WorldWideScience

Sample records for barrier integrity allowing

  1. Nurses' barriers to learning: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Marion C

    2012-07-01

    This integrative review of the literature describes nurses' barriers to learning. Five major themes emerged: time constraints, financial constraints, workplace culture, access/relevance, and competency in accessing electronic evidence-based practice literature. The nurse educator must address these barriers for the staff to achieve learning and competency.

  2. Markers for blood-brain barrier integrity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saunders, Norman R; Dziegielewska, Katarzyna M; Møllgård, Kjeld;

    2015-01-01

    In recent years there has been a resurgence of interest in brain barriers and various roles their intrinsic mechanisms may play in neurological disorders. Such studies require suitable models and markers to demonstrate integrity and functional changes at the interfaces between blood, brain......, and cerebrospinal fluid. Studies of brain barrier mechanisms and measurements of plasma volume using dyes have a long-standing history, dating back to the late nineteenth-century. Their use in blood-brain barrier studies continues in spite of their known serious limitations in in vivo applications. These were well...... known when first introduced, but seem to have been forgotten since. Understanding these limitations is important because Evans blue is still the most commonly used marker of brain barrier integrity and those using it seem oblivious to problems arising from its in vivo application. The introduction...

  3. Barriers towards integrated product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Anita Friis; Dukovska-Popovska, Iskra; Steger-Jensen, Kenn

    2014-01-01

    The basis for product development in many large industrial companies is a traditional project management method positing non-overlapping phases, independent activities, and a dedicated project team. Research findings indicate that integrated product development methods increase performance compared...... to traditional methods, when it is a matter of complex problem solving where product development is a disruptive and non-linear process. Even though integrated product development has been the focus of a large number of research studies, most focus on identifying success criteria and improving performance while...... requirements for implementation of integrated product development remains under-researched. This study takes on a holistic project management perspective and identifies challenges and requirements through an in-depth case study. It is found that implementation requires both awareness and skills of integrated...

  4. Assessment of blood-retinal barrier integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinores, S A

    1995-01-01

    The blood-retinal barrier consists of two components which are comprised of the retinal vascular endothelium and the retinal pigment epithelium, respectively. Its functional integrity can be recognized by tight junctions between these cells with a paucity of endocytic vesicles within them and the presence of the molecules that regulate the ionic and metabolic gradients that constitute the barrier. The barrier is compromised in several disease processes and by a variety of agents, but in most cases the location and mechanism for barrier failure is not understood. Perfusion with a variety of radiolabeled tracer molecules, vitreous fluorophotometry, or magnetic resonance imaging can be used to quantitate blood-retinal barrier leakage. Fluorescein angiography or magnetic resonance imaging can localize sites of leakage in vivo with limited resolution. Evans blue dye can be used to visualize blood-retinal barrier failure in gross pathological specimens and immuno-histochemical labeling of serum proteins such as albumin or fibrinogen can be used to localize sites of blood-retinal barrier breakdown by light microscopy. Tracers such as horseradish peroxidase, microperoxidase, or lanthanum, or the immunocytochemical demonstration of albumin can be used to reveal blood-retinal barrier breakdown at the ultrastructural level and provide insights into the mechanisms involved. This review discusses the advantages and limitations of each of these methods to aid in selection of the appropriate techniques to derive the desired information.

  5. Near-Surface Engineered Environmental Barrier Integrity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piet, Steven James; Breckenridge, Robert Paul; Beller, John Michael; Geesey, Gill Gregroy; Glenn, David Frankie; Jacobson, Jacob Jordan; Martian, Pete; Matthern, Gretchen Elise; Mattson, Earl Douglas; Porro, Indrek; Southworth, Finis Hio; Steffler, Eric Darwin; Stormberg, Angelica Isabel; Stormberg, Gregory John; Versteeg, Roelof Jan; White, Gregory J

    2002-08-01

    The INEEL Environmental Systems Research and Analysis (ESRA) program has launched a new R&D project on Near-Surface Engineered Environmental Barrier Integrity to increase knowledge and capabilities for using engineering and ecological components to improve the integrity of near-surface barriers used to confine contaminants from the public and the environment. The knowledge gained and the capabilities built will help verify the adequacy of past remedial decisions and enable improved solutions for future cleanup decisions. The research is planned to (a) improve the knowledge of degradation mechanisms (weathering, biological, geological, chemical, radiological, and catastrophic) in times shorter than service life, (b) improve modeling of barrier degradation dynamics, (c) develop sensor systems to identify degradation prior to failure, and (d) provide a better basis for developing and testing of new barrier systems to increase reliability and reduce the risk of failure. Our project combines selected exploratory studies (benchtop and field scale), coupled effects accelerated aging testing and the meso-scale, testing of new monitoring concepts, and modeling of dynamic systems. The performance of evapo- transpiration, capillary, and grout-based barriers will be examined.

  6. Near-Surface Engineered Environmental Barrier Integrity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piet, S.J.; Breckenridge, R.P.

    2002-05-15

    The INEEL Environmental Systems Research and Analysis (ESRA) program has launched a new R and D project on Near-Surface Engineered Environmental Barrier Integrity to increase knowledge and capabilities for using engineering and ecological components to improve the integrity of near-surface barriers used to confine contaminants from the public and the environment. The knowledge gained and the capabilities built will help verify the adequacy of past remedial decisions and enable improved solutions for future cleanup decisions. The research is planned to (a) improve the knowledge of degradation mechanisms (weathering, biological, geological, chemical, radiological, and catastrophic) in times shorter than service life, (b) improve modeling of barrier degradation dynamics, (c) develop sensor systems to identify degradation prior to failure, and (d) provide a better basis for developing and testing of new barrier systems to increase reliability and reduce the risk of failure. Our project combine s selected exploratory studies (benchtop and field scale), coupled effects accelerated aging testing and the meso-scale, testing of new monitoring concepts, and modeling of dynamic systems. The performance of evapo-transpiration, capillary, and grout-based barriers will be examined.

  7. Stratum corneum barrier integrity controls skin homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, W

    1999-04-01

    The stratum corneum water barrier controls structural and functional properties of both the epidermis and the dermis. Treatments which chronically disrupt the stratum corneum water barrier can induce changes similar to those seen with 'anti-aging' treatments such as (-Hydroxy acids (AHAs) and Retin Atrade mark. Barrier disruption via daily tape stripping increases epidermal and dermal thickness, superficial and integral skin firmness, and improves skin surface texture. Modest or transitory disruption did not produce such effects. Similar results were observed with topical application of AHAs, retinoids or mild irritants after about 4-6 weeks provided such treatments resulted in prolonged elevation in TEWL (trans-epidermal water loss). Treatments that did not chronically elevate TEWL could also produce positive cosmetic effects, but such effects were in general restricted to the skin surface or epidermis. Irritation, which was observed with some treatments, was not solely responsible for the positive effects observed.

  8. Cleansing Formulations That Respect Skin Barrier Integrity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russel M. Walters

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Surfactants in skin cleansers interact with the skin in several manners. In addition to the desired benefit of providing skin hygiene, surfactants also extract skin components during cleansing and remain in the stratum corneum (SC after rinsing. These side effects disrupt SC structure and degrade its barrier properties. Recent applications of vibrational spectroscopy and two-photon microscopy in skin research have provided molecular-level information to facilitate our understanding of the interaction between skin and surfactant. In the arena of commercial skin cleansers, technologies have been developed to produce cleansers that both cleanse and respect skin barrier. The main approach is to minimize surfactant interaction with skin through altering its solution properties. Recently, hydrophobically modified polymers (HMPs have been introduced to create skin compatible cleansing systems. At the presence of HMP, surfactants assemble into larger, more stable structures. These structures are less likely to penetrate the skin, thereby resulting in less aggressive cleansers and the integrity of the skin barrier is maintained. In this paper, we reviewed our recent findings on surfactant and SC interactions at molecular level and provided an overview of the HM technology for developing cleansers that respect skin barrier.

  9. Phase-integral method allowing nearlying transition points

    CERN Document Server

    Fröman, Nanny

    1996-01-01

    The efficiency of the phase-integral method developed by the present au­ thors has been shown both analytically and numerically in many publica­ tions. With the inclusion of supplementary quantities, closely related to new Stokes constants and obtained with the aid of comparison equation technique, important classes of problems in which transition points may approach each other become accessible to accurate analytical treatment. The exposition in this monograph is of a mathematical nature but has important physical applications, some examples of which are found in the adjoined papers. Thus, we would like to emphasize that, although we aim at mathematical rigor, our treatment is made primarily with physical needs in mind. To introduce the reader into the background of this book, we start by de­ scribing the phase-integral approximation of arbitrary order generated from an unspecified base function. This is done in Chapter 1, which is reprinted, after minor changes, from a review article. Chapter 2 is the re...

  10. Investigation of endothelial growth using a sensors-integrated microfluidic system to simulate physiological barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajabi Taleieh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a microfluidic system based on transparent biocompatible polymers with a porous membrane as substrate for various cell types which allows the simulation of various physiological barriers under continuous laminar flow conditions at distinct tunable shear rates. Besides live cell and fluorescence microscopy, integrated electrodes enable the investigation of the permeability and barrier function of the cell layer as well as their interaction with external manipulations using the Electric Cell-substrate Impedance Sensing (ECIS method.

  11. Regional economic integration in Great East Asia: determinants and barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Korol

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article studies both general trends and peculiar characteristics of processes of economic integration in the Great East Asia, which plays the role of one of the major centers of contemporary global development. The basic determinants and barriers for implementation of regional strategies by China, Japan, ASEAN that will influence the geo-economic policy of Ukraine not only in East Asian, but also European and Eurasian areas. Attention is focused on the basic principles of realized and potential future integration models in the "ASEAN+" format with variable composition of member states that correspond to different extents to strategic objectives of both specified key actors in the region and extra-regional states that have global and transnational interests. Extrapolation of dominant trends in the nature and dynamics of transformation processes of East Asian economic regionalization allowed forming a forecast for the longterm conservation of importance of free trade agreements in the absence of preconditions to create customs unions. At the same time it was stressed out that proper assurance of national interests of international economic relations will be based on contractual instruments at the international level, without creating institutional and legal superstructure similar to the European Union or the Eurasian Economic Union as supranational law and supranational bodies.

  12. Verification of the integrity of barriers using gas diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, D.B. [SPECTRA Research Inst., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Williams, C.V. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Environmental Restoration Technologies Dept.

