Resonant tunneling through double-barrier structures on graphene
Deng Wei-Yin; Zhu Rui; Deng Wen-Ji; Xiao Yun-Chang
2014-01-01
Quantum resonant tunneling behaviors of double-barrier structures on graphene are investigated under the tight-binding approximation. The Klein tunneling and resonant tunneling are demonstrated for the quasiparticles with energy close to the Dirac points. The Klein tunneling vanishes by increasing the height of the potential barriers to more than 300 meV. The Dirac transport properties continuously change to the Schrödinger ones. It is found that the peaks of resonant tunneling approximate to the eigen-levels of graphene nanoribbons under appropriate boundary conditions. A comparison between the zigzag- and armchair-edge barriers is given. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)
Resonant tunneling via spin-polarized barrier states in a magnetic tunnel junction
Jansen, R.; Lodder, J.C.
2000-01-01
Resonant tunneling through states in the barrier of a magnetic tunnel junction has been analyzed theoretically for the case of a spin-polarized density of barrier states. It is shown that for highly spin-polarized barrier states, the magnetoresistance due to resonant tunneling is enhanced compared
Optically controlled resonant tunneling in a double-barrier diode
Kan, S. C.; Wu, S.; Sanders, S.; Griffel, G.; Yariv, A.
1991-03-01
The resonant tunneling effect is optically enhanced in a GaAs/GaAlAs double-barrier structure that has partial lateral current confinement. The peak current increases and the valley current decreases simultaneously when the device surface is illuminated, due to the increased conductivity of the top layer of the structure. The effect of the lateral current confinement on the current-voltage characteristic of a double-barrier resonant tunneling structure was also studied. With increased lateral current confinement, the peak and valley current decrease at a different rate such that the current peak-to-valley ratio increases up to three times. The experimental results are explained by solving the electrostatic potential distribution in the structure using a simple three-layer model.
Resonant tunnel magnetoresistance in double-barrier planar magnetic tunnel junctions
Useinov, A. N.
2011-08-24
We present a theoretical approach to calculate the spin-dependent current and tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) in a double-barrier magnetic tunnel junction (DMTJ), in which the magnetization of the middle ferromagnetic metal layer can be aligned parallel or antiparallel in relation to the fixed magnetizations of the left and right ferromagnetic electrodes. The electron transport through the DMTJ is considered as a three-dimensional problem, taking into account all transmitting electron trajectories as well as the spin-dependent momentum conservation law. The dependence of the transmission coefficient and spin-polarized currents on the applied voltage is derived as an exact solution to the quantum-mechanical problem for the spin-polarized transport. In the range of the developed physical model, the resonant tunneling, nonresonant tunneling, and enhanced spin filtering can be explained; the simulation results are in good agreement with experimental data.
Resonant tunnel magnetoresistance in double-barrier planar magnetic tunnel junctions
Useinov, A. N.; Kosel, Jü rgen; Useinov, N. Kh.; Tagirov, L. R.
2011-01-01
We present a theoretical approach to calculate the spin-dependent current and tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) in a double-barrier magnetic tunnel junction (DMTJ), in which the magnetization of the middle ferromagnetic metal layer can be aligned parallel or antiparallel in relation to the fixed magnetizations of the left and right ferromagnetic electrodes. The electron transport through the DMTJ is considered as a three-dimensional problem, taking into account all transmitting electron trajectories as well as the spin-dependent momentum conservation law. The dependence of the transmission coefficient and spin-polarized currents on the applied voltage is derived as an exact solution to the quantum-mechanical problem for the spin-polarized transport. In the range of the developed physical model, the resonant tunneling, nonresonant tunneling, and enhanced spin filtering can be explained; the simulation results are in good agreement with experimental data.
Photon-Assisted Resonant Chiral Tunneling Through a Bilayer Graphene Barrier
Phillips A. H.; Mina A. N.
2011-01-01
The electronic transport property of a bilayer graphene is investigated under the effect of an electromagnetic field. We deduce an expression for the conductance by solving the Dirac equation. This conductance depends on the barrier height for graphene and the energy of the induced photons. A resonance oscillatory behavior of the conductance is observed. These oscillations are strongly depends on the barrier height for chiral tunneling through graphene. This oscillatory behavio...
Physics of optimal resonant tunneling
Racec, P.N.; Stoica, T.; Popescu, C.; Lepsa, M.I.; Roer, van de T.G.
1997-01-01
The optimal resonant tunneling, or the complete tunneling transparence of a biased double-barrier resonant-tunneling (DBRT) structure, is discussed. It is shown that its physics does not rest on the departure from the constant potential within the barriers and well, due to the applied electric
Photon-Assisted Resonant Chiral Tunneling Through a Bilayer Graphene Barrier
Phillips A. H.
2011-01-01
Full Text Available The electronic transport property of a bilayer graphene is investigated under the effect of an electromagnetic field. We deduce an expression for the conductance by solving the Dirac equation. This conductance depends on the barrier height for graphene and the energy of the induced photons. A resonance oscillatory behavior of the conductance is observed. These oscillations are strongly depends on the barrier height for chiral tunneling through graphene. This oscillatory behavior might be due to the interference of different central band and sidebands of graphene states. The present investigation is very important for the application of bilayer graphene in photodetector devices, for example, far-infrared photodevices and ultrafast lasers.
Nonlinear properties of double and triple barrier resonant tunneling structures in the sub-THz range
Karuzskij, A.L.; Perestoronin, A.V.; Volchkov, N.A.
2012-01-01
The high-frequency nonlinear properties of GaAs/AlAs resonant tunneling diode (RTD) nanostructures and perspectives of implementation of the quantum regime of amplification in such structures, which is especially efficient in the range of sub-THz and THz ranges, are investigated. It is shown that in a triple barrier RTD the symmetry between the processes of amplification and dissipation can be avoided because of the interaction of an electromagnetic wave with both of resonant states in two quantum wells, that results in the significant growth of an RTD efficiency [ru
A theoretical study of resonant tunneling characteristics in triangular double-barrier diodes
Wang Hongmei; Xu Huaizhe; Zhang Yafei
2006-01-01
Resonant tunneling characteristics of triangular double-barrier diodes have been investigated systematically in this Letter, using Airy function approach to solve time-independent Schroedinger function in triangular double-barrier structures. Originally, the exact analytic expressions of quasi-bound levels and quasi-level lifetime in symmetrical triangular double-barrier structures have been derived within the effective-mass approximation as a function of structure parameters including well width, slope width and barrier height. Based on our derived analytic expressions, numerical results show that quasi-bound levels and quasi-level lifetime vary nearly linearly with the structure parameters except that the second quasi-level lifetime changes parabolically with slope width. Furthermore, according to our improved transmission coefficient of triangular double-barrier structures under external electric field, the current densities of triangular double-barrier diodes with different slope width at 0 K have been calculated numerically. The results show that the N-shaped negative differential resistance behaviors have been observed in current-voltage characteristics and current-voltage characteristics depend on the slope width
Reuscher, G.; Keim, M.; Fischer, F.; Waag, A.; Landwehr, G.
1995-01-01
We report the first observation of resonant tunneling through a CdTe/Cd 1-x Mg x Te double barrier, single quantum well heterostructure. Negative differential resistance is observable at temperatures below 230 K, exhibiting a peak to valley ratio of 3:1 at 4.2 K. (author)
Intrinsic current oscillations in an asymmetric triple-barrier resonant tunnelling diode
Wójcik, P; Spisak, B J; Wołoszyn, M; Adamowski, J
2010-01-01
The electronic transport characteristics of an asymmetric triple-barrier resonant tunnelling diode are calculated by the time-dependent Wigner–Poisson method. The intrinsic current oscillations are found in two separate bias voltage ranges. The first one is located below the resonant current peak, and the second lies in the negative differential resistance region. We provide the explanation of the current density oscillations in these two separate bias voltage ranges based on the analysis of the self-consistent potential profiles and changes of electron density. We have shown that two different formation mechanisms are responsible for the current density oscillations in these two bias voltage ranges. In the bias voltage range below the resonant current peak in the current–voltage characteristics, the current density oscillations are caused by the coupling between quasi-bound states in the left and right quantum wells. On the other hand, the current density oscillations in the negative differential resistance region result from the coupling between quasi-bound states in the left quantum well and the quantum well formed in the region of the left contact
Opacak, Nikola; Milanović, Vitomir; Radovanović, Jelena
2017-12-01
Tunneling times in complex potentials are investigated. Analytical expressions for dwell time, self-interference time and group delay are obtained for the case of complex double delta potentials. It is shown that we can always find a set of parameters of the potential so that the tunneling times achieve very large values and even approach infinity for the case of resonance. The phenomenon of infinite tunneling times occurs for only one particular positive value of the imaginary part of the potential, if all other parameters are given.
Enhanced tunneling through nonstationary barriers
Palomares-Baez, J. P.; Rodriguez-Lopez, J. L.; Ivlev, B.
2007-01-01
Quantum tunneling through a nonstationary barrier is studied analytically and by a direct numerical solution of Schroedinger equation. Both methods are in agreement and say that the main features of the phenomenon can be described in terms of classical trajectories which are solutions of Newton's equation in complex time. The probability of tunneling is governed by analytical properties of a time-dependent perturbation and the classical trajectory in the plane of complex time. Some preliminary numerical calculations of Euclidean resonance (an easy penetration through a classical nonstationary barrier due to an underbarrier interference) are presented
Analysis of the resonant tunneling diode with the stepped pre-barrier
Yatskiv, Roman; Voves, J.
2009-01-01
Roč. 193, č. 1 (2009), s. 1-4 ISSN 1742-6588. [16th International Conference on Electron Dynamics In Semiconductors, Optoelectronics and Nanostructure. Monpellier, 24.8.2009 – 28.8.2009] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB200670901; GA AV ČR(CZ) KAN401220801 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20670512 Keywords : Resonant tunneling diodes * Nonequilibrium Green functions * Hysteresis Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics , Electrical Engineering
Resonant Tunnelling in Barrier-in-Well and Well-in-Well Structures
Jiang-Hong, Yao; Zhang-Yan; Wei-Wu, Li; Yong-Chun, Shu; Zhan-Guo, Wang; Jing-Jun, Xu; Guo-Zhi, Jia
2008-01-01
A Schrödinger equation is solved numerically for a barrier in a quantum well and a quantum well in another well structure by the transfer matrix technique. Effect of structure parameters on the transmission probabilities is investigated in detail. The results suggest that symmetry plays an important role in the coupling effect between the quantum wells. The relationship between the width of the inner well and the resonant energy levels in well-in-well structures is also studied. It is found that the ground state energy and the second resonant energy decrease with increasing width of the inner well, while the first resonant energy remains constant
Resonant tunneling of electrons in quantum wires
Krive, I.V.; Shekhter, R.I.; Jonson, M.; Krive, I.V.
2010-01-01
We considered resonant electron tunneling in various nanostructures including single wall carbon nanotubes, molecular transistors and quantum wires formed in two-dimensional electron gas. The review starts with a textbook description of resonant tunneling of noninteracting electrons through a double-barrier structure. The effects of electron-electron interaction in sequential and resonant electron tunneling are studied by using Luttinger liquid model of electron transport in quantum wires. The experimental aspects of the problem (fabrication of quantum wires and transport measurements) are also considered. The influence of vibrational and electromechanical effects on resonant electron tunneling in molecular transistors is discussed.
Boucherit, M.; Soltani, A.; Rousseau, M.; Deresmes, D.; Berthe, M.; Durand, C.; De Jaeger, J.-C. [IEMN/UMR-CNRS 8520, Universite Lille1, PRES Universite Lille Nord de France (France); Monroy, E. [Equipe mixte CEA-CNRS-UJF Nanophysique et Semiconducteurs, DRFMC/SP2M/PSC, CEA-Grenoble (France)
2011-10-31
AlN/GaN double-barrier resonant tunnelling diodes were grown by molecular beam epitaxy on GaN/sapphire template and processed into mesa diameters from 2 {mu}m to 4 {mu}m. The current-voltage characteristics were carried out in direct current operation and under-high vacuum. A sharp negative differential resistance (NDR) was detected in the forward bias at 120 K. The NDR was observed for the mesa size of 2 {mu}m at 4 V with a peak-to-valley current ratio of 3.5. The measurement conditions were chosen to make NDR reproducible more than 50 times and apparent in both scan voltage directions after electrical treatment.
Reuscher, G.; Keim, M.; Fischer, F.; Waag, A.; Landwehr, G. [Physikalishes Institut der Universitaet Wuerzburg am Hubland, Wuerzburg (Germany)
1995-12-31
We report the first observation of resonant tunneling through a CdTe/Cd{sub 1-x}Mg{sub x}Te double barrier, single quantum well heterostructure. Negative differential resistance is observable at temperatures below 230 K, exhibiting a peak to valley ratio of 3:1 at 4.2 K. (author). 16 refs, 2 figs.
Phonon tunneling through a double barrier system
Villegas, Diosdado; León-Pérez, Fernando de; Pérez-Álvarez, R.; Arriaga, J.
2015-01-01
The tunneling of optical and acoustic phonons at normal incidence on a double-barrier is studied in this paper. Transmission coefficients and resonance conditions are derived theoretically under the assumption that the long-wavelength approximation is valid. It is shown that the behavior of the transmission coefficients for the symmetric double barrier has a Lorentzian form close to resonant frequencies and that Breit–Wigner's formula have a general validity in one-dimensional phonon tunneling. Authors also study the so-called generalized Hartman effect in the tunneling of long-wavelength phonons and show that this effect is a numerical artifact resulting from taking the opaque limit before exploring the variation with a finite barrier width. This study could be useful for the design of acoustic devices
Phonon tunneling through a double barrier system
Villegas, Diosdado [Departamento de Física, Universidad Central “Marta Abreu” de Las Villas, CP 54830, Santa Clara, Villa Clara (Cuba); Instituto de Física, Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, 18 Sur y San Claudio, Edif. 110A, Ciudad Universitaria, 72570 Puebla (Mexico); León-Pérez, Fernando de [Centro Universitario de la Defensa de Zaragoza, Ctra. de Huesca s/n, E-50090 Zaragoza (Spain); Pérez-Álvarez, R. [Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos, Av. Universidad 1001, CP 62209 Cuernavaca (Mexico); Arriaga, J., E-mail: arriaga@ifuap.buap.mx [Instituto de Física, Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, 18 Sur y San Claudio, Edif. 110A, Ciudad Universitaria, 72570 Puebla (Mexico)
2015-04-15
The tunneling of optical and acoustic phonons at normal incidence on a double-barrier is studied in this paper. Transmission coefficients and resonance conditions are derived theoretically under the assumption that the long-wavelength approximation is valid. It is shown that the behavior of the transmission coefficients for the symmetric double barrier has a Lorentzian form close to resonant frequencies and that Breit–Wigner's formula have a general validity in one-dimensional phonon tunneling. Authors also study the so-called generalized Hartman effect in the tunneling of long-wavelength phonons and show that this effect is a numerical artifact resulting from taking the opaque limit before exploring the variation with a finite barrier width. This study could be useful for the design of acoustic devices.
Ting, David Z.
2007-01-01
The resonant tunneling spin pump is a proposed semiconductor device that would generate spin-polarized electron currents. The resonant tunneling spin pump would be a purely electrical device in the sense that it would not contain any magnetic material and would not rely on an applied magnetic field. Also, unlike prior sources of spin-polarized electron currents, the proposed device would not depend on a source of circularly polarized light. The proposed semiconductor electron-spin filters would exploit the Rashba effect, which can induce energy splitting in what would otherwise be degenerate quantum states, caused by a spin-orbit interaction in conjunction with a structural-inversion asymmetry in the presence of interfacial electric fields in a semiconductor heterostructure. The magnitude of the energy split is proportional to the electron wave number. Theoretical studies have suggested the possibility of devices in which electron energy states would be split by the Rashba effect and spin-polarized currents would be extracted by resonant quantum-mechanical tunneling.
Lee, K.
1987-01-01
The evolution in flat and curved space-time of quantum fields in theories with relative flat potential and its consequences are considered. It is shown that bubble nucleation, a quantum mechanical tunnelling process, may occur in flat space-time, having a bounce solution, even if V(phi) has no barrier. It is shown that bubble nucleation can also occur in curved space-time even though there is no bounce solution in the standard formalism for the bubble nucleation rate in curved space-time. Additionally, bubbles can nucleate during the slow rolling period on the potential in flat and curved space-time, in this case also there is no bounce solution. It is known in the new inflationary scenario that energy density perturbations caused by quantum fluctuations of the scalar field can satisfy the presently observed bounds on density perturbations. Bubble nucleation during the slow rolling period also gives rise to density perturbations. For a model potential density perturbations by bubbles are calculated at the horizon reentering. By applying the bound from the almost isotropic microwave black body radiation on these density perturbations, a constraint on the model potential is obtained. Finally, some further implications on the galaxy formation and applications in more realistic potential are discussed
Tunnel magnetoresistance in asymmetric double-barrier magnetic tunnel junctions
Useinov, N.Kh.; Petukhov, D.A.; Tagirov, L.R.
2015-01-01
The spin-polarized tunnel conductance and tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) through a planar asymmetric double-barrier magnetic tunnel junction (DBMTJ) have been calculated using quasi-classical model. In DBMTJ nanostructure the magnetization of middle ferromagnetic metal layer can be aligned parallel or antiparallel with respect to the fixed magnetizations of the top and bottom ferromagnetic electrodes. The transmission coefficients of an electron to pass through the barriers have been calculated in terms of quantum mechanics. The dependencies of tunnel conductance and TMR on the applied voltage have been calculated in case of non-resonant transmission. Estimated in the framework of our model, the difference between the spin-channels conductances at low voltages was found relatively large. This gives rise to very high magnitude of TMR. - Highlights: • The spin-polarized conductance through the junction is calculated. • Dependencies of the tunnel conductance vs applied bias are shown. • Bias voltage dependence of tunnel magnetoresistance for the structure is shown
Single-electron tunneling in double-barrier nanostructures
Goldman, V.J.; Su, B.; Cunningham, J.E.
1992-01-01
In this paper, the authors review experimental study of charge transport in nanometer double-barrier resonant tunneling devices. Heterostructure material is asymmetric: one barrier is substantially less transparent than the other. Resonant tunneling through size-quantized well states and single-electron charging of the well are thus largely separated in the two bias polarities. When the emitter barrier is more transparent than the collector barrier, electrons accumulate in the well; incremental electron occupation of the well is accompanied by Coulomb blockade leading to sharp steps of the tunneling current. When the emitter barrier is less transparent, the current reflects resonant tunneling of just one electron at a time through size-quantized well states; the current peaks and/or steps (depending on experimental parameters) appear in current-voltage characteristics. Magnetic field and temperature effects are also reviewed. Good agreement is achieved in comparison of many features of experimental data with simple theoretical models
Afzalian, Aryan; Colinge, Jean-Pierre; Flandre, Denis
2011-05-01
A new concept of nanoscale MOSFET, the Gate Modulated Resonant Tunneling Transistor (RT-FET), is presented and modeled using 3D Non-Equilibrium Green's Function simulations enlightening the main physical mechanisms. Owing to the additional tunnel barriers and the related longitudinal confinement present in the device, the density of state is reduced in its off-state, while remaining comparable in its on-state, to that of a MOS transistor without barriers. The RT-FET thus features both a lower RT-limited off-current and a faster increase of the current with V G, i.e. an improved slope characteristic, and hence an improved Ion/ Ioff ratio. Such improvement of the slope can happen in subthreshold regime, and therefore lead to subthreshold slope below the kT/q limit. In addition, faster increase of current and improved slope occur above threshold and lead to high thermionic on-current and significant Ion/ Ioff ratio improvement, even with threshold voltage below 0.2 V and supply voltage V dd of a few hundreds of mV as critically needed for future technology nodes. Finally RT-FETs are intrinsically immune to source-drain tunneling and are therefore promising candidate for extending the roadmap below 10 nm.
Transit time for resonant tunneling
Garcia Calderon, G.; Rubio, A.
1990-09-01
This work considers properties of the partial widths in one dimensional elastic resonant tunneling in order to propose a transit-time τ tr = (h/2π)/Γ n T res ) where Γ n is the elastic width and T res the transmission coefficient at resonance energy. This time is interpreted as an average over the resonance energy width. It is shown that the tunneling current density integrated across a sharp resonance is inversely proportional to τ tr . This transit time may be much larger than the values predicted by other definitions. (author). 20 refs
Liu, Yang; Gao, Bo; Gong, Min; Shi, Ruiying
2017-06-01
The influence of a GaN layer as a sub-quantum well for an AlGaN/GaN/AlGaN double barrier resonant tunneling diode (RTD) on device performance has been investigated by means of numerical simulation. The introduction of the GaN layer as the sub-quantum well turns the dominant transport mechanism of RTD from the 3D-2D model to the 2D-2D model and increases the energy difference between tunneling energy levels. It can also lower the effective height of the emitter barrier. Consequently, the peak current and peak-to-valley current difference of RTD have been increased. The optimal GaN sub-quantum well parameters are found through analyzing the electrical performance, energy band, and transmission coefficient of RTD with different widths and depths of the GaN sub-quantum well. The most pronounced electrical parameters, a peak current density of 5800 KA/cm2, a peak-to-valley current difference of 1.466 A, and a peak-to-valley current ratio of 6.35, could be achieved by designing RTD with the active region structure of GaN/Al0.2Ga0.8 N/GaN/Al0.2Ga0.8 N (3 nm/1.5 nm/1.5 nm/1.5 nm).
Inelastic scattering in resonant tunneling
Wingreen, Ned S.; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel; Wilkins, John W.
1989-01-01
The exact resonant-tunneling transmission probability for an electron interacting with phonons is presented in the limit that the elastic coupling to the leads is independent of energy. The phonons produce transmission sidebands but do not affect the integrated transmission probability or the esc......The exact resonant-tunneling transmission probability for an electron interacting with phonons is presented in the limit that the elastic coupling to the leads is independent of energy. The phonons produce transmission sidebands but do not affect the integrated transmission probability...
Tunnel magnetoresistance in alumina, magnesia and composite tunnel barrier magnetic tunnel junctions
Schebaum, Oliver; Drewello, Volker; Auge, Alexander; Reiss, Guenter; Muenzenberg, Markus; Schuhmann, Henning; Seibt, Michael; Thomas, Andy
2011-01-01
Using magnetron sputtering, we have prepared Co-Fe-B/tunnel barrier/Co-Fe-B magnetic tunnel junctions with tunnel barriers consisting of alumina, magnesia, and magnesia-alumina bilayer systems. The highest tunnel magnetoresistance ratios we found were 73% for alumina and 323% for magnesia-based tunnel junctions. Additionally, tunnel junctions with a unified layer stack were prepared for the three different barriers. In these systems, the tunnel magnetoresistance ratios at optimum annealing temperatures were found to be 65% for alumina, 173% for magnesia, and 78% for the composite tunnel barriers. The similar tunnel magnetoresistance ratios of the tunnel junctions containing alumina provide evidence that coherent tunneling is suppressed by the alumina layer in the composite tunnel barrier. - Research highlights: → Transport properties of Co-Fe-B/tunnel barrier/Co-Fe-B magnetic tunnel junctions. → Tunnel barrier consists of MgO, Al-Ox, or MgO/Al-Ox bilayer systems. → Limitation of TMR-ratio in composite barrier tunnel junctions to Al-Ox values. → Limitation indicates that Al-Ox layer is causing incoherent tunneling.
The theory of coherent resonance tunneling of interacting electrons
Elesin, V. F.
2001-01-01
Analytical solutions of the Schrödinger equation for a two-barrier structure (resonance-tunnel diode) with open boundary conditions are found within the model of coherent tunneling of interacting electrons. Simple expressions for resonance current are derived which enable one to analyze the current-voltage characteristics, the conditions of emergence of hysteresis, and singularities of the latter depending on the parameters of resonance-tunnel diode. It is demonstrated that the hysteresis is realized if the current exceeds some critical value proportional to the square of resonance level width.
Tunnelling through two successive barriers and the Hartman (superluminal) effect
Olkhovsky, V.; Recami, E.; Salesi, G.; Bergamo Univ., Bergamo
2000-03-01
The paper studies the phenomenon of one-dimensional non-resonant tunnelling through two successive potential barriers, separated by an intermediate free region R, by analyzing the relevant solutions to the Schroedinger equation. The total traversal time does not depend not only on the barrier widths (the so called Hartman effect), but also on the R width: so the effective velocity in the region R, between the two barriers, can be regarded as infinite. This agrees with the results known from the corresponding waveguide experiments, which simulated the tunnelling experiment herein considered due to the formal identity between the Schroedinger and the Helmholtz equation
Resonant tunneling across a ferroelectric domain wall
Li, M.; Tao, L. L.; Velev, J. P.; Tsymbal, E. Y.
2018-04-01
Motivated by recent experimental observations, we explore electron transport properties of a ferroelectric tunnel junction (FTJ) with an embedded head-to-head ferroelectric domain wall, using first-principles density-functional theory calculations. We consider a FTJ with L a0.5S r0.5Mn O3 electrodes separated by a BaTi O3 barrier layer and show that an in-plane charged domain wall in the ferroelectric BaTi O3 can be induced by polar interfaces. The resulting V -shaped electrostatic potential profile across the BaTi O3 layer creates a quantum well and leads to the formation of a two-dimensional electron gas, which stabilizes the domain wall. The confined electronic states in the barrier are responsible for resonant tunneling as is evident from our quantum-transport calculations. We find that the resonant tunneling is an orbital selective process, which leads to sharp spikes in the momentum- and energy-resolved transmission spectra. Our results indicate that domain walls embedded in FTJs can be used to control the electron transport.
Search for Spin Filtering By Electron Tunneling Through Ferromagnetic EuS Barriers in Pbs
Figielski, T.; Morawski, A.; Wosinski, T.; Wrotek, S.; Makosa, A.; Lusakowska, E.; Story, T.; Sipatov, A. Yu.; Szczerbakow, A.; Grasza, K.;
2002-01-01
Perpendicular transport through single- and double-barrier heterostructures consisting of ferromagnetic EuS layers embedded into PbS matrix was investigated. Manifestations of both resonant tunneling and spin filtering through EuS barrier have been observed.
Scanning Tunneling Optical Resonance Microscopy
Bailey, Sheila; Wilt, Dave; Raffaelle, Ryne; Gennett, Tom; Tin, Padetha; Lau, Janice; Castro, Stephanie; Jenkins, Philip; Scheiman, Dave
2003-01-01
Scanning tunneling optical resonance microscopy (STORM) is a method, now undergoing development, for measuring optoelectronic properties of materials and devices on the nanoscale by means of a combination of (1) traditional scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) with (2) tunable laser spectroscopy. In STORM, an STM tip probing a semiconductor is illuminated with modulated light at a wavelength in the visible-to-near-infrared range and the resulting photoenhancement of the tunneling current is measured as a function of the illuminating wavelength. The photoenhancement of tunneling current occurs when the laser photon energy is sufficient to excite charge carriers into the conduction band of the semiconductor. Figure 1 schematically depicts a proposed STORM apparatus. The light for illuminating the semiconductor specimen at the STM would be generated by a ring laser that would be tunable across the wavelength range of interest. The laser beam would be chopped by an achromatic liquid-crystal modulator. A polarization-maintaining optical fiber would couple the light to the tip/sample junction of a commercial STM. An STM can be operated in one of two modes: constant height or constant current. A STORM apparatus would be operated in the constant-current mode, in which the height of the tip relative to the specimen would be varied in order to keep the tunneling current constant. In this mode, a feedback control circuit adjusts the voltage applied to a piezoelectric actuator in the STM that adjusts the height of the STM tip to keep the tunneling current constant. The exponential relationship between the tunneling current and tip-to-sample distance makes it relatively easy to implement this mode of operation. The choice of method by which the photoenhanced portion of the tunneling current would be measured depends on choice of the frequency at which the input illumination would be modulated (chopped). If the frequency of modulation were low enough (typically tunneling current
Relativistic tunneling through two successive barriers
Lunardi, Jose T.; Manzoni, Luiz A.
2007-01-01
We study the relativistic quantum mechanical problem of a Dirac particle tunneling through two successive electrostatic barriers. Our aim is to study the emergence of the so-called generalized Hartman effect, an effect observed in the context of nonrelativistic tunneling as well as in its counterparts and which is often associated with the possibility of superluminal velocities in the tunneling process. We discuss the behavior of both the phase (or group) tunneling time and the dwell time, and show that in the limit of opaque barriers the relativistic theory also allows the emergence of the generalized Hartman effect. We compare our results with the nonrelativistic ones and discuss their interpretation
Tunneling and resonant conductance in one-dimensional molecular structures
Kozhushner, M.A.; Posvyanskii, V.S.; Oleynik, I.I.
2005-01-01
We present a theory of tunneling and resonant transitions in one-dimensional molecular systems which is based on Green's function theory of electron sub-barrier scattering off the structural units (or functional groups) of a molecular chain. We show that the many-electron effects are of paramount importance in electron transport and they are effectively treated using a formalism of sub-barrier scattering operators. The method which calculates the total scattering amplitude of the bridge molecule not only predicts the enhancement of the amplitude of tunneling transitions in course of tunneling electron transfer through onedimensional molecular structures but also allows us to interpret conductance mechanisms by calculating the bound energy spectrum of the tunneling electron, the energies being obtained as poles of the total scattering amplitude of the bridge molecule. We found that the resonant tunneling via bound states of the tunneling electron is the major mechanism of electron conductivity in relatively long organic molecules. The sub-barrier scattering technique naturally includes a description of tunneling in applied electric fields which allows us to calculate I-V curves at finite bias. The developed theory is applied to explain experimental findings such as bridge effect due to tunneling through organic molecules, and threshold versus Ohmic behavior of the conductance due to resonant electron transfer
Tunnel junctions with multiferroic barriers
Gajek, Martin; Bibes, Manuel; Fusil, Stéphane; Bouzehouane, Karim; Fontcuberta, Josep; Barthélémy, Agnès; Fert, Albert
2007-04-01
Multiferroics are singular materials that can exhibit simultaneously electric and magnetic orders. Some are ferroelectric and ferromagnetic and provide the opportunity to encode information in electric polarization and magnetization to obtain four logic states. However, such materials are rare and schemes allowing a simple electrical readout of these states have not been demonstrated in the same device. Here, we show that films of La0.1Bi0.9MnO3 (LBMO) are ferromagnetic and ferroelectric, and retain both ferroic properties down to a thickness of 2nm. We have integrated such ultrathin multiferroic films as barriers in spin-filter-type tunnel junctions that exploit the magnetic and ferroelectric degrees of freedom of LBMO. Whereas ferromagnetism permits read operations reminiscent of magnetic random access memories (MRAM), the electrical switching evokes a ferroelectric RAM write operation. Significantly, our device does not require the destructive ferroelectric readout, and therefore represents an advance over the original four-state memory concept based on multiferroics.
Electron tunneling across a tunable potential barrier
Mangin, A; Anthore, A; Rocca, M L Della; Boulat, E; Lafarge, P
2009-01-01
We present an experiment where the elementary quantum electron tunneling process should be affected by an independent gate voltage parameter. We have realized nanotransistors where the source and drain electrodes are created by electromigration inducing a nanometer sized gap acting as a tunnel barrier. The barrier potential shape is in first approximation considered trapezoidal. The application of a voltage to the gate electrode close to the barrier region can in principle affect the barrier shape. Simulations of the source drain tunnel current as a function of the gate voltage predict modulations as large as one hundred percent. The difficulty of observing the predicted behaviour in our samples might be due to the peculiar geometry of the realized tunnel junction.
Tunnelling through a Gaussian random barrier
Bezak, Viktor
2008-01-01
A thorough analysis of the tunnelling of electrons through a laterally inhomogeneous rectangular barrier is presented. The barrier height is defined as a statistically homogeneous Gaussian random function. In order to simplify calculations, we assume that the electron energy is low enough in comparison with the mean value of the barrier height. The randomness of the barrier height is defined vertically by a constant variance and horizontally by a finite correlation length. We present detailed calculations of the angular probability density for the tunnelled electrons (i.e. for the scattering forwards). The tunnelling manifests a remarkably diffusive character if the wavelength of the electrons is comparable with the correlation length of the barrier
Magnetic tunnel junctions with monolayer hexagonal boron nitride tunnel barriers
Piquemal-Banci, M.; Galceran, R.; Bouzehouane, K.; Anane, A.; Petroff, F.; Fert, A.; Dlubak, B.; Seneor, P. [Unité Mixte de Physique, CNRS, Thales, Univ. Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, Palaiseau 91767 (France); Caneva, S.; Martin, M.-B.; Weatherup, R. S.; Kidambi, P. R.; Robertson, J.; Hofmann, S. [Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB21PZ (United Kingdom); Xavier, S. [Thales Research and Technology, 1 avenue Augustin Fresnel, Palaiseau 91767 (France)
2016-03-07
We report on the integration of atomically thin 2D insulating hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) tunnel barriers into Co/h-BN/Fe magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs). The h-BN monolayer is directly grown by chemical vapor deposition on Fe. The Conductive Tip Atomic Force Microscopy (CT-AFM) measurements reveal the homogeneity of the tunnel behavior of our h-BN layers. As expected for tunneling, the resistance depends exponentially on the number of h-BN layers. The h-BN monolayer properties are also characterized through integration into complete MTJ devices. A Tunnel Magnetoresistance of up to 6% is observed for a MTJ based on a single atomically thin h-BN layer.
Homoepitaxial graphene tunnel barriers for spin transport
Adam L. Friedman
2016-05-01
Full Text Available Tunnel barriers are key elements for both charge-and spin-based electronics, offering devices with reduced power consumption and new paradigms for information processing. Such devices require mating dissimilar materials, raising issues of heteroepitaxy, interface stability, and electronic states that severely complicate fabrication and compromise performance. Graphene is the perfect tunnel barrier. It is an insulator out-of-plane, possesses a defect-free, linear habit, and is impervious to interdiffusion. Nonetheless, true tunneling between two stacked graphene layers is not possible in environmental conditions usable for electronics applications. However, two stacked graphene layers can be decoupled using chemical functionalization. Here, we demonstrate that hydrogenation or fluorination of graphene can be used to create a tunnel barrier. We demonstrate successful tunneling by measuring non-linear IV curves and a weakly temperature dependent zero-bias resistance. We demonstrate lateral transport of spin currents in non-local spin-valve structures, and determine spin lifetimes with the non-local Hanle effect. We compare the results for hydrogenated and fluorinated tunnel and we discuss the possibility that ferromagnetic moments in the hydrogenated graphene tunnel barrier affect the spin transport of our devices.
Homoepitaxial graphene tunnel barriers for spin transport
Friedman, Adam L.; van't Erve, Olaf M. J.; Robinson, Jeremy T.; Whitener, Keith E.; Jonker, Berend T.
2016-05-01
Tunnel barriers are key elements for both charge-and spin-based electronics, offering devices with reduced power consumption and new paradigms for information processing. Such devices require mating dissimilar materials, raising issues of heteroepitaxy, interface stability, and electronic states that severely complicate fabrication and compromise performance. Graphene is the perfect tunnel barrier. It is an insulator out-of-plane, possesses a defect-free, linear habit, and is impervious to interdiffusion. Nonetheless, true tunneling between two stacked graphene layers is not possible in environmental conditions usable for electronics applications. However, two stacked graphene layers can be decoupled using chemical functionalization. Here, we demonstrate that hydrogenation or fluorination of graphene can be used to create a tunnel barrier. We demonstrate successful tunneling by measuring non-linear IV curves and a weakly temperature dependent zero-bias resistance. We demonstrate lateral transport of spin currents in non-local spin-valve structures, and determine spin lifetimes with the non-local Hanle effect. We compare the results for hydrogenated and fluorinated tunnel and we discuss the possibility that ferromagnetic moments in the hydrogenated graphene tunnel barrier affect the spin transport of our devices.
The effect of asymmetry on resonant tunneling
Garcia-Calderon, G.
1986-07-01
Resonant tunneling experiments on multibarrier coupled heterostructures probe the quasistationary nature of the states of the corresponding one dimensional potential. This work considers the effect of asymmetric one dimensional multibarrier potentials on resonant tunneling. It is shown, by using the properties of the propagator of the system, that this effect may lead to novel resonance phenomena and affects the lifetime of the quasistationary states of the system. The above considerations are illustrated by a simple analytical solvable model. (author)
New Tunneling Features in Polar III-Nitride Resonant Tunneling Diodes
Jimy Encomendero
2017-10-01
Full Text Available For the past two decades, repeatable resonant tunneling transport of electrons in III-nitride double barrier heterostructures has remained elusive at room temperature. In this work we theoretically and experimentally study III-nitride double-barrier resonant tunneling diodes (RTDs, the quantum transport characteristics of which exhibit new features that are unexplainable using existing semiconductor theory. The repeatable and robust resonant transport in our devices enables us to track the origin of these features to the broken inversion symmetry in the uniaxial crystal structure, which generates built-in spontaneous and piezoelectric polarization fields. Resonant tunneling transport enabled by the ground state as well as by the first excited state is demonstrated for the first time over a wide temperature window in planar III-nitride RTDs. An analytical transport model for polar resonant tunneling heterostructures is introduced for the first time, showing a good quantitative agreement with experimental data. From this model we realize that tunneling transport is an extremely sensitive measure of the built-in polarization fields. Since such electric fields play a crucial role in the design of electronic and photonic devices, but are difficult to measure, our work provides a completely new method to accurately determine their magnitude for the entire class of polar heterostructures.
Tunnel superpenetrability of potential barriers
Zakhariev, B N.
1982-01-01
The transmission of two particles through the same barrier is considered. The limiting cases are compared when the particles are joined together in a single particle with double mass-energy and potential and when they pass the barrier independently. As an intermediate case a pair of particles bound in a quasideuteron of a finite size is considered. It is shown that long-range collective correlations of particles (of the superfluidity type and others) simplify very much for them passing through high potential barriers. This happens due to the transfer of the additional energy from the particles outside the barriers to those inside it
Nanda, Jyotirmayee [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela, 769008 (India)]. E-mail: jnanda_b9@rediffmail.com; Mahapatra, P.K. [Department of Physics and Technophysics, Vidyasagar University, Midnapore, 721102 (India)]. E-mail: pkmahapatra@vidyasagar.ac.in; Roy, C.L. [Department of Physics and Meterology, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, 721302 (India)
2006-09-01
A computational model based on non-relativistic approach is proposed for the determination of transmission coefficient, resonant tunneling energies, group velocity, resonant tunneling lifetime and traversal time in multibarrier systems (GaAs/Al {sub y} Ga{sub 1-} {sub y} As) for the entire energy range {epsilon}
Tunnelling of plane waves through a square barrier
Julve, J [IMAFF, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones CientIficas, Serrano 113 bis, Madrid 28006 (Spain); UrrIes, F J de [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Alcala de Henares, Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: julve@imaff.cfmac.csic.es, E-mail: fernando.urries@uah.es
2008-08-01
The time evolution of plane waves in the presence of a one-dimensional square quantum barrier is considered. Comparison is made between the cases of an infinite and a cut-off (shutter) initial plane wave. The difference is relevant when the results are applied to the analysis of the tunnelling regime. This work is focused on the analytical calculation of the time-evolved solution and highlights the contribution of the resonant (Gamow) states.
Semiclassical description of resonant tunneling
Bogomolny, E.B.; Rouben, D.C.
1996-01-01
A semiclassical formula is calculated for the tunneling current of electrons trapped in a potential well which can tunnel into and across a wide quantum well. The tunneling current is measured at the second interface of this well and the calculations idealized an experimental situation where a strong magnetic field tilted with respect to an electric field was used. It is shown that the contribution to the tunneling current, due to trajectories which begin at the first interface and end on the second, is dominant for periodic orbits which hit both walls of the quantum well. (author)
Resonant Tunneling in Gated Vertical One- dimensional Structures
Kolagunta, V. R.; Janes, D. B.; Melloch, M. R.; Webb, K. J.
1997-03-01
Vertical sub-micron transistors incorporating resonant tunneling multiple quantum well heterostructures are interesting in applications for both multi-valued logic devices and the study of quantization effects in vertical quasi- one-, zero- dimensional structures. Earlier we have demonstrated room temperature pinch-off of the resonant peak in sub-micron vertical resonant tunneling transistors structures using a self-aligned sidewall gating technique ( V.R. Kolagunta et. al., Applied Physics Lett., 69), 374(1996). In this paper we present the study of gating effects in vertical multiple quantum well resonant tunneling transistors. Multiple well quasi-1-D sidewall gated transistors with mesa dimensions of L_x=0.5-0.9μm and L_y=10-40μm were fabricated. The quantum heterostructure in these devices consists of two non-symmetric (180 ÅÅi-GaAs wells separated from each other and from the top and bottom n^+ GaAs/contacts region using Al_0.3Ga_0.7As tunneling barriers. Room temperature pinch-off of the multiple resonant peaks similar to that reported in the case of single well devices is observed in these devices^1. Current-voltage characteristics at liquid nitrogen temperatures show splitting of the resonant peaks into sub-bands with increasing negative gate bias indicative of quasi- 1-D confinement. Room-temperature and low-temperature current-voltage measurements shall be presented and discussed.
Resonant tunneling of spin-wave packets via quantized states in potential wells.
Hansen, Ulf-Hendrik; Gatzen, Marius; Demidov, Vladislav E; Demokritov, Sergej O
2007-09-21
We have studied the tunneling of spin-wave pulses through a system of two closely situated potential barriers. The barriers represent two areas of inhomogeneity of the static magnetic field, where the existence of spin waves is forbidden. We show that for certain values of the spin-wave frequency corresponding to the quantized spin-wave states existing in the well formed between the barriers, the tunneling has a resonant character. As a result, transmission of spin-wave packets through the double-barrier structure is much more efficient than the sequent tunneling through two single barriers.
Quantum resonances in physical tunneling
Nieto, M.M.; Truax, D.R.
1985-01-01
It has recently been emphasized that the probability of quantum tunneling is a critical function of the shape of the potential. Applying this observation to physical systems, we point out that in principal information on potential surfaces can be obtained by studying tunneling rates. This is especially true in cases where only spectral data is known, since many potentials yield the same spectrum. 13 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab
Influence of edge roughness on graphene nanoribbon resonant tunnelling diodes
Liang Gengchiau; Khalid, Sharjeel Bin; Lam, Kai-Tak
2010-01-01
The edge roughness effects of graphene nanoribbons on their application in resonant tunnelling diodes with different geometrical shapes (S, H and W) were investigated. Sixty samples for each 5%, 10% and 15% edge roughness conditions of these differently shaped graphene nanoribbon resonant tunnelling diodes were randomly generated and studied. Firstly, it was observed that edge roughness in the barrier regions decreases the effective barrier height and thickness, which increases the broadening of the quantized states in the quantum well due to the enhanced penetration of the wave-function tail from the electrodes. Secondly, edge roughness increases the effective width of the quantum well and causes the lowering of the quantized states. Furthermore, the shape effects on carrier transport are modified by edge roughness due to different interfacial scattering. Finally, with the effects mentioned above, edge roughness has a considerable impact on the device performance in terms of varying the peak-current positions and degrading the peak-to-valley current ratio.
Resonant tunnelling and negative differential conductance in graphene transistors
Britnell, L.; Gorbachev, R. V.; Geim, A. K.; Ponomarenko, L. A.; Mishchenko, A.; Greenaway, M. T.; Fromhold, T. M.; Novoselov, K. S.; Eaves, L.
2013-04-01
The chemical stability of graphene and other free-standing two-dimensional crystals means that they can be stacked in different combinations to produce a new class of functional materials, designed for specific device applications. Here we report resonant tunnelling of Dirac fermions through a boron nitride barrier, a few atomic layers thick, sandwiched between two graphene electrodes. The resonance occurs when the electronic spectra of the two electrodes are aligned. The resulting negative differential conductance in the device characteristics persists up to room temperature and is gate voltage-tuneable due to graphene’s unique Dirac-like spectrum. Although conventional resonant tunnelling devices comprising a quantum well sandwiched between two tunnel barriers are tens of nanometres thick, the tunnelling carriers in our devices cross only a few atomic layers, offering the prospect of ultra-fast transit times. This feature, combined with the multi-valued form of the device characteristics, has potential for applications in high-frequency and logic devices.
Large magnetocurrents in double-barrier tunneling transistors
Lee, J.H.; Jun, K.-I.; Shin, K.-H.; Park, S.Y.; Hong, J.K.; Rhie, K.; Lee, B.C.
2005-01-01
Magnetic tunneling transistors (MTT) with double tunneling barriers are fabricated. The structure of the transistor is AFM/FM/I/FM/I/FM/AFM, and ferromagnetic layers serve as the emitter, base and collector. This double-barrier tunneling transistor (DBTT) has an advantage of controlling the potential between the base and collector, compared to the Schottky-barrier-based base and collector of MTT. We found that the collector current density of DBTT is at least 10 3 times larger than that of conventional MTT, since tunneling through AlO x barrier provides much larger current density than that through Schottky barrier
Electric-field effects on electronic tunneling transport in magnetic barrier structures
Guo Yong; Wang Hao; Gu Binglin; Kawazoe, Yoshiyuki
2000-01-01
Electronic transport properties in magnetic barrier structures under the influence of an electric field have been investigated. The results indicate that the characteristics of transmission resonance are determined not only by the structure and the incident wave vector but also strongly by the electric field. It is shown that the transmission coefficient at resonance in the low-energy range is suppressed by applying the electric field for electron tunneling through the magnetic barrier structure, arranged with identical magnetic barriers and wells. It is also shown that the transmission resonance is first enhanced up to optimal resonance, and then suppressed with further increased electric field for electron tunneling through the magnetic barrier structure, arranged with unidentical building blocks. Strong suppression of the current density is also found in the magnetic barrier structure, arranged with two different building blocks
Parametric enhancement of the tunneling transmission through a potential barrier
Tanaka, Masatoshi; Iwata, Giiti.
1992-01-01
A possibility of indicated of enhancing the tunneling transmission of particle incident on a potential barrier with the aid of an auxiliary potential parametrically in resonance with incident particles. For a simple auxiliary potential, a train of two-step square wells, examples are presented in which the ratio of the transmission coefficients with and without the auxiliary potential can be very large, e.g. (2n + 1) 2L , where n is the positive integer and L the number of the period of the auxiliary potential. (author)
'Al' concentration on spin-dependent resonant tunnelling in InAs/Ga
The separation between spin-up and spin-down components, barrier transparency, polarization efficiency and tunnelling lifetime were calculated using the transfer matrix approach. The separation between spin-up and spin-down resonances and tunnelling lifetime were reportedfor the first time in the case of InAs/Ga 1 − y ...
Resonant tunneling in a pulsed phonon field
Kral, P.; Jauho, Antti-Pekka
1999-01-01
, The nonequilibrium spectral function for the resonance displays the formation and decay of the phonon sidebands on ultrashort time scales. The time-dependent tunneling current through the individual phonon satellites reflects this quasiparticle formation by oscillations, whose time scale is set by the frequency...
Self-consistent modelling of resonant tunnelling structures
Fiig, T.; Jauho, A.P.
1992-01-01
We report a comprehensive study of the effects of self-consistency on the I-V-characteristics of resonant tunnelling structures. The calculational method is based on a simultaneous solution of the effective-mass Schrödinger equation and the Poisson equation, and the current is evaluated...... applied voltages and carrier densities at the emitter-barrier interface. We include the two-dimensional accumulation layer charge and the quantum well charge in our self-consistent scheme. We discuss the evaluation of the current contribution originating from the two-dimensional accumulation layer charges......, and our qualitative estimates seem consistent with recent experimental studies. The intrinsic bistability of resonant tunnelling diodes is analyzed within several different approximation schemes....
Thermopower in double planar tunnel junctions with ferromagnetic barriers and nonmagnetic electrodes
Wilczyński, M., E-mail: wilczyns@if.pw.edu.pl
2017-01-01
The Seebeck effect is investigated in double planar tunnel junctions consisting of nonmagnetic electrodes and the central layer separated by ferromagnetic barriers. Calculations are performed in the linear response theory using the free-electron model. The thermopower is analyzed as a function of the thickness of the central layer, temperature of the junctions and the relative orientation of magnetic moments of the barriers. It has been found that the thermopower can be significantly enhanced in the junction with special central layer thickness due to electron tunneling by resonant states. The thickness of the central layer for which the thermopower is enhanced depends not only on the temperature of the junction but also on the orientation of magnetic moments in the barriers. - Highlights: • Thermopower in the double planar junctions with magnetic barriers is analyzed. • Thermopower can be enhanced due to the resonant tunneling. • Thermopower depends on the magnetic configuration of the junction.
Baskin, Lev; Plamenevskii, Boris; Sarafanov, Oleg
2015-01-01
This volume studies electron resonant tunneling in two- and three-dimensional quantum waveguides of variable cross-sections in the time-independent approach. Mathematical models are suggested for the resonant tunneling and develop asymptotic and numerical approaches for investigating the models. Also, schemes are presented for several electronics devices based on the phenomenon of resonant tunneling. Devices based on the phenomenon of electron resonant tunneling are widely used in electronics. Efforts are directed towards refining properties of resonance structures. There are prospects for building new nanosize electronics elements based on quantum dot systems. However, the role of resonance structure can also be given to a quantum wire of variable cross-section. Instead of an "electrode - quantum dot - electrode" system, one can use a quantum wire with two narrows. A waveguide narrow is an effective potential barrier for longitudinal electron motion along a waveguide. The part of the waveguide between ...
Resonant tunnel magnetoresistance in a double magnetic tunnel junction
Useinov, Arthur
2011-08-09
We present quasi-classical approach to calculate a spin-dependent current and tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) in double magnetic tunnel junctions (DMTJ) FML/I/FMW/I/FMR, where the magnetization of the middle ferromagnetic metal layer FMW can be aligned parallel or antiparallel with respect to the fixed magnetizations of the left FML and right FMR ferromagnetic electrodes. The transmission coefficients for components of the spin-dependent current, and TMR are calculated as a function of the applied voltage. As a result, we found a high resonant TMR. Thus, DMTJ can serve as highly effective magnetic nanosensor for biological applications, or as magnetic memory cells by switching the magnetization of the inner ferromagnetic layer FMW.© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011.
Resonant tunnelling through short-range singular potentials
Zolotaryuk, A V; Christiansen, P L; Iermakova, S V
2007-01-01
A three-parameter family of point interactions constructed from sequences of symmetric barrier-well-barrier and well-barrier-well rectangles is studied in the limit, when the rectangles are squeezed to zero width but the barrier height and the well depth become infinite (the zero-range limit). The limiting generalized potentials are referred to as the second derivative of Dirac's delta function ±λδ-prime(x) with a renormalized coupling constant λ > 0 or simply as ±δ-prime-like point interactions. As a result, a whole family of self-adjoint extensions of the one-dimensional Schroedinger operator is shown to exist, which results in full and partial resonant tunnelling through this class of singular potentials. The resonant tunnelling occurs for countable sets of interaction strength values in the λ-space which are the roots of several transcendental equations. The comparison with the previous results for δ'-like point interactions is also discussed
Rouben, D.C.
1997-01-01
A semiclassical method for resonant tunneling in a quantum well in the presence of a magnetic field tilted with regard to an electric field is developed. In particular a semiclassical formula is derived for the total current of electrons after the second barrier of the quantum well. The contribution of the stable and unstable orbits is studied. It appears that the parameters which describe the classical chaos in the quantum well have an important effect on the tunneling current. A numerical experiment is led, the contributions to the current of some particular orbits are evaluated and the results are compared with those given by the quantum theory. (A.C.)
Cavity-enhanced resonant tunneling photodetector at telecommunication wavelengths
Pfenning, Andreas; Hartmann, Fabian; Langer, Fabian; Höfling, Sven; Kamp, Martin; Worschech, Lukas
2014-01-01
An AlGaAs/GaAs double barrier resonant tunneling diode (RTD) with a nearby lattice-matched GaInNAs absorption layer was integrated into an optical cavity consisting of five and seven GaAs/AlAs layers to demonstrate cavity enhanced photodetection at the telecommunication wavelength 1.3 μm. The samples were grown by molecular beam epitaxy and RTD-mesas with ring-shaped contacts were fabricated. Electrical and optical properties were investigated at room temperature. The detector shows maximum photocurrent for the optical resonance at a wavelength of 1.29 μm. At resonance a high sensitivity of 3.1×10 4 A/W and a response up to several pA per photon at room temperature were found
Jehl, Zacharie; Suchet, Daniel; Julian, Anatole; Bernard, Cyril; Miyashita, Naoya; Gibelli, Francois; Okada, Yoshitaka; Guillemolles, Jean-Francois
2017-02-01
Double resonant tunneling barriers are considered for an application as energy selective contacts in hot carrier solar cells. Experimental symmetric and asymmetric double resonant tunneling barriers are realized by molecular beam epitaxy and characterized by temperature dependent current-voltage measurements. The negative differential resistance signal is enhanced for asymmetric heterostructures, and remains unchanged between low- and room-temperatures. Within Tsu-Esaki description of the tunnel current, this observation can be explained by the voltage dependence of the tunnel transmission amplitude, which presents a resonance under finite bias for asymmetric structures. This effect is notably discussed with respect to series resistance. Different parameters related to the electronic transmission of the structure and the influence of these parameters on the current voltage characteristic are investigated, bringing insights on critical processes to optimize in double resonant tunneling barriers applied to hot carrier solar cells.
Evaluation of resonant tunneling transmission coefficient from multilayer structures GaAlAs/GaAs
L. Moghaddasi
2003-12-01
Full Text Available A theoretical study of resonant tunneling in multilayered GaAlAs/GaAs structures are presented. The spectrum of resonant energies and its dependence on the barrier structure are analyzed from calculated profiles of barrier transparency versus energy, and from current voltage characteristics computed at selected temperatures and Fermi levels. The present formalism is based on the effective mass approximation and results are via direct numerical evaluations.
Simulations of Resonant Intraband and Interband Tunneling Spin Filters
Ting, David; Cartoixa-Soler, Xavier; McGill, T. C.; Smith, Darryl L.; Schulman, Joel N.
2001-01-01
This viewgraph presentation reviews resonant intraband and interband tunneling spin filters It explores the possibility of building a zero-magnetic-field spin polarizer using nonmagnetic III-V semiconductor heterostructures. It reviews the extensive simulations of quantum transport in asymmetric InAs/GaSb/AlSb resonant tunneling structures with Rashba spin splitting and proposes a. new device concept: side-gated asymmetric Resonant Interband Tunneling Diode (a-RITD).
Duan Zhenglu; Fan Bixuan; Yuan Chunhua; Zhang Weiping; Cheng Jing; Zhu Shiyao
2010-01-01
We theoretically study the effect of atomic nonlinearity on the tunneling time in the case of an atomic Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) traversing the laser-induced potential barrier. The atomic nonlinearity is controlled to appear only in the region of the barrier by employing the Feshbach resonance technique to tune interatomic interaction in the tunneling process. Numerical simulation shows that the atomic nonlinear effect dramatically changes the tunneling behavior of the BEC matter wave packet and results in the violation of the Hartman effect and the occurrence of negative tunneling time.
Fabrication of magnetic tunnel junctions with a single-crystalline LiF tunnel barrier
Krishna Narayananellore, Sai; Doko, Naoki; Matsuo, Norihiro; Saito, Hidekazu; Yuasa, Shinji
2018-04-01
We fabricated Fe/LiF/Fe magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) by molecular beam epitaxy on a MgO(001) substrate, where LiF is an insulating tunnel barrier with the same crystal structure as MgO (rock-salt type). Crystallographical studies such as transmission electron microscopy and nanobeam electron diffraction observations revealed that the LiF tunnel barrier is single-crystalline and has a LiF(001)[100] ∥ bottom Fe(001)[110] crystal orientation, which is constructed in the same manner as MgO(001) on Fe(001). Also, the in-plane lattice mismatch between the LiF tunnel barrier and the Fe bottom electrode was estimated to be small (about 0.5%). Despite such advantages for the tunnel barrier of the MTJ, the observed tunnel magnetoresistance (MR) ratio was low (˜6% at 20 K) and showed a significant decrease with increasing temperature (˜1% at room temperature). The results imply that indirect tunneling and/or thermally excited carriers in the LiF tunnel barrier, in which the current basically is not spin-polarized, play a major role in electrical transport in the MTJ.
