Release of uranium, plutonium, and americium was assessed.

  15. Single-photon sensitive fast ebCMOS camera system for multiple-target tracking of single fluorophores: application to nano-biophotonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cajgfinger, Thomas; Chabanat, Eric; Dominjon, Agnes; Doan, Quang T.; Guerin, Cyrille; Houles, Julien; Barbier, Remi

    2011-03-01

    Nano-biophotonics applications will benefit from new fluorescent microscopy methods based essentially on super-resolution techniques (beyond the diffraction limit) on large biological structures (membranes) with fast frame rate (1000 Hz). This trend tends to push the photon detectors to the single-photon counting regime and the camera acquisition system to real time dynamic multiple-target tracing. The LUSIPHER prototype presented in this paper aims to give a different approach than those of Electron Multiplied CCD (EMCCD) technology and try to answer to the stringent demands of the new nano-biophotonics imaging techniques. The electron bombarded CMOS (ebCMOS) device has the potential to respond to this challenge, thanks to the linear gain of the accelerating high voltage of the photo-cathode, to the possible ultra fast frame rate of CMOS sensors and to the single-photon sensitivity. We produced a camera system based on a 640 kPixels ebCMOS with its acquisition system. The proof of concept for single-photon based tracking for multiple single-emitters is the main result of this paper.

  16. EB Frond wave energy converter - phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The EB Frond project is a wave energy programme developed by The Engineering Business (EB) from an original idea at Lancaster University. The EB Frond is a wave generator with a collector vane on top of an arm that pivots near the seabed. Phase 1 of the project demonstrated the technical feasibility of the project and provided proof of concept. Phase 2 involved further assesment of the technical and commercial viability of the concept through the development of mathematical and physical modelling methods. The work involved small-scale (1/25th) testing in wave tanks at Newcastle and Lancaster Universities and the development, verification and validation of a time domain mathematical model. The decision by EB to put on hold its renewable generation programme meant that plans to test at an intermediate scale (1/16th), assess different survival strategies in extreme wave conditions, carry out site characterisation for full-scale systems and to produce a robust economic model were not fulfilled. However, the mathematical and physical modelling work was used to develop an economic model for the Frond system. This produced a predicted unit cost of electricity by a pre-commercial 5 MW demonstration farm of about 17 pence/kWh. The report discusses the small-scale testing, test results, mathematical modelling, analysis and interpretation, survivability, the economic model and the development route to full-scale production.

  17. Brain barrier systems: a new frontier in metal neurotoxicological research

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Wei; Aschner, Michael; Ghersi-Egea, Jean-Francois

    2003-01-01

    The concept of brain barriers or a brain barrier system embraces the blood–brain interface, referred to as the blood–brain barrier, and the blood–cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) interface, referred to as the blood–CSF barrier. These brain barriers protect the CNS against chemical insults, by different complementary mechanisms. Toxic metal molecules can either bypass these mechanisms or be sequestered in and therefore potentially deleterious to brain barriers. Supportive evidence suggests that damag...

  18. Simulations of EBS task force BMT 1.3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lempinen, A. (Marintel Ky, Turku (Finland))

    2007-08-15

    The Aespoe HRL International Joint Committee has set up a Task Force on Engineered Barrier Systems (EBS). Its long time objective is to develop effective tools for analysis of THM(C) behaviour of buffer and backfill. The idea of the Task Force is to offer a forum to develop the tools of the work groups. Bench Mark Test (BMT) 1.3 was a small-scale heating test with no external water supply. The experiment was conducted by Technical University of Catalonia. It was a thermal-hydraulic-mechanical test, although only temperature was measured continuously. Simulation results are presented here. These simulations were performed with Freefem++ software, which is a high-level programming language for solving partial differential equations with finite element method. The mathematical model used is based on continuum thermodynamics. With the model improvements for BMT 1.3, also BMT 1.2 was recalculated. (orig.)

  19. Application of EB in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunaga, Hiromi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2003-02-01

    Radiation processing using electron beam (EB) facilities other than gamma-ray facilities in Japan is introduced. After briefly presented the features of EB compared with gamma ray, present status of EB application is described. Polymerized materials for use of wire, cable, radial tire, heat shrinkable tube, foam polyethylene, PTFE, battery separator, and adsorbent material are known to be resulting from cross-linking, decomposition, and graft polymerization reactions. Environmental preservation includes electron flue gas treatment in the coal- or oil-fired power plants, research for volatile organic compounds (VOC) and dioxins, as well as wastewater and sludge treatment. Finally activity of JAERI in the related fields is overviewed with the authors prospects for utilization of low energy EB with low cost for surface treatment and functional materials. (S. Ohno)

  20. Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Dixon

    2004-04-26

    The conceptual and predictive models documented in this Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment Model report describe the evolution of the physical and chemical conditions within the waste emplacement drifts of the repository. The modeling approaches and model output data will be used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA-LA) to assess the performance of the engineered barrier system and the waste form. These models evaluate the range of potential water compositions within the emplacement drifts, resulting from the interaction of introduced materials and minerals in dust with water seeping into the drifts and with aqueous solutions forming by deliquescence of dust (as influenced by atmospheric conditions), and from thermal-hydrological-chemical (THC) processes in the drift. These models also consider the uncertainty and variability in water chemistry inside the drift and the compositions of introduced materials within the drift. This report develops and documents a set of process- and abstraction-level models that constitute the engineered barrier system: physical and chemical environment model. Where possible, these models use information directly from other process model reports as input, which promotes integration among process models used for total system performance assessment. Specific tasks and activities of modeling the physical and chemical environment are included in the technical work plan ''Technical Work Plan for: In-Drift Geochemistry Modeling'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 166519]). As described in the technical work plan, the development of this report is coordinated with the development of other engineered barrier system analysis model reports.

  1. ENGINEERED BARRIER SYSTEM: PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL ENVIRONMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Jarek

    2004-11-23

    The purpose of this report is to describe the evolution of the physical and chemical environmental conditions within the waste emplacement drifts of the repository, including the drip shield and waste package surfaces. The abstraction model is used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA LA) to assess the performance of the engineered barrier system and the waste form. This report develops and documents a set of these abstraction-level models that describe the engineered barrier system physical and chemical environment. Where possible, these models use information directly from other reports as input, which promotes integration among process models used for TSPA-LA. Specific tasks and activities of modeling the physical and chemical environment are included in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport In-Drift Geochemistry Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171156], Section 1.2.2). As described in the technical work plan, the development of this report is coordinated with the development of other engineered barrier system reports.

  2. ENGINEERED BARRIER SYSTEM: PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL ENVIRONMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G.H. Nieder-Westermann

    2005-04-07

    The purpose of this report is to describe the evolution of the physical and chemical environmental conditions within the waste emplacement drifts of the repository, including the drip shield and waste package surfaces. The abstraction model is used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA LA) to assess the performance of the engineered barrier system and the waste form. This report develops and documents a set of these abstraction-level models that describe the engineered barrier system physical and chemical environment. Where possible, these models use information directly from other reports as input, which promotes integration among process models used for TSPA-LA. Specific tasks and activities of modeling the physical and chemical environment are included in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport In-Drift Geochemistry Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171156], Section 1.2.2). As described in the technical work plan, the development of this report is coordinated with the development of other engineered barrier system reports.

  3. SUBSURFACE BARRIER VALIDATION WITH THE SEAFACE SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandra Dalvit Dunn

    1997-11-30

    The overall objective of the effort was to develop and demonstrate an integrated methodology and field system to evaluate the integrity of in situ, impermeable barriers constructed in the vadose zone. An autonomous, remotely accessible, automatic monitoring and analysis system was designed and fabricated. It was thoroughly tested under field conditions, and was able to function as designed throughout the test period. Data inversion software was developed with enhanced capabilities over the previous prototype version, and integrated with the monitoring system for real time operation. Analytical simulations were performed to determine the inversion code's sensitivity to model parameters. Numerical simulations were performed to better understand how typical field conditions differ from the ideal model(s) which are used (or have been developed for use) in the inversion code and to further validate the flux limited forward model developed for use with the system. Results from the analytical and numerical assessment of the inversion code showed that the SEAtrace{trademark} approach could locate leaks within 0.4 to 1.2 m. Leak size determination was less accurate, but produced results within a factor of 3 to 8 for leaks in the 2.5 to 10 cm diameter range. The smallest engineered leak in the test 1.1 cm diameter, could be located but its size estimate was high by a factor of 30. Data analysis was performed automatically after each gas scan was completed, yielding results in less than thirty minutes, although the bulk of the results reported required post test data analysis to remove effects of high background concentrations. The field test of the integrated system was problematic, primarily due to unanticipated, unintentional leaks formed in the impermeable liner. The test facility constructed to proof the system was ambitious, initially having 11 engineered leaks of various dimensions that could be independently operated. While a great deal of care went into the

  4. Article Including Environmental Barrier Coating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang N. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An enhanced environmental barrier coating for a silicon containing substrate. The enhanced barrier coating may include a bond coat doped with at least one of an alkali metal oxide and an alkali earth metal oxide. The enhanced barrier coating may include a composite mullite bond coat including BSAS and another distinct second phase oxide applied over said surface.

  5. Energy Dependence of the Fusion Barrier for Heavy Nuclear Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIZhu-xia; WUXi-zhen; TIANJun-long; WANGNing

    2003-01-01

    The dynamical behavior of the fusion potential barrier for heavy nuclear systems is studied by means of the improved quantum molecular dynamics model. It is found that the fusion potential barrier experienced in a realistic fusion process (the dynamic fusion potential barrier) reduces with decrease of incident energies.

  6. DOE-Managed HLW and SNF Research: FY15 EBS and Thermal Analysis Work Package Status.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matteo, Edward N. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hadgu, Teklu [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-11-01

    This report examines the technical elements necessary to evaluate EBS concepts and perform thermal analysis of DOE-Managed SNF and HLW in the disposal settings of primary interest – argillite, crystalline, salt, and deep borehole. As the disposal design concept is composed of waste inventory, geologic setting, and engineered concept of operation, the engineered barrier system (EBS) falls into the last component of engineered concept of operation. The waste inventory for DOE-Managed HLW and SNF is closely examined, with specific attention to the number of waste packages, the size of waste packages, and the thermal output per package. As expected, the DOE-Managed HLW and SNF inventory has a much smaller volume, and hence smaller number of canister, as well a lower thermal output, relative to a waste inventory that would include commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF). A survey of available data and methods from previous studies of thermal analysis indicates that, in some cases, thermo-hydrologic modeling will be necessary to appropriately address the problem. This report also outlines scope for FY16 work -- a key challenges identified is developing a methodology to effectively and efficiently evaluate EBS performance in each disposal setting on the basis of thermal analyses results.

  7. EB1 and EB3 promote cilia biogenesis by several centrosome-related mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Jacob M; Larsen, Jesper; Komarova, Yulia

    2011-01-01

    surrounded by vesicles. Further, GST pull-down assays, mass spectrometry and immunoprecipitation indicated that EB1 and EB3 interact with proteins implicated in MT minus-end anchoring or vesicular trafficking to the cilia base, suggesting that EB1 and EB3 promote ciliogenesis by facilitating such trafficking...

  8. The Role of the Engineered Barrier System in Safety Cases for Geological Radioactive Waste Repoitories: An NEA Initiaive in Co-Operations with the EC, Process Issues and Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.G. Bennett; A.J. Hooper; S. Voinis; H. Umeki; A.V. Luik; J. Alonso

    2006-02-07

    The Integration Group for the Safety Case (IGSC) of the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) Radioactive Waste Management Committee in co-operation with the European Commission (EC) is conducting a project to develop a greater understanding of how to achieve the necessary integration for successful design, construction, testing, modeling, and assessment of engineered barrier systems. The project also seeks to clarify the role that the EBS plays in assuring the overall safety of a repository. A framework for the EBS Project is provided by a series of workshops that allow discussion of the wide range of activities necessary for the design, assessment and optimization of the EBS, and the integration of this information into the safety case. The topics of this series of workshops have been planned so that the EBS project will work progressively through the main aspects comprising one cycle of the design and optimization process. This paper seeks to communicate key results from the EBS project to a wider audience. The paper focuses on two topics discussed at the workshops: process issues and the role of modeling.

  9. Applications of barrier bucket RF systems at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhat, C.M.; /Fermilab

    2006-03-01

    In recent years, the barrier rf systems have become important tools in a variety of beam manipulation applications at synchrotrons. Four out of six proton synchrotrons at Fermilab are equipped with broad-band barrier rf systems. All of the beam manipulations pertaining to the longitudinal phase space in the Fermilab Recycler (synchrotron used for antiproton storage) are carried out using a barrier system. Recently, a number of new applications of barrier rf systems have been developed- the longitudinal momentum mining, longitudinal phase-space coating, antiproton stacking, fast bunch compression and more. Some of these techniques have been critical for the recent spectacular success of the collider performance at the Fermilab Tevatron. Barrier bunch coalescing to produce bright proton bunches has a high potential to increase proton antiproton luminosity significantly. In this paper, I will describe some of these techniques in detail. Finally, I make a few general remarks on issues related to barrier systems.

  10. Deployment Efficiency and Barrier Effectiveness Testing of a Temporary Anti-Personnel (TAP) Barrier System.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, David James [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hedrick, Charles D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Martinez, Ruben [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-02-01

    This report documents tests conducted by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) on behalf of the U.S. Department of State to evaluate a temporary anti-personnel (TAP) barrier system developed by Mitigation Technologies. For this, the SNL Denial and Structural Assessment department developed a test protocol for the evaluation of the TAP barrier system on the basis of deployment efficiency and barrier effectiveness against a riotous/mob attack threat. The test protocol was then executed by SNL personnel and the results of the testing are documented.

  11. Fluctuating Potential Barrier System with Correlated Spatial Noises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jing-Hui

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we study a fluctuating potential barrier system with correlated spatial noises. Study shows that for this system, there is the resonant activation over the fluctuating potential barrier, and that the correlation between the different spatial noises can enhance (or weaken) the resonant activation.

  12. Combustion chemical vapor desposited coatings for thermal barrier coating systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hampikian, J.M.; Carter, W.B. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The new deposition process, combustion chemical vapor deposition, shows a great deal of promise in the area of thermal barrier coating systems. This technique produces dense, adherent coatings, and does not require a reaction chamber. Coatings can therefore be applied in the open atmosphere. The process is potentially suitable for producing high quality CVD coatings for use as interlayers between the bond coat and thermal barrier coating, and/or as overlayers, on top of thermal barrier coatings.

  13. Phonon tunneling through a double barrier system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villegas, Diosdado [Departamento de Física, Universidad Central “Marta Abreu” de Las Villas, CP 54830, Santa Clara, Villa Clara (Cuba); Instituto de Física, Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, 18 Sur y San Claudio, Edif. 110A, Ciudad Universitaria, 72570 Puebla (Mexico); León-Pérez, Fernando de [Centro Universitario de la Defensa de Zaragoza, Ctra. de Huesca s/n, E-50090 Zaragoza (Spain); Pérez-Álvarez, R. [Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos, Av. Universidad 1001, CP 62209 Cuernavaca (Mexico); Arriaga, J., E-mail: arriaga@ifuap.buap.mx [Instituto de Física, Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, 18 Sur y San Claudio, Edif. 110A, Ciudad Universitaria, 72570 Puebla (Mexico)

    2015-04-15

    The tunneling of optical and acoustic phonons at normal incidence on a double-barrier is studied in this paper. Transmission coefficients and resonance conditions are derived theoretically under the assumption that the long-wavelength approximation is valid. It is shown that the behavior of the transmission coefficients for the symmetric double barrier has a Lorentzian form close to resonant frequencies and that Breit–Wigner's formula have a general validity in one-dimensional phonon tunneling. Authors also study the so-called generalized Hartman effect in the tunneling of long-wavelength phonons and show that this effect is a numerical artifact resulting from taking the opaque limit before exploring the variation with a finite barrier width. This study could be useful for the design of acoustic devices.

  14. John H. Chafee Coastal Barrier Resources System Approximate Polygons

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Coastal Barrier Resources System (CBRS) data set, produced by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), contains areas designated as undeveloped coastal...

  15. Combustion chemical vapor deposited coatings for thermal barrier coating systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hampikian, J.M.; Carter, W.B. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Materials Science and Engineering

    1995-12-31

    The new deposition process, combustion chemical vapor deposition, shows a great deal of promise in the area of thermal barrier coating systems. This technique produces dense, adherent coatings, and does not require a reaction chamber. Coatings can therefore be applied in the open atmosphere. The process is potentially suitable for producing high quality CVD coatings for use as interlayers between the bond coat and thermal barrier coating, and/or as overlayers, on top of thermal barrier coatings. In this report, the evaluation of alumina and ceria coatings on a nickel-chromium alloy is described.

  16. The role of plants on isolation barrier systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Link, S.O.; Downs, J.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Waugh, W.J. [UNC Chem-Nuclear Geotech, Grand Junction, CO (United States)

    1994-11-01

    Surface barriers are used to isolate buried wastes from the environment. Most have been built for short-term isolation. The need to isolate radioactive wastes from the environment requires that the functional integrity of a barrier be maintained for thousands of years. Barrier function strongly depends on vegetation. Plants reduce wind and water erosion and minimize drainage, but may transport contaminants if roots extend into buried wastes. Our review of the function of plants on surface barriers focuses on the role of plants across mesic to arid environments and gives special consideration to studies done at Hanford. The Hanford Barrier Development Program was created to design and test an earthen cover system to inhibit water infiltration, plant and animal intrusion, and wind and water erosion, while isolating buried wastes for at least 1000 years. Studies at the Hanford have shown that plants will significantly interact with the barrier. Plants transpire soil water back into the atmosphere. Deep-rooted perennials best recycle water; soil water may drain through the root zone of shallow-rooted annuals. Lysimeter studies indicate that a surface layer of fine soil with deep-rooted plants precludes drainage even with three times normal precipitation. The presence of vegetation greatly reduces water and wind erosion, but deep-rooted plants pose a threat of biointrusion and contaminant transport. The Hanford barrier includes a buried rock layer and asphalt layer to prevent biointrusion.

  17. The Leber congenital amaurosis protein AIPL1 and EB proteins co-localize at the photoreceptor cilium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Hidalgo-de-Quintana

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the interaction and co-localization of novel interacting proteins with the Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA associated protein aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein-like 1 (AIPL1.The CytoTrapXR yeast two-hybrid system was used to screen a bovine retinal cDNA library. A novel interaction between AIPL1 and members of the family of EB proteins was confirmed by directed yeast two-hybrid analysis and co-immunoprecipitation assays. The localization of AIPL1 and the EB proteins in cultured cells and in retinal cryosections was examined by immunofluorescence microscopy and cryo-immunogold electron microscopy.Yeast two-hybrid (Y2H analysis identified the interaction between AIPL1 and the EB proteins, EB1 and EB3. EB1 and EB3 were specifically co-immunoprecipitated with AIPL1 from SK-N-SH neuroblastoma cells. In directed 1:1 Y2H analysis, the interaction of EB1 with AIPL1 harbouring the LCA-causing mutations A197P, C239R and W278X was severely compromised. Immunofluorescent confocal microscopy revealed that AIPL1 did not co-localize with endogenous EB1 at the tips of microtubules, endogenous EB1 at the microtubule organising centre following disruption of the microtubule network, or with endogenous β-tubulin. Moreover, AIPL1 did not localize to primary cilia in ARPE-19 cells, whereas EB1 co-localized with the centrosomal marker pericentrin at the base of primary cilia. However, both AIPL1 and the EB proteins, EB1 and EB3, co-localized with centrin-3 in the connecting cilium of photoreceptor cells. Cryo-immunogold electron microscopy confirmed the co-localization of AIPL1 and EB1 in the connecting cilia in human retinal photoreceptors.AIPL1 and the EB proteins, EB1 and EB3, localize at the connecting cilia of retinal photoreceptor cells, but do not co-localize in the cellular microtubule network or in primary cilia in non-retinal cells. These findings suggest that AIPL1 function in these cells is not related

  18. Subsurface barrier validation with the SEAtrace{trademark} system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandra Dalvit Dunn; William Lowry; Veraun Chipman

    1999-09-01

    Under contract to the Department of Energy, Science and Engineering Associates has completed development and testing of a subsurface barrier verification and monitoring system. This system, called SEAtrace{trademark}, is able to locate and size leaks with a high degree of accuracy in subsurface barriers that are emplaced in an unsaturated medium. It uses gaseous tracer injection, in-field real-time monitoring, and real time data analysis to evaluate barrier integrity. The approach is: Conservative as it measures vapor leaks in a containment system whose greatest risk is posed by liquid leaks; Applicable to any impermeable type of barrier emplacement technology in the unsaturated zone; Inexpensive as it uses readily available, non-toxic, nonhazardous gaseous tracers, does not require an inordinately large number of sampling points, and injection and sampling points can be emplaced by direct push techniques; Capable of assessing not only a barrier's initial integrity, but can also provide long-term monitoring. To date, six demonstrations of the system have been completed. Results from two of the demonstrations are detailed in this report. They include the final developmental demonstration of the SEAtrace system and a comparison demonstration of two tracer based verification technologies. The final developmental demonstration of SEAtrace was completed at a naval facility in Brunswick, Maine. The demonstration was funded solely by the DOE and was performed in cooperation with the US Navy, the Environmental Protection Agency, and the Maine Department of Environmental Protection.

  19. The Electron Beam Semiconductor (EBS) amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    True, R. M.; Baxendale, J. F.

    1980-07-01

    The Electron Beam Semiconductor (EBS) concept has existed for three decades; but only within the last decade has an active, well-defined program been underway to develop devices that can operate as high-power radio frequency(RF) amplifiers, fast risetime switches, and current and voltage pulse amplifiers. This report discusses the test procedures, data and results of reliability testing of RF and video pulse EBS amplifiers at Electronics Research and Development Command (ERADCOM), Fort Monmouth, New Jersey. Also, the experimental analysis of the series connected diode EBS device is described in detail. Finally, the report concludes with a discussion of the state-of-the-art of EBS and future trends of the technology.

  20. Microstructural Evolution and interfacial motion in systems with diffusion barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perry H. Leo

    2009-03-05

    This research program was designed to model and simulate phase transformations in systems containing diffusion barriers. The modeling work included mass flow, phase formation, and microstructural evolution in interdiffusing systems. Simulation work was done by developing Cahn-Hilliard and phase field equations governing both the temporal and spatial evolution of the composition and deformation fields and other important phase variables.

  1. Low temperature monitoring system for subsurface barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinegar, Harold J.; McKinzie, II. Billy John

    2009-08-18

    A system for monitoring temperature of a subsurface low temperature zone is described. The system includes a plurality of freeze wells configured to form the low temperature zone, one or more lasers, and a fiber optic cable coupled to at least one laser. A portion of the fiber optic cable is positioned in at least one freeze well. At least one laser is configured to transmit light pulses into a first end of the fiber optic cable. An analyzer is coupled to the fiber optic cable. The analyzer is configured to receive return signals from the light pulses.

  2. The Role of Microtubule End Binding (EB) Proteins in Ciliogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Jacob Morville

    in the biflagellate green alga Chlamydomonas (Pedersen et al., 2003), and is required for ciliogenesis in mouse fibroblasts (Schroder et al., 2007). However, the exact mechanism(s) involved and roles of the two additional mammalian members of the end binding (EB) protein family, EB2 and EB3, in ciliogenesis...... also form a heterodimeric complex that is likely to be functionally distinct from the homodimeric complexes (Komarova et al., 2009; De Groot et al., 2010). This thesis is based on experiments using small interfering (si) RNA and dominant-negative constructs to show that EB1 and EB3, but not EB2......, are required for assembly of primary cilia in cultured human cells. The EB3 - siRNA ciliary phenotype could be rescued by GFP-EB1 expression, and GFP-EB3 over expression resulted in elongated cilia. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that EB3-depleted cells possess stumpy cilia, a disorganized...

  3. Origin of Small Barriers in Jahn–Teller Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barriuso, M. T.; Ortiz-Sevilla, B.; Aramburu, J. A.

    2013-01-01

    Despite its relevance, the microscopic origin of the energy barrier, B, between the compressed and elongated geometries of Jahn–Teller (JT) systems is not well understood yet because of a lack of quantitative data about its various contributions. Seeking to clear up this matter, we have carried o...

  4. Experimental Study on Spiral Patterns in Dielectric Barrier Discharge System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Shu-Hua; DONG Li-Fang; LIU Fu-Cheng; LI Shu-Feng; LI Xue-Chen; WANG Hong-Fang

    2006-01-01

    Spiral patterns are obtained in a dielectric barrier discharge system with water electrodes. The dynamics of spiral formation and transition is investigated. Wavelength characteristic of spiral patterns is also studied. Correlation measurements indicate that the wavelength of spiral pattern increases with the increasing gas gap width and oscillates with the increasing drive frequency.

  5. Trapping of normal EB1 ligands in aggresomes formed by an EB1 deletion mutant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Askham Jon M

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background EB1 is a microtubule tip-associated protein that interacts with the APC tumour suppressor protein and the p150glued subunit of dynactin. We previously reported that an EB1 deletion mutant that retains both of these interactions but does not directly associate with microtubules (EB1-ΔN2-GFP spontaneously formed perinuclear aggregates when expressed in COS-7 cells. Results In the present study live imaging indicated that EB1-ΔN2-GFP aggregates underwent dynamic microtubule-dependent changes in morphology and appeared to be internally cohesive. EB1-ΔN2-GFP aggregates were phase-dense structures that displayed microtubule-dependent accumulation around the centrosome, were immunoreactive for both the 20s subunit of the proteasome and ubiquitin, and induced the collapse of the vimentin cytoskeleton. Fractionation studies revealed that a proportion of EB1-ΔN2-GFP was detergent-insoluble and ubiquitylated, indicating that EB1-ΔN2-GFP aggregates are aggresomes. Immunostaining also revealed that APC and p150glued were present in EB1-ΔN2-GFP aggregates, whereas EB3 was not. Furthermore, evidence for p150glued degradation was found in the insoluble fraction of EB1-ΔN2-GFP transfected cultures. Conclusion Our data indicate that aggresomes can be internally cohesive and may not represent a simple "aggregate of aggregates" assembled around the centrosome. Our observations also indicate that a partially misfolded protein may retain the ability to interact with its normal physiological ligands, leading to their co-assembly into aggresomes. This supports the idea that the trapping and degradation of co-aggregated proteins might contribute to human pathologies characterised by aggresome formation.

  6. ENGINEERED BARRIER SYSTEM FEATURES, EVENTS, AND PROCESSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    na

    2005-05-30

    This analysis report is one of the technical reports containing documentation of the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain, Nevada (ERMYN), a biosphere model supporting the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for the license application (LA) for the Yucca Mountain repository. This analysis report describes the development of biosphere dose conversion factors (BDCFs) for the volcanic ash exposure scenario, and the development of dose factors for calculating inhalation dose during volcanic eruption. A graphical representation of the documentation hierarchy for the ERMYN is presented in Figure 1 - 1. This figure shows the interrelationships among the products (i.e., analysis and model reports) developed for biosphere modeling and provides an understanding of how this analysis report contributes to biosphere modeling. This report is one of two reports that develop biosphere BDCFs, which are input parameters for the TSPA model. The ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169460]) describes in detail the ERMYN conceptual model and mathematical model. The input parameter reports, shown to the right of the Biosphere Model Report in Figure 1-1, contain detailed descriptions of the model input parameters, their development and the relationship between the parameters and specific features, events and processes (FEPs). This report describes biosphere model calculations and their output, the BDCFs, for the volcanic ash exposure scenario. This analysis receives direct input from the outputs of the ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169460]) and from the five analyses that develop parameter values for the biosphere model (BSC 2005 [DIRS 172827]; BSC 2004 [DIRS 169672]; BSC 2004 [DIRS 169673]; BSC 2004 [DIRS 169458]; and BSC 2004 [DIRS 169459]). The results of this report are further analyzed in the ''Biosphere Dose Conversion Factor Importance and Sensitivity Analysis'' (Figure 1 - 1). The

  7. Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. M. Jolley; R. Jarek; P. Mariner

    2004-02-09

    The conceptual and predictive models documented in this Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment Model report describe the evolution of the physical and chemical conditions within the waste emplacement drifts of the repository. The modeling approaches and model output data will be used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA-LA) to assess the performance of the engineered barrier system and the waste form. These models evaluate the range of potential water compositions within the emplacement drifts, resulting from the interaction of introduced materials and minerals in dust with water seeping into the drifts and with aqueous solutions forming by deliquescence of dust (as influenced by atmospheric conditions), and from thermal-hydrological-chemical (THC) processes in the drift. These models also consider the uncertainty and variability in water chemistry inside the drift and the compositions of introduced materials within the drift. This report develops and documents a set of process- and abstraction-level models that constitute the engineered barrier system: physical and chemical environment model. Where possible, these models use information directly from other process model reports as input, which promotes integration among process models used for total system performance assessment. Specific tasks and activities of modeling the physical and chemical environment are included in the technical work plan ''Technical Work Plan for: In-Drift Geochemistry Modeling'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 166519]). As described in the technical work plan, the development of this report is coordinated with the development of other engineered barrier system analysis model reports.

  8. Diffusion Barrier Coating System and Oxidation Behavior of Coated Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    T.NARITA

    2009-01-01

    @@ 1 Introduction Research into the formation of Re-based alloys is in progress in our laboratory to provide a diffusion barrier layer between heat-resistant alloys and Al reservoir layers, which assist in the formation and maintenance a protective Al2O3 scale for long periods. Coatings with a two-layered structure comprised of inner Re-based alloy layer and outer β-NiAl layer with or without Pt addition were successfully formed on various heat resistant alloys such as Ni-based singlecrystal superalloys, Ni-based heat resistant alloys, NiMo based alloy, Ni-Cr based alloy, and Fe-based alloys. The duplex layer coating proposed is generally termed a diffusion barrier coating system; DBC system.

  9. A preliminary experimental study on virtual sound barrier system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Haishan; Qiu, Xiaojun; Lu, Jing; Niu, Feng

    2007-10-01

    Virtual sound barrier (VSB) is an array of loudspeakers and microphones forming an acoustic barrier, which creates a quiet zone without blocking air and light. A 16-channel cylindrical VSB system has been developed and its feasibility is verified by both numerical simulations and experiments. Experimental results in a normal room show that it can create a quiet zone larger than the size of a human head in the low-middle frequency, with a total sound pressure level reduction of more than 10 dB in the quiet zone. The control performance of the system with respect to the frequency, the distribution of the error sensors and the control sources are discussed.

  10. Thermal and Environmental Barrier Coatings for Advanced Propulsion Engine Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dong-Ming; Miller, Robert A.

    2004-01-01

    Ceramic thermal and environmental barrier coatings (TEBCs) are used in gas turbine engines to protect engine hot-section components in the harsh combustion environments, and extend component lifetimes. For future high performance engines, the development of advanced ceramic barrier coating systems will allow these coatings to be used to simultaneously increase engine operating temperature and reduce cooling requirements, thereby leading to significant improvements in engine power density and efficiency. In order to meet future engine performance and reliability requirements, the coating systems must be designed with increased high temperature stability, lower thermal conductivity, and improved thermal stress and erosion resistance. In this paper, ceramic coating design and testing considerations will be described for high temperature and high-heat-flux engine applications in hot corrosion and oxidation, erosion, and combustion water vapor environments. Further coating performance and life improvements will be expected by utilizing advanced coating architecture design, composition optimization, and improved processing techniques, in conjunction with modeling and design tools.

  11. Computational Design and Experimental Validation of New Thermal Barrier Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Shengmin; Yang, Shizhong; Khosravi, Ebrahim

    2014-04-01

    This project (10/01/2010-9/30/2014), “Computational Design and Experimental Validation of New Thermal Barrier Systems”, originates from Louisiana State University (LSU) Mechanical Engineering Department and Southern University (SU) Department of Computer Science. This project will directly support the technical goals specified in DE-FOA-0000248, Topic Area 3: Turbine Materials, by addressing key technologies needed to enable the development of advanced turbines and turbine-based systems that will operate safely and efficiently using coal-derived synthesis gases. In this project, the focus is to develop and implement novel molecular dynamics method to improve the efficiency of simulation on novel TBC materials; perform high performance computing (HPC) on complex TBC structures to screen the most promising TBC compositions; perform material characterizations and oxidation/corrosion tests; and demonstrate our new thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems experimentally under integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) environments.

  12. TRITIUM BARRIER MATERIALS AND SEPARATION SYSTEMS FOR THE NGNP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, S; Thad Adams, T

    2008-07-17

    Contamination of downstream hydrogen production plants or other users of high-temperature heat is a concern of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. Due to the high operating temperatures of the NGNP (850-900 C outlet temperature), tritium produced in the nuclear reactor can permeate through heat exchangers to reach the hydrogen production plant, where it can become incorporated into process chemicals or the hydrogen product. The concentration limit for tritium in the hydrogen product has not been established, but it is expected that any future limit on tritium concentration will be no higher than the air and water effluent limits established by the NRC and the EPA. A literature survey of tritium permeation barriers, capture systems, and mitigation measures is presented and technologies are identified that may reduce the movement of tritium to the downstream plant. Among tritium permeation barriers, oxide layers produced in-situ may provide the most suitable barriers, though it may be possible to use aluminized surfaces also. For tritium capture systems, the use of getters is recommended, and high-temperature hydride forming materials such as Ti, Zr, and Y are suggested. Tritium may also be converted to HTO in order to capture it on molecular sieves or getter materials. Counter-flow of hydrogen may reduce the flux of tritium through heat exchangers. Recommendations for research and development work are provided.

  13. Implementation of electronic data capture systems: barriers and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welker, James A

    2007-05-01

    Although increasing in pace, the conversion to Electronic Data Capture (EDC) has been a slow progression. The use of EDC systems should confer improved data integrity, cost savings and a shorter time to study database closure. This will reduce the time to market and cost of new medications. With the current sentiment of the industry suggesting the cost analysis has been accepted to be in favor of EDC, the likely limitation to disseminated use is an inability to implement these systems. If the leadership at the sponsor, clinical research organization and investigator site is cognizant of the barriers to implementation, they can anticipate and mitigate them prior to the users becoming disgruntled and resistant to the new method of data capture. Once understood, barriers such as user input, technical support, user motivation, regulatory requirements, communication with users, timing of implementation, software installation, graphical user interface, identification of bridgers, patient participation, availability of technology, and costs can be better addressed at the beginning of the implementation process and successfully averted. This review discusses these barriers and potential solutions that can assist the clinical trial industry in achieving more wide-spread EDC use and the resulting improvement in operating efficiencies.

  14. Computational design and experimental validation of new thermal barrier systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Shengmin [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States)

    2015-03-31

    The focus of this project is on the development of a reliable and efficient ab initio based computational high temperature material design method which can be used to assist the Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) bond-coat and top-coat design. Experimental evaluations on the new TBCs are conducted to confirm the new TBCs’ properties. Southern University is the subcontractor on this project with a focus on the computational simulation method development. We have performed ab initio density functional theory (DFT) method and molecular dynamics simulation on screening the top coats and bond coats for gas turbine thermal barrier coating design and validation applications. For experimental validations, our focus is on the hot corrosion performance of different TBC systems. For example, for one of the top coatings studied, we examined the thermal stability of TaZr2.75O8 and confirmed it’s hot corrosion performance.

  15. Thermal cycling behavior of YSZ and La{sub 2}(Zr{sub 0.7}Ce{sub 0.3}){sub 2}O{sub 7} as double-ceramic-layer systems EB-PVD TBCs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Zhenhua, E-mail: zhxuciac@yahoo.com [Beijing Institute of Aeronautical Materials, Department 5, P.O. Box 81-5, Beijing 100095 (China); He Limin; Mu Rende; Lu Feng; He Shimei [Beijing Institute of Aeronautical Materials, Department 5, P.O. Box 81-5, Beijing 100095 (China); Cao Xueqiang [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China)

    2012-06-05

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DCL coating has a longer lifetime than that of single layer coating of LZ7C3 or YSZ. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The unique growth modes of columns within DCL coating. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The presence of cerium in both Ce{sup 3+} and Ce{sup 4+} oxidation states within the coating surface. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The spallation of DCL coating induced by transverse cracks may be the first emergence of delamination followed by spalling layer by layer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The outward diffusion of Cr element (bond coat) into LZ7C3 layer. - Abstract: Double-ceramic-layer (DCL) thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) of La{sub 2}(Zr{sub 0.7}Ce{sub 0.3}){sub 2}O{sub 7} (LZ7C3) and yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) were deposited by electron beam-physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD). The thermal cycling test at 1573 K in burner-rig with a coal gas flame indicates the thermal cycling life of DCL coating is not only much longer than that of LZ7C3 coating, but also approximately 27% longer than that of YSZ coating. The superior sintering-resistance of LZ7C3 coating and the unique growth modes of columns within DCL coating are all very helpful to the prolongation of thermal cycling life of DCL coating. The failure of DCL coating is mainly a result of the reduction-oxidation of cerium oxide, the re-crystallization of some LZ7C3 fine grains, the cracks initiation, propagation and extension, the abnormal oxidation of bond coat, the degradation of t Prime -phase in YSZ coating and the outward diffusion of Cr alloying element into LZ7C3 coating. Since no single material that has been studied so far satisfies all the requirements for high temperature applications, DCL coating is an important development direction of TBCs.

  16. The EB Factory Project. II. Validation with the Kepler Field in Preparation for K2 and TESS

    CERN Document Server

    Parvizi, Mahmoud; Stassun, Keivan G

    2014-01-01

    Large repositories of high precision light curve data, such as the Kepler data set, provide the opportunity to identify astrophysically important eclipsing binary (EB) systems in large quantities. However, the rate of classical "by eye" human analysis restricts complete and efficient mining of EBs from these data using classical techniques. To prepare for mining EBs from the upcoming K2 mission as well as other current missions, we developed an automated end-to-end computational pipeline - the Eclipsing Binary Factory (EBF) - that automatically identifies EBs and classifies them into morphological types. The EBF has been previously tested on ground-based light curves. To assess the performance of the EBF in the context of space-based data, we apply the EBF to the full set of light curves in the Kepler "Q3" Data Release. We compare the EBs identified from this automated approach against the human generated Kepler EB Catalog of ~2,600 EBs. When we require EB classification with at least 90% confidence, we find ...

  17. Single photon detection and localization accuracy with an ebCMOS camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cajgfinger, T. [CNRS/IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucléaire de Lyon, Villeurbanne F-69622 (France); Dominjon, A., E-mail: agnes.dominjon@nao.ac.jp [Université de Lyon, Université de Lyon 1, Lyon 69003 France. (France); Barbier, R. [CNRS/IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucléaire de Lyon, Villeurbanne F-69622 (France); Université de Lyon, Université de Lyon 1, Lyon 69003 France. (France)

    2015-07-01

    The CMOS sensor technologies evolve very fast and offer today very promising solutions to existing issues facing by imaging camera systems. CMOS sensors are very attractive for fast and sensitive imaging thanks to their low pixel noise (1e-) and their possibility of backside illumination. The ebCMOS group of IPNL has produced a camera system dedicated to Low Light Level detection and based on a 640 kPixels ebCMOS with its acquisition system. After reminding the principle of detection of an ebCMOS and the characteristics of our prototype, we confront our camera to other imaging systems. We compare the identification efficiency and the localization accuracy of a point source by four different photo-detection devices: the scientific CMOS (sCMOS), the Charge Coupled Device (CDD), the Electron Multiplying CCD (emCCD) and the Electron Bombarded CMOS (ebCMOS). Our ebCMOS camera is able to identify a single photon source in less than 10 ms with a localization accuracy better than 1 µm. We report as well efficiency measurement and the false positive identification of the ebCMOS camera by identifying more than hundreds of single photon sources in parallel. About 700 spots are identified with a detection efficiency higher than 90% and a false positive percentage lower than 5. With these measurements, we show that our target tracking algorithm can be implemented in real time at 500 frames per second under a photon flux of the order of 8000 photons per frame. These results demonstrate that the ebCMOS camera concept with its single photon detection and target tracking algorithm is one of the best devices for low light and fast applications such as bioluminescence imaging, quantum dots tracking or adaptive optics.

  18. Single photon detection and localization accuracy with an ebCMOS camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cajgfinger, T.; Dominjon, A.; Barbier, R.

    2015-07-01

    The CMOS sensor technologies evolve very fast and offer today very promising solutions to existing issues facing by imaging camera systems. CMOS sensors are very attractive for fast and sensitive imaging thanks to their low pixel noise (1e-) and their possibility of backside illumination. The ebCMOS group of IPNL has produced a camera system dedicated to Low Light Level detection and based on a 640 kPixels ebCMOS with its acquisition system. After reminding the principle of detection of an ebCMOS and the characteristics of our prototype, we confront our camera to other imaging systems. We compare the identification efficiency and the localization accuracy of a point source by four different photo-detection devices: the scientific CMOS (sCMOS), the Charge Coupled Device (CDD), the Electron Multiplying CCD (emCCD) and the Electron Bombarded CMOS (ebCMOS). Our ebCMOS camera is able to identify a single photon source in less than 10 ms with a localization accuracy better than 1 μm. We report as well efficiency measurement and the false positive identification of the ebCMOS camera by identifying more than hundreds of single photon sources in parallel. About 700 spots are identified with a detection efficiency higher than 90% and a false positive percentage lower than 5. With these measurements, we show that our target tracking algorithm can be implemented in real time at 500 frames per second under a photon flux of the order of 8000 photons per frame. These results demonstrate that the ebCMOS camera concept with its single photon detection and target tracking algorithm is one of the best devices for low light and fast applications such as bioluminescence imaging, quantum dots tracking or adaptive optics.

  19. Towards a barrier height benchmark set for biologically relevant systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimmy C. Kromann

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We have collected computed barrier heights and reaction energies (and associated model structures for five enzymes from studies published by Himo and co-workers. Using this data, obtained at the B3LYP/6- 311+G(2d,2p[LANL2DZ]//B3LYP/6-31G(d,p level of theory, we then benchmark PM6, PM7, PM7-TS, and DFTB3 and discuss the influence of system size, bulk solvation, and geometry re-optimization on the error. The mean absolute differences (MADs observed for these five enzyme model systems are similar to those observed for PM6 and PM7 for smaller systems (10–15 kcal/mol, while DFTB results in a MAD that is significantly lower (6 kcal/mol. The MADs for PMx and DFTB3 are each dominated by large errors for a single system and if the system is disregarded the MADs fall to 4–5 kcal/mol. Overall, results for the condensed phase are neither more or less accurate relative to B3LYP than those in the gas phase. With the exception of PM7-TS, the MAD for small and large structural models are very similar, with a maximum deviation of 3 kcal/mol for PM6. Geometry optimization with PM6 shows that for one system this method predicts a different mechanism compared to B3LYP/6-31G(d,p. For the remaining systems, geometry optimization of the large structural model increases the MAD relative to single points, by 2.5 and 1.8 kcal/mol for barriers and reaction energies. For the small structural model, the corresponding MADs decrease by 0.4 and 1.2 kcal/mol, respectively. However, despite these small changes, significant changes in the structures are observed for some systems, such as proton transfer and hydrogen bonding rearrangements. The paper represents the first step in the process of creating a benchmark set of barriers computed for systems that are relatively large and representative of enzymatic reactions, a considerable challenge for any one research group but possible through a concerted effort by the community. We end by outlining steps needed to expand and

  20. The EB factory project. II. Validation with the Kepler field in preparation for K2 and TESS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parvizi, Mahmoud; Paegert, Martin; Stassun, Keivan G., E-mail: mahmoud.parvizi@vanderbilt.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, VU Station B 1807, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Large repositories of high precision light curve data, such as the Kepler data set, provide the opportunity to identify astrophysically important eclipsing binary (EB) systems in large quantities. However, the rate of classical “by eye” human analysis restricts complete and efficient mining of EBs from these data using classical techniques. To prepare for mining EBs from the upcoming K2 mission as well as other current missions, we developed an automated end-to-end computational pipeline—the Eclipsing Binary Factory (EBF)—that automatically identifies EBs and classifies them into morphological types. The EBF has been previously tested on ground-based light curves. To assess the performance of the EBF in the context of space-based data, we apply the EBF to the full set of light curves in the Kepler “Q3” Data Release. We compare the EBs identified from this automated approach against the human generated Kepler EB Catalog of ∼2600 EBs. When we require EB classification with ⩾90% confidence, we find that the EBF correctly identifies and classifies eclipsing contact (EC), eclipsing semi-detached (ESD), and eclipsing detached (ED) systems with a false positive rate of only 4%, 4%, and 8%, while complete to 64%, 46%, and 32%, respectively. When classification confidence is relaxed, the EBF identifies and classifies ECs, ESDs, and EDs with a slightly higher false positive rate of 6%, 16%, and 8%, while much more complete to 86%, 74%, and 62%, respectively. Through our processing of the entire Kepler “Q3” data set, we also identify 68 new candidate EBs that may have been missed by the human generated Kepler EB Catalog. We discuss the EBF's potential application to light curve classification for periodic variable stars more generally for current and upcoming surveys like K2 and the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite.

  1. EB1 is required for primary cilia assembly in fibroblasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Jacob M; Schneider, Linda; Christensen, Søren T

    2007-01-01

    EB1 is a small microtubule (MT)-binding protein that associates preferentially with MT plus ends and plays a role in regulating MT dynamics. EB1 also targets other MT-associated proteins to the plus end and thereby regulates interactions of MTs with the cell cortex, mitotic kinetochores, and diff......EB1 is a small microtubule (MT)-binding protein that associates preferentially with MT plus ends and plays a role in regulating MT dynamics. EB1 also targets other MT-associated proteins to the plus end and thereby regulates interactions of MTs with the cell cortex, mitotic kinetochores...... in the cilium/flagellum is unknown. We depleted EB1 from NIH3T3 fibroblasts by using siRNA and found that EB1 depletion causes a approximately 50% reduction in the efficiency of primary cilia assembly in serum-starved cells. Expression of dominant-negative EB1 also inhibited cilia formation, and expression...

  2. Computational Design and Experimental Validation of New Thermal Barrier Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Shengmin; Yang, Shizhong; Khosravi, Ebrahim

    2011-12-31

    This project (10/01/2010-9/30/2013), “Computational Design and Experimental Validation of New Thermal Barrier Systems”, originates from Louisiana State University (LSU) Mechanical Engineering Department and Southern University (SU) Department of Computer Science. This proposal will directly support the technical goals specified in DE-FOA-0000248, Topic Area 3: Turbine Materials, by addressing key technologies needed to enable the development of advanced turbines and turbine-based systems that will operate safely and efficiently using coal-derived synthesis gases. We will develop novel molecular dynamics method to improve the efficiency of simulation on novel TBC materials; we will perform high performance computing (HPC) on complex TBC structures to screen the most promising TBC compositions; we will perform material characterizations and oxidation/corrosion tests; and we will demonstrate our new Thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems experimentally under Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) environments. The durability of the coating will be examined using the proposed High Temperature/High Pressure Durability Test Rig under real syngas product compositions.

  3. The EB-ANUBAD translator: A hybrid scheme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    This article is aimed at describing a hybrid scheme for English to Bangla translation. The translated output in English scripts is useful for learning Bengali language. This is a significant contribution to Human Language Technology generation also.About two hundred million people in West Bengal and Tripura (two states in India) and in Bangladesh (a country whose people speak and write Bangla as their first language). This proposed translator would benefit Bengalee society because rural people are not usually very conversant with English. The English to Bangla Translator is being enhanced. This system (EnglishBangla-ANUBAD or EB-ANUBAD) takes a paragraph of English sentences as input sentences and produces equivalent Bangla sentences. EB-ANUBAD system is comprised of a preprocessor, morphological parser, semantic parser using English word ontology for context disambiguation, an electronic lexicon associated with grammatical information and a discourse processor,and also uses a lexical disambiguation analyzer. This system does not rely on a stochastic approach. Rather, it is based on a special kind of hybrid architecture of transformer and rule-based Natural Language Engineering (NLE) architectures along with various linguistic knowledge components of both English and Bangla.

  4. Identifying the management barriers for establishing suggestions system: A case study of educational system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Nouri

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Suggestions system is one of the new cooperative management plans, which affects making good decisions, self-confidence and employees occupational approval. The aim of this research is to survey the barriers for establishment of suggestion system. The proposed study designs and distributes a questionnaire among 195 out of 26550 managers who work for educational system in city of Kermanshah, Iran. The primary purpose of this survey is to learn whether lack of accepting any risk on behalf of management team, conflict of interest in management style, lack of belief on suggestions system in an organization are important barriers of executing suggestions system in an organization or not. The results of Freedman test confirm all seven components of the hypothesis. As a result, lack of accepting risk among management team is number one barrier in having suggestion system followed by existing conflict between management style and suggestions system and lack of management's belief to suggestions system, weakness in education for suggestions system and fear in management disruption because of having suggestions system. The other barriers coming in the last priority in terms of their relative importance include lack of management's support to suggestions system and weakness in management position because of accepting suggestions system.

  5. Representing solute transport through the multi-barrier disposal system by simplified concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poteri, A.; Nordman, H.; Pulkkanen, V-M. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Kekaelaeinen, P. [Jyvaeskylae Univ. (Finland). Dept. pf Physics; Hautojaervi, A.

    2012-02-15

    The repository system chosen in Finland for spent nuclear fuel is composed of multiple successive transport barriers. If a waste canister is leaking, this multi-barrier system retards and limits the release rates of radionuclides into the biosphere. Analysis of radionuclide migration in the previous performance assessments has largely been based on numerical modelling of the repository system. The simplified analytical approach introduced here provides a tool to analyse the performance of the whole system using simplified representations of the individual transport barriers. This approach is based on the main characteristics of the individual barriers and on the generic nature of the coupling between successive barriers. In the case of underground repository the mass transfer between successive transport barriers is strongly restricted by the interfaces between barriers leading to well-mixed conditions in these barriers. The approach here simplifies the barrier system so that it can be described with a very simple compartment model, where each barrier is represented by a single, or in the case of buffer, by not more than two compartments. This system of compartments could be solved in analogy with a radioactive decay chain. The model of well mixed compartments lends itself to a very descriptive way to represent and analyse the barrier system because the relative efficiency of the different barriers in hindering transport of solutes can be parameterised by the solutes half-times in the corresponding compartments. In a real repository system there will also be a delay between the start of the inflow and the start of the outflow from the barrier. This delay can be important for the release rates of the short lived and sorbing radionuclides, and it was also included in the simplified representation of the barrier system. In a geological multi-barrier system, spreading of the outflowing release pulse is often governed by the typical behaviour of one transport barrier

  6. Curvature behaviour of multilayer specimens of thermal barrier systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blandin, G.; Bruenings, S.E.; Steinbrech, R.W.; Singheiser, L. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Werkstoffe und Verfahren der Energietechnik

    2000-07-01

    The impact of residual stresses on the elastic and plastic deformation behavior of plasma sprayed and physical vapor deposited thermal barrier systems was studied. In particular, multilayer specimen strips composed of plasma sprayed partially stabilized zirconia, oxidation resistant NiCoCrAlY bond-coat and Ni-based superalloy substrate were tested. The experiments focused on the in-situ observation of specimen curvature during thermal cycling between room temperature and 1000 C. The mechanical response of specimens with different layer thickness was analyzed with a thermoelastic model to derive elastic modulus and thermal expansion of the ceramic top coat, both parameters as a function of temperature. With the thermoelastic data of all three layers, the residual stress distribution could be calculated analytically. The results of the two coating variants are compared. The deviation from thermoelastic behavior at higher temperature is discussed in terms of stress relaxation in the bond coat due to plastic deformation. (orig.)

  7. Nanoscale drug delivery systems and the blood–brain barrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyautdin R

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Renad Alyautdin,1 Igor Khalin,2 Mohd Ismail Nafeeza,1 Muhammad Huzaimi Haron,1 Dmitry Kuznetsov31Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM, Sungai Buloh, Selangor, Malaysia; 2Faculty of Medicine and Defence Health, National Defence University of Malaysia (NDUM, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 3Department of Medicinal Nanobiotechnologies, N. I. Pirogoff Russian State Medical University, Moscow, RussiaAbstract: The protective properties of the blood–brain barrier (BBB are conferred by the intricate architecture of its endothelium coupled with multiple specific transport systems expressed on the surface of endothelial cells (ECs in the brain's vasculature. When the stringent control of the BBB is disrupted, such as following EC damage, substances that are safe for peripheral tissues but toxic to neurons have easier access to the central nervous system (CNS. As a consequence, CNS disorders, including degenerative diseases, can occur independently of an individual's age. Although the BBB is crucial in regulating the biochemical environment that is essential for maintaining neuronal integrity, it limits drug delivery to the CNS. This makes it difficult to deliver beneficial drugs across the BBB while preventing the passage of potential neurotoxins. Available options include transport of drugs across the ECs through traversing occludins and claudins in the tight junctions or by attaching drugs to one of the existing transport systems. Either way, access must specifically allow only the passage of a particular drug. In general, the BBB allows small molecules to enter the CNS; however, most drugs with the potential to treat neurological disorders other than infections have large structures. Several mechanisms, such as modifications of the built-in pumping-out system of drugs and utilization of nanocarriers and liposomes, are among the drug-delivery systems that have been tested; however, each has its limitations and constraints. This review

  8. Stochastic Resonance of Single (Independent of Each Other) Protein Motor System with Fluctuating Potential Barrier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Song-Hua; LI Jing-Hui; JIANG Yong-Qing; FANG Jian-Ping

    2008-01-01

    A single (independent of each other) protein motor system with fluctuating potential barrier and subject to sine electric field is investigated. We first derive the approximate Langevin equation of this system with fluctuating potential barrier. Then from this approximate Langevin equation, we calculate the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in the adiabatic limit. The phenomenon of stochastic resonance is found for this protein motor system with fluctuating potential barrier.

  9. STUDIES ON TiCl4/Mg (Oet)2/EB SUPPORTED CATALYSTS FOR PROPYLENE POLYMERIZATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Shijing; LU Honglan; ZHANG Minghui

    1990-01-01

    The supported catalysts for propylene polymerization were prepared by milling Mg (OEt)2 with EB (ethylbenzoate) and treating with TiCl4 solution. When TiCl4/(Mg (OEt)2/EB) (mol.) ratio was increased, decrease in contents of -OEt and Ti of the catalysts was observed, while the content of EB increased. It is proved by analyses of IR, X-ray and XPS that during co-milling Mg(OEt)2with EB no reactions have taken place. But after treatment with TiCl4 solution, Mg (OEt)2 converts into MgCl2 and EB coordinates on the resulting MgCl2 carrier, a surface complex forms.The activity of catalysts,isotacticityand vicosimetric molecular weight of polypropylene increase with the decrease of the content of ethoxyl group. The kinetic curves of propene polymerization obtained with present catalysts system display decay curves. It is found from the triad tacticity calculated from the expanded spectra of methyl carbon region that, ethoxyl group in catalyst has an effect on the configuration of polymer chain.

  10. Nanoscale drug delivery systems and the blood-brain barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alyautdin, Renad; Khalin, Igor; Nafeeza, Mohd Ismail; Haron, Muhammad Huzaimi; Kuznetsov, Dmitry

    2014-01-01

    The protective properties of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) are conferred by the intricate architecture of its endothelium coupled with multiple specific transport systems expressed on the surface of endothelial cells (ECs) in the brain's vasculature. When the stringent control of the BBB is disrupted, such as following EC damage, substances that are safe for peripheral tissues but toxic to neurons have easier access to the central nervous system (CNS). As a consequence, CNS disorders, including degenerative diseases, can occur independently of an individual's age. Although the BBB is crucial in regulating the biochemical environment that is essential for maintaining neuronal integrity, it limits drug delivery to the CNS. This makes it difficult to deliver beneficial drugs across the BBB while preventing the passage of potential neurotoxins. Available options include transport of drugs across the ECs through traversing occludins and claudins in the tight junctions or by attaching drugs to one of the existing transport systems. Either way, access must specifically allow only the passage of a particular drug. In general, the BBB allows small molecules to enter the CNS; however, most drugs with the potential to treat neurological disorders other than infections have large structures. Several mechanisms, such as modifications of the built-in pumping-out system of drugs and utilization of nanocarriers and liposomes, are among the drug-delivery systems that have been tested; however, each has its limitations and constraints. This review comprehensively discusses the functional morphology of the BBB and the challenges that must be overcome by drug-delivery systems and elaborates on the potential targets, mechanisms, and formulations to improve drug delivery to the CNS.

  11. High-resolution reconstruction of a coastal barrier system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fruergaard, Mikkel; Andersen, Thorbjørn Joest; Nielsen, Lars Henrik

    2015-01-01

    from retreat of the barrier island and probably also due to formation of a tidal inlet close to the study area. Continued transgression and shoreface retreat created a distinct hiatus and wave ravinement surface in the seaward part of the CBS before the barrier shoreline stabilised between 5.0 and 4.......5 ka ago. Back-barrier shoreline erosion due to sediment starvation in the back-barrier basin, was pronounced from 4.5 to 2.5 ka ago but the last 2.5 kyr barrier sedimentation has kept up with and outpaced sea-level. The last 0.4 kyr the CBS has been episodically prograding. Sediment accumulation shows...

  12. Photospheric response to EB-like event

    CERN Document Server

    Danilovic, S; Barthol, P; Gandorfer, A; Gizon, L; Hirzberger, J; van Noort, T L Riethmüller M; Rodríguez, J Blanco; Iniesta, J C Del Toro; Suárez, D Orozco; Schmidt, W; Pillet, V Martínez; Knölker, M

    2016-01-01

    Ellerman Bombs are signatures of magnetic reconnection, which is an important physical process in the solar atmosphere. How and where they occur is a subject of debate. In this paper we analyse Sunrise/IMaX data together with 3D MHD simulations that aim to reproduce the exact scenario proposed for the formation of these features. Although the observed event seems to be more dynamic and violent than the simulated one, simulations clearly confirm the basic scenario for the production of EBs. The simulations also reveal the full complexity of the underlying process. The simulated observations show that the Fe I 525.02 nm line gives no information on the height where reconnection takes place. It can only give clues about the heating in the aftermath of the reconnection. The information on the magnetic field vector and velocity at this spatial resolution is, however, extremely valuable because it shows what numerical models miss and how they can be improved.