    1997-06-01

    In-situ barrier materials and designs are being developed for containment of high risk contamination as an alternative to immediate removal or remediation. The intent of these designs is to prevent the movement of contaminants in either the liquid or vapor phase by long-term containment, essentially buying time until the contaminant depletes naturally or a remediation can be implemented. The integrity of the resultant soil-binder mixture is typically assessed by a number of destructive laboratory tests (leaching, compressive strength, mechanical stability with respect to wetting and freeze-thaw cycles) which as a group are used to infer the likelihood of favorable long-term performance of the barrier. The need exists for a minimally intrusive yet quantifiable methods for assessment of a barrier`s integrity after emplacement, and monitoring of the barrier`s performance over its lifetime. Here, the authors evaluate non-destructive measurements of inert-gas diffusion (specifically, SF{sub 6}) as an indicator of waste-form integrity. The goals of this project are to show that diffusivity can be measured in core samples of soil jet-grouted with Portland cement, validate the experimental method through measurements on samples, and to calculate aqueous diffusivities from a series of diffusion measurements. This study shows that it is practical to measure SF{sub 6} diffusion rates in the laboratory on samples of grout (Portland cement and soil) typical of what might be used in a barrier. Diffusion of SF{sub 6} through grout (Portland cement and soil) is at least an order of magnitude slower than through air. The use of this tracer should be sensitive to the presence of fractures, voids, or other discontinuities in the grout/soil structure. Field-scale measurements should be practical on time-scales of a few days.

  13. Barriers to Asthma Management for School Nurses: An Integrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley Nadeau, Ellen; Toronto, Coleen E.

    2016-01-01

    Childhood asthma is a growing health concern. Asthma is the most common chronic illness of childhood and a leading cause of emergency room visits, hospitalizations, and school absenteeism. School nurses play a valuable role in asthma management. The purpose of this integrative review is to examine barriers to asthma management for school nurses in…

  14. Integrating Religion and Spirituality into Counselor Education: Barriers and Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Christopher M.; Puig, Ana; Baggs, Adrienne; Wolf, Cheryl Pence

    2015-01-01

    Despite a professionally recognized need for training in religion/spirituality, literature indicates that religious and spirituality issues continue to be inconsistently addressed in counselor education. Ten experts were asked to identify potential barriers to integrating religion and spirituality into counselor education and indicate strategies…

  15. Barriers of inter-organisational integration in vocational rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulla Wihlman

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A project of vocational rehabilitation was studied in Sweden between 1999 and 2002. The project included four public organisations: the social insurance office, the local health services, the municipal social service and the office of the state employment service. The aim of this paper was to analyse perceived barriers in the development of inter-organisational integration. Theory: Theories of inter-professional and inter-organisational integration, and theories on organisational change. Methods: In total, 51 semi-structured interviews and 14 focus group discussions were performed with actors within the project between 1999 and 2002. A thematic approach was used for the analysis of the data. Results: Three different main themes of barriers emerged from the data: A Uncertainty, B Prioritising own organisation and C Lack of communication. The themes are interconnected in an intricate web and hence not mutually exclusive. Conclusions and discussion: The barriers found are all related partly to organisational change in general and partly to the specific development of organisational integration. Prioritising of own organisation led to flaws in communication, which in turn led to a high degree of uncertainty within the project. This can be seen as a circular relationship, since uncertainty might increase focus on own organisation and lack of communication. A way to overcome these barriers would be to take the needs of the clients as a point of departure in the development of joint services and to also involve them in the development of inter-organisational integration.

  16. Fluidic interconnections for microfluidic systems: A new integrated fluidic interconnection allowing plug 'n' play functionality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perozziello, Gerardo; Bundgaard, Frederik; Geschke, Oliver

    2008-01-01

    A crucial challenge in packaging of microsystems is microfluidic interconnections. These have to seal the ports of the system, and have to provide the appropriate interface to other devices or the external environment. Integrated fluidic interconnections appear to be a good solution...... for interconnecting polymer microsystems in terms of cost, space and performance. Following this path we propose a new reversible, integrated fluidic interconnection composed of custom-made cylindrical rings integrated in a polymer house next to the fluidic network. This allows plug 'n' play functionality between...... external metal ferrules and the system. Theoretical calculations are made to dimension and model the integrated fluidic interconnection. Leakage tests are performed on the interconnections, in order to experimentally confirm the model, and detect its limits....

  17. Barriers and facilitators to integrating care: experiences from the English Integrated Care Pilots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Ling

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. In 2008, the English Department of Health appointed 16 'Integrated Care Pilots' which used a range of approaches to provide better integrated care. We report qualitative analyses from a three year multi-method evaluation to identify barriers and facilitators to successful integration of care.  Theory and methods. Data were analysed from transcripts of 213 in-depth staff interviews, and from semi-structured questionnaires (the 'Living Document' completed by staff in pilot sites at six points over a two-year period. Emerging findings were therefore built from 'bottom up' and grounded in the data. However, we were then interested in how these findings compared and contrasted with more generic analyses. Therefore after our analyses were complete we then systematically compared and contrasted the findings with the analysis of barriers and facilitators to quality improvement identified in a systematic review by Kaplan et al (2010 and the analysis of more micro-level shapers of behaviour found in Normalisation Process Theory (May et al 2007. Neither of these approaches claims to be full blown theories but both claim to provide mid-range theoretical arguments which may be used to structure existing data and which can be undercut or reinforced by new data. Results and discussion. Many barriers and facilitators to integrating care are those of any large scale organisational change. These include issues relating to leadership, organisational culture, information technology, physician involvement, and availability of resources. However, activities which appear particularly important for delivering integrated care include personal relationships between leaders in different organisations, the scale of planned activities, governance and finance arrangements, support for staff in new roles, and organisational and staff stability. We illustrate our analyses with a 'routemap' which identifies questions that providers may wish to consider when

  18. Barriers and facilitators to integrating care: experiences from the English Integrated Care Pilots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Ling

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. In 2008, the English Department of Health appointed 16 'Integrated Care Pilots' which used a range of approaches to provide better integrated care. We report qualitative analyses from a three year multi-method evaluation to identify barriers and facilitators to successful integration of care. Theory and methods. Data were analysed from transcripts of 213 in-depth staff interviews, and from semi-structured questionnaires (the 'Living Document' completed by staff in pilot sites at six points over a two-year period. Emerging findings were therefore built from 'bottom up' and grounded in the data. However, we were then interested in how these findings compared and contrasted with more generic analyses. Therefore after our analyses were complete we then systematically compared and contrasted the findings with the analysis of barriers and facilitators to quality improvement identified in a systematic review by Kaplan et al (2010 and the analysis of more micro-level shapers of behaviour found in Normalisation Process Theory (May et al 2007. Neither of these approaches claims to be full blown theories but both claim to provide mid-range theoretical arguments which may be used to structure existing data and which can be undercut or reinforced by new data.Results and discussion. Many barriers and facilitators to integrating care are those of any large scale organisational change. These include issues relating to leadership, organisational culture, information technology, physician involvement, and availability of resources. However, activities which appear particularly important for delivering integrated care include personal relationships between leaders in different organisations, the scale of planned activities, governance and finance arrangements, support for staff in new roles, and organisational and staff stability. We illustrate our analyses with a 'routemap' which identifies questions that providers may wish to consider when planning

  19. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2 regulates airway epithelial barrier integrity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshitaka Shintani

    2015-09-01

    Conclusions: Our results indicated that the Nrf2/AOX1 pathway was important for enhancing airway epithelial barrier integrity. Because the airway epithelium of asthmatics is susceptible to reduced barrier integrity, this pathway might be a new therapeutic target for asthma.

  20. Building integrated photovoltaics (BIPV). Review, potentials, barriers and myths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinstein, Patrick; Ballif, Christophe [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Neuchatel (Switzerland). Photovoltaics and Thin Film Electronics Lab.; Perret-Aebi, Laure-Emmanuelle [CSEM, Neuchatel (Switzerland). PV-Center

    2013-07-01

    To date, none of the predictions that have been made about the emerging BIPV industry have really hit the target. The anticipated boom has so far stalled and despite developing and promoting a number of excellent systems and products, many producers around the world have been forced to quit on purely economic grounds. The authors believe that after this painful cleansing of the market, a massive counter trend will follow, enlivened and carried forward by more advanced PV technologies and ever-stricter climate policies designed to achieve energy neutrality in a cost-effective way. As a result, the need for BIPV products for use in construction will undergo first a gradual and then a massive increase. The planning of buildings with multifunctional, integrated roof and facade elements capable of fulfilling the technical and legal demands will become an essential, accepted part of the architectonic mainstream and will also contribute to an aesthetic valorisation. Until then, various barriers need to be overcome in order to facilitate and accelerate BIPV. Besides issues related to mere cost-efficiency ratio, psychological and social factors also play an evident role. The goal of energy change linked to greater use of renewables can be successfully achieved only when all aspects are taken into account and when visual appeal and energy efficiency thus no longer appear to be an oxymoron. (orig.)

  1. Gated current integrator for the beam in the RR barrier buckets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Cadorn; C. Bhat; J. Crisp

    2003-06-10

    At the Fermilab Recycler Ring (RR), the antiproton (pbar) beam will be stored azimuthally in different segments created by barrier buckets. The beam in each segment may have widely varying intensities. They have developed a gated integrator system to measure the beam intensity in each of the barrier bucket. Here they discuss the design of the system and the results of beam measurements using the integrator.

  2. AN ACTIVITY THEORY APPROACH TO STUDY BARRIERS OF FACULTY REGARDING TECHNOLOGY INTEGRATION IN HIGHER EDUCATION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castro Guzman, Willy

    2016-01-01

    Information and communication technologies are instruments for supporting new ways of teaching and learning. Nevertheless, its impact concerning scope has not reached the expected level. This strain between benefits and impact has been inquired from the perspective of barriers of teachers to use...... technology. Ertmer’s approach establishes first-order and second-orders barriers as hinderers for teacher’s adoption of technology. The study intends to answer what are the barriers existing in the socalled enthusiastic faculty teachers regarding technology integration in Education? Findings call...

  3. Thinking Allowed: Content and Language Integrated Learning--A Research Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton-Puffer, Christiane; Smit, Ute

    2013-01-01

    While Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) has received a considerable amount of research interest lately, its increasing popularity as an approach to teaching content subjects in a foreign language requires concerted investigation that reflects and recognises its fundamentally contextualised nature. In this contribution, we sketch…

  4. Alteration of blood-brain barrier integrity by retroviral infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe V Afonso

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The blood-brain barrier (BBB, which forms the interface between the blood and the cerebral parenchyma, has been shown to be disrupted during retroviral-associated neuromyelopathies. Human T Lymphotropic Virus (HTLV-1 Associated Myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis (HAM/TSP is a slowly progressive neurodegenerative disease associated with BBB breakdown. The BBB is composed of three cell types: endothelial cells, pericytes and astrocytes. Although astrocytes have been shown to be infected by HTLV-1, until now, little was known about the susceptibility of BBB endothelial cells to HTLV-1 infection and the impact of such an infection on BBB function. We first demonstrated that human cerebral endothelial cells express the receptors for HTLV-1 (GLUT-1, Neuropilin-1 and heparan sulfate proteoglycans, both in vitro, in a human cerebral endothelial cell line, and ex vivo, on spinal cord autopsy sections from HAM/TSP and non-infected control cases. In situ hybridization revealed HTLV-1 transcripts associated with the vasculature in HAM/TSP. We were able to confirm that the endothelial cells could be productively infected in vitro by HTLV-1 and that blocking of either HSPGs, Neuropilin 1 or Glut1 inhibits this process. The expression of the tight-junction proteins within the HTLV-1 infected endothelial cells was altered. These cells were no longer able to form a functional barrier, since BBB permeability and lymphocyte passage through the monolayer of endothelial cells were increased. This work constitutes the first report of susceptibility of human cerebral endothelial cells to HTLV-1 infection, with implications for HTLV-1 passage through the BBB and subsequent deregulation of the central nervous system homeostasis. We propose that the susceptibility of cerebral endothelial cells to retroviral infection and subsequent BBB dysfunction is an important aspect of HAM/TSP pathogenesis and should be considered in the design of future therapeutics strategies.