Resonant Tunneling Analog-To-Digital Converter
Broekaert, T. P. E.; Seabaugh, A. C.; Hellums, J.; Taddiken, A.; Tang, H.; Teng, J.; vanderWagt, J. P. A.
1995-01-01
As sampling rates continue to increase, current analog-to-digital converter (ADC) device technologies will soon reach a practical resolution limit. This limit will most profoundly effect satellite and military systems used, for example, for electronic countermeasures, electronic and signal intelligence, and phased array radar. New device and circuit concepts will be essential for continued progress. We describe a novel, folded architecture ADC which could enable a technological discontinuity in ADC performance. The converter technology is based on the integration of multiple resonant tunneling diodes (RTD) and hetero-junction transistors on an indium phosphide substrate. The RTD consists of a layered semiconductor hetero-structure AlAs/InGaAs/AlAs(2/4/2 nm) clad on either side by heavily doped InGaAs contact layers. Compact quantizers based around the RTD offer a reduction in the number of components and a reduction in the input capacitance Because the component count and capacitance scale with the number of bits N, rather than by 2 (exp n) as in the flash ADC, speed can be significantly increased, A 4-bit 2-GSps quantizer circuit is under development to evaluate the performance potential. Circuit designs for ADC conversion with a resolution of 6-bits at 25GSps may be enabled by the resonant tunneling approach.
Numerical simulations of resonant tunneling with the presence of inelastic processes
Jauho, A.P.
1990-01-01
We describe simulations of resonant tunneling through a time-modulated double barrier potential. The harmonic modulation frequency ω leads to emission and/or absorption of modulation quanta of energy ℎω in close analogy with emission and/or absorption of dispersionless bosons (optical phonons, photons, plasmons etc.). The transmission coefficient shows satellite peaks in addition to the main resonance. Momentum space snap-shots can be used to extract detailed information of the dynamics of the inelastic tunneling processes, such as opening and closing boson mediated resonant channels, their relative importance, and related time-scales. (orig.)
Resonant tunnel magnetoresistance in a double magnetic tunnel junction
Useinov, Arthur; Useinov, Niazbeck Kh H; Tagirov, Lenar R.; Kosel, Jü rgen
2011-01-01
We present quasi-classical approach to calculate a spin-dependent current and tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) in double magnetic tunnel junctions (DMTJ) FML/I/FMW/I/FMR, where the magnetization of the middle ferromagnetic metal layer FMW can
Nazin, G V; Wu, S W; Ho, W
2005-06-21
The scanning tunneling microscope enables atomic-scale measurements of electron transport through individual molecules. Copper phthalocyanine and magnesium porphine molecules adsorbed on a thin oxide film grown on the NiAl(110) surface were probed. The single-molecule junctions contained two tunneling barriers, vacuum gap, and oxide film. Differential conductance spectroscopy shows that electron transport occurs via vibronic states of the molecules. The intensity of spectral peaks corresponding to the individual vibronic states depends on the relative electron tunneling rates through the two barriers of the junction, as found by varying the vacuum gap tunneling rate by changing the height of the scanning tunneling microscope tip above the molecule. A simple, sequential tunneling model explains the observed trends.
Theory of electrically controlled resonant tunneling spin devices
Ting, David Z. -Y.; Cartoixa, Xavier
2004-01-01
We report device concepts that exploit spin-orbit coupling for creating spin polarized current sources using nonmagnetic semiconductor resonant tunneling heterostructures, without external magnetic fields. The resonant interband tunneling psin filter exploits large valence band spin-orbit interaction to provide strong spin selectivity.
Tunneling time through a barrier using the tempus operator
Kobe, Donald H.; Aguilera-Navarro, Valdir C. [North Texas Univ., Denton, TX (United States). Dept. of Physics
1996-11-01
The time a particle spends in a classically forbidden region of a potential barrier is expressed as an expectation value of the time operator in that region. Classically, time is canonically conjugate to the energy and is equal to the time a conservative system. The tunneling time is calculated by this approach for a rectangular barrier, which gives a complex time. The imaginary part of the time is non negative, so it is interpreted as a tunneling time. The real part gives a negative value for some values of the parameters, and is therefore rejected because it violates causality. This tunneling time is compared with other tunneling times that have been suggested by also calculating them for the rectangular barrier. 58 refs., 7 figs.
Tunneling time through a barrier using the tempus operator
Kobe, Donald H.; Aguilera-Navarro, Valdir C.
1996-11-01
The time a particle spends in a classically forbidden region of a potential barrier is expressed as an expectation value of the time operator in that region. Classically, time is canonically conjugate to the energy and is equal to the time a conservative system. The tunneling time is calculated by this approach for a rectangular barrier, which gives a complex time. The imaginary part of the time is non negative, so it is interpreted as a tunneling time. The real part gives a negative value for some values of the parameters, and is therefore rejected because it violates causality. This tunneling time is compared with other tunneling times that have been suggested by also calculating them for the rectangular barrier. 58 refs., 7 figs
Useinov, Arthur
2012-06-01
In this paper, we study the value of the tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) as a function of the applied voltage in double barrier magnetic tunnel junctions (DMTJs) with the left and right ferromagnetic (FM) layers being pinned and numerically estimate the possible difference of the TMR curves for negative and positive voltages in the homojunctions (equal barriers and electrodes). DMTJs are modeled as two single barrier junctions connected in series with consecutive tunneling (CST). We investigated the asymmetric voltage behavior of the TMR for the CST in the range of a general theoretical model. Significant asymmetries of the experimental curves, which arise due to different annealing regimes, are mostly explained by different heights of the tunnel barriers and asymmetries of spin polarizations in magnetic layers. © (2012) Trans Tech Publications.
Useinov, Arthur; Gooneratne, Chinthaka Pasan; Kosel, Jü rgen
2012-01-01
In this paper, we study the value of the tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) as a function of the applied voltage in double barrier magnetic tunnel junctions (DMTJs) with the left and right ferromagnetic (FM) layers being pinned and numerically estimate the possible difference of the TMR curves for negative and positive voltages in the homojunctions (equal barriers and electrodes). DMTJs are modeled as two single barrier junctions connected in series with consecutive tunneling (CST). We investigated the asymmetric voltage behavior of the TMR for the CST in the range of a general theoretical model. Significant asymmetries of the experimental curves, which arise due to different annealing regimes, are mostly explained by different heights of the tunnel barriers and asymmetries of spin polarizations in magnetic layers. © (2012) Trans Tech Publications.
Quantum tunneling resonant electron transfer process in Lorentzian plasmas
Hong, Woo-Pyo; Jung, Young-Dae
2014-01-01
The quantum tunneling resonant electron transfer process between a positive ion and a neutral atom collision is investigated in nonthermal generalized Lorentzian plasmas. The result shows that the nonthermal effect enhances the resonant electron transfer cross section in Lorentzian plasmas. It is found that the nonthermal effect on the classical resonant electron transfer cross section is more significant than that on the quantum tunneling resonant charge transfer cross section. It is shown that the nonthermal effect on the resonant electron transfer cross section decreases with an increase of the Debye length. In addition, the nonthermal effect on the quantum tunneling resonant electron transfer cross section decreases with increasing collision energy. The variation of nonthermal and plasma shielding effects on the quantum tunneling resonant electron transfer process is also discussed
Homoepitaxial graphene tunnel barriers for spin transport (Presentation Recording)
Friedman, Adam L.
2015-09-01
Tunnel barriers are key elements for both charge-and spin-based electronics, offering devices with reduced power consumption and new paradigms for information processing. Such devices require mating dissimilar materials, raising issues of heteroepitaxy, interface stability, and electronic states that severely complicate fabrication and compromise performance. Graphene is the perfect tunnel barrier. It is an insulator out-of-plane, possesses a defect-free, linear habit, and is impervious to interdiffusion. Nonetheless, true tunneling between two stacked graphene layers is not possible in environmental conditions (magnetic field, temperature, etc.) usable for electronics applications. However, two stacked graphene layers can be decoupled using chemical functionalization. Here, we demonstrate homoepitaxial tunnel barrier devices in which graphene serves as both the tunnel barrier and the high mobility transport channel. Beginning with multilayer graphene, we fluorinate or hydrogenate the top layer to decouple it from the bottom layer, so that it serves as a single monolayer tunnel barrier for both charge and spin injection into the lower graphene transport channel. We demonstrate successful tunneling by measuring non-linear IV curves, and a weakly temperature dependent zero bias resistance. We perform lateral transport of spin currents in non-local spin-valve structures and determine spin lifetimes with the non-local Hanle effect to be commensurate with previous studies (~200 ps). However, we also demonstrate the highest spin polarization efficiencies (~45%) yet measured in graphene-based spin devices [1]. [1] A.L. Friedman, et al., Homoepitaxial tunnel barriers with functionalized graphene-on-graphene for charge and spin transport, Nat. Comm. 5, 3161 (2014).
Resonant tunneling measurements of size-induced strain relaxation
Akyuz, Can Deniz
Lattice mismatch strain available in such semiconductor heterostructures as Si/SiGe or GaAs/AlGaAs can be employed to alter the electronic and optoelectronic properties of semiconductor structures and devices. When deep submicron structures are fabricated from strained material, strained layers relax by sidewall expansion giving rise to size- and geometry-dependent strain gradients throughout the structure. This thesis describes a novel experimental technique to probe the size-induced strain relaxation by studying the tunneling current characteristics of strained p-type Si/SiGe resonant tunneling diodes. Our current-voltage measurements on submicron strained p-Si/SiGe double- and triple-barrier resonant tunneling structures as a function of device diameter, D, provide experimental access to both the average strain relaxation (which leads to relative shifts in the tunneling current peak positions) and strain gradients (which give rise to a fine structure in the current peaks due to inhomogeneous strain-induced lateral quantization). We find that strain relaxation is significant, with a large fraction of the strain energy relaxed on average in D ≤ 0.25 m m devices. Further, the in-plane potentials that arise from inhomogeneous strain gradients are large. In the D ˜ 0.2 m m devices, the corresponding lateral potentials are approximately parabolic exceeding ˜ 25 meV near the perimeter. These potentials create discrete hole states in double-barrier structures (single well), and coupled hole states in triple-barrier structures (two wells). Our results are in excellent agreement with finite-element strain calculations in which the strained layers are permitted to relax to a state of minimum energy by sidewall expansion. Size-induced strain relaxation will undoubtedly become a serious technological issue once strained devices are scaled down to the deep submicron regime. Interestingly, our calculations predict and our measurements are consistent with the appearance of
Transport spectroscopy and modeling of a clean MOS point contact tunnel barrier
Shirkhorshidian, Amir; Bishop, Nathaniel; Dominguez, Jason; Grubbs, Robert; Wendt, Joel; Lilly, Michael; Carroll, Malcolm
2014-03-01
We present transport spectroscopy of non-implanted and antimony-implanted tunnel barriers formed in MOS split-gate structures at 4K. The non-implanted barrier shows no signs of resonant behavior while the Sb-implanted barrier shows resonances superimposed on the clean transport. We simulate the transmission through the clean barrier over the entire gate and bias range of the experiment using a phenomenological 1D-tunneling model that includes Fowler-Nordheim tunneling and Schottky barrier lowering to capture effects at high bias. The model is qualitatively similar to experiment when the barrier height has a quadratic dependence in contrast to a linear one, which can be a sign of 2D effects such as confinement perpendicular to the transport direction. This work was performed, in part, at the Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, a U.S. DOE, Office of Basic Energy Sciences user facility. This work was supported by the Sandia National Laboratories Directed Research and Development Program. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.
Monolithic integration of a resonant tunneling diode and a quantum well semiconductor laser
Grave, I.; Kan, S. C.; Griffel, G.; Wu, S. W.; Sa'Ar, A.
1991-01-01
A monolithic integration of a double barrier AlAs/GaAs resonant tunneling diode and a GaAs/AlGaAs quantum well laser is reported. Negative differential resistance and negative differential optical response are observed at room temperature. The device displays bistable electrical and optical characteristics which are voltage controlled. Operation as a two-state optical memory is demonstrated.
Electron spin resonance scanning tunneling microscope
Guo Yang; Li Jianmei; Lu Xinghua
2015-01-01
It is highly expected that the future informatics will be based on the spins of individual electrons. The development of elementary information unit will eventually leads to novel single-molecule or single-atom devices based on electron spins; the quantum computer in the future can be constructed with single electron spins as the basic quantum bits. However, it is still a great challenge in detection and manipulation of a single electron spin, as well as its coherence and entanglement. As an ideal experimental tool for such tasks, the development of electron spin resonance scanning tunneling microscope (ESR-STM) has attracted great attention for decades. This paper briefly introduces the basic concept of ESR-STM. The development history of this instrument and recent progresses are reviewed. The underlying mechanism is explored and summarized. The challenges and possible solutions are discussed. Finally, the prospect of future direction and applications are presented. (authors)
Instantaneous Tunneling Flight Time for Wavepacket Transmission through Asymmetric Barriers.
Petersen, Jakob; Pollak, Eli
2018-04-12
The time it takes a particle to tunnel through the asymmetric Eckart barrier potential is investigated using Gaussian wavepackets, where the barrier serves as a model for the potential along a chemical reaction coordinate. We have previously shown that the, in principle experimentally measurable, tunneling flight time, which determines the time taken by the transmitted particle to traverse the barrier, vanishes for symmetric potentials like the Eckart and square barrier [ Petersen , J. ; Pollak , E. J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2017 , 9 , 4017 ]. Here we show that the same result is obtained for the asymmetric Eckart barrier potential, and therefore, the zero tunneling flight time seems to be a general result for one-dimensional time-independent potentials. The wavepacket dynamics is simulated using both an exact quantum mechanical method and a classical Wigner prescription. The excellent agreement between the two methods shows that quantum coherences are not important in pure one-dimensional tunneling and reinforces the conclusion that the tunneling flight time vanishes.
Krive, I.V.; Sandstroem, P.
1997-01-01
The persistent current for a one-dimensional ring with two tunneling barriers is considered in the limit of weakly interacting electrons. In addition to small off-resonance current, there are two kinds of resonant behaviour; (i) a current independent of the barrier transparency (true resonance) and (ii) a current analogous to the one for a ring with only single barrier (''semi''-resonance). For a given barrier transparency the realization of this or that type of resonant behaviour depends both on the geometrical factor (the ratio of interbarrier distance to a ring circumference) and on the strength of electron-electron interaction. It is shown that repulsive interaction favours the ''semi''-resonance behaviour. For a small barrier transparency the ''semi''-resonance peaks are easily washed out by temperature whereas the true resonance peaks survive. (author). 22 refs, 2 figs
Flexible MgO Barrier Magnetic Tunnel Junctions.
Loong, Li Ming; Lee, Wonho; Qiu, Xuepeng; Yang, Ping; Kawai, Hiroyo; Saeys, Mark; Ahn, Jong-Hyun; Yang, Hyunsoo
2016-07-01
Flexible MgO barrier magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) devices are fabricated using a transfer printing process. The flexible MTJ devices yield significantly enhanced tunneling magnetoresistance of ≈300% and improved abruptness of switching, as residual strain in the MTJ structure is released during the transfer process. This approach could be useful for flexible electronic systems that require high-performance memory components. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Resonant TMR inversion in LiF/EuS based spin-filter tunnel junctions
Fen Liu
2016-08-01
Full Text Available Resonant tunneling can lead to inverse tunnel magnetoresistance when impurity levels rather than direct tunneling dominate the transport process. We fabricated hybrid magnetic tunnel junctions of CoFe/LiF/EuS/Ti, with an epitaxial LiF energy barrier joined with a polycrystalline EuS spin-filter barrier. Due to the water solubility of LiF, the devices were fully packaged in situ. The devices showed sizeable positive TMR up to 16% at low bias voltages but clearly inverted TMR at higher bias voltages. The TMR inversion depends sensitively on the thickness of LiF, and the tendency of inversion disappears when LiF gets thick enough and recovers its intrinsic properties.
Optimization of a tunneling barrier in magnetic tunneling junction by tilted-plasma oxidation
Nam, C.H.; Shim, Heejae; Kim, K.S.; Cho, B.K.
2004-01-01
Oxidation of an AlO x insulating barrier in a magnetic tunneling junction (MTJ) was carried out by a tilted-plasma oxidation method. It was found that the tilted-plasma oxidation induced a gradual change in the extent of oxidation of an insulating layer, which consequently led to a gradual change in the tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR) and specific junction resistance (RA) of the MTJ. We found a linear relation in the TMR versus RA curve with positive and negative slopes for less- and overoxidized junctions, respectively, and a parabolic relation for optimally oxidized junctions. The crossover in the TMR versus RA curves provides an effective and useful way to optimize (and monitor) the oxidation condition of a tunneling barrier in MTJs especially of a tunneling barrier less than 10 A thick. The tunneling junctions were also investigated after thermal annealing at various temperatures. The observations after thermal annealing were found to be consistent with transmission electrons microscopy images and a scenario of the partial formation of an additional ultrathin tunneling barrier at the top surface of the bottom magnetic layer
The combined resonance tunneling and semi-resonance level in low energy D-D reaction
Li Xingzhong; Jin Dezhe; Chang Lee
1993-01-01
When nuclear potential wells are connected by an atomic potential well, a new kind of tunneling may happen even if there is no virtual energy level in nuclear potential wells. The necessary condition for this combined resonance tunneling is the resonance in the atomic potential well. Thus, the nuclear reaction may be affected by the action in atomic scale in terms of combined resonance tunneling. The nuclear spectrum data support this idea. (author)
Spin-polarized inelastic tunneling through insulating barriers.
Lu, Y; Tran, M; Jaffrès, H; Seneor, P; Deranlot, C; Petroff, F; George, J-M; Lépine, B; Ababou, S; Jézéquel, G
2009-05-01
Spin-conserving hopping transport through chains of localized states has been evidenced by taking benefit of the high degree of spin-polarization of CoFeB-MgO-CoFeB magnetic tunnel junctions. In particular, our data show that relatively thick MgO barriers doped with boron favor the activation of spin-conserving inelastic channels through a chain of three localized states and leading to reduced magnetoresistance effects. We propose an extension of the Glazman-Matveev theory to the case of ferromagnetic reservoirs to account for spin-polarized inelastic tunneling through nonmagnetic localized states embedded in an insulating barrier.
Nonlinear transport theory in the metal with tunnel barrier
Zubov, E. E.
2018-02-01
Within the framework of the scattering matrix formalism, the nonlinear Kubo theory for electron transport in the metal with a tunnel barrier has been considered. A general expression for the mean electrical current was obtained. It significantly simplifies the calculation of nonlinear contributions to the conductivity of various hybrid structures. In the model of the tunnel Hamiltonian, all linear and nonlinear contributions to a mean electrical current are evaluated. The linear approximation agrees with results of other theories. For effective barrier transmission ?, the ballistic transport is realised with a value of the Landauer conductivity equal to ?.
Study of the geometrical resonances of superconducting tunnel junctions
Sørensen, O. Hoffmann; Finnegan, T.F.; Pedersen, Niels Falsig
1973-01-01
The resonant cavity structure of superconducting Sn-Sn-oxide-Sn tunnel junctions has been investigated via photon-assisted quasiparticle tunneling. We find that the temperature-dependent losses at 35 GHz are determined by the surface resistance of the Sn films for reduced temperatures between 0...
Nazin, G. V.; Wu, S. W.; Ho, W.
2005-01-01
The scanning tunneling microscope enables atomic-scale measurements of electron transport through individual molecules. Copper phthalocyanine and magnesium porphine molecules adsorbed on a thin oxide film grown on the NiAl(110) surface were probed. The single-molecule junctions contained two tunneling barriers, vacuum gap, and oxide film. Differential conductance spectroscopy shows that electron transport occurs via vibronic states of the molecules. The intensity of spectral peaks correspondi...
Rouben, D C
1997-11-28
A semiclassical method for resonant tunneling in a quantum well in the presence of a magnetic field tilted with regard to an electric field is developed. In particular a semiclassical formula is derived for the total current of electrons after the second barrier of the quantum well. The contribution of the stable and unstable orbits is studied. It appears that the parameters which describe the classical chaos in the quantum well have an important effect on the tunneling current. A numerical experiment is led, the contributions to the current of some particular orbits are evaluated and the results are compared with those given by the quantum theory. (A.C.) 70 refs.
Li, H.W.; Kardynal, Beata; Ellis, D.J.P.
2008-01-01
Quantum dot resonant tunneling diode single photon detector with independently defined absorption and sensing areas is demonstrated. The device, in which the tunneling is constricted to an aperture in an insulating layer in the emitter, shows electrical characteristics typical of high quality res...
Locally addressable tunnel barriers within a carbon nanotube
Biercuk, M.; Mason, N.; Chow, J.
2003-01-01
We report the realization and characterization of independently controllable tunnel barriers within a carbon nanotube. The nanotubes are mechanically bent or kinked using an atomic force microscope, and top gates are subsequently placed near each kink. Transport measurements indicate that the kin...
Spin injection in n-type resonant tunneling diodes.
Orsi Gordo, Vanessa; Herval, Leonilson Ks; Galeti, Helder Va; Gobato, Yara Galvão; Brasil, Maria Jsp; Marques, Gilmar E; Henini, Mohamed; Airey, Robert J
2012-10-25
We have studied the polarized resolved photoluminescence of n-type GaAs/AlAs/GaAlAs resonant tunneling diodes under magnetic field parallel to the tunnel current. Under resonant tunneling conditions, we have observed two emission lines attributed to neutral (X) and negatively charged excitons (X-). We have observed a voltage-controlled circular polarization degree from the quantum well emission for both lines, with values up to -88% at 15 T at low voltages which are ascribed to an efficient spin injection from the 2D gases formed at the accumulation layers.
Tunneling effect on double potential barriers GaAs and PbS
Prastowo, S. H. B.; Supriadi, B.; Ridlo, Z. R.; Prihandono, T.
2018-04-01
A simple model of transport phenomenon tunnelling effect through double barrier structure was developed. In this research we concentrate on the variation of electron energy which entering double potential barriers to transmission coefficient. The barriers using semiconductor materials GaAs (Galium Arsenide) with band-gap energy 1.424 eV, distance of lattice 0.565 nm, and PbS (Lead Sulphide) with band gap energy 0.41 eV distance of lattice is 18 nm. The Analysisof tunnelling effect on double potentials GaAs and PbS using Schrodinger’s equation, continuity, and matrix propagation to get transmission coefficient. The maximum energy of electron that we use is 1.0 eV, and observable from 0.0025 eV- 1.0 eV. The shows the highest transmission coefficient is0.9982 from electron energy 0.5123eV means electron can pass the barriers with probability 99.82%. Semiconductor from materials GaAs and PbS is one of selected material to design semiconductor device because of transmission coefficient directly proportional to bias the voltage of semiconductor device. Application of the theoretical analysis of resonant tunnelling effect on double barriers was used to design and develop new structure and combination of materials for semiconductor device (diode, transistor, and integrated circuit).
Quantum size effects on spin-tunneling time in a magnetic resonant tunneling diode
Saffarzadeh, Alireza; Daqiq, Reza
2009-01-01
We study theoretically the quantum size effects of a magnetic resonant tunneling diode (RTD) with a (Zn,Mn)Se dilute magnetic semiconductor layer on the spin-tunneling time and the spin polarization of the electrons. The results show that the spin-tunneling times may oscillate and a great difference between the tunneling time of the electrons with opposite spin directions can be obtained depending on the system parameters. We also study the effect of structural asymmetry which is related to t...
Memory Applications Using Resonant Tunneling Diodes
Shieh, Ming-Huei
Resonant tunneling diodes (RTDs) producing unique folding current-voltage (I-V) characteristics have attracted considerable research attention due to their promising application in signal processing and multi-valued logic. The negative differential resistance of RTDs renders the operating points self-latching and stable. We have proposed a multiple -dimensional multiple-state RTD-based static random-access memory (SRAM) cell in which the number of stable states can significantly be increased to (N + 1)^ m or more for m number of N-peak RTDs connected in series. The proposed cells take advantage of the hysteresis and folding I-V characteristics of RTD. Several cell designs are presented and evaluated. A two-dimensional nine-state memory cell has been implemented and demonstrated by a breadboard circuit using two 2-peak RTDs. The hysteresis phenomenon in a series of RTDs is also further analyzed. The switch model provided in SPICE 3 can be utilized to simulate the hysteretic I-V characteristics of RTDs. A simple macro-circuit is described to model the hysteretic I-V characteristic of RTD for circuit simulation. A new scheme for storing word-wide multiple-bit information very efficiently in a single memory cell using RTDs is proposed. An efficient and inexpensive periphery circuit to read from and write into the cell is also described. Simulation results on the design of a 3-bit memory cell scheme using one-peak RTDs are also presented. Finally, a binary transistor-less memory cell which is only composed of a pair of RTDs and an ordinary rectifier diode is presented and investigated. A simple means for reading and writing information from or into the memory cell is also discussed.
Mantsevich, V. N.; Maslova, N. S.
2009-01-01
We present the results of local tunneling conductivity spatial distribution detailed theoretical investigations in vicinity of impurity atom for a wide range of applied bias voltage. We observed Fano resonance in tunneling conductivity resulting from interference between resonant tunneling channel through impurity energy level and direct tunneling channel between the tunneling contact leads. We have found that interference between tunneling channels strongly modifies form of tunneling conduct...
Apparent Barrier Height in Scanning Tunneling Microscopy Revisited
Olesen, L.; Brandbyge, Mads; Sørensen, Mads Reinholdt
1996-01-01
The apparent barrier height phi(ap), that is, the rate of change of the logarithm of the conductance with tip-sample separation in a scanning tunneling microscope (STM), has been measured for Ni, Pt, and Au single crystal surfaces. The results show that phi(ap) is constant until point contact...... is reached rather than decreasing at small tunneling gap distances, as previously reported. The findings for phi(ap) can be accounted for theoretically by including the relaxations of the tip-surface junction in an STM due to the strong adhesive forces at close proximity. These relaxation effects are shown...
Wang, Jing; Huang, Qikun; Shi, Peng; Zhang, Kun; Tian, Yufeng; Yan, Shishen; Chen, Yanxue; Liu, Guolei; Kang, Shishou; Mei, Liangmo
2017-10-26
The development of multifunctional spintronic devices requires simultaneous control of multiple degrees of freedom of electrons, such as charge, spin and orbit, and especially a new physical functionality can be realized by combining two or more different physical mechanisms in one specific device. Here, we report the realization of novel tunneling rectification magnetoresistance (TRMR), where the charge-related rectification and spin-dependent tunneling magnetoresistance are integrated in Co/CoO-ZnO/Co magnetic tunneling junctions with asymmetric tunneling barriers. Moreover, by simultaneously applying direct current and alternating current to the devices, the TRMR has been remarkably tuned in the range from -300% to 2200% at low temperature. This proof-of-concept investigation provides an unexplored avenue towards electrical and magnetic control of charge and spin, which may apply to other heterojunctions to give rise to more fascinating emergent functionalities for future spintronics applications.
Photon-assisted Tunneling In Double-barrier Superconducting Tunnel-junctions
Dierichs, M. M. T. M.; Dieleman, P.; Wezelman, J. J.; Honingh, C. E.; Klapwijk, T. M.
1994-01-01
Double-barrier Nb/Al2O3/Al/Al2O3/Nb tunnel junctions are used as mixing elements in a 345 GHz waveguide mixer. Noise temperatures (double side band) down to 720 K at 3.0 K are obtained without the need to apply a magnetic field to suppress the Josephson current. It is shown that the composite
Spin-dependent current in resonant tunneling diode with ferromagnetic GaMnN layers
Tang, N.Y.
2009-01-01
The spin-polarized tunneling current through a double barrier resonant tunneling diode (RTD) with ferromagnetic GaMnN emitter/collector is investigated theoretically. Two distinct spin splitting peaks can be observed at current-voltage (I-V) characteristics at low temperature. The spin polarization decreases with the temperature due to the thermal effect of electron density of states. When charge polarization effect is considered at the heterostructure, the spin polarization is enhanced significantly. A highly spin-polarized current can be obtained depending on the polarization charge density.
Growth and characterization of high current density, high-speed InAs/AlSb resonant tunneling diodes
Soderstrom, J. R.; Brown, E. R.; Parker, C. D.; Mahoney, L. J.; Yao, J. Y.
1991-01-01
InAs/AlSb double-barrier resonant tunneling diodes with peak current densities up to 370,000 A/sq cm and high peak-to-valley current ratios of 3.2 at room temperature have been fabricated. The peak current density is well-explained by a stationary-state transport model with the two-band envelope function approximation. The valley current density predicted by this model is less than the experimental value by a factor that is typical of the discrepancy found in other double-barrier structures. It is concluded that threading dislocations are largely inactive in the resonant tunneling process.
Campbell, Philip M., E-mail: philip.campbell@gatech.edu [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Electronic Systems Laboratory, Georgia Tech Research Institute, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Tarasov, Alexey; Joiner, Corey A.; Vogel, Eric M. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Ready, W. Jud [Electronic Systems Laboratory, Georgia Tech Research Institute, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States)
2016-01-14
Since the invention of the Esaki diode, resonant tunneling devices have been of interest for applications including multi-valued logic and communication systems. These devices are characterized by the presence of negative differential resistance in the current-voltage characteristic, resulting from lateral momentum conservation during the tunneling process. While a large amount of research has focused on III-V material systems, such as the GaAs/AlGaAs system, for resonant tunneling devices, poor device performance and device-to-device variability have limited widespread adoption. Recently, the symmetric field-effect transistor (symFET) was proposed as a resonant tunneling device incorporating symmetric 2-D materials, such as transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), separated by an interlayer barrier, such as hexagonal boron-nitride. The achievable peak-to-valley ratio for TMD symFETs has been predicted to be higher than has been observed for III-V resonant tunneling devices. This work examines the effect that band structure differences between III-V devices and TMDs has on device performance. It is shown that tunneling between the quantized subbands in III-V devices increases the valley current and decreases device performance, while the interlayer barrier height has a negligible impact on performance for barrier heights greater than approximately 0.5 eV.
Campbell, Philip M.; Tarasov, Alexey; Joiner, Corey A.; Ready, W. Jud; Vogel, Eric M.
2016-01-01
Since the invention of the Esaki diode, resonant tunneling devices have been of interest for applications including multi-valued logic and communication systems. These devices are characterized by the presence of negative differential resistance in the current-voltage characteristic, resulting from lateral momentum conservation during the tunneling process. While a large amount of research has focused on III-V material systems, such as the GaAs/AlGaAs system, for resonant tunneling devices, poor device performance and device-to-device variability have limited widespread adoption. Recently, the symmetric field-effect transistor (symFET) was proposed as a resonant tunneling device incorporating symmetric 2-D materials, such as transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), separated by an interlayer barrier, such as hexagonal boron-nitride. The achievable peak-to-valley ratio for TMD symFETs has been predicted to be higher than has been observed for III-V resonant tunneling devices. This work examines the effect that band structure differences between III-V devices and TMDs has on device performance. It is shown that tunneling between the quantized subbands in III-V devices increases the valley current and decreases device performance, while the interlayer barrier height has a negligible impact on performance for barrier heights greater than approximately 0.5 eV.
Tunneling spectroscopy on superconducting Nb3Sn with artioficial barriers
Schneider, U.
1984-03-01
Tunneling diodes on Nb 3 Sn were prepared by magnetron sputtering. The superconducting transition temperatures of the Nb 3 Sn films were in the range of 5 to 18 K. An energetically low-lying structure in the tunneling density of states has been localized by detailed studies of the second derivative of the current-voltage characteristics of the diodes. This structure was found near 5.5 meV for stoichiometric Nb 3 Sn (Tsub(c) approx.= 18 K) and at 6.7 meV for understoichiometric Nb 3 Sn (Tsub(c) approx.= 5 K). The minimum in the conductance at zero energy found in the normal state could be identified to be mainly due to inelastic phonon processes of barrier phonons and Nb 3 Sn phonons. Deformations were found in the tunneling density of states of stoichiometric Nb 3 Sn diodes which lead to contradiction when explained by proximity effects. (orig./GSCH)
Niobium nitride Josephson tunnel junctions with magnesium oxide barriers
Shoji, A.; Aoyagi, M.; Kosaka, S.; Shinoki, F.; Hayakawa, H.
1985-01-01
Niobium nitride-niobium nitride Josephson tunnel junctions have been fabricated using amorphous magnesium oxide (a-MgO) films as barriers. These junctions have excellent tunneling characteristics. For example, a large gap voltage (V/sub g/ = 5.1 mV), a large product of the maximum critical current and the normal tunneling resistance (I/sub c/R/sub n/ = 3.25 mV), and a small subgap leakage current (V/sub m/ = 45 mV, measured at 3 mV) have been obtained for a NbN/a-MgO/NbN junction. The critical current of this junction remains finite up to 14.5 K
Reflection effect of localized absorptive potential on non-resonant and resonant tunneling
Rubio, A.; Kumar, N.
1992-06-01
The reflection due to absorptive potential (-iV i ) for resonant and non-resonant tunneling has been considered. We show that the effect of reflection leads to a non-monotonic dependence of absorption on the strength V i with a maximum absorption of typically 0.5. This has implications for the operation of resonant tunneling devices. General conceptual aspects of absorptive potentials are discussed. (author). 9 refs, 2 figs
Quasi-bound states, resonance tunnelling, and tunnelling times ...
analysis of bound states below the threshold energy E = 0 and continuum above the threshold .... p are time reversal states of each other. Similarly, the ... are occurring at above-barrier energies and we do not treat them as QB states. They can ...
Chandrasekar, L. Bruno; Gnanasekar, K.; Karunakaran, M.
2018-06-01
The effect of δ-potential was studied in GaAs/Ga0.6Al0·4As double barrier heterostructure with Dresselhaus spin-orbit interaction. The role of barrier height and position of the δ- potential in the well region was analysed on spin-dependent electron tunneling using transfer matrix method. The spin-separation between spin-resonances on energy scale depends on both height and position of the δ- potential, whereas the tunneling life time of electrons highly influenced by the position of the δ- potential and not on the height. These results might be helpful for the fabrication of spin-filters.
Jahromi, Hamed Dehdashti; Mahmoodi, Ali; Sheikhi, Mohammad Hossein; Zarifkar, Abbas
2016-10-20
Reduction of dark current at high-temperature operation is a great challenge in conventional quantum dot infrared photodetectors, as the rate of thermal excitations resulting in the dark current increases exponentially with temperature. A resonant tunneling barrier is the best candidate for suppression of dark current, enhancement in signal-to-noise ratio, and selective extraction of different wavelength response. In this paper, we use a physical model developed by the authors recently to design a proper resonant tunneling barrier for quantum infrared photodetectors and to study and analyze the spectral response of these devices. The calculated transmission coefficient of electrons by this model and its dependency on bias voltage are in agreement with experimental results. Furthermore, based on the calculated transmission coefficient, the dark current of a quantum dot infrared photodetector with a resonant tunneling barrier is calculated and compared with the experimental data. The validity of our model is proven through this comparison. Theoretical dark current by our model shows better agreement with the experimental data and is more accurate than the previously developed model. Moreover, noise in the device is calculated. Finally, the effect of different parameters, such as temperature, size of quantum dots, and bias voltage, on the performance of the device is simulated and studied.
Theoretical consideration of spin-polarized resonant tunneling in magnetic tunnel junctions
Mu Haifeng; Zhu Zhengang; Zheng Qingrong; Jin Biao; Wang Zhengchuan; Su Gang
2004-01-01
A recent elegant experimental realization [S. Yuasa et al., Science 297 (2002) 234] of the spin-polarized resonant tunneling in magnetic tunnel junctions is interpreted in terms of a two-band model. It is shown that the tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) decays oscillatorily with the thickness of the normal metal (NM) layer, being fairly in agreement with the experimental observation. The tunnel conductance is found to decay with slight oscillations with the increase of the NM layer thickness, which is also well consistent with the experiment. In addition, when the magnetizations of both ferromagnet electrodes are not collinearly aligned, TMR is found to exhibit sharp resonant peaks at some particular thickness of the NM layer. The peaked TMR obeys nicely a Gaussian distribution against the relative orientation of the magnetizations
concentration on spin-dependent resonant tunnelling in InAs/Ga1 ...
Cent percentage polarization can be obtained in this strained non-magnetic double-barrier ... Keywords. Spin–orbit interaction; barrier transparency; polarization efficiency; tunnelling lifetime. 1. Introduction ..... Figure 6. Tunnelling lifetime vs.
Gate-controlled quantum collimation in nanocolumn resonant tunnelling transistors
Wensorra, J; Lepsa, M I; Trellenkamp, S; Moers, J; Lueth, H; Indlekofer, K M
2009-01-01
Nanoscaled resonant tunneling transistors (RTT) based on MBE-grown GaAs/AlAs double-barrier quantum well (DBQW) structures have been fabricated by a top-down approach using electron-beam lithographic definition of the vertical nanocolumns. In the preparation process, a reproducible mask alignment accuracy of below 10 nm has been achieved and the all-around metal gate at the level of the DBQW structure has been positioned at a distance of about 20 nm relative to the semiconductor nanocolumn. Due to the specific doping profile n ++ /i/n ++ along the transistor nanocolumn, a particular confining potential is established for devices with diameters smaller than 70 nm, which causes a collimation effect of the propagating electrons. Under these conditions, room temperature optimum performance of the nano-RTTs is achieved with peak-to-valley current ratios above 2 and a peak current swing factor of about 6 for gate voltages between -6 and +6 V. These values indicate that our nano-RTTs can be successfully used in low power fast nanoelectronic circuits.
Current-voltage relation for thin tunnel barriers: Parabolic barrier model
Hansen, Kim; Brandbyge, Mads
2004-01-01
We derive a simple analytic result for the current-voltage curve for tunneling of electrons through a thin uniform insulating layer modeled by a parabolic barrier. Our model, which goes beyond the Wentzel–Kramers–Brillouin approximation, is applicable also in the limit of highly transparant...
Useinov, Arthur; Mryasov, Oleg; Kosel, Jü rgen
2011-01-01
In this paper we study the asymmetric voltage behavior (AVB) of the tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) for single and double barrier magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) in range of a quasi-classical free electron model. Numerical calculations of the TMR
Analysis of the current-voltage characteristics lineshapes of resonant tunneling diodes
Rivera, P.H.; Schulz, P.A.
1996-01-01
It is discussed the influence of a two dimensional electron gas at the emitter-barrier interface on the current-voltage characteristics of a Ga As-Al Ga As double-barrier quantum well resonant tunneling diode. This effect is characterized by the modification of the space charge distribution along the structure. Within the framework of a self-consistent calculation we analyse the current-voltage characteristics of the tunneling diodes. This analysis permits us to infer different tunneling ways, related to the formation of confined states in the emitter region, and their signatures in the current-voltage characteristics. We show that varying the spacer layer, together with barrier heights, changes drastically the current density-voltage characteristics lineshapes. We compare our results with a variety of current-voltage characteristics lineshapes. We compare our results with a variety of current-voltage characteristics reported in the literature. The general trend of experimental lineshapes can be reproduced and interpreted with our model. The possibility of tunneling paths is predicted for a range that has not yet been explored experimentally. (author). 12 refs., 4 figs
Takahashi, Kin'ya; Ikeda, Kensuke S
2012-11-01
In multidimensional barrier tunneling, there exist two different types of tunneling mechanisms, instanton-type tunneling and noninstanton tunneling. In this paper we investigate transitions between the two tunneling mechanisms from the semiclassical and quantum viewpoints taking two simple models: a periodically perturbed Eckart barrier for the semiclassical analysis and a periodically perturbed rectangular barrier for the quantum analysis. As a result, similar transitions are observed with change of the perturbation frequency ω for both systems, and we obtain a comprehensive scenario from both semiclassical and quantum viewpoints for them. In the middle range of ω, in which the plateau spectrum is observed, noninstanton tunneling dominates the tunneling process, and the tunneling amplitude takes the maximum value. Noninstanton tunneling explained by stable-unstable manifold guided tunneling (SUMGT) from the semiclassical viewpoint is interpreted as multiphoton-assisted tunneling from the quantum viewpoint. However, in the limit ω→0, instanton-type tunneling takes the place of noninstanton tunneling, and the tunneling amplitude converges on a constant value depending on the perturbation strength. The spectrum localized around the input energy is observed, and there is a scaling law with respect to the width of the spectrum envelope, i.e., the width ∝ℏω. In the limit ω→∞, the tunneling amplitude converges on that of the unperturbed system, i.e., the instanton of the unperturbed system.
Time-dependent transport in interacting and noninteracting resonant-tunneling systems
Jauho, Antti-Pekka; Wingreen, Ned S.; Meir, Yigal
1994-01-01
noninteracting resonant-tunneling system are presented. Due to the coherence between the leads and the resonant site, the current does not follow the driving signal adiabatically: a ''ringing'' current is found as a response to a voltage pulse, and a complex time dependence results in the case of harmonic......We consider a mesoscopic region coupled to two leads under the influence of external time-dependent voltages. The time dependence is coupled to source and drain contacts, the gates controlling the tunnel-barrier heights, or to the gates that define the mesoscopic region. We derive, with the Keldysh...... nonequilibrium-Green-function technique, a formal expression for the fully nonlinear, time-dependent current through the system. The analysis admits arbitrary interactions in the mesoscopic region, but the leads are treated as noninteracting. For proportionate coupling to the leads, the time-averaged current...
Perez-Alvarez, R.; Rodriguez-Coppola, H.; Lopez-Gondar, J.; Izquierdo, M.L.
1987-11-01
We develop the quasiclassical approximation for the effective Hamiltonians describing nonhomogeneous systems and we deduce the wave function, the applicability conditions and the connection rules around the turning points. Based on the transfer matrix (TM) formalism we obtain expressions for the transmission coefficient of multiple barriers, the energy levels of multiple wells and the quasistationary levels of a well open by one, and by the two sides. The dispersion relation of a periodic potential profile with variable mass problem is also given. We discuss resonant tunneling for a system of multiple barriers. The transmission coefficient of such a barrier is maximum at energies close to the levels of the inner well when the end barriers are high enough and symmetric. (author). 20 refs, 1 fig
An Xingtao; Liu Jianjun
2008-01-01
Based on the scattering approach, we investigate transport properties of electrons in a one-dimensional waveguide that contains a ferromagnetic/semiconductor/ferromagnetic heterojunction and tunnel barriers in the presence of Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit interactions. We simultaneously consider significant quantum size effects, quantum coherence, Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit interactions and noncollinear magnetizations. It is found that the tunnel barrier plays a decisive role in the transmission coefficient and shot noise of the ballistic spin electron transport through the heterojunction. When the small tunnel barriers are considered, the transport properties of electrons are quite different from those without tunnel barriers
The critical role of the barrier thickness in spin filter tunneling
Miller, Casey W.
2009-01-01
Spin filter tunneling is considered in the low bias limit as functions of the temperature dependent barrier parameters. We demonstrate the generation of spin polarized tunneling currents in relation to the magnetic order parameter, and discuss how an interfacially suppressed order parameter leads to a temperature dependent tunneling current asymmetry. Analyzing the full parameter space reveals that the often overlooked barrier thickness plays a critical role in spin filter tunneling. With all else fixed, thicker barriers yield higher spin polarization, and allow a given polarization to be achieved at higher temperatures. This insight may open the door for new materials to serve as spin filter barriers.
Tunable negative differential resistance in planar graphene superlattice resonant tunneling diode
Sattari-Esfahlan, S. M.; Fouladi-Oskuei, J.; Shojaei, S.
2017-04-01
Here, we study the negative differential resistance (NDR) of Dirac electrons in biased planar graphene superlattice (PGSL) and investigate the transport characteristics by adopted transfer matrix method within Landauer-Buttiker formalism. Our model device is based on one-dimensional Kronig-Penney type electrostatic potential in monolayer graphene deposited on a substrate, where the bias voltage is applied by two electrodes in the left and right. At Low bias voltages, we found that NDR appears due to breaking of minibands to Wannier-Stark ladders (WSLs). At the critical bias voltage, delocalization appeared by WS states leads to tunneling peak current in current-voltage (I-V) characteristics. With increasing bias voltage, crossing of rungs from various WSL results in multi-peak NDR. The results demonstrate that the structure parameters like barrier/well thickness and barrier height have remarkable effect on I-V characteristics of PGSL. In addition, Dirac gap enhances peak to valley (PVR) value due to suppressing Klein tunneling. Our results show that the tunable PVR in PGSL resonant tunneling diode can be achievable by structure parameters engineering. NDR at ultra-low bias voltages, such as 100 mV, with giant PVR of 20 is obtained. In our device, the multiple same NDR peaks with ultra-low bias voltage provide promising prospect for multi-valued memories and the low power nanoelectronic tunneling devices.
Spin polarization of tunneling current in barriers with spin-orbit coupling
Fujita, T; Jalil, M B A; Tan, S G
2008-01-01
We present a general method for evaluating the maximum transmitted spin polarization and optimal spin axis for an arbitrary spin-orbit coupling (SOC) barrier system, in which the spins lie in the azimuthal plane and finite spin polarization is achieved by wavevector filtering of electrons. Besides momentum filtering, another prerequisite for finite spin polarization is asymmetric occupation or transmission probabilities of the eigenstates of the SOC Hamiltonian. This is achieved most efficiently by resonant tunneling through multiple SOC barriers. We apply our analysis to common SOC mechanisms in semiconductors: pure bulk Dresselhaus SOC, heterostructures with mixed Dresselhaus and Rashba SOC and strain-induced SOC. In particular, we find that the interplay between Dresselhaus and Rashba SOC effects can yield several advantageous features for spin filter and spin injector functions, such as increased robustness to wavevector spread of electrons
Spin polarization of tunneling current in barriers with spin-orbit coupling.
Fujita, T; Jalil, M B A; Tan, S G
2008-03-19
We present a general method for evaluating the maximum transmitted spin polarization and optimal spin axis for an arbitrary spin-orbit coupling (SOC) barrier system, in which the spins lie in the azimuthal plane and finite spin polarization is achieved by wavevector filtering of electrons. Besides momentum filtering, another prerequisite for finite spin polarization is asymmetric occupation or transmission probabilities of the eigenstates of the SOC Hamiltonian. This is achieved most efficiently by resonant tunneling through multiple SOC barriers. We apply our analysis to common SOC mechanisms in semiconductors: pure bulk Dresselhaus SOC, heterostructures with mixed Dresselhaus and Rashba SOC and strain-induced SOC. In particular, we find that the interplay between Dresselhaus and Rashba SOC effects can yield several advantageous features for spin filter and spin injector functions, such as increased robustness to wavevector spread of electrons.
Inelastic tunneling spectroscopy for magnetic atoms and the Kondo resonance
Goldberg, E C; Flores, F
2013-01-01
The interaction between a single magnetic atom and the metal environment (including a magnetic field) is analyzed by introducing an ionic Hamiltonian combined with an effective crystal-field term, and by using a Green-function equation of motion method. This approach describes the inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy and the Kondo resonances as due to atomic spin fluctuations associated with electron co-tunneling processes between the leads and the atom. We analyze in the case of Fe on CuN the possible spin fluctuations between states with S = 2 and 3/2 or 5/2 and conclude that the experimentally found asymmetries in the conductance with respect to the applied bias, and its marked structures, are well explained by the 2↔3/2 spin fluctuations. The case of Co is also considered and shown to present, in contrast with Fe, a resonance at the Fermi energy corresponding to a Kondo temperature of 6 K. (paper)
Useinov, Arthur
2011-10-22
In this paper we study the asymmetric voltage behavior (AVB) of the tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) for single and double barrier magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) in range of a quasi-classical free electron model. Numerical calculations of the TMR-V curves, output voltages and I-V characteristics for negative and positive values of applied voltages were carried out using MTJs with CoFeB/MgO interfaces as an example. Asymmetry of the experimental TMR-V curves is explained by different values of the minority and majority Fermi wave vectors for the left and right sides of the tunnel barrier, which arises due to different annealing regimes. Electron tunneling in DMTJs was simulated in two ways: (i) Coherent tunneling, where the DMTJ is modeled as one tunnel system and (ii) consecutive tunneling, where the DMTJ is modeled by two single barrier junctions connected in series. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Noor, F. A.; Nabila, E.; Mardianti, H.; Ariani, T. I.; Khairurrijal
2018-04-01
The transmittance and tunneling current in heterostructures under spin polarization consideration were studied by employing a zinc-blended structure for the heterostructures. An electron tunnels through a potential barrier by applying a bias voltage to the barrier, which is called the trapezoidal potential barrier. In order to study the transmittance, an Airy wave function approach was employed to find the transmittance. The obtained transmittance was then utilized to compute the tunneling current by using a Gauss quadrature method. It was shown that the transmittances were asymmetric with the incident angle of the electron. It was also shown that the tunneling currents increased as the bias voltage increased.
Tunneling effect in cavity-resonator-coupled arrays
Ma Hua; Xu Zhuo; Qu Shao-Bo; Zhang Jie-Qiu; Wang Jia-Fu; Liang Chang-Hong
2013-01-01
The quantum tunneling effect (QTE) in a cavity-resonator-coupled (CRC) array was analytically and numerically investigated. The underlying mechanism was interpreted by treating electromagnetic waves as photons, and then was generalized to acoustic waves and matter waves. It is indicated that for the three kinds of waves, the QTE can be excited by cavity resonance in a CRC array, resulting in sub-wavelength transparency through the narrow splits between cavities. This opens up opportunities for designing new types of crystals based on CRC arrays, which may find potential applications such as quantum devices, micro-optic transmission, and acoustic manipulation. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)
Passive Resonant Bidirectional Converter with Galvanic Barrier
Rosenblad, Nathan S. (Inventor)
2014-01-01
A passive resonant bidirectional converter system that transports energy across a galvanic barrier includes a converter using at least first and second converter sections, each section including a pair of transfer terminals, a center tapped winding; a chopper circuit interconnected between the center tapped winding and one of the transfer terminals; an inductance feed winding interconnected between the other of the transfer terminals and the center tap and a resonant tank circuit including at least the inductance of the center tap winding and the parasitic capacitance of the chopper circuit for operating the converter section at resonance; the center tapped windings of the first and second converter sections being disposed on a first common winding core and the inductance feed windings of the first and second converter sections being disposed on a second common winding core for automatically synchronizing the resonant oscillation of the first and second converter sections and transferring energy between the converter sections until the voltage across the pairs of transfer terminals achieves the turns ratio of the center tapped windings.
Tunneling of Atoms, Nuclei and Molecules
Bertulani, C.A.
2015-01-01
This is a brief review of few relevant topics on tunneling of composite particles and how the coupling to intrinsic and external degrees of freedom affects tunneling probabilities. I discuss the phenomena of resonant tunneling, different barriers seen by subsystems, damping of resonant tunneling by level bunching and continuum effects due to particle dissociation. (author)
Current-voltage characteristics of a tunnel junction with resonant centers
Ivanov, T.; Valtchinov, V.
1994-05-01
We calculated the I-V characteristics of a tunnel junction containing impurities in the barrier. We consider the indirect resonant tunneling involving the impurities. The Coulomb repulsion energy E c between two electrons with opposite spins simultaneously residing on the impurity is introduced by an Anderson Hamiltonian. At low temperatures T is much less than E c the I-V characteristics is linear in V both for V c and for V>E c and changes slope at V=E c . This behaviour reflects the energy spectrum of the impurity electrons - the finite value of the charging energy E c . At T ∼ E c the junction reveals an ohmic-like behaviour as a result of the smearing out of the charging effects by the thermal fluctuations. (author). 10 refs, 2 figs
Lee, Sangheon; Woo, Jiyong; Lee, Daeseok; Cha, Euijun; Hwang, Hyunsang
2014-01-01
In this research, we analyzed the multi-functional role of a tunnel barrier that can be integrated in devices. This tunnel barrier, acting as an internal resistor, changes its resistance with applied bias. Therefore, the current flow in the devices can be controlled by a tunneling mechanism that modifies the tunnel barrier thickness for non-linearity and switching uniformity of devices. When a device is in a low-resistance state, the tunnel barrier controls the current behavior of the device because most of the bias is applied to the tunnel barrier owing to its higher resistance. Furthermore, the tunnel barrier induces uniform filament formation during set operation with the tunnel barrier controlling the current flow.
Circular polarization in a non-magnetic resonant tunneling device
Airey Robert
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract We have investigated the polarization-resolved photoluminescence (PL in an asymmetric n-type GaAs/AlAs/GaAlAs resonant tunneling diode under magnetic field parallel to the tunnel current. The quantum well (QW PL presents strong circular polarization (values up to -70% at 19 T. The optical emission from GaAs contact layers shows evidence of highly spin-polarized two-dimensional electron and hole gases which affects the spin polarization of carriers in the QW. However, the circular polarization degree in the QW also depends on various other parameters, including the g-factors of the different layers, the density of carriers along the structure, and the Zeeman and Rashba effects.
Martsenyuk, L.S.
2010-01-01
Research of influence of exchange interaction of identical particles for the time of their simultaneous tunneling through a rectangular quantum barrier is lead. The account of identity leads to necessity of symmetrisation of wave function owing to what in the formula describing interaction of two particles, arises an additional element. In result the parameters of tunneling, including time of tunneling change. Time of tunneling is calculated from the formula received in work from the size of exchange interaction of two particles simultaneously crossing a rectangular quantum barrier.
Q factor and resonance amplitude of Josephson tunnel junctions
Broom, R.F.; Wolf, P.
1977-01-01
The surface impedance of the superconducting films comprising the electrodes of Josephson tunnel junctions has been derived from the BCS theory in the extreme London limit. Expressions have been obtained for (i) the dependence of the penetration depth lambda on frequency and temperature, and (ii) the quality factor Q of the junction cavity, attributable to surface absorption in the electrodes. The effect of thin electrodes (t 9 or approx. = lambda) is also included in the calculations. Comparison of the calculated frequency dependence of lambda with resonance measurements on Pb-alloy and all-Nb tunnel junctions yields quite good agreement, indicating that the assumptions made in the theory are reasonable. Measurements of the (current) amplitude of the resonance peaks of the junctions have been compared with the values obtained from inclusion of the calculated Q in the theory by Kulik. In common with observations on microwave cavities by other workers, we find that a small residual conductivity must be added to the real part of the BCS value. With its inclusion, good agreement is found between calculation and experiment, within the range determined by the simplifying assumptions of Kulik's theory. From the results, we believe the calculation of Q to be reasonably accurate for the materials investigated. It is shown that the resonance amplitude of Josephson junctions can be calculated directly from the material constants and a knowledge of the residual conductivity
Chien, Diana; Li, Xiang; Wong, Kin; Zurbuchen, Mark A.; Robbennolt, Shauna; Yu, Guoqiang; Tolbert, Sarah; Kioussis, Nicholas; Khalili Amiri, Pedram; Wang, Kang L.; Chang, Jane P.
2016-03-01
Compared with current-controlled magnetization switching in a perpendicular magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ), electric field- or voltage-induced magnetization switching reduces the writing energy of the memory cell, which also results in increased memory density. In this work, an ultra-thin PZT film with high dielectric constant was integrated into the tunneling oxide layer to enhance the voltage-controlled magnetic anisotropy (VCMA) effect. The growth of MTJ stacks with an MgO/PZT/MgO tunnel barrier was performed using a combination of sputtering and atomic layer deposition techniques. The fabricated MTJs with the MgO/PZT/MgO barrier demonstrate a VCMA coefficient, which is ˜40% higher (19.8 ± 1.3 fJ/V m) than the control sample MTJs with an MgO barrier (14.3 ± 2.7 fJ/V m). The MTJs with the MgO/PZT/MgO barrier also possess a sizeable tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR) of more than 50% at room temperature, comparable to the control MTJs with an MgO barrier. The TMR and enhanced VCMA effect demonstrated simultaneously in this work make the MgO/PZT/MgO barrier-based MTJs potential candidates for future voltage-controlled, ultralow-power, and high-density magnetic random access memory devices.