  13. An Auto Forecasting System for Rice Insect Based on WebGIS%基于W ebG IS的水稻害虫自动预警系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张谷丰; 易红娟; 朱先敏; 朱凤; 张志春

    2014-01-01

    According to the artificial influence factors and bad timeliness in rice insect control decision ,a WebGIS based system for the simulation and forecasting of rice insect was constructed .The system included the simulation module for the insect stage that based on the function of degree-days calculating ,that could automatically forecast the occurrence stage of insect ;the real-time weather information including the temperature and humdity could remind the users the suitability of the weather for the pest prevalence ,then provide decision support information for the guest ;and the pest information showed based on WebGIS could help the user to decide the control tactics for the large-scale field ,corrected the error decision .In 2012 ,the system forecasted the occurrence condition of for SBPH , WBPH ,BPH and the rice leaf-roller successfully in Jiangsu province and then the IPM methods to control the pest were applied .The system was based on the structure of Apache+PHP+MySQL+MapServer ,it was easy for the guest to use ,and it provided the powerful tool for the management of standard and information pest data ,precision control and support for pest forecasting .%针对当前水稻害虫防治决策人为因素影响大、时效性差的状况,应用网络平台,结合公共气象信息,开发应用于生产的水稻害虫自动预警系统。系统包括基于积温函数的害虫发育模拟系统,能自动根据天气预报值预警多种害虫的发生期,并据此给用户提供参考;实时的气象信息包括气温和湿度等可随时提醒用户当前气候条件对害虫发生的适宜度,辅助用户决策害虫的发生趋势;基于WebGIS的病虫信息展示预警可提供宏观大范围的决策,纠正害虫防治决策中的工作失误。2012年该系统在江苏省范围内成功进行了灰飞虱、白背飞虱、褐飞虱和纵卷叶螟等害虫综合防治的决策,取得了明显的效果。系统基于Apache+ PHP+ My

  14. MERCURY OXIDIZATION IN NON-THERMAL PLASMA BARRIER DISCHARGE SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    V.K. Mathur

    2003-02-01

    In the past decade, the emission of toxic elements from human activities has become a matter of great public concern. Hg, As, Se and Cd typically volatilize during a combustion process and are not easily caught with conventional air pollution control techniques. In addition, there is no pollution prevention technique available now or likely be available in the foreseeable future that can prevent the emission of these trace elements. These trace elements pose additional scientific challenge as they are present at only ppb levels in large gas streams. Mercury, in particular, has attracted significant attention due to its high volatility, toxicity and potential threat to human health. In the present research work, a non-thermal plasma dielectric barrier discharge technique has been used to oxidize Hg{sup 0}(g) to HgO. The basic premise of this approach is that Hg{sup 0} in vapor form cannot be easily removed in an absorption tower whereas HgO as a particulate is amiable to water scrubbing. The work presented in this report consists of three steps: (1) setting-up of an experimental apparatus to generate mercury vapors at a constant rate and modifying the existing non-thermal plasma reactor system, (2) solving the analytical challenge for measuring mercury vapor concentration at ppb level, and (3) conducting experiments on mercury oxidation under plasma conditions to establish proof of concept.

  15. ARCTIC FOUNDATIONS, INC. FREEZE BARRIER SYSTEM - SITE TECHNOLOGY CAPSULE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arctic Foundations, Inc. (AFI), of Anchorage, Alaska has developed a freeze barrier technology designed to prevent the migration of contaminants in groundwater by completely isolating contaminant source areas until appropriate remediation techniques can be applied. With this tec...

  16. Design of noise barrier inspection system for high-speed railway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bingqian; Shao, Shuangyun; Feng, Qibo; Ma, Le; Cholryong, Kim

    2016-10-01

    The damage of noise barriers will highly reduce the transportation safety of the high-speed railway. In this paper, an online inspection system of noise barrier based on laser vision for the safety of high-speed railway is proposed. The inspection system, mainly consisted of a fast camera and a line laser, installed in the first carriage of the high-speed CIT(Composited Inspection Train).A Laser line was projected on the surface of the noise barriers and the images of the light line were received by the camera while the train is running at high speed. The distance between the inspection system and the noise barrier can be obtained based on laser triangulation principle. The results of field tests show that the proposed system can meet the need of high speed and high accuracy to get the contour distortion of the noise barriers.

  17. An overview on novel thermal barrier coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) offer the potential to significantly improve efficiencies of aero engines as well as stationary gas turbines for power generation. On internally cooled turbine parts, temperature gradients of the order of 100-150℃ can be achieved. TBCs, typically consisting of an yttrium stabilized zirconia top coat and a metallic bond coat deposited onto a superalloy substrate, are mainly used to extend lifetime. Further efficiency improvements require TBCs being an integral part of the component which requires reliable and predictable TBC performance. TBCs produced by electron beam physical vapor deposition (EbPVD) or plasma spray (PS) deposition are favored for high performance applications. The paper highlights critical R&D needs for advanced TBC systems with a special focus on reduced thermal conductivity and life prediction needs. To further enhance the efficiency of gas turbines, higher temperature and a longer lifetime of the coating are needed for the next generation of TBCs. This paper presents the development of new materials, new deposition technologies, and new concept for application as novel TBCs. This paper summarizes the basic properties of conventional thermal barrier coatings. Based on our own investigation, we reviewed the progress on materials and technologies of novel thermal barrier coatings. Except yttria stabilized zirconia, other materials such as lanthanum zirconate and rare earth oxides are also promising materials for thermal barrier coatings. Nanostructure thermal barrier coating is presented as a new concept. This paper also summarizes the technologies for depositing the thermal barrier coatings.

  18. Antiviral activity of the EB peptide against zoonotic poxviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altmann Sharon E

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The EB peptide is a 20-mer that was previously shown to have broad spectrum in vitro activity against several unrelated viruses, including highly pathogenic avian influenza, herpes simplex virus type I, and vaccinia, the prototypic orthopoxvirus. To expand on this work, we evaluated EB for in vitro activity against the zoonotic orthopoxviruses cowpox and monkeypox and for in vivo activity in mice against vaccinia and cowpox. Findings In yield reduction assays, EB had an EC50 of 26.7 μM against cowpox and 4.4 μM against monkeypox. The EC50 for plaque reduction was 26.3 μM against cowpox and 48.6 μM against monkeypox. A scrambled peptide had no inhibitory activity against either virus. EB inhibited cowpox in vitro by disrupting virus entry, as evidenced by a reduction of the release of virus cores into the cytoplasm. Monkeypox was also inhibited in vitro by EB, but at the attachment stage of infection. EB showed protective activity in mice infected intranasally with vaccinia when co-administered with the virus, but had no effect when administered prophylactically one day prior to infection or therapeutically one day post-infection. EB had no in vivo activity against cowpox in mice. Conclusions While EB did demonstrate some in vivo efficacy against vaccinia in mice, the limited conditions under which it was effective against vaccinia and lack of activity against cowpox suggest EB may be more useful for studying orthopoxvirus entry and attachment in vitro than as a therapeutic against orthopoxviruses in vivo.

  19. Studies on EB radiation effect on PA610

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Kebin; Zhang Huaming; Li Xiurong; Xiong Ruilin [Sichuan Forever Group Co. Ltd., China Academy of Engineering Physics, Miangany (China)

    2000-03-01

    Radiation effect of PA610 with polyfunctional monomer trially isocyanurate (TAIC) was studied, the results show that crosslinking effect of EB radiation on PA610 is obvious. After the PA610 samples were radiated by EB with dosage 75KGY, the physical characters of PA610 materials were greatly improved, especially their tensile strength being increased about 18% and their impact strength about 50%, but their water and oil absorption were decreased. So, EB radiation can enhance PA610 materials physical strength, resistance to solvents and water and increase their thermal-deformation temperature. (author)

  20. Load rate dependence of the mechanical properties of thermal barrier coating systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zotov, Nikolay; Eggeler, Gunther [Institut fuer Werkstoffe, Ruhr Universitaet Bochum, 44780 Bochum (Germany); Bartsch, Marion [Institut fuer Werkstoff-Forschung, DLR Koeln, 51147 Koeln (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBC), composed of yttrium-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) ceramic top coat (TC) and intermetallic NiCoCrAlY bond coat (BC) are commonly used as protective coatings of Ni-based high temperature gas engine components. Nanoindentation techniques are increasingly applied for determining the TBC mechanical properties on a nanometre scale. However, little is known about the load-rate dependence of the mechanical properties, which is important for better understanding of cyclic thermal fatigue experiments. Nanoindentations with different load rates omega were performed on polished cross-sections of TBC, deposited by EB-PVD on IN625 substrates (S), using a XP Nanoindenter (MTS) equipped with Berkovich diamond tip. The Young's modulus (E) of the TC is independent of omega, while E for the BC and the S decreases with omega. The hardness (H) of the TC and the BC increases, while H for the S decreases with omega. From the dependence of H on omega, creep power-law exponents c = 0.24(11) and c = 0.023(6) for the TC and the BC were determined. For all TBC components, a decrease with omega of the power-law exponents n and m, describing the loading and unloading nanoindentation curves, is observed.

  1. Functions of an engineered barrier system for a nuclear waste repository in basalt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coons, W.E.; Moore, E.L.; Smith, M.J.; Kaser, J.D.

    1980-01-01

    Defined in this document are the functions of components selected for an engineered barrier system for a nuclear waste repository in basalt. The definitions provide a focal point for barrier material research and development by delineating the purpose and operative lifetime of each component of the engineered system. A five-component system (comprised of waste form, canister, buffer, overpack, and tailored backfill) is discussed in terms of effective operation throughout the course of repository history, recognizing that the emplacement environment changes with time. While components of the system are mutually supporting, redundancy is provided by subsystems of physical and chemical barriers which act in concert with the geology to provide a formidable barrier to transport of hazardous materials to the biosphere. The operating philosophy of the conceptual engineered barrier system is clarified by examples pertinent to storage in basalt, and a technical approach to barrier design and material selection is proposed. A method for system validation and qualification is also included which considers performance criteria proposed by external agencies in conjunction with site-specific models and risk assessment to define acceptable levels of system performance.

  2. Barrier function in the peripheral and central nervous system-a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhold, A K; Rittner, H L

    2017-01-01

    The peripheral (PNS) and central nervous system (CNS) are delicate structures, highly sensitive to homeostatic changes-and crucial for basic vital functions. Thus, a selection of barriers ensures the protection of the nervous system from noxious blood-borne or surrounding stimuli. In this chapter, anatomy and functioning of the blood-nerve (BNB), the blood-brain (BBB), and the blood-spinal cord barriers (BSCB) are presented and the key tight junction (TJ) proteins described: claudin-1, claudin-3, claudin-5, claudin-11, claudin-12, claudin-19, occludin, Zona occludens-1 (ZO-1), and tricellulin are by now identified as relevant for nerval barriers. Different diseases can lead to or be accompanied by neural barrier disruption, and impairment of these barriers worsens pathology. Peripheral nerve injury and inflammatory polyneuropathy cause an increased permeability of BNB as well as BSCB, while, e.g., diseases of the CNS such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, multiple sclerosis, spinal cord injury, or Alzheimer's disease can progress and worsen through barrier dysfunction. Moreover, the complex role and regulation of the BBB after ischemic stroke is described. On the other side, PNS and CNS barriers hamper the delivery of drugs in diseases when the barrier is intact, e.g., in certain neurodegenerative diseases or inflammatory pain. Understanding of the barrier - regulating processes has already lead to the discovery of new molecules as drug enhancers. In summary, the knowledge of all of these mechanisms might ultimately lead to the invention of drugs to control barrier function to help ameliorating or curing neurological diseases.

  3. CHARACTERIZATION OF BENTONITE FOR ENGINEERED BARRIER SYSTEMS IN RADIOACTIVE WASTE DISPOSAL SITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubravko Domitrović

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Engineered barrier systems are used in radioactive waste disposal sites in order to provide better protection of humans and the environment from the potential hazards associated with the radioactive waste disposal. The engineered barrier systems usually contain cement or clay (bentonite because of their isolation properties and long term performance. Quality control tests of clays are the same for all engineering barrier systems. Differences may arise in the required criteria to be met due for different application. Prescribed clay properties depend also on the type of host rocks. This article presents radioactive waste management based on best international practice. Standard quality control procedures for bentonite used as a sealing barrier in radioactive waste disposal sites are described as some personal experiences and results of the index tests (free swelling index, water adsorption capacity, plasticity limits and hydraulic permeability of bentonite (the paper is published in Croatian.

  4. Reactive barrier system for nitrate removal from mine effluents in northern Sweden: Laboratory experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Roger

    2010-05-01

    Laboratory column experiments have been conducted to determine nitrate removal rates from mine effluents by denitrification, with the purpose of providing initial data for the construction of a pilot scale reactive barrier system at the Malmberget iron mine, Sweden. Experiments were conducted at several different flow rates at 5C, 10C and room temperature; annual mean temperatures at the Malmberget site lie close to 0C. Columns were filled with an organic substrate consisting of sawdust mixed with sewage sludge, the source of denitrifying bacteria, supported by oven-dried clay pellets. Apparent denitrification rates, calculated from inflow and outflow nitrate concentrations and column hydraulic residence time, ranged from 5 to 13 mg N/L/d, with the lowest rates corresponding to the 5C experiments. These rates are, however, limited to a certain degree by the low flow rate and the supply of electrons acceptors (i.e. nitrate) to denitrifying bacteria. Results from the column experiment have been used to construct a barrier system in Malmberget, Sweden. Trial runs with the pilot-scale barrier will be conducted during 2010, with the purpose of determining the performance of the barrier as mean air temperatures increase from below to above 0C and saturated flow commences in the barrier. The barrier system is constructed as a rectangular container with steel sheet walls (9m length in flow direction, 1.5m deep), and the flow rate will be adjusted to a hydraulic residence time of 1 day. The pilot-scale barrier system currently lies above ground, but a permanent barrier system would be installed below the ground surface so that the system can be maintained at positive temperatures throughout the year.

  5. Regulation of Copper Transport Crossing Brain Barrier Systems by Cu-ATPases: Effect of Manganese Exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Xue; Zhang, Yanshu; Jiang, Wendy; Monnot, Andrew Donald; Bates, Christopher Alexander; Zheng, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Regulation of cellular copper (Cu) homeostasis involves Cu-transporting ATPases (Cu-ATPases), i.e., ATP7A and ATP7B. The question as to how these Cu-ATPases in brain barrier systems transport Cu, i.e., toward brain parenchyma, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), or blood, remained unanswered. This study was designed to characterize roles of Cu-ATPases in regulating Cu transport at the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and blood-CSF barrier (BCB) and to investigate how exposure to toxic manganese (Mn) altered ...

  6. Advances in the Dynallax solid-state dynamic parallax barrier autostereoscopic visualization display system.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterka, T.; Kooima, R. L.; Sandin, D. J.; Johnson, A.; Leigh, J.; DeFanti, T. A.; Mathematics and Computer Science; Univ. of Illinois at Chicago; Univ. of Calif. at San Diego

    2008-05-01

    A solid-state dynamic parallax barrier autostereoscopic display mitigates some of the restrictions present in static barrier systems such as fixed view-distance range, slow response to head movements, and fixed stereo operating mode. By dynamically varying barrier parameters in real time, viewers may move closer to the display and move faster laterally than with a static barrier system, and the display can switch between 3D and 2D modes by disabling the barrier on a per-pixel basis. Moreover, Dynallax can output four independent eye channels when two viewers are present, and both head-tracked viewers receive an independent pair of left-eye and right-eye perspective views based on their position in 3D space. The display device is constructed by using a dual-stacked LCD monitor where a dynamic barrier is rendered on the front display and a modulated virtual environment composed of two or four channels is rendered on the rear display. Dynallax was recently demonstrated in a small-scale head-tracked prototype system. This paper summarizes the concepts presented earlier, extends the discussion of various topics, and presents recent improvements to the system.

  7. Advances in the Dynallax solid-state dynamic parallax barrier autostereoscopic visualization display system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterka, Tom; Kooima, Robert L; Sandin, Daniel J; Johnson, Andrew; Leigh, Jason; DeFanti, Thomas A

    2008-01-01

    A solid-state dynamic parallax barrier autostereoscopic display mitigates some of the restrictions present in static barrier systems, such as fixed view-distance range, slow response to head movements, and fixed stereo operating mode. By dynamically varying barrier parameters in real time, viewers may move closer to the display and move faster laterally than with a static barrier system, and the display can switch between 3D and 2D modes by disabling the barrier on a per-pixel basis. Moreover, Dynallax can output four independent eye channels when two viewers are present, and both head-tracked viewers receive an independent pair of left-eye and right-eye perspective views based on their position in 3D space. The display device is constructed by using a dual-stacked LCD monitor where a dynamic barrier is rendered on the front display and a modulated virtual environment composed of two or four channels is rendered on the rear display. Dynallax was recently demonstrated in a small-scale head-tracked prototype system. This paper summarizes the concepts presented earlier, extends the discussion of various topics, and presents recent improvements to the system.

  8. Gas permeability of bentonite barriers: development, construction and testing of a measurement system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heraldo Nunes Pitanga

    Full Text Available Abstract This article proposes a testing device to quickly and reliably estimate the gas permeability of bentonite-based clay barriers used in landfill cover systems. The testing methodology is based on a transient gas flow regime that passes through the barrier, therefore not requiring the use of sophisticated equipment that aim to maintain constant differential pressure and measure the gas flow, common requirements for testing methods under a permanent flow regime. To confirm the feasibility of the proposed technique, tests were performed on a pure hydrated bentonite layer, which subsequently encompassed samples of geosynthetic clay liner (GCL at different moisture contents. Geosynthetic clay liners are often selected as a part of the barrier layer for cover systems in solid waste landfills to prevent infiltration of rainfall and migration of biogas into the atmosphere. The results confirmed the equipment reliability and differentiate the different responses of the gas flow barriers studied, considering their different compositions and different moistures.

  9. Optimal Design of Electromagnetic Focusing Lens Control System Based on EB Welding Machine%电子束焊机电磁聚焦控制系统的优化设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆幼青; 韩瑞清; 郭光耀; 左从进

    2013-01-01

    The focus current is a very important parameter in the electron beam welding practice. The change of focus current determines the distance between focal point and the workpiece surface, which leads to the better weld shape. Using the hybrid integrated circuit technology, a new type of constant current source with high-precision temperature stability to accommodate high accuracy and larger current demand is studied. It is found that the EB beam spot can obtain higher quality at the different focal distance.%聚焦电流是电子束焊接过程中一个非常重要的参数,调节聚焦电流可以控制电子束焦点相对于工件的位置,从而获得较好的焊缝截面形貌.研究了一种应用混合集成电路技术实现的恒流源,以适应聚焦系统对恒流源高精度、高温度稳定性和较大电流的需求,满足焊接工件在不同的工作距离下都可获得品质较好的电子束束斑.

  10. Investigation of endothelial growth using a sensors-integrated microfluidic system to simulate physiological barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajabi Taleieh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a microfluidic system based on transparent biocompatible polymers with a porous membrane as substrate for various cell types which allows the simulation of various physiological barriers under continuous laminar flow conditions at distinct tunable shear rates. Besides live cell and fluorescence microscopy, integrated electrodes enable the investigation of the permeability and barrier function of the cell layer as well as their interaction with external manipulations using the Electric Cell-substrate Impedance Sensing (ECIS method.

  11. Superior Thermal Barrier Coatings Using Solution Precursor Plasma Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, E. H.; Xie, L.; Gell, M.; Padture, N. P.; Cetegen, B.; Ozturk, A.; Ma, X.; Roth, J.; Xiao, T. D.; Bryant, P. E. C.

    2004-03-01

    A novel process, solution precursor plasma spray (SPPS), is presented for depositing thermal barrier coatings (TBCs), in which aqueous chemical precursors are injected into a standard direct current plasma spray system. The resulting coatings microstructure has three unique features: (1) ultra fine splats (1 µm), (2) nanometer and micron-sized interconnected porosity, and (3) closely spaced, through-thickness cracks. Coatings over 3 mm thick can be readily deposited using the SPPS process. Coating durability is excellent, with SPPS coatings showing, in furnace cycling tests, 2.5 times the spallation life of air plasma coatings (APS) and 1.5 times the life of electron beam physical vapor deposited (EB-PVD) coatings. The conductivity of SPPS coatings is lower than EB-PVD coatings and higher than the best APS coatings. Manufacturing cost is expected to be similar to APS coatings and much lower than EB-PVD coatings. The SPPS deposition process includes droplet break-up and material arriving at the deposition surface in various physical states ranging from aqueous solution, gel phase, to fully-molten ceramic. The relation between the arrival state of the material and the microstructure is described.

  12. Perceptions of physicians about knowledge sharing barriers in Turkish health care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gider, Ömer; Ocak, Saffet; Top, Mehmet

    2015-05-01

    This study was based on knowledge sharing barriers about attitudes of physicians in Turkish health care system. The present study aims to determine whether the knowledge sharing barriers about attitudes of physicians vary depending on gender, position, departments at hospitals, and hospital ownership status. This study was planned and conducted on physicians at one public hospital, one university hospital, and one private hospital in Turkey. 209 physicians were reached for data collection. The study was conducted in June-September 2014. The questionnaire (developed by A. Riege, (J. Knowl. Manag. 9(3):18-35, 2005)), five point Likert-type scale including 39 items having the potential of the physicians' knowledge- sharing attitudes and behaviors, was used in the study for data collection. Descriptive statistics, reliability analysis, student t test and ANOVA were used for data analysis. According to results of this study, there was medium level of knowledge sharing barriers within hospitals. In general, physicians had perceptions about the lowest level individual barriers, intermediate level organizational barriers and the highest level technological barriers perceptions, respectively. This study revealed that some knowledge sharing barriers about attitudes of physicians were significantly difference according to hospital ownership status, gender, position and departments. Most evidence medical decisions and evidence based practice depend on experience and knowledge of existing options and knowledge sharing in health care organizations. Physicians are knowledge and information-intensive and principal professional group in health care context.

  13. Noncontacting Laser Inspection System for Dimensional Profiling of Space Application Thermal Barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Shawn C.

    2011-01-01

    A noncontacting, two-dimensional (2-D) laser inspection system has been designed and implemented to dimensionally profile thermal barriers being developed for space vehicle applications. In a vehicle as-installed state, thermal barriers are commonly compressed between load sensitive thermal protection system (TPS) panels to prevent hot gas ingestion through the panel interface during flight. Loads required to compress the thermal barriers are functions of their construction, as well as their dimensional characteristics relative to the gaps in which they are installed. Excessive loads during a mission could damage surrounding TPS panels and have catastrophic consequences. As such, accurate dimensional profiling of thermal barriers prior to use is important. Due to the compliant nature of the thermal barriers, traditional contact measurement techniques (e.g., calipers and micrometers) are subjective and introduce significant error and variability into collected dimensional data. Implementation of a laser inspection system significantly enhanced the method by which thermal barriers are dimensionally profiled, and improved the accuracy and repeatability of collected data. A statistical design of experiments study comparing laser inspection and manual caliper measurement techniques verified these findings.

  14. Dissecting the nanoscale distributions and functions of microtubule-end-binding proteins EB1 and ch-TOG in interphase HeLa cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoko Nakamura

    Full Text Available Recently, the EB1 and XMAP215/TOG families of microtubule binding proteins have been demonstrated to bind autonomously to the growing plus ends of microtubules and regulate their behaviour in in vitro systems. However, their functional redundancy or difference in cells remains obscure. Here, we compared the nanoscale distributions of EB1 and ch-TOG along microtubules using high-resolution microscopy techniques, and also their roles in microtubule organisation in interphase HeLa cells. The ch-TOG accumulation sites protruded ∼100 nm from the EB1 comets. Overexpression experiments showed that ch-TOG and EB1 did not interfere with each other's localisation, confirming that they recognise distinct regions at the ends of microtubules. While both EB1 and ch-TOG showed similar effects on microtubule plus end dynamics and additively increased microtubule dynamicity, only EB1 exhibited microtubule-cell cortex attachment activity. These observations indicate that EB1 and ch-TOG regulate microtubule organisation differently via distinct regions in the plus ends of microtubules.

  15. Effect of vadose zone on the steady-state leakage rates from landfill barrier systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, B; Rowe, R K; Unlü, K

    2009-01-01

    Leakage rates are evaluated for a landfill barrier system having a compacted clay liner (CCL) underlain by a vadose zone of variable thickness. A numerical unsaturated flow model SEEP/W is used to simulate the moisture flow regime and steady-state leakage rates for the cases of unsaturated zones with different soil types and thicknesses. The results of the simulations demonstrate that harmonic mean hydraulic conductivity of coarse textured vadose zones is 3-4 orders of magnitude less than saturated hydraulic conductivity; whereas, the difference is only one order of magnitude for fine textured vadose zones. For both coarse and fine textured vadose zones, the effective hydraulic conductivity of the barrier system and the leakage rate to an underlying aquifer increases with increasing thickness of the vadose zone and ultimately reaches an asymptotic value for a coarse textured vadose zone thickness of about 10m and a fine textured vadose zone thickness of about 5m. Therefore, the fine and coarse textured vadose zones thicker than about 5m and 10m, respectively, act as an effective part of the barrier systems examined. Although the thickness of vadose zone affects the effective hydraulic conductivity of the overall barrier system, the results demonstrated that the hydraulic conductivity of the CCL is the dominant factor controlling the steady-state leakage rates through barrier systems having single low permeability clay layers.

  16. Effect of joint mechanism on vehicle redirectional capability of water-filled road safety barrier systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiyahuddin, M I; Thambiratnam, D P; Gu, Y T

    2014-10-01

    Portable water-filled barriers (PWFBs) are roadside appurtenances that prevent vehicles from penetrating into temporary construction zones on roadways. PWFBs are required to satisfy the strict regulations for vehicle re-direction in tests. However, many of the current PWFBs fail to re-direct the vehicle at high speeds due to the inability of the joints to provide appropriate stiffness. The joint mechanism hence plays a crucial role in the performance of a PWFB system at high speed impacts. This paper investigates the desired features of the joint mechanism in a PWFB system that can re-direct vehicles at high speeds, while limiting the lateral displacement to acceptable limits. A rectangular "wall" representative of a 30m long barrier system was modeled and a novel method of joining adjacent road barriers was introduced through appropriate pin-joint connections. The impact response of the barrier "wall" and the vehicle was obtained and the results show that a rotational stiffness of 3000kNm/rad at the joints seems to provide the desired features of the PWFB system to re-direct impacting vehicles and restrict the lateral deflection. These research findings will be useful to safety engineers and road barrier designers in developing a new generation of PWFBs for increased road safety.

  17. Socio-cultural barriers to the development of a sustainable energy system - the case of hydrogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Kjerulf; Andersen, Anne Holst

    Any transition to a more sustainable energy system, radically reducing greenhouse gas emissions, is bound to run in to a host of different barriers - technological and economic, but also socio-cultural. This will also be the case for any large-scale application of hydrogen as energy carrier......, especially if the system is going to be based on renewable energy sources. The aim of these research notes is to review and discuss major socio-cultural barriers to new forms of energy supply in general and to hydrogen specifically. Reaching sufficient reductions in greenhouse gas emissions may require more...

  18. A method of providing a barrier in a fracture-containing system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method of providing a barrier in a fracture-containing system, comprising: i) Providing a treatment fluid comprising: a) a base fluid; b) an elastomeric material, wherein said elastomeric material comprises at least one polymer capable of crosslinking into an el......The present invention relates to a method of providing a barrier in a fracture-containing system, comprising: i) Providing a treatment fluid comprising: a) a base fluid; b) an elastomeric material, wherein said elastomeric material comprises at least one polymer capable of crosslinking...

  19. Progress of the AVNG System - Attribute Verification System with Information Barriers for Mass Isotopics Measurements.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budnikov, D. (Dmitry); Bulatov, M. (Mikhail); Jarikhine, I. (Igor); Lebedev, B. (Boris); Livke, A. (Alexander); Modenov, A.; Morkin, A. (Anton); Razinkov, S. (Sergei); Tsaregorodtsev, D. (Dmitry); Vlokh, A. (Andrey); Yakovleva, S. (Svetlana); Elmont, T. H. (Timothy H.); Langner, D. C. (Diana C.); MacArthur, D. W. (Duncan W.); Mayo, D. R. (Douglas R.); Smith, M. K. (Morag K.); Luke, S. J. (S. John)

    2005-01-01

    An attribute verification system (AVNG) with information barriers for mass and isotopics measurements has been designed and its fabrication is nearly completed. The AVNG is being built by scientists at the Russian Federal Nuclear Center-VNIIEF, with support of Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Such a system could be used to verify the presence of several unclassified attributes of classified material with no classified information release. The system is comprised of a neutron multiplicity counter and gamma-spectrometry system based on a high purity germanium gamma detector (nominal relative efficiency @ 1332 keV 50%) and digital gamma-ray spectrometer DSPEC{sup PLUS}. The neutron multiplicity counter is a three ring counter with 164 {sup 3}He tubes. The system was designed to measure prototype containers 491 mm in diameter and 503 mm high. This paper provides a brief history of the project and documents the progress of this effort with drawings and photographs.

  20. PROGRESS OF THE AVNG SYSTEM - ATTRIBUTE VERIFICATION SYSTEM WITH INFORMATION BARRIERS FOR MASS AND ISOTOPICS MEASUREMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budnikov, D; Bulatov, M; Jarikhine, I; Lebedev, B; Livke, A; Modenov, A; Morkin, A; Razinkov, S; Safronov, S; Tsaregorodtsev, D; Vlokh, A; Yakovleva, S; Elmont, T; Langner, D; MacArthur, D; Mayo, D; Smith, M; Luke, S J

    2005-05-27

    An attribute verification system (AVNG) with information barriers for mass and isotopics measurements has been designed and its fabrication is nearly completed. The AVNG is being built by scientists at the Russian Federal Nuclear Center-VNIIEF, with support of Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Such a system could be used to verify the presence of several unclassified attributes of classified material with no classified information release. The system is comprised of a neutron multiplicity counter and gamma-spectrometry system based on a high purity germanium gamma detector (nominal relative efficiency {at} 1332 keV 50%) and digital gamma-ray spectrometer DSPEC{sup PLUS}. The neutron multiplicity counter is a three ring counter with 164 {sup 3}He tubes. The system was designed to measure prototype containers 491 mm in diameter and 503 mm high. This paper provides a brief history of the project and documents the progress of this effort with drawings and photographs.

  1. Creep life simulations of EB welded copper overpack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmstroem, S.; Laukkanen, A.; Andersson, T. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)

    2013-12-15

    The long term life predictions of copper overpack (sealed by EB welding in Finland) have previously been based on stress estimations that vary over a wide range, typically between 40-100 MPa. These values are usually not based on structural calculation including the EB-weld that increases the complexity of the stress state in the copper overpack. This report will attempt to pinpoint and simulate the stresses and strains developing in the copper overpack during its first decennia of repository service by advanced FEA simulations including the impact of the EB-weld. The main challenge of this work is the extrapolation of the creep strain response of OFP copper to the service relevant loads and temperatures. The uniaxial creep model is translated to a multiaxial constitutive equation form with adequate computational efficiency. The copper overpack strain and stress evolution has been simulated at up to 100 000 years at a conservative constant temperature of 80 deg C with 14 MPa of external pressure. The results indicate rapid creep relaxation in the initial stages after the load has been applied followed by limited creep strain accumulation thereafter. Local elastic-plastic and creep deformation is predicted at the EB weld root with a total strain of below 12 %. The predicted stresses after external loading and short term relaxation are moderate and the impact of weld residual stresses and the lower creep rupture properties of the EB seem not to be detrimental to the predicted long term creep response. The simulation results imply that the most crucial impact on the creep strain accumulation of the copper overpack is related to the OFP copper primary creep properties. The present study predicts sufficiently low creep strains for a 100 000 years canister life with the conservative assumption at a constant temperature of 80 deg C. However a sensitivity study on the impact of primary creep is strongly recommended due to contradicting analysis results from earlier FEA

  2. Advanced thermal barrier system bond coatings for use on Ni, Co-, and Fe-base alloy substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecura, S.

    1985-01-01

    New and improved Ni-, Co-, and Fe-base bond coatings have been identified for the ZrO2-Y2O3 thermal barrier coatings to be used on NI-, Co-, and Fe-base alloy substrates. These bond coatings were evaluated in a cyclic furnace between 1120 and 1175 C. It was found that MCrAlYb (where M = Ni, Co, or Fe) bond coating thermal barrier systems. The longest life was obtained with the FeCrAlYb thermal barrier system followed by NiCrAlYb and CoCrAlYb thermal barrier systems in that order.

  3. An Activity Theory Approach to Analyze Barriers to a Virtual Management Information Systems (MIS) Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaradat, Suhair; Qablan, Ahmad; Barham, Areej

    2011-01-01

    This paper explains how the activity theory is used as a framework to analyze the barriers to a virtual Management Information Stream (MIS) Curriculum in Jordanian schools, from both the sociocultural and pedagogical perspectives. Taking the activity system as a unit of analysis, this study documents the processes by which activities shape and are…

  4. The immune system mediates blood-brain barrier damage; Possible implications for pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric illnesses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VanderWerf, YD; DeJongste, MJL; terHorst, GJ

    1995-01-01

    The immune system mediates blood-brain barrier damage; possible implications for pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric illnesses. In this investigation the effects of immune activation on the brain are characterized In order to study this, we used a model for chronic immune activation, the myocardial

  5. Underutilization of Mental Health Services among College Students: An Examination of System-Related Barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Carey N.; Wilcoxon, S. Allen

    2015-01-01

    Despite the documented benefits of counseling and mental health services on academic performance and degree attainment, only about 10% of psychologically distressed college students ever seek professional help. This investigation examined mental health care system-related barriers that might distinguish help seekers from nonhelp seekers among…

  6. Thermal and Environmental Barrier Coating Development for Advanced Propulsion Engine Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.; Fox, Dennis S.

    2008-01-01

    Ceramic thermal and environmental barrier coatings (TEBCs) are used in gas turbine engines to protect engine hot-section components in the harsh combustion environments, and extend component lifetimes. Advanced TEBCs that have significantly lower thermal conductivity, better thermal stability and higher toughness than current coatings will be beneficial for future low emission and high performance propulsion engine systems. In this paper, ceramic coating design and testing considerations will be described for turbine engine high temperature and high-heat-flux applications. Thermal barrier coatings for metallic turbine airfoils and thermal/environmental barrier coatings for SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composite (CMC) components for future supersonic aircraft propulsion engines will be emphasized. Further coating capability and durability improvements for the engine hot-section component applications can be expected by utilizing advanced modeling and design tools.

  7. Case study of a novel geocomposite barrier system for hydrocarbon containment on Brevoort Island

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bathurst, R.J.; Zeeb, B.; Reimer, K. [Royal Military Coll. of Canada, Kingston, ON (Canada); Rowe, R.K. [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    North Warning System Office has undertaken a program focused on the cleanup of Canadian District Early Warning Line and Pole Vault sites located on the Canadian sub-Arctic and Arctic coastline. The implementation plan emphasizes cost-effective methods of preventing the movement of chemical contaminants into the ecosystem. This paper describes remediation steps that were taken to restrict the migration of a hydrocarbon plume before the excavation of contaminated ground at a Pole Vault site on Brevoort Island. This is the first published field application of a fluorinated geomembrane. A composite liner consisting of fluorine surface-treated polyethylene geomembrane and a geosynthetic clay liner was chosen as a barrier against hydrocarbon migration until full remediation measures could be applied. Design details, selection criteria and various challenges in the installation procedure were presented. Due to the remoteness of the location and the extremes of temperature, a site monitoring program was also initiated. Details of the programs were also presented, along with details of a parallel program of laboratory testing, initiated to investigate the long-term effects of contact with jet fuel on specimens of the barrier components as well as freeze-thaw and general lower temperatures. Results indicated that the barrier system was performing as planned. Laboratory tests indicated that the geosynthetic materials selected for the Brevoort site were expected to maintain low rates of hydrocarbon diffusion and advection beyond the original design life of the barrier system. 14 refs., 10 figs.

  8. Application of CFRP with High Hydrogen Gas Barrier Characteristics to Fuel Tanks of Space Transportation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonemoto, Koichi; Yamamoto, Yuta; Okuyama, Keiichi; Ebina, Takeo

    In the future, carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRPs) with high hydrogen gas barrier performance will find wide applications in all industrial hydrogen tanks that aim at weight reduction; the use of such materials will be preferred to the use of conventional metallic materials such as stainless steel or aluminum. The hydrogen gas barrier performance of CFRP will become an important issue with the introduction of hydrogen-fuel aircraft. It will also play an important role in realizing fully reusable space transportation system that will have high specific tensile CFRP structures. Such materials are also required for the manufacture of high-pressure hydrogen gas vessels for use in the fuel cell systems of automobiles. This paper introduces a new composite concept that can be used to realize CFRPs with high hydrogen gas barrier performance for applications in the cryogenic tanks of fully reusable space transportation system by the incorporation of a nonmetallic crystal layer, which is actually a dense and highly oriented clay crystal laminate. The preliminary test results show that the hydrogen gas barrier characteristics of this material after cryogenic heat shocks and cyclic loads are still better than those of other polymer materials by approximately two orders of magnitude.

  9. Application of calorimeters for 5 MeV EB and bremsstrahlung dosimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sato, T.; Takahashi, T.; Saito, T.;

    1993-01-01

    Graphite and water calorimeters, which were developed for use a 10 MeV electron beams (EB) at Riso National Laboratory, were used for process validation and routine dosimeter calibration at a 5 MeV EB. Water calorimeters were used for reference measurements for 5 MeV EB, the response was found...... at 5 MeV EB. Graphite calorimeters gave reproducible readings within 3.3 % relative errors (95 % confidence level) for X-ray measurement....

  10. Drug Delivery Systems, CNS Protection, and the Blood Brain Barrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Kant Upadhyay

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Present review highlights various drug delivery systems used for delivery of pharmaceutical agents mainly antibiotics, antineoplastic agents, neuropeptides, and other therapeutic substances through the endothelial capillaries (BBB for CNS therapeutics. In addition, the use of ultrasound in delivery of therapeutic agents/biomolecules such as proline rich peptides, prodrugs, radiopharmaceuticals, proteins, immunoglobulins, and chimeric peptides to the target sites in deep tissue locations inside tumor sites of brain has been explained. In addition, therapeutic applications of various types of nanoparticles such as chitosan based nanomers, dendrimers, carbon nanotubes, niosomes, beta cyclodextrin carriers, cholesterol mediated cationic solid lipid nanoparticles, colloidal drug carriers, liposomes, and micelles have been discussed with their recent advancements. Emphasis has been given on the need of physiological and therapeutic optimization of existing drug delivery methods and their carriers to deliver therapeutic amount of drug into the brain for treatment of various neurological diseases and disorders. Further, strong recommendations are being made to develop nanosized drug carriers/vehicles and noninvasive therapeutic alternatives of conventional methods for better therapeutics of CNS related diseases. Hence, there is an urgent need to design nontoxic biocompatible drugs and develop noninvasive delivery methods to check posttreatment clinical fatalities in neuropatients which occur due to existing highly toxic invasive drugs and treatment methods.

  11. 47 CFR 27.1214 - EBS spectrum leasing arrangements and grandfathered leases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false EBS spectrum leasing arrangements and... Educational Broadband Service § 27.1214 EBS spectrum leasing arrangements and grandfathered leases. (a) A licensee in the EBS that is solely utilizing analog transmissions may enter into a spectrum...

  12. Measurement of residual stress in thermally grown oxide layers in thermal barrier coating systems - development of non-destructive test methods.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saunders, S.R.J.; Banks, J.P.; Chen, G.; Chunnilall, C.J. [National Physical Lab., Teddington, Middlesex (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    It is established that the adhesion of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) is dependent upon the characteristics of the thermally grown oxide (TGO) that forms between the TBC (zirconia) and the corrosion resistant bond coat. Work has been carried using laser induced fluorescence out to investigate the properties of the TGO (normally alumina) as a function of ageing treatments. The zirconia layer is transparent to the laser light used and thus the laser light can cause fluorescence in the TGO layer present on the bondcoat, so that the method is non-destructive. Fluorescence in the TGO is caused by trace impurities of Cr in the alumina layer. The position of the spectral peaks generated is stress dependent so that residual stress in the TGO can be determined; the method is also known as piezospectroscopy. Residual stress maps were generated for an electron beam physical vapour deposited (EB-PVD) TBC that showed a large variation in residual stress over the surface of a coated sample. The two peaks generally associated with {alpha} alumina (R1 and R2) frequently appear as doublets with a high and low stress component. In addition, the presence of a metastable {theta}-alumina was detected in aged samples. It is believed that these observations can be related to incipient spallation of the TBC. The development of residual stress and the metastable oxide have been studied and correlated with the spallation behaviour of the TBC. Additionally, the intensity of the spectra has been shown to yield information about the Cr content of the TGO, and this in turn could also be used as an indication of the remaining life of the TBC system. (orig.)

  13. Frictional energy barrier and blocking temperature in water molecules and carbon nanotubes system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianwei; Li, Jiaxi; Li, Wenfeng

    2015-03-01

    Water transport through hydrophobic channels of single-walled carbon nanotubes has attracted a lot interests, especially, various potential applications of SWCNTs have been proposed for designing novel nanofluidic devices. By adopting Molecular dynamics method, we investigated mechanics and statistics properties of water molecules escaping from a confined single-walled carbon nanotube. From our numerical MD simulations and statistical model, we determined the friction energy barrier of water molecules in (10.10) SWCNT is 9.88 kcal/mol, and which is the minimal energy for flowing a water molecules in CNT. By only using friction energy barrier and relaxation time parameter, our model can fit all different situations MD simulation results. In order to describing the frictional lock behavior of water molecules, we introduced a new blocking temperature, below this temperature (391K for our system), water is locked in CNT due to friction energy barrier. We found that the blocking temperature is closely related to system response time, and it also shows a linear behavior to frictional energy barrier. Furthermore, we found several other interesting statistics results when a water molecules leaving SWCNTs. This work was supported by NSFC No. 11274240 and NO. 51471119.

  14. Barrier Lyapunov function-based model-free constraint position control for mechanical systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Seong Ik; Ha, Hyun Uk; Lee, Jang Myung [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-07-15

    In this article, a motion constraint control scheme is presented for mechanical systems without a modeling process by introducing a barrier Lyapunov function technique and adaptive estimation laws. The transformed error and filtered error surfaces are defined to constrain the motion tracking error in the prescribed boundary layers. Unknown parameters of mechanical systems are estimated using adaptive laws derived from the Lyapunov function. Then, robust control used the conventional sliding mode control, which give rise to excessive chattering, is changed to finite time-based control to alleviate undesirable chattering in the control action and to ensure finite-time error convergence. Finally, the constraint controller from the barrier Lyapunov function is designed and applied to the constraint of the position tracking error of the mechanical system. Two experimental examples for the XY table and articulated manipulator are shown to evaluate the proposed control scheme.

  15. Advanced thermal barrier system bond coatings for use on nickel-, cobalt- and iron-base alloy substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecura, S.

    1986-01-01

    New and improved Ni-, Co-, and Fe-base bond coatings have been identified for the ZrO2-Y2O3 thermal barrier coatings to be used on Ni-, Co-, and Fe-base alloy substrates. These bond coatings were evaluated in a cyclic furnace between 1120 and 1175 C. It was found that MCrAlYb (where M = Ni, Co, or Fe) bond coating thermal barrier systems have significantly longer lives than MCrAlY bond coating thermal barrier systems. The longest life was obtained with the FeCrAlYb thermal barrier system followed by NiCrAlYb and CoCrAlYb thermal barrier systems in that order.

  16. Reducing Barriers To The Use of High-Efficiency Lighting Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Morante

    2005-12-31

    With funding from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Lighting Research Center (LRC) at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute completed the four-year research project, Reducing Barriers to the Use of High-Efficiency Lighting Systems. The initial objectives were: (1) identifying barriers to widespread penetration of lighting controls in commercial/industrial (C/I) applications that employ fluorescent lamp technologies, and (2) making recommendations to overcome these barriers. The addition of a fourth year expanded the original project objectives to include an examination of the impact on fluorescent lamps from dimming utilizing different lamp electrode heating and dimming ratios. The scope of the project was narrowed to identify barriers to the penetration of lighting controls into commercial-industrial (C/I) applications that employ fluorescent lamp technologies, and to recommend means for overcoming these barriers. Working with lighting manufacturers, specifiers, and installers, the project identified technological and marketing barriers to the widespread use of lighting controls, specifically automatic-off controls, occupancy sensors, photosensors, dimming systems, communication protocols and load-shedding ballasts. The primary barriers identified include cost effectiveness of lighting controls to the building owner, lack of standard communication protocols to allow different part of the control system to communicate effectively, and installation and commissioning issues. Overcoming the identified barriers requires lighting control products on the market to achieve three main goals: (1) Achieve sufficient functionality to meet the key requirements of their main market. (2) Allow significant cost reduction compared to current market standard systems. Cost should consider: hardware capital cost including wiring, design time required by the specifier and the control system manufacturer, installation time required by the electrician, and commissioning time and

  17. Barriers in the Implementation of Health Information Systems: A Scoping Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin STAMATIAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Context. A well-developed health information system which is implemented according to present standards allows a healthcare quality increase. Our study aims at providing an overview of the barriers which were encountered in the process of implementing the health information systems by reviewing the literature connected to Europe and the United States of America. Methodology. We searched within five databases (Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, PubMed, ScienceDirect and Scopus for the exact phrase ‘implementation health information system’ along with the name of each European country/USA state. Relevance was then tested by scanning titles and abstracts. The third and final step involved assessing all the articles in order to set their relevance and a data extraction tool was created, containing the name of the state/country that the article reports data on, the article citation and the challenges identified. Results. The barriers identified were classified in four major categories: technical, organizational, behavioral/human and financial. Seemingly, Europe (41 articles and USA (20 articles are facing the same issues in the implementation of a health information system. No major difference between EU and non-EU countries was found after our analysis with regards to the identified barriers. Discussion. Even if recommendations and solutions are continuously being developed in order to solve these barriers, the implementation of a new health information system must be very detailed in order to face all these problems. Additionally, further research is required in order to evaluate their impact on the successful implementation of a health information system.

  18. Cap-Gly proteins at microtubule plus ends: is EB1 detyrosination involved?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anouk Bosson

    Full Text Available Localization of CAP-Gly proteins such as CLIP170 at microtubule+ends results from their dual interaction with α-tubulin and EB1 through their C-terminal amino acids -EEY. Detyrosination (cleavage of the terminal tyrosine of α-tubulin by tubulin-carboxypeptidase abolishes CLIP170 binding. Can detyrosination affect EB1 and thus regulate the presence of CLIP170 at microtubule+ends as well? We developed specific antibodies to discriminate tyrosinated vs detyrosinated forms of EB1 and detected only tyrosinated EB1 in fibroblasts, astrocytes, and total brain tissue. Over-expressed EB1 was not detyrosinated in cells and chimeric EB1 with the eight C-terminal amino acids of α-tubulin was only barely detyrosinated. Our results indicate that detyrosination regulates CLIPs interaction with α-tubulin, but not with EB1. They highlight the specificity of carboxypeptidase toward tubulin.

  19. Cap-Gly proteins at microtubule plus ends: is EB1 detyrosination involved?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosson, Anouk; Soleilhac, Jean-Marc; Valiron, Odile; Job, Didier; Andrieux, Annie; Moutin, Marie-Jo

    2012-01-01

    Localization of CAP-Gly proteins such as CLIP170 at microtubule+ends results from their dual interaction with α-tubulin and EB1 through their C-terminal amino acids -EEY. Detyrosination (cleavage of the terminal tyrosine) of α-tubulin by tubulin-carboxypeptidase abolishes CLIP170 binding. Can detyrosination affect EB1 and thus regulate the presence of CLIP170 at microtubule+ends as well? We developed specific antibodies to discriminate tyrosinated vs detyrosinated forms of EB1 and detected only tyrosinated EB1 in fibroblasts, astrocytes, and total brain tissue. Over-expressed EB1 was not detyrosinated in cells and chimeric EB1 with the eight C-terminal amino acids of α-tubulin was only barely detyrosinated. Our results indicate that detyrosination regulates CLIPs interaction with α-tubulin, but not with EB1. They highlight the specificity of carboxypeptidase toward tubulin.

  20. Vegetation barrier and tillage effects on runoff and sediment in an alley crop system on a Luvisol in Burkina Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaan, W.P.; Sikking, A.F.S.; Hoogmoed, W.B.

    2005-01-01

    The effects of vegetation barriers and tillage on runoff and soil loss were evaluated in an alley crop system at a research station in central Burkina Faso. On a 2% slope of a sandy loam various local species (grasses, woody species and a succulent) were planted as conservation barriers in order to

  1. Nanoparticles and blood-brain barrier: the key to central nervous system diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, Alazne; Suárez-Merino, Blanca; Goñi-de-Cerio, Felipe

    2014-01-01

    Major central nervous system disorders represent a significant and worldwide public health problem. In fact, the therapeutic success of many pharmaceuticals developed to treat central nervous system diseases is still moderate, since the blood-brain barrier (BBB) limits the access of systemically administered compounds to the brain. Therefore, they require the application of a large total dose of a drug, and cause numerous toxic effects. The development of nanotechnological systems are useful tools to deliver therapeutics and/or diagnostic probes to the brain due to nanocarriers having the potential to improve the therapeutic effect of drugs and to reduce their side effects. This review provides a brief overview of the variety of carriers employed for central nervous system drug and diagnostic probes delivery. Further, this paper focuses on the novel nanocarriers developed to enhance brain delivery across the blood-brain barrier. Special attention is paid to liposomes, micelles, polymeric and lipid-based nanoparticles, dendrimers and carbon nanotubes. The recent developments in nanocarrier implementation through size/charge optimization and surface modifications (PEGylation, targeting delivery, and coating with surfactants) have been discussed. And a detailed description of the nanoscaled pharmaceutical delivery devices employed for the treatment of central nervous system disorders have also been defined. The aim of the review is to evaluate the nanotechnology-based drug delivery strategies to treat different central nervous system disorders.

  2. Breakup mechanisms for 7Li + 197Au, 204Pb systems at sub-barrier energies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luong D.H.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Coincidence measurements of breakup fragments were carried out for the 7Li + 197Au and 204Pb systems at sub-barrier energies. The mechanisms triggering breakup, and time-scales of each process, were identified through the reaction Q-values and the relative energy of the breakup fragments. Binary breakup of 7Li were found to be predominantly triggered by nucleon transfer, with p-pickup leading to 8Be → α + α decay being the preferred breakup mode. From the time-scales of each process, the coincidence yields were separated into prompt and delayed components, allowing the identification of breakup process important in the suppression of complete fusion of 7Li at above-barrier energies.

  3. Effects of sea-level rise on barrier island groundwater system dynamics: ecohydrological implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterson, John P.; Fienen, Michael N.; Thieler, E. Robert; Gesch, Dean B.; Gutierrez, Benjamin T.; Plant, Nathaniel G.

    2014-01-01

    We used a numerical model to investigate how a barrier island groundwater system responds to increases of up to 60 cm in sea level. We found that a sea-level rise of 20 cm leads to substantial changes in the depth of the water table and the extent and depth of saltwater intrusion, which are key determinants in the establishment, distribution and succession of vegetation assemblages and habitat suitability in barrier islands ecosystems. In our simulations, increases in water-table height in areas with a shallow depth to water (or thin vadose zone) resulted in extensive groundwater inundation of land surface and a thinning of the underlying freshwater lens. We demonstrated the interdependence of the groundwater response to island morphology by evaluating changes at three sites. This interdependence can have a profound effect on ecosystem composition in these fragile coastal landscapes under long-term changing climatic conditions.

  4. Symmetric splitting for the system 32S+238U at energies near and below the barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freifelder, R.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Deyoung, P.; Schicker, R.; Sen, S.; Stachel, J.

    1987-06-01

    The total capture cross section for the system 32S+238U has been measured at energies from 0.93 to 1.08 times the s-wave interaction barrier by detecting coincident fission fragments following full momentum transfer reactions. The subbarrier cross section cannot be reproduced by a one-dimensional barrier penetration model. Using a quantum mechanical coupled channels model, good agreement is obtained. The measured angular distributions of fission fragments were compared to the predictions of saddle and scission point transition state theory. Saddle point transition state model calculations fail to reproduce the data, while scission point transition state calculations are in agreement with their qualitative trend. Evidence for nonequilibrium processes is presented.

  5. Experimental Research Of Charged Particles Streams, Emitted From Area Of Eb Acting On Material, In Order To Estimate The Possibilities Of Using Them To Eb Welding Control

    CERN Document Server

    Olszewska, K

    2001-01-01

    The basic parameters of electron beam (EB) welding process are position and dimensions of so called EB active zone. Wrong position of active zone make impossible to obtain desirable shape of a weld and may cause various defects of a weld. Relatively reach source of information about EB welding process are charged particles emitted from the area of EB acting on material. The measurements of various types of signals for the three largest groups of charged particles: back-scattered electrons, really secondary electrons and ions were carried out. It was estimated that practically none of them could be used directly in procedures of EB active zone position control. It is result of ambiguous of information, they contain and susceptibility to interferences or impossibility of real time data acquisition. Using the neural networks can solve this problem. The computer simulations of various models of neural networks were done. The best result was obtained for network, which has as input signals: accelerating voltage, E...

  6. Prezygotic barriers to hybridization in marine broadcast spawners: reproductive timing and mating system variation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla A Monteiro

    Full Text Available Sympatric assemblages of congeners with incomplete reproductive barriers offer the opportunity to study the roles that ecological and non-ecological factors play in reproductive isolation. While interspecific asynchrony in gamete release and gametic incompatibility are known prezygotic barriers to hybridization, the role of mating system variation has been emphasized in plants. Reproductive isolation between the sibling brown algal species Fucus spiralis, Fucus guiryi (selfing hermaphrodite and Fucus vesiculosus (dioecious was studied because they form hybrids in parapatry in the rocky intertidal zone, maintain species integrity over a broad geographic range, and have contrasting mating systems. We compared reproductive synchrony (spawning overlap between the three species at several temporal scales (yearly/seasonal, semilunar/tidal, and hourly during single tides. Interspecific patterns of egg release were coincident at seasonal (single peak in spring to early summer to semilunar timescales. Synthesis of available data indicated that spawning is controlled by semidiurnal tidal and daily light-dark cues, and not directly by semilunar cycles. Importantly, interspecific shifts in timing detected at the hourly scale during single tides were consistent with a partial ecological prezygotic hybridization barrier. The species displayed patterns of gamete release consistent with a power law distribution, indicating a high degree of reproductive synchrony, while the hypothesis of weaker selective constraints for synchrony in selfing versus outcrossing species was supported by observed spawning in hermaphrodites over a broader range of tidal phase than in outcrossers. Synchronous gamete release is critical to the success of external fertilization, while high-energy intertidal environments may offer only limited windows of reproductive opportunity. Within these windows, however, subtle variations in reproductive timing have evolved with the potential to

  7. Marsh Edge Erosion Effects in Coupled Barrier Island-Marsh Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauzon, R.; Moore, L. J.; Murray, A. B.; Walters, D.; Fagherazzi, S.; Mariotti, G.

    2014-12-01

    While until recently marsh loss was largely thought to be due to an inability for vertical accretion rates to match rates of sea level rise, marsh edge erosion by wind waves is now thought to be the leading cause of marsh loss worldwide. To better understand the response of coastal ecosystems to future changes in sea level and storm intensity, we further develop the coupled barrier-island marsh evolution model GEOMBEST+. We use the relationship between wave height (and therefore energy) and fetch and wind speed to add marsh edge erosion to the model, as well as to provide a more physical formulation for bay bottom erosion. Previous research addressing marshes in isolation from barrier islands (Mariotti and Fagherazzi, 2013) suggests that the existence of a backbarrier marsh is an unstable state, tending to either grow laterally to completely fill an adjacent basin or to erode away completely. Previous results of GEOMBEST+ experiments (Walters et al., in review) suggest that couplings with an adjacent barrier island can add an additional alternate long-lasting state: a narrow marsh supported by sediment influx from overwash. Here we present the results of new GEOMBEST+ model experiments that address how the addition of lateral erosion by wind waves affects the existence and characteristics of the narrow marsh state. Specifically, we seek to address how the frequency and characteristic time and space scales of the narrow march state are affected. Model experiments also explore more broadly the importance of wind wave effects in understanding the coupled dynamics of marsh-barrier island systems.

  8. Asphalt emulsion radon barrier systems for uranium mill tailings: an overview of the technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, E.G.; Hartley, J.N.; Freeman, H.D.; Gates, T.E.; Nelson, D.A.; Dunning, R.L.

    1984-03-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), under contract to the US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP) office, has developed an asphalt emulsion cover system to reduce the release of radon from uranium mill tailings. The system has been field tested at Grand Junction, Colorado. Results from laboratory and field tests indicate that this system is effective in reducing radon release to near-background levels (<2.5 pCi m/sup -2/s/sup -1/) and has the properties required for long-term effectiveness and stability. Engineering specifications have been developed, and analysis indicates that asphalt emulsion covers are cost-competitive with other cover systems. This report summarizes the technology for asphalt emulsion radon barrier systems. 59 references, 45 figures, 36 tables.

  9. Development and Performance Evaluations of HfO2-Si and Rare Earth-Si Based Environmental Barrier Bond Coat Systems for SiC/SiC Ceramic Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming

    2014-01-01

    Ceramic environmental barrier coatings (EBC) and SiCSiC ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) will play a crucial role in future aircraft propulsion systems because of their ability to significantly increase engine operating temperatures, improve component durability, reduce engine weight and cooling requirements. Advanced EBC systems for SiCSiC CMC turbine and combustor hot section components are currently being developed to meet future turbine engine emission and performance goals. One of the significant material development challenges for the high temperature CMC components is to develop prime-reliant, high strength and high temperature capable environmental barrier coating bond coat systems, since the current silicon bond coat cannot meet the advanced EBC-CMC temperature and stability requirements. In this paper, advanced NASA HfO2-Si based EBC bond coat systems for SiCSiC CMC combustor and turbine airfoil applications are investigated. The coating design approach and stability requirements are specifically emphasized, with the development and implementation focusing on Plasma Sprayed (PS) and Electron Beam-Physic Vapor Deposited (EB-PVD) coating systems and the composition optimizations. High temperature properties of the HfO2-Si based bond coat systems, including the strength, fracture toughness, creep resistance, and oxidation resistance were evaluated in the temperature range of 1200 to 1500 C. Thermal gradient heat flux low cycle fatigue and furnace cyclic oxidation durability tests were also performed at temperatures up to 1500 C. The coating strength improvements, degradation and failure modes of the environmental barrier coating bond coat systems on SiCSiC CMCs tested in simulated stress-environment interactions are briefly discussed and supported by modeling. The performance enhancements of the HfO2-Si bond coat systems with rare earth element dopants and rare earth-silicon based bond coats are also highlighted. The advanced bond coat systems, when

  10. Autoinhibition of TBCB regulates EB1-mediated microtubule dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza, Gerardo; Castaño, Raquel; Fanarraga, Mónica L; Villegas, Juan Carlos; Gonçalves, João; Soares, Helena; Avila, Jesus; Marenchino, Marco; Campos-Olivas, Ramón; Montoya, Guillermo; Zabala, Juan Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Tubulin cofactors (TBCs) participate in the folding, dimerization, and dissociation pathways of the tubulin dimer. Among them, TBCB and TBCE are two CAP-Gly domain-containing proteins that together efficiently interact with and dissociate the tubulin dimer. In the study reported here we showed that TBCB localizes at spindle and midzone microtubules during mitosis. Furthermore, the motif DEI/M-COO(-) present in TBCB, which is similar to the EEY/F-COO(-) element characteristic of EB proteins, CLIP-170, and α-tubulin, is required for TBCE-TBCB heterodimer formation and thus for tubulin dimer dissociation. This motif is responsible for TBCB autoinhibition, and our analysis suggests that TBCB is a monomer in solution. Mutants of TBCB lacking this motif are derepressed and induce microtubule depolymerization through an interaction with EB1 associated with microtubule tips. TBCB is also able to bind to the chaperonin complex CCT containing α-tubulin, suggesting that it could escort tubulin to facilitate its folding and dimerization, recycling or degradation.

  11. EBS/C proton spectra from a virgin diamond crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erich, M., E-mail: marko.erich@gmail.com [Laboratory of Physics, Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, University of Belgrade, PO Box 552, Belgrade (Serbia); Kokkoris, M. [Department of Physics, National Technical University of Athens, Zografou Campus 157 80, Athens (Greece); Fazinić, S. [Laboratory for Ion Beam Interactions, Department of Experimental Physics, Institute Ruđer Bošković, Bijenička cesta 54, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Petrović, S. [Laboratory of Physics, Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, University of Belgrade, PO Box 552, Belgrade (Serbia)

    2016-08-15

    In the present work, elastic backscattering channeling spectra, EBS/C, of protons in a 〈1 0 0〉 diamond crystal were experimentally and theoretically studied via a new computer simulation code. Proton incident energies for EBS/C spectra were in the energy range from 1.0 MeV to 1.9 MeV. The energy range was chosen in order to explore a distinct strong resonance of the {sup 12}C(p,p{sub 0}){sup 12}C elastic scattering at 1737 keV. The computer simulation code applied for the fitting of the experimental spectra in the random mode was compared with the corresponding SIMNRA results. In the channeling mode, it assumes a Gompertz type sigmoidal dechanneling function, which has two fitting parameters, x{sub c} and k, the dechanneling range and rate, respectively. It also uses α, ratio of the channeling to random energy losses, as a fitting parameter. It was observed that x{sub c} increases, k decreases and α stays relatively constant with the proton incident energy. These observations confirm the physical interpretation of the fitting parameters. Also, they constitute the basics for the further development of the code for the quantification of induced amorphization and depth profiling of implanted ions.