  5. A novel integrated renewable energy system modelling approach, allowing fast FPGA controller prototyping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teodorescu, Remus; Ruiz, Alberto Parera; Cirstea, Marcian

    2008-01-01

    of a photovoltaic energy system and a wind power system, which would allow an optimized holistic digital control system design, followed by rapid prototyping of the controller into a single Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). Initially, the system was simulated using Matlab / Simulink, to create a reference...... containing a Xilinx Spartan II FPGA and was successfully experimentally tested. This approach enables the design and fast hardware implementation of efficient controllers for Distributed Energy Resource (DER) hybrid systems....

  6. Internet Integration in High Schools: Patterns, Opportunities, and Barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Ruth; Adams, Marilyn; Meghani, Naheed; Smith, Maria

    Internet integration in high schools on a schoolwide scale was examined through case studies of five high schools in inner city, urban, suburban, and rural communities across the United States. A total of 322 teachers, 19 administrators, 19 counselors, 7 technology coordinators, and 3,822 students were surveyed, and 219 staff and students were…

  7. Computer Technology Integration and Student Learning: Barriers and Promise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keengwe, Jared; Onchwari, Grace; Wachira, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    Political and institutional support has enabled many institutions of learning to spend millions of dollars to acquire educational computing tools (Ficklen and Muscara, "Am Educ" 25(3):22-29, 2001) that have not been effectively integrated into the curriculum. While access to educational technology tools has remarkably improved in most schools,…

  8. Technology Integration Barriers: Urban School Mathematics Teachers Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachira, Patrick; Keengwe, Jared

    2011-01-01

    Despite the promise of technology in education, many practicing teachers face several challenges when trying to effectively integrate technology into their classroom instruction. Additionally, while national statistics cite a remarkable improvement in access to computer technology tools in schools, teacher surveys show consistent declines in the…

  9. A Theoretical Framework Mapping Barriers of Integrating and Adopting Educational Techonology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khalid, Md. Saifuddin; Buus, Lillian

    2016-01-01

    In the field of educational technology, a decades-long research question is: what barriers exist in integration and adoption of information and communication technology (ICT) in education educational technology? The intensity of integration and the rate of adoption are significantly low and the i......In the field of educational technology, a decades-long research question is: what barriers exist in integration and adoption of information and communication technology (ICT) in education educational technology? The intensity of integration and the rate of adoption are significantly low......) adoption decision. Instead of “system blame” or “individual blame”, an integration and adoption approach should consider national holistic view for careful strategic changes in policies, procedures, and practices at each decision level of the educational system and related external systems....

  10. Barriers to Physical Activity Among African American Women: An Integrative Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Rodney P; Ainsworth, Barbara E; Keller, Colleen; Dodgson, Joan E

    2015-01-01

    A key aspect for researchers to consider when developing culturally appropriate physical activity (PA) interventions for African American (AA) women are the specific barriers AA women face that limit their participation in PA. Identification and critical examination of these barriers is the first step in developing comprehensive culturally relevant approaches to promote PA and help resolve PA-related health disparities in this underserved population. We conducted a systematic integrative literature review to identify barriers to PA among AA women. Five electronic databases were searched, and forty-two studies (twenty-seven qualitative, fourteen quantitative, one mixed method) published since 1990 (range 1998-2013) in English language journals met inclusion criteria for review. Barriers were classified as intrapersonal, interpersonal, or environment/community according to their respective level of influence within our social ecological framework. Intrapersonal barriers included lack of time, knowledge, and motivation; physical appearance concerns; health concerns; monetary cost of exercise facilities; and tiredness/fatigue. Interpersonal barriers included family/caregiving responsibilities; lack of social support; and lack of a PA partner. Environmental barriers included safety concerns; lack of facilities; weather concerns; lack of sidewalks; and lack of physically active AA role models. Results provide key leverage points for researchers to consider when developing culturally relevant PA interventions for AA women.

  11. Barriers to the Integration and Adoption of iPads in Schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khalid, Md. Saifuddin; Kilic, Gökce; Christoffersen, Jeanette;

    2015-01-01

    iPad, with its Apple platform and interoperability-dependent material conditions, bring complex barriers in its adoption and integration in secondary education system as a learning tool. In the schools’ context, it is an emerging educational technology for its affordances supporting collaborative...

  12. Teachers' Perceptions of the Barriers to Technology Integration and Practices with Technology under Situated Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopcha, Theodore J.

    2012-01-01

    This case study examines 18 elementary school teachers' perceptions of the barriers to technology integration (access, vision, professional development, time, and beliefs) and instructional practices with technology after two years of situated professional development. Months after transitioning from mentoring to teacher-led communities of…

  13. Coaching and barriers to weight loss: an integrative review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz Obino, Karen Fernanda; Aguiar Pereira, Caroline; Caron-Lienert, Rafaela Siviero

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Coaching is proposed to raise a patient’s awareness and responsibility for their health behaviour change by transforming the professional–patient relationship. Objective To review the scientific literature on how coaching can assist in weight loss and improve a patient’s state of health. Methodology An integrative literature search was performed using PubMed, Latin American and Caribbean Literature in Health Sciences, and Scientific Electronic Library Online. We selected articles that were published in Portuguese, English, and Spanish over the last 10 years. Data analysis was performed using a validated data collection instrument. Results Among the 289 articles identified in the search, 276 were excluded because they did not address the leading research question, their full texts were not available on the Internet, or they were duplicate publications. Therefore, for the analysis, we selected 13 articles that we classified as randomized clinical studies (46.15%; n=6), cohort studies (30.76%; n=4), cross-sectional studies (7.69%; n=1), case studies (7.69%; n=1), and review articles (7.69%; n=1). Joint intervention (combined in-person and telecoaching sessions) constituted the majority of session types. The use of technical coaching was superior in reducing anthropometric measurements and increasing the levels of motivation and personal satisfaction compared with formal health education alone. Conclusion Coaching is an efficient, cost-effective method for combining formal education and treatment of health in the weight-loss process. Additional randomized studies are needed to demonstrate its effectiveness with respect to chronic disease indicators. PMID:28096687

  14. Coaching and barriers to weight loss: an integrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muñoz Obino KF

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Karen Fernanda Muñoz Obino,1 Caroline Aguiar Pereira,1 Rafaela Siviero Caron-Lienert2 1Nutrology/Clinical Nutrition Unit, Ernesto Dornelles Hospital, 2Nutrition of the Educational and Research Institute of Moinhos de Vento Hospital, Porto Alegre, Brazil Introduction: Coaching is proposed to raise a patient’s awareness and responsibility for their health behaviour change by transforming the professional–patient relationship.Objective: To review the scientific literature on how coaching can assist in weight loss and improve a patient’s state of health.Methodology: An integrative literature search was performed using PubMed, Latin American and Caribbean Literature in Health Sciences, and Scientific Electronic Library Online. We selected articles that were published in Portuguese, English, and Spanish over the last 10 years. Data analysis was performed using a validated data collection instrument.Results: Among the 289 articles identified in the search, 276 were excluded because they did not address the leading research question, their full texts were not available on the Internet, or they were duplicate publications. Therefore, for the analysis, we selected 13 articles that we classified as randomized clinical studies (46.15%; n=6, cohort studies (30.76%; n=4, cross-sectional studies (7.69%; n=1, case studies (7.69%; n=1, and review articles (7.69%; n=1. Joint intervention (combined in-person and telecoaching sessions constituted the majority of session types. The use of technical coaching was superior in reducing anthropometric measurements and increasing the levels of motivation and personal satisfaction compared with formal health education alone.Conclusion: Coaching is an efficient, cost-effective method for combining formal education and treatment of health in the weight-loss process. Additional randomized studies are needed to demonstrate its effectiveness with respect to chronic disease indicators. Keywords: coaching, weight loss

  15. Effects of Yishendaluo decoction on blood-brain barrier integrity in mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanqing Wu; Ying Gao; Lingqun Zhu; Yonghong Gao; Dongmei Zhang; Lixia Lou; Yanfang Yan

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of Yishendaluo decoction on the loss of blood-brain barrier integrity in mice exhibiting experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.To this end,we used real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR to measure the levels of mRNAs specific to the T cell markers CD4 and CD8,and the monocyte marker CD11b.In addition,we used Evans blue dye extravasation in the spinal cord and brain tissues to assess blood-brain barrier permeability.The results indicated that an increase in blood-brain barrier permeability was associated with an increase in CD4,CD8 and CD11b mRNA expression in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis mice.Yishendaluo decoction administration significantly reversed inflammatory cell accumulation in cerebral tissues of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis mice.

  16. Method and device for detecting impact events on a security barrier which includes a hollow rebar allowing insertion and removal of an optical fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pies, Ross E.

    2016-03-29

    A method and device for the detection of impact events on a security barrier. A hollow rebar is farmed within a security barrier, whereby the hollow rebar is completely surrounded by the security barrier. An optical fiber passes through the interior of the hollow rebar. An optical transmitter and an optical receiver are both optically connected to the optical fiber and connected to optical electronics. The optical electronics are configured to provide notification upon the detection of an impact event at the security barrier based on the detection of disturbances within the optical fiber.

  17. Dielectric and diffusion barrier multilayer for Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} solar cells integration on stainless steel sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amouzou, Dodji, E-mail: dodji.amouzou@fundp.ac.be [Research Centre in Physics of Matter and Radiation (PMR), University of Namur (FUNDP), Rue de Bruxelles, 61, 5000 Namur (Belgium); Guaino, Philippe; Fourdrinier, Lionel; Richir, Jean-Baptiste; Maseri, Fabrizio [CRM-Group, Boulevard de Colonster, B 57, 4000 Liège (Belgium); Sporken, Robert [Research Centre in Physics of Matter and Radiation (PMR), University of Namur (FUNDP), Rue de Bruxelles, 61, 5000 Namur (Belgium)

    2013-09-02

    For the fabrication of monolithically integrated flexible Cu(In, Ga)Se{sub 2}, CIGS modules on stainless steel, individual photovoltaic cells must be insulated from metal substrates by a barrier layer that can sustain high thermal treatments. In this work, a combination of sol–gel (organosilane-sol) and sputtered SiAlxOy forming thin diffusion barrier layers (TDBL) was prepared on stainless steel substrates. The deposition of organosilane-sol dielectric layers on the commercial stainless steel (maximal roughness, Rz = 500 nm and Root Mean Square roughness, RMS = 56 nm) induces a planarization of the surface (RMS = 16.4 nm, Rz = 176 nm). The DC leakage current through the dielectric layers was measured for the metal-insulator-metal (MIM) junctions that act as capacitors. This method allowed us to assess the quality of our TDBL insulating layer and its lateral uniformity. Indeed, evaluating a ratio of the number of valid MIM capacitors to the number of tested MIM capacitors, a yield of ∼ 95% and 50% has been reached respectively with non-annealed and annealed samples based on sol–gel double layers. A yield of 100% was achieved for sol–gel double layers reinforced with a sputtered SiAlxOy coating and a third sol–gel monolayer. Since this yield is obtained on several samples, it can be extrapolated to any substrate size. Furthermore, according to Glow Discharge Optical Emission Spectroscopy and Time of Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy measurements, these barrier layers exhibit excellent barrier properties against the diffusion of undesired atoms which could otherwise spoil the electronic and optical properties of CIGS photovoltaic cells. - Highlights: • We functionalize steel for monolithically integrated Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} solar cells • Thin dielectric and diffusion barrier layers (TDDBL) prepared on steel • Reliability and breakdown voltage of dielectric layers have been studied. • Investigation of thermal treatment effect on dielectric

  18. Na+/K+-ATPase α1 identified as an abundant protein in the blood-labyrinth barrier that plays an essential role in the barrier integrity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Yang

    capillary isolation from the inner ear and the first database on protein components in the blood-labyrinth-barrier. Additionally, we found that ATP1A1 interaction with PKCη and occludin was involved in the integrity of the blood-labyrinth-barrier.