Determination of the thickness of Al2O3 barriers in magnetic tunnel junctions
Buchanan, J.D.R.; Hase, T.P.A.; Tanner, B.K.; Hughes, N.D.; Hicken, R.J.
2002-01-01
The barrier thickness in magnetic spin-dependent tunnel junctions with Al 2 O 3 barriers has been measured using grazing incidence x-ray reflectivity and by fitting the tunneling current to the Simmons model. We have studied the effect of glow discharge oxidation time on the barrier structure, revealing a substantial increase in Al 2 O 3 thickness with oxidation. The greater thickness of barrier measured using grazing incidence x-ray reflectivity compared with that obtained by fitting current density-voltage to the Simmons electron tunneling model suggests that electron tunneling is localized to specific regions across the barrier, where the thickness is reduced by fluctuations due to nonconformal roughness
Modelling of optoelectronic circuits based on resonant tunneling diodes
Rei, João. F. M.; Foot, James A.; Rodrigues, Gil C.; Figueiredo, José M. L.
2017-08-01
Resonant tunneling diodes (RTDs) are the fastest pure electronic semiconductor devices at room temperature. When integrated with optoelectronic devices they can give rise to new devices with novel functionalities due to their highly nonlinear properties and electrical gain, with potential applications in future ultra-wide-band communication systems (see e.g. EU H2020 iBROW Project). The recent coverage on these devices led to the need to have appropriated simulation tools. In this work, we present RTD based optoelectronic circuits simulation packages to provide circuit signal level analysis such as transient and frequency responses. We will present and discuss the models, and evaluate the simulation packages.
Josephson phase qubit circuit for the evaluation of advanced tunnel barrier materials
Kline, Jeffrey S; Oh, Seongshik; Pappas, David P [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, CO 80305 (United States); Wang Haohua; Martinis, John M [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States)], E-mail: klinej@nist.gov
2009-01-15
We have found that crystalline Josephson junctions have problems with the control of critical current density that decrease the circuit yield. We present a superconducting quantum bit circuit designed to accommodate a factor of five variation in critical current density from one fabrication run to the next. The new design enables the evaluation of advanced tunnel barrier materials for superconducting quantum bits. Using this circuit design, we compare the performance of Josephson phase qubits fabricated with MgO and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} advanced crystalline tunnel barriers to AlO{sub x} amorphous tunnel barrier qubits.
Elimination of two level fluctuators in superconducting quantum bits by an epitaxial tunnel barrier
Oh, Seongshik; Cicak, Katarina; Kline, Jeffrey S.; Sillanpaeae, Mika A.; Osborn, Kevin D.; Whittaker, Jed D.; Simmonds, Raymond W.; Pappas, David P.
2006-01-01
Quantum computing based on Josephson junction technology is considered promising due to its scalable architecture. However, decoherence is a major obstacle. Here, we report evidence for improved Josephson quantum bits (qubits) using a single-crystal Al 2 O 3 tunnel barrier. We have found an ∼80% reduction in the density of the spectral splittings that indicate the existence of two-level fluctators (TLFs) in amorphous tunnel barriers. The residual ∼20% TLFs can be attributed to interfacial effects that may be further reduced by different electrode materials. These results show that decoherence sources in the tunnel barrier of Josephson qubits can be identified and eliminated
Superluminal tunneling of a relativistic half-integer spin particle through a potential barrier
Nanni Luca
2017-11-01
Full Text Available This paper investigates the problem of a relativistic Dirac half-integer spin free particle tunneling through a rectangular quantum-mechanical barrier. If the energy difference between the barrier and the particle is positive, and the barrier width is large enough, there is proof that the tunneling may be superluminal. For first spinor components of particle and antiparticle states, the tunneling is always superluminal regardless the barrier width. Conversely, the second spinor components of particle and antiparticle states may be either subluminal or superluminal depending on the barrier width. These results derive from studying the tunneling time in terms of phase time. For the first spinor components of particle and antiparticle states, it is always negative while for the second spinor components of particle and antiparticle states, it is always positive, whatever the height and width of the barrier. In total, the tunneling time always remains positive for particle states while it becomes negative for antiparticle ones. Furthermore, the phase time tends to zero, increasing the potential barrier both for particle and antiparticle states. This agrees with the interpretation of quantum tunneling that the Heisenberg uncertainty principle provides. This study’s results are innovative with respect to those available in the literature. Moreover, they show that the superluminal behaviour of particles occurs in those processes with high-energy confinement.
Kapaev, V. V.; Kopaev, Yu. V.; Savinov, S. A.; Murzin, V. N.
2013-01-01
The characteristics of the high-frequency response of single- and double-well resonant tunneling structures in a dc electric field are investigated on the basis of the numerical solution of a time-dependent Schrödinger equation with open boundary conditions. The frequency dependence of the real part of high frequency conductivity (high-frequency response) in In 0.53 Ga 0.47 As/AlAs/InP structures is analyzed in detail for various values of the dc voltage V dc in the negative differential resistance (NDR) region. It is shown that double-well three-barrier structures are promising for the design of terahertz-band oscillators. The presence of two resonant states with close energies in such structures leads to a resonant (in frequency) response whose frequency is determined by the energy difference between these levels and can be controlled by varying the parameters of the structure. It is shown that, in principle, such structures admit narrow-band amplification, tuning of the amplification frequency, and a fine control of the amplification (oscillation) frequency in a wide range of terahertz frequencies by varying a dc electric voltage applied to the structure. Starting from a certain width of the central intermediate barrier in double-well structures, one can observe a collapse of resonances, where the structure behaves like a single-well system. This phenomenon imposes a lower limit on the oscillation frequency in three-barrier resonant tunneling structures.
Temperature dependence of shot noise in double barrier magnetic tunnel junctions
Niu, Jiasen; Liu, Liang; Feng, J. F.; Han, X. F.; Coey, J. M. D.; Zhang, X.-G.; Wei, Jian
2018-03-01
Shot noise reveals spin dependent transport properties in a magnetic tunnel junction. We report measurement of shot noise in CoFeB/MgO/CoFeB/MgO/CoFeB double barrier magnetic tunnel junctions, which shows a strong temperature dependence. The Fano factor used to characterize shot noise increases with decreasing temperature. A sequential tunneling model can be used to account for these results, in which a larger Fano factor results from larger spin relaxation length at lower temperatures.
Photo-Detectors Integrated with Resonant Tunneling Diodes
José M. L. Figueiredo
2013-07-01
Full Text Available We report on photo-detectors consisting of an optical waveguide that incorporates a resonant tunneling diode (RTD. Operating at wavelengths around 1.55 μm in the optical communications C band we achieve maximum sensitivities of around 0.29 A/W which is dependent on the bias voltage. This is due to the nature of RTD nonlinear current-voltage characteristic that has a negative differential resistance (NDR region. The resonant tunneling diode photo-detector (RTD-PD can be operated in either non-oscillating or oscillating regimes depending on the bias voltage quiescent point. The oscillating regime is apparent when the RTD-PD is biased in the NDR region giving rise to electrical gain and microwave self-sustained oscillations Taking advantage of the RTD’s NDR distinctive characteristics, we demonstrate efficient detection of gigahertz (GHz modulated optical carriers and optical control of a RTD GHz oscillator. RTD-PD based devices can have applications in generation and optical control of GHz low-phase noise oscillators, clock recovery systems, and fiber optic enabled radio frequency communication systems.
Chi, Qijin; Farver, O; Ulstrup, Jens
2005-01-01
on the redox potential. Maximum resonance appears around the equilibrium redox potential of azurin with an on/off current ratio of approximate to 9. Simulation analyses, based on a two-step interfacial ET model for the scanning tunneling microscopy redox process, were performed and provide quantitative......A biomimetic long-range electron transfer (ET) system consisting of the blue copper protein azurin, a tunneling barrier bridge, and a gold single-crystal electrode was designed on the basis of molecular wiring self-assembly principles. This system is sufficiently stable and sensitive in a quasi...... constants display tunneling features with distance-decay factors of 0.83 and 0.91 angstrom(-1) in H2O and D2O, respectively. Redox-gated tunneling resonance is observed in situ at the single-molecule level by using electrochemical scanning tunneling microscopy, exhibiting an asymmetric dependence...
Investigation of the tunnel magnetoresistance in junctions with a strontium stannate barrier
Althammer, Matthias; Mishra, Rohan; Borisevich, Albina J.; Singh, Amit Vikam; Keshavarz, Sahar; Yurtisigi, Mehmet Kenan; Leclair, Patrick; Gupta, Arunava
We experimentally investigate the structural, magnetic and electrical transport properties of La0.67Sr0.33MnO3 based magnetic tunnel junctions with a SrSnO3 barrier. Our results show that despite the high density of defects in the strontium stannate barrier the observed tunnel magnetoresistance is comparable to tunnel junctions with a better lattice matched SrTiO3 barrier, reaching values of up to 350 % at T = 5 K . Further analysis of the current-voltage characteristics of the junction and the bias voltage dependence of the observed tunnel magnetoresistance show a decrease of the TMR with increasing bias voltage. Our results suggest that by reducing the structural defects in the strontium stannate barrier, even larger TMR ratios might be possible in the future. We gratefully acknowledge financial support via NSF-ECCS Grant No. 1509875.
Electron-spin polarization in tunnel junctions with ferromagnetic EuS barriers
Hao, X.; Moodera, J.S.; Meservey, R.
1989-01-01
The authors report here spin-polarized tunneling experiments using non-ferromagnetic electrodes and ferromagnetic EuS barriers. Because of the conduction band in EuS splits into spin-up and spin-down subbands when the temperature is below 16.7 K, the Curie temperature of EuS, the tunnel barrier for electrons with different spin directions is different, therefore giving rise to tunnel current polarization. The spin-filter effect, as it may be called, was observed earlier, directly or indirectly, by several groups: Esaki et al. made a tunneling study on junctions having EuS and EuSe barriers; Thompson et al. studied Schottky barrier tunneling between In and doped EuS; Muller et al. and Kisker et al. performed electron field emission experiments on EuS-coated tungsten tips. The field emission experiments gave a maximum polarization of (89 + 7)% for the emitted electrons. Although the previous tunneling studies did not directly show electron polarization, their results were explained by the same spin- filter effect. This work uses the spin-polarized tunneling technique to show directly that tunnel current is indeed polarized and polarization can be as high as 85%
Resonant Tunneling in Photonic Double Quantum Well Heterostructures
Cox Joel
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract Here, we study the resonant photonic states of photonic double quantum well (PDQW heterostructures composed of two different photonic crystals. The heterostructure is denoted as B/A/B/A/B, where photonic crystals A and B act as photonic wells and barriers, respectively. The resulting band structure causes photons to become confined within the wells, where they occupy discrete quantized states. We have obtained an expression for the transmission coefficient of the PDQW heterostructure using the transfer matrix method and have found that resonant states exist within the photonic wells. These resonant states occur in split pairs, due to a coupling between degenerate states shared by each of the photonic wells. It is observed that when the resonance energy lies at a bound photonic state and the two photonic quantum wells are far away from each other, resonant states appear in the transmission spectrum of the PDQW as single peaks. However, when the wells are brought closer together, coupling between bound photonic states causes an energy-splitting effect, and the transmitted states each have two peaks. Essentially, this means that the system can be switched between single and double transparent states. We have also observed that the total number of resonant states can be controlled by varying the width of the photonic wells, and the quality factor of transmitted peaks can be drastically improved by increasing the thickness of the outer photonic barriers. It is anticipated that the resonant states described here can be used to develop new types of photonic-switching devices, optical filters, and other optoelectronic devices.
The time of simultaneous tunneling of identical particles through the rectangular quantum barrier
Martsenyuk, L.S.; Omelchenko, S.A.
2010-01-01
Work is devoted to studying the influence of exchange processes on a time of simultaneous crossing by identical particles of a rectangular quantum barrier. It is shown, that such processes essentially influence on the parameters of tunneling. The size of addition to time of identical particles tunneling, arising up because of their exchange interaction in a field of a rectangular quantum barrier is first counted.
Magnetic tunnel junctions with AlN and AlNxOy barriers
Schwickert, M. M.; Childress, J. R.; Fontana, R. E.; Kellock, A. J.; Rice, P. M.; Ho, M. K.; Thompson, T. J.; Gurney, B. A.
2001-01-01
Nonoxide tunnel barriers such as AlN are of interest for magnetic tunnel junctions to avoid the oxidation of the magnetic electrodes. We have investigated the fabrication and properties of thin AlN-based barriers for use in low resistance magnetic tunnel junctions. Electronic, magnetic and structural data of tunnel valves of the form Ta (100 Aa)/PtMn (300 Aa)/CoFe 20 (20 Aa - 25 Aa)/barrier/CoFe 20 (10 - 20 Aa)/NiFe 16 (35 - 40 Aa)/Ta (100 Aa) are presented, where the barrier consists of AlN, AlN x O y or AlN/AlO x with total thicknesses between 8 and 15 Aa. The tunnel junctions were sputter deposited and then lithographically patterned down to 2 x 2μm 2 devices. AlN was deposited by reactive sputtering from an Al target with 20% - 35% N 2 in the Ar sputter gas at room temperature, resulting in stoichiometric growth of AlN x (x=0.50±0.05), as determined by RBS. TEM analysis shows that the as-deposited AlN barrier is crystalline. For AlN barriers and AlN followed by natural O 2 oxidation, we obtain tunnel magnetoresistance >10% with specific junction resistance R j down to 60Ωμm 2 . [copyright] 2001 American Institute of Physics
Self-consistent calculation of tunneling current in w-GaN/AlGaN(0001) two-barrier heterostructures
Grinyaev, S. N.; Razzhuvalov, A. N.
2006-01-01
The specific features of the tunneling current in wurtzite GaN/AlGaN(0001) two-barrier structures are studied by solving the Schroedinger equation and the Poisson equation simultaneously, with regard to spontaneous and piezoelectric polarizations. It is shown that the internal fields manifest themselves in the asymmetry of the tunneling current via the value of the electronic charge in the quantum well. This charge is larger when the internal and external fields in the well compensate each other, resulting in smaller shifts of potential and resonance levels in the active region with voltage, in the higher resistance of the structure, and in the linear current-voltage dependence within a wide range of voltages. When the internal and external fields are the same, the current exhibits a sharp negative-differential-conductivity structure, with the peak-to-valley ratio equal to about four. The structure is similar to one of the branches of the current-voltage characteristic of the GaAs/AlGaAs(001) two-barrier structure, suggesting that nitrides are promising materials for resonance-tunneling devices
Large-scale fabrication of BN tunnel barriers for graphene spintronics
Fu, Wangyang; Makk, Péter; Maurand, Romain; Bräuninger, Matthias; Schönenberger, Christian
2014-01-01
We have fabricated graphene spin-valve devices utilizing scalable materials made from chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Both the spin-transporting graphene and the tunnel barrier material are CVD-grown. The tunnel barrier is realized by Hexagonal boron nitride, used either as a monolayer or bilayer and placed over the graphene. Spin transport experiments were performed using ferromagnetic contacts deposited onto the barrier. We find that spin injection is still greatly suppressed in devices with a monolayer tunneling barrier due to resistance mismatch. This is, however, not the case for devices with bilayer barriers. For those devices, a spin relaxation time of ∼260 ps intrinsic to the CVD graphene material is deduced. This time scale is comparable to those reported for exfoliated graphene, suggesting that this CVD approach is promising for spintronic applications which require scalable materials
Newhouse-Illige, T.; Xu, Y. H.; Liu, Y. H.; Huang, S.; Kato, H.; Bi, C.; Xu, M.; LeRoy, B. J.; Wang, W. G.
2018-02-01
Perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions with GdOX tunneling barriers have shown a unique voltage controllable interlayer magnetic coupling effect. Here, we investigate the quality of the GdOX barrier and the coupling mechanism in these junctions by examining the temperature dependence of the tunneling magnetoresistance and the interlayer coupling from room temperature down to 11 K. The barrier is shown to be of good quality with the spin independent conductance only contributing a small portion, 14%, to the total room temperature conductance, similar to AlOX and MgO barriers. The interlayer coupling, however, shows an anomalously strong temperature dependence including sign changes below 80 K. This non-trivial temperature dependence is not described by previous models of interlayer coupling and may be due to the large induced magnetic moment of the Gd ions in the barrier.
Effects of barrier fluctuation on the tunneling dynamics in the ...
the present paper is to study the effect of classical subsystem or more importantly the effect of .... of chaos-assisted tunneling has been a topic of interest for various researchers over many .... state causes the increase in tunneling rate constant.
Planar edge Schottky barrier-tunneling transistors using epitaxial graphene/SiC junctions.
Kunc, Jan; Hu, Yike; Palmer, James; Guo, Zelei; Hankinson, John; Gamal, Salah H; Berger, Claire; de Heer, Walt A
2014-09-10
A purely planar graphene/SiC field effect transistor is presented here. The horizontal current flow over one-dimensional tunneling barrier between planar graphene contact and coplanar two-dimensional SiC channel exhibits superior on/off ratio compared to conventional transistors employing vertical electron transport. Multilayer epitaxial graphene (MEG) grown on SiC(0001̅) was adopted as the transistor source and drain. The channel is formed by the accumulation layer at the interface of semi-insulating SiC and a surface silicate that forms after high vacuum high temperature annealing. Electronic bands between the graphene edge and SiC accumulation layer form a thin Schottky barrier, which is dominated by tunneling at low temperatures. A thermionic emission prevails over tunneling at high temperatures. We show that neglecting tunneling effectively causes the temperature dependence of the Schottky barrier height. The channel can support current densities up to 35 A/m.
Resonant tunnelling from nanometre-scale silicon field emission cathodes
Johnson, S.; Markwitz, A.
2005-01-01
In this paper we report the field emission properties of self-assembled silicon nanostructures formed on an n-type silicon (100) substrate by electron beam annealing. The nanostructures are square based, with an average height of 8 nm and are distributed randomly over the entire substrate surface. Following conditioning, the silicon nanostructure field emission characteristics become stable and reproducible with electron emission occurring for fields as low as 3 Vμm-1. At higher fields, a superimposed on a background current well described by conventional Fowler-Nordheim theory. These current peaks are understood to result from enhanced tunnelling through resonant states formed at the substrate-nanostructure and nanostructure-vacuum interface. (author). 13 refs., 3 figs
Effect of an Interfacial Layer on Electron Tunneling through Atomically Thin Al2O3 Tunnel Barriers.
Wilt, Jamie; Sakidja, Ridwan; Goul, Ryan; Wu, Judy Z
2017-10-25
Electron tunneling through high-quality, atomically thin dielectric films can provide a critical enabling technology for future microelectronics, bringing enhanced quantum coherent transport, fast speed, small size, and high energy efficiency. A fundamental challenge is in controlling the interface between the dielectric and device electrodes. An interfacial layer (IL) will contain defects and introduce defects in the dielectric film grown atop, preventing electron tunneling through the formation of shorts. In this work, we present the first systematic investigation of the IL in Al 2 O 3 dielectric films of 1-6 Å's in thickness on an Al electrode. We integrated several advanced approaches: molecular dynamics to simulate IL formation, in situ high vacuum sputtering atomic layer deposition (ALD) to synthesize Al 2 O 3 on Al films, and in situ ultrahigh vacuum scanning tunneling spectroscopy to probe the electron tunneling through the Al 2 O 3 . The IL had a profound effect on electron tunneling. We observed a reduced tunnel barrier height and soft-type dielectric breakdown which indicate that defects are present in both the IL and in the Al 2 O 3 . The IL forms primarily due to exposure of the Al to trace O 2 and/or H 2 O during the pre-ALD heating step of fabrication. As the IL was systematically reduced, by controlling the pre-ALD sample heating, we observed an increase of the ALD Al 2 O 3 barrier height from 0.9 to 1.5 eV along with a transition from soft to hard dielectric breakdown. This work represents a key step toward the realization of high-quality, atomically thin dielectrics with electron tunneling for the next generation of microelectronics.
Chowdhury, Subhra; Biswas, Dhrubes; Chattaraj, Swarnabha
2015-01-01
For the first time, we have introduced a novel GaN based resonant tunneling high electron mobility transistor (RTHEMT) on a silicon substrate. A monolithically integrated GaN based inverted high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) and a resonant tunneling diode (RTD) are designed and simulated using the ATLAS simulator and MATLAB in this study. The 10% Al composition in the barrier layer of the GaN based RTD structure provides a peak-to-valley current ratio of 2.66 which controls the GaN based HEMT performance. Thus the results indicate an improvement in the current–voltage characteristics of the RTHEMT by controlling the gate voltage in this structure. The introduction of silicon as a substrate is a unique step taken by us for this type of RTHEMT structure. (paper)
When does an electron exit a tunneling barrier?
Ivanov M. Yu.
2013-03-01
Full Text Available We probe the dynamics of tunnel ionization via high harmonic generation. We characterize the ionization dynamics in helium atoms, and apply our approach to resolve subtle differences in ionization from different orbitals of a CO2 molecule.
Martinez, Isidoro; Cascales, Juan Pedro; Hong, Jhen-Yong; Lin, Minn-Tsong; Prezioso, Mirko; Riminucci, Alberto; Dediu, Valentin A.; Aliev, Farkhad G.
2016-10-01
The possible influence of internal barrier dynamics on spin, charge transport and their fluctuations in organic spintronics remains poorly understood. Here we present investigation of the electron transport and low frequency noise at temperatures down to 0.3K in magnetic tunnel junctions with an organic PTCDA barriers with thickness up to 5 nm in the tunneling regime and with 200 nm thick Alq3 barrier in the hopping regime. We observed high tunneling magneto-resistance at low temperatures (15-40%) and spin dependent super-poissonian shot noise in organic magnetic tunnel junctions (OMTJs) with PTCDA. The Fano factor exceeds 1.5-2 values which could be caused by interfacial states controlled by spin dependent bunching in the tunneling events through the molecules.1 The bias dependence of the low frequency noise in OMTJs with PTCDA barriers which includes both 1/f and random telegraph noise activated at specific biases will also be discussed. On the other hand, the organic junctions with ferromagnetic electrodes and thick Alq3 barriers present sub-poissonian shot noise which depends on the temperature, indicative of variable range hopping.
Time-dependent resonant tunnelling for parallel-coupled double quantum dots
Dong Bing; Djuric, Ivana; Cui, H L; Lei, X L
2004-01-01
We derive the quantum rate equations for an Aharonov-Bohm interferometer with two vertically coupled quantum dots embedded in each of two arms by means of the nonequilibrium Green function in the sequential tunnelling regime. Based on these equations, we investigate time-dependent resonant tunnelling under a small amplitude irradiation and find that the resonant photon-assisted tunnelling peaks in photocurrent demonstrate a combination behaviour of Fano and Lorentzian resonances due to the interference effect between the two pathways in this parallel configuration, which is controllable by threading the magnetic flux inside this device
Ledvij, M.; Klemm, R.A.
1994-01-01
The Josephson coupling between a conventional and an unconventional superconductor is investigated as a function of the properties of the tunneling barrier. A simple model is adopted for the tunneling probability and it is shown that its variation dramatically affects the I c R n product of an s-d, as opposed to an s-s junction. Based on these conclusions, experiments are proposed to probe the symmetry of the order parameter in high temperature superconductors
Quantum Entanglement of a Tunneling Spin with Mechanical Modes of a Torsional Resonator
D. A. Garanin
2011-08-01
Full Text Available We solve the Schrödinger equation for various quantum regimes describing a tunneling macrospin coupled to a torsional oscillator. The energy spectrum and freezing of spin tunneling are studied. Magnetic susceptibility, noise spectrum, and decoherence due to entanglement of spin and mechanical modes are computed. We show that the presence of a tunneling spin can be detected via splitting of the mechanical mode at the resonance. Our results apply to experiments with magnetic molecules coupled to nanoresonators.
Current-voltage characteristic of a resonant tunneling diode under electromagnetic radiation
N Hatefi Kargan
2013-09-01
Full Text Available In this paper, current-voltage characteristic of a resonant tunneling diode under electromagnetic radiation has been calculated and compared with the results when there is no electromagnetic radiation. For calculating current -voltage characteristic, it is required to calculate the transmission coefficient of electrons from the well and barrier structures of this device. For calculating the transmission coefficient of electrons at the presence of electromagnetic radiation, Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD method has been used and when there is no electromagnetic radiation Transfer Matrix Method (TMM and finite diffirence time domain method have been used. The results show that the presence of electromagnetic radiation causes resonant states other than principal resonant state (without presence of electromagnetic radiation to appear on the transmition coefficient curve where they are in distances from the principal peak and from each other. Also, the presence of electromagnetic radiation causes peaks other than principal peak to appear on the current-voltage characteristics of the device. Under electromagnetic radiation, the number of peaks on the current-voltage curve is smaller than the number of peaks on the current-voltage transmission coefficient. This is due to the fact that current-voltage curve is the result of integration on the energy of electrons, Thus, the sharper and low height peaks on the transmission coefficient do not appear on the current-voltage characteristic curve.
Macroscopic quantum tunneling of a Bose-Einstein condensate through double Gaussian barriers
Maeda, Kenji; Urban, Gregor; Weidemüller, Matthias; Carr, Lincoln D.
2015-05-01
Macroscopic quantum tunneling is one of the great manifestations of quantum physics, not only showing passage through a potential barrier but also emerging in a many-body wave function. We study a quasi-1D Bose-Einstein condensate of Lithium, confined by two Gaussian barriers, and show that in an experimentally realistic potential tens of thousands of atoms tunnel on time scales of 10 to 100 ms. Using a combination of variational and WKB approximations based on the Gross-Pitaevskii or nonlinear Schrödinger equation, we show that many unusual tunneling features appear due to the nonlinearity, including the number of trapped atoms exhibiting non-exponential decay, severe distortion of the barriers by the mean field, and even formation of a triple barrier in certain regimes. In the first 10ms, nonlinear many-body effects make the tunneling rates significantly larger than background loss rates, from 10 to 70 Hz. Thus we conclude that macroscopic quantum tunneling can be observed on experimental time scales. Funded by NSF, AFOSR, the Alexander von Humboldt foundation, and the Heidelberg Center for Quantum Dynamics.
Resonance tunneling electron-vibrational spectroscopy of polyoxometalates.
Dalidchik, F I; Kovalevskii, S A; Balashov, E M
2017-05-21
The tunneling spectra of the ordered monolayer films of decamolybdodicobaltate (DMDC) compounds deposited from aqueous solutions on HOPG were measured by scanning tunnel microscopy in air. The DMDC spectra, as well as the tunneling spectra of other polyoxometalates (POMs), exhibit well-defined negative differential resistances (NDRs). The mechanism of formation of these spectral features was established from the collection of revealed NDR dependences on the external varying parameters and found to be common to all systems exhibiting Wannier-Stark localization. A model of biresonance tunneling was developed to provide an explanation for the totality of experimental data, both the literature and original, on the tunneling POM probing. A variant of the tunneling electron-vibrational POM spectroscopy was proposed allowing the determination of the three basic energy parameters-energy gaps between the occupied and unoccupied states, frequencies of the vibrational transitions accompanying biresonance electron-tunneling processes, and electron-vibrational interaction constants on the monomolecular level.
Resonant Magnetization Tunneling in Molecular Magnets: Where is the Inhomogeneous Broadening?
Friedman, Jonathan R.; Sarachik, M. P.
1998-03-01
Since the discovery(J. R. Friedman, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 76), 3830 (1996) of resonant magnetization tunneling in the molecular magnet Mn_12 there has been intense research into the underlying mechanism of tunneling. Most current theories( V. Dobrovitski and A. Zvezdin, Europhys. Lett. 38), 377 (1997); L. Gunther, Europhys. Lett. 39, 1 (1997); D Garanin and E. Chudnovsky, Phys. Rev. B 56, 11102 (1997). suggest that a local internal (hyperfine or dipole) field transverse to the easy magnetization axis induces tunneling. These theories predict a resonance width orders of magnitude smaller than that actually observed. This discrepancy is attributed to inhomogeneous broadening of the resonance by the random internal fields. We present a detailed study of the tunnel resonance lineshape and show that it is Lorentzian, suggesting it has a deeper physical origin. Since the hyperfine fields are believed to be comparable to the observed width, it is surprising that there is no Gaussian broadening.
Controlled modification of resonant tunneling in metal-insulator-insulator-metal structures
Mitrovic, I. Z.; Weerakkody, A. D.; Sedghi, N.; Ralph, J. F.; Hall, S.; Dhanak, V. R.; Luo, Z.; Beeby, S.
2018-01-01
We present comprehensive experimental and theoretical work on tunnel-barrier rectifiers comprising bilayer (Nb2O5/Al2O3) insulator configurations with similar (Nb/Nb) and dissimilar (Nb/Ag) metal electrodes. The electron affinity, valence band offset, and metal work function were ascertained by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry, and electrical measurements on fabricated reference structures. The experimental band line-up parameters were fed into a theoretical model to predict available bound states in the Nb2O5/Al2O3 quantum well and generate tunneling probability and transmittance curves under applied bias. The onset of strong resonance in the sub-V regime was found to be controlled by a work function difference of Nb/Ag electrodes in agreement with the experimental band alignment and theoretical model. A superior low-bias asymmetry of 35 at 0.1 V and a responsivity of 5 A/W at 0.25 V were observed for the Nb/4 nm Nb2O5/1 nm Al2O3/Ag structure, sufficient to achieve a rectification of over 90% of the input alternate current terahertz signal in a rectenna device.
Golnaz Karbasian
2017-03-01
Full Text Available Single electron transistors are nanoscale electron devices that require thin, high-quality tunnel barriers to operate and have potential applications in sensing, metrology and beyond-CMOS computing schemes. Given that atomic layer deposition is used to form CMOS gate stacks with low trap densities and excellent thickness control, it is well-suited as a technique to form a variety of tunnel barriers. This work is a review of our recent research on atomic layer deposition and post-fabrication treatments to fabricate metallic single electron transistors with a variety of metals and dielectrics.
Electronic tunneling through a potential barrier on the surface of a topological insulator
Zhou, Benliang; Zhou, Benhu; Zhou, Guanghui
2016-12-01
We investigate the tunneling transport for electrons on the surface of a topological insulator (TI) through an electrostatic potential barrier. By using the Dirac equation with the continuity conditions for all segments of wave functions at the interfaces between regions inside and outside the barrier, we calculate analytically the transmission probability and conductance for the system. It is demonstrated that, the Klein paradox can also been observed in the system same as in graphene system. Interestingly, the conductance reaches the minimum value when the incident electron energy is equal to the barrier strength. Moreover, with increasing barrier width, the conductance turns up some tunneling oscillation peaks, and larger barrier strength can cause lower conductance, shorter period but larger oscillation amplitude. The oscillation amplitude decreases as the barrier width increases, which is similar as that of the system consisting of the compressive uniaxial strain applied on a TI, but somewhat different from that of graphene system where the oscillation amplitude is a constant. The findings here imply that an electrostatic barrier can greatly influence the electron tunneling transport of the system, and may provide a new way to realize directional filtering of electrons.
Chen, D. Y.; Sun, Y.; He, Y. J.; Xu, L.; Xu, J.
2014-01-01
We have investigated carrier transport in SiO 2 /nc-Si/SiO 2 multi-layers by room temperature current-voltage measurements. Resonant tunneling signatures accompanied by current peaks are observed. Carrier transport in the multi-layers were analyzed by plots of ln(I/V 2 ) as a function of 1/V and ln(I) as a function of V 1/2 . Results suggest that besides films quality, nc-Si and barrier sub-layer thicknesses are important parameters that restrict carrier transport. When thicknesses are both small, direct tunneling dominates carrier transport, resonant tunneling occurs only at certain voltages and multi-resonant tunneling related current peaks can be observed but with peak to valley current ratio (PVCR) values smaller than 1.5. When barrier thickness is increased, trap-related and even high field related tunneling is excited, causing that multi-current peaks cannot be observed clearly, only one current peak with higher PVCR value of 7.7 can be observed. While if the thickness of nc-Si is large enough, quantum confinement is not so strong, a broad current peak with PVCR value as high as 60 can be measured, which may be due to small energy difference between the splitting energy levels in the quantum dots of nc-Si. Size distribution in a wide range may cause un-controllability of the peak voltages
Barrier tunneling of the loop-nodal semimetal in the hyperhoneycomb lattice
Guan, Ji-Huan; Zhang, Yan-Yang; Lu, Wei-Er; Xia, Yang; Li, Shu-Shen
2018-05-01
We theoretically investigate the barrier tunneling in the 3D model of the hyperhoneycomb lattice, which is a nodal-line semimetal with a Dirac loop at zero energy. In the presence of a rectangular potential, the scattering amplitudes for different injecting states around the nodal loop are calculated, by using analytical treatments of the effective model, as well as numerical simulations of the tight binding model. In the low energy regime, states with remarkable transmissions are only concentrated in a small range around the loop plane. When the momentum of the injecting electron is coplanar with the nodal loop, nearly perfect transmissions can occur for a large range of injecting azimuthal angles if the potential is not high. For higher potential energies, the transmission shows a resonant oscillation with the potential, but still with peaks being perfect transmissions that do not decay with the potential width. These strikingly robust transports of the loop-nodal semimetal can be approximately explained by a momentum dependent Dirac Hamiltonian.
Usefulness of magnetic resonance imaging in carpal tunnel syndrome
Morita, Akimasa; Fujisawa, Kouzou; Tsujii, Masaya; Hirata, Hitoshi; Uchida, Atsumasa
2005-01-01
Electrodiagnostic studies are highly sensitive and specific for the diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). However, conduction velocities do not correlate with symptom severity or treatment outcomes. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed tenosynovial thickening within the carpal tunnel as the most constant finding in CTS; it is encountered in more than 95% of the patients. The purpose of the present study is to analyze the relationship between subjective symptoms and MRI findings, and to identify clinical evaluations that reflect subjective symptom severity. The subject group comprised 48 females with CTS. Patients were divided into 4 groups based on their symptom duration (A: lesser than 3 months, B: 4 to 6 months, C: 7 to 12 months, D: more than 13 months). All patients were preoperatively assessed for subjective symptom severity by using a Likert scale, sensory conduction velocity (SCV), and compound muscle action potential (CMAP). In addition, all patients underwent MRI examination for the evaluation of flexor tenosynovial thickening represented by palmar bowing of the flexor retinaculum (PBFR). Fourteen healthy females with comparable demographics served as the controls. Relationships were estimated using Spearman rank score or Mann-Whitney's U test. Regarding subjective symptoms, pain severity decreased significantly in the order A>B>C; it did not decrease significantly in D. Paresthesia did not show any significant difference among the groups. PBFR was significantly higher in all the groups as compared to the control, and similar to pain severity, it decreased significantly in the order A>B>C; it did not decrease significantly in D. Statistical analysis established a close correlation between pain severity and PBFR. However, pain severity did not show any correlation with either electrophysiology or functional status. In contrast to electrophysiology or objective functional status assessment, flexor tenosynovial thickening shows a close correlation
Under-the-barrier dynamics in laser-induced relativistic tunneling.
Klaiber, Michael; Yakaboylu, Enderalp; Bauke, Heiko; Hatsagortsyan, Karen Z; Keitel, Christoph H
2013-04-12
The tunneling dynamics in relativistic strong-field ionization is investigated with the aim to develop an intuitive picture for the relativistic tunneling regime. We demonstrate that the tunneling picture applies also in the relativistic regime by introducing position dependent energy levels. The quantum dynamics in the classically forbidden region features two time scales, the typical time that characterizes the probability density's decay of the ionizing electron under the barrier (Keldysh time) and the time interval which the electron spends inside the barrier (Eisenbud-Wigner-Smith tunneling time). In the relativistic regime, an electron momentum shift as well as a spatial shift along the laser propagation direction arise during the under-the-barrier motion which are caused by the laser magnetic field induced Lorentz force. The momentum shift is proportional to the Keldysh time, while the wave-packet's spatial drift is proportional to the Eisenbud-Wigner-Smith time. The signature of the momentum shift is shown to be present in the ionization spectrum at the detector and, therefore, observable experimentally. In contrast, the signature of the Eisenbud-Wigner-Smith time delay disappears at far distances for pure quasistatic tunneling dynamics.
Resonant tunneling diodes based on ZnO for quantum cascade structures (Conference Presentation)
Hinkov, Borislav; Schwarz, Benedikt; Harrer, Andreas; Ristanic, Daniela; Schrenk, Werner; Hugues, Maxime; Chauveau, Jean-Michel; Strasser, Gottfried
2017-02-01
The terahertz (THz) spectral range (lambda 30µm - 300µm) is also known as the "THz-gap" because of the lack of compact semiconductor devices. Various real-world applications would strongly benefit from such sources like trace-gas spectroscopy or security-screening. A crucial step is the operation of THz-emitting lasers at room temperature. But this seems out of reach with current devices, of which GaAs-based quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) seem to be the most promising ones. They are limited by the parasitic, non-optical LO-phonon transitions (36meV in GaAs), being on the same order as the thermal energy at room temperature (kT = 26meV). This can be solved by using larger LO-phonon materials like ZnO (E_LO = 72meV). But to master the fabrication of ZnO-based QC structures, a high quality epitaxial growth is crucial followed by a well-controlled fabrication process including ZnO/ZnMgO etching. We use devices grown on m-plane ZnO-substrate by molecular beam epitaxy. They are patterned by reactive ion etching in a CH4-based chemistry (CH4:H2:Ar/30:3:3 sccm) into 50μm to 150μm square mesas. Resonant tunneling diode structures are investigated in this geometry and are presented including different barrier- and well-configurations. We extract contact resistances of 8e-5 Omega cm^2 for un-annealed Ti/Au contacts and an electron mobility of above 130cm^2/Vs, both in good agreement with literature. Proving that resonant electron tunneling can be achieved in ZnO is one of the crucial building blocks of a QCL. This project has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 665107.
Nielsen, Otto M.
1983-01-01
of multistep tunneling recombination current and injected minority carrier diffusion current. This can explain the observed values of the diode quality factor n. The results also show that the voltage drop across the oxide Vox is increased with increased NA, with the result that the lowering of the minority...... carrier diode current Jmin is greater than in the usual theory. The conclusion drawn is that the increase in Vox and lowering of Jmin is due to multistep tunneling of majority carriers through the semiconductor barrier. Journal of Applied Physics is copyrighted by The American Institute of Physics.......Current–voltage characteristics have been examined for Al–SiO2–pSi diodes with an interfacial oxide thickness of delta[approximately-equal-to]20 Å. The diodes were fabricated on and oriented substrates with an impurity concentration in the range of NA=1014–1016 cm−3. The results show that for low...
Forrest, Stephen R.
2008-08-19
A plurality of quantum dots each have a shell. The quantum dots are embedded in an organic matrix. At least the quantum dots and the organic matrix are photoconductive semiconductors. The shell of each quantum dot is arranged as a tunneling barrier to require a charge carrier (an electron or a hole) at a base of the tunneling barrier in the organic matrix to perform quantum mechanical tunneling to reach the respective quantum dot. A first quantum state in each quantum dot is between a lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) and a highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) of the organic matrix. Wave functions of the first quantum state of the plurality of quantum dots may overlap to form an intermediate band.
Tunnel barrier design in donor nanostructures defined by hydrogen-resist lithography
Pascher, Nikola; Hennel, Szymon; Mueller, Susanne; Fuhrer, Andreas
2016-08-01
A four-terminal donor quantum dot (QD) is used to characterize potential barriers between degenerately doped nanoscale contacts. The QD is fabricated by hydrogen-resist lithography on Si(001) in combination with n-type doping by phosphine. The four contacts have different separations (d = 9, 12, 16 and 29 nm) to the central 6 nm × 6 nm QD island, leading to different tunnel and capacitive coupling. Cryogenic transport measurements in the Coulomb-blockade (CB) regime are used to characterize these tunnel barriers. We find that field enhancement near the apex of narrow dopant leads is an important effect that influences both barrier breakdown and the magnitude of the tunnel current in the CB transport regime. From CB-spectroscopy measurements, we extract the mutual capacitances between the QD and the four contacts, which scale inversely with the contact separation d. The capacitances are in excellent agreement with numerical values calculated from the pattern geometry in the hydrogen resist. Furthermore, we show that by engineering the source-drain tunnel barriers to be asymmetric, we obtain a much simpler excited-state spectrum of the QD, which can be directly linked to the orbital single-particle spectrum.
Tunnelling anisotropic magnetoresistance due to antiferromagnetic CoO tunnel barriers
Wang, Kai; Sanderink, Johannes G.M.; Bolhuis, Thijs; van der Wiel, Wilfred Gerard; de Jong, Machiel Pieter
2015-01-01
A new approach in spintronics is based on spin-polarized charge transport phenomena governed by antiferromagnetic (AFM) materials. Recent studies have demonstrated the feasibility of this approach for AFM metals and semiconductors. We report tunneling anisotropic magnetoresistance (TAMR) due to the
Wang Jian; Ju Sheng; Li, Z.Y.
2012-01-01
The effect of bias voltage on electron tunneling across a junction with a ferroelectric–ferromagnetic composite barrier is investigated theoretically. Because of the inversion symmetry breaking of the spontaneous ferroelectric polarization, bias voltage dependence of the electron tunneling shows significant differences between the positive bias and the negative one. The differences of spin filtering or tunnel magnetoresistance increase with the increasing absolute value of bias voltage. Such direction preferred electron tunneling is found intimately related with the unusual asymmetry of the electrical potential profile in two-phase composite barrier and provides a unique change to realize rectifying functions in spintronics. - Highlights: ► Electron tunneling across a ferroelectric–ferromagnetic composite barrier junction. ► TMR effect is different under the same value but opposite direction bias voltage. ► This directionality of the electron tunneling enhances with increasing bias voltage.
ON current enhancement of nanowire Schottky barrier tunnel field effect transistors
Takei, Kohei; Hashimoto, Shuichiro; Sun, Jing; Zhang, Xu; Asada, Shuhei; Xu, Taiyu; Matsukawa, Takashi; Masahara, Meishoku; Watanabe, Takanobu
2016-04-01
Silicon nanowire Schottky barrier tunnel field effect transistors (NW-SBTFETs) are promising structures for high performance devices. In this study, we fabricated NW-SBTFETs to investigate the effect of nanowire structure on the device characteristics. The NW-SBTFETs were operated with a backgate bias, and the experimental results demonstrate that the ON current density is enhanced by narrowing the width of the nanowire. We confirmed using the Fowler-Nordheim plot that the drain current in the ON state mainly comprises the quantum tunneling component through the Schottky barrier. Comparison with a technology computer aided design (TCAD) simulation revealed that the enhancement is attributed to the electric field concentration at the corners of cross-section of the NW. The study findings suggest an effective approach to securing the ON current by Schottky barrier width modulation.
Tunnelling anisotropic magnetoresistance due to antiferromagnetic CoO tunnel barriers
Wang, K.; Sanderink, J. G. M.; Bolhuis, T.; van der Wiel, W. G.; de Jong, M. P.
2015-01-01
A new approach in spintronics is based on spin-polarized charge transport phenomena governed by antiferromagnetic (AFM) materials. Recent studies have demonstrated the feasibility of this approach for AFM metals and semiconductors. We report tunneling anisotropic magnetoresistance (TAMR) due to the rotation of antiferromagnetic moments of an insulating CoO layer, incorporated into a tunnel junction consisting of sapphire(substrate)/fcc-Co/CoO/AlOx/Al. The ferromagnetic Co layer is exchange coupled to the AFM CoO layer and drives rotation of the AFM moments in an external magnetic field. The results may help pave the way towards the development of spintronic devices based on AFM insulators. PMID:26486931
Li, Quanfeng; Lu, Qingyou
2011-05-01
We present an ultra-fast scanning tunneling microscope with atomic resolution at 26 kHz scan rate which surpasses the resonant frequency of the quartz tuning fork resonator used as the fast scan actuator. The main improvements employed in achieving this new record are (1) fully low voltage design (2) independent scan control and data acquisition, where the tuning fork (carrying a tip) is blindly driven to scan by a function generator with the scan voltage and tunneling current (I(T)) being measured as image data (this is unlike the traditional point-by-point move and measure method where data acquisition and scan control are switched many times).
Daqiq, Reza; Ghobadi, Nader
2016-01-01
We study the quantum size effects of an MgO-based double barrier magnetic tunnel junction with a nonmagnetic-metal (DBMTJ-NM) (semiconductor (DBMTJ-SC)) spacer on the charge current and the spin-transfer torque (STT) components using non-equilibrium Green's function (NEGF) formalism. The results show oscillatory behavior due to the resonant tunneling effect depending on the structure parameters. We find that the charge current and the STT components in the DBMTJ-SC demonstrate the magnitude enhancement in comparison with the DBMTJ-NM. The bias dependence of the STT components in a DBMTJ-NM shows different behavior in comparison with spin valves and conventional MTJs. Therefore, by choosing a specific SC spacer with suitable thickness in a DBMTJ the charge current and the STT components significantly increase so that one can design a device with high STT and faster magnetization switching. - Highlights: • The quantum size effects are studied in double barrier magnetic tunnel junctions. • Spin torque (ST) components oscillate for increasing of middle spacer thicknesses. • Due to the resonant tunneling in the quantum well, oscillations have appeared. • By replacement a metal spacer with a semiconductor (ZnO) ST has increased. • The ST components vs. bias show gradually decreasing unlike spin valves or MTJs.
Daqiq, Reza; Ghobadi, Nader
2016-07-15
We study the quantum size effects of an MgO-based double barrier magnetic tunnel junction with a nonmagnetic-metal (DBMTJ-NM) (semiconductor (DBMTJ-SC)) spacer on the charge current and the spin-transfer torque (STT) components using non-equilibrium Green's function (NEGF) formalism. The results show oscillatory behavior due to the resonant tunneling effect depending on the structure parameters. We find that the charge current and the STT components in the DBMTJ-SC demonstrate the magnitude enhancement in comparison with the DBMTJ-NM. The bias dependence of the STT components in a DBMTJ-NM shows different behavior in comparison with spin valves and conventional MTJs. Therefore, by choosing a specific SC spacer with suitable thickness in a DBMTJ the charge current and the STT components significantly increase so that one can design a device with high STT and faster magnetization switching. - Highlights: • The quantum size effects are studied in double barrier magnetic tunnel junctions. • Spin torque (ST) components oscillate for increasing of middle spacer thicknesses. • Due to the resonant tunneling in the quantum well, oscillations have appeared. • By replacement a metal spacer with a semiconductor (ZnO) ST has increased. • The ST components vs. bias show gradually decreasing unlike spin valves or MTJs.
Birczynski, A.; Lalowicz, Z.T.; Lodziana, Zbigniew
2004-01-01
Ammonium hexachlorometallates, (NH4)(2)MCl6 With M = Pd, Pt, Ir, Os, Re, Se, Sn, Te and Pb, comprise a set of compounds with systematically changing properties. The compounds may be ordered according to decreasing tunnelling frequency (TF) of ammonium ions, which is related to the increasing...... structure explain observed variation of the tunnelling frequencies for NH4+. The theory provides also M-Cl distances and barriers for C-2 and C-3 rotations of ammonium ions in respective compounds, which show good agreement with experimental values. (C) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....
Li, Si-Yu; Liu, Haiwen; Qiao, Jia-Bin; Jiang, Hua; He, Lin
2018-03-01
Negative differential conductance (NDC), characterized by the decreasing current with increasing voltage, has attracted continuous attention for its various novel applications. The NDC typically exists in a certain range of bias voltages for a selected system and controlling the regions of NDC in curves of current versus voltage (I -V ) is experimentally challenging. Here, we demonstrate a magnetic-field-controlled NDC in scanning tunneling spectroscopy of graphene npn junction resonators. The magnetic field not only can switch on and off the NDC, but also can continuously tune the regions of the NDC in the I -V curves. In the graphene npn junction resonators, magnetic fields generate sharp and pronounced Landau-level peaks with the help of the Klein tunneling of massless Dirac fermions. A tip of scanning tunneling microscope induces a relatively shift of the Landau levels in graphene beneath the tip. Tunneling between the misaligned Landau levels results in the magnetic-field-controlled NDC.
Tian, Si-Cong; Tong, Cun-Zhu; Ning, Yong-Qiang; Qin, Li; Liu, Yun; Wan, Ren-Gang
2014-01-01
Optical spectroscopy, a powerful tool for probing and manipulating quantum dots (QDs), has been used to investigate the resonance fluorescence spectrum from linear triple quantum dot molecules controlled by tunneling, using atomic physics methods. Interesting features such as quenching and narrowing of the fluorescence are observed. In such molecules the tunneling between the quantum dots can also induce a dark state. The results are explained by the transition properties of the dressed states generated by the coupling of the laser and the tunneling. Unlike the atomic system, in such quantum dot molecules quantum coherence can be induced using tunneling, requiring no coupling lasers, which will allow tunneling controllable quantum dot molecules to be applied to quantum optics and photonics. (paper)
Radio-frequency shot-noise measurement in a magnetic tunnel junction with a MgO barrier
Rehman, Mushtaq; Park, Junghwan; Song, Woon; Chong, Yonuk; Lee, Yeonsub; Min, Byoungchul; Shin, Kyungho; Ryu, Sangwan; Khim, Zheong
2010-01-01
We measured the noise power of a magnetic tunnel junction in the frequency range of 710 ∼ 1200 MHz. A low-noise cryogenic HEMT amplifier was used to measure the small noise signal at a high frequency with wide bandwidth. The MgO-barrier tunnel junction showed large tunnel magnetoresistance ratio of 215% at low temperature, which indicates electronic transport through the tunnel barrier without any significant spin-flip scattering. In the bias-dependent noise measurement, however, the zero-bias shot noise was enhanced compared to the value expected from a perfect tunnel barrier or the value observed from a good Al-AlO x -Al tunnel junction. We assume that this enhanced noise comes from inelastic tunneling processes through the barrier, which may be related to the observed zero-bias anomaly in the differential resistance of the tunnel junctions. We present a simple phenomenological model for how the inelastic scattering process can enhance the zero-bias noise in a tunnel junction.
Payne, A.; Ambal, K.; Boehme, C.; Williams, C. C.
2015-05-01
A study of a force detected single-spin magnetic resonance measurement concept with atomic spatial resolution is presented. The method is based upon electrostatic force detection of spin-selection rule controlled single-electron tunneling between two electrically isolated paramagnetic states. Single-spin magnetic resonance detection is possible by measuring the force detected tunneling charge noise on and off spin resonance. Simulation results of this charge noise, based upon physical models of the tunneling and spin physics, are directly compared to measured atomic force microscopy system noise. The results show that the approach could provide single-spin measurement of electrically isolated qubit states with atomic spatial resolution at room temperature.
High resolution imaging of tunnels by magnetic resonance neurography
Subhawong, Ty K.; Thawait, Shrey K.; Machado, Antonio J.; Carrino, John A.; Chhabra, Avneesh [Johns Hopkins Hospital, The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Baltimore, MD (United States); Wang, Kenneth C. [Baltimore VA Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Baltimore, MD (United States); Williams, Eric H. [Dellon Institute for Peripheral Nerve Surgery, Towson, MD (United States); Hashemi, Shahreyar Shar [Johns Hopkins Hospital, Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Baltimore, MD (United States)
2012-01-15
Peripheral nerves often traverse confined fibro-osseous and fibro-muscular tunnels in the extremities, where they are particularly vulnerable to entrapment and compressive neuropathy. This gives rise to various tunnel syndromes, characterized by distinct patterns of muscular weakness and sensory deficits. This article focuses on several upper and lower extremity tunnels, in which direct visualization of the normal and abnormal nerve in question is possible with high resolution 3T MR neurography (MRN). MRN can also serve as a useful adjunct to clinical and electrophysiologic exams by discriminating adhesive lesions (perineural scar) from compressive lesions (such as tumor, ganglion, hypertrophic callous, or anomalous muscles) responsible for symptoms, thereby guiding appropriate treatment. (orig.)
High resolution imaging of tunnels by magnetic resonance neurography
Subhawong, Ty K.; Thawait, Shrey K.; Machado, Antonio J.; Carrino, John A.; Chhabra, Avneesh; Wang, Kenneth C.; Williams, Eric H.; Hashemi, Shahreyar Shar
2012-01-01
Peripheral nerves often traverse confined fibro-osseous and fibro-muscular tunnels in the extremities, where they are particularly vulnerable to entrapment and compressive neuropathy. This gives rise to various tunnel syndromes, characterized by distinct patterns of muscular weakness and sensory deficits. This article focuses on several upper and lower extremity tunnels, in which direct visualization of the normal and abnormal nerve in question is possible with high resolution 3T MR neurography (MRN). MRN can also serve as a useful adjunct to clinical and electrophysiologic exams by discriminating adhesive lesions (perineural scar) from compressive lesions (such as tumor, ganglion, hypertrophic callous, or anomalous muscles) responsible for symptoms, thereby guiding appropriate treatment. (orig.)
Voltage-controlled spin selection in a magnetic resonant tunneling diode.
Slobodskyy, A; Gould, C; Slobodskyy, T; Becker, C R; Schmidt, G; Molenkamp, L W
2003-06-20
We have fabricated all II-VI semiconductor resonant tunneling diodes based on the (Zn,Mn,Be)Se material system, containing dilute magnetic material in the quantum well, and studied their current-voltage characteristics. When subjected to an external magnetic field the resulting spin splitting of the levels in the quantum well leads to a splitting of the transmission resonance into two separate peaks. This is interpreted as evidence of tunneling transport through spin polarized levels, and could be the first step towards a voltage controlled spin filter.
Mid-infrared GaSb-based resonant tunneling diode photodetectors for gas sensing applications
Rothmayr, F.; Pfenning, A.; Kistner, C.; Koeth, J.; Knebl, G.; Schade, A.; Krueger, S.; Worschech, L.; Hartmann, F.; Höfling, S.
2018-04-01
We present resonant tunneling diode-photodetectors (RTD-PDs) with GaAs0.15Sb0.85/AlAs0.1Sb0.9 double barrier structures combined with an additional quaternary Ga0.64In0.36As0.33Sb0.67 absorption layer covering the fingerprint absorption lines of various gases in the mid-infrared wavelength spectral region. The absorption layer cut-off wavelength is determined to be 3.5 μm, and the RTD-PDs show peak-to-valley current ratios up to 4.3 with a peak current density of 12 A/cm-2. The incorporation of the quaternary absorption layer enables the RTD-PDs to be sensitive to illumination with light up to the absorption lines of HCl at 3395 nm. At this wavelength, the detector shows a responsivity of 6.3 mA/W. At the absorption lines of CO2 and CO at 2004 nm and 2330 nm, respectively, the RTD-PDs reach responsivities up to 0.97 A/W. Thus, RTD-PDs pave the way towards high sensitive mid-infrared detectors that can be utilized in tunable laser absorption spectroscopy.
Controllable resonant tunnelling through single-point potentials: A point triode
Zolotaryuk, A.V.; Zolotaryuk, Yaroslav
2015-01-01
A zero-thickness limit of three-layer heterostructures under two bias voltages applied externally, where one of which is supposed to be a gate parameter, is studied. As a result, an effect of controllable resonant tunnelling of electrons through single-point potentials is shown to exist. Therefore the limiting structure may be termed a “point triode” and considered in the theory of point interactions as a new object. The simple limiting analytical expressions adequately describe the resonant behaviour in the transistor with realistic parameter values and thus one can conclude that the zero-range limit of multi-layer structures may be used in fabricating nanodevices. The difference between the resonant tunnelling across single-point potentials and the Fabry–Pérot interference effect is also emphasized. - Highlights: • The zero-thickness limit of three-layer heterostructures is described in terms of point interactions. • The effect of resonant tunnelling through these single-point potentials is established. • The resonant tunnelling is shown to be controlled by a gate voltage
Kijima, H.; Ishikawa, T.; Marukame, T.; Matsuda, K.-I.; Uemura, T.; Yamamoto, M.