  12. EBS/C proton spectra from a virgin diamond crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erich, M.; Kokkoris, M.; Fazinić, S.; Petrović, S.

    2016-08-01

    In the present work, elastic backscattering channeling spectra, EBS/C, of protons in a diamond crystal were experimentally and theoretically studied via a new computer simulation code. Proton incident energies for EBS/C spectra were in the energy range from 1.0 MeV to 1.9 MeV. The energy range was chosen in order to explore a distinct strong resonance of the 12C(p,p0)12C elastic scattering at 1737 keV. The computer simulation code applied for the fitting of the experimental spectra in the random mode was compared with the corresponding SIMNRA results. In the channeling mode, it assumes a Gompertz type sigmoidal dechanneling function, which has two fitting parameters, xc and k, the dechanneling range and rate, respectively. It also uses α, ratio of the channeling to random energy losses, as a fitting parameter. It was observed that xc increases, k decreases and α stays relatively constant with the proton incident energy. These observations confirm the physical interpretation of the fitting parameters. Also, they constitute the basics for the further development of the code for the quantification of induced amorphization and depth profiling of implanted ions.

  13. Fission Meter Information Barrier Attribute Measurement System: Task 1 Report: Document existing Fission Meter neutron IB system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerr, P. L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-02-28

    An SNM attribute Information Barrier (IB) system was developed for a 2011 US/UK Exercise. The system was modified and extensively tested in a 2013-2014 US-UK Measurement Campaign. This work demonstrated rapid deployment of an IB system for potential treaty use. The system utilizes an Ortec Fission Meter neutron multiplicity counter and custom computer code. The system demonstrates a proof-of-principle automated Pu-240 mass determination with an information barrier. After a software start command is issued, the system automatically acquires and downloads data, performs an analysis, and displays the results. This system conveys the results of a Pu mass threshold measurements in a way the does not reveal sensitive information. In full IB mode, only red/green ‘lights’ are displayed in the software. In test mode, more detailed information is displayed. The code can also read in, analyze, and display results from previously acquired or simulated data. Because the equipment is commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS), the system demonstrates a low-cost short-lead-time technology for treaty SNM attribute measurements. A deployed system will likely require integration of additional authentication and tamper-indicating technologies. This will be discussed for the project in this and future progress reports.

  14. Evolution of fusion hindrance for asymmetric systems at deep sub-barrier energies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Shrivastava

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of fusion cross-sections of 7Li and 12C with 198Pt at deep sub-barrier energies are reported to unravel the role of the entrance channel in the occurrence of fusion hindrance. The onset of fusion hindrance has been clearly observed in C12+Pt198 system but not in Li7+Pt198 system, within the measured energy range. Emergence of the hindrance, moving from lighter (6,7Li to heavier (12C, 16O projectiles is explained employing a model that considers a gradual transition from a sudden to adiabatic regime at low energies. The model calculation reveals a weak effect of the damping of coupling to collective motion for the present systems as compared to that obtained for systems with heavier projectiles.

  15. Evolution of fusion hindrance for asymmetric systems at deep sub-barrier energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastava, A.; Mahata, K.; Pandit, S. K.; Nanal, V.; Ichikawa, T.; Hagino, K.; Navin, A.; Palshetkar, C. S.; Parkar, V. V.; Ramachandran, K.; Rout, P. C.; Kumar, Abhinav; Chatterjee, A.; Kailas, S.

    2016-04-01

    Measurements of fusion cross-sections of 7Li and 12C with 198Pt at deep sub-barrier energies are reported to unravel the role of the entrance channel in the occurrence of fusion hindrance. The onset of fusion hindrance has been clearly observed in 12C +198Pt system but not in 7Li +198Pt system, within the measured energy range. Emergence of the hindrance, moving from lighter (6,7Li) to heavier (12C, 16O) projectiles is explained employing a model that considers a gradual transition from a sudden to adiabatic regime at low energies. The model calculation reveals a weak effect of the damping of coupling to collective motion for the present systems as compared to that obtained for systems with heavier projectiles.

  16. Evolution of fusion hindrance for asymmetric systems at deep sub barrier energies

    CERN Document Server

    Shrivastavaa, A; Pandit, S K; Nanal, V; Ichikawa, T; Hagino, K; Navin, A; Palshetkar, C S; Parkar, V V; Ramachandran, K; Rout, P C; Kumar, Abhinav; Chatterjee, A; Kailas, S

    2016-01-01

    Measurements of fusion cross-sections of 7Li and 12C with 198Pt at deep sub-barrier energies are reported to unravel the role of the entrance channel in the occurrence of fusion hindrance. The onset of fusion hindrance has been clearly observed in 12C + 198Pt system but not in 7Li + 198Pt system, within the measured energy range. Emergence of the hindrance, moving from lighter (6,7Li) to heavier (12C,16O) projectiles is explained employing a model that considers a gradual transition from a sudden to adiabatic regime at low energies. The model calculation reveals a weak effect of the damping of coupling to collective motion for the present systems as compared to that obtained for systems with heavier projectiles.

  17. Identification and immunogenicity of microneme protein 2 (EbMIC2) of Eimeria brunetti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoan, Tran Duc; Zhang, Zhenchao; Huang, Jingwei; Yan, Ruofeng; Song, Xiaokai; Xu, Lixin; Li, Xiangrui

    2016-03-01

    There have been only a few antigen genes of Eimeria brunetti reported up to now. In this study, the gene encoding the microneme protein 2 (EbMIC2) was isolated from oocysts of E. brunetti by RT-PCR and the immunogenicity of recombinant EbMIC2 was observed. The EbMIC2 was cloned into vector pMD19-T for sequencing. The sequence was compared with the published EbMIC2 gene from GenBank revealed homology of the nucleotide sequence and amino acids sequence were 99.43 and 98.63%, respectively. The correct recombinant pMD-EbMIC2 plasmid was inserted into the pET-28a (+) expressing vector and transformed into competent Escherichia coli BL21 cells for expression. The expressed product was analyzed using SDS-PAGE and Western-blot. The results indicated that the recombinant EbMIC2 protein was recognized strongly by serum from naturally infected chicken with E. brunetti. Rat rcEbMIC2 antisera bound to bands of about 36 kDa in the somatic extract of E. brunetti sporozoites. The recombinant plasmid pVAX1-EbMIC2 was constructed and then the efficacies of recombinant plasmid and recombinant protein were evaluated. The results of IgG antibody level and cytokines concentration suggested that recombinant EbMIC2 could increase the IgG antibody level and induce the expressions of cytokines. Animal challenge experiments demonstrated that the recombinant EbMIC2 protein and recombinant plasmid pVAX1-EbMIC2 could significantly increase the average body weight gains, decrease the mean lesion scores and the oocyst outputs of the immunized chickens and presented high anti-coccidial index. All results suggested that EbMIC2 could become an effective candidate for the development of new vaccine against E. brunetti infection.

  18. Nanofiber-based filters as novel barrier systems for nanomaterial exposure scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faccini, M; Amantia, D; Vazquez-Campos, S; Aubouy, L [LEITAT Technological Center, Passeig 22 de Juliol, 218, 08221 Terrassa (Spain); Vaquero, C; Lopez de Ipina, J M, E-mail: mfaccini@leitat.org [Tecnalia, P.T. Alava - C/ Leonardo Da Vinci, 11, 01510 Minano (Alava) (Spain)

    2011-07-06

    In this article our latest advances in the development of efficient barrier systems against micro- and nano-particulate materials are presented. Nanofibrous polyamide 6 (PA6) mats were fabricated by electrospinning onto a nonwoven viscose substrate. The influence of electrospinning parameters including solution concentration, viscosity, and conductivity, were studied for the production of nonwovens with different fiber size distribution ranging from 74 to 261 nm in diameters. Moreover, the formation of nanowebs (30-40 nm) which are widely distributed among fibers was observed. By varying several process parameters, membranes with different thickness of the nanofiber layer and therefore air permeability and nanoparticle filtration efficiency were obtained.

  19. Nanofiber-based filters as novel barrier systems for nanomaterial exposure scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faccini, M.; Amantia, D.; Vázquez-Campos, S.; Vaquero, C.; López de Ipiña, J. M.; Aubouy, L.

    2011-07-01

    In this article our latest advances in the development of efficient barrier systems against micro- and nano-particulate materials are presented. Nanofibrous polyamide 6 (PA6) mats were fabricated by electrospinning onto a nonwoven viscose substrate. The influence of electrospinning parameters including solution concentration, viscosity, and conductivity, were studied for the production of nonwovens with different fiber size distribution ranging from 74 to 261 nm in diameters. Moreover, the formation of nanowebs (30-40 nm) which are widely distributed among fibers was observed. By varying several process parameters, membranes with different thickness of the nanofiber layer and therefore air permeability and nanoparticle filtration efficiency were obtained.

  20. Burden of Circulatory System Diseases and Ignored Barriers ofKnowledge Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed-Basir Ghafouri

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Circulatory system disease raise third highest disability-adjusted life years among Iranians and ischemic cardiac diseases are main causes for such burden. Despite available evidences on risk factors of the disease, no effective intervention was implemented to control and prevent the disease. This paper non-systematically reviews available literature on the problem, solutions, and barriers of implementation of knowledge translation in Iran. It seems that there are ignored factors such as cultural and motivational issues in knowledge translation interventions but there are hopes for implementation of started projects and preparation of students as next generation of knowledge transferors.

  1. OVERCOMING THE METER BARRIER AND THE FORMATION OF SYSTEMS WITH TIGHTLY PACKED INNER PLANETS (STIPs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boley, A. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of British Columbia, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, B.C. V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Morris, M. A. [Center for Meteorite Studies, Arizona State University, P.O. Box 876004, Tempe, AZ 88287-6004 (United States); Ford, E. B. [Center for Exoplanets and Habitable Worlds, The Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Laboratory, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2014-09-10

    We present a solution to the long outstanding meter barrier problem in planet formation theory. As solids spiral inward due to aerodynamic drag, they will enter disk regions that are characterized by high temperatures, densities, and pressures. High partial pressures of rock vapor can suppress solid evaporation, and promote collisions between partially molten solids, allowing rapid growth. This process should be ubiquitous in planet-forming disks, which may be evidenced by the abundant class of Systems with Tightly packed Inner Planets discovered by the NASA Kepler Mission.

  2. Role of histaminergic system in blood-brain barrier dysfunction associated with neurological disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bañuelos-Cabrera, Ivette; Valle-Dorado, María Guadalupe; Aldana, Blanca Irene; Orozco-Suárez, Sandra Adela; Rocha, Luisa

    2014-11-01

    Blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption has been associated with several acute and chronic brain disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and epilepsy. This represents a critical situation because damaged integrity of the BBB is related to the influx of immune mediators, plasma proteins and other outside elements from blood to the central nervous system (CNS) that may trigger a cascade of events that leads to neuroinflammation. In this review, evidence that mast cells and the release of factors such as histamine play an important role in the neuroinflammatory process associated with brain disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and epilepsy is presented.

  3. Engineered barrier system and waste package design concepts for a potential geologic repository at Yucca Mountain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Short, D.W.; Ruffner, D.J.; Jardine, L.J.

    1991-10-01

    We are using an iterative process to develop preliminary concept descriptions for the Engineered Barrier System and waste-package components for the potential geologic repository at Yucca Mountain. The process allows multiple design concepts to be developed subject to major constraints, requirements, and assumptions. Involved in the highly interactive and interdependent steps of the process are technical specialists in engineering, metallic and nonmetallic materials, chemistry, geomechanics, hydrology, and geochemistry. We have developed preliminary design concepts that satisfy both technical and nontechnical (e.g., programmatic or policy) requirements.

  4. Selenium Distribution Pattern, Antineoplastic and Immunostimulatory Activities of a Novel Organoselenium Compound Eb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANJun; DENGSheng-ju; KUANGBin; HEFei; LIUTao; ZENGHui-hui

    2004-01-01

    Aim To study the distribution pattern, antineoplastic activity and immtmocompetence of a novel organeselenium compotmd Eb and investigate its in vivo antineoplastic potential. Methods Eb was administered to Kunming mice (dosage, 0.1 g·kg-1·d-1) intragastrically for 7 successive days. The contents of selenium in heart, liver, spleen, kidneys, lungs, stomach, brain, muscle, and bone were determined by fluommetric method on the eighth day. MTT assay was used to study tumor growth inhibition of Eb in vitro, and lymphocyte transformation, hemolysin formation and phagocytosis assay were used to study its immunocompetence. Results After 7 days' administration of Eb, the tissue contents of selenium in liver, spleen, lungs, kidneys, and bone of mice increased, especially those in liver and spleen increased significantly, compared with controls; but no significant changes of such contents were fotmd in muscle, heart, brain, and stomach. Eb demonstrated inhibitory effects on human Bel-7402, BGC-823, and Calu-3 cancer cell lines in vitro. Eb also showed ability to enhance lymphocyte transformation and serum hemolysin formation in v/tro and increase the phagocytosis of macrophages. Conclusion The validated antitumor and immtmostimulatory activities of Eb suggest a hypothesis that Eb may behave as a biological response modifier when used as an antitumor agent. Eb is worthy of further study in developing a new antineoplastic and immunity enhancing agent in the light of its antitumor activity, immtmocompetenee and specific distribution in liver, lungs, kidneys, bone, and spleen.

  5. Optimization of the NiCrAl-Y/ZrO-Y2O3 thermal barrier system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecura, S.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of bond and thermal barrier coating compositions, thicknesses, and densities on air plasma spray deposited Ni-Cr-Al-Y/ZrO2-Y2O3 life were evaluated in cyclic furnace oxidation tests at temperatures from 1110 to 1220 C. An empirical relation was developed to give life as a function of the above parameters. The thermal barrier system tested which had the longest life consisted of Ni-35.0 wt% Cr-5.9 wt% Al-0.95 wt% Y bond coating and ZrO2-6.1 wt% Y2O3 thermal barrier coating.

  6. Smart parking barrier

    KAUST Repository

    Alharbi, Abdulrazaq M.

    2016-05-06

    Various methods and systems are provided for smart parking barriers. In one example, among others, a smart parking barrier system includes a movable parking barrier located at one end of a parking space, a barrier drive configured to control positioning of the movable parking barrier, and a parking controller configured to initiate movement of the parking barrier, via the barrier drive. The movable parking barrier can be positioned between a first position that restricts access to the parking space and a second position that allows access to the parking space. The parking controller can initiate movement of the movable parking barrier in response to a positive identification of an individual allowed to use the parking space. The parking controller can identify the individual through, e.g., a RFID tag, a mobile device (e.g., a remote control, smartphone, tablet, etc.), an access card, biometric information, or other appropriate identifier.

  7. EB-PVD thermal barrier coatings for aeroengines and gas turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, M.; Leyens, C.; Schulz, U.; Kaysser, W.A. [DLR, Koeln (Germany). Inst. of Materials Research

    2001-04-01

    High pressure turbine blades and vanes of aeroengines are among the most highly loaded parts in engineering components. For these demanding applications only high temperature Ni-base superalloys can be considered. These alloys have matured over the years from wrought to cast, then to directionally solidified alloys, whereas in the latest generation of turbines for the most demanding applications, like the rotating turbine components, single crystal material is employed. (orig.)

  8. Socio-cultural barriers to the development of a sustainable energy system - the case of hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjerulf Petersen, L.; Holst Andersen, A.

    2009-02-15

    Any transition to a more sustainable energy system, radically reducing greenhouse gas emissions, is bound to run in to a host of different barriers - technological and economic, but also socio-cultural. This will also be the case for any large-scale application of hydrogen as energy carrier, especially if the system is going to be based on renewable energy sources. The aim of these research notes is to review and discuss major socio-cultural barriers to new forms of energy supply in general and to hydrogen specifically. Reaching sufficient reductions in greenhouse gas emissions may require more than large-scale dissemination of renewable energy sources. Also reductions or moderations in energy demand may be necessary. Hence, a central point in the research note is to consider not only socio-cultural obstacles for changing technologies in energy production, distribution and consumption but also obstacles for changing the scale of energy consumption, i.e. moderating the growth in how much energy is consumed or even reducing consumption volumes. (au)

  9. Magnetic Materials: Novel Monitors of Long-Term Evolution of Engineered Barrier Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon L. Harley

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Most safety cases for the deep geological disposal of radioactive waste are reliant on the swelling of bentonite in the engineered barrier system as it saturates with groundwater. Assurance of safety therefore requires effective monitoring of bentonite saturation. The time- and fluid-dependent corrosion of synthetic magnets embedded in bentonite is demonstrated here to provide a novel and passive means of monitoring saturation. Experiments have been conducted at 70 °C in which neo magnets, AlNiCo magnets, and ferrite magnets have been reacted with saline (NaCl, KCl, CaCl2 solutions and alkaline fluids (NaOH, KOH, Ca(OH2 solutions; pH = 12 in the presence of bentonite. Nd-Fe-B magnets undergo extensive corrosion that results in a dramatic change from ferromagnetic to superparamagnetic behaviour concomitant with bentonite saturation. AlNiCo magnets in saline solutions show corrosion but only limited decreases in their magnetic intensities, and ferrite magnets are essentially unreactive on the experimental timescales, retaining their initial magnetic properties. For all magnets the impact of their corrosion on bentonite swelling is negligible; alteration of bentonite is essentially governed by the applied fluid composition. In principle, synthetic magnet arrays can, with further development, be designed and embedded in bentonite to monitor its fluid saturation without compromising the integrity of the engineered barrier system itself.

  10. Regulation of Copper Transport Crossing Brain Barrier Systems by Cu-ATPases: Effect of Manganese Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xue; Zhang, Yanshu; Jiang, Wendy; Monnot, Andrew Donald; Bates, Christopher Alexander; Zheng, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Regulation of cellular copper (Cu) homeostasis involves Cu-transporting ATPases (Cu-ATPases), i.e., ATP7A and ATP7B. The question as to how these Cu-ATPases in brain barrier systems transport Cu, i.e., toward brain parenchyma, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), or blood, remained unanswered. This study was designed to characterize roles of Cu-ATPases in regulating Cu transport at the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and blood-CSF barrier (BCB) and to investigate how exposure to toxic manganese (Mn) altered the function of Cu-ATPases, thereby contributing to the etiology of Mn-induced parkinsonian disorder. Studies by quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qPCR), Western blot, and immunocytochemistry revealed that both Cu-ATPases expressed abundantly in BBB and BCB. Transport kinetic studies by in situ brain infusion and ventriculo-cisternal (VC) perfusion in Sprague Dawley rat suggested that the BBB was a major site for Cu entry into brain, whereas the BCB was a predominant route for Cu efflux from the CSF to blood. Confocal evidence showed that the presence of excess Cu or Mn in the choroid plexus cells led to ATP7A relocating toward the apical microvilli facing the CSF, but ATP7B toward the basolateral membrane facing blood. Mn exposure inhibited the production of both Cu-ATPases. Collectively, these data suggest that Cu is transported by the BBB from the blood to brain, which is mediated by ATP7A in brain capillary. By diffusion, Cu ions move from the interstitial fluid into the CSF, where they are taken up by the BCB. Within the choroidal epithelial cells, Cu ions are transported by ATP7B back to the blood. Mn exposure alters these processes, leading to Cu dyshomeostasis-associated neuronal injury. PMID:24614235

  11. The advantages and barriers in the implementation of a substance dependence treatment information system (SDTIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajami, Sima; Mellat-Karkevandi, Zahra

    2015-11-01

    Addiction is a phenomenon that causes structural changes in different systems of society. Studies show for planning of addiction prevention and treatment, it is necessary to create an information management system. Substance dependence information systems refer to systems which collect, analyse and report data related to substance dependence information. The aim of this study was to identify advantages and barriers to implement Substance Dependence Treatment Information System (SDTIS). This study was a narrative review. Our review divided into three phases: literature collection, assessing, and selection. We employed the following keywords and their combinations in different areas of articles. In this study, 22 of collected articles and reports were selected based on their relevancy. We found many advantages for a substance dependence treatment information system such as recording sufficient, complete and accurate information and easy and timely access to them and monitoring and enhancing the quality of care received by patients. But we may face some concerns for implementing this information system like taking time and funds from client services, being expensive or even problems regarding the quality of data contained in these information systems. There are some important problems in the way of implementing. In order to overcome these issues, we need to raise community awareness.

  12. The advantages and barriers in the implementation of a substance dependence treatment information system (SDTIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima Ajami

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Addiction is a phenomenon that causes structural changes in different systems of society. Studies show for planning of addiction prevention and treatment, it is necessary to create an information management system. Substance dependence information systems refer to systems which collect, analyse and report data related to substance dependence information. The aim of this study was to identify advantages and barriers to implement Substance Dependence Treatment Information System (SDTIS. This study was a narrative review. Our review divided into three phases: literature collection, assessing, and selection. We employed the following keywords and their combinations in different areas of articles. In this study, 22 of collected articles and reports were selected based on their relevancy. We found many advantages for a substance dependence treatment information system such as recording sufficient, complete and accurate information and easy and timely access to them and monitoring and enhancing the quality of care received by patients. But we may face some concerns for implementing this information system like taking time and funds from client services, being expensive or even problems regarding the quality of data contained in these information systems. There are some important problems in the way of implementing. In order to overcome these issues, we need to raise community awareness.

  13. The phytoestrogen genistein modulates lysosomal metabolism and transcription factor EB (TFEB) activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskot, Marta; Montefusco, Sandro; Jakóbkiewicz-Banecka, Joanna; Mozolewski, Paweł; Węgrzyn, Alicja; Di Bernardo, Diego; Węgrzyn, Grzegorz; Medina, Diego L; Ballabio, Andrea; Gabig-Cimińska, Magdalena

    2014-06-13

    Genistein (5,7-dihydroxy-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one) has been previously proposed as a potential drug for use in substrate reduction therapy for mucopolysaccharidoses, a group of inherited metabolic diseases caused by mutations leading to inefficient degradation of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in lysosomes. It was demonstrated that this isoflavone can cross the blood-brain barrier, making it an especially desirable potential drug for the treatment of neurological symptoms present in most lysosomal storage diseases. So far, no comprehensive genomic analyses have been performed to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying the effect elicited by genistein. Therefore, the aim of this work was to identify the genistein-modulated gene network regulating GAG biosynthesis and degradation, taking into consideration the entire lysosomal metabolism. Our analyses identified over 60 genes with known roles in lysosomal biogenesis and/or function whose expression was enhanced by genistein. Moreover, 19 genes whose products are involved in both GAG synthesis and degradation pathways were found to be remarkably differentially regulated by genistein treatment. We found a regulatory network linking genistein-mediated control of transcription factor EB (TFEB) gene expression, TFEB nuclear translocation, and activation of TFEB-dependent lysosome biogenesis to lysosomal metabolism. Our data indicate that the molecular mechanism of genistein action involves not only impairment of GAG synthesis but more importantly lysosomal enhancement via TFEB. These findings contribute to explaining the beneficial effects of genistein in lysosomal storage diseases as well as envisage new therapeutic approaches to treat these devastating diseases.

  14. Effects of Shot Peening Process on Thermal Cycling Lifetime of TBCs Prepared by EB-PVD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Zhao-hui; GONG Sheng-kai; LI He-fei; XU Hui-bin; ZHANG Chun-gang; WANG Lu

    2007-01-01

    Conventional two-layered thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are prepared by electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD)with ZrO2-8 wt% Y2O3 (8YSZ) as top coat and CoCrAlY as bond coat on disk-shaped Ni based super-alloy. In this paper, three kinds of shot peening process with different lengths of operating time were adopted for bond coating. As a result, changes took place in its surface roughness and the surface micro-hardness. A thermal cycling test at 1 273 K×55 min and another at room temperature for 5 min were performed to study the effects of shot peening process on the thermal cycling lifetime of TBCs. It is found that a moderate shot peening process will be able to prolong the life time. The oxidation dynamic of the as-processed TBCs basically accords with the parabolic rule, and the oxidation test also attests to the spallation between YSZ and thermal growth oxide (TGO) responsible mainly for the failure of TBCs.

  15. Degradation of Organic Compounds by Active Species Sprayed in a Dielectric Barrier Corona Discharge System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jie; SONG Ling; LIU Qiang; QU Guangzhou; LI Guofeng; WU Yan

    2009-01-01

    Investigation was made into the degradation of organic compounds by a dielectric barrier corona discharge (DBCD) system. The DBCD, consisting of a quartz tube, a concentric high voltage electrode and a net wrapped to the external wall (used as ground electrode), was introduced to generate active species which were sprayed into the organic solution through an aerator fixed on the bottom of the tube. The effect of four factors-the discharge voltage, gas flow rate, solution conductivity, and pH of wastewater, on the degradation efficiency of phenol was assessed. The obtained results demonstrated that this process was an effective method for phenol degradation. The degradation rate was enhanced with the increase in power supplied. The degradation efficiency in alkaline conditions was higher than those in acid and neutral conditions.The optimal gas flow rate for phenol degradation in the system was 1.6 L/min, while the solution conductivity had little effect on the degradation.

  16. Advanced Oxide Material Systems for 1650 C Thermal/Environmental Barrier Coating Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dong-Ming; Fox, Dennis S.; Bansal, Narottam P.; Miller, Robert A.

    2004-01-01

    Advanced thermal and environmental barrier coatings (TEBCs) are being developed for low-emission SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composite (CMC) combustor and vane applications to extend the CMC liner and vane temperature capability to 1650 C (3000 F) in oxidizing and water-vapor-containing combustion environments. The advanced 1650 C TEBC system is required to have a better high-temperature stability, lower thermal conductivity, and more resistance to sintering and thermal stress than current coating systems under engine high-heat-flux and severe thermal cycling conditions. In this report, the thermal conductivity and water vapor stability of selected candidate hafnia-, pyrochlore- and magnetoplumbite-based TEBC materials are evaluated. The effects of dopants on the materials properties are also discussed. The test results have been used to downselect the TEBC materials and help demonstrate the feasibility of advanced 1650 C coatings with long-term thermal cycling durability.

  17. Comparing the Dimensions of Modern and Ancient Barrier Island Systems to Understand Controls on Preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulhern, J.; Johnson, C. L.; Stright, L.

    2015-12-01

    Commonly assumed to have low preservation potential, barrier islands are rarely interpreted in the rock record, and there is little consensus on the terminology and depositional models related to their interpretation. Prevalent on transgressive coastlines, the dimensions of modern barriers are used as analogs for the ancient; however, ancient examples are complicated by post-depositional processes, including thickening through amalgamation and removal by ravinement. Contrasting the dimensions of modern and ancient examples lends insight into the development and preservation of transgressive deposits, improving the ability to predict the size and distribution of barrier island sand bodies in the rock record as well as understanding the variables that control their architecture. Interpretation of barrier island deposits from the John Henry Member (Cretaceous Straight Cliffs Fm., Kaiparowits Plateau, southern Utah) motivated an investigation into both ancient and modern barrier islands. Traditional sequence stratigraphic models predict thin condensed deposition during transgression, not accounting for possible thick and laterally extensive accumulations of barrier island deposits. More recent models recognize the possible complexity and heterogeneity of transgressive deposits and the potential for barrier island accumulation. To better understand the relationship between modern and ancient barrier islands, the length (along strike), width (dip direction) and thickness (vertical) of >20 modern and >30 ancient barrier islands were compared. Ancient dimensions were gathered from the literature, while modern dimensions were aggregated from literature and a database of modern barrier islands currently being developed. Initial results suggest that ancient barrier island deposits record the motion of the shoreline during transgression. Ancient barriers are ~2-8 times wider and ~2-3 times thicker than modern islands. The dynamics of barrier island migration and sediment

  18. Regulated competition in health care: Switching and barriers to switching in the Dutch health insurance system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rijken Mieke

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2006, a number of changes in the Dutch health insurance system came into effect. In this new system mobility of insured is important. The idea is that insured switch insurers because they are not satisfied with quality of care and the premium of their insurance. As a result, insurers will in theory strive for a better balance between price and quality. The Dutch changes have caught the attention, internationally, of both policy makers and researchers. In our study we examined switching behaviour over three years (2007-2009. We tested if there are differences in the numbers of switchers between groups defined by socio-demographic and health characteristics and between the general population and people with chronic illness or disability. We also looked at reasons for (not-switching and at perceived barriers to switching. Methods Switching behaviour and reasons for (not-switching were measured over three years (2007-2009 by sending postal questionnaires to members of the Dutch Health Care Consumer Panel and of the National Panel of people with Chronic illness or Disability. Data were available for each year and for each panel for at least 1896 respondents - a response of between 71% and 88%. Results The percentages of switchers are low; 6% in 2007, 4% in 2008 and 3% in 2009. Younger and higher educated people switch more often than older and lower educated people and women switch more often than men. There is no difference in the percentage of switchers between the general population and people with chronic illness or disability. People with a bad self-perceived health, and chronically ill and disabled, perceive more barriers to switching than others. Conclusion The percentages of switchers are comparable to the old system. Switching is not based on quality of care and thus it can be questioned whether it will lead to a better balance between price and quality. Although there is no difference in the frequency of switching

  19. Protection against malevolent use of vehicles at Nuclear Power Plants. Vehicle barrier system selection guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nebuda, D.T.

    1994-08-01

    This manual provides a simplified procedure for selecting land vehicle barriers that will stop the design basis vehicle threat adopted by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Proper selection and construction of vehicle barriers should prevent intrusion of the design basis vehicle. In addition, vital safety related equipment should survive a design basis vehicle bomb attack when vehicle barriers are properly selected, sited, and constructed. This manual addresses passive vehicle barriers, active vehicle barriers, and site design features that can be used to reduce vehicle impact velocity.

  20. Quantifying system safety: A comparison of the SBOAT & Safety Barrier Manager tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee; Duijm, Nijs Jan; Markert, Frank;

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents two software tools for analyzing safety risks, SBOAT (Stochastic BPMN Optimisation and Analysis Tool) and SBM (SafetyBarrierManagerr). SBOAT employs principles from stochastic model checking to allow for the quantitative verification of workflows. SBM supports the creation...... of valid safety-barrier diagrams and allows the quantitative analysis of the probability of all possible end states of the barrier diagram, i.e. the outcomes if one or several of the barriers fail to perform their barrier function. We compare the foundations of these tools and describe how they can be used...

  1. Effectiveness of compacted soil liner as a gas barrier layer in the landfill final cover system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Seheum; Nam, Kyoungphile; Kim, Jae Young; Hwan, Shim Kyu; Chung, Moonkyung

    2008-01-01

    A compacted soil liner (CSL) has been widely used as a single barrier layer or a part of composite barrier layer in the landfill final cover system to prevent water infiltration into solid wastes for its acceptable hydraulic permeability. This study was conducted to test whether the CSL was also effective in prohibiting landfill gas emissions. For this purpose, three different compaction methods (i.e., reduced, standard, and modified Proctor methods) were used to prepare the soil specimens, with nitrogen as gas, and with water and heptane as liquid permeants. Measured gas permeability ranged from 2.03 x 10(-10) to 4.96 x 10(-9) cm(2), which was a magnitude of two or three orders greater than hydraulic permeability (9.60 x 10(-13) to 1.05 x 10(-11) cm(2)). The difference between gas and hydraulic permeabilities can be explained by gas slippage, which makes gas more permeable, and by soil-water interaction, which impedes water flow and then makes water less permeable. This explanation was also supported by the result that a liquid permeability measured with heptane as a non-polar liquid was similar to the intrinsic gas permeability. The data demonstrate that hydraulic requirement for the CSL is not enough to control the gas emissions from a landfill.

  2. Ultrathin, transferred layers of thermally grown silicon dioxide as biofluid barriers for biointegrated flexible electronic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Hui; Zhao, Jianing; Yu, Ki Jun; Song, Enming; Barati Farimani, Amir; Chiang, Chia-Han; Jin, Xin; Xue, Yeguang; Xu, Dong; Du, Wenbo; Seo, Kyung Jin; Zhong, Yiding; Yang, Zijian; Won, Sang Min; Fang, Guanhua; Choi, Seo Woo; Chaudhuri, Santanu; Huang, Yonggang; Ashraful Alam, Muhammad; Viventi, Jonathan; Aluru, N. R.; Rogers, John A.

    2016-10-01

    Materials that can serve as long-lived barriers to biofluids are essential to the development of any type of chronic electronic implant. Devices such as cardiac pacemakers and cochlear implants use bulk metal or ceramic packages as hermetic enclosures for the electronics. Emerging classes of flexible, biointegrated electronic systems demand similar levels of isolation from biofluids but with thin, compliant films that can simultaneously serve as biointerfaces for sensing and/or actuation while in contact with the soft, curved, and moving surfaces of target organs. This paper introduces a solution to this materials challenge that combines (i) ultrathin, pristine layers of silicon dioxide (SiO2) thermally grown on device-grade silicon wafers, and (ii) processing schemes that allow integration of these materials onto flexible electronic platforms. Accelerated lifetime tests suggest robust barrier characteristics on timescales that approach 70 y, in layers that are sufficiently thin (less than 1 μm) to avoid significant compromises in mechanical flexibility or in electrical interface fidelity. Detailed studies of temperature- and thickness-dependent electrical and physical properties reveal the key characteristics. Molecular simulations highlight essential aspects of the chemistry that governs interactions between the SiO2 and surrounding water. Examples of use with passive and active components in high-performance flexible electronic devices suggest broad utility in advanced chronic implants.

  3. Monitoring Local Strain in a Thermal Barrier Coating System Under Thermal Mechanical Gas Turbine Operating Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manero, Albert; Sofronsky, Stephen; Knipe, Kevin; Meid, Carla; Wischek, Janine; Okasinski, John; Almer, Jonathan; Karlsson, Anette M.; Raghavan, Seetha; Bartsch, Marion

    2015-07-01

    Advances in aircraft and land-based turbine engines have been increasing the extreme loading conditions on traditional engine components and have incited the need for improved performance with the use of protective coatings. These protective coatings shield the load-bearing super alloy blades from the high-temperature combustion gases by creating a thermal gradient over their thickness. This addition extends the life and performance of blades. A more complete understanding of the behavior, failure mechanics, and life expectancy for turbine blades and their coatings is needed to enhance and validate simulation models. As new thermal-barrier-coated materials and deposition methods are developed, strides to effectively test, evaluate, and prepare the technology for industry deployment are of paramount interest. Coupling the experience and expertise of researchers at the University of Central Florida, The German Aerospace Center, and Cleveland State University with the world-class synchrotron x-ray beam at the Advanced Photon Source in Argonne National Laboratory, the synergistic collaboration has yielded previously unseen measurements to look inside the coating layer system for in situ strain measurements during representative service loading. These findings quantify the in situ strain response on multilayer thermal barrier coatings and shed light on the elastic and nonelastic properties of the layers and the role of mechanical load and internal cooling variations on the response. The article discusses the experimental configuration and development of equipment to perform in situ strain measurements on multilayer thin coatings and provides an overview of the achievements thus far.

  4. Rheumatologists' perception of systemic lupus erythematosus quality indicators: significant interest and perceived barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Carolyn; Chung, Cecilia P; Crofford, Leslie J; Barnado, April

    2017-01-01

    Differences in quality of care may contribute to health disparities in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Studies show low physician adherence rates to the SLE quality indicators but do not assess physician perception of SLE quality indicators or quality improvement. Using a cross-sectional survey of rheumatologists in the southeastern USA, we assessed the perception and involvement of rheumatologists in quality improvement and the SLE quality indicators. Using electronic mail, an online survey of 32 questions was delivered to 568 rheumatologists. With a response rate of 19% (n = 106), the majority of participants were male, Caucasian, with over 20 years of experience, and seeing adult patients in an academic setting. Participants had a positive perception toward quality improvement (81%) with a majority responding that the SLE quality indicators would significantly impact quality of care (54%). While 66% of respondents were familiar with the SLE quality indicators, only 18% of respondents reported using them in everyday practice. The most commonly reported barrier to involvement in quality improvement and the SLE quality indicators was time. Rheumatologists had a positive perception of the SLE quality indicators and agreed that use of the quality indicators could improve quality of care in SLE; however, they identified time as a barrier to implementation. Future studies should investigate methods to increase use of the SLE quality indicators.

  5. Madis Habakuk : aasta pärast alustab EBS Indias / Madis Habakuk ; interv. Taivo Paju

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Habakuk, Madis, 1938-

    2003-01-01

    EBS Grupp tegutseb juba Hiinas ning kavatseb laieneda Indiasse. EBS Grupi president selgitab, kuidas toimub töötajate juhtimine ja kontroll suure vahemaa tagant, milline peaks olema usalduse ja kontrolli vahekord, ning mida mõista lojaalsuse all ettevõttes

  6. Mechanisms of cellular adaptation to quantum dots--the role of glutathione and transcription factor EB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neibert, Kevin D; Maysinger, Dusica

    2012-05-01

    Cellular adaptation is the dynamic response of a cell to adverse changes in its intra/extra cellular environment. The aims of this study were to investigate the role of: (i) the glutathione antioxidant system, and (ii) the transcription factor EB (TFEB), a newly revealed master regulator of lysosome biogenesis, in cellular adaptation to nanoparticle-induced oxidative stress. Intracellular concentrations of glutathione species and activation of TFEB were assessed in rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells following treatment with uncapped CdTe quantum dots (QDs), using biochemical, live cell fluorescence and immunocytochemical techniques. Exposure to toxic concentrations of QDs resulted in a significant enhancement of intracellular glutathione concentrations, redistribution of glutathione species and a progressive translocation and activation of TFEB. These changes were associated with an enlargement of the cellular lysosomal compartment. Together, these processes appear to have an adaptive character, and thereby participate in the adaptive cellular response to toxic nanoparticles.

  7. Dismantling of the EB experiment: Experimental research on the retrieved GBM and bentonite blocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jiang-Feng, E-mail: jeafliu@hotmail.com [State Key Laboratory for Geomchanics & Deep Underground Engineering, and School of Mechanics and Civil Engineering, China University of Mining & Technology, Xuzhou, Jiangsu 221116 (China); Laboratoire de Méchanique de Lille (LML), and École Centrale de Lille, BP 48, F-59651 Villeneuve d’Ascq Cedex (France); Skoczylas, Frédéric [Laboratoire de Méchanique de Lille (LML), and École Centrale de Lille, BP 48, F-59651 Villeneuve d’Ascq Cedex (France); Talandier, Jean [ANDRA, 1-7 rue Jean Monnet, 92298 Châtenay-Malabry Cedex (France); Pu, Hai [State Key Laboratory for Geomchanics & Deep Underground Engineering, and School of Mechanics and Civil Engineering, China University of Mining & Technology, Xuzhou, Jiangsu 221116 (China)

    2016-04-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We present a demonstration of a new concept of HLW (high-level waste) repositories. • The hydro-mechanical characteristics of GBM and blocks were determined. • The water retention curves (WRCs) of GBM and blocks were presented. • The effective gas permeability of the GBM and blocks were measured. • The homogeneity of the GBM and blocks were investigated. - Abstract: The Engineered Barrier Emplacement Experiment in Opalinus Clay (EB experiment) was a full-scale test for the demonstration of a new concept of high-level waste (HLW) repositories in horizontal drifts in the Opalinus Clay formation. After 10.5 years of hydration, the EB experiment was dismantled in autumn 2012. Samples obtained from the granular bentonite material (GBM), and bentonite blocks were sent to a laboratory for further analysis. The bentonite samples analyzed at the Laboratory of Mechanic of Lille (LML) were obtained from the CMT1, CMT2, CMT3 and RW sections. Their physical states were determined, as were their effective gas permeability and swelling capacity at different relative humidity (RH) levels. The results indicate that the water contents of the GBM determined in the laboratory ranged between 25.63% and 44.88% and that the dry densities ranged between 1.13 and 1.44 g/cm{sup 3}. The blocks had water contents similar to (or slightly higher than) those of the GBM, and their dry densities had decreased from an initial value of 1.69 g/cm{sup 3} to values close to 1.30 g/cm{sup 3}, which were similar to the average values found in the GBM. The effective gas permeabilities of the GBM samples were within the range of 1.50 × 10{sup −22} m{sup 2} and 1.03 × 10{sup −17} m{sup 2}, whereas, the corresponding values of the samples obtained from the blocks were between 2.20 × 10{sup −21} m{sup 2} and 5.12 × 10{sup −21} m{sup 2}. The permeability values are primarily related to the dry densities and water contents of the samples. Contact with

  8. Thermal Conductivity Analysis and Lifetime Testing of Suspension Plasma-Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Curry

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Suspension plasma spraying (SPS has become an interesting method for the production of thermal barrier coatings for gas turbine components. The development of the SPS process has led to structures with segmented vertical cracks or column-like structures that can imitate strain-tolerant air plasma spraying (APS or electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD coatings. Additionally, SPS coatings can have lower thermal conductivity than EB-PVD coatings, while also being easier to produce. The combination of similar or improved properties with a potential for lower production costs makes SPS of great interest to the gas turbine industry. This study compares a number of SPS thermal barrier coatings (TBCs with vertical cracks or column-like structures with the reference of segmented APS coatings. The primary focus has been on lifetime testing of these new coating systems. Samples were tested in thermo-cyclic fatigue at temperatures of 1100 °C for 1 h cycles. Additional testing was performed to assess thermal shock performance and erosion resistance. Thermal conductivity was also assessed for samples in their as-sprayed state, and the microstructures were investigated using SEM.

  9. Changes in skin barrier during treatment with systemic alitretinoin: focus on skin susceptibility and stratum corneum ceramides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jungersted, J.M.; Høgh, Julie Kaae; Hellgren, Lars;

    2010-01-01

    the effect of systemic alitretinoin on skin barrier function and response to irritants, a secondary objective was to determine if changes occur in the lipid profile of stratum corneum after treatment with systemic alitretinoin. We conducted an open clinical intervention study on eight people ascribed...

  10. On the near-barrier fusion of the proton-halo {sup 8}B + {sup 58}Ni system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rangel, J.; Lubian, J.; Gomes, P.R.S. [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Instituto de Fisica, Gragoata, Niteroi, R.J. (Brazil); Carlson, B.V. [Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica, Departamento de Fisica, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Chamon, L.C. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Instituto de Fisica, CP 66318, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Gomez Camacho, A. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones, Departamento de Aceleradores, Apartado Postal 18-1027, C.P. 11801, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2013-05-15

    We have performed two independent calculations, without any free parameter, to predict the near-barrier fusion cross section for the proton-halo {sup 8}B + {sup 58}Ni system, for which data were recently reported. Standard coupled channel calculations predict fusion cross sections smaller than the data, while CDCC calculations for the absorption cross section (fusion + transfer + inelastic cross sections) agree with the data above the barrier, although transfer cross sections are calculated to have non-negligible cross section at this energy regime. At sub-barrier energies, region where transfer cross sections are particularly important, the CDCC calculations overpredict the data. The fusion data of the {sup 8}B + {sup 58}Ni system fail to follow the systematics of other weakly bound nuclei and the UFF curve and do not agree with the fusion data of the {sup 8}B + {sup 28}Si system. We try to explain this anomalous behaviour. (orig.)

  11. Creep Behavior of Hafnia and Ytterbium Silicate Environmental Barrier Coating Systems on SiC/SiC Ceramic Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming; Fox, Dennis S.; Ghosn, Louis J.; Harder, Bryan

    2011-01-01

    Environmental barrier coatings will play a crucial role in future advanced gas turbine engines because of their ability to significantly extend the temperature capability and stability of SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composite (CMC) engine components, thus improving the engine performance. In order to develop high performance, robust coating systems for engine components, appropriate test approaches simulating operating temperature gradient and stress environments for evaluating the critical coating properties must be established. In this paper, thermal gradient mechanical testing approaches for evaluating creep and fatigue behavior of environmental barrier coated SiC/SiC CMC systems will be described. The creep and fatigue behavior of Hafnia and ytterbium silicate environmental barrier coatings on SiC/SiC CMC systems will be reported in simulated environmental exposure conditions. The coating failure mechanisms will also be discussed under the heat flux and stress conditions.

  12. A bioindicator system for water quality on inshore coral reefs of the Great Barrier Reef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabricius, Katharina E; Cooper, Timothy F; Humphrey, Craig; Uthicke, Sven; De'ath, Glenn; Davidson, Johnston; LeGrand, Hélène; Thompson, Angus; Schaffelke, Britta

    2012-01-01

    Responses of bioindicator candidates for water quality were quantified in two studies on inshore coral reefs of the Great Barrier Reef (GBR). In Study 1, 33 of the 38 investigated candidate indicators (including coral physiology, benthos composition, coral recruitment, macrobioeroder densities and FORAM index) showed significant relationships with a composite index of 13 water quality variables. These relationships were confirmed in Study 2 along four other water quality gradients (turbidity and chlorophyll). Changes in water quality led to multi-faceted shifts from phototrophic to heterotrophic benthic communities, and from diverse coral dominated communities to low-diversity communities dominated by macroalgae. Turbidity was the best predictor of biota; hence turbidity measurements remain essential to directly monitor water quality on the GBR, potentially complemented by our final calibrated 12 bioindicators. In combination, this bioindicator system may be used to assess changes in water quality, especially where direct water quality data are unavailable.

  13. Mechanisms governing the interfacial delamination of thermal barrier coating system with double ceramic layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Rong; Fan, Xueling; Wang, T. J.

    2016-05-01

    A systematic study of factors affecting the interfacial delamination of thermal barrier coating system (TBCs) with double ceramic layers (DCL) is presented. Crack driving forces for delaminations at two weak interfaces are examined. The results show that a thicker outermost ceramic layer can induce dramatic increase in crack driving force and make the interface between two ceramic coatings become more prone to delamination. The behavior is shown to be more prominent in TBCs with stiffer outmost coating. The thickness ratio of two ceramic layers is an important parameter for controlling the failure mechanisms and determining the lifetime of DCL TBCs under inservice condition. By accounting for the influences of thickness ratio of two ceramic layers and interfacial fracture toughnesses of two involved interfaces, the fracture mechanism map of DCL TBCs has been constructed, in which different failure mechanisms are identified. The results quanlitatively agree with the aviliable experimental data.

  14. Evaluation of the Lifetime and Thermal Conductivity of Dysprosia-Stabilized Thermal Barrier Coating Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Nicholas; Markocsan, Nicolaie; Östergren, Lars; Li, Xin-Hai; Dorfman, Mitch

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was the further development of dysprosia-stabilized zirconia coatings for gas turbine applications. The target for these coatings was a longer lifetime and higher insulating performance compared to today's industrial standard thermal barrier coating. Two morphologies of ceramic top coat were studied: one using a dual-layer system and the second using a polymer to generate porosity. Evaluations were carried out using a laser flash technique to measure thermal properties. Lifetime testing was conducted using thermo-cyclic fatigue testing. Microstructure was assessed with SEM and Image analysis was used to characterize porosity content. The results show that coatings with an engineered microstructure give performance twice that of the present reference coating.

  15. Reuse and recycling of secondary effluents in refineries employing advanced multi-barrier systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahnsteiner, J; Mittal, R

    2010-01-01

    In this paper the reclamation and reuse of municipal secondary effluents, as well as the reclamation and recycling of refinery secondary effluents, are technically and economically evaluated. It is shown that both practices are feasible and sustainable, and that the reclamation costs depend largely on specific circumstances such as legal requirements, price policy, reuse application, raw water composition, etc. The reclaimed water is reused, or respectively recycled, as boiler make-up. Therefore both reclamation plants employ advanced multi-barrier systems including ultra-filtration and reverse osmosis. The employed processes have shown excellent performance with regard to the removal of critical parameters such as silica. For example, this parameter was reduced from 13 mg/l in the raw water to 7 μg/l in the boiler make-up.

  16. Barriers to sustainable tuberculosis control in the Russian Federation health system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atun, R. A.; Samyshkin, Y. A.; Drobniewski, F.; Skuratova, N. M.; Gusarova, G.; Kuznetsov, S. I.; Fedorin, I. M.; Coker, R. J.

    2005-01-01

    The Russian Federation has the eleventh highest tuberculosis burden in the world in terms of the total estimated number of new cases that occur each year. In 2003, 26% of the population was covered by the internationally recommended control strategy known as directly observed treatment (DOT) compared to an overall average of 61% among the 22 countries with the highest burden of tuberculosis. The Director-General of WHO has identified two necessary starting points for the scaling-up of interventions to control emerging infectious diseases. These are a comprehensive engagement with the health system and a strengthening of the health system. The success of programmes aimed at controlling infectious diseases is often determined by constraints posed by the health system. We analyse and evaluate the impact of the arrangements for delivering tuberculosis services in the Russian Federation, drawing on detailed analyses of barriers and incentives created by the organizational structures, and financing and provider-payment systems. We demonstrate that the systems offer few incentives to improve the efficiency of services or the effectiveness of tuberculosis control. Instead, the system encourages prolonged supervision through specialized outpatient departments in hospitals (known as dispensaries), multiple admissions to hospital and lengthy hospitalization. The implementation, and expansion and sustainability of WHO-approved methods of tuberculosis control in the Russian Federation are unlikely to be realized under the prevailing system of service delivery. This is because implementation does not take into account the wider context of the health system. In order for the control programme to be sustainable, the health system will need to be changed to enable services to be reconfigured so that incentives are created to reward improvements in efficiency and outcomes. PMID:15798846

  17. An investigation of enhanced capability thermal barrier coating systems for diesel engine components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtzman, R. L.; Layne, J. L.; Schechter, B.

    1984-01-01

    Material systems and processes for the development of effective and durable thermal barriers for heavy duty diesel engines were investigated. Seven coating systems were evaluated for thermal conductivity, erosion resistance, corrosion/oxidation resistance, and thermal shock resistance. An advanced coating system based on plasma sprayed particle yttria stabilized zirconia (PS/HYSZ) was judged superior in these tests. The measured thermal conductivity of the selected coating was 0.893 W/m C at 371 C. The PS/HYSZ coating system was applied to the piston crown, fire deck and valves of a single cylinder low heat rejection diesel engine. The coated engine components were tested for 24 hr at power levels from 0.83 MPa to 1.17 MPa brake mean effective pressure. The component coatings survived the engine tests with a minimum of distress. The measured fire deck temperatures decreased 86 C (155 F) on the intake side and 42 C (75 F) on the exhaust side with the coating applied.

  18. Evolution of an intermittent lagoon-barrier system with rising sea level: observations and projections from the Muni-Pomadze lagoon, Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies-Vollum, Sian

    2016-04-01

    Intermittently closed lagoon-barrier systems are a transitory environment between land and sea that are influenced by fluvial and marine processes as well as human activities. Fluvial processes dominate most of the time, when the barrier is closed. However, when the barrier is breached an ephemeral connection between the lagoon and the ocean develops and estuarine-like conditions ensue. As sea level rises, the evolution of these systems from intermittently closed to open is dependent on multiple processes including barrier breaching, fragmentation and overwashing. Human intervention, often to prevent flooding, also has an impact. The Muni-Pomadze lagoon in central Ghana is a small, intermittently closed lagoon-barrier system that supports a local fishing community. A beach-barrier separates the lagoon from the ocean, impounding river water and sediment behind it for most of the year. At the end of a rainy season the barrier may be breached, either naturally or by human intervention to prevent flooding of dwellings on the barrier. Field observation, digital mapping and GIS analysis of the shoreline has enabled an understanding of how the barrier is evolving with rising sea level. The shore face of the barrier has shifted landwards with an average retreat rate of 0.22 m/yr. Small washover fans, developed at low points along the lagoon side of the barrier have developed. However, aerial photos reveal that these fans have remained stable since 1972 (earliest available air photos). The small size and stability of these fans suggests that overwashing is not an important factor in the evolution of the barrier and that the barrier is being eroded rather not moving landward. Erosion is particularly prevalent at the breach end of the barrier with an average rate of loss of 3 metres per year and palm trees that were providing stability to the barrier have been washed away. Unconsolidated sands forming a transient, spit-like feature have replaced the stable barrier, which

  19. Risk analysis of the governance system affecting outcomes in the Great Barrier Reef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Allan P; Vella, Karen; Pressey, Robert L; Brodie, Jon; Gooch, Margaret; Potts, Ruth; Eberhard, Rachel

    2016-12-01

    The state and trend of the Great Barrier Reef's (GBR's) ecological health remains problematic, influencing United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) statements regarding GBR governance. While UNESCO's concerns triggered separate strategic assessments by the Australian and Queensland governments, there has been no independent and integrated review of the key risks within the overall system of governance influencing GBR outcomes. As a case study of international significance, this paper applies Governance Systems Analysis (GSA), a novel analytical framework that identifies the governance themes, domains and subdomains most likely to influence environmental and socio-economic outcomes in complex natural systems. This GBR-focussed application of GSA identifies governance subdomains that present high, medium, or low risk of failure to produce positive outcomes for the Reef. This enabled us to determine that three "whole of system" governance problems could undermine GBR outcomes. First, we stress the integrative importance of the Long Term Sustainability Plan (LTSP) Subdomain. Sponsored by the Australian and Queensland governments, this subdomain concerns the primary institutional arrangements for coordinated GBR planning and delivery, but due to its recent emergence, it faces several internal governance challenges. Second, we find a major risk of implementation failure in the achievement of GBR water quality actions due to a lack of system-wide focus on building strong and stable delivery systems at catchment scale. Finally, we conclude that the LTSP Subdomain currently has too limited a mandate/capacity to influence several high-risk subdomains that have not been, but must be more strongly aligned with Reef management (e.g. the Greenhouse Gas Emission Management Subdomain). Our analysis enables exploration of governance system reforms needed to address environmental trends in the GBR and reflects on the potential application of GSA in

  20. Discrete Solitary Waves in Systems with Nonlocal Interactions and the Peierls-Nabarro Barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkinson, M.; Weinstein, M. I.

    2017-04-01

    We study a class of discrete focusing nonlinear Schrödinger equations (DNLS) with general nonlocal interactions. We prove the existence of onsite and offsite discrete solitary waves, which bifurcate from the trivial solution at the endpoint frequency of the continuous spectrum of linear dispersive waves. We also prove exponential smallness, in the frequency-distance to the bifurcation point, of the Peierls-Nabarro energy barrier (PNB), as measured by the difference in Hamiltonian or mass functionals evaluated on the onsite and offsite states. These results extend those of the authors for the case of nearest neighbor interactions to a large class of nonlocal short-range and long-range interactions. The appearance of distinct onsite and offsite states is a consequence of the breaking of continuous spatial translation invariance. The PNB plays a role in the dynamics of energy transport in such nonlinear Hamiltonian lattice systems. Our class of nonlocal interactions is defined in terms of coupling coefficients, J m , where {min{Z}} is the lattice site index, with {J_m˜eq m^{-1-2s}, sin[1,∞)} and {J_m˜ e^{-γ|m|}, s=∞, γ > 0,} (Kac-Baker). For {s≥1}, the bifurcation is seeded by solutions of the (effective/homogenized) cubic focusing nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLS). However, for {1/4 equation, FNLS, with {(-Δ)^s} replacing {-Δ}. The proof is based on a Lyapunov-Schmidt reduction strategy applied to a momentum space formulation. The PN barrier bounds require appropriate uniform decay estimates for the discrete Fourier transform of DNLS discrete solitary waves. A key role is also played by non-degeneracy of the ground state of FNLS, recently proved by Frank, Lenzmann and Silvestrie.

  1. The TT, TB, EB and BB correlations in anisotropic inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Xingang; Firouzjahi, Hassan; Wang, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Recently the BICEP2 experiment has detected the B-mode in the CMB polarization map. The ongoing and future experiments will measure the B-mode from different sky coverage and frequency bands, with the potential to reveal non-trivial features in polarization map. In this work we study the TT, TB, EB and BB correlations associated with the B-mode polarization of CMB map in models of charged anisotropic inflation. The model contains a complex inflaton field which is charged under the $U(1)$ gauge. We calculate the statistical anisotropies generated in the power spectra of the curvature perturbation, the tensor perturbation and their cross-correlation. It is shown that the asymmetry in tensor power spectrum is a very sensitive probe of the gauge coupling. While the level of statistical anisotropy in temperature power spectrum can be small and satisfy the observational bounds, the interactions from the gauge coupling can induce large directional dependence in tensor modes. This will leave interesting anisotropic f...

  2. Pathways and hydrography in the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System Part 2: Water masses and thermohaline structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, L.; Johns, E. M.; Smith, R. H.; Lamkin, J. T.; Largier, J. L.

    2016-06-01

    Hydrographic data from two oceanographic cruises conducted during March 2006 and January/February 2007 are used to investigate the thermohaline structure related to the observed circulation along the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System (MBRS). From our observations we identify three water masses in the MBRS: the Caribbean Surface Water (CSW), North Atlantic Subtropical Underwater (SUW), and Tropical Atlantic Central Water (TACW). Little vertical structure in temperature is observed in the upper 100 m of the water column, but important differences are observed in the salinity distribution both horizontally and with depth. Freshwater inputs to the system from the mainland can be traced in the surface layer, with two possible sources: one from surface rivers located along the southern portion of the MBRS, and the other originating from an underground river system located along the northern portion of the MBRS. The thermohaline structure in the MBRS reflects the dynamics of the observed circulation. Uplifted isopycnals along most of the central and northern coastline of the MBRS reflect the effects of the strong geostrophic circulation flowing northward, i.e. the Yucatan Current. To the south along the MBRS, much weaker velocities are observed, with the Honduras Gyre dominating the flow in this region as presented during January/February 2007. These two regions are separated by onshore and divergent alongshore flow associated with the impingement of the Cayman Current on the shore and the MBRS.

  3. A method for risk analysis across governance systems: a Great Barrier Reef case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Allan; Vella, Karen; Pressey, Robert L.; Brodie, Jon; Yorkston, Hugh; Potts, Ruth

    2013-03-01

    Healthy governance systems are key to delivering sound environmental management outcomes from global to local scales. There are, however, surprisingly few risk assessment methods that can pinpoint those domains and sub-domains within governance systems that are most likely to influence good environmental outcomes at any particular scale, or those if absent or dysfunctional, most likely to prevent effective environmental management. This paper proposes a new risk assessment method for analysing governance systems. This method is then tested through its preliminary application to a significant real-world context: governance as it relates to the health of Australia’s Great Barrier Reef (GBR). The GBR exists at a supra-regional scale along most of the north eastern coast of Australia. Brodie et al (2012 Mar. Pollut. Bull. 65 81-100) have recently reviewed the state and trend of the health of the GBR, finding that overall trends remain of significant concern. At the same time, official international concern over the governance of the reef has recently been signalled globally by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN). These environmental and political contexts make the GBR an ideal candidate for use in testing and reviewing the application of improved tools for governance risk assessment.