  19. Zona occludens-2 is critical for blood-testis barrier integrity and male fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jianliang; Anuar, Farhana; Ali, Safiah Mohamed; Ng, Mei Yong; Phua, Dominic C Y; Hunziker, Walter

    2009-10-01

    Tight junction integral membrane proteins such as claudins and occludin are tethered to the actin cytoskeleton by adaptor proteins, notably the closely related zonula occludens (ZO) proteins ZO-1, ZO-2, and ZO-3. All three ZO proteins have recently been inactivated in mice. Although ZO-3 knockout mice lack an obvious phenotype, animals deficient in ZO-1 or ZO-2 show early embryonic lethality. Here, we rescue the embryonic lethality of ZO-2 knockout mice by injecting ZO-2(-/-) embryonic stem (ES) cells into wild-type blastocysts to generate viable ZO-2 chimera. ZO-2(-/-) ES cells contribute extensively to different tissues of the chimera, consistent with an extraembryonic requirement for ZO-2 rather than a critical role in epiblast development. Adult chimera present a set of phenotypes in different organs. In particular, male ZO-2 chimeras show reduced fertility and pathological changes in the testis. Lanthanum tracer experiments show a compromised blood-testis barrier. Expression levels of ZO-1, ZO-3, claudin-11, and occludin are not apparently affected. ZO-1 and occludin still localize to the blood-testis barrier region, but claudin-11 is less well restricted and the localization of connexin-43 is perturbed. The critical role of ZO-2 for male fertility and blood-testis barrier integrity thus provides a first example for a nonredundant role of an individual ZO protein in adult mice.

  20. N-wasp is required for structural integrity of the blood-testis barrier.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Xiao

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available During spermatogenesis, the blood-testis barrier (BTB segregates the adluminal (apical and basal compartments in the seminiferous epithelium, thereby creating a privileged adluminal environment that allows post-meiotic spermatid development to proceed without interference of the host immune system. A key feature of the BTB is its continuous remodeling within the Sertoli cells, the major somatic component of the seminiferous epithelium. This remodeling is necessary to allow the transport of germ cells towards the seminiferous tubule interior, while maintaining intact barrier properties. Here we demonstrate that the actin nucleation promoting factor Neuronal Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Protein (N-WASP provides an essential function necessary for BTB restructuring, and for maintaining spermatogenesis. Our data suggests that the N-WASP-Arp2/3 actin polymerization machinery generates branched-actin arrays at an advanced stage of BTB remodeling. These arrays are proposed to mediate the restructuring process through endocytic recycling of BTB components. Disruption of N-WASP in Sertoli cells results in major structural abnormalities to the BTB, including mis-localization of critical junctional and cytoskeletal elements, and leads to disruption of barrier function. These impairments result in a complete arrest of spermatogenesis, underscoring the critical involvement of the somatic compartment of the seminiferous tubules in germ cell maturation.

  1. Impact and barriers for the restriction of smoking during psychiatric hospitalization: an integrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Marques de Oliveira

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to identify the barriers for implementing the restriction on smoking in psychiatric hospitalization services, its impact on the hospitalized smokers, and the positioning of the professionals. Integrative review of 19 articles published (1989-2011 in MEDLINE and SCOPUS. Descriptive analysis was carried out. The studies revealed that the main barriers for the implementation of the restriction were: beliefs in the patients’ increased aggressiveness, damage to the professional-patient relationship, and lack of preparation to address the theme. After the implementation, the restrictions showed a positive impact: reduction of cigarettes smoked, increased motivation to quit smoking, and more attempts to stop smoking. The professionals who smoked and those who did not believe that quitting smoking benefits mental health patients were those that least supported the implementation of the restrictions. In conclusion, the restriction on smoking is effective in psychiatric hospitalization, as it provokes an attitude of change in mental health patients.

  2. Protein Homeostasis Imposes a Barrier on Functional Integration of Horizontally Transferred Genes in Bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimon Bershtein

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Horizontal gene transfer (HGT plays a central role in bacterial evolution, yet the molecular and cellular constraints on functional integration of the foreign genes are poorly understood. Here we performed inter-species replacement of the chromosomal folA gene, encoding an essential metabolic enzyme dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR, with orthologs from 35 other mesophilic bacteria. The orthologous inter-species replacements caused a marked drop (in the range 10-90% in bacterial growth rate despite the fact that most orthologous DHFRs are as stable as E.coli DHFR at 37°C and are more catalytically active than E. coli DHFR. Although phylogenetic distance between E. coli and orthologous DHFRs as well as their individual molecular properties correlate poorly with growth rates, the product of the intracellular DHFR abundance and catalytic activity (kcat/KM, correlates strongly with growth rates, indicating that the drop in DHFR abundance constitutes the major fitness barrier to HGT. Serial propagation of the orthologous strains for ~600 generations dramatically improved growth rates by largely alleviating the fitness barriers. Whole genome sequencing and global proteome quantification revealed that the evolved strains with the largest fitness improvements have accumulated mutations that inactivated the ATP-dependent Lon protease, causing an increase in the intracellular DHFR abundance. In one case DHFR abundance increased further due to mutations accumulated in folA promoter, but only after the lon inactivating mutations were fixed in the population. Thus, by apparently distinguishing between self and non-self proteins, protein homeostasis imposes an immediate and global barrier to the functional integration of foreign genes by decreasing the intracellular abundance of their products. Once this barrier is alleviated, more fine-tuned evolution occurs to adjust the function/expression of the transferred proteins to the constraints imposed by the

  3. MRI confirms loss of blood-brain barrier integrity in a mouse model of disseminated candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarathna, Dhammika H M L P; Munasinghe, Jeeva; Lizak, Martin J; Nayak, Debasis; McGavern, Dorian B; Roberts, David D

    2013-09-01

    Disseminated candidiasis primarily targets the kidneys and brain in mice and humans. Damage to these critical organs leads to the high mortality associated with such infections, and invasion across the blood-brain barrier can result in fungal meningoencephalitis. Candida albicans can penetrate a brain endothelial cell barrier in vitro through transcellular migration, but this mechanism has not been confirmed in vivo. MRI using the extracellular vascular contrast agent gadolinium diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid demonstrated that integrity of the blood-brain barrier is lost during C. albicans invasion. Intravital two-photon laser scanning microscopy was used to provide the first real-time demonstration of C. albicans colonizing the living brain, where both yeast and filamentous forms of the pathogen were found. Furthermore, we adapted a previously described method utilizing MRI to monitor inflammatory cell recruitment into infected tissues in mice. Macrophages and other phagocytes were visualized in kidney and brain by the administration of ultrasmall iron oxide particles. In addition to obtaining new insights into the passage of C. albicans across the brain microvasculature, these imaging methods provide useful tools to study further the pathogenesis of C. albicans infections, to define the roles of Candida virulence genes in kidney versus brain infection and to assess new therapeutic measures for drug development.

  4. Analyses of the ``allowed'' inversion barriers of H2O and NH3: Incompleteness of the Woodward-Hoffmann HOMO-LUMO symmetry ideas due to neglect of molecular orbital terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmiston, C.; Jarvie, J.; Bartleson, J.

    1986-06-01

    Walsh's rules correctly attribute the ``bent'' structures of H2O and NH3 to the occupation of the 1πz→3a1 HOMO not occupied in linear BeH2 and planar BH3. In Walsh's molecular orbital (MO) diagram E(3a1) decreases sharply with bending angle S. This has always been attributed incorrectly to changes in the 3a1 MO, mainly due to symmetry-allowed mixing with the LUMO, 4a*1. The forbidden bending of BeH2 and BH3 has been similarly ``explained.'' Using large-basis-set self-consistent field molecular orbital (SCF MO) ψs, we show that the integral Hellmann-Feynman theorem ΔEIHF≂ΔESCF much better than does the analogous second-order perturbation theory λE''(SE'=0 and λ=S2/2, ΔH≂SH'+λH''). ΔEIHF=++ΔNR≂Σni2Δ EIHFi+ΔNR, Δψ˜=(ψ/η)-ψ0, η=, ΔEIHFi=+, Δφ˜i=(φi/ηi)-φ0i, ηi=, ΔNA=ΔH-ΔNR. Both theories show a large negative term and small z> HOMO-UMO mixing term, which is positive in ΔEIHF. The HOMO-LUMO mixing term is small even when 3σ*g is optimized for the excited state. The ΔEIHFis and λE`is give the usual Walsh diagrams for bending of H2O and NH3, with or without MO partitioning of the nuclear repulsion change (ΔNR). However ``decoupling'' of the φ'is in ψ' makes the λE`is unreliable. The term acts to create a large allowed barrier to inversion for H2O and CH4, but a strong ΔNR nearly destroys an otherwise large barrier for NH3. acts to bend the linear H2O, planar NH3, and planar CH4, with HOMO-LUMO mixing being ``antibending.'' We show that understanding of MO correlation diagrams demands consideration of the ``static'' terms as well as the OMO-UMO mixing terms, which has not been appreciated by earlier workers so far as we are aware.