2007-01-01
Fully epitaxial magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) were fabricated with a Co-based full-Heusler alloy Co 2 MnSi (CMS) thin film having the ordered L2 1 structure as a lower electrode, a MgO tunnel barrier, and a Co 50 Fe 50 upper electrode. Reflection high-energy electron diffraction patterns observed in situ for each layer in the MTJ layer structure during fabrication clearly indicated that all layers of the CMS lower electrode, MgO tunnel barrier, and Co 50 Fe 50 upper electrode grew epitaxially. The microfabricated fully epitaxial CMS/MgO/Co 50 Fe 50 MTJs demonstrated relatively high tunnel magnetoresistance ratios of 90% at room temperature and 192% at 4.2 K
Radio frequency scanning tunneling spectroscopy for single-molecule spin resonance.
Müllegger, Stefan; Tebi, Stefano; Das, Amal K; Schöfberger, Wolfgang; Faschinger, Felix; Koch, Reinhold
2014-09-26
We probe nuclear and electron spins in a single molecule even beyond the electromagnetic dipole selection rules, at readily accessible magnetic fields (few mT) and temperatures (5 K) by resonant radio-frequency current from a scanning tunneling microscope. We achieve subnanometer spatial resolution combined with single-spin sensitivity, representing a 10 orders of magnitude improvement compared to existing magnetic resonance techniques. We demonstrate the successful resonant spectroscopy of the complete manifold of nuclear and electronic magnetic transitions of up to ΔI(z)=±3 and ΔJ(z)=±12 of single quantum spins in a single molecule. Our method of resonant radio-frequency scanning tunneling spectroscopy offers, atom-by-atom, unprecedented analytical power and spin control with an impact on diverse fields of nanoscience and nanotechnology.
Jung, Hyun Jin; Lee, Sheen Woo; Jeong, Yu Mi; Choi, Hye Young; Kim, Hyung Sik [Dept. of Radiology, Gil Hospital, Gacheon University College of Medicine, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hong Gi; Kwak, Ji Hoon [Dept. of Orthopedic Surgery, Gil Hospital, Gacheon University College of Medicine, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)
2012-02-15
The purpose of this study was to access the diverse conditions that lead to the clinical manifestations of tarsal tunnel syndrome and evaluate the usefulness of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in preoperative evaluation. Thirty-three patients who underwent ankle MRI and surgery under the impression of tarsal tunnel syndrome were retrospectively analyzed. The findings on ankle MRI were categorized into space occupying lesions within the tarsal tunnel, space occupying lesions of the tunnel wall, and non-space occupying lesions. Associated plantar muscle atrophy was also evaluated. Medical records were reviewed for correlation of nerve conduction velocity (NCV) and surgical findings. There were 21 space occupying lesions of the tarsal tunnel, and eight lesions of tarsal tunnel wall. There were three cases with accessory muscle, three with tarsal coalition, five with ganglion cysts, one neurogenic tumor, five flexor retinaculum hypertrophy, three varicose veins, and nine with tenosynovitis of the posterior tibialis, flexor digitorum longus, or flexor hallucis longus tendon. One patient was found to have a deltoid ligament sprain. Of the 32, eight patients experienced fatty atrophic change within any one of the foot muscles. NCV was positive in 79% of the MRI-positive lesions. MRI provides detailed information on ankle anatomy, which includes that of tarsal tunnel and beyond. Pathologic conditions that cause or mimic tarsal tunnel syndrome are well demonstrated. MRI can enhance surgical planning by indicating the extent of decompression required, and help with further patient management. Patients with tarsal tunnel syndrome can greatly benefit from preoperative MRI. However, it should be noted that not all cases with tarsal tunnel syndrome have MRI-demonstrable causes.
Jung, Hyun Jin; Lee, Sheen Woo; Jeong, Yu Mi; Choi, Hye Young; Kim, Hyung Sik; Park, Hong Gi; Kwak, Ji Hoon
2012-01-01
The purpose of this study was to access the diverse conditions that lead to the clinical manifestations of tarsal tunnel syndrome and evaluate the usefulness of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in preoperative evaluation. Thirty-three patients who underwent ankle MRI and surgery under the impression of tarsal tunnel syndrome were retrospectively analyzed. The findings on ankle MRI were categorized into space occupying lesions within the tarsal tunnel, space occupying lesions of the tunnel wall, and non-space occupying lesions. Associated plantar muscle atrophy was also evaluated. Medical records were reviewed for correlation of nerve conduction velocity (NCV) and surgical findings. There were 21 space occupying lesions of the tarsal tunnel, and eight lesions of tarsal tunnel wall. There were three cases with accessory muscle, three with tarsal coalition, five with ganglion cysts, one neurogenic tumor, five flexor retinaculum hypertrophy, three varicose veins, and nine with tenosynovitis of the posterior tibialis, flexor digitorum longus, or flexor hallucis longus tendon. One patient was found to have a deltoid ligament sprain. Of the 32, eight patients experienced fatty atrophic change within any one of the foot muscles. NCV was positive in 79% of the MRI-positive lesions. MRI provides detailed information on ankle anatomy, which includes that of tarsal tunnel and beyond. Pathologic conditions that cause or mimic tarsal tunnel syndrome are well demonstrated. MRI can enhance surgical planning by indicating the extent of decompression required, and help with further patient management. Patients with tarsal tunnel syndrome can greatly benefit from preoperative MRI. However, it should be noted that not all cases with tarsal tunnel syndrome have MRI-demonstrable causes.
Ohmori, Hideto; Hatori, Tomoya; Nakagawa, Shigeki
2008-01-01
MgO (100) textured films can be prepared by reactive facing targets sputtering at room temperature without postdeposition annealing process when they were deposited on (100) oriented Fe buffer layers. This method allows fabrication of perpendicular magnetic tunnel junction (p-MTJ) with MgO (100) tunneling barrier layer and rare-earth transition metal (RE-TM) alloy thin films as perpendicularly magnetized free and pinned layers. The 3-nm-thick MgO tunneling barrier layer in p-MTJ multilayer prepared on glass substrate revealed (100) crystalline orientation. Extraordinary Hall effect measurement clarified that the perpendicular magnetic components of 3-nm-thick Fe buffer layers on the two ends of MgO tunneling barrier layer were increased by exchange coupling with RE-TM alloy layers. The RA of 35 kΩ μm 2 and tunneling magnetoresistance ratio of 64% was observed in the multilayered p-MTJ element by current-in-plane-tunneling
Importance of complex band structure and resonant states for tunneling
Dederichs, P. H.; Mavropoulos, Ph.; Wunnicke, O.; Papanikolaou, N.; Bellini, V.; Zeller, R.; Drchal, Václav; Kudrnovský, Josef
2002-01-01
Roč. 240, - (2002), s. 108-113 ISSN 0304-8853 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1010829; GA ČR GA202/00/0122; GA MŠk OC P5.30 Grant - others:TSR(XX) 01398 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : magnetoresistance * tunneling * band structure * interface effects Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.046, year: 2002
Makeev, M. O.; Meshkov, S. A.
2017-07-01
The artificial aging of resonant tunneling diodes based on nanoscale AlAs/GaAs heterostructures was conducted. As a result of the thermal influence resonant tunneling diodes IV curves degrade firstly due to ohmic contacts' degradation. To assess AlAs/GaAs resonant tunneling diodes degradation level and to predict their reliability, a functional dependence of the contact resistance of resonant tunneling diode AuGeNi ohmic contacts on time and temperature was offered.
Resonant coherent quantum tunneling of the magnetization of spin-systems: Spin-parity effects
Garcia-Pablos, D; Garcia, N; de Raedt, H.A.
1997-01-01
We perform quantum dynamical calculations to study the reversal of the magnetization for systems of a few the presence of an external magnetic field at T=0 and with no dissipation. Collective quantum tunneling of the magnetization is demonstrated to occur only for some specific resonant values of
Pedersen, Niels Falsig; Sørensen, O. H.; Mygind, Jesper
1978-01-01
The microwave response at 9 GHz of Sn-O-Sn tunnel-junction current biased at zero dc voltage has been measured just below the critical temperature Tc of the Sn films. The temperature dependence of the cosφ conductance is determined from the resonant response at the junction plasma frequency fp...
Cansever, H.; Narkowicz, R.; Lenz, K.; Fowley, C.; Ramasubramanian, L.; Yildirim, O.; Niesen, A.; Huebner, T.; Reiss, G.; Lindner, J.; Fassbender, J.; Deac, A. M.
2018-06-01
Similar to electrical currents flowing through magnetic multilayers, thermal gradients applied across the barrier of a magnetic tunnel junction may induce pure spin-currents and generate ‘thermal’ spin-transfer torques large enough to induce magnetization dynamics in the free layer. In this study, we describe a novel experimental approach to observe spin-transfer torques induced by thermal gradients in magnetic multilayers by studying their ferromagnetic resonance response in microwave cavities. Utilizing this approach allows for measuring the magnetization dynamics on micron/nano-sized samples in open-circuit conditions, i.e. without the need of electrical contacts. We performed first experiments on magnetic tunnel junctions patterned into 6 × 9 µm2 ellipses from Co2FeAl/MgO/CoFeB stacks. We conducted microresonator ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) under focused laser illumination to induce thermal gradients in the layer stack and compared them to measurements in which the sample was globally heated from the backside of the substrate. Moreover, we carried out broadband FMR measurements under global heating conditions on the same extended films the microstructures were later on prepared from. The results clearly demonstrate the effect of thermal spin-torque on the FMR response and thus show that the microresonator approach is well suited to investigate thermal spin-transfer-driven processes for small temperatures gradients, far below the gradients required for magnetic switching.
Herman, Michael F. [Department of Chemistry, Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana 70118 (United States)
2015-10-28
The time independent semiclassical treatment of barrier tunneling has been understood for a very long time. Several semiclassical approaches to time dependent tunneling through barriers have also been presented. These typically involve trajectories for which the position variable is a complex function of time. In this paper, a method is presented that uses only real valued trajectories, thus avoiding the complications that can arise when complex trajectories are employed. This is accomplished by expressing the time dependent wave packet as an integration over momentum. The action function in the exponent in this expression is expanded to second order in the momentum. The expansion is around the momentum, p{sub 0{sup *}}, at which the derivative of the real part of the action is zero. The resulting Gaussian integral is then taken. The stationary phase approximation requires that the derivative of the full action is zero at the expansion point, and this leads to a complex initial momentum and complex tunneling trajectories. The “pseudo-stationary phase” approximation employed in this work results in real values for the initial momentum and real valued trajectories. The transmission probabilities obtained are found to be in good agreement with exact quantum results.
Herman, Michael F.
2015-01-01
The time independent semiclassical treatment of barrier tunneling has been understood for a very long time. Several semiclassical approaches to time dependent tunneling through barriers have also been presented. These typically involve trajectories for which the position variable is a complex function of time. In this paper, a method is presented that uses only real valued trajectories, thus avoiding the complications that can arise when complex trajectories are employed. This is accomplished by expressing the time dependent wave packet as an integration over momentum. The action function in the exponent in this expression is expanded to second order in the momentum. The expansion is around the momentum, p 0 * , at which the derivative of the real part of the action is zero. The resulting Gaussian integral is then taken. The stationary phase approximation requires that the derivative of the full action is zero at the expansion point, and this leads to a complex initial momentum and complex tunneling trajectories. The “pseudo-stationary phase” approximation employed in this work results in real values for the initial momentum and real valued trajectories. The transmission probabilities obtained are found to be in good agreement with exact quantum results
Lv, Hua; Leitao, Diana C.; Hou, Zhiwei; Freitas, Paulo P.; Cardoso, Susana; Kämpfe, Thomas; Müller, Johannes; Langer, Juergen; Wrona, Jerzy
2018-05-01
Recently, the perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions (p-MTJs) arouse great interest because of its unique features in the application of spin-transfer-torque magnetoresistive random access memory (STT-MRAM), such as low switching current density, good thermal stability and high access speed. In this paper, we investigated current induced switching (CIS) in ultrathin MgO barrier p-MTJs with dimension down to 50 nm. We obtained a CIS perpendicular tunnel magnetoresistance (p-TMR) of 123.9% and 7.0 Ω.μm2 resistance area product (RA) with a critical switching density of 1.4×1010 A/m2 in a 300 nm diameter junction. We observe that the extrinsic breakdown mechanism dominates, since the resistance of our p-MTJs decreases gradually with the increasing current. From the statistical analysis of differently sized p-MTJs, we observe that the breakdown voltage (Vb) of 1.4 V is 2 times the switching voltage (Vs) of 0.7 V and the breakdown process exhibits two different breakdown states, unsteady and steady state. Using Simmons' model, we find that the steady state is related with the barrier height of the MgO layer. Furthermore, our study suggests a more efficient method to evaluate the MTJ stability under high bias rather than measuring Vb. In conclusion, we developed well performant p-MTJs for the use in STT-MRAM and demonstrate the mechanism and control of breakdown in nano-scale ultrathin MgO barrier p-MTJs.
Degradation of magnetic tunnel junctions with thin AlOx barrier
Tadashi Mihara, Yoshinari Kamakura, Masato Morifuji and Kenji Taniguchi
2007-01-01
Full Text Available The degradation of magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs with AlOx barrier was experimentally investigated. Constant voltage stress (CVS measurement was carried out to monitor the time evolution of the conductance and tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR of MTJs. The gradual increase of the stress-induced leakage current (SILC was observed prior to the breakdown, following a power law function of stress time with an exponent of about 0.2–0.4, which is similar to the case of the ultrathin gate oxide films in MOSFETs. The measured TMR for SILC suggests that the spin-dependent current component would be involved in the early stage of degradation, while spin-independent conduction becomes dominant before the breakdown resulting in a decrease of TMR.
Inner products of resonance solutions in 1D quantum barriers
Julve, J [IFF, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones CientIficas, Serrano 113 bis, Madrid 28006 (Spain); De Urries, F J, E-mail: julve@imaff.cfmac.csic.e, E-mail: fernando.urries@uah.e [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Alcala de Henares, Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain)
2010-04-30
The properties of a prescription for the inner products of resonance (Gamow states), scattering (Dirac kets) and bound states for one-dimensional quantum barriers are worked out. The divergent asypmtotic behaviour of the Gamow states is regularized using a Gaussian convergence factor first introduced by Zel'dovich. With this prescription, most of these states (with discrete complex energies) are found to be orthogonal to each other and to the Dirac kets, except when they are neighbours, in which case the inner product is divergent. Therefore, as it happens for the continuum scattering states, the norm of the resonant ones remains non-calculable. Thus, they exhibit properties halfway between the (continuum real) Dirac-{delta} orthogonality and the (discrete real) Kronecker-{delta} orthogonality of the bound states.
Dakhlaoui, H; Almansour, S
2016-01-01
In this work, the electronic properties of resonant tunneling diodes (RTDs) based on GaN-Al x Ga (1−x) N double barriers are investigated by using the non-equilibrium Green functions formalism (NEG). These materials each present a wide conduction band discontinuity and a strong internal piezoelectric field, which greatly affect the electronic transport properties. The electronic density, the transmission coefficient, and the current–voltage characteristics are computed with considering the spontaneous and piezoelectric polarizations. The influence of the quantum size on the transmission coefficient is analyzed by varying GaN quantum well thickness, Al x Ga (1−x) N width, and the aluminum concentration x Al . The results show that the transmission coefficient more strongly depends on the thickness of the quantum well than the barrier; it exhibits a series of resonant peaks and valleys as the quantum well width increases. In addition, it is found that the negative differential resistance (NDR) in the current–voltage ( I – V) characteristic strongly depends on aluminum concentration x Al . It is shown that the peak-to-valley ratio (PVR) increases with x Al value decreasing. These findings open the door for developing vertical transport nitrides-based ISB devices such as THz lasers and detectors. (paper)
Tunneling of an energy eigenstate through a parabolic barrier viewed from Wigner phase space
Heim, D.M.; Schleich, W.P.; Alsing, P.M.
2013-01-01
We analyze the tunneling of a particle through a repulsive potential resulting from an inverted harmonic oscillator in the quantum mechanical phase space described by the Wigner function. In particular, we solve the partial differential equations in phase space determining the Wigner function...... of an energy eigenstate of the inverted oscillator. The reflection or transmission coefficients R or T are then given by the total weight of all classical phase-space trajectories corresponding to energies below, or above the top of the barrier given by the Wigner function....
Useinov, Arthur
2011-10-01
Spin-polarization asymmetry is the key parameter in asymmetric voltage behavior (AVB) of the tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) in magnetic tunnel junctions. In this paper, we study the value of the TMR as a function of the applied voltage Va in the single as well as double barrier magnetic tunnel junctions (SMTJ & DMTJ, which are constructed from CoFeB/MgO interfaces) and numerically estimate the possible difference of the TMR-V a curves for negative and positive voltages in the homojunctions. As a result, we found that AVB may help to determine the exact values of Fermi wave vectors for minority and majority conducting spin sub-bands. Moreover, significant asymmetry of the experimental TMR-Va curves, which arises due to different annealing regimes, is explained by different heights of the tunnel barriers and values of the spin asymmetry. The numerical TMR-V a data are in good agreement with experimental ones. © 2011 IEEE.
Asymmetric quantum-well structures for AlGaN/GaN/AlGaN resonant tunneling diodes
Yang, Lin' an, E-mail: layang@xidian.edu.cn; Li, Yue; Wang, Ying; Xu, Shengrui; Hao, Yue [State Key Discipline Laboratory of Wide Bandgap Semiconductor Technology, School of Microelectronics, Xidian University, Xi' an 710071 (China)
2016-04-28
Asymmetric quantum-well (QW) structures including the asymmetric potential-barrier and the asymmetric potential-well are proposed for AlGaN/GaN/AlGaN resonant tunneling diodes (RTDs). Theoretical investigation gives that an appropriate decrease in Al composition and thickness for emitter barrier as well as an appropriate increase of both for collector barrier can evidently improve the negative-differential-resistance characteristic of RTD. Numerical simulation shows that RTD with a 1.5-nm-thick GaN well sandwiched by a 1.3-nm-thick Al{sub 0.15}Ga{sub 0.85}N emitter barrier and a 1.7-nm-thick Al{sub 0.25}Ga{sub 0.75}N collector barrier can yield the I-V characteristic having the peak current (Ip) and the peak-to-valley current ratio (PVCR) of 0.39 A and 3.6, respectively, about double that of RTD with a 1.5-nm-thick Al{sub 0.2}Ga{sub 0.8}N for both barriers. It is also found that an introduction of InGaN sub-QW into the diode can change the tunneling mode and achieve higher transmission coefficient of electron. The simulation demonstrates that RTD with a 2.8-nm-thick In{sub 0.03}Ga{sub 0.97}N sub-well in front of a 2.0-nm-thick GaN main-well can exhibit the I-V characteristic having Ip and PVCR of 0.07 A and 11.6, about 7 times and double the value of RTD without sub-QW, respectively. The purpose of improving the structure of GaN-based QW is to solve apparent contradiction between the device structure and the device manufacturability of new generation RTDs for sub-millimeter and terahertz applications.
Effects of polarization field on vertical transport in GaN/AlGaN resonant tunneling diodes
Park, Seoung-Hwan; Shim, Jong-In
2012-01-01
Polarization-field effects on the vertical transport in GaN/AlGaN resonant tunneling diodes (RTDs) were theoretically investigated by using the transfer matrix formalism. The self-consistent model shows that the resonant peaks are shifted toward higher energies with increasing Al composition in the AlGaN barrier, and the transmission probability values are shown to decrease rapidly. In the case of the flat-band model, on the other hand, the shift of the resonant peaks is smaller than it is for the self-consistent model and the variation of transmission probability values with increasing Al composition is relatively smaller than that of the self-consistent model. The current voltage characteristics of the self-consistent model are asymmetric while those of the flat-band model are symmetric for positive and negative current directions. The peak-to-valley ratio (PVR) of the self-consistent model is shown to be slightly smaller than that of the flat-band model for Al = 0.3.
Characteristics of titanium oxide memristor with coexistence of dopant drift and a tunnel barrier
Tian Xiao-Bo; Xu Hui
2014-01-01
The recent published experimental data of titanium oxide memristor devices which are tested under the same experimental conditions exhibit the strange instability and complexity of these devices. Such undesired characteristics preclude the understanding of the device conductive processes and the memristor-based practical applications. The possibility of the coexistence of dopant drift and tunnel barrier conduction in a memristor provides preliminary explanations for the undesired characteristics. However, current research lacks detailed discussion about the coexistence case. In this paper, dopant drift and tunnel barrier-based theories are first analyzed for studying the relations between parameters and physical variables which affect characteristics of memristors, and then the influences of each parameter change on the conductive behaviors in the single and coexistence cases of the two mechanisms are simulated and discussed respectively. The simulation results provide further explanations of the complex device conduction. Theoretical methods of eliminating or reducing the coexistence of the two mechanisms are proposed, in order to increase the stability of the device conduction. This work also provides the support for optimizing the fabrications of memristor devices with excellent performance
Lόpez-Mir, L; Frontera, C; Aramberri, H; Bouzehouane, K; Cisneros-Fernández, J; Bozzo, B; Balcells, L; Martínez, B
2018-01-16
Multiple spin functionalities are probed on Pt/La 2 Co 0.8 Mn 1.2 O 6 /Nb:SrTiO 3 , a device composed by a ferromagnetic insulating barrier sandwiched between non-magnetic electrodes. Uniquely, La 2 Co 0.8 Mn 1.2 O 6 thin films present strong perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of magnetocrystalline origin, property of major interest for spintronics. The junction has an estimated spin-filtering efficiency of 99.7% and tunneling anisotropic magnetoresistance (TAMR) values up to 30% at low temperatures. This remarkable angular dependence of the magnetoresistance is associated with the magnetic anisotropy whose origin lies in the large spin-orbit interaction of Co 2+ which is additionally tuned by the strain of the crystal lattice. Furthermore, we found that the junction can operate as an electrically readable magnetic memory device. The findings of this work demonstrate that a single ferromagnetic insulating barrier with strong magnetocrystalline anisotropy is sufficient for realizing sensor and memory functionalities in a tunneling device based on TAMR.
Magnetic resonance imaging evaluation of carpal tunnel syndrome
Hachisuka, Hiroki; Kimori, Kenji; Tsuge, Kenya; Murakami, Tsuneji
2006-01-01
In many reports, the severity of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is evaluated by subjective symptoms and nerve conduction findings of the median nerve. However, nerve conduction studies are complicated and the patients occasionally experience pain. In this report, we quantified a morphological change in the median nerve by using MRI, and reviewed a new noninvasive method of CTS evaluation. The survey was carried out on 55 idiopathic CTS patients (45 females and 10 males). The affected areas were 33 right hands and 22 left hands. The average age of the patients was 59 years. We used Philips Gyroscan Intera 1.5 Tesla MRI. T2 weighted axial image of the carpal canal sliced by width of 1 mm was used to measure a minimum axis/maximum axis (median nerve compression rate; MNCR). Simultaneously, we measured the nerve conduction velocity and terminal latency of the motor and sensory nerves; we evaluated the thumb motor disturbance by Hamada's classification and sensory disturbance by Semmes-Weinstein test. The statistical correlations between these items and MNCR were analyzed. MNCR had a significant correlation with all items, particularly with motor nerve conduction velocity and latency, and Hamada's classification. There have been some trials regarding the application of MRI findings for CTS evaluation. In these reports, they measured the cross section of the median nerve or brightness of the median nerve, flexor tendon, or intrinsic muscle. However, it is difficult to measure an MRI cross section or brightness in common practice. MNCR has a statistical correlation with the nerve conduction study, is easy to measure, and noninvasive. MNCR is useful as an objective evaluation method of CTS severity. (author)
Tomita, Satoshi; Yokoyama, Takashi; Yanagi, Hisao; Wood, Ben; Pendry, John B.; Fujii, Minoru; Hayashi, Shinji
2008-01-01
We report resonant photon tunneling (RPT) through onedimensional metamaterials consisting of alternating layers of metal and dielectric. RPT via a surface plasmon polariton state permits evanescent light waves with large wavenumbers to be conveyed through the metamaterial. This is the mechanism for sub-wavelength imaging recently demonstrated with a super-lens. Furthermore, we find that the RPT peak is shifted from the reflectance dip with increasing the number of Al layers, indicating that t...
Narrowing the Zero-Field Tunneling Resonance by Decreasing the Crystal Symmetry of Mn12 Acetate.
Espín, Jordi; Zarzuela, Ricardo; Statuto, Nahuel; Juanhuix, Jordi; Maspoch, Daniel; Imaz, Inhar; Chudnovsky, Eugene; Tejada, Javier
2016-07-27
We report the discovery of a less symmetric crystalline phase of Mn12 acetate, a triclinic phase, resulting from recrystallizing the original tetragonal phase reported by Lis in acetonitrile and toluene. This new phase exhibits the same structure of Mn12 acetate clusters and the same positions of tunneling resonances on the magnetic field as the conventional tetragonal phase. However, the width of the zero-field resonance is at least 1 order of magnitude smaller-can be as low as 50 Oe-indicating very small inhomogeneous broadening due to dipolar and nuclear fields.
A Comparison of Resonant Tunneling Based on Schrödinger's Equation and Quantum Hydrodynamics
Naoufel Ben Abdallah
2002-01-01
Full Text Available Smooth quantum hydrodynamic (QHD model simulations of the current–voltage curve of a resonant tunneling diode at 300K are compared with that predicted by the mixed-state Schrödinger equation approach. Although the resonant peak for the QHD simulation occurs at 0.15V instead of the Schrödinger equation value of 0.2V, there is good qualitative agreement between the current–voltage curves for the two models, including the predicted peak current values.
Tunnel-induced Dipolar Resonances in a Double-well Potential.
Schulz, Bruno; Saenz, Alejandro
2016-11-18
A system of two dipolar particles that are confined in a double-well potential and interact via a realistic isotropic interaction potential is investigated as a protoype for ultracold atoms with a magnetic dipole moment or ultracold dipolar heteronuclear diatomic molecules in double-well traps or in optical lattices. The resulting energy spectrum is discussed as a function of the dipole-dipole interaction strength. The variation of the strength of the dipole-dipole interaction is found to lead to various resonance phenomena. Among those are the previously discussed inelastic confinement-induced resonances as well as the dipole-induced resonances. It is found that the double-well potential gives rise to a new type of resonances, tunnel-induced dipolar ones. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
I-V characteristics of graphene nanoribbon/h-BN heterojunctions and resonant tunneling.
Wakai, Taiga; Sakamoto, Shoichi; Tomiya, Mitsuyoshi
2018-07-04
We present the first principle calculations of the electrical properties of graphene sheet/h-BN heterojunction (GS/h-BN) and 11-armchair graphene nanoribbon/h-BN heterojunction (11-AGNR/h-BN), which are carried out using the density functional theory (DFT) method and the non-equilibrium Green's function (NEGF) technique. Since 11-AGNR belongs to the conductive (3n-1)-family of AGNR, both are metallic nanomaterials with two transverse arrays of h-BN, which is a wide-gap semi-conductor. The two h-BN arrays act as double barriers. The transmission functions (TF) and I-[Formula: see text] characteristics of GS/h-BN and 11-AGNR/h-BN are calculated by DFT and NEGF, and they show that quantum double barrier tunneling occurs. The TF becomes very spiky in both materials, and it leads to step-wise I-[Formula: see text] characteristics rather than negative resistance, which is the typical behavior of double barriers in semiconductors. The results of our first principle calculations are also compared with 1D Dirac equation model for the double barrier system. The model explains most of the peaks of the transmission functions nearby the Fermi energy quite well. They are due to quantum tunneling.
Co2FeAl based magnetic tunnel junctions with BaO and MgO/BaO barriers
J. Rogge
2015-07-01
Full Text Available We succeed to integrate BaO as a tunneling barrier into Co2FeAl based magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs. By means of Auger electron spectroscopy it could be proven that the applied annealing temperatures during BaO deposition and afterwards do not cause any diffusion of Ba neither into the lower Heusler compound lead nor into the upper Fe counter electrode. Nevertheless, a negative tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR ratio of -10% is found for Co2FeAl (24 nm / BaO (5 nm / Fe (7 nm MTJs, which can be attributed to the preparation procedure and can be explained by the formation of Co- and Fe-oxides at the interfaces between the Heusler and the crystalline BaO barrier by comparing with theory. Although an amorphous structure of the BaO barrier seems to be confirmed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM, it cannot entirely be ruled out that this is an artifact of TEM sample preparation due to the sensitivity of BaO to moisture. By replacing the BaO tunneling barrier with an MgO/BaO double layer barrier, the electric stability could effectively be increased by a factor of five. The resulting TMR effect is found to be about +20% at room temperature, although a fully antiparallel state has not been realized.
Koberidze, M.; Puska, M. J.; Nieminen, R. M.
2018-05-01
We present a computational study of the adhesive and structural properties of the Al/Al 2O3 interfaces as building blocks of the metal-insulator-metal (MIM) tunnel devices, where electron transport is accomplished via tunneling mechanism through the sandwiched insulating barrier. The main goal of this paper is to understand, on the atomic scale, the role of the geometrical details in the formation of the tunnel barrier profiles. Initially, we concentrate on the adhesive properties of the interfaces. To provide reliable results, we carefully assess the accuracy of the traditional methods used to examine Al/Al 2O3 systems. These are the most widely employed exchange-correlation functionals—local-density approximation and two different generalized gradient approximations; the universal binding-energy relation for predicting equilibrium interfacial distances and adhesion energies; and the ideal work of separation as a measure of junction stability. In addition, we show that the established interpretation of the computed ideal work of separation might be misleading in predicting the optimal interface structures. Finally, we perform a detailed analysis of the atomic and interplanar relaxations in each junction, and identify their contributions to the tunnel barrier parameters. Our results imply that the structural irregularities on the surface of the Al film have a significant contribution to lowering the tunnel barrier height, while atomic relaxations at the interface and interplanar relaxations in Al2O3 may considerably change the width of the barrier and, thus, distort its uniformity. Both the effects may critically influence the performance of the MIM tunnel devices.
Jermakov, V.M.
1997-01-01
In the case of low transparency of barriers, tunneling of electrons through a double barrier system with account their Coulomb interaction in the inter barrier space (quantum well) is considered. The quantum state of the well is supposed to be triply degenerated. It was shown that the dependence of quantum well accupation on the applied bias has a step like character at low temperatures, and there is a threshold value in the region of small applied bias. These properties can be explained by splitting of states in the well due to the electron interaction. The considered system also has bistability properties. This is due to the possibility for electrons to occupy upper levels in the well while lower levels remain empty. Charge fluctuations in the well are also discussed
Weng, Qianchun; An, Zhenghua; Zhang, Bo; Chen, Pingping; Chen, Xiaoshuang; Zhu, Ziqiang; Lu, Wei
2015-03-23
Low-noise single-photon detectors that can resolve photon numbers are used to monitor the operation of quantum gates in linear-optical quantum computation. Exactly 0, 1 or 2 photons registered in a detector should be distinguished especially in long-distance quantum communication and quantum computation. Here we demonstrate a photon-number-resolving detector based on quantum dot coupled resonant tunneling diodes (QD-cRTD). Individual quantum-dots (QDs) coupled closely with adjacent quantum well (QW) of resonant tunneling diode operate as photon-gated switches- which turn on (off) the RTD tunneling current when they trap photon-generated holes (recombine with injected electrons). Proposed electron-injecting operation fills electrons into coupled QDs which turn "photon-switches" to "OFF" state and make the detector ready for multiple-photons detection. With proper decision regions defined, 1-photon and 2-photon states are resolved in 4.2 K with excellent propabilities of accuracy of 90% and 98% respectively. Further, by identifying step-like photon responses, the photon-number-resolving capability is sustained to 77 K, making the detector a promising candidate for advanced quantum information applications where photon-number-states should be accurately distinguished.
Li Gui-fang; Hu Jing; Lv Hui; Cui Zhijun; Hou Xiaowei; Liu Shibin; Du Yongqian
2016-01-01
We demonstrate that the insertion of a graphene tunnel barrier between Heusler alloy Co 2 MnSi and the germanium (Ge) channel modulates the Schottky barrier height and the resistance–area product of the spin diode. We confirm that the Fermi level is depinned and a reduction in the electron Schottky barrier height (SBH) occurs following the insertion of the graphene layer between Co 2 MnSi and Ge. The electron SBH is modulated in the 0.34 eV–0.61 eV range. Furthermore, the transport mechanism changes from rectifying to symmetric tunneling following the insertion. This behavior provides a pathway for highly efficient spin injection from a Heusler alloy into a Ge channel with high electron and hole mobility. (paper)
Gui-fang, Li; Jing, Hu; Hui, Lv; Zhijun, Cui; Xiaowei, Hou; Shibin, Liu; Yongqian, Du
2016-02-01
We demonstrate that the insertion of a graphene tunnel barrier between Heusler alloy Co2MnSi and the germanium (Ge) channel modulates the Schottky barrier height and the resistance-area product of the spin diode. We confirm that the Fermi level is depinned and a reduction in the electron Schottky barrier height (SBH) occurs following the insertion of the graphene layer between Co2MnSi and Ge. The electron SBH is modulated in the 0.34 eV-0.61 eV range. Furthermore, the transport mechanism changes from rectifying to symmetric tunneling following the insertion. This behavior provides a pathway for highly efficient spin injection from a Heusler alloy into a Ge channel with high electron and hole mobility. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61504107) and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China (Grant Nos. 3102014JCQ01059 and 3102015ZY043).
Modulation of spin transfer torque amplitude in double barrier magnetic tunnel junctions
Clément, P.-Y.; Baraduc, C.; Ducruet, C.; Vila, L.; Chshiev, M.; Diény, B.
2015-09-01
Magnetization switching induced by spin transfer torque is used to write magnetic memories (Magnetic Random Access Memory, MRAM) but can be detrimental to the reading process. It would be quite convenient therefore to modulate the efficiency of spin transfer torque. A solution is adding an extra degree of freedom by using double barrier magnetic tunnel junctions with two spin-polarizers, with controllable relative magnetic alignment. We demonstrate, for these structures, that the amplitude of in-plane spin transfer torque on the middle free layer can be efficiently tuned via the magnetic configuration of the electrodes. Using the proposed design could thus pave the way towards more reliable read/write schemes for MRAM. Moreover, our results suggest an intriguing effect associated with the out-of-plane (field-like) spin transfer torque, which has to be further investigated.
Modulation of spin transfer torque amplitude in double barrier magnetic tunnel junctions
Clément, P.-Y.; Baraduc, C.; Chshiev, M.; Diény, B.; Ducruet, C.; Vila, L.
2015-01-01
Magnetization switching induced by spin transfer torque is used to write magnetic memories (Magnetic Random Access Memory, MRAM) but can be detrimental to the reading process. It would be quite convenient therefore to modulate the efficiency of spin transfer torque. A solution is adding an extra degree of freedom by using double barrier magnetic tunnel junctions with two spin-polarizers, with controllable relative magnetic alignment. We demonstrate, for these structures, that the amplitude of in-plane spin transfer torque on the middle free layer can be efficiently tuned via the magnetic configuration of the electrodes. Using the proposed design could thus pave the way towards more reliable read/write schemes for MRAM. Moreover, our results suggest an intriguing effect associated with the out-of-plane (field-like) spin transfer torque, which has to be further investigated
Transmission-line resonators for the study of individual two-level tunneling systems
Brehm, Jan David; Bilmes, Alexander; Weiss, Georg; Ustinov, Alexey V.; Lisenfeld, Jürgen
2017-09-01
Parasitic two-level tunneling systems (TLS) emerge in amorphous dielectrics and constitute a serious nuisance for various microfabricated devices, where they act as a source of noise and decoherence. Here, we demonstrate a new test bed for the study of TLS in various materials which provides access to properties of individual TLS as well as their ensemble response. We terminate a superconducting transmission-line resonator with a capacitor that hosts TLS in its dielectric. By tuning TLS via applied mechanical strain, we observe the signatures of individual TLS strongly coupled to the resonator in its transmission characteristics and extract the coupling components of their dipole moments and energy relaxation rates. The strong and well-defined coupling to the TLS bath results in pronounced resonator frequency fluctuations and excess phase noise, through which we can study TLS ensemble effects such as spectral diffusion, and probe theoretical models of TLS interactions.
Tunneling Characteristics Depending on Schottky Barriers and Diffusion Current in SiOC.
Oh, Teresa; Kim, Chy Hyung
2016-02-01
To obtain a diffusion current in SiOC, the aluminum doped zinc oxide films were deposited on SiOC/Si wafer by a RF magnetron sputtering. All the X-ray patterns of the SiOC films showed amorphous phases. The level of binding energy of Si atoms will lead to an additional potential modulation by long range Coulombic and covalent interactions with oxygen ions. The growth of the AZO film was affected by the characteristics of SiOC, resulting in similar trends in XPS spectra and a shift to higher AZO lattice d values than the original AZO d values in XRD analyses. The charges trapped by the defects at the interlayer between AZO and SiOC films induced the decreased mobility of carriers. In the absence of trap charges, AZO grown on SiOC film such as the sample prepared at O2 = 25 or 30 sccm, which has low charge carrier concentration and high mobility, showed high mobility in an ambipolar characteristic of oxide semiconductor due to the tunneling effect and diffusion current. The structural matching of an interface between AZO and amorphous SiOC enhanced the height of Schottky Barrier (SB), and then the mobility was increased by the tunneling effect from band to band through the high SB.
Stochastic resonance and vibrational resonance in an excitable system: The golden mean barrier
Stan, Cristina; Cristescu, C.P.; Alexandroaei, D.; Agop, M.
2009-01-01
We report on stochastic resonance and vibrational resonance in an electric charge double layer configuration as usually found in electrical discharges, biological cell membranes, chemical systems and nanostructures. The experiment and numerical computation show the existence of a barrier expressible in terms of the golden mean above which the two phenomena do not take place. We consider this as new evidence for the importance of the golden mean criticality in the oscillatory dynamics, in agreement with El Naschie's E-infinity theory. In our experiment, the dynamics of a charge double layer generated in the inter-anode space of a twin electrical discharge is investigated under noise-harmonic and harmonic-harmonic perturbations. In the first case, a Gaussian noise can enhance the response of the system to a weak injected periodic signal, a clear mark of stochastic resonance. In the second case, similar enhancement can appear if the noise is replaced by a harmonic perturbation with a frequency much higher than the frequency of the weak oscillation. The amplitude of the low frequency oscillation shows a maximum versus the amplitude of the high frequency perturbation demonstrating vibrational resonance. In order to model these dynamics, we derived an excitable system by modifying a biased van der Pol oscillator. The computational study considers the behaviour of this system under the same types of perturbation as in the experimental investigations and is found to give consistent results in both situations.
Yan, Weixian, E-mail: wxyansxu@gmail.com
2017-01-01
The tunneling of the massless and massive Dirac particle through the strained barriers driven by the time-periodic scalar potentials and the static vector potentials is investigated, where the interrelationships among the strain, the incidence angle, the dynamic scalar potential, the magnetic field and the transmission of the Dirac particle have been discussed. In either massless or massive case, the intersection angle between the obliquely incident Dirac particle and strain determines the extent of deviation of the tunneling profiles from the strainless case. The time-periodic scalar potentials can enhance the capability of the Dirac particle to surmount the energy gap induced by the mass, reflecting quantum nature of the photon-assisted tunneling. When the magnetic field is switched on, the transmission overall presents a remarkably different profile, and decreases with the increase of the magnetic fields due to the conservation of the transverse momentum, which reduces the number of the side-band channels for tunneling.
Useinov, Arthur; Kosel, Jü rgen
2011-01-01
in the single as well as double barrier magnetic tunnel junctions (SMTJ & DMTJ, which are constructed from CoFeB/MgO interfaces) and numerically estimate the possible difference of the TMR-V a curves for negative and positive voltages in the homojunctions
Resonant-enhanced spectroscopy of molecular rotations with a scanning tunneling microscope.
Natterer, Fabian Donat; Patthey, François; Brune, Harald
2014-07-22
We use rotational excitation spectroscopy with a scanning tunneling microscope to investigate the rotational properties of molecular hydrogen and its isotopes physisorbed on the surfaces of graphene and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), grown on Ni(111), Ru(0001), and Rh(111). The rotational excitation energies are in good agreement with ΔJ = 2 transitions of freely spinning p-H2 and o-D2 molecules. The variations of the spectral line shapes for H2 among the different surfaces can be traced back to a molecular resonance-mediated tunneling mechanism. Our data for H2/h-BN/Rh(111) suggest a local intrinsic gating on this surface due to lateral static dipoles. Spectra on a mixed monolayer of H2, HD, and D2 display all three J = 0 → 2 rotational transitions, irrespective of tip position, thus pointing to a multimolecule excitation, or molecular mobility in the physisorbed close-packed layer.
Yamasaki, Tomoaki; Ueda, Miki; Maegawa, Satoru
2003-05-01
A molecular nanomagnet Fe8 with a total spin S=10 in the ground state attracts much attention as a substance which exhibits the quantum tunneling of magnetization below 300 mK. We performed 1H NMR measurements for a single crystal of Fe8 in temperature range between 20 and 800 mK. The spectra below 300 mK strongly depend on the sequence of the applied field and those in the positive and negative fields are not symmetric about zero field, while they are symmetric above 300 mK. We discuss the origin of this hysteresis phenomenon, relating to the initial spin state of molecules, the resonant quantum tunneling and the nuclear spin relaxation process.
Yamasaki, Tomoaki; Ueda, Miki; Maegawa, Satoru
2003-01-01
A molecular nanomagnet Fe8 with a total spin S=10 in the ground state attracts much attention as a substance which exhibits the quantum tunneling of magnetization below 300 mK. We performed 1 H NMR measurements for a single crystal of Fe8 in temperature range between 20 and 800 mK. The spectra below 300 mK strongly depend on the sequence of the applied field and those in the positive and negative fields are not symmetric about zero field, while they are symmetric above 300 mK. We discuss the origin of this hysteresis phenomenon, relating to the initial spin state of molecules, the resonant quantum tunneling and the nuclear spin relaxation process
Maiz, F., E-mail: Fethi_maiz@yahoo.fr [King Khalid University, Faculty of Science, Physics Department, P.O. Box 9004, Abha (Saudi Arabia); University of Cartage, Nabeul Engineering Preparatory Institute, Merazka, 8000 Nabeul (Tunisia); Eissa, S.A. [King Khalid University, Faculty of Science, Physics Department, P.O. Box 9004, Abha (Saudi Arabia); AL-AZHAR University, Faculty of Science, Physics Department, Nasr City, Cairo (Egypt); AlFaify, S. [King Khalid University, Faculty of Science, Physics Department, P.O. Box 9004, Abha (Saudi Arabia)
2013-09-15
Assuming an effective mass approximation and using Bastard's boundary conditions, a simple method for simultaneous determination of the energy levels forming the sub-band structure and the transmissions coefficient of non-symmetrical, non-periodical potential semiconducting heterostructure is being proposed. The method can be applied on a multilayer system with varying thickness and effective mass of the layers, and with potential that is neither periodical nor symmetrical. To illustrate the feasibility of the proposed method, cases of symmetrical rectangular triple-barrier structure with constant effective mass, multi-barrier semiconductor heterostructure (nine barriers–eight-wells), and monomer height barrier superlattices (300 barriers) systems have been examined. Findings show very good agreements with previously published results obtained by different methods on similar systems. The proposed method was found to be useful for any number of semiconducting layers arranged in any random way making it more realistic, simple, and applicable to superlattice analysis and for devices design.
Taylor, Samuel A; Newman, Ashley M; Nguyen, Joseph; Fabricant, Peter D; Baret, Nikolas J; Shorey, Mary; Ramkumar, Prem; O'Brien, Stephen J
2016-02-01
To determine the diagnostic accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for biceps-labrum complex (BLC) lesions, including the extra-articular bicipital tunnel. A retrospective review of 277 shoulders with chronic refractory BLC symptoms that underwent arthroscopic subdeltoid transfer of the long head of the biceps tendon (LHBT) to the conjoint tendon was conducted. Intraoperative lesions were categorized as "inside" (labral tears and dynamic LHBT incarceration), "junctional" (LHBT partial tears, LHBT subluxation, and biceps chondromalacia), or "bicipital tunnel" (extra-articular bicipital tunnel scar/stenosis, loose bodies, LHBT instability, and LHBT partial tears) based on anatomic location. Attending radiologist-generated MRI reports were graded dichotomously as positive or negative for biceps and labral damage and then compared with intraoperative findings. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) were calculated for MRI with respect to intraoperative findings. With regard to inside lesions, MRI had an overall sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV for labrum lesions of 77.3%, 68.2%, 57.3%, and 84.5% respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of MRI for junctional lesions were 43.3%, 55.6%, 73.1%, and 26.0%, respectively. For the bicipital tunnel, MRI had a sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of 50.4%, 61.4%, 48.7%, and 63.0%, respectively. MRI was unreliable for ruling out BLC lesions among chronically symptomatic patients, including when the bicipital tunnel was affected. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Qin, Tao; Hofstetter, Walter
2018-03-01
Time-periodically driven systems are a versatile toolbox for realizing interesting effective Hamiltonians. Heating, caused by excitations to high-energy states, is a challenge for experiments. While most setups so far address the relatively weakly interacting regime, it is of general interest to study heating in strongly correlated systems. Using Floquet dynamical mean-field theory, we study nonequilibrium steady states (NESS) in the Falicov-Kimball model, with time-periodically driven kinetic energy or interaction. We systematically investigate the nonequilibrium properties of the NESS. For a driven kinetic energy, we show that resonant tunneling, where the interaction is an integer multiple of the driving frequency, plays an important role in the heating. In the strongly correlated regime, we show that this can be well understood using Fermi's golden rule and the Schrieffer-Wolff transformation for a time-periodically driven system. We furthermore demonstrate that resonant tunneling can be used to control the population of Floquet states to achieve "photodoping." For driven interactions introduced by an oscillating magnetic field near a widely adopted Feshbach resonance, we find that the double occupancy is strongly modulated. Our calculations apply to shaken ultracold-atom systems and to solid-state systems in a spatially uniform but time-dependent electric field. They are also closely related to lattice modulation spectroscopy. Our calculations are helpful to understand the latest experiments on strongly correlated Floquet systems.
Atomically thin resonant tunnel diodes built from synthetic van der Waals heterostructures
Lin, Yu-Chuan; Ghosh, Ram Krishna; Addou, Rafik; Lu, Ning; Eichfeld, Sarah M.; Zhu, Hui; Li, Ming-Yang; Peng, Xin; Kim, Moon J.; Li, Lain-Jong; Wallace, Robert M.; Datta, Suman; Robinson, Joshua A.
2015-01-01
Vertical integration of two-dimensional van der Waals materials is predicted to lead to novel electronic and optical properties not found in the constituent layers. Here, we present the direct synthesis of two unique, atomically thin, multi-junction heterostructures by combining graphene with the monolayer transition-metal dichalcogenides: molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), molybdenum diselenide (MoSe2) and tungsten diselenide (WSe2). The realization of MoS2–WSe2–graphene and WSe2–MoS2–graphene heterostructures leads to resonant tunnelling in an atomically thin stack with spectrally narrow, room temperature negative differential resistance characteristics.
Atomically thin resonant tunnel diodes built from synthetic van der Waals heterostructures
Lin, Yu-Chuan
2015-06-19
Vertical integration of two-dimensional van der Waals materials is predicted to lead to novel electronic and optical properties not found in the constituent layers. Here, we present the direct synthesis of two unique, atomically thin, multi-junction heterostructures by combining graphene with the monolayer transition-metal dichalcogenides: molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), molybdenum diselenide (MoSe2) and tungsten diselenide (WSe2). The realization of MoS2–WSe2–graphene and WSe2–MoS2–graphene heterostructures leads to resonant tunnelling in an atomically thin stack with spectrally narrow, room temperature negative differential resistance characteristics.
Resonance tunneling of charge carriers in photoexcited type-II ZnSe/BeTe heterostructures
Zaitsev, S. V.; Maksimov, A. A.; Tartakovskii, I. I.; Yakovlev, D. R.; Waag, A.
2008-01-01
In is shown that, at high densities of spatially separated electrons and holes in type-II ZnSe/BeTe heterostructures, the conditions for resonance tunneling of photoexcited holes from the ZnSe layer to the BeTe layer are attainable. Nonlinear behavior of the intensity of the photoluminescence band corresponding to spatially direct optical transitions with photoexcitation intensity is observed. Numerical calculations are carried out, and the results are in good agreement with the experimental data in a wide region of variation of the optical pumping intensity
Sidewall gated double well quasi-one-dimensional resonant tunneling transistors
Kolagunta, V. R.; Janes, D. B.; Melloch, M. R.; Youtsey, C.
1997-12-01
We present gating characteristics of submicron vertical resonant tunneling transistors in double quantum well heterostructures. Current-voltage characteristics at room temperature and 77 K for devices with minimum feature widths of 0.9 and 0.7 μm are presented and discussed. The evolution of the I-V characteristics with increasing negative gate biases is related to the change in the lateral confinement, with a transition from a large area 2D to a quasi-1D. Even gating of multiple wells and lateral confinement effects observable at 77 K make these devices ideally suited for applications in multi-valued logic systems and low-dimensional structures.
Tomita, Satoshi; Yokoyama, Takashi; Yanagi, Hisao; Wood, Ben; Pendry, John B; Fujii, Minoru; Hayashi, Shinji
2008-06-23
We report resonant photon tunneling (RPT) through one-dimensional metamaterials consisting of alternating layers of metal and dielectric. RPT via a surface plasmon polariton state permits evanescent light waves with large wavenumbers to be conveyed through the metamaterial. This is the mechanism for sub-wavelength imaging recently demonstrated with a super-lens. Furthermore, we find that the RPT peak is shifted from the reflectance dip with increasing the number of Al layers, indicating that the shift is caused by the losses in the RPT.
Mnasri, S; Abdi-Ben Nasrallahl, S; Sfina, N; Lazzari, J L; Saïd, M
2012-11-01
Theoretical studies on spin-dependent transport in magnetic tunneling diodes with giant Zeeman splitting of the valence band are carried out. The studied structure consists of two nonmagnetic layers CdMgTe separated by a diluted magnetic semiconductor barrier CdMnTe, the hole is surrounded by two p-doped CdTe layers. Based on the parabolic valence band effective mass approximation and the transfer matrix method, the magnetization and the current densities for holes with spin-up and spin-down are studied in terms of the Mn concentration, the well and barrier thicknesses as well as the voltage. It is found that, the current densities depend strongly on these parameters and by choosing suitable values; this structure can be a good spin filter. Such behaviors are originated from the enhancement and suppression in the spin-dependent resonant states.
Aleksanyan, A.A.; Volchkov, N.A.; Dravin, V.A.; Kazakov, I.P.; Karuzskij, A.L.; Murzin, V.N.; Perestoronin, A.V.; Tskhovrebov, A.M.; Shmelev, S.S.
2014-01-01
Features of the effect of a subterahertz microwave field on the current characteristics of a resonant-tunneling diode in resonance systems with different configurations have been studied. Changes in the current characteristics of the resonant-tunneling diode under variation of the electrophysical parameters of dielectric and microstrip resonators, in particular high-Q-factor superconducting microstrip resonators, have been experimentally studied and analyzed [ru
Bhardwaj, Shubhendu; Sensale-Rodriguez, Berardi; Xing, Huili Grace; Rajan, Siddharth; Volakis, John L.
2016-01-01
A rigorous theoretical and computational model is developed for the plasma-wave propagation in high electron mobility transistor structures with electron injection from a resonant tunneling diode at the gate. We discuss the conditions in which low-loss and sustainable plasmon modes can be supported in such structures. The developed analytical model is used to derive the dispersion relation for these plasmon-modes. A non-linear full-wave-hydrodynamic numerical solver is also developed using a finite difference time domain algorithm. The developed analytical solutions are validated via the numerical solution. We also verify previous observations that were based on a simplified transmission line model. It is shown that at high levels of negative differential conductance, plasmon amplification is indeed possible. The proposed rigorous models can enable accurate design and optimization of practical resonant tunnel diode-based plasma-wave devices for terahertz sources, mixers, and detectors, by allowing a precise representation of their coupling when integrated with other electromagnetic structures
Hysteresis loops of spin-dependent electronic current in a paramagnetic resonant tunnelling diode
Wójcik, P; Spisak, B J; Wołoszyn, M; Adamowski, J
2012-01-01
Nonlinear properties of the spin-dependent electronic transport through a semiconductor resonant tunnelling diode with a paramagnetic quantum well are considered. The spin-dependent Wigner–Poisson model of the electronic transport and the two-current Mott’s formula for the independent spin channels are applied to determine the current–voltage curves of the nanodevice. Two types of the electronic current hysteresis loops are found in the current–voltage characteristics for both the spin components of the electronic current. The physical interpretation of these two types of the electronic current hysteresis loops is given based on the analysis of the spin-dependent electron densities and the potential energy profiles. The differences between the current–voltage characteristics for both the spin components of the electronic current allow us to explore the changes of the spin polarization of the current for different electric fields and determine the influence of the electronic current hysteresis on the spin polarization of the current flowing through the paramagnetic resonant tunnelling diode. (paper)
Tunnel spin polarization versus energy for clean and doped Al2O3 barriers
Park, B.G.; Banerjee, T.; Lodder, J.C.; Jansen, R.
2007-01-01
The variation of the tunnel spin-polarization (TSP) with energy is determined using a magnetic tunnel transistor, allowing quantification of the energy dependent TSP separately for both ferromagnet/insulator interfaces and direct correlation with the tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) measured in the
Tunnel Spin Polarization Versus Energy for Clean and Doped Al2O3 Barriers
Park, B.G.; Banerjee, T.; Lodder, J.C.; Jansen, R.
2007-01-01
The variation of the tunnel spin-polarization (TSP) with energy is determined using a magnetic tunnel transistor, allowing quantification of the energy dependent TSP separately for both ferromagnet/insulator interfaces and direct correlation with the tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) measured in the
Effect of resonant tunneling on electroluminescence in nc-Si/SiO2 multilayers-based p-i-n structure
Chen, D.Y.; Wang, Y.Y.; Sun, Y.; He, Y.J.; Zhang, G.
2015-01-01
P-i-n structures with SiO 2 /nc-Si/SiO 2 multilayers as intrinsic layer were prepared in conventional plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition system. Their carrier transport and electroluminescence properties were investigated. Two resonant tunneling related current peaks with current dropping gradually under forward bias were observed in the current voltage curve. Non-uniformity of the interfaces might be responsible for the gradual dropping of the current. Electroluminescence intensity of the device under bias of 7 V which is near the resonant tunneling peak voltage of 7.2 V was weaker than that under 6.5 V. According to the Gaussian fitting results of the spectra, the intensity of the sub-peak of 650 nm originating from recombination of injected electrons and holes was decreased the most. When resonant tunneling conditions are met, it might be that most of the injected electrons participate in resonant tunneling and fewer in Pool–Frenkel tunneling, which is the main carrier transport mechanism, to contribute to electroluminescence intensity. - Highlights: • Two resonant tunneling peaks with current dropping gradually were observed. • The EL intensity of the structure under resonant tunneling peak voltage is weakened. • P–F tunneling is the main transport mechanism besides resonant tunneling
Generation of constant-amplitude radio-frequency sweeps at a tunnel junction for spin resonance STM
Paul, William; Lutz, Christopher P.; Heinrich, Andreas J.; Baumann, Susanne
2016-01-01
We describe the measurement and successful compensation of the radio-frequency transfer function of a scanning tunneling microscope over a wide frequency range (15.5–35.5 GHz) and with high dynamic range (>50 dB). The precise compensation of cabling resonances and attenuations is critical for the production of constant-voltage frequency sweeps for electric-field driven electron spin resonance (ESR) experiments. We also demonstrate that a well-calibrated tunnel junction voltage is necessary to avoid spurious ESR peaks that can arise due to a non-flat transfer function.