  4. Examining Barriers to Internationalisation Created by Diverse Systems and Structures in Vocational Education and Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Joy Shaw

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In a global society, all educational sectors need to recognise internationalism as a core, foundational principle. Whilst most educational sectors are taking up that challenge, vocational education and training (VET is still being pulled towards the national agenda in terms of its structures and systems, and the policies driving it, disadvantaging those who graduate from VET, those who teach in it, and the businesses and countries that connect with it. This paper poses questions about the future of internationalisation in the sector. It examines whether there is a way to create a VET system that meets its primary point of value, to produce skilled workers for the local labour market, while still benefitting those graduates by providing international skills and knowledge, gained from VET institutions that are international in their outlook. The paper examines some of the key barriers created by systems and structures in VET to internationalisation and suggests that the efforts which have been made to address the problem have had limited success. It suggests that only a model which gives freedom to those with a direct vested interest, students, teachers, trainers and employers, to pursue international co-operation and liaison will have the opportunity to succeed.

  5. Residual stress analysis of the thermal barrier coating system by considering the plasma spraying process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Myung Jae; Lee, Byung Chai [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Jang Gyun; Kim, Moon Ki [Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-15

    The residual stress is the key factor causing the reliability problem of thermal barrier coating (TBC). The failure of plasma spray coatings due to residual stresses is a serious and recurring problem of TBC. The difference of thermal expansion coefficient between the substrate and each coating combined with temperature evolution and temperature gradients during deposition process determine the residual stress for the whole TBC system. The magnitudes and distributions of the residual stresses are affected by deposition process and deposition characteristics. Most of FEA (finite element analysis) has been performed under the assumption that the multilayer coating system is stacked at once without considering the deposition process during plasma spraying. In this research, FEA for a coupled heat transfer and elastic-plastic thermal stress was performed to obtain the more detailed and reliable result of residual stress of the TBC system using the element activation/deactivation technique. The residual stress variation from the start of plasma spraying to cooling stage with room temperature was obtained systematically considering the deposition process. It can be used as reference data to improve the performance of TBC. In addition, the relationship between residual stress and coating conditions such as cooling rate and time is also examined thoroughly.

  6. Motivators, Barriers and Concerns in Adoption of Electronic Filing System: Survey Evidence from Malaysian Professional Accountants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Ling Lai

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Worldwide, electronic filing (e-filing system and its' adoption has attracted much attention, however, scholarly study on accounting professionals' acceptance of e-filing system is scant. Approach: This study aimed (i to examine factors that motivated professional accountants to use e-filing (ii to solicit their usage experience and (iii to assess the barriers to adoption and other compliance considerations. The questionnaire survey was administered on 700 professionals from tax practice and commercial sectors who attended "Budget 2008" Tax Seminars, organized by the Malaysian Institute of Accountants in Peninsular Malaysia. In total, 456 usable responses from accounting and tax professionals were collected and analyzed. Results: The survey found out of 456 respondents, just 23.7% had used e-filing in 2007 to file personal tax return forms. Majority of the e-filers opted to use e-filing for the sake of convenience (55.8%, in faith to get faster tax refund (16.8% and speed of filing (15.9%. For those who did not use e-filing, the key impediments were concerned over the security and did not trust of e-filing system. Some (4.8% were unable to access to the e-filing website. Overall, just 26.1% of the professionals surveyed had confidence in the IRBM in managing the e-filing system successfully. Majority (41.2% thought that 'speedy tax refund' to be the most desirable incentive to motivate individuals to use e-filing. Conclusion: As the IRBM is counting on professional accountants to promote the usage of e-filing system, this study provided important insights to the IRBM to developing marketing and business strategies to motivate professional accountant in business to use e-filing in order to accelerate the diffusion of e-filing system in a developing country like Malaysia.

  7. Barriers to Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Within the Military Healthcare System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-31

    1997). Barriers encountered in osteoporosis prevention are related to the fear that estrogen therapy is harmful (Salamone, Barriers to Health...immunization, mammography, cervical Papanicolaou smear, and physical examination (Dutton, 1986; Elnicki, Morris, & Shockcor, 1995). Provider-Consumer...waiting times at appointments, lack of evening and weekend appointments, inadequate physical space, and inadequate facilities for child care also

  8. Gas and RRR Distribution in High Purity Niobium EB Welded in Ultra-High Vacuum.

    OpenAIRE

    Anakhov, S.; Singer, X.; W. Singer; Wen, H.

    2006-01-01

    Electron beam (EB) welding in UHV (ultra-high vacuum, 10(-5) divided by 10(-8) mbar) is applied in the standard fabrication of high gradient niobium superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities of TESLA design. The quality of EB welding is critical for cavity performance. Experimental data of gas content (H-2, O-2, N-2) and RRR (residual resistivity ratio) measurements in niobium (Nb) welding seams are presented. EB welding in UHV conditions allow to preserve low gas content (1 divided by 3...

  9. The socio-technical barriers to Solar Home Systems (SHS) in Papua New Guinea: 'Choosing pigs, prostitutes, and poker chips over panels'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K., E-mail: bsovacool@nus.edu.s [Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore, 469C Bukit Timah Road, Singapore 259772 (Singapore); D' Agostino, Anthony L.; Jain Bambawale, Malavika [Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore, 469C Bukit Timah Road, Singapore 259772 (Singapore)

    2011-03-15

    This study explores the socio-technical barriers to Solar Home Systems (SHS) in Papua New Guinea. The authors collected primary data through semi-structured research interviews conducted over the course of February 2010-April 2010. Respondents included government officials, financiers, planners, commercial distributors and companies, teachers and rural villagers in addition to members of civil society, academics, consultants, and trainers. These interviews were supplemented with site visits to Port Moresby, Goroka, and Madang, and field research in the villages of Akameku, Asaroka, Lufa, Kundiawa, Okifa, Simbu, and Talidig. The study draws from these interviews and visits to discuss four types of barriers. Technical barriers relate to substandard equipment and logistical problems. Economic barriers include high rates of poverty, misconceptions about the role of currency, and lack of financing. Political barriers include poor institutional capacity and a government commitment to fossil-fueled grid electrification. Social barriers encompass unrealistic expectations about what SHS can provide along with jealousy, theft, vandalism, and unfamiliarity with solar technology. - Research highlights: {yields} Solar Home Systems (SHS) are impeded by a collection of different barriers in Papua New Guinea. {yields} Technical barriers relate to substandard equipment and logistical problems. {yields} Economic barriers include high rates of poverty, misconceptions about the role of currency, and lack of financing.{yields} Political barriers include poor institutional capacity and a government commitment to fossil-fueled grid electrification. {yields} Social barriers encompass unrealistic expectations about what SHS can provide along with jealousy, theft, vandalism, and unfamiliarity with solar technology.

  10. Wheelchair users’ perspectives on barriers in public spaces in Vienna: implications for the development of a barrier information system / Barrieren aus der Sicht von Rollstuhlnutzern/-innen im öffentlichen Raum in Wien: Implikationen für ein Barriere-Informationssystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Außermaier Hannes

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Wheelchair users often encounter barriers reducing community mobility and participation in societal life. Information on barrier-free routes may improve mobility and therefore societal participation. In addition to technical prerequisites, a routing system will only be effective and used by the target group, if the development process is based on their perceptions and needs. The aim of the study was therefore to collect data on barriers from the viewpoint of wheelchair users in Vienna.

  11. AVNG SYSTEM SOFTWARE - ATTRIBUTE VERIFICATION SYSTEM WITH INFORMATION BARRIERS FOR MASS AND ISOTOPICS MEASUREMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Modenov, A; Bulatov, M; Livke, A; Morkin, A; Razinkov, S; Safronov, S; Elmont, T; Langner, D; MacArthur, D; Mayo, D; Smith, M; Luke, S J

    2005-06-10

    This report describes the software development for the plutonium attribute verification system--AVNG. A brief synopsis of the technical solution for the measurement system is presented. The main tasks for the software development that is underway are formulated. The development tasks are shown in software structural flowcharts, measurement system state diagram and a description of the software. The current status of the AVNG software development is elucidated.

  12. Implementation of multiple-domain covering computerized decision support systems in primary care: a focus group study on perceived barriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lugtenberg, M.; Weenink, J.W.; Weijden, T. van der; Westert, G.P.; Kool, R.B.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite the widespread availability of computerized decision support systems (CDSSs) in various healthcare settings, evidence on their uptake and effectiveness is still limited. Most barrier studies focus on CDSSs that are aimed at a limited number of decision points within selected smal

  13. Implementation of multiple-domain covering computerized decision support systems in primary care : A focus group study on perceived barriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lugtenberg, M.; Weenink, Jan-Willem; van der Weijden, Trudy; Westert, G.P.; Kool, Rudolf B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite the widespread availability of computerized decision support systems (CDSSs) in various healthcare settings, evidence on their uptake and effectiveness is still limited. Most barrier studies focus on CDSSs that are aimed at a limited number of decision points within selected small

  14. Study of nuclear structure effect on fusion through barrier distribution for the system 28Si+154Sm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaur Gurpreet

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We plan to perform large angle quasi-elastic scattering experiments using a 28Si beam on heavy targets in order to study the nuclear dynamics and structure effects. As a prelude to our first test experiment with a 154Sm target, we study here the existing fusion data for the same system through the barrier distribution.

  15. Review of underground logistic systems in the Netherlands: an ex-post evaluation of barriers, enablers and spin-offs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegmans, B.W.; Visser, J.; Konings, R.; Pielage, B.J.A.

    2010-01-01

    Now, 10 years after the first plans, we analyse in this paper what has happened with Underground Logistic Systems (ULS). The major question in this paper is: Which barriers and enablers led to the failure of ULS and what ULS spin-offs can be found nowadays? Several factors can be classified as barri

  16. Solving problems in social-ecological systems: definition, practice and barriers of transdisciplinary research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelstam, Per; Andersson, Kjell; Annerstedt, Matilda; Axelsson, Robert; Elbakidze, Marine; Garrido, Pablo; Grahn, Patrik; Jönsson, K Ingemar; Pedersen, Simen; Schlyter, Peter; Skärbäck, Erik; Smith, Mike; Stjernquist, Ingrid

    2013-03-01

    Translating policies about sustainable development as a social process and sustainability outcomes into the real world of social-ecological systems involves several challenges. Hence, research policies advocate improved innovative problem-solving capacity. One approach is transdisciplinary research that integrates research disciplines, as well as researchers and practitioners. Drawing upon 14 experiences of problem-solving, we used group modeling to map perceived barriers and bridges for researchers' and practitioners' joint knowledge production and learning towards transdisciplinary research. The analysis indicated that the transdisciplinary research process is influenced by (1) the amount of traditional disciplinary formal and informal control, (2) adaptation of project applications to fill the transdisciplinary research agenda, (3) stakeholder participation, and (4) functional team building/development based on self-reflection and experienced leadership. Focusing on implementation of green infrastructure policy as a common denominator for the delivery of ecosystem services and human well-being, we discuss how to diagnose social-ecological systems, and use knowledge production and collaborative learning as treatments.

  17. Spatiotemporal variability of sedimentology and morphology in the East Frisian barrier island system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrling, Gerald; Winter, Christian

    2016-08-01

    The highly dynamic East Frisian barrier island system (southern North Sea) is characterized by a complex morphology of tidal inlets, ebb-tidal deltas and foreshore beaches that reacts to storms and fair-weather conditions with characteristic patterns of sediment grain-size distributions. The morphological and sedimentological response to varying hydrodynamic conditions yet occurs in short time spans that are not covered by common monitoring strategies with measuring intervals typically of years. This study applies process-based numerical modelling with multiple sediment fractions to interpolate morphological states in time between bathymetrical surveys conducted in the summer months of 2004 and 2006. Morphodynamic simulations driven by real-time boundary conditions of tides, wind and waves are carried out for a representative period of 2 years. The spatiotemporal variability of the nearshore sedimentology and morphology is assessed by graded ranges of bed dynamics (i.e. bed elevation range) and the definition of sediment grain-size variability (i.e. mean diameter range). The effect of storm events and timescales of the sedimentological adaptation after storms to typical fair-weather conditions are exemplified at an ebb-tidal delta lobe where the morphological and sedimentological variability is found to be largest in the study area. The proposed method may serve to identify areas of high sedimentological and morphological activity for system understanding or in the framework of coastal monitoring strategies.

  18. Novel targeted approach to better understand how natural structural barriers govern carotenoid in vitro bioaccessibility in vegetable-based systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmero, Paola; Lemmens, Lien; Ribas-Agustí, Albert; Sosa, Carola; Met, Kristof; de Dieu Umutoni, Jean; Hendrickx, Marc; Van Loey, Ann

    2013-12-01

    An experimental approach, allowing us to understand the effect of natural structural barriers (cell walls, chromoplast substructures) on carotenoid bioaccessibility, was developed. Different fractions with different levels of carotenoid bio-encapsulation (carotenoid-enriched oil, chromoplasts, small cell clusters, and large cell clusters) were isolated from different types of carrots and tomatoes. An in vitro method was used to determine carotenoid bioaccessibility. In the present work, a significant decrease in carotenoid in vitro bioaccessibility could be observed with an increasing level of bio-encapsulation. Differences in cell wall material and chromoplast substructure between matrices influenced carotenoid release and inclusion in micelles. For carrots, cell walls and chromoplast substructure were important barriers for carotenoid bioaccessibility while, in tomatoes, the chromoplast substructure represented the most important barrier governing bioaccessibility. The highest increase in carotenoid bioaccessibility, for all matrices, was obtained after transferring carotenoids into the oil phase, a system lacking cell walls and chromoplast substructures that could hamper carotenoid release.

  19. Converse Barrier Certificate Theorems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafael; Sloth, Christoffer

    2016-01-01

    This paper shows that a barrier certificate exists for any safe dynamical system. Specifically, we prove converse barrier certificate theorems for a class of structurally stable dynamical systems. Other authors have developed a related result by assuming that the dynamical system has neither sing...

  20. Evidence of compromised blood-spinal cord barrier in early and late symptomatic SOD1 mice modeling ALS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svitlana Garbuzova-Davis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The blood-brain barrier (BBB, blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB, and blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB control cerebral/spinal cord homeostasis by selective transport of molecules and cells from the systemic compartment. In the spinal cord and brain of both ALS patients and animal models, infiltration of T-cell lymphocytes, monocyte-derived macrophages and dendritic cells, and IgG deposits have been observed that may have a critical role in motor neuron damage. Additionally, increased levels of albumin and IgG have been found in the cerebrospinal fluid in ALS patients. These findings suggest altered barrier permeability in ALS. Recently, we showed disruption of the BBB and BSCB in areas of motor neuron degeneration in the brain and spinal cord in G93A SOD1 mice modeling ALS at both early and late stages of disease using electron microscopy. Examination of capillary ultrastructure revealed endothelial cell degeneration, which, along with astrocyte alteration, compromised the BBB and BSCB. However, the effect of these alterations upon barrier function in ALS is still unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the functional competence of the BSCB in G93A mice at different stages of disease. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Evans Blue (EB dye was intravenously injected into ALS mice at early or late stage disease. Vascular leakage and the condition of basement membranes, endothelial cells, and astrocytes were investigated in cervical and lumbar spinal cords using immunohistochemistry. Results showed EB leakage in spinal cord microvessels from all G93A mice, indicating dysfunction in endothelia and basement membranes and confirming our previous ultrastructural findings on BSCB disruption. Additionally, downregulation of Glut-1 and CD146 expressions in the endothelial cells of the BSCB were found which may relate to vascular leakage. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Results suggest that the BSCB is compromised in areas of motor neuron

  1. Durability and CMAS Resistance of Advanced Environmental Barrier Coatings Systems for SiC/SiC Ceramic Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming

    2015-01-01

    Environmental barrier coatings (EBCs) and SiCSiC ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) systems will play a crucial role in next generation turbine engines for hot-section component applications because of their ability to significantly increase engine operating temperatures with improved efficiency, reduce engine weight and cooling requirements. This paper will emphasize advanced environmental barrier coating developments for SiCSiC turbine airfoil components, by using advanced coating compositions and processing, in conjunction with mechanical and environment testing and durability validations. The coating-CMC degradations and durability in the laboratory simulated engine fatigue-creep and complex operating environments are being addressed. The effects of Calcium-Magnesium-Alumino-Silicate (CMAS) from road sand or volcano-ash deposits on the degradation mechanisms of the environmental barrier coating systems will be discussed. The results help understand the advanced EBC-CMC system performance, aiming at the durability improvements of more robust, prime-reliant environmental barrier coatings for successful applications of the component technologies and lifing methodologies.

  2. Technical Work Plan for: Near Field Environment: Engineered System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.D. Schreiber

    2006-12-08

    This technical work plan (TWP) describes work activities to be performed by the Near-Field Environment Team. The objective of the work scope covered by this TWP is to generate Revision 03 of EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction, referred to herein as the radionuclide transport abstraction (RTA) report. The RTA report is being revised primarily to address condition reports (CRs), to address issues identified by the Independent Validation Review Team (IVRT), to address the potential impact of transport, aging, and disposal (TAD) canister design on transport models, and to ensure integration with other models that are closely associated with the RTA report and being developed or revised in other analysis/model reports in response to IVRT comments. The RTA report will be developed in accordance with the most current version of LP-SIII.10Q-BSC and will reflect current administrative procedures (LP-3.15Q-BSC, ''Managing Technical Product Inputs''; LP-SIII.2Q-BSC, ''Qualification of Unqualified Data''; etc.), and will develop related Document Input Reference System (DIRS) reports and data qualifications as applicable in accordance with prevailing procedures. The RTA report consists of three models: the engineered barrier system (EBS) flow model, the EBS transport model, and the EBS-unsaturated zone (UZ) interface model. The flux-splitting submodel in the EBS flow model will change, so the EBS flow model will be validated again. The EBS transport model and validation of the model will be substantially revised in Revision 03 of the RTA report, which is the main subject of this TWP. The EBS-UZ interface model may be changed in Revision 03 of the RTA report due to changes in the conceptualization of the UZ transport abstraction model (a particle tracker transport model based on the discrete fracture transfer function will be used instead of the dual-continuum transport model previously used). Validation of the EBS-UZ interface model

  3. E.B. Forsythe National Wildlife Refuge : Annual narrative report : Calendar year 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for E.B. Forsythe National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1990 calendar year. The report begins with a...

  4. E.B. Forsythe National Wildlife Refuge : Annual narrative report : Calendar year 1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for E.B. Forsythe National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1989 calendar year. The report begins with a...

  5. Nord ja EBS tahavad liituda Tallinna Ülikooliga / Igor Taro, Anu Mõistlik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Taro, Igor

    2001-01-01

    Erakõrgkoolid Akadeemia Nord ja EBS loodavad järgmisel õppeaastal saada allasutusteks Tallinna Ülikoolis, mida on asunud looma Tallinna Pedagoogikaülikool, Eesti Kunstiakadeemia ja Eesti Humanitaarinstituut

  6. E.B. Forsythe National Wildlife Refuge : Annual narrative report : Calendar year 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for E.B. Forsythe National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1991 calendar year. The report begins with a...

  7. E.B. Forsythe National Wildlife Refuge : Annual narrative report : Calendar year 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for E.B. Forsythe National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1992 calendar year. The report begins with a...

  8. Gas and RRR distribution in high purity Niobium EB welded in Ultra-High Vacuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anakhov, S.; Singer, X.; Singer, W.; Wen, H.

    2006-05-01

    Electron beam (EB) welding in UHV (ultra-high vacuum, 10-5÷10-8 mbar) is applied in the standard fabrication of high gradient niobium superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities of TESLA design. The quality of EB welding is critical for cavity performance. Experimental data of gas content (H2, O2, N2) and RRR (residual resistivity ratio) measurements in niobium (Nb) welding seams are presented. EB welding in UHV conditions allow to preserve low gas content (1÷3 wt. ppm hydrogen and 5÷7 ppm oxygen and nitrogen), essential for high values of RRR — 350÷400 units. Gas content redistribution in the electron beam welded and heat affected region take place in the welding process. Correlation between gas solubility parameters, RRR and thermal conductivity are presented. Mechanisms of gas solubility in EB welding process are discussed.

  9. Changes in skin barrier during treatment with systemic alitretinoin: focus on skin susceptibility and stratum corneum ceramides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungersted, Jakob Mutanu; Høgh, Julie K; Hellgren, Lars I; Jemec, Gregor B E; Agner, Tove

    2010-11-01

    Alitretinoin is a new drug for systemic treatment of chronic hand eczema. Previous functional tests of skin topically treated with retinoids have indicated impaired skin barrier function, but no data are available on barrier parameters after systemic alitretinoin treatment. To investigate the effect of systemic alitretinoin on skin barrier function and response to irritants, a secondary objective was to determine if changes occur in the lipid profile of stratum corneum after treatment with systemic alitretinoin. We conducted an open clinical intervention study on eight people ascribed to systemic alitretinoin treatment. The criteria for being ascribed to alitretinoin were chronic hand eczema and insufficient therapeutic response to potent topical corticosteroids. Before initiation and after 2 months of systemic treatment with 30 mg alitretinoin, a challenge with sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) was performed on the volar forearm and evaluated by trans-epidermal water loss (TEWL), erythema, and a cyanoacrylate skin sample was obtained for lipid analysis. We found no significant changes in response to SLS irritation as evaluated by TEWL and erythema, after treatment with alitretinoin for 2 months. No significant changes in stratum corneum lipids were found after 2 months of treatment. In conclusion, systemic alitretinoin does not influence skin susceptibility to irritants or the ceramide profile of stratum corneum.

  10. DETERMINATION OF CREEP PROPERTIES OF THERMAL BARRIER COATING(TBC) SYSTEMS FROM THE INDENTATION CREEP TESTING WITH ROUND FLAT INDENTERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B. Zhao; B.X. Xu; J. Liu; Z.F. Yue

    2004-01-01

    Indentation creep behavior with cylindrical flat indenters on the thermal barrier coating (TBC) was studied by finite element method (FEM). On the constant applied indentation creep stress, there is a steady creep rate for each case studied for different creep properties of the TBC system. The steady creep depth rate depends on the applied indentation creep stress and size of the indenters as well as the creep properties of the bond coat of the TBC and the substrate. The possibilities to determine the creep properties of a thermal barrier system from indention creep testing were discussed. As an example, with two different size indenters, the creep properties of bond coat of the TBC system can be derived by an inverse FEM method. This study not only provides a numerical method to obtain the creep properties of the TBC system, but also extends the application of indentation creep method with cylindrical flat indenters.

  11. Nanowired Drug Delivery Across the Blood-Brain Barrier in Central Nervous System Injury and Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Aruna; Menon, Preeti; Muresanu, Dafin F; Ozkizilcik, Asya; Tian, Z Ryan; Lafuente, José V; Sharma, Hari S

    2016-01-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a physiological regulator of transport of essential items from blood to brain for the maintenance of homeostasis of the central nervous system (CNS) within narrow limits. The BBB is also responsible for export of harmful or metabolic products from brain to blood to keep the CNS fluid microenvironment healthy. However, noxious insults to the brain caused by trauma, ischemia or environmental/chemical toxins alter the BBB function to small as well as large molecules e.g., proteins. When proteins enter the CNS fluid microenvironment, development of brain edema occurs due to altered osmotic balance between blood and brain. On the other hand, almost all neurodegenerative diseases and traumatic insults to the CNS and subsequent BBB dysfunction lead to edema formation and cell injury. To treat these brain disorders suitable drug therapy reaching their brain targets is needed. However, due to edema formation or only a focal disruption of the BBB e.g., around brain tumors, many drugs are unable to reach their CNS targets in sufficient quantity. This results in poor therapeutic outcome. Thus, new technology such as nanodelivery is needed for drugs to reach their CNS targets and be effective. In this review, use of nanowires as a possible novel tool to enhance drug delivery into the CNS in various disease models is discussed based on our investigations. These data show that nanowired delivery of drugs may have superior neuroprotective ability to treat several CNS diseases effectively indicating their role in future therapeutic strategies.

  12. Numerical study of a simple transcranial focused ultrasound system applied to blood-brain barrier opening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deffieux, Thomas; Konofagou, Elisa E

    2010-12-01

    In this paper, we investigate the focalization properties of single-element transducers at low frequencies (300 to 1000 kHz) through primate and human skulls. The study addresses the transcranial targeting involved in ultrasound- induced blood-brain barrier (BBB) opening with clinically relevant targets such as the hippocampus and the basal ganglia, which are typically affected by early Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, respectively. A finite-difference, timedomain simulation platform is used to solve the 3-D linear acoustic wave equation with CT-based acoustic maps of the skulls. The targeted brain structures were extracted from 3-D brain atlases registered with the skulls and used to virtually position and orient the transducers. The effect of frequency is first investigated and the targeting of the different structures is then tested. The frequency of 500 kHz provided the best tradeoff between phase aberrations and standing wave effects in the human case, whereas the frequency of 800 kHz was most suitable in the case of the primate skull. A fast periodic linear chirp method was developed and found capable of reducing the standing wave effects. Such a simple, affordable, and convenient system is concluded to be feasible for BBB opening in primates and humans and could thus allow for its broader impact and applications.

  13. The density-driven circulation of the coastal hypersaline system of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamena, Gerry G; Martins, Flávio; Ridd, Peter V

    2016-04-15

    The coastal hypersaline system of the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) in the dry season, was investigated for the first time using a 3D baroclinic model. In the shallow coastal embayments, salinity increases to c.a. 1‰ above typical offshore salinity (~35.4‰). This salinity increase is due to high evaporation rates and negligible freshwater input. The hypersalinity drifts longshore north-westward due to south-easterly trade winds and may eventually pass capes or headlands, e.g. Cape Cleveland, where the water is considerably deeper (c.a. 15m). Here, a pronounced thermohaline circulation is predicted to occur which flushes the hypersalinity offshore at velocities of up to 0.08m/s. Flushing time of the coastal embayments is around 2-3weeks. During the dry season early summer, the thermohaline circulation reduces and therefore, flushing times are predicted to be slight longer due to the reduced onshore-offshore density gradient compared to that in the dry season winter period.

  14. Addressing health system barriers to access to and use of skilled delivery services: perspectives from Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganle, John Kuumuori; Fitzpatrick, Raymond; Otupiri, Easmon; Parker, Michael

    2016-10-01

    Poor access to and use of skilled delivery services have been identified as a major contributory factor to poor maternal and newborn health in sub-Saharan African countries, including Ghana. However, many previous studies that examine norms of childbirth and care-seeking behaviours have focused on identifying the norms of non-use of services, rather than factors, that can promote service use. Based on primary qualitative research with a total of 185 expectant and lactating mothers, and 20 healthcare providers in six communities in Ghana, this paper reports on strategies that can be used to overcome health system barriers to the use of skilled delivery services. The strategies identified include expansion and redistribution of existing maternal health resources and infrastructure, training of more skilled maternity caregivers, instituting special programmes to target women most in need, improving the quality of maternity care services provided, improving doctor-patient relationships in maternity wards, promotion of choice, protecting privacy and patient dignity in maternity wards and building partnerships with traditional birth attendants and other non-state actors. The findings suggest the need for structural changes to maternity clinics and routine nursing practices, including an emphasis on those doctor-patient relational practices that positively influence women's healthcare-seeking behaviours. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Mini-med school for Aboriginal youth: experiential science outreach to tackle systemic barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita I. Henderson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Addressing systemic barriers experienced by low-income and minority students to accessing medical school, the University of Calgary's Cumming School of Medicine has spearheaded a year-round, mini-med school outreach initiative for Aboriginal students. Method: Junior and senior high school youth generally attend the half-day program in classes or camps of 15–25, breaking into small groups for multisession activities. Undergraduate medical education students mentor the youth in stations offering experiential lessons in physical examination, reading x-rays, and anatomy. All resources from the medical school are offered in-kind, including a pizza lunch at midday, whereas community partners organize transportation for the attendees. Results: Opening the medical school and its resources to the community offers great benefits to resource-constrained schools often limited in terms of science education resources. The model is also an effort to address challenges among the medical professions around attracting and retaining students from underserved populations. Conclusion: The prospect of increasing admission rates and successful completion of medical education among students from marginalized communities poses a real, though difficult-to-measure, possibility of increasing the workforce most likely to return to and work in such challenging contexts. A mini-medical school for Aboriginal youth highlights mutual, long-term benefit for diverse partners, encouraging medical educators and community-based science educators to explore the possibilities for deepening partnerships in their own regions.

  16. Simulation of residual stresses and their effects on thermal barrier coating systems using finite element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, JianGuo; Chen, Wei; Xie, HuiMin

    2015-03-01

    Thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems are widely used in industrial gas-turbine engines. However, premature failures have impaired the use of TBCs and cut down their lifetime, which requires a better understanding of their failure mechanisms. In the present study, experimental studies of isothermal cycling are firstly carried out with the observation and estimation of microstructures. According to the experimental results, a finite element model is established for the analysis of stress perpendicular to the TBC/BC interface. Detailed residual stress distributions in TBC are obtained to reflect the influence of mechanical properties, oxidation, and interfacial roughness. The calculated results show that the maximum tensile stress concentration appears at the peak of TBC and continues to increase with thermal cycles. Because of the microstructural characteristics of plasma-sprayed TBCs, cracks initialize in tensile stress concentration (TSC) regions at the peaks of TBC and propagate along the TBC/BC interface resulting in the spallation of TBC. Also, the inclusion of creep is crucial to failure prediction and is more important than the inclusion of sintering in the simulation.

  17. Improving energy efficiency in industrial energy systems an interdisciplinary perspective on barriers, energy audits, energy management, policies, and programs

    CERN Document Server

    Thollander, Patrik

    2012-01-01

    Industrial energy efficiency is one of the most important means of reducing the threat of increased global warming. Research however states that despite the existence of numerous technical energy efficiency measures, its deployment is hindered by the existence of various barriers to energy efficiency. The complexity of increasing energy efficiency in manufacturing industry calls for an interdisciplinary approach to the issue. Improving energy efficiency in industrial energy systems applies an interdisciplinary perspective in examining energy efficiency in industrial energy systems, and discuss

  18. Current Status and Performance Tests of Korea Heat Load Test Facility KoHLT-EB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sukkwon; Jin, Hyunggon; Shin, Kyuin; Choi, Boguen; Lee, Eohwak; Yoon, Jaesung; Lee, Dongwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Duckhoi; Cho, Seungyon [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    A commissioning test has been scheduled to establish the installation and preliminary performance experiments of the copper hypervapotron mockups. And a qualification test will be performed to evaluate the CuCrZr duct liner in the ITER neutral beam injection facility and the ITER first wall small-scale mockups of the semi-prototype, at up to 1.5 and 5 MW/m{sup 2} high heat flux. Also, this system will be used to test other PFCs for ITER and materials for tokamak reactors. Korean high heat flux test facility(KoHLT-EB; Korea Heat Load Test facility - Electron Beam) by using an electron beam system has been constructed in KAERI to perform the qualification test for ITER blanket FW semi-prototype mockups, hypervapotron cooling devices in fusion devices, and other ITER plasma facing components. The commissioning and performance tests with the supplier of e-gun system have been performed on November 2012. The high heat flux test for hypervapotron cooling device and calorimetry were performed to measure the surface heat flux, the temperature profile and cooling performance. Korean high heat flux test facility for the plasma facing components of nuclear fusion machines will be constructed to evaluate the performance of each component. This facility for the plasma facing materials will be equipped with an electron beam system with a 60 kV acceleration gun.

  19. Political, policy and social barriers to health system interoperability: emerging opportunities of Web 2.0 and 3.0.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juzwishin, Donald W M

    2009-01-01

    Achieving effective health informatics interoperability in a fragmented and uncoordinated health system is by definition not possible. Interoperability requires the simultaneous integration of health care processes and information across different types and levels of care (systems thinking). The fundamental argument of this paper is that information system interoperability will remain an unfulfilled hope until health reforms effectively address the governance (accountability), structural and process barriers to interoperability of health care delivery. The ascendency of Web 2.0 and 3.0, although still unproven, signals the opportunity to accelerate patients' access to health information and their health record. Policy suggestions for simultaneously advancing health system delivery and information system interoperability are posited.

  20. Interactions between barrier islands and backbarrier marshes affect island system response to sea level rise: Insights from a coupled model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, David; Moore, Laura J.; Duran Vinent, Orencio; Fagherazzi, Sergio; Mariotti, Giulio

    2014-09-01

    Interactions between backbarrier marshes and barrier islands will likely play an important role in determining how low-lying coastal systems respond to sea level rise and changes in storminess in the future. To assess the role of couplings between marshes and barrier islands under changing conditions, we develop and apply a coupled barrier island-marsh model (GEOMBEST+) to assess the impact of overwash deposition on backbarrier marsh morphology and of marsh morphology on rates of island migration. Our model results suggest that backbarrier marsh width is in a constant state of change until either the backbarrier basin becomes completely filled or backbarrier marsh deposits have completely eroded away. Results also suggest that overwash deposition is an important source of sediment, which allows existing narrow marshes to be maintained in a long-lasting alternate state (~500 m wide in the Virginia Barrier Islands) within a range of conditions under which they would otherwise disappear. The existence of a narrow marsh state is supported by observations of backbarrier marshes along the eastern shore of Virginia. Additional results suggest that marshes reduce accommodation in the backbarrier bay, which, in turn, decreases island migration rate. As climate change results in sea level rise, and the increased potential for intense hurricanes resulting in overwash, it is likely that these couplings will become increasingly important in determining future system behavior.

  1. Perceived barriers of heart failure nurses and cardiologists in using clinical decision support systems in the treatment of heart failure patients

    OpenAIRE

    Vries, Arjen E. de; van der Wal, Martje H. L.; Nieuwenhuis, Maurice M. W.; Richard M. de Jong; Rene B. van Dijk; Jaarsma, Tiny; Hillege, Hans L; Jorna, Rene J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Clinical Decision Support Systems (CDSSs) can support guideline adherence in heart failure (HF) patients. However, the use of CDSSs is limited and barriers in working with CDSSs have been described as a major obstacle. It is unknown if barriers to CDSSs are present and differ between HF nurses and cardiologists. Therefore the aims of this study are; 1. Explore the type and number of perceived barriers of HF nurses and cardiologists to use a CDSS in the treatment of HF patients. 2. ...

  2. Decontamination systems information and research program -- Literature review in support of development of standard test protocols and barrier design models for in situ formed barriers project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-01

    The US Department of Energy is responsible for approximately 3,000 sites in which contaminants such as carbon tetrachloride, trichlorethylene, perchlorethylene, non-volatile and soluble organic and insoluble organics (PCBs and pesticides) are encountered. In specific areas of these sites radioactive contaminants are stored in underground storage tanks which were originally designed and constructed with a 30-year projected life. Many of these tanks are now 10 years beyond the design life and failures have occurred allowing the basic liquids (ph of 8 to 9) to leak into the unconsolidated soils below. Nearly one half of the storage tanks located at the Hanford Washington Reservation are suspected of leaking and contaminating the soils beneath them. The Hanford site is located in a semi-arid climate region with rainfall of less than 6 inches annually, and studies have indicated that very little of this water finds its way to the groundwater to move the water down gradient toward the Columbia River. This provides the government with time to develop a barrier system to prevent further contamination of the groundwater, and to develop and test remediation systems to stabilize or remove the contaminant materials. In parallel to remediation efforts, confinement and containment technologies are needed to retard or prevent the advancement of contamination plumes through the environment until the implementation of remediation technology efforts are completed. This project examines the various confinement and containment technologies and protocols for testing the materials in relation to their function in-situ.

  3. Analysis and Research of E-commerce Platform Based on ebXML%基于ebXML的电子商务平台分析与研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阮梦黎

    2009-01-01

    ebXML是由UN/CEFACT和OASIS共同倡导、全球参与开发和使用的一组支持模块化电子商务框架的规范,是基于XML的,它的目标是提供一种全球化的、开放的、基于XML的架构,使不同企业规模的用户之间的电子商务交换能够成功、安全和可靠地进行.本文以ebXML的体系结构及其在电子商务中的应用为主题进行分析和研究.%ebXML,based on XML, is a group of rules which is advocated coordinately by UN/CEFACT and OASIS and explored and used globally. Its taget is to provide a global and open framework based on XML which can enable different users of different enterprise scale to exchange e-commerce successfully, safely and reliably. This thesis mainly analyse and study the framework of ebXML and its application in e-commerce.

  4. EB1089抑制肝癌细胞增殖的研究%Regulatory mechanism of EB1089 for hepatocarcinoma cell proliferation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    骆文静; 陈景元; 张雪萍; 王文亮; 陈耀明; 赵芳

    2004-01-01

    目的探讨维生素D类似物EB1089对肝癌细胞增殖的可能机制.方法体外培养了肝癌细胞株HHCC细胞,培养时添加10、10和1nmol/LEB1089分别作用2d、4d、6d后,用四唑蓝比色实验(MTT)、平板克隆形成实验检测细胞的存活和生长;用电子显微镜和流式细胞仪方法检测细胞凋亡;用Wester blot方法检测蛋白的表达.结果EB1089可以抑制肝癌细胞增殖(抑制率为17.50%~72.14%),诱导肝癌细胞发生凋亡.10nmol/L EB1089作用肝癌细胞4d可使p27kipl和PTEN蛋白表达增加.结论EB1089对于人肝癌细胞的增殖具有抑制作用,能机诱导肝癌细胞凋亡,增加肝癌细胞中p27kipl和PTEN蛋白的表达.

  5. Changes in skin barrier during treatment with systemic alitretinoin: focus on skin susceptibility and stratum corneum ceramides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jungersted, Jakob Mutanu; Høgh, Julie Kaae; Hellgren, Lars

    2010-01-01

    Alitretinoin is a new drug for systemic treatment of chronic hand eczema. Previous functional tests of skin topically treated with retinoids have indicated impaired skin barrier function, but no data are available on barrier parameters after systemic alitretinoin treatment. To investigate the eff....... No significant changes in stratum corneum lipids were found after 2 months of treatment. In conclusion, systemic alitretinoin does not influence skin susceptibility to irritants or the ceramide profile of stratum corneum....... the effect of systemic alitretinoin on skin barrier function and response to irritants, a secondary objective was to determine if changes occur in the lipid profile of stratum corneum after treatment with systemic alitretinoin. We conducted an open clinical intervention study on eight people ascribed......) was performed on the volar forearm and evaluated by trans-epidermal water loss (TEWL), erythema, and a cyanoacrylate skin sample was obtained for lipid analysis. We found no significant changes in response to SLS irritation as evaluated by TEWL and erythema, after treatment with alitretinoin for 2 months...

  6. PS1-56: Beyond Barriers: Systemic Constraints Limiting Sexual Health Care for Breast Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halley, Meghan; May, Suepattra; Rendle, Katharine; Frosch, Dominick; Kurian, Allison

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims Sexual health problems represent one of the most frequently experienced and longest-lasting effects of breast cancer treatment, but research suggests that providers rarely discuss sexual health with their patients. Existing research examining barriers to addressing the sexual health concerns of cancer patients has focused on discrete characteristics of the provider-patient interaction without considering the broader context in which these interactions occur. Drawing on focus group discussions with breast cancer survivors, we explore how foundational cultural and structural characteristics of the healthcare system may be preventing breast cancer survivors from addressing their sexual health concerns. Methods Five focus groups were conducted with breast cancer survivors receiving support services at a breast cancer advocacy and resource organization in Northern California. Each group focused on a different aspect of treatment including: 1) diagnosis; 2) surgery and reconstruction; 3) chemotherapy; 4) radiation; and 5) survivorship. An interview guide for each topic area was used to elicit participants’ thoughts, opinions and experiences of breast cancer treatment. Analysis utilized inductive techniques incorporating elements of Grounded Theory to identify salient themes that emerged in the discussions. Results An average of eight women participated in each focus group, and women were allowed to participate in more than one group, for a total of 21 participants. Participants’ discussions illustrated three core ways in which cultural and structural characteristics of the healthcare system prevented them from addressing their sexual health concerns, including: 1) the structure of cancer care led to participants being disconnected from the healthcare system at the time when sexual side effects most commonly emerged; 2) when their sexual side effects did emerge, the highly specialized structure of the biomedical system made it difficult for patients to

  7. Application of advanced 100-kV EB writer EB-X3 for 100-nm node x-ray mask fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Hiroshi; Nakayama, Yoshinori; Tsuboi, Shinji; Ezaki, Mizunori; Aoyama, Hajime; Matsui, Yasuji; Morosawa, Tetsuo; Oda, Masatoshi

    2001-08-01

    Most important issues in a precise X-ray mask fabrication are the mask materials and EB writing to achieve good accuracy in critical dimension (CD) control and image placement (IP). However, 1-to-1 X-ray mask is required severe accuracy in comparison with photo reticles. The following discussions focus on how to realize the precise IP accuracy. We installed and evaluated 100-kV electron-beam (EB) mask writer (EB-X3), and developed the writing process on a thin membrane. Key factors in accurate EB mask writing include not only EB positioning accuracy but also mask distortions caused by mask holding and the temperature change of the mask and a mask holder. This paper presents mask distortion characteristics due to the holding, temperature change, and then, good results of mask accuracy of 4-Gb dynamic random access memory (DRAM) test patterns (gate and contact layers) and 90 nm SRAM test patterns. In addition, we employed the advanced PAT method with 4-multi-pass writing that adequately compensates the process-induced mask distortion and the beam drift. These improvements resulted in IP accuracy of better than 10 nm (3(sigma) ), 100 nm CD uniformity within 8 nm (mean shift +/- 3(sigma) ) and the overlay accuracy within 10 nm for 4-Gb gate and contact layers with a 24 mm x 24 mm area on the X-ray membrane mask. These results demonstrate that we can actually fabricate precise X-ray membrane masks that meet our final target of IP accuracy corresponding to the 100 nm technology node.

  8. Facilitators and barriers to doing workplace mental health research: Case study of acute psychological trauma in a public transit system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Links, Paul S; Bender, Ash; Eynan, Rahel; O'Grady, John; Shah, Ravi

    2016-03-10

    The Acute Psychological Trauma (APT) Study was a collaboration between an acute care hospital, a specialized multidisciplinary program designed to meet the mental health needs of injured workers, and a large urban public transit system. The overall purpose was to evaluate a Best Practices Intervention (BPI) for employees affected by acute psychological trauma compared to a Treatment as Usual (TAU) group. The specific purpose is to discuss facilitators and barriers that were recognized in implementing and carrying out mental health research in a workplace setting. Over the course of the APT study, a joint implementation committee was responsible for day-to-day study operations and made regular observations on the facilitators and barriers that arose throughout the study. The facilitators to this study included the longstanding relationships among the partners, increased recognition for the need of mental health research in the workplace, and the existence of a community advisory committee. The significant barriers to doing this study of mental health research in the workplace included differences in organizational culture, inconsistent union support, co-interventions, and stigma. Researchers and funding agencies need to be flexible and provide additional resources in order to overcome the barriers that can exist doing workplace mental health research.

  9. Blood-brain barrier models and their relevance for a successful development of CNS drug delivery systems: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicker, Joana; Alves, Gilberto; Fortuna, Ana; Falcão, Amílcar

    2014-08-01

    During the research and development of new drugs directed at the central nervous system, there is a considerable attrition rate caused by their hampered access to the brain by the blood-brain barrier. Throughout the years, several in vitro models have been developed in an attempt to mimic critical functionalities of the blood-brain barrier and reliably predict the permeability of drug candidates. However, the current challenge lies in developing a model that retains fundamental blood-brain barrier characteristics and simultaneously remains compatible with the high throughput demands of pharmaceutical industries. This review firstly describes the roles of all elements of the neurovascular unit and their influence on drug brain penetration. In vitro models, including non-cell based and cell-based models, and in vivo models are herein presented, with a particular emphasis on their methodological aspects. Lastly, their contribution to the improvement of brain drug delivery strategies and drug transport across the blood-brain barrier is also discussed.

  10. Pathways and Hydrography in the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System Part 1: Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, L.; Johns, E. M.; Smith, R. H.; Lamkin, J. T.; Largier, J. L.

    2015-10-01

    Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) measurements and surface drifters released from two oceanographic cruises conducted during March 2006 and January/February 2007 are used to investigate the circulation off the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System (MBRS). We show that the MBRS circulation can be divided into two distinct regimes, a northern region dominated by the strong, northward-flowing Yucatan Current, and a southern region with weaker southward coastal currents and the presence of the Honduras Gyre. The latitude of impingement of the Cayman Current onto the coastline varies with time, and creates a third region, which acts as a boundary between the northern and southern circulation regimes. This circulation pattern yields two zones in terms of dispersal, with planktonic propagules in the northern region being rapidly exported to the north, whereas plankton in the southern and impingement regions may be retained locally or regionally. The latitude of the impingement region shifts interannually and intra-annually up to 3° in latitude. Sub-mesoscale features are observed in association with topography, e.g., flow bifurcation around Cozumel Island, flow wake north of Chinchorro Bank and separation of flow from the coast just north of Bahia de la Ascencion. This third feature is evident as cyclonic recirculation in coastal waters, which we call the Ascencion-Cozumel Coastal Eddy. An understanding of the implications of these different circulation regimes on water mass distributions, population connectivity, and the fate of land-based pollutants in the MBRS is critically important to better inform science-based resource management and conservation plans for the MBRS coral reefs.

  11. The Development of Environmental Barrier Coating Systems for SiC-SiC Ceramic Matrix Composites: Environment Effects on the Creep and Fatigue Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming; Ghosn, Louis J.

    2014-01-01

    Topics covered include: Environmental barrier coating system development: needs, challenges and limitations; Advanced environmental barrier coating systems (EBCs) for CMC airfoils and combustors; NASA EBC systems and material system evolutions, Current turbine and combustor EBC coating emphases, Advanced development, processing, testing and modeling, EBC and EBC bond coats: recent advances; Design tool and life prediction of coated CMC components; Advanced CMC-EBC rig demonstrations; Summary and future directions.

  12. Functionally gradient materials for thermal barrier coatings in advanced gas turbine systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banovic, S.W.; Barmak, K.; Chan, H.M. [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    New designs for advanced gas turbine engines for power production are required to have higher operating temperatures in order to increase efficiency. However, elevated temperatures will increase the magnitude and severity of environmental degradation of critical turbine components (e.g. combustor parts, turbine blades, etc{hor_ellipsis}). To offset this problem, the usage of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) has become popular by allowing an increase in maximum inlet temperatures for an operating engine. Although thermal barrier technology is over thirty years old, the principle failure mechanism is the spallation of the ceramic coating at or near the ceramic/bond coat interface. Therefore, it is desirable to develop a coating that combines the thermal barrier qualities of the ceramic layer and the corrosion protection by the metallic bond coat without the detrimental effects associated with the localization of the ceramic/metal interface to a single plane.

  13. Identification of neuronal and angiogenic growth factors in an in vitro blood-brain barrier model system: Relevance in barrier integrity and tight junction formation and complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freese, Christian; Hanada, Sanshiro; Fallier-Becker, Petra; Kirkpatrick, C James; Unger, Ronald E

    2017-05-01

    We previously demonstrated that the co-cultivation of endothelial cells with neural cells resulted in an improved integrity of the in vitro blood-brain barrier (BBB), and that this model could be useful to evaluate the transport properties of potential central nervous system disease drugs through the microvascular brain endothelial. In this study we have used real-time PCR, fluorescent microscopy, protein arrays and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays to determine which neural- and endothelial cell-derived factors are produced in the co-culture and improve the integrity of the BBB. In addition, a further improvement of the BBB integrity was achieved by adjusting serum concentrations and growth factors or by the addition of brain pericytes. Under specific conditions expression of angiogenic, angiostatic and neurotrophic factors such as endostatin, pigment epithelium derived factor (PEDF/serpins-F1), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP-1), and vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF) closely mimicked the in vivo situation. Freeze-fracture analysis of these cultures demonstrated the quality and organization of the endothelial tight junction structures and their association to the two different lipidic leaflets of the membrane. Finally, a multi-cell culture model of the BBB with a transendothelial electrical resistance up to 371 (±15) Ω×cm(2) was developed, which may be useful for preliminary screening of drug transport across the BBB and to evaluate cellular crosstalk of cells involved in the neurovascular unit.

  14. Effects of barrier fluctuation on the tunneling dynamics in the presence of classical chaos in a mixed quantum-classical system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Aparna Saha; Bidhan Chandra Bag; Pranab Sarkar

    2007-03-01

    We present a numerical investigation of the tunneling dynamics of a particle moving in a bistable potential with fluctuating barrier which is coupled to a non-integrable classical system and study the interplay between classical chaos and barrier fluctuation in the tunneling dynamics. We found that the coupling of the quantum system with the classical subsystem decreases the tunneling rate irrespective of whether the classical subsystem is regular or chaotic and also irrespective of the fact that whether the barrier fluctuates or not. Presence of classical chaos always enhances the tunneling rate constant. The effect of barrier fluctuation on the tunneling rate in a mixed quantum-classical system is to suppress the tunneling rate. In contrast to the case of regular subsystem, the suppression arising due to barrier fluctuation is more visible when the subsystem is chaotic.

  15. Perceived barriers of heart failure nurses and cardiologists in using clinical decision support systems in the treatment of heart failure patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Arjen E.; van der Wal, Martje H. L.; Nieuwenhuis, Maurice M. W.; de Jong, Richard M.; van Dijk, Rene B.; Jaarsma, Tiny; Hillege, Hans L.; Jorna, Rene J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Clinical Decision Support Systems (CDSSs) can support guideline adherence in heart failure (HF) patients. However, the use of CDSSs is limited and barriers in working with CDSSs have been described as a major obstacle. It is unknown if barriers to CDSSs are present and differ between HF

  16. Bond strength and stress measurements in thermal barrier coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gell, M.; Jordan, E. [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Thermal barrier coatings have been used extensively in aircraft gas turbines for more than 15 years to insulate combustors and turbine vanes from the hot gas stream. Plasma sprayed thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) provide metal temperature reductions as much as 300{degrees}F, with improvements in durability of two times or more being achieved. The introduction of TBCs deposited by electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) processes in the last five years has provided a major improvement in durability and also enabled TBCs to be applied to turbine blades for improved engine performance. To meet the aggressive Advanced Turbine Systems goals for efficiency, durability and the environment, it will be necessary to employ thermal barrier coatings on turbine airfoils and other hot section components. For The successful application of TBCs to ATS engines with 2600{degrees}F turbine inlet temperatures and required component lives 10 times greater than those for aircraft gas turbine engines, it is necessary to develop quantitative assessment techniques for TBC coating integrity with time and cycles in ATS engines. Thermal barrier coatings in production today consist of a metallic bond coat, such as an MCrAlY overlay coating or a platinum aluminide (Pt-Al) diffusion coating. During heat treatment, both these coatings form a thin, tightly adherent alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) film. Failure of TBC coatings in engine service occurs by spallation of the ceramic coating at or near the bond coat to alumina or the alumina to zirconia bonds. Thus, it is the initial strength of these bonds and the stresses at the bond plane, and their changes with engine exposure, that determines coating durability. The purpose of this program is to provide, for the first time, a quantitative assessment of TBC bond strength and bond plane stresses as a function of engine time and cycles.

  17. Increased inspiratory esophagogastric junction pressure in systemic sclerosis: An add-on to antireflux barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobre e Souza, Miguel Ângelo; Bezerra, Patrícia Carvalho; Nobre, Rivianny Arrais; Holanda, Esther Studart da Fonseca; dos Santos, Armênio Aguiar

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate crural diaphragm (CD) function in systemic sclerosis (SSc) using high-resolution manometry and standardized inspiratory maneuvers. METHODS: Eight SSc volunteers (average age, 40.1 years; one male) and 13 controls (average age, 32.2 years; six males) participated in the study. A high-resolution manometry/impedance system measured the esophagus and esophagogastric junction (EGJ) pressure profile during swallows and two respiratory maneuvers: sinus arrhythmia maneuver (SAM; the average of six EGJ peak pressures during 5-s deep inhalations) and threshold maneuver (TM; the EGJ peak pressures during forced inhalation under 12 and 24 cmH2O loads). Inspiratory diaphragm lowering (IDL) was taken as the displacement of the EGJ high-pressure zone during the SAM. RESULTS: SSc patients had lower mean lower esophageal sphincter pressure than controls during normal breathing (19.7 ± 2.8 mmHg vs 32.2 ± 2.7 mmHg, P = 0.007). Sinus arrhythmia maneuver pressure was higher in SSc patients than in controls (142.6 ± 9.4 mmHg vs 104.6 ± 13.8 mmHg, P = 0.019). Sinus arrhythmia maneuver pressure normalized to IDL was also higher in SSc patients than in controls (83.8 ± 13.4 mmHg vs 37.5 ± 6.9 mmHg, P = 0.005). Threshold maneuver pressures normalized to IDL were also greater in SSc patients than in controls (TM 12 cmH2O: 85.1 ± 16.4 mmHg vs 43.9 ± 6.3 mmHg, P = 0.039; TM 24 cmH2O: 85.2 ± 16.4 mmHg vs 46.2 ± 6.6 mmHg, P = 0.065). Inspiratory diaphragm lowering in SSc patients was less than in controls (2.1 ± 0.3 cm vs 3 ± 0.2 cm, P = 0.011). CONCLUSION: SSc patients had increased inspiratory EGJ pressure. This is an add-on to EGJ pressure and indicates that the antireflux barrier can be trained. PMID:25717239

  18. Barriers to screening mammography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Elizabeth A

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer (BRCA) is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer among women in the USA, and mammography is an effective means for the early detection of BRCA. Identifying the barriers to screening mammography can inform research, policy and practice aiming to increase mammography adherence. A literature review was conducted to determine common barriers to screening mammography adherence. PsycINFO and PubMed databases were searched to identify studies published between 2000 and 2012 that examined barriers associated with reduced mammography adherence. Three thematic groups of barriers, based on social ecology, were identified from the literature: healthcare system-level, social and individual-level barriers. Researchers must consider screening behaviour in context and, therefore, should simultaneously consider each level of barriers when attempting to understand screening behaviour and create interventions to increase mammography adherence.

  19. Use of barrier membranes and systemic antibiotics in the treatment of intraosseous defects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loos, BG; Louwerse, PHG; van Winkelhoff, AJ; Burger, W; Gilijamse, M; Hart, AAM; van der Velden, U

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: Current literature is ambivalent on the use of barrier membranes for regeneration of intraosseous defects. One of the reasons for unpredictable results may be related to infection before, during and after the surgical procedure. Therefore, the purpose of the present controlled study was

  20. Quantifying system safety: A comparison of the SBOAT & Safety Barrier Manager tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee; Duijm, Nijs Jan; Markert, Frank

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents two software tools for analyzing safety risks, SBOAT (Stochastic BPMN Optimisation and Analysis Tool) and SBM (SafetyBarrierManagerr). SBOAT employs principles from stochastic model checking to allow for the quantitative verification of workflows. SBM supports the creation...

  1. Systems pharmacology and blood-brain barrier functionality in Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ravenstijn, Paulien Gerarda Maria

    2009-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disease, which is composed of many components, each caused by interplay of a number of genetic and nongenetic causes. As the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a key player in the relationship between plasma and brain pharmacokinetics, the influences

  2. No runoff, no soil loss: soil and water conservation in hedgerow barrier systems.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiepe, P.

    1995-01-01

    Land degradation by water erosion represents a serious, and fast increasing, environmental threat. Hedgerow barriers control water erosion through the presence of the tree stem and through an increase in infiltration beneath the hedgerow. The infiltration rate beneath hedgerows is 3-8 times higher t

  3. Morphological response of a barrier island system on a catastrophic event

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fruergaard, Mikkel; Kroon, Aart

    2016-01-01

    The AD 1634 North Sea storm is one of the most catastrophic storms along the Wadden Sea coast of Denmark. In this study we show how pre-1634 storm morphology exerted a strong control on the resulting post-storm coastal morphology. Erosional responses associated with the storm were barrier breachi...

  4. Modeling the Hydrogeochemical Transport of Radionuclides through Engineered Barriers System in the Proposed LLW Disposal Site of Taiwan - 12082

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Wen-Sheng [Hydrotech Research Institute, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Liu, Chen-Wuing; Tsao, Jui-Hsuan [Department of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Li, Ming-Hsu [Institute of Hydrological and Oceanic Sciences, National Central University, Jhongli, Taiwan (China)

    2012-07-01

    A proposed site for final disposal of low-level radioactive waste located in Daren Township of Taitung County along the southeastern coast has been on the selected list in Taiwan. The geology of the Daren site consists of argillite and meta-sedimentary rocks. A mined cavern design with a tunnel system of 500 m below the surface is proposed. Concrete is used as the main confinement material for the engineered barrier. To investigate the hydrogeochemical transport of radionuclides through engineered barriers system, HYDROGEOCHEM5.0 model was applied to simulate the complex chemical interactions among radionuclides, the cement minerals of the concrete, groundwater flow, and transport in the proposed site. The simulation results showed that the engineered barriers system with the side ditch efficiently drained the ground water and lowered the concentration of the concrete degradation induced species (e.g., hydrogen ion, sulfate, and chloride). The velocity of groundwater observed at side ditch gradually decreased with time due to the fouling of pore space by the mineral formation of ettringite and thaumasite. The short half-life of Co-60, Sr-90 and Cs-137 significantly reduced the concentrations, whereas the long half-life of I-129(1.57x10{sup 7} years) and Am-241(432 years) remain stable concentrations at the interface of waste canister and concrete barrier after 300 years. The mineral saturation index (SI) was much less than zero due to the low aqueous concentration of radionuclide, so that the precipitation formation of Co-60, Sr-90, I-129, Cs-137 and Am-241 related minerals were not found. The effect of adsorption/desorption (i.e., surface complexation model) could be a crucial geochemical mechanism for the modeling of liquid-solid phase behavior of radionuclide in geochemically dynamic environments. Moreover, the development of advanced numerical models that are coupled with hydrogeochemical transport and dose assessment of radionuclide is required in the future

  5. Isolation and characterization of Bacillus subtilis EB-28, an endophytic bacterium strain displaying biocontrol activity against Botrytis cinerea Pers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shutong WANG; Tongle HU; Yanling JIAO; Jianjian WEI; Keqiang CAO

    2009-01-01

    The fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea Pers. causes severe rotting on tomato fruits during storage and shelf life. As a biological control agent, endophytic bacterium was regarded as an effective alternative to chemical control. Out of 238 endophytic bacterial isolates, three strains (EB-15, EB-28, and EB-122) isolated from Lycopersicum esculentum Mill., Speranskia tuberculata (Bge.) Baill, and Dictamnus dasycarpus Turcz. respectively were found to be strongly antagonistic to the pathogen in vitro and were selected for further in vivo tests. One endophytic bacterium strain, encoded EB-28, was selected from the three in vivo tested isolates. The inhibitive rate of EB-28 reached 71.1% in vitro and 52.4% in vivo. EB-28 was identified as Bacillus subtilis according to its morphological, physiological, and biochemical characteristics and 16S rDNA sequence analysis.

  6. Decision making models and human factors: TOPSIS and Ergonomic Behaviors (TOPSIS-EB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available An effective safety management requires attention to human factors as well as system compo-nents which make risky or safe situations at technical components. This study evaluates and ana-lyze ergonomic behaviors in order to select the best work shift group in an Iranian process in-dustry, in 2010.The methodology was based on the Ergonomic Behavior Sampling (EBS, and TOPSIS method. After specifying the unergonomic behaviors and with reference to the results of a pilot study, a sample of 1755 was determined, with a sampling accuracy of 5% and confi-dence level of 95%. However, in order to gain more confidence, 2631 observations were collect-ed. The results indicate that 43.6% of workers’ behaviors were unergonomic. The most frequent unergonomic behavior was amusing of legs while load lifting with 83.01% of total unergonomic behaviors observations. Using TOPSIS method, the most effective shift group and the least at-tractive alternatives for intervention were selected in this company. Findings declare high number of unergonomic behaviors. Catastrophic consequences of accidents in petrochemical industry ne-cessitate attention to workers’ ergonomic behaviors in the workplace and promotion of them.