  5. MALDI-TOF-MS Platform for Integrated Proteomic and Peptidomic Profiling of Milk Samples Allows Rapid Detection of Food Adulterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassi, Mauro; Arena, Simona; Scaloni, Andrea

    2015-07-15

    Adulteration of ovine, caprine, and buffalo milks with more common bovine material occurs for economic reasons and seasonal availability. Frauds are also associated with the use of powdered milk instead of declared, fresh material. In this context, various analytical methods have been adapted to dairy science applications with the aim to evaluate adulteration of milk samples, although time-consuming, suitable only for speciation or thermal treatment analysis, or useful for a specific fraud type. An integrated MALDI-TOF-MS platform for the combined peptidomic and proteomic profiling of milk samples is here presented, which allows rapid detection of illegal adulterations due to the addition of either nondeclared bovine material to water buffalo, goat, and ovine milks or of powdered bovine milk to the fresh counterpart. Peptide and protein markers of each animal milk were identified after direct analysis of a large number of diluted skimmed and/or enriched diluted skimmed filtrate samples. In parallel, markers of thermal treatment were characterized in different types of commercial milks. Principal components scores of ad hoc prepared species- or thermal treatment-associated adulterated milk samples were subjected to partial least-squares regression, permitting a fast accurate estimate of the fraud extents in test samples at either protein and peptide level. With respect to previous reports on MALDI-TOF-MS protein profiling methodologies for milk speciation, this study extends that approach to the analysis of the thermal treatment and introduces an independent, complementary peptide profiling measurement, which integrates protein data with additional information on peptides, validating final results and ultimately broadening the method applicability.

  6. The effects of hyperbaric air and hyperbaric oxygen on blood-brain barrier integrity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevik, Nihal Gunes; Orhan, Nurcan; Yilmaz, Canan Ugur; Arican, Nadir; Ahishali, Bulent; Kucuk, Mutlu; Kaya, Mehmet; Toklu, Akin Savas

    2013-09-19

    Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) treatment yields conflicting results on blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity under various pathological conditions and the effects of HBO on healthy brain is poorly understood. In this experimental study, the effects of HBO on BBB integrity were investigated in comparison with hyperbaric air (HBA) in intact rats. Four sessions of HBA or HBO were applied to intact rats in 24h. BBB integrity was functionally and structurally evaluated by determining extravasation of Evans blue (EB) dye and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) tracers. In immunohistochemical evaluation, relative staining intensity for occludin, a tight junction (TJ) protein, and aquaporin 4 (AQP4), a water-channel protein, was detected in the barrier type of microvessels of brain by image analysis. BBB permeability to EB dye significantly increased in animals in HBO treatment group compared to those in HBA and control groups (p<0.05). The immunoreactivity of occludin, a tight junction protein, remained essentially unaltered in capillaries of hippocampus in all groups. In animals exposed to HBO, AQP4 immunoreactivity significantly increased in parietal cortex compared to those in HBA and control groups (p<0.01). Ultrastructurally, frequent vesicles containing HRP reaction products were observed in capillary endothelial cells in cerebral cortex and hippocampus of rats subjected to both HBA and HBO. Our results indicate that the HBO administration to intact rats increased BBB permeability to both EB and HRP while HBA increased only HRP extravasation in these animals. The results of this study suggest that HBA also impairs the BBB integrity in intact rats as well as HBO.

  7. Exercise maintains blood-brain barrier integrity during early stages of brain metastasis formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Gretchen; Davidson, Sarah J; Wrobel, Jagoda K; Toborek, Michal

    2015-08-07

    Tumor cell extravasation into the brain requires passage through the blood-brain barrier, which is a highly protected microvascular environment fortified with tight junction (TJ) proteins. TJ integrity can be regulated under physiological and pathophysiological conditions. There is evidence that exercise can modulate oxidation status within the brain microvasculature and protect against tumor cell extravasation and metastasis formation. In order to study these events, mature male mice were given access to voluntary exercise on a running wheel (exercise) or access to a locked wheel (sedentary) for five weeks. The average running distance was 9.0 ± 0.2 km/day. Highly metastatic tumor cells (murine Lewis lung carcinoma) were then infused into the brain microvasculature through the internal carotid artery. Analyses were performed at early stage (48 h) and late stage (3 weeks) post tumor cell infusion. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed fewer isolated tumor cells extravasating into the brain at both 48 h and 3 weeks post surgery in exercised mice. Occludin protein levels were reduced in the sedentary tumor group, but maintained in the exercised tumor group at 48 h post tumor cell infusion. These results indicate that voluntary exercise may participate in modulating blood-brain barrier integrity thereby protecting the brain during metastatic progression.

  8. Effects of the cathelicidin LL-37 on intestinal epithelial barrier integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otte, Jan-Michel; Zdebik, Anna-Elisabeth; Brand, Stephan; Chromik, Ansgar M; Strauss, Sarah; Schmitz, Frank; Steinstraesser, Lars; Schmidt, Wolfgang E

    2009-08-07

    The human cathelicidin LL-37 is involved in innate immune responses, angiogenesis and wound healing. Functions in maintenance and re-establishment of intestinal barrier integrity have not been characterized yet. Following direct and indirect stimulation of human colonic HT-29 and Caco-2 cells with LL-37 the cellular viability, rate of apoptosis, proliferation and wound healing were determined. Expression of mucins and growth factors was quantified by real-time PCR and Western blotting. Direct application of LL-37 stimulated migration in Caco-2 cells expressing the proposed LL-37 receptor P2X7. Intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) proliferation was not altered. Indirectly, LL-37 significantly enhanced IEC migration via release of growth factors from subepithelial fibroblasts and IEC. Furthermore, LL-37 induced the expression of protective mucins in IEC and abated tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) induced apoptosis in IEC. LL-37 induced signaling is mediated in part by the P2X7 receptor, the epidermal growth factor receptor and the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). LL-37 contributes to maintenance and re-establishment of the intestinal barrier integrity via direct and indirect pathways. These features, in addition to its known antimicrobial properties, suggest an important role for this peptide in intestinal homeostasis.

  9. Integration of sustainable consumption education in the Malaysian School Curriculum: Opportunities and barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Yuek-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been identified that gaps exist in education for sustainable development (ESD in the Malaysian curriculum, and specifically in Education for Sustainable Consumption (ESC. There is a general lack of cohesiveness and intent although numerous aspects of education for sustainable consumption are present in the curriculum. On the conceptual level, the understanding of the vision of sustainable consumption based on sustainable human development is often vague or lacking. The opportunity to incorporate ESC in the curriculum could be realised in the impending curriculum review of the Malaysian secondary school curriculum. In 2011 Malaysia implemented the new Malaysian Standard Curriculum for Primary Schools and is now into its fifth year running. It will complete its first run by 2016 and will transition into the new Standard Curriculum for Secondary Schools that will be implemented in 2017. This curriculum revamp provides the opportunity for ESC content to be formally incorporated in the new Standard Curriculum for Secondary Schools. A study was carried out to determine the need and viability for the integration of sustainable consumption education in the Malaysian curriculum. The output from this study could inform the impending curriculum review for the inclusion of ESC content and materials in the new curriculum in 2017. A survey was carried out to identify opportunities and barriers towards this effort. The objective of this survey was to determine the barriers and enabling factors in the integration of Education for Sustainable Consumption (ESC in learning and teaching among teachers. Preliminary findings showed that teachers are enthusiastic about integrating ESC in their learning and teaching, but lack formal training. The availability of trained teachers and administrative support system are also possible barriers to the implementation of the ESC curriculum. It is recommended that ESC content, stressing on desired behaviors towards

  10. Effect of air flow on the micro-discharge dynamics in an array of integrated coaxial microhollow dielectric barrier discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Gaurav; Du, Yanjun; Brandenburg, Ronny; Bruggeman, Peter J.

    2017-03-01

    The micro-discharge properties and evolution in a 2D array of integrated coaxial microhollow dielectric barrier discharges are studied by using highly time-resolved electrical and optical diagnostics. The study is focused on the effect of the gas flow rate and gas residence time on discharge properties. The investigated integrated coaxial microhollow discharge geometry allows operating the discharge at exceptionally small residence times, which can be equal to or even smaller than the discharge period, at reasonable gas flow rates. The gas flow has an impact on gas heating, residual humidity, pre-ionization density and the densities of excited and reactive species produced by previous discharges. A unique voltage–charge plot is obtained with elongated periods without discharge activity. A very significant effect of flow on NO emission is observed that relates to the impact of flow on the NO production in these micro-discharges. Using the emission intensities of molecular bands of the second positive system of nitrogen and the first negative system of the nitrogen ion, effective reduced electric field strengths are obtained with a maximum equal to 870 Td. The reduced electric field decreases with increasing gas flow rate. This behavior is consistent with the reduction of the overall discharge intensity due to a reduced amount of charges present in the discharge gap. Both the flow rate and a reduction in water impurity changing the ion mobility can be responsible for the different effective electric field distributions at the highest and no flow conditions.

  11. Chronic exposure to nicotine and saquinavir decreases endothelial Notch-4 expression and disrupts blood-brain barrier integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manda, Vamshi K; Mittapalli, Rajendar K; Geldenhuys, Werner J; Lockman, Paul R

    2010-10-01

    Since the advent of HAART, there have been substantial improvements in HIV patient survival; however, the prevalence of HIV associated dementia has increased. Importantly, HIV positive individuals who smoke progress to HIV associated neurological conditions faster than those who do not. Recent in vitro data have shown that pharmacological levels of saquinavir causes endothelial oxidative stress and significantly decreases Notch-4 expression, a primary protein involved in maintaining stability of blood-brain barrier (BBB) endothelium. This is concerning as nicotine can also generate reactive oxygen species in endothelium. It is largely unknown if pharmacological doses of these drugs can cause a similar in vivo down-regulation of Notch-4 and if there is a concurrent destabilization of the integrity of the BBB. The data herein show: (i) nicotine and protease inhibitors cause an additive oxidative stress burden in endothelium; (ii) that the integrity of the BBB is disrupted after concurrent chronic nicotine and protease inhibitor administration; and (iii) that BBB endothelial dysfunction is correlated with a decrease in Notch-4 and ZO-1 expression. Considering the high prevalence of smoking in the HIV infected population (3- to 4-fold higher than in the general population) this data must be followed up to determine if all protease inhibitors cause a similar BBB disruption or if there is a safer alternative. In addition, this data may suggest that the induced BBB disruption may allow foreign molecules to gain access to brain and be a contributing factor to the slow progression of HIV associated dementia.

  12. C5a alters blood-brain barrier integrity in a human in vitro model of systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Supriya D; Parikh, Neil U; Woodruff, Trent M; Jarvis, James N; Lopez, Molly; Hennon, Teresa; Cunningham, Patrick; Quigg, Richard J; Schwartz, Stanley A; Alexander, Jessy J

    2015-09-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) plays a crucial role in brain homeostasis, thereby maintaining the brain environment precise for optimal neuronal function. Its dysfunction is an intriguing complication of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). SLE is a systemic autoimmune disorder where neurological complications occur in 5-50% of cases and is associated with impaired BBB integrity. Complement activation occurs in SLE and is an important part of the clinical profile. Our earlier studies demonstrated that C5a generated by complement activation caused the loss of brain endothelial layer integrity in rodents. The goal of the current study was to determine the translational potential of these studies to a human system. To assess this, we used a two dimensional in vitro BBB model constructed using primary human brain microvascular endothelial cells and astroglial cells, which closely emulates the in vivo BBB allowing the assessment of BBB integrity. Increased permeability monitored by changes in transendothelial electrical resistance and cytoskeletal remodelling caused by actin fiber rearrangement were observed when the cells were exposed to lupus serum and C5a, similar to the observations in mice. In addition, our data show that C5a/C5aR1 signalling alters nuclear factor-κB translocation into nucleus and regulates the expression of the tight junction proteins, claudin-5 and zonula occludens 1 in this setting. Our results demonstrate for the first time that C5a regulates BBB integrity in a neuroinflammatory setting where it affects both endothelial and astroglial cells. In addition, we also demonstrate that our previous findings in a mouse model, were emulated in human cells in vitro, bringing the studies one step closer to understanding the translational potential of C5a/C5aR1 blockade as a promising therapeutic strategy in SLE and other neurodegenerative diseases.

