Sample records for barrier limits transmission

  1. Photon-Assisted Transmission through a Double-Barrier Structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The authors study multi-photon-assisted transmission of electrons through single-step, single-barrier and double-barrier potential-energy structures as a function of the photon energy and the temperature. Sharp resonances in the spectra of the tunneling current through double-barrier structures are relevant to infra-red detectors.

  2. Relativistic Double Barrier Problem with Three Sub-Barrier Transmission Resonance Regions

    CERN Document Server

    Alhaidari, A D; Jellal, A


    We obtain exact scattering solutions of the Dirac equation in 1+1 dimensions for a double square barrier vector potential. The potential floor between the two barriers is higher than 2mc^2 whereas the top of the barriers is at least 2mc^2 above the floor. The relativistic version of the conventional double barrier transmission resonance is obtained for energies within + or - mc^2 from the height of the barriers. However, we also find two more (sub-barrier) transmission resonance regions below the conventional one. Both are located within the two Klein energy zones and characterized by resonances that are broader than the conventional ones.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A numerical method, the boundary fitted coordinate method (BFC),was used to investigate the transmission and reflection of water waves due to a rigid thin vertical barrier descending from the water surface to a depth, i. e. , a curtain-wall type breakwater. A comparison between the present computed results and previous experimental and analytical results was carried out which verifies the prediction of the BFC method. Wave transmission and reflection due to the barrier were computed, and the transmission and refiection coefficients were given in a figure.

  4. HIV and mucosal barrier interactions: consequences for transmission and pathogenesis. (United States)

    Burgener, Adam; McGowan, Ian; Klatt, Nichole R


    The mucosal barrier plays an integral function in human health as it is the primary defense against pathogens, and provides a critical transition between the external environment and the human internal body. In the context of HIV infection, the most relevant mucosal surfaces include those of the gastrointestinal (GI) and genital tract compartments. Several components help maintain the effectiveness of this mucosal surface, including the physical anatomy of the barrier, cellular immunity, soluble factors, and interactions between the epithelial barrier and the local microenvironment, including mucus and host microbiota. Any defects in barrier integrity or function can rapidly lead to an increase in acquisition risk, or with established infection may result in increased pathogenesis, morbidities, or mortality. Indeed, a key feature to all aspects of HIV infection from transmission to pathogenesis is disruption and/or dysfunction of mucosal barriers. Herein, we will detail the host-pathogen relationship of HIV and mucosal barriers in both of these scenarios.

  5. Molecular barriers to zoonotic transmission of prions. (United States)

    Barria, Marcelo A; Balachandran, Aru; Morita, Masanori; Kitamoto, Tetsuyuki; Barron, Rona; Manson, Jean; Knight, Richard; Ironside, James W; Head, Mark W


    The risks posed to human health by individual animal prion diseases cannot be determined a priori and are difficult to address empirically. The fundamental event in prion disease pathogenesis is thought to be the seeded conversion of normal prion protein to its pathologic isoform. We used a rapid molecular conversion assay (protein misfolding cyclic amplification) to test whether brain homogenates from specimens of classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), atypical BSE (H-type BSE and L-type BSE), classical scrapie, atypical scrapie, and chronic wasting disease can convert normal human prion protein to the abnormal disease-associated form. None of the tested prion isolates from diseased animals were as efficient as classical BSE in converting human prion protein. However, in the case of chronic wasting disease, there was no absolute barrier to conversion of the human prion protein.

  6. Social barriers to pathogen transmission in wild animal populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loehle, C.


    Diseases and pathogens are receiving increasing recognition as sources of mortality in animal populations. Immune system strength is clearly important in fending off pathogen attack. Physical barriers to pathogen entry are also important. Various individual behaviors are efficacious in reducing contact with diseases and pests. This paper focuses on a fourth mode of defense: social barriers to transmission. Various social behaviors have pathogen transmission consequences. Selective pressures on these social behaviors may therefore exist. Effects on pathogen transmission of mating strategies, social avoidance, group size, group isolation, and other behaviors are explored. It is concluded that many of these behaviors may have been affected by selection pressures to reduce transmission of pathogens. 84 refs., 1 tab.

  7. Generation of prion transmission barriers by mutational control of amyloid conformations. (United States)

    Chien, Peter; DePace, Angela H; Collins, Sean R; Weissman, Jonathan S


    Self-propagating beta-sheet-rich protein aggregates are implicated in a wide range of protein-misfolding phenomena, including amyloid diseases and prion-based inheritance. Two properties have emerged as common features of amyloids. Amyloid formation is ubiquitous: many unrelated proteins form such aggregates and even a single polypeptide can misfold into multiple forms--a process that is thought to underlie prion strain variation. Despite this promiscuity, amyloid propagation can be highly sequence specific: amyloid fibres often fail to catalyse the aggregation of other amyloidogenic proteins. In prions, this specificity leads to barriers that limit transmission between species. Using the yeast prion [PSI+], we show in vitro that point mutations in Sup35p, the protein determinant of [PSI+], alter the range of 'infectious' conformations, which in turn changes amyloid seeding specificity. We generate a new transmission barrier in vivo by using these mutations to specifically disfavour subsets of prion strains. The ability of mutations to alter the conformations of amyloid states without preventing amyloid formation altogether provides a general mechanism for the generation of prion transmission barriers and may help to explain how mutations alter toxicity in conformational diseases.

  8. Reflective Optical Limiter Based on Resonant Transmission

    CERN Document Server

    Makri, Eleana; Vitebskiy, Ilya


    Optical limiters transmit low-level radiation while blocking electromagnetic pulses with excessively high energy (energy limiters) or with excessively high peak intensity (power limiters). A typical optical limiter absorbs most of the high-level radiation which can cause its destruction via overheating. Here we introduce the novel concept of a reflective energy limiter which blocks electromagnetic pulses with excessively high total energy by reflecting them back to space, rather than absorbing them. The idea is to use a defect layer with temperature dependent loss tangent embedded in a low-loss photonic structure. The low energy pulses with central frequency close to that of the localized defect mode will pass through. But if the cumulative energy carried by the pulse exceeds certain level, the entire photonic structure reflects the incident light (and does not absorb it!) for a broad frequency window. The underlying physical mechanism is based on self-regulated impedance mismatch which increases dramatically...

  9. Approximate quantum trajectory approach to the Schrödinger-Langevin equation for barrier transmission (United States)

    Chou, Chia-Chun


    The Schrödinger-Langevin equation is approximately solved by propagating individual quantum trajectories for barrier transmission problems. Equations of motion are derived through use of the derivative propagation method, which leads to a hierarchy of coupled differential equations for the amplitude of the wave function and the spatial derivatives of the complex action along each trajectory. Computational results are presented for a one-dimensional Eckart barrier and a two-dimensional system involving either a thick or thin Eckart barrier along the reaction coordinate coupled to a harmonic oscillator. Frictional effects on the trajectory, the transmitted wave packet, and the transmission probability are analyzed.

  10. Breaking the spherical and chromatic aberration barrier in transmission electron microscopy. (United States)

    Freitag, B; Kujawa, S; Mul, P M; Ringnalda, J; Tiemeijer, P C


    Since the invention of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in 1932 (Z. Physik 78 (1932) 318) engineering improvements have advanced system resolutions to levels that are now limited only by the two fundamental aberrations of electron lenses; spherical and chromatic aberration (Z. Phys. 101 (1936) 593). Since both aberrations scale with the dimensions of the lens, research resolution requirements are pushing the designs to lenses with only a few mm space in the pole-piece gap for the specimen. This is in conflict with the demand for more and more space at the specimen, necessary in order to enable novel techniques in TEM, such as He-cooled cryo electron microscopy, 3D-reconstruction through tomography (Science 302 (2003) 1396) TEM in gaseous environments, or in situ experiments (Nature 427 (2004) 426). All these techniques will only be able to achieve Angstrom resolution when the aberration barriers have been overcome. The spherical aberration barrier has recently been broken by introducing spherical aberration correctors (Nature 392 (1998) 392, 418 (2002) 617), but the correction of the remaining chromatic aberrations have proved to be too difficult for the present state of technology (Optik 57 (1980) 73). Here we present an alternative and successful method to eliminate the chromatic blur, which consists of monochromating the TEM beam (Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 161 (1999) 191). We show directly interpretable resolutions well below 1A for the first time, which is significantly better than any TEM operating at 200 KV has reached before.

  11. Barrier inhomogeneities limited current and 1/f noise transport in GaN based nanoscale Schottky barrier diodes. (United States)

    Kumar, Ashutosh; Heilmann, M; Latzel, Michael; Kapoor, Raman; Sharma, Intu; Göbelt, M; Christiansen, Silke H; Kumar, Vikram; Singh, Rajendra


    The electrical behaviour of Schottky barrier diodes realized on vertically standing individual GaN nanorods and array of nanorods is investigated. The Schottky diodes on individual nanorod show highest barrier height in comparison with large area diodes on nanorods array and epitaxial film which is in contrast with previously published work. The discrepancy between the electrical behaviour of nanoscale Schottky diodes and large area diodes is explained using cathodoluminescence measurements, surface potential analysis using Kelvin probe force microscopy and 1ow frequency noise measurements. The noise measurements on large area diodes on nanorods array and epitaxial film suggest the presence of barrier inhomogeneities at the metal/semiconductor interface which deviate the noise spectra from Lorentzian to 1/f type. These barrier inhomogeneities in large area diodes resulted in reduced barrier height whereas due to the limited role of barrier inhomogeneities in individual nanorod based Schottky diode, a higher barrier height is obtained.

  12. Barrier inhomogeneities limited current and 1/f noise transport in GaN based nanoscale Schottky barrier diodes (United States)

    Kumar, Ashutosh; Heilmann, M.; Latzel, Michael; Kapoor, Raman; Sharma, Intu; Göbelt, M.; Christiansen, Silke H.; Kumar, Vikram; Singh, Rajendra


    The electrical behaviour of Schottky barrier diodes realized on vertically standing individual GaN nanorods and array of nanorods is investigated. The Schottky diodes on individual nanorod show highest barrier height in comparison with large area diodes on nanorods array and epitaxial film which is in contrast with previously published work. The discrepancy between the electrical behaviour of nanoscale Schottky diodes and large area diodes is explained using cathodoluminescence measurements, surface potential analysis using Kelvin probe force microscopy and 1ow frequency noise measurements. The noise measurements on large area diodes on nanorods array and epitaxial film suggest the presence of barrier inhomogeneities at the metal/semiconductor interface which deviate the noise spectra from Lorentzian to 1/f type. These barrier inhomogeneities in large area diodes resulted in reduced barrier height whereas due to the limited role of barrier inhomogeneities in individual nanorod based Schottky diode, a higher barrier height is obtained. PMID:27282258

  13. Barrier layers against oxygen transmission on the basis of electron beam cured methacrylated gelatin (United States)

    Scherzer, Tom


    The development of barrier layers against oxygen transmission on the basis of radiation-curable methacrylated gelatin will be reported. The electron beam cured gelatin coatings show an extremely low oxygen permeability and a high resistance against boiling water. Moreover, the methacrylated gelatins possess good adhesion characteristics. Therefore, they are suited as barrier adhesives in laminates for food packaging applications. If substrate foils from biodegradable polymers are used, the development of completely biodegradable packaging materials seems to be possible.

  14. Transmission Level High Temperature Superconducting Fault Current Limiter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, Gary [SuperPower, Inc., Schenectady, NY (United States)


    The primary objective of this project was to demonstrate the feasibility and reliability of utilizing high-temperature superconducting (HTS) materials in a Transmission Level Superconducting Fault Current Limiter (SFCL) application. During the project, the type of high-temperature superconducting material used evolved from 1st generation (1G) BSCCO-2212 melt cast bulk high-temperature superconductors to 2nd generation (2G) YBCO-based high-temperature superconducting tape. The SFCL employed SuperPower's “Matrix” technology, that offers modular features to enable scale up to transmission voltage levels. The SFCL consists of individual modules that contain elements and parallel inductors that assist in carrying the current during the fault. A number of these modules are arranged in an m x n array to form the current-limiting matrix.

  15. Transmission Level High Temperature Superconducting Fault Current Limiter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, Gary [SuperPower, Inc., Schenectady, NY (United States)


    The primary objective of this project was to demonstrate the feasibility and reliability of utilizing high temperature superconducting (HTS) materials in a Transmission Level Superconducting Fault Current Limiter (SFCL) application. During the project, the type of high temperature superconducting material used evolved from 1st generation (1G) BSCCO-2212 melt cast bulk high temperature superconductors to 2nd generation (2G) YBCO based high temperature superconducting tape. The SFCL employed SuperPower's “Matrix” technology that offers modular features to enable scale up to transmission voltage levels. The SFCL consists of individual modules that contain elements and parallel inductors that assist in carrying the current during the fault. A number of these modules are arranged in an m x n array to form the current limiting matrix.

  16. Use of element model to evaluate transmissibility reduction due to barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svanes, T.; South, D.; Dronen, O.M. [Statoil, Bergen (Norway)


    Water breakthrough has been observed a year earlier than expected in the productive Oseberg Formation in the Veslefrikk Field. Production data revealed extensive water override, whereas the opposite situation was expected based on a homogeneous and coarse flow simulation model. A new model was developed to include geological heterogeneities using a simple upscaling method. The Oseberg Fm. consists of an upper homogeneous unit (zone 2) and a lower unit containing thin barriers of shale and calcite cemented sandstone (zone 1). The barrier content varies laterally. When barriers are distributed in a complex 3D pattern, they reduce the upscaled horizontal transmissibility more than what is obtained by multiplying the sand permeability by the net-to-gross ratio (N/G). However, the transmissibility reduction strongly depends on the spatial distribution of barriers and their geometry. Therefore, a fine scale element model was used to derive the average transmissibility reduction as a function of N/G for alternative geological descriptions of the barriers. A geo-statistical method called General Marked Point Process was used to generate the fine scale descriptions. This work has resulted in a simple upscaling routine for horizontal transmissibility, which represents an effective bridge between geological evaluation of uncertainties and fluid flow simulation. The method combines geo-statistical and deterministic modelling in an elegant manner, recognising that most often these methods complement one another.

  17. Reflection and transmission of regular waves at a surface-pitching slotted barrier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The interactions between regular surface waves and a surface-pitching slotted barrier are investigated both analytically and experimentally.A quasi-linear theory is developed using the eigenfunction expansion method.The energy dissipation within the barriers is modeled by a quadratic friction factor, and an equivalent linear dissipation coefficient, which is depth-varying, wave-height dependent, is introduced to linearize the matching condition at the surface-pitching barrier.By comparing the theoretical results with laboratory experiments, it is shown that the present method can satisfactorily predict the variation of the reflection and transmission coefficients with wave height.

  18. Transmission upper limit of band-pass double-layer FSS and method of transmission performance improvement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Minjie Huang; Zhijun Meng


    The transmission upper limit of a double-layer frequency selective surface (FSS) with two infinitely thin metal arrays is pre-sented based on the study of the general equivalent transmission line model of a double-layer FSS. Results of theoretical analyses, numerical simulations and experiments show that this transmis-sion upper limit is independent of the array and the element, which indicates that it is impossible to achieve a transmission upper limit higher than this one under a given incident and dielectric-supporting condition by the design of the periodic array. Both the applicable condition and the possible application of the transmis-sion upper limit are discussed. The results show that the transmis-sion upper limit not only has a good reachability, but also provides a key to effectively improve the transmission performance of a double-layer FSS or more complex frequency selective structures.

  19. Interaction of tide and salinity barrier: Limitation of numerical model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suphat Vongvisessomjai1


    Full Text Available Nowadays, the study of interaction of the tide and the salinity barrier in an estuarine area is usually accomplished vianumerical modeling, due to the speed and convenience of modern computers. However, numerical models provide littleinsight with respect to the fundamental physical mechanisms involved. In this study, it is found that all existing numericalmodels work satisfactorily when the barrier is located at some distance far from upstream and downstream boundary conditions.Results are considerably underestimate reality when the barrier is located near the downstream boundary, usually theriver mouth. Meanwhile, this analytical model provides satisfactory output for all scenarios. The main problem of thenumerical model is that the effects of barrier construction in creation of reflected tide are neglected when specifying thedownstream boundary conditions; the use of the boundary condition before construction of the barrier which are significantlydifferent from those after the barrier construction would result in an error outputs. Future numerical models shouldattempt to account for this deficiency; otherwise, using this analytical model is another choice.

  20. Assessing transmissible spongiform encephalopathy species barriers with an in vitro prion protein conversion assay (United States)

    Johnson, Christopher J.; Carlson, Christina M.; Morawski, Aaron R.; Manthei, Alyson; Cashman, Neil R.


    Studies to understanding interspecies transmission of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs, prion diseases) are challenging in that they typically rely upon lengthy and costly in vivo animal challenge studies. A number of in vitro assays have been developed to aid in measuring prion species barriers, thereby reducing animal use and providing quicker results than animal bioassays. Here, we present the protocol for a rapid in vitroprion conversion assay called the conversion efficiency ratio (CER) assay. In this assay cellular prion protein (PrPC) from an uninfected host brain is denatured at both pH 7.4 and 3.5 to produce two substrates. When the pH 7.4 substrate is incubated with TSE agent, the amount of PrPC that converts to a proteinase K (PK)-resistant state is modulated by the original host’s species barrier to the TSE agent. In contrast, PrPC in the pH 3.5 substrate is misfolded by any TSE agent. By comparing the amount of PK-resistant prion protein in the two substrates, an assessment of the host’s species barrier can be made. We show that the CER assay correctly predicts known prion species barriers of laboratory mice and, as an example, show some preliminary results suggesting that bobcats (Lynx rufus) may be susceptible to white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) chronic wasting disease agent.

  1. Attempting to be active: Self-efficacy and barrier limitation differentiate activity levels of working mothers. (United States)

    Gierc, Madelaine; Locke, Sean; Jung, Mary; Brawley, Lawrence


    Working mothers are less physically active than working women without children and mothers who do not work. The purpose of this study was to examine concurrent self-regulatory efficacy and barriers to physical activity in a sample of working mothers. Women completed a mixed-methods survey which included measures of physical activity, concurrent self-regulatory efficacy, and barriers. Sufficiently active women experienced significantly greater concurrent self-regulatory efficacy and significantly less barrier limitation and frequency. No significant group differences were found for age, domestic duties performed, and children's extracurricular activities. Thematic analysis of barriers revealed six themes of common and unique factors, including limited time and family activities.

  2. Transmission and Goos-Hänchen like shifts through a graphene double barrier in an inhomogeneous magnetic field (United States)

    Mekkaoui, Miloud; Jellal, Ahmed; Bahlouli, Hocine


    We studied the transport properties of electrons in graphene as they are scattered by a double barrier potential in the presence of an inhomogeneous magnetic field. We computed the transmission coefficient and Goos-Hänchen like shifts for our system and noticed that transmission is not allowed for certain range of energies. In particular, we found that, in contrast to the electrostatic barriers, the magnetic barriers are able to confine Dirac fermions. We also established some correlation between the electronic transmission properties of Dirac fermions with the Goos-Hänchen like shifts, as reflected in the numerical data.

  3. A novel nanoscaled Schottky barrier based transmission gate and its digital circuit applications (United States)

    Kumar, Sunil; Loan, Sajad A.; Alamoud, Abdulrahman M.


    In this work we propose and simulate a compact nanoscaled transmission gate (TG) employing a single Schottky barrier based transistor in the transmission path and a single transistor based Sajad-Sunil-Schottky (SSS) device as an inverter. Therefore, just two transistors are employed to realize a complete transmission gate which normally consumes four transistors in the conventional technology. The transistors used to realize the transmission path and the SSS inverter in the proposed TG are the double gate Schottky barrier devices, employing stacks of two metal silicides, platinum silicide (PtSi) and erbium silicide (ErSi). It has been observed that the realization of the TG gate by the proposed technology has resulted into a compact structure, with reduced component count, junctions, interconnections and regions in comparison to the conventional technology. The further focus of this work is on the application part of the proposed technology. So for the first time, the proposed technology has been used to realize various combinational circuits, like a two input AND gate, a 2:1 multiplexer and a two input XOR circuits. It has been observed that the transistor count has got reduced by half in a TG, two input AND gate, 2:1 multiplexer and in a two input XOR gate. Therefore, a significant reduction in transistor count and area requirement can be achieved by using the proposed technology. The proposed technology can be also used to perform the compact realization of other combinational and sequential circuitry in future.

  4. Beating oscillation and Fano resonance in the laser assisted electron transmission through graphene δ-function magnetic barriers (United States)

    Biswas, R.; Maity, S.; Sinha, C.


    We investigate theoretically the transmission of electrons through a pair of δ-function magnetic barriers in graphene in presence of external monochromatic, linearly polarized and CW laser field. The transmission coefficients are calculated in the framework of non-perturbative Floquet theory using the transfer matrix method. It is noted that the usual Fabry-Perot oscillations in transmission through the graphene magnetic barriers with larger inter barrier separation takes the shape of beating oscillations in presence of the external laser field. The laser assisted transmission spectra are also found to exhibit the characteristic Fano resonances (FR) for smaller values of the inter barrier separation. The appearance of the perfect node in the beating oscillation and the asymmetric Fano line shape can be controlled by varying the intensity of the laser field. The above features could provide some useful and potential information about the light - matter interactions and may be utilized in the graphene based optoelectronic device applications.

  5. Atomic structures suggest determinants of transmission barriers in mammalian prion disease. (United States)

    Apostol, Marcin I; Wiltzius, Jed J W; Sawaya, Michael R; Cascio, Duilio; Eisenberg, David


    Prion represents a unique class of pathogens devoid of nucleic acid. The deadly diseases transmitted by it between members of one species and, in certain instances, to members of other species present a public health concern. Transmissibility and the barriers to transmission between species have been suggested to arise from the degree to which a pathological protein conformation from an individual of one species can seed a pathological conformation in another species. However, this hypothesis has never been illustrated at an atomic level. Here we present three X-ray atomic structures of the same segment from human, mouse, and hamster PrP, which is critical for forming amyloid and confers species specificity in PrP seeding experiments. The structures reveal that different sequences encode different steric zippers and suggest that the degree of dissimilarity of these zipper structures gives rise to transmission barriers in prion disease, such as those that protect humans from acquiring bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) and chronic wasting disease (CWD).

  6. New Technique for Successful Thermal Barrier Coating Specimen Preparation for Transmission Electron Microscopy. (United States)

    Brickey; Lee


    Reliability of thermal barrier coatings (TBC) hinges on the adhesion of a thermally grown oxide scale to an insulative ceramic topcoat and an underlying metallic bondcoat. The width of the scale and its interfaces makes transmission electron microscopy (TEM) an appropriate tool for its analysis. However, specimen preparation has proven to be a challenging obstacle leading to a dearth of TEM research on TBCs. A new approach to cross-section TBC TEM specimen preparation is described. The principal advantages of this technique are reproducibility, reduced specimen damage, and time savings resulting from decreased ion milling. This technique has been successfully applied to numerous TBC specimens with various thermal histories.

  7. Optimum Transmission Policies for Battery Limited Energy Harvesting Nodes

    CERN Document Server

    Tutuncuoglu, Kaya


    Wireless networks with energy harvesting battery powered nodes are quickly emerging as a viable option for future wireless networks with extended lifetime. Equally important to their counterpart in the design of energy harvesting radios are the design principles that this new networking paradigm calls for. In particular, unlike wireless networks considered up to date, the energy replenishment process and the storage constraints of the rechargeable batteries need to be taken into account in designing efficient transmission strategies. In this work, we consider such transmission policies for rechargeable nodes, and identify the optimum solution for two related problems. Specifically, the transmission policy that maximizes the short term throughput, i.e., the amount of data transmitted in a finite time horizon is found. In addition, we show the relation of this optimization problem to another, namely, the minimization of the transmission completion time for a given amount of data, and solve that as well. The tra...

  8. Technical Barriers, Licenses and Tariffs as Means of Limiting Market Access

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Jørgensen, Jan Guldager


    Technical barriers (standards), import licenses and tariffs may be deployed as means of limiting the market access of foreign firms. The present paper examines these measures in a setting of monopolistic competition. We find that, if protection focuses predominantly on the number of foreign firms...... accessing the domestic market, a technical barrier (an import license) may dominate a tariff (tariff and a tech- nical barrier) in terms of consumer welfare, even when tariff revenues are fully redistributed. However, if protection pays su±cient focus on limiting the total import volume, then tariffs...... are the preferred means of protection. Within the model, reductions in technical barriers and tariffs, the removal of licensing schemes, and a harmonization of stan- dards are all welfare-improving policies....

  9. Technical barriers, import licenses and tariffs as means of limiting market access

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jan G.; Schröder, Philipp


    Technical barriers (standards), import licenses and tariffs may be deployed as means of limiting the market entry of foreign firms. The present paper examines these measures in a setting of monopolistic competition. It is established that -- contrary to what one would expect -- a technical barrier...... to trade can dominate a tariff in terms of consumer welfare, even when tariff revenues are fully redistributed. This case occurs for high levels of protection. Furthermore, an import license with full redistribution of revenues dominates both the technical barrier and the tariff for all levels...

  10. Photon exchange and entanglement formation during transmission through a rectangular quantum barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sulyok, Georg, E-mail:; Durstberger-Rennhofer, Katharina; Summhammer, Johann


    When a quantum particle traverses a rectangular potential created by a quantum field both photon exchange and entanglement between particle and field take place. We present the full analytic solution of the Schrödinger equation of the composite particle–field system allowing investigation of these phenomena in detail and comparison to the results of a classical field treatment. Besides entanglement formation, remarkable differences also appear with respect to the symmetry between energy emission and absorption, resonance effects and if the field initially occupies the vacuum state. - Highlights: • Full analytic solution for the transmission through a rectangular quantum barrier. • Transition from classical to quantum field is illustrated. • Entanglement as a unique feature of the quantized field treatment is emphasized. • Non-trivial entanglement between position and photon number for coherent fields. • Interaction with vacuum state peculiar to the quantized field treatment.

  11. Preparation of cross-sectional specimens of ceramic thermal barrier coatings for transmission electron microscopy. (United States)

    Unal, O; Heuer, A H; Mitchell, T E


    During the microstructural examination of ceramic thermal barrier coatings by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), initial efforts for the preparation of cross-sectional thin foils from interface regions by conventional means were mostly failures. Delamination of the Y2O3-stabilized ZrO2 ceramic coating from the nickel-base alloy substrate sometimes occurred during fine polishing at around 80 microns thickness but mostly occurred during dimpling. Because of this sensitivity, special techniques for mechanical handling were developed so that ion milling could give thin enough regions of the metal-ceramic interface. TEM showed convincingly that the highly fragile nature of the coatings is in fact due to the extensive porosity at the interface developed as a result of heat treatment.

  12. Physiologic upper limit of pore size in the blood-tumor barrier of malignant solid tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Griffiths Gary L


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The existence of large pores in the blood-tumor barrier (BTB of malignant solid tumor microvasculature makes the blood-tumor barrier more permeable to macromolecules than the endothelial barrier of most normal tissue microvasculature. The BTB of malignant solid tumors growing outside the brain, in peripheral tissues, is more permeable than that of similar tumors growing inside the brain. This has been previously attributed to the larger anatomic sizes of the pores within the BTB of peripheral tumors. Since in the physiological state in vivo a fibrous glycocalyx layer coats the pores of the BTB, it is possible that the effective physiologic pore size in the BTB of brain tumors and peripheral tumors is similar. If this were the case, then the higher permeability of the BTB of peripheral tumor would be attributable to the presence of a greater number of pores in the BTB of peripheral tumors. In this study, we probed in vivo the upper limit of pore size in the BTB of rodent malignant gliomas grown inside the brain, the orthotopic site, as well as outside the brain in temporalis skeletal muscle, the ectopic site. Methods Generation 5 (G5 through generation 8 (G8 polyamidoamine dendrimers were labeled with gadolinium (Gd-diethyltriaminepentaacetic acid, an anionic MRI contrast agent. The respective Gd-dendrimer generations were visualized in vitro by scanning transmission electron microscopy. Following intravenous infusion of the respective Gd-dendrimer generations (Gd-G5, N = 6; Gd-G6, N = 6; Gd-G7, N = 5; Gd-G8, N = 5 the blood and tumor tissue pharmacokinetics of the Gd-dendrimer generations were visualized in vivo over 600 to 700 minutes by dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI. One additional animal was imaged in each Gd-dendrimer generation group for 175 minutes under continuous anesthesia for the creation of voxel-by-voxel Gd concentration maps. Results The estimated diameters of Gd-G7 dendrimers were 11 ± 1 nm and those of Gd-G8

  13. On physical limit of wireless digital transmission from radio wave propagation perspective (United States)

    Karasawa, Y.


    Under a time-invariant condition with thermal noise, the physical limit of digital transmission ability is governed by Shannon's channel capacity. However, in this formula, it does not contain factors on radio wave propagation environments. In other words, for the ultimate information transmission, a sufficiently long time for the coding and signal processing is expected. However, since wave propagation prevents its premise, there is another physical limit for digital transmission in a different perspective with Shannon's channel capacity. Even if the S/N ratio is sufficiently high, there is the limit for information transmission. This paper deals with this matter concerning physical limit of wireless transmission from a radio wave propagation viewpoint.

  14. Quantum Limitations on the Storage and Transmission of Information

    CERN Document Server

    Bekenstein, J D; Bekenstein, Jacob D.; Schiffer, Marcelo


    Information must take up space, must weigh, and its flux must be limited. Quantum limits on communication and information storage leading to these conclusions are here described. Quantum channel capacity theory is reviewed for both steady state and burst communication. An analytic approximation is given for the maximum signal information possible with occupation number signal states as a function of mean signal energy. A theorem guaranteeing that these states are optimal for communication is proved. A heuristic "proof" of the linear bound on communication is given, followed by rigorous proofs for signals with specified mean energy, and for signals with given energy budget. And systems of many parallel quantum channels are shown to obey the linear bound for a natural channel architecture. The time--energy uncertainty principle is reformulated in information language by means of the linear bound. The quantum bound on information storage capacity of quantum mechanical and quantum field devices is reviewed. A sim...

  15. On cluster ions, ion transmission, and linear dynamic range limitations in electrospray (ionspray) mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zook, D.R; Bruins, A.P.


    The ion transmission in Electrospray (Ionspray) Mass Spectrometry (ESMS) was studied in order to examine the instrumental factors potentially contributing to observed ESMS linear dynamic range (LDR) limitations. A variety of means used for the investigation of ion transmission demonstrated that a su

  16. 75 FR 18497 - Guidance on Simultaneous Transmission Import Limit Studies for the Northwest Region; Notice of... (United States)


    ... Region; Notice of Pre-Filing Technical Conference for Northwest Region Transmission Owners April 5, 2010... in the Northwest region an opportunity to ask questions regarding the Simultaneous Transmission Import Limit Studies (SIL) required as part of their updated market power analyses associated with...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pryadko Igor’ Petrovich


    Full Text Available This paper reviews the current state of transport organization for people with limited mobility. The article evaluates the results of the actions the executive authorities of Moscow and Moscow Region take. Barrier-free space organization for disabled people and parents with prams is given a special attention. The lack of strategy in the sphere leads to considerable difficulties for people with limited ability. This problem should be solved in cooperation with the survey of other peoples' needs. The article gives examples of comfortable urban space in Sochi, Moscow, Chita, Mytishchi and analyses the ways urbanism influences people with limited abilities.

  18. Exact analytical evaluation of time dependent transmission coefficient from the method of reactive flux for an inverted parabolic barrier. (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Rajarshi


    The paper demonstrates an elegant way of combining the normal mode analysis and the method of reactive flux to evaluate the time dependent transmission coefficient for a classical particle coupled to a set of harmonic oscillators, surmounting a one dimensional barrier. The author's analysis reproduces the results of Kohen and Tannor [J. Chem. Phys. 103, 6013 (1995)] and Bao [J. Chem. Phys. 124, 114103 (2006)]. Moreover the use of normal mode analysis has a better physical meaning.

  19. Structural and Psycho-Social Limits to Climate Change Adaptation in the Great Barrier Reef Region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louisa S Evans

    Full Text Available Adaptation, as a strategy to respond to climate change, has limits: there are conditions under which adaptation strategies fail to alleviate impacts from climate change. Research has primarily focused on identifying absolute bio-physical limits. This paper contributes empirical insight to an emerging literature on the social limits to adaptation. Such limits arise from the ways in which societies perceive, experience and respond to climate change. Using qualitative data from multi-stakeholder workshops and key-informant interviews with representatives of the fisheries and tourism sectors of the Great Barrier Reef region, we identify psycho-social and structural limits associated with key adaptation strategies, and examine how these are perceived as more or less absolute across levels of organisation. We find that actors experience social limits to adaptation when: i the effort of pursuing a strategy exceeds the benefits of desired adaptation outcomes; ii the particular strategy does not address the actual source of vulnerability, and; iii the benefits derived from adaptation are undermined by external factors. We also find that social limits are not necessarily more absolute at higher levels of organisation: respondents perceived considerable opportunities to address some psycho-social limits at the national-international interface, while they considered some social limits at the local and regional levels to be effectively absolute.

  20. Structural and Psycho-Social Limits to Climate Change Adaptation in the Great Barrier Reef Region. (United States)

    Evans, Louisa S; Hicks, Christina C; Adger, W Neil; Barnett, Jon; Perry, Allison L; Fidelman, Pedro; Tobin, Renae


    Adaptation, as a strategy to respond to climate change, has limits: there are conditions under which adaptation strategies fail to alleviate impacts from climate change. Research has primarily focused on identifying absolute bio-physical limits. This paper contributes empirical insight to an emerging literature on the social limits to adaptation. Such limits arise from the ways in which societies perceive, experience and respond to climate change. Using qualitative data from multi-stakeholder workshops and key-informant interviews with representatives of the fisheries and tourism sectors of the Great Barrier Reef region, we identify psycho-social and structural limits associated with key adaptation strategies, and examine how these are perceived as more or less absolute across levels of organisation. We find that actors experience social limits to adaptation when: i) the effort of pursuing a strategy exceeds the benefits of desired adaptation outcomes; ii) the particular strategy does not address the actual source of vulnerability, and; iii) the benefits derived from adaptation are undermined by external factors. We also find that social limits are not necessarily more absolute at higher levels of organisation: respondents perceived considerable opportunities to address some psycho-social limits at the national-international interface, while they considered some social limits at the local and regional levels to be effectively absolute.

  1. Quantum Monte Carlo method applied to non-Markovian barrier transmission (United States)

    Hupin, Guillaume; Lacroix, Denis


    In nuclear fusion and fission, fluctuation and dissipation arise because of the coupling of collective degrees of freedom with internal excitations. Close to the barrier, quantum, statistical, and non-Markovian effects are expected to be important. In this work, a new approach based on quantum Monte Carlo addressing this problem is presented. The exact dynamics of a system coupled to an environment is replaced by a set of stochastic evolutions of the system density. The quantum Monte Carlo method is applied to systems with quadratic potentials. In all ranges of temperature and coupling, the stochastic method matches the exact evolution, showing that non-Markovian effects can be simulated accurately. A comparison with other theories, such as Nakajima-Zwanzig or time-convolutionless, shows that only the latter can be competitive if the expansion in terms of coupling constant is made at least to fourth order. A systematic study of the inverted parabola case is made at different temperatures and coupling constants. The asymptotic passing probability is estimated by different approaches including the Markovian limit. Large differences with an exact result are seen in the latter case or when only second order in the coupling strength is considered, as is generally assumed in nuclear transport models. In contrast, if fourth order in the coupling or quantum Monte Carlo method is used, a perfect agreement is obtained.

  2. Investigating rate-limiting barriers to nanoscale nonviral gene transfer with nanobiophotonics (United States)

    Chen, Hunter H.

    Nucleic acids are a novel class of therapeutics poised to address many unmet clinical needs. Safe and efficient delivery remains a significant challenge that has delayed the realization of the full therapeutic potential of nucleic acids. Nanoscale nonviral vectors offer an attractive alternative to viral vectors as natural and synthetic polymers or polypeptides may be rationally designed to meet the unique demands of individual applications. A mechanistic understanding of cellular barriers is necessary to develop guidelines for designing custom gene carriers which are expected to greatly impact this delivery challenge. The work herein focused on the relationships among nanocomplex stability, intracellular trafficking and unpacking kinetics, and DNA degradation. Ultrasensitive nanosensors based on QD-FRET were developed to characterize the biophysical properties of nanocomplexes and study these rate-limiting steps. Quantitative image analysis enabled the distributions of the subpopulation of condensed or released DNA to be determined within the major cellular compartments encountered during gene transfer. The steady state stability and unpacking kinetics within these compartments were found to impact transgene expression, elucidating multiple design strategies to achieve efficient gene transfer. To address enzymatic barriers, a novel two-step QD-FRET nanosensor was developed to analyze unpacking and DNA degradation simultaneously, which has not been accomplished previously. Bioresponsive strategies such as disulfide crosslinking and thermosensitivity were evaluated by QD-FRET and quantitative compartmental analysis as case studies to determine appropriate design specifications for thiolated polymers and thermoresponsive polypeptides. Relevant nanobiophotonic tools were developed as a platform to study major rate-limiting barriers to nanomedicine and demonstrated the feasibility of using mechanistic information gained from these tools to guide the rational design of

  3. Limits to mobility in InAs quantum wells with nearly lattice-matched barriers (United States)

    Shojaei, B.; Drachmann, A. C. C.; Pendharkar, M.; Pennachio, D. J.; Echlin, M. P.; Callahan, P. G.; Kraemer, S.; Pollock, T. M.; Marcus, C. M.; Palmstrøm, C. J.


    The growth and density dependence of the low temperature mobility of a series of two-dimensional electron systems confined to unintentionally doped, low extended defect density InAs quantum wells with A l1 -xG axSb barriers are reported. The electron-mobility-limiting scattering mechanisms were determined by utilizing dual-gated devices to study the dependence of mobility on carrier density and electric field independently. Analysis of possible scattering mechanisms indicate the mobility was limited primarily by rough interfaces in narrow quantum wells and a combination of alloy disorder and interface roughness in wide wells at high carrier density within the first occupied electronic subband. At low carrier density, the functional dependence of mobility on carrier density provided evidence of Coulombic scattering from charged defects. A gate-tuned electron mobility exceeding 750 000 c m2V-1s-1 was achieved at a sample temperature of 2 K.

  4. Theoretical limit of repeater spacing in an optical transmission line utilizing Raman amplification (United States)

    Nakashima, T.; Seikai, S.; Nakazawa, M.; Negishi, Y.


    The limit of repeater spacing is investigated theoretically for optical transmission lines utilizing stimulated Raman scattering to amplify the signal light. Achievable repeater spacing is numerically estimated on the basis of coupled power equations and measured fiber characteristics for various signal wavelengths and relative index differences. Three types of transmission line configurations are considered, i.e., utilization of forward only, backward only, and bidirectional amplification. In the third case, a transmission distance of more than 400 km is predicted for an input signal light power of 100 microW, a signal wavelength of 1.57 microns, and a pump power of 0.5 W using a fiber with a relative index difference of 1 percent for signal light amplification.

  5. Spectral distribution of the transmission coefficients of gold films on barrier-layer photocells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobrozhanskii, Yu.A.; Presnov, V.A.; Konovalenko, L.D.


    The transmission coefficient of a gold film (10 to 50 nm) deposited on semiconductors Ge, GaP, InAs, and InP was determined as a function of wavelength in the wavelength range between 200 and 1610 nm. It was calculated from experimental data on the transmission and reflection coefficients of gold on quartz. The gold films were prepared by thermal evaporation in a vacuum of 10/sup -5/ torr at a deposition rate of 0.3 nm/sec. The effect of technological conditions on the transmission coefficient is evaluated.

  6. Geographical Barriers and Dispersal Propensity Interact to Limit Range Expansions of Himalayan Birds. (United States)

    White, Alexander E


    Range expansions are limited by two key factors. These are (1) dispersal, which includes a species' intrinsic mobility, geographical barriers, and their interaction; and (2) the ability of a species to persist beyond its current range. I evaluate the role of these in affecting bird species distributions across the Himalayas, under a hypothesis that many species have recently expanded their range out of an eastern Pleistocene refuge. I measured wing shape as a proxy for dispersal ability and topographic complexity across the Himalayas as a proxy for dispersal barriers. As a factor affecting the potential for persistence in novel locations, I compared similarity of a species' climatic envelope in the east, the hypothesized historical refuge, and the west, the location of recent colonization. Climatic similarity, wing shape, and the interaction of topographic complexity with wing shape all contribute significantly to the range extent of a given species. The result highlights the important interaction between morphological and landscape factors in affecting successful range expansions. The two dispersal-related parameters together explain two times the variance explained by climate, but I present additional evidence that other factors besides climate-notably biotic interactions-affect the ability of a species to persist beyond its range.

  7. Social and behavioral barriers to pathogen transmission in wild animal populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loehle, C.S.


    Disease and pathogens have been studied as regulators of animal populations but not really as selective forces. The authors propose that pathogens can be major selective forces influencing social behaviors when these are successful at reducing disease transmission. The behaviors whose evolution could have been influenced by pathogen effects include group size, group isolation, mixed species flocking, migration, seasonal sociality, social avoidance, and dominance behaviors. Mate choice, mating system, and sexual selection are put in a new light when examined in terms of disease transmission. It is concluded that pathogen avoidance is a more powerful selective force than has heretofore been recognized.

  8. 18 CFR 35.22 - Limits for percentage adders in rates for transmission services; revision of rate schedules... (United States)


    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Limits for percentage adders in rates for transmission services; revision of rate schedules, tariffs or service agreements. 35... Filing Requirements § 35.22 Limits for percentage adders in rates for transmission services; revision...

  9. Joint Support and Efficient Offshore Investment: Market and Transmission Connection Barriers and Solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Sascha Thorsten; Kitzing, Lena; Klinge Jacobsen, Henrik


    Different support schemes are applied for the promotion of renewable energy sources in EU Member States. Current EU legislation opens opportunities for international cooperation to achieve national renewable targets more efficiently, either by statistical transfers, joint projects or joint support....... Two case studies on the regulatory combinations of joint projects financed under tendering and tradable green certificates as a joint support scheme are contrasted, addressing main barriers and possible solutions. Joint projects are an interesting option in the midterm, whereas joint support schemes...

  10. Synchronization in Array of Coupled Neural Networks with Unbounded Distributed Delay and Limited Transmission Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinsong Yang


    Full Text Available This paper investigates global synchronization in an array of coupled neural networks with time-varying delays and unbounded distributed delays. In the coupled neural networks, limited transmission efficiency between coupled nodes, which makes the model more practical, is considered. Based on a novel integral inequality and the Lyapunov functional method, sufficient synchronization criteria are derived. The derived synchronization criteria are formulated by linear matrix inequalities (LMIs and can be easily verified by using Matlab LMI Toolbox. It is displayed that, when some of the transmission efficiencies are limited, the dynamics of the synchronized state are different from those of the isolated node. Furthermore, the transmission efficiency and inner coupling matrices between nodes play important roles in the final synchronized state. The derivative of the time-varying delay can be any given value, and the time-varying delay can be unbounded. The outer-coupling matrices can be symmetric or asymmetric. Numerical simulations are finally given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the theoretical results.

  11. Impact of Channel Asymmetry on Base Station Cooperative Transmission with Limited Feedback

    CERN Document Server

    Hou, Xueying


    Base station (BS) cooperative transmission, also known as coordinated multi-point transmission (CoMP), is an effective way to avoid inter-cell interference in universal frequency reuse cellular systems. To gain the promised benefit, however, huge feedback overhead is in demand to gather the channel information. In this paper, we analyze the impact of channel asymmetry, which is inherent in CoMP systems, on downlink BS cooperative transmission with limited feedback. We analyze the per-user rate loss of a multi-user CoMP system led by quantization. Per-cell quantization of multicell channels is considered, which quantizes the local channel and cross channel separately and is more feasible in practice. From both the analytical and simulation results, we provide a whole picture on various critical factors that lead to the performance loss. Specifically, we show that the per user rate loss led by limited feedback depends on the location of its paired users, except for relying on its own signal to noise ratio and t...

  12. Simulation Investigation on Particle Transmission Characteristics of Two Different Ion Barrier Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ye; FU Shen-cheng; XIANG Rong; WANG Guo-zheng; DUANMU Qing-duo; TIAN Jing-quan


    The simulation calculation and analysis of electron transmittance and ion stopping power for ion barrier films (IBFs) of AI2O3 and SiO2 are performed by Monte Carlo methods. The interaction model between particles and solids are described. It is found that at the same conditions, the electron transmittance for SiOz IBF is relatively higher than that of A12O3 IBF, and the ion stopping power of SiO2 IBF is relatively lower than that of A1203 by Monte Carlo simulations. It is also indicated that SiO2 is one of the ideal materials for fabricating IBFs.

  13. Dose equivalent rate constants and barrier transmission data for nuclear medicine facility dose calculations and shielding design. (United States)

    Kusano, Maggie; Caldwell, Curtis B


    A primary goal of nuclear medicine facility design is to keep public and worker radiation doses As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA). To estimate dose and shielding requirements, one needs to know both the dose equivalent rate constants for soft tissue and barrier transmission factors (TFs) for all radionuclides of interest. Dose equivalent rate constants are most commonly calculated using published air kerma or exposure rate constants, while transmission factors are most commonly calculated using published tenth-value layers (TVLs). Values can be calculated more accurately using the radionuclide's photon emission spectrum and the physical properties of lead, concrete, and/or tissue at these energies. These calculations may be non-trivial due to the polyenergetic nature of the radionuclides used in nuclear medicine. In this paper, the effects of dose equivalent rate constant and transmission factor on nuclear medicine dose and shielding calculations are investigated, and new values based on up-to-date nuclear data and thresholds specific to nuclear medicine are proposed. To facilitate practical use, transmission curves were fitted to the three-parameter Archer equation. Finally, the results of this work were applied to the design of a sample nuclear medicine facility and compared to doses calculated using common methods to investigate the effects of these values on dose estimates and shielding decisions. Dose equivalent rate constants generally agreed well with those derived from the literature with the exception of those from NCRP 124. Depending on the situation, Archer fit TFs could be significantly more accurate than TVL-based TFs. These results were reflected in the sample shielding problem, with unshielded dose estimates agreeing well, with the exception of those based on NCRP 124, and Archer fit TFs providing a more accurate alternative to TVL TFs and a simpler alternative to full spectral-based calculations. The data provided by this paper should assist

  14. Multiple Schottky Barrier-Limited Field-Effect Transistors on a Single Si Nanowire with an Intrinsic Doping Gradient. (United States)

    Barreda, Jorge L; Keiper, Timothy D; Zhang, Mei; Xiong, Peng


    In comparison to conventional (channel-limited) field-effect transistors (FETs), Schottky barrier-limited FETs possess some unique characteristics which make them attractive candidates for some electronic and sensing applications. Consequently, modulation of the nano Schottky barrier at a metal-semiconductor interface promises higher performance for chemical and biomolecular sensor applications when compared to conventional FETs with Ohmic contacts. However, the fabrication and optimization of devices with a combination of ideal Ohmic and Schottky contacts as the source and drain respectively present many challenges. We address this issue by utilizing Si nanowires (NWs) synthesized by a chemical vapor deposition process which yields a pronounced doping gradient along the length of the NWs. Devices with a series of metal contacts on a single Si NW are fabricated in a single lithography and metallization process. The graded doping profile of the NW is manifested in monotonic increases in the channel and junction resistances and variation of the nature of the contacts from Ohmic to Schottky of increasing effective barrier height along the NW. Hence multiple single Schottky junction-limited FETs with extreme asymmetry and high reproducibility are obtained on an individual NW. A definitive correlation between increasing Schottky-barrier height and enhanced gate modulation is revealed. Having access to systematically varying Schottky barrier contacts on the same NW device provides an ideal platform for identifying optimal device characteristics for sensing and electronic applications.

  15. Testing paradigm for prediction of development-limiting barriers and human drug toxicity. (United States)

    Sasseville, V G; Lane, J H; Kadambi, V J; Bouchard, P; Lee, F W; Balani, S K; Miwa, G T; Smith, P F; Alden, C L


    The financial investment grows exponentially as a new chemical entity advances through each stage of discovery and development. The opportunity exists for the modern toxicologist to significantly impact expenditures by the early prediction of potential toxicity/side effect barriers to development by aggressive evaluation of development-limiting liabilities early in drug discovery. Improved efficiency in pharmaceutical research and development lies both in leveraging "best in class" technology and integration with pharmacologic activities during hit-to-lead and early lead optimization stages. To meet this challenge, a discovery assay by stage (DABS) paradigm should be adopted. The DABS clearly delineates to discovery project teams the timing and type of assay required for advancement of compounds to each subsequent level of discovery and development. An integrative core pathology function unifying Drug Safety Evaluation, Molecular Technologies and Clinical Research groups that effectively spans all phases of drug discovery and development is encouraged to drive the DABS. The ultimate goal of such improved efficiency being the accurate prediction of toxicity and side effects that would occur in development before commitment of the large prerequisite resource. Good justification of this approach is that every reduction of development attrition by 10% results in an estimated increase in net present value by $100 million.

  16. Barriers to control syphilis and HIV vertical transmission in the health care system in the city of Sao Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdete Maria Ramos


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to identify possible barriers to control vertical transmission of syphilis and HIV through the analysis of the orientation process of pregnant women from prenatal care to the obstetric center at an university hospital in Sao Paulo (Reference and their return (with their exposed babies for follow-up after hospital discharge (counter-reference. METHODS: It is a retrospective cross-sectional study including interviews with healthcare personnel. Pregnant women with syphilis and/or HIV-infection admitted for labor or miscarriage were identified from August 2006 to August 2007. Routine care for mothers and babies were analyzed. RESULTS: 56 pregnant women were identified: 43 were HIV-infected, 11 had syphilis and two were coinfected (syphilis/HIV; 22 health care professionals were interviewed. Prenatal care was identified in 91.1% of these women: 7/11 (63.6% with syphilis; 44/45 (97.8% HIV-infected or coinfected. The reference for delivery was satisfactory for 57.7% of the syphilis-infected women and 97.7% of the HIV-infected ones. The counter-reference was satisfactory for all babies and mothers at hospital discharge, besides the non-adherence to this recommendation. Interviews with health care professionals showed there are better routines for assisting and following-up pregnant women, puerperal women and HIV-infected or exposed babies than for those infected with syphilis. The epidemiological report and surveillance system are also better for HIV-infected patients. CONCLUSION: The difficulties in the reference and counter-reference system of these women and their babies are evident barriers to control the vertical transmission of these infectious diseases.

  17. Possibilities and limitations of advanced transmission electron microscopy for carbon-based nanomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxing Ke


    Full Text Available A major revolution for electron microscopy in the past decade is the introduction of aberration correction, which enables one to increase both the spatial resolution and the energy resolution to the optical limit. Aberration correction has contributed significantly to the imaging at low operating voltages. This is crucial for carbon-based nanomaterials which are sensitive to electron irradiation. The research of carbon nanomaterials and nanohybrids, in particular the fundamental understanding of defects and interfaces, can now be carried out in unprecedented detail by aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy (AC-TEM. This review discusses new possibilities and limits of AC-TEM at low voltage, including the structural imaging at atomic resolution, in three dimensions and spectroscopic investigation of chemistry and bonding. In situ TEM of carbon-based nanomaterials is discussed and illustrated through recent reports with particular emphasis on the underlying physics of interactions between electrons and carbon atoms.

  18. Possibilities and limitations of advanced transmission electron microscopy for carbon-based nanomaterials. (United States)

    Ke, Xiaoxing; Bittencourt, Carla; Van Tendeloo, Gustaaf


    A major revolution for electron microscopy in the past decade is the introduction of aberration correction, which enables one to increase both the spatial resolution and the energy resolution to the optical limit. Aberration correction has contributed significantly to the imaging at low operating voltages. This is crucial for carbon-based nanomaterials which are sensitive to electron irradiation. The research of carbon nanomaterials and nanohybrids, in particular the fundamental understanding of defects and interfaces, can now be carried out in unprecedented detail by aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy (AC-TEM). This review discusses new possibilities and limits of AC-TEM at low voltage, including the structural imaging at atomic resolution, in three dimensions and spectroscopic investigation of chemistry and bonding. In situ TEM of carbon-based nanomaterials is discussed and illustrated through recent reports with particular emphasis on the underlying physics of interactions between electrons and carbon atoms.

  19. Limits to foundation displacement of an extra high voltage transmission tower in a mining subsidence area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu Qianjin; Yuan Guanglin; Guo Guangli; Zhang Yunfei


    Given the background of a transmission tower erected on a particular mining subsidence area,we used finite element modeling to analyze the anti-deformation performance of transmission towers under a number of different load conditions,including horizontal foundation displacement,uneven vertical downward displacement,wind loads and icing conditions.The results show that the failure in stability of a single steel angle iron represents the limit of the tower given ground deformation.We calculated the corresponding limits of foundation displacements.The results indicate that compression displacement of the foundation is more dangerous than tension displacement.Under complex foundation displacement conditions,horizontal foundation displacement is a key factor leading to failure in the stability of towers.Under conditions of compression or tension displacement of the foundation,wind load becomes the key factor.Towers do not fail when foundation displacements are smaller than 1% (under tension) or 0.5% (under horizontal compression or single foundation subsidence) of the distance between two supports.

  20. Confocal soft X-ray scanning transmission microscopy: setup, alignment procedure and limitations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Späth, Andreas [Friedrich-Alexander Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), Egerlandstraße 3, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Raabe, Jörg [Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Fink, Rainer H., E-mail: [Friedrich-Alexander Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), Egerlandstraße 3, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Friedrich-Alexander Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), Egerlandstraße 3, 91058 Erlangen (Germany)


    A conventional STXM setup has been upgraded with a second micro zone plate and aligned to confocal geometry. Two confocal geometries (in-line and off-axis) have been evaluated and a discussion on prospects and limitations is presented. Zone-plate-based scanning transmission soft X-ray microspectroscopy (STXM) is a well established technique for high-contrast imaging of sufficiently transparent specimens (e.g. ultrathin biological tissues, polymer materials, archaeometric specimens or magnetic thin films) with spatial resolutions in the regime of 20 nm and high spectroscopic or chemical sensitivity. However, due to the relatively large depth of focus of zone plates, the resolution of STXM along the optical axis so far stays unambiguously behind for thicker X-ray transparent specimens. This challenge can be addressed by the implementation of a second zone plate in the detection pathway of the beam, resulting in a confocal arrangement. Within this paper a first proof-of-principle study for a confocal STXM (cSTXM) and an elaborate alignment procedure in transmission and fluorescence geometry are presented. Based on first confocal soft X-ray micrographs of well known specimens, the advantage and limitation of cSTXM as well as further development potentials for future applications are discussed.

  1. Quantum Monte-Carlo method applied to Non-Markovian barrier transmission

    CERN Document Server

    Hupin, G


    In nuclear fusion and fission, fluctuation and dissipation arise due to the coupling of collective degrees of freedom with internal excitations. Close to the barrier, both quantum, statistical and non-Markovian effects are expected to be important. In this work, a new approach based on quantum Monte-Carlo addressing this problem is presented. The exact dynamics of a system coupled to an environment is replaced by a set of stochastic evolutions of the system density. The quantum Monte-Carlo method is applied to systems with quadratic potentials. In all range of temperature and coupling, the stochastic method matches the exact evolution showing that non-Markovian effects can be simulated accurately. A comparison with other theories like Nakajima-Zwanzig or Time-ConvolutionLess ones shows that only the latter can be competitive if the expansion in terms of coupling constant is made at least to fourth order. A systematic study of the inverted parabola case is made at different temperatures and coupling constants....

  2. The International Limits and Population at Risk of Plasmodium vivax Transmission in 2009 (United States)

    Guerra, Carlos A.; Howes, Rosalind E.; Patil, Anand P.; Gething, Peter W.; Van Boeckel, Thomas P.; Temperley, William H.; Kabaria, Caroline W.; Tatem, Andrew J.; Manh, Bui H.; Elyazar, Iqbal R. F.; Baird, J. Kevin; Snow, Robert W.; Hay, Simon I.


    development and control, P. vivax remains more widely distributed than P. falciparum and is a potential cause of morbidity and mortality amongst the 2.85 billion people living at risk of infection, the majority of whom are in the tropical belt of CSE Asia. The probability of infection is reduced massively across Africa by the frequency of the Duffy negative trait, but transmission does occur on the continent and is a concern for Duffy positive locals and travellers. The final map provides the spatial limits on which the endemicity of P. vivax transmission can be mapped to support future cartographic-based burden estimations. PMID:20689816

  3. 77 FR 73646 - Essar Steel Minnesota, LLC v. Great Lakes Gas Transmission Limited Partnership; Notice of Complaint (United States)


    ...] Essar Steel Minnesota, LLC v. Great Lakes Gas Transmission Limited Partnership; Notice of Complaint Take... Act, 15 U.S.C. 717(a), Essar Steel Minnesota, LLC (Complainant) filed a formal complaint against...