  7. A Study on the Thermal-Hydro-Mechanical Behaviors in the Engineered Barrier System of a HLW Repository: Engineering-scale Validation Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae-Owan; Kwon, S. K.; Park, J. H.; Cho, W. J.; Lee, Jae-Owan

    2007-06-15

    The T-H-M processes in the engineered barrier system are one of the major issues in the performance assessment of a HLW repository. In this study, it was conducted to design and construct the engineering-scale test facility which was a third-scale of the reference disposal system, and to investigate THM behavior of the engineered barrier system using the test facility. The computer modeling and interpreting methodology for THM behavior were also developed.

  8. Numerical determination of the interfacial energy and nucleation barrier of curved solid-liquid interfaces in binary systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundin, Julia; Choudhary, Muhammad Ajmal

    2016-07-01

    The phase-field crystal (PFC) technique is a widely used approach for modeling crystal growth phenomena with atomistic resolution on mesoscopic time scales. We use a two-dimensional PFC model for a binary system based on the work of Elder et al. [Phys. Rev. B 75, 064107 (2007)PRBMDO1098-012110.1103/PhysRevB.75.064107] to study the effect of the curved, diffuse solid-liquid interface on the interfacial energy as well as the nucleation barrier. The calculation of the interfacial energy and the nucleation barrier certainly depends on the proper definition of the solid-liquid dividing surface and the corresponding nucleus size. We define the position of the sharp interface at which the interfacial energy is to be evaluated by using the concept of equimolar dividing surface (r^{e}) and the minimization of the interfacial energy (r^{s}). The comparison of the results based on both radii shows that the difference r^{e}-r^{s} is always positive and has a limit for large cluster sizes which is comparable to the Tolman length. Furthermore, we found the real nucleation barrier for small cluster sizes, which is defined as a function of the radius r^{s}, and compared it with the classical nucleation theory. The simulation results also show that the extracted interfacial energy as function of both radii is independent of system size, and this dependence can be reasonably described by the nonclassical Tolman formula with a positive Tolman length.

  9. Health system and societal barriers for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) services - lessons from World Diabetes Foundation supported GDM projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Karoline Kragelund; de Courten, Maximilian; Kapur, Anil

    2012-01-01

    Background Maternal mortality and morbidity remains high in many low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) represents an underestimated and unrecognised impediment to optimal maternal health in LMIC; left untreated – it also has severe consequences for the offsp......Background Maternal mortality and morbidity remains high in many low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) represents an underestimated and unrecognised impediment to optimal maternal health in LMIC; left untreated – it also has severe consequences...... for the offspring. A better understanding of the barriers hindering detection and treatment of GDM is needed. Based on experiences from World Diabetes Foundation (WDF) supported GDM projects this paper seeks to investigate societal and health system barriers to such efforts. Methods Questionnaires were filled out...

  10. Symmetric splitting for the system /sup 32/S+/sup 238/U at energies near and below the barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freifelder, R.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; DeYoung, P.; Schicker, R.; Sen, S.; Stachel, J.

    1987-06-01

    The total capture cross section for the system /sup 32/S+/sup 238/U has been measured at energies from 0.93 to 1.08 times the s-wave interaction barrier by detecting coincident fission fragments following full momentum transfer reactions. The subbarrier cross section cannot be reproduced by a one-dimensional barrier penetration model. Using a quantum mechanical coupled channels model, good agreement is obtained. The measured angular distributions of fission fragments were compared to the predictions of saddle and scission point transition state theory. Saddle point transition state model calculations fail to reproduce the data, while scission point transition state calculations are in agreement with their qualitative trend. Evidence for nonequilibrium processes is presented.

  11. Human Eb Peptide: Not just a By-product of Pre-pro-IGF1b Processing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durzyńska, J.; Wardziński, A.; Koczorowska, M.; Goździcka-Józefiak, A.; Barton, E. R.

    2015-01-01

    Several physiological activities have been assigned to E-peptides derived from pre-pro-insulin-like growth factor (IGF1) processing; however, the whole range of the E-peptides’ functions is still unknown. The objective of this study was to investigate human Eb peptide (hEb) in terms of its bioactivity, cellular localization, and intracellular trafficking using human cancer cells. Human Eb fused with red fluorescence protein (RFP) or green fluorescence protein (GFP) localizes strongly to nucleoli and to a lesser extent to nuclei of HeLa and U2-OS cells. Mutagenesis of hEb nucleolus localization sequence (NoLS) leads to its partial delocalization from nuclei and nucleoli to cytoplasm of transfected cells. Thus, NoLS is not sufficient for the hEb to be localized in nucleoli of the cells and a different mechanism may be involved in hEb targeting. A BrdU ELISA showed that the proliferation index of cells expressing hEb hybrid proteins increased up to 28 %. For comparison, the same assay was performed using HeLa cells treated extracellularly with synthetic hEb. A significant increase in the proliferation index was observed (41–58 % for concentrations ranging from 10–100 nM, respectively). Additionally, a cell migration assay was performed using stable U2-OS cell lines expressing hEb fused with RFP or RFP alone as a negative control. The migration index of hEb expressing cells was 38.3 % greater. The increase in cell proliferation index and in motile properties of hEb expressing cells demonstrate that hEb is more than a pre-pro-IGF1b processing product, and has intrinsic activity of biological significance. PMID:23335048

  12. Expression of EB virus in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in children with systemic lupus erythematosus%EB病毒在系统性红斑狼疮患儿外周血单个核细胞中表达的意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁艳; 何小解; 廖旺; 杨慧兰; 向伟; 党西强; 易著文

    2015-01-01

    Objective To discuss the role of EB virus (EBV)in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus(SLE) in children through investigating the copies of EBV DNA and expression of EBV genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells(PBMCs).Methods (1)PBMCs were isolated from 30 patients with SLE and 12 healthy normal controls respectively and DNA was extracted from PBMCs.(2) PBMCs were co-cultured with EBV for 12 days and RNA was extracted from PBMCs.(3)Real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR(Real-time PCR) was applied to detect the copies of EBV DNA in PBMCs.(4)Reverse transcription PCR was applied to detect expression of EBV genes.Results (1) Compared with the healthy control group [(40.1 ± 11.6) copies/μg],a significant increase of EBV DNA copies was observed in SLE group[(658.6 ± 183.6) copies/μg] (P <0.05).The EBV DNA copies in the active SLE group [(785.2 ± 179.2) copies/μg] were significantly higher than those in the non-active SLE group [(586.0 ± 193.1) copies/μg] (P < 0.05).(2)There was no correlation between EBV DNA copies and systemic lupus erythematosus disease activity index (r =0.03,P > 0.05).(3) After PBMCs got co-cultured with EBV,expression of latent EBV genes and lytic genes were both increased in the patients and healthy controls.The latent EBV genes including latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1),LMP2,EBV nuclear antigen 1 and the lytic genes including BCRF1,BLLF1 were all increased significantly in the patients compared with the healthy controls (all P < 0.05).Conclusions There is a significant increase of EBV DNA copies and aberrant expression of EBV genes in SLE patients,which suggests that EBV may contribute to the pathogenesis of SLE.%目的 通过研究EB病毒(EBV)在系统性红斑狼疮(SLE)患儿外周血单个核细胞(PBMCs)中DNA拷贝数及EBV基因的表达,探讨EBV在儿童SLE发病中的作用.方法 1.分离30例SLE患儿和12例健康对照儿童PBMCs,提取DNA.2.用B95.8 EBV株与提取的PBMCs共同培养12 d

  13. Health system barriers and facilitators to medication adherence for the secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Amitava; Khandelwal, Shweta; Nambiar, Lavanya; Saxena, Malvika; Peck, Victoria; Moniruzzaman, Mohammed; Faria Neto, Jose Rocha; Quinto, Katherine Curi; Smyth, Andrew; Leong, Darryl; Werba, José Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Background Secondary prevention is cost-effective for cardiovascular disease (CVD), but uptake is suboptimal. Understanding barriers and facilitators to adherence to secondary prevention for CVD at multiple health system levels may inform policy. Objectives To conduct a systematic review of barriers and facilitators to adherence/persistence to secondary CVD prevention medications at health system level. Methods Included studies reported effects of health system level factors on adherence/persistence to secondary prevention medications for CVD (coronary artery or cerebrovascular disease). Studies considered at least one of β blockers, statins, angiotensin–renin system blockers and aspirin. Relevant databases were searched from 1 January 1966 until 1 October 2015. Full texts were screened for inclusion by 2 independent reviewers. Results Of 2246 screened articles, 25 studies were included (12 trials, 11 cohort studies, 1 cross-sectional study and 1 case–control study) with 132 140 individuals overall (smallest n=30, largest n=63 301). 3 studies included upper middle-income countries, 1 included a low middle-income country and 21 (84%) included high-income countries (9 in the USA). Studies concerned established CVD (n=4), cerebrovascular disease (n=7) and coronary heart disease (n=14). Three studies considered persistence and adherence. Quantity and quality of evidence was limited for adherence, persistence and across drug classes. Studies were concerned with governance and delivery (n=19, including 4 trials of fixed-dose combination therapy, FDC), intellectual resources (n=1), human resources (n=1) and health system financing (n=4). Full prescription coverage, reduced copayments, FDC and counselling were facilitators associated with higher adherence. Conclusions High-quality evidence on health system barriers and facilitators to adherence to secondary prevention medications for CVD is lacking, especially for low-income settings. Full prescription coverage

  14. GPS navigation based on ADXL345 and EB3631%ADXL345与EB3631在GPS导航中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王波

    2014-01-01

    为实现用户到目标点的距离测量和方向控制,设计并实现了基于加速度传感器ADXL345和EB3631的GPS模块的实时导航系统.系统选用EB3631搭建GPS模块,通过串口与ATMEGA644P控制器通信采集GPS定位信息;采用加速度传感器ADXL345,通过ⅡC协议与控制器通信实现位移测量.在0m-500m范围内,对系统稳定性和准确性的反复测试,最终实现了相对误差在10%以内的准确度较高的导航系统.

  15. Blanch Resistant and Thermal Barrier NiAl Coating Systems for Advanced Copper Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Sai V. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A method of forming an environmental resistant thermal barrier coating on a copper alloy is disclosed. The steps include cleansing a surface of a copper alloy, depositing a bond coat on the cleansed surface of the copper alloy, depositing a NiAl top coat on the bond coat and consolidating the bond coat and the NiAl top coat to form the thermal barrier coating. The bond coat may be a nickel layer or a layer composed of at least one of copper and chromium-copper alloy and either the bond coat or the NiAl top coat or both may be deposited using a low pressure or vacuum plasma spray.

  16. THE ROTATION BARRIER OF ELECTRON SPIN PROBE IN THE STUDY OF POLYMER SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Tongyin; GUO Shiqing; GE Mingtao

    1984-01-01

    In the study of molecular motion of polymer by means of ESR in combination with spin probe,owing to that the ESR spectrum depicts only the behavior of spin probe, the information obtained is of indirect nature. Hence the relationship between them must first be investigated before any conclusion could be drawn. In this paper, two parameters TR and CR are introduced to characterize the changing of tumbling rate of spin probe, and the concept of rotation barrier of spin probe is proposed. It is considered that the magnitude of the rotation barrier is determined by the internal cavity size and distribution in polymer. When the temperature is raised, the size and distribution of the cavities change accordingly, thus the tumbling of spin probe changes gradually from a slower to a higher rate.

  17. Three New Pierce's Disease Pathogenicity Effectors Identified Using Xylella fastidiosa Biocontrol Strain EB92-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shujian Zhang

    Full Text Available Xylella fastidiosa (X. fastidiosa infects a wide range of plant hosts and causes economically serious diseases, including Pierce's Disease (PD of grapevines. X. fastidiosa biocontrol strain EB92-1 was isolated from elderberry and is infectious and persistent in grapevines but causes only very slight symptoms under ideal conditions. The draft genome of EB92-1 revealed that it appeared to be missing genes encoding 10 potential PD pathogenicity effectors found in Temecula1. Subsequent PCR and sequencing analyses confirmed that EB92-1 was missing the following predicted effectors found in Temecula1: two type II secreted enzymes, including a lipase (LipA; PD1703 and a serine protease (PD0956; two identical genes encoding proteins similar to Zonula occludens toxins (Zot; PD0915 and PD0928, and at least one relatively short, hemagglutinin-like protein (PD0986. Leaves of tobacco and citrus inoculated with cell-free, crude protein extracts of E. coli BL21(DE3 overexpressing PD1703 exhibited a hypersensitive response (HR in less than 24 hours. When cloned into shuttle vector pBBR1MCS-5, PD1703 conferred strong secreted lipase activity to Xanthomonas citri, E. coli and X. fastidiosa EB92-1 in plate assays. EB92-1/PD1703 transformants also showed significantly increased disease symptoms on grapevines, characteristic of PD. Genes predicted to encode PD0928 (Zot and a PD0986 (hemagglutinin were also cloned into pBBR1MCS-5 and moved into EB92-1; both transformants also showed significantly increased symptoms on V. vinifera vines, characteristic of PD. Together, these results reveal that PD effectors include at least a lipase, two Zot-like toxins and a possibly redundant hemagglutinin, none of which are necessary for parasitic survival of X. fastidiosa populations in grapevines or elderberry.

  18. 燃气轮机应用的热障涂层%The Application of Thermal Barrier C oatings for Gas Turbine Components

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐文文; 赵迎炬

    2001-01-01

    A concise account is given of the recent progress in the use of thermal barrier coating technology for gas turbine flow path components. The newly developed EB - PVD (electronic beam - physical vapor deposition) method represents a major bre a kthrough in thermal barrier coating technology. The present paper briefly explai ns the EB PVD method and its related equipment%简要叙述了燃气轮机热燃气通流部件上热障涂层镀敷工艺的 进展情况。最新开发的EB-PVD方法是TBC技术的重大突破,简介了EB-PVD方法及其设备。

  19. EB 病毒 LMP2A 在胃癌研究中的进展%Research progress in EB virus LMP2A in gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏琳钦; 伍石华; 张志伟

    2016-01-01

    EB 病毒(EBV)是具有致瘤潜能的疱疹病毒,其编码的潜伏性膜蛋白2A(LMP2A)通过多条信号传导通路,参与上皮细胞的转化。 EB 病毒存在于胃癌组织中,在胃癌的发生和发展过程中发挥重要的作用。本文主要就 LMP2A 的结构、介导的信号传导通路与胃癌的关系进行综述。%Epstein-Barr virus is a herpes virus with tumorigenic potential, its encoded latent membrane protein-2A through multiple signaling pathways, involved in the transformation of epithelial cells. The EB virus exists in gastric cancer cells,in the process of the occurrence and development of gastric cancer play an important role. This article mainly reviews the structure of LMP2A, mediated signaling pathway and gastric cancer.

  20. Validade convergente do tipo de vivência (EB no teste de Zulliger/SC = Convergent validity evidence of the personality Style (EB in Z-test/SC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villemor-Amaral, Anna Elisa de

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O Zulliger foi adaptado para o Sistema Compreensivo de Exner numa amostra brasileira, pois embora o Sistema Compreensivo tenha sido desenvolvido para codificação e interpretação do método de Rorschach, a semelhança entre as duas técnicas levou a supor que o Zulliger poderia se beneficiar das mesmas vantagens alcançadas para o Rorschach. Esse estudo tem por objetivo verificar evidências de validade convergente para a classificação do Tipo de Vivência (EB no Zulliger, por meio de correlações com o indicador EB do Rorschach. Selecionaram-se de um banco de dados 51 protocolos de adultos, de ambos os sexos, com idade, escolaridade e nível socioeconômicos variados. As pessoas responderam a técnica de Zulliger e do Rorschach em dias consecutivos, alternando-se a ordem de aplicação das técnicas. Os resultados indicaram correlações significativas, mas apontam à necessidade de estabelecer novas proporções das variáveis que compõe o EB para a técnica de Zulliger

  1. Horizontal flow barriers for the transient ground-water flow model, Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital dataset defines the surface traces of regional features simulated as horizontal flow barriers in the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system...

  2. Potential and barrier study. Energy efficiency of Norwegian homes; Potensial- og barrierestudie. Energieffektivisering av norske boliger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Enova has identified potentials and barriers for energy efficiency in Norwegian buildings. This report summarizes the results of this work. Efficient energy in buildings is important to ensure that future economic activity and growth can occur in a way that reduces the possibilities for an environmentally and economically sound development. (eb)

  3. Identifying barriers to mental health system improvements: an examination of community participation in assertive community treatment programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wakefield Patricia A

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Integrating the best available evidence into program standards is essential if system-wide improvements in the delivery of community-based mental health services are to be achieved. Since the beginning of the Assertive Community Treatment (ACT program movement, program standards have included a role for the community. In particular, ACT program standards have sought to ensure that members of the local community are involved in governance and that former clients participate in service delivery as "Peer Support Specialists". This paper reports on the extent to which ACT program standards related to community participation have been implemented and identifies barriers to full compliance. Methods Qualitative and quantitative data were collected through a telephone survey of ACT Program Coordinators in Ontario, Canada, using a census sample of the existing 66 ACT programs. A thematic approach to content analysis was used to analyze respondents' qualitative comments. Quantitative data were analyzed using SPSS 16.0 and included means, frequencies, independent t-tests and Pearson Correlations. Results An 85% response rate was achieved. Of the 33 program standards, the two that received the lowest perceived compliance ratings were the two standards directly concerning community participation. Specifically, the standard to have a functioning Community Advisory Body and the standard requiring the inclusion of a Peer Support Specialist. The three major themes that emerged from the survey data with respect to the barriers to fully implementing the Community Advisory Body were: external issues; standard related issues; and, organizational/structural related issues. The three major themes concerning barriers to implementing the Peer Support Specialist role were: human resource related issues; organizational/structural related issues; and, standard related issues. Conclusions The reasons for low compliance of ACT programs with community

  4. Geological Disposal of Nuclear Waste: Investigating the Thermo-Hygro-Mechanical-Chemical (THMC) Coupled Processes at the Waste Canister- Bentonite Barrier Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, C. W.; Davie, D. C.; Charles, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    Geological disposal of nuclear waste is being increasingly considered to deal with the growing volume of waste resulting from the nuclear legacy of numerous nations. Within the UK there is 650,000 cubic meters of waste safely stored and managed in near-surface interim facilities but with no conclusive permanent disposal route. A Geological Disposal Facility with incorporated Engineered Barrier Systems are currently being considered as a permanent waste management solution (Fig.1). This research focuses on the EBS bentonite buffer/waste canister interface, and experimentally replicates key environmental phases that would occur after canister emplacement. This progresses understanding of the temporal evolution of the EBS and the associated impact on its engineering, mineralogical and physicochemical state and considers any consequences for the EBS safety functions of containment and isolation. Correlation of engineering properties to the physicochemical state is the focus of this research. Changes to geotechnical properties such as Atterberg limits, swelling pressure and swelling kinetics are measured after laboratory exposure to THMC variables from interface and batch experiments. Factors affecting the barrier, post closure, include corrosion product interaction, precipitation of silica, near-field chemical environment, groundwater salinity and temperature. Results show that increasing groundwater salinity has a direct impact on the buffer, reducing swelling capacity and plasticity index by up to 80%. Similarly, thermal loading reduces swelling capacity by 23% and plasticity index by 5%. Bentonite/steel interaction studies show corrosion precipitates diffusing into compacted bentonite up to 3mm from the interface over a 4 month exposure (increasing with temperature), with reduction in swelling capacity in the affected zone, probably due to the development of poorly crystalline iron oxides. These results indicate that groundwater conditions, temperature and corrosion

  5. Recycler barrier RF buckets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhat, C.M.; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01

    The Recycler Ring at Fermilab uses a barrier rf systems for all of its rf manipulations. In this paper, I will give an overview of historical perspective on barrier rf system, the longitudinal beam dynamics issues, aspects of rf linearization to produce long flat bunches and methods used for emittance measurements of the beam in the RR barrier rf buckets. Current rf manipulation schemes used for antiproton beam stacking and longitudinal momentum mining of the RR beam for the Tevatron collider operation are explained along with their importance in spectacular success of the Tevatron luminosity performance.

  6. Thermal/residual stress in an electron beam physical vapor deposited thermal barrier coating system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, J.; Jordan, E.H.; Barber, B.; Gell, M. [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States)

    1998-10-09

    Elastic-plastic finite element models are used to define the thermal/residual stress state responsible for the observed failure behavior of an electron beam physical vapor deposited yttria stabilized zirconia thermal barrier coating on a Pt-Al bond coat. The failures were observed to start at grain boundary ridges, some of which evolved into oxide filled cavities. Finite element models are made of the actual interface geometries through the use of metallographic sectioning and imaging processing. There is a one to one correspondence of calculated tension in the oxide layer and the observed localized damage. Purely elastic analysis failed to show some important tensile regions associated with the observed failure.

  7. Formation of white-eye pattern with microdischarge in an air dielectric barrier discharge system

    CERN Document Server

    He, Yafeng; Liu, Weili; Wang, Hongfang; Zhao, Zengchao; Fan, Weili

    2011-01-01

    We report on the first observation of white-eye pattern in an air dielectric barrier discharge. The patterned discharges undergo a development as following: random spots - quasihexagonal pattern - hexagonal pattern (type I) - hexagonal pattern (type II) - white-eye pattern - chaos as the voltage is increased. The spatiotemporal characteristics of patterned discharges are investigated by using an optical method. Results show that the two discharge modes, uniform mode and filamentary mode, are actually two different spatial presentations of the same origin: the microdischarge. From the viewpoint of pattern dynamics, the white-eye pattern results from a 3-wave resonance interaction.

  8. Ultrasound-mediated blood-brain barrier disruption for targeted drug delivery in the central nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDannold, Nathan; Zhang, Yongzhi; Power, Chanikarn; Arvanitis, Costas D.; Vykhodtseva, Natalia; Livingstone, Margaret

    2015-05-01

    The physiology of the vasculature in the central nervous system (CNS), which includes the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and other factors, complicates the delivery of most drugs to the brain. Different methods have been used to bypass the BBB, but they have limitations such as being invasive, non-targeted or requiring the formulation of new drugs. Focused ultrasound (FUS), when combined with circulating microbubbles, is a noninvasive method to locally and transiently disrupt the BBB at discrete targets. The method presents new opportunities for the use of drugs and for the study of the brain.

  9. Dexmedetomidine Attenuates Blood-Spinal Cord Barrier Disruption Induced by Spinal Cord Ischemia Reperfusion Injury in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Fang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Dexmedetomidine has beneficial effects on ischemia reperfusion (I/R injury to the spinal cord, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. This study investigated the effects and possible mechanisms of dexmedetomidine on blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB disruption induced by spinal cord I/R injury. Methods: Rats were intrathecally pretreated with dexmedetomidine or PBS control 30 minutes before undergoing 14-minute occlusion of aortic arch. Hind-limb motor function was assessed using Tarlov criteria, and motor neurons in the ventral gray matter were counted by histological examination. The permeability of the BSCB was examined using Evans blue (EB as a vascular tracer. The spinal cord edema was evaluated using the wet-dry method. The expression and localization of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9, Angiopoietin-1 (Ang1 and Tie2 were assessed by western blot, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and immunofluorescence. Results: Intrathecal preconditioning with dexmedetomidine minimized the neuromotor dysfunction and histopathological deficits, and attenuated EB extravasation after spinal cord I/R injury. In addition, dexmedetomidine preconditioning suppressed I/R-induced increase in MMP-9. Finally, Dexmedetomidine preconditioning enhanced the Ang1-Tie2 system activity after spinal cord I/R injury. Conclusions: Dexmedetomidine preconditioning stabilized the BSCB integrity against spinal cord I/R injury by inhibition of MMP-9, and enhancing the Ang1-Tie2 system.

  10. Narvas näeb Eesti tantsuauhinna võitnud tantsulavastust / Rene Nõmmik ; intervjueerinud Tiia Linnart

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nõmmik, Rene, 1962-

    2015-01-01

    Narva kultuurimajas Rugodiv näeb Fine5 tantsuteatri lavastust "...and blue", mis võitis tänavu Eesti teatriauhinna. Etenduse koreograafideks ja lavastajateks on Tiina Ollesk ja Rene Nõmmik, keda on palutud lavastama ka Venemaale. Intervjuu Rene Nõmmikuga

  11. Enhanced -->E*-->B drift effects in the TCV snowflake divertor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.P. Canal,; Lunt, T.; Reimerdes, H.; Duval, B. P.; Labit, B.; Vijvers, W. A. J.; TCV team,

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of various plasma parameters at the divertor targets of snowflake (SF) and conventional single-null configurations indicate an enhanced effect of the -->E*-->B drift in the scrape-off layer of plasmas in the SF configuration. Plasma boundary transport simulations using the EMC3-Ei

  12. 76 FR 61288 - Treatment of Aliens Whose Employment Creation Immigrant (EB-5) Petitions Were Approved After...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY 8 CFR Parts 216 and 245 RIN 1615-AA90 Treatment of Aliens Whose Employment Creation Immigrant (EB... Homeland Security corrects an inadvertent error contained in the proposed rule titled Treatment of...

  13. 76 FR 59927 - Treatment of Aliens Whose Employment Creation Immigrant (EB-5) Petitions Were Approved After...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-28

    ... SECURITY 8 CFR Parts 216 and 245 RIN 1615-AA90 Treatment of Aliens Whose Employment Creation Immigrant (EB... applications and petitions of qualifying aliens whose employment-creation immigrant petitions were approved by...-273 Provisions C. Summary of the Adjudications Required by Public Law 107-273 III. Aliens Eligible...

  14. 47 CFR 27.58 - Interference to BRS/EBS receivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... downconverters if all of the following conditions are met: (1) The complaint is received by the WCS licensee...) The BRS/EBS customer or licensee has informed the WCS licensee of the interference within one year... increases at the WCS station. (b) Resolution of the complaint shall be at no cost to the complainant....

  15. Self-incompatibility systems: barriers to self-fertilization in flowering plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rea, Anne C; Nasrallah, June B

    2008-01-01

    Flowering plants (angiosperms) are the most prevalent and evolutionarily advanced group of plants. Success of these plants is owed to several unique evolutionary adaptations that aid in reproduction: the flower, the closed carpel, double fertilization, and the ultimate products of fertilization, seeds enclosed in the fruit. Angiosperms exhibit a vast array of reproductive strategies, including both asexual and sexual, the latter of which includes both self-fertilization and cross-fertilization. Asexual reproduction and self-fertilization are important reproductive strategies in a variety of situations, such as when mates are scarce or when the environment remains relatively stable. However, reproductive strategies promoting cross-fertilization are critical to angiosperm success, since they contribute to the creation of genetically diverse populations, which increase the probability that at least one individual in a population will survive given changing environmental conditions. The evolution of several physical and genetic barriers to self-fertilization or fertilization among closely related individuals is thus widespread in angiosperms. A major genetic barrier to self-fertilization is self-incompatibility (SI), which allows female reproductive cells to discriminate between "self" and "non-self" pollen, and specifically reject self pollen. Evidence for the importance of SI in angiosperm evolution lies in the highly diverse set of mechanisms used by various angiosperm families for recognition of self pollen tube development and preventing self-fertilization.

  16. Aircraft engine-mounted camera system for long wavelength infrared imaging of in-service thermal barrier coated turbine blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markham, James; Cosgrove, Joseph; Scire, James; Haldeman, Charles; Agoos, Ian

    2014-12-01

    This paper announces the implementation of a long wavelength infrared camera to obtain high-speed thermal images of an aircraft engine's in-service thermal barrier coated turbine blades. Long wavelength thermal images were captured of first-stage blades. The achieved temporal and spatial resolutions allowed for the identification of cooling-hole locations. The software and synchronization components of the system allowed for the selection of any blade on the turbine wheel, with tuning capability to image from leading edge to trailing edge. Its first application delivered calibrated thermal images as a function of turbine rotational speed at both steady state conditions and during engine transients. In advance of presenting these data for the purpose of understanding engine operation, this paper focuses on the components of the system, verification of high-speed synchronized operation, and the integration of the system with the commercial jet engine test bed.

  17. 47 CFR 27.1203 - EBS programming requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... wired distribution systems or radio facilities authorized under other parts of this chapter, or to... MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Broadband Radio Service and Educational Broadband Service § 27... material from, commercial and noncommercial educational television broadcast stations for use on...

  18. Acanthamoeba produces disseminated infection in locusts and traverses the locust blood-brain barrier to invade the central nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirk Ruth

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many aspects of Acanthamoeba granulomatous encephalitis remain poorly understood, including host susceptibility and chronic colonization which represent important features of the spectrum of host-pathogen interactions. Previous studies have suggested locusts as a tractable model in which to study Acanthamoeba pathogenesis. Here we determined the mode of parasite invasion of the central nervous system (CNS. Results Using Acanthamoeba isolates belonging to the T1 and T4 genotypes, the findings revealed that amoebae induced sickness behaviour in locusts, as evidenced by reduced faecal output and weight loss and, eventually, leading to 100% mortality. Significant degenerative changes of various tissues were observed by histological sectioning. Both isolates produced disseminated infection, with viable amoebae being recovered from various tissues. Histological examination of the CNS showed that Acanthamoeba invaded the locust CNS, and this is associated with disruption of the perineurium cell/glial cell complex, which constitutes the locust blood-brain barrier. Conclusions This is the first study to demonstrate that Acanthamoeba invades locust brain by modulating the integrity of the insect's blood-brain barrier, a finding that is consistent with the human infection. These observations support the idea that locusts provide a tractable model to study Acanthamoeba encephalitis in vivo. In this way the locust model may generate potentially useful leads that can be tested subsequently in mammalian systems, thus replacing the use of vertebrates at an early stage, and reducing the numbers of mammals required overall.

  19. Geophysical characterization of subsurface barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borns, D.J.

    1995-08-01

    An option for controlling contaminant migration from plumes and buried waste sites is to construct a subsurface barrier of a low-permeability material. The successful application of subsurface barriers requires processes to verify the emplacement and effectiveness of barrier and to monitor the performance of a barrier after emplacement. Non destructive and remote sensing techniques, such as geophysical methods, are possible technologies to address these needs. The changes in mechanical, hydrologic and chemical properties associated with the emplacement of an engineered barrier will affect geophysical properties such a seismic velocity, electrical conductivity, and dielectric constant. Also, the barrier, once emplaced and interacting with the in situ geologic system, may affect the paths along which electrical current flows in the subsurface. These changes in properties and processes facilitate the detection and monitoring of the barrier. The approaches to characterizing and monitoring engineered barriers can be divided between (1) methods that directly image the barrier using the contrasts in physical properties between the barrier and the host soil or rock and (2) methods that reflect flow processes around or through the barrier. For example, seismic methods that delineate the changes in density and stiffness associated with the barrier represents a direct imaging method. Electrical self potential methods and flow probes based on heat flow methods represent techniques that can delineate the flow path or flow processes around and through a barrier.

  20. International Expert Review of SRCan: Engineered Barrier Issues. External review contribution in support of SKI's and SSI's review of SR-Can

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savage, David (Quintessa Limited, Henley-on-Thames (GB)); Bennett, David (TerraSalus Limited, Oakham (GB)); Apted, Mick (Monitor Scientific LLC, Denver, CO (US)); Saellfors, Goeran (Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (SE)); Saario, Timo (VTT Materials and Building (FI)); Segle, Peter (Inspecta, Stockholm (SE))

    2008-03-15

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) has recently submitted a license application for the construction of a spent fuel encapsulation plant. SKB plans to submit a further license application in 2009 for the construction of a repository for the disposal spent nuclear fuel. In connection with the first of these applications, SKB published a safety report, known as SR-Can, which assessed the safety of a spent-fuel repository. The Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) and the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI) (the Authorities) will make formal reviews of the licence applications, and have, therefore, jointly commissioned a team of independent experts to assess and provide comments on SKB's safety reports. The Authorities will consider the views of the independent review team in completing their own reviews. This document presents the comments and findings of the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) review group on SR-Can. The SR-Can safety report includes an examination of EBS design and performance for a range of scenarios, including expected repository evolution and possible variant scenarios, that together address processes and events that might result in the loss of certain repository safety functions. Furthermore, a series of sensitivity analyses is also presented that provides helpful insights into the relative importance of many key parameters and processes related to the EBS. In general, the explanatory text of the SR-Can safety report is clear, and the cited references provide adequate technical justifications for the assumptions, models, and data that are abstracted into the SR-Can safety report. The review group considers, therefore, that SKB's development of SR-Can has been a very valuable exercise, and that SKB should be congratulated on the breadth, depth and general clarity of its research and development and safety assessment programmes. Notwithstanding these successes, the EBS review group has identified a range

  1. Assessing the performance of a permeable reactive barrier-aquifer system using a dual-domain solute transport model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jui-Sheng; Hsu, Shao-Yiu; Li, Ming-Hsu; Liu, Chen-Wuing

    2016-12-01

    Transport behavior through a permeable reactive barrier (PRB)-aquifer system is complicated because of the different physical and chemical properties of the PRB and the aquifer. Dual-domain solute transport models are efficient tools for better understanding the various processes and mechanisms of reactive solute transport through a PRB-aquifer system. This study develops a dual-domain analytical model to assess the physical and chemical processes of two-dimensional reactive solute transport through a PRB-aquifer system. The dispersion processes of a dual-domain system on the solute transport are investigated. The results show that the dispersion parameters in a dual-domain system synchronously govern the dynamic shape of the contaminant plume. The low longitudinal and transverse dispersion coefficients of a dual-domain system may restrict the spreading of the plume and elevate the plume's concentration level. The derived analytical solution is applied to explore how the different reactive transport processes affect the performance of a PRB-aquifer system. The results show that the first-order decay rate constant of the PRB has a critical effect on the performance of the PRB-aquifer system, whereas the effects of the physical dispersion properties on PRB performance are less significant.

  2. Development Status and Performance Comparisons of Environmental Barrier Coating Systems for SiCSiC Ceramic Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming; Harder, Bryan

    2016-01-01

    Environmental barrier coatings (EBC) and SiCSiC ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) will play a crucial role in future aircraft turbine engine systems, because of their ability to significantly increase engine operating temperatures, reduce engine weight and cooling requirements. This paper presents current NASA EBC-CMC development emphases including: the coating composition and processing improvements, laser high heat flux-thermal gradient thermo-mechanical fatigue - environmental testing methodology development, and property evaluations for next generation EBC-CMC systems. EBCs processed with various deposition techniques including Plasma Spray, Electron Beam - Physical Vapor Deposition, and Plasma Spray Physical Vapor Deposition (PS-PVD) will be particularly discussed. The testing results and demonstrations of advanced EBCs-CMCs in complex simulated engine thermal gradient cyclic fatigue, oxidizing-steam and CMAS environments will help provide insights into the coating development strategies to meet long-term engine component durability goals.

  3. Perceived barriers of heart failure nurses and cardiologists in using clinical decision support systems in the treatment of heart failure patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Clinical Decision Support Systems (CDSSs) can support guideline adherence in heart failure (HF) patients. However, the use of CDSSs is limited and barriers in working with CDSSs have been described as a major obstacle. It is unknown if barriers to CDSSs are present and differ between HF nurses and cardiologists. Therefore the aims of this study are; 1. Explore the type and number of perceived barriers of HF nurses and cardiologists to use a CDSS in the treatment of HF patients. 2. Explore possible differences in perceived barriers between two groups. 3. Assess the relevance and influence of knowledge management (KM) on Responsibility/Trust (R&T) and Barriers/Threats (B&T). Methods A questionnaire was developed including; B&T, R&T, and KM. For analyses, descriptive techniques, 2-tailed Pearson correlation tests, and multiple regression analyses were performed. Results The response- rate of 220 questionnaires was 74%. Barriers were found for cardiologists and HF nurses in all the constructs. Sixty-five percent did not want to be dependent on a CDSS. Nevertheless thirty-six percent of HF nurses and 50% of cardiologists stated that a CDSS can optimize HF medication. No relationship between constructs and age; gender; years of work experience; general computer experience and email/internet were observed. In the group of HF nurses a positive correlation (r .33, PKM was associated with the constructs B&T (B=.55, P=barriers in working with a CDSS in all of the examined constructs. KM has a strong positive correlation with perceived barriers, indicating that increasing knowledge about CDSSs can decrease their barriers. PMID:23622342

  4. The intestinal barrier in irritable bowel syndrome: subtype-specific effects of the systemic compartment in an in vitro model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samefko Ludidi

    Full Text Available Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is a disorder with multifactorial pathophysiology. Intestinal barrier may be altered, especially in diarrhea-predominant IBS (IBS-D. Several mediators may contribute to increased intestinal permeability in IBS.We aimed to assess effects of tryptase and LPS on in vitro permeability using a 3-dimensional cell model after basolateral cell exposure. Furthermore, we assessed the extent to which these mediators in IBS plasma play a role in intestinal barrier function.Caco-2 cells were grown in extracellular matrix to develop into polarized spheroids and were exposed to tryptase (10 - 50 mU, LPS (1 - 50 ng/mL and two-fold diluted plasma samples of 7 patients with IBS-D, 7 with constipation-predominant IBS (IBS-C and 7 healthy controls (HC. Barrier function was assessed by the flux of FITC-dextran (FD4 using live cell imaging. Furthermore, plasma tryptase and LPS were determined.Tryptase (20 and 50 mU and LPS (6.25 - 50 ng/mL significantly increased Caco-2 permeability versus control (all P< 0.05. Plasma of IBS-D only showed significantly elevated median tryptase concentrations (7.1 [3.9 - 11.0] vs. 4.2 [2.2 - 7.0] vs. 4.2 [2.5 - 5.9] μg/mL; P<0.05 and LPS concentrations (3.65 [3.00 - 6.10] vs. 3.10 [2.60-3.80] vs. 2.65 [2.40 - 3.40] EU/ml; P< 0.05 vs. IBS-C and HC. Also, plasma of IBS-D increased Caco-2 permeability versus HC (0.14450 ± 0.00472 vs. 0.00021 ± 0.00003; P < 0.001, which was attenuated by selective inhibition of tryptase and LPS (P< 0.05.Basolateral exposure of spheroids to plasma of IBS-D patients resulted in a significantly increased FD4 permeation, which was partially abolished by selective inhibition of tryptase and LPS. These findings point to a role of systemic tryptase and LPS in the epithelial barrier alterations observed in patients with IBS-D.

  5. Kvalita služeb ve zdravotnictví

    OpenAIRE

    Kosková, Adéla

    2015-01-01

    Kosková, A., Quality of health care services. Diploma thesis, Brno: Mendel University in Brno, 2015. The aim of the diploma thesis is to analyse health care delivery in particular health care organization using quantitative method of questioning the patients and employees of the organization. The theoretical part deals with the basic definitions of quality management in health care, quality of health care, management tools in health care system, measurement of patients and employees satisfact...

  6. Analysis of VIA and EbA in a River Bank Erosion Prone Area of Bangladesh Applying DPSIR Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Hafizur Rahman

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to set up a comprehensive approach to the Vulnerability and Impact Assessment (VIA of river erosion and to suggest Ecosystem-based Adaptation (EbA practices. Based on the analysis of vulnerability using the Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR framework, this paper discusses some of the significant climatic (rainfall pattern, temperature, seasonal drift, cold wave and heat wave and non-climatic (river erosion, repetitive death of field crops and agrochemicals forces in the Kazipur Upazila (Sirajganj District—a river erosion-prone area of Bangladesh. Both primary (Key Informants Interview, Household Survey, and Focus Group Discussion and secondary (climatic, literature review data have been used in revealing the scenario of climatic stress. The analysis revealed a slightly increasing trend of mean annual temperature, and a decreasing trend of total annual rainfall from 1981 to 2015, which have been supported by people’s perception. This study found that river erosion, the increase of temperature and the late arrival of monsoon rain, excessive monsoon rainfall, high use of agrochemicals, and flow alterations are major drivers in the riverine ecosystem. These drivers are creating pressures on agricultural land, soil fertility, water availability and livelihood patterns of affected communities. Hence, floating bed cultivation, integrated pest management, use of cover crops, reforestation, the introduction of an agro-weather forecasting system, and a new variety of flood tolerant species have been suggested as potential EbA to cope with river bank erosion and to increase the capacity of the affected ecosystem.

  7. Progress toward Treatment and Cure of Epidermolysis Bullosa: Summary of the DEBRA International Research Symposium EB2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uitto, Jouni; Bruckner-Tuderman, Leena; Christiano, Angela M; McGrath, John A; Has, Cristina; South, Andrew P; Kopelan, Brett; Robinson, E Clare

    2016-02-01

    Epidermolysis bullosa (EB), a group of complex heritable blistering diseases, is the topic of triennial research meetings organized by DEBRA International, Vienna, Austria, the network of national EB patient advocacy organizations. The DEBRA 2015 Research Conference, held in May 2015, brought together investigators and clinicians from around the world working at the forefront of EB research. Discussing the state-of-the-art approaches from a wide range of disciplines, there was a palpable excitement at this conference brought about by the optimism about applying new sequencing techniques, genome editing, protein replacement, autologous and allogeneic stem cell therapy, innovations in cancer biology, revertant mosaicism, and induced pluripotent stem cell techniques, all of which are aimed at developing new therapies for EB. Many in the field who have participated in EB research for many years were especially enthusiastic and felt that, possibly for the first time, the field seems uniquely poised to bring these new tools to effectively tackle EB. Multiple complementary approaches are currently in motion toward improved quality of life and eventually a cure for patients suffering from EB, a currently intractable disease.

  8. Blood-Brain Barrier Disruption and Oxidative Stress in Guinea Pig after Systemic Exposure to Modified Cell-Free Hemoglobin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, Omer I.; Buehler, Paul W.; D'Agnillo, Felice

    2011-01-01

    Systemic exposure to cell-free hemoglobin (Hb) or its breakdown products after hemolysis or with the use of Hb-based oxygen therapeutics may alter the function and integrity of the blood-brain barrier. Using a guinea pig exchange transfusion model, we investigated the effect of a polymerized cell-free Hb (HbG) on the expression of endothelial tight junction proteins (zonula occludens 1, claudin-5, and occludin), astrocyte activation, IgG extravasation, heme oxygenase (HO), iron deposition, oxidative end products (4-hydroxynonenal adducts and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine), and apoptosis (cleaved caspase 3). Reduced zonula occludens 1 expression was observed after HbG transfusion as evidenced by Western blot and confocal microscopy. Claudin-5 distribution was altered in small- to medium-sized vessels. However, total expression of claudin-5 and occludin remained unchanged except for a notable increase in occludin 72 hours after HbG transfusion. HbG-transfused animals also showed increased astrocytic glial fibrillary acidic protein expression and IgG extravasation after 72 hours. Increased HO activity and HO-1 expression with prominent enhancement of HO-1 immunoreactivity in CD163-expressing perivascular cells and infiltrating monocytes/macrophages were also observed. Consistent with oxidative stress, HbG increased iron deposition, 4-hydroxynonenal and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine immunoreactivity, and cleaved caspase-3 expression. Systemic exposure to an extracellular Hb triggers blood-brain barrier disruption and oxidative stress, which may have important implications for the use of Hb-based therapeutics and may provide indirect insight on the central nervous system vasculopathies associated with excessive hemolysis. PMID:21356382

  9. Important contribution of the novel locus comEB to extracellular DNA-dependent Staphylococcus lugdunensis biofilm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendran, Nithya Babu; Eikmeier, Julian; Becker, Karsten; Hussain, Muzaffar; Peters, Georg; Heilmann, Christine

    2015-12-01

    The coagulase-negative species Staphylococcus lugdunensis is an emerging cause of serious and potentially life-threatening infections, such as infective endocarditis. The pathogenesis of these infections is characterized by the ability of S. lugdunensis to form biofilms on either biotic or abiotic surfaces. To elucidate the genetic basis of biofilm formation in S. lugdunensis, we performed transposon (Tn917) mutagenesis. One mutant had a significantly reduced biofilm-forming capacity and carried a Tn917 insertion within the competence gene comEB. Site-directed mutagenesis and subsequent complementation with a functional copy of comEB verified the importance of comEB in biofilm formation. In several bacterial species, natural competence stimulates DNA release via lysis-dependent or -independent mechanisms. Extracellular DNA (eDNA) has been demonstrated to be an important structural component of many bacterial biofilms. Therefore, we quantified the eDNA in the biofilms and found diminished eDNA amounts in the comEB mutant biofilm. High-resolution images and three-dimensional data obtained via confocal laser scanning microscopy (CSLM) visualized the impact of the comEB mutation on biofilm integrity. The comEB mutant did not show reduced expression of autolysin genes, decreased autolytic activities, or increased cell viability, suggesting a cell lysis-independent mechanism of DNA release. Furthermore, reduced amounts of eDNA in the comEB mutant biofilms did not result from elevated levels or activity of the S. lugdunensis thermonuclease NucI. In conclusion, we defined here, for the first time, a role for the competence gene comEB in staphylococcal biofilm formation. Our findings indicate that comEB stimulates biofilm formation via a lysis-independent mechanism of DNA release.

  10. e-Relationships for e-Readiness:culture and corruption in international e-B2B

    OpenAIRE

    Berthon, Pierre; Pitt, Leyland; Berthon, Jean-Paul; Campbell, Colin; Thwaites, Des

    2008-01-01

    The role of electronic networks in B2B relationships has been growing exponentially. From massive internet B2B exchanges to tiny RFID chips, B2B is increasingly becoming e-B2B. Whilst e-B2B has been explored intra-nationally, its international counterpart is less well documented; as has been the role that culture might play in the development of international e-B2B relationships. In this paper we address this important issue of international e-business relationships. Specifically we explore t...

  11. Influence of surface modification on isothermal oxidation behavior of EB-PVD NiAl coating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI He-fei; TAO Shu-feng; JIANG Kuo; A. HESNAWI; GONG Sheng-kai

    2006-01-01

    The isothermal oxidation behaviors of the as-deposited NiAl coating on the nickel-based superalloy by electron beam physical vapour deposition(EB-PVD) and the NiAl coating after surface modifications of grinding and polishing were investigated. The as-deposited coating shows the least mass gain, the initially formed θ-Al2O3 scale spalls after only 1 h, and the succeeding scale formed is coarse and discontinuous and thus can not be used as protective coatings. Among the two surface-modified coatings, the ground coating results in the highest oxide growth rate, which is consistent with the SEM results where the scale spalls heavily and many voids appear between the scale and the NiAl coating. The scale spallation and void formation mechanisms during isothermal oxidation test of EB-PVD NiAl coating were also discussed.

  12. EB病毒相关性肿瘤疾病%EB virus-associated tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖智辉; 文飞球

    2010-01-01

    EB病毒(EBV)是一种能诱发肿瘤的疱疹病毒.近年来,有关EBV在人体内生存的机制、感染后的免疫调控、相关疾病的发病机制等方面均有了新的认识.现就近年来EBV相关性肿瘤的研究进展情况进行介绍.%Epstein-Barr virus is a herpes virus that is associated with many human neoplasms. In re-cent years, there are some developments for the research on the mechanism of survival of EBV in the human body,immune regulation after EBV infection and pathogenesis of EB virus-associated diseases. This article presents an overview and update of EB virus-associated tumors.

  13. A Comparison of Afghanistan, Yuma, Az, and Manufactured Sands Melted on EB-PVD Thermal Barrier Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-18

    scraping the sand particles from the root of the HPT blades. One set of engine blades were from a rotary aircraft that spent the majority of its...D. Education, "The Dirt on Soil - Learning Adventrures," Educational Web Adventures, 2014. [Online]. Available: http://school.discoveryeducation.com

  14. Benefits and Barriers of Implementation and Utilization of Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID) Systems in Transfusion Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coustasse, Alberto; Cunningham, Brian; Deslich, Stacie; Willson, Eric; Meadows, Pamela

    2015-01-01

    Radio-frequency identification (RFID) technology is used by hospital supply chains to track medical products and monitor inventories. Hospitals have also begun incorporating RFID technology as part of their transfusion processes. The purpose of this review was to analyze how healthcare organization supply chains can benefit from the utilization of RFID systems in transfusion service departments. The methodology for this study was a literature review following the steps of a systematic review with a total of 52 sources referenced. RFID technology is used to manage and track blood products from the initial donor phlebotomy to final disposition or product transfusion. RFID-enabled transfusion practices have successfully increased provider productivity and product quality through work-time reduction and error reduction. Findings of this research study suggest that RFID has provided improvements in quality of care and efficiency, while initial costs, security, and privacy appear to be the principal barriers to adoption.

  15. Effect of Residual Stresses and Prediction of Possible Failure Mechanisms on Thermal Barrier Coating System by Finite Element Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjbar-Far, M.; Absi, J.; Mariaux, G.; Shahidi, S.

    2010-09-01

    This work is focused on the effect of the residual stresses resulting from the coating process and thermal cycling on the failure mechanisms within the thermal barrier coating (TBC) system. To reach this objective, we studied the effect of the substrate preheating and cooling rate on the coating process conditions. A new thermomechanical finite element model (FEM) considering a nonhomogeneous temperature distribution has been developed. In the results, we observed a critical stress corresponding to a low substrate temperature and high cooling rate during spraying of the top-coat material. Moreover, the analysis of the stress distribution after service shows that more critical stresses are obtained in the case where residual stresses are taken into account.

  16. 论"EB"环境中消费合同的履行——从消费者权益救济视角%Discussion on the Performance of Consumer Contract in the "EB" Environment: From the Perspective of Consumer Right Relieving

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温晓芸

    2011-01-01

    我国相关电子商务立法的缺位是导致消费者知情权遭受损害的根本原因.鉴于"EB"环境中消费者求偿权实现的特殊性,立法要在交易后保障消费者求偿权的实现,完善"EB"环境中消费合同履行制度设计,促进我国电子商务行业的有序发展.%The absence of relevant e-commerce legislation is the root cause which result in the damage to the consumer's right to know. In view of the specificity of the realization of the consumer's right of claim, the legislation must ensure the realization of consumer's right of claim after transaction and improve the design for the performance system of consumer contract under "EB" environment, in order to promote the order development of ecommerce industry.

  17. Barriers to control syphilis and HIV vertical transmission in the health care system in the city of Sao Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdete Maria Ramos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to identify possible barriers to control vertical transmission of syphilis and HIV through the analysis of the orientation process of pregnant women from prenatal care to the obstetric center at an university hospital in Sao Paulo (Reference and their return (with their exposed babies for follow-up after hospital discharge (counter-reference. METHODS: It is a retrospective cross-sectional study including interviews with healthcare personnel. Pregnant women with syphilis and/or HIV-infection admitted for labor or miscarriage were identified from August 2006 to August 2007. Routine care for mothers and babies were analyzed. RESULTS: 56 pregnant women were identified: 43 were HIV-infected, 11 had syphilis and two were coinfected (syphilis/HIV; 22 health care professionals were interviewed. Prenatal care was identified in 91.1% of these women: 7/11 (63.6% with syphilis; 44/45 (97.8% HIV-infected or coinfected. The reference for delivery was satisfactory for 57.7% of the syphilis-infected women and 97.7% of the HIV-infected ones. The counter-reference was satisfactory for all babies and mothers at hospital discharge, besides the non-adherence to this recommendation. Interviews with health care professionals showed there are better routines for assisting and following-up pregnant women, puerperal women and HIV-infected or exposed babies than for those infected with syphilis. The epidemiological report and surveillance system are also better for HIV-infected patients. CONCLUSION: The difficulties in the reference and counter-reference system of these women and their babies are evident barriers to control the vertical transmission of these infectious diseases.

  18. Study on Establishment of the Main Flowchart of CPFR Based on ebXML%基于ebXML的CPFR主要流程构建与实施研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘斌; 王喜富

    2009-01-01

    通过分析CPFR实施过程中对信息技术的要求,结合ebXML自身特点,指出在CPFR实施中建立基于ebxML的信息交换平台的必要性,并根据CPFR实施的步骤,构建了基于ebXML的CPFR主要步骤的流程模型.

  19. Protection of blood retinal barrier and systemic vasculature by insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yagna P R Jarajapu

    Full Text Available Previously, we showed that insulin growth factor (IGF-1 binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3, independent of IGF-1, reduces pathological angiogenesis in a mouse model of the oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR. The current study evaluates novel endothelium-dependent functions of IGFBP-3 including blood retinal barrier (BRB integrity and vasorelaxation. To evaluate vascular barrier function, either plasmid expressing IGFBP-3 under the regulation of an endothelial-specific promoter or a control plasmid was injected into the vitreous humor of mouse pups (P1 and compared to the non-injected eyes of the same pups undergoing standard OIR protocol. Prior to sacrifice, the mice were given an injection of horseradish peroxidase (HRP. IGFBP-3 plasmid-injected eyes displayed near-normal vessel morphology and enhanced vascular barrier function. Further, in vitro IGFBP-3 protects retinal endothelial cells from VEGF-induced loss of junctional integrity by antagonizing the dissociation of the junctional complexes. To assess the vasodilatory effects of IGFBP-3, rat posterior cerebral arteries were examined in vitro. Intraluminal IGFBP-3 decreased both pressure- and serotonin-induced constrictions by stimulating nitric oxide (NO release that were blocked by L-NAME or scavenger receptor-B1 neutralizing antibody (SRB1-Ab. Both wild-type and IGF-1-nonbinding mutant IGFBP-3 (IGFBP-3NB stimulated eNOS activity/NO release to a similar extent in human microvascular endothelial cells (HMVECs. NO release was neither associated with an increase in intracellular calcium nor decreased by Ca(2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CamKII blockade; however, dephosphorylation of eNOS-Thr(495 was observed. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K activity and Akt-Ser(473 phosphorylation were both increased by IGFBP-3 and selectively blocked by the SRB1-Ab or PI3K blocker LY294002. In conclusion, IGFBP-3 mediates protective effects on BRB integrity and mediates robust NO release to stimulate

  20. Patient- and system-related barriers for the earlier diagnosis of colorectal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background A cohort of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients represents an opportunity to study missed opportunities for earlier diagnosis. Primary objective: To study the epidemiology of diagnostic delays and failures to offer/complete CRC screening. Secondary objective: To identify system- and patient-related factors that may contribute to diagnostic delays or failures to offer/complete CRC screening. Methods Setting: Rural Veterans Administration (VA) Healthcare system. Participants: C...

  1. PLANET FORMATION IN STELLAR BINARIES. II. OVERCOMING THE FRAGMENTATION BARRIER IN α CENTAURI AND γ CEPHEI-LIKE SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafikov, Roman R.; Silsbee, Kedron, E-mail: rrr@astro.princeton.edu [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Ivy Lane, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States)

    2015-01-10

    Planet formation in small-separation (∼20 AU) eccentric binaries such as γ Cephei or α Centauri is believed to be adversely affected by the presence of the stellar companion. Strong dynamical excitation of planetesimals by the eccentric companion can result in collisional destruction (rather than growth) of 1-100 km objects, giving rise to the ''fragmentation barrier'' for planet formation. We revise this issue using a novel description of secular dynamics of planetesimals in binaries, which accounts for the gravity of the eccentric, coplanar protoplanetary disk, as well as gas drag. By studying planetesimal collision outcomes, we show, in contrast to many previous studies, that planetesimal growth and subsequent formation of planets (including gas giants) in AU-scale orbits within ∼20 AU separation binaries may be possible, provided that the protoplanetary disks are massive (≳ 10{sup –2} M {sub ☉}) and only weakly eccentric (disk eccentricity ≲ 0.01). These requirements are compatible with both the existence of massive (several M{sub J} ) planets in γ Cep-like systems and the results of recent simulations of gaseous disks in eccentric binaries. Terrestrial and Neptune-like planets can also form in lower-mass disks at small (sub-AU) radii. We find that the fragmentation barrier is less of a problem in eccentric disks that are apsidally aligned with the binary orbit. Alignment gives rise to special locations, where (1) relative planetesimal velocities are low and (2) the timescale of their drag-induced radial drift is long. This causes planetesimal pileup at such locations in the disk and promotes their growth locally, helping to alleviate the timescale problem for core formation.

  2. The Integration of EDI and JDF Based on ebXML%基于ebXML规范实现EDI与JDF的集成

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐骁俊; 丁岳伟

    2006-01-01

    传统的B2B信息化应用中,EDI(Electronic Data Interface)最大缺点在于没有一个统一规范的标准.我们提供一种开放的技术框架将XML作为数据载体,利用现有的网络资源基础上进行电子数据交换.本文在此基础上,提出了一种在印刷行业SCM系统中,将基于全球统一ebXML规范的XML/EDI与JDF(Job Definition Format作业定义格式)的集成解决方法.

  3. Electro-Catalysis System for Biodiesel Synthesis from Palm Oil over Dielectric-Barrier Discharge Plasma Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Istadi Istadi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel synthesis reaction routes from palm oil using plasma electro-catalysis process over Dielectric-Barrier Discharge (DBD plasma reactor were studied. The study was focused on finding possible reaction mechanism route during plasma electro-catalysis process. The prediction was performed based on the changes of Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS and Fourier Transform Infra Red (FT-IR analyses to the biodiesel products with respect to time length of plasma treatment. It was found that main reaction mechanism occurred in the plasma electro-catalysis system was non-thermal pyrolysis rather than transesterification. The main reactions within the plasma treatment were due to collision between high energetic electrons (supplied from high voltage power supply through high voltage electrode and the reaction mixtures. The high energetic electrons affected the electrons pair of covalent bonding to be excited or dissociated even ionized at higher energy. Therefore, this plasma electro-catalysis system was promising for biodiesel synthesis from vegetable oils due to only very short time reaction was needed, even no need a catalyst, no soap formation, and no glycerol by-product. This system could produce fatty acid methyl ester yield of 75.65% at 120 seconds and other possible chemicals, such as alkynes, alkanes, esters, carboxylic acid, and aldehydes. However, during the plasma process, the reaction mechanisms were still difficult to be controlled due the action of available high energetic electrons. The advanced studies on how to control the reaction mechanism selectively in the plasma electro-catalysis will be published elsewhere. © 2014 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 23rd January 2014; Revised: 20th March 2014; Accepted: 23rd March 2014[How to Cite: Istadi, I., Yudhistira, A.D., Anggoro, D.D., Buchori, L. (2014. Electro-Catalysis System for Biodiesel Synthesis from Palm Oil over Dielectric-Barrier Discharge Plasma Reactor

  4. FEBEX-DP. Dismantling the ''full-scale engineered barrier experiment'' after 18 years of operation at the Grimsel Test Site, Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kober, Florian; Gaus, Irina [Nagra, Wettingen (Switzerland)

    2015-07-01

    The FEBEX experiment at the Grimsel Test Site (GTS) consists of an in-situ full-scale engineered barrier system (EBS) test for the disposal of high-level waste (HLW). It is performed under natural conditions in crystalline rock in which the canisters are placed horizontally in drifts and are surrounded by a clay barrier constructed of highly compacted bentonite blocks. A partial dismantling and sampling of the EBS was carried out during 2002. Heating of the FEBEX started in 1997 and since then a constant temperature of 100 deg C has been maintained, while the bentonite buffer has been slowly hydrating in a natural way. A total of 632 sensors in the bentonite barrier, the rock mass, the heaters and the service zone record temperature, water saturation, humidity, total pressure, displacement, and water pressure. The hydration pattern is relatively symmetric, with no major differences along the axis. Although the host rock is characterized by heterogeneities with zones of higher permeability, the resaturation process is driven by the suction of the bentonite rather than by the availability of water in the rock, especially in the early phase. After 17 years, the water content in the buffer close to the heater still continues to increase slowly. The hydraulic pore pressures in the buffer and the geosphere have practically stabilized. The total pressure in general continues to increase in most points into the buffer, where in some parts pressures of over 6 MPa are registered. The long monitoring phase and the partial dismantling in 2002 indicate that the EBS has largely performed as expected and the major processes and couplings affecting the buffer saturation during the initial thermal period identified prior to the start of the experiment have been confirmed. A comprehensive report documents and reviews the state of the FEBEX (Lanyon and Gaus, 2013). After 18 years of operation the experiment will be excavated and dismantled in 2015. The main objectives of the FEBEX

  5. BPAG1a and b associate with EB1 and EB3 and modulate vesicular transport, Golgi apparatus structure, and cell migration in C2.7 myoblasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kseniia Poliakova

    Full Text Available BPAG1a and BPAG1b (BPAG1a/b constitute two major isoforms encoded by the dystonin (Dst gene and show homology with MACF1a and MACF1b. These proteins are members of the plakin family, giant multi-modular proteins able to connect the intermediate filament, microtubule and microfilament cytoskeletal networks with each other and to distinct cell membrane sites. They also serve as scaffolds for signaling proteins that modulate cytoskeletal dynamics. To gain better insights into the functions of BPAG1a/b, we further characterized their C-terminal region important for their interaction with microtubules and assessed the role of these isoforms in the cytoskeletal organization of C2.7 myoblast cells. Our results show that alternative splicing does not only occur at the 5' end of Dst and Macf1 pre-mRNAs, as previously reported, but also at their 3' end, resulting in expression of additional four mRNA variants of BPAG1 and MACF1. These isoform-specific C-tails were able to bundle microtubules and bound to both EB1 and EB3, two microtubule plus end proteins. In the C2.7 cell line, knockdown of BPAG1a/b had no major effect on the organization of the microtubule and microfilament networks, but negatively affected endocytosis and maintenance of the Golgi apparatus structure, which became dispersed. Finally, knockdown of BPAG1a/b caused a specific decrease in the directness of cell migration, but did not impair initial cell adhesion. These data provide novel insights into the complexity of alternative splicing of Dst pre-mRNAs and into the role of BPAG1a/b in vesicular transport, Golgi apparatus structure as well as in migration in C2.7 myoblasts.