Generation of constant-amplitude radio-frequency sweeps at a tunnel junction for spin resonance STM
Paul, William; Lutz, Christopher P.; Heinrich, Andreas J. [IBM Research Division, Almaden Research Center, 650 Harry Road, San Jose, California 95120 (United States); Baumann, Susanne [IBM Research Division, Almaden Research Center, 650 Harry Road, San Jose, California 95120 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland)
2016-07-15
We describe the measurement and successful compensation of the radio-frequency transfer function of a scanning tunneling microscope over a wide frequency range (15.5–35.5 GHz) and with high dynamic range (>50 dB). The precise compensation of cabling resonances and attenuations is critical for the production of constant-voltage frequency sweeps for electric-field driven electron spin resonance (ESR) experiments. We also demonstrate that a well-calibrated tunnel junction voltage is necessary to avoid spurious ESR peaks that can arise due to a non-flat transfer function.
Low-leakage superconducting tunnel junctions with a single-crystal Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} barrier
Oh, S [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, CO 80305 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Cicak, K; Osborn, K D; Simmonds, R W; Pappas, D P [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, CO 80305 (United States); McDermott, R; Cooper, K B; Steffen, M; Martinis, J M [University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States)
2005-10-01
We have developed a two-step growth scheme for single-crystal Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} tunnel barriers. The barriers are epitaxially grown on single-crystal rhenium (Re) base electrodes that are grown epitaxially on a sapphire substrate, while polycrystalline Al is used as the top electrode. We show that by first growing an amorphous aluminium (Al) oxide layer at room temperature and crystallizing it at a high temperature in oxygen environment, a morphologically intact single-crystal Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer is obtained. Tunnel junctions fabricated from these trilayers show very low subgap leakage current. This single-crystal Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} junction may open a new venue for coherent quantum devices.
HfO2 and SiO2 as barriers in magnetic tunneling junctions
Shukla, Gokaran; Archer, Thomas; Sanvito, Stefano
2017-05-01
SiO2 and HfO2 are both high-k, wide-gap semiconductors, currently used in the microelectronic industry as gate barriers. Here we investigate whether the same materials can be employed to make magnetic tunnel junctions, which in principle can be amenable for integration in conventional Si technology. By using a combination of density functional theory and the nonequilibrium Green's functions method for quantum transport we have studied the transport properties of Co [0001 ] /SiO2[001 ] /Co [0001 ] and Fe [001 ] /HfO2[001 ] /Fe [001 ] junctions. In both cases we found a quite large magnetoresistance, which is explained through the analysis of the real band structure of the magnets and the complex one of the insulator. We find that there is no symmetry spin filtering for the Co-based junction since the high transmission Δ2' band crosses the Fermi level, EF, for both spin directions. However, the fact that Co is a strong ferromagnet makes the orbital contribution to the two Δ2' spin subbands different, yielding magnetoresistance. In contrast for the Fe-based junction symmetry filtering is active for an energy window spanning between the Fermi level and 1 eV below EF, with Δ1 symmetry contributing to the transmission.
Wu, Zhenhua; Li, Jun
2012-01-27
We investigate quantum tunneling through a single electric and/or magnetic barrier on the surface of a three-dimensional topological insulator. We found that (1) the propagating behavior of electrons in such system exhibits a strong dependence on the direction of the incident electron wavevector and incident energy, giving the possibility to construct a wave vector and/or energy filter; (2) the spin orientation can be tuned by changing the magnetic barrier structure as well as the incident angles and energies.PACS numbers: 72.25.Dc; 73.20.-r; 73.23.-b; 75.70.-i.
Baum, M.R.
1988-04-01
On power plant, if a high pressure pipe containing high temperature gas or steam were to rupture, sensitive equipment necessary for safety shutdown of the plant could possibly be incapacitated if exposed to the subsequent high temperature environment. In many plant configurations the high pressure pipework is contained in tunnels where it is possible to construct barriers which isolate one section of the plant from another, thereby restricting the spread of the high temperature fluid/air mixture. This paper describes a preliminary experimental investigation of the magnitude of the thrust likely to be exerted on such barriers by a gas jet issuing from the failed pipe. Measurements of the thrust exerted on a flat plate by normal impingement of a highly underexpanded gas jet are in agreement with a semi-quantitative analysis assuming conservation of the axial momentum of the jet. (author)
Terryn, Raymond J.; Sriraman, Krishnan; Olson, Joel A., E-mail: jolson@fit.edu; Baum, J. Clayton, E-mail: cbaum@fit.edu [Department of Chemistry, Florida Institute of Technology, 150 West University Boulevard, Melbourne, Florida 32901 (United States); Novak, Mark J. [Department of Chemistry and Applied Biological Sciences, South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, 501 E. Saint Joseph Street, Rapid City, South Dakota 57701 (United States)
2016-09-15
A new simulator for scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) is presented based on the linear combination of atomic orbitals molecular orbital (LCAO-MO) approximation for the effective tunneling Hamiltonian, which leads to the convolution integral when applied to the tip interaction with the sample. This approach intrinsically includes the structure of the STM tip. Through this mechanical emulation and the tip-inclusive convolution model, dI/dz images for molecular orbitals (which are closely associated with apparent barrier height, ϕ{sub ap}) are reported for the first time. For molecular adsorbates whose experimental topographic images correspond well to isolated-molecule quantum chemistry calculations, the simulator makes accurate predictions, as illustrated by various cases. Distortions in these images due to the tip are shown to be in accord with those observed experimentally and predicted by other ab initio considerations of tip structure. Simulations of the tunneling current dI/dz images are in strong agreement with experiment. The theoretical framework provides a solid foundation which may be applied to LCAO cluster models of adsorbate–substrate systems, and is extendable to emulate several aspects of functional STM operation.
Terryn, Raymond J.; Sriraman, Krishnan; Olson, Joel A.; Baum, J. Clayton; Novak, Mark J.
2016-01-01
A new simulator for scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) is presented based on the linear combination of atomic orbitals molecular orbital (LCAO-MO) approximation for the effective tunneling Hamiltonian, which leads to the convolution integral when applied to the tip interaction with the sample. This approach intrinsically includes the structure of the STM tip. Through this mechanical emulation and the tip-inclusive convolution model, dI/dz images for molecular orbitals (which are closely associated with apparent barrier height, ϕ_a_p) are reported for the first time. For molecular adsorbates whose experimental topographic images correspond well to isolated-molecule quantum chemistry calculations, the simulator makes accurate predictions, as illustrated by various cases. Distortions in these images due to the tip are shown to be in accord with those observed experimentally and predicted by other ab initio considerations of tip structure. Simulations of the tunneling current dI/dz images are in strong agreement with experiment. The theoretical framework provides a solid foundation which may be applied to LCAO cluster models of adsorbate–substrate systems, and is extendable to emulate several aspects of functional STM operation.
Chikako Yoshida
2017-06-01
Full Text Available We have investigated the effects of in-situ post-oxidation (PO of a sputtered MgO barrier in a double-MgO-barrier magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ and found that the short error rate was significantly reduced, the magnetoresistance (MR ratio was increased approximately 18%, and the endurance lifetime was extend. In addition, we found that the distribution of breakdown number (a measure of endurance exhibits trimodal characteristics, which indicates competition between extrinsic and intrinsic failures. This improvement in reliability might be related to the suppression of Fe and Co diffusion to the MgO barrier, as revealed by electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS analysis.
An above-barrier narrow resonance in F-15
Grancey, F.; Mercenne, A.; de Oliveira Santos, F.; Davinson, T.; Sorlin, O.; Angelique, J. C.; Assie, M.; Berthoumieux, E.; Borcea, R.; Buta, A.; Celikovic, I.; Chudoba, V.; Daugas, J. M.; Dumitru, G.; Fadil, M.; Grévy, S.; Kiener, J.; Lefebvre-Schuhl, A.; Michel, N.; Mrázek, Jaromír; Negoita, F.; Okolowicz, J.; Pantelica, D.; Pellegriti, M. G.; Perrot, L.; Ploszajczak, M.; Randisi, G.; Ray, I.; Roig, O.; Rotaru, F.; Saint Laurent, M. G.; Smimova, N.; Stanoiu, M.; Stefan, I.; Stodel, C.; Subotic, K.; Tatischeff, V.; Thomas, J. C.; Ujic, P.; Wolski, R.
2016-01-01
Roč. 758, JUL (2016), s. 26-31 ISSN 0370-2693 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : resonances * elastic proton scattering * lifetimes width * F-15 * unbound states * overbarrier resonance Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.807, year: 2016
Makeev, M. O.; Meshkov, S. A.; Sinyakin, V. Yu
2017-11-01
In the present work the thermal degradation of IV curves of AlAs/GaAs resonant tunneling diodes using artificial aging method was investigated. The dependency of AuGeNi specific ohmic contact resistance on time and temperature was determined.
Observation of a photoinduced, resonant tunneling effect in a carbon nanotube–silicon heterojunction
Carla Aramo
2015-03-01
Full Text Available A significant resonant tunneling effect has been observed under the 2.4 V junction threshold in a large area, carbon nanotube–silicon (CNT–Si heterojunction obtained by growing a continuous layer of multiwall carbon nanotubes on an n-doped silicon substrate. The multiwall carbon nanostructures were grown by a chemical vapor deposition (CVD technique on a 60 nm thick, silicon nitride layer, deposited on an n-type Si substrate. The heterojunction characteristics were intensively studied on different substrates, resulting in high photoresponsivity with a large reverse photocurrent plateau. In this paper, we report on the photoresponsivity characteristics of the device, the heterojunction threshold and the tunnel-like effect observed as a function of applied voltage and excitation wavelength. The experiments are performed in the near-ultraviolet to near-infrared wavelength range. The high conversion efficiency of light radiation into photoelectrons observed with the presented layout allows the device to be used as a large area photodetector with very low, intrinsic dark current and noise.
Jacobs, K. J. P.; Stevens, B. J.; Baba, R.; Wada, O.; Mukai, T.; Hogg, R. A.
2017-10-01
We report valley current characterisation of high current density InGaAs/AlAs/InP resonant tunnelling diodes (RTDs) grown by metal-organic vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE) for THz emission, with a view to investigate the origin of the valley current and optimize device performance. By applying a dual-pass fabrication technique, we are able to measure the RTD I-V characteristic for different perimeter/area ratios, which uniquely allows us to investigate the contribution of leakage current to the valley current and its effect on the PVCR from a single device. Temperature dependent (20 - 300 K) characteristics for a device are critically analysed and the effect of temperature on the maximum extractable power (PMAX) and the negative differential conductance (NDC) of the device is investigated. By performing theoretical modelling, we are able to explore the effect of typical variations in structural composition during the growth process on the tunnelling properties of the device, and hence the device performance.
Resonant tunneling via a Ru–dye complex using a nanoparticle bridge junction
Nishijima, Satoshi; Otsuka, Yoichi; Ohoyama, Hiroshi; Kajimoto, Kentaro; Araki, Kento; Matsumoto, Takuya
2018-06-01
Nonlinear current–voltage (I–V) characteristics is an important property for the realization of information processing in molecular electronics. We studied the electrical conduction through a Ru–dye complex (N-719) on a 2-aminoethanethiol (2-AET) monolayer in a nanoparticle bridge junction system. The nonlinear I–V characteristics exhibited a threshold voltage at around 1.2 V and little temperature dependence. From the calculation of the molecular states using density functional theory and the energy alignment between the electrodes and molecules, the conduction mechanism in this system was considered to be resonant tunneling via the HOMO level of N-719. Our results indicate that the weak electronic coupling of electrodes and molecules is essential for obtaining nonlinear I–V characteristics with a clear threshold voltage that reflect the intrinsic molecular state.
Mistakidis, Simeon; Koutentakis, Georgios; Schmelcher, Peter; Theory Group of Fundamental Processes in Quantum Physics Team
2017-04-01
The non-equilibrium dynamics of small boson ensembles in one-dimensional optical lattices is explored upon a sudden quench of an additional harmonic trap from strong to weak confinement. We find that the competition between the initial localization and the repulsive interaction leads to a resonant response of the system for intermediate quench amplitudes, corresponding to avoided crossings in the many-body eigenspectrum with varying final trap frequency. In particular, we show that these avoided crossings can be utilized to prepare the system in a desired state. The dynamical response is shown to depend on both the interaction strength as well as the number of atoms manifesting the many-body nature of the tunneling dynamics. Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) in the framework of the SFB 925 ``Light induced dynamics and control of correlated quantum systems''.
Wernsdorfer, W.; Ohm, T.; Sangregorio, C.; Sessoli, R.; Mailly, D.; Paulsen, C.
1999-05-01
Below 360 mK, Fe8 magnetic molecular clusters are in the pure quantum relaxation regime and we show that the predicted ``square-root time'' relaxation is obeyed, allowing us to develop a new method for watching the evolution of the distribution of molecular spin states in the sample. We measure as a function of applied field H the statistical distribution P\\(ξH\\) of magnetic energy bias ξH acting on the molecules. Tunneling initially causes rapid transitions of molecules, thereby ``digging a hole'' in P\\(ξH\\) (around the resonant condition ξH = 0). For small initial magnetization values, the hole width shows an intrinsic broadening which may be due to nuclear spins.
Wigner Transport Simulation of Resonant Tunneling Diodes with Auxiliary Quantum Wells
Lee, Joon-Ho; Shin, Mincheol; Byun, Seok-Joo; Kim, Wangki
2018-03-01
Resonant-tunneling diodes (RTDs) with auxiliary quantum wells ( e.g., emitter prewell, subwell, and collector postwell) are studied using a Wigner transport equation (WTE) discretized by a thirdorder upwind differential scheme. A flat-band potential profile is used for the WTE simulation. Our calculations revealed functions of the auxiliary wells as follows: The prewell increases the current density ( J) and the peak voltage ( V p ) while decreasing the peak-to-valley current ratio (PVCR), and the postwell decreases J while increasing the PVCR. The subwell affects J and PVCR, but its main effect is to decrease V p . When multiple auxiliary wells are used, each auxiliary well contributes independently to the transport without producing side effects.
Resonant tunnelling features in a suspended silicon nanowire single-hole transistor
Llobet, Jordi; Pérez-Murano, Francesc, E-mail: francesc.perez@csic.es, E-mail: z.durrani@imperial.ac.uk [Institut de Microelectrònica de Barcelona (IMB-CNM CSIC), Campus UAB, E-08193 Bellaterra, Catalonia (Spain); Krali, Emiljana; Wang, Chen; Jones, Mervyn E.; Durrani, Zahid A. K., E-mail: francesc.perez@csic.es, E-mail: z.durrani@imperial.ac.uk [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Imperial College London, South Kensington, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Arbiol, Jordi [Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA) and Institut Català de Nanociència i Nanotecnologia (ICN2), Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, Catalonia (Spain); CELLS-ALBA Synchrotron Light Facility, 08290 Cerdanyola, Catalonia (Spain)
2015-11-30
Suspended silicon nanowires have significant potential for a broad spectrum of device applications. A suspended p-type Si nanowire incorporating Si nanocrystal quantum dots has been used to form a single-hole transistor. Transistor fabrication uses a novel and rapid process, based on focused gallium ion beam exposure and anisotropic wet etching, generating <10 nm nanocrystals inside suspended Si nanowires. Electrical characteristics at 10 K show Coulomb diamonds with charging energy ∼27 meV, associated with a single dominant nanocrystal. Resonant tunnelling features with energy spacing ∼10 meV are observed, parallel to both diamond edges. These may be associated either with excited states or hole–acoustic phonon interactions, in the nanocrystal. In the latter case, the energy spacing corresponds well with reported Raman spectroscopy results and phonon spectra calculations.
A New XOR Structure Based on Resonant-Tunneling High Electron Mobility Transistor
Mohammad Javad Sharifi
2009-01-01
Full Text Available A new structure for an exclusive-OR (XOR gate based on the resonant-tunneling high electron mobility transistor (RTHEMT is introduced which comprises only an RTHEMT and two FETs. Calculations are done by utilizing a new subcircuit model for simulating the RTHEMT in the SPICE simulator. Details of the design, input, and output values and margins, delay of each transition, maximum operating frequency, static and dynamic power dissipations of the new structure are discussed and calculated and the performance is compared with other XOR gates which confirm that the presented structure has a high performance. Furthermore, to the best of authors' knowledge, it has the least component count in comparison to the existing structures.
Resonant tunnelling features in a suspended silicon nanowire single-hole transistor
Llobet, Jordi; Pérez-Murano, Francesc; Krali, Emiljana; Wang, Chen; Jones, Mervyn E.; Durrani, Zahid A. K.; Arbiol, Jordi
2015-01-01
Suspended silicon nanowires have significant potential for a broad spectrum of device applications. A suspended p-type Si nanowire incorporating Si nanocrystal quantum dots has been used to form a single-hole transistor. Transistor fabrication uses a novel and rapid process, based on focused gallium ion beam exposure and anisotropic wet etching, generating <10 nm nanocrystals inside suspended Si nanowires. Electrical characteristics at 10 K show Coulomb diamonds with charging energy ∼27 meV, associated with a single dominant nanocrystal. Resonant tunnelling features with energy spacing ∼10 meV are observed, parallel to both diamond edges. These may be associated either with excited states or hole–acoustic phonon interactions, in the nanocrystal. In the latter case, the energy spacing corresponds well with reported Raman spectroscopy results and phonon spectra calculations
Takahashi, Hideyuki; Imai, Yoshinori; Maeda, Atsutaka
2016-06-01
We present a design for a tunneling-current-assisted scanning near-field microwave microscope. For stable operation at cryogenic temperatures, making a small and rigid microwave probe is important. Our coaxial resonator probe has a length of approximately 30 mm and can fit inside the 2-in. bore of a superconducting magnet. The probe design includes an insulating joint, which separates DC and microwave signals without degrading the quality factor. By applying the SMM to the imaging of an electrically inhomogeneous superconductor, we obtain the spatial distribution of the microwave response with a spatial resolution of approximately 200 nm. Furthermore, we present an analysis of our SMM probe based on a simple lumped-element circuit model along with the near-field microwave measurements of silicon wafers having different conductivities.
Thermionic cooling devices based on resonant-tunneling AlGaAs/GaAs heterostructure
Bescond, M.; Logoteta, D.; Michelini, F.; Cavassilas, N.; Yan, T.; Yangui, A.; Lannoo, M.; Hirakawa, K.
2018-02-01
We study by means of full quantum simulations the operating principle and performance of a semiconductor heterostructure refrigerator combining resonant tunneling filtering and thermionic emission. Our model takes into account the coupling between the electric and thermal currents by self-consistently solving the transport equations within the non-equilibrium Green’s function framework and the heat equation. We show that the device can achieve relatively high cooling power values, while in the considered implementation, the maximum lattice temperature drop is severely limited by the thermal conductivity of the constituting materials. In such an out-of-equilibrium structure, we then emphasize the significant deviation of the phonon temperature from its electronic counterpart which can vary over several hundred Kelvin. The interplay between those two temperatures and the impact on the electrochemical potential is also discussed. Finally, viable options toward an optimization of the device are proposed.
Resonant tunneling spectroscopy of valley eigenstates on a donor-quantum dot coupled system
Kobayashi, T., E-mail: t.kobayashi@unsw.edu.au; Heijden, J. van der; House, M. G.; Hile, S. J.; Asshoff, P.; Simmons, M. Y.; Rogge, S. [Centre for Quantum Computation and Communication Technology, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052 New South Wales (Australia); Gonzalez-Zalba, M. F. [Hitachi Cambridge Laboratory, J. J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Vinet, M. [Université Grenoble-Alpes and CEA, LETI, MINATEC, 38000 Grenoble (France)
2016-04-11
We report on electronic transport measurements through a silicon double quantum dot consisting of a donor and a quantum dot. Transport spectra show resonant tunneling peaks involving different valley states, which illustrate the valley splitting in a quantum dot on a Si/SiO{sub 2} interface. The detailed gate bias dependence of double dot transport allows a first direct observation of the valley splitting in the quantum dot, which is controllable between 160 and 240 μeV with an electric field dependence 1.2 ± 0.2 meV/(MV/m). A large valley splitting is an essential requirement for implementing a physical electron spin qubit in a silicon quantum dot.
Yaser Hajati
2016-02-01
Full Text Available We study the transport properties in a ferromagnetic/nonmagnetic/ferromagnetic (FNF silicene junction in which an electrostatic gate potential, U, is attached to the nonmagnetic region. We show that the electrostatic gate potential U is a useful probe to control the band structure, quasi-bound states in the nonmagnetic barrier as well as the transport properties of the FNF silicene junction. In particular, by introducing the electrostatic gate potential, both the spin and valley conductances of the junction show an oscillatory behavior. The amplitude and frequency of such oscillations can be controlled by U. As an important result, we found that by increasing U, the second characteristic of the Klein tunneling is satisfied as a result of the quasiparticles chirality which can penetrate through a potential barrier. Moreover, it is found that for special values of U, the junction shows a gap in the spin and valley-resolve conductance and the amplitude of this gap is only controlled by the on-site potential difference, Δz. Our findings of high controllability of the spin and valley transport in such a FNF silicene junction may improve the performance of nano-electronics and spintronics devices.
Frank, A.I.; Bondarenko, I.V.; Balashov, S.N.; Geltenbort, P.; Hoghoj, P.; Kozlov, A.V.; Masalovich, S.V.; Toperverg, B.P.
2004-01-01
With the aim to test experimentally the dispersion law validity for very slow neutrons a spectrum of ultracold neutrons (UCN) under the condition of resonance tunneling through the moving Neutron Interference Filter was investigated. The neutron spectrum in this case has a narrow width resonance, whose parameters depend on the filter characteristics and dispersion law of neutron waves in matter. For a number of samples a noticeable shift of the resonance position when the filter moved parallel to its surface was detected. This shift is in strong contradiction with the commonly accepted dispersion law. Further investigations have shown that the spectrum of tunneling neutrons is not exactly defined by the solution of one-dimensional quantum problem, but substantially affected by neutron scattering from filter imperfections. The cross section of this scattering depends on the neutron wave number and increases dramatically in resonance conditions. Experimental results as well as comprehensive theoretical analysis have led us to the unambiguous conclusion that observed phenomena of the resonance shift in a moving sample are caused by scattering of neutron tunneling states rather than by a deviation from the commonly accepted dispersion law. (author)
Hamzah, Afiq; Ezaila Alias, N.; Ismail, Razali
2018-06-01
The aim of this study is to investigate the memory performances of gate-all-around floating gate (GAA-FG) memory cell implementing engineered tunnel barrier concept of variable oxide thickness (VARIOT) of low-k/high-k for several high-k (i.e., Si3N4, Al2O3, HfO2, and ZrO2) with low-k SiO2 using three-dimensional (3D) simulator Silvaco ATLAS. The simulation work is conducted by initially determining the optimized thickness of low-k/high-k barrier-stacked and extracting their Fowler–Nordheim (FN) coefficients. Based on the optimized parameters the device performances of GAA-FG for fast program operation and data retention are assessed using benchmark set by 6 and 8 nm SiO2 tunnel layer respectively. The programming speed has been improved and wide memory window with 30% increment from conventional SiO2 has been obtained using SiO2/Al2O3 tunnel layer due to its thin low-k dielectric thickness. Furthermore, given its high band edges only 1% of charge-loss is expected after 10 years of ‑3.6/3.6 V gate stress.
Yim, H.I.; Lee, S.Y.; Hwang, J.Y.; Rhee, J.R.; Chun, B.S.; Wang, K.L.; Kim, Y.K.; Kim, T.W.; Lee, S.S.; Hwang, D.G.
2008-01-01
Double-barrier magnetic tunnel junctions (DMTJs) with and without an amorphous ferromagnetic material such as CoFeSiB 10, CoFe 5/CoFeSiB 5, and CoFe 10 (nm) were prepared and compared to investigate the bias voltage dependence of the tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR) ratio. Typical DMTJ structures were Ta 45/Ru 9.5/IrMn 10/CoFe 7/AlO x /free layer 10/AlO x /CoFe 7/IrMn 10/Ru 60 (in nanometers). The interlayer coupling field and the normalized TMR ratios at the applied voltages of +0.4 and -0.4 V of the amorphous CoFeSiB free-layer DMTJ offer lower and higher values than that of the polycrystalline CoFe free-layer DMTJ, respectively. An amorphous ferromagnetic CoFeSiB layer improves the interface roughness of the free layer/tunnel barrier and, as a result, the interlayer coupling field and bias voltage dependence of the TMR ratio are suppressed at a given voltage. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)
Sakurai, Atsunori; Tanimura, Yoshitaka
2014-01-01
The quantum dissipative dynamics of a tunneling process through double barrier structures is investigated on the basis of non-perturbative and non-Markovian treatment. We employ a Caldeira–Leggett Hamiltonian with an effective potential calculated self-consistently, accounting for the electron distribution. With this Hamiltonian, we use the reduced hierarchy equations of motion in the Wigner space representation to study non-Markovian and non-perturbative thermal effects at finite temperature in a rigorous manner. We study current variation in time and the current–voltage (I–V ) relation of the resonant tunneling diode for several widths of the contact region, which consists of doped GaAs. Hysteresis and both single and double plateau-like behavior are observed in the negative differential resistance (NDR) region. While all of the current oscillations decay in time in the NDR region in the case of a strong system–bath coupling, there exist self-excited high-frequency current oscillations in some parts of the plateau in the NDR region in the case of weak coupling. We find that the effective potential in the oscillating case possesses a basin-like form on the emitter side (emitter basin) and that the current oscillation results from tunneling between the emitter basin and the quantum well in the barriers. We find two distinct types of current oscillations, with large and small oscillation amplitudes, respectively. These two types of oscillation appear differently in the Wigner space, with one exhibiting tornado-like motion and the other exhibiting a two piston engine-like motion. (paper)
Cheng, Jian-Yih; Fisher, Brandon L.; Guisinger, Nathan P.; Lilley, Carmen M.
2017-12-01
Providing a spin-free host material in the development of quantum information technology has made silicon a very interesting and desirable material for qubit design. Much of the work and experimental progress has focused on isolated phosphorous atoms. In this article, we report on the exploration of Ni-Si clusters that are atomically manufactured via self-assembly from the bottom-up and behave as isolated quantum dots. These small quantum dot structures are probed at the atomic-scale with scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy, revealing robust resonance through discrete quantized energy levels within the Ni-Si clusters. The resonance energy is reproducible and the peak spacing of the quantum dot structures increases as the number of atoms in the cluster decrease. Probing these quantum dot structures on degenerately doped silicon results in the observation of negative differential resistance in both I-V and dI/dV spectra. At higher surface coverage of nickel, a well-known √19 surface modification is observed and is essentially a tightly packed array of the clusters. Spatial conductance maps reveal variations in the local density of states that suggest the clusters are influencing the electronic properties of their neighbors. All of these results are extremely encouraging towards the utilization of metal modified silicon surfaces to advance or complement existing quantum information technology.
Shen Jianqi; Zeng Ruixi
2017-01-01
Quantum-dot-molecular phase coherence (and the relevant quantum-interference-switchable optical response) can be utilized to control electromagnetic wave propagation via a gate voltage, since quantum-dot molecules can exhibit an effect of quantum coherence (phase coherence) when quantum-dot-molecular discrete multilevel transitions are driven by an electromagnetic wave. Interdot tunneling of carriers (electrons and holes) controlled by the gate voltage can lead to destructive quantum interference in a quantum-dot molecule that is coupled to an incident electromagnetic wave, and gives rise to a quantum coherence effect (e.g., electromagnetically induced transparency, EIT) in a quantum-dot-molecule dielectric film. The tunable on- and off-resonance tunneling effect of an incident electromagnetic wave (probe field) through such a quantum-coherent quantum-dot-molecule dielectric film is investigated. It is found that a high gate voltage can lead to the EIT phenomenon of the quantum-dot-molecular systems. Under the condition of on-resonance light tunneling through the present quantum-dot-molecule dielectric film, the probe field should propagate without loss if the probe frequency detuning is zero. Such an effect caused by both EIT and resonant tunneling, which is sensitive to the gate voltage, can be utilized for designing devices such as photonic switching, transistors, and logic gates. (author)
A one-dimensional model of resonances with a delta barrier and mass jump
Alvarez, J.J.; Gadella, M.; Heras, F.J.H.; Nieto, L.M.
2009-01-01
In this Letter, we present a one-dimensional model that includes a hard core at the origin, a Dirac delta barrier at a point in the positive semiaxis and a mass jump at the same point. We study the effect of this mass jump in the behavior of the resonances of the model. We obtain an infinite number of resonances for this situation, showing that for the case of a mass jump the imaginary part of the resonance poles tend to a fixed value depending on the quotient of masses, and demonstrate that none of these resonances is degenerated.
Resonant enhancement of band-to-band tunneling in in-plane MoS2/WS2 heterojunctions
Kuroda, Tatsuya; Mori, Nobuya
2018-04-01
The band-to-band (BTB) tunneling current J through in-plane MoS2/WS2 heterojunctions is calculated by the nonequilibrium Green function method combined with tight-binding approximation. Types A and B of band configurations are considered. For type-A (type-B) heterojunctions, a potential notch exists (or is absent) at the heterointerface. Both type-A and type-B MoS2/WS2 heterojunctions can support a higher BTB current than MoS2 and WS2 homojunctions. For type-A heterojunctions, the resonant enhancement of J occurs resulting in a significantly higher BTB tunneling current.
Decrease of the tunneling time and violation of the Hartman effect for large barriers
Olkhovsky, V.S.; Zaichenko, A.K.; Petrillo, V.
2004-01-01
The explicit formulation of the initial conditions of the definition of the wave-packet tunneling time is proposed. This formulation takes adequately into account the irreversibility of the wave-packet space-time spreading. Moreover, it explains the violations of the Hartman effect, leading to a strong decrease of the tunneling times up to negative values for wave packets with large momentum spreads due to strong wave-packet time spreading
Contact induced spin relaxation in graphene spin valves with Al2O3 and MgO tunnel barriers
Walid Amamou
2016-03-01
Full Text Available We investigate spin relaxation in graphene by systematically comparing the roles of spin absorption, other contact-induced effects (e.g., fringe fields, and bulk spin relaxation for graphene spin valves with MgO barriers, Al2O3 barriers, and transparent contacts. We obtain effective spin lifetimes by fitting the Hanle spin precession data with two models that include or exclude the effect of spin absorption. Results indicate that additional contact-induced spin relaxation other than spin absorption dominates the contact effect. For tunneling contacts, we find reasonable agreement between the two models with median discrepancy of ∼20% for MgO and ∼10% for Al2O3.
Lin, Che-Yu; Zhu, Xiaodan; Tsai, Shin-Hung; Tsai, Shiao-Po; Lei, Sidong; Li, Ming-Yang; Shi, Yumeng; Li, Lain-Jong; Huang, Shyh-Jer; Wu, Wen-Fa; Yeh, Wen-Kuan; Su, Yan-Kuin; Wang, Kang L.; Lan, Yann-Wen
2017-01-01
High-frequency operation with ultra-thin, lightweight and extremely flexible semiconducting electronics are highly desirable for the development of mobile devices, wearable electronic systems and defense technologies. In this work, the first experimental observation of quasi-heterojunction bipolar transistors utilizing a monolayer of the lateral WSe2-MoS2 junctions as the conducting p-n channel is demonstrated. Both lateral n-p-n and p-n-p heterojunction bipolar transistors are fabricated to exhibit the output characteristics and current gain. A maximum common-emitter current gain of around 3 is obtained in our prototype two-dimensional quasi-heterojunction bipolar transistors. Interestingly, we also observe the negative differential resistance in the electrical characteristics. A potential mechanism is that the negative differential resistance is induced by resonant tunneling phenomenon due to the formation of quantum well under applying high bias voltages. Our results open the door to two-dimensional materials for high-frequency, high-speed, high-density and flexible electronics.
Resonant optical tunneling-induced enhancement of the photonic spin Hall effect
Jiang, Xing; Wang, Qingkai; Guo, Jun; Zhang, Jin; Chen, Shuqing; Dai, Xiaoyu; Xiang, Yuanjiang
2018-04-01
Due to the quantum analogy with optics, the resonant optical tunneling effect (ROTE) has been proposed to investigate both the fundamental physics and the practical applications of optical switches and liquid refractive index sensors. In this paper, the ROTE is used to enhance the spin Hall effect (SHE) of transmitted light. It is demonstrated that sandwiching a layer of a high-refractive-index medium (boron nitride crystal) between two low-refractive-index layers (silica) can effectively enhance the photonic SHE due to the increased refractive index gradient and an enhanced evanescent field near the interface between silica and boron nitride. A maximum transverse shift of the horizontal polarization state in the ROTE structure of about 22.25 µm has been obtained, which is at least three orders of magnitude greater than the transverse shift in the frustrated total internal reflection structure. Moreover, the SHE can be manipulated by controlling the component materials and the thickness of the ROTE structure. These findings open the possibility for future applications of photonic SHE in precision metrology and spin-based photonics.
A novel micro-accelerometer with adjustable sensitivity based on resonant tunnelling diodes
Ji-Jun, Xiong; Wen-Dong, Zhang; Kai-Qun, Wang; Hai-Yang, Mao
2009-01-01
Resonant tunnelling diodes (RTDs) have negative differential resistance effect, and the current-voltage characteristics change as a function of external stress, which is regarded as meso-piezoresistance effect of RTDs. In this paper, a novel micro-accelerometer based on AlAs/GaAs/In 0.1 Ga 0.9 As/GaAs/AlAs RTDs is designed and fabricated to be a four-beam-mass structure, and an RTD-Wheatstone bridge measurement system is established to test the basic properties of this novel accelerometer. According to the experimental results, the sensitivity of the RTD based micro-accelerometer is adjustable within a range of 3 orders when the bias voltage of the sensor changes. The largest sensitivity of this RTD based micro-accelerometer is 560.2025 mV/g which is about 10 times larger than that of silicon based micro piezoresistive accelerometer, while the smallest one is 1.49135 mV/g. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)
Lin, Che-Yu
2017-10-04
High-frequency operation with ultra-thin, lightweight and extremely flexible semiconducting electronics are highly desirable for the development of mobile devices, wearable electronic systems and defense technologies. In this work, the first experimental observation of quasi-heterojunction bipolar transistors utilizing a monolayer of the lateral WSe2-MoS2 junctions as the conducting p-n channel is demonstrated. Both lateral n-p-n and p-n-p heterojunction bipolar transistors are fabricated to exhibit the output characteristics and current gain. A maximum common-emitter current gain of around 3 is obtained in our prototype two-dimensional quasi-heterojunction bipolar transistors. Interestingly, we also observe the negative differential resistance in the electrical characteristics. A potential mechanism is that the negative differential resistance is induced by resonant tunneling phenomenon due to the formation of quantum well under applying high bias voltages. Our results open the door to two-dimensional materials for high-frequency, high-speed, high-density and flexible electronics.
Resonant tunneling diodes as energy-selective contacts used in hot-carrier solar cells
Takeda, Yasuhiko; Sugimoto, Noriaki; Ichiki, Akihisa; Kusano, Yuya; Motohiro, Tomoyoshi
2015-01-01
Among the four features unique to hot-carrier solar cells (HC-SCs): (i) carrier thermalization time and (ii) carrier equilibration time in the absorber, (iii) energy-selection width and (iv) conductance of the energy-selective contacts (ESCs), requisites of (i)-(iii) for high conversion efficiency have been clarified. We have tackled the remaining issues related to (iv) in the present study. The detailed balance model of HC-SC operation has been improved to involve a finite value of the ESC conductance to find the required values, which in turn has been revealed to be feasible using resonant tunneling diodes (RTDs) consisting of semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) and quantum wells (QWs) by means of a formulation to calculate the conductance of the QD- and QW-RTDs derived using the rigorous solutions of the effective-mass Hamiltonians. Thus, all of the four requisites unique to HC-SCs to achieve high conversion efficiency have been elucidated, and the two requisites related to the ESCs can be fulfilled using the QD- and QW-RTDs
Resonant tunneling diodes as energy-selective contacts used in hot-carrier solar cells
Takeda, Yasuhiko, E-mail: takeda@mosk.tytlabs.co.jp; Sugimoto, Noriaki [Toyota Central Research and Development Laboratories, Inc., 41-1, Yokomichi, Nagakute, Aichi 480-1192 (Japan); Ichiki, Akihisa [Green Mobility Collaborative Research Center, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan); Kusano, Yuya [Green Mobility Collaborative Research Center, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan); Toyota Motor Corp., 1200 Mishuku, Susono, Shizuoka 410-1193 (Japan); Motohiro, Tomoyoshi [Toyota Central Research and Development Laboratories, Inc., 41-1, Yokomichi, Nagakute, Aichi 480-1192 (Japan); Green Mobility Collaborative Research Center, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan); Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan)
2015-09-28
Among the four features unique to hot-carrier solar cells (HC-SCs): (i) carrier thermalization time and (ii) carrier equilibration time in the absorber, (iii) energy-selection width and (iv) conductance of the energy-selective contacts (ESCs), requisites of (i)-(iii) for high conversion efficiency have been clarified. We have tackled the remaining issues related to (iv) in the present study. The detailed balance model of HC-SC operation has been improved to involve a finite value of the ESC conductance to find the required values, which in turn has been revealed to be feasible using resonant tunneling diodes (RTDs) consisting of semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) and quantum wells (QWs) by means of a formulation to calculate the conductance of the QD- and QW-RTDs derived using the rigorous solutions of the effective-mass Hamiltonians. Thus, all of the four requisites unique to HC-SCs to achieve high conversion efficiency have been elucidated, and the two requisites related to the ESCs can be fulfilled using the QD- and QW-RTDs.
Pedersen, N.F.; Soerensen, O.H.; Mygind, J.
1978-01-01
The microwave response at 9 GHz of Sn-O-Sn tunnel-junction current biased at zero dc voltage has been measured just below the critical temperature T/sub c/ of the Sn films. The temperature dependence of the cosphi conductance is determined from the resonant response at the junction plasma frequency f/sub p/ as the temperature is decreased from T/sub c/. We used three different schemes for observation of the plasma oscillations: (a) second-harmonic generation (excitation at approx. 4.5 GHz, f/sub p/ approx. 4.5 GHz); (b) mixing (excitations at approx. 9 and approx. 18 GHz, f/sub p/ approx. 9 GHz); (c) parametric half-harmonic oscillation (excitation at approx. 18 GHz, f/sub p/ approx. 9 GHz). Measurements were possible in two temperature intervals; 0.994 or = T/T/sub c/ > or = 0.930, with the result that as the temperature was decreased the cosphi amplitude first increased from about zero to positive values and then at lower temperatures decreased approaching -1 at the lowest temperatures of the experiment
Two-Element Tapered Slot Antenna Array for Terahertz Resonant Tunneling Diode Oscillators
Jianxiong Li
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Two-element tapered slot antenna (TSA array for terahertz (THz resonant tunneling diode (RTD oscillators is proposed in this paper. The proposed TSA array has the advantages of both the high directivity and high gain at the horizontal direction and hence can facilitate the horizontal communication between the RTD oscillators and other integrated circuit chips. A MIM (metal-insulator-metal stub with a T-shaped slot is used to reduce the mutual coupling between the TSA elements. The validity and feasibility of the proposed TSA array have been simulated and analyzed by the ANSYS/ANSOFT’s High Frequency Structure Simulator (HFSS. Detailed modeling approaches and theoretical analysis of the proposed TSA array have been fully addressed. The simulation results show that the mutual coupling between the TSA elements is reduced below −40 dB. Furthermore, at 500 GHz, the directivity, the gain, and the half power beam width (HPBW at the E-plane of the proposed TSA array are 12.18 dB, 13.09 dB, and 61°, respectively. The proposed analytical method and achieved performance are very promising for the antenna array integrated with the RTD oscillators at the THz frequency and could pave the way to the design of the THz antenna array for the RTD oscillators.
Liu, C.; Boyko, Y.; Geppert, C. C.; Christie, K. D.; Stecklein, G.; Crowell, P. A., E-mail: crowell@physics.umn.edu [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States); Patel, S. J. [Department of Materials, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Palmstrøm, C. J. [Department of Materials, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)
2014-11-24
We observe a dc voltage peak at ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) in samples consisting of a single ferromagnetic (FM) layer grown epitaxially on the n-GaAs (001) surface. The FMR peak is detected as an interfacial voltage with a symmetric line shape and is present in samples based on various FM/n-GaAs heterostructures, including Co{sub 2}MnSi/n-GaAs, Co{sub 2}FeSi/n-GaAs, and Fe/n-GaAs. We show that the interface bias voltage dependence of the FMR signal is identical to that of the tunneling anisotropic magnetoresistance (TAMR) over most of the bias range. Furthermore, we show how the precessing magnetization yields a dc FMR signal through the TAMR effect and how the TAMR phenomenon can be used to predict the angular dependence of the FMR signal. This TAMR-induced FMR peak can be observed under conditions where no spin accumulation is present and no spin-polarized current flows in the semiconductor.
Lin, Che-Yu; Zhu, Xiaodan; Tsai, Shin-Hung; Tsai, Shiao-Po; Lei, Sidong; Shi, Yumeng; Li, Lain-Jong; Huang, Shyh-Jer; Wu, Wen-Fa; Yeh, Wen-Kuan; Su, Yan-Kuin; Wang, Kang L; Lan, Yann-Wen
2017-11-28
High-frequency operation with ultrathin, lightweight, and extremely flexible semiconducting electronics is highly desirable for the development of mobile devices, wearable electronic systems, and defense technologies. In this work, the experimental observation of quasi-heterojunction bipolar transistors utilizing a monolayer of the lateral WSe 2 -MoS 2 junctions as the conducting p-n channel is demonstrated. Both lateral n-p-n and p-n-p heterojunction bipolar transistors are fabricated to exhibit the output characteristics and current gain. A maximum common-emitter current gain of around 3 is obtained in our prototype two-dimensional quasi-heterojunction bipolar transistors. Interestingly, we also observe the negative differential resistance in the electrical characteristics. A potential mechanism is that the negative differential resistance is induced by resonant tunneling phenomenon due to the formation of quantum well under applying high bias voltages. Our results open the door to two-dimensional materials for high-frequency, high-speed, high-density, and flexible electronics.
A Simplified Analytical Technique for High Frequency Characterization of Resonant Tunneling Diode
DESSOUKI, A. A. S.
2014-11-01
Full Text Available his paper proposes a simplified analytical technique for high frequency characterization of the resonant tunneling diode (RTD. An equivalent circuit of the RTD that consists of a parallel combination of conductance, G (V, f, and capacitance, C (V, f is formulated. The proposed approach uses the measured DC current versus voltage characteristic of the RTD to extract the equivalent circuit elements parameters in the entire bias range. Using the proposed analytical technique, the frequency response - including the high frequency range - of many characteristic aspects of the RTD is investigated. Also, the maximum oscillation frequency of the RTD is calculated. The results obtained have been compared with those concluded and reported in the literature. The reported results in literature were obtained through simulation of the RTD at high frequency using either a computationally complicated quantum simulator or through difficult RF measurements. A similar pattern of results and highly concordant conclusion are obtained. The proposed analytical technique is simple, correct, and appropriate to investigate the behavior of the RTD at high frequency. In addition, the proposed technique can be easily incorporated into SPICE program to simulate circuits containing RTD.
Ren Cheng; Cheng Li-Feng; Kang Feng; Gan Lin; Zhang Dao-Zhong; Li Zhi-Yuan
2012-01-01
We have designed and fabricated two types of two-port resonant tunneling filters with a triangular air-hole lattice in two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs. In order to improve the filtering efficiency, a feedback method is introduced by closing the waveguide. It is found that the relative position between the closed waveguide boundary and the resonator has an important impact on the dropping efficiency. Based on our analyses, two different types of filters are designed. The transmission spectra and scattering-light far-field patterns are measured, which agree well with theoretical prediction. In addition, the resonant filters are highly sensitive to the size of the resonant cavities, which are useful for practical applications
The Over-Barrier Resonant States and Multi-Channel Scattering in Multiple Quantum Wells
A Polupanov
2016-09-01
Full Text Available We demonstrate an explicit numerical method for accurate calculation of the scattering matrix and its poles, and apply this method to describe the multi-channel scattering in the multiple quantum-wells structures. The S-matrix is continued analytically to the unphysical region of complex energy values. Results of calculations show that there exist one or more S-matrix poles, corresponding to the over-barrier resonant states critical for the effect of the absolute reflection of holes in the energy range where only the heavy ones may propagate over barriers in a structure. Light- and heavy-hole states are described by the Luttinger Hamiltonian matrix. In contrast to the single quantum-well case, at some parameters of a multiple quantum-wells structure the number of S-matrix poles may exceed that of the absolute reflection peaks, and at different values of parameters the absolute reflection peak corresponds to different resonant states. The imaginary parts of the S-matrix poles and hence the lifetimes of resonant states as well as the widths of resonant peaks of absolute reflection depend drastically on the quantum-well potential depth. In the case of shallow quantum wells there is in fact a long-living over-barrier resonant hole state.
Dissipative tunneling through a potential barrier in the Lindblad theory of open quantum systems
Isar, A.
2000-01-01
In the Lindblad theory for open quantum systems, and analytical expression of the tunneling probability through an inverted parabola is obtained. This probability depends on the environment coefficient and increase with the dissipation and the temperature of the thermal bath. (author)
Ikeda, Jun
2003-01-01
The etiology of idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome has not been clarified. A cross sectional area of carpal tunnel, flexor tendons, median nerve, and thickness of transverse carpal ligament were evaluated by MRI. Twenty-six patients who were electrophysiologically diagnosed with idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome were tested by MRI. All patients were females; the mean age was sixty-four years old. The cross sectional area of carpal tunnel, the median nerve area, the area of the flexor tendons and its synovium in carpal tunnel, and thickness of the transverse carpal ligament were calculated. The following are of a seuere type carpal tunnel syndrome: Mean area of the flexor tendons and its synovium in carpal tunnel, 110.5±25.5 mm 2 (control group; 79.3±13.8 mm 2 ); ratio of flexor tendons and its synovium area to carpal tunnel area, 51.6±8.8% (control; 40.5±2.3%); and thickness of the transverse carpal ligament, 3.3±0.4 mm (control; 2.4±0.4 mm). These mean areas in severe carpal tunnel syndrome were significantly greater than those in mild type (p<0.05 or p<0.01). From the viewpoint of this result, it is possible that tenosynovitis is strongly to the etiology of idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome. In other words, synovium edema causes chronic high pressure environment in carpal tunnel. Moreover, we classified these MRI findings into the following subgroups: enlargement of cross sectional area of flexor tendon and its synovia (n=8; 25.8%), thickened transverse carpal ligament (n=11; 35.5%), and combined type (n=7; 22.6%). This classification by MRI imaging was related to a clinical course and electro-physiologic severity. The present study suggests that to evaluate the cross sectional, area of an MRI image is useful for diagnosis and cure of idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome. (author)
Lobenhofer, Michael
2013-01-28
Within the scope of this thesis the TAMR-effect in magnetic tunnel junctions with a single-crystalline GaAs-barrier was investigated. As ferromagnetic electrodes Fe-, FeCo- and FePt-layers were used. The measured TAMR-effect was investigated with respect to its behaviour towards changes in external Parameters, like the applied voltage, the temperature and the external magnetic field. The physical origin of the effect was attributed to the interaction of Rashba- and Dresselhaus-Spin-Orbit-coupling inside the tunnelling barrier and at the metal/semiconductor-interfaces.
Akushichi, T.; Shuto, Y.; Sugahara, S.; Takamura, Y.
2015-01-01
We investigate spin injection into Si channels using three-terminal spin-accumulation (3T-SA) devices with high-quality CoFe/MgO/n-Si and CoFe/AlO x /n-Si tunnel spin-injectors whose tunnel barriers are formed by radical oxidation of Mg and Al thin films deposited on Si(100) substrates and successive annealing under radical-oxygen exposure. When the MgO and AlO x barriers are not treated by the radical-oxygen annealing, the Hanle-effect signals obtained from the 3T-SA devices are closely fitted by a single Lorentz function representing a signal due to trap spins. On the other hand, when the tunnel barriers are annealed under radical-oxygen exposure, the Hanle-effect signals can be accurately fitted by the superposition of a Lorentz function and a non-Lorentz function representing a signal due to accumulated spins in the Si channel. These results suggest that the quality improvement of tunnel barriers treated by radical-oxygen annealing is highly effective for spin-injection into Si channels
The dynamical conductance of graphene tunnelling structures
Zhang Huan; Chan, K S; Lin Zijing
2011-01-01
The dynamical conductances of graphene tunnelling structures were numerically calculated using the scattering matrix method with the interaction effect included in a phenomenological approach. The overall single-barrier dynamical conductance is capacitative. Transmission resonances in the single-barrier structure lead to dips in the capacitative imaginary part of the response. This is different from the ac responses of typical semiconductor nanostructures, where transmission resonances usually lead to inductive peaks. The features of the dips depend on the Fermi energy. When the Fermi energy is below half of the barrier height, the dips are sharper. When the Fermi energy is higher than half of the barrier height, the dips are broader. Inductive behaviours can be observed in a double-barrier structure due to the resonances formed by reflection between the two barriers.
The dynamical conductance of graphene tunnelling structures.
Zhang, Huan; Chan, K S; Lin, Zijing
2011-12-16
The dynamical conductances of graphene tunnelling structures were numerically calculated using the scattering matrix method with the interaction effect included in a phenomenological approach. The overall single-barrier dynamical conductance is capacitative. Transmission resonances in the single-barrier structure lead to dips in the capacitative imaginary part of the response. This is different from the ac responses of typical semiconductor nanostructures, where transmission resonances usually lead to inductive peaks. The features of the dips depend on the Fermi energy. When the Fermi energy is below half of the barrier height, the dips are sharper. When the Fermi energy is higher than half of the barrier height, the dips are broader. Inductive behaviours can be observed in a double-barrier structure due to the resonances formed by reflection between the two barriers.
Grishakov, K. S., E-mail: ksgrishakov@yahoo.com; Elesin, V. F. [National Research Nuclear University “MEPhI” (Russian Federation)
2016-08-15
A numerical solution to the problem of transient processes in a resonant tunneling diode featuring a current–voltage characteristic with hysteresis is found for the first time in the context of a coherent model (based on the coupled Schrödinger and Poisson equations) taking into account the Fermi distribution of electrons. The transitions from the high-current to the low-current state and vice versa, which result from the existence of hysteresis and are of great practical importance for ultrafast switches based on resonant tunneling diodes, are studied in detail. It is shown that the transition times for such processes initiated by the application of a small voltage can significantly exceed the characteristic time ℏ/Γ (where G is the width of the resonance level). It is established for the first time that the transition time can be reduced and made as short as the characteristic time ℏ/Γ by applying a sufficiently high voltage. For the parameters of the resonant-tunnelingdiode structure considered in this study, the required voltage is about 0.01 V.
Karavosov, R. K.; Prozorov, A. G.
2012-01-01
We have investigated the spectra of pressure pulsations in the near field of the open working section of the wind tunnel with a vortex flow behind the tunnel blower formed like the flow behind the hydroturbine of a hydraulic power plant. We have made a comparison between the measurement data for pressure pulsations and the air stream velocity in tunnels of the above type and in tunnels in which a large-scale vortex structure behind the blower is not formed. It has been established that the large-scale vortex formation in the incompressible medium behind the blade system in the wind tunnel is a source of narrow-band acoustic radiation capable of exciting resonance self-oscillations in the tunnel channel.
Mitsuoka, Shigenori; Tamura, Akira
2011-01-01
Assuming that an electron confined by double δ-function barriers lies in a quasi-stationary state, we derived eigenstates and eigenenergies of the electron. Such an electron has a complex eigenenergy, and the imaginary part naturally leads to the lifetime of the electron associated with tunneling through barriers. We applied this point of view to the electron confined in a rectangular quantum corral (QC) on a noble metal surface, and obtained scanning tunneling microscopic images and a scanning tunneling spectrum consistent with experimental ones. We investigated the electron states confined in coupled QCs and obtained the coupled states constructed with bonding and anti-bonding states. Using those energy levels and wavefunctions we specified scanning tunneling microscope (STM) images and scanning tunneling spectra (STS) for the doubly and triply coupled QCs. In addition we pointed out the feature of resonant electron states associated with the same QCs at both ends of the triply coupled QCs.
Spin filtering through ferromagnetic BiMn O3 tunnel barriers
Gajek, M.; Bibes, M.; Barthélémy, A.; Bouzehouane, K.; Fusil, S.; Varela, M.; Fontcuberta, J.; Fert, A.
2005-07-01
We report on experiments of spin filtering through ultrathin single-crystal layers of the insulating and ferromagnetic oxide BiMnO3 (BMO). The spin polarization of the electrons tunneling from a gold electrode through BMO is analyzed with a counterelectrode of the half-metallic oxide La2/3Sr1/3MnO3 (LSMO). At 3K we find a 50% change of the tunnel resistances according to whether the magnetizations of BMO and LSMO are parallel or opposite. This effect corresponds to a spin-filtering efficiency of up to 22%. Our results thus show the potential of complex ferromagnetic insulating oxides for spin filtering and injection.
The time analysis of multiple internal reflections in tunneling description through the barrier
Ol'khovskij, V.S.; Majdanyuk, S.P.
2000-01-01
The problem of scattering of a nonrelativistic particle on a nucleus is considered, the interaction potential between which has a spherically symmetrical view. As the further development of the time analysis of processes of tunneling the non-stationary method of the solution of a problem is represented, due to which begins the possibility to describe in a time dependence the propagation (tunneling) of a particle and in details to study this process in an interesting instant or concerning a concrete point of space. At calculating the time parameters the method has shown itself simple and convenient. At finding the expressions for stationary wave functions for problems with an interaction potential, which radial part has more composite view than rectangular, this method is more effective than reference stationary approaches
Tebbutt, J. A.; Vahdati, M.; Carolan, D.; Dear, J. P.
2017-07-01
Previous research has proposed that an array of Helmholtz resonators may be an effective method for suppressing the propagation of pressure and sound waves, generated by a high-speed train entering and moving in a tunnel. The array can be used to counteract environmental noise from tunnel portals and also the emergence of a shock wave in the tunnel. The implementation of an array of Helmholtz resonators in current and future high-speed train-tunnel systems is studied. Wave propagation in the tunnel is modelled using a quasi-one-dimensional formulation, accounting for non-linear effects, wall friction and the diffusivity of sound. A multi-objective genetic algorithm is then used to optimise the design of the array, subject to the geometric constraints of a demonstrative tunnel system and the incident wavefront in order to attenuate the propagation of pressure waves. It is shown that an array of Helmholtz resonators can be an effective countermeasure for various tunnel lengths. In addition, the array can be designed to function effectively over a wide operating envelope, ensuring it will still function effectively as train speeds increase into the future.
Nabila, Ezra; Noor, Fatimah A.; Khairurrijal
2017-07-01
In this study, we report an analytical calculation of electron transmittance and polarized tunneling current in a single barrier heterostructure of a metal-GaSb-metal by considering the Dresselhaus spin orbit effect. Exponential function, WKB method and Airy function were used in calculating the electron transmittance and tunneling current. A Transfer Matrix Method, as a numerical method, was utilized as the benchmark to evaluate the analytical calculation. It was found that the transmittances calculated under exponential function and Airy function is the same as that calculated under TMM method at low electron energy. However, at high electron energy only the transmittance calculated under Airy function approach is the same as that calculated under TMM method. It was also shown that the transmittances both of spin-up and spin-down conditions increase as the electron energy increases for low energies. Furthermore, the tunneling current decreases with increasing the barrier width.