  4. Limited BVDV transmission and full protection against CSFV transmission in pigs experimentally infected with BVDV type 1b

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa-Jelsma, H.; Quak, J.; Loeffen, W.L.A.


    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in pigs may interfere with the detection and epidemiology of classical swine fever virus (CSFV). To investigate the importance of BVDV infections in pigs, first we studied the transmission dynamics of a recent BVDV field isolate. Subsequently, the protection of BVD

  5. Confocal soft X-ray scanning transmission microscopy: setup, alignment procedure and limitations. (United States)

    Späth, Andreas; Raabe, Jörg; Fink, Rainer H


    Zone-plate-based scanning transmission soft X-ray microspectroscopy (STXM) is a well established technique for high-contrast imaging of sufficiently transparent specimens (e.g. ultrathin biological tissues, polymer materials, archaeometric specimens or magnetic thin films) with spatial resolutions in the regime of 20 nm and high spectroscopic or chemical sensitivity. However, due to the relatively large depth of focus of zone plates, the resolution of STXM along the optical axis so far stays unambiguously behind for thicker X-ray transparent specimens. This challenge can be addressed by the implementation of a second zone plate in the detection pathway of the beam, resulting in a confocal arrangement. Within this paper a first proof-of-principle study for a confocal STXM (cSTXM) and an elaborate alignment procedure in transmission and fluorescence geometry are presented. Based on first confocal soft X-ray micrographs of well known specimens, the advantage and limitation of cSTXM as well as further development potentials for future applications are discussed.

  6. Linear versus non-linear structural information limit in high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. (United States)

    Van Aert, S; Chen, J H; Van Dyck, D


    A widely used performance criterion in high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) is the information limit. It corresponds to the inverse of the maximum spatial object frequency that is linearly transmitted with sufficient intensity from the exit plane of the object to the image plane and is limited due to partial temporal coherence. In practice, the information limit is often measured from a diffractogram or from Young's fringes assuming a weak phase object scattering beyond the inverse of the information limit. However, for an aberration corrected electron microscope, with an information limit in the sub-angstrom range, weak phase objects are no longer applicable since they do not scatter sufficiently in this range. Therefore, one relies on more strongly scattering objects such as crystals of heavy atoms observed along a low index zone axis. In that case, dynamical scattering becomes important such that the non-linear and linear interaction may be equally important. The non-linear interaction may then set the experimental cut-off frequency observed in a diffractogram. The goal of this paper is to quantify both the linear and the non-linear information transfer in terms of closed form analytical expressions. Whereas the cut-off frequency set by the linear transfer can be directly related with the attainable resolution, information from the non-linear transfer can only be extracted using quantitative, model-based methods. In contrast to the historic definition of the information limit depending on microscope parameters only, the expressions derived in this paper explicitly incorporate their dependence on the structure parameters as well. In order to emphasize this dependence and to distinguish from the usual information limit, the expressions derived for the inverse cut-off frequencies will be referred to as the linear and non-linear structural information limit. The present findings confirm the well-known result that partial temporal coherence has

  7. Nitrogen and phosphorus limitation in a coastal barrier salt marsh : the implications for vegetation succession

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijnen, HJ; Bakker, JP


    1 A factorial fertilizer experiment was conducted in a 15-year-old coastal barrier salt marsh with a low soil nitrogen content, and in an older 100-year-old marsh with a higher nitrogen content. Plots were fertilized at high and low marsh elevations in both marshes. Nitrogen and phosphorus were appl

  8. The Dragons of Inaction: Psychological Barriers That Limit Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation (United States)

    Gifford, Robert


    Most people think climate change and sustainability are important problems, but too few global citizens engaged in high-greenhouse-gas-emitting behavior are engaged in enough mitigating behavior to stem the increasing flow of greenhouse gases and other environmental problems. Why is that? Structural barriers such as a climate-averse infrastructure…

  9. Relationship of hepatitis B virus infection of placental barrier and hepatitis B virus intra-uterine transmission mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han Bai; Lin Zhang; Li Ma; Xiao-Guang Dou; Guo-He Feng; Gui-Zhen Zhao


    AIM: To explore the mechanism of intra-uterine transmission, the HBV infection status of placental tissue and in vitro cultured placental trophoblastic cells was tested through in vivo and in vitro experiments.METHODS: A variety of methods, such as ELISA, RTPCR, IHC staining and immunofluorescent staining were employed to test the HBV marker positive pregnant women's placenta and in vitro cultured placental trophoblastic cells.RESULTS: The HBV DNA levels in pregnant women's serum and fetal cord blood were correlated. For those cord blood samples positive for HBV DNA, their maternal blood levels of HBV DNA were at a high level. The HBsAg IHC staining positive cells could be seen in the placental tissues and the presence of HBV DNA detected. After coincubating the trophoblastic cells and HBV DNA positive serum in vitro, the expressions of both HBsAg and HBV DNA could be detected.CONCLUSION: The mechanism of HBV intra-uterine infection may be due to that HBV breaches the placental barrier and infects the fetus.

  10. Epimuscular myofascial force transmission between antagonistic and synergistic muscles can explain movement limitation in spastic paresis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijing, Peter A.


    Details and concepts of intramuscular, extramuscular and intermuscular myofascial force transmission are reviewed. Some new experimental data are added regarding myofascial force transmission between antagonistic muscles across the interosseal membrane of the lower hind limb of the rat. Combined wit

  11. Beating the Classical Limits of Information Transmission using a Quantum Decoder (United States)

    Karim, Akib; Huang, Zixin; Chapman, Rob; Tomamichel, Marco; Flammia, Steve; Peruzzo, Alberto

    Reliable transmission of information over a noisy channel is a fundamental challenge in communication theory. The emergence of quantum technologies has created a new class of strategies that allow for message recovery greater than purely classical methods. Despite this, for minimal uses of the channel, finding such schemes remains a challenge. We investigate the amplitude damping channel which describes physical systems that suffer energy loss such as in cavity quantum electrodynamics or spin chain excitations. We derive and experimentally demonstrate the fundamental limit for message recovery possible with only classical methods. We then propose a quantum decoder and experimentally demonstrate message recovery past this classical limit. We use polarisation-encoded photonic qubits. The post-amplitude damping states are generated by an unbalanced Mach-Zehnder interferometer and entanglement is accomplished with a linear optical probabilistic controlled z gate. Our quantum decoder uses a single entangling gate at the receiver where other similar schemes rely on both the sender and the receiver having quantum devices. Our results present an advance in discovering the quantum capabilities of finite resource communications, with specific regard to the amplitude damping channel.

  12. Parametric Harmonic Generation as a Probe of Unconstrained Spin Magnetization Precession in the Shallow Barrier Limit. (United States)

    Capua, Amir; Rettner, Charles; Parkin, Stuart S P


    We study the parametric excitation of high orders of magnetization precession in ultrathin films having perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. We observe that for a given driving field amplitude the harmonic generation can be increased by lowering the barrier with the application of an in-plane magnetic field in the manner of the Smit-Beljers effect. In this effect, the magnetic stiffness is reduced not by lowering the magnitude of the magnetic field upon which the spins precess, but rather by effectively releasing the field's "anchoring" point. This results in a shallow energy barrier where the electrons' spin is locally unconstrained. While the observation is unveiled in the form of nonlinear high harmonic generation, we believe that the physics whereby the barrier is suppressed by an external magnetic field may apply to other phenomena associated with ultrathin films. In these cases, such unconstrained motion may serve as a sensitive probe of the torques associated with proximate spin currents. Moreover, our approach may be used as a model system for the study of phase transitions in the field of nonlinear dynamics.

  13. Whole Genome Sequencing Demonstrates Limited Transmission within Identified Mycobacterium tuberculosis Clusters in New South Wales, Australia (United States)

    Gurjav, Ulziijargal; Outhred, Alexander C.; Jelfs, Peter; McCallum, Nadine; Wang, Qinning; Hill-Cawthorne, Grant A.; Marais, Ben J.; Sintchenko, Vitali


    Australia has a low tuberculosis incidence rate with most cases occurring among recent immigrants. Given suboptimal cluster resolution achieved with 24-locus mycobacterium interspersed repetitive unit (MIRU-24) genotyping, the added value of whole genome sequencing was explored. MIRU-24 profiles of all Mycobacterium tuberculosis culture-confirmed tuberculosis cases diagnosed between 2009 and 2013 in New South Wales (NSW), Australia, were examined and clusters identified. The relatedness of cases within the largest MIRU-24 clusters was assessed using whole genome sequencing and phylogenetic analyses. Of 1841 culture-confirmed TB cases, 91.9% (1692/1841) had complete demographic and genotyping data. East-African Indian (474; 28.0%) and Beijing (470; 27.8%) lineage strains predominated. The overall rate of MIRU-24 clustering was 20.1% (340/1692) and was highest among Beijing lineage strains (35.7%; 168/470). One Beijing and three East-African Indian (EAI) clonal complexes were responsible for the majority of observed clusters. Whole genome sequencing of the 4 largest clusters (30 isolates) demonstrated diverse single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within identified clusters. All sequenced EAI strains and 70% of Beijing lineage strains clustered by MIRU-24 typing demonstrated distinct SNP profiles. The superior resolution provided by whole genome sequencing demonstrated limited M. tuberculosis transmission within NSW, even within identified MIRU-24 clusters. Routine whole genome sequencing could provide valuable public health guidance in low burden settings. PMID:27737005

  14. Combination Restoration for Motion-blurred Color Videos under Limited Transmission Bandwidth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Li


    Full Text Available Color video images degraded in a deterministic way by motion-blurring can be restored by the new algorithm in real-time by using color components combination to fit to the limited transmission bandwidth. The image motion PSF of each surface of YUV422 image can be obtained based on the color space conversion model. The Y, U, V planes are packed to construct a 2 dimensional complex array. Through the decomposition of frequency domain, the Y, U, V frequency can be had respectively by performing Fourier transform a time on the specific complex array. The resulting frequencies will be filtered by Wiener filter to generate the final restored images. The proposed algorithm can restore 1024x1024 24-bit motionblurred color video images at 18 ms/frame speed on GPU, and the PSNR of the restored frame is 31.45. The experiment results show that the proposed algorithm is 3X speed compared to the traditional algorithm, and it reduces the bandwidth of video data stream 1/3.

  15. Limited variation in vaccine candidate Plasmodium falciparum Merozoite Surface Protein-6 over multiple transmission seasons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branch OraLee H


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasmodium falciparum Merozoite Surface Protein-6 (PfMSP6 is a component of the complex proteinacious coat that surrounds P. falciparum merozoites. This location, and the presence of anti-PfMSP6 antibodies in P. falciparum-exposed individuals, makes PfMSP6 a potential blood stage vaccine target. However, genetic diversity has proven to be a major hurdle for vaccines targeting other blood stage P. falciparum antigens, and few endemic field studies assessing PfMSP6 gene diversity have been conducted. This study follows PfMSP6 diversity in the Peruvian Amazon from 2003 to 2006 and is the first longitudinal assessment of PfMSP6 sequence dynamics. Methods Parasite DNA was extracted from 506 distinct P. falciparum infections spanning the transmission seasons from 2003 to 2006 as part of the Malaria Immunology and Genetics in the Amazon (MIGIA cohort study near Iquitos, Peru. PfMSP6 was amplified from each sample using a nested PCR protocol, genotyped for allele class by agarose gel electrophoresis, and sequenced to detect diversity. Allele frequencies were analysed using JMP v. and correlated with clinical and epidemiological data collected as part of the MIGIA project. Results Both PfMSP6 allele classes, K1-like and 3D7-like, were detected at the study site, confirming that both are globally distributed. Allele frequencies varied significantly between transmission seasons, with 3D7-class alleles dominating and K1-class alleles nearly disappearing in 2005 and 2006. There was a significant association between allele class and village location (p-value = 0.0008, but no statistically significant association between allele class and age, sex, or symptom status. No intra-allele class sequence diversity was detected. Conclusions Both PfMSP6 allele classes are globally distributed, and this study shows that allele frequencies can fluctuate significantly between communities separated by only a few kilometres, and over time in the

  16. A comprehensive review of the barriers and promoters health workers experience in delivering prevention of vertical transmission of HIV services in sub-Saharan Africa. (United States)

    Schuster, Roseanne C; McMahon, Devon E; Young, Sera L


    Despite significant biomedical and policy advances, 199,000 infants and young children in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) became infected with HIV in 2013, indicating challenges to implementation of these advances. To understand the nature of these challenges, we sought to (1) characterize the barriers and facilitators that health workers encountered delivering prevention of vertical transmission of HIV (PVT) services in SSA and (2) evaluate the use of theory to guide PVT service delivery. The PubMed and CINAHL databases were searched using keywords barriers, facilitators, HIV, prevention of vertical transmission of HIV, health workers, and their synonyms to identify relevant studies. Barriers and facilitators were coded at ecological levels according to the Determinants of Performance framework. Factors in this framework were then classified as affecting motivation, opportunity, or ability, per the Motivation-Opportunity-Ability (MOA) framework in order to evaluate domains of health worker performance within each ecological level. We found that the most frequently reported challenges occurred within the health facility level and spanned all three MOA domains. Barriers reported in 30% or more of studies from most proximal to distal included those affecting health worker motivation (stress, burnout, depression), patient opportunity (stigma), work opportunity (poor referral systems), health facility opportunity (overburdened workload, lack of supplies), and health facility ability (inadequate PVT training, inconsistent breastfeeding messages). Facilitators were reported in lower frequencies than barriers and tended to be resolutions to challenges (e.g., quality supervision, consistent supplies) or responses to an intervention (e.g., record systems and infrastructure improvements). The majority of studies did not use theory to guide study design or implementation. Interventions addressing health workers' multiple ecological levels of interactions, particularly the health

  17. Energy renovation of Danish single-family houses Economy - barrier, motivation and limit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Andrea; Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Plenge, Mary-Ann Knudstrup

    .000 DKK and 310.000DKK) are fair compared to the outcome, but when the needed investment is at 550.000 DKK and above, the majority think it is too expensive despite the benefits. The investment limit for the private renovations is defined on the basis on the homeowners’ interest in performing similar...... projects as the presented. The average limit is below 310.000 DKK the price of concept 3. However some of the respondents have a higher limit, and naturally some a lower limit. To increase the amount of deep renovations large private investments are needed and the results show that this is most likely......, because the homeowners here have a higher than average interest in conducting similar project, hence a higher investment limit. • When the homeowners are young as this is where the interesting investment is largest. • In households with a high yearly income. Both the interest in similar projects...

  18. Handling transmission limitations in the central power network; Haandtering av overfoeringsbegrensninger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    From 1996, the Norwegian and Swedish power markets were joined and a common power exchange was established. The two countries deal differently with bottlenecks (transmission obstruction) in their central networks. This report compares methods for dealing with such bottlenecks and looks at the alternatives. It emphasises the efficiency of pricing and incentives and the possibility of exercising market power under the different methods. Norway uses a method of price regions, or bottleneck tax. Prices are determined for the various price regions so as to keep the power flow below specified bounds. A surplus region is assigned a lower price than a deficit region and the bottleneck tax is the difference in price between two such price regions. The Swedish system is based on a counter purchase concept. In his offer to the spotmarket, the supplier has bound himself to provide a certain amount to the current system price regardless of network limitations. Up-regulation means that he produces more than this amount. Down-regulation means that he is paid for supplying less than he had offered to the current system price. In up- or down-regulation, compensation is given as the difference between the system price and the price on the counter purchase market. The main conclusions are: (1) Counter purchase is unsuitable as the main strategy for Norway. (2) Counter purchase may be suitable with short-lived and unpredicted bottlenecks; price regions may be suitable for long-lasting and predicted bottlenecks. Time is a central factor. (3) Present-day models for bottleneck management in Norway and Sweden do not give the optimum short-term load distribution on the network. In general, the current Norwegian system works fairly well, although it might be worthwhile to consider a system that approaches node pricing. 3 refs., 34 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Vasoinhibins regulate the inner and outer blood-retinal barrier and limit retinal oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eArredondo Zamarripa


    Full Text Available Vasoinhibins are prolactin fragments present in the retina, where they have been shown to prevent the hypervasopermeability associated with diabetes. Enhanced bradykinin (BK production contributes to the increased transport through the blood-retina barrier (BRB in diabetes. Here, we studied if vasoinhibins regulate BRB permeability by targeting the vascular endothelium and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE components of this barrier. Intravitreal injection of BK in male rats increased BRB permeability. Vasoinhibins prevented this effect, as did the B2 receptor antagonist Hoe-140. BK induced a transient decrease in mouse retinal and brain capillary endothelial monolayer resistance that was blocked by vasoinhibins. Both vasoinhibins and the nitric oxide (NO synthase inhibitor L-NAME, but not the antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine (NAC, blocked the transient decrease in bovine umbilical vein endothelial cell (BUVEC monolayer resistance induced by BK; this block was reversed by the NO donor DETANONOate. Vasoinhibins also prevented the BK-induced actin cytoskeleton redistribution, as did L-NAME. BK transiently decreased human RPE (ARPE-19 cell monolayer resistance, and this effect was blocked by vasoinhibins, L-NAME, and NAC. DETANONOate reverted the blocking effect of vasoinhibins. Similar to BK, the radical initiator Luperox induced a reduction in ARPE-19 cell monolayer resistance, which was prevented by vasoinhibins. These effects on RPE resistance coincided with actin cytoskeleton redistribution. Intravitreal injection of vasoinhibins reduced the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS in retinas of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, particularly in the RPE and capillary-containing layers. Thus, vasoinhibins reduce BRB permeability by targeting both its main inner and outer components through NO- and ROS-dependent pathways, offering potential treatment strategies against diabetic retinopathies.

  20. Limited airborne transmission of H7N9 influenza A virus between ferrets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Richard (Mathilde); E.J.A. Schrauwen (Eefje); M.T. de Graaf (Marieke); T.M. Bestebroer (Theo); M.I. Spronken (Monique); S. van Boheemen (Sander); D. de Meulder (Dennis); P. Lexmond (Pascal); M. Linster (Martin); S. Herfst (Sander); D.J. Smith (Derek James); J.M.A. van den Brand (Judith); D.F. Burke (David); T. Kuiken (Thijs); G.F. Rimmelzwaan (Guus); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); R.A.M. Fouchier (Ron)


    textabstractWild waterfowl form the main reservoir of influenza A viruses, from which transmission occurs directly or indirectly to various secondary hosts, including humans. Direct avian-to-human transmission has been observed for viruses of subtypes A(H5N1), A(H7N2), A(H7N3), A(H7N7), A(H9N2) and

  1. Human Alpha-Defensin HNP1 Increases HIV Traversal of the Epithelial Barrier: A Potential Role in STI-Mediated Enhancement of HIV Transmission. (United States)

    Valere, Kimyata; Rapista, Aprille; Eugenin, Eliseo; Lu, Wuyuan; Chang, Theresa L


    Alpha-defensins, including human neutrophil peptides 1-3 (HNP1-3) and human defensin 5 (HD5), are elevated at the genital mucosa in individuals with sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The presence of STIs is associated with an increased risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission, suggesting there may be a role for defensins in early events of HIV transmission. HD5 has been demonstrated to contribute to STI-mediated increased HIV infectivity in vitro. HNPs exhibit anti-HIV activity in vitro. However, increased levels of HNPs have been associated with enhanced HIV acquisition and higher viral load in breast milk. This study found that HNP1, but not HD5, significantly disrupted epithelial integrity and promoted HIV traversal of epithelial barriers. Linear HNP1 with the same charges did not affect epithelial permeability, indicating that the observed effect of HNP1 on the epithelial barrier was structure dependent. These results suggest a role for HNP1 in STI-mediated enhancement of HIV transmission.

  2. Numerical analysis of a deep drawing process with additional force transmission for an extension of the process limits (United States)

    Behrens, B.-A.; Bonk, C.; Grbic, N.; Vucetic, M.


    By sheet metal forming processes the forming limits and part characteristics are defined through the process specific loads. In deep drawing processes the maximum deep draw ratios as well as the springback behaviour of the metal parts are depending on the stress distribution in the part material during the forming process. While exceeding the load limits, a failure in the material occurs, which can be avoided by additional force transmission activated in the deep drawing process before the forming limit of material is achieved. This contribution deals with numerical investigation of process effect caused by additional force transmission regarding the extension of the process limits. Here, the steel material HCT 600X+Z (1.0941) in thickness s 0 = 1.0 mm is analyzed numerically using the anisotropic model Hill48. This model is validated by the means of cup test by Swift. Both, the FEA of conventional and forming process with additional force transmission are carried out. The numerical results are compared with reference geometry of rectangle cup.

  3. PS1-56: Beyond Barriers: Systemic Constraints Limiting Sexual Health Care for Breast Cancer Survivors (United States)

    Halley, Meghan; May, Suepattra; Rendle, Katharine; Frosch, Dominick; Kurian, Allison


    Background/Aims Sexual health problems represent one of the most frequently experienced and longest-lasting effects of breast cancer treatment, but research suggests that providers rarely discuss sexual health with their patients. Existing research examining barriers to addressing the sexual health concerns of cancer patients has focused on discrete characteristics of the provider-patient interaction without considering the broader context in which these interactions occur. Drawing on focus group discussions with breast cancer survivors, we explore how foundational cultural and structural characteristics of the healthcare system may be preventing breast cancer survivors from addressing their sexual health concerns. Methods Five focus groups were conducted with breast cancer survivors receiving support services at a breast cancer advocacy and resource organization in Northern California. Each group focused on a different aspect of treatment including: 1) diagnosis; 2) surgery and reconstruction; 3) chemotherapy; 4) radiation; and 5) survivorship. An interview guide for each topic area was used to elicit participants’ thoughts, opinions and experiences of breast cancer treatment. Analysis utilized inductive techniques incorporating elements of Grounded Theory to identify salient themes that emerged in the discussions. Results An average of eight women participated in each focus group, and women were allowed to participate in more than one group, for a total of 21 participants. Participants’ discussions illustrated three core ways in which cultural and structural characteristics of the healthcare system prevented them from addressing their sexual health concerns, including: 1) the structure of cancer care led to participants being disconnected from the healthcare system at the time when sexual side effects most commonly emerged; 2) when their sexual side effects did emerge, the highly specialized structure of the biomedical system made it difficult for patients to

  4. A novel power efficient location-based cooperative routing with transmission power-upper-limit for wireless sensor networks. (United States)

    Shi, Juanfei; Calveras, Anna; Cheng, Ye; Liu, Kai


    The extensive usage of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) has led to the development of many power- and energy-efficient routing protocols. Cooperative routing in WSNs can improve performance in these types of networks. In this paper we discuss the existing proposals and we propose a routing algorithm for wireless sensor networks called Power Efficient Location-based Cooperative Routing with Transmission Power-upper-limit (PELCR-TP). The algorithm is based on the principle of minimum link power and aims to take advantage of nodes cooperation to make the link work well in WSNs with a low transmission power. In the proposed scheme, with a determined transmission power upper limit, nodes find the most appropriate next nodes and single-relay nodes with the proposed algorithm. Moreover, this proposal subtly avoids non-working nodes, because we add a Bad nodes Avoidance Strategy (BAS). Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm with BAS can significantly improve the performance in reducing the overall link power, enhancing the transmission success rate and decreasing the retransmission rate.

  5. From Oxford to Hawaii ecophysiological barriers limit human progression in ten sport monuments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François-Denis Desgorces

    Full Text Available In order to understand the determinants and trends of human performance evolution, we analyzed ten outdoor events among the oldest and most popular in sports history. Best performances of the Oxford-Cambridge boat race (since 1836, the channel crossing in swimming (1875, the hour cycling record (1893, the Elfstedentocht speed skating race (1909, the cross country ski Vasaloppet (1922, the speed ski record (1930, the Streif down-hill in Kitzbühel (1947, the eastward and westward sailing transatlantic records (1960 and the triathlon Hawaii ironman (1978 all follow a similar evolutive pattern, best described through a piecewise exponential decaying model (r(2 = 0.95+/-0.07. The oldest events present highest progression curvature during their early phase. Performance asymptotic limits predicted from the model may be achieved in fourty years (2049+/-32 y. Prolonged progression may be anticipated in disciplines which further rely on technology such as sailing and cycling. Human progression in outdoor sports tends to asymptotic limits depending on physiological and environmental parameters and may temporarily benefit from further technological progresses.

  6. A Study on Guided and Unguided Transmission Medias and a Proposed Idea to Extend the Limit of Gi-Fi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr J Sebastian Nixon


    Full Text Available Networking in computers enables sharing of information by interconnecting the computing devices. The sharing of information is possible through transmission media. The transmission media is classified as wired or wireless. Wired media have limitation in geography. But wireless is not bounded by geography. In the wireless world the first wireless technology was infrared and it was a very slow technology. So, inventions were continued to find a better wireless technology, finally we got Bluetooth, Wi-Fi ,WI-MAX and Gi-Fi. In this paper we discussed about different Wired and Wireless Technologies and given a proposed idea to extend the limit of Gi-Fi beyond 10 meters

  7. Limited transmission of bla(CTX-M-9)-type-positive Escherichia coli between humans and poultry in Vietnam. (United States)

    Ueda, Shuhei; Ngan, Bui Thi Kim; Huong, Bui Thi Mai; Hirai, Itaru; Tuyen, Le Danh; Yamamoto, Yoshimasa


    We examined whether Escherichia coli isolates that produce CTX-M-9-type extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) are transferred between humans and chickens in a Vietnamese community. The phylogenetic group compositions, sequence types, antimicrobial resistance profiles, the prevalence of plasmid antibiotic resistance genes, and the plasmid replicon types generally differed between the human and chicken E. coli isolates. Our results suggest that transmission of the bla(CTX-M-9)-positive E. coli between humans and poultry was limited.

  8. Nonlinear dynamics of a friction-limited drive: Application to a chain continuously variable transmission (CVT) system (United States)

    Srivastava, Nilabh; Haque, Imtiaz


    Over the past two decades, extensive research has been conducted on developing vehicle transmissions that meet the goals of reduced exhaust emissions and increased vehicle efficiency. A continuously variable transmission is an emerging automotive transmission technology that offers a continuum of gear ratios between desired limits. A chain CVT is a friction-limited drive whose dynamic performance and torque capacity rely significantly on the friction characteristic of the contact patch between the chain and the pulley. Although a CVT helps to maximize the vehicle fuel economy, its complete potential has not been accomplished in a mass-production vehicle. The present research focuses on developing models to analyze friction-induced nonlinear dynamics of a chain CVT drive and identify possible mechanisms that cause degradation of the overall dynamic performance by inducing chaos and self-sustained vibrations in the system. Two different mathematical models of friction, which characterize different operating or loading conditions, are embedded into a detailed planar multibody model of chain CVT in order to capture the various friction-induced effects in the system. Tools such as stick-slip oscillator dynamics, Lyapunov exponents, phase-space reconstruction, and recurrence plotting are incorporated to characterize the nonlinear dynamics of such a friction-limited system. The mathematical models, the computational scheme, and the results corresponding to different loading scenarios are discussed. The results discuss the influence of friction characteristics on the nonlinear dynamics and torque transmitting capacity of a chain CVT drive.

  9. Confocal soft X-ray scanning transmission microscopy: setup, alignment procedure and limitations


    Späth, Andreas; Raabe, Jörg; Fink, Rainer H.


    Zone-plate-based scanning transmission soft X-ray microspectroscopy (STXM) is a well established technique for high-contrast imaging of sufficiently transparent specimens (e.g. ultrathin biological tissues, polymer materials, archaeometric specimens or magnetic thin films) with spatial resolutions in the regime of 20 nm and high spectroscopic or chemical sensitivity. However, due to the relatively large depth of focus of zone plates, the resolution of STXM along the optical axis so far stays ...

  10. Antecedent avian immunity limits tangential transmission of West Nile virus to humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L Kwan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: West Nile virus (WNV is a mosquito-borne flavivirus maintained and amplified among birds and tangentially transmitted to humans and horses which may develop terminal neuroinvasive disease. Outbreaks typically have a three-year pattern of silent introduction, rapid amplification and subsidence, followed by intermittent recrudescence. Our hypothesis that amplification to outbreak levels is contingent upon antecedent seroprevalence within maintenance host populations was tested by tracking WNV transmission in Los Angeles, California from 2003 through 2011. METHODS: Prevalence of antibodies against WNV was monitored weekly in House Finches and House Sparrows. Tangential or spillover transmission was measured by seroconversions in sentinel chickens and by the number of West Nile neuroinvasive disease (WNND cases reported to the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health. RESULTS: Elevated seroprevalence in these avian populations was associated with the subsidence of outbreaks and in the antecedent dampening of amplification during succeeding years. Dilution of seroprevalence by recruitment resulted in the progressive loss of herd immunity following the 2004 outbreak, leading to recrudescence during 2008 and 2011. WNV appeared to be a significant cause of death in these avian species, because the survivorship of antibody positive birds significantly exceeded that of antibody negative birds. Cross-correlation analysis showed that seroprevalence was negatively correlated prior to the onset of human cases and then positively correlated, peaking at 4-6 weeks after the onset of tangential transmission. Antecedent seroprevalence during winter (Jan - Mar was negatively correlated with the number of WNND cases during the succeeding summer (Jul-Sep. CONCLUSIONS: Herd immunity levels within after hatching year avian maintenance host populations <10% during the antecedent late winter and spring period were followed on three occasions by

  11. Limited english proficiency, primary language at home, and disparities in children's health care: how language barriers are measured matters. (United States)

    Flores, Glenn; Abreu, Milagros; Tomany-Korman, Sandra C.


    BACKGROUND: Approximately 3.5 million U.S. schoolchildren are limited in English proficiency (LEP). Disparities in children's health and health care are associated with both LEP and speaking a language other than English at home, but prior research has not examined which of these two measures of language barriers is most useful in examining health care disparities. OBJECTIVES: Our objectives were to compare primary language spoken at home vs. parental LEP and their associations with health status, access to care, and use of health services in children. METHODS: We surveyed parents at urban community sites in Boston, asking 74 questions on children's health status, access to health care, and use of health services. RESULTS: Some 98% of the 1,100 participating children and families were of non-white race/ethnicity, 72% of parents were LEP, and 13 different primary languages were spoken at home. "Dose-response" relationships were observed between parental English proficiency and several child and parental sociodemographic features, including children's insurance coverage, parental educational attainment, citizenship and employment, and family income. Similar "dose-response" relationships were noted between the primary language spoken at home and many but not all of the same sociodemographic features. In multivariate analyses, LEP parents were associated with triple the odds of a child having fair/poor health status, double the odds of the child spending at least one day in bed for illness in the past year, and significantly greater odds of children not being brought in for needed medical care for six of nine access barriers to care. None of these findings were observed in analyses of the primary language spoken at home. Individual parental LEP categories were associated with different risks of adverse health status and outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Parental LEP is superior to the primary language spoken at home as a measure of the impact of language barriers on children

  12. Male participation in prevention programmes of mother to child transmission of HIV: a protocol for a systematic review to identify barriers, facilitators and reported interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morfaw Frederick LI


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infection with the HIV and AIDS are leading causes of morbidity and mortality among women and children worldwide. Prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT programs were developed to protect women and their babies from having HIV infection. However, knowledge on how male participation has been applied to these programs is limited. We present a research protocol for a review which seeks to determine the effects of male participation on female uptake of PMTCT programs, and assess how this male participation has been investigated and documented worldwide. Methods This is a systematic review of published literature. We will attempt to identify all studies relevant to the subject written in the English language from January 1998 to June 2011. Electronic searches of the PubMED, EMBASE, CINAHL, and LILACS databases will be conducted using the relevant medical subject headings. Reference lists of identified studies and previous reviews will be manually checked for articles of interest. We shall also contact authors on the field for any relevant material. Two authors (FM and LM will independently screen potential articles for eligibility using well-defined inclusion and exclusion criteria. They will independently assess the methodological quality of each included paper using the Jadad scale for randomized controlled trials, and the Newcastle-Ottawa scale for observational studies. Then they will independently extract data from the studies using a pre-established data extraction form. The primary outcome data will be female uptake of PMTCT services following a male/couple intervention, while secondary outcome measures will include indicators and barriers of male participation in PMTCT activities among others. During the data extraction process, discrepancies between the two authors will be sorted out by discussion or consultation with a third party (LT. The analysis and reporting of the review will be according to the

  13. Dissemination and transmission of the E1-226V variant of chikungunya virus in Aedes albopictus are controlled at the midgut barrier level.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Arias-Goeta

    Full Text Available Emergence of arboviruses could result from their ability to exploit new environments, for example a new host. This ability is facilitated by the high mutation rate occurring during viral genome replication. The last emergence of chikungunya in the Indian Ocean region corroborates this statement since a single viral mutation at the position 226 on the E1 glycoprotein (E1-A226V was associated with enhanced transmission by the mosquito Aedes albopictus in regions where the major mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti, is absent.We used direct competition assays in vivo to dissect out the mechanisms underlying the selection of E1-226V by Ae. albopictus. When the original variant E1-226A and the newly emerged E1-226V were provided in the same blood-meal at equal titers to both species of mosquitoes, we found that the proportion of both variants was drastically different in the two mosquito species. Following ingestion of the infectious blood-meal, the E1-226V variant was preferentially selected in Ae. albopictus, whereas the E1-226A variant was sometimes favored in Ae. aegypti. Interestingly, when the two variants were introduced into the mosquitoes by intrathoracic inoculations, E1-226V was no longer favored for dissemination and transmission in Ae. albopictus, showing that the midgut barrier plays a key role in E1-226V selection.This study sheds light on the role of the midgut barrier in the selection of novel arbovirus emerging variants. We also bring new insight into how the pre-existing variant E1-226V was selected among other viral variants including E1-226A. Indeed the E1-226V variant present at low levels in natural viral populations could rapidly emerge after being selected in Ae. albopictus at the midgut barrier level.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Messaoud SOUILAH


    The limiting absorption principle is used to solve the scattering problem of time harmonic acoustic waves by penetrable objects in Sobolev spaces. The method is based on integral representation of the solution using the Green's kernel of the Helmholtz equation.

  15. Dose limited reliability of quantitative annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy for nano-particle atom-counting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Backer, A.; Martinez, G.T. [Electron Microscopy for Materials Science (EMAT), University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); MacArthur, K.E.; Jones, L. [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, 16 Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Béché, A. [Electron Microscopy for Materials Science (EMAT), University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Nellist, P.D. [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, 16 Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Van Aert, S., E-mail: [Electron Microscopy for Materials Science (EMAT), University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)


    Quantitative annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy (ADF STEM) has become a powerful technique to characterise nano-particles on an atomic scale. Because of their limited size and beam sensitivity, the atomic structure of such particles may become extremely challenging to determine. Therefore keeping the incoming electron dose to a minimum is important. However, this may reduce the reliability of quantitative ADF STEM which will here be demonstrated for nano-particle atom-counting. Based on experimental ADF STEM images of a real industrial catalyst, we discuss the limits for counting the number of atoms in a projected atomic column with single atom sensitivity. We diagnose these limits by combining a thorough statistical method and detailed image simulations. - Highlights: • Limited size and beam sensitivity of nano-particles challenge their quantification. • Keeping the electron dose to a minimum is therefore important. • Reliability of quantitative ADF STEM for atom-counting is demonstrated. • Limits for single atom sensitivity are discussed. • Limits are diagnosed by combining simulations and a statistical method.

  16. Effect of Large Scale Transmission Limitations on Renewable Energy Load Matching for Western U.S.: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diakov, V.; Short, W.; Gilchrist, B.


    Based on the available geographically dispersed data for the Western U.S. (excluding Alaska), we analyze to what extent the geographic diversity of these resources can offset their variability. Without energy storage and assuming unlimited energy flows between regions, wind and PV can meet up to 80% of loads in Western U.S. while less than 10% of the generated power is curtailed. Limiting hourly energy flows by the aggregated transmission line carrying capacities decreases the fraction of the load that can be met with wind and PV generation to approximately 70%.

  17. Interspecies transmission and limited persistence of low pathogenic avian influenza genomes among Alaska dabbling ducks (United States)

    Reeves, Andrew B.; Pearce, John M.; Ramey, Andy M.; Meixell, Brandt; Runstadler, Jonathan A.


    The reassortment and geographic distribution of low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) virus genes are well documented, but little is known about the persistence of intact LPAI genomes among species and locations. To examine persistence of entire LPAI genome constellations in Alaska, we calculated the genetic identities among 161 full-genome LPAI viruses isolated across 4 years from five species of duck: northern pintail (Anas acuta), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), American green-winged teal (Anas crecca), northern shoveler (Anas clypeata) and American wigeon (Anas Americana). Based on pairwise genetic distance, highly similar LPAI genomes (>99 percent identity) were observed within and between species and across a range of geographic distances (up to and >1000 km), but most often between isolates collected 0-10 km apart. Highly similar viruses were detected between years, suggesting inter-annual persistence, but these were rare in our data set with the majority occurring within 0-9 days of sampling. These results identify LPAI transmission pathways in the context of species, space and time, an initial perspective into the extent of regional virus distribution and persistence, and insight into why no completely Eurasian genomes have ever been detected in Alaska. Such information will be useful in forecasting the movement of foreign-origin avian influenza strains should they be introduced to North America.

  18. APPLIED OPTICS. Overcoming Kerr-induced capacity limit in optical fiber transmission. (United States)

    Temprana, E; Myslivets, E; Kuo, B P-P; Liu, L; Ataie, V; Alic, N; Radic, S


    Nonlinear optical response of silica imposes a fundamental limit on the information transfer capacity in optical fibers. Communication beyond this limit requires higher signal power and suppression of nonlinear distortions to prevent irreversible information loss. The nonlinear interaction in silica is a deterministic phenomenon that can, in principle, be completely reversed. However, attempts to remove the effects of nonlinear propagation have led to only modest improvements, and the precise physical mechanism preventing nonlinear cancellation remains unknown. We demonstrate that optical carrier stability plays a critical role in canceling Kerr-induced distortions and that nonlinear wave interaction in silica can be substantially reverted if optical carriers possess a sufficient degree of mutual coherence. These measurements indicate that fiber information capacity can be notably increased over previous estimates.

  19. Possibilities and limitations of advanced transmission electron microscopy for carbon-based nanomaterials


    Xiaoxing Ke; Carla Bittencourt; Gustaaf Van Tendeloo


    A major revolution for electron microscopy in the past decade is the introduction of aberration correction, which enables one to increase both the spatial resolution and the energy resolution to the optical limit. Aberration correction has contributed significantly to the imaging at low operating voltages. This is crucial for carbon-based nanomaterials which are sensitive to electron irradiation. The research of carbon nanomaterials and nanohybrids, in particular the fundamental understanding...

  20. First experimental proof for aberration correction in XPEEM: Resolution, transmission enhancement, and limitation by space charge effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Th., E-mail: [Fritz Haber Institute of the Max Planck Society, Department of Chemical Physics, Faradayweg 4-6, D-14195 Berlin (Germany); Sala, A.; Marchetto, H. [Fritz Haber Institute of the Max Planck Society, Department of Chemical Physics, Faradayweg 4-6, D-14195 Berlin (Germany); Umbach, E. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Freund, H.-J. [Fritz Haber Institute of the Max Planck Society, Department of Chemical Physics, Faradayweg 4-6, D-14195 Berlin (Germany)


    The positive effect of double aberration correction in x-ray induced Photoelectron Emission Microscopy (XPEEM) has been successfully demonstrated for both, the lateral resolution and the transmission, using the Au 4f XPS peak for element specific imaging at a kinetic energy of 113 eV. The lateral resolution is improved by a factor of four, compared to a non-corrected system, whereas the transmission is enhanced by a factor of 5 at a moderate resolution of 80 nm. With an optimized system setting, a lateral resolution of 18 nm could be achieved, which is up to now the best value reported for energy filtered XPEEM imaging. However, the absolute resolution does not yet reach the theoretical limit of 2 nm, which is due to space charge limitation. This occurs along the entire optical axis up to the contrast aperture. In XPEEM the pulsed time structure of the exciting soft x-ray light source causes a short and highly intense electron pulse, which results in an image blurring. In contrast, the imaging with elastically reflected electrons in the low energy electron microscopy (LEEM) mode yields a resolution clearly below 5 nm. Technical solutions to reduce the space charge effect in an aberration-corrected spectro-microscope are discussed. - Highlights: ► First successful double aberration correction in XPEEM. ► Improvement of resolution and transmission by aberration correction. ► Lateral resolution of 18 nm in energy filtered XPEEM is the best up to now reported value. ► First investigation of space charge effects in aberrations corrected PEEM.

  1. Attitudes of Female Faculty toward the Use of Computer Technologies and the Barriers that Limit Their Use of Technologies in Girls' Colleges in Saudi Arabia (United States)

    Almuqayteeb, Taghreed Abdulaziz


    The purpose of this study was to examine female faculty members' use of computer technologies, their attitudes toward computers, the factors that best predict their attitudes toward computers, and the barriers that limit their use of computer technologies in girls' colleges in Dammam and Jubail, Saudi Arabia. Also, this study examined how female…

  2. Limiter (United States)

    Cohen, S.A.; Hosea, J.C.; Timberlake, J.R.


    A limiter with a specially contoured front face is provided. The front face of the limiter (the plasma-side face) is flat with a central indentation. In addition, the limiter shape is cylindrically symmetric so that the limiter can be rotated for greater heat distribution. This limiter shape accommodates the various power scrape-off distances lambda p, which depend on the parallel velocity, V/sub parallel/, of the impacting particles.

  3. Piloting the promotion of bamboo skirt barriers to prevent Nipah virus transmission through date palm sap in Bangladesh. (United States)

    Nahar, Nazmun; Mondal, Utpal Kumar; Hossain, M Jahangir; Khan, M Salah Uddin; Sultana, Rebeca; Gurley, Emily S; Luby, Stephen P


    Drinking raw date palm sap contaminated with infected fruit bat saliva or urine is an important mode of Nipah virus transmission to humans in Bangladesh. Bamboo skirts are an effective way to interrupt bat access to the sap. We conducted a study from November 2008 to March 2009 to explore the effectiveness of higher- and lower-intensity interventions by promoting bamboo skirt preparation and use among sap harvesters (gachhis). We spent 280 person-hours in two villages for the higher-intensity intervention and half that amount of time in two other villages for the lower-intensity intervention. To evaluate the interventions we followed up all gachhis once a month for three months. A high percentage of gachhis (83% in higher-, 65% in lower-intensity interventions) prepared and used a skirt of bamboo or other materials - jute stalk, dhoincha (Sesbania aculeata), or polythene - at least once after intervention. In general, 15% of gachhis consistently used skirts throughout the sap collection season. The intensive nature of this intervention is very expensive for a large-scale programme. Future efforts should focus on developing a low-cost behaviour change intervention and evaluate if it reduces the human exposure to potentially contaminated fresh date palm sap.

  4. Barriers to the implementation of programs for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV: A cross-sectional survey in rural and urban Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bajunirwe Francis


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Implementation of programs for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT of HIV faces a variety of barriers and challenges. The assessment of these challenges has generally been conducted in large urban health facilities. As programs expand into rural areas, the potential barriers that may be encountered there also need to be assessed. This study examines potential barriers that might affect the acceptability of interventions for PMTCT in rural and urban settings. Results Four hundred and four women at a large urban hospital and three rural clinics that had recently started implementing PMTCT were interviewed. Level of knowledge of MTCT and preference for rapid HIV testing were equally high in both areas, but rural women had a higher tendency to think that they should consult their husbands before testing, with borderline statistical significance (72% vs. 64% p = 0.09. Health facility-based deliveries were significantly lower among mothers in rural areas compared to those in the urban setting. Overall, significant predictors of willingness to test for HIV were post-primary education (OR = 3.1 95% CI 1.2, 7.7 and knowledge about rapid HIV tests (OR = 1.8, 95% CI 1.01, 3.4. The strongest predictor of willingness to accept an HIV test was the woman's perception that her husband would approve of her testing for HIV. Women who thought their husbands would approve were almost six times more likely to report a willingness to be tested compared to those who thought their husbands would not approve (OR = 5.6, 95% CI 2.8, 11.2. Conclusion Lessons learned in large urban hospitals can be generalized to rural facilities, but the lower proportion of facility-based deliveries in rural areas needs to be addressed. Same-day results are likely to ensure high uptake of HIV testing services but male spousal involvement should be considered, particularly for rural areas. Universal Primary Education will support the success of PMTCT

  5. Real-time optical wireless transmissions of digital TV signals using white InGaN LEDs grown with an asymmetric quantum barrier. (United States)

    Tsai, Chia-Lung; Chen, Yen-Jen


    The feasibility of using InGaN LEDs grown with asymmetric barrier layer (ABL) as transmitters in visible light communications is investigated experimentally. Compared with normal LEDs, the improvement in the spontaneous emission rate due to enhanced carrier localization and better uniformity of carrier distribution in ABL-containing MQWs leads to the fabricated LEDs can exhibit a 32.6% (@ 350 mA) increase in emission intensity and a 10.5% increase in modulation bandwidth. After eliminating the slow-responding phosphorescent components emitting from the phosphor-converted white LEDs, an open eye-diagram at 180 Mb/s is demonstrated over a distance of 100 cm in directed line-of-sight optical links. With the use of proposed LEDs, real-time transmissions of digital TV signals over a moderate distance (~100 cm) in free space is shown to be available in a 150 Mbit/s white LED-based optical link with conventional on-off keying modulation.

  6. Reinforcement of the Gas Barrier Properties of Polyethylene and Polyamide Through the Nanocomposite Approach: Key Factors and Limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Picard E.


    Full Text Available In this study, polyamide 6 (PA6 and polyethylene (PE nanocomposites were prepared from melt blending and a detailed characterization of the nanocomposite morphology and gas barrier properties was performed. The choice of the organoclay was adapted to each polymer matrix. Exfoliated morphology and improved gas transport properties were obtained by melt mixing the polar PA6 matrix and the organoclay, whereas a microcomposite with poor barrier properties was formed from the binary PE/organomodified clay mixture. Different modified polyethylenes were examined as compatibilizers for the polyethylene/organoclay system. The effect of compatibilizer molar mass, polarity and content was investigated on the clay dispersion and on the gas barrier properties. The optimal compatibilizer to clay weight ratio was found to be equal to 4 whatever the compatibilizer. However, a high degree of clay delamination was obtained with the high molar mass compatibilizer whereas highly swollen clay aggregates resulted from the incorporation of the low molar mass interfacial agents. Contrary to the PA based system, the barrier properties of PE nanocomposites were not directly related to the clay dispersion state but resulted also from the matrix/clay interfacial interactions. Oxidized wax was identified as a very promising interfacial agent and a step by step study was performed to optimize the gas transport properties of the systems based on PE, oxidized wax and organoclay. In particular, an interesting combination of oxidized wax and high molar mass maleic anhydride grafted polyethylene allowing dividing the gas permeability by a factor 2 in comparison with neat PE was proposed.

  7. Community voices: barriers and opportunities for programmes to successfully prevent vertical transmission of HIV identified through consultations among people living with HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoforos Mallouris


    Full Text Available Introduction: In 2010, two global networks of people living with HIV, the International Community of Women Living with HIV (ICW Global and the Global Network of People living with HIV (GNP +  were invited to review a draft strategic framework for the global scale up of prevention of vertical transmission (PVT through the primary prevention of HIV and the prevention of unintended pregnancies among women living with HIV. In order to ensure recommendations were based on expressed needs of people living with HIV, GNP+ and ICW Global undertook a consultation amongst people living with HIV which highlighted both facilitators and barriers to prevention services. This commentary summarizes the results of that consultation. Discussion: The consultation was comprised of an online consultation (moderated chat-forum with 36 participants from 16 countries, an anonymous online e-survey (601 respondents from 58 countries, and focus-group discussions with people living with HIV in Jamaica (27 participants. The consultation highlighted the discrepancies across regions with respect to access to essential packages of PVT services. However, the consultation participants also identified common barriers to access, including a lack of trustworthy sources of information, service providers’ attitudes, and gender-based violence. In addition, participant responses revealed common facilitators of access, including quality counselling on reproductive choices, male involvement, and decentralized services. Conclusions: The consultation provided some understanding and insight into the participants’ experiences with and recommendations for PVT strategies. Participants agreed that successful, comprehensive PVT programming require greater efforts to both prevent primary HIV infection among young women and girls and, in particular, targeted efforts to ensure that women living with HIV and their partners are supported to avoid unintended pregnancies and to have safe, healthy

  8. Interspecies transmission of prions. (United States)

    Afanasieva, E G; Kushnirov, V V; Ter-Avanesyan, M D


    Mammalian prions are infectious agents of proteinaceous nature that cause several incurable neurodegenerative diseases. Interspecies transmission of prions is usually impeded or impossible. Barriers in prion transmission are caused by small interspecies differences in the primary structure of prion proteins. The barriers can also depend on the strain (variant) of a transmitted prion. Interspecies barriers were also shown for yeast prions, which define some heritable phenotypes. Yeast prions reproduce all the main traits of prion transmission barriers observed for mammals. This allowed to show that the barrier in prion transmission can be observed even upon copolymerization of two prionogenic proteins. Available data allow elucidation of the mechanisms that impede prion transmission or make it impossible.

  9. Breaking the diffraction-limited resolution barrier in fiber-optical two-photon fluorescence endoscopy by an azimuthally-polarized beam. (United States)

    Gu, Min; Kang, Hong; Li, Xiangping


    Although fiber-optical two-photon endoscopy has been recognized as a potential high-resolution diagnostic and therapeutic procedure in vivo, its resolution is limited by the optical diffraction nature to a few micrometers due to the low numerical aperture of an endoscopic objective. On the other hand, stimulated emission depletion (STED) achieved by a circularly-polarized vortex beam has been used to break the diffraction-limited resolution barrier in a bulky microscope. It has been a challenge to apply the STED principle to a fiber-optical two-photon endoscope as a circular polarization state cannot be maintained due to the birefringence of a fiber. Here, we demonstrate the first fiber-optical STED two-photon endoscope using an azimuthally-polarized beam directly generated from a double-clad fiber. As such, the diffraction-limited resolution barrier of fiber-optical two-photon endoscopy can be broken by a factor of three. Our new accomplishment has paved a robust way for high-resolution in vivo biomedical studies.

  10. Phonon tunneling through a double barrier system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villegas, Diosdado [Departamento de Física, Universidad Central “Marta Abreu” de Las Villas, CP 54830, Santa Clara, Villa Clara (Cuba); Instituto de Física, Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, 18 Sur y San Claudio, Edif. 110A, Ciudad Universitaria, 72570 Puebla (Mexico); León-Pérez, Fernando de [Centro Universitario de la Defensa de Zaragoza, Ctra. de Huesca s/n, E-50090 Zaragoza (Spain); Pérez-Álvarez, R. [Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos, Av. Universidad 1001, CP 62209 Cuernavaca (Mexico); Arriaga, J., E-mail: [Instituto de Física, Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, 18 Sur y San Claudio, Edif. 110A, Ciudad Universitaria, 72570 Puebla (Mexico)


    The tunneling of optical and acoustic phonons at normal incidence on a double-barrier is studied in this paper. Transmission coefficients and resonance conditions are derived theoretically under the assumption that the long-wavelength approximation is valid. It is shown that the behavior of the transmission coefficients for the symmetric double barrier has a Lorentzian form close to resonant frequencies and that Breit–Wigner's formula have a general validity in one-dimensional phonon tunneling. Authors also study the so-called generalized Hartman effect in the tunneling of long-wavelength phonons and show that this effect is a numerical artifact resulting from taking the opaque limit before exploring the variation with a finite barrier width. This study could be useful for the design of acoustic devices.

  11. Economic and social factors are some of the most common barriers preventing women from accessing maternal and newborn child health (MNCH) and prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) services: a literature review. (United States)

    hIarlaithe, Micheal O; Grede, Nils; de Pee, Saskia; Bloem, Martin


    Support to health programming has increasingly placed an emphasis on health systems strengthening. Integration of prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) and maternal and newborn child health (MNCH) services has been one of the areas where there has been a shift from a siloed to a more integrated approach. The scale-up of anti-retroviral therapy has made services increasingly available while also bringing them closer to those in need. However, addressing supply side issues around the availability and quality of care at the health centre level alone cannot guarantee better results without a more explicit focus on access issues. Access to PMTCT care and treatment services is affected by a number of barriers which influence decisions of women to seek care. This paper reviews published qualitative and quantitative studies that look at demand side barriers to PMTCT services and proposes a categorisation of these barriers. It notes that access to PMTCT services as well as eventual uptake and retention in PMTCT care starts with access to MNCH in general. While poverty often prevents women, regardless of HIV status, from accessing MNCH services, women living with HIV who are in need of PMTCT services face an additional set of PMTCT barriers. This review proposes four categories of barriers to accessing PMTCT: social norms and knowledge, socioeconomic status, physiological status and psychological conditions. Social norms and knowledge and socioeconomic status stand out. Transport is the most frequently mentioned socioeconomic barrier. With regard to social norms and knowledge, non-disclosure, stigma and partner relations are the most commonly cited barriers. Some studies also cite physiological barriers. Barriers related to social norms and knowledge, socioeconomic status and physiology can all be affected by the mental and psychological state of the individual to create a psychological barrier to access. Increased coverage and uptake of PMTCT services can be

  12. Organizational Barriers Limiting Women’s Participation in Women-In-Agriculture (Wia Programme in Umuahia Agricultural Zone of Abia State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.E. Ifenkwe


    Full Text Available Development literature is replete with evidence of high level of involvement of women in agricultural production and value addition activities in Nigeria. This paper highlights organizational barriers limiting women’s participation in Women-in-Agriculture (WIA program, one of the women’s enabling agricultural program in Abia State, Nigeria. Multi-stage random sampling technique was adopted in selecting one hundred and twenty women farmers studied. Simple statistical tools (frequencies and percentages were used in data analysis. The results show that agency-related and organizational problems accounted for over 80% of the constraints limiting participation in the program. They also differ significantly from client or farmer-related problems. Considering the huge financial investments in the agricultural sector, and the Federal Government’s policy thrust on food security, the paper recommends involvement of all stakeholders who must contribute their quota towards sustainable food security in Nigeria.

  13. Using Statement Banks to Return Online Feedback: Limitations of the Transmission Approach in a Credit-Bearing Assessment (United States)

    Denton, Philip; Rowe, Philip


    Electronic marking tools that incorporate statement banks have become increasingly prevalent within higher education. In an experiment, printed and emailed feedback was returned to 243 first-year students on a credit-bearing laboratory report assessment. A transmission approach was used, students being provided with comments on their work, but no…

  14. Limited English proficiency as a barrier to mental health service use: a study of Latino and Asian immigrants with psychiatric disorders. (United States)

    Kim, Giyeon; Aguado Loi, Claudia X; Chiriboga, David A; Jang, Yuri; Parmelee, Patricia; Allen, Rebecca S


    Language barriers pose problems in mental health care for foreign-born individuals in the United States. Immigrants with psychiatric disorders may be at particular risk but are currently understudied. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of limited English proficiency (LEP) on mental health service use among immigrant adults with psychiatric disorders. Drawn from the National Latino and Asian American Study (NLAAS), Latino and Asian immigrant adults aged 18-86 with any instrument-determined mood, anxiety, and substance use disorder (n = 372) were included in the present analysis. Results from hierarchical logistic regression analyses showed that having health insurance, poor self-rated mental health, and more psychiatric disorders were independently associated with higher probability of mental health service use in the Latino group. After controlling for all background characteristics and mental health need factors, LEP significantly decreased odds of mental health service use among Latino immigrants. None of the factors including LEP predicted mental health service use among Asian immigrants, who were also the least likely to access such services. LEP was a barrier to mental health service use among Latino immigrants with psychiatric disorders. This study suggests that future approaches to interventions might be well advised to include not only enhancing the availability of bilingual service providers and interpretation services but also increasing awareness of such options for at least Latino immigrants. In addition, further investigation is needed to identify factors that can enhance access to mental health care services among Asians.

  15. Spectrum Sharing between Cooperative Relay and Ad-hoc Networks: Dynamic Transmissions under Computation and Signaling Limitations

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Yin; Li, Yunzhou; Zhou, Shidong; Xu, Xibin


    This paper studies a spectrum sharing scenario between an uplink cognitive relay network (CRN) and some nearby low power ad-hoc networks. In particular, the dynamic resource allocation of the CRN is analyzed, which aims to minimize the average interfering time with the ad-hoc networks subject to a minimal average uplink throughput constraint. A long term average rate formula is considered, which is achieved by a half-duplex decode-and-forward (DF) relay strategy with multi-channel transmissions. Both the source and relay are allowed to queue their data, by which they can adjust the transmission rates flexibly based on sensing and predicting the channel state and ad-hoc traffic. The dynamic resource allocation of the CRN is formulated as a non-convex stochastic optimization problem. By carefully analyzing the optimal transmission time scheduling, it is reduced to a stochastic convex optimization problem and solved by the dual optimization method. The signaling and computation processes are designed carefully t...