  6. Shot number estimation for EB direct writing for logic LSI utilizing character-build standard-cell layout technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajiya, Yoshihiko; Nakamura, Akihiro; Yoshikawa, Masaya; Fujino, Takeshi

    2006-05-01

    Electron Beam direct writing (EBDW) technology is the most cost-effective lithography tool for small-volume logic-LSI fabrication. The EB exposure time will be greatly reduced by applying character-projection (CP) aperture. But the applicable number of CP aperture is limited to 25-400 depending upon EB lithography apparatus. The cell-based logic LSIs are composed of standard-cells (SCs) whose number is 400-1000. Therefore, it is impossible to implement all SCs as CP apertures, because the SCs are placed to 4-directions in general. We had proposed the new technique named 'Character-Build (CB) standard-cell', and demonstrate the most of the combination-logic SCs can be composed by only 17 CP apertures. In this paper, not only combination-logic SCs but also sequential-logic SCs are considered. The number of EB-shots and the chip-area are estimated for some sample circuits. Compared to the simply-limited SCs, The EB shot number is 30-40% reduced by using proposed CB standard-cell, when the CP aperture numbers are 20-30. Moreover, CB standard-cell was advantageous in the module area. Considering 2-directional placement of SCs, the combination of the EB apparatus with 50-100 CP apertures and the CB standard-cell technique may be the best method for high-speed EB direct-writing.

  7. Protective effects of ebselen (Ebs) and para-aminosalicylic acid (PAS) against manganese (Mn)-induced neurotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marreilha dos Santos, A.P., E-mail: apsantos@ff.ul.pt [I-Med.UL, Department of Toxicology and Food Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Lisbon, Lisbon (Portugal); Lucas, Rui L.; Andrade, Vanda; Mateus, M. Luísa [I-Med.UL, Department of Toxicology and Food Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Lisbon, Lisbon (Portugal); Milatovic, Dejan; Aschner, Michael [Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Batoreu, M. Camila [I-Med.UL, Department of Toxicology and Food Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Lisbon, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2012-02-01

    Chronic, excessive exposure to manganese (Mn) may induce neurotoxicity and cause an irreversible brain disease, referred to as manganism. Efficacious therapies for the treatment of Mn are lacking, mandating the development of new interventions. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the efficacy of ebselen (Ebs) and para-aminosalicylic acid (PAS) in attenuating the neurotoxic effects of Mn in an in vivo rat model. Exposure biomarkers, inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers, as well as behavioral parameters were evaluated. Co-treatment with Mn plus Ebs or Mn plus PAS caused a significant decrease in blood and brain Mn concentrations (compared to rats treated with Mn alone), concomitant with reduced brain E{sub 2} prostaglandin (PGE{sub 2}) and enhanced brain glutathione (GSH) levels, decreased serum prolactin (PRL) levels, and increased ambulation and rearing activities. Taken together, these results establish that both PAS and Ebs are efficacious in reducing Mn body burden, neuroinflammation, oxidative stress and locomotor activity impairments in a rat model of Mn-induced toxicity. -- Highlights: ► The manuscript is unique in its approach to the neurotoxicity of Mn. ► The manuscript incorporates molecular, cellular and functional (behavioral) analyses. ► Both PAS and Ebs are effective in restoring Mn behavioral function. ► Both PAS and Ebs are effective in reducing Mn-induced oxidative stress. ► Both PAS and Ebs led to a decrease in Mn-induced neuro-inflammation.

  8. Institutional and structural barriers for implementing on-farm water saving irrigation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren Marcus; Boesen, Mads Vejlby; Ørum, Jens Erik

    2013-01-01

    Population growth and increased global water demand has intensified the need to apply water more efficiently. As the main global water user the agricultural sector needs special attention. In this study, the water saving potential of new drip irrigation systems has been investigated in five diffe...

  9. 78 FR 53467 - John H. Chafee Coastal Barrier Resources System; Delaware, North Carolina, South Carolina...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-29

    ..., as well as areas along the coasts of the Great Lakes, the U.S. Virgin Islands, and Puerto Rico. The... reclassified from T08P (an otherwise protected area) to T08 (a System unit). T11, T11P: SOUTH PADRE ISLAND UNIT... break between the Laguna Madre and South Padre Island that is visible on the base imagery. T12:...

  10. Laboratory column studies for evaluating a barrier system for providing oxygen and substrate for TCE biodegradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, C M; Chen, S C; Su, M C

    2001-08-01

    The industrial solvent trichloroethylene (TCE) is among the most ubiquitous chlorinated compounds found in groundwater contamination. The objective of this study was to develop a biobarrier system containing oxygen-organic releasing material to enhance the aerobic cometabolism of TCE in situ. The oxygen-organic material, which contains calcium peroxide and peat, is able to release oxygen and primary substrates continuously upon contact with water. Batch experiments were conducted to design and identify the components of the oxygen-organic releasing material, and evaluate the oxygen and organic substrate (presented as COD equivalent) release from the designed oxygen-organic material. The observed oxygen and chemical oxygen demand (COD) release rates were approximately 0.0246 and 0.052 mg/d/g of material, respectively. A laboratory-scale column experiment was then conducted to evaluate the feasibility of this proposed system for the bioremediation of TCE-contaminated groundwater. This system was performed using a series of continuous-flow glass columns including a soil column, an oxygen-organic material column, followed by two consecutive soil columns. Aerobic acclimated sludges were inoculated in all three soil columns to provide microbial consortia for TCE biodegradation. Simulated TCE-contaminated groundwater with a flow rate of 0.25 l/day was pumped into this system. Effluent samples from each column were analyzed for TCE and other indicating parameters (e.g., pH, dissolved oxygen). Results show that the decreases in TCE concentrations were observed over a 4-month operating period. Up to 99% of TCE removal efficiency was obtained in this passive system. Results indicate that the continuously released oxygen and organic substrates from the oxygen-organic materials enhanced TCE biotransformation. Thus, the biobarrier treatment scheme has the potential to be developed into an environmentally and economically acceptable remediation technology.

  11. Barrier mechanisms in the Drosophila blood-brain barrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Jane Hindle

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The invertebrate blood-brain barrier field is growing at a rapid pace and, in recent years, studies have shown a physiologic and molecular complexity that has begun to rival its vertebrate counterpart. Novel mechanisms of paracellular barrier maintenance through GPCR signaling were the first demonstrations of the complex adaptive mechanisms of barrier physiology. Building upon this work, the integrity of the invertebrate blood-brain barrier has recently been shown to require coordinated function of all layers of the compound barrier structure, analogous to signaling between the layers of the vertebrate neurovascular unit. These findings strengthen the notion that many blood-brain barrier mechanisms are conserved between vertebrates and invertebrates, and suggest that novel findings in invertebrate model organisms will have a significant impact on the understanding of vertebrate BBB functions. In this vein, important roles in coordinating localized and systemic signaling to dictate organism development and growth are beginning to show how the blood-brain barrier can govern whole animal physiologies. This includes novel functions of blood-brain barrier gap junctions in orchestrating synchronized neuroblast proliferation, and of blood-brain barrier secreted antagonists of insulin receptor signaling. These advancements and others are pushing the field forward in exciting new directions. In this review, we provide a synopsis of invertebrate blood-brain barrier anatomy and physiology, with a focus on insights from the past 5 years, and highlight important areas for future study.

  12. Suppression of fibrotic scar formation promotes axonal regeneration without disturbing blood-brain barrier repair and withdrawal of leukocytes after traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, Nozomu; Hisanaga, Shin-Ichi; Kawano, Hitoshi

    2010-09-15

    The fibrotic scar containing type IV collagen (Col IV) formed in a lesion site is considered as an obstacle to axonal regeneration, because intracerebral injection of 2,2'-dipyridyl (DPY), an inhibitor of Col IV triple-helix formation, suppresses fibrotic scar formation in the lesion site and promotes axonal regeneration. To determine the role of the fibrotic scar on the healing process of injured central nervous system (CNS), the restoration of blood-brain barrier (BBB) and withdrawal of inflammatory leukocytes were examined in mice subjected to unilateral transection of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway and intracerebral DPY injection. At 5 days after injury, destruction of BBB represented by leakage of Evans blue (EB) and widespread infiltration of CD45-immunoreactive leukocytes was observed around the lesion site, whereas reactive astrocytes increased surrounding the BBB-destroyed area. By 2 weeks after injury, the region of EB leakage and the diffusion of leukocytes were restricted to the inside of the fibrotic scar, and reactive astrocytes gathered around the fibrotic scar. In the DPY-treated lesion site, formation of the fibrotic scar was suppressed (84% decrease in Col IV-deposited area), reactive astrocytes occupied the lesion center, and areas of both EB leakage and leukocyte infiltration decreased by 86%. DPY treatment increased the number of regenerated dopaminergic axons by 2.53-fold. These results indicate that suppression of fibrotic scar formation does not disturb the healing process in damaged CNS, and suggest that this strategy is a reliable tool to promote axonal regeneration after traumatic injury in the CNS.

  13. Evolution of the bentonite barrier under glacial meltwater intrusion conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, T.; Bouby, M. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany). Inst. for Nuclear Waste Disposal (INE); Blechschmidt, I. [NAGRA National Cooperation Disposal Radioactive Waste, Wettingen (Switzerland); and others

    2015-07-01

    Recent safety assessments for repository concepts that combine a clay engineered barrier system (EBS) with a fractured rock have shown that melt water intrusion may have a direct impact on the EBS barrier function in two aspects: - Generation of colloids may degrade the engineered barrier - Colloid transport of radionuclides may reduce the efficiency of the natural barrier The studies presented here are performed in the framework of the Federal Ministry of Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi) KIT/GRS project KOLLORADO-e, the EU collaborative project CP BELBaR (www.skb.se/belbar) and especially within the Colloid Formation and Migration (CFM) project at the Grimsel Test Site, GTS (www.grimsel.com). Key research areas are (a) the erosion of the bentonite buffer, (b) clay colloid stability and (c) colloid-radionuclide- host rock surface interactions. Concerning bentonite buffer integrity parameters like the bentonite type, Na-/Ca-exchangeable cation ratio, compaction density, role of accessory minerals, the fracture aperture size and groundwater chemistry and flow velocity are investigated in order to identify controlling factors, understand the main mechanisms of erosion from the bentonite surface and to quantify the extent of the possible erosion under these different conditions. Clay colloid stability studies are performed under different geochemical conditions. The main objective is to answer the question if colloids formed at the near/far field interface would be stable only if favourable conditions exist and therefore their relevance for radionuclide transport will be strongly dependent on the local geochemical conditions (inorganic cations Na{sup +}, Ca{sup 2+}, Mg{sup 2+}, Al{sup 3+} and organic complexing agents). Finally, the interaction between colloids and radionuclides and the host rock is intensively investigated in order to answer the question, how colloid mobility may be affected by the composition of the host rock, surface roughness and the mechanism of

  14. Barriers to the implementation of quality management system in media organizations in pakistan: an empirical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Naveed Anwar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Quality management system has played pivotal role in establishing organizational functions and processes in the very right perspective of a very well knitted system of documentation, training and implementation. Media organizations are so close in their very existence and social structure and they are more than needed to stream line their processes as their impact on social life is significant and considerable. This study encompasses the top news channels in Pakistan and recorded the views of their top management with respect to their feelings pertaining to QMS. This study is very first one of its kinds in Pakistan and it is hoped that it may open more doors for future research avenues in this very area.

  15. REMOVAL OF ADDED NITRATE IN THE SINGLE, BINARY, AND TERNARY SYSTEMS OF COTTON BURR COMPOST, ZEROVALENT IRON, AND SEDIMENT: IMPLICATIONS FOR GROUNDWATER NITRATE REMEDIATION USING PERMEABLE REACTIVE BARRIERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent research has shown that carbonaceous solid materials and zerovalent iron (Fe0) may potentially be used as media in permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) to degrade groundwater nitrate via heterotrophic denitrification in the solid carbon system, and via abiotic reduction and ...

  16. When health systems are barriers to health care: challenges faced by uninsured Mexican kidney patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciara Kierans

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronic Kidney Disease disproportionately affects the poor in Low and Middle Income Countries (LMICs. Mexico exemplifies the difficulties faced in supporting Renal Replacement Therapy (RRT and providing equitable patient care, despite recent attempts at health reform. The objective of this study is to document the challenges faced by uninsured, poor Mexican families when attempting to access RRT. METHODS: The article takes an ethnographic approach, using interviewing and observation to generate detailed accounts of the problems that accompany attempts to secure care. The study, based in the state of Jalisco, comprised interviews with patients, their caregivers, health and social care professionals, among others. Observations were carried out in both clinical and social settings. RESULTS: In the absence of organised health information and stable pathways to renal care, patients and their families work extraordinarily hard and at great expense to secure care in a mixed public-private healthcare system. As part of this work, they must navigate challenging health and social care environments, negotiate treatments and costs, resource and finance healthcare and manage a wide range of formal and informal health information. CONCLUSIONS: Examining commonalities across pathways to adequate healthcare reveals major failings in the Mexican system. These systemic problems serve to reproduce and deepen health inequalities. A system, in which the costs of renal care are disproportionately borne by those who can least afford them, faces major difficulties around the sustainability and resourcing of RRTs. Attempts to increase access to renal therapies, therefore, need to take into account the complex social and economic demands this places on those who need access most. This paper further shows that ethnographic studies of the concrete ways in which healthcare is accessed in practice provide important insights into the plight of CKD patients and so

  17. The EcoKI Type I Restriction-Modification System in Escherichia coli Affects but Is Not an Absolute Barrier for Conjugation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roer, Louise; Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Hasman, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    results about restriction-modification systems based on phenotypic studies have been presented as reasons for a barrier to conjugation with and other means of uptake of exogenous DNA. In this study, we show that inactivation of the R.EcoKI restriction enzyme in strain Escherichia coli K-12 strain MG1655...... of the mutant recipient with a disrupted hsdR gene. This leads to the conclusion that EcoKI restriction-modification affects the uptake of DNA by conjugation but is not a major barrier to plasmid transfer....

  18. Analysis on Insulation Structure of Barrier System of Converter Transformer%换流变压器出线装置的绝缘结构分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋蓁

    2011-01-01

    Reliability of DC barrier system is one of key points of converter transformer's R&D. DC barrier systems are imported over the years. Optimization of insulation structure of barrier system has significant influence on further speeding up localization manufacture of converter transformer in China. The operation characteristic of converter transformer was summarized, and the insulation structure of barrier system was studied. Furthermore, the calculation of electric field of insulation structure for DC barrier system was made. Converter transformer has features as high short circuit impedance, DC bias current influence, serious influence of harmonic and complicated insulation structure. Electric field analysis and calculation was carried on the basis of typical insulation structure of DC barrier system for different models under different testing condition, such as long duration AC applied voltage withstand test, DC voltage withstand test with PD measurement and polarity reversal test to summarize design concept and main points to structure of DC barrier system. Test results show that the developed insulation structure of DC barrier system is reasonable, which has been approved by the test. The same theory and method will be applied to insulation structure electric field analysis of DC barrier system of converter transformer with higher voltage level to optimize the sound insulation structure of DC barrier system.%换流变压器直流出线装置的可靠性是换流变压器研制的关键问题之一,长期以来直流出线装置依靠进口,优化出合理的直流出线装置绝缘结构对进一步促进换流变压器设备制造全面国产化具有重要的意义.笔者总结了换流变压器的运行特点,研究了直流出线装置的绝缘结构,并进行了直流出线装置绝缘结构的电场计算.换流变压器的运行特点为短路阻抗大、直流偏磁影响、谐波影响严重,绝缘结构复杂,针对典型的直流出线装置绝缘

  19. Patient- and system-related barriers for the earlier diagnosis of colorectal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahls, Terry L; Peleg, Ika

    2009-01-01

    Background A cohort of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients represents an opportunity to study missed opportunities for earlier diagnosis. Primary objective: To study the epidemiology of diagnostic delays and failures to offer/complete CRC screening. Secondary objective: To identify system- and patient-related factors that may contribute to diagnostic delays or failures to offer/complete CRC screening. Methods Setting: Rural Veterans Administration (VA) Healthcare system. Participants: CRC cases diagnosed within the VA between 1/1/2000 and 3/1/2007. Data sources: progress notes, orders, and pathology, laboratory, and imaging results obtained between 1/1/1995 and 12/31/2007. Completed CRC screening was defined as a fecal occult blood test or flexible sigmoidoscopy (both within five years), or colonoscopy (within 10 years); delayed diagnosis was defined as a gap of more than six months between an abnormal test result and evidence of clinician response. A summary abstract of the antecedent clinical care for each patient was created by a certified gastroenterologist (GI), who jointly reviewed and coded the abstracts with a general internist (TW). Results The study population consisted of 150 CRC cases that met the inclusion criteria. The mean age was 69.04 (range 35-91); 99 (66%) were diagnosed due to symptoms; 61 cases (46%) had delays associated with system factors; of them, 57 (38% of the total) had delayed responses to abnormal findings. Fifteen of the cases (10%) had prompt symptom evaluations but received no CRC screening; no patient factors were identified as potentially contributing to the failure to screen/offer to screen. In total, 97 (65%) of the cases had missed opportunities for early diagnosis and 57 (38%) had patient factors that likely contributed to the diagnostic delay or apparent failure to screen/offer to screen. Conclusion Missed opportunities for earlier CRC diagnosis were frequent. Additional studies of clinical data management, focusing on following

  20. Patient- and system-related barriers for the earlier diagnosis of colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahls Terry L

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A cohort of colorectal cancer (CRC patients represents an opportunity to study missed opportunities for earlier diagnosis. Primary objective: To study the epidemiology of diagnostic delays and failures to offer/complete CRC screening. Secondary objective: To identify system- and patient-related factors that may contribute to diagnostic delays or failures to offer/complete CRC screening. Methods Setting: Rural Veterans Administration (VA Healthcare system. Participants: CRC cases diagnosed within the VA between 1/1/2000 and 3/1/2007. Data sources: progress notes, orders, and pathology, laboratory, and imaging results obtained between 1/1/1995 and 12/31/2007. Completed CRC screening was defined as a fecal occult blood test or flexible sigmoidoscopy (both within five years, or colonoscopy (within 10 years; delayed diagnosis was defined as a gap of more than six months between an abnormal test result and evidence of clinician response. A summary abstract of the antecedent clinical care for each patient was created by a certified gastroenterologist (GI, who jointly reviewed and coded the abstracts with a general internist (TW. Results The study population consisted of 150 CRC cases that met the inclusion criteria. The mean age was 69.04 (range 35-91; 99 (66% were diagnosed due to symptoms; 61 cases (46% had delays associated with system factors; of them, 57 (38% of the total had delayed responses to abnormal findings. Fifteen of the cases (10% had prompt symptom evaluations but received no CRC screening; no patient factors were identified as potentially contributing to the failure to screen/offer to screen. In total, 97 (65% of the cases had missed opportunities for early diagnosis and 57 (38% had patient factors that likely contributed to the diagnostic delay or apparent failure to screen/offer to screen. Conclusion Missed opportunities for earlier CRC diagnosis were frequent. Additional studies of clinical data management

  1. Electronic clinical decision support systems attitudes and barriers to use in the oncology setting.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Collins, I M

    2012-03-02

    BACKGROUND: There is little evidence regarding attitudes to clinical decision support systems (CDSS) in oncology. AIMS: We examined the current usage, awareness, and concerns of Irish medical oncologists and oncology pharmacists in this area. METHODS: A questionnaire was sent to 27 medical oncologists and 34 oncology pharmacists, identified through professional interest groups. Respondents ranked concerns regarding their use of a CDSS on a scale from 1 to 4, with 4 being most important. RESULTS: Overall, 67% (41\\/61) responded, 48% (13\\/27) of oncologists and 82% (28\\/34) of pharmacists surveyed. Concerns included "difficulty defining complex clinical situations with a set of rules" (mean ± SD) (3.2 ± 0.9), "ensuring evidence base is up to date and relevant" (3.2 ± 0.9) and "lack of clinically relevant suggestions" (2.9 ± 0.9). Ninety-three percent reported using a CDSS but 54% were unaware of this. CONCLUSION: While there are benefits to using a CDSS, concerns must be addressed through user education. This may be a starting point for a user-centred design approach to the development of future local systems through a consultative process.

  2. Mechanisms of spallation of electron beam physical vapor deposited thermal barrier coatings with and without platinum aluminide bond coat ridges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaidyanathan, K.; Gell, M. [Connecticut Univ., Storrs, CT (United States). Dept. of Metallurgy; Jordan, E. [Dept. Mechanical Engineering, University of Connecticut, CT-06269, Storrs (United States)

    2000-11-01

    Grain boundary ridges, that form on the surface of platinum aluminide [(Ni,Pt)Al] bond coats prior to the deposition of the yttria stabilized zirconia ceramic layer by the electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) process, were shown to be the sites for spallation damage initiation in (Ni,Pt)Al/EB-PVD thermal barrier coatings. When these ridges are removed prior to deposition of the ceramic layer, a 3 x life improvement is achieved. This study compares the spallation mechanisms in specimens with and without bond coat ridges, in order to explain the improvement in spallation life. (orig.)

  3. Analysis on Residual Stress in Electron Beam-Physical Vapor Deposited Thermal Barrier Coating using Hard Synchrotron X-Rays

    OpenAIRE

    鈴木, 賢治; 松本, 一秀; 久保, 貴博; 町屋, 修太郎; 田中, 啓介; 秋庭, 義明; SUZUKI, Kenji; MATSUMOTO, Kazuhide; Kubo, Takahiro; Machiya, Syutaro; Tanaka, Keisuke; Akiniwa, Yoshiaki

    2005-01-01

    The distribution of the residual stress in the thermal barrier coating, which was made by an electron beam-physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) method, was determined using X-ray stress measurements. As the bond coating, NiCoCrAlY was low-pressure plasma sprayed on the substrate of austenitic stainless steel. The 8 mass% Y_2O_3-ZrO_2 was coated on the bond coating using the EB-PVD method as the top coating. The top coating had the preferred orientation with the axis direction perpendicular to ...

  4. Chlamydophila psittaci genotype E/B transmission from African grey parrots to humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkinezhad, Taher; Verminnen, Kristel; Van Droogenbroeck, Caroline; Vanrompay, Daisy

    2007-08-01

    Thirty-six birds from a parrot relief and breeding centre, as well as the manager, were examined for the presence of Chlamydophila psittaci. In the relief unit, 5 of 20 African grey parrots showed depression, ruffled feathers, loss of weight and mild dyspnoea. The birds received no antibiotic treatment. Birds of the breeding unit, 14 blue and gold macaws and 2 green-winged macaws, were healthy. They received doxycycline at the start of each breeding season. The manager complained of shortness of breath but took no medication. Using a nested PCR enzyme immunoassay (EIA), Cp. psittaci was detected in the faeces of all five sick birds, as well as in a nasal and pharyngeal swab from the manager. The veterinarian and her assistant became infected while sampling the parrots, as pharyngeal and nasal swabs from both were positive by nested PCR/EIA after visiting the parrot relief and breeding centre, but they showed no clinical signs of infection. Bacteria could be isolated from three of five nested PCR/EIA-positive birds, the manager and the veterinarian, but not from the veterinary assistant. Using an ompA genotype-specific real-time PCR, Cp. psittaci genotype E/B was identified as the transmitted strain. All breeding birds tested negative for Cp. psittaci. This is believed to be the first report on Cp. psittaci genotype E/B transmission from parrots to humans. In contradiction to genotype A strains, which are thought to be highly virulent to both birds and men, the currently described genotype E/B strain apparently caused no severe clinical symptoms in either parrots or humans.

  5. A mutation of the fission yeast EB1 overcomes negative regulation by phosphorylation and stabilizes microtubules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iimori, Makoto; Ozaki, Kanako [Graduate School of Biostudies, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwake cho, Sakyo ku, Kyoto, 606-8502 (Japan); Chikashige, Yuji [Kobe Advanced ICT Research Center, National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, Kobe, 651-2492 (Japan); Habu, Toshiyuki [Graduate School of Biostudies, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwake cho, Sakyo ku, Kyoto, 606-8502 (Japan); Radiation Biology Center, Kyoto University, Yoshida-Konoe cho, Sakyo ku, Kyoto, 606-8501 (Japan); Hiraoka, Yasushi [Kobe Advanced ICT Research Center, National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, Kobe, 651-2492 (Japan); Graduate School of Frontier Biosciences, Osaka University, 1-3 Yamadaoka, Suita, 565-0871 (Japan); Maki, Takahisa; Hayashi, Ikuko [Graduate School of Nanobioscience, Yokohama City University, Tsurumi, Yokohama, 230-0045 (Japan); Obuse, Chikashi [Graduate School of Life Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 001-0021 (Japan); Matsumoto, Tomohiro, E-mail: tmatsumo@house.rbc.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Biostudies, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwake cho, Sakyo ku, Kyoto, 606-8502 (Japan); Radiation Biology Center, Kyoto University, Yoshida-Konoe cho, Sakyo ku, Kyoto, 606-8501 (Japan)

    2012-02-01

    Mal3 is a fission yeast homolog of EB1, a plus-end tracking protein (+ TIP). We have generated a mutation (89R) replacing glutamine with arginine in the calponin homology (CH) domain of Mal3. Analysis of the 89R mutant in vitro has revealed that the mutation confers a higher affinity to microtubules and enhances the intrinsic activity to promote the microtubule-assembly. The mutant Mal3 is no longer a + TIP, but binds strongly the microtubule lattice. Live cell imaging has revealed that while the wild type Mal3 proteins dissociate from the tip of the growing microtubules before the onset of shrinkage, the mutant Mal3 proteins persist on microtubules and reduces a rate of shrinkage after a longer pausing period. Consequently, the mutant Mal3 proteins cause abnormal elongation of microtubules composing the spindle and aster. Mal3 is phosphorylated at a cluster of serine/threonine residues in the linker connecting the CH and EB1-like C-terminal motif domains. The phosphorylation occurs in a microtubule-dependent manner and reduces the affinity of Mal3 to microtubules. We propose that because the 89R mutation is resistant to the effect of phosphorylation, it can associate persistently with microtubules and confers a stronger stability of microtubules likely by reinforcing the cylindrical structure. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We characterize a mutation (mal3-89R) in fission yeast homolog of EB1. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The mutation enhances the activity to assemble microtubules. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mal3 is phosphorylated in a microtubule-dependent manner. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The phosphorylation negatively regulates the Mal3 activity.

  6. The mouse Eb meiotic recombination hotspot contains a tissue-specific transcriptional enhancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, X; Shenkar, R; Sakai, D; Arnheim, N

    1993-01-01

    A meiotic recombination hotspot exists within the second intron of the mouse major histocompatibility complex (MHC) gene, Eb. In the present study, a small fragment from the intron which contains two potential transcriptional regulatory elements was cloned into an expression vector and its effect on transcription was tested. This fragment was found to contain tissue-specific transcriptional enhancer activity. An octamer-like sequence and a B motif may contribute to this enhancer activity. Similar regulatory sequences with the same orientation and distance from one another are found in another mouse MHC recombination hotspot.

  7. Anti-migratory effect of vinflunine in endothelial and glioblastoma cells is associated with changes in EB1 C-terminal detyrosinated/tyrosinated status.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandine Rovini

    Full Text Available We previously showed that vinflunine, a microtubule-targeting drug of the Vinca-alkaloid family exerted its anti-angiogenic/anti-migratory activities through an increase in microtubule dynamics and an inhibition of microtubule targeting to adhesion sites. Such effect was associated with a reduction of EB1 comet length at microtubule (+ ends. In this work we first showed that the pro-angiogenic vascular endothelial growth factor VEGF suppressed microtubule dynamics in living Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVECs, increased EB1 comet length by 40%, and induced EB1 to bind all along the microtubules, without modifying its expression level. Such microtubule (+ end stabilization occurred close to the plasma membrane in the vicinity of focal adhesion as shown by TIRF microscopy experiments. Vinflunine completely abolished the effect of VEGF on EB1 comets. Interestingly, we found a correlation between the reduction of EB1 comet length by vinflunine and the inhibition of cell migration. By using 2D gel electrophoresis we demonstrated for the first time that EB1 underwent several post-translational modifications in endothelial and tumor cells. Particularly, the C-terminal EEY sequence was poorly detectable in control and VEGF-treated HUVECs suggesting the existence of a non-tyrosinated form of EB1. By using specific antibodies that specifically recognized and discriminated the native tyrosinated form of EB1 and a putative C-terminal detyrosinated form, we showed that a detyrosinated form of EB1 exists in HUVECs and tumor cells. Interestingly, vinflunine decreased the level of the detyrosinated form and increased the native tyrosinated form of EB1. Using 3-L-Nitrotyrosine incorporation experiments, we concluded that the EB1 C-terminal modifications result from a detyrosination/retyrosination cycle as described for tubulin. Altogether, our results show that vinflunine inhibits endothelial cell migration through an alteration of EB1 comet length

  8. Sustainable fuel, food, fertilizer and ecosystems through a global artificial photosynthetic system: overcoming anticompetitive barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Alex; Faunce, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses challenges that artificial photosynthetic (AP) systems will face when entering and competing in a global market characterized by established fossil fuel technology. It provides a perspective on the neoliberal principles underpinning much policy entrenching such environmentally destructive technology and outlines how competition law could aid overcoming these hurdles for AP development. In particular, it critiques the potential for competition law to promote a global AP initiative with greater emphasis on atmospheric carbon dioxide and nitrogen fixation (as well as solar-driven water splitting) to produce an equitable, globally distributed source of human food, fertilizer and biosphere sustainability, as well as hydrogen-based fuel. Some relevant strategies of competition law evaluated in this context include greater citizen–consumer involvement in shaping market values, legal requirements to factor services from the natural environment (i.e. provision of clean air, water, soil pollution degradation) into corporate costs, reform of corporate taxation and requirements to balance maximization of shareholder profit with contribution to a nominated public good, a global financial transactions tax, as well as prohibiting horizontal cartels, vertical agreements and unilateral misuse of market power. PMID:26052427

  9. One-dimensional free-energy profiles of complex systems: progress variables that preserve the barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivov, Sergei V; Karplus, Martin

    2006-06-29

    We show that the balanced minimum-cut procedure introduced in PNAS 2004, 101, 14766 can be reinterpreted as a method for solving the constrained optimization problem of finding the minimum cut among the cuts with a particular value of an additive function of the nodes on either side of the cut. Such an additive function (e.g., the partition function of the reactant region) can be used as a progress coordinate to determine a one-dimensional profile (FEP) of the free-energy surface of the protein-folding reaction as well as other complex reactions. The algorithm is based on the network (obtained from an equilibrium molecular dynamics simulation) that represents the calculated reaction behavior. The resulting FEP gives the exact values of the free energy as a function of the progress coordinate; i.e., at each value of the progress coordinate, the profile is obtained from the surface with the minimal partition function among the surfaces that divide the full free-energy surface between two chosen end points. In many cases, the balanced minimum-cut procedure gives results for only a limited set of points. An approximate method based on p(fold) is shown to provide the profile for a more complete set of values of the progress coordinate. Applications of the approach to model problems and to realistic systems (beta-hairpin of protein G, LJ38 cluster) are presented.

  10. Epithelial barrier: an interface for the cross-communication between gut flora and immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Yoshiyuki; Kiyono, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    Large numbers of environmental antigens, including commensal bacteria and food-derived antigens, constitutively interact with the epithelial layer of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Commensal bacteria peacefully cohabit with the host GI tract and exert multiple beneficial or destructive effects on their host. Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) constitute the first physical and immunological protective wall against invasive pathogens and a cohabitation niche for commensal bacteria. As the physiological homeostasis of IECs is maintained by multiple biological processes such as apoptosis, autophagy, and the handling of endoplasmic reticulum stress, the aberrant kinetics of these biological events, which have genetic and environmental causes, leads to the development of host intestinal pathogenesis such as inflammatory bowel disease. In addition, IECs recognize and interact with commensal bacteria and give instructions to mucosal immune cells to initiate an immunological balance between active and quiescent conditions, eventually establishing intestinal homeostasis. The mucosal immune system regulates the homeostasis of gut microbiota by producing immunological molecules such as secretory immunoglobulin A, the production of which is mediated by IECs. IECs therefore play a central role in the creation and maintenance of a physiologically and immunologically stable intestinal environment.

  11. Sustainable fuel, food, fertilizer and ecosystems through a global artificial photosynthetic system: overcoming anticompetitive barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Alex; Faunce, Thomas

    2015-06-06

    This article discusses challenges that artificial photosynthetic (AP) systems will face when entering and competing in a global market characterized by established fossil fuel technology. It provides a perspective on the neoliberal principles underpinning much policy entrenching such environmentally destructive technology and outlines how competition law could aid overcoming these hurdles for AP development. In particular, it critiques the potential for competition law to promote a global AP initiative with greater emphasis on atmospheric carbon dioxide and nitrogen fixation (as well as solar-driven water splitting) to produce an equitable, globally distributed source of human food, fertilizer and biosphere sustainability, as well as hydrogen-based fuel. Some relevant strategies of competition law evaluated in this context include greater citizen-consumer involvement in shaping market values, legal requirements to factor services from the natural environment (i.e. provision of clean air, water, soil pollution degradation) into corporate costs, reform of corporate taxation and requirements to balance maximization of shareholder profit with contribution to a nominated public good, a global financial transactions tax, as well as prohibiting horizontal cartels, vertical agreements and unilateral misuse of market power.

  12. Residual Stresses in Thermal Barrier Coatings for a Cu-8Cr-4Nb Substrate System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosn, Louis J.; Raj, Sai V.

    2002-01-01

    Analytical calculations were conducted to determine the thermal stresses developed in a coated copper-based alloy, Cu-8%(at.%)Cr-4%Nb (designated as GRCop-84), after plasma spraying and during heat-up in a simulated rocket engine environment. Finite element analyses were conducted for two coating systems consisting of a metallic top coat, a pure copper bond coat and the GRCop-84. The through thickness temperature variations were determined as a function of coating thickness for two metallic coatings, a Ni-17%(wt%)Cr-6%Al-0.5%Y alloy and a Ni-50%(at.%)Al alloy. The residual stresses after low-pressure plasma spraying of the NiCrAlY and NiAl coatings on GRCop-84 substrate were also evaluated. These analyses took into consideration a 50.8 mm copper bond coat and the effects of an interface coating roughness. The through the thickness thermal stresses developed in coated liners were also calculated after 15 minutes of exposure in a rocket environment with and without an interfacial roughness.

  13. The tumor suppressor p53 regulates autophagosomal and lysosomal biogenesis in lung cancer cells by targeting transcription factor EB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zengli; Wang, Hongfeng; Ding, Qifeng; Xing, Yufei; Xu, Delai; Xu, Zhonghua; Zhou, Tong; Qian, Bin; Ji, Chenghong; Pan, Xue; Zhong, Anyuan; Ying, Zheng; Zhou, Caicun; Shi, Minhua

    2017-03-10

    The cellular protein degradation system, such as proteasomal or autophagy-lysosomal system plays an important role in the pathogenesis of a variety of human diseases including cancer. Transcription factor EB (TFEB) is a master transcriptional factor in the regulation of autophagy-lysosome pathway (ALP), and it has multiple biological functions including protein degradation, cell homeostasis and cell survival. In the present study we show that the tumor suppressor p53 can regulate TFEB nuclear translocation and activity in lung cancer cells. We found p53 deletion or chemical inhibition of p53 using pifithrin-α could promote the translocation of TFEB from cytoplasm to the nucleus, thus increased the TFEB-mediated lysosomal and autophagosomal biogenesis in lung cancer cells. Moreover, re-expression of p53 could decrease the expression levels of TFEB-targeting genes involved in ALP, and knockdown of TFEB could abolish the effect of p53 on the regulation of ALP gene expression. Taken together, our data indicate that p53 affects ALP through regulating TFEB nuclear translocation in lung cancer cells. Importantly, our study reveals a critical link between two keys factors in tumourigenesis and autophagy, and suggests a potential important role of p53-TFEB signaling axis in lung cancer.

  14. C5a alters blood-brain barrier integrity in a human in vitro model of systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Supriya D; Parikh, Neil U; Woodruff, Trent M; Jarvis, James N; Lopez, Molly; Hennon, Teresa; Cunningham, Patrick; Quigg, Richard J; Schwartz, Stanley A; Alexander, Jessy J

    2015-09-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) plays a crucial role in brain homeostasis, thereby maintaining the brain environment precise for optimal neuronal function. Its dysfunction is an intriguing complication of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). SLE is a systemic autoimmune disorder where neurological complications occur in 5-50% of cases and is associated with impaired BBB integrity. Complement activation occurs in SLE and is an important part of the clinical profile. Our earlier studies demonstrated that C5a generated by complement activation caused the loss of brain endothelial layer integrity in rodents. The goal of the current study was to determine the translational potential of these studies to a human system. To assess this, we used a two dimensional in vitro BBB model constructed using primary human brain microvascular endothelial cells and astroglial cells, which closely emulates the in vivo BBB allowing the assessment of BBB integrity. Increased permeability monitored by changes in transendothelial electrical resistance and cytoskeletal remodelling caused by actin fiber rearrangement were observed when the cells were exposed to lupus serum and C5a, similar to the observations in mice. In addition, our data show that C5a/C5aR1 signalling alters nuclear factor-κB translocation into nucleus and regulates the expression of the tight junction proteins, claudin-5 and zonula occludens 1 in this setting. Our results demonstrate for the first time that C5a regulates BBB integrity in a neuroinflammatory setting where it affects both endothelial and astroglial cells. In addition, we also demonstrate that our previous findings in a mouse model, were emulated in human cells in vitro, bringing the studies one step closer to understanding the translational potential of C5a/C5aR1 blockade as a promising therapeutic strategy in SLE and other neurodegenerative diseases.

  15. Identifying the Barriers to Women's Agency in Domestic Violence: The Tensions between Women's Personal Experiences and Systemic Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jo Aldridge

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite advances in knowledge and understanding about the impacts of domestic violence on women's lives, global research on violence against women shows there is a need for research that not only places women centre stage in research praxis, but also that involves them more collaboratively in genuine dialogue about their experiences, including their agentic stances. This is especially the case for marginalised and socially excluded women victims of domestic violence, such as those who are not known or do not present to services and who survive abusive relationships alone or with little outside support. Evidence from two studies reported here—secondary analysis of women with severe and enduring mental health problems and a collaborative narrative project with unsupported women victims of domestic violence—suggest that women's capacity for agency are compromised by a number of critical factors, and that these are also reflected in the tensions between micro–macro analyses and understanding of the impact of domestic violence on women. This article considers the barriers to women's agency from the women's perspective and in the context of broader, systemic dynamics, including the denial or obscuring of abuse by governments and states and the consequences of stringent fiscal retrenchment that put women at increased risk of domestic violence.

  16. Functional Coupling of Human Microphysiology Systems: Intestine, Liver, Kidney Proximal Tubule, Blood-Brain Barrier and Skeletal Muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernetti, Lawrence; Gough, Albert; Baetz, Nicholas; Blutt, Sarah; Broughman, James R.; Brown, Jacquelyn A.; Foulke-Abel, Jennifer; Hasan, Nesrin; In, Julie; Kelly, Edward; Kovbasnjuk, Olga; Repper, Jonathan; Senutovitch, Nina; Stabb, Janet; Yeung, Catherine; Zachos, Nick C.; Donowitz, Mark; Estes, Mary; Himmelfarb, Jonathan; Truskey, George; Wikswo, John P.; Taylor, D. Lansing

    2017-01-01

    Organ interactions resulting from drug, metabolite or xenobiotic transport between organs are key components of human metabolism that impact therapeutic action and toxic side effects. Preclinical animal testing often fails to predict adverse outcomes arising from sequential, multi-organ metabolism of drugs and xenobiotics. Human microphysiological systems (MPS) can model these interactions and are predicted to dramatically improve the efficiency of the drug development process. In this study, five human MPS models were evaluated for functional coupling, defined as the determination of organ interactions via an in vivo-like sequential, organ-to-organ transfer of media. MPS models representing the major absorption, metabolism and clearance organs (the jejunum, liver and kidney) were evaluated, along with skeletal muscle and neurovascular models. Three compounds were evaluated for organ-specific processing: terfenadine for pharmacokinetics (PK) and toxicity; trimethylamine (TMA) as a potentially toxic microbiome metabolite; and vitamin D3. We show that the organ-specific processing of these compounds was consistent with clinical data, and discovered that trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) crosses the blood-brain barrier. These studies demonstrate the potential of human MPS for multi-organ toxicity and absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME), provide guidance for physically coupling MPS, and offer an approach to coupling MPS with distinct media and perfusion requirements. PMID:28176881

  17. Feasibility study of a single-element transcranial focused ultrasound system for blood-brain barrier opening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquet, Fabrice; Tung, Yao-Sheng; Teichert, Tobias; Ferrera, Vincent P.; Konofagou, Elisa E.

    2012-10-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a specialized vascular system that impedes entry of all large and the vast majority of small molecules including the most potent CNS disease therapeutic agents from entering from the lumen into the brain parenchyma. Microbubble-enhanced, focused ultrasound (ME-FUS) has been previously shown to disrupt noninvasively, selectively, and transiently the BBB in small animals in vivo. The study addresses the focusing properties of single-element transducers at intermediate frequencies (500 kHz) through primate and human skulls, targeting clinically relevant targets extracted from 3D brain atlases such as the hippocampus and the basal ganglia, which are typically affected by early Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, respectively. A preliminary in vivo study was performed to study the frequency dependence of BBB opening parameters in mice. Then, feasibility of transcranial ME-FUS BBB opening in non-human primates was demonstrated with subsequent BBB recovery. Sonications were combined with two different types of microbubbles (custom made 4-5 μm and Definity®). 3T MRI was used to confirm the BBB disruption and to assess brain damage.

  18. Exploring barriers to participation and adoption of telehealth and telecare within the Whole System Demonstrator trial: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanders Caroline

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Telehealth (TH and telecare (TC interventions are increasingly valued for supporting self-care in ageing populations; however, evaluation studies often report high rates of non-participation that are not well understood. This paper reports from a qualitative study nested within a large randomised controlled trial in the UK: the Whole System Demonstrator (WSD project. It explores barriers to participation and adoption of TH and TC from the perspective of people who declined to participate or withdrew from the trial. Methods Qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted with 22 people who declined to participate in the trial following explanations of the intervention (n = 19, or who withdrew from the intervention arm (n = 3. Participants were recruited from the four trial groups (with diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, heart failure, or social care needs; and all came from the three trial areas (Cornwall, Kent, east London. Observations of home visits where the trial and interventions were first explained were also conducted by shadowing 8 members of health and social care staff visiting 23 people at home. Field notes were made of observational visits and explored alongside interview transcripts to elicit key themes. Results Barriers to adoption of TH and TC associated with non-participation and withdrawal from the trial were identified within the following themes: requirements for technical competence and operation of equipment; threats to identity, independence and self-care; expectations and experiences of disruption to services. Respondents held concerns that special skills were needed to operate equipment but these were often based on misunderstandings. Respondents’ views were often explained in terms of potential threats to identity associated with positive ageing and self-reliance, and views that interventions could undermine self-care and coping. Finally, participants were reluctant to

  19. Potential structural barriers to ground-water flow, Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital dataset defines the surface traces of regional geologic structures designated as potential ground-water flow barriers in an approximately 45,000...

  20. Barriers in access to healthcare in countries with different health systems. A cross-sectional study in municipalities of central Colombia and north-eastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Subirats, Irene; Vargas, Ingrid; Mogollón-Pérez, Amparo Susana; De Paepe, Pierre; da Silva, Maria Rejane Ferreira; Unger, Jean Pierre; Vázquez, María Luisa

    2014-04-01

    There are few comprehensive studies available on barriers encountered from the initial seeking of healthcare through to the resolution of the health problem; in other words, on access in its broad domain. For Colombia and Brazil, countries with different healthcare systems but common stated principles, there have been no such analyses to date. This paper compares factors that influence access in its broad domain in two municipalities of each country, by means of a cross-sectional study based on a survey of a multistage probability sample of people who had had at least one health problem within the last three months (2163 in Colombia and 2155 in Brazil). The results reveal important barriers to healthcare access in both samples, with notable differences between and within countries, once differences in sociodemographic characteristics and health needs are accounted for. In the Colombian study areas, the greatest barriers were encountered in initial access to healthcare and in resolving the problem, and similarly when entering the health service in the Brazilian study areas. Differences can also be detected in the use of services: in Colombia greater geographical and economic barriers and the need for authorization from insurers are more relevant, whereas in Brazil, it is the limited availability of health centres, doctors and drugs that leads to longer waiting times. There are also differences according to enrolment status and insurance scheme in Colombia, and between areas in Brazil. The barriers appear to be related to the Colombian system's segmented, non-universal nature, and to the involvement of insurance companies, and to chronic underfunding of the public system in Brazil. Further research is required, but the results obtained reveal critical points to be tackled by health policies in both countries.

  1. A single-photon sensitive ebCMOS camera: The LUSIPHER prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbier, R., E-mail: rbarbier@ipnl.in2p3.fr [Universite de Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, Lyon F-69003 (France); CNRS/IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon, Villeurbanne F-69622 (France); Cajgfinger, T.; Calabria, P.; Chabanat, E.; Chaize, D.; Depasse, P.; Doan, Q.T.; Dominjon, A.; Guerin, C.; Houles, J.; Vagneron, L. [Universite de Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, Lyon F-69003 (France); CNRS/IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon, Villeurbanne F-69622 (France); Baudot, J.; Dorokhov, A.; Dulinski, W.; Winter, M. [Universite Louis Pasteur Strasbourg, Strasbourg (France); CNRS/IN2P3, Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien, Strasbourg F-67037 (France); Kaiser, C.T. [PHOTONIS Netherlands BV, Roden B.O. Box 60, 9300 AB Roden (Netherlands)

    2011-08-21

    Processing high-definition images with single-photon sensitivity acquired above 500 frames per second (fps) will certainly find ground-breaking applications in scientific and industrial domains such as nano-photonics. However, current technologies for low light imaging suffer limitations above the standard 30 fps to keep providing both excellent spatial resolution and signal-over-noise. This paper presents the state of the art on a promising way to answer this challenge, the electron bombarded CMOS (ebCMOS) detector. A large-scale ultra fast single-photon tracker camera prototype produced with an industrial partner is described. The full characterization of the back-thinned CMOS sensor is presented and a method for Point Spread Function measurements is elaborated. Then the study of the ebCMOS performance is presented for two different multi-alkali cathodes, S20 and S25. Point Spread Function measurements carried out on an optical test bench are analysed to extract the PSF of the tube by deconvolution. The resolution of the tube is studied as a function of temperature, high voltage and incident wavelength. Results are discussed for both multi-alkali cathodes as well as a Maxwellian modelization of the radial initial energy of the photo-electrons.

  2. Production of bacterial endoglucanase from pretreated oil palm empty fruit bunch by bacillus pumilus EB3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariffin, Hidayah; Hassan, Mohd Ali; Shah, Umi Kalsom Md; Abdullah, Norhafizah; Ghazali, Farinazleen Mohd; Shirai, Yoshihito

    2008-09-01

    In this study, endoglucanase was produced from oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) by a locally isolated aerobic bacterium, Bacillus pumilus EB3. The effects of the fermentation parameters such as initial pH, temperature, and nitrogen source on the endoglucanase production were studied using carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) as the carbon source. Endoglucanase from B. pumilus EB3 was maximally secreted at 37 degrees C, initial pH 7.0 with 10 g/l of CMC as carbon source, and 2 g/l of yeast extract as organic nitrogen source. The activity recorded during the fermentation was 0.076 U/ml. The productivity of the enzyme increased twofold when 2 g/l of yeast extract was used as the organic nitrogen supplement as compared to the non-supplemented medium. An interesting finding from this study is that pretreated OPEFB medium showed comparable results to CMC medium in terms of enzyme production with an activity of 0.063 U/ml. As OPEFB is an abundant solid waste at palm oil mills, it has the potential of acting as a substrate in cellulase production.

  3. Efficiency of drug delivery enhanced by acoustic pressure during blood–brain barrier disruption induced by focused ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang FY

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Feng-Yi Yang, Pei-Yi LeeDepartment of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, TaiwanPurpose: We evaluated the delivery efficiency of intravenously injected large molecular agents, before and after disruption of the blood–brain barrier (BBB-D, induced by focused ultrasound (FUS using various acoustic parameters.Materials and methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were injected intravenously with Evans blue (EB before or after BBB-D induction by pulsed FUS. We used a 1.0 MHz pulsed FUS with four acoustic power settings and an ultrasound contrast agent (UCA at four different doses to induce BBB-D resulting from cavitation. The permeability of the BBB was assessed quantitatively based on the extravasation of EB. Contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI was used to monitor the gadolinium deposition associated with FUS. Histological analysis was performed to examine tissue damage.Results: The accumulation of EB in rat brain was found to be dependent on acoustic power and UCA dosage, regardless of whether EB administration occurred before or after FUS-induced BBB-D. Administration of EB followed by sonication resulted in greater EB extravasation than that for rats subjected to sonication prior to EB injection. To reduce tissue damage, EB extravasation was enhanced by first administering EB by intravenous injection, followed by sonication at reduced acoustic power or UCA dosage. The normalized signal intensity change in rat brains that received the same dose of UCA and sonicated after gadolinium injection was significantly greater than in rats undergoing sonication followed by gadolinium administration. Moreover, contrast enhanced MRI showed a more precise distribution of gadolinium in the brain when gadolinium was administered before sonication.Conclusion: We demonstrated that a compound administered prior to sonication treatment promotes extravasation of the sonicated region. Thus, it is possible to

  4. Health system barriers to strengthening vaccine-preventable disease surveillance and response in the context of decentralization: evidence from Georgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvestre Eva A

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A critical challenge in the health sector in developing countries is to ensure the quality and effectiveness of surveillance and public health response in an environment of decentralization. In Georgia, a country where there has been extensive decentralization of public health responsibilities over the last decade, an intervention was recently piloted to strengthen district-level local vaccine-preventable disease surveillance and response activities through improved capacity to analyze and use routinely collected data. The purpose of the study is 1 to assess the effectiveness of the intervention on motivation and perceived capacity to analyze and use information at the district-level, and 2 to assess the role that individual- and system-level factors play in influencing the effectiveness of the intervention. Methods A pre-post quasi-experimental research design is used for the quantitative evaluation. Data come from a baseline and two follow-up surveys of district-level health staff in 12 intervention and 3 control Center of Public Health (CPH offices. These data were supplemented by record reviews in CPH offices as well as focus group discussions among CPH and health facility staff. Results The results of the study suggest that a number of expected improvements in perceived data availability and analysis occurred following the implementation of the intervention package, and that these improvements in analysis could be attributable to the intervention package. However, the study results also suggest that there exist several health systems barriers that constrained the effectiveness of the intervention in influencing the availability of data, analysis and response. Conclusion To strengthen surveillance and response systems in Georgia, as well as in other countries, donor, governments, and other stakeholders should consider how health systems factors influence investments to improve the availability of data, analysis, and

  5. PS2-13: Implementing a Lean Management System in Primary Care: Facilitators and Barriers from the Frontlines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Dorothy; Gray, Caroline; Anderson, Katie; Hereford, James

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims As approximately $750 billion is wasted in the U.S. health system each year, equivalent to roughly one-third of every medical dollar, “Lean” thinking and techniques offer promising solutions for maximizing value in health care. This study examines a large, multispecialty practice’s journey of implementing a Lean management system beginning in primary care. We sought to understand initial drivers and barriers to implementation, with lessons contributing to a learning system of improvement in health care. Methods This case study was based on in-depth interviews with 16 physician and administrative leaders, and 4 focus groups of medical assistants and administrative staff. Transcripts were coded and analyzed using inductive, grounded methodology. Results Respondents’ insights were clustered around three main themes: organizational leadership, professional values/culture, and availability of resources. Informants described organizational characteristics critical to implementing Lean and to which they attributed its success so far, including: strong leadership and the importance that leaders embody qualities they are espousing, willingness to engage all levels of staff in the change process, and willingness to adjust performance measures according to new job roles. However, many noted that values and norms surrounding clinical practice are often at odds with the Lean principle of standardizing work to eliminate waste, representing the biggest challenge for physicians who are socialized into a culture where independent thinking and autonomy is valued. The availability of resources was also cited as an important factor in executing changes, including time to do one’s regular work while implementing change, time to absorb new ideas and changes, and proper space configurations to support the change. Conclusions Lean represents a non-traditional approach to managing the delivery of medical care. In a Lean operating system, value is seen first from

  6. Opportunities for functional oxides in yttrium oxide-titanium oxide-zirconium oxide system: Applications for novel thermal barrier coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francillon, Wesley

    This dissertation is an investigation of materials and processed under consideration for next generation thermal structural oxides with potential applications as thermal barrier coatings; wherein, high temperature stability and mechanical properties affect durability. Two notable next generation materials systems under investigation are pyrochlore and co-doped zirconia oxides. The motivation for this work is based on current limitations of the currently used thermal barrier material of yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) deposited by the plasma spray processes. The rapid quenching associated with the plasma spray process, results in a metastable structure that is a non-transformable tetragonal structure in the yttria partially stabilized zirconia system rather than the equilibrium anticipated two phase mixture of cubic and monoclinic phases. It has been shown that this metastable structure offers enhanced toughness and thus durability during thermomechanical cycling from the operating temperatures in excess of 1000C to ambient. However, the metastable oxides are susceptible to partitioning at temperatures greater than 1200C, thus resulting in a transformation of the tetragonal phase oxides. Transformations of the tetragonal prime phase into the parent cubic and tetragonal prime phase result in coating degradation. Several of the emerging oxides are based on rare earth additions to zirconia. However, there is limited information of the high temperature stability of these oxide coatings and more notably these compositions exhibit limited toughness for durable performance. A potential ternary composition based on the YSZ system that offers the ability to tailor the phase structure is based YO1.5-TiO2 -ZrO2. The ternary of YO1.5-TiO2-ZrO 2 has the current TBC composition of seven molar percent yttria stabilized zirconia, pyrochlore phase oxide and zirconia doped with yttria and titania additions (Ti-YSZ). The Ti-YSZ phase field is of interest because at equilibrium it is

  7. Effect of thermal barrier coatings on the performance of steam and water-cooled gas turbine/steam turbine combined cycle system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nainiger, J. J.

    1978-01-01

    An analytical study was made of the performance of air, steam, and water-cooled gas-turbine/steam turbine combined-cycle systems with and without thermal-barrier coatings. For steam cooling, thermal barrier coatings permit an increase in the turbine inlet temperature from 1205 C (2200 F), resulting in an efficiency improvement of 1.9 percentage points. The maximum specific power improvement with thermal barriers is 32.4 percent, when the turbine inlet temperature is increased from 1425 C (2600 F) to 1675 C (3050 F) and the airfoil temperature is kept the same. For water cooling, the maximum efficiency improvement is 2.2 percentage points at a turbine inlet temperature of 1683 C (3062 F) and the maximum specific power improvement is 36.6 percent by increasing the turbine inlet temperature from 1425 C (2600 F) to 1730 C (3150 F) and keeping the airfoil temperatures the same. These improvements are greater than that obtained with combined cycles using air cooling at a turbine inlet temperature of 1205 C (2200 F). The large temperature differences across the thermal barriers at these high temperatures, however, indicate that thermal stresses may present obstacles to the use of coatings at high turbine inlet temperatures.

  8. Fusion near and below the barrier for the systems 32,34S+24,25,26Mg and 32S+27Al

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, G. M.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Karp, J. S.; Freifelder, R. H.; Renner, T. R.; Wilschut, H. W.

    1983-08-01

    Excitation functions are reported for total fusion near and below the Coulomb barrier of the systems 32,34S+24,25,26Mg and 27Al. The data cannot be reproduced by one-dimensional barrier penetration calculations. The enhancement of the cross sections at low energies is compared to predictions of models taking into acount the static deformation or zero point vibration of the reaction partners. Calculations including zero point motion do not reproduce the observed variations of the measured cross sections with respect to the neutron number of target and projectile. Reasonable agreement is obtained when calculating fusion between statically deformed nuclei. Finally, the fusion process is described in a quantum mechanical coupled channels model, indicating the importance of dynamical effect on sub-barrier fusion. NUCLEAR REACTIONS 24,25,26Mg, 27Al(32,34S, Fusion) 0.9barrier parameters; discussed importance of zero point motion, static deformation, coupled channels effects on fusion process.