Impurity-induced tuning of quantum-well States in spin-dependent resonant tunneling.
Kalitsov, Alan; Coho, A; Kioussis, Nicholas; Vedyayev, Anatoly; Chshiev, M; Granovsky, A
2004-07-23
We report exact model calculations of the spin-dependent tunneling in double magnetic tunnel junctions in the presence of impurities in the well. We show that the impurity can tune selectively the spin channels giving rise to a wide variety of interesting and novel transport phenomena. The tunneling magnetoresistance, the spin polarization, and the local current can be dramatically enhanced or suppressed by impurities. The underlying mechanism is the impurity-induced shift of the quantum well states (QWSs), which depends on the impurity potential, impurity position, and the symmetry of the QWS. Copyright 2004 The American Physical Society
Gunnarsson, D.; Moren, L.; Sellin, P; Keto, P.
2007-09-01
The main objectives of this report are to: (1) present density criteria considering deposition tunnels for the investigated backfill materials, (2) evaluate what densities can be achieved with the suggested backfill methods, (3) compare the density criteria to achievable densities, (4) based on this comparison evaluate the safety margin for the combinations of backfill materials and methods and, (5) make recommendations for further investigations and development work. The backfilling methods considered in this report are compaction of backfill material in situ in the tunnel and placement of pre-compacted blocks and pellets. The materials investigated in the second phase of the SKB-Posiva backfilling programme can be divided into three main categories: (1) Bentonite clays: two high-grade Na-bentonites from Wyoming (MX-80 and SPV200), one low-grade bentonite from Kutch (India Asha 2 0), and one high- and one low-grade Ca-bentonite from Milos (Deponite CA-N and Milos backfill). The highgrade bentonites are used in different bentonite-ballast mixtures. (2) Smectite-rich mixed-layer clays: one from Dnesice-Plzensko Jih (DPJ) located in the Czech Republic and one from Northern Germany (Friedland clay). (3) Mixtures of bentonite and ballast: Mixtures consisting of high-grade bentonite (30, 40 and 50 w-%) and crushed rock with different type of grain size distribution or sand. The general conclusion from the comparison between estimated achievable densities and the density criteria is that placing pre-compacted blocks of swelling clay or 50/50 mixture and pellets in the tunnel results in the highest safety margin. (orig.)
Localization effects in the tunnel barriers of phosphorus-doped silicon quantum dots
T. Ferrus
2012-06-01
Full Text Available We have observed a negative differential conductance with singular gate and source-drain bias dependences in a phosphorus-doped silicon quantum dot. Its origin is discussed within the framework of weak localization. By measuring the current-voltage characteristics at different temperatures as well as simulating the tunneling rates dependences on energy, we demonstrate that the presence of shallow energy defects together with an enhancement of localization satisfactory explain our observations. Effects observed in magnetic fields are also discussed.
Esmaeili, A. M.; Useinov, A. N.; Useinov, N. Kh.
2018-01-01
Dependences of the tunnel magnetoresistance and in-plane component of the spin transfer torque on the applied voltage in a magnetic tunnel junction have been calculated in the approximation of ballistic transport of conduction electrons through an insulating layer with embedded magnetic or nonmagnetic nanoparticles. A single-barrier magnetic tunnel junction with a nanoparticle embedded in an insulator forms a double-barrier magnetic tunnel junction. It has been shown that the in-plane component of the spin transfer torque in the double-barrier magnetic tunnel junction can be higher than that in the single-barrier one at the same thickness of the insulating layer. The calculations show that nanoparticles embedded in the tunnel junction increase the probability of tunneling of electrons, create resonance conditions, and ensure the quantization of the conductance in contrast to the tunnel junction without nanoparticles. The calculated dependences of the tunnel magnetoresistance correspond to experimental data demonstrating peak anomalies and suppression of the maximum magnetoresistances at low voltages.
Klofai, Yerima; Essimbi, B Z; Jaeger, D
2011-01-01
Pulse propagation on high-frequency dissipative nonlinear transmission lines (NLTLs)/resonant tunneling diode line cascaded maps is investigated for long-distance propagation of short pulses. Applying perturbative analysis, we show that the dynamics of each line is reduced to an expanded Korteweg-de Vries-Burgers equation. Moreover, it is found by computer experiments that the soliton developed in NLTLs experiences an exponential amplitude decay on the one hand and an exponential amplitude growth on the other. As a result, the behavior of a pulse in special electrical networks made of concatenated pieces of lines is closely similar to the transmission of information in optical/electrical communication systems.
Girón-Sedas, J. A. [Departamento de Física, Universidad del Valle, AA 25360, Cali (Colombia); Centro de Investigación e Innovación en Bioinformática y Fotónica - CIBioFI, AA 25360 Cali (Colombia); Mejía-Salazar, J. R., E-mail: jrmejia3146@gmail.com [Instituto de Física de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo, CP 369, 13560-970 São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Moncada-Villa, E.; Porras-Montenegro, N. [Departamento de Física, Universidad del Valle, AA 25360, Cali (Colombia)
2016-07-18
We propose a way to enhance the transverse magneto-optical Kerr effect, by the excitation of resonant tunneling modes, in subwavelength trilayer structures featuring a dielectric slab sandwiched between two magneto-optical metallic layers. Depending on the magneto-optical layer widths, the proposed system may exhibit an extraordinary transverse magneto-optical Kerr effect, which makes it very attractive for the design and engineering of thin-film magneto-optical-based devices for future photonic circuits or fiber optical-communication systems.
Adrian, H.
1981-01-01
The influence of crystal defects on the phonon spectra was studied for fcc lead using superconducting tunneling spectroscopy. The theory predicts low frequency modes for the vibrational states of interstitials in (100) dumbbell configuration. Low temperature irradiation of superconducting point contacts with fast ions (point contact thickness small compared to the average ion range) showed radiation-induced structures in the low-energy part of the Eliashberg function for lead. These resonant modes are reduced by annealing at 18.5 K; they are attributed to small interstitial clusters. The radiation-induced structures are completely removed by room temperature annealing. (orig.)
Klofai, Yerima [Department of Physics, Higher Teacher Training College, University of Maroua, PO Box 46 Maroua (Cameroon); Essimbi, B Z [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Yaounde 1, PO Box 812 Yaounde (Cameroon); Jaeger, D, E-mail: bessimb@yahoo.fr [ZHO, Optoelectronik, Universitaet Duisburg-Essen, D-47048 Duisburg (Germany)
2011-10-15
Pulse propagation on high-frequency dissipative nonlinear transmission lines (NLTLs)/resonant tunneling diode line cascaded maps is investigated for long-distance propagation of short pulses. Applying perturbative analysis, we show that the dynamics of each line is reduced to an expanded Korteweg-de Vries-Burgers equation. Moreover, it is found by computer experiments that the soliton developed in NLTLs experiences an exponential amplitude decay on the one hand and an exponential amplitude growth on the other. As a result, the behavior of a pulse in special electrical networks made of concatenated pieces of lines is closely similar to the transmission of information in optical/electrical communication systems.
Nano-structured Fabry–Pérot resonators in neutron optics and tunneling of neutron wave-particles
Maaza, M.; Hamidi, D.
2012-01-01
Correlated to the quantum mechanics wave-particle duality, the optical analogy between electromagnetic waves and cold neutrons manifests itself through several interference phenomena particularly the so called Frustrated Total Reflection i.e., the tunneling process in Fabry–Pérot nano-structured cavities. Prominent resonant situations offered by this configuration allow the attainment of numerous fundamental investigations and surface-interface studies as well as to devise new kinds of neutron optics devices. This review contribution reports such possibilities in addition to the recently observed peculiar Goos–Hänchen longitudinal shift of neutron wave-particles which was predicted by Sir Isaac Newton as early as 1730.
Jun He
2012-03-01
Full Text Available By means of the nonequilibrium Green's functions and the density functional theory, we have investigated the electronic transport properties of C60 based electronic device with different intermolecular interactions. It is found that the electronic transport properties vary with the types of the interaction between two C60 molecules. A fast electrical switching behavior based on negative differential resistance has been found when two molecules are coupled by the weak π − π interaction. Compared to the solid bonding, the weak interaction is found to induce resonant tunneling, which is responsible for the fast response to the applied electric field and hence the velocity of switching.
ECRH [electron-cyclotron resonance heating]-heated distributions in thermal-barrier tandem mirrors
Cohen, R.H.; LoDestro, L.L.
1987-01-01
The distribution function is calculated for electrons subjected to strong electron-cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) at the plug and barrier in a tandem-mirror thermal-barrier cell. When ECRH diffusion locally dominates over collisions and a boundary condition (associated with electrons passing to the center cell) imposes variations on the distribution function rapid compared to the variation of the ECRH and collisional diffusion coefficients, the kinetic equation can be reduced approximately to Laplace's equation. For the typical case where velocity space is divided into distinct regions in which plug and barrier ECRH dominate, the solution in each region can be expressed in terms of the plasma dispersion function or exponential integrals, according to whether the passing electrons are dominated by collisions or ECRH, respectively. The analytic results agree well with Fokker-Planck code results, in terms of both velocity-space structure and values of moments. 10 refs., 4 figs
The over-barrier resonant states and multi-channel scattering by a quantum well
Alexander F. Polupanov
2008-06-01
Full Text Available We demonstrate an explicit numerical method for accurate calculation ofthe analytic continuation of the scattering matrix, describing the multichannelscattering by a quantum well, to the unphysical region of complexvalues of the energy. Results of calculations show that one or severalpoles of the S-matrix exist, corresponding to the over-barrier resonantstates that are critical for the effect of the absolute reflection at scatteringof the heavy hole by a quantum well in the energy range where only theheavy hole may propagate over barriers in a quantum-well structure.Light- and heavy-hole states are described by the Luttinger Hamiltonianmatrix. The qualitative behaviour of the over-barrier scattering andresonant states is the same at variation of the shape of the quantum-wellpotential, however lifetimes of resonant states depend drastically on theshape and depth of a quantum well.
Yokoi, Norihiko; Kinoshita, Shigeru; Morimoto, Taketoshi; Yoshizaki, Kazuo.
1995-01-01
Using gadolinium diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA) as a tracer, the barrier function of the corneal epithelium and endothelium was evaluated by proton nuclear magnetic resonance. Whole pig eyes and cornea excised with scleral rim, which had been incubated in dextran-added Gd-DTPA solution, were subjected to T 1 relaxation measurement and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). After incubation, the T 1 relaxation rate (1/T 1 ) of the excised cornea increased to a steady value, whereas that of the cornea from the whole eye increased only slightly. These results indicated that the increase in the T 1 relaxation rate of the excised cornea was attributable to Gd-DTPA penetration from the corneal endothelium and that the corneal epithelium exhibited a strong barrier function against Gd-DTPA entry. The MRI study also confirmed the strong barrier, enhanced signals being detected within the aqueous fluid in the T 1 -weighted image only when the corneal epithelium was abraded. Since Gd-DTPA scarcely penetrates the intact corneal epithelium, Gd-DTPA-enhanced MRI shows potential as a quantitative tracer in evaluating epithelial barrier disruption. (author)
Low frequency noise in asymmetric double barrier magnetic tunnel junctions with a top thin MgO layer
Guo Hui-Qiang; Tang Wei-Yue; Liu Liang; Wei Jian; Li Da-Lai; Feng Jia-Feng; Han Xiu-Feng
2015-01-01
Low frequency noise has been investigated at room temperature for asymmetric double barrier magnetic tunnel junctions (DBMTJs), where the coupling between the top and middle CoFeB layers is antiferromagnetic with a 0.8-nm thin top MgO barrier of the CoFeB/MgO/CoFe/CoFeB/MgO/CoFeB DBMTJ. At enough large bias, 1/f noise dominates the voltage noise power spectra in the low frequency region, and is conventionally characterized by the Hooge parameter α mag . With increasing external field, the top and bottom ferromagnetic layers are aligned by the field, and then the middle free layer rotates from antiparallel state (antiferromagnetic coupling between top and middle ferromagnetic layers) to parallel state. In this rotation process α mag and magnetoresistance-sensitivity-product show a linear dependence, consistent with the fluctuation dissipation relation. With the magnetic field applied at different angles (θ) to the easy axis of the free layer, the linear dependence persists while the intercept of the linear fit satisfies a cos(θ) dependence, similar to that for the magnetoresistance, suggesting intrinsic relation between magnetic losses and magnetoresistance. (rapid communication)
Ferreira, Ricardo; Freitas, Paulo P.; MacKenzie, Maureen; Chapman, John N.
2005-01-01
Current perpendicular to the plane read-head elements suitable for high-density magnetic storage require low resistance while maintaining a reasonable magnetoresistive (MR) signal (RxA 2 and MR>20% for areal densities >200 Gb/in 2 ). This letter shows that competitive low RxA junctions can be produced using underoxidized barriers starting from 0.9 nm thick Al layers. For as-deposited junctions, tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR) ∼20% for RxA∼2-15 Ω μm 2 is obtained, while in the RxA∼60-150 Ω μm 2 range, TMR values between 40% to 45% are achieved. A limited number of junctions exhibits considerably lower RxA values with respect to the average, while keeping a similar MR (down to 0.44 Ω μm 2 with TMR of 20% and down to 2.2 Ω μm 2 with TMR of 52%). Experimental data suggest that current confinement to small regions (barrier defects/hot spots) may explain these results
Influence of InGaN sub-quantum-well on performance of InAlN/GaN/InAlN resonant tunneling diodes
Chen, Haoran; Yang, Lin' an, E-mail: layang@xidian.edu.cn; Hao, Yue [State Key Discipline Laboratory of Wide Bandgap Semiconductor Technology, School of Microelectronics, Xidian University, Xi' an 710071 (China)
2014-08-21
The resonant tunneling mechanism of the GaN based resonant tunneling diode (RTD) with an InGaN sub-quantum-well has been investigated by means of numerical simulation. At resonant-state, Electrons in the InGaN/InAlN/GaN/InAlN RTD tunnel from the emitter region through the aligned discrete energy levels in the InGaN sub-quantum-well and GaN main-quantum-well into the collector region. The implantation of the InGaN sub-quantum-well alters the dominant transport mechanism, increase the transmission coefficient and give rise to the peak current and peak-to-valley current ratio. We also demonstrate that the most pronounced negative-differential-resistance characteristic can be achieved by choosing appropriately the In composition of In{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N at around x = 0.06.
Influence of InGaN sub-quantum-well on performance of InAlN/GaN/InAlN resonant tunneling diodes
Chen, Haoran; Yang, Lin'an; Hao, Yue
2014-01-01
The resonant tunneling mechanism of the GaN based resonant tunneling diode (RTD) with an InGaN sub-quantum-well has been investigated by means of numerical simulation. At resonant-state, Electrons in the InGaN/InAlN/GaN/InAlN RTD tunnel from the emitter region through the aligned discrete energy levels in the InGaN sub-quantum-well and GaN main-quantum-well into the collector region. The implantation of the InGaN sub-quantum-well alters the dominant transport mechanism, increase the transmission coefficient and give rise to the peak current and peak-to-valley current ratio. We also demonstrate that the most pronounced negative-differential-resistance characteristic can be achieved by choosing appropriately the In composition of In x Ga 1−x N at around x = 0.06
Quantum tunneling through a very narrow triangular potential barrier exact and WKB solution
Ballo, P.; Harmatha, L.
2011-01-01
We have investigated the quantum-mechanical transmission of an electron in narrow potential barrier. It has been shown that application of WKB approximation could give enormous error if the slope of potential is rapid. Edification of this work is that unreasonable application of numerical approximations without the deep knowledge of theory should give wrong result. This we should remember every second, every day. (authors)
Gunnarsson, David; Moren, Lena; Sellin, Patrik; Keto, Paula
2006-09-01
The main objectives of this report are to: 1) present density criteria considering deposition tunnels for the investigated backfill materials, 2) evaluate what densities can be achieved with the suggested backfill methods, 3) compare the density criteria to achievable densities, 4) based on this comparison evaluate the safety margin for the combinations of backfill materials and methods and, 5) make recommendations for further investigations and development work. The backfilling methods considered in this report are compaction of backfill material in situ in the tunnel and placement of pre-compacted blocks and pellets. The materials investigated in the second phase of the SKB-Posiva backfilling project can be divided into three main categories: 1. Bentonite clays: two high-grade Na-bentonites from Wyoming (MX-80 and SPV200), one low-grade bentonite from Kutch (India Asha 230), and one high and one low-grade Ca-bentonite from Milos (Deponite CA-N and Milos backfill). The high-grade bentonites are used in different bentonite-ballast mixtures. 2. Smectite-rich mixed-layer clays: one from Dnesice-Plzensko Jih (DPJ) located in the Czech Republic and one from Northern Germany (Friedland clay). Mixtures of bentonite and ballast: Mixtures consisting of high-grade bentonite (0, 40 and 50 w-%) and crushed rock with different type of grain size distribution or sand. The relationships between dry densities and hydraulic conductivity, swelling pressure and compressibility in saturated state for these materials were investigated. Most of the tests were performed with a groundwater salinity of 3.5%. This salinity is comparable to sea water and can be expected to be at the high end of salinities occurring during the assessment period. The purpose of the investigations was to determine the dry densities required to meet the function indicator criteria. These densities are referred to as the density criteria. However throughout the assessment period a loss of material and thus
Gunnarsson, David; Moren, Lena; Sellin, Patrik [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Keto, Paula [Saanio and Riekkola Oy, Helsinki (Finland)
2006-09-15
The main objectives of this report are to: 1) present density criteria considering deposition tunnels for the investigated backfill materials, 2) evaluate what densities can be achieved with the suggested backfill methods, 3) compare the density criteria to achievable densities, 4) based on this comparison evaluate the safety margin for the combinations of backfill materials and methods and, 5) make recommendations for further investigations and development work. The backfilling methods considered in this report are compaction of backfill material in situ in the tunnel and placement of pre-compacted blocks and pellets. The materials investigated in the second phase of the SKB-Posiva backfilling project can be divided into three main categories: 1. Bentonite clays: two high-grade Na-bentonites from Wyoming (MX-80 and SPV200), one low-grade bentonite from Kutch (India Asha 230), and one high and one low-grade Ca-bentonite from Milos (Deponite CA-N and Milos backfill). The high-grade bentonites are used in different bentonite-ballast mixtures. 2. Smectite-rich mixed-layer clays: one from Dnesice-Plzensko Jih (DPJ) located in the Czech Republic and one from Northern Germany (Friedland clay). Mixtures of bentonite and ballast: Mixtures consisting of high-grade bentonite (0, 40 and 50 w-%) and crushed rock with different type of grain size distribution or sand. The relationships between dry densities and hydraulic conductivity, swelling pressure and compressibility in saturated state for these materials were investigated. Most of the tests were performed with a groundwater salinity of 3.5%. This salinity is comparable to sea water and can be expected to be at the high end of salinities occurring during the assessment period. The purpose of the investigations was to determine the dry densities required to meet the function indicator criteria. These densities are referred to as the density criteria. However throughout the assessment period a loss of material and thus
Takaya, Satoshi; Tanamoto, Tetsufumi; Noguchi, Hiroki; Ikegami, Kazutaka; Abe, Keiko; Fujita, Shinobu
2017-04-01
Among the diverse applications of spintronics, security for internet-of-things (IoT) devices is one of the most important. A physically unclonable function (PUF) with a spin device (spin transfer torque magnetoresistive random access memory, STT-MRAM) is presented. Oxide tunnel barrier breakdown is used to realize long-term stability for PUFs. A secure PUF has been confirmed by evaluating the Hamming distance of a 32-bit STT-MRAM-PUF fabricated using 65 nm CMOS technology.
Testing of resonant tunneling double barrier heterostructures by BEEM/BEES
Walachová, Jarmila; Zelinka, Jiří; Vaniš, Jan; Karamazov, Simeon; Cukr, Miroslav; Zich, P.; Chow, D. H.; McGill, T. C.
1999-01-01
Roč. 49, č. 5 (1999), s. 833-836 ISSN 0011-4626. [Czech-Chinese Workshop on Advanced Materials for Optoelectronics - AMFO'98. Prague, 15.06.1998-17.06.1998] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/97/0427 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2067918 Keywords : nanostructured materials * spectroscopy * semiconductor quantum wells Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 0.328, year: 1999
Resonant coherent quantum tunneling of the magnetization of spin-½ systems : Spin-parity effects
García-Pablos, D.; García, N.; Raedt, H. De
1997-01-01
We perform quantum dynamical calculations to study the reversal of the magnetization for systems of a few spin-½ particles with a general biaxial anisotropy in the presence of an external magnetic field at T=0 and with no dissipation. Collective quantum tunneling of the magnetization is demonstrated
Payne, Allison H; Hawryluk, Gregory W; Anzai, Yoshimi; Odéen, Henrik; Ostlie, Megan A; Reichert, Ethan C; Stump, Amanda J; Minoshima, Satoshi; Cross, Donna J
2017-12-01
Spinal cord injury (SCI) affects thousands of people every year in the USA, and most patients are left with some permanent paralysis. Therapeutic options are limited and only modestly affect outcome. To address this issue, we used magnetic resonance imaging-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) as a non-invasive approach to increase permeability in the blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB). We hypothesize that localized, controlled sonoporation of the BSCB by MRgFUS will aid delivery of therapeutics to the injury. Here, we report our preliminary findings for the ability of MRgFUS to increase BSCB permeability in the thoracic spinal cord of a normal rat model. First, an excised portion of normal rat spinal column was used to characterize the acoustic field and to estimate the insertion losses that could be expected in an MRgFUS blood spinal cord barrier opening. Then, in normal rats, MRgFUS was applied in combination with intravenously administered microbubbles to the spinal cord region. Permeability of the BSCB was indicated as signal enhancement by contrast administered prior to T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and verified by Evans blue dye. Neurological testing using the Basso, Beattie, and Breshnahan scale and the ladder walk was normal in 8 of 10 rats tested. Two rats showed minor impairment indicating need for further refinement of parameters. No gross tissue damage was evident by histology. In this study, we have opened successfully the blood spinal cord barrier in the thoracic region of the normal rat spine using magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound combined with microbubbles.
Zhang, Qiankun; Liu, Yinan; Lai, Jiawei; Qi, Shaomian; An, Chunhua; Lu, Yao; Duan, Xuexin; Pang, Wei; Zhang, Daihua; Sun, Dong; Chen, Jian-Hao; Liu, Jing
2018-04-01
Few-layer black phosphorus (FLBP), a recently discovered two-dimensional semiconductor, has attracted substantial attention in the scientific and technical communities due to its great potential in electronic and optoelectronic applications. However, reactivity of FLBP flakes with ambient species limits its direct applications. Among various methods to passivate FLBP in ambient environment, nanocomposites mixing FLBP flakes with stable matrix may be one of the most promising approaches for industry applications. Here, we report a simple one-step procedure to mass produce air-stable FLBP/phospholipids nanocomposite in liquid phase. The resultant nanocomposite is found to have ultralow tunneling barrier for charge carriers which can be described by an Efros-Shklovskii variable range hopping mechanism. Devices made from such mass-produced FLBP/phospholipids nanocomposite show highly stable electrical conductivity and opto-electrical response in ambient conditions, indicating its promising applications in both electronic and optoelectronic applications. This method could also be generalized to the mass production of nanocomposites consisting of other air-sensitive 2D materials, such as FeSe, NbSe2, WTe2, etc.
Wei, H.X.; Wang, T.X.; Zeng, Z.M.; Zhang, X.Q.; Zhao, J.; Han, X.F.
2006-01-01
The controlled fabrication method for nano-scale double barrier magnetic tunnel junctions (DBMTJs) with the layer structure of Ta(5)/Cu(10)/Ni 79 Fe 21 (5)/Ir 22 Mn 78 (12)/Co 6 Fe 2 B 2 (4)/Al(1) -oxide/Co 6 Fe 2 B 2 (6)/Al (1)-oxide/Co 6 Fe 2 B 2 (4)/Ir 22 Mn 78 (12)/Ni 79 Fe 21 (5)/Ta(5) (thickness unit: nm) was used. This method involved depositing thin multi-layer stacks by sputtering system, and depositing a Pt nano-pillar using a focused ion beam which acted both as a top contact and as an etching mask. The advantages of this process over the traditional process using e-beam and optical lithography in that it involve only few processing steps, e.g. it does not involve any lift-off steps. In order to evaluate the nanofabrication techniques, the DBMTJs with the dimensions of 200 nmx400 nm, 200 nmx200 nm nano-scale were prepared and their R-H, I-V characteristics were measured.
Interfacial mixing in double-barrier magnetic tunnel junctions with amorphous NiFeSiB layers
Chun, B.S.; Ko, S.P.; Hwang, J.Y.; Rhee, J.R.; Kim, T.W.; Kim, Y.K.
2007-01-01
Double-barrier magnetic tunnel junctions (DMTJs) comprising Ta 45/Ru 9.5/IrMn 10/CoFe 7/AlO x /free layer (CoFe 4/NiFeSiB 2/CoFe 4, CoFe 10, or NiFeSiB 10)/AlO x /CoFe 7/IrMn 10/Ru 60 (nm) have been examined with an emphasis given on understanding the interfacial mixing effects. The DMTJ, consisted of NiFeSiB, shows low switching field and low bias voltage dependence because the amorphous NiFeSiB has lower M S (=800 emu/cm 3 ) and offers smoother interfaces than polycrystalline CoFe. An interesting feature observed in the CoFe/NiFeSiB/CoFe sandwich free layered DMTJ is the presence of a wavy MR transfer curve at high-resistance region. Because the polycrystalline CoFe usually grows into a columnar structure, diamagnetic CoSi, paramagnetic FeSi, and/or diamagnetic CoB might have been formed during the sputter-deposition process. By employing electron energy loss spectrometry (EELS) and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), we were able to confirm that Si and B atoms were arranged evenly in the top and bottom portions of AlO x /CoFe interfaces. This means that the interfacial mixing resulted in a distorted magnetization reversal process
Guo, Shaoyin; Hihath, Joshua; Díez-Pérez, Ismael; Tao, Nongjian
2011-11-30
We report on the measurement and statistical study of thousands of current-voltage characteristics and transition voltage spectra (TVS) of single-molecule junctions with different contact geometries that are rapidly acquired using a new break junction method at room temperature. This capability allows one to obtain current-voltage, conductance voltage, and transition voltage histograms, thus adding a new dimension to the previous conductance histogram analysis at a fixed low-bias voltage for single molecules. This method confirms the low-bias conductance values of alkanedithiols and biphenyldithiol reported in literature. However, at high biases the current shows large nonlinearity and asymmetry, and TVS allows for the determination of a critically important parameter, the tunneling barrier height or energy level alignment between the molecule and the electrodes of single-molecule junctions. The energy level alignment is found to depend on the molecule and also on the contact geometry, revealing the role of contact geometry in both the contact resistance and energy level alignment of a molecular junction. Detailed statistical analysis further reveals that, despite the dependence of the energy level alignment on contact geometry, the variation in single-molecule conductance is primarily due to contact resistance rather than variations in the energy level alignment.
Sanden, Torbjoern; Boergesson, Lennart; Dueck, Ann; Goudarzi, Reza; Loennqvist, Margareta (Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden))
2008-12-15
SKB in Sweden and Posiva in Finland are developing and plan to implement similar disposal concepts for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. Co-operation and joint development work between Posiva and SKB with the overall objective to develop backfill concepts and techniques for sealing and closure of the repository have been going on for several years. The investigation described in this report is intended to acquire more knowledge regarding the behavior of some of the candidate backfilling materials. Blocks made of three different materials (Friedland clay, Asha 230 or a bentonite/ballast 30/70 mixture) as well as different bentonite pellets have been examined. The backfill materials will be exposed to an environment simulating that in a tunnel, with high relative humidity and water inflow from the rock. The processes and properties investigated are: 1. Erosion properties of blocks and pellets (Friedland blocks, MX-80 pellets, Cebogel QSE pellets, Minelco and Friedland granules). 2. Displacements of blocks after emplacement in a deposition drift (Blocks of Friedland, Asha 230 and Mixture 30/70). 3. The ability of these materials to seal a leaking in-situ cast plug cement/rock but also other fractures in the rock (MX-80 pellets). 4. The self healing ability after a piping scenario (Blocks of Friedland, Asha 230 Mixture 30/70 and also MX-80 pellets). 5. Swelling and cracking of the compacted backfill blocks caused by relative humidity. The erosion properties of Friedland blocks were also investigated in Phase 2 of the joint SKBPosiva project 'Backfilling and Closure of the Deep Repository, BACLO, which included laboratory scale experiments. In this phase of the project (3) some completing tests were performed with new blocks produced for different field tests. These blocks had a lower density than intended and this has an influence on the erosion properties measured. The erosion properties of MX-80 pellets were also investigated earlier in the project but
Vexler, M. I., E-mail: vexler@mail.ioffe.ru; Illarionov, Yu. Yu.; Grekhov, I. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical–Technical Institute (Russian Federation)
2017-04-15
The prerequisites for electron storage in the quantum well of a metal–oxide–p{sup +}-Si resonant-tunneling structure and the effect of the stored charge on the voltage distribution are theoretically investigated. Systems with SiO{sub 2}, HfO{sub 2}, and TiO{sub 2} insulators are studied. It is demonstrated that the occurrence of a charge in the well in the case of resonant transport can be expected in structures on substrates with an acceptor concentration from (5–6) × 10{sup 18} to (2–3) × 10{sup 19} cm{sup –3} in the range of oxide thicknesses dependent on this concentration. In particular, the oxide layer thickness in the structures with SiO{sub 2}/p{sup +}-Si(10{sup 19} cm{sup –3}) should exceed ~3 nm. The electron density in the well can reach ~10{sup 12} cm{sup –2} and higher. However, the effect of this charge on the electrostatics of the structure becomes noticeable only at relatively high voltages far above the activation of resonant transport through the first subband.
Tunneling of heat: Beyond linear response regime
Walczak, Kamil; Saroka, David
2018-02-01
We examine nanoscale processes of heat (energy) transfer as carried by electrons tunneling via potential barriers and molecular interconnects between two heat reservoirs (thermal baths). For that purpose, we use Landauer-type formulas to calculate thermal conductance and quadratic correction to heat flux flowing via quantum systems. As an input, we implement analytical expressions for transmission functions related to simple potential barriers and atomic bridges. Our results are discussed with respect to energy of tunneling electrons, temperature, the presence of resonant states, and specific parameters characterizing potential barriers as well as heat carriers. The simplicity of semi-analytical models developed by us allows to fit experimental data and extract crucial information about the values of model parameters. Further investigations are expected for more realistic transmission functions, while time-dependent aspects of nanoscale heat transfer may be addressed by using the concept of wave packets scattered on potential barriers and point-like defects within regular (periodic) nanostructures.
Ogino, Kota; Suzuki, Safumi; Asada, Masahiro
2017-12-01
Spectral narrowing of a resonant-tunneling-diode (RTD) terahertz oscillator, which is useful for various applications of terahertz frequency range, such as an accurate gas spectroscopy, a frequency reference in various communication systems, etc., was achieved with a phase-locked loop system. The oscillator is composed of an RTD, a slot antenna, and a varactor diode for electrical frequency tuning. The output of the RTD oscillating at 610 GHz was down-converted to 400 MHz by a heterodyne detection. The phase noise was transformed to amplitude noise by a balanced mixer and fed back into the varactor diode. The loop filter for a stable operation is discussed. The spectral linewidth of 18.6 MHz in free-running operation was reduced to less than 1 Hz by the feedback.
M. Asada
2017-11-01
Full Text Available The temperature dependences of output power, oscillation frequency, and current-voltage curve are measured for resonant-tunneling-diode terahertz (THz oscillators. The output power largely changes with temperature owing to the change in Ohmic loss. In contrast to the output power, the oscillation frequency and current-voltage curve are almost insensitive to temperature. The measured temperature dependence of output power is compared with the theoretical calculation including the negative differential conductance (NDC as a fitting parameter assumed to be independent of temperature. Very good agreement was obtained between the measurement and calculation, and the NDC in the THz frequency region is estimated. The results show that the absolute values of NDC in the THz region significantly decrease relative to that at DC, and increases with increasing frequency in the measured frequency range.
Yin, Li; Wang, Xiaocha; Mi, Wenbo
2018-01-01
Perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) have attracted increasing attention owing to the low energy consumption and wide application prospects. Herewith, against Julliere's formula, an inverse tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) appears in tetragonal Fe4N/BiFeO3/Fe4N perpendicular MTJs, which is attributed to the binding between the interface resonant tunneling state and central (bordered) hot spots. Especially, antiferromagnetic BiFeO3 shows an extra spin-polarized resonant state in the barrier, which provides a magnetic-barrier factor to affect the tunneling transport in MTJs. Meanwhile, due to the spin-polarized transport in Fe4N/BiFeO3/Fe4N MTJs, the sign of TMR can be tuned by the applied bias. The tunable TMR and resonant magnetic barrier effect pave the way for clarifying the tunneling transport in other junctions and spintronic devices.
Tunneling effects in resonant acoustic scattering of an air bubble in unbounded water
ANDRÉ G. SIMÃO
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Abstract The problem of acoustic scattering of a gaseous spherical bubble immersed within unbounded liquid surrounding is considered in this work. The theory of partial wave expansion related to this problem is revisited. A physical model based on the analogy between acoustic scattering and potential scattering in quantum mechanics is proposed to describe and interpret the acoustical natural oscillation modes of the bubble, namely, the resonances. In this context, a physical model is devised in order to describe the air water interface and the implications of the high density contrast on the various regimes of the scattering resonances. The main results are presented in terms of resonance lifetime periods and quality factors. The explicit numerical calculations are undertaken through an asymptotic analysis considering typical bubble dimensions and underwater sound wavelengths. It is shown that the resonance periods are scaled according to the Minnaert’s period, which is the short lived resonance mode, called breathing mode of the bubble. As expected, resonances with longer lifetimes lead to impressive cavity quality Q-factor ranging from 1010 to 105. The present theoretical findings lead to a better understanding of the energy storage mechanism in a bubbly medium.
Li, Guanqiang; Chen, Guangde; Peng, Ping; Cao, Zhenzhou; Ye, Honggang
2013-01-01
We investigate the resonant transmission of Dirac electrons through inhomogeneous band gap graphene with square superlattice potentials by transfer matrix method. The effects of the incident angle of the electrons, Fermi energy and substrate-induced Dirac gaps on the transmission are considered. It is found that the Dirac gap of graphene adds another degree of freedom with respect to the incident angle, the Fermi energy and the parameters of periodic superlattice potentials (i.e., the number, width and height of the barriers) for the transmission. In particular, the inhomogeneous Dirac gap induced by staggered substrates can be used to manipulate the transmission. The properties of the conductance and Fano factor at the resonant peaks are found to be affected by the gaps significantly. The results may be helpful for the practical application of graphene-based electronic devices
Fabrication of Mg-X-O (X = Fe, Co, Ni, Cr, Mn, Ti, V, and Zn) barriers for magnetic tunnel junctions
Yakushiji, K.; Kitagawa, E.; Ochiai, T.; Kubota, H.; Shimomura, N.; Ito, J.; Yoda, H.; Yuasa, S.
2018-05-01
We fabricated magnetic tunnel junctions with a 3d-transition material(X)-doped MgO (Mg-X-O) barrier, and evaluated the effect of the doping on magnetoresistance (MR) and microstructure. Among the variations of X (X = Fe, Co, Ni, Cr, Mn, Ti, V, and Zn), X = Fe and Mn showed a high MR ratio of more than 100%, even at a low resistance-area product of 3 Ωμm2. The microstructure analysis revealed that (001) textured orientation formed for X = Fe and Mn despite substantial doping (about 10 at%). The elemental mappings indicated that Fe atoms in the Mg-Fe-O barrier were segregated at the interfaces, while Mn atoms were evenly involved in the Mg-Mn-O barrier. This suggests that MgO has high adaptability for Fe and Mn dopants in terms of high MR ratio.
Ferroelectric tunnel junctions with multi-quantum well structures
Ma, Zhijun; Zhang, Tianjin, E-mail: zhangtj@hubu.edu.cn [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for the Green Preparation and Application of Functional Materials, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062 (China); Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Organic Chemical Materials, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062 (China); Liang, Kun; Qi, Yajun; Wang, Duofa; Wang, Jinzhao; Jiang, Juan [Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Organic Chemical Materials, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062 (China)
2014-06-02
Ferroelectric tunnel junctions (FTJs) with multi-quantum well structures are proposed and the tunneling electroresistance (TER) effect is investigated theoretically. Compared with conventional FTJs with monolayer ferroelectric barriers, FTJs with single-well structures provide TER ratio improvements of one order of magnitude, while FTJs with optimized multi-well structures can enhance this improvement by another order of magnitude. It is believed that the increased resonant tunneling strength combined with appropriate asymmetry in these FTJs contributes to the improvement. These studies may help to fabricate FTJs with large TER ratio experimentally and put them into practice.
On the tunneling time of ultracold atoms through a system of two mazer cavities.
Badshah, Fazal; Ge, Guo-Qin; Irfan, Muhammad; Qamar, Sajid; Qamar, Shahid
2018-01-30
We study the resonant tunneling of ultraslow atoms through a system of high quality microwave cavities. We find that the phase tunneling time across the two coupled cavities exhibits more frequent resonances as compared to the single cavity interaction. The increased resonances are instrumental in the display of an alternate sub and superclassical character of the tunneling time along the momentum axis with increasing energies of the incident slow atoms. Here, the intercavity separation appears as an additional controlling parameter of the system that provides an efficient control of the superclassical behavior of the phase tunneling time. Further, we find that the phase time characteristics through two cavity system has the combined features of the tunneling through a double barrier and a double well arrangements.
Rong, Taotao; Yang, Lin-An; Yang, Lin; Hao, Yue
2018-01-01
In this work, we report an investigation of resonant tunneling diodes (RTDs) with lattice-matched and polarization-matched AlInN/GaN heterostructures using the numerical simulation. Compared with the lattice-matched AlInN/GaN RTDs, the RTDs based on polarization-matched AlInN/GaN hetero-structures exhibit symmetrical conduction band profiles due to eliminating the polarization charge discontinuity, which achieve the equivalence of double barrier transmission coefficients, thereby the relatively high driving current, the high symmetry of current density, and the high peak-to-valley current ratio (PVCR) under the condition of the positive and the negative sweeping voltages. Simulations show that the peak current density approaches 1.2 × 107 A/cm2 at the bias voltage of 0.72 V and the PVCR approaches 1.37 at both sweeping voltages. It also shows that under the condition of the same shallow energy level, when the trap density reaches 1 × 1019 cm-3, the polarization-matched RTDs still have acceptable negative differential resistance (NDR) characteristics, while the NDR characteristics of lattice-matched RTDs become irregular. After introducing the deeper energy level of 1 eV into the polarization-matched and lattice-matched RTDs, 60 scans are performed under the same trap density. Simulation results show that the degradation of the polarization-matched RTDs is 22%, while lattice-matched RTDs have a degradation of 55%. It can be found that the polarization-matched RTDs have a greater defect tolerance than the lattice-matched RTDs, which is beneficial to the available manufacture of actual terahertz RTD devices.
Josephson tunneling and nanosystems
Ovchinnikov, Yurii; Kresin, Vladimir
2010-01-01
Josephson tunneling between nanoclusters is analyzed. The discrete nature of the electronic energy spectra, including their shell ordering, is explicitly taken into account. The treatment considers the two distinct cases of resonant and non-resonant tunneling. It is demonstrated that the current density greatly exceeds the value discussed in the conventional theory. Nanoparticles are shown to be promising building blocks for nanomaterials-based tunneling networks.
Superconducting tunnel junctions on MgB{sub 2} using MgO and CaF{sub 2} as a barrier
Sakoda, Masahito, E-mail: sakoda@cc.tuat.ac.jp [Department of Applied Physics, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 2-24-16, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan); Aibara, Masato; Mede, Kazuya; Kikuchi, Motoyuki; Naito, Michio [Department of Applied Physics, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 2-24-16, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan)
2016-11-15
Highlights: • We have revised the manuscript according to reviewer's comments. The details are in “Response to Reviewers”. • Superconducting junctions with MgO and CaF{sub 2} barrier were fabricated in order to improve the quality of junctions. • In SIN junctions with MgO barrier, clear superconducting gap was observed. (). • In SIS junctions with CaF2 barrier, Josephson current was observed over 30 K. (). • The compatibility of each barrier material at the upper and lower interfaces was clarified. (). - Abstract: We report the fabrication of superconducting tunnel junctions, both of superconductor–insulator-normal metal (SIN) and superconductor–insulator-superconductor (SIS), on MgB{sub 2} using MgO and CaF{sub 2} as a barrier. The SIN junctions fabricated using an MgO barrier showed excellent quasi-particle characteristics, including a large superconducting gap (Δ) of 2.5–3 meV and a low zero-bias conductance. We have also fabricated SIS junctions with an MgO barrier, but the quasi-particle characteristics of the SIS junctions are not as good as those of the SIN junctions, namely a reduced superconducting gap and a high zero-bias conductance. It appears that top MgB{sub 2} electrodes do not grow well on an MgO barrier, which is also suggested from in-situ RHEED observation. The SIN junctions fabricated using a CaF{sub 2} barrier showed less sharp quasi-particle characteristics than using an MgO barrier. However, the SIS junctions using a CaF{sub 2} barrier showed a fairly large I{sub c}R{sub N} value at 4.2 K over 1 mV and also exhibited finite Josephson current up to almost the film's T{sub c} (∼30 K). The RHEED observation revealed that top MgB{sub 2} electrodes grow well on a CaF{sub 2} barrier.
Time evolution of tunneling in a thermal medium: Environment-driven excited tunneling
Matsumoto, Sh.; Yoshimura, M.
2004-01-01
Time evolution of tunneling phenomena proceeding in a thermal medium is studied using a standard model of environmental interaction. A semiclassical probability formula for the particle motion in a metastable state of a one-dimensional system put in a thermal medium is combined with the formula of the quantum penetration factor through a potential barrier to derive the tunneling rate in the medium. The effect of environment, its influence on time evolution in particular, is clarified in our real-time formalism. A nonlinear resonance effect is shown to enhance the tunneling rate at finite times of order 2/η, with η the friction coefficient unless η is too small. In the linear approximation this effect has relevance to the parametric resonance. This effect enhances the possibility of early termination of the cosmological phase transition much prior to the typical Hubble time
Instabilities in thin tunnel junctions
Konkin, M.K.; Adler, J.G.
1978-01-01
Tunnel junctions prepared for inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy are often plagued by instabilities in the 0-500-meV range. This paper relates the bias at which the instability occurs to the barrier thickness
Kanai, Shun; Gajek, Martin; Worledge, D. C.; Matsukura, Fumihiro; Ohno, Hideo
2014-12-01
We measure homodyne-detected ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) induced by the electric-field effect in a CoFeB/MgO/CoFeB magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) with perpendicular magnetic easy axis under dc bias voltages up to 0.1 V. From the bias dependence of the resonant frequency, we find that the first order perpendicular magnetic anisotropy is modulated by the applied electric field, whereas the second order component is virtually independent of the electric field. The lineshapes of the FMR spectra are bias dependent, which are explained by the combination of electric-field effect and reflection of the bias voltage from the MTJ.
Kar, Susmita; Bhattacharyya, S.P.
2011-01-01
Graphical abstract: Spatial symmetry-preserving sinusoidal fluctuations of symmetric double-well parameters cause enhancement of tunneling at ω ∼ ω 0 while rectified sinusoidal fluctuations suppress it at ω∼(ω 0 )/2 . Research highlights: → Spatial symmetry-preserving sinusoidal and rectified sinusoidal fluctuations of symmetrical double-well parameters have contrasting effects on tunneling. → Sinusoidal fluctuations at frequency ω ∼ ω 0 causes resonance enhancement of tunneling, ω 0 being the 0 + ↔ 1 + transition frequency. → Under rectified sinusoidal fluctuations at a frequency ω∼1/2 ω 0 suppression or coherent destruction of tunneling is observed due to barrier localization. → The observations are explained by energy-gain analysis and analysis of the time-dependent overlap amplitudes. - Abstract: We investigate how tunneling-time gets affected by spatial symmetry preserving fluctuations in the parameters determining the width, barrier height and well-depth of a symmetric double-well potential. Sinusoidal and rectified sinusoidal fluctuations of the well-parameters are shown to have contrasting effects. Significant enhancement of tunneling is noticed when the well-parameters fluctuate sinusoidally with frequency ω ∼ ω 0 while under rectified sinusoidal perturbation, quenching of tunneling takes place at a fluctuation frequency ω∼1/2 ω 0 ,ω 0 , being the frequency of the lowest transition allowed by the fluctuation induced spatial perturbation of even parity. Time-dependent Hellmann-Feynman theorem is invoked to analyze the energy changes induced by fluctuations. It turns out that the enhancement of tunneling in the sinusoidally fluctuating double well at frequency ω ∼ ω 0 is caused by transition to 1 ± levels under the barrier while in the rectified sinusoidal field at ω∼1/2 ω 0 , a two-photon like process suppresses the tunneling by inducing barrier localization.
New Knowledge of tunneling from photonic experiments
Nimtz, G.
1997-01-01
Photonic experiments have shown, that the propagation of evanescent (tunneling) modes can proceed at speeds faster than the velocity of light in vacuum (superluminal). The superluminal velocities include signal and energy propagation. The analogy between the classical Helmholtz equation and the quantum mechanical Schroedinger equation was quantitatively proved in classical photonic experiments. The Hartman effect, i.e. the prediction that the tunneling time is independent of the barrier length was for the first time evidenced in a photonic analogous tunneling experiment by Enders and Nimtz. It is also shown, that the resonant state life time is not determined by the barrier traversal time. For electronic tunneling devices it follows, that the quantum mechanical phase time calculations indeed deliver the relevant intrinsic tunneling time and consequently allow to predict the dynamical specification of a device. The present theoretical descriptions of the propagation of evanescent modes is not fully compatible with the experimental situation. Superluminal signal and energy transport has been measured, and this has to be properly analyzed. May the advanced field solutions help to obtain a satisfactory theoretical description of the recent experimental results of the propagation of evanescent modes? (author)
Lazarev, Yu.A.
1986-01-01
An analytically solvable model is used to study the potential barrier penetrability in the case when the gap parameter Δ is treated as a dynamical variable governed by the least action principle. It is found that, as compared to the standard (BCS) approach, the dynamical treatment of pairing results in a considerably weakened dependence of the fission barrier penetrability on the intensity of pairing correlations in the initial state (Δ 0 ), on the barrier height, and on the energy of the initial state. On this basis, a more adequate explanation is proposed for typical order-of-magnitude values of the empirical hidrance factors for groun-state spontaneous fission of odd nuclei. It is also shown that a large enhancement of superfluidity in tunneling - the inherent effect of the dynamical treatment of pairing - strongly facilitates deeply subbarier fusion of complex nuclei. Finally, an analysis is given for the probability of spontaneous fission from K-isomeric quasiparticle (q-p) states in even-even heavy nuclei. The relative change of the partial spontaneous fission half-life in going from the ground-state to a high-spin q-p isomeric state, T* sf /T sf , is found to be strongly dependent on whether or not there takes place the dynamically induced enhancement of superfluidity in tunneling. Measurements of T* sf /T sf provide thus a unique possibility of verifying theoretical predictions about the strong, inverse-square Δ dependence of the effective inertia associated with large-scale subbarrier rearrangements of nuclei
Tsaturyan, Yeghishe; Barg, Andreas; Simonsen, Anders; Villanueva, Luis Guillermo; Schmid, Silvan; Schliesser, Albert; Polzik, Eugene S
2014-03-24
Dielectric membranes with exceptional mechanical and optical properties present one of the most promising platforms in quantum opto-mechanics. The performance of stressed silicon nitride nanomembranes as mechanical resonators notoriously depends on how their frame is clamped to the sample mount, which in practice usually necessitates delicate, and difficult-to-reproduce mounting solutions. Here, we demonstrate that a phononic bandgap shield integrated in the membrane's silicon frame eliminates this dependence, by suppressing dissipation through phonon tunneling. We dry-etch the membrane's frame so that it assumes the form of a cm-sized bridge featuring a 1-dimensional periodic pattern, whose phononic density of states is tailored to exhibit one, or several, full band gaps around the membrane's high-Q modes in the MHz-range. We quantify the effectiveness of this phononic bandgap shield by optical interferometry measuring both the suppressed transmission of vibrations, as well as the influence of frame clamping conditions on the membrane modes. We find suppressions up to 40 dB and, for three different realized phononic structures, consistently observe significant suppression of the dependence of the membrane's modes on sample clamping-if the mode's frequency lies in the bandgap. As a result, we achieve membrane mode quality factors of 5 × 10(6) with samples that are tightly bolted to the 8 K-cold finger of a cryostat. Q × f -products of 6 × 10(12) Hz at 300 K and 14 × 10(12) Hz at 8 K are observed, satisfying one of the main requirements for optical cooling of mechanical vibrations to their quantum ground-state.
Wang, Z.S.; Lai, C.H.; Oh, C.H.; Kwek, L.C.
2004-01-01
We present a calculation of quantum tunneling time based on the transition duration of wave peak from one side of a barrier to the other. In our formulation, the tunneling time comprises a real and an imaginary part. The real part is an extension of the phase tunneling time with quantum corrections whereas the imaginary time is associated with energy derivatives of the probability amplitudes
Olkhovsky, V.S.; Recami, E.
1991-08-01
In this paper, first we critically analyse the main theoretical definitions and calculations of the sub-barrier tunnelling and reflection times. Secondly, we propose a new, physically sensible definition of such durations, on the basis of a recent general formalism (already tested for other types of quantum collisions). At last, we discuss some results regarding temporal evolution of the tunnelling processes, and in particular the ''particle'' speed during tunnelling. (author). 36 refs, 1 fig
Cleland, A.N.
1991-01-01
Experiments investigated the process of macroscopic quantum tunneling in a moderately-damped, resistively shunted, Josephson junction are described, followed by a discussion of experiments performed on very-small-capacitance normal-metal tunnel junctions. The experiments on the resistively-shunted Josephson junction were designed to investigate a quantum process, that of the tunneling of the Josephson-phase variable under a potential barrier, in a system in which dissipation plays a major role in the dynamics of motion. All the parameters of the junction were measured using the classical phenomena of thermal activation and resonant activation. Theoretical predictions are compared with the experimental results, showing good agreement with no adjustable parameters. The experiments on small-capacitance tunnel junctions extend the measurements on the large-area Josephson junctions from the region in which the phase variable has a fairly well-defined value, i.e. its wave function has a narrow width, to the region where its value is almost completely unknown. The charge on the junction becomes well-defined and is predicted to quantize the current through the junction, giving rise to the Coulomb blockade at low bias
Cleland, A.N.
1991-04-01
Experiments investigating the process of macroscopic quantum tunneling in a moderately-damped, resistively shunted, Josephson junction are described, followed by a discussion of experiments performed on very small capacitance normal-metal tunnel junctions. The experiments on the resistively-shunted Josephson junction were designed to investigate a quantum process, that of the tunneling of the Josephson phase variable under a potential barrier, in a system in which dissipation plays a major role in the dynamics of motion. All the parameters of the junction were measured using the classical phenomena of thermal activation and resonant activation. Theoretical predictions are compared with the experimental results, showing good agreement with no adjustable parameters; the tunneling rate in the moderately damped (Q ∼ 1) junction is seen to be reduced by a factor of 300 from that predicted for an undamped junction. The phase is seen to be a good quantum-mechanical variable. The experiments on small capacitance tunnel junctions extend the measurements on the larger-area Josephson junctions from the region in which the phase variable has a fairly well-defined value, i.e. its wavefunction has a narrow width, to the region where its value is almost completely unknown. The charge on the junction becomes well-defined and is predicted to quantize the current through the junction, giving rise to the Coulomb blockade at low bias. I present the first clear observation of the Coulomb blockade in single junctions. The electrical environment of the tunnel junction, however, strongly affects the behavior of the junction: higher resistance leads are observed to greatly sharpen the Coulomb blockade over that seen with lower resistance leads. I present theoretical descriptions of how the environment influences the junctions; comparisons with the experimental results are in reasonable agreement
Impedance model for quantum-mechanical barrier problems
Nelin, Evgenii A
2007-01-01
Application of the impedance model to typical quantum-mechanical barrier problems, including those for structures with resonant electron tunneling, is discussed. The efficiency of the approach is illustrated. The physical transparency and compactness of the model and its potential as a teaching and learning tool are discussed. (methodological notes)
Reduction of conductance mismatch in Fe/Al2O3/MoS2 system by tunneling-barrier thickness control
Hayakawa, Naoki; Muneta, Iriya; Ohashi, Takumi; Matsuura, Kentaro; Shimizu, Jun’ichi; Kakushima, Kuniyuki; Tsutsui, Kazuo; Wakabayashi, Hitoshi
2018-04-01
Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) among two-dimensional semiconductor films is promising for spintronic devices because it has a longer spin-relaxation time with contrasting spin splitting than silicon. However, it is difficult to fabricate integrated circuits by the widely used exfoliation method. Here, we investigate the contact characteristics in the Fe/Al2O3/sputtered-MoS2 system with various thicknesses of the Al2O3 film. Current density increases with increasing thickness up to 2.5 nm because of both thermally-assisted and direct tunneling currents. On the other hand, it decreases with increasing thickness over 2.5 nm limited by direct tunneling currents. These results suggest that the Schottky barrier width can be controlled by changing thicknesses of the Al2O3 film, as supported by calculations. The reduction of conductance mismatch with this technique can lead to highly efficient spin injection from iron into the MoS2 film.
Shan, Lei; Gong, Jing; Wang, Yong-Lei; Shen, Bing; Hou, Xingyuan; Ren, Cong; Li, Chunhong; Yang, Huan; Wen, Hai-Hu; Li, Shiliang; Dai, Pengcheng
2012-06-01
We used high-resolution scanning tunneling spectroscopy to study the hole-doped iron pnictide superconductor Ba(0.6)K(0.4)Fe(2)As(2) (T(c)=38 K). Features of a bosonic excitation (mode) are observed in the measured quasiparticle density of states. The bosonic features are intimately associated with the superconducting order parameter and have a mode energy of ~14 meV, similar to the spin resonance measured by inelastic neutron scattering. These results indicate a strong electron-spin excitation coupling in iron pnictide superconductors, similar to that in high-T(c) copper oxide superconductors.
The two Josephson junction flux qubit with large tunneling amplitude
Shnurkov, V.I.; Soroka, A.A.; Mel'nik, S.I.