  16. Impact of sea-level rise on cross-shore sediment transport on fetch-limited barrier reef island beaches under modal and cyclonic conditions. (United States)

    Baldock, T E; Golshani, A; Atkinson, A; Shimamoto, T; Wu, S; Callaghan, D P; Mumby, P J


    A one-dimensional wave model is combined with an analytical sediment transport model to investigate the likely influence of sea-level rise on net cross-shore sediment transport on fetch-limited barrier reef and lagoon island beaches. The modelling considers if changes in the nearshore wave height and wave period in the lagoon induced by different water levels over the reef flat are likely to lead to net offshore or onshore movement of sediment. The results indicate that the effects of SLR on net sediment movement are highly variable and controlled by the bathymetry of the reef and lagoon. A significant range of reef-lagoon bathymetry, and notably shallow and narrow reefs, appears to lead hydrodynamic conditions and beaches that are likely to be stable or even accrete under SLR. Loss of reef structural complexity, particularly on the reef flat, increases the chance of sediment transport away from beaches and offshore.

  17. Transmission electron microscopy study for investigating high-temperature reliability of Ti{sub 10}W{sub 90}-based and Ta-based diffusion barriers up to 600 C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budhiman, Nando; Schuermann, Ulrich; Kienle, Lorenz [Institute of Material Science, Christian-Albrechts-Universitaet, Kiel (Germany); Jensen, Bjoern [Fraunhofer Institute for Silicon Technology, Itzehoe (Germany); Chemnitz, Steffen; Wagner, Bernhard [Institute of Material Science, Christian-Albrechts-Universitaet, Kiel (Germany); Fraunhofer Institute for Silicon Technology, Itzehoe (Germany)


    Abstractauthoren Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis, including energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) (elemental mapping, line, and point measurements) and energy filtered TEM (EFTEM) methods, is applied to investigate the high temperature reliability, especially material diffusion, of two types of diffusion barriers: titanium-tungsten-based (Ti{sub 10}W{sub 90}-based) and tantalum-based (Ta-based), with nickel (Ni) layer on top. Both barriers were deposited as a form of stacked layers on sili-con (Si) wafers using the physical vapor deposition (PVD) technique. TEM analysis is performed on both barriers before and after annealing (at 600 C for 24 h inside a vacuum chamber). No diffusion of material into the Si substrate as observed. Additionally, only diffusion between the Ni and adjoining Ti{sub 10}W{sub 90} layers, and between Ni and adjoining Ta layers in the Ti{sub 10}W{sub 90}-based and Ta-based barriers, respectively, are observed due to annealing. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  18. Scale up use of family planning services to prevent maternal transmission of HIV among discordant couples: a cross-sectional study within a resource-limited setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuete M


    Full Text Available Martin Kuete,1,2 HongFang Yuan,1 Aude Laure Tchoua Kemayou,2 Emmanuel Ancel Songo,2 Fan Yang,1 XiuLan Ma,1 ChengLiang Xiong,1 HuiPing Zhang1 1Obstetrics and Gynecology, Reproductive Center, Family Planning and Research Institute, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, People’s Republic of China; 2Main Maternity of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Yaounde Central Hospital, Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Yaounde, Cameroon Background: Integration of family planning services (FPS into human immunodeficiency virus (HIV care for HIV-infected women is an important aspect of the global prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT strategy. We assessed the integration of FPS into routine care of HIV-infected mothers by evaluating the uptake and barriers of contraception and PMTCT services. Methods: We conducted an interventional study using the interrupted time series approach in the health care facilities located in Yaounde, Cameroon. First, structured questionnaires related to family planning use, PMTCT services use, and infection risk of the sexual partner were administered to the first trimester pregnant women who were HIV infected and living with uninfected partners. Second, 2 weeks before the delivery date, the women were interviewed according to the prior counseling interventions received, in order to assess their behavior on FPS, antiretroviral therapy (ART use, delivery option, and infant nourishment to be adopted. P-values below 0.05 were considered statistically significant in the statistical analyses. Results: Of 94 HIV-infected women, 69% were stable couples. Only 13% of women had attended FPS before conception. Although the vast majority were knowledgeable about modern and traditional contraception methods, only 19% had experienced effective contraceptive methods. However, 66% preferred condom use, 45% having three children still expressed a desire to conceive, while 44% reported

  19. New Stands of Species of the Paramecium aurelia Complex; is the Occurrence of Particular Species Limited by Temperature Barriers? (United States)

    Przyboś, Ewa; Prajer, Małgorzata


    The occurrence of ciliates, especially the Paramecium aurelia complex, has not yet been studied in many parts of the world, or sampling was done only occasionally. Generally, the southern hemisphere still awaits investigation. In North America only the USA was studied in greater detail; the majority of species of the complex were there recorded. In Asia, more frequent sampling was performed only in Japan and Asiatic Russia. Europe was studied more carefully, however, a different number of habitats was studied in particular zones of Europe, the least in the southern zone. New stands of P. tetraurelia , P. sexaurelia, P. octaurelia, and P. novaurelia were revealed as a result of the present investigations carried out in Africa (Mozambique--P. tetraurelia, P. sexaurelia), Asia (Indonesia--P. sexaurelia), borderland of Asia and Europe (Georgia--P. octaurelia), and Europe (Macedonia--P. tetraurelia and Romania--P. novaurelia). Are climatic zones the main factor limiting the occurrence of species of the P. aurelia complex? Analysis of data on the distribution of the P. aurelia species complex in warm "tropical" zones on different continents may suggest such preferences for some species, including P. sexaurelia, P. octaurelia, P. tredecaurelia, P. quadecaurelia. The first two of these species were recorded herein in warm or "tropical" zone.

  20. Investigation regarding Costain et al v. Maritime Electric Company Limited : complaint re transmission line, Locke and Howlan Roads : Docket UE20324

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Prince Edward Island Regulatory and Appeals Commission hears appeals on issues relating to land use. It also regulates electric utilities in the province, including the Maritime Electric Company. The Commission retained the services of Exponent Inc. following a complaint by residents who expressed opposition to a transmission line operated by Maritime Electric Company that carries electricity generated by the West Cape wind farm. The residents were concerned about potential health risks of electric magnetic fields (EMF) associated with the transmission line. This report summarized the results of Exponent's investigation of the complaint and related concerns. The investigation revealed that the residents obtained their information on health hazards from a variety of non-scientific sources and had a limited understanding of how spot measurements of magnetic fields relate to their overall magnetic field exposure, and what measurements are relevant to exposure metrics discussed in epidemiology studies. The measurements and calculations that were conducted as part of the investigation suggested that the transmission line is not currently a large source of magnetic field exposure for most residents. However, the closer the residence is to the line, the greater the magnetic field. The current flow and magnetic field from the line will increase as more wind generating units are connected to the transmission line. The Canadian and international applications of the precautionary principle would not support a different technical approach to the siting and construction of the line than has occurred. 63 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs., 4 appendices.

  1. Experimental Research and Control Strategy of Pumped Storage Units Dispatching in the Taiwan Power System Considering Transmission Line Limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Tse Kuo


    Full Text Available Taiwan’s power system is isolated and not supported by other interconnected systems. Consequently, the system frequency immediately reflects changes in the system loads. Pumped storage units are crucial for controlling power frequency. These units provide main or auxiliary capacities, reducing the allocation of frequency-regulating reserve (FRR and further reducing generation costs in system operations. Taiwan’s Longmen Nuclear Power Plant is set to be converted for commercial operations, which will significantly alter the spinning reserves in the power system. Thus, this study proposes a safe and economic pumped storage unit dispatch strategy. This strategy is used to determine the optimal FRR capacity and 1-min recovery frequency in a generator failure occurrence at the Longmen Power Plant. In addition, this study considered transmission capacity constraints and conducted power flow analysis of the power systems in Northern, Central, and Southern Taiwan. The results indicated that, in the event of a failure at Longmen Power Plant, the proposed strategy can not only recover the system frequency to an acceptable range to prevent underfrequency load-shedding, but can also mitigate transmission line overloading.

  2. Stochastic limits in synchronous imaging of sub-micron magnetization dynamics using scanning transmission x-ray microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng C.; Kaznatcheev K.; Bailey, W.E.


    We demonstrate a synchronous (lock-in) technique for imaging thin-film magnetization dynamics using scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM). Gated photon counting synchronized with magnetic field modulation allows image acquisition with differential contrast for high and low magnetization. We have applied this technique to 5 x 12 {micro}m{sup 2} Ni{sub 81}Fe{sub 19} ellipses with well-defined closure domains at remanence. The stochastic nature of the domain wall motion and nucleation is apparent in images recorded during cycling along successive major hysteresis loops. Synchronous imaging shows the clearest enhancement of contrast for small-amplitude domain wall motion, with a less obvious benefit at higher fields/displacements. The technique shows promise for the contrast enhancement of magnetization in dynamics in STXM.

  3. Extremal surface barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelhardt, Netta; Wall, Aron C. [Department of Physics, University of California,Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States)


    We present a generic condition for Lorentzian manifolds to have a barrier that limits the reach of boundary-anchored extremal surfaces of arbitrary dimension. We show that any surface with nonpositive extrinsic curvature is a barrier, in the sense that extremal surfaces cannot be continuously deformed past it. Furthermore, the outermost barrier surface has nonnegative extrinsic curvature. Under certain conditions, we show that the existence of trapped surfaces implies a barrier, and conversely. In the context of AdS/CFT, these barriers imply that it is impossible to reconstruct the entire bulk using extremal surfaces. We comment on the implications for the firewall controversy.

  4. Scale up use of family planning services to prevent maternal transmission of HIV among discordant couples: a cross-sectional study within a resource-limited setting (United States)

    Kuete, Martin; Yuan, HongFang; Tchoua Kemayou, Aude Laure; Songo, Emmanuel Ancel; Yang, Fan; Ma, XiuLan; Xiong, ChengLiang; Zhang, HuiPing


    Background Integration of family planning services (FPS) into human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) care for HIV-infected women is an important aspect of the global prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) strategy. We assessed the integration of FPS into routine care of HIV-infected mothers by evaluating the uptake and barriers of contraception and PMTCT services. Methods We conducted an interventional study using the interrupted time series approach in the health care facilities located in Yaounde, Cameroon. First, structured questionnaires related to family planning use, PMTCT services use, and infection risk of the sexual partner were administered to the first trimester pregnant women who were HIV infected and living with uninfected partners. Second, 2 weeks before the delivery date, the women were interviewed according to the prior counseling interventions received, in order to assess their behavior on FPS, antiretroviral therapy (ART) use, delivery option, and infant nourishment to be adopted. P-values below 0.05 were considered statistically significant in the statistical analyses. Results Of 94 HIV-infected women, 69% were stable couples. Only 13% of women had attended FPS before conception. Although the vast majority were knowledgeable about modern and traditional contraception methods, only 19% had experienced effective contraceptive methods. However, 66% preferred condom use, 45% having three children still expressed a desire to conceive, while 44% reported abortions, 65% had tried to avoid the current pregnancy, and 12% of women were ART naïve. Several predictors such as education, abortion rate, unplanned pregnancies, and partners’ decision were associated with the nonuse of effective contraceptive methods. Moreover, barriers including sex inequity, lack of partner support, ART shortages, and lack of HIV viral load monitoring were prevalent among the participants (P=0.001). However FPS use, ART compliance, and safe options to PMTCT

  5. Limited potential for mosquito transmission of genetically engineered, live-attenuated western equine encephalitis virus vaccine candidates. (United States)

    Turell, Michael J; O'Guinn, Monica L; Parker, Michael D


    Specific mutations associated with attenuation of Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) virus in rodent models were identified during efforts to develop an improved VEE vaccine. Analogous mutations were produced in full-length cDNA clones of the Cba 87 strain of western equine encephalitis (WEE) virus by site-directed mutagenesis in an attempt to develop an improved WEE vaccine. Isogenic viral strains with these mutations were recovered after transfection of baby hamster kidney cells with infectious RNA. We evaluated two of these strains (WE2102 and WE2130) for their ability to replicate in and be transmitted by Culex tarsalis, the principal natural vector of WEE virus in the United States. Each of the vaccine candidates contained a deletion of the PE2 furin cleavage site and a secondary mutation in the E1 or E2 glycoprotein. Both of these potential candidates replicated in mosquitoes significantly less efficiently than did either wild-type WEE (Cba 87) virus or the parental clone (WE2000). Likewise, after intrathoracic inoculation, mosquitoes transmitted the vaccine candidate strains significantly less efficiently than they transmitted either the wild-type or the parental clone. One-day-old chickens vaccinated with either of the two vaccine candidates did not become viremic when challenged with virulent WEE virus two weeks later. Mutations that result in less efficient replication in or transmission by mosquitoes should enhance vaccine safety and reduce the possibility of accidental introduction of the vaccine strain to unintentional hosts.

  6. Analysis and control of the effects of over excitation limiters on the stability of the Itaipu HVAC transmission system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jardim, J.L.; Macedo, N.J.; Santo, S.E.; Praca, A.S. [FURNAS Centrais Eletricas S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    The effect of over excitation limiters on power system voltage stability is presented in this paper. A linear analysis based on system eigenvalues for various operating conditions shows that voltage collapse is essentially a dynamic phenomenon. Time simulations using digital tools and real-time simulator were performed to verify lin ear results and study large disturbances. A control system designed to keep system in secure region is proposed. (author) 3 refs., 9 figs.

  7. The influence of interfacial growth patterns on the transmission properties of carriers through nonabrupt GaAs/Al xGa 1- xAs single barriers (United States)

    Lima, M. C. A.; Junior, J. M. Pereira; Farias, G. A.; Freire, V. N.


    The influence of interfacial growth patterns on the tunelling of carriers through nonabrupt GaAs/Al xCa 1- xAs single barriers is studied. Five interfacial growth patterns are considered, all of them representative of interfacial alloy variations generated by different growth techniques. With a generalization of the scheme proposed previously by Freire et al [Superlatt. Microstruct. 1, 17 (1992)], the inter-related single barrier potential and effective mass is obtained. The envelope function equation with a position dependent kinetic energy operator is solved with a multistep scheme. The position of the resonant peaks, their peak-to-valley ratios, and the mean width of the resonance structures are shown to depend on the interfacial growth patterns.

  8. Early infection dynamics after experimental challenge with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in calves reveal limited calf-to-calf transmission and no impact of Hsp70 vaccination. (United States)

    Santema, Wiebren J; Poot, Jacqueline; Segers, Ruud P A M; Van den Hoff, Daniëlle J P; Rutten, Victor P M G; Koets, Ad P


    Efficient control of bovine paratuberculosis is hampered by lack of a vaccine. The purpose of this study was to evaluate efficacy of a candidate vaccine, consisting of recombinant Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) Hsp70 with DDA adjuvant, in calves experimentally infected with MAP. Four groups of 14 animals each were used. Animals in group 1 and 2 were all vaccinated with Hsp70/DDA at day 0, 84, 168 and 357, and those in group 3 and 4 were non-vaccinated controls. In each group half (n=7) of the animals were challenged and the remaining half served as contacts. Blood and fecal samples were collected at three week intervals until day 588, and subsequently all animals were subjected to necropsy. The primary outcomes assessed were fecal culture (FC) of MAP, tissue colonization of MAP, and transmission of infection to contact animals. The kinetics of MAP shedding in feces of challenged animals showed a peak around 130 days post-challenge, irrespective of vaccination status. At necropsy no differences in the level of tissue colonization between vaccinated animals and controls were observed in the challenged groups. Only one contact animal (non-vaccinated) was positive at necropsy, indicating limited to no transmission within groups. These findings indicate that Hsp70/DDA vaccination does not influence early infection dynamics after experimental infection. However, early shedding of MAP in calves did not result in efficient transmission of infection to contact animals. The latter implies that introduction of an infected calf in a cohort of susceptibles has limited consequences for spread of infection.

  9. Limited human-to-human transmission of avian influenza A(H7N9) virus, Shanghai, China, March to April 2013. (United States)

    Hu, J; Zhu, Y; Zhao, B; Li, J; Liu, L; Gu, K; Zhang, W; Su, H; Teng, Z; Tang, S; Yuan, Z; Feng, Z; Wu, F


    In April 2013, two members of one family were successively confirmed as cases of avian influenza A(H7N9) virus infection in Shanghai, China. Respiratory specimens from the two cases and their close contacts were tested using real-time reverse-transcription (RT)-PCR. Paired serum specimens from contacts were tested by haemagglutination inhibition assay and microneutralisation test. The index patient developed severe pneumonia. Her husband presented with pneumonia shortly thereafter. Both cases had highly similar clinical features and infection with A(H7N9) virus was confirmed in both cases by genetic analysis. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a high level of similarity between the sequences from the two patients and environmental samples collected from wet markets in Minhang and Changning districts. Six samples from the Changning wet market were confirmed as A(H7N9) positive. Of 27 close contacts, one developed mild respiratory symptoms and another tested positive for A(H7N9) antibodies, but both were negative by real-time RT-PCR. The other 25 close contacts of both cases were A(H7N9) negative. Limited human-to-human transmission of the virus most likely occurred in the family cluster. However, other close contacts did not test positive for the virus, suggesting limited potential for extensive human-to-human transmission of the virus.

  10. A Limiting Current Oxygen Sensor Based on LSGM as a Solid Electrolyte and LSGMN ( N = Fe, Co) as a Dense Diffusion Barrier (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Gao, Xiang; He, Bei-Gang; Yu, Jing-Kun


    The La0.8Sr0.2(Ga1- x Co x )0.8Mg0.2O3- δ (LSGMC x = 0.05, 0.1, 0.15, 0.2, 0.25) and La0.8Sr0.2(Ga1- x Fe x )0.8Mg0.2O3- δ (LSGMF x = 0.1, 0.2, 0.3) samples were prepared by solid-state reaction. The structure, conductivity, thermal expansion behavior, and chemical compatibility were studied by XRD, dilatometry, and four-terminal method. A limiting current oxygen sensor was prepared with La0.8Sr0.2Ga0.83Mg0.17O2.815 as a solid electrolyte and La0.8Sr0.2(Ga0.75Co0.25)0.8Mg0.2O3- δ as a dense diffusion barrier. The oxygen-sensitive characteristic was measured at different oxygen concentrations. The results show that the phase structure of samples is cubic, except La0.8Sr0.2(Ga0.75Co0.25)0.8Mg0.2O3- δ , which has a hexagonal structure. The change in activation energy for electrical conductivity and the increase in thermal expansion coefficient are confirmed to correlate with an increasing concentration of oxygen vacancies. The limiting current oxygen sensor exhibits a good limiting current platform and the limiting current depends linearly on the oxygen concentration: I L(mA) = 12.8519 + 2.2667 x_{{{O}_{{2}} }} (mol%, 0 < x_{{{{O}}_{ 2} }} < 3.31) at 750 °C, I L(mA) = 14.3222 + 3.5180 x_{{{O}_{{2}} }} (mol%, 0 < x_{{{{O}}_{ 2} }} < 4.16) at 800 °C, and I L(mA) = 15.2872 + 5.0269x_{{{O}_{{2}} }}(mol%, 0 < x_{{{{O}}_{ 2} }} < 4.12) at 850 °C. The sensor has the best sensitivity at 850 °C. As the oxygen concentration increases, the interface resistance of the sensor decreases at 850 °C.

  11. [Basic research on BSE transmission to people]. (United States)

    Bodemer, W; Kaup, F J


    Prion diseases of animal and man belong to neurological diseases with amyloidal deposition of the respective proteins. As to prion disease, the cellular prionprotein is in its abnormal isoform(s) an essential component of prionprotein aggregates found in affected tissue. In contrast to all neurodegenerative diseases like Morbus Alzheimer or Huntington's disease, prion diseases are transmissible. Therefore, prion diseases were designated Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies (TSE). The diseases are well known since decades. Scrapie was first described around 1750, a BSE case was reported in the 1850, most likely a misdiagnosis, and in 1920/1930 the human Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) had been described. Transmission of CJD i.e. Kuru had been suspected in the early 1950s and erronously classified as slow virus disease. The CJD transmission posed a problem to humans when transplants from CJD cases were used for treatment. Fortunately, these iatrogenic transmissions remained limited. But with the advent of BSE and appearance of variant CJD cases in the UK and some places in Europe scientists suspected that transmission from cattle to man could have happened. From animal models we know of successful transmission via several routes. Species barriers do not completely prevent transmission. Rather transmission barriers might exist controlling individual susceptibility against prions. Modes of transmission, susceptibility for transmission, identification of receptor molecules as well as molecular mechanisms of the transmission process are intensely investigated. Current knowledge let us to assume that inapparent stages of prion infection pretend a (not existing) species barrier. This inapparent infection preceeds overt disease and, thus, most re-search focuses on the development of highly sensitive assay systems for detection of minute amounts of pathological prionprotein in suspected cases. Inapparence also should warn us to underestimate BSE or human vCJD cases; at

  12. Hepatitis C Virus Sensing by Human Trophoblasts Induces Innate Immune Responses and Recruitment of Maternal NK Cells: Potential Implications for Limiting Vertical Transmission. (United States)

    Giugliano, Silvia; Petroff, Margaret G; Warren, Bryce D; Jasti, Susmita; Linscheid, Caitlin; Ward, Ashley; Kramer, Anita; Dobrinskikh, Evgenia; Sheiko, Melissa A; Gale, Michael; Golden-Mason, Lucy; Winn, Virginia D; Rosen, Hugo R


    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the world's most common blood-borne viral infection for which there is no vaccine. The rates of vertical transmission range between 3 and 6% with odds 90% higher in the presence of HIV coinfection. Prevention of vertical transmission is not possible because of lack of an approved therapy for use in pregnancy or an effective vaccine. Recently, HCV has been identified as an independent risk factor for preterm delivery, perinatal mortality, and other complications. In this study, we characterized the immune responses that contribute to the control of viral infection at the maternal-fetal interface (MFI) in the early gestational stages. In this study, we show that primary human trophoblast cells and an extravillous trophoblast cell line (HTR8), from first and second trimester of pregnancy, express receptors relevant for HCV binding/entry and are permissive for HCV uptake. We found that HCV-RNA sensing by human trophoblast cells induces robust upregulation of type I/III IFNs and secretion of multiple chemokines that elicit recruitment and activation of decidual NK cells. Furthermore, we observed that HCV-RNA transfection induces a proapoptotic response within HTR8 that could affect the morphology of the placenta. To our knowledge, for the first time, we demonstrate that HCV-RNA sensing by human trophoblast cells elicits a strong antiviral response that alters the recruitment and activation of innate immune cells at the MFI. This work provides a paradigm shift in our understanding of HCV-specific immunity at the MFI as well as novel insights into mechanisms that limit vertical transmission but may paradoxically lead to virus-related pregnancy complications.

  13. Market Based Criteria for Congestion Management and Transmission Pricing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miss. Archana Jaisisngpure


    Full Text Available -Congestion Management is one of the major tasks performed by system operator to ensure the operation of transmission system within operating limits. In the emerging electric power market, the congestion management becomes extremely important and it can impose a barrier to the electricity trading. In the present paper, a concept of transmission congestion penalty factors is developed and implemented to control power overflows in transmission lines for congestion management. Here we presents a Re-dispatch methodology for cost of transmission network to its user. The transmission price computation considers the physical impact caused by the market agents in the transmission network. The paper includes case study for IEEE 5 bus power system.

  14. Separation of parent homopolymers from polystyrene and poly(ethylene oxide) based block copolymers by liquid chromatography under limiting conditions of desorption-3. Study of barrier efficiency according to block copolymers' chemical composition. (United States)

    Rollet, Marion; Pelletier, Bérengère; Berek, Dušan; Maria, Sébastien; Phan, Trang N T; Gigmes, Didier


    Liquid Chromatography under Limiting Conditions of Desorption (LC LCD) is a powerful separation tool for multicomponent polymer systems. This technique is based on a barrier effect of an appropriate solvent, which is injected in front of the sample, and which decelerates the elution of selected macromolecules. In this study, the barrier effects have been evaluated for triblock copolymers polystyrene-b-poly(ethylene oxide)-b-polystyrene (PS-b-PEO-b-PS) according to the content of polystyrene (wt% PS) and PEO-block molar mass. PS-b-PEO-b-PS samples were prepared by Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization (ATRP). The presence of respective parent homopolymers was investigated by applying optimized LC LCD conditions. It was found that the barrier composition largely affects the efficiency of separation and it ought to be adjusted for particular composition range of block copolymers.

  15. Identifying Barriers, Perceptions and Motivations Related to Healthy Eating and Physical Activity among 6th to 8th Grade, Rural, Limited-Resource Adolescents (United States)

    Kumar, Janavi; Adhikari, Koushik; Li, Yijing; Lindshield, Erika; Muturi, Nancy; Kidd, Tandalayo


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to enable community members to discuss their perceptions of eating habits and physical activity in relation to sixth, seventh, and eighth graders, and reveal facilitators and barriers to healthy eating behavior and physical activity engagement. Design/methodology/approach: Nine focus groups, which included six…

  16. A continuum limit for the Kronig-Penney model (United States)

    Colangeli, Matteo; Ndreca, Sokol; Procacci, Aldo


    We investigate the transmission properties of a quantum one-dimensional periodic system of fixed length L, with N barriers of constant height V and width λ and N wells of width δ. In particular, we study the behaviour of the transmission coefficient in the limit N → ∞, with L fixed. This is achieved by letting δ and λ both scale as 1/N, in such a way that their ratio γ = λ/δ is a fixed parameter characterizing the model. In this continuum limit, the multi-barrier system behaves as it were constituted by a unique barrier of constant height Eo = (γV)/(1 + γ). The analysis of the dispersion relation of the model shows the presence of forbidden energy bands at any finite N.

  17. Transmission line model for nanoelectronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelin E. A.


    Full Text Available Analytical expressions for resonant parametres and characteristics of typical barrier nanoelectronic structures have been received on the basis of the transmission line model. Characteristics illustrating the efficiency of such approach are presented in the article.

  18. TLR2 signaling decreases transmission of Streptococcus pneumoniae by limiting bacterial shedding in an infant mouse Influenza A co-infection model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimee L Richard


    Full Text Available While the importance of transmission of pathogens is widely accepted, there is currently little mechanistic understanding of this process. Nasal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus is common in humans, especially in early childhood, and is a prerequisite for the development of disease and transmission among hosts. In this study, we adapted an infant mouse model to elucidate host determinants of transmission of S. pneumoniae from inoculated index mice to uninfected contact mice. In the context of co-infection with influenza A virus, the pneumococcus was transmitted among wildtype littermates, with approximately half of the contact mice acquiring colonization. Mice deficient for TLR2 were colonized to a similar density but transmitted S. pneumoniae more efficiently (100% transmission than wildtype animals and showed decreased expression of interferon α and higher viral titers. The greater viral burden in tlr2-/- mice correlated with heightened inflammation, and was responsible for an increase in bacterial shedding from the mouse nose. The role of TLR2 signaling was confirmed by intranasal treatment of wildtype mice with the agonist Pam3Cys, which decreased inflammation and reduced bacterial shedding and transmission. Taken together, these results suggest that the innate immune response to influenza virus promotes bacterial shedding, allowing the bacteria to transit from host to host. These findings provide insight into the role of host factors in the increased pneumococcal carriage rates seen during flu season and contribute to our overall understanding of pathogen transmission.

  19. Wave packet propagation across barriers by semiclassical initial value methods (United States)

    Petersen, Jakob; Kay, Kenneth G.


    Semiclassical initial value representation (IVR) formulas for the propagator have difficulty describing tunneling through barriers. A key reason is that these formulas do not automatically reduce, in the classical limit, to the version of the Van Vleck-Gutzwiller (VVG) propagator required to treat barrier tunneling, which involves trajectories that have complex initial conditions and that follow paths in complex time. In this work, a simple IVR expression, that has the correct tunneling form in the classical limit, is derived for the propagator in the case of one-dimensional barrier transmission. Similarly, an IVR formula, that reduces to the Generalized Gaussian Wave Packet Dynamics (GGWPD) expression [D. Huber, E. J. Heller, and R. Littlejohn, J. Chem. Phys. 89, 2003 (1988)] in the classical limit, is derived for the transmitted wave packet. Uniform semiclassical versions of the IVR formulas are presented and simplified expressions in terms of real trajectories and WKB penetration factors are described. Numerical tests show that the uniform IVR treatment gives good results for wave packet transmission through the Eckart and Gaussian barriers in all cases examined. In contrast, even when applied with the proper complex trajectories, the VVG and GGWPD treatments are inaccurate when the mean energy of the wave packet is near the classical transmission threshold. The IVR expressions for the propagator and wave packet are cast as contour integrals in the complex space of initial conditions and these are generalized to potentially allow treatment of a larger variety of systems. A steepest descent analysis of the contour integral formula for the wave packet in the present cases confirms its relationship to the GGWPD method, verifies its semiclassical validity, and explains results of numerical calculations.

  20. Klein tunneling through an oblique barrier in graphene ribbons

    CERN Document Server

    Oh, J H


    We study a transmission coefficient of graphene nanoribbons with a top gate which acts as an oblique barrier. Using a Green function method based on the Dirac-like equation, scattering among transverse modes due to the oblique barrier is taken into account numerically. In contrast to the 2-dimensional graphene sheet, we find that the pattern of transmission in graphene ribbons depends strongly on the electronic structure in the region of the barrier. Consequently, irregular structures in the transmission coefficient are predicted while perfect transmission is still calculated in the case of metallic graphene independently of angle and length of the oblique barrier.

  1. Part I: Minicircle vector technology limits DNA size restrictions on ex vivo gene delivery using nanoparticle vectors: Overcoming a translational barrier in neural stem cell therapy. (United States)

    Fernandes, Alinda R; Chari, Divya M


    Genetically engineered neural stem cell (NSC) transplant populations offer key benefits in regenerative neurology, for release of therapeutic biomolecules in ex vivo gene therapy. NSCs are 'hard-to-transfect' but amenable to 'magnetofection'. Despite the high clinical potential of this approach, the low and transient transfection associated with the large size of therapeutic DNA constructs is a critical barrier to translation. We demonstrate for the first time that DNA minicircles (small DNA vectors encoding essential gene expression components but devoid of a bacterial backbone, thereby reducing construct size versus conventional plasmids) deployed with magnetofection achieve the highest, safe non-viral DNA transfection levels (up to 54%) reported so far for primary NSCs. Minicircle-functionalized magnetic nanoparticle (MNP)-mediated gene delivery also resulted in sustained gene expression for up to four weeks. All daughter cell types of engineered NSCs (neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes) were transfected (in contrast to conventional plasmids which usually yield transfected astrocytes only), offering advantages for targeted cell engineering. In addition to enhancing MNP functionality as gene delivery vectors, minicircle technology provides key benefits from safety/scale up perspectives. Therefore, we consider the proof-of-concept of fusion of technologies used here offers high potential as a clinically translatable genetic modification strategy for cell therapy.

  2. Impacts from Deployment Barriers on the United States Wind Power Industry: Overview & Preliminary Findings (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lantz, E.; Tegen, S.; Hand, M.; Heimiller, D.


    Regardless of cost and performance some wind projects are unable to proceed to commissioning as a result of deployment barriers. Principal deployment barriers in the industry today include: wildlife, public acceptance, access to transmission, and radar. To date, methods for understanding these non-technical barriers have failed to accurately characterize the costs imposed by deployment barriers and the degree of impact to the industry. Analytical challenges include limited data and modeling capabilities. Changes in policy and regulation, among other factors, also add complexity to analysis of impacts from deployment barriers. This presentation details preliminary results from new NREL analysis focused on quantifying the impact of deployment barriers on the wind resource of the United States, the installed cost of wind projects, and the total electric power system cost of a 20% wind energy future. In terms of impacts to wind project costs and developable land, preliminary findings suggest that deployment barriers are secondary to market drivers such as demand. Nevertheless, impacts to wind project costs are on the order of $100/kW and a substantial share of the potentially developable windy land in the United States is indeed affected by deployment barriers.

  3. A temperature-limited assessment of the risk of Rift Valley fever transmission and establishment in the continental United States of America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah K. Konrad


    Full Text Available The rapid spread of West Nile virus across North America after its introduction in 1999 highlights the potential for foreign arboviruses to become established in the United States of America. Of particular concern is Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV, which has been responsible for multiple African epidemics resulting in death of both humans and livestock, as well as major economic disruption due to livestock loss and trade restrictions. Modern globalization, travel, and commerce allow viruses to easily jump from one continent to another; and it is likely only a matter of time before RVFV reaches North American shores. We used a degree-day model in combination with livestock population data and a pathways analysis to identify regions and times where RVFV is most likely to enter and become established in the United States of America. Transmission risk of the disease varies across the country from 325 annual risk days in parts of Florida to zero risk days in the far North and in high mountain regions. Areas of particular concern are where there are a high number of possible transmission days, a large livestock population, and proximity to likely locations for the disease to enter the country via mosquito vector or human host. These areas should be monitored closely during transmission “risk seasons” so that if the virus does enter the country and begins to become established, it can be quickly controlled and eliminated before spreading further. Areas most at risk include the Baltimore and New York City metro areas as well as much of the region between these urban centers; most of Texas, especially around Houston; Florida; Atlanta; southwest Nebraska; southern California and Arizona; and the central valley of California.

  4. Dual-polarization multi-band optical OFDM transmission and transceiver limitations for up to 500 Gb/s uncompensated long-haul links. (United States)

    Giacoumidis, E; Jarajreh, M A; Sygletos, S; Le, S T; Farjady, F; Tsokanos, A; Hamié, A; Pincemin, E; Jaouën, Y; Ellis, A D; Doran, N J


    A number of critical issues for dual-polarization single- and multi-band optical orthogonal-frequency division multiplexing (DP-SB/MB-OFDM) signals are analyzed in dispersion compensation fiber (DCF)-free long-haul links. For the first time, different DP crosstalk removal techniques are compared, the maximum transmission-reach is investigated, and the impact of subcarrier number and high-level modulation formats are explored thoroughly. It is shown, for a bit-error-rate (BER) of 10(-3), 2000 km of quaternary phase-shift keying (QPSK) DP-MB-OFDM transmission is feasible. At high launched optical powers (LOP), maximum-likelihood decoding can extend the LOP of 40 Gb/s QPSK DP-SB-OFDM at 2000 km by 1.5 dB compared to zero-forcing. For a 100 Gb/s DP-MB-OFDM system, a high number of subcarriers contribute to improved BER but at the cost of digital signal processing computational complexity, whilst by adapting the cyclic prefix length the BER can be improved for a low number of subcarriers. In addition, when 16-quadrature amplitude modulation (16QAM) is employed the digital-to-analogue/analogue-to-digital converter (DAC/ADC) bandwidth is relaxed with a degraded BER; while the 'circular' 8QAM is slightly superior to its 'rectangular' form. Finally, the transmission of wavelength-division multiplexing DP-MB-OFDM and single-carrier DP-QPSK is experimentally compared for up to 500 Gb/s showing great potential and similar performance at 1000 km DCF-free G.652 line.

  5. Étude dans les espaces de Hölder de problèmes aux limites et de transmission dans un domaine avec couche mince.



    We consider a family (Pδ)δ>0 of boundary value and transmission problems in a domain with thin layer, written in the form of second order abstract differential equation of elliptic type. A new approach for the resolution of (Pδ)δ>0 is presented in this work using the physical concept of impedance. This method is different of the one performing a rescaling in the thin layer, see [Favini A., Labbas R., Lemrabet K. and Maingot S.]. It leads to obtain direct and simplified problems. Where the thi...

  6. On a simple attack, limiting the range transmission of secret keys in a system of quantum cryptography based on coding in a sub-carrier frequency (United States)

    Klimov, A. N.; Kulik, S. P.; Molotkov, S. N.; Potapova, T. A.


    In the paper by Gleim et al (2016 Opt. Express 24 2619), it was declared that the system of quantum cryptography, exploiting quantum key distribution (QKD) protocol BB84 with the additional reference state and encoding in a sub-carrier, is able to distribute secret keys at a distance of 210 km. The following shows that a simple attack realized with a beam splitter results in a loss of privacy of the keys over substantially smaller distances. It turns out that the actual length of the secret key transmission for the QKD system encoding in the sub-carrier frequency is ten times less than that declared in Gleim et al (2016 Opt. Express 24 2619). Therefore it is impossible to safely use the keys when distributed at a larger length of the communication channel than shown below. The maximum communication distance does not exceed 22 km, even in the most optimistic scenario.

  7. Limites politiques et barrières sociales dans le monde maya classique Political Limits and Social Barriers in the Classic Maya World: Reflections Based on a Few Archaeological Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Michelet


    Full Text Available L’archéologie des Basses Terres mayas à l’époque classique est riche de données susceptibles de nous renseigner sur plusieurs types de « frontières » sociopolitiques. Si la question des limites territoriales des entités politiques du monde classique constitue, depuis les années 1970, un objectif tout à fait conscient de la recherche, bien d’autres éléments des partitionnements sociopolitiques existent, mais ils n’ont pas reçu, le plus souvent, l’attention qu’ils méritent. L’examen de quelques informations, empruntées aux résultats de projets de recherche collective récents, indique que les démarcations formelles plus ou moins minces durent être rares, qu’il y aurait même eu peu de bornages explicites et que les seuils étaient dotés d’une épaisseur certaine, leur franchissement obéissant à des codes précis et/ou impliquant des comportements ritualisés.The archaeology of the Maya Lowlands of the classical era is rich in data that are likely to have something to teach us about several types of sociopolitical “boundary”. Although research since the 1970s has consciously aimed to address the question of the territorial limits of classical-world political entities, many other elements of sociopolitical partitioning exist, but they have tended not to receive the attention they deserve. The examination of a few pieces of information, borrowed from the results of recent collective research projects, indicates that more-or-less thin formal demarcations must have been rare, that there would even have been few explicit boundary markings, and that the thresholds were endowed with a certain thickness, their crossing obeying precise codes and/or involving ritualised behaviours.

  8. The Cost of Transmission for Wind Energy: A Review of Transmission Planning Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Andrew D.; Wiser, Ryan; Porter, Kevin


    The rapid development of wind power that the United States has experienced over the last several years has been coupled with a growing concern that wind development will require substantial additions to the nation's transmission infrastructure. Transmission is particularly important for wind power due to the locational dependence of wind resources, the relatively low capacity factor of wind plants, and the mismatch between the short lead time to build a new wind project and the longer lead time often needed to plan, permit, and construct transmission. It is clear that institutional issues related to transmission planning, siting, and cost allocation will pose major obstacles to accelerated wind power deployment, but also of concern is the potential cost of this infrastructure build out. Simply put, how much extra cost will society bear to deliver wind power to load centers? Without an answer to this question, there can be no consensus on whether or not the cost of developing transmission for wind will be a major barrier to further wind deployment, or whether the institutional barriers to transmission expansion are likely to be of more immediate concern. In this report, we review a sample of 40 detailed transmission studies that have included wind power. These studies cover a broad geographic area, and were completed from 2001-2008. Our primary goal in reviewing these studies is to develop a better understanding of the transmission costs needed to access growing quantities of wind generation. A secondary goal is to gain a better appreciation of the differences in transmission planning approaches in order to identify those methodologies that seem most able to estimate the incremental transmission costs associated with wind development. Finally, we hope that the resulting dataset and discussion might be used to inform the assumptions, methods, and results of higher-level assessment models that are sometimes used to estimate the cost of wind deployment (e.g. NEMS

  9. Efficient transmission and characterization of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease strains in bank voles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romolo Nonno


    Full Text Available Transmission of prions between species is limited by the "species barrier," which hampers a full characterization of human prion strains in the mouse model. We report that the efficiency of primary transmission of prions from Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease patients to a wild rodent species, the bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus, is comparable to that reported in transgenic mice carrying human prion protein, in spite of a low prion protein-sequence homology between man and vole. Voles infected with sporadic and genetic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease isolates show strain-specific patterns of spongiform degeneration and pathological prion protein-deposition, and accumulate protease-resistant prion protein with biochemical properties similar to the human counterpart. Adaptation of genetic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease isolates to voles shows little or no evidence of a transmission barrier, in contrast to the striking barriers observed during transmission of mouse, hamster, and sheep prions to voles. Our results imply that in voles there is no clear relationship between the degree of homology of the prion protein of the donor and recipient species and susceptibility, consistent with the view that the prion strain gives a major contribution to the species barrier. The vole is therefore a valuable model to study human prion diversity and, being susceptible to a range of animal prions, represents a unique tool for comparing isolates from different species.

  10. Efficient transmission and characterization of creutzfeldt-jakob disease strains in bank voles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available Transmission of prions between species is limited by the "species barrier," which hampers a full characterization of human prion strains in the mouse model. We report that the efficiency of primary transmission of prions from Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease patients to a wild rodent species, the bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus, is comparable to that reported in transgenic mice carrying human prion protein, in spite of a low prion protein-sequence homology between man and vole. Voles infected with sporadic and genetic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease isolates show strain-specific patterns of spongiform degeneration and pathological prion protein-deposition, and accumulate protease-resistant prion protein with biochemical properties similar to the human counterpart. Adaptation of genetic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease isolates to voles shows little or no evidence of a transmission barrier, in contrast to the striking barriers observed during transmission of mouse, hamster, and sheep prions to voles. Our results imply that in voles there is no clear relationship between the degree of homology of the prion protein of the donor and recipient species and susceptibility, consistent with the view that the prion strain gives a major contribution to the species barrier. The vole is therefore a valuable model to study human prion diversity and, being susceptible to a range of animal prions, represents a unique tool for comparing isolates from different species.

  11. Novel control of grid connected photovoltaic (PV) solar farm for improving transient stability and stability and transmission limits both during night and day

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varma, Rajiv; Arifur Rahman, Shah; Seethapathy, Ravi


    This paper presents a novel control of a solar farm inverter to improve grid power transfer limits. In the night, when the solar farm is completely idle, this new control technique makes the solar farm inverter behave like a FACTS device. The solar farm inverter provides voltage regulation at the point of common coupling and improves the power transfer limits, significantly. During the day time also, when solar farm is producing real power, this new control strategy makes the solar farm inverter provide voltage control with the remaining inverter MVA capacity and thereby increases power transfer capacity substantially.

  12. Infection Control Programs and Antibiotic Control Programs to Limit Transmission of Multi-Drug Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii Infections: Evolution of Old Problems and New Challenges for Institutes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Hua Chen


    Full Text Available Background: Acinetobacter baumannii complex (A. baumannii has been isolated worldwide. The rapid spread of multidrug-resistant A. baumannii complex (MDRAB in clinical settings has made choosing an appropriate antibiotic to treat these infections and executing contact precautions difficult for clinicians. Although controlling the transmission of MDRAB is a high priority for institutions, there is little information about MDRAB control. Therefore, this study evaluated infection control measures for A. baumannii infections, clusters and outbreaks in the literature. Methods: We performed a review of OVID Medline (from 1980 to 2015, and analyzed the literature. Results: We propose that both infection control programs and antibiotic control programs are essential for control of MDRAB. The first, effective control of MDRAB infections, requires compliance with a series of infection control methods including strict environmental cleaning, effective sterilization of reusable medical equipment, concentration on proper hand hygiene practices, and use of contact precautions, together with appropriate administrative guidance. The second strategy, effective antibiotic control programs to decrease A. baumannii, is also of paramount importance. Conclusion: We believe that both infection control programs and antibiotics stewardship programs are essential for control of MDRAB infections.

  13. Barriers to cancer screening. (United States)

    Womeodu, R J; Bailey, J E


    greatest responsibility lies with medical and health care institutions and those who determine the priorities of these institutions. Patient and physician barriers to mass cancer screening can be addressed by institutional support. If the quality of care delivered by providers, group practices, managed-care organizations, and HMOs is assessed with priority given to the regularity and consistency with which basic screening procedures are performed, cancer screening will undoubtedly receive greater attention in the clinic. Medical institutions must collaborate to develop standards for cancer screening with attention to the cost-effectiveness of various screening techniques to determine how limited resources can best be spent in cancer control. Such efforts should keep in mind "that a very small change implemented over a broad population may have a greater effect in absolute numbers than a large level of change applied in a small segment of the population."

  14. Nonlinear magnetoinductive transmission lines

    CERN Document Server

    Lazarides, Nikos; Tsironis, G P


    Power transmission in one-dimensional nonlinear magnetic metamaterials driven at one end is investigated numerically and analytically in a wide frequency range. The nonlinear magnetic metamaterials are composed of varactor-loaded split-ring resonators which are coupled magnetically through their mutual inductances, forming thus a magnetoiductive transmission line. In the linear limit, significant power transmission along the array only appears for frequencies inside the linear magnetoinductive wave band. We present analytical, closed form solutions for the magnetoinductive waves transmitting the power in this regime, and their discrete frequency dispersion. When nonlinearity is important, more frequency bands with significant power transmission along the array may appear. In the equivalent circuit picture, the nonlinear magnetoiductive transmission line driven at one end by a relatively weak electromotive force, can be modeled by coupled resistive-inductive-capacitive (RLC) circuits with voltage-dependent cap...

  15. Market and Policy Barriers to Energy Storage Deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatnagar, Dhruv [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Currier, Aileen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hernandez, Jacquelynne [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ma, Ookie [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy; Kirby, Brendan [Consultant


    Electric energy storage technologies can provide numerous grid services; there are a number of factors that restrict their current deployment. The most significant barrier to deployment is high capital costs, though several recent deployments indicate that capital costs are decreasing and energy storage may be the preferred economic alternative in certain situations. However, a number of other market and regulatory barriers persist, limiting further deployment. These barriers can be categorized into regulatory barriers, market (economic) barriers, utility and developer business model barriers, cross-cutting barriers and technology barriers.

  16. Adjoint accuracy for the full-Stokes ice flow model: limits to the transmission of basal friction variability to the surface

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, Nathan


    This work focuses on the numerical assessment of the accuracy of an adjoint-based gradient in the perspective of variational data assimilation and parameter identification in glaciology. Using noisy synthetic data, we quantify the ability to identify the friction coefficient for such methods with a non-linear friction law. The exact adjoint problem is solved, based on second order numerical schemes, and a comparison with the so called "self-adjoint" approximation, neglecting the viscosity dependency to the velocity (leading to an incorrect gradient), common in glaciology, is carried out. For data with a noise of $1\\%$, a lower bound of identifiable wavelengths of $10$ ice thicknesses in the friction coefficient is established, when using the exact adjoint method, while the "self-adjoint" method is limited, even for lower noise, to a minimum of $20$ ice thicknesses wavelengths. The second order exact gradient method therefore provides robustness and reliability for the parameter identification process. In othe...

  17. Diffraction of sound by nearly rigid barriers (United States)

    Hadden, W. J., Jr.; Pierce, A. D.


    The diffraction of sound by barriers with surfaces of large, but finite, acoustic impedance was analyzed. Idealized source-barrier-receiver configurations in which the barriers may be considered as semi-infinite wedges are discussed. Particular attention is given to situations in which the source and receiver are at large distances from the tip of the wedge. The expression for the acoustic pressure in this limiting case is compared with the results of Pierce's analysis of diffraction by a rigid wedge. An expression for the insertion loss of a finite impedance barrier is compared with insertion loss formulas which are used extensively in selecting or designing barriers for noise control.

  18. Transmission patterns of HIV-subtypes A/AE versus B: inferring risk-behavior trends and treatment-efficacy limitations from viral genotypic data obtained prior to and during antiretroviral therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boaz Avidor

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: HIV subtypes A and CRF01_AE (A/AE became prevalent in Israel, first through immigration of infected people, mostly intravenous-drug users (IVDU, from Former Soviet-Union (FSU countries and then also by local spreading. We retrospectively studied virus-transmission patterns of these subtypes in comparison to the longer-established subtype B, evaluating in particular risk-group related differences. We also examined to what extent distinct drug-resistance patterns in subtypes A/AE versus B reflected differences in patient behavior and drug-treatment history. METHODS: Reverse-transcriptase (RT and protease sequences were retrospectively analyzed along with clinical and epidemiological data. MEGA, ClusalX, and Beast programs were used in a phylogenetic analysis to identify transmission networks. RESULTS: 318 drug-naive individuals with A/AE or patients failing combination antiretroviral therapy (cART were identified. 61% were IVDU. Compared to infected homosexuals, IVDU transmitted HIV infrequently and, typically, only to a single partner. 6.8% of drug-naive patients had drug resistance. Treatment-failing, regimen-stratified subtype-A/AE- and B-patients differed from each other significantly in the frequencies of the major resistance-conferring mutations T215FY, K219QE and several secondary mutations. Notably, failing boosted protease-inhibitors (PI treatment was not significantly associated with protease or RT mutations in either subtype. CONCLUSIONS: While sizable transmission networks occur in infected homosexuals, continued HIV transmission among IVDU in Israel is largely sporadic and the rate is relatively modest, as is that of drug-resistance transmission. Deviation of drug-naive A/AE sequences from subtype-B consensus sequence, documented here, may subtly affect drug-resistance pathways. Conspicuous differences in overall drug-resistance that are manifest before regimen stratification can be largely explained in terms of treatment

  19. 交流特高压线路高抗补偿度下限的研究%Research on Lower Limit of Compensation Degree for UHVA-C Transmission Lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易强; 周浩; 计荣荣; 苏菲; 孙可; 陈稼苗


    分析了潜供电流限制、空载线路电压控制对高抗补偿度的要求,给出了从潜供电流限制与空载线路电压控制角度确定高抗补偿度下限的方法。结果表明,为达到限制潜供电流的目的,单回线路的高抗补偿容量应大于线路相问电容的无功功率,双回线路的高抗补偿容量则应大于线路相间电容无功功率和以及部分回间电容无功功率之和,故此类下限受到线路参数影响较为明显,在可能的参数变化范围内,单回线路和双回线路的此类下限最高约为55%和65%。而由空载线路电压控制所要求的高抗下限却随线路长度的增加而提高,且与线路两端落点类型关系密切。线路较短时,%To restrict both secondary arc current and no-load voltage of UHVAC transmission line, the relation between secondary arc current and compensation degree of HV shunt reactor and that between voltage of no-load line and the compensation degree are researched, and the method to determine the lower limit of compensation degree of HV shunt reactor in the viewpoint of restricting secondary arc cuffent and voltage of no-load line is given. Research results show that to restrict secondary arc current of single-circuit UHVAC line the capacity of HV shunt reactor should be higher than the capacitive power of interphase capacitance; the capacity of HV shunt reactor should be higher that the sum of capacitive power of interphase capacitance and partial capacity of inter-circuit capacitance; thus the lower limit of compensation degree of HV shunt reactor determined by the restriction of secondary arc current is evidently influenced by parameters of transmission line, and within possible parameter variation range of UHVAC transmission line, the lower limit of compensation degree of HV shunt reactor for single-circuit UHVAC line is 55% and that for double-circuit UHVAC line is 65%. The lower limit of compensation degree of HV shunt

  20. Variable speed limits control for freeway based on cell transmission model%基于元胞传输模型的高速公路可变限速控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马明辉; 杨庆芳; 梁士栋


    In order to solve congestion problem on freeway during peak period ,which leads to increase of vehicle delays ,and drop of service level ,an optimization method was proposed for bottleneck re‐gion on freeway mainline based on cell transmission model .Variable speed limits control factors and cell transmission model were combined to describe real‐time traffic flow on freeway .Further ,the op‐timization variable speed limits control model at bottleneck region of freeway was formulated with the objective of improving traffic efficiency and decreasing vehicle delays .T he test results show that opti‐mization variable speed limits control method proposed could improve traffic operation efficiency and traffic order ,especially during congestion hours .%针对高速公路交通拥挤、整体服务水平降低、车辆延误增加等问题,提出了一种基于元胞传输模型的高速公路瓶颈区域可变限速控制方法。将可变限速控制方法同元胞传输模型进行融合,使其对限速条件下高速公路交通流变化进行描述,并以提高通行效率和缩短车辆平均延误为控制目标,建立了高速公路瓶颈区域可变限速最优控制模型。实验证明:在高流量条件下,基于元胞传输模型的高速公路可变限速控制方法具有良好的控制效果,能够有效地提升高速公路整体服务水平。

  1. Seeded fibrillation as molecular basis of the species barrier in human prion diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Luers

    Full Text Available Prion diseases are transmissible spongiform encephalopathies in humans and animals, including scrapie in sheep, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE in cattle, chronic wasting disease (CWD in deer, and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD in humans. The hallmark of prion diseases is the conversion of the host-encoded prion protein (PrP(C to its pathological isoform PrP(Sc, which is accompanied by PrP fibrillation. Transmission is not restricted within one species, but can also occur between species. In some cases a species barrier can be observed that results in limited or unsuccessful transmission. The mechanism behind interspecies transmissibility or species barriers is not completely understood. To analyse this process at a molecular level, we previously established an in vitro fibrillation assay, in which recombinant PrP (recPrP as substrate can be specifically seeded by PrP(Sc as seed. Seeding with purified components, with no additional cellular components, is a direct consequence of the "prion-protein-only" hypothesis. We therefore hypothesise, that the species barrier is based on the interaction of PrP(C and PrP(Sc. Whereas in our earlier studies, the interspecies transmission in animal systems was analysed, the focus of this study lies on the transmission from animals to humans. We therefore combined seeds from species cattle, sheep and deer (BSE, scrapie, CWD with human recPrP. Homologous seeding served as a control. Our results are consistent with epidemiology, other in vitro aggregation studies, and bioassays investigating the transmission between humans, cattle, sheep, and deer. In contrast to CJD and BSE seeds, which show a seeding activity we can demonstrate a species barrier for seeds from scrapie and CWD in vitro. We could show that the seeding activity and therewith the molecular interaction of PrP as substrate and PrP(Sc as seed is sufficient to explain the phenomenon of species barriers. Therefore our data supports the hypothesis

  2. Simulating Global AeroMACS Airport Ground Station Antenna Power Transmission Limits to Avoid Interference With Mobile Satellite Service Feeder Uplinks (United States)

    Wilson, Jeffrey D.


    The Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS), which is based upon the IEEE 802.16e mobile wireless standard, is expected to be implemented in the 5091 to 5150 MHz frequency band. As this band is also occupied by Mobile Satellite Service feeder uplinks, AeroMACS must be designed to avoid interference with this incumbent service. The aspects of AeroMACS operation that present potential interference are under analysis in order to enable the definition of standards that assure that such interference will be avoided. In this study, the cumulative interference power distribution at low Earth orbit from transmitters at global airports was simulated with the Visualyse Professional software. The dependence of the interference power on antenna distribution, gain patterns, duty cycle, and antenna tilt was simulated. As a function of these parameters, the simulation results are presented in terms of the limitations on transmitter power from global airports required to maintain the cumulative interference power under the established threshold.

  3. Nonlinear Schroedinger excitations scattering on local barrier in one dimension

    CERN Document Server

    Kovrizhin, D L


    The task on the excitations scattering of the Bose condensate under consideration on the unidimensional barrier is nontrivial one even in the case of a low barrier because the barrier itself and change in the condensate density in its vicinity play the similar important role. It is shown that if any repulsive barrier for a bare particle within the range of the waves high lengths is impermeable, than the coefficient of the delta-functional transmission for the phonons within this range strives to the unity and the barrier becomes transparent

  4. Graphene Oxide Bionanocomposite Coatings with High Oxygen Barrier Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilke Uysal Unalan


    Full Text Available In this work, we present the development of bionanocomposite coatings on poly(ethylene terephthalate (PET with outstanding oxygen barrier properties. Pullulan and graphene oxide (GO were used as main polymer phase and nanobuilding block (NBB, respectively. The oxygen barrier performance was investigated at different filler volume fractions (ϕ and as a function of different relative humidity (RH values. Noticeably, the impermeable nature of GO was reflected under dry conditions, in which an oxygen transmission rate (OTR, mL·m−2·24 h−1 value below the detection limit of the instrument (0.01 mL·m−2·24 h−1 was recorded, even for ϕ as low as 0.0004. A dramatic increase of the OTR values occurred in humid conditions, such that the barrier performance was totally lost at 90% RH (the OTR of coated PET films was equal to the OTR of bare PET films. Modelling of the experimental OTR data by Cussler’s model suggested that the spatial ordering of GO sheets within the main pullulan phase was perturbed because of RH fluctuations. In spite of the presence of the filler, all the formulations allowed the obtainment of final materials with haze values below 3%, the only exception being the formulation with the highest loading of GO (ϕ ≈ 0.03. The mechanisms underlying the experimental observations are discussed.

  5. Cross-species transmission of CWD prions. (United States)

    Kurt, Timothy D; Sigurdson, Christina J


    Prions cause fatal neurodegenerative diseases in humans and animals and can be transmitted zoonotically. Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a highly transmissible prion disease of wild deer and elk that affects cervids over extensive regions of the United States and Canada. The risk of cross-species CWD transmission has been experimentally evaluated in a wide array of mammals, including non-human primates and mouse models expressing human cellular prion protein. Here we review the determinants of cross-species CWD transmission, and propose a model that may explain a structural barrier for CWD transmission to humans.