  9. Mont Terri Project - Engineered barrier emplacement experiment in Opalinus Clay for the disposal of radioactive waste in underground repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayor, J. C. [Empresa Nacional de Residuos Radioactivos SA (ENRESA), Madrid (Spain); Garcia-Sineriz, J. [Asociacion para la Investigacion y Desarollo Industrial de los Recursos Naturales (AITEMIN), Madrid (Spain); Alonso, E. [Centre Internacional de Metodos Numerics en Ingenyeria (CIMNE), Barcelona (Spain); Alheid, H.-J. [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (BGR), Hannover (Germany); Bluemling, P. [National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (Nagra), Wettingen (Switzerland)

    2007-07-01

    The Engineered Barrier (EB) experiment was a full-scale test for the demonstration, in a horizontal drift, of an emplacement technics of the clay barrier, using a granular bentonite material in the upper part of this barrier and bentonite blocks at the bottom. The test has been carried out in a 6 m long section of a niche excavated in Opalinus Clay of the Mont Terri underground laboratory. A steel dummy canister, with the same dimensions and weight as the real reference canisters, was placed on top of a bed of highly compacted bentonite blocks (in turn lying on a concrete bed), and the rest of the clay barrier volume was backfilled with a Granular Bentonite Material (GBM), made of very highly compacted pellets of different sizes. Hydro-mechanical instrumentation and an artificial hydration system (to accelerate the saturation of the clay barrier) were installed, and the test section sealed with a concrete plug. The evolution of the hydro-mechanical parameters along the hydration, both in the barrier and in the clayey rock formation, has been monitored during about 1.5 years, and modelled using the CODE-BRIGHT code. The EB experiment has proved that fully automated production of a Granular Bentonite Material (GBM) is possible and large quantities can be produced in due time in the required quality. Only minor modifications of existing production lines in industry for other applications were necessary to achieve this result. In the EB test section, a dry density of 1.36 g/cm{sup 3} of the emplaced GBM has been obtained. With this value it is estimated that the hydraulic conductivity of this material is lower than 5 x 10{sup -12} m/s and the swelling pressure is about 1.3 MPa. Even though the EB test section conditions are now not considered as representative of a true demonstration, it is deemed that the model emplacement testing results (dry density of about 1.40 g/cm{sup 3}) serve well to demonstrate the achievable densities expected in the real world setting. The

  10. Targeted proteolysis of plectin isoform 1a accounts for hemidesmosome dysfunction in mice mimicking the dominant skin blistering disease EBS-Ogna.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gernot Walko

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Autosomal recessive mutations in the cytolinker protein plectin account for the multisystem disorders epidermolysis bullosa simplex (EBS associated with muscular dystrophy (EBS-MD, pyloric atresia (EBS-PA, and congenital myasthenia (EBS-CMS. In contrast, a dominant missense mutation leads to the disease EBS-Ogna, manifesting exclusively as skin fragility. We have exploited this trait to study the molecular basis of hemidesmosome failure in EBS-Ogna and to reveal the contribution of plectin to hemidesmosome homeostasis. We generated EBS-Ogna knock-in mice mimicking the human phenotype and show that blistering reflects insufficient protein levels of the hemidesmosome-associated plectin isoform 1a. We found that plectin 1a, in contrast to plectin 1c, the major isoform expressed in epidermal keratinocytes, is proteolytically degraded, supporting the notion that degradation of hemidesmosome-anchored plectin is spatially controlled. Using recombinant proteins, we show that the mutation renders plectin's 190-nm-long coiled-coil rod domain more vulnerable to cleavage by calpains and other proteases activated in the epidermis but not in skeletal muscle. Accordingly, treatment of cultured EBS-Ogna keratinocytes as well as of EBS-Ogna mouse skin with calpain inhibitors resulted in increased plectin 1a protein expression levels. Moreover, we report that plectin's rod domain forms dimeric structures that can further associate laterally into remarkably stable (paracrystalline polymers. We propose focal self-association of plectin molecules as a novel mechanism contributing to hemidesmosome homeostasis and stabilization.

  11. The microtubule plus-end tracking proteins SPR1 and EB1b interact to maintain polar cell elongation and directional organ growth in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galva, Charitha; Kirik, Viktor; Lindeboom, Jelmer J; Kaloriti, Despoina; Rancour, David M; Hussey, Patrick J; Bednarek, Sebastian Y; Ehrhardt, David W; Sedbrook, John C

    2014-11-01

    The microtubule plus-end tracking proteins (+TIPs) END BINDING1b (EB1b) and SPIRAL1 (SPR1) are required for normal cell expansion and organ growth. EB proteins are viewed as central regulators of +TIPs and cell polarity in animals; SPR1 homologs are specific to plants. To explore if EB1b and SPR1 fundamentally function together, we combined genetic, biochemical, and cell imaging approaches in Arabidopsis thaliana. We found that eb1b-2 spr1-6 double mutant roots exhibit substantially more severe polar expansion defects than either single mutant, undergoing right-looping growth and severe axial twisting instead of waving on tilted hard-agar surfaces. Protein interaction assays revealed that EB1b and SPR1 bind each other and tubulin heterodimers, which is suggestive of a microtubule loading mechanism. EB1b and SPR1 show antagonistic association with microtubules in vitro. Surprisingly, our combined analyses revealed that SPR1 can load onto microtubules and function independently of EB1 proteins, setting SPR1 apart from most studied +TIPs in animals and fungi. Moreover, we found that the severity of defects in microtubule dynamics in spr1 eb1b mutant hypocotyl cells correlated well with the severity of growth defects. These data indicate that SPR1 and EB1b have complex interactions as they load onto microtubule plus ends and direct polar cell expansion and organ growth in response to directional cues.

  12. The Microtubule Plus-End Tracking Proteins SPR1 and EB1b Interact to Maintain Polar Cell Elongation and Directional Organ Growth in Arabidopsis[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galva, Charitha; Kirik, Viktor; Lindeboom, Jelmer J.; Kaloriti, Despoina; Rancour, David M.; Hussey, Patrick J.; Bednarek, Sebastian Y.; Ehrhardt, David W.; Sedbrook, John C.

    2014-01-01

    The microtubule plus-end tracking proteins (+TIPs) END BINDING1b (EB1b) and SPIRAL1 (SPR1) are required for normal cell expansion and organ growth. EB proteins are viewed as central regulators of +TIPs and cell polarity in animals; SPR1 homologs are specific to plants. To explore if EB1b and SPR1 fundamentally function together, we combined genetic, biochemical, and cell imaging approaches in Arabidopsis thaliana. We found that eb1b-2 spr1-6 double mutant roots exhibit substantially more severe polar expansion defects than either single mutant, undergoing right-looping growth and severe axial twisting instead of waving on tilted hard-agar surfaces. Protein interaction assays revealed that EB1b and SPR1 bind each other and tubulin heterodimers, which is suggestive of a microtubule loading mechanism. EB1b and SPR1 show antagonistic association with microtubules in vitro. Surprisingly, our combined analyses revealed that SPR1 can load onto microtubules and function independently of EB1 proteins, setting SPR1 apart from most studied +TIPs in animals and fungi. Moreover, we found that the severity of defects in microtubule dynamics in spr1 eb1b mutant hypocotyl cells correlated well with the severity of growth defects. These data indicate that SPR1 and EB1b have complex interactions as they load onto microtubule plus ends and direct polar cell expansion and organ growth in response to directional cues. PMID:25415978

  13. Overexpression of EB1 in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) may promote cellular growth by activating beta-catenin/TCF pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yihua; Zhou, Xiaobo; Zhu, Hongxia; Liu, Shuang; Zhou, Cuiqi; Zhang, Guo; Xue, Liyan; Lu, Ning; Quan, Lanping; Bai, Jinfeng; Zhan, Qimin; Xu, Ningzhi

    2005-10-01

    Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) has a multifactorial etiology involving environmental and/or genetic factors. End-binding protein 1 (EB1), which was cloned as an interacting partner of the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) tumor suppressor protein, was previously found overexpressed in ESCC. However, the precise role of EB1 in the development of this malignancy has not yet been elucidated. In this study, we analysed freshly resected ESCC specimens and demonstrated that EB1 was overexpressed in approximately 63% of tumor samples compared to matched normal tissue. We report that overexpression of EB1 in the ESCC line EC9706 significantly promotes cell growth, whereas suppression of EB1 protein level by RNA interference significantly inhibited growth of esophageal tumor cells. In addition, EB1 overexpression induced nuclear accumulation of beta-catenin and promoted the transcriptional activity of beta-catenin/T-cell factor (TCF). These effects were partially or completely abolished by coexpression of APC or DeltaN TCF4, respectively. Also, we found that EB1 affected the interaction between beta-catenin and APC. Furthermore, EB1 overexpression was correlated with cytoplasmic/nuclear accumulation of beta-catenin in primary human ESCC. Taken together, these results support the novel hypothesis that EB1 overexpression may play a role in the development of ESCC by affecting APC function and activating the beta-catenin/TCF pathway.

  14. A Theoretical Model for Predicting Residual Stress Generation in Fabrication Process of Double-Ceramic-Layer Thermal Barrier Coating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yan; Wu, Weijie; Xie, Feng; Liu, Yilun; Wang, Tiejun

    2017-01-01

    Residual stress arisen in fabrication process of Double-Ceramic-Layer Thermal Barrier Coating System (DCL-TBCs) has a significant effect on its quality and reliability. In this work, based on the practical fabrication process of DCL-TBCs and the force and moment equilibrium, a theoretical model was proposed at first to predict residual stress generation in its fabrication process, in which the temperature dependent material properties of DCL-TBCs were incorporated. Then, a Finite Element method (FEM) has been carried out to verify our theoretical model. Afterwards, some important geometric parameters for DCL-TBCs, such as the thickness ratio of stabilized Zirconia (YSZ, ZrO2-8%Y2O3) layer to Lanthanum Zirconate (LZ, La2Zr2O7) layer, which is adjustable in a wide range in the fabrication process, have a remarkable effect on its performance, therefore, the effect of this thickness ratio on residual stress generation in the fabrication process of DCL-TBCs has been systematically studied. In addition, some thermal spray treatment, such as the pre-heating treatment, its effect on residual stress generation has also been studied in this work. It is found that, the final residual stress mainly comes from the cooling down process in the fabrication of DCL-TBCs. Increasing the pre-heating temperature can obviously decrease the magnitude of residual stresses in LZ layer, YSZ layer and substrate. With the increase of the thickness ratio of YSZ layer to LZ layer, magnitudes of residual stresses arisen in LZ layer and YSZ layer will increase while residual stress in substrate will decrease. PMID:28103275

  15. Advances in monitoring the human dimension of natural resource systems: an example from the Great Barrier Reef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, N. A.; Bohensky, E.; Curnock, M.; Goldberg, J.; Gooch, M.; Nicotra, B.; Pert, P.; Scherl, L. M.; Stone-Jovicich, S.; Tobin, R. C.

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the feasibility and potential utility of decision-centric social-economic monitoring using data collected from Great Barrier Reef (Reef) region. The social and economic long term monitoring program (SELTMP) for the Reef is a novel attempt to monitor the social and economic dimensions of social-ecological change in a globally and nationally important region. It represents the current status and condition of the major user groups of the Reef with the potential to simultaneously consider trends, interconnections, conflicts, dependencies and vulnerabilities. Our approach was to combine a well-established conceptual framework with a strong governance structure and partnership arrangement that enabled the co-production of knowledge. The framework is a modification of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment and it was used to guide indicator choice. Indicators were categorised as; (i) resource use and dependency, (ii) ecosystem benefits and well-being, and (iii) drivers of change. Data were collected through secondary datasets where existing and new datasets were created where not, using standard survey techniques. Here we present an overview of baseline results of new survey data from commercial-fishers (n = 210), marine-based tourism operators (n = 119), tourists (n = 2877), local residents (n = 3181), and other Australians (n = 2002). The indicators chosen describe both social and economic components of the Reef system and represent an unprecedented insight into the ways in which people currently use and depend on the Reef, the benefits that they derive, and how they perceive, value and relate to the Reef and each other. However, the success of a program such as the SELTMP can only occur with well-translated cutting-edge data and knowledge that are collaboratively produced, adaptive, and directly feeds into current management processes. We discuss how data from the SELTMP have already been incorporated into Reef management decision

  16. A Theoretical Model for Predicting Residual Stress Generation in Fabrication Process of Double-Ceramic-Layer Thermal Barrier Coating System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yan; Wu, Weijie; Xie, Feng; Liu, Yilun; Wang, Tiejun

    2017-01-01

    Residual stress arisen in fabrication process of Double-Ceramic-Layer Thermal Barrier Coating System (DCL-TBCs) has a significant effect on its quality and reliability. In this work, based on the practical fabrication process of DCL-TBCs and the force and moment equilibrium, a theoretical model was proposed at first to predict residual stress generation in its fabrication process, in which the temperature dependent material properties of DCL-TBCs were incorporated. Then, a Finite Element method (FEM) has been carried out to verify our theoretical model. Afterwards, some important geometric parameters for DCL-TBCs, such as the thickness ratio of stabilized Zirconia (YSZ, ZrO2-8%Y2O3) layer to Lanthanum Zirconate (LZ, La2Zr2O7) layer, which is adjustable in a wide range in the fabrication process, have a remarkable effect on its performance, therefore, the effect of this thickness ratio on residual stress generation in the fabrication process of DCL-TBCs has been systematically studied. In addition, some thermal spray treatment, such as the pre-heating treatment, its effect on residual stress generation has also been studied in this work. It is found that, the final residual stress mainly comes from the cooling down process in the fabrication of DCL-TBCs. Increasing the pre-heating temperature can obviously decrease the magnitude of residual stresses in LZ layer, YSZ layer and substrate. With the increase of the thickness ratio of YSZ layer to LZ layer, magnitudes of residual stresses arisen in LZ layer and YSZ layer will increase while residual stress in substrate will decrease.

  17. Engineering-scale test on the thermal-hydro-mechanical behaviors in the clay barrier of a HLW repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Owan [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1045 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: jolee@kaeri.re.kr; Park, Jeong Hwa; Cho, Won Jin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1045 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-08-15

    The thermo-hydro-mechanical (T-H-M) behaviors of a clay barrier are of importance from a performance and safety viewpoint of the engineered barrier system (EBS) for a high-level waste (HLW) repository. An engineering-scale test was carried out to investigate the T-H-M behaviors in the buffer of the Korean reference disposal system (KRS). The test started on May 31, 2005 and is still in operation. The experimental data obtained allowed a preliminary and qualitative interpretation of the T-H-M behavior in bentonite blocks. The temperature was higher as it became closer to the heater, while it became lower as it was farther away from the heater. The water content had a higher value in the part close to the hydration surface than that in the heater part. The relative humidity data suggested that a hydration of the bentonite blocks might occur by different drying-wetting processes, depending on their position. The total pressure was continuously increased by the evolution of the saturation front in the bentonite blocks and thereby the swelling pressure. There was also a contribution of the thermal expansion of the bentonite blocks near the heater and the capillary force in the dry bentonite blocks which the water did not reach from the hydration surface.

  18. Establishment and Application of Early Warning System for Flood and Debris Flow Triggered by Rapid Erosion of Natural Barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaji, A.; Mizuno, H.; Yamakoshi, T.; Ishizuka, T.

    2012-04-01

    A large amount of mass of land from a mountain slides into a gorge and a river, depositing on the bed. The formation of such natural barrier provides a dam called "a natural dam", allowing water to accumulate in the upstream. People living in the downstream of basin are at risk of flood triggered by the dam break. Recently, many people have been at such risk emerged by earthquakes and heavy rainfall therefore they have been requesting to establish an early warning system for such flood risk. By analyzing the past case of the formations and the natural dam breaks in Japan, it was found that the surface flow on the natural dam eroded the deposition rapidly and the accumulated water and the deposition started to flow downstream in many cases. So that an alert should be issued by forecasting when the accumulated water in the upstream starts to flow on the deposition. In order to forecast the timing, we have to take into consideration of the difference between the water volume of flowing to the lake from the upstream basin and that of seeping into the deposition. Our final target is to develop a method for estimating the two previous quantities. In the first step, we report the result of analysis of the past cases in Japan. We focused on the two natural dams in the Yuhama village in Miyagi prefecture and in the Nagatono village in Nara prefecture. The natural dam in Yuhama village was formed by a deep-seated landslide triggered by the earthquake in 2008, and the natural dam in Nagatono was formed by a deep-seated landslide triggered by heavy rainfall in 2011. In the Yuhama case, the water level of the accumulated water had been rising until it reached to the top of the natural dam. In the Nagatono case, the water level had been rising during rainfall, however the water level had been dropping after the rainfall. The difference between the water volume of flowing in and that of flowing out from the natural dam caused the tendencies. We are going to analyze the soil

  19. Expression of Astrocytic Type 2 Angiotensin Receptor in Central Nervous System Inflammation Correlates With Blood-Brain Barrier Breakdown

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Füchtbauer, Laila; Toft-Hansen, Henrik; Khorooshi, Reza;

    2010-01-01

    is involved during BBB breakdown. We studied the type 2 angiotensin receptor AT(2) because of its suggested neuroprotective role. Two models of brain inflammation were used to distinguish solute versus cellular barrier functions. Both leukocytes and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) accumulated in the perivascular...

  20. 基于ebXML规范实现EDI与JDF的集成

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐骁俊; 丁岳伟

    2006-01-01

    传统的B2B信息化应用中,EDI(Electronic Data Interface)大缺点在于没有一个统一规范的标准.我们提供一种开放的技术框架将XML作为数据载体,利用现有的网络资源基础上进行电子数据变换.本文在此基础上,提出了一种在印刷行业SCM系统中,将基于全球统一ebXML规范的XML/EDI与JDF(Job Deftnition Fonnat作业定义格式)的集成解决方法。

  1. Evaluation of Factors Affecting Polyhydroxyalkanoates Production by Comamonas sp. EB172 Using Central Composite Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Azman Mohd Johar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Statistical approach, central composite design (CCD was used to investigate the complex interaction among temperature (25-37 °C, initial medium pH (5-9, inoculum size (4-10 % (v/v, concentration of (NH42SO4 (0-1 g/L and concentration of mixed organic acids (5-10 g/L in the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates by Comamonas sp. EB172.Methodology and Results: Mixed organic acids derived from anaerobically treated palm oil mill effluent (POME containing acetic:propionic:butyric (ratio of 3:1:1 were used as carbon source in the batch culture of Comamonas sp. EB172 to produce polyhydoxyalkanoates (PHAs. The analysis of variance (ANOVA showed that all five factors were significantly important in the batch fermentation by shake flask with a P value of less than 0.001. The optimal temperature, initial medium pH, inoculum size, concentration of (NH42SO4 and concentration of mixed organic acids were 30 °C, 7.04, 4.0 % (v/v, 0.01 g/L and 5.05 g/L respectively.Conclusion, significance and impact of study: Optimization of the production medium containing mixed organic acids has improved the PHA production for more than 2 folds. Under optimal condition in the shake flask fermentation, the predicted growth is 2.98 g/L of dry cell weight (DCW with 47.07 wt % of PHA content. The highest yield of PHA was 0.28 g of PHA per g mixed organic acids.

  2. Yttria-stabilized zirkonia / gadolinium zirconate double-layer plasma-sprayed thermal barrier coating systems (TBCs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakan, Emine

    2015-07-01

    Thermal barrier coating (TBC) research and development is driven by the desirability of further increasing the maximum inlet temperature in a gas turbine engine. A number of new top coat ceramic materials have been proposed during the last decades due to limited temperature capability (1200 C) of the state-of-the-art yttria-stabilized zirconia (7 wt. % Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-ZrO{sub 2}, YSZ) at long term operation. Zirconate pyrochlores of the large lanthanides((Gd → La){sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7}) have been particularly attractive due to their higher temperature phase stability than that of the YSZ. Nonetheless, the issues related with the implementation of pyrochlores such as low fracture toughness and formation of deleterious interphases with thermally grown oxide (TGO, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) were reported. The implication was the requirement of an interlayer between the pyrochlores and TGO, which introduced double-layer systems to the TBC literature. Furthermore, processability issues of pyrochlores associated with the different evaporation rates of lanthanide oxides and zirconia resulting in unfavorable composition variations in the coatings were addressed in different studies. After all, although the material properties are available, there is a paucity of data in the literature concerning the properties of the coatings made of pyrochlores. From the processability point of view the most reported pyrochlore is La{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7}. Hence, the goal of this research was to investigate plasma-sprayed Gd{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} (GZO) coatings and YSZ/GZO double-layer TBC systems. Three main topics were examined based on processing, performance and properties: (i) the plasma spray processing of the GZO and its impact on the microstructural and compositional properties of the GZO coatings; (ii) the cycling lifetime of the YSZ/GZO double-layer systems under thermal gradient at a surface temperature of 1400 C; (iii) the properties of the GZO and YSZ coatings such as

  3. Approaches to formalization of the informal waste sector into municipal solid waste management systems in low- and middle-income countries: Review of barriers and success factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aparcana Robles, Sandra Roxana

    2016-01-01

    , this paper aims to address this gap by explaining to policy- and decision-makers, and to waste managers in the private sector, certain dynamics that can be observed and that should be taken into account when designing formalization strategies that are adapted to their particular socioeconomic and political......The Municipal Solid Waste Management (MSWM) sector represents a major challenge for low-and middle-income countries due to significant environmental and socioeconomic issues involving rapid urbanization, their MSWM systems, and the existence of the informal waste sector. Recognizing its role...... on the assessment, the paper discussed possible links between formalization approaches and barriers, the 'persistent' challenges that represent barriers to formalization, as well as key enabling factors improving the likelihood of successful formalization. Regardless of the type of approach adopted to formalization...

  4. Removal of metal ions from wastewater using EB irradiation in combination with HA/TiO₂/UV treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaki, A A; El-Gendy, Naima A

    2014-04-30

    The electron beam (EB) irradiation technology was applied for removal of Cu(2+), Sr(2+), and Co(2+) ions from wastewater. The aim of this study is to achieve an efficient treatment process of wastewater using EB and introducing a combination of humic acid (HA) as a natural organic polymer and ultraviolet irradiation of a TiO2 (TiO2/UV), as a suspended catalyst in the treatment of wastewater solutions (TiO2/UV+HA). The experimental results showed that the percentage removal of Cu(2+), Sr(2+), and Co(2+)ions was 41%, 87% and 75% respectively, at 125 kGy. In the presence of TiO2 photocatalyst and exposure of the investigated wastewater to ultraviolet rays before irradiation by the EB the percentage removal of Cu(2+) ions became 51%, while the percentage removal of both Sr(2+) and Co(2+) ions was slightly improved; was 87% and 75%, respectively at the same EB dose. On the other hand, by introducing the combination of TiO2/UV+HA, only an irradiation dose of about 50kGy led to removal of Cu(2+), Sr(2+), and Co(2+) completely from the wastewater. Mechanisms of interactions between HA and Cu(2+), Co(2+) and Sr(2+) metal ions were suggested and discussed.

  5. Development and validation of the self-acceptance scale for persons with early blindness: the SAS-EB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgado, Fabiane Frota da Rocha; Campana, Angela Nogueira Neves Betanho; Tavares, Maria da Consolação Gomes Cunha Fernandes

    2014-01-01

    Investigations of self-acceptance are critical to understanding the development and maintenance of psychological health. However, valid and reliable instruments for measuring self-acceptance in persons with early blindness have yet to be developed. The current research describes three studies designed to develop and validate the Self-acceptance Scale for Persons with Early Blindness (SAS-EB). In Study 1, we developed the initial item pool. Thirty-three items were generated, based on data from specialized literature and from 2 focus groups. Items were organized in a three-factor structure, theoretically predicted for SAS-EB - (1) body acceptance, (2) self-protection from social stigmas, and (3) feeling and believing in one's capacities. In Study 2, information obtained from a panel of 9 experts and 22 persons with early blindness representing the target population was used to refine the initial item pool, generating a new pool of 27 items. In Study 3, 318 persons with early blindness (141 women and 177 men), between 18 and 60 years of age (M = 37.74 years, SD = 12.37) answered the new pool of 27 items. After the elimination of 9 items using confirmatory factor analysis, we confirmed the theoretical three-factor structure of the SAS-EB. Study 3 also provided support for the scale's internal consistency and construct validity. Finally, the psychometric properties of the SAS-EB, its utility, and its limitations are discussed along with considerations for future research.

  6. Emergency remediation measures of a hydroxyisobutyronitrile spill using hydraulic and hydrochemical barriers and pump and treat system (Rho area-Milan, Italy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avanzini, M.; Nespoli, M.; Pagotto, A. [EG Engenireeing Geology, Milano (Italy); Peretta, G.P. [Torino Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Scienze della Terra

    1998-12-31

    The paper deals about emergency clean-up measures after an accidental contamination by hydroxyisobutyronitrile (acetone cyanohydrin) occurred in a aquifer in the industrial area of ELF-ATOCHEM in Rho (province of Milan). Site investigations and tests carried out for planning barrier wells lay-out, injection wells of hydrogen peroxide and in situ treatment of contaminated soil are illustrated. This combined measures system allowed to obtain a high efficacy in pollutant removal in accordance to the Authority`s requests. The final goal of the remediation system activity was reached fifteen months later: concentrations measured at monitoring wells showed values compatible with standards for drinking water quality.

  7. Some methods to regulate low-bias negative differential resistance in σ barrier separating nanoscale molecular transport systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ji-Mei; Liu, Jing; Min, Yi; Zhou, Li-Ping

    2016-12-01

    Using the first-principles method which combines the nonequilibrium Green’s function (NEGF) with density functional theory (DFT), the role of defect, dopant, barrier length and geometric deformation for low-bias negative differential resistance (NDR) in two capped armchair carbon nanotubes (CNTs) sandwiching σ barrier are systematically analyzed. We found that this method can regulate the negative differential resistance (NDR) effects such as current peak and peak position. The adjusting mechanism may originate from orbital interaction and orbital reconstruction. Our calculations try to manipulate the transport characteristics in energy space by simply manipulating the structure in real space, which may promise the potential applications in nanomolecular-electronics in the future.

  8. Perception of community pharmacists towards the barriers to enhanced pharmacy services in the healthcare system of Dubai: a quantitative approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rayes IK

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: In many developing countries, pharmacists are facing many challenges while they try to enhance the quality of services provided to patients approaching community pharmacies. Objective: To explore perception of community pharmacists in Dubai regarding the obstacles to enhanced pharmacy services using a part of the results from a nation-wide quantitative survey. Methods: A questionnaire was distributed to 281 full-time licensed community pharmacists in Dubai. The questionnaire had 5 inter-linked sections: demographic information, information about the pharmacy, interaction with physicians, pharmacists’ current professional role, and barriers to enhanced pharmacy services. Results: About half of the respondents (45.4%, n=90 agreed that pharmacy clients under-estimate them and 52.5% (n=104 felt the same by physicians. About 47.5% (n=94 of the respondents felt that they are legally unprotected against profession’s malpractice. Moreover, 64.7% (n=128 stated that pharmacy practice in Dubai turned to be business-focused. In addition, 76.8% (n=252 found that one of the major barriers to enhanced pharmacy services is the high business running cost. Pharmacists screened tried to prove that they are not one of the barriers to optimized pharmacy services as 62.7% (n=124 disagreed that they lack appropriate knowledge needed to serve community and 67.7% (n=134 gave the same response when asked whether pharmacy staff lack confidence when treating consumers or not. Conclusions: Although being well established within the community, pharmacists in Dubai negatively perceived their own professional role. They stated that there are number of barriers which hinder optimized delivery of pharmacy services like under-estimation by pharmacy clients and other healthcare professionals, pressure to make sales, and high running cost.

  9. Recruitment of EB1, a Master Regulator of Microtubule Dynamics, to the Surface of the Theileria annulata Schizont

    KAUST Repository

    Woods, Kerry L.

    2013-05-09

    The apicomplexan parasite Theileria annulata transforms infected host cells, inducing uncontrolled proliferation and clonal expansion of the parasitized cell population. Shortly after sporozoite entry into the target cell, the surrounding host cell membrane is dissolved and an array of host cell microtubules (MTs) surrounds the parasite, which develops into the transforming schizont. The latter does not egress to invade and transform other cells. Instead, it remains tethered to host cell MTs and, during mitosis and cytokinesis, engages the cell\\'s astral and central spindle MTs to secure its distribution between the two daughter cells. The molecular mechanism by which the schizont recruits and stabilizes host cell MTs is not known. MT minus ends are mostly anchored in the MT organizing center, while the plus ends explore the cellular space, switching constantly between phases of growth and shrinkage (called dynamic instability). Assuming the plus ends of growing MTs provide the first point of contact with the parasite, we focused on the complex protein machinery associated with these structures. We now report how the schizont recruits end-binding protein 1 (EB1), a central component of the MT plus end protein interaction network and key regulator of host cell MT dynamics. Using a range of in vitro experiments, we demonstrate that T. annulata p104, a polymorphic antigen expressed on the schizont surface, functions as a genuine EB1-binding protein and can recruit EB1 in the absence of any other parasite proteins. Binding strictly depends on a consensus SxIP motif located in a highly disordered C-terminal region of p104. We further show that parasite interaction with host cell EB1 is cell cycle regulated. This is the first description of a pathogen-encoded protein to interact with EB1 via a bona-fide SxIP motif. Our findings provide important new insight into the mode of interaction between Theileria and the host cell cytoskeleton. 2013 Woods et al.

  10. Recruitment of EB1, a master regulator of microtubule dynamics, to the surface of the Theileria annulata schizont.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry L Woods

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The apicomplexan parasite Theileria annulata transforms infected host cells, inducing uncontrolled proliferation and clonal expansion of the parasitized cell population. Shortly after sporozoite entry into the target cell, the surrounding host cell membrane is dissolved and an array of host cell microtubules (MTs surrounds the parasite, which develops into the transforming schizont. The latter does not egress to invade and transform other cells. Instead, it remains tethered to host cell MTs and, during mitosis and cytokinesis, engages the cell's astral and central spindle MTs to secure its distribution between the two daughter cells. The molecular mechanism by which the schizont recruits and stabilizes host cell MTs is not known. MT minus ends are mostly anchored in the MT organizing center, while the plus ends explore the cellular space, switching constantly between phases of growth and shrinkage (called dynamic instability. Assuming the plus ends of growing MTs provide the first point of contact with the parasite, we focused on the complex protein machinery associated with these structures. We now report how the schizont recruits end-binding protein 1 (EB1, a central component of the MT plus end protein interaction network and key regulator of host cell MT dynamics. Using a range of in vitro experiments, we demonstrate that T. annulata p104, a polymorphic antigen expressed on the schizont surface, functions as a genuine EB1-binding protein and can recruit EB1 in the absence of any other parasite proteins. Binding strictly depends on a consensus SxIP motif located in a highly disordered C-terminal region of p104. We further show that parasite interaction with host cell EB1 is cell cycle regulated. This is the first description of a pathogen-encoded protein to interact with EB1 via a bona-fide SxIP motif. Our findings provide important new insight into the mode of interaction between Theileria and the host cell cytoskeleton.

  11. Bond strength and stress measurements in thermal barrier coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gell, M.; Jordan, E.

    1995-12-31

    Thermal barrier coatings have been used extensively in aircraft gas turbines for more than 15 years to insulate combustors and turbine vanes from the hot gas stream. Plasma sprayed thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) provide metal temperature reductions as much as 300{degrees}F, with improvements in durability of two times or more being achieved. The introduction of TBCs deposited by electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) processes in the last five years has provided a major improvement in durability and also enabled TBCs to be applied to turbine blades for improved engine performance. This program evaluates the bond strength of yttria stabilized zirconia coatings with MCrAlY and Pt-Al bond coats utilizing diffraction and fluorescence methods.

  12. Drivers and barriers among householders to managing domestic wastewater treatment systems in the Republic of Ireland; implications for risk prevention behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devitt, Catherine; O'Neill, Eoin; Waldron, Richard

    2016-04-01

    Septic systems that are malfunctioning, improperly sited or designed, present a contamination risk to drinking water sources, and subsequently, to human health. However, the international literature identifies gaps in householder knowledge regarding the function and maintenance requirements of septic systems, and also the potential health and environmental risk implications. Allied with householder fears related to the financial cost of risk management, these factors tend to reduce concern to recognise a malfunctioning system. In the Republic of Ireland, three-quarters of households in rural areas utilise an individual domestic wastewater treatment system (or septic system). Consequently, a significant portion of rural households that rely on groundwater sources via private-well use are at risk. Ireland reports one of the highest crude incidence rates of Verotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC) infection in the European Union, and waterborne transmission related to contact with untreated or poorly treated water from private water sources is a factor in its transmission. Following recent Irish legislative change that places a duty of care on individual householders to ensure a proper system functioning, this exploratory study examines perceptions towards the risk management of septic systems among Irish householders. Using qualitative research methods, four focus groups selected on the basis of geographical variation, and two semi-structured interviews were conducted. While most householders agreed that poorly maintained septic systems represented a threat to the environment and to public health, none reported to having a regular maintenance routine in place. Thematic analysis revealed the drivers and barriers to septic system maintenance, and preferences of householders pertaining to communication on septic systems. The Health Belief Model is employed to help understand results. Results suggest that householder capacity to engage in regular risk management is reduced

  13. Disruption of the blood–brain barrier in pigs naturally infected with Taenia solium, untreated and after anthelmintic treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-Giraldez, Cristina; Marzal, Miguel; Cangalaya, Carla; Balboa, Diana; Orrego, Miguel Ángel; Paredes, Adriana; Gonzales-Gustavson, Eloy; Arroyo, Gianfranco; García, Hector H.; González, Armando E.; Mahanty, Siddhartha; Nash, Theodore E.

    2014-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis is a widely prevalent disease in the tropics that causes seizures and a variety of neurological symptoms in most of the world. Experimental models are limited and do not allow assessment of the degree of inflammation around brain cysts. The vital dye Evans Blue (EB) was injected into 11 pigs naturally infected with Taenia solium cysts to visually identify the extent of disruption of the blood brain barrier. A total of 369 cysts were recovered from the 11 brains and classified according to the staining of their capsules as blue or unstained. The proportion of cysts with blue capsules was significantly higher in brains from pigs that had received anthelmintic treatment 48 and 120 h before the EB infusion, indicating a greater compromise of the blood brain barrier due to treatment. The model could be useful for understanding the pathology of treatment-induced inflammation in neurocysticercosis. PMID:23684909

  14. Multinucleon transfer reactions for the sup 50 Ti+ sup 93 Nb system at sub- and near-barrier energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, H.J.; Gomez del Campo, J.; Shapira, D.; Stelson, P.H. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Napoli, D.; Scarlassara, F. (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Legnaro (Italy). Lab. Nazionale di Legnaro); D' Onofrio, A. (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Naples (Italy)); Wieleczko, J.P. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA) CEA Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France))

    1990-06-01

    A significant yield of multinucleon-transfer products is observed at back angles in quasielastic reactions between {sup 50}Ti and {sup 93}Nb at sub- and near-barrier energies. A variety of nuclidic species that require transfers of up to four nucleons are observed for E{sub c.m.} {ge} 103.9 MeV. The internuclear separation distance where the multinucleon-transfer products first emerge nearly coincides with the closest approach distance of the experimentally established fusion threshold energy, indicating a common origin for the fusion enhancement and multinucleon-transfer reactions.

  15. Local blood-brain barrier penetration following systemic contrast medium administration. A case report and an experimental study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Utz, R.; Ekholm, S.E.; Isaac, L.; Sands, M.; Fonte, D.

    The present study was initiated by a severe complication in a patient with renal dysfunction who developed cortical blindness and weakness of her left extremities 30 hours following renal and abdominal angiography. To evaluate the impact of prolonged high serum concentrations of contrast medium (CM) this clinical situation was simulated in a laboratory model using sheep with elevated serum levels of contrast medium maintained for 48 hours. The experimental data did not support the theory that the prolonged exposure to high circulating levels of contrast medium (4 ml/kg body weight of meglumine diatrizoate 60%) is sufficient alone to cause penetration of the blood-brain barrier.

  16. Microtubule dynamics control HGF-induced lung endothelial barrier enhancement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyong Tian

    Full Text Available Microtubules (MT play a vital role in many cellular functions, but their role in peripheral actin cytoskeletal dynamics which is essential for control of endothelial barrier and monolayer integrity is less understood. We have previously described the enhancement of lung endothelial cell (EC barrier by hepatocyte growth factor (HGF which was associated with Rac1-mediated remodeling of actin cytoskeleton. This study investigated involvement of MT-dependent mechanisms in the HGF-induced enhancement of EC barrier. HGF-induced Rac1 activation was accompanied by phosphorylation of stathmin, a regulator of MT dynamics. HGF also stimulated MT peripheral growth monitored by time lapse imaging and tracking analysis of EB-1-decorated MT growing tips, and increased the pool of acetylated tubulin. These effects were abolished by EC pretreatment with HGF receptor inhibitor, downregulation of Rac1 pathway, or by expression of a stathmin-S63A phosphorylation deficient mutant. Expression of stathmin-S63A abolished the HGF protective effects against thrombin-induced activation of RhoA cascade, permeability increase, and EC barrier dysfunction. These results demonstrate a novel MT-dependent mechanism of HGF-induced EC barrier regulation via Rac1/PAK1/stathmin-dependent control of MT dynamics.

  17. Low Conductivity Thermal Barrier Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dong-Ming

    2005-01-01

    Thermal barrier coatings will be more aggressively designed to protect gas turbine engine hot-section components in order to meet future engine higher fuel efficiency and lower emission goals. In this presentation, thermal barrier coating development considerations and requirements will be discussed. An experimental approach is established to monitor in real time the thermal conductivity of the coating systems subjected to high-heat-flux, steady-state and cyclic temperature gradients. Advanced low conductivity thermal barrier coatings have also been developed using a multi-component defect clustering approach, and shown to have improved thermal stability. The durability and erosion resistance of low conductivity thermal barrier coatings have been improved utilizing advanced coating architecture design, composition optimization, in conjunction with more sophisticated modeling and design tools.

  18. Kinetic Monte Carlo Simulation of EB-PVD Film: Effects of Substrate Temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAN Ying-chun; HE Xiao-dong; LI Ming-wei; LI Yao; XU Jiu-jun

    2006-01-01

    The 2D kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulation was used to study the effects of different substrate temperatures on the microstructure of Ni-Cr films in the process of deposition by the electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD). In the KMC model, substrate was assumed to be a "surface" of tight-packed rows, and the simulation includes two phenomena: adatom-surface collision and adatom diffusion. While the interaction between atoms was described by the embedded atom method, the jumping energy was calculated by the molecular static (MS) calculation. The initial location of the adatom was defined by the Momentum Scheme. The results reveal that there exists a critical substrate temperature which means that the lowest packing density and the highest surface roughness structure will be achieved when the temperature is lower than the smaller critical value, while the roughness of both surfaces and the void contents keep decreasing with the substrate temperature increasing until it reaches the higher critical value. The results also indicate that the critical substrate temperature rises as the deposition rate increases.

  19. High resolution hole patterning with EB lithography for NIL template production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, Mana; Yagawa, Keisuke; Motokawa, Takeharu; Hagihara, Kazuki; Suenaga, Machiko; Saito, Masato; Kanamitsu, Shingo; Itoh, Masamitsu

    2016-05-01

    Nano imprint lithography (NIL) is one to one lithography and contact transfer technique using template. Therefore, the lithography performance depends greatly on the quality of the template pattern. In this study, we investigated the resolution and the defect level for hole patterning using chemical amplified resists (CAR) and VSB type EB writer, EBM9000. To form smaller pattern with high quality, high resolution resist process and high sensitivity etching process are needed. After these elements were optimized, we succeeded to form 24 nm dense hole pattern on template. In general, it is difficult to suppress the defect density in a large area because of fogging effect and process loading and so forth. However, from the view point of defect quality, 26 nm hole pattern is achieved to form with practical level in a large area. Therefore, we indicate the capability of forming 26 nm hole master template which will be required in 2019 from ITRS2013. These results show that this process is possible to obtain less than 30 nm hole pattern without enormous writing time. As future work, we will imprint master to replica template and check the printability.

  20. Tumor Suppressor RARRES1 Regulates DLG2, PP2A, VCP, EB1, and Ankrd26

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziad J. Sahab, Michael D. Hall, Lihua Zhang, Amrita K. Cheema, Stephen W. Byers

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Retinoic Acid Receptor Responder (RARRES1 initially identified as a novel retinoic acid receptor regulated gene in the skin is a putative tumor suppressor of unknown function. RARRES1 was knocked down in immortalized human prostatic epithelial cell line PWR-1E cells and differential protein expression was identified using differential in-gel electrophoresis (DIGE followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI mass spectrometry and western Blot analysis excluding highly abundant proteins routinely identified in almost all proteomics projects. Knock-down of RARRES1: 1- down-regulates PP2A, an enzyme involved in the negative regulation of the growth hormone-stimulated signal transduction pathways; 2- down-regulates Valosin-containing protein causing impaired autophagy; 3- up-regulates the tumor suppressor disks large 2; 4- up-regulates Ankrd26 that belongs to the POTE family of genes that are highly expressed in cancer patients with poor outcome; and 5- down-regulates EB1, a protein that is involved in spindle dynamics and chromosome alignment during mitosis.

  1. Mechanical properties of TIG and EB weld joints of F82H

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirose, Takanori, E-mail: hirose.takanori@jaea.go.jp; Sakasegawa, Hideo; Nakajima, Motoki; Tanigawa, Hiroyasu

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Narrow groove TIG minimized volume of F82H weld. • Mechanical properties of TIG and EB welds of F82H have been characterized. • Post weld heat treatment successfully moderate the toughness of weld metal without softening the base metal. - Abstract: This work investigates mechanical properties of weld joints of a reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel, F82H and effects of post weld heat treatment on the welds. Vickers hardness, tensile and Charpy impact tests were conducted on F82H weld joints prepared using tungsten-inert-gas and electron beam after various heat treatments. Although narrow groove tungsten-inert-gas welding reduced volume of weld bead, significant embrittlement was observed in a heat affected zone transformed due to heat input. Post weld heat treatment above 993 K successfully moderated the brittle transformed region. The hardness of the brittle region strongly depends on the heat treatment temperature. Meanwhile, strength of base metal was slightly reduced by the treatment at temperature ranging from 993 to 1053 K. Moreover, softening due to double welding was observed only in the weld metal, but negligible in base metal.

  2. TOXICITY OF EB-82 APHIDICIDE ON MACROSIPHUM ROSAE AND THE INFLUENCE OF TEMPERATURE AND HUMIDITY%EB-82灭蚜菌对蔷薇长管蚜的毒力及温湿度对其的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马江; 龙厚茹

    1998-01-01

    @@ 蔷薇长管蚜(Macrosiphum rosae L.)是蔷薇(Rosa amblyotis)、月季(Rosa chinensis)等花卉上重要的害虫之一(严衡元等,1985).程素琴(内部资料,1985)报道了生物农药EB-82灭蚜菌对蔬菜及花卉上多种蚜虫有较好的防治效果.本试验在室内采用点滴法研究不同浓度的EB-82灭蚜菌对蔷薇长管蚜的毒力及温湿度对其的影响.现将结果报告如下.

  3. Desiccation-Induced Volumetric Shrinkage of Compacted Metakaolin-Treated Black Cotton Soil for a Hydraulic Barriers System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moses George

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Black cotton soil treated with up to 24% metakaolin (MCL content was prepared by molding water contents of −2, 0, 2, 4 and 6% of optimum moisture content (OMC and compacted with British Standard Light (BSL and West African Standard (WAS or ‘Intermediate’ energies. The specimens were extruded from the compaction molds and allowed to air dry in a laboratory in order to assess the effect of desiccation-induced shrinkage on the compacted mix for use as a hydraulic barrier in a waste containment application. The results recorded show that the volumetric shrinkage strain (VSS values were large within the first 10 days of drying; the VSS values increased with a higher molding of the water content, relative to the OMC. The VSS generally increased with a higher initial degree of saturation for the two compactive efforts, irrespective of the level of MCL treatment. Generally, the VSS decreased with an increasing MCL content. Only specimens treated with a minimum 20% MCL content and compacted with the WAS energy satisfied the regulatory maximum VSS of 4% for use as a hydraulic barrier.

  4. Desiccation-Induced Volumetric Shrinkage of Compacted Metakaolin-Treated Black Cotton Soil for a Hydraulic Barriers System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, George; Peter, Oriola F. O.; Osinubi, Kolawole J.

    2016-03-01

    Black cotton soil treated with up to 24% metakaolin (MCL) content was prepared by molding water contents of -2, 0, 2, 4 and 6% of optimum moisture content (OMC) and compacted with British Standard Light (BSL) and West African Standard (WAS) or `Intermediate' energies. The specimens were extruded from the compaction molds and allowed to air dry in a laboratory in order to assess the effect of desiccation-induced shrinkage on the compacted mix for use as a hydraulic barrier in a waste containment application. The results recorded show that the volumetric shrinkage strain (VSS) values were large within the first 10 days of drying; the VSS values increased with a higher molding of the water content, relative to the OMC. The VSS generally increased with a higher initial degree of saturation for the two compactive efforts, irrespective of the level of MCL treatment. Generally, the VSS decreased with an increasing MCL content. Only specimens treated with a minimum 20% MCL content and compacted with the WAS energy satisfied the regulatory maximum VSS of 4% for use as a hydraulic barrier.

  5. Facilitators and Barriers to Safe Medication Administration to Hospital Inpatients: A Mixed Methods Study of Nurses' Medication Administration Processes and Systems (the MAPS Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monsey McLeod

    Full Text Available Research has documented the problem of medication administration errors and their causes. However, little is known about how nurses administer medications safely or how existing systems facilitate or hinder medication administration; this represents a missed opportunity for implementation of practical, effective, and low-cost strategies to increase safety.To identify system factors that facilitate and/or hinder successful medication administration focused on three inter-related areas: nurse practices and workarounds, workflow, and interruptions and distractions.We used a mixed-methods ethnographic approach involving observational fieldwork, field notes, participant narratives, photographs, and spaghetti diagrams to identify system factors that facilitate and/or hinder successful medication administration in three inpatient wards, each from a different English NHS trust. We supplemented this with quantitative data on interruptions and distractions among other established medication safety measures.Overall, 43 nurses on 56 drug rounds were observed. We identified a median of 5.5 interruptions and 9.6 distractions per hour. We identified three interlinked themes that facilitated successful medication administration in some situations but which also acted as barriers in others: (1 system configurations and features, (2 behaviour types among nurses, and (3 patient interactions. Some system configurations and features acted as a physical constraint for parts of the drug round, however some system effects were partly dependent on nurses' inherent behaviour; we grouped these behaviours into 'task focused', and 'patient-interaction focused'. The former contributed to a more streamlined workflow with fewer interruptions while the latter seemed to empower patients to act as a defence barrier against medication errors by being: (1 an active resource of information, (2 a passive information resource, and/or (3 a 'double-checker'.We have identified practical

  6. Health system barriers to access and use of magnesium sulfate for women with severe pre-eclampsia and eclampsia in Pakistan: evidence for policy and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigdeli, Maryam; Zafar, Shamsa; Assad, Hafeez; Ghaffar, Adbul

    2013-01-01

    Severe pre-eclampsia and eclampsia are rare but serious complications of pregnancy that threaten the lives of mothers during childbirth. Evidence supports the use of magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) as the first line treatment option for severe pre-eclampsia and eclampsia. Eclampsia is the third major cause of maternal mortality in Pakistan. As in many other Low- and Middle-Income Countries (LMIC), it is suspected that MgSO4 is critically under-utilized in the country. There is however a lack of information on context-specific health system barriers that prevent optimal use of this life-saving medicine in Pakistan. Combining quantitative and qualitative methods, namely policy document review, key informant interviews, focus group discussions and direct observation at health facility, we explored context-specific health system barriers and enablers that affect access and use of MgSO4 for severe pre-eclampsia and eclampsia in Pakistan. Our study finds that while international recommendations on MgSO4 have been adequately translated in national policies in Pakistan, the gap remains in implementation of national policies into practice. Barriers to access to and effective use of MgSO4 occur at health facility level where the medicine was not available and health staff was reluctant to use it. Low price of the medicine and the small market related to its narrow indications acted as disincentives for effective marketing. Results of our survey were further discussed in a multi-stakeholder round-table meeting and an action plan for increasing access to this life-saving medicine was identified.

  7. Health system barriers to access and use of magnesium sulfate for women with severe pre-eclampsia and eclampsia in Pakistan: evidence for policy and practice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Bigdeli

    Full Text Available Severe pre-eclampsia and eclampsia are rare but serious complications of pregnancy that threaten the lives of mothers during childbirth. Evidence supports the use of magnesium sulfate (MgSO4 as the first line treatment option for severe pre-eclampsia and eclampsia. Eclampsia is the third major cause of maternal mortality in Pakistan. As in many other Low- and Middle-Income Countries (LMIC, it is suspected that MgSO4 is critically under-utilized in the country. There is however a lack of information on context-specific health system barriers that prevent optimal use of this life-saving medicine in Pakistan. Combining quantitative and qualitative methods, namely policy document review, key informant interviews, focus group discussions and direct observation at health facility, we explored context-specific health system barriers and enablers that affect access and use of MgSO4 for severe pre-eclampsia and eclampsia in Pakistan. Our study finds that while international recommendations on MgSO4 have been adequately translated in national policies in Pakistan, the gap remains in implementation of national policies into practice. Barriers to access to and effective use of MgSO4 occur at health facility level where the medicine was not available and health staff was reluctant to use it. Low price of the medicine and the small market related to its narrow indications acted as disincentives for effective marketing. Results of our survey were further discussed in a multi-stakeholder round-table meeting and an action plan for increasing access to this life-saving medicine was identified.

  8. EBV逃避宿主免疫的机制%The Mechanism of EB Virus to Evade the Host Immune

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张军华(综述); 田兴德(审校)

    2015-01-01

    In order to resist the host immune system in the infection process ,EB virus ( EBV) produced a series of interference of human immune system.EBV can latent in the B cells of host for a long-term after infection and interference the expression of host MHC to affect the host immune system .EBV BCRF1 protein can induce the creation of Th2 cells,BARF1 protein can induce secretion of IFN-α.Many viral proteins could interfere in the cytokine network.The BHRF1 protein encoded by EBV may play an anti apoptotic role in host body.This paper describes many mechanisms of EBV to evade from the host immune .In this paper, latest re-search progress in immune evasion of EBV is summarized to provide a reference for EBV prevention and con-trol as well as the design of new vaccines.%EB病毒(EBV)在感染宿主的过程中需要克服宿主免疫系统的防御,因此衍生了一系列干扰人体免疫的策略。 EBV感染后会长期潜伏在宿主B细胞中,并对宿主MHC分子的表达进行干扰,影响宿主的抗病毒免疫。 EBV表达的BCRF1蛋白可刺激Th2细胞的产生,BARF1蛋白可诱发α型干扰素等细胞因子的分泌,多种病毒蛋白均可干扰细胞因子网络。同时 EBV 编码的 BHRF1等蛋白可发挥抗凋亡作用。该文就EBV免疫逃避的最新研究进展进行了归纳总结,以期为EBV防控、新型疫苗设计等提供参考。

  9. Thermal cycling behavior of EB-PVD TBCs on CVD platinum modified aluminide coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Zhenhua, E-mail: zhxubiam@aliyun.com; Wang, Zhankao; Huang, Guanghong; Mu, Rende; He, Limin

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • The removed ridges at the grain boundaries with grit blasting. • The ridge, oxidation and cracking are features of damage initiation in TBCs. • Spalled location either at TGO/bond coat interface or inside of TGO layer. • The lower strain energy release rate within TGO layer can prolong of TBCs life. - Abstract: Thermal barrier coating systems (TBCs) including of chemical vapor deposited (Ni, Pt)Al bond coat with grit blasting process and electron beam physical vapor deposited Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-stabilized-ZrO{sub 2} (YSZ) ceramic coating were investigated. The phase structures, surface and cross-sectional morphologies, cyclic oxidation behaviors and residual stresses of the TBCs were studied in detail. It was found that the fracture path traverses through the ceramic coating to TGO interface, as well as at the TGO to bond coat interface is obviously detected. The change in fracture plane occurs at grain boundaries. The ridge top spallation leads to separate of sufficient size to result in unstable fracture driven by the strain energy stored in the TGO. The bond coat can undergo a volume increase upon oxidation, so that a cavity, enlarged strictly by oxidation would be full to overflowing with TGO layer. The spalled location of the TBCs probably occurs either at the interface of TGO layer and bond coat or inside of TGO layer. The lower strain energy release rate within TGO layer during thermal cycling is beneficial to prolong of TBCs life. The lower is the compressive stress within TGO layer, the longer is the lifetime of TBCs.

  10. Multi-Barrier Protection of Drinking Water Systems in Ontario: A Comparison of First Nation and Non-First Nation Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budhendra Singh

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In some way or another, all levels of government in Canada and First Nations share responsibility to implement multi-barrier protection of drinking water. The goal is to protect water from source to tap to minimize risk so that people have access to adequate and safe drinking water. The federal government has committed to assist First Nations achieve comparable levels of service standards available to non-First Nation communities. However, several recent reports on the status of drinking water services standards in First Nations indicate that people in these communities often experience greater health risks than those living off reserves. Using the federal drinking water risk evaluation guidelines, the capacities of First Nations and non-First Nations in Ontario to implement multi-barrier protection of their drinking water systems are compared. The Risk Level Evaluation Guidelines for Water and Wastewater Treatment in First Nation Communities rank drinking water systems as low, medium, or high risk based on information about source water, system design, system operation, reporting, and operator expertise. The risk evaluation scores for First Nations drinking water systems were obtained from Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada. A survey based on the federal Risk Level Evaluation Guidelines was sent to non-First Nation communities throughout Ontario with 54 communities responding. The capacity among First Nations was variable throughout the province, whereas all of the municipalities were in the low risk category, even small and northern non-First Nation community water systems. It is clear that the financial and technological capacity issues should be addressed regardless of the legislative and regulatory regime that is established. The current governance and management structure does not appear to be significantly reducing the gap in service standards despite financial investment. Exploring social or other underlying determinants

  11. Oil palm empty fruit bunch as alternative substrate for acetone-butanol-ethanol production by Clostridium butyricum EB6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mohamad Faizal; Abd-Aziz, Suraini; Razak, Mohamad Nafis Abdul; Phang, Lai Yee; Hassan, Mohd Ali

    2012-04-01

    Acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) production from renewable resources has been widely reported. In this study, Clostridium butyricum EB6 was employed for ABE fermentation using fermentable sugar derived from treated oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB). A higher amount of ABE (2.61 g/l) was produced in a fermentation using treated OPEFB as the substrate when compared to a glucose based medium that produced 0.24 g/l at pH 5.5. ABE production was increased to 3.47 g/l with a yield of 0.24 g/g at pH 6.0. The fermentation using limited nitrogen concentration of 3 g/l improved the ABE yield by 64%. The study showed that OPEFB has the potential to be applied for renewable ABE production by C. butyricum EB6.

  12. Targeting FMS-related tyrosine kinase receptor 3 with the human immunoglobulin G1 monoclonal antibody IMC-EB10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssoufian, Hagop; Rowinsky, Eric K; Tonra, James; Li, Yiwen

    2010-02-15

    FMS-related tyrosine kinase receptor 3 (FLT3) is a class III receptor tyrosine kinase that holds considerable promise as a therapeutic target in hematologic malignancies. Current efforts directed toward the development of small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors of FLT3 may be limited by off-target toxicities and the development of drug resistance. Target-specific antibodies could overcome these hurdles and provide additional mechanisms to enhance the antitumor efficacy of FLT3 inhibitors. IMC-EB10 is a novel antibody directed against FLT3. The binding of IMC-EB10 to FLT3 results in antiproliferative effects in vitro and in mouse models engrafted with human leukemia cells that harbor wild-type or constitutively activated FLT3. Future clinical trials will test these notions formally and will identify the most appropriate opportunities for this member of a new generation of antileukemic therapies.

  13. Drug Delivery Through the Skin: Molecular Simulations of Barrier Lipids to Design more Effective Noninvasive Dermal and Transdermal Delivery Systems for Small Molecules Biologics and Cosmetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J Torin Huzil; S Sivaloganathan; M Kohandel; M Foldvari

    2011-12-31

    The delivery of drugs through the skin provides a convenient route of administration that is often preferable to injection because it is noninvasive and can typically be self-administered. These two factors alone result in a significant reduction of medical complications and improvement in patient compliance. Unfortunately, a significant obstacle to dermal and transdermal drug delivery alike is the resilient barrier that the epidermal layers of the skin, primarily the stratum corneum, presents for the diffusion of exogenous chemical agents. Further advancement of transdermal drug delivery requires the development of novel delivery systems that are suitable for modern, macromolecular protein and nucleotide therapeutic agents. Significant effort has already been devoted to obtain a functional understanding of the physical barrier properties imparted by the epidermis, specifically the membrane structures of the stratum corneum. However, structural observations of membrane systems are often hindered by low resolutions, making it difficult to resolve the molecular mechanisms related to interactions between lipids found within the stratum corneum. Several models describing the molecular diffusion of drug molecules through the stratum corneum have now been postulated, where chemical permeation enhancers are thought to disrupt the underlying lipid structure, resulting in enhanced permeability. Recent investigations using biphasic vesicles also suggested a possibility for novel mechanisms involving the formation of complex polymorphic lipid phases. In this review, we discuss the advantages and limitations of permeation-enhancing strategies and how computational simulations, at the atomic scale, coupled with physical observations can provide insight into the mechanisms of diffusion through the stratum corneum.

  14. Planet formation in stellar binaries II: overcoming the fragmentation barrier in alpha Centauri and gamma Cephei-like systems

    CERN Document Server

    Rafikov, Roman R

    2014-01-01

    Planet formation in small-separation (~20 AU) eccentric binaries such as gamma Cephei or alpha Centauri is believed to be adversely affected by the presence of the stellar companion. Strong dynamical excitation of planetesimals by the eccentric companion can result in collisional destruction (rather than growth) of 1-100 km objects, giving rise to the "fragmentation barrier" for planet formation. We revise this issue using a novel description of secular dynamics of planetesimals in binaries, which accounts for the gravity of the eccentric, coplanar protoplanetary disk, as well as gas drag. By studying planetesimal collision outcomes we show, in contrast to many previous studies, that planetesimal growth and subsequent formation of planets (including gas giants) in AU-scale orbits within ~20 AU separation binaries may be possible, provided that the protoplanetary disks are massive (>10^{-2}M_\\odot) and only weakly eccentric (disk eccentricity <0.01). These requirements are compatible with both the existence...

  15. A novel EB-1/AIDA-1 isoform, AIDA-1c, interacts with the Cajal body protein coilin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hebert Michael D

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cajal bodies (CBs are nuclear suborganelles that play a role in the biogenesis of small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs, which are crucial for pre-mRNA splicing. Upon nuclear reentry, Sm-class snRNPs localize first to the CB, where the snRNA moiety of the snRNP is modified. It is not clear how snRNPs target to the CB and are released from this structure after their modification. Coilin, the CB marker protein, may participate in snRNP biogenesis given that it can interact with snRNPs and SMN. SMN is crucial for snRNP assembly and is the protein mutated in the neurodegenerative disease Spinal Muscular Atrophy. Coilin knockout mice display significant viability problems and altered CB formation. Thus characterization of the CB and its associated proteins will give insight into snRNP biogenesis and clarify the dynamic organization of the nucleus. Results In this report, we identify a novel protein isoform of EB-1/AIDA-1, termed AIDA-1c, that interacts with the CB marker protein, coilin. Northern and nested PCR experiments reveal that the AIDA-1c isoform is expressed in brain and several cancer cell lines. Competition binding experiments demonstrate that AIDA-1c competes with SmB' for coilin binding sites, but does not bind SMN. When ectopically expressed, AIDA-1c is predominantly nuclear with no obvious accumulations in CBs. Interestingly, another EB-1/AIDA-1 nuclear isoform, AIDA-1a, does not bind coilin in vivo as efficiently as AIDA-1c. Knockdown of EB-1/AIDA-1 isoforms by siRNA altered Cajal body organization and reduced cell viability. Conclusion These data suggest that specific EB-1/AIDA-1 isoforms, such as AIDA-1c, may participate in the regulation of nucleoplasmic coilin protein interactions in neuronal and transformed cells.

  16. Kank Is an EB1 interacting protein that localises to muscle-tendon attachment sites in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara M R Clohisey

    Full Text Available Little is known about how microtubules are regulated in different cell types during development. EB1 plays a central role in the regulation of microtubule plus ends. It directly binds to microtubule plus ends and recruits proteins which regulate microtubule dynamics and behaviour. We report the identification of Kank, the sole Drosophila orthologue of human Kank proteins, as an EB1 interactor that predominantly localises to embryonic attachment sites between muscle and tendon cells. Human Kank1 was identified as a tumour suppressor and has documented roles in actin regulation and cell polarity in cultured mammalian cells. We found that Drosophila Kank binds EB1 directly and this interaction is essential for Kank localisation to microtubule plus ends in cultured cells. Kank protein is expressed throughout fly development and increases during embryogenesis. In late embryos, it accumulates to sites of attachment between muscle and epidermal cells. A kank deletion mutant was generated. We found that the mutant is viable and fertile without noticeable defects. Further analysis showed that Kank is dispensable for muscle function in larvae. This is in sharp contrast to C. elegans in which the Kank orthologue VAB-19 is required for development by stabilising attachment structures between muscle and epidermal cells.