2008-01-01
In this paper we discuss solid-state nanoelectronic realizations of Josephson flux qubits with large tunneling amplitude between the two macroscopic states. The latter can be controlled via the height and form of the potential barrier, which is determined by quantum-state engineering of the flux qubit circuit. The simplest circuit of the flux qubit is a superconducting loop interrupted by a Josephson nanoscale tunnel junction. The tunneling amplitude between two macroscopically different states can be increased substantially by engineering of the qubit circuit if the tunnel junction is replaced by a ScS contact. However, only Josephson tunnel junctions are particularly suitable for large-scale integration circuits and quantum detectors with present-day technology. To overcome this difficulty we consider here a flux qubit with high energy-level separation between the 'ground' and 'excited' states, consisting of a superconducting loop with two low-capacitance Josephson tunnel junctions in series. We demonstrate that for real parameters of resonant superposition between the two macroscopic states the tunneling amplitude can reach values greater than 1 K. Analytical results for the tunneling amplitude obtained within the semiclassical approximation by the instanton technique show good correlation with a numerical solution
Resonant tunnelling optoelectronic circuits
Figueiredo, J.M.L.; Patarata Romeira, B.M.; Slight, T.J.; Ironside, C.N.; Kim, Ki Young
2010-01-01
Nowadays, most communication networks such as local area networks (LANs), metropolitan area networks (MANs), and wide area networks (WANs) have replaced or are about to replace coaxial cable or twisted copper wire with fiber optical cables. Light-wave communication systems comprise a transmitter
Sprungmann, Dirk
2010-01-28
The combination of the Josephson and the proximity effect is possible by the introduction of a ferromagnetic barrier into a Josephson contact resulting in a so called π coupling. The supra current through these contacts is flowing in the reverse direction. Specific new electronic circuits such as phase shifting devices are possible, for instance for high-speed analog-digital transducers. In the frame of this thesis SIFS Josephson contacts were studied, with a barrier consisting of a thin insulating Al2Ox barrier layer and a ferromagnetic thin film. For the ferromagnetic material weak ferromagnetic Ni(0.6)Cu(0.4), the strong ferromagnetic Fe(0.25)Co(0.75) and the ternary Heusler alloys Co2MnSn and Cu2MnAl were used. Josephson contacts with π coupling were realized with the NiCu alloy, triplet superconductivity seems to appear with the Heusler systems.
Gianfrancesco, Anthony G; Tselev, Alexander; Baddorf, Arthur P; Kalinin, Sergei V; Vasudevan, Rama K
2015-11-13
The controlled growth of epitaxial films of complex oxides requires an atomistic understanding of key parameters determining final film morphology, such as termination dependence on adatom diffusion, and height of the Ehrlich-Schwoebel (ES) barrier. Here, through an in situ scanning tunneling microscopy study of mixed-terminated La5/8Ca3/8MnO3 (LCMO) films, we image adatoms and observe pile-up at island edges. Image analysis allows determination of the population of adatoms at the edge of islands and fractions on A-site and B-site terminations. A simple Monte-Carlo model, simulating the random walk of adatoms on a sinusoidal potential landscape using Boltzmann statistics is used to reproduce the experimental data, and provides an estimate of the ES barrier as ∼0.18 ± 0.04 eV at T = 1023 K, similar to those of metal adatoms on metallic surfaces. These studies highlight the utility of in situ imaging, in combination with basic Monte-Carlo methods, in elucidating the factors which control the final film growth in complex oxides.
Gianfrancesco, Anthony G; Tselev, Alexander; Baddorf, Arthur P; Kalinin, Sergei V; Vasudevan, Rama K
2015-01-01
The controlled growth of epitaxial films of complex oxides requires an atomistic understanding of key parameters determining final film morphology, such as termination dependence on adatom diffusion, and height of the Ehrlich–Schwoebel (ES) barrier. Here, through an in situ scanning tunneling microscopy study of mixed-terminated La_5_/_8Ca_3_/_8MnO_3 (LCMO) films, we image adatoms and observe pile-up at island edges. Image analysis allows determination of the population of adatoms at the edge of islands and fractions on A-site and B-site terminations. A simple Monte-Carlo model, simulating the random walk of adatoms on a sinusoidal potential landscape using Boltzmann statistics is used to reproduce the experimental data, and provides an estimate of the ES barrier as ∼0.18 ± 0.04 eV at T = 1023 K, similar to those of metal adatoms on metallic surfaces. These studies highlight the utility of in situ imaging, in combination with basic Monte-Carlo methods, in elucidating the factors which control the final film growth in complex oxides. (paper)
Gianfrancesco, Anthony G.; Tselev, Alexander; Baddorf, Arthur P.; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Vasudevan, Rama K.
2015-11-01
The controlled growth of epitaxial films of complex oxides requires an atomistic understanding of key parameters determining final film morphology, such as termination dependence on adatom diffusion, and height of the Ehrlich-Schwoebel (ES) barrier. Here, through an in situ scanning tunneling microscopy study of mixed-terminated La5/8Ca3/8MnO3 (LCMO) films, we image adatoms and observe pile-up at island edges. Image analysis allows determination of the population of adatoms at the edge of islands and fractions on A-site and B-site terminations. A simple Monte-Carlo model, simulating the random walk of adatoms on a sinusoidal potential landscape using Boltzmann statistics is used to reproduce the experimental data, and provides an estimate of the ES barrier as ˜0.18 ± 0.04 eV at T = 1023 K, similar to those of metal adatoms on metallic surfaces. These studies highlight the utility of in situ imaging, in combination with basic Monte-Carlo methods, in elucidating the factors which control the final film growth in complex oxides.
Pettersson, Karin; Wiberg, Joanna; Ljungdahl, Thomas; Mårtensson, Jerker; Albinsson, Bo
2006-01-12
The rate of electron tunneling in molecular donor-bridge-acceptor (D-B-A) systems is determined both by the tunneling barrier width and height, that is, both by the distance between the donor and acceptor as well as by the energy gap between the donor and bridge moieties. These factors are therefore important to control when designing functional electron transfer systems, such as constructs for photovoltaics, artificial photosynthesis, and molecular scale electronics. In this paper we have investigated a set of D-B-A systems in which the distance and the energy difference between the donor and bridge states (DeltaEDB) are systematically varied. Zinc(II) and gold(III) porphyrins were chosen as electron donor and acceptor because of their suitable driving force for photoinduced electron transfer (-0.9 eV in butyronitrile) and well-characterized photophysics. We have previously shown, in accordance with the superexchange mechanism for electron transfer, that the electron transfer rate is proportional to the inverse of DeltaEDB in a series of zinc/gold porphyrin D-B-A systems with bridges of constant edge to edge distance (19.6 A) and varying DeltaEDB (3900-17 600 cm(-1)). Here, we use the same donor and acceptor but the bridge is shortened or extended giving a set of oligo-p-phenyleneethynylene bridges (OPE) with four different edge to edge distances ranging from 12.7 to 33.4 A. These two sets of D-B-A systems-ZnP-RB-AuP+ and ZnP-nB-AuP+-have one bridge in common, and hence, for the first time both the distance and DeltaEDB dependence of electron transfer can be studied simultaneously in a systematic way.
Sýkora, R.; Turek, Ilja
2012-01-01
Roč. 24, č. 36 (2012), 365801/1-365801/10 ISSN 0953-8984 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP204/11/1228 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : tunnel junctions * magnetoresistance Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.355, year: 2012
Spin-dependent tunneling transport in a lateral magnetic diode
Wang, Yu; Shi, Ying
2012-01-01
Based on the gate-tunable two-dimensional electron gas, we have constructed laterally a double-barrier resonant tunneling structure by employing a peculiar triple-gate configuration, namely a ferromagnetic gate sandwiched closely by a pair of Schottky gates. Because of the in-plane stray field of ferromagnetic gate, the resulting bound spin state in well gives rise to the remarkable resonant spin polarization following the spin-dependent resonant tunneling regime. Importantly, by aligning the bound spin state through surface gate-voltage configuration, this resonant spin polarization can be externally manipulated, showing the desirable features for the spin-logic device applications. -- Highlights: ► A lateral spin-RTD was proposed by applying triple-gate modulated 2DEG. ► Spin-dependent resonant tunneling transport and large resonant spin polarization has been clarified from the systematic simulation. ► Both electric and/or magnetic strategies can be employed to modulate the system spin transport, providing the essential features for the spin-logic application.
12C+16O: Properties of sub-barrier resonance γ-decay
Goasduff, A.; Courtin, S.; Haas, F.; Lebhertz, D.; Jenkins, D. G.; Fallis, J.; Ruiz, C.; Hutcheon, D. A.; Amandruz, P.-A.; Davis, C.; Hager, U.; Ottewell, D.; Ruprecht, G.
2012-01-01
In a recent experiment performed at Triumf using the Dragon 0° spectrometer and its associated BGO array, the complete γ-decay of the radiative capture channel below the Coulomb barrier has been measured for the first time. This measurement has been performed at two energies E c.m. = 6.6 and 7.2 MeV. A selective contribution of the entrance spins 2 + and 3 − has been evidenced which is consistent with existing results above the barrier.
Gesa eWeise
2012-12-01
Full Text Available Unlike other organs the nervous system is secluded from the rest of the organism by the blood brain (BBB or blood nerve barrier (BNB preventing passive influx of fluids from the circulation. Similarly, leukocyte entry to the nervous system is tightly controlled. Breakdown of these barriers and cellular inflammation are hallmarks of inflammatory as well as ischemic neurological diseases and thus represent potential therapeutic targets. The spatiotemporal relationship between BBB/BNB disruption and leukocyte infiltration has been a matter of debate. We here review contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI as a non-invasive tool to depict barrier dysfunction and its relation to macrophage infiltration in the central and peripheral nervous system under pathological conditions. Novel experimental contrast agents like Gadofluorine M (Gf allow more sensitive assessment of BBB dysfunction than conventional Gadolinium (Gd-DTPA-enhanced MRI. In addition, Gf facilitates visualization of functional and transient alterations of the BBB remote from lesions. Cellular contrast agents such as superparamagnetic iron oxide particles (SPIO and perfluorocarbons (PFC enable assessment of leukocyte (mainly macrophage infiltration by MR technology. Combined use of these MR contrast agents disclosed that leukocytes can enter the nervous system independent from a disturbance of the BBB, and vice versa, a dysfunctional BBB/BNB by itself is not sufficient to attract inflammatory cells from the circulation. We will illustrate these basic imaging findings in animal models of multiple sclerosis (MS, cerebral ischemia and traumatic nerve injury and review corresponding findings in patients.
Galeti, H. V. A.; Galvão Gobato, Y.; Brasil, M. J. S. P.; Taylor, D.; Henini, M.
2018-03-01
We have investigated the spin properties of a two-dimensional hole gas (2DHG) formed at the contact layer of a p-type GaAs/AlAs resonant tunneling diode (RTD). We have measured the polarized-resolved photoluminescence of the RTD as a function of bias voltage, laser intensity and external magnetic field up to 15T. By tuning the voltage and the laser intensity, we are able to change the spin-splitting from the 2DHG from almost 0 meV to 5 meV and its polarization degree from - 40% to + 50% at 15T. These results are attributed to changes of the local electric field applied to the two-dimensional gas which affects the valence band and the hole Rashba spin-orbit effect.
Feiginov, Michael; Kanaya, Hidetoshi; Suzuki, Safumi; Asada, Masahiro
2014-01-01
In search for possibilities to increase the operating frequencies of resonant-tunneling diodes (RTDs), we are studying RTDs working in an unusual regime. The collector side of our diodes is so heavily doped that the collector depletion region is fully eliminated in our RTDs and the ground quantum-well subband stays immersed under (or stays close to) the collector quasi-Fermi level. The electron injection from the collector into the RTD quantum well is very strong in our diodes and stays comparable to that from the emitter in the whole range of RTD operating biases. Our RTDs exhibit well pronounced negative-differential-conductance region and peak-to-valley current ratio around 1.8. We demonstrate operation of our diodes in RTD oscillators up to 1.46 THz. We also observe a fine structure in the emission spectra of our RTD oscillators, when they are working in the regime close to the onset of oscillations.
Growden, Tyler A.; Fakhimi, Parastou; Berger, Paul R.; Storm, David F.; Meyer, David J.; Zhang, Weidong; Brown, Elliott R.
2016-01-01
AlN/GaN resonant tunneling diodes grown on low dislocation density semi-insulating bulk GaN substrates via plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy are reported. The devices were fabricated using a six mask level, fully isolated process. Stable room temperature negative differential resistance (NDR) was observed across the entire sample. The NDR exhibited no hysteresis, background light sensitivity, or degradation of any kind after more than 1000 continuous up-and-down voltage sweeps. The sample exhibited a ∼90% yield of operational devices which routinely displayed an average peak current density of 2.7 kA/cm 2 and a peak-to-valley current ratio of ≈1.15 across different sizes.
Growden, Tyler A.; Fakhimi, Parastou; Berger, Paul R., E-mail: pberger@ieee.org [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Storm, David F.; Meyer, David J. [U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Zhang, Weidong; Brown, Elliott R. [Departments of Physics and Electrical Engineering, Wright State University, Dayton, Ohio 45435 (United States)
2016-08-22
AlN/GaN resonant tunneling diodes grown on low dislocation density semi-insulating bulk GaN substrates via plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy are reported. The devices were fabricated using a six mask level, fully isolated process. Stable room temperature negative differential resistance (NDR) was observed across the entire sample. The NDR exhibited no hysteresis, background light sensitivity, or degradation of any kind after more than 1000 continuous up-and-down voltage sweeps. The sample exhibited a ∼90% yield of operational devices which routinely displayed an average peak current density of 2.7 kA/cm{sup 2} and a peak-to-valley current ratio of ≈1.15 across different sizes.
Delay time and tunneling transient phenomena
Garcia-Calderon, Gaston; Villavicencio, Jorge
2002-01-01
Analytic solutions to the time-dependent Schroedinger equation for cutoff wave initial conditions are used to investigate the time evolution of the transmitted probability density for tunneling. For a broad range of values of the potential barrier opacity α, we find that the probability density exhibits two evolving structures. One refers to the propagation of a forerunner related to a time domain resonance [Phys. Rev. A 64, 0121907 (2001)], while the other consists of a semiclassical propagating wave front. We find a regime where the forerunners are absent, corresponding to positive time delays, and show that this regime is characterized by opacities α c . The critical opacity α c is derived from the analytical expression for the delay time, which reflects a link between transient effects in tunneling and the delay time
Drews, Bjoern Holger; Gulkin, Daniel; Guelke, Joachim; Gebhard, Florian [University of Ulm, Center of Surgery, Department for Orthopedic Trauma, Hand and Reconstructive Surgery, Ulm (Germany); Merz, Cornelia; Huth, Jochen; Mauch, Frieder [Sportklinik Stuttgart GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany)
2017-10-15
Revision ACL reconstruction is becoming more frequent because of a 10% rate of re-ruptures and insufficiencies. Currently, computed tomography (CT) represents the gold standard in detecting and measuring the tunnels of the initial ACL reconstruction. The purpose of this study was to compare measurement results of CT and thin-sliced MRI sequences, which were modified to a high soft tissue-bone contrast. Prior to an ACL revision surgery, 16 consecutive patients had an MRI in addition to the standard CT scan. A dedicated 0.25-T Esaote G-Scan (Esaote Biomedica, Cologne, Germany) with a Turbo 3D T1 sequence was used for MRI. Tunnel diameters were measured at 11 defined points of interest. For the statistical evaluation, the Mann-Whitney U test for connected samples was used. Inter- and intraobserver reliability was additionally calculated. All measured diameters showed significant to highly significant correlations between both diagnostic tools (r = 0.7-0.98). In addition, there was no significant difference (p > 0.5) between the two techniques. Almost all diameters showed nearly perfect intraobserver reliability (ICC 0.8-0.97). Interobserver reliability showed an ICC of 0.91/0.92 for only one diameter in MRI and CT. Prior to ACL revision surgery, bone tunnel measurements can be done using a 3D T1-MRI sequence in low-field MRI. MRI measurements show the same accuracy as CT scans. Preoperative radiation exposure in mainly young patients could be reduced. Also the costs of an additional CT scan could be saved. (orig.)
Direct, coherent and incoherent intermediate state tunneling and scanning tunnel microscopy (STM)
Halbritter, J.
1997-01-01
Theory and experiment in tunneling are still qualitative in nature, which hold true also for the latest developments in direct-, resonant-, coherent- and incoherent-tunneling. Those tunnel processes have recently branched out of the field of ''solid state tunnel junctions'' into the fields of scanning tunnel microscopy (STM), single electron tunneling (SET) and semiconducting resonant tunnel structures (RTS). All these fields have promoted the understanding of tunneling in different ways reaching from the effect of coherence, of incoherence and of charging in tunneling, to spin flip or inelastic effects. STM allows not only the accurate measurements of the tunnel current and its voltage dependence but, more importantly, the easy quantification via the (quantum) tunnel channel conductance and the distance dependence. This new degree of freedom entering exponentially the tunnel current allows an unique identification of individual tunnel channels and their quantification. In STM measurements large tunnel currents are observed for large distances d > 1 nm explainable by intermediate state tunneling. Direct tunneling with its reduced tunnel time and reduced off-site Coulomb charging bridges distances below 1 nm, only. The effective charge transfer process with its larger off-site and on-site charging at intermediate states dominates tunnel transfer in STM, biology and chemistry over distances in the nm-range. Intermediates state tunneling becomes variable range hopping conduction for distances larger than d > 2 nm, for larger densities of intermediate states n 1 (ε) and for larger temperatures T or voltages U, still allowing high resolution imaging
Tunneling with dissipation in open quantum systems
Adamyan, G.G.; Antonenko, N.V.; Scheid, W.
1997-01-01
Based on the general form of the master equation for open quantum systems the tunneling is considered. Using the path integral technique a simple closed form expression for the tunneling rate through a parabolic barrier is obtained. The tunneling in the open quantum systems strongly depends on the coupling with environment. We found the cases when the dissipation prohibits tunneling through the barrier but decreases the crossing of the barrier for the energies above the barrier. As a particular application, the case of decay from the metastable state is considered
Electronic tunneling currents at optical frequencies
Faris, S. M.; Fan, B.; Gustafson, T. K.
1975-01-01
Rectification characteristics of nonsuperconducting metal-barrier-metal junctions as deduced from electronic tunneling theory have been observed experimentally for optical frequency irradiation of the junction.
Navarro, H.; Sirena, M.; Haberkorn, N.; Yang, Ilkyu; Kim, Jeehoon
2015-01-01
The optimization of the superconducting properties in a bottom electrode and the quality of an insulator barrier are the first steps in the development of superconductor/insulator/superconductor tunnel junctions. Here, we study the quality of a BaTiO 3 tunnel barrier deposited on a 16 nm thick GdBa 2 Cu 3 O 7−δ thin film by using conductive atomic force microscopy. We find that the tunnel current is systematically reduced (for equal applied voltage) by increasing the BaTiO 3 barrier thickness between 1.6 and 4 nm. The BaTiO 3 layers present an energy barrier of ≈1.2 eV and an attenuation length of 0.35–0.5 nm (depending on the applied voltage). The GdBa 2 Cu 3 O 7−δ electrode is totally covered by a BaTiO 3 thickness above 3 nm. The presence of ferroelectricity was verified by piezoresponse force microscopy for a 4 nm thick BaTiO 3 top layer. The superconducting transition temperature of the bilayers is systematically suppressed by increasing the BaTiO 3 thickness. This fact can be associated with stress at the interface and a reduction of the orthorhombicity of the GdBa 2 Cu 3 O 7−δ . The reduction in the orthorhombicity is expected by considering the interface mismatch and it can also be affected by reduced oxygen stoichiometry (poor oxygen diffusion across the BaTiO 3 barrier)
Navarro, H., E-mail: henrynavarro@cab.cnea.gov.ar; Sirena, M.; Haberkorn, N. [Instituto Balseiro, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo and CNEA, 8400 Bariloche (Argentina); Centro Atómico Bariloche, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica. Av. Bustillo 9500, 8400 San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina); Yang, Ilkyu [Department of Physics, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jeehoon [Department of Physics, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); CALDES, Institute for Basic Science, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)
2015-07-28
The optimization of the superconducting properties in a bottom electrode and the quality of an insulator barrier are the first steps in the development of superconductor/insulator/superconductor tunnel junctions. Here, we study the quality of a BaTiO{sub 3} tunnel barrier deposited on a 16 nm thick GdBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7−δ} thin film by using conductive atomic force microscopy. We find that the tunnel current is systematically reduced (for equal applied voltage) by increasing the BaTiO{sub 3} barrier thickness between 1.6 and 4 nm. The BaTiO{sub 3} layers present an energy barrier of ≈1.2 eV and an attenuation length of 0.35–0.5 nm (depending on the applied voltage). The GdBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7−δ} electrode is totally covered by a BaTiO{sub 3} thickness above 3 nm. The presence of ferroelectricity was verified by piezoresponse force microscopy for a 4 nm thick BaTiO{sub 3} top layer. The superconducting transition temperature of the bilayers is systematically suppressed by increasing the BaTiO{sub 3} thickness. This fact can be associated with stress at the interface and a reduction of the orthorhombicity of the GdBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7−δ}. The reduction in the orthorhombicity is expected by considering the interface mismatch and it can also be affected by reduced oxygen stoichiometry (poor oxygen diffusion across the BaTiO{sub 3} barrier)
Tunneling anisotropic magnetoresistance in Co/AIOx/Al tunnel junctions with fcc Co (111) electrodes
Wang, Kai; Tran, T. Lan Ahn; Brinks, Peter; Brinks, P.; Sanderink, Johannes G.M.; Bolhuis, Thijs; van der Wiel, Wilfred Gerard; de Jong, Machiel Pieter
2013-01-01
Tunneling anisotropic magnetoresistance (TAMR) has been characterized in junctions comprised of face-centered cubic (fcc) Co (111) ferromagnetic electrodes grown epitaxially on sapphire substrates, amorphous AlOx tunnel barriers, and nonmagnetic Al counterelectrodes. Large TAMR ratios have been
Yang, C. H.; Shen, G. Z.; Ao, Z. M.; Xu, Y. W.
2016-09-01
Using the transfer matrix method, the carrier tunneling properties in graphene superlattice generated by the Thue-Morse sequence and Kolakoski sequence are investigated. The positions and strength of the transmission can be modulated by the barrier structures, the incident energy and angle, the height and width of the potential. These carriers tunneling characteristic can be understood from the energy band structures in the corresponding superlattice systems and the carrier’s states in well/barriers. The transmission peaks above the critical incident angle rely on the carrier’s resonance in the well regions. The structural diversity can modulate the electronic and transport properties, thus expanding its applications.
Roy, S; Fox, M R; Curcic, J; Schwizer, W; Pal, A
2012-07-01
The function and structure of the gastro-esophageal junction (GEJ) determine its efficacy as a reflux barrier. This study presents a novel methodology for the quantitative assessment of GEJ and proximal gastric morphology from magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Based on this data we propose a new conceptualization of the hypothesis that a flap valve mechanism contributes to reflux protection. 3D models of the GEJ and proximal stomach were reconstructed from MR images in 12 healthy volunteers during respiration and on eating a test meal to maximum satiation. A rotating plane analysis measured the gastro-esophageal insertion angle and span of contact. An ellipsoid fit provided quantitative assessment of gastric shape and orientation relative to a fixed anatomical reference point. Position of the esophageal insertion on the 'gastric ellipse' was noted. An ellipsoid-cylinder model was designed to analyze the relationships among parameters describing the GEJ morphology. The insertion angle became more acute on expiration, but did not change with meal ingestion. In contrast the span of contact did not vary with respiration, but increased with gastric filling. Changes in gastric morphology with distension further augmented the span of gastro-esophageal contact in almost 70% of the studies. Novel MR imaging and biophysical analysis of the GEJ and proximal stomach provide a quantitative description of structures contributing to the reflux barrier. Changes in these parameters during respiration and on eating support the hypothesis that structural components of a functional 'flap valve' like mechanism contribute to reflux protection. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Polymer-mediated tunneling transport between carbon nanotubes in nanocomposites.
Derosa, Pedro A; Michalak, Tyler
2014-05-01
Electron transport in nanocomposites has attracted a good deal of attention for some time now; furthermore, the ability to control its characteristics is a necessary step in the design of multifunctional materials. When conductive nanostructures (for example carbon nanotubes) are inserted in a non-conductive matrix, electron transport below the percolation threshold is dominated by tunneling and thus the conductive characteristics of the composite depends heavily on the characteristics of the tunneling currents between nanoinserts. A parameter-free approach to study tunneling transport between carbon nanotubes across a polymer matrix is presented. The calculation is done with a combination of Density Functional Theory and Green functions (an approach heavily used in molecular electronics) which is shown here to be effective in this non-resonant transport condition. The results show that the method can effectively capture the effect of a dielectric layer in tunneling transport. The current is found to exponentially decrease with the size of the gap for both vacuum and polymer, and that the polymer layer lowers the tunneling barrier enhancing tunneling conduction. For a polyacrylonitrile matrix, a four-fold decrease in the tunneling constant, compared to tunneling in vacuum, is observed, a result that is consistent with available information. The method is very versatile as any DFT functional (or any other quantum mechanics method) can be used and thus the most accurate method for each particular system can be chosen. Furthermore as more methods become available, the calculations can be revised and improved. This approach can be used to design functional materials for fine-tunning the tunneling transport, for instance, the effect of modifying the nanoinsert-matrix interface (for example, by adding functional groups to carbon nanotubes) can be captured and the comparative performance of each interface predicted by simulation.
Kaplunenko, V. K.; Larsen, Britt Hvolbæk; Mygind, Jesper
1994-01-01
on experimental and numerical investigations of a resonant step observed at a voltage corresponding to 600 GHz in the dc current-voltage characteristic of a parallel array of 20 identical small NbAl2O3Nb Josephson junctions interconnected by short sections of superconducting microstrip line. The junctions...... are mutually phase locked due to collective interaction with the line sections excited close to the half wavelength resonance. The phase locking range can be adjusted by means of an external dc magnetic field and the step size varies periodically with the magnetic field. The largest step corresponds...
Thermovoltages in vacuum tunneling investigated by scanning tunneling microscopy
Hoffmann, D. H.; Rettenberger, Armin; Grand, Jean Yves; Läuger, K.; Leiderer, Paul; Dransfeld, Klaus; Möller, Rolf
1995-01-01
By heating the tunneling tip of a scanning tunneling microscope the thermoelectric properties of a variable vacuum barrier have been investigated. The lateral variation of the observed thermovoltage will be discussed for polycrystalline gold, stepped surfaces of silver, as well as for copper islands on silver.
Tsunegi, Sumito; Taniguchi, Tomohiro; Yakushiji, Kay; Fukushima, Akio; Yuasa, Shinji; Kubota, Hitoshi
2018-05-01
We investigated the spin-torque diode effect in a magnetic tunnel junction with FeB free layer. Vortex-core expulsion was observed near the boundary between vortex and uniform states. A high diode voltage of 24 mV was obtained with alternative input power of 0.3 µW, corresponding to huge diode sensitivity of 80,000 mV/mW. In the expulsion region, a broad peak in the high frequency region was observed, which is attributed to the weak excitation of uniform magnetization by thermal noise. The high diode sensitivity is of great importance for device applications such as telecommunications, radar detectors, and high-speed magnetic-field sensors.
Liu, Lei; Li, Yu-Xian; Liu, Jian-Jun
2012-01-01
Using transfer matrix method, transport properties in graphene based double velocity-barrier structures under magnetic and electric fields are numerically studied. It is found that velocity barriers for the velocity ratio (the Fermi velocity inside the barrier to that outside the barrier) less than one (or for the velocity ratio greater than one) have properties similar to electrostatic wells (or barriers). The velocity barriers for the velocity ratio greater than one significantly enlarge the resonant tunneling region of electrostatic barriers. In the presence of magnetic field, the plateau width of the Fano factor with a Poissonian value shortens (or broadens) for the case of the velocity ratio less than one (or greater than one). When the Fermi energy is equal to the electrostatic barrier height, for different values of the velocity ratio, both the conductivities and the Fano factors remain fixed. -- Highlights: ► We model graphene based velocity-barrier structures in electric and magnetic fields. ► Velocity barrier for ξ 1) have property similar to electrostatic well (barrier). ► Velocity barrier for ξ>1 enlarge the resonant tunneling region of electrostatic barrier. ► The plateau width of Fano factor shortens (or broadens) for the case of ξ 1). ► The conductivity remains fixed at the point of E F =U 0 for different values of ξ.
Fabrication of magnetic tunnel junctions with epitaxial and textured ferromagnetic layers
Chang, Y. Austin; Yang, Jianhua Joshua
2008-11-11
This invention relates to magnetic tunnel junctions and methods for making the magnetic tunnel junctions. The magnetic tunnel junctions include a tunnel barrier oxide layer sandwiched between two ferromagnetic layers both of which are epitaxial or textured with respect to the underlying substrate upon which the magnetic tunnel junctions are grown. The magnetic tunnel junctions provide improved magnetic properties, sharper interfaces and few defects.
Petersen, Nils Holger
2014-01-01
A chapter in a book about terminology within the field of medievalism: the chapter discusses the resonance of medieval music and ritual in modern (classical) music culture and liturgical practice.......A chapter in a book about terminology within the field of medievalism: the chapter discusses the resonance of medieval music and ritual in modern (classical) music culture and liturgical practice....
Control of tunneling in a double-well potential with chirped laser pulses
Vatasescu, Mihaela
2012-11-01
We investigate the use of chirped laser pulses to control the tunneling dynamics in the 0g-(6s,6p3/2) double well of Cs2 coupled with other electronic surfaces. The possibility to manipulate the tunneling dynamics appears in a pump-dump scheme designed to form deeply bound cold molecules by photoassociation of two cold cesium atoms in the 0g-(6s,6p3/2) electronic state coupled with a3Σu+ (6s,6s) electronic state. The dump pulse is acting on the 0g-(6s,6p3/2) barrier and can be used to control the tunneling and to capture population in the inner well in deep vibrational levels out of tunneling resonances.
Control of tunneling in a double-well potential with chirped laser pulses
Vatasescu, Mihaela
2012-01-01
We investigate the use of chirped laser pulses to control the tunneling dynamics in the 0 g − (6s,6p 3/2 ) double well of Cs 2 coupled with other electronic surfaces. The possibility to manipulate the tunneling dynamics appears in a pump-dump scheme designed to form deeply bound cold molecules by photoassociation of two cold cesium atoms in the 0 g − (6s,6p 3/2 ) electronic state coupled with a 3 Σ u + (6s,6s) electronic state. The dump pulse is acting on the 0g − (6s,6p3/2) barrier and can be used to control the tunneling and to capture population in the inner well in deep vibrational levels out of tunneling resonances.
Rostkowska, Hanna; Lapinski, Leszek; Nowak, Maciej J
2018-05-23
Spontaneous thiol → thione hydrogen-atom transfer has been investigated for molecules of thiourea trapped in Ar, Ne, normal-H2 (n-H2) and normal-D2 (n-D2) low-temperature matrices. The most stable thione isomer was the only form of the compound present in the matrices after their deposition. According to MP2/6-311++G(2d,p) calculations, the thiol tautomer should be higher in energy by 62.5 kJ mol-1. This less stable thiol form of the compound was photochemically generated in a thione → thiol process, occurring upon UV irradiation of the matrix. Subsequently, a very slow spontaneous conversion of the thiol tautomer into the thione form was observed for the molecules isolated in Ar, Ne, n-H2 and n-D2 matrices kept at 3.5 K and in the dark. Since the thiol → thione transformation in thiourea is a process involving the dissociation of a chemical bond, the barrier for this hydrogen-atom transfer is very high (104-181 kJ mol-1). Crossing such a high potential-energy barrier at a temperature as low as 3.5 K, is possible only by hydrogen-atom tunneling. The experimentally measured time constants of this tunneling process: 52 h (Ar), 76 h (Ne), 94 h (n-H2) and 94 h (n-D2), do not differ much from one another. Hence, the dependence of the tunneling rate on the matrix environment is not drastic. The progress of the thiol → thione conversion was also monitored for Ar matrices at different temperature: 3.5 K, 9 K and 15 K. For this temperature range, the experiments revealed no detectable temperature dependence of the rate of the tunneling process.
Quantum tunneling with friction
Tokieda, M.; Hagino, K.
2017-05-01
Using the phenomenological quantum friction models introduced by P. Caldirola [Nuovo Cimento 18, 393 (1941), 10.1007/BF02960144] and E. Kanai [Prog. Theor. Phys. 3, 440 (1948), 10.1143/ptp/3.4.440], M. D. Kostin [J. Chem. Phys. 57, 3589 (1972), 10.1063/1.1678812], and K. Albrecht [Phys. Lett. B 56, 127 (1975), 10.1016/0370-2693(75)90283-X], we study quantum tunneling of a one-dimensional potential in the presence of energy dissipation. To this end, we calculate the tunneling probability using a time-dependent wave-packet method. The friction reduces the tunneling probability. We show that the three models provide similar penetrabilities to each other, among which the Caldirola-Kanai model requires the least numerical effort. We also discuss the effect of energy dissipation on quantum tunneling in terms of barrier distributions.
Ultrafast scanning tunneling microscopy
Botkin, D.A. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics]|[Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)
1995-09-01
I have developed an ultrafast scanning tunneling microscope (USTM) based on uniting stroboscopic methods of ultrafast optics and scanned probe microscopy to obtain nanometer spatial resolution and sub-picosecond temporal resolution. USTM increases the achievable time resolution of a STM by more than 6 orders of magnitude; this should enable exploration of mesoscopic and nanometer size systems on time scales corresponding to the period or decay of fundamental excitations. USTM consists of a photoconductive switch with subpicosecond response time in series with the tip of a STM. An optical pulse from a modelocked laser activates the switch to create a gate for the tunneling current, while a second laser pulse on the sample initiates a dynamic process which affects the tunneling current. By sending a large sequence of identical pulse pairs and measuring the average tunnel current as a function of the relative time delay between the pulses in each pair, one can map the time evolution of the surface process. USTM was used to measure the broadband response of the STM`s atomic size tunnel barrier in frequencies from tens to hundreds of GHz. The USTM signal amplitude decays linearly with the tunnel junction conductance, so the spatial resolution of the time-resolved signal is comparable to that of a conventional STM. Geometrical capacitance of the junction does not appear to play an important role in the measurement, but a capacitive effect intimately related to tunneling contributes to the measured signals and may limit the ultimate resolution of the USTM.
Apparent tunneling in chemical reactions
Henriksen, Niels Engholm; Hansen, Flemming Yssing; Billing, G. D.
2000-01-01
A necessary condition for tunneling in a chemical reaction is that the probability of crossing a barrier is non-zero, when the energy of the reactants is below the potential energy of the barrier. Due to the non-classical nature (i.e, momentum uncertainty) of vibrational states this is, however......, not a sufficient condition in order to establish genuine tunneling as a result of quantum dynamics. This proposition is illustrated for a two-dimensional model potential describing dissociative sticking of N-2 on Ru(s). It is suggested that the remarkable heavy atom tunneling, found in this system, is related...
Pashkovskii, A. B., E-mail: solidstate10@mail.ru [Shokin Joint-Stock Company ISTOK Research and Production Corporation (Russian Federation)
2017-04-15
Solution of the Schrödinger equation, which describes resonant transitions between three quantum levels in large-signal and high-frequency electric fields, is generalized to the case of the detuning of frequencies and energies from those exactly resonant for asymmetric three-barrier resonance-tunneling structures with thin high barriers. The dependence of the shape of the resonance levels on the amplitude and frequency of electric fields is studied. It is shown that the number of regions of absolute transparency can be as large as four depending on the microwave-field amplitude.
Dorda, Antonius; Schürrer, Ferdinand
2015-03-01
We present a novel numerical scheme for the deterministic solution of the Wigner transport equation, especially suited to deal with situations in which strong quantum effects are present. The unique feature of the algorithm is the expansion of the Wigner function in local basis functions, similar to finite element or finite volume methods. This procedure yields a discretization of the pseudo-differential operator that conserves the particle density on arbitrarily chosen grids. The high flexibility in refining the grid spacing together with the weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) scheme for the advection term allows for an accurate and well-resolved simulation of the phase space dynamics. A resonant tunneling diode is considered as test case and a detailed convergence study is given by comparing the results to a non-equilibrium Green's functions calculation. The impact of the considered domain size and of the grid spacing is analyzed. The obtained convergence of the results towards a quasi-exact agreement of the steady state Wigner and Green's functions computations demonstrates the accuracy of the scheme, as well as the high flexibility to adjust to different physical situations.
Tunneling Ionization of Diatomic Molecules
Svensmark, Jens Søren Sieg
2016-01-01
When a molecule is subject to a strong laser field, there is a probability that an electron can escape, even though the electrons are bound by a large potential barrier. This is possible because electrons are quantum mechanical in nature, and they are therefore able to tunnel through potential...... barriers, an ability classical particles do not possess. Tunnelling is a fundamental quantum mechanical process, a process that is distinctly non-classical, so solving this tunnelling problem is not only relevant for molecular physics, but also for quantum theory in general. In this dissertation the theory...... of tunneling ionizaion of molecules is presented and the results of numerical calculations are shown. One perhaps surprising result is, that the frequently used Born-Oppenheimer approximation breaks down for weak fields when describing tunneling ionization. An analytic theory applicable in the weak-field limit...
Dai, C.J.; Yan, X.H.; Xiao, Y.; Guo, Y.D.
2015-01-01
By means of the density functional theory combined with non-equilibrium Green's function method, ballistic transport properties of one-dimensional noncollinear magnetic monatomic chains were investigated using the single-atomic Mn chains as a model system. Fano resonances are found to exist in the monatomic Mn chains with spin-spiral structure. Furthermore, in the monatomic Mn chains with magnetic soliton lattice, Fano resonances are enhanced and cause the conductance splitting in the transmission spectra. The Fano resonances in the noncollinear magnetic single-atomic Mn chains are arising from the coupling of the localized d-states and the extended states of the quantum channels. By constructing a theoretical model and calculating its conductance, it is found that the phenomena of Fano resonances and the accompanying conductance splitting exist universally in the superlattice of one-dimensional noncollinear magnetic barriers, due to the interference of the incident waves and reflected waves by the interfaces between the neighboring barriers. Moreover, the band structures of the ferromagnetic and spin-spiral monatomic Mn chains exhibit a strong dependence on the spatial arrangement of the magnetic moments of Mn atoms when spin–orbit coupling is considered. - Highlights: • Transport properties of noncollinear magnetic monatomic Mn chains are studied. • Fano resonances are found in the noncollinear magnetic monatomic Mn chains. • Magnetic soliton lattice leads to conductance splitting in the transmission curve. • Fano resonances exist in the superlattice of noncollinear magnetic barriers. • Effect of SOC on the band structure of FM and spin-spiral Mn chains are studied
Hydrodynamic optical soliton tunneling
Sprenger, P.; Hoefer, M. A.; El, G. A.
2018-03-01
A notion of hydrodynamic optical soliton tunneling is introduced in which a dark soliton is incident upon an evolving, broad potential barrier that arises from an appropriate variation of the input signal. The barriers considered include smooth rarefaction waves and highly oscillatory dispersive shock waves. Both the soliton and the barrier satisfy the same one-dimensional defocusing nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation, which admits a convenient dispersive hydrodynamic interpretation. Under the scale separation assumption of nonlinear wave (Whitham) modulation theory, the highly nontrivial nonlinear interaction between the soliton and the evolving hydrodynamic barrier is described in terms of self-similar, simple wave solutions to an asymptotic reduction of the Whitham-NLS partial differential equations. One of the Riemann invariants of the reduced modulation system determines the characteristics of a soliton interacting with a mean flow that results in soliton tunneling or trapping. Another Riemann invariant yields the tunneled soliton's phase shift due to hydrodynamic interaction. Soliton interaction with hydrodynamic barriers gives rise to effects that include reversal of the soliton propagation direction and spontaneous soliton cavitation, which further suggest possible methods of dark soliton control in optical fibers.
Electron transmission through a periodically driven graphene magnetic barrier
Biswas, R., E-mail: rbiswas.pkc@gmail.com [Department of Physics, P. K. College, Contai, Purba Medinipur, West Bengal – 721401 (India); Maiti, S. [Ajodhya Hills G.S.A.T High School, Ajodhya, Purulia, West Bengal – 723152 (India); Mukhopadhyay, S. [Purulia Zilla School, Dulmi Nadiha, Purulia, West Bengal – 723102 (India); Sinha, C. [Department of Physics, P. K. College, Contai, Purba Medinipur, West Bengal – 721401 (India); Department of Theoretical Physics, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur – 700032 (India)
2017-05-10
Electronic transport through graphene magnetic barriers is studied theoretically in presence of an external time harmonic scalar potential in the framework of non-perturbative Landau–Floquet Formalism. The oscillating field mostly suppresses the transmission for rectangular magnetic barrier structure and exhibits the Fano resonance for multiphoton processes due to the presence of bound state inside the barrier. While, for a pair of delta function barriers of larger separation, the oscillating potential suppresses the usual Fabry–Perot oscillations in the transmission and a new type of asymmetric Fano resonance is noted for smaller separation, occurring due to extended states between the barriers. - Highlights: • Tunnelling of the Dirac Fermions through oscillating pure magnetic barriers is reported for the first time. • The high energy transmission through a graphene magnetic barrier is suppressed by the application of time periodic modulation. • Suppression of the Fabry Perot transmission is noted due to the application of an external time harmonic potential. • Two kinds of the Fano resonances are noted in transmission through a pair of modulated δ-function magnetic barriers.
Resonances for coupled Bose-Einstein condensates
Haroutyunyan, H.L.; Nienhuis, G.
2004-01-01
The properties of a Bose-Einstein condensate in a two-well potential can be manipulated by periodic modulation of the potential parameters. We study the effects arising from modulating the barrier height and the difference in well depth. At certain modulation frequencies the system exhibits resonances, which may show up in an enhancement of the tunneling rate between the wells. Resonances can be used to control the particle distribution over the wells. Some of the effects occurring in the two-well system also arise for a Bose-Einstein condensate in an optical lattice
Higo, M [Hazam Gumi, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)
1991-10-25
A mountain tunneling method for rock-beds used to be applied mainly to construction works in the mountains under few restrictions by environmental problems. However, construction works near residential sreas have been increasing. There are such enviromental problems due to tunneling works as vibration, noise, lowering of ground-water level, and influences on other structures. This report mainly describes the measurement examples of vibration and noise accompanied with blasting and the effects of the measures to lessen such influences. When the tunneling works for the railroad was carried out on the natural ground mainly composed of basalt, vibration of the test blasting was measured at three stations with piezoelectric accelerometers. Then, ordinary blasting, mutistage blasting, and ABM blasting methods were used properly besed on the above results, and only a few complaints were made. In the different works, normal noise and low-frequency sound were mesured at 22 stations around the pit mouth. As countermeasures for noise, sound-proof sheets, walls, and single and double doors were installed and foundto be effective. 1 ref., 6 figs., 1 tab.
Out-of-equilibrium catalysis of chemical reactions by electronic tunnel currents.
Dzhioev, Alan A; Kosov, Daniel S; von Oppen, Felix
2013-04-07
We present an escape rate theory for current-induced chemical reactions. We use Keldysh nonequilibrium Green's functions to derive a Langevin equation for the reaction coordinate. Due to the out of equilibrium electronic degrees of freedom, the friction, noise, and effective temperature in the Langevin equation depend locally on the reaction coordinate. As an example, we consider the dissociation of diatomic molecules induced by the electronic current from a scanning tunnelling microscope tip. In the resonant tunnelling regime, the molecular dissociation involves two processes which are intricately interconnected: a modification of the potential energy barrier and heating of the molecule. The decrease of the molecular barrier (i.e., the current induced catalytic reduction of the barrier) accompanied by the appearance of the effective, reaction-coordinate-dependent temperature is an alternative mechanism for current-induced chemical reactions, which is distinctly different from the usual paradigm of pumping vibrational degrees of freedom.
an impetus or drive to that account: change, innovation, rupture, or discontinuity. Resonances: Historical Essays on Continuity and Change explores the historiographical question of the modes of interrelation between these motifs in historical narratives. The essays in the collection attempt to realize...
Jarvis, P.D.; Bulte, D.P.
1998-01-01
A quantum-mechanical description of tunnelling is presented for a one-dimensional system with internal oscillator degrees of freedom. The 'charged diatomic molecule' is frustrated on encountering a barrier potential by its centre of charge not being coincident with its centre of mass, resulting in transitions amongst internal states. In an adiabatic limit, the tunnelling of semiclassical coherent-like oscillator states is shown to exhibit the Hartman and Bueuttiker-Landauer times t H and t BL , with the time dependence of the coherent state parameter for the tunnelled state given by α(t) = α e -iω(t+Δt) , Δt = t H - it BL . A perturbation formalism is developed, whereby the exact transfer matrix can be expanded to any desired accuracy in a suitable limit. An 'intrinsic' time, based on the oscillator transition rate during tunnelling, transmission or reflection, is introduced. In simple situations the resulting intrinsic tunnelling time is shown to vanish to lowest order. In the general case a particular (nonzero) parametrisation is inferred, and its properties discussed in comparison with the literature on tunnelling times for both wavepackets and internal clocks. Copyright (1998) CSIRO Australia
Shape resonances in molecular fields
Dehmer, J.L.
1984-01-01
A shape resonance is a quasibound state in which a particle is temporarily trapped by a potential barrier (i.e., the shape of the potential), through which it may eventually tunnel and escape. This simple mechanism plays a prominent role in a variety of excitation processes in molecules, ranging from vibrational excitation by slow electrons to ionization of deep core levels by x-rays. Moreover, their localized nature makes shape resonances a unifying link between otherwise dissimilar circumstances. One example is the close connection between shape resonances in electron-molecule scattering and in molecular photoionization. Another is the frequent persistence of free-molecule shape resonant behavior upon adsorption on a surface or condensation into a molecular solid. The main focus of this article is a discussion of the basic properties of shape resonances in molecular fields, illustrated by the more transparent examples studied over the last ten years. Other aspects to be discussed are vibrational effects of shape resonances, connections between shape resonances in different physical settings, and examples of shape resonant behavior in more complex cases, which form current challenges in this field
van Vliet, Erwin A; Otte, Willem M; Wadman, Wytse J; Aronica, Eleonora; Kooij, Gijs; de Vries, Helga E; Dijkhuizen, Rick M; Gorter, Jan A
2016-01-01
The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway has received increasing attention as a potential antiepileptogenic target. Treatment with the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin after status epilepticus reduces the development of epilepsy in a rat model. To study whether rapamycin mediates this effect via restoration of blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction, contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (CE-MRI) was used to determine BBB permeability throughout epileptogenesis. Imaging was repeatedly performed until 6 weeks after kainic acid-induced status epilepticus in rapamycin (6 mg/kg for 6 weeks starting 4 h after SE) and vehicle-treated rats, using gadobutrol as contrast agent. Seizures were detected using video monitoring in the week following the last imaging session. Gadobutrol leakage was widespread and extensive in both rapamycin and vehicle-treated epileptic rats during the acute phase, with the piriform cortex and amygdala as the most affected regions. Gadobutrol leakage was higher in rapamycin-treated rats 4 and 8 days after status epilepticus compared to vehicle-treated rats. However, during the chronic epileptic phase, gadobutrol leakage was lower in rapamycin-treated epileptic rats along with a decreased seizure frequency. This was confirmed by local fluorescein staining in the brains of the same rats. Total brain volume was reduced by this rapamycin treatment regimen. The initial slow recovery of BBB function in rapamycin-treated epileptic rats indicates that rapamycin does not reduce seizure activity by a gradual recovery of BBB integrity. The reduced BBB leakage during the chronic phase, however, could contribute to the decreased seizure frequency in post-status epilepticus rats treated with rapamycin. Furthermore, the data show that CE-MRI (using step-down infusion with gadobutrol) can be used as biomarker for monitoring the effect of drug therapy in rats. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 International League Against Epilepsy.
Robust spin transfer torque in antiferromagnetic tunnel junctions
Saidaoui, Hamed Ben Mohamed; Waintal, Xavier; Manchon, Aurelien
2017-01-01
We theoretically study the current-induced spin torque in antiferromagnetic tunnel junctions, composed of two semi-infinite antiferromagnetic layers separated by a tunnel barrier, in both clean and disordered regimes. We find that the torque
Tunneling Flight Time, Chemistry, and Special Relativity.
Petersen, Jakob; Pollak, Eli
2017-09-07
Attosecond ionization experiments have not resolved the question "What is the tunneling time?". Different definitions of tunneling time lead to different results. Second, a zero tunneling time for a material particle suggests that the nonrelativistic theory includes speeds greater than the speed of light. Chemical reactions, occurring via tunneling, should then not be considered in terms of a nonrelativistic quantum theory calling into question quantum dynamics computations on tunneling reactions. To answer these questions, we define a new experimentally measurable paradigm, the tunneling flight time, and show that it vanishes for scattering through an Eckart or a square barrier, irrespective of barrier length or height, generalizing the Hartman effect. We explain why this result does not lead to experimental measurement of speeds greater than the speed of light. We show that this tunneling is an incoherent process by comparing a classical Wigner theory with exact quantum mechanical computations.
Coulomb singularity effects in tunnelling spectroscopy of individual impurities
Arseyev, P. I.; Maslova, N. S.; Panov, V. I.; Savinov, S. V.
2002-01-01
Non-equilibrium Coulomb effects in resonant tunnelling processes through deep impurity states are analyzed. It is shown that Coulomb vertex corrections to the tunnelling transfer amplitude lead to a power-law singularity in current- voltage characteristics
Tunneling time, what is its meaning?
McDonald, C R; Orlando, G; Vampa, G; Brabec, T
2015-01-01
The tunnel time ionization dynamics for bound systems in laser fields are investigated. Numerical analysis for a step function switch-on of the field allows for the tunnel time to be defined as the time it takes the ground state to develop the under-barrier wavefunction components necessary to achieve the static field ionization rate. A relation between the tunnel time and the Keldysh time is established. The definition of the tunnel time is extended to time varying fields and experimental possibilities for measuring the tunnel time are discussed
Experimental Evidence for Quantum Tunneling Time
Camus, Nicolas; Yakaboylu, Enderalp; Fechner, Lutz; Klaiber, Michael; Laux, Martin; Mi, Yonghao; Hatsagortsyan, Karen Z.; Pfeifer, Thomas; Keitel, Christoph H.; Moshammer, Robert
2017-07-01
The first hundred attoseconds of the electron dynamics during strong field tunneling ionization are investigated. We quantify theoretically how the electron's classical trajectories in the continuum emerge from the tunneling process and test the results with those achieved in parallel from attoclock measurements. An especially high sensitivity on the tunneling barrier is accomplished here by comparing the momentum distributions of two atomic species of slightly deviating atomic potentials (argon and krypton) being ionized under absolutely identical conditions with near-infrared laser pulses (1300 nm). The agreement between experiment and theory provides clear evidence for a nonzero tunneling time delay and a nonvanishing longitudinal momentum of the electron at the "tunnel exit."
Uncooled tunneling infrared sensor
Kenny, Thomas W. (Inventor); Kaiser, William J. (Inventor); Podosek, Judith A. (Inventor); Vote, Erika C. (Inventor); Muller, Richard E. (Inventor); Maker, Paul D. (Inventor)
1995-01-01
An uncooled infrared tunneling sensor in which the only moving part is a diaphragm which is deflected into contact with a micromachined silicon tip electrode prepared by a novel lithographic process. Similarly prepared deflection electrodes employ electrostatic force to control the deflection of a silicon nitride, flat diaphragm membrane. The diaphragm exhibits a high resonant frequency which reduces the sensor's sensitivity to vibration. A high bandwidth feedback circuit controls the tunneling current by adjusting the deflection voltage to maintain a constant deflection of the membrane. The resulting infrared sensor can be miniaturized to pixel dimensions smaller than 100 .mu.m. An alternative embodiment is implemented using a corrugated membrane to permit large deflection without complicated clamping and high deflection voltages. The alternative embodiment also employs a pinhole aperture in a membrane to accommodate environmental temperature variation and a sealed chamber to eliminate environmental contamination of the tunneling electrodes and undesireable accoustic coupling to the sensor.
Yoshimura, S.; Nozawa, T.; Shoyama, T.; Tsunoda, M.; Takahashi, M.
2005-01-01
In order to form ultrathin insulating layer in magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs), two surface flatting processes of metal films are investigated. Oxygen-additive sputter-deposition process was applied to the bottom Cu electrode and the Al layer to be nitrided. Dry-etching process was applied for the surface treatment of lower Co-Fe layer. As a result, the surface roughness of stacked ultrathin Al layer to be nitrided is reduced from 3.2A to 1.7A, and the tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) ratio of the MTJs increases from 1% to 26% while maintaining resistance-area product (RxA) less than 5x10 2 Ω μm 2 in the Co-Fe/Al(6A)-N/Co-Fe MTJs. We conclude that the decrease of the surface roughness of Al layer is one of the key factors to realize high performance MTJs with low RxA and high TMR ratio
Vazquez, Justin; Ali, Halima; Punjabi, Alkesh
2009-11-01
Ciraolo, Vittot and Chandre method of building invariant manifolds inside chaos in Hamiltonian systems [Ali H. and Punjabi A, Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion, 49, 1565--1582 (2007)] is used in the ASDEX UG tokamak. In this method, a second order perturbation is added to the perturbed Hamiltonian [op cit]. It creates an invariant torus inside the chaos, and reduces the plasma transport. The perturbation that is added to the equilibrium Hamiltonian is at least an order of magnitude smaller than the perturbation that causes chaos. This additional term has a finite, limited number of Fourier modes. Resonant magnetic perturbations (m,n) = (3,2)+(4,3) are added to the field line Hamiltonian for the ASDEX UG. An area-preserving map for the field line trajectories in the ASDEX UG is used. The common amplitude δ of these modes that gives complete chaos between the resonant surfaces ψ43 and ψ32 is determined. A magnetic barrier is built at a surface with noble q that is very nearly equals to the q at the physical midpoint between the two resonant surfaces. The maximum amplitude of magnetic perturbation for which this barrier can be sustained is determined. This work is supported by US Department of Energy grants DE-FG02-07ER54937, DE-FG02-01ER54624 and DE-FG02-04ER54793.
Shot noise and electronic properties in the inversion-symmetric Weyl semimetal resonant structure
Yang, Yanling; Bai, Chunxu; Xu, Xiaoguang; Jiang, Yong
2018-02-01
Using the transfer matrix method, the authors combine the analytical formula with numerical calculation to explore the shot noise and conductance of massless Weyl fermions in the Weyl semimetal resonant junction. By varying the barrier strength, the structure of the junction, the Fermi energy, and the crystallographic angle, the shot noise and conductance can be tuned efficiently. For a quasiperiodic superlattice, in complete contrast to the conventional junction case, the effect of the disorder strength on the shot noise and conductance depends on the competition of classical tunneling and Klein tunneling. Moreover, the delta barrier structure is also vital in determining the shot noise and conductance. In particular, a universal Fano factor has been found in a single delta potential case, whereas the resonant structure of the Fano factor perfectly matches with the number of barriers in a delta potential superlattice. These results are crucial for engineering nanoelectronic devices based on this topological semimetal material.
Yang, Baishun; Tao, Lingling; Jiang, Leina; Chen, Weizhao; Tang, Ping; Yan, Yu; Han, Xiufeng
2018-05-01
We report a first-principles study of electronic structures, magnetic properties, and the tunneling-magnetoresistance (TMR) effect of a series of ferromagnetic nitride M4N (M =Fe , Co, Ni)-based magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs). It is found that bulk Fe4 N reveals a half-metal nature in terms of the Δ1 state. A perpendicular magnetic anisotropy is observed in the periodic system Fe4 N /MgO . In particular, the ultrahigh TMR ratio of over 24 000% is predicted in the Fe4 N /MgO /Fe4N MTJ due to the interface resonance tunneling and relatively high transmission for states of other symmetry. Besides, the large TMR can be maintained with the change of atomic details at the interface, such as the order-disorder interface, the change of thickness of the MgO barrier, and different in-plane lattice constants of the MTJ. The physical origin of the TMR effect can be well understood by analyzing the band structure and transmission channel of bulk Fe4 N as well as the transmission in momentum space of Fe4 N /MgO /Fe4N . Our results suggest that the Fe4 N /MgO /Fe4N MTJ is a benefit for spintronic applications.
Parui, Subir; Ribeiro, Mário; Atxabal, Ainhoa; Llopis, Roger; Bedoya-Pinto, Amilcar; Sun, Xiangnan; Casanova, Fèlix; Hueso, Luis E.