  6. HIV Transmission (United States)

    ... Abroad Treatment Basic Statistics Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... on HIV Syndicated Content Website Feedback HIV/AIDS HIV Transmission Language: English Transmisión del VIH Recommend on ...

  7. Transmission Lines or Poles, Electric, Electric transmission lines locations provided to us from Kansas City Power and Light and City of Gardner only at this time. AIMS is working on getting other providers in area. Data is limited to CUE (Collaborative Utility Exchange) Participants and subc, Published in 2004, Johnson County AIMS. (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Transmission Lines or Poles, Electric dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2004. It is described as 'Electric transmission lines...

  8. Smart parking barrier

    KAUST Repository

    Alharbi, Abdulrazaq M.


    Various methods and systems are provided for smart parking barriers. In one example, among others, a smart parking barrier system includes a movable parking barrier located at one end of a parking space, a barrier drive configured to control positioning of the movable parking barrier, and a parking controller configured to initiate movement of the parking barrier, via the barrier drive. The movable parking barrier can be positioned between a first position that restricts access to the parking space and a second position that allows access to the parking space. The parking controller can initiate movement of the movable parking barrier in response to a positive identification of an individual allowed to use the parking space. The parking controller can identify the individual through, e.g., a RFID tag, a mobile device (e.g., a remote control, smartphone, tablet, etc.), an access card, biometric information, or other appropriate identifier.

  9. Nanomedicine Faces Barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Debbage


    Full Text Available Targeted nanoparticles have the potential to improve drug delivery efficiencies by more than two orders of magnitude, from the ~ 0.1% which is common today. Most pharmacologically agents on the market today are small drug molecules, which diffuse across the body’s blood-tissue barriers and distribute not only into the lesion, but into almost all organs. Drug actions in the non-lesion organs are an inescapable part of the drug delivery principle, causing “side-effects” which limit the maximally tolerable doses and result in inadequate therapy of many lesions. Nanoparticles only cross barriers by design, so side-effects are not built into their mode of operation. Delivery rates of almost 90% have been reported. This review examines the significance of these statements and checks how far they need qualification. What type of targeting is required? Is a single targeting sufficient? What new types of clinical challenge, such as immunogenicity, might attend the use of targeted nanoparticles?

  10. Higgs vacua behind barriers

    CERN Document Server

    Tamarit, Carlos


    Scenarios in which the Higgs vacuum arises radiatively and separated from the origin by a potential barrier at zero temperature are known to be attainable in models with extra singlet scalars, which in the limit of zero barrier height give rise to Coleman-Weinberg realizations of electroweak symmetry breaking. However, this requires large values of Higgs-portal couplings or a large number N of singlets. This is quantified in detail by considering, for varying N, the full two-loop effective potential at zero temperature, as well as finite temperature effects including the dominant two-loop corrections due to the singlets. Despite the large couplings, two-loop effects near the electroweak scale are under control, and actually better behaved in models with larger couplings yet fewer singlets. Strong first-order phase transitions are guaranteed even in the Coleman-Weinberg scenarios. Cubic Higgs couplings and Higgs associated-production cross sections exhibit deviations from the Standard Model predictions which c...

  11. Linguistic Barriers and Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Frederik


    and intercultural communication, this article analyses interviews with 31 employees from two highly ethnically diverse Danish workplaces. The article shows how linguistic barriers such as different levels of majority language competence and their consequent misunderstandings breed mistrust and hostility, whilst......The influence of language on social capital in low-skill and ethnically diverse workplaces has thus far received very limited attention within the sociology of work. As the ethnically diverse workplace is an important social space for the construction of social relations bridging different social...... groups, the sociology of work needs to develop a better understanding of the way in which linguistic diversity influences the formation of social capital, i.e. resources such as the trust and reciprocity inherent in social relations in such workplaces. Drawing on theories about intergroup contact...

  12. Radiation transmission data for radionuclides and materials relevant to brachytherapy facility shielding. (United States)

    Papagiannis, P; Baltas, D; Granero, D; Pérez-Calatayud, J; Gimeno, J; Ballester, F; Venselaar, J L M


    To address the limited availability of radiation shielding data for brachytherapy as well as some disparity in existing data, Monte Carlo simulation was used to generate radiation transmission data for 60Co, 137CS, 198Au, 192Ir 169Yb, 170Tm, 131Cs, 125I, and 103pd photons through concrete, stainless steel, lead, as well as lead glass and baryte concrete. Results accounting for the oblique incidence of radiation to the barrier, spectral variation with barrier thickness, and broad beam conditions in a realistic geometry are compared to corresponding data in the literature in terms of the half value layer (HVL) and tenth value layer (TVL) indices. It is also shown that radiation shielding calculations using HVL or TVL values could overestimate or underestimate the barrier thickness required to achieve a certain reduction in radiation transmission. This questions the use of HVL or TVL indices instead of the actual transmission data. Therefore, a three-parameter model is fitted to results of this work to facilitate accurate and simple radiation shielding calculations.

  13. Transcending Transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoeneborn, Dennis; Trittin, Hannah


    Purpose – Extant research on corporate social responsibility (CSR) communication primarily relies on a transmission model of communication that treats organizations and communication as distinct phenomena. This approach has been criticized for neglecting the formative role of communication...... in the emergence of organizations. This paper seeks to propose to reconceptualize CSR communication by drawing on the “communication constitutes organizations” (CCO) perspective. Design/methodology/approach – This is a conceptual paper that explores the implications of switching from an instrumental...

  14. Assessment of blood-retinal barrier integrity. (United States)

    Vinores, S A


    The blood-retinal barrier consists of two components which are comprised of the retinal vascular endothelium and the retinal pigment epithelium, respectively. Its functional integrity can be recognized by tight junctions between these cells with a paucity of endocytic vesicles within them and the presence of the molecules that regulate the ionic and metabolic gradients that constitute the barrier. The barrier is compromised in several disease processes and by a variety of agents, but in most cases the location and mechanism for barrier failure is not understood. Perfusion with a variety of radiolabeled tracer molecules, vitreous fluorophotometry, or magnetic resonance imaging can be used to quantitate blood-retinal barrier leakage. Fluorescein angiography or magnetic resonance imaging can localize sites of leakage in vivo with limited resolution. Evans blue dye can be used to visualize blood-retinal barrier failure in gross pathological specimens and immuno-histochemical labeling of serum proteins such as albumin or fibrinogen can be used to localize sites of blood-retinal barrier breakdown by light microscopy. Tracers such as horseradish peroxidase, microperoxidase, or lanthanum, or the immunocytochemical demonstration of albumin can be used to reveal blood-retinal barrier breakdown at the ultrastructural level and provide insights into the mechanisms involved. This review discusses the advantages and limitations of each of these methods to aid in selection of the appropriate techniques to derive the desired information.

  15. Adiabatic heavy-ion fusion potentials for fusion at deep sub-barrier energies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S V S Sastry; S Kailas; A K Mohanty; A Saxena


    The recently reported unusual behaviour of fusion cross-sections at extreme sub-barrier energies has been examined. The adiabatic limit of fusion barriers has been determined from experimental data using the barrier penetration model. These adiabatic barriers are consistent with the adiabatic fusion barriers derived from the modified Wilzynska–Wilzynski prescription. The fusion barrier systematics has been obtained for a wide range of heavy-ion systems.

  16. Safety-barrier diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duijm, Nijs Jan


    are discussed. A simple method for quantification of safety-barrier diagrams is proposed, including situations where safety barriers depend on shared common elements. It is concluded that safety-barrier diagrams provide a useful framework for an electronic data structure that integrates information from risk......Safety-barrier diagrams and the related so-called "bow-tie" diagrams have become popular methods in risk analysis. This paper describes the syntax and principles for constructing consistent and valid safety-barrier diagrams. The relation with other methods such as fault trees and Bayesian networks...... analysis with operational safety management....

  17. Advancements in subsurface barrier wall technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mutch, R.D. Jr.; Ash, R.E. IV; Caputi, J.R. [Eckenfelder Inc., Mahwah, NJ (United States)


    Subsurface barrier walls have been an important component of site remediation efforts for nearly thirty years. However, until the last decade, limited design options were available for barrier wall construction. Most barrier walls were constructed using traditional technologies such as soil-bentonite slurry trench and, in some instances, conventional compacted clay. While other technologies certainly existed, such as vibrating beam and sheet pile walls, they represented a minor share of the remediation market. Today the remediation engineer considering a subsurface barrier wall-based remediation is confronted with a baffling array, of new technologies and permutations of these technologies. Moreover, new technologies are entering the marketplace seemingly on a monthly basis. A partial listing of available barrier wall technologies is presented.

  18. On the Traversal Time of Barriers (United States)

    Aichmann, Horst; Nimtz, Günter


    Fifty years ago Hartman studied the barrier transmission time of wave packets (J Appl Phys 33:3427-3433, 1962). He was inspired by the tunneling experiments across thin insulating layers at that time. For opaque barriers he calculated faster than light propagation and a transmission time independent of barrier length, which is called the Hartman effect. A faster than light (FTL or superluminal) wave packet velocity was deduced in analog tunneling experiments with microwaves and with infrared light thirty years later. Recently, the conjectured zero time of electron tunneling was claimed to have been observed in ionizing helium inside the barrier. The calculated and measured short tunneling time arises at the barrier front. This tunneling time was found to be universal for elastic fields as well as for electromagnetic fields. Remarkable is that the delay time is the same for the reflected and the transmitted waves in the case of symmetric barriers. Several theoretical physicists predicted this strange nature of the tunneling process. However, even with this background many members of the physics community do not accept a FTL signal velocity interpretation of the experimental tunneling results. Instead a luminal front velocity was calculated to explain the FTL experimental results frequently. However, Brillouin stated in his book on wave propagation and group velocity that the front velocity is given by the group velocity of wave packets in the case of physical signals, which have only finite frequency bandwidths. Some studies assumed barriers to be cavities and the observed tunneling time does represent the cavity lifetime. We are going to discus these continuing misleading interpretations, which are found in journals and in textbooks till today.

  19. Gas Pipelines, LP and LNG, Gas transmission line work provided to AIMS from Kansas Gas Service. Data is limited to CUE (Collaborative Utility Exchange) Participants and subcontractors of them., Published in 2004, Johnson County AIMS. (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Gas Pipelines, LP and LNG dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2004. It is described as 'Gas transmission line work provided to...

  20. Extraordinary acoustic transmission mediated by Helmholtz resonators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Koju


    Full Text Available We demonstrate perfect transmission of sound through a rigid barrier embedded with Helmholtz resonators. The resonators are confined within a waveguide and they are oriented such that one neck protrudes onto each side of the barrier. Perfect sound transmission occurs even though the open area of the necks is less than 3% of the barrier area. Maximum transmission occurs at the resonant frequency of the Helmholtz resonator. Because the dimensions of the Helmholtz resonators are much smaller than the resonant wavelength, the transmission is independent of the direction of sound on the barrier and of the relative placement of the necks. Further, we show that the transmitted sound experiences a continuous phase transition of π radians as a function of frequency through resonance. In simulations of adjacent resonators with slightly offset resonance frequencies, the phase difference leads to destructive interference. By expanding the simulation to a linear array of tuned Helmholtz resonators we show that it is possible to create an acoustic lens. The ability of Helmholtz resonator arrays to manipulate the phase of a plane acoustic wave enables a new class of sonic beam-forming devices analogous to diffractive optics.

  1. Extraordinary acoustic transmission mediated by Helmholtz resonators (United States)

    Koju, Vijay; Rowe, Ebony; Robertson, William M.


    We demonstrate perfect transmission of sound through a rigid barrier embedded with Helmholtz resonators. The resonators are confined within a waveguide and they are oriented such that one neck protrudes onto each side of the barrier. Perfect sound transmission occurs even though the open area of the necks is less than 3% of the barrier area. Maximum transmission occurs at the resonant frequency of the Helmholtz resonator. Because the dimensions of the Helmholtz resonators are much smaller than the resonant wavelength, the transmission is independent of the direction of sound on the barrier and of the relative placement of the necks. Further, we show that the transmitted sound experiences a continuous phase transition of π radians as a function of frequency through resonance. In simulations of adjacent resonators with slightly offset resonance frequencies, the phase difference leads to destructive interference. By expanding the simulation to a linear array of tuned Helmholtz resonators we show that it is possible to create an acoustic lens. The ability of Helmholtz resonator arrays to manipulate the phase of a plane acoustic wave enables a new class of sonic beam-forming devices analogous to diffractive optics.

  2. Markers for blood-brain barrier integrity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saunders, Norman R; Dziegielewska, Katarzyna M; Møllgård, Kjeld;


    In recent years there has been a resurgence of interest in brain barriers and various roles their intrinsic mechanisms may play in neurological disorders. Such studies require suitable models and markers to demonstrate integrity and functional changes at the interfaces between blood, brain......, and cerebrospinal fluid. Studies of brain barrier mechanisms and measurements of plasma volume using dyes have a long-standing history, dating back to the late nineteenth-century. Their use in blood-brain barrier studies continues in spite of their known serious limitations in in vivo applications. These were well...... known when first introduced, but seem to have been forgotten since. Understanding these limitations is important because Evans blue is still the most commonly used marker of brain barrier integrity and those using it seem oblivious to problems arising from its in vivo application. The introduction...

  3. Patient advocacy: barriers and facilitators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikravesh Mansoure


    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the two recent decades, advocacy has been a topic of much debate in the nursing profession. Although advocacy has embraced a crucial role for nurses, its extent is often limited in practice. While a variety of studies have been generated all over the world, barriers and facilitators in the patient advocacy have not been completely identified. This article presents the findings of a study exploring the barriers and facilitators influencing the role of advocacy among Iranian nurses. Method This study was conducted by grounded theory method. Participants were 24 Iranian registered nurses working in a large university hospital in Tehran, Iran. Semi-structured interviews were used for data collection. All interviews were transcribed verbatim and simultaneously Constant comparative analysis was used according to the Strauss and Corbin method. Results Through data analysis, several main themes emerged to describe the factors that hindered or facilitated patient advocacy. Nurses in this study identified powerlessness, lack of support, law, code of ethics and motivation, limited communication, physicians leading, risk of advocacy, royalty to peers, and insufficient time to interact with patients and families as barriers to advocacy. As for factors that facilitated nurses to act as a patient advocate, it was found that the nature of nurse-patient relationship, recognizing patients' needs, nurses' responsibility, physician as a colleague, and nurses' knowledge and skills could be influential in adopting the advocacy role. Conclusion Participants believed that in this context taking an advocacy role is difficult for nurses due to the barriers mentioned. Therefore, they make decisions and act as a patient's advocate in any situation concerning patient needs and status of barriers and facilitators. In most cases, they can not act at an optimal level; instead they accept only what they can do, which we called 'limited advocacy' in

  4. Novel Highly Pathogenic Avian A(H5N2) and A(H5N8) Influenza Viruses of Clade from North America Have Limited Capacity for Replication and Transmission in Mammals. (United States)

    Kaplan, Bryan S; Russier, Marion; Jeevan, Trushar; Marathe, Bindumadhav; Govorkova, Elena A; Russell, Charles J; Kim-Torchetti, Mia; Choi, Young Ki; Brown, Ian; Saito, Takehiko; Stallknecht, David E; Krauss, Scott; Webby, Richard J


    Highly pathogenic influenza A(H5N8) viruses from clade were introduced to North America by migratory birds in the fall of 2014. Reassortment of A(H5N8) viruses with avian viruses of North American lineage resulted in the generation of novel A(H5N2) viruses with novel genotypes. Through sequencing of recent avian influenza viruses, we identified PB1 and NP gene segments very similar to those in the viruses isolated from North American waterfowl prior to the introduction of A(H5N8) to North America, highlighting these bird species in the origin of reassortant A(H5N2) viruses. While they were highly virulent and transmissible in poultry, we found A(H5N2) viruses to be low pathogenic in mice and ferrets, and replication was limited in both hosts compared with those of recent highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 viruses. Molecular characterization of the hemagglutinin protein from A(H5N2) viruses showed that the receptor binding preference, cleavage, and pH of activation were highly adapted for replication in avian species and similar to those of other viruses. In addition, North American and Eurasian clade H5NX viruses replicated to significantly lower titers in differentiated normal human bronchial epithelial cells than did seasonal human A(H1N1) and highly pathogenic A(H5N1) viruses isolated from a human case. Thus, despite their having a high impact on poultry, our findings suggest that the recently emerging North American A(H5N2) viruses are not expected to pose a substantial threat to humans and other mammals without further reassortment and/or adaptation and that reassortment with North American viruses has not had a major impact on viral phenotype. IMPORTANCE Highly pathogenic H5 influenza viruses have been introduced into North America from Asia, causing extensive morbidity and mortality in domestic poultry. The introduced viruses have reassorted with North American avian influenza viruses, generating viral genotypes not seen on

  5. Barriers to screening mammography. (United States)

    Sarma, Elizabeth A


    Breast cancer (BRCA) is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer among women in the USA, and mammography is an effective means for the early detection of BRCA. Identifying the barriers to screening mammography can inform research, policy and practice aiming to increase mammography adherence. A literature review was conducted to determine common barriers to screening mammography adherence. PsycINFO and PubMed databases were searched to identify studies published between 2000 and 2012 that examined barriers associated with reduced mammography adherence. Three thematic groups of barriers, based on social ecology, were identified from the literature: healthcare system-level, social and individual-level barriers. Researchers must consider screening behaviour in context and, therefore, should simultaneously consider each level of barriers when attempting to understand screening behaviour and create interventions to increase mammography adherence.

  6. Molecular Modeling of Prion Transmission to Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etienne Levavasseur


    Full Text Available Using different prion strains, such as the variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease agent and the atypical bovine spongiform encephalopathy agents, and using transgenic mice expressing human or bovine prion protein, we assessed the reliability of protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA to model interspecies and genetic barriers to prion transmission. We compared our PMCA results with in vivo transmission data characterized by attack rates, i.e., the percentage of inoculated mice that developed the disease. Using 19 seed/substrate combinations, we observed that a significant PMCA amplification was only obtained when the mouse line used as substrate is susceptible to the corresponding strain. Our results suggest that PMCA provides a useful tool to study genetic barriers to transmission and to study the zoonotic potential of emerging prion strains.

  7. Conventional transmission electron microscopy. (United States)

    Winey, Mark; Meehl, Janet B; O'Toole, Eileen T; Giddings, Thomas H


    Researchers have used transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to make contributions to cell biology for well over 50 years, and TEM continues to be an important technology in our field. We briefly present for the neophyte the components of a TEM-based study, beginning with sample preparation through imaging of the samples. We point out the limitations of TEM and issues to be considered during experimental design. Advanced electron microscopy techniques are listed as well. Finally, we point potential new users of TEM to resources to help launch their project.

  8. Converse Barrier Certificate Theorems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafael; Sloth, Christoffer


    This paper shows that a barrier certificate exists for any safe dynamical system. Specifically, we prove converse barrier certificate theorems for a class of structurally stable dynamical systems. Other authors have developed a related result by assuming that the dynamical system has neither sing...

  9. Skin barrier function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    Renowned experts present the latest knowledge Although a very fragile structure, the skin barrier is probably one of the most important organs of the body. Inward/out it is responsible for body integrity and outward/in for keeping microbes, chemicals, and allergens from penetrating the skin. Since...... the role of barrier integrity in atopic dermatitis and the relationship to filaggrin mutations was discovered a decade ago, research focus has been on the skin barrier, and numerous new publications have become available. This book is an interdisciplinary update offering a wide range of information...... on the subject. It covers new basic research on skin markers, including results on filaggrin and on methods for the assessment of the barrier function. Biological variation and aspects of skin barrier function restoration are discussed as well. Further sections are dedicated to clinical implications of skin...

  10. Patterns of measles transmission among airplane travelers. (United States)

    Edelson, Paul J


    With advanced air handling systems on modern aircraft and the high level of measles immunity in many countries, measles infection in air travelers may be considered a low-risk event. However, introduction of measles into countries where transmission has been controlled or eliminated can have substantial consequences both for the use of public health resources and for those still susceptible. In an effort to balance the relatively low likelihood of disease transmission among largely immune travelers and the risk to the public health of the occurrence of secondary cases resulting from importations, criteria in the United States for contact investigations for measles exposures consider contacts to be those passengers who are seated within 2 rows of the index case. However, recent work has shown that cabin air flow may not be as reliable a barrier to the spread of measles virus as previously believed. Along with these new studies, several reports have described measles developing after travel in passengers seated some distance from the index case. To understand better the potential for measles virus to spread on an airplane, reports of apparent secondary cases occurring in co-travelers of passengers with infectious cases of measles were reviewed. Medline™ was searched for articles in all languages from 1946 to week 1 of March 2012, using the search terms "measles [human] or rubeola" and ("aircraft" or "airplane" or "aeroplane" or "aviation" or "travel" or "traveler" or "traveller"); 45 citations were returned. Embase™ was searched from 1988 to week 11 2012, using the same search strategy; 95 citations were returned. Papers were included in this review if they reported secondary cases of measles occurring in persons traveling on an airplane on which a person or persons with measles also flew, and which included the seating location of both the index case(s) and the secondary case(s) on the plane. Nine reports, including 13 index cases and 23 apparent secondary cases

  11. PWM Converter Power Density Barriers (United States)

    Kolar, Johann W.; Drofenik, Uwe; Biela, Juergen; Heldwein, Marcelo; Ertl, Hans; Friedli, Thomas; Round, Simon

    Power density of power electronic converters has roughly doubled every 10 years since 1970. Behind this trajectory is the continuous advancement of power semiconductor devices, which has increased the converter switching frequencies by a factor of 10 every decade. However, today's cooling concepts and passive components are major barriers for a continuation of this trend. To identify such technological barriers, this paper investigates the volume of the cooling system and passive components as a function of the switching frequency for power electronic converters and determines the switching frequency that minimizes the total volume. A power density limit of 28kW/dm3 at 300kHz is calculated for an isolated DC-DC converter, 44kW/dm3 at 820kHz for a three-phase unity power factor PWM rectifier, and 26kW/dm3 at 21kHz for a sparse matrix converter. For single-phase AC-DC conversion a general limit of 35kW/dm3 results from the DC link capacitor. These power density limits highlight the need to broaden the scope of power electronics research to include cooling systems, high frequency electromagnetics, interconnection and packaging technology, and multi-domain modelling and simulation to ensure further advancement along the power density trajectory.

  12. Transmission Planning Process and Opportunities for Utility-Scale Solar Engagement within the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hein, J.; Hurlbut, D.; Milligan, M.; Coles, L.; Green, B.


    This report is a primer for solar developers who wish to engage directly in expediting the regulatory process and removing market barriers related to policy and planning. Market barriers unrelated to technology often limit the expansion of utility-scale solar power, even in areas with exceptional resource potential. Many of these non-technical barriers have to do with policy, regulation, and planning, and hardly ever do they resolve themselves in a timely fashion. In most cases, pre-emptive intervention by interested stakeholders is the easiest way to remove/address such barriers, but it requires knowing how to navigate the institutional waters of the relevant agencies and boards. This report is a primer for solar developers who wish to engage directly in expediting the regulatory process and removing market barriers related to policy and planning. It focuses on the Western Interconnection (WI), primarily because the quality of solar resources in the Southwest makes utility-scale concentrating solar power (CSP) and photovoltaics (PV) economically feasible, and because the relevant institutions have evolved in a way that has opened up opportunities for removing non-technical market barriers. Developers will find in this report a high-level field manual to identify the venues for mitigating and possibly eliminating systemic market obstacles and ensuring that the economic playing field is reasonably level. Project-specific issues such as siting for transmission and generation resources are beyond the scope of this report. Instead, the aim is to examine issues that pervasively affect all utility-scale PV and CSP in the region regardless of where the project may be. While the focus is on the WI, many of the institutions described here also have their counterparts in the Eastern and the Texas interconnections. Specifically, this report suggests a number of critical engagement points relating to generation and transmission planning.

  13. Energy Transmission and Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathison, Jane


    The objective of Energy Transmission and Infrastructure Northern Ohio (OH) was to lay the conceptual and analytical foundation for an energy economy in northern Ohio that will: • improve the efficiency with which energy is used in the residential, commercial, industrial, agricultural, and transportation sectors for Oberlin, Ohio as a district-wide model for Congressional District OH-09; • identify the potential to deploy wind and solar technologies and the most effective configuration for the regional energy system (i.e., the ratio of distributed or centralized power generation); • analyze the potential within the district to utilize farm wastes to produce biofuels; • enhance long-term energy security by identifying ways to deploy local resources and building Ohio-based enterprises; • identify the policy, regulatory, and financial barriers impeding development of a new energy system; and • improve energy infrastructure within Congressional District OH-09. This objective of laying the foundation for a renewable energy system in Ohio was achieved through four primary areas of activity: 1. district-wide energy infrastructure assessments and alternative-energy transmission studies; 2. energy infrastructure improvement projects undertaken by American Municipal Power (AMP) affiliates in the northern Ohio communities of Elmore, Oak Harbor, and Wellington; 3. Oberlin, OH-area energy assessment initiatives; and 4. a district-wide conference held in September 2011 to disseminate year-one findings. The grant supported 17 research studies by leading energy, policy, and financial specialists, including studies on: current energy use in the district and the Oberlin area; regional potential for energy generation from renewable sources such as solar power, wind, and farm-waste; energy and transportation strategies for transitioning the City of Oberlin entirely to renewable resources and considering pedestrians, bicyclists, and public transportation as well as drivers

  14. Permanent isolation surface barrier development plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wing, N.R.


    The exhumation and treatment of wastes may not always be the preferred alternative in the remediation of a waste site. In-place disposal alternatives, under certain circumstances, may be the most desirable alternatives to use in the protection of human health and the environment. The implementation of an in-place disposal alternative will likely require some type of protective covering that will provide long-term isolation of the wastes from the accessible environment. Even if the wastes are exhumed and treated, a long-term barrier may still be needed to adequately dispose of the treated wastes or any remaining waste residuals. Currently, no {open_quotes}proven{close_quotes} long-term barrier is available. The Hanford Site Permanent Isolation Surface Barrier Development Program (BDP) was organized to develop the technology needed to provide a long-term surface barrier capability for the Hanford Site. The permanent isolation barrier technology also could be used at other sites. Permanent isolation barriers use engineered layers of natural materials to create an integrated structure with redundant protective features. Drawings of conceptual permanent isolation surface barriers are shown. The natural construction materials (e.g., fine soil, sand, gravel, riprap, asphalt) have been selected to optimize barrier performance and longevity. The objective of current designs is to use natural materials to develop a maintenance-free permanent isolation surface barrier that isolates wastes for a minimum of 1,000 years by limiting water drainage to near-zero amounts; reducing the likelihood of plant, animal, and human intrusion; controlling the exhalation of noxious gases; and minimizing erosion-related problems.

  15. Development and psychometric testing of a barriers to HIV testing scale among individuals with HIV infection in Sweden; The Barriers to HIV testing scale-Karolinska version



    © 2015 Wiklander et al. Background: Barriers to HIV testing experienced by individuals at risk for HIV can result in treatment delay and further transmission of the disease. Instruments to systematically measure barriers are scarce, but could contribute to improved strategies for HIV testing. Aims of this study were to develop and test a barriers to HIV testing scale in a Swedish context. Methods: An 18-item scale was developed, based on an existing scale with addition of six new it...

  16. A resistance formula for coherent multi-barrier structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Zhi-Chen; Yang Jian-Hong


    Using the Landauer formula and the quantum S-matrix scattering theory, we derive a resistance formula for multi-barrier structure under phase coherent transmission condition. This formula shows that when the transport is coherent, the potential wells of the structure are just like conductors contributing to the overall resistance. And because the resistance formula is derived based on the scattering theory, the barrier resistance will change with the number of scattering centres (i.e. the number of barriers) in the structure.

  17. Recycler barrier RF buckets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhat, C.M.; /Fermilab


    The Recycler Ring at Fermilab uses a barrier rf systems for all of its rf manipulations. In this paper, I will give an overview of historical perspective on barrier rf system, the longitudinal beam dynamics issues, aspects of rf linearization to produce long flat bunches and methods used for emittance measurements of the beam in the RR barrier rf buckets. Current rf manipulation schemes used for antiproton beam stacking and longitudinal momentum mining of the RR beam for the Tevatron collider operation are explained along with their importance in spectacular success of the Tevatron luminosity performance.

  18. On causality, apparent 'superluminality' and reshaping in barrier penetration

    CERN Document Server

    Sokolovski, D


    We consider tunnelling of a non-relativistic particle across a potential barrier. It is shown that the barrier acts as an effective beam splitter which builds up the transmitted pulse from the copies of the initial envelope shifted in the coordinate space backwards relative to the free propagation. Although along each pathway causality is explicitly obeyed, in special cases reshaping can result an overall reduction of the initial envelope, accompanied by an arbitrary coordinate shift. In the case of a high barrier the delay amplitude distribution (DAD) mimics a Dirac $\\delta$-function, the transmission amplitude is superoscillatory for finite momenta and tunnelling leads to an accurate advancement of the (reduced) initial envelope by the barrier width. In the case of a wide barrier, initial envelope is accurately translated into the complex coordinate plane. The complex shift, given by the first moment of the DAD, accounts for both the displacement of the maximum of the transmitted probability density and the...

  19. Barriers to wind power exports from the Maritime provinces to the US northeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalton, J. [Power Advisory LLC, Carlisle, MA (United States)


    This presentation discussed a study that evaluated wind energy export potential from the Maritime provinces to the northeastern United States. The study assessed key market issues likely to affect the exports. The study showed that the Maritime provinces are capable of generating 5500 to 7500 MW of wind. The current electricity system is capable of integrating 2100 MW. Wind power integration between the 2 regions would require transmission upgrades, increased transmission capacity, and better coordination between system operators. Barriers to exports from the Maritimes include limited capacity on existing interties and high transmission tariffs. Uniform transmission tariffs are needed throughout the Maritime provinces. Coordination and integration of operators and utilities is needed to reduce the costs of wind power integration. Increased wind power production reduces price risks related to high energy prices. It was concluded that wind power is a cost-effective method of providing renewable and low carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) generation electricity in the northeastern United States. tabs., figs.

  20. Survey of Transmission Cost Allocation Methodologies for Regional Transmission Organizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, S.; Porter, K.; Mudd, C.; Rogers, J.


    The report presents transmission cost allocation methodologies for reliability transmission projects, generation interconnection, and economic transmission projects for all Regional Transmission Organizations.

  1. Moving beyond paralysis: how states and regions are creating innovative transmission policies for renewable energy projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumacher, Allison; Fink, Sari; Porter, Kevin


    Experience from state and regional transmission siting initiatives aimed at expanding renewable energy development might offer lessons on how to circumvent traditional barriers to new transmission. Absent a national approach or federal transmission plan, these early models will provide a framework for increasing interstate cooperation. (author)

  2. Barriers to Effective Listening. (United States)

    Hulbert, Jack E.


    Discusses the following barriers which interfere with listening efficiency: content, speaker, medium, distractions, mindset, language, listening speed, and feedback. Suggests ways to combat these obstacles to accurate comprehension. (MM)

  3. [Vascular endothelial Barrier Function]. (United States)

    Ivanov, A N; Puchinyan, D M; Norkin, I A


    Endothelium is an important regulator of selective permeability of the vascular wall for different molecules and cells. This review summarizes current data on endothelial barrier function. Endothelial glycocalyx structure, its function and role in the molecular transport and leukocytes migration across the endothelial barrier are discussed. The mechanisms of transcellular transport of macromolecules and cell migration through endothelial cells are reviewed. Special section of this article addresses the structure and function of tight and adherens endothelial junction, as well as their importance for the regulation of paracellular transport across the endothelial barrier. Particular attention is paid to the signaling mechanism of endothelial barrier function regulation and the factors that influence on the vascular permeability.

  4. Baseline survey of pregnant women 's knowledge of treat-ment to prevent mother-to-child human immuno-deficien-cy virus transmission in a resource limited setting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stephen Onwere; Obioha Okoro; Bright Chigbu; Chuks Kamanu; Christian Aluka; Paul Feyi-Wa-boso


    Despite continuing advances in scientific knowledge about treatments to prevent mother-to-child (MTCT)of the human immune deficiency virus (HIV),there is a paucity of data on pregnant women's knowledge of treat-ments to prevent MTCT of HIV in Aba,South Eastern Nigeria.We investigated pregnant women's knowledge of the availability of treatments to prevent MTCT of HIV in the low resourced setting of Aba town in South Eastern Nigeria.A descriptive study involving 100 consecutive and consenting patients at the antenatal clinic of Abia State University Teaching Hospital (ABSUTH),Aba,South Eastern Nigeria over the period 1st November, 2007 to 30th November,2007.Using a structured questionnaire,the respondents'sociodemographic data were obtained as well as their knowledge of the availability of treatments to prevent mother to child HIV transmission in pregnant women and self-reported data on their having ever tested for HIV.Knowledge regarding availability of treatment to prevent mother to child transmission of HIV was good as 95% of the respondents were aware that such treatment was available.Knowledge that treatment is available to help someone infected by HIV to live longer was also good as 96% of the respondents were aware of the availability of such treatment.Seventy one percent of the respondents had ever tested for HIV.The levels of knowledge regarding the availability of treatment to prevent mother to child HIV transmission and to help someone infected with HIV are good.Thus, utilization of anti-retroviral prophylaxis amongst HIV infected pregnant women in this community would be ex-pected to be high if the drugs were available.This will reduce the impact of HIV,especially in children.

  5. Lifetime Modeling of Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hille, T.S.


    Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are applied in gas turbines to enhance their thermal efficiency by isolating the metallic components from the aggressive hot gas. TBC lifetime is limited by damage processes originating at internal interfaces, which may ultimately lead to delamination and spallation.

  6. Model assessment of protective barriers: Part 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fayer, M.J.; Rockhold, M.L.; Holford, D.J.


    Radioactive waste exists at the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Hanford Site in a variety of locations, including subsurface grout and tank farms, solid waste burial grounds, and contaminated soil sites. Some of these waste sites may need to be isolated from percolating water to minimize the potential for transport of the waste to the ground water, which eventually discharges to the Columbia River. Multilayer protective barriers have been proposed as a means of limiting the flow of water through the waste sites (DOE 1987). A multiyear research program (managed jointly by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and Westinghouse Hanford Company for the DOE) is aimed at assessing the performance of these barriers. One aspect of this program involves the use of computer models to predict barrier performance. Three modeling studies have already been conducted and a test plan was produced. The simulation work reported here was conducted by PNL and extends the previous modeling work. The purpose of this report are to understand phenomena that have been observed in the field and to provide information that can be used to improve hydrologic modeling of the protective barrier. An improved modeling capability results in better estimates of barrier performance. Better estimates can be used to improve the design of barriers and the assessment of their long-term performance.

  7. On the nature of barriers to climate change adaptation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biesbroek, G.R.; Klostermann, J.E.M.; Termeer, C.J.A.M.; Kabat, P.


    Considerable barriers can emerge in developing and implementing climate change adaptation strategies. Understanding the nature of barriers to adaptation is important so as to find strategic ways of dealing with them. However, our current understanding is limited and highly fragmented across the acad

  8. The interaction between tide and salinity barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patchanok Srivihok


    Full Text Available Presently, there is a number of salinity barrier utilization and this kind of structure becomes more common in estuarine areas. However, the construction of barrier at the river mouth or inside the river results in amplification of tide due to creation of standing tide at the barrier. This standing tide creates two major problems, namely, the overspill of salinewater during high water and bank erosion during low water along the tidal reach downstream of the barrier. In this study, the analytical model is developed to determine the river hydraulic behaviors which affects by tide, river flow and barrier structure of the Bang Pakong River, Thailand. The analytical model of tide and river flow of the Chao Phraya River is adopted and adjusted to determine the tide characteristics modified by river flow. Moreover, the analytical model of tide and salinity barrier would then be developed by cooperating of the analytical model of tide and river flow interaction together with tidal flow cooscillating tide theory. It is found from this study that the analytical model of the Chao Phraya River which is suitable for high freshwater discharge underestimates damping modulus and friction slope which requires adjustment for low freshwater discharge of the Bang Pakong River. The analytical model of tide and salinity barrier can be finally used to predict the water level downstream of the barrier. The model overestimated the water level fluctuation during the unsteady flow from upstream which may be because of the assumption of steady flow condition in the model development due to limited data available after the construction.

  9. Hedging Double Barriers with Singles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sbuelz, A.


    Double barrier options provide risk managers with good-deal flexibility in tailoring portfolio returns.Their hedges offer full protection only if unwound along the barriers.This work provides non-dynamic hedges that project the risk of double barriers on to single barriers.Non-dynamic hedges overcom

  10. A tunable acoustic barrier based on periodic arrays of subwavelength slits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanza Rubio


    Full Text Available The most usual method to reduce undesirable enviromental noise levels during its transmission is the use of acoustic barriers. A novel type of acoustic barrier based on sound transmission through subwavelength slits is presented. This system consists of two rows of periodic repetition of vertical rigid pickets separated by a slit of subwavelength width and with a misalignment between them. Here, both the experimental and the numerical analyses are presented. The acoustic barrier proposed can be easily built and is frequency tunable. The results demonstrated that the proposed barrier can be tuned to mitigate a band noise without excesive barrier thickness. The use of this system as an environmental acoustic barrier has certain advantages with regard to the ones currently used both from the constructive and the acoustical point of view.

  11. Broadband transmission EPR spectroscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilfred R Hagen

    Full Text Available EPR spectroscopy employs a resonator operating at a single microwave frequency and phase-sensitive detection using modulation of the magnetic field. The X-band spectrometer is the general standard with a frequency in the 9-10 GHz range. Most (biomolecular EPR spectra are determined by a combination of the frequency-dependent electronic Zeeman interaction and a number of frequency-independent interactions, notably, electron spin - nuclear spin interactions and electron spin - electron spin interactions, and unambiguous analysis requires data collection at different frequencies. Extant and long-standing practice is to use a different spectrometer for each frequency. We explore the alternative of replacing the narrow-band source plus single-mode resonator with a continuously tunable microwave source plus a non-resonant coaxial transmission cell in an unmodulated external field. Our source is an arbitrary wave digital signal generator producing an amplitude-modulated sinusoidal microwave in combination with a broadband amplifier for 0.8-2.7 GHz. Theory is developed for coaxial transmission with EPR detection as a function of cell dimensions and materials. We explore examples of a doublet system, a high-spin system, and an integer-spin system. Long, straigth, helical, and helico-toroidal cells are developed and tested with dilute aqueous solutions of spin label hydroxy-tempo. A detection limit of circa 5 µM HO-tempo in water at 800 MHz is obtained for the present setup, and possibilities for future improvement are discussed.

  12. The biological significance of brain barrier mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saunders, Norman R; Habgood, Mark D; Møllgård, Kjeld


    , but more work is required to evaluate the method before it can be tried in patients. Overall, our view is that much more fundamental knowledge of barrier mechanisms and development of new experimental methods will be required before drug targeting to the brain is likely to be a successful endeavor......Barrier mechanisms in the brain are important for its normal functioning and development. Stability of the brain's internal environment, particularly with respect to its ionic composition, is a prerequisite for the fundamental basis of its function, namely transmission of nerve impulses....... In addition, the appropriate and controlled supply of a wide range of nutrients such as glucose, amino acids, monocarboxylates, and vitamins is also essential for normal development and function. These are all cellular functions across the interfaces that separate the brain from the rest of the internal...

  13. Quasi-bound states, resonance tunnelling, and tunnelling times generated by twin symmetric barriers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Uma Maheswari; P Prema; S Mahadevan; C S Shastry


    In analogy with the definition of resonant or quasi-bound states used in three-dimensional quantal scattering, we define the quasi-bound states that occur in one-dimensional transmission generated by twin symmetric potential barriers and evaluate their energies and widths using two typical examples: (i) twin rectangular barrier and (ii) twin Gaussian-type barrier. The energies at which reflectionless transmission occurs correspond to these states and the widths of the transmission peaks are also the same as those of quasi-bound states. We compare the behaviour of the magnitude of wave functions of quasi-bound states with those for bound states and with the above-barrier state wave function. We deduce a Breit–Wigner-type resonance formula which neatly describes the variation of transmission coefficient as a function of energy at below-barrier energies. Similar formula with additional empirical term explains approximately the peaks of transmission coefficients at above-barrier energies as well. Further, we study the variation of tunnelling time as a function of energy and compare the same with transmission, reflection time and Breit–Wigner delay time around a quasi-bound state energy. We also find that tunnelling time is of the same order of magnitude as lifetime of the quasi-bound state, but somewhat larger.

  14. Progress toward interruption of wild poliovirus transmission - worldwide, 2009. (United States)


    In 1988, an estimated 350,000 cases of poliomyelitis were occurring annually worldwide. By 2005, because of global vaccination efforts, indigenous transmission of wild poliovirus (WPV) types 1 and 3 (WPV1 and WPV3) had been eliminated from all but four countries (Afghanistan, India, Nigeria, and Pakistan). No cases of WPV type 2 have been reported since 1999. This report describes progress toward global WPV eradication during 2009 and updates previous reports. During 2009 a total of 1,606 cases of WPV infection were reported, compared with 1,651 in 2008. WPV3 incidence increased 67%, to 1,124 cases, compared with 675 in 2008. However, WPV1 incidence decreased 51%, to 482 cases in 2009, compared with 976 cases in 2008. In India, nearly all polio cases in 2009 were reported in high-risk districts in western Uttar Pradesh and central Bihar. In Afghanistan and Pakistan, WPV circulation in high-risk districts continued because of difficulties vaccinating children in conflict-affected areas and operational limitations in parts of Pakistan. In Nigeria, cases decreased by 51%, to 388 cases in 2009, compared with 798 in 2008. During 2009, outbreaks from importation of WPV affected 19 previously polio-free African countries. Two key steps are needed to make further progress in polio eradication: 1) addressing local barriers to interrupting transmission, and 2) using bivalent oral poliovirus vaccine (bOPV) broadly for WPV 1 and 3 in supplemental immunization activities (SIAs).

  15. Dynamically prioritized progressive transmission (United States)

    Blanford, Ronald


    Retrieval of image data from a centralized database may be subject to bandwidth limitations, whether due to a low-bandwidth communications link or to contention from simultaneous accesses over a high-bandwidth link. Progressive transmission can alleviate this problem by encoding image data so that any prefix of the data stream approximates the complete image at a coarse level of resolution. The longer the prefix, the finer the resolution. In many cases, as little at 1 percent of the image data may be sufficient to decide whether to discard the image, to permit the retrieval to continue, or to restrict retrieval to a subsection of the image. Our approach treats resolution not as a fixed attribute of the image, but rather as a resource which may be allocated to portions of the image at the direction of a user-specified priority function. The default priority function minimizes error by allocating more resolution to regions of high variance. The user may also point to regions of interest requesting priority transmission. More advanced target recognition strategies may be incorporated at the user's discretion. Multispectral imagery is supported. The user engineering implications are profounded. There is immediate response to a query that might otherwise take minutes to complete. The data is transmitted in small increments so that no single user dominates the communications bandwidth. The user-directed improvement means that bandwidth is focused on interesting information. The user may continue working with the first coarse approximations while further image data is still arriving. The algorithm has been implemented in C on Sun, Silicon Graphics, and NeXT workstations, and in Lisp on a Symbolics. Transmission speeds reach as high as 60,000 baud using a Sparc or 68040 processor when storing data to memory; somewhat less if also updating a graphical display. The memory requirements are roughly five bytes per image pixel. Both computational and memory costs may be reduced

  16. Experimental realization of extraordinary acoustic transmission using Helmholtz resonators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian C. Crow


    Full Text Available The phenomenon of extraordinary acoustic transmission through a solid barrier with an embedded Helmholtz resonator (HR is demonstrated. The Helmholtz resonator consists of an embedded cavity and two necks that protrude, one on each side of the barrier. Extraordinary transmission occurs for a narrow spectral range encompassing the resonant frequency of the Helmholtz resonator. We show that an amplitude transmission of 97.5% is achieved through a resonator whose neck creates an open area of 6.25% of the total barrier area. In addition to the enhanced transmission, we show that there is a smooth, continuous phase transition in the transmitted sound as a function of frequency. The frequency dependent phase transition is used to experimentally realize slow wave propagation for a narrow-band Gaussian wave packet centered at the maximum transmission frequency. The use of parallel pairs of Helmholtz resonators tuned to different resonant frequencies is experimentally explored as a means of increasing the transmission bandwidth. These experiments show that because of the phase transition, there is always a frequency between the two Helmholtz resonant frequencies at which destructive interference occurs whether the resonances are close or far apart. Finally, we explain how the phase transition associated with Helmholtz-resonator-mediated extraordinary acoustic transmission can be exploited to produce diffractive acoustic components including sub-wavelength thickness acoustic lenses.

  17. P-glycoprotein plays a major role in the efflux of fexofenadine in the small intestine and blood-brain barrier, but only a limited role in its biliary excretion. (United States)

    Tahara, Harunobu; Kusuhara, Hiroyuki; Fuse, Eiichi; Sugiyama, Yuichi


    Fexofenadine is a selective, nonsedating H(1)-receptor antagonist approved for symptoms of allergic conditions, which is mainly excreted into feces via biliary excretion. The purpose of this study is to investigate its pharmacokinetics in mice and rats to determine the role of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in its biliary excretion. In mice, biliary excretion clearance (17 ml/min/kg) accounted for almost 60% of the total body clearance (30 ml/min/kg). Comparing the pharmacokinetics after intravenous and oral administration indicated that the bioavailability of fexofenadine was at most 2% in mice. Knockout of Mdr1a/1b P-gp did not affect the biliary excretion clearance with regard to both plasma and liver concentrations, whereas the absence of P-gp caused a 6-fold increase in the plasma concentration after oral administration. In addition, the steady-state brain-to-plasma concentration ratio of fexofenadine was approximately 3-fold higher in Mdr1a/1b P-gp knockout mice than in wild-type mice. Together, these results show that P-glycoprotein plays an important role in efflux transport in the brain and small intestine but only a limited role in biliary excretion in mice. In addition, there was no difference in the biliary excretion between normal and hereditarily multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (Mrp2)-deficient mutant rats (Eisai hyperbilirubinemic rats) and between wild-type and breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp) knockout mice. These results suggest that the biliary excretion of fexofenadine is mediated by unknown transporters distinct from P-gp, Mrp2, and Bcrp.

  18. Elements modulating the prion species barrier and its passage consequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan-Maria Torres

    Full Text Available The specific characteristics of Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy (TSE strains may be altered during passage across a species barrier. In this study we investigated the biochemical and biological characteristics of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE after transmission in both natural host species (cattle, sheep, pigs and mice and in transgenic mice overexpressing the corresponding cellular prion protein (PrPC in comparison with other non-BSE related prions from the same species. After these passages, most features of the BSE agent remained unchanged. BSE-derived agents only showed slight modifications in the biochemical properties of the accumulated PrPSc, which were demonstrated to be reversible upon re-inoculation into transgenic mice expressing bovine-PrPC. Transmission experiments in transgenic mice expressing bovine, porcine or human-PrP revealed that all BSE-derived agents were transmitted with no or a weak transmission barrier. In contrast, a high species barrier was observed for the non-BSE related prions that harboured an identical PrP amino acid sequence, supporting the theory that the prion transmission barrier is modulated by strain properties (presumably conformation-dependent rather than by PrP amino acid sequence differences between host and donor. As identical results were observed with prions propagated either in natural hosts or in transgenic mouse models, we postulate that the species barrier and its passage consequences are uniquely governed by the host PrPC sequence and not influenced by other host genetic factors. The results presented herein reinforce the idea that the BSE agent is highly promiscuous, infecting other species, maintaining its properties in the new species, and even increasing its capabilities to jump to other species including humans. These data are essential for the development of an accurate risk assessment for BSE.

  19. Study on Fault Current Limiter and Power Transmission Pilot Protection Matching Issue%故障限流器与输电线路纵联保护相配合问题的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董权力; 王佳成; 时斌; 李浩


    Introduction was made to the pilot protection principle of directional locking type. By Matlab software simulation model, this paper described the impact on circuits at time of different current limiting induction of bridge current limiter, analyzing impact of fault cur-rent limiter on current limiting induction and distance pilot protection. The result shows that with the fault current limiter added, the per-formance of current transformer could be improved, so as to prevent it from saturation, to reduce unbalanced current, but to cause power direction relay unwanted operation with sequence component as judging basis, which affects pilot protection correct work of applied power direction element.%介绍了方向闭锁式纵联保护原理,通过Matlab软件搭建仿真模型,描述了桥式限流器的限流电感不同时对电路产生的影响,分析了故障限流器对限流电感及距离纵联保护的影响,结果表明,加入故障限流器能改善电流互感器的性能,防止其饱和,减小不平衡电流,也可能造成以序分量为判断依据的功率方向继电器误动,妨碍应用了功率方向元件的纵联保护正确工作。

  20. Resonance-like tunneling across a barrier with adjacent wells

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Mahadevan; P Prema; S K Agarwalla; B Sahu; C S Shastry


    We examine the behavior of transmission coefficient across the rectangular barrier when attractive potential well is present on one or both sides and also the same is studied for a smoother barrier with smooth adjacent wells having Woods–Saxon shape. We find that presence of well with suitable width and depth can substantially alter at energies below the barrier height leading to resonant-like structures. In a sense, this work is complementary to the resonant tunneling of particles across two rectangular barriers, which is being studied in detail in recent years with possible applications in mind. We interpret our results as due to resonant-like positive energy states generated by the adjacent wells. We describe in detail the possible potential application of these results in electronic devices using n-type oxygen-doped gallium arsenide and silicon dioxide. It is envisaged that these results will have applications in the design of tunneling devices.

  1. Polyelectrolyte Coacervates Deposited as High Gas Barrier Thin Films. (United States)

    Haile, Merid; Sarwar, Owais; Henderson, Robert; Smith, Ryan; Grunlan, Jaime C


    Multilayer coatings consisting of oppositely charged polyelectrolytes have proven to be extraordinarily effective oxygen barriers but require many processing steps to fabricate. In an effort to prepare high oxygen barrier thin films more quickly, a polyelectrolyte complex coacervate composed of polyethylenimine and polyacrylic acid is prepared. The coacervate fluid is applied as a thin film using a rod coating process. With humidity and thermal post-treatment, a 2 µm thin film reduces the oxygen transmission rate of 0.127 mm poly(ethylene terephthalate) by two orders of magnitude, rivalling conventional oxygen barrier technologies. These films are fabricated in ambient conditions using low-cost, water-based solutions, providing a tremendous opportunity for single-step deposition of polymeric high barrier thin films.

  2. Overcoming Language Barriers (United States)

    De Buda, Yvonne


    Many family physicians in Canada experience language and cultural barriers between themselves and their patients. Several aspects of the ensuing problems are described and some practical suggestions for solutions are made. The importance of health education for new Canadians in the family physician's office as well as through the media and community projects is stressed. Imagesp68-ap68-bp70-a PMID:21308059

  3. Scattering of massless Dirac particles by oscillating barriers in one dimension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    González-Santander, C. [GISC, Departamento de Física de Materiales, Universidad Complutense, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Domínguez-Adame, F., E-mail: [GISC, Departamento de Física de Materiales, Universidad Complutense, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Fuentevilla, C.H.; Diez, E. [Laboratorio de Bajas Temperaturas, Universidad de Salamanca, E-37008 Salamanca (Spain)


    We study the scattering of massless Dirac particles by oscillating barriers in one dimension. Using the Floquet theory, we find the exact scattering amplitudes for time-harmonic barriers of arbitrary shape. In all cases the scattering amplitudes are found to be independent of the energy of the incoming particle and the transmission coefficient is unity. This is a manifestation of the Klein tunneling in time-harmonic potentials. Remarkably, the transmission amplitudes for arbitrary sharply-peaked potentials also become independent of the driving frequency. Conditions for which barriers of finite width can be replaced by sharply-peaked potentials are discussed.

  4. Barriers and Supports in the Job Search: Preliminary Findings from a Survey of Older Job Seekers. (United States)

    Daum, Menachem; And Others

    The older job seeker faces both external and internal barriers in finding employment. External barriers include such economic and societal obstacles as age discrimination, rapid technological changes and the shifting demands of the job market. Internal barriers include diminishing job seeking motivation and limited job seeking skills. A conceptual…

  5. Fundamental Limits of Ultrathin Metasurfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Arbabi, Amir


    We present universal theoretical limits on the operation and performance of non-magnetic passive ultrathin metasurfaces. In particular, we prove that their local transmission, reflection, and polarization conversion coefficients are confined to limited regions of the complex plane. As a result, full control over the phase of the light transmitted through such metasurfaces cannot be achieved if the polarization of the light is not to be affected at the same time. We also establish fundamental limits on the maximum polarization conversion efficiency of these metasurfaces, and show that they cannot achieve more than 25% polarization conversion efficiency in transmission.

  6. Pratt & Whitney thermal barrier coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bornstein, N. [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States); Marcin, J. [Pratt & Whitney Aircraft Co., East Hartford, CT (United States)


    The objective of the Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) Program is to develop ultra-high efficient, environmentally superior, and cost competitive gas turbine systems. The operating profiles of these industrial gas turbines are long, less cyclic with fewer transients-compared with those for aircraft gas turbine engines. Therefore, creep rather than thermal fatigue, becomes primary life-limiting for hot section components. Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) will be used to achieve the objectives of the program. TBCs allow surface temperatures to increase without compromising the structural properties of the alloy. TBCs typically consist of a ceramic insulating layer, deposited onto the substrate with an intervening metallic layer, which imparts oxidation protection to the substrate and provides a surface to which the ceramic layer can adhere.

  7. Barrier mechanisms in the Drosophila blood-brain barrier


    Samantha Jane Hindle; Roland Jerome Bainton


    The invertebrate blood-brain barrier field is growing at a rapid pace and, in recent years, studies have shown a physiologic and molecular complexity that has begun to rival its vertebrate counterpart. Novel mechanisms of paracellular barrier maintenance through GPCR signaling were the first demonstrations of the complex adaptive mechanisms of barrier physiology. Building upon this work, the integrity of the invertebrate blood-brain barrier has recently been shown to require coordinated funct...

  8. Geophysical characterization of subsurface barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borns, D.J.


    An option for controlling contaminant migration from plumes and buried waste sites is to construct a subsurface barrier of a low-permeability material. The successful application of subsurface barriers requires processes to verify the emplacement and effectiveness of barrier and to monitor the performance of a barrier after emplacement. Non destructive and remote sensing techniques, such as geophysical methods, are possible technologies to address these needs. The changes in mechanical, hydrologic and chemical properties associated with the emplacement of an engineered barrier will affect geophysical properties such a seismic velocity, electrical conductivity, and dielectric constant. Also, the barrier, once emplaced and interacting with the in situ geologic system, may affect the paths along which electrical current flows in the subsurface. These changes in properties and processes facilitate the detection and monitoring of the barrier. The approaches to characterizing and monitoring engineered barriers can be divided between (1) methods that directly image the barrier using the contrasts in physical properties between the barrier and the host soil or rock and (2) methods that reflect flow processes around or through the barrier. For example, seismic methods that delineate the changes in density and stiffness associated with the barrier represents a direct imaging method. Electrical self potential methods and flow probes based on heat flow methods represent techniques that can delineate the flow path or flow processes around and through a barrier.

  9. Measurements of accelerator-produced leakage neutron and photon transmission through concrete. (United States)

    Kase, K R; Nelson, W R; Fasso, A; Liu, J C; Mao, X; Jenkins, T M; Kleck, J H


    Optimum shielding of the radiation from particle accelerators requires knowledge of the attenuation characteristics of the shielding material. The most common material for shielding this radiation is concrete, which can be made using various materials of different densities as aggregates. These different concrete mixes can have very different attenuation characteristics. Information about the attenuation of leakage photons and neutrons in ordinary and heavy concrete is, however, very limited. To increase our knowledge and understanding of the radiation attenuation in concrete of various compositions, we have performed measurements of the transmission of leakage radiation, photons and neutrons, from a Varian Clinac 2100C medical linear accelerator operating at maximum electron energies of 6 and 18 MeV. We have also calculated, using Monte Carlo techniques, the leakage neutron spectra and its transmission through concrete. The results of these measurements and calculations extend the information currently available for designing shielding for medical electron accelerators. Photon transmission characteristics depend more on the manufacturer of the concrete than on the atomic composition. A possible cause for this effect is a non-uniform distribution of the high-density aggregate, typically iron, in the concrete matrix. Errors in estimated transmission of photons can exceed a factor of three, depending on barrier thickness, if attenuation in high-density concrete is simply scaled from that of normal density concrete. We found that neutron transmission through the high-density concretes can be estimated most reasonably and conservatively by using the linear tenth-value layer of normal concrete if specific values of the tenth-value layer of the high-density concrete are not known. The reason for this is that the neutron transmission depends primarily on the hydrogen content of the concrete, which does not significantly depend on concrete density. Errors of factors of two

  10. Adiabatic Heavy Ion Fusion Potentials for Fusion at Deep Sub-barrier Energies

    CERN Document Server

    Sastry, S V S; Mohanty, A K; Saxena, A


    The fusion cross sections from well above barrier to extreme sub-barrier energies have been analysed using the energy (E) and angular momentum (L) dependent barrier penetration model ({\\small{ELDBPM}}). From this analysis, the adiabatic limits of fusion barriers have been determined for a wide range of heavy ion systems. The empirical prescription of Wilzynska and Wilzynski has been used with modified radius parameter and surface tension coefficient values consistent with the parameterization of the nuclear masses. The adiabatic fusion barriers calculated from this prescription are in good agreement with the adiabatic barriers deduced from {\\small{ELDBPM}} fits to fusion data. The nuclear potential diffuseness is larger at adiabatic limit, resulting in a lower $\\hbar\\omega$ leading to increase of "logarithmic slope" observed at energies well below the barrier. The effective fusion barrier radius and curvature values are anomalously smaller than the predictions of known empirical prescriptions. A detailed comp...