  13. Exploring the Main Barriers of Technology Integration in the English Language Teaching Classroom: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rouholllah Khodabandelou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The abundance of technology in recent years has contributed to development in the societies, industries, and education. It is proven from the current trend of technology such as the emergence and rise of smart phones, tablets, laptops and wireless internet connection that the present and future world will be heralded by technology. The integration of technology into the teaching and learning process is idealistic with the existence of vast information and multimedia on the internet and innovative inventions of devices that serve as great assistance. However, the available technology has not been put to good use in the English language teaching and learning classroom for some reasons, especially in developing countries like Malaysia. Thus, this research is conducted to determine the hindrances faced by the education community in Malaysia. The current qualitative research involved seven individuals who discussed issues relating to the hindrances of technology integration in English language teaching and learning. This paper presents the results of the discussion and provides suggestions on some possible solutions to the identified obstacles faced by the education community in using technology in a more efficient and resourceful manner for the teaching and learning development. Keywords: TESL, barriers, technology, integration, higher education

  14. MALT1 Protease Activation Triggers Acute Disruption of Endothelial Barrier Integrity via CYLD Cleavage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klei, Linda R; Hu, Dong; Panek, Robert; Alfano, Danielle N; Bridwell, Rachel E; Bailey, Kelly M; Oravecz-Wilson, Katherine I; Concel, Vincent J; Hess, Emily M; Van Beek, Matthew; Delekta, Phillip C; Gu, Shufang; Watkins, Simon C; Ting, Adrian T; Gough, Peter J; Foley, Kevin P; Bertin, John; McAllister-Lucas, Linda M; Lucas, Peter C

    2016-09-27

    Microvascular endothelial cells maintain a tight barrier to prevent passage of plasma and circulating immune cells into the extravascular tissue compartment, yet endothelial cells respond rapidly to vasoactive substances, including thrombin, allowing transient paracellular permeability. This response is a cornerstone of acute inflammation, but the mechanisms responsible are still incompletely understood. Here, we demonstrate that thrombin triggers MALT1 to proteolytically cleave cylindromatosis (CYLD). Fragmentation of CYLD results in microtubule disruption and a cascade of events leading to endothelial cell retraction and an acute permeability response. This finding reveals an unexpected role for the MALT1 protease, which previously has been viewed mostly as a driver of pro-inflammatory NF-κB signaling in lymphocytes. Thus, MALT1 not only promotes immune cell activation but also acutely regulates endothelial cell biology, actions that together facilitate tissue inflammation. Pharmacologic inhibition of MALT1 may therefore have synergistic impact by targeting multiple disparate steps in the overall inflammatory response.

  15. MALT1 Protease Activation Triggers Acute Disruption of Endothelial Barrier Integrity via CYLD Cleavage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda R. Klei

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Microvascular endothelial cells maintain a tight barrier to prevent passage of plasma and circulating immune cells into the extravascular tissue compartment, yet endothelial cells respond rapidly to vasoactive substances, including thrombin, allowing transient paracellular permeability. This response is a cornerstone of acute inflammation, but the mechanisms responsible are still incompletely understood. Here, we demonstrate that thrombin triggers MALT1 to proteolytically cleave cylindromatosis (CYLD. Fragmentation of CYLD results in microtubule disruption and a cascade of events leading to endothelial cell retraction and an acute permeability response. This finding reveals an unexpected role for the MALT1 protease, which previously has been viewed mostly as a driver of pro-inflammatory NF-κB signaling in lymphocytes. Thus, MALT1 not only promotes immune cell activation but also acutely regulates endothelial cell biology, actions that together facilitate tissue inflammation. Pharmacologic inhibition of MALT1 may therefore have synergistic impact by targeting multiple disparate steps in the overall inflammatory response.

  16. Scattering from the Potential Barrier $V=cosh^{-2} \\omega x$ from the Path Integration over SO(1,2)

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmedov, H

    1996-01-01

    Unitary irreducible representation of the group SO(1,2) is obtained in the mixed basis, i.e. between the compact and noncompact basis and the new addition theorems are derived which are required in path integral applications involving the positively signed potential. The Green function for the potential barrier $V=cosh^{-2}\\omega x$ is evaluated from the path integration over the coset space SO(1,2)/K where K is the compact subgroup.The transition and the reflection coefficients are given.Results for the moving barrier $V=cosh^{-2}\\omega (x-g_0t)$ are also presented.

  17. Implementation of Integrated Service Networks under the Quebec Mental Health Reform: Facilitators and Barriers associated with Different Territorial Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Josée Fleury

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study evaluates implementation of the Quebec Mental Health Reform (2005–2015, which promoted the development of integrated service networks, in 11 local service networks organized into four territorial groups according to socio-demographic characteristics and mental health services offered. Methods: Data were collected from documents concerning networks; structured questionnaires completed by 90 managers and by 16 respondent-psychiatrists; and semi-structured interviews with 102 network stakeholders. Factors associated with implementation and integration were organized according to: 1 reform characteristics; 2 implementation context; 3 organizational characteristics; and 4 integration strategies. Results: While local networks were in a process of development and expansion, none were fully integrated at the time of the study. Facilitators and barriers to implementation and integration were primarily associated with organizational characteristics. Integration was best achieved in larger networks including a general hospital with a psychiatric department, followed by networks with a psychiatric hospital. Formalized integration strategies such as service agreements, liaison officers, and joint training reduced some barriers to implementation in networks experiencing less favourable conditions. Conclusion: Strategies for the implementation of healthcare reform and integrated service networks should include sustained support and training in best-practices, adequate performance indicators and resources, formalized integration strategies to improve network coordination and suitable initiatives to promote staff retention.

  18. Integrating Computing across the Curriculum: The Impact of Internal Barriers and Training Intensity on Computer Integration in the Elementary School Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, LaToya O.; Gibson, Philip; Cotten, Shelia R.; Howell-Moroney, Michael; Stringer, Kristi

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between internal barriers, professional development, and computer integration outcomes among a sample of fourth- and fifth-grade teachers in an urban, low-income school district in the Southeastern United States. Specifically, we examine the impact of teachers' computer attitudes, computer anxiety, and computer…

  19. Evaluation of Novel Integrated Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma as Ozone Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Nur

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a characterization of an integrated ozone generator constructed by seven of reactors of Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma (DBDP. DBDP a has spiral-cylindrical configuration. Silence plasma produced ozone inside the DBDP reactor was generated by AC-HV with voltage up to 25 kV and maximum frequency of 23 kHz. As a source of ozone, dry air was pumped into the generator and controlled by valves system and a flowmeter. We found ozone concentration increased with the applied voltage, but in contrary, the concentration decreased with the flow rate of dry air. It was also found that a maximum concentration was 20 mg/L and ozone capacity of 48 g/h with an input power of 1.4 kW. Moreover, in this generator, IP efficiency of 8.13 g/kWh was obtained at input power 0.45 kW and air flow rate of 9 L/min. Therefore, be the higher ozone capacity can be produced with higher input power; however, it provided lower IP efficiency. The effect of dry air flow rate and applied voltage on ozone concentrations have been studied. At last, spiral wire copper was very corrosive done to the interaction with ozone, and it is necessary to do a research for finding the best metals as an active electrode inside of the quartz dielectric. Copyright © 2017 BCREC GROUP. All rights reserved Received: 18th July 2016; Revised: 25th September 2016; Accepted: 5th October 2016 How to Cite: Nur, M., Susan, A.I., Muhlisin, Z., Arianto, F., Kinandana, A.W., Nurhasanah, I., Sumariyah, S., Wibawa, P.J., Gunawan, G., Usman, A. (2017. Evaluation of Novel Integrated Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma as Ozone Generator. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 12 (1: 24-31 (doi:10.9767/bcrec.12.1.605.24-31 Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.12.1.605.24-31

  20. CHILD ALLOWANCE

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2001-01-01

    HR Division wishes to clarify to members of the personnel that the allowance for a dependent child continues to be paid during all training courses ('stages'), apprenticeships, 'contrats de qualification', sandwich courses or other courses of similar nature. Any payment received for these training courses, including apprenticeships, is however deducted from the amount reimbursable as school fees. HR Division would also like to draw the attention of members of the personnel to the fact that any contract of employment will lead to the suppression of the child allowance and of the right to reimbursement of school fees.

  1. Remodeling of Tight Junctions and Enhancement of Barrier Integrity of the CACO-2 Intestinal Epithelial Cell Layer by Micronutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzano, Mary Carmen; DiGuilio, Katherine; Mercado, Joanna; Teter, Mimi; To, Julie; Ferraro, Brendan; Mixson, Brittany; Manley, Isabel; Baker, Valerissa; Moore, Beverley A; Wertheimer, Joshua; Mullin, James M

    2015-01-01

    The micronutrients zinc, quercetin, butyrate, indole and berberine were evaluated for their ability to induce remodeling of epithelial tight junctions (TJs) and enhance barrier integrity in the CACO-2 gastrointestinal epithelial cell culture model. All five of these chemically very diverse micronutrients increased transepithelial electrical resistance (Rt) significantly, but only berberine also improved barrier integrity to the non-electrolyte D-mannitol. Increases of Rt as much as 200% of untreated controls were observed. Each of the five micronutrients also induced unique, signature-like changes in TJ protein composition, suggesting multiple pathways (and TJ arrangements) by which TJ barrier function can be enhanced. Decreases in abundance by as much as 90% were observed for claudin-2, and increases of over 300% could be seen for claudins -5 and -7. The exact effects of the micronutrients on barrier integrity and TJ protein composition were found to be highly dependent on the degree of differentiation of the cell layer at the time it was exposed to the micronutrient. The substratum to which the epithelial layer adheres was also found to regulate the response of the cell layer to the micronutrient. The implications of these findings for therapeutically decreasing morbidity in Inflammatory Bowel Disease are discussed.

  2. Three integrated photovoltaic/sound barrier power plants. Construction and operational experience; Drei integrierte PV-Schallschutz Versuchsfelder. Bau und Erprobung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordmann, T.; Froelich, A.; Clavadetscher, L.