2016-01-01
The relevance for modern computation of non-volatile high-frequency memories makes ac-transport measurements of magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) crucial for exploring this regime. Here, we demonstrate a frequency-mediated effect in which the tunnel magnetoimpedance reverses its sign in a classical Co/Al 2 O 3 /NiFe MTJ, whereas we only observe a gradual decrease in the tunnel magnetophase. Such effects are explained by the capacitive coupling of a parallel resistor and capacitor in the equivalent circuit model of the MTJ. Furthermore, we report a positive tunnel magnetocapacitance effect, suggesting the presence of a spin-capacitance at the two ferromagnet/tunnel-barrier interfaces. Our results are important for understanding spin transport phenomena at the high frequency regime in which the spin-polarized charge accumulation due to spin-dependent penetration depth at the two interfaces plays a crucial role.
Parui, Subir, E-mail: s.parui@nanogune.eu, E-mail: l.hueso@nanogune.eu; Ribeiro, Mário; Atxabal, Ainhoa; Llopis, Roger [CIC nanoGUNE, 20018 Donostia-San Sebastian (Spain); Bedoya-Pinto, Amilcar [CIC nanoGUNE, 20018 Donostia-San Sebastian (Spain); Max Planck Institute of Microstructure Physics, D-06120 Halle (Germany); Sun, Xiangnan [CIC nanoGUNE, 20018 Donostia-San Sebastian (Spain); National Center for Nanoscience and Technology, 100190 Beijing (China); Casanova, Fèlix; Hueso, Luis E., E-mail: s.parui@nanogune.eu, E-mail: l.hueso@nanogune.eu [CIC nanoGUNE, 20018 Donostia-San Sebastian (Spain); IKERBASQUE, Basque Foundation for Science, 48011 Bilbao (Spain)
2016-08-01
The relevance for modern computation of non-volatile high-frequency memories makes ac-transport measurements of magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) crucial for exploring this regime. Here, we demonstrate a frequency-mediated effect in which the tunnel magnetoimpedance reverses its sign in a classical Co/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/NiFe MTJ, whereas we only observe a gradual decrease in the tunnel magnetophase. Such effects are explained by the capacitive coupling of a parallel resistor and capacitor in the equivalent circuit model of the MTJ. Furthermore, we report a positive tunnel magnetocapacitance effect, suggesting the presence of a spin-capacitance at the two ferromagnet/tunnel-barrier interfaces. Our results are important for understanding spin transport phenomena at the high frequency regime in which the spin-polarized charge accumulation due to spin-dependent penetration depth at the two interfaces plays a crucial role.
Stone, Taylor J. [Charlotte Radiology, Charlotte, NC (United States); Rosenberg, Zehava S.; Ciavarra, Gina; Bencardino, Jenny T. [New York Langone Medical Center / Hospital for Joint Diseases, New York, NY (United States); Velez, Zoraida Restrepo [Cedimed-Dinamica, Medellin (Colombia); Prost, Roberto [Marino Hospital ASL Cagliari, Cagliari (Italy)
2016-03-15
To evaluate the position of the peroneus longus (PL) tendon relative to the cuboid tuberosity and cuboid tunnel during ankle dorsiflexion and plantarflexion using ultrasound and MRI. The study population included two groups: 20 feet of 10 asymptomatic volunteers who underwent prospective dynamic ultrasound and 55 ankles found through retrospective review of routine ankle MRI examinations. The location of the PL tendon at the cuboid tuberosity and cuboid tunnel was designated as completely within the tunnel, indeterminate, or subluxed with respect to ankle dorsiflexion and plantarflexion. On dynamic ultrasound, the PL tendon was perched plantar to the cuboid tuberosity in dorsiflexion, and glided to enter the cuboid tunnel distal to the tuberosity in plantarflexion in all 20 feet. On the MRI evaluation, there was a statistically significant difference (p = 0.0006) in the location of the PL tendon between the ankles scanned in dorsiflexion and plantarflexion. Based on our findings on ultrasound and MRI, the PL tendon can glide in and out of the cuboid tunnel along the cuboid tuberosity depending on ankle position. Thus, ''subluxation'' of the tendon as it curves to enter the cuboid tunnel, which to the best of our knowledge has not yet been described, should be recognized as a normal, position-dependent phenomenon and not be reported as pathology. (orig.)
Stone, Taylor J.; Rosenberg, Zehava S.; Ciavarra, Gina; Bencardino, Jenny T.; Velez, Zoraida Restrepo; Prost, Roberto
2016-01-01
To evaluate the position of the peroneus longus (PL) tendon relative to the cuboid tuberosity and cuboid tunnel during ankle dorsiflexion and plantarflexion using ultrasound and MRI. The study population included two groups: 20 feet of 10 asymptomatic volunteers who underwent prospective dynamic ultrasound and 55 ankles found through retrospective review of routine ankle MRI examinations. The location of the PL tendon at the cuboid tuberosity and cuboid tunnel was designated as completely within the tunnel, indeterminate, or subluxed with respect to ankle dorsiflexion and plantarflexion. On dynamic ultrasound, the PL tendon was perched plantar to the cuboid tuberosity in dorsiflexion, and glided to enter the cuboid tunnel distal to the tuberosity in plantarflexion in all 20 feet. On the MRI evaluation, there was a statistically significant difference (p = 0.0006) in the location of the PL tendon between the ankles scanned in dorsiflexion and plantarflexion. Based on our findings on ultrasound and MRI, the PL tendon can glide in and out of the cuboid tunnel along the cuboid tuberosity depending on ankle position. Thus, ''subluxation'' of the tendon as it curves to enter the cuboid tunnel, which to the best of our knowledge has not yet been described, should be recognized as a normal, position-dependent phenomenon and not be reported as pathology. (orig.)
Alimardani, N.; Conley, J. F.
2013-09-01
We combine nanolaminate bilayer insulator tunnel barriers (Al2O3/HfO2, HfO2/Al2O3, Al2O3/ZrO2) deposited via atomic layer deposition (ALD) with asymmetric work function metal electrodes to produce MIIM diodes with enhanced I-V asymmetry and non-linearity. We show that the improvements in MIIM devices are due to step tunneling rather than resonant tunneling. We also investigate conduction processes as a function of temperature in MIM devices with Nb2O5 and Ta2O5 high electron affinity insulators. For both Nb2O5 and Ta2O5 insulators, the dominant conduction process is established as Schottky emission at small biases and Frenkel-Poole emission at large biases. The energy depth of the traps that dominate Frenkel-Poole emission in each material are estimated.
Double Barriers and Magnetic Field in Bilayer Graphene
Redouani, Ilham; Jellal, Ahmed; Bahlouli, Hocine
2015-12-01
We study the transmission probability in an AB-stacked bilayer graphene of Dirac fermions scattered by a double-barrier structure in the presence of a magnetic field. We take into account the full four bands structure of the energy spectrum and use the suitable boundary conditions to determine the transmission probability. Our numerical results show that for energies higher than the interlayer coupling, four ways for transmission are possible while for energies less than the height of the barrier, Dirac fermions exhibit transmission resonances and only one transmission channel is available. We show that, for AB-stacked bilayer graphene, there is no Klein tunneling at normal incidence. We find that the transmission displays sharp peaks inside the transmission gap around the Dirac point within the barrier regions while they are absent around the Dirac point in the well region. The effect of the magnetic field, interlayer electrostatic potential, and various barrier geometry parameters on the transmission probabilities is also discussed.
Improved multidimensional semiclassical tunneling theory.
Wagner, Albert F
2013-12-12
We show that the analytic multidimensional semiclassical tunneling formula of Miller et al. [Miller, W. H.; Hernandez, R.; Handy, N. C.; Jayatilaka, D.; Willets, A. Chem. Phys. Lett. 1990, 172, 62] is qualitatively incorrect for deep tunneling at energies well below the top of the barrier. The origin of this deficiency is that the formula uses an effective barrier weakly related to the true energetics but correctly adjusted to reproduce the harmonic description and anharmonic corrections of the reaction path at the saddle point as determined by second order vibrational perturbation theory. We present an analytic improved semiclassical formula that correctly includes energetic information and allows a qualitatively correct representation of deep tunneling. This is done by constructing a three segment composite Eckart potential that is continuous everywhere in both value and derivative. This composite potential has an analytic barrier penetration integral from which the semiclassical action can be derived and then used to define the semiclassical tunneling probability. The middle segment of the composite potential by itself is superior to the original formula of Miller et al. because it incorporates the asymmetry of the reaction barrier produced by the known reaction exoergicity. Comparison of the semiclassical and exact quantum tunneling probability for the pure Eckart potential suggests a simple threshold multiplicative factor to the improved formula to account for quantum effects very near threshold not represented by semiclassical theory. The deep tunneling limitations of the original formula are echoed in semiclassical high-energy descriptions of bound vibrational states perpendicular to the reaction path at the saddle point. However, typically ab initio energetic information is not available to correct it. The Supporting Information contains a Fortran code, test input, and test output that implements the improved semiclassical tunneling formula.
On the directional selectivity of tunneling experiments
Beuermann, G.; Goettingen Univ.
1981-01-01
Using realistic parameters in a simplified model the directional selectivity of tunneling experiments is discussed. Although perfect surfaces and barriers are assumed, quasiparticles coming from a wide solid angle may contribute essentially to the tunnel current. This must be taken into consideration in the case of gap anisotropy. (orig.)
Theory of superconducting tunneling without the tunneling Hamiltonian
Arnold, G.B.
1987-01-01
When a tunneling barrier is nearly transparent, the standard tunneling (or transfer) Hamiltonian approximation fails. The author describes the theory which is necessary for calculating the tunneling current in these cases, and illustrate it by comparing theory and experiment on superconductor/insulator/superconductor (SIS) junctions have ultra-thin tunnel barriers. This theory accurately explains the subgap structure which appears in the dynamical resistance of such SIS junctions, including many observed details which no previous theory has reproduced. The expression for the current through an SIS junction with an ultrathin barrier is given by I(t) = Re{Sigma/sub n/ J/sub n/ (omega/sub o/)e/sup in omega/o/sup t/} where omega/sub o/ = 2eV/h is the Josephson frequency, V is the bias voltage, and the J/sub n/ are voltage dependent coefficients, one for each positive or negative integer, n, and n=0. The relative sign of the terms involving cos(n omega/sub o/t) and sin(n omega/sub o/t) agrees with experiment, in contrast to previous theories of Josephson tunneling
Coherence in Magnetic Quantum Tunneling
Fernandez, Julio F.
2001-03-01
Crystals of single molecule magnets such as Mn_12 and Fe8 behave at low temperatures as a collection of independent spins. Magnetic anisotropy barriers slow down spin-flip processes. Their rate Γ becomes temperature independent at sufficiently low temperature. Quantum tunneling (QT) accounts for this behavior. Currently, spin QT in Mn_12 and Fe8 is assumed to proceed as an incoherent sum of small probability increments that occur whenever a bias field h(t) (arising from hyperfine interactions with nuclear spins) that varies with time t becomes sufficiently small, as in Landau-Zener transitions. Within a two-state model, we study the behavior of a suitably defined coherence time τ_φ and compare it with the correlation time τh for h(t). It turns out that τ_φ >τ_h, when τ_hδ h < hbar, where δ h is the rms deviation of h. We show what effect such coherence has on Γ. Its dependence on a static longitudinal applied field Hz is drastically affected. There is however no effect if the field is swept through resonance.
Spin polarization at the interface and tunnel magnetoresistance
Itoh, H.; Inoue, J.
2001-01-01
We propose that interfacial states of imperfectly oxidized Al ions may exist in ferromagnetic tunnel junctions with Al-O barrier and govern both the spin polarization and tunnel conductance. It is shown that the spin polarization is positive independent of materials and correlates well with the tunnel magnetoresistance
Superconducting tunnel-junction refrigerator
Melton, R.G.; Paterson, J.L.; Kaplan, S.B.
1980-01-01
The dc current through an S 1 -S 2 tunnel junction, with Δ 2 greater than Δ 1 , when biased with eV 1 +Δ 2 , will lower the energy in S 1 . This energy reduction will be shared by the phonons and electrons. This device is shown to be analogous to a thermoelectric refrigerator with an effective Peltier coefficient π* approx. Δ 1 /e. Tunneling calculations yield the cooling power P/sub c/, the electrical power P/sub e/ supplied by the bias supply, and the cooling efficiency eta=P/sub c//P/sub e/. The maximum cooling power is obtained for eV= +- (Δ 2 -Δ 1 ) and t 1 =T 1 /T/sub c/1 approx. 0.9. Estimates are made of the temperature difference T 2 -T 1 achievable in Al-Pb and Sn-Pb junctions with an Al 2 O 3 tunneling barrier. The performance of this device is shown to yield a maximum cooling efficiency eta approx. = Δ 1 /(Δ 2 -Δ 1 ) which can be compared with that available in an ideal Carnot refrigerator of eta=T 1 /(T 2 -T 1 ). The development of a useful tunnel-junction refrigerator requires a tunneling barrier with an effective thermal conductance per unit area several orders of magnitude less than that provided by the A1 2 O 3 barrier in the Al-Pb and Sn-Pb systems
Vexler, M. I.; Grekhov, I. V.
2016-01-01
The features of electron tunneling from or into the silicon valence band in a metal–insulator–semiconductor system with the HfO_2(ZrO_2)/SiO_2 double-layer insulator are theoretically analyzed for different modes. It is demonstrated that the valence-band current plays a less important role in structures with HfO_2(ZrO_2)/SiO_2 than in structures containing only silicon dioxide. In the case of a very wide-gap high-K oxide ZrO_2, nonmonotonic behavior related to tunneling through the upper barrier is predicted for the valence-band–metal current component. The use of an insulator stack can offer certain advantages for some devices, including diodes, bipolar tunnel-emitter transistors, and resonant-tunneling diodes, along with the traditional use of high-K insulators in a field-effect transistor.
Tsiafoulis, Constantinos G.; Skarlas, Theodore; Tzamaloukas, Ouranios; Miltiadou, Despoina; Gerothanassis, Ioannis P.
2014-01-01
Highlights: • The first NMR quantification of four geometric 18:2 CLA isomers has been achieved. • Sensitivity and resolution NMR barriers have been overcome. • Selective suppression and reduced 13 C spectral width have been utilized. • The method is applied in the milk lipid fraction without derivatization steps. • The method is selective, sensitive with very good analytical characteristics. - Abstract: We report the first successful direct and unequivocal identification and quantification of four minor geometric (9-cis, 11-trans) 18:2, (9-trans, 11-cis) 18:2, (9-cis, 11-cis) 18:2 and (9-trans, 11-trans) 18:2 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers in lipid fractions of lyophilized milk samples with the combined use of 1D 1 H-NMR, 2D 1 H- 1 H TOCSY and 2D 1 H- 13 C HSQC NMR. The significant sensitivity barrier has been successfully overcome under selective suppression of the major resonances, with over 10 4 greater equilibrium magnetization of the -(CH 2 ) n - 1 H spins compared to that of the 1 H spins of the conjugated bonds of the CLA isomers. The resolution barrier has been significantly increased using reduced 13 C spectral width in the 2D 1 H- 13 C HSQC experiment. The assignment was confirmed with spiking experiments with CLA standard compounds and the method does not require any derivatization steps for the lipid fraction. The proposed method is selective, sensitive and compares favorably with the GS-MS method of analysis
Modeling of inter-ribbon tunneling in graphene
Van de Put, Maarten L.; Vandenberghe, William G.; Sorée, Bart; Magnus, Wim; Fischetti, Massimo
2015-01-01
The tunneling current between two crossed graphene ribbons is described invoking the empirical pseudopotential approximation and the Bardeen transfer Hamiltonian method. Results indicate that the density of states is the most important factor determining the tunneling current between small (nm) ribbons. The quasi-one dimensional nature of graphene nanoribbons is shown to result in resonant tunneling.
Tunneling spin injection into single layer graphene.
Han, Wei; Pi, K; McCreary, K M; Li, Yan; Wong, Jared J I; Swartz, A G; Kawakami, R K
2010-10-15
We achieve tunneling spin injection from Co into single layer graphene (SLG) using TiO₂ seeded MgO barriers. A nonlocal magnetoresistance (ΔR(NL)) of 130 Ω is observed at room temperature, which is the largest value observed in any material. Investigating ΔR(NL) vs SLG conductivity from the transparent to the tunneling contact regimes demonstrates the contrasting behaviors predicted by the drift-diffusion theory of spin transport. Furthermore, tunnel barriers reduce the contact-induced spin relaxation and are therefore important for future investigations of spin relaxation in graphene.
Samedov, V. V.; Tulinov, B. M.
2011-01-01
Superconducting tunnel junction (STJ) detector consists of two layers of superconducting material separated by thin insulating barrier. An incident particle produces in superconductor excess nonequilibrium quasiparticles. Each quasiparticle in superconductor should be considered as quantum superposition of electron-like and hole-like excitations. This duality nature of quasiparticle leads to the effect of multi-tunneling. Quasiparticle starts to tunnel back and forth through the insulating barrier. After tunneling from biased electrode quasiparticle loses its energy via phonon emission. Eventually, the energy that equals to the difference in quasiparticle energy between two electrodes is deposited in the signal electrode. Because of the process of multi-tunneling, one quasiparticle can deposit energy more than once. In this work, the theory of branching cascade processes was applied to the process of energy deposition caused by the quasiparticle multi-tunneling. The formulae for the mean value and variance of the energy transferred by one quasiparticle into heat were derived. (authors)
Role of phase breaking processes on resonant spin transfer torque nano-oscillators
Sharma, Abhishek; Tulapurkar, Ashwin A.; Muralidharan, Bhaskaran
2018-05-01
Spin transfer torque nano-oscillators (STNOs) based on magnetoresistance and spin transfer torque effects find potential applications in miniaturized wireless communication devices. Using the non-coherent non-equilibrium Green's function spin transport formalism self-consistently coupled with the stochastic Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert-Slonczewski's equation and the Poisson's equation, we elucidate the role of elastic phase breaking on the proposed STNO design featuring double barrier resonant tunneling. Demonstrating the immunity of our proposed design, we predict that despite the presence of elastic dephasing, the resonant tunneling magnetic tunnel junction structures facilitate oscillator designs featuring a large enhancement in microwave power up to 8μW delivered to a 50Ω load.
Unified time analysis of photon and particle tunnelling
Olkhovsky, Vladislav S.; Recami, Erasmo; Jakiel, Jacek
2001-07-01
A unified approach to the time analysis of tunnelling of nonrelativistic particles is presented, in which Time is regarded as a quantum-mechanical observable, canonically conjugated to Energy. The validity of the Hartman effect (independence of the Tunnelling Time of the opaque barrier width, with superluminal group velocities as a consequence) is verified for all the known expressions of the mean tunnelling time. Moreover, the analogy between particle and photon tunnelling is suitably exploited. On the basic of such an analogy, an explanation of some recent microwave and optics experimental results on tunnelling time is proposed. Attention is devoted to some aspects of the causality problem for particle and photon tunnelling. (author)
Tunneling Anomalous and Spin Hall Effects.
Matos-Abiague, A; Fabian, J
2015-07-31
We predict, theoretically, the existence of the anomalous Hall effect when a tunneling current flows through a tunnel junction in which only one of the electrodes is magnetic. The interfacial spin-orbit coupling present in the barrier region induces a spin-dependent momentum filtering in the directions perpendicular to the tunneling current, resulting in a skew tunneling even in the absence of impurities. This produces an anomalous Hall conductance and spin Hall currents in the nonmagnetic electrode when a bias voltage is applied across the tunneling heterojunction. If the barrier is composed of a noncentrosymmetric material, the anomalous Hall conductance and spin Hall currents become anisotropic with respect to both the magnetization and crystallographic directions, allowing us to separate this interfacial phenomenon from the bulk anomalous and spin Hall contributions. The proposed effect should be useful for proving and quantifying the interfacial spin-orbit fields in metallic and metal-semiconductor systems.
Bogatskaya, A. V.; Klenov, N. V.; Tereshonok, M. V.; Adjemov, S. S.; Popov, A. M.
2018-05-01
We present an analysis of the possibility of penetrating electromagnetic waves through opaque media using an optical-mechanical analogy. As an example, we consider the plasma sheath surrounding the vehicle as a potential barrier and analyze the overcoming of radiocommunication blackout problem. The idea is to embed a «resonator» between the surface on the vehicle and plasma sheath which is supposed to provide an effective tunneling of the signal to the receiving antenna. We discuss the peculiarities of optical mechanical analogy applicability and analyze the radio frequency wave tunneling regime in detail. The cases of normal and oblique incidence of radiofrequency waves on the vehicle surface are studied.
Chaos regularization of quantum tunneling rates
Pecora, Louis M.; Wu Dongho; Lee, Hoshik; Antonsen, Thomas; Lee, Ming-Jer; Ott, Edward
2011-01-01
Quantum tunneling rates through a barrier separating two-dimensional, symmetric, double-well potentials are shown to depend on the classical dynamics of the billiard trajectories in each well and, hence, on the shape of the wells. For shapes that lead to regular (integrable) classical dynamics the tunneling rates fluctuate greatly with eigenenergies of the states sometimes by over two orders of magnitude. Contrarily, shapes that lead to completely chaotic trajectories lead to tunneling rates whose fluctuations are greatly reduced, a phenomenon we call regularization of tunneling rates. We show that a random-plane-wave theory of tunneling accounts for the mean tunneling rates and the small fluctuation variances for the chaotic systems.
Dielectric Sensors Based on Electromagnetic Energy Tunneling
Siddiqui, Omar; Kashanianfard, Mani; Ramahi, Omar
2015-01-01
We show that metallic wires embedded in narrow waveguide bends and channels demonstrate resonance behavior at specific frequencies. The electromagnetic energy at these resonances tunnels through the narrow waveguide channels with almost no propagation losses. Under the tunneling behavior, high-intensity electromagnetic fields are produced in the vicinity of the metallic wires. These intense field resonances can be exploited to build highly sensitive dielectric sensors. The sensor operation is explained with the help of full-wave simulations. A practical setup consisting of a 3D waveguide bend is presented to experimentally observe the tunneling phenomenon. The tunneling frequency is predicted by determining the input impedance minima through a variational formula based on the Green function of a probe-excited parallel plate waveguide. PMID:25835188
Dielectric Sensors Based on Electromagnetic Energy Tunneling
Omar Siddiqui
2015-03-01
Full Text Available We show that metallic wires embedded in narrow waveguide bends and channels demonstrate resonance behavior at specific frequencies. The electromagnetic energy at these resonances tunnels through the narrow waveguide channels with almost no propagation losses. Under the tunneling behavior, high-intensity electromagnetic fields are produced in the vicinity of the metallic wires. These intense field resonances can be exploited to build highly sensitive dielectric sensors. The sensor operation is explained with the help of full-wave simulations. A practical setup consisting of a 3D waveguide bend is presented to experimentally observe the tunneling phenomenon. The tunneling frequency is predicted by determining the input impedance minima through a variational formula based on the Green function of a probe-excited parallel plate waveguide.
Lindsay, S.; He, J.; Sankey, O.; Hapala, Prokop; Jelínek, Pavel; Zhang, P.; Chang, S.; Huang, S.
2010-01-01
Roč. 21, č. 26 (2010), 262001/1-262001/12 ISSN 0957-4484 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/09/0545 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : STM * tunneling current * molecular electronics * DFT calculations Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.644, year: 2010
Navacerrada, M.A., E-mail: mdelosangeles.navacerrada@upm.es [Grupo de Acustica Arquitectonica, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Arquitectura, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Avenida Juan de Herrera 4, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Lucia, M.L.; Sanchez-Quesada, F. [Departamento Fisica Aplicada III (Electricidad y Electronica), Facultad de Cc. Fisicas, Universidad Complutense, Avenida Complutense s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain)
2012-12-14
We have analyzed a resonant behavior in the dielectric constant associated to the barrier of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} (YBCO) grain boundary Josephson junctions (GBJJs) fabricated on a wide variety of bicrystalline substrates: 12 Degree-Sign [0 0 1] tilt asymmetric, 24 Degree-Sign [0 0 1] tilt asymmetric, 24 Degree-Sign [0 0 1] tilt symmetric, 24 Degree-Sign [1 0 0] tilt asymmetric, 45 Degree-Sign [1 0 0] tilt asymmetric and 24 Degree-Sign [0 0 1] tilt symmetric +45 Degree-Sign [1 0 0] tilt asymmetric bicrystals. The resonance analysis allows us to estimate a more appropriate value of the relative dielectric constant, and so a more adequate value for the length L of the normal N region assuming a SNINS model for the barrier. In this work, the L dependence on the critical current density Jc has been investigated. This analysis makes possible a single representation for all the substrate geometries independently on around which axes the rotation is produced to generate the grain boundary. On the other hand, no clear evidences exist on the origin of the resonance. The resonance frequency is in the order of 10{sup 11} Hz, pointing to a phonon dynamic influence on the resonance mechanism. Besides, its position is affected by the oxygen content of the barrier: a shift at low frequencies is observed when the misorientation angle increases.
Spin-polarizated transmissivity in an asymmetrical double barrier
Teixeira, J D S; Frota, H O; Bittencourt, A C R
2014-01-01
The spin-polarized electron resonant tunnelling at zero magnetic field through a double barrier heterostructure like InAs/GaSb/InAs/GaSb/InAs has been calculated as a function of the electron energy. A model is proposed to study the combined effects of Dresselhaus and in-plane Rashba spin-orbit interactions on the spin-dependent tunnelling, taking into account the k 3 dependence of the Dresselhaus Hamiltonian. For the directions ϕ=45 ∘ and 135 ∘ the spin mixing produces a 100% efficiency of polarization. Moreover, the effect of the Dresselhaus and Rashba spin-orbit interactions are shown to be quite favorable for the fabrication of spin filters and spintronic devices. (paper)
Superconducting tunneling with the tunneling Hamiltonian. II. Subgap harmonic structure
Arnold, G.B.
1987-01-01
The theory of superconducting tunneling without the tunneling Hamiltonian is extended to treat superconductor/insulator/superconductor junctions in which the transmission coefficient of the insulating barrier approaches unity. The solution for the current in such junctions is obtained by solving the problem of a particle hopping in a one-dimensional lattice of sites, with forward and reverse transfer integrals that depend on the site. The results are applied to the problem of subgap harmonic structure in superconducting tunneling. The time-dependent current at finite voltage through a junction exhibiting subgap structure is found to have terms that oscillate at all integer multiples of the Josephson frequency, n(2eV/h). The amplitudes of these new, and as yet unmeasured, ac current contributions as a function of voltage are predicted
1998-11-01
This book introduces history of tunnel in ancient times, the middle ages and modern times, survey of tunnel and classification of bedrock like environment survey of position, survey of the ground, design of tunnel on basic thing of the design, and design of tunnel of bedrock, analysis of stability of tunnel and application of the data, construction of tunnel like lattice girder and steel fiber reinforced shot crete, and maintenance control and repair of tunnel.
Useinov, Arthur; Ye, Lin-Xiu; Useinov, Niazbeck; Wu, Te-Ho; Lai, Chih-Huang
2015-01-01
The tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) in the magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) with embedded nanoparticles (NPs) was calculated in range of the quantum-ballistic model. The simulation was performed for electron tunneling through the insulating layer with embedded magnetic and non-magnetic NPs within the approach of the double barrier subsystem connected in parallel to the single barrier one. This model can be applied for both MTJs with in-plane magnetization and perpendicular one. We also calculated the in-plane component of the spin transfer torque (STT) versus the applied voltage in MTJs with magnetic NPs and determined that its value can be much larger than in single barrier system (SBS) for the same tunneling thickness. The reported simulation reproduces experimental data of the TMR suppression and peak-like TMR anomalies at low voltages available in leterature. PMID:26681336
Tunneling time in space fractional quantum mechanics
Hasan, Mohammad; Mandal, Bhabani Prasad
2018-02-01
We calculate the time taken by a wave packet to travel through a classically forbidden region of space in space fractional quantum mechanics. We obtain the close form expression of tunneling time from a rectangular barrier by stationary phase method. We show that tunneling time depends upon the width b of the barrier for b → ∞ and therefore Hartman effect doesn't exist in space fractional quantum mechanics. Interestingly we found that the tunneling time monotonically reduces with increasing b. The tunneling time is smaller in space fractional quantum mechanics as compared to the case of standard quantum mechanics. We recover the Hartman effect of standard quantum mechanics as a special case of space fractional quantum mechanics.
Unified time analysis of photon and particle tunnelling
Olkhovsky, V.S.; Recami, Erasmo; Jakiel, Jacek
2004-01-01
A unified time analysis of photon and nonrelativistic particle tunnellings is presented, in which time is regarded as a quantum observable, canonically conjugated to energy. Within this approach, one can introduce self-consistent definitions of the tunnelling times, on the basis of conventional quantum mechanics (or one-dimensional quantum electrodynamics) only. The validity of the Hartman effect [which states the tunnelling duration to be independent of the (opaque) barrier width, with superluminal group velocities of the tunnelling packet as a consequence] is verified for all the known expressions of the mean tunnelling time. However, some noticeable generalizations of (and deviations from) the Hartman effect are, as well, briefly investigated. Moreover, the analogy between particle and photon tunnelling is suitably exploited; on the basis of such an analogy, an explanation of some recent interesting microwave and optical experimental results on tunnelling times is proposed. Attention is devoted, at last, to some aspects of the causality problem for particle and photon tunnelling
Quantum tunneling of electron snake states in an inhomogeneous magnetic field
Hoodbhoy, Pervez
2018-05-01
In a two dimensional free electron gas subjected to a perpendicular spatially varying magnetic field, the classical paths of electrons are snake-like trajectories that weave along the line where the field crosses zero. But quantum mechanically this system is described by a symmetric double well potential which, for low excitations, leads to very different electron behavior. We compute the spectrum, as well as the wavefunctions, for states of definite parity in the limit of nearly degenerate states, i.e. for electrons sufficiently far from the B z = 0 line. Transitions between the states are shown to give rise to a tunneling current. If the well is made asymmetrical by a time-dependent parity breaking perturbation then Rabi-like oscillations between parity states occur. Resonances can be excited and used to stimulate the transfer of electrons from one side of the potential barrier to the other through quantum tunneling.
Quantum tunneling of electron snake states in an inhomogeneous magnetic field.
Hoodbhoy, Pervez
2018-05-10
In a two dimensional free electron gas subjected to a perpendicular spatially varying magnetic field, the classical paths of electrons are snake-like trajectories that weave along the line where the field crosses zero. But quantum mechanically this system is described by a symmetric double well potential which, for low excitations, leads to very different electron behavior. We compute the spectrum, as well as the wavefunctions, for states of definite parity in the limit of nearly degenerate states, i.e. for electrons sufficiently far from the B z = 0 line. Transitions between the states are shown to give rise to a tunneling current. If the well is made asymmetrical by a time-dependent parity breaking perturbation then Rabi-like oscillations between parity states occur. Resonances can be excited and used to stimulate the transfer of electrons from one side of the potential barrier to the other through quantum tunneling.
The temperature in Hawking radiation as tunneling
Zhang Baocheng; Cai Qingyu; Zhan Mingsheng
2009-01-01
The quasi-classical method of deriving Hawking radiation under the consideration of canonical invariance is investigated. We find that the horizon should be regarded as a two-way barrier and the ingoing amplitude should be calculated according to the negative energy particles tunneling into the black hole because of the whole space-time interchange and thus the standard Hawking temperature is recovered. We also discuss the advantage of the Painleve coordinates in Hawking radiation as tunneling
Tunneling time, exit time and exit momentum in strong field tunnel ionization
Teeny, Nicolas
2016-01-01
Tunnel ionization belongs to the fundamental processes of atomic physics. It is still an open question when does the electron tunnel ionize and how long is the duration of tunneling. In this work we solve the time-dependent Schroedinger equation in one and two dimensions and use ab initio quantum calculations in order to answer these questions. Additionally, we determine the exit momentum of the tunnel ionized electron from first principles. We find out results that are different from the assumptions of the commonly employed two-step model, which assumes that the electron ionizes at the instant of electric field maximum with a zero momentum. After determining the quantum final momentum distribution of tunnel ionized electrons we show that the two-step model fails to predict the correct final momentum. Accordingly we suggest how to correct the two-step model. Furthermore, we determine the instant at which tunnel ionization starts, which turns out to be different from the instant usually assumed. From determining the instant at which it is most probable for the electron to enter the tunneling barrier and the instant at which it exits we determine the most probable time spent under the barrier. Moreover, we apply a quantum clock approach in order to determine the duration of tunnel ionization. From the quantum clock we determine an average tunneling time which is different in magnitude and origin with respect to the most probable tunneling time. By defining a probability distribution of tunneling times using virtual detectors we relate both methods and explain the apparent discrepancy. The results found have in general an effect on the interpretation of experiments that measure the spectra of tunnel ionized electrons, and specifically on the calibration of the so called attoclock experiments, because models with imprecise assumptions are usually employed in order to interpret experimental results.
Tunneling time, exit time and exit momentum in strong field tunnel ionization
Teeny, Nicolas
2016-10-18
Tunnel ionization belongs to the fundamental processes of atomic physics. It is still an open question when does the electron tunnel ionize and how long is the duration of tunneling. In this work we solve the time-dependent Schroedinger equation in one and two dimensions and use ab initio quantum calculations in order to answer these questions. Additionally, we determine the exit momentum of the tunnel ionized electron from first principles. We find out results that are different from the assumptions of the commonly employed two-step model, which assumes that the electron ionizes at the instant of electric field maximum with a zero momentum. After determining the quantum final momentum distribution of tunnel ionized electrons we show that the two-step model fails to predict the correct final momentum. Accordingly we suggest how to correct the two-step model. Furthermore, we determine the instant at which tunnel ionization starts, which turns out to be different from the instant usually assumed. From determining the instant at which it is most probable for the electron to enter the tunneling barrier and the instant at which it exits we determine the most probable time spent under the barrier. Moreover, we apply a quantum clock approach in order to determine the duration of tunnel ionization. From the quantum clock we determine an average tunneling time which is different in magnitude and origin with respect to the most probable tunneling time. By defining a probability distribution of tunneling times using virtual detectors we relate both methods and explain the apparent discrepancy. The results found have in general an effect on the interpretation of experiments that measure the spectra of tunnel ionized electrons, and specifically on the calibration of the so called attoclock experiments, because models with imprecise assumptions are usually employed in order to interpret experimental results.
Chiral tunneling in a twisted graphene bilayer.
He, Wen-Yu; Chu, Zhao-Dong; He, Lin
2013-08-09
The perfect transmission in a graphene monolayer and the perfect reflection in a Bernal graphene bilayer for electrons incident in the normal direction of a potential barrier are viewed as two incarnations of the Klein paradox. Here we show a new and unique incarnation of the Klein paradox. Owing to the different chiralities of the quasiparticles involved, the chiral fermions in a twisted graphene bilayer show an adjustable probability of chiral tunneling for normal incidence: they can be changed from perfect tunneling to partial or perfect reflection, or vice versa, by controlling either the height of the barrier or the incident energy. As well as addressing basic physics about how the chiral fermions with different chiralities tunnel through a barrier, our results provide a facile route to tune the electronic properties of the twisted graphene bilayer.
Intrinsic Tunneling in Phase Separated Manganites
Singh-Bhalla, G.; Selcuk, S.; Dhakal, T.; Biswas, A.; Hebard, A. F.
2009-02-01
We present evidence of direct electron tunneling across intrinsic insulating regions in submicrometer wide bridges of the phase-separated ferromagnet (La,Pr,Ca)MnO3. Upon cooling below the Curie temperature, a predominantly ferromagnetic supercooled state persists where tunneling across the intrinsic tunnel barriers (ITBs) results in metastable, temperature-independent, high-resistance plateaus over a large range of temperatures. Upon application of a magnetic field, our data reveal that the ITBs are extinguished resulting in sharp, colossal, low-field resistance drops. Our results compare well to theoretical predictions of magnetic domain walls coinciding with the intrinsic insulating phase.
Coherence in a transmon qubit with epitaxial tunnel junctions
Weides, Martin [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States); Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany); Kline, Jeffrey; Vissers, Michael; Sandberg, Martin; Pappas, David [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States); Wisbey, David [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States); Saint Louis University, St. Louis, Missouri 63103 (United States); Johnson, Blake; Ohki, Thomas [Raytheon BBN Technologies, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States)
2012-07-01
Transmon qubits based on epitaxial tunnel junctions and interdigitated capacitors were developed. This multileveled qubit, patterned by use of all-optical lithography, is a step towards scalable qubits with a high integration density. The relaxation time T{sub 1} is.72-.86 {mu} sec and the ensemble dephasing time T{sub 2}{sup *} is slightly larger than T{sub 1}. The dephasing time T{sub 2} (1.36 {mu} sec) is nearly energy-relaxation-limited. Qubit spectroscopy yields weaker level splitting than observed in qubits with amorphous barriers in equivalent-size junctions. The qubit's inferred microwave loss closely matches the weighted losses of the individual elements (junction, wiring dielectric, and interdigitated capacitor), determined by independent resonator measurements.
Chu, Po-Chun; Chai, Wen-Yen; Tsai, Chih-Hung; Kang, Shih-Tsung; Yeh, Chih-Kuang; Liu, Hao-Li
2016-09-15
Focused ultrasound (FUS) with microbubbles can temporally open the blood-brain barrier (BBB), and the cavitation activities of microbubbles play a key role in the BBB-opening process. Previous attempts used contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (CE-MRI) to correlate the mechanical index (MI) with the scale of BBB-opening, but MI only partially gauged acoustic activities, and CE-MRI did not fully explore correlations of pharmacodynamic/pharmacokinetic behaviors. Recently, the cavitation index (CI) has been derived to serve as an indicator of microbubble-ultrasound stable cavitation, and may also serve as a valid indicator to gauge the level of FUS-induced BBB opening. This study investigates the feasibility of gauging FUS-induced BBB opened level via the two indexes, MI and CI, through dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE)-MRI analysis as well as passive cavitation detection (PCD) analysis. Pharmacodynamic/pharmacokinetic parameters derived from DCE-MRI were characterized to identify the scale of FUS-induced BBB opening. Our results demonstrated that DCE-MRI can successfully access pharmacodynamic/pharmacokinetic BBB-opened behavior, and was highly correlated both with MI and CI, implying the feasibility in using these two indices to gauge the scale of FUS-induced BBB opening. The proposed finding may facilitate the design toward using focused ultrasound as a safe and reliable noninvasive CNS drug delivery.
Atomically Thin Al2O3 Films for Tunnel Junctions
Wilt, Jamie; Gong, Youpin; Gong, Ming; Su, Feifan; Xu, Huikai; Sakidja, Ridwan; Elliot, Alan; Lu, Rongtao; Zhao, Shiping; Han, Siyuan; Wu, Judy Z.
2017-06-01
Metal-insulator-metal tunnel junctions are common throughout the microelectronics industry. The industry standard AlOx tunnel barrier, formed through oxygen diffusion into an Al wetting layer, is plagued by internal defects and pinholes which prevent the realization of atomically thin barriers demanded for enhanced quantum coherence. In this work, we employ in situ scanning tunneling spectroscopy along with molecular-dynamics simulations to understand and control the growth of atomically thin Al2O3 tunnel barriers using atomic-layer deposition. We find that a carefully tuned initial H2O pulse hydroxylated the Al surface and enabled the creation of an atomically thin Al2O3 tunnel barrier with a high-quality M -I interface and a significantly enhanced barrier height compared to thermal AlOx . These properties, corroborated by fabricated Josephson junctions, show that atomic-layer deposition Al2O3 is a dense, leak-free tunnel barrier with a low defect density which can be a key component for the next generation of metal-insulator-metal tunnel junctions.
... a passing cramp? It could be carpal tunnel syndrome. The carpal tunnel is a narrow passageway of ... three times more likely to have carpal tunnel syndrome than men. Early diagnosis and treatment are important ...
Current noise in tunnel junctions
Frey, Moritz; Grabert, Hermann [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Strasse 3, 79104, Freiburg (Germany)
2017-06-15
We study current fluctuations in tunnel junctions driven by a voltage source. The voltage is applied to the tunneling element via an impedance providing an electromagnetic environment of the junction. We use circuit theory to relate the fluctuations of the current flowing in the leads of the junction with the voltage fluctuations generated by the environmental impedance and the fluctuations of the tunneling current. The spectrum of current fluctuations is found to consist of three parts: a term arising from the environmental Johnson-Nyquist noise, a term due to the shot noise of the tunneling current and a third term describing the cross-correlation between these two noise sources. Our phenomenological theory reproduces previous results based on the Hamiltonian model for the dynamical Coulomb blockade and provides a simple understanding of the current fluctuation spectrum in terms of circuit theory and properties of the average current. Specific results are given for a tunnel junction driven through a resonator. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
The character of resonant charge exchange involving highly excited atoms
Kosarim, A. V.; Smirnov, B. M.; Capitelli, M.; Laricchiuta, A.
2012-01-01
We study the process of resonant charge exchange involving excited helium atoms with the principal quantum number n = 5 colliding with the helium ion in the ground state in the collision energy range from thermal up to 10 eV. This information may be important for the analysis of planet atmospheres containing helium, in particular, for Jupiter’s atmosphere, but our basic interest is the transition from the quantum to classical description of this process, where, due to large cross sections, evaluations of the cross sections are possible. For the chosen process, quantum theory allows determining the cross section as a result of a tunnel electron transition, while classical theory accounts for over-barrier electron transitions. The classical theory additionally requires effective transitions between states with close energies. The analysis of these transitions for helium with n = 5 shows that electron momenta and their projections are mixed for a part of the states, while for other states, the mixing is absent. A simple criterion to separate such states is given. In addition, the main contribution to the cross section of resonant charge exchange follows from tunnel electron transitions. As a result, the quantum theory is better for calculating the cross sections of resonant charge exchange than the classical one and also allows finding the partial cross sections of resonant charge exchange, while the classical approach gives the cross section of resonant charge exchange in a simple manner with the accuracy of 20%.
A review on all-perovskite multiferroic tunnel junctions
Yuewei Yin
2017-12-01
Full Text Available Although the basic concept was proposed only about 10 years ago, multiferroic tunnel junctions (MFTJs with a ferroelectric barrier sandwiched between two ferromagnetic electrodes have already drawn considerable interests, driven mainly by its potential applications in multi-level memories and electric field controlled spintronics. The purpose of this article is to review the recent progress of all-perovskite MFTJs. Starting from the key functional properties of the tunneling magnetoresistance, tunneling electroresistance, and tunneling electromagnetoresistance effects, we discuss the main origins of the tunneling electroresistance effect, recent progress in achieving multilevel resistance states in a single device, and the electrical control of spin polarization and transport through the ferroelectric polarization reversal of the tunneling barrier.
E. N. Kurbatskiy
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Objectives. The aim of the research is to develop the most effective construction and technological methods for strengthening the bottom of rivers and bays, composed of weak structurally unstable soils, including zones with seismic activity, using pile foundations with broadening and rock filling with micropiles.Methods. The method of constructing combined transport transitions was applied, consisting of overpasses running over relatively shallow channels from coasts to artificial islands on which the route enters tunnels crossing deep shipping canals.Results. The foreign experience in the construction of immersed tube tunnels in the construction of transport crossings through the extended river and sea barriers has been analytically generalised. The features, advantages and disadvantages of the construction of immersed tube tunnels in some countries of the world are revealed.Conclusion. A large number of already constructed and operated transport transits, including immersed tube tunnels, testifies to the advantages of such projects, as compared to other types of transport transitions like bridges and tunnels constructed using mining techniques. Constructiontechnological methods for strengthening the bottom of rivers and bays, composed of weak structurally unstable soils, are proposed. When selecting a design of a bridge to ensure the passage of hightonnage vessels, it is necessary to build large-span bridges on high supports. Weak, structurally unstable soils, deep bedding of bedrock and high seismicity of the area will create serious problems in the construction and operation of such structures. The natural vibration frequencies of the large-span bridges fall into the region of the dominant earthquake frequencies, which can lead to resonant phenomena and damage the structure even under weak seismic influences. Tunnels are less susceptible to seismic impacts, since, unlike ground structures, they don't experience resonance phenomena. When
Single-magnon tunneling through a ferromagnetic nanochain
Petrov, E.G.; Ostrovsky, V.
2010-01-01
Magnon transmission between ferromagnetic contacts coupled by a linear ferromagnetic chain is studied at the condition when the chain exhibits itself as a tunnel magnon transmitter. It is shown that dependently on magnon energy at the chain, a distant intercontact magnon transmission occurs either in resonant or off-resonant tunneling regime. In the first case, a transmission function depends weakly on the number of chain sites whereas at off-resonant regime the same function manifests an exponential drop with the chain length. Change of direction of external magnetic field in one of ferromagnetic contacts blocks a tunnel transmission of magnon.
Molecular series-tunneling junctions.
Liao, Kung-Ching; Hsu, Liang-Yan; Bowers, Carleen M; Rabitz, Herschel; Whitesides, George M
2015-05-13
Charge transport through junctions consisting of insulating molecular units is a quantum phenomenon that cannot be described adequately by classical circuit laws. This paper explores tunneling current densities in self-assembled monolayer (SAM)-based junctions with the structure Ag(TS)/O2C-R1-R2-H//Ga2O3/EGaIn, where Ag(TS) is template-stripped silver and EGaIn is the eutectic alloy of gallium and indium; R1 and R2 refer to two classes of insulating molecular units-(CH2)n and (C6H4)m-that are connected in series and have different tunneling decay constants in the Simmons equation. These junctions can be analyzed as a form of series-tunneling junctions based on the observation that permuting the order of R1 and R2 in the junction does not alter the overall rate of charge transport. By using the Ag/O2C interface, this system decouples the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO, which is localized on the carboxylate group) from strong interactions with the R1 and R2 units. The differences in rates of tunneling are thus determined by the electronic structure of the groups R1 and R2; these differences are not influenced by the order of R1 and R2 in the SAM. In an electrical potential model that rationalizes this observation, R1 and R2 contribute independently to the height of the barrier. This model explicitly assumes that contributions to rates of tunneling from the Ag(TS)/O2C and H//Ga2O3 interfaces are constant across the series examined. The current density of these series-tunneling junctions can be described by J(V) = J0(V) exp(-β1d1 - β2d2), where J(V) is the current density (A/cm(2)) at applied voltage V and βi and di are the parameters describing the attenuation of the tunneling current through a rectangular tunneling barrier, with width d and a height related to the attenuation factor β.
Tunneling technologies for the collider ring tunnels
Frobenius, P.
1989-01-01
The Texas site chosen for the Superconducting Super Collider has been studied, and it has been determined that proven, conventional technology and accepted engineering practice are suitable for constructing the collider tunnels. The Texas National Research Laboratory Commission report recommended that two types of tunneling machines be used for construction of the tunnels: a conventional hard rock tunnel boring machine (TBM) for the Austin chalk and a double shielded, rotary TBM for the Taylor marl. Since the tunneling machines usually set the pace for the project, efficient planning, operation, and coordination of the tunneling system components will be critical to the schedule and cost of the project. During design, tunneling rate prediction should be refined by focusing on the development of an effective tunneling system and evaluating its capacity to meet or exceed the required schedules. 8 refs., 13 figs
Unidirectional magnetoelectric-field multiresonant tunneling
Kamenetskii, E O; Hollander, E; Joffe, R; Shavit, R
2015-01-01
Unidirectional multi-resonant tunneling of the magnetoelectric (ME) field excitations through a subwavelength (regarding the scales of regular electromagnetic radiation) vacuum or isotropic-dielectric regions has been observed in two-port microwave structures having a quasi-2D ferrite disk with magnetic dipolar mode (MDM) oscillations. The excitations manifest themselves as Fano-resonance peaks in the scattering-matrix parameters at the stationary states of the MDM spectrum. The ME near-field excitations are quasimagnetostatic fields ∇-vector × H-vector =0 with non-zero helicity parameter: F=(1/(16π))Im{ E-vector ⋅( ∇-vector × E-vector ) ∗ }. Topological phase properties of ME fields are determined by edge chiral currents of MDM oscillations. We show that while for a given direction of a bias magnetic field (in other words, for a given direction of time), the ME field excitations are considered as ‘forward’ tunneling processes, in the opposite direction of a bias magnetic field (the opposite direction of time), there are ‘backward’ tunneling processes. Unidirectional ME field resonant tunneling is observed due to the distinguishable topology of the ‘forward’ and ‘backward’ ME field excitations. We establish a close connection between the Fano-resonance unidirectional tunneling and the topology of the ME fields in different microwave structures. (paper)
Tunneling time and Hartman effect in a ferromagnetic graphene superlattice
Farhad Sattari
2012-03-01
Full Text Available Using transfer-matrix and stationary phase methods, we study the tunneling time (group delay time in a ferromagnetic monolayer graphene superlattice. The system we peruse consists of a sequence of rectangular barriers and wells, which can be realized by putting a series of electronic gates on the top of ferromagnetic graphene. The magnetization in the two ferromagnetic layers is aligned parallel. We find out that the tunneling time for normal incident is independent of spin state of electron as well as the barrier height and electron Fermi energy while for the oblique incident angles the tunneling time depends on the spin state of electron and has an oscillatory behavior. Also the effect of barrier width on tunneling time is also investigated and shown that, for normal incident, the Hartman effect disappears in a ferromagnetic graphene superlattice but it appears for oblique incident angles when the x component of the electron wave vector in the barrier is imaginary.
Evolution of tunnelling causality and the 'Hartman-Fletcher effect'
Olkhovsky, V.S.; Zaichenko, A.K.
1995-01-01
A new concept of the macroscopic tunneling time is added to our previous definition of the microscopic tunnelling time. The formally accusal jump of a time advance near the forward barrier wall is interpreted as a result of the superposition and interference of incoming and reflected waves. The reality 'H.-F. effect' is confirmed
Magnetic tunnel junction device having an intermediate layer
2001-01-01
A magnetic tunnel junction device has a multi-layer structure including a pair of electrode layers of a ferromagnetic material and a tunnel barrier layer of an insulating material between the electrode layers. In order to realize a low resistance, the multi-layer structure also includes an
Spin-dependent tunnelling in magnetic tunnel junctions
Tsymbal, Evgeny Y; Mryasov, Oleg N; LeClair, Patrick R
2003-01-01
The phenomenon of electron tunnelling has been known since the advent of quantum mechanics, but continues to enrich our understanding of many fields of physics, as well as creating sub-fields on its own. Spin-dependent tunnelling (SDT) in magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) has recently aroused enormous interest and has developed in a vigorous field of research. The large tunnelling magnetoresistance (TMR) observed in MTJs garnered much attention due to possible applications in non-volatile random-access memories and next-generation magnetic field sensors. This led to a number of fundamental questions regarding the phenomenon of SDT. In this review article we present an overview of this field of research. We discuss various factors that control the spin polarization and magnetoresistance in MTJs. Starting from early experiments on SDT and their interpretation, we consider thereafter recent experiments and models which highlight the role of the electronic structure of the ferromagnets, the insulating layer, and the ferromagnet/insulator interfaces. We also discuss the role of disorder in the barrier and in the ferromagnetic electrodes and their influence on TMR. (topical review)
Scanning tunneling microscopy of hexagonal BN grown on graphite
Fukumoto, H.; Hamada, T.; Endo, T.; Osaka, Y.
1991-01-01
The microscopic surface topography of thin BN x films grown on graphite by electron cyclotron resonance plasma chemical vapor deposition have been imaged with scanning tunneling microscopy in air. The scanning tunneling microscope has generated images of hexagonal BN with atomic resolution
Single-atom contacts with a scanning tunnelling microscope
Kroeger, J; Neel, N; Sperl, A; Wang, Y F; Berndt, R
2009-01-01
The tip of a cryogenic scanning tunnelling microscope is used to controllably contact single atoms adsorbed on metal surfaces. The transition between tunnelling and contact is gradual for silver, while contact to adsorbed gold atoms is abrupt. The single-atom junctions are stable and enable spectroscopic measurements of, e.g., the Abrikosov-Suhl resonance of single Kondo impurities.
Tunnelling and relaxation in semiconductor double quantum wells
Ferreira, R.; Bastard, G.
1997-01-01
Double quantum wells are among the simplest semiconductor heterostructures exhibiting tunnel coupling. The existence of a quantum confinement effect for the energy levels of a narrow single quantum well has been largely studied. In double quantum wells, in addition to these confinement effects which characterize the levels of the isolated wells, one faces the problem of describing the eigenstates of systems interacting weakly through a potential barrier. In addition, the actual structures differ from the ideal systems studied in the quantum mechanics textbooks in many aspects. The presence of defects leads, for instance, to an irreversible time evolution for a population of photocreated carriers. This irreversible transfer is now clearly established experimentally. The resonant behaviour of the transfer has also been evidenced, from the study of biased structures. If the existence of an interwell transfer is now clearly established from the experimental point of view, its theoretical description, however, is not fully satisfactory. This review focuses on the theoretical description of the energy levels and of the interwell assisted transfer in double quantum wells. We shall firstly outline the problem of tunnel coupling in semiconductor heterostructures and then discuss the single particle and exciton eigenstates in double quantum wells. In the remaining part of the review we shall present and critically review a few theoretical models used to describe the assisted interwell transfer in these structures. (author)
Tunnel magnetoresistance in double spin filter junctions
Saffarzadeh, Alireza
2003-01-01
We consider a new type of magnetic tunnel junction, which consists of two ferromagnetic tunnel barriers acting as spin filters (SFs), separated by a nonmagnetic metal (NM) layer. Using the transfer matrix method and the free-electron approximation, the dependence of the tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) on the thickness of the central NM layer, bias voltage and temperature in the double SF junction are studied theoretically. It is shown that the TMR and electron-spin polarization in this structure can reach very large values under suitable conditions. The highest value of the TMR can reach 99%. By an appropriate choice of the thickness of the central NM layer, the degree of spin polarization in this structure will be higher than that of the single SF junctions. These results may be useful in designing future spin-polarized tunnelling devices
Hellenthal, Chris; Sotthewes, Kai; Siekman, Martin H; Kooij, E Stefan; Zandvliet, Harold J W
2015-01-01
We demonstrate the validity of using closed-loop z(V) conductance scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) measurements for the determination of the effective tunneling barrier by comparing them to more conventional open-loop I(z) measurements. Through the development of a numerical model, the individual contributions to the effective tunneling barrier present in these experiments, such as the work function and the presence of an image charge, are determined quantitatively. This opens up the possibility of determining tunneling barriers of both vacuum and molecular systems in an alternative and more detailed manner.
Carrier tunneling in high magnetic fields
Christianen, P.C.M.; Bruggink, I.E.M.; Maan, J.C.; Vleuten, van der W.C.
1995-01-01
Proceedings of the XXIV International School of Semiconducting Coinpounds, Jaszowiec 1995. A magnetic field induced coupling is observed between the Landau levels with different quantum number of two GaAs quantum wells separated by a thin (Ga,Al)As tunnel barrier using
Bercu, V; Martinelli, M; Massa, C A; Pardi, L A; Leporini, D
2004-01-01
The reorientation of one small paramagnetic molecule (spin probe) in glassy polystyrene (PS) is studied by high-field electron spin resonance spectroscopy at two different Larmor frequencies (190 and 285 GHz). The exponential distribution of the energy barriers for the rotational motion of the spin probe is unambiguously evidenced at both 240 and 270 K. The same shape for the distribution of the energy barriers of PS was evidenced by the master curves provided by previous mechanical and light scattering studies. The breadth of the energy barrier distribution of the spin probe is in the range of the estimates of the breadth of the PS energy barrier distribution. The evidence that the deep structure of the energy landscape of PS exhibits the exponential shape of the energy barrier distribution agrees with the results from extreme-value statistics (Bouchaud and Mezard 1997 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 30 7997) and the trap model by Bouchaud and co-workers (1996 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 29 3847, 2001 Phys. Rev. B 64 104417). (letter to the editor)