  11. The "Battle" of Managing Language Barriers in Health Care. (United States)

    Steinberg, Emma M; Valenzuela-Araujo, Doris; Zickafoose, Joseph S; Kieffer, Edith; DeCamp, Lisa Ross


    Providing safe and high-quality health care for children whose parents have limited English proficiency (LEP) remains challenging. Reports of parent perspectives on navigating language discordance in health care are limited. We analyzed portions of 48 interviews focused on language barriers from 2 qualitative interview studies of the pediatric health care experiences of LEP Latina mothers in 2 urban US cities. We found mothers experienced frustration with health care and reported suboptimal accommodation for language barriers. Six themes emerged relevant to health care across settings: the "battle" of managing language barriers, preference for bilingual providers, negative bias toward interpreted encounters, "getting by" with limited language skills, fear of being a burden, and stigma and discrimination experienced by LEP families. Parents' insights highlight reasons why effective language accommodation in health care remains challenging. Partnering with families to address the management of language barriers is needed to improve health care quality and safety for LEP patients and families.

  12. Observations of capillary barriers and preferential flow in layered snow during cold laboratory experiments (United States)

    Avanzi, Francesco; Hirashima, Hiroyuki; Yamaguchi, Satoru; Katsushima, Takafumi; De Michele, Carlo


    Data of liquid water flow around a capillary barrier in snow are still limited. To gain insight into this process, we carried out observations of dyed water infiltration in layered snow at 0 °C during cold laboratory experiments. We considered three different finer-over-coarser textures and three different water input rates. By means of visual inspection, horizontal sectioning, and measurements of liquid water content (LWC), capillary barriers and associated preferential flow were characterized. The flow dynamics of each sample were also simulated solving the Richards equation within the 1-D multi-layer physically based snow cover model SNOWPACK. Results revealed that capillary barriers and preferential flow are relevant processes ruling the speed of water infiltration in stratified snow. Both are marked by a high degree of spatial variability at centimeter scale and complex 3-D patterns. During unsteady percolation of water, observed peaks in bulk volumetric LWC at the interface reached ˜ 33-36 vol % when the upper layer was composed by fine snow (grain size smaller than 0.5 mm). However, LWC might locally be greater due to the observed heterogeneity in the process. Spatial variability in water transmission increases with grain size, whereas we did not observe a systematic dependency on water input rate for samples containing fine snow. The comparison between observed and simulated LWC profiles revealed that the implementation of the Richards equation reproduces the existence of a capillary barrier for all observed cases and yields a good agreement with observed peaks in LWC at the interface between layers.

  13. Current-voltage relation for thin tunnel barriers: Parabolic barrier model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim; Brandbyge, Mads


    We derive a simple analytic result for the current-voltage curve for tunneling of electrons through a thin uniform insulating layer modeled by a parabolic barrier. Our model, which goes beyond the Wentzel–Kramers–Brillouin approximation, is applicable also in the limit of highly transparant barri...

  14. The automotive transmission book

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer, Robert; Jürgens, Gunter; Najork, Rolf; Pollak, Burkhard


    This book presents essential information on systems and interactions in automotive transmission technology and outlines the methodologies used to analyze and develop transmission concepts and designs. Functions of and interactions between components and subassemblies of transmissions are introduced, providing a basis for designing transmission systems and for determining their potentials and properties in vehicle-specific applications: passenger cars, trucks, buses, tractors, and motorcycles. With these fundamentals the presentation provides universal resources for both state-of-the-art and future transmission technologies, including systems for electric and hybrid electric vehicles.

  15. Plasmodium vivax Transmission in Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalind E Howes


    Full Text Available Malaria in sub-Saharan Africa has historically been almost exclusively attributed to Plasmodium falciparum (Pf. Current diagnostic and surveillance systems in much of sub-Saharan Africa are not designed to identify or report non-Pf human malaria infections accurately, resulting in a dearth of routine epidemiological data about their significance. The high prevalence of Duffy negativity provided a rationale for excluding the possibility of Plasmodium vivax (Pv transmission. However, review of varied evidence sources including traveller infections, community prevalence surveys, local clinical case reports, entomological and serological studies contradicts this viewpoint. Here, these data reports are weighted in a unified framework to reflect the strength of evidence of indigenous Pv transmission in terms of diagnostic specificity, size of individual reports and corroboration between evidence sources. Direct evidence was reported from 21 of the 47 malaria-endemic countries studied, while 42 countries were attributed with infections of visiting travellers. Overall, moderate to conclusive evidence of transmission was available from 18 countries, distributed across all parts of the continent. Approximately 86.6 million Duffy positive hosts were at risk of infection in Africa in 2015. Analysis of the mechanisms sustaining Pv transmission across this continent of low frequency of susceptible hosts found that reports of Pv prevalence were consistent with transmission being potentially limited to Duffy positive populations. Finally, reports of apparent Duffy-independent transmission are discussed. While Pv is evidently not a major malaria parasite across most of sub-Saharan Africa, the evidence presented here highlights its widespread low-level endemicity. An increased awareness of Pv as a potential malaria parasite, coupled with policy shifts towards species-specific diagnostics and reporting, will allow a robust assessment of the public health

  16. New Comparison of HVDC and HVAC Transmission system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Behravesh


    Full Text Available Alternating current (AC is the main driving force in the industries and residential areas, but for the long transmission line (more than 400 miles AC transmission is more expensive than that of direct current (DC. Technically, AC transmission line control is more complicated because of the frequency. DC transmission does not have these limitations, which has led to build long HVDC transmission lines over the last 40 years. HVDC technology made possible to transfer bulk power over long distances. This paper presents a comparative evaluation of HVDC and HVAC transmission systems .

  17. Electron Transport in Graphene-Based Double-Barrier Structure under a Time Periodic Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Wei-Tao; WANG Shun-Jin


    The transport property of electron through graphene-based double-barrier under a time periodic field is investigated. We study the influence of the system parameters and external field strength on the transmission probability.The results show that transmission exhibits various kinds of behavior with the change of parameters due to its angular anisotropy. One could control the values of transmission and conductivity as well as their distribution in each band by tuning the parameters.

  18. Bordetella pertussis transmission. (United States)

    Trainor, Elizabeth A; Nicholson, Tracy L; Merkel, Tod J


    Bordetella pertussis and B. bronchiseptica are Gram-negative bacterial respiratory pathogens. Bordetella pertussis is the causative agent of whooping cough and is considered a human-adapted variant of B. bronchiseptica. Bordetella pertussis and B. bronchiseptica share mechanisms of pathogenesis and are genetically closely related. However, despite the close genetic relatedness, these Bordetella species differ in several classic fundamental aspects of bacterial pathogens such as host range, pathologies and persistence. The development of the baboon model for the study of B. pertussis transmission, along with the development of the swine and mouse model for the study of B. bronchiseptica, has enabled the investigation of different aspects of transmission including the route, attack rate, role of bacterial and host factors, and the impact of vaccination on transmission. This review will focus on B. pertussis transmission and how animal models of B. pertussis transmission and transmission models using the closely related B. bronchiseptica have increased our understanding of B. pertussis transmission.

  19. Resonant tunnelling of electrons in multi-step single-barrier heterostructures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Chang; Zhang Yong-Hua


    We have studied the quantum transport of electrons in a three-step single-barrier A1GaAs heterostructure under electric field. Using the quantum transmitting boundary method and Tsu-Esaki approach, we have calculated the transmission coefficient and current-voltage characteristic. The difference of the effective mass among the three barriers is taken into account. Effects of the barrier width on transmission coefficient and peak-to-valley current ratios are examined. The largest peak-to-valley current ratio is obtained when the ratio of widths of the left, middle, and right barrier is fixed at 4:2:1. The calculated results may be helpful for designing devices based on three-step barrier heterostructures.

  20. Non-iridescent Transmissive Structural Color Filter Featuring Highly Efficient Transmission and High Excitation Purity



    Nanostructure based color filtering has been considered an attractive replacement for current colorant pigmentation in the display technologies, in view of its increased efficiencies, ease of fabrication and eco-friendliness. For such structural filtering, iridescence relevant to its angular dependency, which poses a detrimental barrier to the practical development of high performance display and sensing devices, should be mitigated. We report on a non-iridescent transmissive structural color...

  1. Thermal barrier coating materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Clarke


    Full Text Available Improved thermal barrier coatings (TBCs will enable future gas turbines to operate at higher gas temperatures. Considerable effort is being invested, therefore, in identifying new materials with even better performance than the current industry standard, yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ. We review recent progress and suggest that an integrated strategy of experiment, intuitive arguments based on crystallography, and simulation may lead most rapidly to the development of new TBC materials.

  2. Ceramides and barrier function in healthy skin


    Jungerstedt, J; Hellgren, Lars; Drachmann, Tue; Høgh, Julie Kaae; Jemec, GBE; Agner, T


    Lipids in the stratum corneum are key components in the barrier function of the skin. Changes in lipid composition related to eczematous diseases are well known, but limited data are available on variations within healthy skin. The objective of the present study was to compare ceramide subgroups and ceramide/cholesterol ratios in young, old, male and female healthy skin. A total of 55 participants with healthy skin was included in the study. Lipid profiles were correlated with transepidermal ...

  3. Computer simulations of the random barrier model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Thomas; Dyre, Jeppe


    A brief review of experimental facts regarding ac electronic and ionic conduction in disordered solids is given followed by a discussion of what is perhaps the simplest realistic model, the random barrier model (symmetric hopping model). Results from large scale computer simulations are presented......, focusing on universality of the ac response in the extreme disorder limit. Finally, some important unsolved problems relating to hopping models for ac conduction are listed....

  4. Locally addressable tunnel barriers within a carbon nanotube

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biercuk, M.; Mason, N.; Chow, J.;


    We report the realization and characterization of independently controllable tunnel barriers within a carbon nanotube. The nanotubes are mechanically bent or kinked using an atomic force microscope, and top gates are subsequently placed near each kink. Transport measurements indicate that the kinks...... form gate-controlled tunnel barriers, and that gates placed away from the kinks have little or no effect on conductance. The overall conductance of the nanotube can be controlled by tuning the transmissions of either the kinks or the metal-nanotube contacts....

  5. Scattering of topological solitons on holes and barriers

    CERN Document Server

    Piette, B; Brand, J; Piette, Bernard; Brand, Joachim


    We study the scattering properties of topological solitons on obstructions in the form of holes and barriers. We use the 'new baby Skyrme' model in (2+1) dimensions and we model the obstructions by making the coefficient of the baby skyrme model potential - position dependent. We find that that the barrier leads to the repulsion of the solitons (for low velocities) or their complete transmission (at higher velocities) with the process being essentially elastic. The hole case is different; for small velocities the solitons are trapped while at higher velocities they are transmitted with a loss of energy. We present some comments explaining the observed behaviour.

  6. Electromagnetic Transmission Through Resonant Structures (United States)

    Young, Steven M.

    Electromagnetic resonators store energy in the form of oscillatory electric and magnetic fields and gradually exchange that energy by coupling with their environment. This coupling process can have profound effects on the transmission and reflection properties of nearby interfaces, with rapid transitions from high transmittance to high reflectance over narrow frequency ranges, and has been exploited to design useful optical components such as spectral filters and dielectric mirrors. This dissertation includes analytic, numeric, and experimental investigations of three different electromagnetic resonators, each based on a different method of confining electromagnetic fields near the region of interest. First, we show that a structure with two parallel conducting plates, each containing a subwavelength slit, supports a localized resonant mode bound to the slits and therefore exhibits (in the absence of nonradiative losses), perfect resonant transmission over a narrow frequency range. In practice, the transmission is limited by conduction losses in the sidewalls; nevertheless, experimental results at 10 GHz show a narrowband transmission enhancement by a factor of 104 compared to the non-resonant transmission, with quality factor (ratio of frequency to peak width) Q ~ 3000. Second, we describe a narrowband transmission filter based on a single-layer dielectric grating. We use a group theory analysis to show that, due to their symmetry, several of the grating modes cannot couple to light at normal incidence, while several others have extremely large coupling. We then show how selectively breaking the system symmetry using off-normal light incidence can produce transmission peaks by enabling weak coupling to some of the previously protected modes. The narrowband filtering capabilities are validated by an experimental demonstration in the long wavelength infrared, showing transmission peaks of quality factor Q ~ 100 within a free-spectral range of 8-15 mum. Third, we

  7. Current limiters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loescher, D.H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Systems Surety Assessment Dept.; Noren, K. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering


    The current that flows between the electrical test equipment and the nuclear explosive must be limited to safe levels during electrical tests conducted on nuclear explosives at the DOE Pantex facility. The safest way to limit the current is to use batteries that can provide only acceptably low current into a short circuit; unfortunately this is not always possible. When it is not possible, current limiters, along with other design features, are used to limit the current. Three types of current limiters, the fuse blower, the resistor limiter, and the MOSFET-pass-transistor limiters, are used extensively in Pantex test equipment. Detailed failure mode and effects analyses were conducted on these limiters. Two other types of limiters were also analyzed. It was found that there is no best type of limiter that should be used in all applications. The fuse blower has advantages when many circuits must be monitored, a low insertion voltage drop is important, and size and weight must be kept low. However, this limiter has many failure modes that can lead to the loss of over current protection. The resistor limiter is simple and inexpensive, but is normally usable only on circuits for which the nominal current is less than a few tens of milliamperes. The MOSFET limiter can be used on high current circuits, but it has a number of single point failure modes that can lead to a loss of protective action. Because bad component placement or poor wire routing can defeat any limiter, placement and routing must be designed carefully and documented thoroughly.

  8. Electron transmission through a class of anthracene aldehyde molecules (United States)

    Petreska, Irina; Ohanesjan, Vladimir; Pejov, Ljupco; Kocarev, Ljupco


    Transmission of electrons via metal-molecule-metal junctions, involving rotor-stator anthracene aldehyde molecules is investigated. Two model barriers having input parameters evaluated from accurate ab initio calculations are proposed and the transmission coefficients are obtained by using the quasiclassical approximation. Transmission coefficients further enter in the integral for the net current, utilizing Simmons' method. Conformational dependence of the tunneling processes is evident and the presence of the side groups enhances the functionality of the future single-molecule based electronic devices.

  9. Effect of glove occlusion on the skin barrier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiedemann, Daniel; Clausen, Maja Lisa; John, Swen Malthe


    of this study is to review the literature on the effects of glove occlusion on skin barrier function. The PubMed database was searched up to 1 February 2015 for articles on the association between glove occlusion and skin barrier function, including human studies only and in English. Only experimental studies...... including assessment of the skin barrier function were included in the data analysis. Thirteen articles were identified, 8 with focus on occlusion alone, 7 with focus on occlusion in combination with irritant exposure (some overlapping), and 2 field studies. In conclusion, data from the literature showed...... that the negative effect of occlusion in itself is limited, and that only extensive and long-term occlusion will cause barrier impairment. However, studies investigating combined effect of occlusion and exposure to soaps/detergents indicate that occlusion significantly enhances the skin barrier damage caused...

  10. Barrier mechanisms in the Drosophila blood-brain barrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Jane Hindle


    Full Text Available The invertebrate blood-brain barrier field is growing at a rapid pace and, in recent years, studies have shown a physiologic and molecular complexity that has begun to rival its vertebrate counterpart. Novel mechanisms of paracellular barrier maintenance through GPCR signaling were the first demonstrations of the complex adaptive mechanisms of barrier physiology. Building upon this work, the integrity of the invertebrate blood-brain barrier has recently been shown to require coordinated function of all layers of the compound barrier structure, analogous to signaling between the layers of the vertebrate neurovascular unit. These findings strengthen the notion that many blood-brain barrier mechanisms are conserved between vertebrates and invertebrates, and suggest that novel findings in invertebrate model organisms will have a significant impact on the understanding of vertebrate BBB functions. In this vein, important roles in coordinating localized and systemic signaling to dictate organism development and growth are beginning to show how the blood-brain barrier can govern whole animal physiologies. This includes novel functions of blood-brain barrier gap junctions in orchestrating synchronized neuroblast proliferation, and of blood-brain barrier secreted antagonists of insulin receptor signaling. These advancements and others are pushing the field forward in exciting new directions. In this review, we provide a synopsis of invertebrate blood-brain barrier anatomy and physiology, with a focus on insights from the past 5 years, and highlight important areas for future study.

  11. Understanding ebola virus transmission. (United States)

    Judson, Seth; Prescott, Joseph; Munster, Vincent


    An unprecedented number of Ebola virus infections among healthcare workers and patients have raised questions about our understanding of Ebola virus transmission. Here, we explore different routes of Ebola virus transmission between people, summarizing the known epidemiological and experimental data. From this data, we expose important gaps in Ebola virus research pertinent to outbreak situations. We further propose experiments and methods of data collection that will enable scientists to fill these voids in our knowledge about the transmission of Ebola virus.

  12. Series Transmission Line Transformer (United States)

    Buckles, Robert A.; Booth, Rex; Yen, Boris T.


    A series transmission line transformer is set forth which includes two or more of impedance matched sets of at least two transmissions lines such as shielded cables, connected in parallel at one end ans series at the other in a cascading fashion. The cables are wound about a magnetic core. The series transmission line transformer (STLT) which can provide for higher impedance ratios and bandwidths, which is scalable, and which is of simpler design and construction.

  13. Breaking Barriers in Polymer Additive Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Love, Lonnie J [ORNL; Duty, Chad E [ORNL; Post, Brian K [ORNL; Lind, Randall F [ORNL; Lloyd, Peter D [ORNL; Kunc, Vlastimil [ORNL; Peter, William H [ORNL; Blue, Craig A [ORNL


    Additive Manufacturing (AM) enables the creation of complex structures directly from a computer-aided design (CAD). There are limitations that prevent the technology from realizing its full potential. AM has been criticized for being slow and expensive with limited build size. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has developed a large scale AM system that improves upon each of these areas by more than an order of magnitude. The Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) system directly converts low cost pellets into a large, three-dimensional part at a rate exceeding 25 kg/h. By breaking these traditional barriers, it is possible for polymer AM to penetrate new manufacturing markets.

  14. Experimental interspecies transmission studies of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies to cattle: comparison to bovine spongiform encephalopathy in cattle. (United States)

    Hamir, Amir N; Kehrli, Marcus E; Kunkle, Robert A; Greenlee, Justin J; Nicholson, Eric M; Richt, Jürgen A; Miller, Janice M; Cutlip, Randall C


    Prion diseases or transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) of animals include scrapie of sheep and goats; transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME); chronic wasting disease (CWD) of deer, elk and moose; and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) of cattle. The emergence of BSE and its spread to human beings in the form of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) resulted in interest in susceptibility of cattle to CWD, TME and scrapie. Experimental cross-species transmission of TSE agents provides valuable information for potential host ranges of known TSEs. Some interspecies transmission studies have been conducted by inoculating disease-causing prions intracerebrally (IC) rather than orally; the latter is generally effective in intraspecies transmission studies and is considered a natural route by which animals acquire TSEs. The "species barrier" concept for TSEs resulted from unsuccessful interspecies oral transmission attempts. Oral inoculation of prions mimics the natural disease pathogenesis route whereas IC inoculation is rather artificial; however, it is very efficient since it requires smaller dosage of inoculum, and typically results in higher attack rates and reduces incubation time compared to oral transmission. A species resistant to a TSE by IC inoculation would have negligible potential for successful oral transmission. To date, results indicate that cattle are susceptible to IC inoculation of scrapie, TME, and CWD but it is only when inoculated with TME do they develop spongiform lesions or clinical disease similar to BSE. Importantly, cattle are resistant to oral transmission of scrapie or CWD; susceptibility of cattle to oral transmission of TME is not yet determined.

  15. Technical barrier challenges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    according to a famouse report,the foreign Technical Barriers to Trade(TBT)have some effects on the exports of the People’s Republic of China.Major findings are as follows:(1)TBT makes it more difficult for China to export;(2)TBT increases the costs of Chinese export commodities;(3)TBT causes friction and confilicts in the international trade;(4)SOME developed countries have moved their phase-outs to China and other developing countries,which have become victims of TBT.

  16. Support or Barrier?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanden, Guro Refsum; Lønsmann, Dorte

    This study offers a critical look at how corporate-level language management influences front-line language practices among employees in three multinational corporations (MNCs) headquartered in Scandinavia. Based on interview and document data, we examine, firstly, what front-line practices...... employees use to cross language boundaries in their everyday work, and, secondly, how these practices relate to top-down language management in the case companies. Our findings show that employees are often dependent on ad hoc and informal solutions in cross- language situations, which leads us...... to a discussion of how a company’s language policy may be seen as both support and a barrier....

  17. [Barrier methods of contraception]. (United States)

    Goldsmith, A; Edelman, D A


    Vaginal methods of contraception were the earliest types used and some references to them date back to antiquity. Most of the vaginal contraceptive agents identified by the ancient Greeks, Indians, Japanese, and Chinese have been found in modern laboratory tests to have spermicidal properties, but it is doubtful that the methods were fully reliable or were used by many people. During the 19th century the condom, vaginal spermicides, and diaphragm became available. The development of nonoxynol-9 and other nonirritating but effective spermicidal agents improved vaginal contraceptives greatly by the 1950s, but starting in the 1960s newer methods began to replace the vaginal methods. Interest in barrier methods has been reawakened somewhat by concern about the health effects of hormonal methods. At present all barrier methods leave something to be desired. Failure rates of 3-30% for barrier methods in general have been estimated, but the higher rates are believed due to incorrect or inconsistent use. Theoretical failure rates of condoms and diaphragms have been estimated at 3/100 women-years, but in actual use failure rates may reach 15 for condoms and 13 for diaphragms used with spermicides. Use-effectiveness rates are greatly influenced by motivation. For a variety of reasons, the acceptability of barrier methods is low, especially in developing countries. New developments in spermicidal agents include sperm inhibitors, which impede the fertilizing capacity of sperm rather than attempting a spermicidal effect; a number of such agents have been studied and have proven more effective in animal tests than conventional spermicides. Neosampoon, a new spermicidal foam, has attracted an increasing number of users, especially in developing countries. A new condom, made of thin polymers and containing a standard dose of nonoxynol-9, has been designed to dissolve in the vaginal fluid. Further studies are needed of its acceptability, efficacy, and side effects before it becomes

  18. A permeability barrier surrounds taste buds in lingual epithelia. (United States)

    Dando, Robin; Pereira, Elizabeth; Kurian, Mani; Barro-Soria, Rene; Chaudhari, Nirupa; Roper, Stephen D


    Epithelial tissues are characterized by specialized cell-cell junctions, typically localized to the apical regions of cells. These junctions are formed by interacting membrane proteins and by cytoskeletal and extracellular matrix components. Within the lingual epithelium, tight junctions join the apical tips of the gustatory sensory cells in taste buds. These junctions constitute a selective barrier that limits penetration of chemosensory stimuli into taste buds (Michlig et al. J Comp Neurol 502: 1003-1011, 2007). We tested the ability of chemical compounds to permeate into sensory end organs in the lingual epithelium. Our findings reveal a robust barrier that surrounds the entire body of taste buds, not limited to the apical tight junctions. This barrier prevents penetration of many, but not all, compounds, whether they are applied topically, injected into the parenchyma of the tongue, or circulating in the blood supply, into taste buds. Enzymatic treatments indicate that this barrier likely includes glycosaminoglycans, as it was disrupted by chondroitinase but, less effectively, by proteases. The barrier surrounding taste buds could also be disrupted by brief treatment of lingual tissue samples with DMSO. Brief exposure of lingual slices to DMSO did not affect the ability of taste buds within the slice to respond to chemical stimulation. The existence of a highly impermeable barrier surrounding taste buds and methods to break through this barrier may be relevant to basic research and to clinical treatments of taste.

  19. Review of electromagnetic induction for mapping barrier island framework geology (United States)

    Weymer, Bradley A.; Everett, Mark E.; de Smet, Timothy S.; Houser, Chris


    The geologic framework controls on modern barrier island transgression and the relationship of these controls to subsurface structure, hydrology and island geomorphology are not well understood. Recent evidence suggests that alongshore variations in pre-Holocene geology of barrier islands modify nearshore hydrodynamic processes and sediment transport, ultimately affecting how barrier islands will respond to relative sea-level rise. Explorations of Holocene barrier island geology are usually based on cores to supplement bathymetric, onshore/offshore seismic and/or ground-penetrating radar (GPR) surveys. The advantages and limitations of these methods with respect to barrier island investigations are briefly described in this review. Alternative near-surface geophysical methods including electromagnetic induction (EMI) sensors are increasingly being used for coastal research because they are non-invasive, provide continuous subsurface information across a variety of sub-environments, and are capable of characterizing large areas in a short time. Although these EMI sensors have shown promise in coastal applications, a number of issues primarily related to subsurface hydrology need to be addressed to fully assess the limitations of this technique. This paper reviews the theory, methodology and applications of EMI in support of geologic framework studies with particular reference to barrier islands. Resolution of these issues will allow EMI sensors to complement and offer significant advantages over traditional methods in support of an improved understanding of large-scale barrier island evolution.

  20. There are many barriers to species' migrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth J Feeley


    Full Text Available Temperature-change trajectories are being used to identify the geographic barriers and thermal ‘cul-de-sacs’ that will limit the ability of many species to track climate change by migrating. We argue that there are many other potential barriers to species’ migrations. These include stable ecotones, discordant shifts in climatic variables, human land use, and species’ limited dispersal abilities. To illustrate our argument, for each 0.5° latitude/longitude grid cell of the Earth’s land surface, we mapped and tallied the number of cells for which future (2060–2080 climate represents an analog of the focal cell’s current climate. We compared results when only considering temperature with those for which both temperature and total annual precipitation were considered in concert. We also compared results when accounting for only geographic barriers (no cross-continental migration with those involving both geographic and potential ecological barriers (no cross-biome migration. As expected, the number of future climate analogs available to each pixel decreased markedly with each added layer of complexity (e.g. the proportion of the Earth’s land surface without any available future climate analogs increased from 3% to more than 36% with the inclusion of precipitation and ecological boundaries. While including additional variables can increase model complexity and uncertainty, we must strive to incorporate the factors that we know will limit species’ ranges and migrations if we hope to predict the effects of climate change at a high-enough degree of accuracy to guide management decisions.

  1. Genetic Barriers to Resistance and Impact on Clinical Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luber Andrew D


    Full Text Available Abstract The development of drug resistance and cross-resistance continues to pose a challenge to successful long-term antiretroviral therapy despite the availability of new antiretroviral agents. The genetic barrier to resistance of a regimen does not directly correlate with its effectiveness. For some regimens with a low genetic barrier to resistance, however, the emergence of only 1 or 2 key resistance mutations may confer drug resistance not only to that regimen but also to other agents, thereby limiting subsequent treatment options. In addition to the genetic barrier to resistance, factors such as efficacy, safety, tolerability, convenience, and adherence must be considered when choosing a regimen.

  2. Enhanced Plasmonic Light Absorption for Silicon Schottky-Barrier Photodetectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hashemi, Mahdieh; Farzad, Mahmood Hosseini; Mortensen, N. Asger;


    Quantum efficiency of the silicon Schottky-barrier photodetector is limited by the weak interaction between the photons and electrons in the metal. By engineering the metal surfaces, metallic groove structures are proposed to achieve strong light absorption in the metal, where most of the energy...... is transferred into hot carriers near the Schottky barrier. The proposed broadband photodetector with a bi-grating metallic structure on the silicon substrate enables to absorb 76 % of the infrared light in the metal with a 200-nm bandwidth, while staying insensitive to the incident angle. These results pave...... a new promising way to attain high quantum efficiency silicon Schottky-barrier photodetectors....

  3. Limited Neutrality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul


    Article Concerning the prospect of a kind of limited neutrality in place of the standard liberal egalitarian "neutrality of justification."......Article Concerning the prospect of a kind of limited neutrality in place of the standard liberal egalitarian "neutrality of justification."...

  4. Limiting Skepticism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendricks, Vincent Fella; Symons, John


    Skeptics argue that the acquisition of knowledge is impossible given the standing possibility of error. We present the limiting convergence strategy for responding to skepticism and discuss the relationship between conceivable error and an agent’s knowledge in the limit. We argue that the skeptic...

  5. Investigation of Transmission Resonances with Specific Properties in Rectangular Semiconductor Quantum Wells (United States)

    Niketic, Nemanja; Milanovic, Vitomir; Radovanovic, Jelena


    In this paper we provide a detailed analysis of the energy position and type of transmission maxima in rectangular quantum wells (QWs), taking into consideration the difference of electron effective masses in the barrier and well layers. Particular attention is given to transmission maxima that are less than unity and the implications of effective…

  6. Isolation gowns in health care settings: Laboratory studies, regulations and standards, and potential barriers of gown selection and use (United States)

    Kilinc Balci, F. Selcen


    Although they play an important role in infection prevention and control, textile materials and personal protective equipment (PPE) used in health care settings are known to be one of the sources of cross-infection. Gowns are recommended to prevent transmission of infectious diseases in certain settings; however, laboratory and field studies have produced mixed results of their efficacy. PPE used in health care is regulated as either class I (low risk) or class II (intermediate risk) devices in the United States. Many organizations have published guidelines for the use of PPE, including isolation gowns, in health care settings. In addition, the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation published a guidance document on the selection of gowns and a classification standard on liquid barrier performance for both surgical and isolation gowns. However, there is currently no existing standard specific to isolation gowns that considers not only the barrier resistance but also a wide array of end user desired attributes. As a result, infection preventionists and purchasing agents face several difficulties in the selection process, and end users have limited or no information on the levels of protection provided by isolation gowns. Lack of knowledge about the performance of protective clothing used in health care became more apparent during the 2014 Ebola epidemic. This article reviews laboratory studies, regulations, guidelines and standards pertaining to isolation gowns, characterization problems, and other potential barriers of isolation gown selection and use. PMID:26391468

  7. Water Repellence and Oxygen and Water Vapor Barrier of PVOH-Coated Substrates before and after Surface Esterification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Schmid


    Full Text Available This study investigates chemical grafting with fatty acid chlorides as a method for the surface modification of hydrophilic web materials. The resulting changes in the water repellence and barrier properties were studied. For this purpose, different grades of polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH were coated on regenerated cellulose films (“cellophane” and paper and then grafted with fatty acid chlorides. The PVOH grades varied in their degree of hydrolysis and average molecular weight. The surface was esterified with two fatty acid chlorides, palmitoyl (C16 and stearoyl chloride (C18, by chemical grafting. The chemical grafting resulted in water-repellent surfaces and reduced water vapor transmission rates by a factor of almost 19. The impact of the surface modification was greater for a higher degree of hydrolysis of the polyvinyl alcohol and for shorter fatty acid chains. Although the water vapor barrier for palmitoyl-grafted PVOH was higher than for stearoyl-grafted PVOH, the contact angle with water was lower. Additionally, it was shown that a higher degree of hydrolysis led to higher water vapor barrier improvement factors after grafting. Furthermore, the oxygen permeability decreased after grafting significantly, due to the fact that the grafting protects the PVOH against humidity when the humidity is applied on the grafted side. It can be concluded that the carbon chain length of the fatty acid chlorides is the limiting factor for water vapor adsorption, but the grafting density is the bottleneck for water diffusing in the polymer.

  8. Synthetic Eelgrass Oil Barrier (United States)

    Curtis, T. G.


    Although surviving in situ micro-organisms eventually consume spilled oil, extensive inundation of shore biota by oil requires cleanup to enable ecological recovery within normal time scales. Although effective in calm seas and quiet waters, oil is advected over and under conventional curtain oil booms by wave actions and currents when seas are running. Most sorbent booms are not reusable, and are usually disposed of in landfills, creating excessive waste. A new concept is proposed for a floating oil barrier, to be positioned off vulnerable coasts, to interdict, contain, and sequester spilled oil, which can then be recovered and the barrier reused. While conventional oil boom designs rely principally on the immiscibility of oil in water and its relative buoyancy, the new concept barrier avoids the pitfalls of the former by taking advantage of the synergistic benefits of numerous fluid and material properties, including: density, buoyancy, elasticity, polarity, and surface area to volume ratio. Modeled after Zostera marina, commonly called eelgrass, the new barrier, referred to as synthetic eelgrass (SE), behaves analogously. Eelgrass has very long narrow, ribbon-like, leaves which support periphyton, a complex matrix of algae and heterotrophic microbes, which position themselves there to extract nutrients from the seawater flowing past them. In an analogous fashion, oil on, or in, seawater, which comes in contact with SE, is adsorbed on the surface and sequestered there. Secured to the bottom, in shoal waters, SE rises to the surface, and, if the tide is low enough, floats on the sea surface down wind, or down current to snare floating oil. The leaves of SE, called filaments, consist of intrinsically buoyant strips of ethylene methyl acrylate, aka EMA. EMA, made of long chain, saturated, hydrocarbon molecules with nearly homogeneous electron charge distributions, is a non-polar material which is oleophilic and hydrophobic. Oil must be in close proximity to the

  9. Suburban Poverty: Barriers to Services and Injury Prevention among Marginalized Women Who Use Methamphetamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boeri, Miriam


    Full Text Available Objective: This paper aims to identify the needed healthcare and social services barriers for women living in suburban communities who are using or have used methamphetamine. Drug users are vulnerable to injury, violence and transmission of infectious diseases, and having access to healthcare has been shown to positively influence prevention and intervention among this population. Yet little is known regarding the social context of suburban drug users, their risks behaviors, and their access to healthcare.Methods: The data collection involved participant observation in the field, face-to-face interviews and focus groups. Audio-recorded in-depth life histories, drug use histories, and resource needs were collected from 31 suburban women who were former or current users of methamphetamine. The majority was drawn from marginalized communities and highly vulnerable to risk for injury and violence. We provided these women with healthcare and social service information and conducted follow-up interviews to identify barriers to these services.Results: Barriers included (1 restrictions imposed by the services and (2 limitations inherent in the women’s social, economic, or legal situations. We found that the barriers increased the women’s risk for further injury, violence and transmission of infectious diseases. Women who could not access needed healthcare and social resources typically used street drugs that were accessible and affordable to self-medicate their untreated emotional and physical pain.Conclusion: Our findings add to the literatureon how healthcare and social services are related to injury prevention. Social service providers in the suburbs were often indifferent to the needs of drug-using women. For these women, health services were accessed primarily at emergency departments (ED. To break the cycle of continued drug use, violence and injury, we suggest that ED staff be trained to perform substance abuse assessments and provide

  10. Poverty and price transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elleby, Christian

    A key parameter determining the welfare impact from a world market shock is the transmission elasticity which measures the average domestic response to an international price change. Many studies have estimated price transmission elasticities for a large number of countries but the variation in t...

  11. Cultural Transmission of Civicness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljunge, Jan Martin

    This paper estimates the intergeneration transmission of civicness by studying second generation immigrants in 29 European countries with ancestry in 83 nations. There is significant transmission of civicness both on the mother’s and the father’s side. The estimates are quantitatively significant...

  12. Inverse Limits

    CERN Document Server

    Ingram, WT


    Inverse limits provide a powerful tool for constructing complicated spaces from simple ones. They also turn the study of a dynamical system consisting of a space and a self-map into a study of a (likely more complicated) space and a self-homeomorphism. In four chapters along with an appendix containing background material the authors develop the theory of inverse limits. The book begins with an introduction through inverse limits on [0,1] before moving to a general treatment of the subject. Special topics in continuum theory complete the book. Although it is not a book on dynamics, the influen

  13. Goos-Hanchen like Shifts in Graphene Double Barriers


    Jellal, Ahmed; Redouani, Ilham; Zahidi, Youness; Bahlouli, Hocine


    We study the Goos-Hanchen like shifts for Dirac fermions in graphene scattered by double barrier structures. After obtaining the solution for the energy spectrum, we use the boundary conditions to explicitly determine the Goos-Hanchen like shifts and the associated transmission probability. We analyze these two quantities at resonances by studying their {main} characteristics as a function of the energy and electrostatic potential parameters. To check the validity of our computations we recov...

  14. Cathode-Electrolyte Interfaces with CGO Barrier Layers in SOFC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knibbe, Ruth; Hjelm, Johan; Menon, Mohan


    Electron microscopy characterization across the cathode–electrolyte interface of two different types of intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFC) is performed to understand the origin of the cell performance disparity. One IT-SOFC cell had a sprayed-cosintered Ce0.90Gd0.01O1.95 (CGO......10) barrier layer, the other had a barrier layer deposited by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) CGO10. Scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) investigations conclude that the major source of the cell performance difference...... is attributed to CGO–YSZ interdiffusion in the sprayed-cosintered barrier layer. From TEM and EBSD work, a dense CGO10 PLD layer is found to be deposited epitaxially on the 8YSZ electrolyte substrate—permitting a small amount of SrZrO3 formation and minimizing CGO–YSZ interdiffusion....

  15. Identification and structural composition of the blood-spleen barrier in chickens. (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Chen, Bing; Yang, Ping; Zhang, Linli; Liu, Yi; Ullah, Shakeeb; Wu, Li; Waqas, Yasir; Le, Yuan; Chen, Wei; Chen, Qiusheng


    To identify the existence and composition of the blood-spleen barrier (BSB) in chickens, the microanatomical features of the spleen were investigated by light and transmission electron microscopy, intravenous injection of ink, acid phosphatase reaction, and silver impregnation. The results showed that the white pulp in chicken spleen consists of lymphoid nodules, periarteriolar lymphatic sheaths (PALS) and periellipsoidal lymphatic sheaths (PELS). There was no evidence for the presence of a marginal zone. The splenic ellipsoid was a unique structure, which functioned as a barrier for filtering and phagocytosis. Uptake of carbon particles was limited to the ellipsoid and PELS, 60 min after injection of carbon particles. Reticular fibres were densely distributed in the ellipsoid and extended into the PELS. Ellipsoid-associated cells (EACs), reticular cells and macrophages were acid phosphatase positive. The sheathed capillaries, surrounded by the ellipsoid, were similar to high endothelial venules (HEVs). These findings suggest that the BSB of chickens is present in the ellipsoid and PELS, protecting the spleen from invasion from circulating pathogens. The BSB was a reticular framework, between the arterial and venous vessels, which included cuboidal-shaped endothelial cells, supporting cells, EACs, macrophages, reticular cells and fibres. Lymphocyte migration into the spleen parenchyma is most likely via the HEV-like vessels. These research findings contribute to better understanding of avian immunology and provide an insight into evolutionary differences in the immune system.

  16. Paving the way to nanoionics: atomic origin of barriers for ionic transport through interfaces (United States)

    Frechero, M. A.; Rocci, M.; Sánchez-Santolino, G.; Kumar, Amit; Salafranca, J.; Schmidt, Rainer; Díaz-Guillén, M. R.; Durá, O. J.; Rivera-Calzada, A.; Mishra, R.; Jesse, Stephen; Pantelides, S. T.; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Varela, M.; Pennycook, S. J.; Santamaria, J.; Leon, C.


    The blocking of ion transport at interfaces strongly limits the performance of electrochemical nanodevices for energy applications. The barrier is believed to arise from space-charge regions generated by mobile ions by analogy to semiconductor junctions. Here we show that something different is at play by studying ion transport in a bicrystal of yttria (9% mol) stabilized zirconia (YSZ), an emblematic oxide ion conductor. Aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) provides structure and composition at atomic resolution, with the sensitivity to directly reveal the oxygen ion profile. We find that Y segregates to the grain boundary at Zr sites, together with a depletion of oxygen that is confined to a small length scale of around 0.5 nm. Contrary to the main thesis of the space-charge model, there exists no evidence of a long-range O vacancy depletion layer. Combining ion transport measurements across a single grain boundary by nanoscale electrochemical strain microscopy (ESM), broadband dielectric spectroscopy measurements, and density functional calculations, we show that grain-boundary-induced electronic states act as acceptors, resulting in a negatively charged core. Besides the possible effect of the modified chemical bonding, this negative charge gives rise to an additional barrier for ion transport at the grain boundary.

  17. Barriers for recess physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine; Schipperijn, Jasper


    BACKGROUND: Many children, in particular girls, do not reach the recommended amount of daily physical activity. School recess provides an opportunity for both boys and girls to be physically active, but barriers to recess physical activity are not well understood. This study explores gender...... differences in children's perceptions of barriers to recess physical activity. Based on the socio-ecological model four types of environmental barriers were distinguished: natural, social, physical and organizational environment. METHODS: Data were collected through 17 focus groups (at 17 different schools...... this study, we recommend promoting recess physical activity through a combination of actions, addressing barriers within the natural, social, physical and organizational environment....

  18. EM transmission-line metamaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George V. Eleftheriades


    Full Text Available Metamaterials are understood to be artificially engineered materials that exhibit unusual or difficult to obtain electromagnetic (EM properties. Such properties would include negative or low values of permittivity, permeability and index of refraction. In this article, we review the fundamentals of metamaterials with emphasis on negative-refractive-index ones, which are synthesized using loaded transmission lines. A number of applications of such metamaterials are discussed, including peculiar lenses that can overcome the diffraction limit and small antennas for emerging wireless communication applications.

  19. HIV-1 Nef breaches placental barrier in rat model. (United States)

    Singh, Poonam; Agnihotri, Saurabh Kumar; Tewari, Mahesh Chandra; Kumar, Sadan; Sachdev, Monika; Tripathi, Raj Kamal


    The vertical transmission of HIV-1 from the mother to fetus is known, but the molecular mechanism regulating this transmission is not fully characterized. The fetus is highly protected by the placenta, which does not permit microbial pathogens to cross the placental barrier. In the present study, a rat model was established to observe the effect of HIV-1 protein Nef on placental barrier. Evans blue dye was used to assay permeability of placental barrier and fourteen day pregnant Sprague Dawley rats were injected intravenously with 2% Evans blue dye along with various concentrations of recombinant Nef. After an hour, animals were sacrificed and dye migration was observed through the assimilation of peripheral blood into fetus. Interestingly, traces of recombinant Nef protein were detected in the embryo as well as amniotic fluid and amniotic membrane along with placenta and uterus. Our study indicates that recombinant HIV-1-Nef protein breaches the placental barrier and allows the migration of Evans blue dye to the growing fetus. Further the concentration of Nef protein in blood is directly proportional to the intensity of dye migration and to the amount of Nef protein detected in uterus, placenta, amniotic membrane, amniotic fluid and embryo. Based on this study, it can be concluded that the HIV-1 Nef protein has a direct effect on breaching of the placental barrier in the model we have established in this study. Our observations will be helpful to understand the molecular mechanisms related to this breach of placental barrier by Nef in humans and may be helpful to identify specific Nef inhibitors.

  20. Countermeasures and barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, Johannes [Oersted - DTU, Automation, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)


    In 1973 Haddon proposed ten strategies for reducing and avoiding damages based on a model of potential harmful energy transfer (Haddon, 1973). The strategies apply to a large variety of unwanted phenomena. Haddon's pioneering work on countermeasures has had a major influence on later thinking about safety. Considering its impact it is remarkable that the literature offers almost no discussions related to the theoretical foundations of Haddon's countermeasure strategies. The present report addresses a number of theoretical issues related to Haddon's countermeasure strategies, which are: 1) A reformulation and formalization of Haddon's countermeasure strategies. 2) An identification and description of some of the problems associated with the term 'barrier'. 3) Suggestions for a more precise terminology based on the causal structure of countermeasures. 4) Extending the scope of countermeasures to include sign-based countermeasures. (au)

  1. Market and policy barriers to energy storage deployment :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatnagar, Dhruv; Currier, Aileen B.; Hernandez, Jacquelynne; Ma, Ookie; Kirby, Brendan


    Electric energy storage technologies have recently been in the spotlight, discussed as essential grid assets that can provide services to increase the reliability and resiliency of the grid, including furthering the integration of variable renewable energy resources. Though they can provide numerous grid services, there are a number of factors that restrict their current deployment. The most significant barrier to deployment is high capital costs, though several recent deployments indicate that capital costs are decreasing and energy storage may be the preferred economic alternative in certain situations. However, a number of other market and regulatory barriers persist, limiting further deployment. These barriers can be categorized into regulatory barriers, market (economic) barriers, utility and developer business model barriers, crosscutting barriers and technology barriers. This report, through interviews with stakeholders and review of regulatory filings in four regions roughly representative of the United States, identifies the key barriers restricting further energy storage development in the country. The report also includes a discussion of possible solutions to address these barriers and a review of initiatives around the country at the federal, regional and state levels that are addressing some of these issues. Energy storage could have a key role to play in the future grid, but market and regulatory issues have to be addressed to allow storage resources open market access and compensation for the services they are capable of providing. Progress has been made in this effort, but much remains to be done and will require continued engagement from regulators, policy makers, market operators, utilities, developers and manufacturers.

  2. Understanding Ebola Virus Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth Judson


    Full Text Available An unprecedented number of Ebola virus infections among healthcare workers and patients have raised questions about our understanding of Ebola virus transmission. Here, we explore different routes of Ebola virus transmission between people, summarizing the known epidemiological and experimental data. From this data, we expose important gaps in Ebola virus research pertinent to outbreak situations. We further propose experiments and methods of data collection that will enable scientists to fill these voids in our knowledge about the transmission of Ebola virus.

  3. Ultrahigh-Speed Optical Transmission Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Weber, Hans-Georg


    Ultrahigh-speed optical transmission technology is a key technology for increasing the communication capacity. In optical fibre networks, the number of wavelength channels and the bit rate per wavelength channel, i.e. the TDM (Time Division Multiplexing) bit rate, determine the transmission capacity. Currently, TDM bit rates of more than 40 Gbit/s require optical signal processing (Optical Time Division Multiplexing, OTDM). OTDM bit rates of up to 1.2 Tbit/s have already been reported. The devices developed for ultrahigh-speed optical transmission are not limited to communication applications only. They are key devices for high-speed optical signal processing, i.e. monitoring, measurement and control, and will thus give a wide technological basis for innovative science and technology. All these aspects of ultrahigh-speed optical transmission technology are described in detail in this book.

  4. Composite Based EHV AC Overhead Transmission Lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Thomas Kjærsgaard

    Overhead lines at transmission level are the backbone of any national power grid today. New overhead line projects however are at the same time subject to ever greater public resistance due to the lines environmental impact. As full undergrounding of transmission lines at extra high voltage (EHV......) levels are still not seen as possibility, the future expansion of transmission grids are dependent on new solutions with lessened environment impact, especially with regard to the visual impact. In the present Thesis, composite materials and composite based overhead line components are presented...... and analysed with regard to the possibilities, limitations and risks widespread application of composite materials on EHV AC overhead transmission lines may present. To form the basis for evaluation of the useability of composite materials, dierent overhead line projects aimed at reducing the environmental...

  5. Tractor Transmissions. A Teaching Reference. (United States)

    American Association for Agricultural Engineering and Vocational Agriculture, Athens, GA.

    The manual was developed as a reference for teaching students about transmissions in farm tractors. The manual is divided into five sections: (1) transmission history, (2) gears and bearings in transmission, (3) sliding-gear transmissions, (4) planetary gearing, and (5) glossary. The working principles of the sliding-gear transmission, the most…

  6. Electron Holography of Barrier Structures in Co/ZrAlOx/Co Magnetic Tunnel Junctions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhe; ZHU Tao; SHEN Feng; SHENG Wen-Ting; WANG Wei-Gang; XIAO John Q; ZHANG Ze


    @@ We investigate the potential profiles and elemental distribution of barriers in Co/ZrAlOx/Co magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) using electron holography (EH) and scanning transmission electron microscopy. The MTJ barriers are introduced by oxidizing a bilayer consisting with a uniform 0.45-nm Al layer and a wedge-shaped Zr layer (0-2 nm). From the scanning transmission electron microscopy, AlOx and ZrOx layers are mixed together,indicating that compact AlOx layer cannot be formed in such a bilayer structure of barriers. The EH results reveal that there are no sharp interfaces between the barrier and magnetic electrodes, which may be responsible for a smaller tunnelling magnetoresistance compared with the MTJs of Co/AlOx/Co.

  7. Deposition of SiOx barrier films by O2/TMDSO RF-PECVD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Mei-Li; Fu Ya-Bo; Chen Qiang; Ge Yuan-Jing


    This paper reports that the SiOx barrier films are deposited on polyethylene terephthalate substrate by plasmaenhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) for the application of transparent barrier packaging. The variations of O2/Tetramethyldisiloxane (TMDSO) ratio and input power in radio frequency (RF) plasma are carried out to optimize barrier properties of the SiOx coated film. The properties of the coatings are characterized by Fourier transform infrared,water wpour transmission rate (WVTR), oxygen transmission rate (OTR), and atomic force microscopy analysers. It is found that the O2/TMDSO ratio exceeding 2:1 and the input power over 200 W yield SiOx films with low carbon contents which can be good to the barrier (WVTR and OTR) properties of the SiOx coatings. Also, the film properties not only depend on oxygen concentration of the inlet gas mixtures and input power, but also relate to the surface morphology of the coating.

  8. Transmission Cost Allocation Methodologies for Regional Transmission Organizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, S.; Rogers, J.; Porter, K.


    This report describes transmission cost allocation methodologies for transmission projects developed to maintain or enhance reliability, to interconnect new generators, or to access new resources and enhance competitive bulk power markets, otherwise known as economic transmission projects.

  9. Identification of Critical Transmission Limits in Injection Impedance Plane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jóhannsson, Hjörtur; Østergaard, Jacob; Nielsen, Arne Hejde


    for the critical and characteristic lines in the impedance plane form the basis for a new phasormeasurement based situational awareness method, which uses the results in this paper to identify critical operational boundariesin real time and to visualize the system operating conditions in an informative way...

  10. Transmissions in vehicles 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Within the international VDI congress 'Gears in vehicles 2010' of the VDI Wissensforum GmbH (Duesseldorf, Federal Republic of Germany) between 22nd and 23rd June, 2010, in Friedrichshafen (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (1) 8HP70H - The moldhybrid transmission from ZF - Cjallenges and achievements (P. Gutmann); (2) GETRAG boosted range extender - A highly flexible electric powertrain for maximum CO{sub 2} reduction (S. Huepkes); (3) E-Transmission between full-hybrid and E-drive (P. Tenberge); (4) Reducing NO{sub x} and particulate emissions in electrified drivelines (R. Kuberczyk); (5) Simulation aided HEV and EV development: from the component to the whole powertrain (A. Gacometti); (6) Investigations on operating behaviour of the optimized CVT hybrid driveline (B.-R. Hoehn); (7) Customer-oriented dimensioning of electrified drivetrains (M. Eghtessad); (8) Decentralized optimal control strategy for parallel hybrid electric vehicles (A. Frenkel); (9) The new generation 6-speed automatic transmission AF40 (G. Bednarek); (10) Customized mechatronic solutions for integrated transmission control units (M. Wieczorek); (11) The optimal automatic transmission for front-transverse applications - Planetary transmissions or dual clutch transmissions? (G. Gumpoltsberger); (12) The new shift-by-wire gearshift lever for the Audi A8 - Requirements and concept (T. Guttenbergere); (13) The new shift-by-wire gearshift lever for the Audi A8 - Realization (A. Giefer); (14) Fuel-efficient transmissions of the future: Calculation of the efficiency factor for vehicle transmissions (B. Volpert); (15) HT-ACM: A new polymer generation for static and dynamic gearbox sealing solutions (E. Osen); (16) 'Energy efficiency equipped solutions by SKF' for power train applications - A contribution to CO{sub 2} - emission reduction and sustainability (T. Bobke); (17) 6-Ratio planetary shift transmission controlled by 4 external brakes, and design

  11. Barriers to Women in Science (United States)

    Butler, Rosemary


    The Presiding Officer of the National Assembly for Wales, Rosemary Butler AM, has put the issue of barriers to women in public life at the top of the political agenda in Wales. She has held sessions with women across Wales to find out what those barriers are and how they can be tackled. On International Women's Day in February, she invited…

  12. Spanning trees crossing few barriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asano, T.; Berg, M. de; Cheong, O.; Guibas, L.J.; Snoeyink, J.; Tamaki, H.


    We consider the problem of finding low-cost spanning trees for sets of n points in the plane, where the cost of a spanning tree is defined as the total number of intersections of tree edges with a given set of m barriers. We obtain the following results: (i) if the barriers are possibly intersecting


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladislav M. Sannikov


    Full Text Available General barriers of organization of different types of strategic alliances have beenconsidered in the article. There are several recommendations for overcoming themin cases of international alliances, and in case of work in one state. The article also identified goals and tasks of single coordination center of alliance to overcome organization barriers.

  14. Informal export barriers and poverty


    Porto, Guido G.


    The author investigates the poverty impacts of informal export barriers like transport costs, cumbersome customs practices, costly regulations, and bribes. He models these informal barriers as export taxes that distort the efficient allocation of resources. In low-income agricultural economies, this distortion lowers wages and household agricultural income, thereby leading to higher pover...

  15. Telescopic limiting magnitudes (United States)

    Schaefer, Bradley E.


    The prediction of the magnitude of the faintest star visible through a telescope by a visual observer is a difficult problem in physiology. Many prediction formulas have been advanced over the years, but most do not even consider the magnification used. Here, the prediction algorithm problem is attacked with two complimentary approaches: (1) First, a theoretical algorithm was developed based on physiological data for the sensitivity of the eye. This algorithm also accounts for the transmission of the atmosphere and the telescope, the brightness of the sky, the color of the star, the age of the observer, the aperture, and the magnification. (2) Second, 314 observed values for the limiting magnitude were collected as a test of the formula. It is found that the formula does accurately predict the average observed limiting magnitudes under all conditions.

  16. Hanford prototype-barrier status report: FY 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gee, G.W.; Ward, A.L.; Gilmore, B.G.; Ligotke, M.W.; Link, S.O.


    Surface barriers (or covers) have been proposed for use at the Hanford Site as a means to isolate certain waste sites that, for reasons of cost or worker safety or both, may not be exhumed. Surface barriers are intende to isolated the wastes from the accessible environment and to provide long-term protection to future populations that might use the Hanford Site. Currently, no ``proven`` long-term barrier system is available. For this reason, the Hanford Site Permanent Isolation Surface-Barrier Development Program (BDP) was organized to develop the technology needed to provide long-term surface barrier capability for the Hanford Site for the US Department of Energy (DOE). Designs have been proposed to meet the most stringent needs for long-term waste disposal. The objective of the current barrier design is to use natural materials to develop a protective barrier system that isolates wastes for at least 1000 years by limiting water, plant, animal, and human intrusion; and minimizing erosion. The design criteria for water drainage has been set at 0.5 mm/yr. While other design criteria are more qualitative, it is clear that waste isolation for an extended time is the prime objective of the design. Constructibility and performance. are issues that can be tested and dealt with by evaluating prototype designs prior to extensive construction and deployment of covers for waste sites at Hanford.

  17. Understanding barriers to glycaemic control from the patient's perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janes R


    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: To better understand barriers to glycaemic control from the patient's perspective. METHODS: An interpretative phenomenological approach was used to study the experiences of 15 adults with Type 2 diabetes. Participants each gave a semi-structured interview of their experiences of living with diabetes. Interviews were transcribed, and themes extracted and organised using a patientcentred framework. FINDINGS: Participants' stories confirmed many of the barriers in the literature, particularly those related to context, such as family, finances, work. Barriers also related to negative emotional reactions to diabetes: fear of new events (diagnosis, starting pills/insulin; guilt about getting diabetes and not controlling it; and shame about having diabetes. Barriers also related to unscientific beliefs and personal beliefs. There were additional barriers related to poor clinician-patient relationships. Overall, participants had a poor understanding of diabetes, and complained that their clinician simply 'told them what to do'. CONCLUSION: Using a patient-centred approach, this study identified many barriers to glycaemic control. We suggest that a key barrier is clinician ignorance of their patients' fears, beliefs, expectations, context; of what constitutes a positive therapeutic relationship; and of the limitations of a biomedical approach to patient non-adherence. Faced with both a worsening diabetes epidemic and increasing health care workforce shortages, clinicians urgently need to understand that it is they, not their patients, who must change their approach if diabetes care is to be improved.