    2002-07-01

    After an international ideas competition by TNC Switzerland and Germany in 1996, six companies where given the opportunity to construct a prototype of their newly developed integrated PV-sound barrier concepts. The main goal was to develop highly integrated concepts, allowing the reduction of PV sound barrier systems costs, as well as the demonstration of specific concepts for different noise situations. This project is strongly correlated with a German project. Three of the concepts of the competition are demonstrated along a highway near Munich, constructed in 1997. The three Swiss installations had to be constructed at different locations, reflecting three typical situations for sound barriers. The first Swiss installation was the world first Bi-facial PV-sound barrier. It was built on a highway bridge at Wallisellen-Aubrugg in 1997. The operational experience of the installation is positive. But due to the different efficiencies of the two cell sides, its specific yield lies somewhat behind a conventional PV installation. The second Swiss plant was finished in autumn 1998. The 'zig-zag' construction is situated along the railway line at Wallisellen in a densely inhabited area with some local shadowing. Its performance and its specific yield is comparatively low due to a combination of several reasons (geometry of the concept, inverter, high module temperature, local shadows). The third installation was constructed along the motor way A1 at Bruettisellen in 1999. Its vertical panels are equipped with amorphous modules. The report show, that the performance of the system is reasonable, but the mechanical construction has to be improved. A small trial field with cells directly laminated onto the steel panel, also installed at Bruettisellen, could be the key development for this concept. This final report includes the evaluation and comparison of the monitored data in the past 24 months of operation. (author)

  3. Eradicating Barriers to Mental Health Care Through Integrated Service Models: Contemporary Perspectives for Psychiatric-Mental Health Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Horace; Alexander, Vinette

    2016-06-01

    There has been renewed, global interest in developing new and transformative models of facilitating access to high-quality, cost-effective, and individually-centered health care for severe mentally-ill (SMI) persons of diverse racial/ethnic, cultural and socioeconomic backgrounds. However, in our present-day health-service delivery systems, scholars have identified layers of barriers to widespread dispersal of well-needed mental health care both nationally and internationally. It is crucial that contemporary models directed at eradicating barriers to mental health services are interdisciplinary in context, design, scope, sequence, and best-practice standards. Contextually, nurses are well-positioned to influence the incorporation and integration of new concepts into operationally interdisciplinary, evidence-based care models with measurable outcomes. The aim of this concept paper is to use the available evidence to contextually explicate how the blended roles of psychiatric mental health (PMH) nursing can be influential in eradicating barriers to care and services for SMI persons through the integrated principles of collaboration, integration and service expansion across health, socioeconomic, and community systems. A large body of literature proposes that any best-practice standards aimed at eliminating barriers to the health care needs of SMI persons require systematic, well-coordinated interdisciplinary partnerships through evidence-based, high-quality, person-centered, and outcome-driven processes. Transforming the conceptual models of collaboration, integration and service expansion could be revolutionary in how care and services are coordinated and dispersed to populations across disadvantaged communities. Building on their longstanding commitment to individual and community care approaches, and their pivotal roles in research, education, leadership, practice, and legislative processes; PMH nurses are well-positioned to be both influential and instrumental in

  4. Integrating ground-penetrating radar and borehole data from a Wadden Sea barrier island

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars; Møller, I.; Nielsen, L. H.

    2009-01-01

    Sea level rise may have large implications for low-gradient barrier coastal systems. This problem motivated an integrated ground-penetrating radar (GPR) and sedimentological study of the Rømø Wadden Sea barrier island. Crossing W-E and N-S-oriented 100 MHz GPR reflection profiles with a total...... fossil beach ridges in the shallow subsurface of the Rømø barrier island. The base of the beach ridges is found 0-1 m above pmsl. Some beach ridges show signs of erosion, and aeolian dunes have developed above them. The dunes appear with a variety of internal structures, but are often characterised...

  5. Melatonin Preserves Blood-Brain Barrier Integrity and Permeability via Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 Inhibition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himakarnika Alluri

    Full Text Available Microvascular hyperpermeability that occurs at the level of the blood-brain barrier (BBB often leads to vasogenic brain edema and elevated intracranial pressure following traumatic brain injury (TBI. At a cellular level, tight junction proteins (TJPs between neighboring endothelial cells maintain the integrity of the BBB via TJ associated proteins particularly, zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1 that binds to the transmembrane TJPs and actin cytoskeleton intracellularly. The pro-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-1β (IL-1β as well as the proteolytic enzymes, matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9 are key mediators of trauma-associated brain edema. Recent studies indicate that melatonin a pineal hormone directly binds to MMP-9 and also might act as its endogenous inhibitor. We hypothesized that melatonin treatment will provide protection against TBI-induced BBB hyperpermeability via MMP-9 inhibition. Rat brain microvascular endothelial cells grown as monolayers were used as an in vitro model of the BBB and a mouse model of TBI using a controlled cortical impactor was used for all in vivo studies. IL-1β (10 ng/mL; 2 hours-induced endothelial monolayer hyperpermeability was significantly attenuated by melatonin (10 μg/mL; 1 hour, GM6001 (broad spectrum MMP inhibitor; 10 μM; 1 hour, MMP-9 inhibitor-1 (MMP-9 specific inhibitor; 5 nM; 1 hour or MMP-9 siRNA transfection (48 hours in vitro. Melatonin and MMP-9 inhibitor-1 pretreatment attenuated IL-1β-induced MMP-9 activity, loss of ZO-1 junctional integrity and f-actin stress fiber formation. IL-1β treatment neither affected ZO-1 protein or mRNA expression or cell viability. Acute melatonin treatment attenuated BBB hyperpermeability in a mouse controlled cortical impact model of TBI in vivo. In conclusion, one of the protective effects of melatonin against BBB hyperpermeability occurs due to enhanced BBB integrity via MMP-9 inhibition. In addition, acute melatonin treatment provides protection against BBB

  6. An approximation to the adaptive exponential integrate-and-fire neuron model allows fast and predictive fitting to physiological data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loreen eHertäg

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available For large-scale network simulations, it is often desirable to have computationally tractable, yet in a defined sense still physiologically valid neuron models. In particular, these models should be able to reproduce physiological measurements, ideally in a predictive sense, and under different input regimes in which neurons may operate in vivo. Here we present an approach to parameter estimation for a simple spiking neuron model mainly based on standard f-I curves obtained from in vitro recordings. Such recordings are routinely obtained in standard protocols and assess a neuron's response under a wide range of mean input currents. Our fitting procedure makes use of closed-form expressions for the firing rate derived from an approximation to the adaptive exponential integrate-and-fire (AdEx model. The resulting fitting process is simple and about two orders of magnitude faster compared to methods based on numerical integration of the differential equations. We probe this method on different cell types recorded from rodent prefrontal cortex. After fitting to the f-I current-clamp data, the model cells are tested on completely different sets of recordings obtained by fluctuating ('in-vivo-like' input currents. For a wide range of different input regimes, cell types, and cortical layers, the model could predict spike times on these test traces quite accurately within the bounds of physiological reliability, although no information from these distinct test sets was used for model fitting. Further analyses delineated some of the empirical factors constraining model fitting and the model's generalization performance. An even simpler adaptive LIF neuron was also examined in this context. Hence, we have developed a 'high-throughput' model fitting procedure which is simple and fast, with good prediction performance, and which relies only on firing rate information and standard physiological data widely and easily available.

  7. Mobile Devices and the Teacher Perceived Barriers Impacting Effective Integration in the K-5 Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Tina S.

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative, phenomenological study explored the teacher perceived barriers of using mobile devices in the K-5 classroom. Research confirms teachers face various types of variables and become reluctant to use technology within their curriculum driven lessons. This study sought to understand what teachers perceive as barriers, and how the…

  8. Hydrogen sulfide improves colonic barrier integrity in DSS-induced inflammation in Caco-2 cells and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongyu; Yan, Rui; Zhou, Xiaogang; Ji, Fang; Zhang, Bing

    2016-10-01

    Intestinal barrier involves in the pathogeny of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been reported to improve intestinal barrier integrity. Thus, this study investigated the effects of GYY4137, a slow-release H2S donor, on DSS-induced inflammation and intestinal dysfunction. In vitro model, cellular permeability was significantly increased and expression of tight junctions (ZO-1, Cauldin4, and Occludin) was downregulated in Caco-2 cells. GYY4137 treatment markedly attenuated DSS-induced inflammation and barrier dysfunction. Cystathionine β-synthase (CBS)-siRNA transfection further demonstrated that endogenous H2S system involves in DSS-induced inflammation and mediates barrier function. In vivo model, DSS exposure caused colonic inflammation and injury in mice and GYY4137 injection alleviated inflammatory response and improved intestinal barrier via reducing intestinal permeability and upregulating of tight junctions. In conclusion, endogenous H2S system involves in DSS-induced inflammation and H2S addition alleviated inflammation and intestinal dysfunction in vitro and in vivo.

  9. Integrative taxonomy allows the identification of synonymous species and the erection of a new genus of Echiniscidae (Tardigrada, Heterotardigrada).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, Filipe; Fontoura, Paulo; Cesari, Michele; Rebecchi, Lorena; Guidetti, Roberto; Serrano, Artur; Bertolani, Roberto

    2013-02-14

    The taxonomy of tardigrades is challenging as these animals demonstrate a limited number of useful morphological characters, therefore several species descriptions are supported by only minor differences. For example, Echiniscus oihonnae and Echiniscus multispinosus are separated exclusively by the absence or presence of dorsal spines at position Bd. Doubts were raised on the validity of these two species, which were often sampled together. Using an integrative approach, based on genetic and morphological investigations, we studied two new Portuguese populations, and compared these with archived collections. We have determined that the two species must be considered synonymous with Echiniscus oihonnae the senior synonym. Our study showed generally low genetic distances of cox1 gene (with a maximum of 4.1%), with specimens displaying both morphologies sharing the same haplotype, and revealed character Bd to be variable. Addition-ally, a more detailed morphological and phylogenetic study based on the 18S gene uncovered a new evolutionary line within the Echiniscidae, which justified the erection of Diploechiniscus gen. nov. The new genus is in a sister group relationship with Echiniscus and is, for the moment, composed of a single species.