  17. Thermal sensor properties of PANI(EB)–CSA ( = 0.4 ± 0.1 mol) polymer thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T Prakash; S A K Narayan Dass; K Prem Nazeer

    2002-11-01

    Films of polyaniline(EB) doped with camphor sulfonic acid (CSA) from -cresol on glass substrates exhibit considerable metallic properties. Such polymer metallic films have thermal sensitivity superior to ceramic metal (Cermet) films, prepared by metallo organic deposition (MOD) technique on silicon substrates. These PANI(EB)–CSA ( = 0.5, 0.4, 0.3 mol) polymer films were developed through controlled temperature atmosphere 60 ± 2°C for 60 min, and with the help of temperature dependence of resistivity (ρ) values, high temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) i.e. values, and figure of merit (ρ ) values of these films, thermal sensitivity were compared from that we observed. Among the three doping ratios the PANI(EB)–CSA$_{0.3 mol}$ film (4.4 m thick) on glass substrate resistivity (ρ) values in the range of 838–1699 .m with high TCR i.e. = 10,291 ppm/°C and figure of merit (ρ ) value in range of 8.62–17.48 m/°C seems to be the best. This paper deals with these superior thermal-sensing properties together with optical studies and surface topography by atomic force microscopy (AFM). These polymer films offer design advantages in developing ‘thin film polymer thermal sensor’.

  18. Elemental imaging of organic matter and associated metals in ore deposits using micro PIXE and micro-EBS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchs, S., E-mail: fuchs@geomin.eu [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, McGill University, 3450 University Street, Montreal H3A 0E8 (Canada); Przybylowicz, W.J., E-mail: przybylowicz@tlabs.ac.za [Materials Research Department, iThemba LABS, National Research Foundation, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa); AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, Al. A. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Williams-Jones, A.E., E-mail: anthony.williams-jones@mcgill.ca [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, McGill University, 3450 University Street, Montreal H3A 0E8 (Canada)

    2014-01-01

    Micro-PIXE and micro-EBS analyses were carried out on samples from the Au–U-bearing Carbon Leader Reef of the Witwatersrand in South Africa to investigate the role of organic matter in the formation of this deposit. Micro-PIXE and Micro-EBS shows a very complex metal distribution within the bitumen nodules and their interstitial spaces. The style of the gold distribution and its association with epigenetic minerals (REE phosphates, phyllosilicates) indicates that all observed gold migrated in aqueous solution and precipitated by reduction on the surfaces of the bitumen nodules. Uraninite occurrences are confined to the bitumen nodules, which supports the argument of a uraninite paleo-placer; however the pervasive distribution of uranium also supports the argument that uraninite is derived from organo-metallic complexes. This study shows that micro-PIXE is a powerful tool to characterize metals associated with hydrocarbons. However, the organic matrix, the complexity of the obtained spectra and the small size of the minerals have significant influence on the reliability of the quantitative data. Due to highly variable amounts of heavy metals (U, Au, Pb) the obtained micro-EBS results are of questionable quality.

  19. Mechanisms Responsible for the Large Piezoelectricity at the Tetragonal-Orthorhombic Phase Boundary of (1-x)BaZr0.2Ti0.8O3-xBa0.7Ca0.3TiO3 System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tao; Ke, Xiaoqin; Wang, Yunzhi

    2016-09-01

    Recently it was found that in the lead-free (1-x)BaZr0.2Ti0.8O3-xBa0.7Ca0.3TiO3 (BZT-xBCT) system, the highest piezoelectric d33 coefficient appears at the tetragonal (T) – orthorhombic (O) phase boundary rather than the O – rhombohedral (R) phase boundary, but the physical origin of it is still unclear. In this work we construct the phase diagram of the BZT-xBCT system using a generic sixth-order Landau free energy polynomial and calculate the energy barrier (EB) for direct domain switching between two variants of the stable low-symmetry ferroelectric phase. We find that the EB at the T-O phase boundary is lower than that at the O-R phase boundary and EB may serve as a rigorous quantitative measure of the degree of polarization anisotropy through Landau potential. The calculations may shed some light on the physical origin of the highest piezoelectric coefficients as well as the softest elastic compliance at the T-O phase boundary observed in experiments.

  20. Mechanisms Responsible for the Large Piezoelectricity at the Tetragonal-Orthorhombic Phase Boundary of (1-x)BaZr0.2Ti0.8O3-xBa0.7Ca0.3TiO3 System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tao; Ke, Xiaoqin; Wang, Yunzhi

    2016-09-16

    Recently it was found that in the lead-free (1-x)BaZr0.2Ti0.8O3-xBa0.7Ca0.3TiO3 (BZT-xBCT) system, the highest piezoelectric d33 coefficient appears at the tetragonal (T) - orthorhombic (O) phase boundary rather than the O - rhombohedral (R) phase boundary, but the physical origin of it is still unclear. In this work we construct the phase diagram of the BZT-xBCT system using a generic sixth-order Landau free energy polynomial and calculate the energy barrier (EB) for direct domain switching between two variants of the stable low-symmetry ferroelectric phase. We find that the EB at the T-O phase boundary is lower than that at the O-R phase boundary and EB may serve as a rigorous quantitative measure of the degree of polarization anisotropy through Landau potential. The calculations may shed some light on the physical origin of the highest piezoelectric coefficients as well as the softest elastic compliance at the T-O phase boundary observed in experiments.

  1. Creep, Fatigue and Fracture Behavior of Environmental Barrier Coating and SiC-SiC Ceramic Matrix Composite Systems: The Role of Environment Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming; Ghosn, Louis J.

    2015-01-01

    Advanced environmental barrier coating (EBC) systems for low emission SiCSiC CMC combustors and turbine airfoils have been developed to meet next generation engine emission and performance goals. This presentation will highlight the developments of NASAs current EBC system technologies for SiC-SiC ceramic matrix composite combustors and turbine airfoils, their performance evaluation and modeling progress towards improving the engine SiCSiC component temperature capability and long-term durability. Our emphasis has also been placed on the fundamental aspects of the EBC-CMC creep and fatigue behaviors, and their interactions with turbine engine oxidizing and moisture environments. The EBC-CMC environmental degradation and failure modes, under various simulated engine testing environments, in particular involving high heat flux, high pressure, high velocity combustion conditions, will be discussed aiming at quantifying the protective coating functions, performance and durability, and in conjunction with damage mechanics and fracture mechanics approaches.

  2. High-sensitivity green resist material with organic solvent-free spin-coating and tetramethylammonium hydroxide-free water-developable processes for EB and EUV lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takei, Satoshi; Hanabata, Makoto; Oshima, Akihiro; Kashiwakura, Miki; Kozawa, Takahiro; Tagawa, Seiichi

    2015-03-01

    We investigated the eco-friendly electron beam (EB) and extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) lithography using a high-sensitive negative type of green resist material derived from biomass to take advantage of organic solvent-free water spin-coating and tetramethylammonium hydroxide(TMAH)-free water-developable techniques. A water developable, non-chemically amplified, high sensitive, and negative tone resist material in EB lithography was developed for environmental affair, safety, easiness of handling, and health of the working people, instead of the common developable process of TMAH. The material design concept to use the water-soluble resist material with acceptable properties such as pillar patterns with less than 100 nm in high EB sensitivity of 10 μC/cm2 and etch selectivity with a silicon-based middle layer in CF4 plasma treatment was demonstrated for EB and EUV lithography.

  3. [Heinike Heinsoo. Mā ja pūd lēväd, meid eb lē : the subject and the predicate in Votic] / Johanna Laakso

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laakso, Johanna, 1962-

    2012-01-01

    Arvustus: Heinike Heinsoo. Mā ja pūd lēväd, meid eb lē : the subject and the predicate in Votic. Tallinn : Teaduste Akadeemia Kirjastus, 2010. (Linguistica Uralica. Supplementary series ; vol. 4)

  4. [Heinike Heinsoo. Mā ja pūd lēväd, meid eb lē] / Fedor Rozhanskiy

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rozhanskiy, Fedor

    2013-01-01

    Arvustus: Heinike Heinsoo. Mā ja pūd lēväd, meid eb lē : the subject and the predicate in Votic. Tallinn : Teaduste Akadeemia Kirjastus, 2010. (Linguistica Uralica. Supplementary series ; vol. 4)

  5. Cylindrical air flow reversal barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woznica, C.; Rodziewicz, M.

    1988-06-01

    Describes an innovative design introduced in the ZMP mine in Zory for quick reversal of ventilation air flow. Geologic mining conditions at the 705 m deep horizon, where the barrier was built, are described. According to the design used until now, a reversal system consisted of safety barriers, ventilation air locks, a ventilation bridge and stopping needed in case of a fire when air flow direction must be reversed. Nine air locks and an expensive concrete ventilation bridge were needed and the air locks had to be operated at 8 points of the region to effect reversal. The new design consists of a 2-storey cylindrical barrier which also fulfills the function of a ventilation bridge. It can be manually or remotely operated by a mechanical or pneumatic system. Tests showed that the new barrier permits immediate air flow reversal while retaining 60% of the original air, which is important in the case of fire and methane hazards. It permits improved seam panelling and splitting of pillars and brings an economy of about 40 million zlotys in construction cost. Design and operation of the barrier is illustrated and ventilation air circulation is explained. 7 figs.

  6. Integrated geological-engineering model of Patrick Draw field and examples of similarities and differences among various shoreline barrier systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schatzinger, R.A.; Szpakiewicz, M.J.; Jackson, S.R.; Chang, M.M.; Sharma, B.; Tham, M.K.; Cheng, A.M.

    1992-04-01

    The Reservoir Assessment and Characterization Research Program at NIPER employs an interdisciplinary approach that focuses on the high priority reservoir class of shoreline barrier deposits to: (1) determine the problems specific to this class of reservoirs by identifying the reservoir heterogeneities that influence the movement and trapping of fluids; and (2) develop methods to characterize effectively this class of reservoirs to predict residual oil saturation (ROS) on interwell scales and improve prediction of the flow patterns of injected and produced fluids. Accurate descriptions of the spatial distribution of critical reservoir parameters (e.g., permeability, porosity, pore geometry, mineralogy, and oil saturation) are essential for designing and implementing processes to improve sweep efficiency and thereby increase oil recovery. The methodologies and models developed in this program will, in the near- to mid-term, assist producers in the implementation of effective reservoir management strategies such as location of infill wells and selection of optimum enhanced oil recovery methods to maximize oil production from their reservoirs.

  7. Hybridization of natural systems with advanced treatment processes for organic micropollutant removals: new concepts in multi-barrier treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhakaran, Sairam; Maeng, Sung Kyu; Amy, Gary

    2013-07-01

    Organic micropollutants (OMPs) represent a major constraint in drinking water supply. In the past, emphasis has been on individual treatment processes comprising conventional treatment (coagulation, sedimentation, and filtration) followed by advanced treatment processes (adsorption, ion-exchange, oxidation, and membrane separation). With the depletion of water resources and high demand for power and chemical usage, efforts need to be made to judiciously use advanced treatment processes. There is a new interest in multiple barriers with synergies in which two coupled processes can function as a hybrid process. Within the context of this paper, the hybrid processes include a natural treatment process coupled with an advanced process. Pilot/full-scale studies have shown efficient removal of OMPs by these hybrid processes. With this hybridization, the usage of resources such as power and chemicals can be reduced. In this study, coupling/hybridization of aquifer recharge and recovery (ARR) with oxidation (O3), advanced oxidation process which involves OH radicals (AOP), nanofiltration (NF), reverse osmosis (RO) and granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption for OMP removal was studied. O3 or AOP as a pre-treatment and GAC, NF, RO, or UV/chlorination as a post-treatment to ARR was studied. NF can be replaced by RO for removal of OMPs since studies have shown similar performance of NF to RO for removal of many OMPs, thereby reducing costs and providing a more sustainable approach.

  8. Hybridization of natural systems with advanced treatment processes for organic micropollutant removals: New concepts in multi-barrier treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Sudhakaran, Sairam

    2013-07-01

    In the past, emphasis has been on individual treatment processes comprising conventional treatment (coagulation, sedimentation, and filtration) followed by advanced treatment processes (adsorption, ion-exchange, oxidation, and membrane separation). With the depletion of water resources and high demand for power and chemical usage, efforts need to be made to judiciously use advanced treatment processes. There is a new interest in multiple barriers with synergies in which two coupled processes can function as a hybrid process. Within the context of this paper, the hybrid processes include a natural treatment process coupled with an advanced process. Pilot/full-scale studies have shown efficient removal of OMPs by these hybrid processes. With this hybridization, the usage of resources such as power and chemicals can be reduced. In this study, coupling/hybridization of aquifer recharge and recovery (ARR) with oxidation (O3), advanced oxidation process which involves OH radicals (AOP), nanofiltration (NF), reverse osmosis (RO) and granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption for OMP removal was studied. O3 or AOP as a pre-treatment and GAC, NF, RO, or UV/chlorination as a post-treatment to ARR was studied. NF can be replaced by RO for removal of OMPs since studies have shown similar performance of NF to RO for removal of many OMPs, thereby reducing costs and providing a more sustainable approach. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Filaggrin and Skin Barrier Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kezic, Sanja; Jakasa, Ivone

    2016-01-01

    The skin barrier function is greatly dependent on the structure and composition of the uppermost layer of the epidermis, the stratum corneum (SC), which is made up of flattened anucleated cells surrounded by highly organized and continuous lipid matrix. The interior of the corneocytes consists mainly of keratin filaments aggregated by filaggrin (FLG) protein. Next, together with several other proteins, FLG is cross-linked into a mechanically robust cornified cell envelope providing a scaffold for the extracellular lipid matrix. In addition to its role for the SC structural and mechanical integrity, FLG degradation products account in part for the water-holding capacity and maintenance of acidic pH of the SC, both crucial for the epidermal barrier homoeostasis by regulating activity of multiple enzymes that control desquamation, lipid synthesis and inflammation. The major determinant of FLG expression in the skin are loss-of-function mutations in FLG, the strongest genetic risk factor for atopic dermatitis (AD), an inflammatory skin disease characterized by a reduced skin barrier function. The prevalence of FLG mutations varies greatly among different populations and ranges from about 10% in Northern Europeans to less than 1% in the African populations. An impaired skin barrier facilitates absorption of potentially hazardous chemicals, which might cause adverse effects in the skin, such as contact dermatitis, or systemic toxicity after their passage into blood. In another direction, a leaky epidermal barrier will lead to enhanced loss of water from the skin. A recent study has shown that even subtle increase in epidermal water loss in newborns increases the risk for AD. Although there are multiple modes of action by which FLG might affect skin barrier it is still unclear whether and how FLG deficiency leads to the reduced skin barrier function. This chapter summarizes the current knowledge in this field obtained from clinical studies, and animal and in vitro models

  10. Extremal surface barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelhardt, Netta; Wall, Aron C. [Department of Physics, University of California,Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States)

    2014-03-13

    We present a generic condition for Lorentzian manifolds to have a barrier that limits the reach of boundary-anchored extremal surfaces of arbitrary dimension. We show that any surface with nonpositive extrinsic curvature is a barrier, in the sense that extremal surfaces cannot be continuously deformed past it. Furthermore, the outermost barrier surface has nonnegative extrinsic curvature. Under certain conditions, we show that the existence of trapped surfaces implies a barrier, and conversely. In the context of AdS/CFT, these barriers imply that it is impossible to reconstruct the entire bulk using extremal surfaces. We comment on the implications for the firewall controversy.

  11. Safety-barrier diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duijm, Nijs Jan

    2007-01-01

    are discussed. A simple method for quantification of safety-barrier diagrams is proposed, including situations where safety barriers depend on shared common elements. It is concluded that safety-barrier diagrams provide a useful framework for an electronic data structure that integrates information from risk......Safety-barrier diagrams and the related so-called "bow-tie" diagrams have become popular methods in risk analysis. This paper describes the syntax and principles for constructing consistent and valid safety-barrier diagrams. The relation with other methods such as fault trees and Bayesian networks...... analysis with operational safety management....

  12. Barriers to implementation of a computerized decision support system for depression: an observational report on lessons learned in "real world" clinical settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunderajan Prabha

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite wide promotion, clinical practice guidelines have had limited effect in changing physician behavior. Effective implementation strategies to date have included: multifaceted interventions involving audit and feedback, local consensus processes, marketing; reminder systems, either manual or computerized; and interactive educational meetings. In addition, there is now growing evidence that contextual factors affecting implementation must be addressed such as organizational support (leadership procedures and resources for the change and strategies to implement and maintain new systems. Methods To examine the feasibility and effectiveness of implementation of a computerized decision support system for depression (CDSS-D in routine public mental health care in Texas, fifteen study clinicians (thirteen physicians and two advanced nurse practitioners participated across five sites, accruing over 300 outpatient visits on 168 patients. Results Issues regarding computer literacy and hardware/software requirements were identified as initial barriers. Clinicians also reported concerns about negative impact on workflow and the potential need for duplication during the transition from paper to electronic systems of medical record keeping. Conclusion The following narrative report based on observations obtained during the initial testing and use of a CDSS-D in clinical settings further emphasizes the importance of taking into account organizational factors when planning implementation of evidence-based guidelines or decision support within a system.

  13. 小儿急性原发性EB病毒感染临床分析%Children with acute primary EB infection, clinical analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘文梅

    2016-01-01

    Objective To analyze the clinical symptoms of children with acute primary EB infection. Methods In our hospital from January 2013 to January 2016 were admitted to the pediatric acute primary EB virus infection were analyzed using the ELISA method examination, 110 cases were EBV-VCA-IgM positive. Results In 110 cases of infectious mononucleosis in 6 cases accounted for 5.5%, accounted for 40%of 44 cases of acute upper respiratory tract infection, lymphadenitis in 9 cases accounted for 8.2%, 25.5%in 28 cases of acute bronchitis or pneumonia, 4 cases of viral encephalitis were accounted for 3.6%, accounted for 5.5%of 6 cases of viral myocarditis, idiopathic platelet reduction purpura in 7 cases accounted for 6.4%, 5 cases of allergic purpura disease in 1 cases accounted for 4.5%, Kawasaki accounted for 0.9%. Conclusion Children with acute primary EB infection may lead to respiratory system, nervous system, circulatory system and other serious damage, timely treatment, can effectively control the disease.%目的:分析探讨小儿急性原发性E B病毒感染的临床症状。方法:我院于2013年1月至2016年1月共收治的小儿急性原发性EB病毒感染患儿进行分析,使用ELISA法检查,检测EBV-VCA-IgM,阳性110例。结果:110例患儿中,传染性单核细胞增多症6例占5.5%,急性上呼吸道感染44例占40.0%,淋巴结炎9例占8.2%,急性支气管炎或肺炎28例25.5%,病毒性脑炎4例占3.6%,病毒性心肌炎6例占5.5%,特发性血小板减少性紫癜7例占6.4%,过敏性紫癜5例占4.5%,川崎病1例占0.9%。结论:小儿急性原发性EB病毒感染会导致呼吸系统、神经系统、循环系统等的严重损伤,及时治疗,能有效控制病情。

  14. Comparing Repository Types - Challenges and barriers for subject-based repositories, research repositories, national repository systems and institutional repositories in serving scholarly communication

    CERN Document Server

    Armbruster, Chris

    2010-01-01

    After two decades of repository development, some conclusions may be drawn as to which type of repository and what kind of service best supports digital scholarly communication, and thus the production of new knowledge. Four types of publication repository may be distinguished, namely the subject-based repository, research repository, national repository system and institutional repository. Two important shifts in the role of repositories may be noted. With regard to content, a well-defined and high quality corpus is essential. This implies that repository services are likely to be most successful when constructed with the user and reader uppermost in mind. With regard to service, high value to specific scholarly communities is essential. This implies that repositories are likely to be most useful to scholars when they offer dedicated services supporting the production of new knowledge. Along these lines, challenges and barriers to repository development may be identified in three key dimensions: a) identific...

  15. US-China Clean Energy Research Center on Building Energy Efficiency: Materials that Improve the Cost-Effectiveness of Air Barrier Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hun, Diana E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-12-01

    The US–China Clean Energy Research Center (CERC) was launched in 2009 by US Energy Secretary Steven Chu, Chinese Minister of Science and Technology Wan Gang, and Chinese National Energy Agency Administrator Zhang Guobao. This 5-year collaboration emerged from the fact that the United States and China are the world’s largest energy producers, energy consumers, and greenhouse gas emitters, and that their joint effort could have significant positive repercussions worldwide. CERC’s main goal is to develop and deploy clean energy technologies that will help both countries meet energy and climate challenges. Three consortia were established to address the most pressing energy-related research areas: Advanced Coal Technology, Clean Vehicles, and Building Energy Efficiency (BEE). The project discussed in this report was part of the CERC-BEE consortia; its objective was to lower energy use in buildings by developing and evaluating technologies that improve the cost-effectiveness of air barrier systems for building envelopes.

  16. Potential and barrier study. Energy efficiency of Norwegian homes; Potensial- og barrierestudie. Energieffektivisering av norske boliger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mjoenes, Christian; Pettersen, Folke Vogn Haug; Kristoffersen, Bjoerge Sandberg; Birkeland, Bjoern Mangor; Essen, Jan von; Haarberg; Karl Johan

    2012-01-15

    On behalf of Enova SF, Prognosesenteret AS and Entelligens AS carried out a potential and barrier study of energy efficiency of the Norwegian housing stock. The study made use of newer and known studies of the Norwegian housing stock, known and documented barriers to energy efficiency, and new and extensive studies of several topics which have only been partially or never explored before. Through unique analysis and a case-based approach, it revealed a real energy efficiency potential in Norwegian homes with known technology and revealed representativeness, relevance, strength and extent of the barriers that prevent that one can realize most of the technical energy efficiency potential in the Norwegian housing stock. (eb)

  17. Inspection of copper canisters for spent nuclear fuel by means of ultrasound. Ultrasonic imaging of EB weld, theory of harmonic imaging of welds, NDE of cast iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stepinski, T.; Lingvall, F.; Ping Wu [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Materials Science

    2001-07-01

    The objective of task presented in the first chapter, ultrasonic imaging of EB weld is to investigate imaging methods capable of improving ultrasonic imaging of defects in EB-welds. Algorithms based on ideas from ultrasonic tomography were examined as the first step. After a concise review of literature in the field of tomography the attention is focused on synthetic focusing and particularly on using linear phased array systems for imaging. Synthetic focusing is a technique where the focusing is performed by software after gathering the ultrasonic data. General principles of synthetic aperture focusing technique (SAFT) - a synthetic focusing technique especially suitable for linear ultrasonic arrays are presented. Problems related to the application of SAFT to ultrasonic transducers with large apertures are identified and the solution is proposed. It appears that when the probe becomes larger (i.e., cannot be regarded as a point source) the ultrasonic pulses that it generates will be smeared by its spatial impulse response (SIR). This impairs the spatial resolution achieved for the finite aperture probes comparing to the point source. Thus, a proper application of synthetic focusing requires taking into account the spatially varying probe's SIR. The SIR has to be calculated (measured) in the interesting points of space and than deconvoluted. A technique for deconvoluting the SIR based on Wiener filter is proposed and illustrated by experimental results. Some preliminary results from immersion testing of copper blocks using the ALLIN system in our lab facility are presented. Nonlinear propagation of plane waves in fluids based on the Burgers equation is investigated in the second chapter. The presented method is basically adopted from the existing literature although some modification has been made to adapt to our situation. The solution has been re-derived and two alternative forms feasible for computer calculation are given and some numerical results are

  18. Influence of Heat Treatment on the Bond Coat Cyclic Oxidation Behaviour in an Air-plasma-sprayed Thermal Barrier Coating System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    W.R.Chen; X.Wu; B.R.Marple; P.C.Patnaik

    2004-01-01

    It is generally believed that a thermally grown oxide (TGO) layer of alumina provides enhanced protection to the metallic bond coat in thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems at elevated temperatures. However, in an air-plasma-sprayed (APS) TBC system with Co-32Ni-21Cr-8A1-0.5Y (wt%) bond coat, the TGO layer formed upon thermal exposure in air was predominantly chromia and spinels, which would not effectively protect the bond coat at above 1000℃. In addition, mixed oxides of chromia, spinel and nickel oxide formed heterogeneously between the ceramic coating and CoNiCrA1Y bond coat, which would promote crack initiation and lead to premature TBC failure. A heat treatment in a low-pressure condition was applied to the as-sprayed TBC system, with the aim to produce an alumina layer as well as reduce the amount of detrimental oxides. The influence of this low-pressure oxidation treatment (LPOT) on the bond coat cyclic oxidation behaviour of the TBC system was also investigated.

  19. Influence of Heat Treatment on the Bond Coat Cyclic Oxidation Behaviour in an Air-plasma-sprayed Thermal Barrier Coating System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    W.R. Chen; X. Wu; B.R. Marple; P.C. Patnaik

    2004-01-01

    It is generally believed that a thermally grown oxide (TGO) layer of alumina provides enhanced protection to the metallic bond coat in thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems at elevated temperatures. However, in an air-plasma-sprayed (APS) TBC system with Co-32Ni-21Cr-8A1-0.5Y (wt%) bond coat, the TGO layer formed upon thermal exposure in air was predominantly chromia and spinels, which would not effectively protect the bond coat at above 1000℃. In addition,mixed oxides of chromia, spinel and nickel oxide formed heterogeneously between the ceramic coating and CoNiCrAlY bond coat, which would promote crack initiation and lead to premature TBC failure. A heat treatment in a low-pressure condition was applied to the as-sprayed TBC system, with the aim to produce an alumina layer as well as reduce the amount of detrimental oxides. The influence of this low-pressure oxidation treatment (LPOT) on the bond coat cyclic oxidation behaviour of the TBC system was also investigated.

  20. Synthesis of polymer materials by low energy electron beam. IV. EB-polymerized urethane-acrylate, -methacrylate and -acrylamide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Masayuki; Uryu, Toshiyuki

    The structure and properties before and after electron beam (EB) irradiation were investigated using urethane prepolymers with different terminal groups of 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate (HEA), 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and N-hydroxymethyl acrylamide (HMAAm). The prepolymers were synthesized by reaction of HEA, HEMA and HMAAm with the isocyanate-capped intermediate, which was obtained by reaction of poly(butylene adipate)diol (PBAD) with 4,4'-diphenylmethane diisocyanate. The resulting urethane-acrylate (UA-251M), -methacrylate (UMA-251M) and -acrylamide (UNAA-251M) had the crystallinity arising from PBAD moieties, and UA-251M and UMA-251M had higher crystallinity than UNAA-251M. IR results indicated that UNAA-251M was larger in the fraction of free NH stretching absorption than UA-251M and UMA-251M regardless of the number of NH group per a molecule. Accordingly, it was assumed that the difference in crystallinity was attributed to the polarity of terminal group. Hence, the rate of gel formation for UA-251M and UMA-251M was higher than that of UNAA-251M. The crystallinity based on PBAD of the prepolymers was remained also after EB irradiation. Spherulitic texture was observed on the EB-polymerized gel film surfaces for UA-251M and UMA-251M, while it was almost destroyed for UNAA-251M. Mechanical properties of UA-251M and UMA-251M gel films were much superior to those of UNAA-251M gel film according to the phase structure. Especially, UMA-251M gel film represented most excellent mechanical properties. Schematic models of the phase structure for UA-251M, UMA-251M and UNAA-251M were suggested from all experimental results.

  1. The microstructure of the stratum corneum lipid barrier: mid-infrared spectroscopic studies of hydrated ceramide:palmitic acid:cholesterol model systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garidel, Patrick; Fölting, Bettina; Schaller, Ingrid; Kerth, Andreas

    2010-08-01

    The current mid-infrared spectroscopic study is a systematic investigation of hydrated stratum corneum lipid barrier model systems composed of an equimolar mixture of a ceramide, free palmitic acid and cholesterol. Four different ceramide molecules (CER NS, CER NP, CER NP-18:1, CER AS) were investigated with regard to their microstructure arrangement in a stratum corneum lipid barrier model system. Ceramide molecules were chosen from the sphingosine and phytosphingosine groups. The main differences in the used ceramide molecules result from their polar head group architecture as well as hydrocarbon chain properties. The mixing properties with cholesterol and palmitic acid are considered. This is feasible by using perdeuterated palmitic acid and proteated ceramides. Both molecules can be monitored separately, within the same experiment, using mid-infrared spectroscopy; no external label is necessary. At physiological relevant temperatures, between 30 and 35 degrees C, orthorhombic as well as hexagonal chain packing of the ceramide molecules is observed. The formation of these chain packings are extremely dependent on lipid hydration, with a decrease in ceramide hydration favouring the formation of orthorhombic hydrocarbon chain packing, as well as temperature. The presented data suggest in specific cases phase segregation in ceramide and palmitic acid rich phases. However, other ceramides like CER NP-18:1 show a rather high miscibility with palmitic acid and cholesterol. For all investigated ternary systems, more or less mixing of palmitic acid with cholesterol is observed. The investigated stratum corneum mixtures exhibit a rich polymorphism from crystalline domains with heterogeneous lipid composition to a "fluid" homogeneous phase. Thus, a single gel phase is not evident for the presented stratum corneum model systems. The study shows, that under skin physiological conditions (pH 5.5, hydrated, 30-35 degrees C) ternary systems composed of an equimolar ratio of

  2. Perceptions of risk, risk aversion, and barriers to adoption of decision support systems and integrated pest management: an introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gent, David H; De Wolf, Erick; Pethybridge, Sarah J

    2011-06-01

    Rational management of plant diseases, both economically and environmentally, involves assessing risks and the costs associated with both correct and incorrect tactical management decisions to determine when control measures are warranted. Decision support systems can help to inform users of plant disease risk and thus assist in accurately targeting events critical for management. However, in many instances adoption of these systems for use in routine disease management has been perceived as slow. The under-utilization of some decision support systems is likely due to both technical and perception constraints that have not been addressed adequately during development and implementation phases. Growers' perceptions of risk and their aversion to these perceived risks can be reasons for the "slow" uptake of decision support systems and, more broadly, integrated pest management (IPM). Decision theory provides some tools that may assist in quantifying and incorporating subjective and/or measured probabilities of disease occurrence or crop loss into decision support systems. Incorporation of subjective probabilities into IPM recommendations may be one means to reduce grower uncertainty and improve trust of these systems because management recommendations could be explicitly informed by growers' perceptions of risk and economic utility. Ultimately though, we suggest that an appropriate measure of the value and impact of decision support systems is grower education that enables more skillful and informed management decisions independent of consultation of the support tool outputs.

  3. Potential and barrier study. Energy efficiency in Norwegian vocational buildings; Potensial- og barrierestudie. Energieffektivisering i norske yrkesbygg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehn, Trond Ivar; Palm, Linn Therese; Bakken, Line; Nossum, Aase; Jordell, Hanne

    2012-07-01

    knowledge barriers, and construction economic barriers and knowledge barriers. Potential study shows far the greatest potential to existing buildings, it is therefore important to insert instruments here.(eb)

  4. Landfill Barrier-Overview and Prospect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Liange; Zhao Yongsheng

    2000-01-01

    Landfill is the primary method of waste disposal. The increasing attention focused on the effect of landfill on environment prompts the development of environmental sound landfill system. As the key parts of landfill, the barrier system can provide impermeabilization of leachate and prevent biogas from escaping intotheenvironment. In recent years, the technology pertaining the barrier system developed rapidly. In this paper, new materials used in liners and new concept of barrier construction are reviewed; the mechanisms of leachate through clay liner and geomembrane, the calculation of leaks through liner and the effect of freezing/thaw on liner are discussed.

  5. Coupled modelling (transport-reaction) of the fluid-clay interactions and their feed back on the physical properties of the bentonite engineered clay barrier system; Modelisation couplee (transport - reaction) des interactions fluides - argiles et de leurs effets en retour sur les proprietes physiques de barrieres ouvragees en bentonite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marty, N

    2006-11-15

    The originality of this work is to process feed back effects of mineralogical and chemical modifications of clays, in storage conditions, on their physical properties and therefore on their transport characteristics (porosity, molecular diffusion, permeability). These feed back effects are modelled using the KIRMAT code (Kinetic of Reaction and MAss Transfer) developed from the kinetic code KINDIS by adding the effect of water renewal in the mineral-solution reactive cells. KIRMAT resolves mass balance equations associated with mass transport together with the geochemical reactions in a 1D approach. After 100 000 years of simulated interaction at 100 C, with the fluid of the Callovo-Oxfordian geological level (COX) and with iron provided by the steel overpack corrosion, the montmorillonite of the clay barrier is only partially transformed (into illite, chlorite, saponite...). Only outer parts of the modelled profile seem to be significantly affected by smectite dissolution processes, mainly at the interface with the geological environment. The modifications of physical properties show a closure of the porosity at the boundaries of the barrier, by creating a decrease of mass transport by molecular diffusion, essentially at the interface with the iron. Permeability laws applied to this system show a decrease of the hydraulic conductivity correlated with the porosity evolution. Near the COX, the swelling pressure of the clays from the barrier decreases. In the major part of the modelled profile, the engineered clay barrier system seems to keep its initial physical properties (porosity, molecular diffusion, permeability, swelling pressure) and functionalities. (author)

  6. Overview on the Development of Nanostructured Thermal Barrier Coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) have successfully been used in gas turbine engines for increasing operation temperature and improving engine efficiency. Over the past thirty years, a variety of TBC materials and TBC deposition techniques have been developed. Recently, nanostructured TBCs emerge with the potential of commercial applications in various industries. In this paper, TBC materials and TBC deposition techniques such as air plasma spray (APS), electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD), laser assisted chemical vapor deposition (LACVD) are briefly reviewed. Nanostructured 7-8 wt pct yttria stabilized zirconia (7-8YSZ)TBC by air plasma spraying of powder and new TBC with novel structure deposited by solution precursor plasma spray (SPPS) are compared. Plasma spray conditions, coating forming mechanisms, microstructures,phase compositions, thermal conductivities, and thermal cycling lives of the APS nanostructured TBC and the SPPS nanostructured TBC are discussed. Research opportunities and challenges of nanostructured TBCs deposited by air plasma spray are prospected.

  7. Development of a miniature dielectric barrier discharge–optical emission spectrometric system for bromide and bromate screening in environmental water samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Yong-Liang [Department of Chemistry, College of Sciences, Northeastern University, Box 332, Shenyang 110819 (China); Research Center for Analytical Sciences, College of Sciences, Northeastern University, Box 332, Shenyang 110819 (China); Cai, Yi [Research Center for Analytical Sciences, College of Sciences, Northeastern University, Box 332, Shenyang 110819 (China); Chen, Ming-Li, E-mail: chenml@mail.neu.edu.cn [Research Center for Analytical Sciences, College of Sciences, Northeastern University, Box 332, Shenyang 110819 (China); Wang, Jian-Hua, E-mail: jianhuajrz@mail.neu.edu.cn [Research Center for Analytical Sciences, College of Sciences, Northeastern University, Box 332, Shenyang 110819 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemical Science and Engineering (Tianjin), Tianjin 300071 (China)

    2014-01-27

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) is for the first time used as a radiation source for the excitation of bromine and its emission. •A DBD–optical emission spectrometric (OES) system was developed for the detection of bromide and bromate. •The DBD–OES system has been demonstrated by screening trace bromide and bromate in a series of environmental water samples. -- Abstract: Dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) at atmospheric pressure provides an efficient radiation source for the excitation of bromine and it is used for the first time for optical emission spectrometric (OES) detection of bromide and bromate. A portable DBD–OES system is developed for screening potential pollution from bromide and bromate in environmental waters. Bromide is on-line oxidized to bromine for in-situ generation of volatile bromine. Meanwhile, a helium stream carries bromine into the DBD micro-plasma for its excitation at a discharging voltage of 3.7 kV and optical emission spectrometric detection with a QE65000 charge-coupled device (CCD) spectrometer in the near-infrared spectral region. Similarly, the quantification of bromate is performed by its pre-reduction into bromide and then oxidized to bromine. The spectral characteristics and configuration of the DBD micro-plasma excitation source in addition to the oxidation vapor generation of bromine have been thoroughly investigated. With a sampling volume of 1 mL, a linear range of 0.05–10.0 mg L{sup −1} is obtained with a detection limit of 0.014 mg L{sup −1} by measuring the emission at 827 nm. A precision of 2.3% is achieved at 3 mg L{sup −1} bromide. The system is validated by bromine detection in certified reference material of laver (GBW10023) at mg L{sup −1} level, giving rise to satisfactory agreement. In addition, it is further demonstrated by screening trace bromide and bromate as well as spiking recoveries in a series of environmental water samples.

  8. Physical illness in patients with severe mental disorders. II. Barriers to care, monitoring and treatment guidelines, plus recommendations at the system and individual level

    Science.gov (United States)

    DE HERT, MARC; COHEN, DAN; BOBES, JULIO; CETKOVICH-BAKMAS, MARCELO; LEUCHT, STEFAN; M. NDETEI, DAVID; W. NEWCOMER, JOHN; UWAKWE, RICHARD; ASAI, ITSUO; MÖLLER, HANS-JURGEN; GAUTAM, SHIV; DETRAUX, JOHAN; U. CORRELL, CHRISTOPH

    2011-01-01

    Physical disorders are, compared to the general population, more prevalent in people with severe mental illness (SMI). Although this excess morbidity and mortality is largely due to modifiable lifestyle risk factors, the screening and assessment of physical health aspects remains poor, even in developed countries. Moreover, specific patient, provider, treatment and system factors act as barriers to the recognition and to the management of physical diseases in people with SMI. Psychiatrists can play a pivotal role in the improvement of the physical health of these patients by expanding their task from clinical psychiatric care to the monitoring and treatment of crucial physical parameters. At a system level, actions are not easy to realize, especially for developing countries. However, at an individual level, even simple and very basic monitoring and treatment actions, undertaken by the treating clinician, can already improve the problem of suboptimal medical care in this population. Adhering to monitoring and treatment guidelines will result in a substantial enhancement of physical health outcomes. Furthermore, psychiatrists can help educate and motivate people with SMI to address their suboptimal lifestyle, including smoking, unhealthy diet and lack of exercise. The adoption of the recommendations presented in this paper across health care systems throughout the world will contribute to a significant improvement in the medical and related psychiatric health outcomes of patients with SMI. PMID:21633691

  9. Mechanism of pluronic effect on P-glycoprotein efflux system in blood-brain barrier: contributions of energy depletion and membrane fluidization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batrakova, E V; Li, S; Vinogradov, S V; Alakhov, V Y; Miller, D W; Kabanov, A V

    2001-11-01

    Pluronic block copolymer, P85, inhibits the P-glycoprotein (Pgp) drug efflux system and increases the permeability of a broad spectrum of drugs in the blood-brain barrier (BBB). This study examines the mechanisms by which P85 inhibits Pgp using bovine brain microvessel endothelial cells (BBMEC) as an in vitro model of the BBB. The hypothesis was that simultaneous alterations in intracellular ATP levels and membrane fluidization in BBMEC monolayers by P85 results in inhibition of the drug efflux system. The methods included the use of 1) standard Pgp substrate rhodamine 123 to assay the Pgp efflux system in BBMEC, 2) luciferin/luciferase assay for ATP intracellular levels, and 3) 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene for membrane microviscosity. Using 3H-labeled P85 and fluorescein-labeled P85 for confocal microscopy, this study suggests that P85 accumulates in the cells and intracellular organelles such as the mitochondria where it can interfere with metabolic processes. Following exposure of BBMEC to P85, the ATP levels were depleted, and microviscosity of the cell membranes was decreased. Furthermore, P85 treatment decreased Pgp ATPase activity in membranes expressing human Pgp. A combination of experiments examining the kinetics, concentration dependence, and directionality of P85 effects on Pgp-mediated efflux in BBMEC monolayers suggests that both energy depletion (decreasing ATP pool available for Pgp) and membrane fluidization (inhibiting Pgp ATPase activity) are critical factors contributing to the activity of the block copolymer in the BBB.

  10. Numerical simulations of capillary barrier field tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, C.E. [Univ. of Wollongong (Australia); Stormont, J.C. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Numerical simulations of two capillary barrier systems tested in the field were conducted to determine if an unsaturated flow model could accurately represent the observed results. The field data was collected from two 7-m long, 1.2-m thick capillary barriers built on a 10% grade that were being tested to investigate their ability to laterally divert water downslope. One system had a homogeneous fine layer, while the fine soil of the second barrier was layered to increase its ability to laterally divert infiltrating moisture. The barriers were subjected first to constant infiltration while minimizing evaporative losses and then were exposed to ambient conditions. The continuous infiltration period of the field tests for the two barrier systems was modelled to determine the ability of an existing code to accurately represent capillary barrier behavior embodied in these two designs. Differences between the field test and the model data were found, but in general the simulations appeared to adequately reproduce the response of the test systems. Accounting for moisture retention hysteresis in the layered system will potentially lead to more accurate modelling results and is likely to be important when developing reasonable predictions of capillary barrier behavior.

  11. Analysis of the situation of EB virus infection in patients with Sjogren′s syndrome%干燥综合征患者 EB 病毒感染分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李华; 王吉波; 王丽芹

    2014-01-01

    目的:分析干燥综合征患者EB病毒感染状况,研究干燥综合征发病与EB病毒感染之间的相关性,为干燥综合征的诊断和治疗提供依据。方法选取干燥综合征患者75例、健康人员74名,取其血清进行ELISA和实时定量PCR检测,分析干燥综合征与EB病毒感染的相关性,采用SPSS13.0进行统计分析。结果 VCA‐IgM抗体阳性率患者组为18.7%、对照组为2.7%,两组比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);VCA‐IgG抗体阳性率患者组为100.0%、对照组为97.3%,两组比较,差异无统计学意义;EA‐IgG抗体阳性率患者组为60.0%、对照组为5.4%,两组比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),患者组EB病毒DNA拷贝数均值明显高于对照组,差异均有统计学意义( P<0.05)。结论干燥综合征的发病与EB病毒的感染相关,给干燥综合征的诊断和治疗提供指导意义。%OBJECTIVE To analyze the situation of EB virus infection in patients with Sjogren′s syndrome ,investi‐gate the relevancy between Sjogren′s syndrome and EB virus ,so as to provide some evidences for diagnosis and treatment of patients with Sjogren′s syndrome .METHODS Totally 75 cases of patients with Sjogren′s syndrome and 74 controlled cases were chosen .Blood serum was isolated ,and ELISA and RT‐PCR were used to analyze the relevancy between Sjogren′s syndrome and EB virus . SPSS13 .0 was adopted to make a statistic analysis . RESULTS The positive rate of VCA‐IgM antibody for the patients group (18 .7% ) was significantly higher than that of the control group (2 .7% ) .The comparison has statistical significance (P< 0 .05) .The positive rate of VCA‐IgG antibody for the patients group (100 .0% ) was a little higher than that of the control group (97 .3% ) , which is without statistical significance .The positive rate of EA‐IgG antibody for the patients group (60 .0% ) was significanfly

  12. The influence of transfer reactions on the sub-barrier fusion enhancement in the systems {sup 58.64}Ni +, {sup 92,100}Mo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehm, K.E.; Jiang, C.L.; Esbensen, H. [and others

    1995-08-01

    High resolution experiments performed during the past few years demonstrated that the various reaction modes occurring in heavy ion collisions can strongly influence each other. This interrelation of the different reaction modes brings a nuclear structure dependence to the fusion and deep-inelastic channels that were previously described in the framework of pure statistical models. In order to fully understand the interrelation between these reaction channels, a complete set of measurements including elastic and inelastic scattering, few-nucleon transfer and fusion is required. In continuation of our earlier measurements of the fusion cross sections in the system {sup 58,64}Ni + {sup 92,100}Mo we finished the studies of the quasielastic process in these systems. The experiments were done in inverse reaction kinematics using the split-pole spectrograph with its hybrid focal-plane detector for particle identification. The experiments with {sup 100}Mo beams were performed previously. First test runs with {sup 92}Mo showed the possible interference with {sup 98}Mo ions which could be eliminated by using the 13{sup +} charge state from the ECR source. The data from these experiments were completely analyzed. The smallest transfer cross sections are observed for the systems {sup 64}Ni + {sup 100}Mo and {sup 58}Ni + {sup 92}Mo, i.e., the most neutron-rich and neutron-deficient systems, respectively. For the other systems, {sup 64}Ni + {sup 92}Mo and {sup 58}Ni + {sup 100}Mo, the transfer cross sections at energies close to the barrier are about of equal magnitude. This observation does not correlate with the deviation of the experimental fusion cross sections from the coupled-channels predictions. While for {sup 58}Ni + {sup 100}Mo discrepancies between the experimental and theoretical fusion cross sections are observed, the system {sup 64}Ni + {sup 92}Mo which shows about the same transfer yields, is quite well described by the coupled-channels calculations.

  13. Monitoring thermally grown oxides under thermal barrier coatings using photoluminescence piezospectroscopy (PLPS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Corno, A.; De Maria, L.; Rinaldi, C. [ERSE, Milan (Italy); Nalin, L.; Simms, N.J. [Cranfield Univ., Bedford (United Kingdom). Energy Technology Centre

    2010-07-01

    The use of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) on cooled components in industrial gas turbine has enabled higher inlet gas temperatures to be used and hence higher efficiencies to be achieved, without increasing component metal temperatures. However TBCs have a complex coating structure that during high temperature exposure and thermal cycling modifies until TBC spalling which can result in dangerous over-heating of components. This paper reports the results of a TBC exposure programme planned to monitor TGOs development in an example TBC system in terms of both stress evolution within the TGOs and TGO growth. The COST538 reference TBC system was used: an yttria stabilised zirconia TBC applied to an Amdry 995 bond coat on an CMSX-4 substrate. Samples were in the form of 10 mm diameter bars, with the TBC applied to their curved surface. Coated samples were exposed in simulated combustion gases at temperatures 850, 900 and 950 C for periods of up to 10,000 hours. Every 1000 hours samples were cooled and weighed to monitor the progression of the oxidation: selected samples NDT inspected using PLPS and/or destructive examination. Cross-sections were prepared and examined in a scanning electron microscope (SEM) at multiple locations to determine TGO thickness distributions. PLPS spectra were measured and elaborated with a system self developed in ERSE, able to calculate and map the TGO residual stress values under columnar TBCs. So the positions could be evidenced where the damage of the TBC /TGO/BC interface is higher on the exposed bars. The data of TGO thickness distributions and PLPS stress measurement distributions were compared to the exposures carried out on samples to identify and quantify trends in their development. Metallography confirmed that the PLPs technique can reliably detect interface cracking before visible EB-PVD TBC spalling. (orig.)

  14. The Strategies and Barriers of Career Development for Young Doctors in Romania – An Overview of the Romanian Medical System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Maria Lungu (Dragomir

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the paper is to illustrate the actual and current situation of the human resources within the Romanian medical system. The objective is to reflect the main aspects regarding the beginning and the development of the medical career for the young doctors in Romania. Furthermore, we will reveal the results of a research that had as main goal to demonstrate the interlinks among medical career choice, the job satisfaction and performance. Although, those concerns are frequently met for all the main domains of activity, the medical system have not adopted strategies regarding those terms.

  15. Emergency Broadcast System Based On GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junfeng, Kang; Baoyu, Wang; Xueying, Jiang; Xiaosheng, Liu

    2017-02-01

    Nowadays, disaster occurs more and more frequently, which brings huge losses to the society. Presented a GIS based emergency broadcast system (GIS-EBS), to provide rapid, accurate information to the public, can reduce the people’s losses maximum. Different from the traditional radio data system (RDS), by adding broadcasting terminal control instruction on the FM signal, GIS-EBS extended the RDS protocol, which can control each radio terminal’s state. And through the extended RDS protocol, GIS-EBS can broadcast and release the emergency information to the right place and the people most in need in the shortest time.

  16. Effects of a Pre-Filter and Electrolysis Systems on the Reuse of Brine in the Chinese Cabbage Salting Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Ho; Yoo, Jae Yeol; Jang, Keum-Il

    2016-06-01

    In this study, the effects of a pre-filter system and electrolysis system on the safe and efficient reuse of brine in the cabbage salting process were investigated. First, sediment filter-electrolyzed brine (SF-EB) was selected as brine for reuse. Then, we evaluated the quality and microbiological properties of SF-EB and Chinese cabbage salted with SF-EB. The salinity (9.4%) and pH (4.63) of SF-EB were similar to those of control brine (CB). SF-EB turbidity was decreased (from 0.112 to 0.062) and SF-EB residual chlorine (15.86 ppm) was higher than CB residual chlorine (0.31 ppm), and bacteria were not detected. Salinity (2.0%), pH (6.21), residual chlorine (0.39 ppm), chromaticity, hardness, and chewiness of cabbage salted with SF-EB were similar to those of cabbage salted with CB. The total bacterial count in cabbage salted with CB was increased as the number of reuses increased (from 6.55 to 8.30 log CFU/g), whereas bacteria in cabbage salted with SF-EB was decreased (from 6.55 to 5.21 log CFU/g). These results show that SF-EB improved the reusability of brine by removing contaminated materials and by sterilization.

  17. Overcoming Language and Literacy Barriers: Using Student Response System Technology to Collect Quality Program Evaluation Data from Immigrant Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Susan K.; Mao, Dung

    2016-01-01

    Student response system technology was employed for parenting education program evaluation data collection with Karen adults. The technology, with translation and use of an interpreter, provided an efficient and secure method that respected oral language and collective learning preferences and accommodated literacy needs. The method was popular…

  18. 77 FR 14032 - John H. Chafee Coastal Barrier Resources System; Lee County, FL, and Newport County, RI...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-08

    ... by Lee County, and 1 restaurant. The Service's assessment of 2011 aerial imagery estimates that the... accept digital Geographic Information System (GIS) data files that are accompanied by written comments..., and digital boundary data can be accessed and downloaded from the Service's Internet site:...

  19. A novel blood-brain barrier co-culture system for drug targeting of Alzheimer's disease: establishment by using acitretin as a model drug.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Freese

    Full Text Available In the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD the homeostasis of amyloid precursor protein (APP processing in the brain is impaired. The expression of the competing proteases ADAM10 (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase 10 and BACE-1 (beta site APP cleaving enzyme 1 is shifted in favor of the A-beta generating enzyme BACE-1. Acitretin--a synthetic retinoid-e.g., has been shown to increase ADAM10 gene expression, resulting in a decreased level of A-beta peptides within the brain of AD model mice and thus is of possible value for AD therapy. A striking challenge in evaluating novel therapeutically applicable drugs is the analysis of their potential to overcome the blood-brain barrier (BBB for central nervous system targeting. In this study, we established a novel cell-based bio-assay model to test ADAM10-inducing drugs for their ability to cross the BBB. We therefore used primary porcine brain endothelial cells (PBECs and human neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y transfected with an ADAM10-promoter luciferase reporter vector in an indirect co-culture system. Acitretin served as a model substance that crosses the BBB and induces ADAM10 expression. We ensured that ADAM10-dependent constitutive APP metabolism in the neuronal cells was unaffected under co-cultivation conditions. Barrier properties established by PBECs were augmented by co-cultivation with SH-SY5Y cells and they remained stable during the treatment with acitretin as demonstrated by electrical resistance measurement and permeability-coefficient determination. As a consequence of transcellular acitretin transport measured by HPLC, the activity of the ADAM10-promoter reporter gene was significantly increased in co-cultured neuronal cells as compared to vehicle-treated controls. In the present study, we provide a new bio-assay system relevant for the study of drug targeting of AD. This bio-assay can easily be adapted to analyze other Alzheimer- or CNS disease-relevant targets in neuronal cells

  20. A novel blood-brain barrier co-culture system for drug targeting of Alzheimer's disease: establishment by using acitretin as a model drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freese, Christian; Reinhardt, Sven; Hefner, Gudrun; Unger, Ronald E; Kirkpatrick, C James; Endres, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    In the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) the homeostasis of amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing in the brain is impaired. The expression of the competing proteases ADAM10 (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase 10) and BACE-1 (beta site APP cleaving enzyme 1) is shifted in favor of the A-beta generating enzyme BACE-1. Acitretin--a synthetic retinoid-e.g., has been shown to increase ADAM10 gene expression, resulting in a decreased level of A-beta peptides within the brain of AD model mice and thus is of possible value for AD therapy. A striking challenge in evaluating novel therapeutically applicable drugs is the analysis of their potential to overcome the blood-brain barrier (BBB) for central nervous system targeting. In this study, we established a novel cell-based bio-assay model to test ADAM10-inducing drugs for their ability to cross the BBB. We therefore used primary porcine brain endothelial cells (PBECs) and human neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y) transfected with an ADAM10-promoter luciferase reporter vector in an indirect co-culture system. Acitretin served as a model substance that crosses the BBB and induces ADAM10 expression. We ensured that ADAM10-dependent constitutive APP metabolism in the neuronal cells was unaffected under co-cultivation conditions. Barrier properties established by PBECs were augmented by co-cultivation with SH-SY5Y cells and they remained stable during the treatment with acitretin as demonstrated by electrical resistance measurement and permeability-coefficient determination. As a consequence of transcellular acitretin transport measured by HPLC, the activity of the ADAM10-promoter reporter gene was significantly increased in co-cultured neuronal cells as compared to vehicle-treated controls. In the present study, we provide a new bio-assay system relevant for the study of drug targeting of AD. This bio-assay can easily be adapted to analyze other Alzheimer- or CNS disease-relevant targets in neuronal cells, as their

  1. High Temperature Thermal Properties of Columnar Yttria Stabilized Zirconia Thermal Barrier Coating Performed by Suspension Plasma Spraying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, B.; Schick, V.; Remy, B.; Quet, A.; Bianchi, L.

    2016-09-01

    Performance enhancement of gas turbines is a main issue for the aircraft industry. Over many years, a large part of the effort has been focused on the development of more insulating Thermal Barrier Coatings (TBCs). In this study, Yttria Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ) columnar structures are processed by Suspension Plasma Spraying (SPS). These structures have already demonstrated abilities to get improved thermal lifetime, similarly to standard YSZ TBCs performed by EB-PVD. Thermal diffusivity measurements coupled with differential scanning calorimetry analysis are performed from room temperature up to 1100 °C, first, on HastelloyX substrates and then, on bilayers including a SPS YSZ coating. Results show an effective thermal conductivity for YSZ performed by SPS lower than 1 W.m-1K-1 whereas EB- PVD YSZ coatings exhibit a value of 1.5 W.m-1K-1.

  2. EB-welding of the copper canister for the nuclear waste disposal. Final report of the development programme 1994-1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aalto, H. [Outokumpu Oy Poricopper, Pori (Finland)

    1998-10-01

    During 1994-1997 Posiva Oy and Outokumpu Poricopper Oy had a joint project Development of EB-welding method for massive copper canister manufacturing. The project was part of the national technology program `Weld 2000` and it was supported financially by Technology Development Centre (TEKES). The spent fuel from Finnish nuclear reactors is planned to be encapsulated in thick-walled copper canisters and placed deep into the bedrock. The thick copper layer of the canister provides a long time corrosion resistance and prevents deposited nuclear fuel from contact with water. The quality requirements of the copper components are high because of the designed long lifetime of the canister. The EB-welding technology has proved to be applicable method for the production of the copper canisters and the EB-welding technique is needed at least when the lids of the copper canister will be closed. There are a number of parameters in EB-welding which affect weldability. However, the effect of the welding parameters and their optimization has not been extensively studied in welding of thick copper sections using conventional high vacuum EB-welding. One aim of this development work was to extensively study effect of welding parameters on weld quality. The final objective was to minimise welding defects in the main weld and optimize slope out procedure in thick copper EB-welding. Welding of 50 mm thick copper sections was optimized using vertical and horizontal EB-welding techniques. As a result two full scale copper lids were welded to a short cylinder successfully. The resulting weld quality with optimised welding parameters was reasonable good. The optimised welding parameters for horizontal and vertical beam can be applied to the longitudinal body welds of the canister. The optimal slope out procedure for the lid closure needs some additional development work. In addition of extensive EB-welding program ultrasonic inspection and creep strength of the weld were studied. According

  3. Development of Advanced Low Conductivity Thermal Barrier Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dong-Ming; Miller, Robert A.

    2004-01-01

    Advanced multi-component, low conductivity oxide thermal barrier coatings have been developed using an approach that emphasizes real-time monitoring of thermal conductivity under conditions that are engine-like in terms of temperatures and heat fluxes. This is in contrast to the traditional approach where coatings are initially optimized in terms of furnace and burner rig durability with subsequent measurement in the as-processed or furnace-sintered condition. The present work establishes a laser high-heat-flux test as the basis for evaluating advanced plasma-sprayed and electron beam-physical vapor deposited (EB-PVD) thermal barrier coatings under the NASA Ultra-Efficient Engine Technology (UEET) Program. The candidate coating materials for this program are novel thermal barrier coatings that are found to have significantly reduced thermal conductivities and improved thermal stability due to an oxide-defect-cluster design. Critical issues for designing advanced low conductivity coatings with improved coating durability are also discussed.

  4. GTSE1 is a microtubule plus-end tracking protein that regulates EB1-dependent cell migration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimilano Scolz

    Full Text Available The regulation of cell migration is a highly complex process that is often compromised when cancer cells become metastatic. The microtubule cytoskeleton is necessary for cell migration, but how microtubules and microtubule-associated proteins regulate multiple pathways promoting cell migration remains unclear. Microtubule plus-end binding proteins (+TIPs are emerging as important players in many cellular functions, including cell migration. Here we identify a +TIP, GTSE1, that promotes cell migration. GTSE1 accumulates at growing microtubule plus ends through interaction with the EB1+TIP. The EB1-dependent +TIP activity of GTSE1 is required for cell migration, as well as for microtubule-dependent disassembly of focal adhesions. GTSE1 protein levels determine the migratory capacity of both nontransformed and breast cancer cell lines. In breast cancers, increased GTSE1 expression correlates with invasive potential, tumor stage, and time to distant metastasis, suggesting that misregulation of GTSE1 expression could be associated with increased invasive potential.

  5. Effects of pH, glucose and iron sulfate concentration on the yield of biohydrogen by Clostridium butyricum EB6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chong, Mei-Ling; Abdul Rahman, Nor' Aini; Yee, Phang Lai; Aziz, Suraini Abd; Hassan, Mohd Ali [Department of Bioprocess Technology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Rahim, Raha Abdul [Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Shirai, Yoshihito [Graduate School of Life Sciences and System Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, 808-0196 Hibikino 2-4, Wakamatsu-ku, Kitakyushu-shi, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2009-11-15

    A local bacterial isolate from palm oil mill effluent (POME) sludge, identified as Clostridium butyricum EB6, was used for biohydrogen production. Optimization of biohydrogen production was performed via statistical analysis, namely response surface methodology (RSM), with respect to pH, glucose and iron concentration. The results show that pH, glucose concentration and iron concentration significantly influenced the biohydrogen gas production individually, interactively and quadratically (P < 0.05). The center composite design (CCD) results indicated that pH 5.6, 15.7 g/L glucose and 0.39 g/L FeSO{sub 4} were the optimal conditions for biohydrogen production, yielding 2.2 mol H{sub 2}/mol glucose. In confirmation of the experimental model, t-test results showed that curve fitted to the experimental data had a high confidence level, at 95% with t = 2.225. Based on the results of this study, optimization of the culture conditions for C. butyricum EB6 significantly increased the production of biohydrogen. (author)

  6. Nuclear reactions of the system {sup 6} Li on {sup 58} Ni near the Coulomb barrier; Reacciones nucleares del sistema {sup 6} Li sobre {sup 58} Ni cerca de la barrera de Coulomb<