  18. UHV交流输电线路有源干扰下无方向信标台功率限值的分析%Analysis of Non-directional Radio Beacon Power Limit Under the Condition of Active Interference Caused by UHV AC Transmission Line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周铖路; 翁木云; 陈凤


    有关UHV交流输电线路与无方向信标台电磁兼容方面的研究主要集中在防护距离的分析,对间距无法满足要求时的兼容问题研究较少。为此,从台站频谱参数入手,分析特高压交流输电线路有源干扰下无方向信标台的发射功率限值。首先介绍无方向信标台的工作原理及配置区域,然后分析UHV交流输电线路对台站的干扰机理,最后根据飞行航迹,以防护率为干扰判别依据,结合防护距离的研究,分别针对航路无方向信标台、近距无方向信标台和远距无方向信标台进行有效辐射功率的分析。结果表明,在给定条件下,对于航路和远距无方向信标台,有效辐射功率分别大于5.298 W、5.273 W时,机载无线电罗盘不受干扰;对于近距无方向信标台,与输电线路始终满足兼容的要求,无需分析限值。%The EMC research between UHV AC transmission line and non-directional radio beacon mainly focused on the protection distance while the study of EMC is little when the protection distance cannot meet the requirements. Therefore, the non-directional radio beacon power limit under the condition of active interference caused by UHV AC transmission line is analyzed from the aspect of spectrum parameters. Firstly, the working principle and configuration area of non-directional radio beacon are introduced. Then the interference mechanism of non-directional radio beacon from UHV AC transmission line is analyzed. Finally, the effective radiated power (ERP) of route non-directional radio beacon, close non-directional radio beacon and distance non-directional radio beacon are analyzed according to the flight path and protection ratio in combination with protection distance research. The results show that under the given conditions, route non-directional radio beacon and distance non-directional radio beacon’s ERP should be greater than 5.298 W and 5.273 W respectively to keep

  19. Epistemological barriers to radical behaviorism. (United States)

    O'Donohue, W T; Callaghan, G M; Ruckstuhl, L E


    The historian and philosopher of science Gaston Bachelard proposed the concept of epistemological barriers to describe the intellectual challenges encountered by scientists in their work. In order to embrace novel ways of approaching a problem in science, scientists must overcome barriers or obstacles posed by their prior views. For example, Einsteinian physics presents scientists with claims that space is curved and that time and space are on the same continuum. We utilize Bachelard's concept of epistemological barriers to describe the differences between the intellectual journeys students pursuing advanced studies face when attempting to accept cognitive psychology or radical behaviorism. We contend that the folk psychological beliefs that students typically hold when entering these studies pose less challenge to cognitive psychology than to radical behaviorism. We also suggest that these barriers may also partly be involved in the problematic exegesis that has plagued radical behaviorism. In close, we offer some suggestions for dealing with these epistemological barriers.

  20. Epistemological barriers to radical behaviorism (United States)

    O'Donohue, William T.; Callaghan, Glenn M.; Ruckstuhl, L. E.


    The historian and philosopher of science Gaston Bachelard proposed the concept of epistemological barriers to describe the intellectual challenges encountered by scientists in their work. In order to embrace novel ways of approaching a problem in science, scientists must overcome barriers or obstacles posed by their prior views. For example, Einsteinian physics presents scientists with claims that space is curved and that time and space are on the same continuum. We utilize Bachelard's concept of epistemological barriers to describe the differences between the intellectual journeys students pursuing advanced studies face when attempting to accept cognitive psychology or radical behaviorism. We contend that the folk psychological beliefs that students typically hold when entering these studies pose less challenge to cognitive psychology than to radical behaviorism. We also suggest that these barriers may also partly be involved in the problematic exegesis that has plagued radical behaviorism. In close, we offer some suggestions for dealing with these epistemological barriers. PMID:22478314

  1. Watching Handball Transmissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Kirsten


    , due to the dramaturgic structure of handball transmissions, viewers consider such transmissions particularly reliable and effective sources of entertainment. The transmissions’ entertainment value derives from their specific ability to give the viewers a complex experience of feeling autonomous...... and competent when mastering the game and in relation to others. The study shows that entertainment concerns both affective involvement and identity formation, as social and cultural meaning seem to be at the root of involvement. Even though both men and women find great joy in the transmissions, their viewing...... is embedded in quite diverse patterns regarding additional media use. This points to gendered differences regarding how the entertaining experience is basically received and the qualities sought and pursued in the transmissions....

  2. Down hole transmission system (United States)

    Hall, David R.; Hall, Jr., H. Tracy


    A transmission system in a downhole component comprises a data transmission element in both ends of the downhole component. Each data transmission element houses an electrically conducting coil in a MCEI circular trough. The electrically conducting coil comprises at least two generally fractional loops. In the preferred embodiment, the transmission elements are connected by an electrical conductor. Preferably, the electrical conductor is a coaxial cable. Preferably, the MCEI trough comprises ferrite. In the preferred embodiment, the fractional loops are connected by a connecting cable. In one aspect of the present invention, the connecting cable is a pair of twisted wires. In one embodiment the connecting cable is a shielded pair of twisted wires. In another aspect of the present invention, the connecting cable is a coaxial cable. The connecting cable may be disposed outside of the MCEI circular trough.

  3. Transmission of Mumps (United States)

    ... Serology Publications and Resources Multimedia MMWR Articles Outbreak Articles Related Links World Health Organization Medline Plus Transmission of Mumps Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ...

  4. Kansas Electric Transmission Lines (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This data set is a digital representation of the EletcircTransmission lines for the State of Kansas as maintained by the Kansas Corporation Commission. Data is...

  5. Eliminating Perinatal HIV Transmission

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    In this podcast, CDC’s Dr. Steve Nesheim discusses perinatal HIV transmission, including the importance of preventing HIV among women, preconception care, and timely HIV testing of the mother. Dr. Nesheim also introduces the revised curriculum Eliminating Perinatal HIV Transmission intended for faculty of OB/GYN and pediatric residents and nurse midwifery students.  Created: 11/26/2012 by Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention.   Date Released: 11/26/2012.

  6. 77 FR 6554 - Zephyr Power Transmission, LLC; Pathfinder Power Transmission, LLC; Duke-American Transmission... (United States)


    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Zephyr Power Transmission, LLC; Pathfinder Power Transmission, LLC; Duke... (Commission), 18 CFR 381.302, Zephyr Power Transmission, LLC (Zephyr), Pathfinder Power Transmission, LLC (PPT... to exercise its negotiated rate authority for Zephyr Power Transmission Project; (2) that...

  7. Provider barriers to telemental health: obstacles overcome, obstacles remaining. (United States)

    Brooks, Elizabeth; Turvey, Carolyn; Augusterfer, Eugene F


    Many providers are hesitant to use telemental health technologies. When providers are queried, various barriers are presented, such as the clinician's skepticism about the effectiveness of telemental health (TMH), viewing telehealth technologies as inconvenient, or reporting difficulties with medical reimbursement. Provider support for TMH is critical to its diffusion because clinicians often serve as the initial gatekeepers to telehealth implementation and program success. In this article, we address provider concerns in three broad domains: (1) personal barriers, (2) clinical workflow and technology barriers, and (3) licensure, credentialing, and reimbursement barriers. We found evidence that, although many barriers have been discussed in the literature for years, advancements in TMH have rapidly reduced obstacles for its use. Improvements include extensive opportunities for training, a growing evidence base supporting positive TMH outcomes, and transformations in technologies that improve provider convenience and transmission quality. Recommendations for further change are discussed within each domain. In particular, it is important to grow and disseminate data underscoring the promise and effectiveness of TMH, integrate videoconferencing capabilities into electronic medical record platforms, expand TMH reimbursement, and modify licensure standards.

  8. National transmission grid study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham, Spencer [USDOE Office of the Secretary of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)


    The National Energy Policy Plan directed the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to conduct a study to examine the benefits of establishing a national electricity transmission grid and to identify transmission bottlenecks and measures to address them. DOE began by conducting an independent analysis of U.S. electricity markets and identifying transmission system bottlenecks using DOE’s Policy Office Electricity Modeling System (POEMS). DOE’s analysis, presented in Section 2, confirms the central role of the nation’s transmission system in lowering costs to consumers through increased trade. More importantly, DOE’s analysis also confirms the results of previous studies, which show that transmission bottlenecks and related transmission system market practices are adding hundreds of millions of dollars to consumers’ electricity bills each year. A more detailed technical overview of the use of POEMS is provided in Appendix A. DOE led an extensive, open, public input process and heard a wide range of comments and recommendations that have all been considered.1 More than 150 participants registered for three public workshops held in Detroit, MI (September 24, 2001); Atlanta, GA (September 26, 2001); and Phoenix, AZ (September 28, 2001).

  9. Hanford Permanent Isolation Barrier Program: Asphalt technology test plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, H.D.; Romine, R.A.


    The Hanford Permanent Isolation Barriers use engineered layers of natural materials to create an integrated structure with backup protective features. The objective of current designs is to develop a maintenance-free permanent barrier that isolates wastes for a minimum of 1000 years by limiting water drainage to near-zero amounts. Asphalt is being used as an impermeable water diversion layer to provide a redundant layer within the overall barrier design. Data on asphalt barrier properties in a buried environment are not available for the required 100-year time frame. The purpose of this test plan is to outline the activities planned to obtain data with which to estimate performance of the asphalt layers.

  10. 76 FR 66229 - Transmission Planning Reliability Standards (United States)


    ... the Contingency, or (2) Interruptible Demand or Demand-Side Management Load. Furthermore, in limited... system is planned such that the Network can be operated to supply projected customer demands and projected Firm Transmission Services, at all demand levels over the range of forecast system demands,...

  11. 77 FR 26686 - Transmission Planning Reliability Standards (United States)


    ...) Interruptible Demand or Demand-Side Management Load. Furthermore, in limited circumstances Firm Demand may need... system is planned such that the network can be operated to supply projected customer demands and projected firm transmission services, at all demand levels over the range of forecast system demands,...

  12. Wave Scattering by Double Slotted Barriers in A Steady Current: Experiments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The adoption of slotted breakwaters can be an ideal option in the protection of very large near-shore floating structures that may extend offshore to a considerable water depth. In this paper, we experimently investigated the behaviour of wave transmission and reflection coefficients of double slotted barriers in the presence of a steady opposing current. The experimental results show that opposing currents have only minor effects on wave reflection, but can significantly reduce the wave transmission through double slotted barriers. The experimental results suggest that coastal currents should be taken into consideration for an economical design of slotted breakwaters.

  13. Surface pre-treatment for barrier coatings on polyethylene terephthalate (United States)

    Bahre, H.; Bahroun, K.; Behm, H.; Steves, S.; Awakowicz, P.; Böke, M.; Hopmann, Ch; Winter, J.


    Polymers have favourable properties such as light weight, flexibility and transparency. Consequently, this makes them suitable for food packaging, organic light-emitting diodes and flexible solar cells. Nonetheless, raw plastics do not possess sufficient barrier functionality against oxygen and water vapour, which is of paramount importance for most applications. A widespread solution is to deposit thin silicon oxide layers using plasma processes. However, silicon oxide layers do not always fulfil the requirements concerning adhesion and barrier performance when deposited on films. Thus, plasma pre-treatment is often necessary. To analyse the influence of a plasma-based pre-treatment on barrier performance, different plasma pre-treatments on three reactor setups were applied to a very smooth polyethylene terephthalate film before depositing a silicon oxide barrier layer. In this paper, the influence of oxygen and argon plasma pre-treatments towards the barrier performance is discussed examining the chemical and topological change of the film. It was observed that a short one-to-ten-second plasma treatment can reduce the oxygen transmission rate by a factor of five. The surface chemistry and the surface topography change significantly for these short treatment times, leading to an increased surface energy. The surface roughness rises slowly due to the development of small spots in the nanometre range. For very long treatment times, surface roughness of the order of the barrier layer's thickness results in a complete loss of barrier properties. During plasma pre-treatment, the trade-off between surface activation and roughening of the surface has to be carefully considered.

  14. Development of engineered barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, Kwan Sik; Cho, Won Jin; Lee, Jae Owan; Kim, Seung Soo; Kang, Mu Ja


    Engineered barrier development was carried out into the three research fields : waste form, disposal container, and buffer. The waste form field dealt with long-term leaching tests with borosilicate waste glasses surrounded by compacted bentonite. The leach rate decreased with increasing time, and was higher for the waste specimen rich in U and Na. In the container field, preliminary concepts of disposal containers were recommended by conducting structural analysis, thermal analysis, and shielding analysis, and major properties of stainless steel, copper, and titanium as a container material were surveyed. The sensitization degrees of SUS 316 and316L were lower than those of SUS 304 and 304L, respectively. The crevice corrosion of sensitized stainless steel was sensitive to the content of salt. Researches into the buffer included establishment of its performance criteria followed by investigating major properties of buffer using potential material in Korea. Experiments were made for measuring hydraulic conductivities, swelling properties, mechanical properties, thermal conductivities, pore-water chemistry properties, and adsorption properties was also investigated. (author)

  15. Electron transport and Goos-Haenchen shift in graphene with electric and magnetic barriers: optical analogy and band structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Manish [Centre for Applied Research in Electronics, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi-110016 (India); Ghosh, Sankalpa [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi-110016 (India)


    Transport of massless Dirac fermions in graphene monolayers is analysed in the presence of a combination of singular magnetic barriers and applied electrostatic potential. Extending a recently proposed (Ghosh and Sharma 2009 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 21 292204) analogy between the transmission of light through a medium with modulated refractive index and electron transmission in graphene through singular magnetic barriers to the present case, we find the addition of a scalar potential profoundly changes the transmission. We calculate the quantum version of the Goos-Haenchen shift that the electron wave suffers upon being totally reflected by such barriers. The combined electric and magnetic barriers substantially modify the band structure near the Dirac point. This affects transport near the Dirac point significantly and has important consequences for graphene-based electronics.

  16. Electron transport and Goos-Hänchen shift in graphene with electric and magnetic barriers: optical analogy and band structure. (United States)

    Sharma, Manish; Ghosh, Sankalpa


    Transport of massless Dirac fermions in graphene monolayers is analysed in the presence of a combination of singular magnetic barriers and applied electrostatic potential. Extending a recently proposed (Ghosh and Sharma 2009 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 21 292204) analogy between the transmission of light through a medium with modulated refractive index and electron transmission in graphene through singular magnetic barriers to the present case, we find the addition of a scalar potential profoundly changes the transmission. We calculate the quantum version of the Goos-Hänchen shift that the electron wave suffers upon being totally reflected by such barriers. The combined electric and magnetic barriers substantially modify the band structure near the Dirac point. This affects transport near the Dirac point significantly and has important consequences for graphene-based electronics.

  17. The barrier within: endothelial transport of hormones. (United States)

    Kolka, Cathryn M; Bergman, Richard N


    Hormones are involved in a plethora of processes including development and growth, metabolism, mood, and immune responses. These essential functions are dependent on the ability of the hormone to access its target tissue. In the case of endocrine hormones that are transported through the blood, this often means that the endothelium must be crossed. Many studies have shown that the concentrations of hormones and nutrients in blood can be very different from those surrounding the cells on the tissue side of the blood vessel endothelium, suggesting that transport across this barrier can be rate limiting for hormone action. This transport can be regulated by altering the surface area of the blood vessel available for diffusion through to the underlying tissue or by the permeability of the endothelium. Many hormones are known to directly or indirectly affect the endothelial barrier, thus affecting their own distribution to their target tissues. Dysfunction of the endothelial barrier is found in many diseases, particularly those associated with the metabolic syndrome. The interrelatedness of hormones may help to explain why the cluster of diseases in the metabolic syndrome occur together so frequently and suggests that treating the endothelium may ameliorate defects in more than one disease. Here, we review the structure and function of the endothelium, its contribution to the function of hormones, and its involvement in disease.

  18. Healthcare barriers of refugees post-resettlement. (United States)

    Morris, Meghan D; Popper, Steve T; Rodwell, Timothy C; Brodine, Stephanie K; Brouwer, Kimberly C


    The majority of refugees spend the greater part of their lives in refugee camps before repatriation or resettlement to a host country. Limited resources and stress during residence in refugee camps can lead to a variety of acute and chronic diseases which often persist upon resettlement. However, for most resettled refugees little is known about their health needs beyond a health assessment completed upon entry. We conducted a qualitative pilot-study in San Diego County, the third largest area in California, USA for resettling refugees, to explore health care access issues of refugees after governmental assistance has ended. A total of 40 guided in-depth interviews were conducted with a targeted sample of informants (health care practitioners, employees of refugee serving organizations, and recent refugee arrivals) familiar with the health needs of refugees. Interviews revealed that the majority of refugees do not regularly access health services. Beyond individual issues, emerging themes indicated that language and communication affect all stages of health care access--from making an appointment to filling out a prescription. Acculturation presented increased stress, isolation, and new responsibilities. Additionally, cultural beliefs about health care directly affected refugees' expectation of care. These barriers contribute to delayed care and may directly influence refugee short- and long-term health. Our findings suggest the need for additional research into contextual factors surrounding health care access barriers, and the best avenues to reduce such barriers and facilitate access to existing services.

  19. Propagation of microwaves in gradient transmission lines: exactly solvable model (United States)

    Shvartsburg, A. B.; Silin, N. V.


    Propagation of microwaves along the transmission line with smoothly continuously distributed capacitance and inductance (gradient transmission line) is considered in the framework of an exactly solvable model. The appearance of strong heterogeneity-induced plasma-like dispersion in gradient transmission line determined by the sizes and shapes of these distributions, is visualized by means of this model. Owing to this dispersion the energy transport in the line discussed can be ensured by both travelling and evanescent microwave modes, characterized by the real and imaginary wave numbers, respectively. The reflectance spectra for microwaves, incident on this heterogeneous transition section located between two homogeneous sections of transmission line are presented, the antireflection properties of this section are demonstrated. The interference of evanescent and anti-evanescent microwave modes is shown to provide the effective weakly attenuated energy transfer in the tunneling regime. The analogy between this microwave system and gradient nano-optical photonic barrier in revealed.

  20. Ceramides and barrier function in healthy skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jungerstedt, J; Hellgren, Lars; Drachmann, Tue;


    Lipids in the stratum corneum are key components in the barrier function of the skin. Changes in lipid composition related to eczematous diseases are well known, but limited data are available on variations within healthy skin. The objective of the present study was to compare ceramide subgroups...... and ceramide/cholesterol ratios in young, old, male and female healthy skin. A total of 55 participants with healthy skin was included in the study. Lipid profiles were correlated with transepidermal water loss and with information on dry skin from a questionnaire including 16 people. No statistically...

  1. Variable parallax barrier spacing in autostereoscopic displays (United States)

    Yoon, Seon Kyu; Khym, Sungwon; Kim, Hyun-Woo; Kim, Sung-Kyu


    In general, multi-view autostereoscopic displays can only provide autostereoscopic images with little crosstalk at the optimum viewing distance (OVD) in the depth direction, limiting the mobility of viewers. Therefore, this paper proposes a method of increasing viewer mobility in the depth direction by varying the distance separating the parallax barrier and the display. Computer simulations and experiments were conducted to verify changes in the OVD resulting from the application of the proposed method. The results showed that the proposed method is effective at changing the OVD with respect to changes in the viewing distance. Therefore this method minimizes changes in the 3D image quality due to the viewer's depth location.

  2. Modeling Safety Barriers and Defense in Depth with Mulitlevel Flow Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Morten


    The barrier concept plays a central role in designand operation of safety critical processes. In plant design barriers are provided as means of prevention to avoid critical process conditions which may be harmful to the environment. In plant operations barriers may beestablished and maintained...... through control actions in order to limit the consequences of critical plant events. The barrier concept has had a significant practical value for industry by guiding the design thinking of safety engineers. The provision of material barriers preventing the release of radioactive materials from...... the reactor core to the environment is accordingly a basic principle of nuclear safety design. The application of barriers is furthermore an integral part of the defence in depth principle applied by nuclear industry. Here several barriers are combined with reliability techniques such as redundancy...

  3. Controllable Goos-Hänchen shift in graphene triangular double barrier (United States)

    Mekkaoui, Miloud; Jellal, Ahmed; Bahlouli, Hocine


    We study the Goos-Hänchen (GH) shifts for Dirac fermions in graphene scattered by a triangular double barrier potential. The massless Dirac-like equation was used to describe the scattered fermions by such potential configuration. Our results show that the GH shifts is affected by the geometrical structure of the double barrier. In particular the GH shifts change sign at the transmission zero energies and exhibit enhanced peaks at each bound state associated with the double barrier when the incident angle is less than the critical angle associated with total reflection.

  4. Penetration through the Skin Barrier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Bo; Benfeldt, Eva; Holmgaard, Rikke


    The skin is a strong and flexible organ with barrier properties essential for maintaining homeostasis and thereby human life. Characterizing this barrier is the ability to prevent some chemicals from crossing the barrier while allowing others, including medicinal products, to pass at varying rates......-through diffusion cells) as well as in vivo methods (microdialysis and microperfusion). Then follows a discussion with examples of how different characteristics of the skin (age, site and integrity) and of the penetrants (size, solubility, ionization, logPow and vehicles) affect the kinetics of percutaneous...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen A. VRÂNCEANU


    Full Text Available Nowadays the global market allows each individual to work in foreign countries. This fact is a great opportunity for business development, but also puts into light the problem of cultural barriers. Ineffective cross-cultural communication and collaboration can harm employees, customers, and other stakeholders. A company with employees from different cultures must acknowledge and understand these barriers in order to overcome them and to obtain the desired performance. The present study aims to expose the cultural barriers encountered by foreigners in a multinational company from Romania.

  6. Transmission Bandwidth Expansion of SI-POF Using WDM-Pulse-Position Modulations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Katsumi; Takano; Eiji; Matsumoto; Kiyoshi; Nakagawa


    WDM-Pulse-position modulation technique in SI-POF transmission is proposed to overcome the limitation from mode dispersion. It can expand the flat transmission bandwidth to 80MHz with 100m-fiber length.

  7. Ultrahigh Transmission Optical Nanofibers

    CERN Document Server

    Hoffman, J E; Grover, J A; Solano, P; Kordell, P R; Wong-Campos, J D; Orozco, L A; Rolston, S L


    We present a procedure for reproducibly fabricating ultrahigh transmission optical nanofibers (530 nm diameter and 84 mm stretch) with single-mode transmissions of 99.95 $ \\pm$ 0.02%, which represents a loss from tapering of 2.6 $\\,\\times \\,$ 10$^{-5}$ dB/mm when normalized to the entire stretch. When controllably launching the next family of higher-order modes on a fiber with 195 mm stretch, we achieve a transmission of 97.8 $\\pm$ 2.8%, which has a loss from tapering of 5.0 $\\,\\times \\,$ 10$^{-4}$ dB/mm when normalized to the entire stretch. Our pulling and transfer procedures allow us to fabricate optical nanofibers that transmit more than 400 mW in high vacuum conditions. These results, published as parameters in our previous work, present an improvement of two orders of magnitude less loss for the fundamental mode and an increase in transmission of more than 300% for higher-order modes, when following the protocols detailed in this paper. We extract from the transmission during the pull, the only reported...

  8. Stochastic Resonance of Single (Independent of Each Other) Protein Motor System with Fluctuating Potential Barrier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Song-Hua; LI Jing-Hui; JIANG Yong-Qing; FANG Jian-Ping


    A single (independent of each other) protein motor system with fluctuating potential barrier and subject to sine electric field is investigated. We first derive the approximate Langevin equation of this system with fluctuating potential barrier. Then from this approximate Langevin equation, we calculate the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in the adiabatic limit. The phenomenon of stochastic resonance is found for this protein motor system with fluctuating potential barrier.

  9. Limits on $\

    CERN Document Server

    Perego, D L


    A limit on the tau neutrino mass is obtained using all the $Z^{0} \\to \\tau^{+} \\tau^{-}$ data collected at LEP by the DELPHI detector between 1992 and 1995. In this analysis events in which one of the taus decays into one charged particle, while the second $\\tau$ decays into f{}ive charged pions (1-5 topology) have been used. The neutrino mass is determined from a bidimensional \\fit ~on the invariant mass $m^{*}_{5 \\pi}$ and on the energy $E_{5 \\pi}$ of the f{}ive $\\pi^{\\pm}$ system. The result found is $m_{\

  10. Transmission probabilities and the Miller-Good transformation

    CERN Document Server

    Boonserm, Petarpa


    Transmission through a potential barrier, and the related issue of particle production from a parametric resonance, are topics of considerable general interest in quantum physics. The authors have developed a rather general bound on quantum transmission probabilities, and recently applied it to bounding the greybody factors of a Schwarzschild black hole. In the current article we take a different tack -- we use the Miller-Good transformation (which maps an initial Schrodinger equation to a final Schrodinger equation for a different potential) to significantly generalize the previous bound.

  11. Wave transmission at low-crested structures using neural networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Oosten, R.P.; Peixó Marco, J.; Van der Meer, J.W.; Van Gent, M.; Verhagen, H.J.


    The European Union funded project DELOS was focused on wave transmission and an extensive database on low-crested rubble mound structures was generated. During DELOS, new empirical wave transmission formulae were derived. These formulae still showed a considerable scatter due to a limited number of

  12. Protocol for measuring light transmission of horticultural screens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swinkels, G.L.A.M.; Hemming, S.; Mohammadkhani, V.; Ruijven, van J.P.M.


    The light transmission is an important property for horticultural screens. For energy screens in particular, an accurate measurement of the light transmission is important because these screens are often used during the day, in the winter period when radiation is limited. For shading screens the sha

  13. Plasmon cross transmission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobrzynski, Leonard; Akjouj, Abdellatif; Li, Changsheng, E-mail: [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Universite Lille Nord de France, Lille1, Institut d' Electronique, de Microelectronique et de Nanotechnologie, Unite de Physique, Batiment P5, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France)


    Plasmon cross transmission avoids the frontal collision between two plasmons traveling in opposite directions along a guide. The guide is made out of equidistant identical metal dots. Thanks to two resonator dots, the plasmon frontal impact is avoided by transmission of the two plasmons from the input guide to an output one. The resonator and guide dots are identical in size and metal composition. The dipole-dipole interactions are restricted to first nearest neighbors. A convenient metal doping is assumed to compensate exactly all attenuations. The parameters are the nearest neighbor distances between the dots. These distances are rescaled to the chain nearest neighbor distance d. The system has two symmetry mirror planes. This simple model enables us to obtain two analytic tuning relations for the plasmon cross transmission. The intensities of the transmitted signals versus kd, where k is the plasmon propagation vector, are also given. (paper)

  14. Aerosol Transmission of Filoviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berhanu Mekibib


    Full Text Available Filoviruses have become a worldwide public health concern because of their potential for introductions into non-endemic countries through international travel and the international transport of infected animals or animal products. Since it was first identified in 1976, in the Democratic Republic of Congo (formerly Zaire and Sudan, the 2013–2015 western African Ebola virus disease (EVD outbreak is the largest, both by number of cases and geographical extension, and deadliest, recorded so far in medical history. The source of ebolaviruses for human index case(s in most outbreaks is presumptively associated with handling of bush meat or contact with fruit bats. Transmission among humans occurs easily when a person comes in contact with contaminated body fluids of patients, but our understanding of other transmission routes is still fragmentary. This review deals with the controversial issue of aerosol transmission of filoviruses.

  15. Low Conductivity Thermal Barrier Coatings (United States)

    Zhu, Dong-Ming


    Thermal barrier coatings will be more aggressively designed to protect gas turbine engine hot-section components in order to meet future engine higher fuel efficiency and lower emission goals. In this presentation, thermal barrier coating development considerations and requirements will be discussed. An experimental approach is established to monitor in real time the thermal conductivity of the coating systems subjected to high-heat-flux, steady-state and cyclic temperature gradients. Advanced low conductivity thermal barrier coatings have also been developed using a multi-component defect clustering approach, and shown to have improved thermal stability. The durability and erosion resistance of low conductivity thermal barrier coatings have been improved utilizing advanced coating architecture design, composition optimization, in conjunction with more sophisticated modeling and design tools.

  16. Coastal Structures and Barriers 2012 (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This dataset is a compilation of the UCSC Sand Retention Structures, MC Barriers, and USACE Coastal Structures. UCSC Sand Retention Structures originate from a...

  17. Guided tissue regeneration. Absorbable barriers. (United States)

    Wang, H L; MacNeil, R L


    Over the past 15 years, techniques aimed at regeneration of lost periodontal tissue have become widely used and accepted in clinical practice. Among these techniques are those which use the principles of guided tissue regeneration (GTR), wherein barriers (i.e., membranes) are used to control cell and tissue repopulation of the periodontal wound. A variety of non-absorbable and absorbable barriers have been developed and used for this purpose, with a trend in recent years toward increased use of absorbable GTR materials. This article describes the evolution of absorbable barrier materials and overview materials available for clinical use today. In addition, advantages and disadvantages of these materials are discussed, as well as possible new developments in barrier-based GTR therapy.

  18. Barriers to implement green supply chain management in automobile industry using interpretive structural modeling technique: An Indian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Luthra


    Full Text Available Purpose: Green Supply Chain Management (GSCM has received growing attention in the last few years. Most of the automobile industries are setting up their own manufacturing plants in competitive Indian market. Due to public awareness, economic, environmental or legislative reasons, the requirement of GSCM has increased.  In this context, this study aims to develop a structural model of the barriers to implement GSCM in Indian automobile industry.Design/methodology/approach: We have identified various barriers and contextual relationships among the identified barriers. Classification of barriers has been carried out based upon dependence and driving power with the help of MICMAC analysis. In addition to this, a structural model of barriers to implement GSCM in Indian automobile industry has also been put forward using Interpretive Structural Modeling (ISM technique. Findings: Eleven numbers of relevant barriers have been identified from literature and subsequent discussions with experts from academia and industry. Out of which, five numbers of barriers have been identified as dependent variables; three number of barriers have been identified as the driver variables and three number of barriers have been identified as the linkage variables. No barrier has been identified as autonomous variable. Four barriers have been identified as top level barriers and one bottom level barrier. Removal of these barriers has also been discussed.Research limitations/implications: A hypothetical model of these barriers has been developed based upon experts’ opinions. The conclusions so drawn may be further modified to apply in real situation problem. Practical implications: Clear understanding of these barriers will help organizations to prioritize better and manage their resources in an efficient and effective way.Originality/value: Through this paper we contribute to identify the barriers to implement GSCM in Indian automobile industry and to prioritize them

  19. Transmission grid security

    CERN Document Server

    Haarla, Liisa; Hirvonen, Ritva; Labeau, Pierre-Etienne


    In response to the growing importance of power system security and reliability, ""Transmission Grid Security"" proposes a systematic and probabilistic approach for transmission grid security analysis. The analysis presented uses probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) and takes into account the power system dynamics after severe faults. In the method shown in this book the power system states (stable, not stable, system breakdown, etc.) are connected with the substation reliability model. In this way it is possible to: estimate the system-wide consequences of grid faults; identify a chain of eve


    modem will have the capability of 18 bit rates and will be used in the investigation of the short range HF data transmission. System block diagrams of...Field test results of various modems operating over the AN/VRC-12 radio set are presented. Map profiles of each data link are shown and the average...error rates are given for digital data transmission at rates from 300 to 4800 bps. Bit error rates vary depending upon the site and bit rate. The

  1. Transmission positron microscopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyama, Masao [Teikyo University of Science and Technology, Uenohara, Yamanashi 409-0193 (Japan)]. E-mail:; Kogure, Yoshiaki [Teikyo University of Science and Technology, Uenohara, Yamanashi 409-0193 (Japan); Inoue, Miyoshi [Teikyo University of Science and Technology, Uenohara, Yamanashi 409-0193 (Japan); Kurihara, Toshikazu [Institute of Materials Structure Science (IMSS), High Energy Accelerator, Research Organization (KEK), Ohno 1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Yoshiie, Toshimasa [Reactor Research Institute, Kyoto University, Noda, Kumatori, Osaka 590-0451 (Japan); Oshima, Ryuichiro [Research Institute for Advanced Science and Technology, Osaka Prefecture University (Japan); Matsuya, Miyuki [Electron Optics Laboratory (JEOL) Ltd., Musashino 3-1-2, Akishima 196-0021 (Japan)


    Immediate and near-future plans for transmission positron microscopes being built at KEK, Tsukuba, Japan, are described. The characteristic feature of this project is remolding a commercial electron microscope to a positron microscope. A point source of electrons kept at a negative high voltage is changed to a point source of positrons kept at a high positive voltage. Positional resolution of transmission microscopes should be theoretically the same as electron microscopes. Positron microscopes utilizing trapping of positrons have always positional ambiguity due to the diffusion of positrons.

  2. Nonlocal reflection by photonic barriers


    Vetter, R. -M.; A. Haibel; Nimtz, G.


    The time behaviour of microwaves undergoing partial reflection by photonic barriers was measured in the time and in the frequency domain. It was observed that unlike the duration of partial reflection by dielectric layers, the measured reflection duration of barriers is independent of their length. The experimental results point to a nonlocal behaviour of evanescent modes at least over a distance of some ten wavelengths. Evanescent modes correspond to photonic tunnelling in quantum mechanics.

  3. Schooling Inequality and Language Barriers


    Parker, Susan W.; Rubalcava, Luis; Teruel, Graciela


    This article estimates the impact of language barriers on school achievement and the potential ameliorating role of bilingual education. Using large household data sets from poor rural communities in Mexico, we find that parental language (failure to speak Spanish) represents an important barrier to the schooling of indigenous children. We provide an empirical test suggesting that this largely reflects parental human capital related to culture/language, rather than unobserved wealth effects. ...

  4. Do Children's Behavior Problems Limit Poor Women's Labor Market Success? (United States)

    Coley, Rebekah Levine; Ribar, David; Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth


    Economically disadvantaged mothers face numerous barriers to stable, quality employment opportunities. One barrier that has received limited attention in previous research is having a child with significant psychological or behavioral problems. Using a representative sample of low-income mothers and early adolescent children from the Three-City…

  5. Smart Transmission Grids - Benefits and Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velasco-Ramírez E.


    Full Text Available Nowadays the Power Systems are working near their stability limits, for this reason it is necessary and essential a transition to new transmission systems that ensure efficient delivery of electrical energy, with the objective to prevent “blackouts” that causesignificant losses in the economy of any country in the world. This paper analyzes important elements to consider having a healthy and efficient transition from a power grid vertically integrated into a smart transmission grid. A comparative analysis in the model, development, benefits and risks of the implementation of these systems, between two of the main marc of references of smart grids, the EU and the USA is presented.

  6. Modelling of acoustic transmission through perforated layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukeš V.


    Full Text Available The paper deals with modeling the acoustic transmission through a perforated interface plane separating two halfspaces occupied by the acoustic medium. We considered the two-scale homogenization limit of the standard acoustic problem imposed in the layer with the perforated periodic structure embedded inside. The homogenized transmission conditions govern the interface discontinuity of the acoustic pressure associated with the two halfspaces and the magnitude of the fictitious transversal acoustic velocity. By numerical examples we illustrate this novel approach of modeling the acoustic impedance of perforated interfaces.

  7. Economic alternatives for containment barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicholson, P.J.; Jasperse, B.H.; Fisher, M.J. [Geo-Con, Inc., Monroeville, PA (United States)


    Fixation, barriers, and containment of existing landfills and other disposal areas are often performed by insitu auger type soil mixing and jet grouting. Cement or other chemical reagents are mixed with soil to form both vertical and horizontal barriers. Immobilization of contaminants can be economically achieved by mixing soil and the contaminants with reagents that solidify or stabilize the contaminated area. Developed in Japan, and relatively new to the United States, the first large scale application was for a vertical barrier at the Jackson Lake Dam project in 1986. This technology has grown in both the civil and environmental field since. The paper describes current United States practice for Deep Soil Mixing (over 12 meters in depth), and Shallow Soil Mixing for vertical barriers and stabilization/solidification, and Jet Grouting for horizontal and vertical barriers. Creating very low permeability barriers at depth with minimal surface return often makes these techniques economical when compared to slurry trenches. The paper will discuss equipment, materials, soil and strength parameters, and quality control.

  8. Heterogeneities in the infection process drive ranavirus transmission. (United States)

    Brunner, Jesse L; Beaty, Lynne; Guitard, Alexandra; Russell, Deanna


    Transmission is central to our understanding and efforts to control the spread of infectious diseases. Because transmission generally requires close contact, host movements and behaviors can shape transmission dynamics: random and complete mixing leads to the classic density-dependent model, but if hosts primarily interact locally (e.g., aggregate) or within groups, transmission may saturate. Manipulating host behavior may thus change both the rate and functional form of transmission. We used the ranavirus-wood frog (Lithobates sylvaticus) tadpole system to test whether transmission rates reflect contacts, and whether the functional form of transmission can be influenced by the distribution of food in mesocosms (widely dispersed, promoting random movement and mixing vs. a central pile, promoting aggregations). Contact rates increased with density, as expected, but transmission rapidly saturated. Observed rates of transmission were not explained by observed contact rates or the density-dependent model, but instead transmission in both treatments followed models allowing for heterogeneities in the transmission process. We argue that contacts were not generally limiting, but instead that our results are better explained by heterogeneities in host susceptibility. Moreover, manipulating host behavior to manage the spread of infectious disease may prove difficult to implement.

  9. A New Measure of Home Exercise Benefits and Barriers (United States)

    Thind, Herpreet; Fava, Joseph; Traficante, Regina; Bock, Beth C.


    Background: To increase physical activity among college students, new approaches are needed including the exploration of home-based exercise. However, research related to potential facilitators and barriers to exercising at home is limited. Purpose: The goal of this study was to develop a reliable and valid measure that can assess predictors of…

  10. Identifying Barriers to the Remix of Translated Open Educational Resources (United States)

    Amiel, Tel


    Remix is touted as one of the most important practices within the field of open educational resources (OER). But remixing is still not mainstream practice in education and the barriers and limitations to remix are not well known. In this article we discuss the design and development of a print and web-based booklet created to introduce the topic…

  11. Diagnosing foodborne illness: A behavioral analysis of barriers to testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaptan, G.; Fischhoff, B.


    Public health authorities rely on the timely flow of laboratory results to detect and control food-borne illnesses. At times, social and economic barriers limit individuals’ ability to get needed tests. We demonstrate a simple behavioral approach to assess the cost-effectiveness of interventions des

  12. [Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies: neuroinfections with unconventional immune reactions]. (United States)

    Mitrová, E


    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) as well as the properties of the major component of the infectious agent-prion, and the most important human and animal prion diseases are characterized. Considering the recent biochemical and molecular biological data, possible explanations of natural resistance, species barrier and lack of the immune response to the unconventional infectious particles are presented. Finally the importance of immunoblotting and immunostaining as the most specific confirmation of TSE diagnosis is underlined. (Ref. 11.)

  13. (Limiting the greenhouse effect)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rayner, S.


    Traveler attended the Dahlem Research Conference organized by the Freien Universitat, Berlin. The subject of the conference was Limiting the Greenhouse Effect: Options for Controlling Atmospheric CO{sub 2} Accumulation. Like all Dahlem workshops, this was a meeting of scientific experts, although the disciplines represented were broader than usual, ranging across anthropology, economics, international relations, forestry, engineering, and atmospheric chemistry. Participation by scientists from developing countries was limited. The conference was divided into four multidisciplinary working groups. Traveler acted as moderator for Group 3 which examined the question What knowledge is required to tackle the principal social and institutional barriers to reducing CO{sub 2} emissions'' The working rapporteur was Jesse Ausubel of Rockefeller University. Other working groups examined the economic costs, benefits, and technical feasibility of options to reduce emissions per unit of energy service; the options for reducing energy use per unit of GNP; and the significant of linkage between strategies to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions and other goals. Draft reports of the working groups are appended. Overall, the conference identified a number of important research needs in all four areas. It may prove particularly important in bringing the social and institutional research needs relevant to climate change closer to the forefront of the scientific and policy communities than hitherto.

  14. Barriers to infectious disease care among lesbians. (United States)

    Marrazzo, Jeanne M


    Despite the considerable number of women in the United States who identify as lesbian, few data exist that address lesbians' health needs. The Institute of Medicine emphasized that data on sexually transmitted infections, Pap smear screening, and cervical dysplasia among lesbians were needed to guide clinical practice, policy development, and patient education. Use of surveillance data for this purpose is limited because risk classifications exclude same-gender sex among women or subsume it under behavior considered as higher risk. However, sexual transmission of human papillomavirus, HIV, Treponema pallidum, and Trichomonas vaginalis between women has been reported. Data indicate that lesbians receive routine Pap smear screening less frequently than is optimal. Moreover, lesbians commonly report previous pregnancy, induced abortion, and hormonal contraceptive use. Education of lesbians and their care providers should counter assumptions that sex between women confers no risk for transmission of sexually transmitted infections, and lesbians should receive Pap smears according to current guidelines.

  15. Barriers to the Identification of Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (United States)

    Sayal, Kapil; Goodman, Robert; Ford, Tamsin


    Background: In most countries, the majority of children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are undiagnosed. In the United Kingdom, a major barrier to accessing specialist services is the limited recognition of disorders by general practitioners. However, it is unclear whether there are also barriers at other stages of the…

  16. Dilemmas of Cultural Transmission (United States)

    Kováts-Németh, Mária


    The fundamental problem of the 21st century is that in the modern civilization "the transmission of values is not stable." There is nothing, except for the natural sense of justice and some legal traditions, which would exercise selective power on social behavior. At a critical time in 1949 Albert Szent-Györgyi drew the attention to the…

  17. Facsimile Transmission Standards (United States)


    transmettre les cartes tactiques et les compte rendu de situation. La presente note technique expose les 6lements nec~ssaires A la transmission de t~l6copies...Group MI machines introduced digital scanning techniques in which the single photoelectric cell was replaced with a Charged Coupled Device (CCD) array

  18. Intergenerational Transmission of Volunteering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, René


    In this article, I investigate the strength of intergenerational transmission of volunteering for non-profit associations in The Netherlands. Data from the Family Survey of the Dutch Population 2000 reveal that there are significant relations between current volunteering and parental volunteering in

  19. Laser power transmission (United States)

    Conway, Edmund J.


    An overview of previous studies related to laser power transmission is presented. Particular attention is given to the use of solar pumped lasers for space power applications. Three general laser mechanisms are addressed: photodissociation lasing driven by sunlight, photoexcitation lasing driven directly by sunlight, and photoexcitation lasing driven by thermal radiation.

  20. Roll-to-roll vacuum deposition of barrier coatings

    CERN Document Server

    Bishop, Charles A


    It is intended that the book will be a practical guide to provide any reader with the basic information to help them understand what is necessary in order to produce a good barrier coated web or to improve the quality of any existing barrier product. After providing an introduction, where the terminology is outlined and some of the science is given (keeping the mathematics to a minimum), including barrier testing methods, the vacuum deposition process will be described. In theory a thin layer of metal or glass-like material should be enough to convert any polymer film into a perfect barrier material. The reality is that all barrier coatings have their performance limited by the defects in the coating. This book looks at the whole process from the source materials through to the post deposition handling of the coated material. This holistic view of the vacuum coating process provides a description of the common sources of defects and includes the possible methods of limiting the defects. This enables readers...

  1. Implementation of renewable technologies - Opportunities and barriers. Zimbabwe country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    . The committee was tasked with the responsibility of coming up with recommendations to barrier removal and promotion of RETs. After interested stake holders had presented their candidate projects proposals, the committee started the process of identifying barriers to the projects and selecting feasible projects. A final workshop was then held in August 2000 where the findings of the whole process were presented to all stake holders for discussion and analysis. The problem of barriers was found to be very complex. A good number of RETs projects in the country were successfully implemented. The success of such projects was underpinned by the following factors, addressing the immediate and basic needs of the people, participatory approach, awareness creation and enabling income generation activities. Some projects were also not very successful as they faced a lot of barriers like poor institutional framework, limited financial resources, lack of appreciation of associated benefits and technology failure. A close analysis of barriers revealed that there are two classes of barrier namely primary barriers and secondary barriers. Primary barriers are the real barriers while secondary barriers are more of the effects of primary barriers. (BA)

  2. Navigating language barriers under difficult circumstances. (United States)

    Schenker, Yael; Lo, Bernard; Ettinger, Katharine M; Fernandez, Alicia


    The proportion of the U.S. population with limited English proficiency is growing. Physicians often find themselves caring for patients with limited English proficiency in settings with limited language services. There has been little exploration of the decisions physicians face when providing care across language barriers. The authors offer a conceptual framework to aid physicians in thinking through difficult choices about language services and provide responses to common questions encountered in the care of patients with limited English proficiency. Specifically, they describe 4 factors that should inform the decision to call an interpreter (the clinical situation, degree of language gap, available resources, and patient preference), discuss who may be an appropriate interpreter, and offer strategies for when a professional interpreter is not available. The authors use a hypothetical case to illustrate how decisions about language services may evolve over the course of an interaction. This conceptual and practical approach can help clinicians to improve the quality of care provided to patients with limited English proficiency.

  3. Filaggrin and Skin Barrier Function. (United States)

    Kezic, Sanja; Jakasa, Ivone


    The skin barrier function is greatly dependent on the structure and composition of the uppermost layer of the epidermis, the stratum corneum (SC), which is made up of flattened anucleated cells surrounded by highly organized and continuous lipid matrix. The interior of the corneocytes consists mainly of keratin filaments aggregated by filaggrin (FLG) protein. Next, together with several other proteins, FLG is cross-linked into a mechanically robust cornified cell envelope providing a scaffold for the extracellular lipid matrix. In addition to its role for the SC structural and mechanical integrity, FLG degradation products account in part for the water-holding capacity and maintenance of acidic pH of the SC, both crucial for the epidermal barrier homoeostasis by regulating activity of multiple enzymes that control desquamation, lipid synthesis and inflammation. The major determinant of FLG expression in the skin are loss-of-function mutations in FLG, the strongest genetic risk factor for atopic dermatitis (AD), an inflammatory skin disease characterized by a reduced skin barrier function. The prevalence of FLG mutations varies greatly among different populations and ranges from about 10% in Northern Europeans to less than 1% in the African populations. An impaired skin barrier facilitates absorption of potentially hazardous chemicals, which might cause adverse effects in the skin, such as contact dermatitis, or systemic toxicity after their passage into blood. In another direction, a leaky epidermal barrier will lead to enhanced loss of water from the skin. A recent study has shown that even subtle increase in epidermal water loss in newborns increases the risk for AD. Although there are multiple modes of action by which FLG might affect skin barrier it is still unclear whether and how FLG deficiency leads to the reduced skin barrier function. This chapter summarizes the current knowledge in this field obtained from clinical studies, and animal and in vitro models

  4. Transmission Electron Microscopy Physics of Image Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Kohl, Helmut


    Transmission Electron Microscopy: Physics of Image Formation presents the theory of image and contrast formation, and the analytical modes in transmission electron microscopy. The principles of particle and wave optics of electrons are described. Electron-specimen interactions are discussed for evaluating the theory of scattering and phase contrast. Also discussed are the kinematical and dynamical theories of electron diffraction and their applications for crystal-structure analysis and imaging of lattices and their defects. X-ray microanalysis and electron energy-loss spectroscopy are treated as analytical methods. Specimen damage and contamination by electron irradiation limits the resolution for biological and some inorganic specimens. This fifth edition includes discussion of recent progress, especially in the area of aberration correction and energy filtering; moreover, the topics introduced in the fourth edition have been updated. Transmission Electron Microscopy: Physics of Image Formation is written f...

  5. Diabetes and diet: Managing dietary barriers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Friele, R.D.


    This thesis reports on the barriers diabetic patients experience with their diet, and the ways they cope with these barriers. A dietary barrier is a hinderance to a person's well-being, induced by being advised a diet. First inventories were made of possible dietary barriers and ways of coping with

  6. All hot wire chemical vapor deposition low substrate temperature transparent thin film moisture barrier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spee, D.A.; Schipper, M.R.; van der Werf, C.H.M.; Rath, J.K.; Schropp, R.E.I.


    We deposited a silicon nitride/polymer hybrid multilayer moisture barrier for flexible electronics in a hot wire chemical vapor deposition process, entirely below 100 °C. We were able to reach a water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) as low as 5×10−6 g/m2/day at a temperature of 60 °C and a relative h

  7. Cylindrical air flow reversal barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woznica, C.; Rodziewicz, M.


    Describes an innovative design introduced in the ZMP mine in Zory for quick reversal of ventilation air flow. Geologic mining conditions at the 705 m deep horizon, where the barrier was built, are described. According to the design used until now, a reversal system consisted of safety barriers, ventilation air locks, a ventilation bridge and stopping needed in case of a fire when air flow direction must be reversed. Nine air locks and an expensive concrete ventilation bridge were needed and the air locks had to be operated at 8 points of the region to effect reversal. The new design consists of a 2-storey cylindrical barrier which also fulfills the function of a ventilation bridge. It can be manually or remotely operated by a mechanical or pneumatic system. Tests showed that the new barrier permits immediate air flow reversal while retaining 60% of the original air, which is important in the case of fire and methane hazards. It permits improved seam panelling and splitting of pillars and brings an economy of about 40 million zlotys in construction cost. Design and operation of the barrier is illustrated and ventilation air circulation is explained. 7 figs.

  8. Correlated barrier hopping of CuO nanoparticles (United States)

    Koshy, Jiji; Soosen, Samuel. M.; Chandran, Anoop; George, K. C.


    The ac conduction mechanism in copper oxide nanoparticles with 8 nm size, synthesized by a precipitation method was studied by analyzing ac conductivity in the frequency range of 50 Hz-1 MHz and in the temperature range of 373-573 K. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were employed for the structural and morphological characterization of CuO nanoparticles. The experimental and theoretical investigations suggested that the ac conduction mechanism in CuO nanoparticles can be successfully explained by a correlated barrier hopping model, which provided reasonable values for the maximum barrier height and characteristic relaxation time. It was also found that bipolaron hopping become prominent up to a particular temperature and beyond that single polaron hopping predominates. Physical parameters such as hopping distance and density of defect states were also calculated. Photoluminescence studies confirm the presence of a surface defect in CuO nanoparticles.

  9. Improvement of barrier properties of rotomolded PE containers with nanoclay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamshidi, Shadi; Sundararaj, Uttandaraman, E-mail: [Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, T2N 1N4 (Canada)


    Polyethylene (PE) is widely used to make bulk containers in rotational molding process. The challenge in this study is to improve permeation resistance of PE to hydrocarbon solvents and gases. Adding organomodified clay improves the thermal, barrier and mechanical properties of PE. In fact, clay layers create a tortuous path against the permeant, yielding better barrier properties. Due to the non-polar hydrophobic nature of PE and polar hydrophilic structure of clay minerals, the compatibilizer plays a crucial role to enhance the dispersion level of clay in the matrix. In this study High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) and Linear Low Density Polyethylene (LLDPE) layered silicate nanocomposite were melt-compounded with two concentrations of organomodified clay (2 and 4 wt. %). The interaction between nanoclay, compatibilizer and rotomolding grade of PE were examined by using X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and rheology test. Rheology was used to determine the performance of our material at low shear processing condition.

  10. Fundamental Investigations Regarding Barrier Properties of Grafted PVOH Layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Schmid


    Full Text Available The current work focuses on fundamental investigations regarding the barrier properties of grafted PVOH layers produced by the Transfer Method. The layers (or papers used for the different experiments were produced and grafted during the course of this work. Papers with different types of PVOH (different Mowiol types were produced by coating. Experiments using different parameters (temperature, reaction duration, and concentration were performed using the Transfer Method. Contact angle measurements and Cobb60 measurements were carried out on the grafted and untreated PVOH layers. Furthermore, the water vapour transmission rate of the PVOH layers was determined. The results of this work showed that the method of chromatogeny or chromatogenic chemistry improves the water vapour barrier properties of grafted PVOH layers enormously.

  11. Transformer coupling for transmitting direct current through a barrier (United States)

    Brown, Ralph L.; Guilford, Richard P.; Stichman, John H.


    The transmission system for transmitting direct current from an energy source on one side of an electrical and mechanical barrier to a load on the other side of the barrier utilizes a transformer comprising a primary core on one side of the transformer and a secondary core on the other side of the transformer. The cores are magnetically coupled selectively by moving a magnetic ferrite coupler in and out of alignment with the poles of the cores. The direct current from the energy source is converted to a time varying current by an oscillating circuit, which oscillating circuit is optically coupled to a secondary winding on the secondary core to interrupt oscillations upon the voltage in the secondary winding exceeding a preselected level.

  12. Viscosity-Induced Crossing of the Phantom Barrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iver Brevik


    Full Text Available We show explicitly, by using astrophysical data plus reasonable assumptions for the bulk viscosity in the cosmic fluid, how the magnitude of this viscosity may be high enough to drive the fluid from its position in the quintessence region at present time t = 0 across the barrier w = −1 into the phantom region in the late universe. The phantom barrier is accordingly not a sharp mathematical divide, but rather a fuzzy concept. We also calculate the limiting forms of various thermodynamical quantities, including the rate of entropy production, for a dark energy fluid near the future Big Rip singularity.

  13. Recent key technical barriers in solid oxide fuel cell technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milewski Jarosław


    Full Text Available High-temperature solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs are considered as suitable components of future large-scale clean and efficient power generation systems. However, at its current stage of development some technical barriers exists which limit SOFC’s potential for rapid large-scale deployment. The present article aims at providing solutions to key technical barriers in SOFC technology. The focus is on the solutions addressing thermal resistance, fuel reforming, energy conversion efficiency, materials, design, and fuel utilisation issues.

  14. Transmission network expansion planning under deliberate outages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alguacil, Natalia; Carrion, Miguel; Arroyo, Jose Manuel [E.T.S. de Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad de Castilla - La Mancha, Campus Universitario s/n, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain)


    The reasons why the transmission network is a potentially attractive target for deliberate outages are twofold: (i) its crucial importance as a critical infrastructure for the society welfare, and (ii) its high level of vulnerability due to the current operation close to its static and dynamic limits. This new context where destructive agents come into play has been recognized by several agencies in Europe and North America, and various initiatives have been launched worldwide in order to assess and mitigate the vulnerability of transmission. Within this framework, this paper proposes the reinforcement and expansion of the transmission network as a way of mitigating the impact of increasingly plausible deliberate outages. The network planner selects the new lines to be built accounting not only for economic issues, as traditionally done, but also for the vulnerability of the transmission network against a set of credible intentional outages. The resulting vulnerability- and economic-constrained transmission expansion planning problem is formulated as a mixed-integer linear program. A number of case studies numerically illustrate the tradeoff between economic- and vulnerability-related issues and its impact on the expansion plans. In addition, we compare the results with those achieved by a traditional expansion planning model based on cost minimization. (author)

  15. Symbolic-numerical Algorithm for Generating Cluster Eigenfunctions: Tunneling of Clusters Through Repulsive Barriers

    CERN Document Server

    Vinitsky, Sergue; Chuluunbaatar, Ochbadrakh; Rostovtsev, Vitaly; Hai, Luong Le; Derbov, Vladimir; Krassovitskiy, Pavel


    A model for quantum tunnelling of a cluster comprising A identical particles, coupled by oscillator-type potential, through short-range repulsive potential barriers is introduced for the first time in the new symmetrized-coordinate representation and studied within the s-wave approximation. The symbolic-numerical algorithms for calculating the effective potentials of the close-coupling equations in terms of the cluster wave functions and the energy of the barrier quasistationary states are formulated and implemented using the Maple computer algebra system. The effect of quantum transparency, manifesting itself in nonmonotonic resonance-type dependence of the transmission coefficient upon the energy of the particles, the number of the particles A=2,3,4, and their symmetry type, is analyzed. It is shown that the resonance behavior of the total transmission coefficient is due to the existence of barrier quasistationary states imbedded in the continuum.

  16. Design and performance evaluation of a 1000-year evapotranspiration-capillary surface barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zhuanfang Fred; Strickland, Christopher E.; Link, Steven O.


    Surface barrier technology is used to isolate radioactive waste and to reduce or eliminate recharge water to the waste zone for 1000 years or longer. However, the design and evaluation of such a barrier is challenging because of the extremely long design life. The Prototype Hanford Barrier (PHB) was designed as a 1000-year barrier with pre-determined design and performance objectives and demonstrated in field from 1994 to present. The barrier was tested to evaluate surface-barrier design and performance at the field scale under conditions of enhanced and natural precipitation and of no vegetation. The monitoring data demonstrate that the barrier satisfied nearly all key objectives. The PHB far exceeded the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act criteria, functioned in Hanford’s semiarid climate, limited drainage to well below the 0.5 mm yr-1 performance criterion, limited runoff, and minimized erosion. Given the two-decade record of successful performance and consideration of all the processes and mechanisms that could degrade the stability and hydrology in the future, the results suggest the PHB is very likely to perform for its 1000-year design life. This conclusion is based on two assumptions: (1) the exposed subgrade receives protection against erosion and (2) institutional controls prevent inadvertent human activity at the barrier. The PHB design can serve as the base for site-specific barriers over waste sites containing underground nuclear waste, uranium mine tailings, and hazardous mine waste.

  17. Regional transmission subsystem planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa Bortoni, Edson da [Quadrante Softwares Especializados Ltda., Itajuba, MG (Brazil); Bajay, Sergio Valdir; Barros Correia, Paulo de [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica; Santos, Afonso Henriques Moreira; Haddad, Jamil [Escola Federal de Engenharia de Itajuba, MG (Brazil)


    This work presents an approach for the planning of transmission systems by employing mixed--integer linear programming to obtain a cost and operating characteristics optimized system. The voltage loop equations are written in a modified form, so that, at the end of the analysis, the model behaves as a DC power flow, with the help of the two Kirchhoff`s laws, exempting the need of interaction with an external power flow program for analysis of the line loading. The model considers the occurrence of contingencies, so that the final result is a network robust to the most severe contingencies. This whole technique is adapted to the regional electric power transmission subsystems. (author) 9 refs., 4 figs.

  18. Mechanisms, Transmissions and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Corves, Burkhard


    The first Workshop on Mechanisms, Transmissions and Applications -- MeTrApp-2011 was organized by the Mechatronics Department at the Mechanical Engineering Faculty, “Politehnica” University of Timisoara, Romania, under the patronage of the IFToMM Technical Committees Linkages and Mechanical Controls and Micromachines. The workshop brought together researchers and students who work in disciplines associated with mechanisms science and offered a great opportunity for scientists from all over the world to present their achievements, exchange innovative ideas and create solid international links, setting the trend for future developments in this important and creative field. The topics treated in this volume are mechanisms and machine design, mechanical transmissions, mechatronic and biomechanic applications, computational and experimental methods, history of mechanism and machine science and teaching methods.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Erjavec; Michael D. Mann; Ryan Z. Knutson; Michael L. Swanson; Michael E. Collings


    electrostatically enhanced barrier filter collection (EBFC). This concept combines electrostatic precipitation (ESP) with candle filters in a single unit. Similar technology has been recently proven on a commercial scale for atmospheric applications, but needed to be tested at high temperatures and pressures. The synergy obtained by combining the two control technologies into a single system should actually reduce filter system capital and operating costs and make the system more reliable. More specifically, the ESP is expected to significantly reduce candle filter load and also to limit ash reintrainment, allowing for full recovery of baseline pressure drop during backpulsing of the filters.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandra Dalvit Dunn


    The overall objective of the effort was to develop and demonstrate an integrated methodology and field system to evaluate the integrity of in situ, impermeable barriers constructed in the vadose zone. An autonomous, remotely accessible, automatic monitoring and analysis system was designed and fabricated. It was thoroughly tested under field conditions, and was able to function as designed throughout the test period. Data inversion software was developed with enhanced capabilities over the previous prototype version, and integrated with the monitoring system for real time operation. Analytical simulations were performed to determine the inversion code's sensitivity to model parameters. Numerical simulations were performed to better understand how typical field conditions differ from the ideal model(s) which are used (or have been developed for use) in the inversion code and to further validate the flux limited forward model developed for use with the system. Results from the analytical and numerical assessment of the inversion code showed that the SEAtrace{trademark} approach could locate leaks within 0.4 to 1.2 m. Leak size determination was less accurate, but produced results within a factor of 3 to 8 for leaks in the 2.5 to 10 cm diameter range. The smallest engineered leak in the test 1.1 cm diameter, could be located but its size estimate was high by a factor of 30. Data analysis was performed automatically after each gas scan was completed, yielding results in less than thirty minutes, although the bulk of the results reported required post test data analysis to remove effects of high background concentrations. The field test of the integrated system was problematic, primarily due to unanticipated, unintentional leaks formed in the impermeable liner. The test facility constructed to proof the system was ambitious, initially having 11 engineered leaks of various dimensions that could be independently operated. While a great deal of care went into the

  1. Social Barriers to Effective Communication in Old Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Sanecka


    Full Text Available Some communication barriers apply particularly to elderly people. The social barriers to effective communication in old age are the barriers caused by stereotypes of old age/elderly people and the barriers arising from limitations in using mass communication by seniors. Stereotypes of old age/elderly people embrace views regarding old people’s communication skills and the ideas about the correct way of communication with them. Therefore the communication problems of old people are correlated with the little and poor communication processes they are participating in. This seems to be a result of impetuses of poor quality sent to seniors by their communication partners. Not only face to face communication but also mass communication is very important for the elderly population. Therefore limitations in using new technologies and new communication channels as well as a limited presence in the mass media of content created by seniors and for seniors have an impact on their life, their well-being, and their interpersonal relationships. These problems are especially important when we faced with the ever growing population of elderly people.

  2. Simulation Tool for Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma Actuators at Atmospheric and Sub-Atmospheric Pressures Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Traditional approaches for active flow separation control using dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma actuators are limited to relatively low-speed flows and...

  3. Available transmission capacity assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Škokljev Ivan


    Full Text Available Effective power system operation requires the analysis of vast amounts of information. Power market activities expose power transmission networks to high-level power transactions that threaten normal, secure operation of the power system. When there are service requests for a specific sink/source pair in a transmission system, the transmission system operator (TSO must allocate the available transfer capacity (ATC. It is common that ATC has a single numerical value. Additionally, the ATC must be calculated for the base case configuration of the system, while generation dispatch and topology remain unchanged during the calculation. Posting ATC on the internet should benefit prospective users by aiding them in formulating their requests. However, a single numerical value of ATC offers little for prospect for analysis, planning, what-if combinations, etc. A symbolic approach to the power flow problem (DC power flow and ATC offers a numerical computation at the very end, whilst the calculation beforehand is performed by using symbols for the general topology of the electrical network. Qualitative analysis of the ATC using only qualitative values, such as increase, decrease or no change, offers some new insights into ATC evaluation, multiple transactions evaluation, value of counter-flows and their impact etc. Symbolic analysis in this paper is performed after the execution of the linear, symbolic DC power flow. As control variables, the mathematical model comprises linear security constraints, ATC, PTDFs and transactions. The aim is to perform an ATC sensitivity study on a five nodes/seven lines transmission network, used for zonal market activities tests. A relatively complicated environment with twenty possible bilateral transactions is observed.

  4. Structure information from fusion barriers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S V S Sastry; S Santra


    It is shown that the analysis of fusion barrier distributions is not always an unambiguous test or a ‘fingerprint’ of the structure information of the colliding nuclei. Examples are presented with same fusion barrier distributions for nuclei having different structures. The fusion excitation functions for 16O+208Pb, using the coupled reaction channel (CRC) method and correct structure information, have been analysed. The barrier distributions derived from these excitation functions including many of the significant channels are featureless, although these channels have considerable effects on the fusion excitation function. However, a simultaneous analysis of the fusion, elastic and quasi-elastic channels would fix the structure and the reaction unambiguously

  5. Skin Barrier Function and Allergens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engebretsen, Kristiane Aasen; Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan


    The skin is an important barrier protecting us from mechanical insults, microorganisms, chemicals and allergens, but, importantly, also reducing water loss. A common hallmark for many dermatoses is a compromised skin barrier function, and one could suspect an elevated risk of contact sensitization...... and skin barrier status. Psoriasis has traditionally been regarded a Th1-dominated disease, but the discovery of Th17 cells and IL-17 provides new and interesting information regarding the pathogenesis of the disease. Research suggests an inverse relationship between psoriasis and CA, possibly due......) and Th2 (AD) have been proposed as an explanation. Finally, there is convincing evidence that exposure to irritants increases the risk of CS, and patients with ICD are, therefore, at great risk of developing CA. Skin irritation leads to the release of IL-1 and TNF-α, which affects the function of antigen...

  6. Application of transmission electron tomography for modeling the renal corpuscle. (United States)

    Cheng, Delfine; Shen, Sylvie; Chen, Xin-Ming; Pollock, Carol; Braet, Filip


    Structural alteration to the microanatomical organization of the glomerular filtration barrier results in proteinuria. Conventional transmission electron microscopy is an important diagnostic tool to assess the degree of ultrastructural damage of the corpusclar filtration unit. However, this approach lacks the ability to collect accurate stereological insights in a relative large tissue volume. Transmission electron tomography offers the ability to gather three-dimensional information with relative ease. Therefore, this contribution aims to highlight what electron tomography can bring to the pathologist in this challenging area of diagnostic practice. Kidney tissue was prepared for routine ultrastructural transmission electron microscopy investigation. Three-dimensional data stacks were automatically acquired by tilting semi-thin sections of 270 nm in an angular range of typically -60° to +60° with 1° increment. Subsequently, models of the filtration unit were produced by computer-assisted tracking of structures of interest. This short report illustrates the capability that transmission electron tomography can offer in the fine structure-function assessment of the porous fenestrated glomerular capillary endothelium, the underlying basement membrane and the podocyte filtration slits. Furthermore, this approach allows the generation of morphometric data about size, shape and volume alterations of the kidney's filtration barrier at the nanoscale.

  7. NB Power Transmission system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williamson, J. [NB Power Transmission, Fredericton, NB (Canada)


    The NB Power Transmission System operates 6700 km of transmission lines having voltages of 69 kV, 138 kV, 230 kV, and 345 kV. The history of lightning protection on this transmission system was presented. Lightning protection with shield wires has been applied selectively on the 69 kV and 138 kV lines and has been applied to all lines in the 230 kV and 345 kV range. Beginning in 2000, line arresters were installed on selected 69 kV and 138 kV lines. It was noted that although overhead shield wires are commonly installed to capture lightning strikes and shield the conductors, problems can occur if the electrical flashover of insulators result in a line to ground fault. Good grounding is needed to ensure that lightning enters the ground from the tower. The new approach is to install line arresters on structures without overhead shield wires. Line arresters are surge arresters applied in parallel with the insulator string. This new line arrester technology was tested by installing nearly 1200 arresters in the Saint John area. This paper described the reasons for choosing line arresters over shield wires and presented the methods of installation. The problems and failure rates of the installed line arresters were presented along with solutions, including solutions to protect lines against lightning in areas with heavy icing. Recommendations for future research into the use, application and development of line arresters were also presented. tabs., figs.

  8. Complementary Barrier Infrared Detector (CBIRD) with Double Tunnel Junction Contact and Quantum Dot Barrier Infrared Detector (QD-BIRD) (United States)

    Ting, David Z.-Y; Soibel, Alexander; Khoshakhlagh, Arezou; Keo, Sam A.; Nguyen, Jean; Hoglund, Linda; Mumolo, Jason M.; Liu, John K.; Rafol, Sir B.; Hill, Cory J.; Gunapala, Sarath D.


    The InAs/GaSb type-II superlattice based complementary barrier infrared detector (CBIRD) has already demonstrated very good performance in long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) detection. In this work, we describe results on a modified CBIRD device that incorporates a double tunnel junction contact designed for robust device and focal plane array processing. The new device also exhibited reduced turn-on voltage. We also report results on the quantum dot barrier infrared detector (QD-BIRD). By incorporating self-assembled InSb quantum dots into the InAsSb absorber of the standard nBn detector structure, the QD-BIRD extend the detector cutoff wavelength from approximately 4.2 micrometers to 6 micrometers, allowing the coverage of the mid-wavelength infrared (MWIR) transmission window. The device has been observed to show infrared response at 225 K.

  9. Great Plains Wind Energy Transmission Development Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brad G. Stevens, P.E.; Troy K. Simonsen; Kerryanne M. Leroux


    In fiscal year 2005, the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) received funding from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to undertake a broad array of tasks to either directly or indirectly address the barriers that faced much of the Great Plains states and their efforts to produce and transmit wind energy at the time. This program, entitled Great Plains Wind Energy Transmission Development Project, was focused on the central goal of stimulating wind energy development through expansion of new transmission capacity or development of new wind energy capacity through alternative market development. The original task structure was as follows: Task 1 - Regional Renewable Credit Tracking System (later rescoped to Small Wind Turbine Training Center); Task 2 - Multistate Transmission Collaborative; Task 3 - Wind Energy Forecasting System; and Task 4 - Analysis of the Long-Term Role of Hydrogen in the Region. As carried out, Task 1 involved the creation of the Small Wind Turbine Training Center (SWTTC). The SWTTC, located Grand Forks, North Dakota, consists of a single wind turbine, the Endurance S-250, on a 105-foot tilt-up guyed tower. The S-250 is connected to the electrical grid on the 'load side' of the electric meter, and the power produced by the wind turbine is consumed locally on the property. Establishment of the SWTTC will allow EERC personnel to provide educational opportunities to a wide range of participants, including grade school through college-level students and the general public. In addition, the facility will allow the EERC to provide technical training workshops related to the installation, operation, and maintenance of small wind turbines. In addition, under Task 1, the EERC hosted two small wind turbine workshops on May 18, 2010, and March 8, 2011, at the EERC in Grand Forks, North Dakota. Task 2 involved the EERC cosponsoring and aiding in the planning of three transmission workshops in the midwest and western regions. Under Task

  10. Reactive barriers for 137Cs retention. (United States)

    Krumhansl, J L; Brady, P V; Anderson, H L


    137Cs was dispersed globally by cold war activities and, more recently, by the Chernobyl accident. Engineered extraction of 137Cs from soils and groundwaters is exceedingly difficult. Because the half-life of 137Cs is only 30.2 years, remediation might be more effective (and less costly) if 137Cs bioavailability could be demonstrably limited for even a few decades by use of a reactive barrier. Essentially permanent isolation must be demonstrated in those few settings where high nuclear level wastes contaminated the environment with 135Cs (half-life 2.3 x 10(6) years) in addition to 137Cs. Clays are potentially a low-cost barrier to Cs movement, though their long-term effectiveness remains untested. To identify optimal clays for Cs retention, Cs desorption was measured for five common clays: Wyoming Montmorillonite (SWy-1), Georgia Kaolinites (KGa-1 and KGa-2), Fithian Illite (F-Ill), and K-Metabentonite (K-Mbt). Exchange sites were pre-saturated with 0.16 M CsCl for 14 days and readily exchangeable Cs was removed by a series of LiNO3 and LiCl washes. Washed clays were then placed into dialysis bags and the Cs release to the deionized water outside the bags measured. Release rates from 75 to 139 days for SWy-1, K-Mbt and F-Ill were similar; 0.017% to 0.021% sorbed Cs released per day. Both kaolinites released Cs more rapidly (0.12% to 0.05% of the sorbed Cs per day). In a second set of experiments, clays were Cs-doped for 110 days and subjected to an extreme and prolonged rinsing process. All the clays exhibited some capacity for irreversible Cs uptake. However, the residual loading was greatest on K-Mbt (approximately 0.33 wt.% Cs). Thus, this clay would be the optimal material for constructing artifical reactive barriers.

  11. Sound propagation over curved barriers (United States)

    Pierce, Allan D.; Main, Geoffrey L.; Kearns, James A.; Hsieh, H.-A.


    Wide barriers with curved tops are studied with emphasis placed on circumstances whereby the local radius of curvature R of the barrier is continuous along the surface and is large compared to a wavelength. Results analogous to those given by Hayek et al. (1978) are reviewed and extended to cases where the radius of curvature and the surface impedance may vary with position. Circumstances not easily interpreted within the framework of the model proposed by Keller (1956) and Hayek et al. are also considered.

  12. Tunable delay time and Hartman effect in graphene magnetic barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ban, Yue; Wang, Lin-Jun [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Chen, Xi, E-mail: [Department of Physics, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China)


    Tunable group delay and Hartman effect have been investigated for massless Dirac electrons in graphene magnetic barriers. In the presence of magnetic field, dwell time is found to be equal to net group delay plus the group delay contributing from the lateral shifts. The group delay times are discussed in both cases of normal and oblique incidence, to clarify the nature of Hartman effect. In addition, the group delay in transmission can be modulated from subluminality to superluminality by adjusting the magnetic field, which may also lead to potential applications in graphene-based microelectronics.

  13. Reinforcing Power Grid Transmission with FACTS Devices

    CERN Document Server

    Frolov, Vladimir; Chertkov, Misha


    We explore optimization methods for planning the placement, sizing and operations of Flexible Alternating Current Transmission System (FACTS) devices installed into the grid to relieve congestion created by load growth or fluctuations of intermittent renewable generation. We limit our selection of FACTS devices to those that can be represented by modification of the inductance of the transmission lines. Our master optimization problem minimizes the $l_1$ norm of the FACTS-associated inductance correction subject to constraints enforcing that no line of the system exceeds its thermal limit. We develop off-line heuristics that reduce this non-convex optimization to a succession of Linear Programs (LP) where at each step the constraints are linearized analytically around the current operating point. The algorithm is accelerated further with a version of the cutting plane method greatly reducing the number of active constraints during the optimization, while checking feasibility of the non-active constraints post...

  14. Representing solute transport through the multi-barrier disposal system by simplified concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poteri, A.; Nordman, H.; Pulkkanen, V-M. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Kekaelaeinen, P. [Jyvaeskylae Univ. (Finland). Dept. pf Physics; Hautojaervi, A.


    The repository system chosen in Finland for spent nuclear fuel is composed of multiple successive transport barriers. If a waste canister is leaking, this multi-barrier system retards and limits the release rates of radionuclides into the biosphere. Analysis of radionuclide migration in the previous performance assessments has largely been based on numerical modelling of the repository system. The simplified analytical approach introduced here provides a tool to analyse the performance of the whole system using simplified representations of the individual transport barriers. This approach is based on the main characteristics of the individual barriers and on the generic nature of the coupling between successive barriers. In the case of underground repository the mass transfer between successive transport barriers is strongly restricted by the interfaces between barriers leading to well-mixed conditions in these barriers. The approach here simplifies the barrier system so that it can be described with a very simple compartment model, where each barrier is represented by a single, or in the case of buffer, by not more than two compartments. This system of compartments could be solved in analogy with a radioactive decay chain. The model of well mixed compartments lends itself to a very descriptive way to represent and analyse the barrier system because the relative efficiency of the different barriers in hindering transport of solutes can be parameterised by the solutes half-times in the corresponding compartments. In a real repository system there will also be a delay between the start of the inflow and the start of the outflow from the barrier. This delay can be important for the release rates of the short lived and sorbing radionuclides, and it was also included in the simplified representation of the barrier system. In a geological multi-barrier system, spreading of the outflowing release pulse is often governed by the typical behaviour of one transport barrier

  15. Evaluation of the Zoonotic Potential of Transmissible Mink Encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Brown


    Full Text Available Successful transmission of Transmissible Mink Encephalopathy (TME to cattle supports the bovine hypothesis for the still controversial origin of TME outbreaks. Human and primate susceptibility to classical Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (c-BSE and the transmissibility of L-type BSE to macaques indicate a low cattle-to-primate species barrier. We therefore evaluated the zoonotic potential of cattle-adapted TME. In less than two years, this strain induced in cynomolgus macaques a neurological disease similar to L-BSE but distinct from c-BSE. TME derived from another donor species (raccoon induced a similar disease with even shorter incubation periods. L-BSE and cattle-adapted TME were also transmissible to transgenic mice expressing human prion protein (PrP. Secondary transmissions to transgenic mice expressing bovine PrP maintained the features of the three tested bovine strains (cattle TME, c-BSE and L-BSE regardless of intermediate host. Thus, TME is the third animal prion strain transmissible to both macaques and humanized transgenic mice, suggesting zoonotic potentials that should be considered in the risk analysis of animal prion diseases for human health. Moreover, the similarities between TME and L-BSE are highly suggestive of a link between these strains, and therefore the possible presence of L-BSE for many decades prior to its identification in USA and Europe.

  16. Systems study on engineered barriers: barrier performance analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stula, R.T.; Albert, T.E.; Kirstein, B.E.; Lester, D.H.


    A performance assessment model for multiple barrier packages containing unreprocessed spent fuel has been modified and applied to several package designs. The objective of the study was to develop information to be used in programmatic decision making concerning engineered barrier package design and development. The assessment model, BARIER, was developed in previous tasks of the System Study on Engineered Barriers (SSEB). The new version discussed in this report contains a refined and expanded corrosion rate data base which includes pitting, crack growth, and graphitization as well as bulk corrosion. Corrosion rates for oxic and anoxic conditions at each of the two temperature ranges are supplied. Other improvements include a rigorous treatment of radionuclide release after package failure which includes resistance of damaged barriers and backfill, refined temperature calculations that account for convection and radiation, a subroutine to calculate nuclear gamma radiation field at each barrier surface, refined stress calculations with reduced conservatism and various coding improvements to improve running time and core usage. This report also contains discussion of alternative scenarios to the assumed flooded repository as well as the impact of water exclusion backfills. The model was used to assess post repository closure performance for several designs which were all variation of basic designs from the Spent Unreprocessed Fuel (SURF) program. Many designs were found to delay the onset of leaching by at least a few hundreds of years in all geologic media. Long delay times for radionuclide release were found for packages with a few inches of sorption backfill. Release of uranium, plutonium, and americium was assessed.

  17. The Flux-Flux Correlation Function for Anharmonic Barriers

    CERN Document Server

    Goussev, Arseni; Waalkens, Holger; Wiggins, Stephen


    The flux-flux correlation function formalism is a standard and widely used approach for the computation of reaction rates. In this paper we introduce a method to compute the classical and quantum flux-flux correlation functions for anharmonic barriers essentially analytically through the use of the classical and quantum normal forms. In the quantum case we show that the quantum normal form reduces the computation of the flux-flux correlation function to that of an effective one dimensional anharmonic barrier. The example of the computation of the quantum flux-flux correlation function for a fourth order anharmonic barrier is worked out in detail, and we present an analytical expression for the quantum mechanical microcanonical flux-flux correlation function. We then give a discussion of the short-time and harmonic limits.

  18. Transmission eigenvalues for elliptic operators

    CERN Document Server

    Hitrik, Michael; Ola, Petri; Päivärinta, Lassi


    A reduction of the transmission eigenvalue problem for multiplicative sign-definite perturbations of elliptic operators with constant coefficients to an eigenvalue problem for a non-selfadjoint compact operator is given. Sufficient conditions for the existence of transmission eigenvalues and completeness of generalized eigenstates for the transmission eigenvalue problem are derived. In the trace class case, the generic existence of transmission eigenvalues is established.

  19. Cultural transmission of civic attitudes


    Miles-Touya, Daniel; Rossi, Máximo


    In this empirical paper we attempt to measure the separate influence on civic engagement of educational attainment and cultural transmission of civic attitudes. Unlike most of the previous empirical works on this issue, we are able to approximate the cultural transmission of civic attitudes. We observe that civic returns to education are overstated when the transmission of civic attitudes is ignored. Moreover, the transmission of civic attitudes significantly enhances civic involvement and re...

  20. Optimizing Transmission Line Matching Circuits


    Novak, S.


    When designing transmission line matching circuits, there exist often overlooked, additional, not much used, degree of choice in the selection of the transmission line impedance. In this work are presented results of CAD analysis for the two element transmission line matching networks, demonstrating that selecting matching circuits transmission lines with higher impedance, than usually used 50 or 75 ohms, can in most cases substantially decrease the physical dimension of the final matching ci...

  1. Through-Metal-Wall Power Delivery and Data Transmission for Enclosed Sensors: A Review



    The aim of this review was to assess the current viable technologies for wireless power delivery and data transmission through metal barriers. Using such technologies sensors enclosed in hermetical metal containers can be powered and communicate through exterior power sources without penetration of the metal wall for wire feed-throughs. In this review, we first discuss the significant and essential requirements for through-metal-wall power delivery and data transmission and then we: (1) descr...

  2. Wideband Analog Transmission System Based on the External Intensity Electro-Optic Modulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri Svarny


    Full Text Available The work deals with design and integration of an analog electro-optic transmission system suitable for some specialized tasks of diagnostics and measurements. The system is based on principle of external intensity modulation of fiber guided laser radiation. Besides wideband and almost lossless transmission the system tolerates extreme length of the transmitting medium and ensures ultimate galvanic barrier between the input and output.

  3. Recent Transmission of Tuberculosis - United States, 2011-2014. (United States)

    Yuen, Courtney M; Kammerer, J Steve; Marks, Kala; Navin, Thomas R; France, Anne Marie


    Tuberculosis is an infectious disease that may result from recent transmission or from an infection acquired many years in the past; there is no diagnostic test to distinguish the two causes. Cases resulting from recent transmission are particularly concerning from a public health standpoint. To describe recent tuberculosis transmission in the United States, we used a field-validated plausible source-case method to estimate cases likely resulting from recent transmission during January 2011-September 2014. We classified cases as resulting from either limited or extensive recent transmission based on transmission cluster size. We used logistic regression to analyze patient characteristics associated with recent transmission. Of 26,586 genotyped cases, 14% were attributable to recent transmission, 39% of which were attributable to extensive recent transmission. The burden of cases attributed to recent transmission was geographically heterogeneous and poorly predicted by tuberculosis incidence. Extensive recent transmission was positively associated with American Indian/Alaska Native (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR] = 3.6 (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.9-4.4), Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander (aPR = 3.2, 95% CI 2.3-4.5), and black (aPR = 3.0, 95% CI 2.6-3.5) race, and homelessness (aPR = 2.3, 95% CI 2.0-2.5). Extensive recent transmission was negatively associated with foreign birth (aPR = 0.2, 95% CI 0.2-0.2). Tuberculosis control efforts should prioritize reducing transmission among higher-risk populations.

  4. Intestinal barrier homeostasis in inflammatory bowel disease. (United States)

    Goll, Rasmus; van Beelen Granlund, Atle


    The single-cell thick intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) lining with its protective layer of mucus is the primary barrier protecting the organism from the harsh environment of the intestinal lumen. Today it is clear that the balancing act necessary to maintain intestinal homeostasis is dependent on the coordinated action of all cell types of the IEC, and that there are no passive bystanders to gut immunity solely acting as absorptive or regenerative cells: Mucin and antimicrobial peptides on the epithelial surface are continually being replenished by goblet and Paneth's cells. Luminal antigens are being sensed by pattern recognition receptors on the enterocytes. The enteroendocrine cells sense the environment and coordinate the intestinal function by releasing neuropeptides acting both on IEC and inflammatory cells. All this while cells are continuously and rapidly being regenerated from a limited number of stem cells close to the intestinal crypt base. This review seeks to describe the cell types and structures of the intestinal epithelial barrier supporting intestinal homeostasis, and how disturbance in these systems might relate to inflammatory bowel disease.

  5. Development of dual-band barrier detectors (United States)

    Plis, Elena; Myers, Stephen A.; Ramirez, David A.; Krishna, Sanjay


    We report on the development of dual-band InAs/GaSb type-II strained layer superlattices (T2SL) detectors with barrier designs at SK Infrared. Over the past five years, we demonstrated mid-wave/long-wave (MW/LWIR, cut-off wavelengths are 5 μm and 10.0 μm), and LW/LWIR (cut-off wavelengths are 9 μm and 11.0 μm) detectors with nBn and pBp designs. Recent results include a high performance bias-selectable long/long-wavelength infrared photodetector based on T2SL with a pBp barrier architecture. The two channels 50% cut-off wavelengths were ~ 9.2 μm and ~ 12 μm at 77 K. The "blue" and "red" LWIR absorbers demonstrated saturated QE values of 34 % and 28 %, respectively, measured in a backside illuminated configuration with a ~ 35 μm thick layer of residual GaSb substrate. Bulk-limited dark current levels were ~ 2.6 x 10-7 A/cm2 at + 100 mV and ~ 8.3 x 10-4 A/cm2 at - 200 mV for the "blue" and "red" channels, respectively.

  6. Transport Properties of Two-Dimensional Electron Gases in Antiparallel Magnetic-Electric Barrier Structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PING Yun-Xia; CHENG Ze


    We study theoretically transport properties of two-dimensional electron gases through antiparallel magnetic electric barrier structures. Two kinds of magnetic barrier configurations are employed: one is that the strength of the double δ-function in opposite directions is equal and the other is that the strength is unequal. Similarities and differences of electronic transports are presented. It is found that the transmission and the conductance depend strongly on the shape of the magnetic barrier and the height of the electric barrier. The results indicate that this system does not possess any spin filtering and spin polarization and electron gases can realize perfect resonant tunneling and wave-vector filtering properties. Moreover, the strength of the effect of the inhomogeneous magnetic field on the transport properties is discussed.

  7. Electric Field Control of the Resistance of Multiferroic Tunnel Junctions with Magnetoelectric Antiferromagnetic Barriers (United States)

    Merodio, P.; Kalitsov, A.; Chshiev, M.; Velev, J.


    Based on model calculations, we predict a magnetoelectric tunneling electroresistance effect in multiferroic tunnel junctions consisting of ferromagnetic electrodes and magnetoelectric antiferromagnetic barriers. Switching of the antiferromagnetic order parameter in the barrier in applied electric field by means of the magnetoelectric coupling leads to a substantial change of the resistance of the junction. The effect is explained in terms of the switching of the orientations of local magnetizations at the barrier interfaces affecting the spin-dependent interface transmission probabilities. Magnetoelectric multiferroic materials with finite ferroelectric polarization exhibit an enhanced resistive change due to polarization-induced spin-dependent screening. These results suggest that devices with active barriers based on single-phase magnetoelectric antiferromagnets represent an alternative nonvolatile memory concept.

  8. Ultrathin MgO diffusion barriers for ferromagnetic electrodes on GaAs(001). (United States)

    Sarkar, Anirban; Wang, Shibo; Grafeneder, Wolfgang; Arndt, Martin; Koch, Reinhold


    Ultrathin MgO(100) films serving as a diffusion barrier between ferromagnetic electrodes and GaAs(001) semiconductor templates have been investigated. Using Fe as an exemplary ferromagnetic material, heterostructures of Fe/MgO/GaAs(001) were prepared at 200 °C with the MgO thickness ranging from 1.5 to 3 nm. Structural characterization reveals very good crystalline ordering in all layers of the heterostructure. Auger electron spectroscopy depth-profiling and cross-sectional high-resolution transmission electron microscopy evidence diffusion of Fe into MgO and-for too thin MgO barriers-further into GaAs(001). Our results recommend a MgO barrier thickness larger than or equal to 2.6 nm for its application as a reliable diffusion barrier on GaAs(001) in spintronics devices.

  9. Functional barriers: Properties and evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feigenbaum, A.; Dole, P.; Aucejo, S.; Dainelli, D.; Cruz Garcia, C. de la; Hankemeier, T.; N'Gono, Y.; Papaspyrides, C.D.; Paseiro, P.; Pastorelli, S.; Pavlidou, S.; Pennarun, P.Y.; Saillard, P.; Vidal, L.; Vitrac, O.; Voulzatis, Y.


    Functional barriers are multilayer structures deemed to prevent migration of some chemicals released by food-contact materials into food. In the area of plastics packaging, different migration behaviours of mono- and multilayer structures are assessed in terms of lag time and of their influence of t

  10. Barrier/Cu contact resistivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, J.S.; Nicolet, M.A. [California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States); Angyal, M.S.; Lilienfeld, D.; Shacham-Diamand, Y. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States); Smith, P.M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    The specific contact resistivity of Cu with ({alpha} + {beta})-Ta, TiN, {alpha}-W, and amorphous-Ta{sub 36}Si{sub 14}N{sub 50} barrier films is measured using a novel four-point-probe approach. Geometrically, the test structures consist of colinear sets of W-plugs to act as current and voltage probes that contact the bottom of a planar Cu/barrier/Cu stack. Underlying Al interconnects link the plugs to the current source and voltmeter. The center-to-center distance of the probes ranges from 3 to 200 {micro}m. Using a relation developed by Vu et al., a contact resistivity of roughly 7 {times} 10{sup {minus}9} {Omega} cm{sup 2} is obtained for all tested barrier/Cu combinations. By reflective-mode small-angle X-ray scattering, the similarity in contact resistivity among the barrier films may be related to interfacial impurities absorbed from the deposition process.

  11. Planar doped barrier subharmonic mixers (United States)

    Lee, T. H.; East, J. R.; Haddad, G. I.


    The Planar Doped Barrier (PDB) diode is a device consisting of a p(+) doping spike between two intrinsic layers and n(+) ohmic contacts. This device has the advantages of controllable barrier height, diode capacitance and forward to reverse current ratio. A symmetrically designed PDB has an anti-symmetric current vs. voltage characteristic and is ideal for use as millimeter wave subharmonic mixers. We have fabricated such devices with barrier heights of 0.3, 0.5 and 0.7 volts from GaAs and InGaAs using a multijunction honeycomb structure with junction diameters between one and ten microns. Initial RF measurements are encouraging. The 0.7 volt barrier height 4 micron GaAs devices were tested as subharmonic mixers at 202 GHz with an IF frequency of 1 GHz and had 18 dB of conversion loss. The estimated mismatch loss was 7 dB and was due to higher diode capacitance. The LO frequency was 100.5 GHz and the pump power was 8 mW.

  12. FX barriers with smile dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baker, Glyn; Beneder, Reimer; Zilber, Alex


    Our mandate in this work has been to isolate the features of smile consistent models that are most relevant to the pricing of barrier options. We consider the two classical approaches of stochastic and (parametric) local volatility. Although neither has been particularly successful in practice their

  13. Plastic Schottky barrier solar cells (United States)

    Waldrop, James R.; Cohen, Marshall J.


    A photovoltaic cell structure is fabricated from an active medium including an undoped, intrinsically p-type organic semiconductor comprising polyacetylene. When a film of such material is in rectifying contact with a magnesium electrode, a Schottky-barrier junction is obtained within the body of the cell structure. Also, a gold overlayer passivates the magnesium layer on the undoped polyacetylene film.

  14. A new alternative in vertical barrier wall construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rawl, G.F. [Horizontal Technologies Inc., Matlacha, FL (United States)


    A new proprietary vertical barrier wall system has been developed to revolutionize the construction process by eliminating many of the concerns of conventional installation method`s with respect to performance, installation constraints and costs. Vertical barrier walls have been used in the environmental and construction industries for a variety of purposes, usually for cut-off or containment. The typical scenario involves a groundwater contamination problem, in which a vertical barrier wall is utilized to contain or confine the spread of contaminants below the ground surface. Conventional construction techniques have been adequate in many applications, but often fall short of their intended purposes due to physical constraints. In many instances, the economics of these conventional methods have limited the utilization of physical barrier walls. Polywall, the trade name for this new barrier wall technology, was subsequently developed to meet these needs and offer a number of distinct advantages in a variety of scenarios by maximizing confinement and minimizing installation costs. Polywall is constructed from chemically resistant high density polyethylene (HDPE) plastic. It has proven in a half-dozen projects to date to be the most cost-effective and technically sound approach to many containment situations. This paper will cover the development of the technology and will provide a brief synopsis of several installations.

  15. Self-reported barriers to pediatric surgical care in Guatemala. (United States)

    Nguyen, Karissa; Bhattacharya, Syamal D; Maloney, Megan J; Figueroa, Ligia; Taicher, Brad M; Ross, Sherry; Rice, Henry E


    Access to pediatric surgical care is limited in low- and middle-income countries. Barriers must be identified before improvements can be made. This pilot study aimed to identify self-reported barriers to pediatric surgical care in Guatemala. We surveyed 78 families of Guatemalan children with surgical conditions who were seen at a pediatric surgical clinic in Guatemala City. Spanish translators were used to complete questionnaires regarding perceived barriers to surgical care. Surgical conditions included hernias, rectal prolapse, anorectal malformations, congenital heart defects, cryptorchidism, soft tissue masses, and vestibulourethral reflux. Average patient age was 8.2 years (range, 1 month to 17 years) with male predominance (62%). Families reported an average symptom duration of 3.7 years before clinic evaluation. Families traveled a variety of distances to obtain surgical care: 36 per cent were local (less than 10 km), 17 per cent traveled 10 to 50 km, and 47 per cent traveled greater than 50 km. Other barriers to surgery included financial (58.9%), excessive wait time in the national healthcare system (10. 2%), distrust of local surgeons (37.2%), and geographic inaccessibility to surgical care (10.2%). The majority of study patients required outpatient procedures, which could improve their quality of life. Many barriers to pediatric surgical care exist in Guatemala. Interventions to remove these obstacles may enhance access to surgery and benefit children in low- and middle-income countries.

  16. Community-based approaches for prevention of mother to child transmission in resource-poor settings: a social ecological review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Katirayi


    Full Text Available Introduction: Numerous barriers to optimal uptake of prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT services occur at community level (i.e., outside the healthcare setting. To achieve elimination of paediatric HIV, therefore, interventions must also work within communities to address these barriers and increase service use and need to be informed by evidence. This paper reviews community-based approaches that have been used in resource-limited settings to increase rates of PMTCT enrolment, retention in care and successful treatment outcomes. It aims to identify which interventions work, why they may do so and what knowledge gaps remain. Methods: First, we identified barriers to PMTCT that originate outside the health system. These were used to construct a social ecological framework categorizing barriers to PMTCT into the following levels of influence: individual, peer and family, community and sociocultural. We then used this conceptual framework to guide a review of the literature on community-based approaches, defined as interventions delivered outside of formal health settings, with the goal of increasing uptake, retention, adherence and positive psychosocial outcomes in PMTCT programmes in resource-poor countries. Results: Our review found evidence of effectiveness of strategies targeting individuals and peer/family levels (e.g., providing household HIV testing and training peer counsellors to support exclusive breastfeeding and at community level (e.g., participatory women's groups and home-based care to support adherence and retention. Evidence is more limited for complex interventions combining multiple strategies across different ecological levels. There is often little information describing implementation; and approaches such as “community mobilization” remain poorly defined. Conclusions: Evidence from existing community approaches can be adapted for use in planning PMTCT. However, for successful replication of evidence

  17. Research and Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Pumain


    Full Text Available The present situation provides a challenge for us to reconsider the necessary link between science and pedagogy, between research and the transmission of knowledge. The Ministry of National education has just inaugurated a broad consultation of teachers on every level with a view to modernising and giving coherence to the programs of secondary education. Armand Frémont will head the group of experts responsible for history and geography. Is this a coincidence? The changeover in the jury for t...

  18. Quantum Contact Transmission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Abstract:Quantum transmission is based on quantum entanglement, which is a kind of the phenomenon of quantum mechanics. Quantum object refers to two or more between the localized, the classic strong correlation. When two object quantum entanglement in the quantum state is not independent, but related, and the correlation distance, a pair of electronic of entanglement state, no matter how far apart, they spin direction will remain an up and a down. If one of the electronic spin direction is changed, another of the electron spin direction wil follow to change immediately.

  19. Transmission Properties of Fiber Probes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Chun-rong; ZHU Sheng-xiang; XIAO Zhi-gang


    Transmission properties of tapered fiber including right cone fiber and bend optical fiber are discussed. The transmission efficiency of the tapered fiber is measured. The curve of transmission efficiency versus taper cone angle is given. By the scalar wave equation and Gaussian approximation, transmission properties of the two kinds of tapered fibers are analyzed, the power losses caused by taper cone angle and by the bending are also calculated. From the experiments and theoretical analysis, it could come to a conclusion that the wider the taper cone angle is, the higher the transmission efficiency will be.

  20. [Oral transmission of Chagas' disease]. (United States)

    Toso M, Alberto; Vial U, Felipe; Galanti, Norbel


    The traditional transmission pathways of Chagas' disease are vectorial, transfusional, transplacental and organ transplantation. However, oral transmission is gaining importance. The first evidence of oral transmission was reported in Brazil in 1965. Nowadays the oral route is the transmission mode in 50% of cases in the Amazon river zone. Oral infection is produced by the ingestion of infected triatomine bugs or their feces, undercooked meat from infested host animals and food contaminated with urine or anal secretion of infected marsupials. Therefore travelers to those zones should be advised about care to be taken with ingested food. In Chile, this new mode of transmission should be considered in public health policies.

  1. Thermal barrier coatings for heat engine components (United States)

    Levine, S. R.; Miller, R. A.; Hodge, P. E.


    A comprehensive NASA-Lewis program of coating development for aircraft gas turbine blades and vanes is presented. Improved ceramic layer compositions are investigated, along the MCrAlY bond films and the methods of uniform deposition of the coatings; the thermomechanical and fuel impurity tolerance limits of the coatings are being studied. Materials include the ZrO2-Y2O3/NiCrAlY system; the effects of the bond coat and zirconia composition on coating life and Mach 1 burner rig test results are discussed. It is concluded that Diesel engines can also utilize thermal barrier coatings; they have been used successfully on piston crowns and exhaust valves of shipboard engines to combat lower grade fuel combustion corrosion.

  2. Improving thermal barrier coatings by laser remelting. (United States)

    Múnez, C J; Gómez-García, J; Sevillano, F; Poza, P; Utrilla, M V


    Thermal barrier coatings are extensively used to protect metallic components in applications where the operating conditions include aggressive environment at high temperatures. These coatings are usually processed by thermal spraying techniques and the resulting microstructure includes thin and large splats, associated with the deposition of individual droplets, with porosity between splats. This porosity reduces the oxidation and corrosion resistance favouring the entrance of aggressive species during service. To overcome this limitation, the top coat could be modified by laser glazing reducing surface roughness and sealing open porosity. ZrO2(Y2O3) top coat and NiCrAlY bond coating were air plasma sprayed onto an Inconel 600 Ni base alloy. The top coat was laser remelted and a densified ceramic layer was induced in the top surface of the ceramic coating. This layer inhibited the ingress of aggressive species and delayed bond coat oxidation.

  3. Ceramides and barrier function in healthy skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mutanu Jungersted, Jakob; Hellgren, Lars; Høgh, Julie Kaae


    Lipids in the stratum corneum are key components in the barrier function of the skin. Changes in lipid composition related to eczematous diseases are well known, but limited data are available on variations within healthy skin. The objective of the present study was to compare ceramide subgroups...... and ceramide/cholesterol ratios in young, old, male and female healthy skin. A total of 55 participants with healthy skin was included in the study. Lipid profiles were correlated with transepidermal water loss and with information on dry skin from a questionnaire including 16 people. No statistically...... significant differences were found between young and old skin for ceramide subgroups or ceramide/cholesterol ratios, and there was no statistically significant correlation between answers about dry skin and ceramide levels. Interestingly, a statistically significant higher ceramide/cholesterol ratio was found...

  4. Ceramides and barrier function in healthy skin. (United States)

    Mutanu Jungersted, Jakob; Hellgren, Lars I; Høgh, Julie K; Drachmann, T; Jemec, Gregor B E; Agner, Tove


    Lipids in the stratum corneum are key components in the barrier function of the skin. Changes in lipid composition related to eczematous diseases are well known, but limited data are available on variations within healthy skin. The objective of the present study was to compare ceramide subgroups and ceramide/cholesterol ratios in young, old, male and female healthy skin. A total of 55 participants with healthy skin was included in the study. Lipid profiles were correlated with transepidermal water loss and with information on dry skin from a questionnaire including 16 people. No statistically significant differences were found between young and old skin for ceramide subgroups or ceramide/cholesterol ratios, and there was no statistically significant correlation between answers about dry skin and ceramide levels. Interestingly, a statistically significant higher ceramide/cholesterol ratio was found for men than for women (p = 0.02).

  5. Ponderomotive Barrier as a Maxwell Demon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    I.Y. Dodin; N.J. Fisch; J.M. Rax


    The possibility of efficient ponderomotive current drive in a magnetized plasma was reported recently in [Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 205004 (2003)]. Precise limitations on the efficiency are now given through a comprehensive analytical and numerical study of single-particle dynamics under the action of a cyclotron-resonant rf drive in various field configurations. Expressions for the particle energy gain and acceleration along the dc magnetic field are obtained. The fundamental correlation between the two effects is described. A second fundamental quantity, namely the ratio of the potential barrier to the energy gain, can be changed by altering the field configuration. The asymmetric ponderomotive current drive effect can be optimized by minimizing the transverse heating.

  6. Barriers to health care for undocumented immigrants: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hacker K


    Full Text Available Karen Hacker,1,2 Maria Anies,2 Barbara L Folb,2,3 Leah Zallman4–6 1Allegheny County Health Department, Pittsburgh, PA, USA; 2Graduate School of Public Health, 3Health Sciences Library System, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA; 4Institute for Community Health, Cambridge, MA, USA; 5Cambridge Health Alliance, Cambridge, MA, USA; 6Harvard School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: With the unprecedented international migration seen in recent years, policies that limit health care access have become prevalent. Barriers to health care for undocumented immigrants go beyond policy and range from financial limitations, to discrimination and fear of deportation. This paper is aimed at reviewing the literature on barriers to health care for undocumented immigrants and identifying strategies that have or could be used to address these barriers. To address study questions, we conducted a literature review of published articles from the last 10 years in PubMed using three main concepts: immigrants, undocumented, and access to health care. The search yielded 341 articles of which 66 met study criteria. With regard to barriers, we identified barriers in the policy arena focused on issues related to law and policy including limitations to access and type of health care. These varied widely across countries but ultimately impacted the type and amount of health care any undocumented immigrant could receive. Within the health system, barriers included bureaucratic obstacles including paperwork and registration systems. The alternative care available (safety net was generally limited and overwhelmed. Finally, there was evidence of widespread discriminatory practices within the health care system itself. The individual level focused on the immigrant’s fear of deportation, stigma, and lack of capital (both social and financial to obtain services. Recommendations identified in the papers reviewed included advocating for policy change to increase

  7. Electronic tunneling through a potential barrier on the surface of a topological insulator (United States)

    Zhou, Benliang; Zhou, Benhu; Zhou, Guanghui


    We investigate the tunneling transport for electrons on the surface of a topological insulator (TI) through an electrostatic potential barrier. By using the Dirac equation with the continuity conditions for all segments of wave functions at the interfaces between regions inside and outside the barrier, we calculate analytically the transmission probability and conductance for the system. It is demonstrated that, the Klein paradox can also been observed in the system same as in graphene system. Interestingly, the conductance reaches the minimum value when the incident electron energy is equal to the barrier strength. Moreover, with increasing barrier width, the conductance turns up some tunneling oscillation peaks, and larger barrier strength can cause lower conductance, shorter period but larger oscillation amplitude. The oscillation amplitude decreases as the barrier width increases, which is similar as that of the system consisting of the compressive uniaxial strain applied on a TI, but somewhat different from that of graphene system where the oscillation amplitude is a constant. The findings here imply that an electrostatic barrier can greatly influence the electron tunneling transport of the system, and may provide a new way to realize directional filtering of electrons.

  8. Almost there: transmission routes of bacterial symbionts between trophic levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elad Chiel

    Full Text Available Many intracellular microbial symbionts of arthropods are strictly vertically transmitted and manipulate their host's reproduction in ways that enhance their own transmission. Rare horizontal transmission events are nonetheless necessary for symbiont spread to novel host lineages. Horizontal transmission has been mostly inferred from phylogenetic studies but the mechanisms of spread are still largely a mystery. Here, we investigated transmission of two distantly related bacterial symbionts--Rickettsia and Hamiltonella--from their host, the sweet potato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, to three species of whitefly parasitoids: Eretmocerus emiratus, Eretmocerus eremicus and Encarsia pergandiella. We also examined the potential for vertical transmission of these whitefly symbionts between parasitoid generations. Using florescence in situ hybridization (FISH and transmission electron microscopy we found that Rickettsia invades Eretmocerus larvae during development in a Rickettsia-infected host, persists in adults and in females, reaches the ovaries. However, Rickettsia does not appear to penetrate the oocytes, but instead is localized in the follicular epithelial cells only. Consequently, Rickettsia is not vertically transmitted in Eretmocerus wasps, a result supported by diagnostic polymerase chain reaction (PCR. In contrast, Rickettsia proved to be merely transient in the digestive tract of Encarsia and was excreted with the meconia before wasp pupation. Adults of all three parasitoid species frequently acquired Rickettsia via contact with infected whiteflies, most likely by feeding on the host hemolymph (host feeding, but the rate of infection declined sharply within a few days of wasps being removed from infected whiteflies. In contrast with Rickettsia, Hamiltonella did not establish in any of the parasitoids tested, and none of the parasitoids acquired Hamiltonella by host feeding. This study demonstrates potential routes and barriers to horizontal

  9. Barriers to healthcare contribute to delays in follow-up among women with abnormal cancer screening: data from the Patient Navigation Research Program (United States)

    Ramachandran, Ambili; Snyder, Frederick; Katz, Mira L.; Darnell, Julie; Dudley, Donald; Patierno, Steven R.; Sanders, Mechelle R; Valverde, Patricia A; Simon, Melissa A; Warren-Mears, Victoria; Battaglia, Tracy A.


    Background There is limited understanding of the association between barriers to care and clinical outcomes within patient navigation programs. Methods Secondary analyses of data from the intervention arms of the Patient Navigation Research Program (PNRP), including navigated participants with abnormal breast and cervical cancer screening tests from 2007 to 2010. Independent variables were (a) number of unique barriers to care (0, 1, 2, or 3+) documented during patient navigation encounters and (b) presence of socio-legal barriers originating from social policy (yes/no). Median time to diagnostic resolution of index screening abnormalities was estimated using Kaplan-Meier cumulative incidence curves. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression examined the impact of barriers on time to resolution, controlling for socio-demographics and stratifying by study center. Results Among 2600 breast participants, three-quarters had barriers to care (25% 1 barrier, 16% 2 barriers and 34% 3+ barriers). Among 1387 cervical participants, more than half had barriers (31% 1 barrier, 11% 2 barriers, and 13% 3+ barriers). Among breast participants, the presence of barriers was associated with less timely resolution for any number of barriers compared to no barriers. Among cervical participants, only the presence of 2 or more barriers was associated with less timely resolution. Both types of barriers, socio-legal and other barriers, were associated with delay among breast and cervical participants. Conclusions Navigated women with barriers resolve cancer screening abnormalities at a slower rate compared to navigated women with no barriers. Further innovations in navigation care are necessary to maximize the impact of patient navigation programs nationwide. PMID:26385420

  10. Autostereoscopic display concept with time-sequential wavelength-selective filter-barrier (United States)

    Jurk, Silvio; Kuhlmey, Mathias; Bartmann, Roland; Duckstein, Bernd; de la Barré, René


    A spatially multiplexed autostereoscopic 3D display design with a strip barrier consisting of RGB-color filters is presented. The wavelength selective filter barrier emits the light from a display area larger than that of common autostereoscopic barrier displays. However, such construction is still used rather rarely. The time sequential operation mode is a supplemental option. Wavelength selective filter barrier arrangements exhibit characteristics different from common barrier displays with similar barrier pitch and ascent. In particular these constructions show strong angular luminance dependency under barrier inclination specified by correspondent slant angle. In time sequential implementation it is important to avoid that quick eye or eyelid movement lead to visible color artifacts. Those circumstances limit the possibility to find well working and usable display designs superior to usual barrier displays. The newly introduced design is usable as a multi user display as well as a single user system with user adaptive control. In case of tracked single user mode the adaption in x-z-direction is continuously. The design has been modelled with simulation software developed for that purpose. The modelling of wavelength-selective barriers was used to calculate the light ray distribution properties of that arrangement. For the experimental verification of the image separation and evaluation of image quality, commercially available display components were combined for a display demonstrator.

  11. Dielectric barrier discharges applied for optical spectrometry (United States)

    Brandt, S.; Schütz, A.; Klute, F. D.; Kratzer, J.; Franzke, J.


    The present review reflects the importance of dielectric barrier discharges for optical spectrometric detection in analytical chemistry. In contrast to usual discharges with a direct current the electrodes are separated by at least one dielectric barrier. There are two main features of the dielectric barrier discharges: they can serve as dissociation and excitation devices as well as ionization sources, respectively. This article portrays various application fields of dielectric barrier discharges in analytical chemistry used for elemental and molecular detection with optical spectrometry.

  12. Application of face-gear drives in helicopter transmissions (United States)

    Litvin, F. L.; Wang, J.-C.; Bossler, R. B., Jr.; Chen, Y.-J. D.; Heath, G.; Lewicki, D. G.


    The use of face gears in helicopter transmissions was explored. A light-weight, split torque transmission design utilizing face gears was described. Face-gear design and geometry were investigated. Topics included tooth generation, limiting inner and outer radii, tooth contact analysis, contact ratio, gear eccentricity, and structural stiffness. Design charts were developed to determine minimum and maximum face-gear inner and outer radii. Analytical study of transmission error showed face-gear drives were relatively insensitive to gear misalignment, but tooth contact was affected by misalignment. A method of localizing bearing contact to compensate for misalignment was explored. The proper choice of shaft support stiffness enabled good load sharing in the split torque transmission design. Face-gear experimental studies were also included and the feasibility of face gears in high-speed, high-load applications such as helicopter transmissions was demonstrated.

  13. Application of Face-Gear Drives in Helicopter Transmissions (United States)

    Litvin, F. L.; Wang, J.-C.; Bossler, R. B., Jr.; Chen, Y.-J. D.; Heath, G.; Lewicki, D. G.


    The use of face gears in helicopter transmissions was explored. A light-weight, split torque transmission design utilizing face gears was described. Face-gear design and geometry were investigated. Topics included tooth generation, limiting inner and outer radii, tooth contact analysis, contact ratio, gear eccentricity, and structural stiffness. Design charts were developed to determine minimum and maximum face-gear inner and outer radii. Analytical study of transmission error showed face-gear drives were relatively insensitive to gear misalignment, but tooth contact was affected by misalignment. A method of localizing bearing contact to compensate for misalignment was explored. The proper choice of shaft support stiffness enabled good load sharing in the split torque transmission design. Face-gear experimental studies were also included and the feasibility of face gears in high-speed, high-load applications such as helicopter transmissions was demonstrated.

  14. Adaptive FEC coding and cooperative relayed wireless image transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansong Xu


    Full Text Available High quality image transmission through smart devices requires high transmission rate, throughput and low Bit Error Rate (BER. At the same time, energy efficiency is always the top issue for the battery-based smart devices such as smart phone, tablets, etc. In this paper, an adaptive Forward Error Correction (FEC coding and cooperative relayed image transmission system is proposed, through which both transmission quality and energy efficiency could be promised under complex mobile communication channel environment. There are four steps in the proposed scheme: (1 Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT and wavelet based Decomposition, (2 Pixel-Position (PP information and Pixel-Value (PV information split based unequal image resource allocation, (3 transmission through channel fading and AWGN communication environment, (4 multiple-relays and adaptive channel coding. Comparing to traditional methods, our proposed method is more practical to transmit high quality images through battery-limited smart phone platforms.

  15. Research on Electro-Magnetic Environment of UHV Transmission Lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Employing even higher voltage level to promote power transmission economy is an important subject in the program of power transmission from west to east. The influence of electro-magnetic environment of transmission project being closely related with human health and construction cost has to be seriously considered before advancing transmission voltage. This paper analyzes and discusses overseas and domestic research achievements on radio interference, audible noise, power frequency electric field, power frequency magnetic fields, DC resultant field intensity and ion stream involved in power transmission at ultra-high-voltage (UHV)AC and ± 800 kV DC or even higher voltage levels. Suggestions on limiting electro-magnetic effects and their ceiling value as well as measures to improve electro-magnetic environment are put forward.

  16. Transmission expansion in an oligopoly considering generation investment equilibrium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taheri, S. Saeid; Kazempour, Jalal; Seyedshenava, Seyedjalal


    Transmission expansion planning (TEP) is a sophisticated decision-making problem, especially in an oligopolistic electricity market in which a number of strategic (price-maker) producers compete together. A transmission system planner, who is in charge of making TEP decisions, requires considering...... the future generation investment actions. However, in such an oligopolistic market, each producer makes its own strategic generation investment decisions. This motivates the transmission system planner to consider the generation investment decision-making problem of all producers within its TEP model....... This paper proposes a tri-level TEP decision-making model to be solved by the transmission system planner, whose objective is to maximize the social welfare of the market minus the expansion costs, and whose constraints are the transmission expansion limits as well as the generation investment equilibrium...

  17. Assessment of skin barrier function and biochemical changes of ex vivo human skin in response to physical and chemical barrier disruption. (United States)

    Döge, Nadine; Avetisyan, Araks; Hadam, Sabrina; Pfannes, Eva Katharina Barbosa; Rancan, Fiorenza; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike; Vogt, Annika


    Topical dermatotherapy is intended to be used on diseased skin. Novel drug delivery systems even address differences between intact and diseased skin underlining the need for pre-clinical assessment of different states of barrier disruption. Herein, we studied how short-term incubation in culture media compared to incubation in humidified chambers affects human skin barrier function and viability. On both models we assessed different types and intensities of physical and chemical barrier disruption methods with regard to structural integrity, biophysical parameters and cytokine levels. Tissue degeneration and proliferative activity limited the use of tissue cultures to 48h. Viability is better preserved in cultured tissue. Tape-stripping (50×TS) and 4h sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) pre-treatment were identified as highly reproducible and effective procedures for barrier disruption. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) values reproducibly increased with the intensity of disruption while sebum content and skin surface pH were of limited value. Interleukin (IL)-6/8 and various chemokines and proteases were increased in tape-stripped skin which was more pronounced in SLS-treated skin tissue extracts. Thus, albeit limited to 48h, cultured full-thickness skin maintained several barrier characteristics and responded to different intensities of barrier disruption. Potentially, these models can be used to assess pre-clinically the efficacy and penetration of anti-inflammatory compounds.

  18. Household Transmission of Vibrio cholerae in Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan D Sugimoto


    Full Text Available Vibrio cholerae infections cluster in households. This study's objective was to quantify the relative contribution of direct, within-household exposure (for example, via contamination of household food, water, or surfaces to endemic cholera transmission. Quantifying the relative contribution of direct exposure is important for planning effective prevention and control measures.Symptom histories and multiple blood and fecal specimens were prospectively collected from household members of hospital-ascertained cholera cases in Bangladesh from 2001-2006. We estimated the probabilities of cholera transmission through 1 direct exposure within the household and 2 contact with community-based sources of infection. The natural history of cholera infection and covariate effects on transmission were considered. Significant direct transmission (p-value<0.0001 occurred among 1414 members of 364 households. Fecal shedding of O1 El Tor Ogawa was associated with a 4.9% (95% confidence interval: 0.9%-22.8% risk of infection among household contacts through direct exposure during an 11-day infectious period (mean length. The estimated 11-day risk of O1 El Tor Ogawa infection through exposure to community-based sources was 2.5% (0.8%-8.0%. The corresponding estimated risks for O1 El Tor Inaba and O139 infection were 3.7% (0.7%-16.6% and 8.2% (2.1%-27.1% through direct exposure, and 3.4% (1.7%-6.7% and 2.0% (0.5%-7.3% through community-based exposure. Children under 5 years-old were at elevated risk of infection. Limitations of the study may have led to an underestimation of the true risk of cholera infection. For instance, available covariate data may have incompletely characterized levels of pre-existing immunity to cholera infection. Transmission via direct exposure occurring outside of the household was not considered.Direct exposure contributes substantially to endemic transmission of symptomatic cholera in an urban setting. We provide the first estimate of

  19. Article Including Environmental Barrier Coating System (United States)

    Lee, Kang N. (Inventor)


    An enhanced environmental barrier coating for a silicon containing substrate. The enhanced barrier coating may include a bond coat doped with at least one of an alkali metal oxide and an alkali earth metal oxide. The enhanced barrier coating may include a composite mullite bond coat including BSAS and another distinct second phase oxide applied over said surface.

  20. Barriers to Mammography among Inadequately Screened Women (United States)

    Stoll, Carolyn R. T.; Roberts, Summer; Cheng, Meng-Ru; Crayton, Eloise V.; Jackson, Sherrill; Politi, Mary C.


    Mammography use has increased over the past 20 years, yet more than 30% of women remain inadequately screened. Structural barriers can deter individuals from screening, however, cognitive, emotional, and communication barriers may also prevent mammography use. This study sought to identify the impact of number and type of barriers on mammography…

  1. Design of the Muong Chuoi Barrier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Vliegen, K.; Van Oorschot, N.; Meinen, N.; Van Dijk, S.; Reimert, Z.


    Ho Chi Minh City has to deal with severe flooding in the rainy season. To prevent the city from this flooding, MARD set up plan 1547. The main idea of the plan is to build a ring dike around HCMC in combination with several movable tidal barriers. One of these barriers is the Muong Chuoi Barrier. I

  2. Market barriers to welfare product innovations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binnekamp, M.H.A.; Ingenbleek, P.T.M.


    New products that are based on higher animal welfare standards encounter several barriers on the road to market acceptance. The authors focus on the Dutch poultry sector and distinguish between retailer and consumer barriers. Retailer barriers include the powerful position of retailers, the price co

  3. Contributions of the Prion Protein Sequence, Strain, and Environment to the Species Barrier. (United States)

    Sharma, Aditi; Bruce, Kathryn L; Chen, Buxin; Gyoneva, Stefka; Behrens, Sven H; Bommarius, Andreas S; Chernoff, Yury O


    Amyloid propagation requires high levels of sequence specificity so that only molecules with very high sequence identity can form cross-β-sheet structures of sufficient stringency for incorporation into the amyloid fibril. This sequence specificity presents a barrier to the transmission of prions between two species with divergent sequences, termed a species barrier. Here we study the relative effects of protein sequence, seed conformation, and environment on the species barrier strength and specificity for the yeast prion protein Sup35p from three closely related species of the Saccharomyces sensu stricto group; namely, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomyces bayanus, and Saccharomyces paradoxus. Through in vivo plasmid shuffle experiments, we show that the major characteristics of the transmission barrier and conformational fidelity are determined by the protein sequence rather than by the cellular environment. In vitro data confirm that the kinetics and structural preferences of aggregation of the S. paradoxus and S. bayanus proteins are influenced by anions in accordance with their positions in the Hofmeister series, as observed previously for S. cerevisiae. However, the specificity of the species barrier is primarily affected by the sequence and the type of anion present during the formation of the initial seed, whereas anions present during the seeded aggregation process typically influence kinetics rather than the specificity of prion conversion. Therefore, our work shows that the protein sequence and the conformation variant (strain) of the prion seed are the primary determinants of cross-species prion specificity both in vivo and in vitro.

  4. Overcome barriers to career success

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raudsepp, E.


    A test is given to determine if an engineer suffers from one of the three barriers to technical success: fear of success, fear of failure, or perfectionism. As in most such tests, the middle way is best. Successful engineers know that perfection cannot be attained, that they don't have time to worry about failure or success, and that by aiming and perservering in doing things well, success can be achieved.

  5. Wet Work and Barrier Function. (United States)

    Fartasch, Manigé


    Wet work defined as unprotected exposure to humid environments/water; high frequencies of hand washing procedures or prolonged glove occlusion is believed to cause irritant contact dermatitis in a variety of occupations. This review considers the recent studies on wet-work exposure and focuses on its influence on barrier function. There are different methods to study the effect of wet work on barrier function. On the one hand, occupational cohorts at risk can be monitored prospectively by skin bioengineering technology and clinical visual scoring systems; on the other hand, experimental test procedures with defined application of water, occlusion and detergents are performed in healthy volunteers. Both epidemiological studies and the results of experimental procedures are compared and discussed. A variety of epidemiological studies analyze occupational cohorts at risk. The measurement of transepidermal water loss, an indicator of the integrity of the epidermal barrier, and clinical inspection of the skin have shown that especially the frequencies of hand washing and water contact/contact to aqueous mixtures seem to be the main factors for the occurrence of barrier alterations. On the other hand, in a single cross-sectional study, prolonged glove wearing (e.g. occlusion for 6 h per shift in clean-room workers) without exposure to additional hazardous substances seemed not to affect the skin negatively. But regarding the effect of occlusion, there is experimental evidence that previously occluded skin challenged with sodium lauryl sulfate leads to an increased susceptibility to the irritant with an aggravation of the irritant reaction. These findings might have relevance for the real-life situation in so far as after occupational glove wearing, the skin is more susceptible to potential hazards to the skin even during leisure hours.

  6. Removing Barriers to Interdisciplinary Research

    CERN Document Server

    Jacobs, Naomi


    A significant amount of high-impact contemporary scientific research occurs where biology, computer science, engineering and chemistry converge. Although programmes have been put in place to support such work, the complex dynamics of interdisciplinarity are still poorly understood. In this paper we interrogate the nature of interdisciplinary research and how we might measure its "success", identify potential barriers to its implementation, and suggest possible mechanisms for removing these impediments.

  7. Flexible pile thermal barrier insulator (United States)

    Anderson, G. E.; Fell, D. M.; Tesinsky, J. S. (Inventor)


    A flexible pile thermal barrier insulator included a plurality of upstanding pile yarns. A generally planar backing section supported the upstanding pile yarns. The backing section included a plurality of filler yarns forming a mesh in a first direction. A plurality of warp yarns were looped around said filler yarns and pile yarns in the backing section and formed a mesh in a second direction. A binder prevented separation of the yarns in the backing section.

  8. Lake Borgne Surge Barrier Study (United States)


    Savant , and Darla C. McVan September 2010 Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. ERDC/CHL TR-10-10 September 2010 Lake...Borgne Surge Barrier Study S. Keith Martin, Gaurav Savant , and Darla C. McVan Coastal and Hydraulics Laboratory U.S. Army Engineer Research and...conducted by Keith Martin, Dr. Gaurav Savant , and Darla C. McVan. This work was conducted at the Coastal and Hydraulics Laboratory (CHL) of the

  9. Stress transmission in soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lamandé, Mathieu; Schjønning, Per

    We urgently need increased quantitative knowledge on stress transmission in real soils loaded with agricultural machinery. 3D measurements of vertical stresses under tracked wheels were performed in situ in a Stagnic Luvisol (clay content 20 %) continuously cropped with small grain cereals......). Seven load cells were inserted horizontally from a pit with minimal disturbance of soil in each of three depths (0.3, 0.6 and 0.9 m), covering the width of the wheeled area. The position of the wheel relative to the transducers was recorded using a laser sensor. Finally, the vertical stresses near...... the soil-tyre interface were measured in separate tests by 17 stress transducers across the width of the tyres. The results showed that the inflation pressure controlled the level of maximum stresses at 0.3 m depth, while the wheel load was correlated to the measured stresses at 0.9 m depth. This supports...

  10. Acoustic impact on the laminated plates placed between barriers (United States)

    Paimushin, V. N.; Gazizullin, R. K.; Fedotenkov, G. V.


    On the basis of previously derived equations, analytical solutions are established on the forced vibrations of two-layer and three-layers rectangular plates hinged in an opening of absolutely rigid walls during the transmission of monoharmonic sound waves. It is assumed that the partition wall is situated between two absolutely rigid barriers, one of them by harmonic oscillation with a given displacements amplitude on the plate forms the incident sound wave, and the other is stationary and has a coating of deformable energy absorbing material with high damping properties. The behavior of acoustic environments in the spaces between the deformable plate and the barriers described by classical wave equation based on the ideal compressible fluid model. To describe the process of dynamic deformation of the energy absorbing coating of fixed barrier, two-dimensional equations of motion based on the use of models transversely soft layer are derived with a linear approximation of the displacement field in the thickness direction of the coating and taking into account the damping properties of the material and the hysteresis model for it. The influence of the physical and mechanical properties of the concerned mechanical system and the frequency of the incident sound wave on the parameters of its insulation properties of the plate, as well as on the parameters of the stress-strain state of the plate has been analyzed.

  11. Surmounting elusive barriers: the case for bioethics mediation. (United States)

    Bergman, Edward J


    This article describes, analyzes, and advocates for management of clinical healthcare conflict by a process commonly referred to as bioethics mediation. Section I provides a brief introduction to classical mediation outside the realm of clinical healthcare. Section II highlights certain distinguishing characteristics of bioethics mediation. Section III chronicles the history of bioethics mediation and references a number of seminal writings on the subject. Finally, Section IV analyzes barriers that have, thus far, limited the widespread implementation of bioethics mediation.

  12. Disturbed skin barrier in children with chronic kidney disease



    Background There are limited data on skin lesions in children with end-stage renal failure. The aim of the study was an evaluation of the skin barrier in children with different stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD). The prevalence of xerosis, its severity, as well as its link selected demographic factors, were examined. Methods The study included 103 children: 72 with CKD stages 3–5 (38 on conservative treatment and 34 on dialysis) and 31 patients with primary monosymptomatic nocturnal enur...

  13. High speed electrical transmission line design and characterization (United States)

    Bates, R.; Buttar, C.; Buytaert, J.; Eklund, L.; de Acedo, L. F. S.; Longstaff, I.; Naik, S.; Sullivan, S.; Wraight, K.


    High Energy Physics (HEP) experiments have unique requirements for data communication. High data speeds, combined with extreme restrictions on materials allowed, leads to custom transmission lines. This paper will present transmission line design theory, simulation and testing methods. Transmission line designs options like flexes and rigid PCBs as well as cables will be studied. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) software packages simulate energy dissipation and quality of transmitted signals. The characterisation techniques of time-domain reflectometry and frequency-domain measurements are discussed and compared. Bit-error-rate testing is presented and its limitations for design discussed. Methods to improve quality, like three different types of equalization are described.

  14. A study on the quantitative evaluation of skin barrier function (United States)

    Maruyama, Tomomi; Kabetani, Yasuhiro; Kido, Michiko; Yamada, Kenji; Oikaze, Hirotoshi; Takechi, Yohei; Furuta, Tomotaka; Ishii, Shoichi; Katayama, Haruna; Jeong, Hieyong; Ohno, Yuko


    We propose a quantitative evaluation method of skin barrier function using Optical Coherence Microscopy system (OCM system) with coherency of near-infrared light. There are a lot of skin problems such as itching, irritation and so on. It has been recognized skin problems are caused by impairment of skin barrier function, which prevents damage from various external stimuli and loss of water. To evaluate skin barrier function, it is a common strategy that they observe skin surface and ask patients about their skin condition. The methods are subjective judgements and they are influenced by difference of experience of persons. Furthermore, microscopy has been used to observe inner structure of the skin in detail, and in vitro measurements like microscopy requires tissue sampling. On the other hand, it is necessary to assess objectively skin barrier function by quantitative evaluation method. In addition, non-invasive and nondestructive measuring method and examination changes over time are needed. Therefore, in vivo measurements are crucial for evaluating skin barrier function. In this study, we evaluate changes of stratum corneum structure which is important for evaluating skin barrier function by comparing water-penetrated skin with normal skin using a system with coherency of near-infrared light. Proposed method can obtain in vivo 3D images of inner structure of body tissue, which is non-invasive and non-destructive measuring method. We formulate changes of skin ultrastructure after water penetration. Finally, we evaluate the limit of performance of the OCM system in this work in order to discuss how to improve the OCM system.

  15. International Transmission Under Bretton Woods


    Alan C. Stockman


    This paper explores the main channels of international transmission of economic disturbances under the Bretton Woods System and presents evidence on the short-run international transmission of inflation under that system. There appears to have been little short-run international transmission of inflation. Countries with one-percent higher money-growth rates subsequently had one-fourth to one-half percent higher inflation and a (predictably) lower real interest rate. This probably reflects eff...

  16. The effect of pH on hydrolysis, cross-linking and barrier properties of starch barriers containing citric acid. (United States)

    Olsson, Erik; Menzel, Carolin; Johansson, Caisa; Andersson, Roger; Koch, Kristine; Järnström, Lars


    Citric acid cross-linking of starch for e.g. food packaging applications has been intensely studied during the last decade as a method of producing water-insensitive renewable barrier coatings. We managed to improve a starch formulation containing citric acid as cross-linking agent for industrial paper coating applications by adjusting the pH of the starch solution. The described starch formulations exhibited both cross-linking of starch by citric acid as well as satisfactory barrier properties, e.g. fairly low OTR values at 50% RH that are comparable with EVOH. Furthermore, it has been shown that barrier properties of coated papers with different solution pH were correlated to molecular changes in starch showing both hydrolysis and cross-linking of starch molecules in the presence of citric acid. Hydrolysis was shown to be almost completely hindered at solution pH≥4 at curing temperatures≤105 °C and at pH≥5 at curing temperatures≤150 °C, whereas cross-linking still occurred to some extent at pH≤6.5 and drying temperatures as low as 70 °C. Coated papers showed a minimum in water vapor transmission rate at pH 4 of the starch coating solution, corresponding to the point where hydrolysis was effectively hindered but where a significant degree of cross-linking still occurred.

  17. Mathematical modeling of complex noise barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayek, S.I.


    Mathematical modeling of the noise reduction efficiency of highway noise barriers depends on the shape and absorptivity of the barrier, the influence of the impedance of the ground under the receiver, the atmospheric conditions as well as traffic details. The mathematical model for a barrier's noise reduction requires the knowledge of point-to-point acoustic diffraction models. In many instances, the shape of the barrier is simple; such as thin wall (edge), sharp wedge, and cylindrically topped berms. However, new designs of more efficient barriers have been investigated recently.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, S; Thad Adams, T


    Contamination of downstream hydrogen production plants or other users of high-temperature heat is a concern of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. Due to the high operating temperatures of the NGNP (850-900 C outlet temperature), tritium produced in the nuclear reactor can permeate through heat exchangers to reach the hydrogen production plant, where it can become incorporated into process chemicals or the hydrogen product. The concentration limit for tritium in the hydrogen product has not been established, but it is expected that any future limit on tritium concentration will be no higher than the air and water effluent limits established by the NRC and the EPA. A literature survey of tritium permeation barriers, capture systems, and mitigation measures is presented and technologies are identified that may reduce the movement of tritium to the downstream plant. Among tritium permeation barriers, oxide layers produced in-situ may provide the most suitable barriers, though it may be possible to use aluminized surfaces also. For tritium capture systems, the use of getters is recommended, and high-temperature hydride forming materials such as Ti, Zr, and Y are suggested. Tritium may also be converted to HTO in order to capture it on molecular sieves or getter materials. Counter-flow of hydrogen may reduce the flux of tritium through heat exchangers. Recommendations for research and development work are provided.

  19. Potential and barrier study. Energy efficiency in Norwegian vocational buildings; Potensial- og barrierestudie. Energieffektivisering i norske yrkesbygg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehn, Trond Ivar; Palm, Linn Therese; Bakken, Line; Nossum, Aase; Jordell, Hanne


    On behalf of Enova SF, Multiconsult AS and Analyse og Strategi AS conducted an analysis to identify potential and barriers related to commercial buildings energy performance. The aim of this study was to determine what is the potential for energy efficiency for Norwegian vocational buildings that distinguishes between theoretical, technical, financial and real potential. Technical potential is the percentage of the theoretical potential that is technically feasible. Economic potential is the proportion of technical potential that is economically profitable to implement. Economic potential varies with the energy price. Build a small part of the total potential in 2020. In the calculation of the real potential is taken into account induced potential in terms of that, each year, a percentage actually implementing energy conservation measures (energy efficiency ratio 2%), a percentage rehabilitating / upgrading existing buildings (rehab rate 1.5%), and that a proportion of new buildings built better than regulatory requirements (rate 10%). In real potential for energy efficiency is the proportion of the economic potential that is not natural triggered but which is limited by various barriers. In real potential also varies with energy price. Respondents in our study is particularly concerned with the economic barriers, and least concerned the technical barriers. Attitudes and knowledge barriers are also very important. Lack of knowledge the effects and benefits of energy efficiency means that negative attitudes persist and that myths about the lack of profitability continues to exist. Many believe this is due to lack the knowledge and can be the cause of other types of barriers such as economic barriers. It has been analyzed which part of the real potential bounded by the barriers, and which type of institutions in society that can reduce these barriers with various categories of instrument. Main barriers for existing buildings practical barriers, economic barriers and

  20. Na+/K+-ATPase α1 identified as an abundant protein in the blood-labyrinth barrier that plays an essential role in the barrier integrity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Yang

    Full Text Available The endothelial-blood/tissue barrier is critical for maintaining tissue homeostasis. The ear harbors a unique endothelial-blood/tissue barrier which we term "blood-labyrinth-barrier". This barrier is critical for maintaining inner ear homeostasis. Disruption of the blood-labyrinth-barrier is closely associated with a number of hearing disorders. Many proteins of the blood-brain-barrier and blood-retinal-barrier have been identified, leading to significant advances in understanding their tissue specific functions. In contrast, capillaries in the ear are small in volume and anatomically complex. This presents a challenge for protein analysis studies, which has resulted in limited knowledge of the molecular and functional components of the blood-labyrinth-barrier. In this study, we developed a novel method for isolation of the stria vascularis capillary from CBA/CaJ mouse cochlea and provided the first database of protein components in the blood-labyrinth barrier as well as evidence that the interaction of Na(+/K(+-ATPase α1 (ATP1A1 with protein kinase C eta (PKCη and occludin is one of the mechanisms of loud sound-induced vascular permeability increase.Using a mass-spectrometry, shotgun-proteomics approach combined with a novel "sandwich-dissociation" method, more than 600 proteins from isolated stria vascularis capillaries were identified from adult CBA/CaJ mouse cochlea. The ion transporter ATP1A1 was the most abundant protein in the blood-labyrinth barrier. Pharmacological inhibition of ATP1A1 activity resulted in hyperphosphorylation of tight junction proteins such as occludin which increased the blood-labyrinth-barrier permeability. PKCη directly interacted with ATP1A1 and was an essential mediator of ATP1A1-initiated occludin phosphorylation. Moreover, this identified signaling pathway was involved in the breakdown of the blood-labyrinth-barrier resulting from loud sound trauma.The results presented here provide a novel method for

  1. Dielectric barrier discharges in analytical chemistry. (United States)

    Meyer, C; Müller, S; Gurevich, E L; Franzke, J


    The present review reflects the importance of dielectric barrier discharges in analytical chemistry. Special about this discharge is-and in contrast to usual discharges with direct current-that the plasma is separated from one or two electrodes by a dielectric barrier. This gives rise to two main features of the dielectric barrier discharges; it can serve as dissociation and excitation device and as ionization mechanism, respectively. The article portrays the various application fields for dielectric barrier discharges in analytical chemistry, for example the use for elemental detection with optical spectrometry or as ionization source for mass spectrometry. Besides the introduction of different kinds of dielectric barrier discharges used for analytical chemistry from the literature, a clear and concise classification of dielectric barrier discharges into capacitively coupled discharges is provided followed by an overview about the characteristics of a dielectric barrier discharge concerning discharge properties and the ignition mechanism.

  2. Avoiding barriers in control of mowing robot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Bai-jing; QIAN Guo-hong; XIANG Zhong-ping; LI Zuo-peng


    Due to complicated barriers,it is difficult to track the path of the mowing robot and to avoid barriers.In order to solve the problem,a method based on distance-measuring sensors and fuzzy control inputs was proposed.Its track was composed of beelines and was easy to tail.The fuzzy control inputs were based on the front barrier distance and the difference between the left and right barrier distance measured by ultrasonic sensors;the output was the direction angle.The infrared sensors around the robot improved its safety in avoiding barriers.The result of the method was feasible,agile,and stable.The distance between the robot and the barriers could be changed by altering the inputs and outputs of fuzzy control and the length of the beelines.The disposed sensors can fulfill the need of the robot in avoiding barriers.

  3. The interior transmission problem and bounds on transmission eigenvalues

    CERN Document Server

    Hitrik, Michael; Ola, Petri; Päivärinta, Lassi


    We study the interior transmission eigenvalue problem for sign-definite multiplicative perturbations of the Laplacian in a bounded domain. We show that all but finitely many complex transmission eigenvalues are confined to a parabolic neighborhood of the positive real axis.

  4. The transmission interface constraint problem. Revision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldick, R.; Kahn, E.


    Electric power transmission systems exhibit a number of complex constraints on their operation and usage. When a network is subject to a constraint that limits the amount of power that can be moved from one region to another, there is said to be an interface limit. The power systems literature gives no general treatment of the engineering-economics of this ubiquitous phenomenon. Particular aspects of interface limits are typically discussed in sophisticated technical detail, but the general engineering-economic trade-offs involved in relieving interface constraints have not been systematically addressed. We approach this problem in the spirit of a heuristic model. Such models are quite valuable under current industry conditions because they delineate technical opportunities and choices in situations where there may be conflicting views among competing parties and regulatory authorities. We organize and enumerate the choices, clarify the practical conditions that dictate the optimum in particular cases, and help to motivate the final choices made by planners.

  5. Mesoscale geomorphic change on low energy barrier islands in Chesapeake Bay, U.S.A. (United States)

    Cooper, J. Andrew G.


    This paper presents an analysis of decadal (mesoscale) geomorphic change on sandy barrier islands in the fetch-limited environment of Chesapeake Bay. Low energy barrier islands exist in two settings: on the fringe of marshes and in open water and this analysis shows the various types of barrier island to be genetically related. Barrier islands that face the dominant wind and wave direction (E or W) retreat via barrier translation, preserving the barrier island volume. Those that exist in re-entrants are dominated by longshore transport processes, are strongly affected by sediment supply and are subject to disintegration. Marsh fringe barrier islands are perched on or draped over the surface of the underlying marsh. They migrate landwards via barrier translation during periodic high water events accompanied by large waves (hurricanes and northeasters). The underlying marsh surface erodes under all water levels and the rate of retreat of the barrier island and underlying marsh may take place at different rates, leading to various configurations from perched barrier islands several metres landward of the marsh edge, to barrier islands that have a sandy shoreface extending into the subtidal zone. The coastal configuration during landward retreat of marsh fringe barrier islands is subject to strong local control exerted by the underyling marsh topography. As erosion of marsh promontories occurs and marsh creeks are intersected and bypassed, the configuration is subject to rapid change. Periodic sediment influxes cause spits to develop at re-entrants in the marsh. The spits are initiated as extensions of adjacent marsh fringe barrier islands, but as the sediment volume is finite, the initial drift-aligned spits become sediment-starved and begin to develop a series of swash-aligned cells as they strive for morphodynamic equilibrium. The individual cells are stretched until breaches form in the barrier islands, creating inlets with tidal deltas. At this stage the low

  6. Thermal conductivity of thermal barrier coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klemens, P.G.; Gell, M. [Connecticut Univ., Storrs, CT (United States). Inst. of Materials Science


    In thermal barrier coatings and other ceramic oxides, heat is conducted by lattice waves, and also by a radiative component which becomes significant at high temperatures. The theory of heat conduction by lattice waves is reviewed in the equipartition limit (above room temperature). The conductivity is composed of contributions from a spectrum of waves, determined by the frequency dependent attenuation length. Interaction between lattice waves (intrinsic processes), scattering by atomic scale point defects and scattering by extended imperfections such as grain boundaries, each limit the attenuation length in different parts of the spectrum. Intrinsic processes yield a spectral conductivity which is independent of frequency. Point defects reduce the contribution of the high frequency spectrum, grain boundaries and other extended defects that of the low frequencies. These reductions are usually independent of each other. Estimates will be given for zirconia containing 7wt% Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and for yttrium aluminum garnet. They will be compared to measurements. The effects of grain size, cracks and porosity will be discussed both for the lattice and the radiative components. While the lattice component of the thermal conductivity is reduced substantially by decreasing the grain size to nanometers, the radiative component requires pores or other inclusions of micrometer scale. (orig.) 9 refs.

  7. Seed transmission rates of Bean pod mottle virus and Soybean mosaic virus in soybean may be affected by mixed infection or expression of the Kunitz trypsin inhibitor (United States)

    To facilitate their spread, plant viruses have developed several methods for dispersal including insect and seed transmission. While insect transmission requires virus stability against insect digestion, seed-transmitted viruses have to overcome barriers to entry into embryos. Bean pod mottle virus ...

  8. Horizontal versus familial transmission of Helicobacter pylori.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Schwarz


    transmission that is typical of developed countries. Predominantly familial transmission in urban societies is likely a result of modern living conditions with good sanitation and where physical contact between persons outside the core family is limited and regulated by societal rules. The patterns observed in rural South African families may be representative of large parts of the developing world.

  9. Acoustic data transmission method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duckworth, A.


    This patent describes a method for transmitting time line data through a drillstring having drill pipe sections connected end-to-end by joints from a first location below the surface of the earth to a second location at or near the surface of the earth, the length and cross-sectional area of the drill pipe sections being different from the length and cross-sectional area of the joints. It comprises generating acoustic data signals having a single frequency content in at least one passband of the drillstring; transmitting the data signals through the drillstring from either the first location to the second location or from the second location to the first location during a time period prior to the onset of reflective interference caused by the data signals reflecting from along the length of the drillstring, the time period being equal to or less than the time for the data signals to travel three lengths of the drillstring; stopping the transmission of data signals at the onset of the reflective interference and allowing the acoustic signals to substantially attenuate; and detecting the data signals at the respective first or second location.

  10. EC Transmission Line Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigelow, Tim S [ORNL


    The purpose of this document is to identify materials acceptable for use in the US ITER Project Office (USIPO)-supplied components for the ITER Electron cyclotron Heating and Current Drive (ECH&CD) transmission lines (TL), PBS-52. The source of material property information for design analysis shall be either the applicable structural code or the ITER Material Properties Handbook. In the case of conflict, the ITER Material Properties Handbook shall take precedence. Materials selection, and use, shall follow the guidelines established in the Materials Assessment Report (MAR). Materials exposed to vacuum shall conform to the ITER Vacuum Handbook. [Ref. 2] Commercial materials shall conform to the applicable standard (e.g., ASTM, JIS, DIN) for the definition of their grade, physical, chemical and electrical properties and related testing. All materials for which a suitable certification from the supplier is not available shall be tested to determine the relevant properties, as part of the procurement. A complete traceability of all the materials including welding materials shall be provided. Halogenated materials (example: insulating materials) shall be forbidden in areas served by the detritiation systems. Exceptions must be approved by the Tritium System and Safety Section Responsible Officers.

  11. Knowledge and barriers relating to fish consumption in older Australians. (United States)

    Grieger, Jessica A; Miller, Michelle; Cobiac, Lynne


    Among 854 Australians ≥ 51 years of age, this cross-sectional survey explored knowledge regarding finfish consumption, sources of information on fish and omega 3 fatty acids, what barriers limit finfish consumption and what factors predict its consumption. The survey consisted of a validated quantitative fish frequency questionnaire with additional questions on barriers and knowledge relating to finfish. Twelve percent of respondents consumed oily fish ≥ 2 times per week. Cost was the most frequently (37%) reported barrier for fresh finfish consumption. In multiple regression analysis, respondents' exposure to multiple sources of information (odds ratio (95% confidence interval): 1.135 (1.01, 1.28), who correctly identified the current recommendations for fish consumption; 1.87 (1.13, 3.07), agreed that fish improves general health; 3.57 (1.13, 11.30), and reported fewer barriers towards canned fish consumption; 0.59 (0.41, 0.84) were more likely to consume ≥ 2 servings of fresh finfish per week. Education and health programs need to be readily available highlighting current recommendations for fish consumption and how targets can be achieved. Meal plans with various finfish/seafood and amounts of omega 3 fatty acids required to achieve recommendations, and within a suitable budget, is likely to be an important strategy to target older consumers to increase consumption.

  12. Barrier Buckets and Transient Beam Loading in the SPS

    CERN Document Server

    Bohl, T; Garoby, R; Linnecar, Trevor Paul R; Shaposhnikova, Elena; Tückmantel, Joachim


    Using long bunches held in place by barrier buckets to overcome the limitations associated with peak density in high intensity bunched beams could be a promising scheme for increasing the luminosity of LHC. In the SPS at CERN an initial barrier bucket machine development(MD) study was done in 1999 to check the capabilities of 200 MHz thick barriers generated by the travelling wave system. A second experiment took place on 5th of August 2003 to examine high intensity effects. In this experiment a flat and stable long bunch of @ 3 µs bunch length was obtained and kept for more than 80 minutes without developing a significant line density modulation. However, strong beam loading effects were observed during the injection process, causing a coherent, non-negligible energy transfer from the beam to the RF cavities, and significant fraction of the injected beam was lost to a coasting beam background. The beam intensity that could be confined in between the barriers suffered emittance increase and was not high enou...

  13. European industrial policy as a non-tariff barrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Sarfati


    Full Text Available This article explores the contradictions between the EU and EU national states industrial policies and the Single Market program of elimination of NTBs (non-tariff barriers. The scope of NTBs connected to European industrial policy is divided into two spheres: the first are barriers on the level of Member States and the second are barriers on the EU level. On the national level, after the 1992 programme, the EU Member States continued to adopt many technical national regulations. On the EU level measures such as new standards, environment and anti-dumping rules, as well as Community expenditures in the different funds constitute new NTBs. Moreover, external competitors have to face other NTBs, such as VERs (Voluntary export restrictions, biased rules on public procurement, ecolabeling, and limitations on ownership, among other barriers. In this essay I demonstrate that the EU and the European national states run an active, unofficial industrial policy that distort the internal and external competition. The paper concludes that the EU industrial policy is not harmonized with the Single Market.

  14. Barriers to E-Commerce Adoption in Egyptian SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel Nasser H. Zaied


    Full Text Available E-commerce has been predicted to be a new driver of economic growth for developing countries. The SME sector plays a significant role in its contribution to the national economy in terms of the wealth created and the number of people employed. Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs in Egypt represent the greatest share of the productive units of the Egyptian economy and the current national policy directions address ways and means of developing the capacities of SMEs. Many factors could be responsible for the low usage of e-commerce among the SMEs in Egypt. In order to determine the factors that promote the adoption of e-commerce, SMEs adopters and non-adopters of e-commerce were asked to indicate the factors inhibiting the adoption of e-commerce. The results show that technical barriers are the most important barriers followed by legal and regulatory barriers, whereas lack of Internet security is the highest barrier that inhibit the implementation of e-commerce in SMEs in Egypt followed by limited use of Internet banking and web portals by SMEs. Also, findings implied that more efforts are needed to help and encourage SMEs in Egypt to speed up e-commerce adoption, particularly the more advanced applications.

  15. Tunneling without barriers with gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Kanno, Sugumi; Soda, Jiro


    We consider the vacuum decay of the flat Minkowski space to an anti-de Sitter space. We find a one-parameter family of potentials that allow exact, analytical instanton solutions describing tunneling without barriers in the presence of gravity. In the absence of gravity such instantons were found and discussed by Lee and Weinberg more than a quarter of a century ago. The bounce action is also analytically computed. We discuss possible implications of these new instantons to cosmology in the context of the string theory landscape.

  16. Zoonotic Hepatitis E Virus: Classification, Animal Reservoirs and Transmission Routes (United States)

    Doceul, Virginie; Bagdassarian, Eugénie; Demange, Antonin; Pavio, Nicole


    During the past ten years, several new hepatitis E viruses (HEVs) have been identified in various animal species. In parallel, the number of reports of autochthonous hepatitis E in Western countries has increased as well, raising the question of what role these possible animal reservoirs play in human infections. The aim of this review is to present the recent discoveries of animal HEVs and their classification within the Hepeviridae family, their zoonotic and species barrier crossing potential, and possible use as models to study hepatitis E pathogenesis. Lastly, this review describes the transmission pathways identified from animal sources. PMID:27706110

  17. HVDC power transmission technology assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauth, R.L.; Tatro, P.J.; Railing, B.D. [New England Power Service Co., Westborough, MA (United States); Johnson, B.K.; Stewart, J.R. [Power Technologies, Inc., Schenectady, NY (United States); Fink, J.L.


    The purpose of this study was to develop an assessment of the national utility system`s needs for electric transmission during the period 1995-2020 that could be met by future reduced-cost HVDC systems. The assessment was to include an economic evaluation of HVDC as a means for meeting those needs as well as a comparison with competing technologies such as ac transmission with and without Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) controllers. The role of force commutated dc converters was to be assumed where appropriate. The assessment begins by identifying the general needs for transmission in the U.S. in the context of a future deregulated power industry. The possible roles for direct current transmission are then postulated in terms of representative scenarios. A few of the scenarios are illustrated with the help of actual U.S. system examples. non-traditional applications as well as traditional applications such as long lines and asynchronous interconnections are discussed. The classical ``break-even distance`` concept for comparing HVDC and ac lines is used to assess the selected scenarios. The impact of reduced-cost converters is reflected in terms of the break-even distance. This report presents a comprehensive review of the functional benefits of HVDC transmission and updated cost data for both ac and dc system components. It also provides some provocative thoughts on how direct current transmission might be applied to better utilize and expand our nation`s increasingly stressed transmission assets.

  18. Super Oxygen and Improved Water Vapor Barrier of Polypropylene Film with Polyelectrolyte Multilayer Nanocoatings. (United States)

    Song, Yixuan; Tzeng, Ping; Grunlan, Jaime C


    Biaxially oriented polypropylene (BOPP) is widely used in packaging. Although its orientation increases mechanical strength and clarity, BOPP suffers from a high oxygen transmission rate (OTR). Multilayer thin films are deposited from water using layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly. Polyethylenimine (PEI) is combined with either poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) or vermiculite (VMT) clay to impart high oxygen barrier. A 30-bilayer PEI/VMT nanocoating (226 nm thick) improves the OTR of 17.8 μm thick BOPP by more than 30X, rivaling most inorganic coatings. PEI/PAA multilayers achieve comparable barrier with only 12 bilayers due to greater thickness, but these films exhibit increased oxygen permeability at high humidity. The PEI/VMT coatings actually exhibit improved oxygen barrier at high humidity (and also improve moisture barrier by more than 40%). This high barrier BOPP meets the criteria for sensitive food and some electronics packaging applications. Additionally, this water-based coating technology is cost effective and provides an opportunity to produce high barrier polypropylene film on an industrial scale.

  19. Power Improvement of Transmission Line Using High Voltage Direct Current (Hvdc Transmission System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lasisi, H


    Full Text Available The use of long EHV (Extremely High Voltage ac lines for the transmission of electrical energy increases the line reactance and susceptance which limits the thermal loadings on the line in order to keep sufficient margin against transient instability. With the scheme proposed in this paper, it is possible to load the lines very close to their limit with zero reactance and susceptance. The conductors are allowed to carry usual ac along with dc superimposed on it. The added dc power flow does not cause any transient instability. The scheme comprises a twelve-pulse bridge rectifier, dc-links, pulse width modulated (PSW-voltage sourced inverter (VSI and converter transformers. The master current controller is used to implement the scheme which senses ac current and regulates the dc current orders for converters online such that conductor current never exceeds its thermal limit. This paper gives the feasibility of converting a double circuit ac line into composite ac–dc power transmission line given the advantage of stability improvement, damping oscillations, voltage stabilization and reactive power compensation for ac weak buses. Simulation and experimental studies using MATLAB (Matrix Laboratory are carried out for the coordinated control as well as independent control of ac and dc power transmissions.

  20. Road Safety Barriers, the Need and Influence on Road Traffic Accidents (United States)

    Butāns, Ž.; Gross, K. A.; Gridnevs, A.; Karzubova, E.


    Constantly increasing intensity of road traffic and the allowed speed limits seem to impose stronger requirements on road infrastructure and use of road safety systems. One of the ways to improve road safety is the use of road restraint systems. Road safety barriers allow not only reducing the number of road traffic accidents, but also lowering the severity of accidents. The paper provides information on the technical requirements of road safety barriers. Various types of road safety barriers and their selection criteria for different types of road sections are discussed. The article views an example of a road traffic accident, which is also modelled by PC-Crash computer program. The given example reflects a road accident mechanism in case of a car-to-barrier collision, and provides information about the typical damage to the car and the barrier. The paper describes an impact of the road safety barrier type and its presence on the road traffic accident mechanism. Implementation and maintenance costs of different barrier types are viewed. The article presents a discussion on the necessity to use road safety barriers, as well as their optimal choice.

  1. Language barriers within primary care consultations: an increasing challenge needing new solutions. (United States)

    Li, Shuangyu; Pearson, David; Escott, Sarah


    International migration is an increasing global phenomenon, particularly noticeable in the UK where removing barriers to travel and residence within an expanded European Union has brought a huge increase in new arrivals. Migration has increased the number of medical consultations where language barriers occur. This paper summarises findings from a review of the literature and explores the challenges posed within these medical consultations, particularly those in primary care. It highlights limitations to current consultation models and educational interventions to improve consultations across language barriers, and suggests future solutions to those problems.

  2. Regional Transmission Projects: Finding Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    The Keystone Center


    The Keystone Center convened and facilitated a year-long Dialogue on "Regional Transmission Projects: Finding Solutions" to develop recommendations that will help address the difficult and contentious issues related to expansions of regional electric transmission systems that are needed for reliable and economic transmission of power within and across regions. This effort brought together a cross-section of affected stakeholders and thought leaders to address the problem with the collective wisdom of their experience and interests. Transmission owners sat at the table with consumer advocates and environmental organizations. Representatives from regional transmission organizations exchanged ideas with state and federal regulators. Generation developers explored common interests with public power suppliers. Together, the Dialogue participants developed consensus solutions about how to begin unraveling some of the more intractable issues surrounding identification of need, allocation of costs, and reaching consensus on siting issues that can frustrate the development of regional transmission infrastructure. The recommendations fall into three broad categories: 1. Recommendations on appropriate institutional arrangements and processes for achieving regional consensus on the need for new or expanded transmission infrastructure 2. Recommendations on the process for siting of transmission lines 3. Recommendations on the tools needed to support regional planning, cost allocation, and siting efforts. List of Dialogue participants: List of Dialogue Participants: American Electric Power American Transmission Company American Wind Energy Association California ISO Calpine Corporation Cinergy Edison Electric Institute Environmental Defense Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Great River Energy International Transmission Company ISO-New England Iowa Public Utility Board Kanner & Associates Midwest ISO National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners National Association

  3. Microwave power engineering generation, transmission, rectification

    CERN Document Server

    Okress, Ernest C


    Microwave Power Engineering, Volume 1: Generation, Transmission, Rectification considers the components, systems, and applications and the prevailing limitations of the microwave power technology. This book contains four chapters and begins with an introduction to the basic concept and developments of microwave power technology. The second chapter deals with the development of the main classes of high-power microwave and optical frequency power generators, such as magnetrons, crossed-field amplifiers, klystrons, beam plasma amplifiers, crossed-field noise sources, triodes, lasers. The third

  4. Westinghouse thermal barrier coatings development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goedjen, J.G.; Wagner, G. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Orlando, FL (United States)


    Westinghouse, in conjunction with the Department of Energy and Oak Ridge National Laboratory, has embarked upon a program for the development of advanced thermal barrier coatings for industrial gas turbines. Development of thermal barrier coatings (TBC`s) for industrial gas turbines has relied heavily on the transfer of technology from the aerospace industry. Significant differences in the time/temperature/stress duty cycles exist between these two coating applications. Coating systems which perform well in aerospace applications may not been optimized to meet power generation performance requirements. This program will focus on development of TBC`s to meet the specific needs of power generation applications. The program is directed at developing a state-of-the-art coating system with a minimum coating life of 25,000 hours at service temperatures required to meet increasing operating efficiency goals. Westinghouse has assembled a team of university and industry leaders to accomplish this goal. Westinghouse will coordinate the efforts of all program participants. Chromalloy Turbine Technologies, Inc. and Sermatech International, Inc. will be responsible for bond coat and TBC deposition technology. Praxair Specialty Powders, Inc. will be responsible for the fabrication of all bond coat and ceramic powders for the program. Southwest Research Institute will head the life prediction modelling effort; they will also be involved in coordinating nondestructive evaluation (NDE) efforts. Process modelling will be provided by the University of Arizona.

  5. Overcoming Barriers in Unhealthy Settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael K. Lemke


    Full Text Available We investigated the phenomenon of sustained health-supportive behaviors among long-haul commercial truck drivers, who belong to an occupational segment with extreme health disparities. With a focus on setting-level factors, this study sought to discover ways in which individuals exhibit resiliency while immersed in endemically obesogenic environments, as well as understand setting-level barriers to engaging in health-supportive behaviors. Using a transcendental phenomenological research design, 12 long-haul truck drivers who met screening criteria were selected using purposeful maximum sampling. Seven broad themes were identified: access to health resources, barriers to health behaviors, recommended alternative settings, constituents of health behavior, motivation for health behaviors, attitude toward health behaviors, and trucking culture. We suggest applying ecological theories of health behavior and settings approaches to improve driver health. We also propose the Integrative and Dynamic Healthy Commercial Driving (IDHCD paradigm, grounded in complexity science, as a new theoretical framework for improving driver health outcomes.

  6. Barriers to medical error reporting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal Poorolajal


    Full Text Available Background: This study was conducted to explore the prevalence of medical error underreporting and associated barriers. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed from September to December 2012. Five hospitals, affiliated with Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, in Hamedan,Iran were investigated. A self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. Participants consisted of physicians, nurses, midwives, residents, interns, and staffs of radiology and laboratory departments. Results: Overall, 50.26% of subjects had committed but not reported medical errors. The main reasons mentioned for underreporting were lack of effective medical error reporting system (60.0%, lack of proper reporting form (51.8%, lack of peer supporting a person who has committed an error (56.0%, and lack of personal attention to the importance of medical errors (62.9%. The rate of committing medical errors was higher in men (71.4%, age of 50-40 years (67.6%, less-experienced personnel (58.7%, educational level of MSc (87.5%, and staff of radiology department (88.9%. Conclusions: This study outlined the main barriers to reporting medical errors and associated factors that may be helpful for healthcare organizations in improving medical error reporting as an essential component for patient safety enhancement.

  7. A double barrier memristive device (United States)

    Hansen, M.; Ziegler, M.; Kolberg, L.; Soni, R.; Dirkmann, S.; Mussenbrock, T.; Kohlstedt, H.


    We present a quantum mechanical memristive Nb/Al/Al2O3/NbxOy/Au device which consists of an ultra-thin memristive layer (NbxOy) sandwiched between an Al2O3 tunnel barrier and a Schottky-like contact. A highly uniform current distribution for the LRS (low resistance state) and HRS (high resistance state) for areas ranging between 70 μm2 and 2300 μm2 were obtained, which indicates a non-filamentary based resistive switching mechanism. In a detailed experimental and theoretical analysis we show evidence that resistive switching originates from oxygen diffusion and modifications of the local electronic interface states within the NbxOy layer, which influences the interface properties of the Au (Schottky) contact and of the Al2O3 tunneling barrier, respectively. The presented device might offer several benefits like an intrinsic current compliance, improved retention and no need for an electric forming procedure, which is especially attractive for possible applications in highly dense random access memories or neuromorphic mixed signal circuits.

  8. Non-iridescent Transmissive Structural Color Filter Featuring Highly Efficient Transmission and High Excitation Purity (United States)

    Shrestha, Vivek Raj; Lee, Sang-Shin; Kim, Eun-Soo; Choi, Duk-Yong


    Nanostructure based color filtering has been considered an attractive replacement for current colorant pigmentation in the display technologies, in view of its increased efficiencies, ease of fabrication and eco-friendliness. For such structural filtering, iridescence relevant to its angular dependency, which poses a detrimental barrier to the practical development of high performance display and sensing devices, should be mitigated. We report on a non-iridescent transmissive structural color filter, fabricated in a large area of 76.2 × 25.4 mm2, taking advantage of a stack of three etalon resonators in dielectric films based on a high-index cavity in amorphous silicon. The proposed filter features a high transmission above 80%, a high excitation purity of 0.93 and non-iridescence over a range of 160°, exhibiting no significant change in the center wavelength, dominant wavelength and excitation purity, which implies no change in hue and saturation of the output color. The proposed structure may find its potential applications to large-scale display and imaging sensor systems.

  9. Non-iridescent transmissive structural color filter featuring highly efficient transmission and high excitation purity. (United States)

    Shrestha, Vivek Raj; Lee, Sang-Shin; Kim, Eun-Soo; Choi, Duk-Yong


    Nanostructure based color filtering has been considered an attractive replacement for current colorant pigmentation in the display technologies, in view of its increased efficiencies, ease of fabrication and eco-friendliness. For such structural filtering, iridescence relevant to its angular dependency, which poses a detrimental barrier to the practical development of high performance display and sensing devices, should be mitigated. We report on a non-iridescent transmissive structural color filter, fabricated in a large area of 76.2 × 25.4 mm(2), taking advantage of a stack of three etalon resonators in dielectric films based on a high-index cavity in amorphous silicon. The proposed filter features a high transmission above 80%, a high excitation purity of 0.93 and non-iridescence over a range of 160°, exhibiting no significant change in the center wavelength, dominant wavelength and excitation purity, which implies no change in hue and saturation of the output color. The proposed structure may find its potential applications to large-scale display and imaging sensor systems.

  10. Comparative Analysis: Potential Barriers to Career Participation by North American Physicians in Global Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel S. Rhee


    Full Text Available Physician interest in global health, particularly among family physicians, is reflected by an increasing proliferation of field training and service experiences. However, translating initial training involvement into a defined and sustainable global health career remains difficult and beset by numerous barriers. Existing global health literature has largely examined training experiences and related ethical considerations while neglecting the role of career development in global health. To explore this, this paper extrapolates potential barriers to global health career involvement from existing literature and compares these to salary and skills requirements for archetypal physician positions in global health, presenting a framework of possible barriers to sustained physician participation in global health work. Notable barriers identified include financial limitations, scheduling conflicts, security/family concerns, skills limitations, limited awareness of opportunities, and specialty choice, with family practice often closely aligned with global health experience. Proposed solutions include financial support, protected time, family relocation support, and additional training. This framework delineates barriers to career involvement in global health by physicians. Further research regarding these barriers as well as potential solutions may help direct policy and initiatives to better utilize physicians, particularly family physicians, as a valuable global health human resource.

  11. Barrier experiment: Shock initiation under complex loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menikoff, Ralph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    The barrier experiments are a variant of the gap test; a detonation wave in a donor HE impacts a barrier and drives a shock wave into an acceptor HE. The question we ask is: What is the trade-off between the barrier material and threshold barrier thickness to prevent the acceptor from detonating. This can be viewed from the perspective of shock initiation of the acceptor subject to a complex pressure drive condition. Here we consider key factors which affect whether or not the acceptor undergoes a shock-to-detonation transition. These include the following: shock impedance matches for the donor detonation wave into the barrier and then the barrier shock into the acceptor, the pressure gradient behind the donor detonation wave, and the curvature of detonation front in the donor. Numerical simulations are used to illustrate how these factors affect the reaction in the acceptor.

  12. Zika Virus: Transmission, Detection, Control, and Prevention (United States)

    Sharma, Anshika; Lal, Sunil K.


    Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne Flavivirus discovered in Uganda in the 1940s. To date, three major ZIKV outbreaks have been reported. ZIKV infections have known to be primarily asymptomatic while causing mild illness in a few cases. However, the recent emergence and spread of ZIKV in the Americas has resulted in the declaration of “Public Health Emergency of International Concern” due to the potential association between the infection and prenatal microcephaly or other brain anomalies. In Brazil, a 20-fold increase in prenatal microcephaly cases and 19% increase in Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS) cases were reported in 2015, as compared to the preceding year. The probable deleterious effects of ZIKV infection prompt the urgent development of diagnostics and therapeutics. To this end, the existing evidences supporting the increasingly common prenatal microcephaly and GBS association and the current known ZIKV transmission dynamics, modes of detection (molecular and serology-based), and current control strategies are summarized in this review. This review also emphasizes the importance of understanding ZIKV transmission in order to design a sensitive yet cost and time-efficient detection technique. Development of an efficient detection technique would subsequently allow for better surveillance and control of ZIKV infection. Currently, limited literature is available on the pathogenesis of ZIKV, hence, focusing on the modes of ZIKV transmission could potentially contribute to the understanding of the disease spectrum and formulation of targeted treatment and control. PMID:28217114

  13. Geotechnical assessments of upgrading power transmission lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Andrew [Coffey Geotechnics Ltd., Harrogate (United Kingdom)


    One of the consequences of increasing demand for energy is a corresponding requirement for increased energy distribution. This trend is likely to be magnified by the current tendency to generate power in locations remote from centres of population. New power transmission routes are expensive and awkward to develop, and there are therefore benefits to be gained by upgrading existing routes. However, this in turn raises problems of a different nature. The re-use of any structure must necessarily imply the acceptance of unknowns. The upgrading of transmission lines is no exception to this, particularly when assessing foundations, which in their nature are not visible. A risk-based approach is therefore used. This paper describes some of the geotechnical aspects of the assessment of electric power transmission lines for upgrading. It briefly describes the background, then discusses some of the problems encountered and the methods used to address them. These methods are based mainly on information obtained from desk studies and walkover surveys, with a limited amount of intrusive investigation. (orig.)

  14. Multi-Gigabit Capacity W-band Hybrid Wireless-Photonic Transmission Link

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vegas Olmos, Juan José; Pang, Xiaodan; Lebedev, Alexander;


    We present a 10-meter bidirectional fiber-wireless-fiber system at 81/86-GHz (W-band). The fiber transmission amounts for 36-km, whereas the wireless transmission for 10-m, achieving BER performance below the 7% FEC limit for both downstream and upstream.......We present a 10-meter bidirectional fiber-wireless-fiber system at 81/86-GHz (W-band). The fiber transmission amounts for 36-km, whereas the wireless transmission for 10-m, achieving BER performance below the 7% FEC limit for both downstream and upstream....

  15. Engineered Barrier Testing at the INEEL Engineered Barriers Test Facility: FY-1997 and FY-1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keck, K. N.; Porro, I.


    techniques are described. The wetting tests were designed to stress the test plots to the maximum by forcing drainage to occur. Drainage generally occurred two to three days following the start of the wetting test. Drainage from the capillary/biobarrier test plots stopped sooner than drainage from the thick soil test plots. Similar results were observed in drainage data collected in FY-98 following the spring thaw. Drainage from the capillary/biobarrier test plots following the winter of 1998 represents about one-third of the precipitation occurring during that period compared to two-thirds of the precipitation from the thick soil test plots. By limiting drainage, the capillary/biobarriers increased water storage in the upper portions of the test plots compared to the thick soil barriers. The data evaluated in this report come from an ongoing project. The aftereffects of the wetting tests continue to be monitored. Long-term monitoring under ambient conditions, the application of additional treatments to the test plots, and numerical modeling are planned for the future.

  16. The evolution of transmission mode (United States)

    Forbes, Mark R.; Hauffe, Heidi C.; Kallio, Eva R.; Okamura, Beth; Sait, Steven M.


    This article reviews research on the evolutionary mechanisms leading to different transmission modes. Such modes are often under genetic control of the host or the pathogen, and often in conflict with each other via trade-offs. Transmission modes may vary among pathogen strains and among host populations. Evolutionary changes in transmission mode have been inferred through experimental and phylogenetic studies, including changes in transmission associated with host shifts and with evolution of the unusually complex life cycles of many parasites. Understanding the forces that determine the evolution of particular transmission modes presents a fascinating medley of problems for which there is a lack of good data and often a lack of conceptual understanding or appropriate methodologies. Our best information comes from studies that have been focused on the vertical versus horizontal transmission dichotomy. With other kinds of transitions, theoretical approaches combining epidemiology and population genetics are providing guidelines for determining when and how rapidly new transmission modes may evolve, but these are still in need of empirical investigation and application to particular cases. Obtaining such knowledge is a matter of urgency in relation to extant disease threats. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Opening the black box: re-examining the ecology and evolution of parasite transmission’. PMID:28289251

  17. Signal Propagation Delay as a Barrier to Control Applications in WAN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Thomas Phillip; Patel, A.; Pedersen, Jens Myrup;

    With the advent in WAN of delay sensitive technical applications, such as remote control, signal propagation delay becomes a major problem. The extent of the problem is analysed by lower bounding the delay in relation to different transmission media. Requirements for reliability and bandwidth...... are considered. The consequences of this bounding for communication network planning and provisioning are discussed in relation to mitigating the effects of signal propagation delay as a barrier to the penetration of control applications into WAN...

  18. Identification of Key Barriers in Workforce Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This report documents the identification of key barriers in the development of an adequate national security workforce as part of the National Security Preparedness Project, being performed under a Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration grant. Many barriers exist that prevent the development of an adequate number of propertly trained national security personnel. Some barriers can be eliminated in a short-term manner, whereas others will involve a long-term strategy that takes into account public policy.

  19. A level set-based shape optimization method for periodic sound barriers composed of elastic scatterers (United States)

    Hashimoto, Hiroshi; Kim, Min-Geun; Abe, Kazuhisa; Cho, Seonho


    This paper presents a level set-based topology optimization method for noise barriers formed from an assembly of scatterers. The scattering obstacles are modeled by elastic bodies arranged periodically along the wall. Due to the periodicity, the problem can be reduced to that in a unit cell. The interaction between the elastic scatterers and the acoustic field is described in the context of the level set analysis. The semi-infinite acoustic wave regions located on the both sides of the barrier are represented by impedance matrices. The objective function is defined by the energy transmission passing the barrier. The design sensitivity is evaluated analytically by the aid of adjoint equations. The dependency of the optimal profile on the stiffness of scatterers and on the target frequency band is examined. The feasibility of the developed optimization method is proved through numerical examples.

  20. Construction and Validation of a Self-Efficacy Scale for Latex Barrier Use. (United States)

    Morell-Mengual, Vicente; Gil-Llario, María Dolores; Castro-Calvo, Jesús


    Some studies have concluded there is a relationship between perceived self-efficacy and behaviors that prevent HIV transmission. This paper presents the construction and validation of the latex barrier use self-efficacy scale (LBSS), which 480 participants filled out. Exploratory factor analysis yielded two components: positive expectations of self-efficacy (ES-POS) and negative expectations of self-efficacy (ES-NEG), which together accounted for 65.59% of total variance. That structure was later verified through confirmatory factor analysis. Internal consistency was .80 for the total scale, and .78 for each of the two factors. Moreover, the instrument had adequate convergent validity and was positively related with condom use self-efficacy, attitudes toward condom and latex barrier use, and ability to refuse sex if the partner refuses to use preventive methods. In conclusion, this instrument is a useful measure of self-efficacy in latex barrier use.