  10. A Review of Barriers to and Opportunities for the Integration of Renewable Energy in the Southeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McConnell, Ben W [ORNL; Hadley, Stanton W [ORNL; Xu, Yan [ORNL

    2011-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to prepare a summary report that examines the opportunities for and obstacles to the integration of renewable energy resources in the Southeast between now and the year 2030. The report, which is based on a review of existing literature regarding renewable resources in the Southeast, includes the following renewable energy resources: wind, solar, hydro, geothermal, biomass, and tidal. The evaluation was conducted by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the Energy Foundation and is a subjective review with limited detailed analysis. However, the report offers a best estimate of the magnitude, time frame, and cost of deployment of renewable resources in the Southeast based upon the literature reviewed and reasonable engineering and economic estimates. For the purposes of this report, the Southeast is defined as the states of Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, and West Virginia. In addition, some aspects of the report (wind and geothermal) also consider the extended Southeast, which includes Maryland, Missouri, Oklahoma, and Texas. A description of the existing base of renewable electricity installations in the region is given for each technology considered. Where available, the possible barriers and other considerations regarding renewable energy resources are listed in terms of availability, investment and maintenance costs, reliability, installation requirements, policies, and energy market. As stated above, the report is a comprehensive review of renewable energy resources in the southeastern region of United States based on a literature study that included information obtained from the Southern Bio-Power wiki, sources from the Energy Foundation, sources available to ORNL, and sources found during the review. The report consists of an executive summary, this introductory chapter describing report objectives, a chapter on analysis methods and

  11. Identifying the barriers to conducting outcomes research in integrative health care clinic settings - a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Findlay-Reece Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Integrative health care (IHC is an interdisciplinary blending of conventional medicine and complementary and alternative medicine (CAM with the purpose of enhancing patients' health. In 2006, we designed a study to assess outcomes that are relevant to people using such care. However, we faced major challenges in conducting this study and hypothesized that this might be due to the lack of a research climate in these clinics. To investigate these challenges, we initiated a further study in 2008, to explore the reasons why IHC clinics are not conducting outcomes research and to identify strategies for conducting successful in-house outcomes research programs. The results of the latter study are reported here. Methods A total of 25 qualitative interviews were conducted with key participants from 19 IHC clinics across Canada. Basic content analysis was used to identify key themes from the transcribed interviews. Results Barriers identified by participants fell into four categories: organizational culture, organizational resources, organizational environment and logistical challenges. Cultural challenges relate to the philosophy of IHC, organizational leadership and practitioner attitudes and beliefs. Participants also identified significant issues relating to their organization's lack of resources such as funding, compensation, infrastructure and partnerships/linkages. Environmental challenges such as the nature of a clinic's patient population and logistical issues such as the actual implementation of a research program and the applicability of research data also posed challenges to the conduct of research. Embedded research leadership, integration of personal and professional values about research, alignment of research activities and clinical workflow processes are some of the factors identified by participants that support IHC clinics' ability to conduct outcomes research. Conclusions Assessing and enhancing the broader

  12. Early outcome and blood-brain barrier integrity after co-administered thrombolysis and hyperbaric oxygenation in experimental stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michalski Dominik

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background After promising results in experimental stroke, normobaric (NBO or hyperbaric oxygenation (HBO have recently been discussed as co-medication with tissue plasminogen activator (tPA for improving outcome. This study assessed the interactions of hyperoxia and tPA, focusing on survival, early functional outcome and blood-brain barrier (BBB integrity following experimental stroke. Methods Rats (n = 109 underwent embolic middle cerebral artery occlusion or sham surgery. Animals were assigned to: Control, NBO (60-minute pure oxygen, HBO (60-minute pure oxygen at 2.4 absolute atmospheres, tPA, or HBO+tPA. Functional impairment was assessed at 4 and 24 hours using Menzies score, followed by intravenous application of FITC-albumin as a BBB permeability marker, which was allowed to circulate for 1 hour. Further, blood sampling was performed at 5 and 25 hours for MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 concentration. Results Mortality rates did not differ significantly between groups, whereas functional improvement was found for NBO, tPA and HBO+tPA. NBO and HBO tended to stabilize BBB and to reduce MMP-2. tPA tended to increase BBB permeability with corresponding MMP and TIMP elevation. Co-administered HBO failed to attenuate these early deleterious effects, independent of functional improvement. Conclusions The long-term consequences of simultaneously applied tPA and both NBO and HBO need to be addressed by further studies to identify therapeutic potencies in acute stroke, and to avoid unfavorable courses following combined treatment.

  13. Overcoming Barriers to Family Planning through Integration: Perspectives of HIV-Positive Men in Nyanza Province, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel L. Steinfeld

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explored barriers to and facilitators of using family planning services among HIV-positive men in Nyanza Province, Kenya. From May to June 2010, in-depth interviews were conducted with 30 men receiving care at 15 HIV clinics. The key barriers to the use of family planning included concerns about side effects of contraceptives, lack of knowledge about contraceptive methods, myths and misconceptions including fear of infertility, structural barriers such as staffing shortages at HIV clinics, and a lack of male focus in family planning methods and service delivery. The integration of family planning into HIV clinics including family planning counseling and education was cited as an important strategy to improve family planning receptivity among men. Integrating family planning into HIV services is a promising strategy to facilitate male involvement in family planning. Integration needs to be rigorously evaluated in order to measure its impact on unmet need for contraception among HIV-positive women and their partners and assure that it is implemented in a manner that engages both men and women.

  14. Identification of neuronal and angiogenic growth factors in an in vitro blood-brain barrier model system: Relevance in barrier integrity and tight junction formation and complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freese, Christian; Hanada, Sanshiro; Fallier-Becker, Petra; Kirkpatrick, C James; Unger, Ronald E

    2017-05-01

    We previously demonstrated that the co-cultivation of endothelial cells with neural cells resulted in an improved integrity of the in vitro blood-brain barrier (BBB), and that this model could be useful to evaluate the transport properties of potential central nervous system disease drugs through the microvascular brain endothelial. In this study we have used real-time PCR, fluorescent microscopy, protein arrays and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays to determine which neural- and endothelial cell-derived factors are produced in the co-culture and improve the integrity of the BBB. In addition, a further improvement of the BBB integrity was achieved by adjusting serum concentrations and growth factors or by the addition of brain pericytes. Under specific conditions expression of angiogenic, angiostatic and neurotrophic factors such as endostatin, pigment epithelium derived factor (PEDF/serpins-F1), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP-1), and vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF) closely mimicked the in vivo situation. Freeze-fracture analysis of these cultures demonstrated the quality and organization of the endothelial tight junction structures and their association to the two different lipidic leaflets of the membrane. Finally, a multi-cell culture model of the BBB with a transendothelial electrical resistance up to 371 (±15) Ω×cm(2) was developed, which may be useful for preliminary screening of drug transport across the BBB and to evaluate cellular crosstalk of cells involved in the neurovascular unit.

  15. Barriers and potential solutions for Critical Zone data integration between environmental genomics and the geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, E. L.; Meyer, F.; Packman, A. I.; Mayorga, E.

    2015-12-01

    The Earth's permeable near-surface layer from bedrock to canopy is referred to as the Critical Zone (CZ). Integration of bio- and geoscience data is critical for understanding physical, biological and chemical interactions in the CZ. Genomic and meta-genomic scientists study organisms both in laboratory settings and in the environment, in order to understand the interactions of organisms with the environment. Geoscientists are using environmental data to describe and model dynamics of physical and chemical properties. Yet, there is no agreed upon method for integrating genomic and environmental data to address interactions of living and non-living components of the CZ. There are standards for data interchange being developed in the geosciences and genomics sciences, via standards organization such as the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC), as well as by research communities in biogeochemistry, hydrology, climatology, and other fields. These are in parallel to, but typically not in coordination with the standards the Genomics Standards Consortium (GSC) is developing for genomics. In addition, efforts are being made to allow for intercompatability of these CZ data with data generated by NEON, Inc. The interoperability of these types of data is limited with current software and cyberinfrastructure. A group of CZ geoscientists, environmental genomic scientists and cyberinfrastructure scientists are coming together to develop a set of common data collection and integration methods and sets of common standards. The data generated by this effort across multiple CZ sites (including the US CZ Observatories, or CZOs) around the world, along with NEON facility data, will be used to test EarthCube (an NSF initiative to develop cyberinfrastructure for the geosciences) cyberinfrastructure, with the goal of bridging this gap in standards and interoperability. Potential solutions to these issues of interoperability will be presented, and a way forward will be described.

  16. Engineered barrier development for a nuclear waste repository in basalt: an integration of current knowledge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, M.J.

    1980-05-01

    This document represents a compilation of data and interpretive studies conducted as part of the engineered barriers program of the Basalt Waste Isolation Project. The overall objective of these studies is to provide information on barrier system designs, emplacement and isolation techniques, and chemical reactions expected in a nuclear waste repository located in the basalts underlying the Hanford Site within the state of Washington. Backfills, waste-basalt interactions, sorption, borehole plugging, etc., are among the topics discussed.

  17. Barriers to Integration of Traditional and Complementary Medicine in Supportive Cancer Care of Arab Patients in Northern Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eran Ben-Arye

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2008, an Integrative Oncology Program (IOP, aiming to improve patients’ quality of life during chemotherapy and advanced cancer, was launched within the Clalit Health Organization's oncology service at the Lin Medical Center, Haifa, Israel. The IOP clinical activity is documented using a research-based registry protocol. In this study, we present an analysis of the registry protocol of 15 Arab patients with cancer who were referred to the IOP. Analysis of patients’ reported outcomes using the Edmonton Symptom Assessment Scale suggests that integrative medicine care improves fatigue (=0.024, nausea (=0.043, depression (=0.012, anxiety (=0.044, appetite (=0.012, and general well-being (=0.031. Barriers to integration of traditional and complementary medicine in supportive care of Arab patients are discussed followed by six practical recommendations aimed at improving accessibility of patients to integrative supportive care, as well as compliance with treatments.

  18. Aids to Overcome Architectural Barriers: Normatives, Contributions and Concessions:Government contribution in removing physical barriers to improve integration of people with impaired mobility—ltalian case%Aids to Overcome Architectural Barriers:Normatives,Contributions and Concessions:Government contribution in removing physical barriers to improve integration of people with impaired mobility—ltalian case

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Elisabetta Turina; Carlo Belletti

    2011-01-01

    In previous articles we described how the Italian system of aid for people with disabilities also provides a system of incentives and subsidies for devices that are very useful,in addition to the provision of aids that are granted free of charge as required under an individual rehabilitation plan.We have also seen as aids for overcoming architectural barriers are (rightly!) in the first place among those who are essential for people with disabilities to lead an independent life and to be able to access public and private places,in particular workplaces.Without removing of architectural barriers it is impossible to achieve many of the rights decreed by the Italian law n.104 and n.68 (work integration of disabled people).Here you can find the incentives provided by Italian law and the features of the two most common systems:stairlifts and platform lifts.

  19. Penetration through the Skin Barrier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Bo; Benfeldt, Eva; Holmgaard, Rikke

    2016-01-01

    The skin is a strong and flexible organ with barrier properties essential for maintaining homeostasis and thereby human life. Characterizing this barrier is the ability to prevent some chemicals from crossing the barrier while allowing others, including medicinal products, to pass at varying rates......-through diffusion cells) as well as in vivo methods (microdialysis and microperfusion). Then follows a discussion with examples of how different characteristics of the skin (age, site and integrity) and of the penetrants (size, solubility, ionization, logPow and vehicles) affect the kinetics of percutaneous...

  20. Transient Intervals of Hyper-Gravity Enhance Endothelial Barrier Integrity: Impact of Mechanical and Gravitational Forces Measured Electrically.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Szulcek

    Full Text Available Endothelial cells (EC guard vascular functions by forming a dynamic barrier throughout the vascular system that sensitively adapts to 'classical' biomechanical forces, such as fluid shear stress and hydrostatic pressure. Alterations in gravitational forces might similarly affect EC integrity, but remain insufficiently studied.In an unique approach, we utilized Electric Cell-substrate Impedance Sensing (ECIS in the gravity-simulators at the European Space Agency (ESA to study dynamic responses of human EC to simulated micro- and hyper-gravity as well as to classical forces.Short intervals of micro- or hyper-gravity evoked distinct endothelial responses. Stimulated micro-gravity led to decreased endothelial barrier integrity, whereas hyper-gravity caused sustained barrier enhancement by rapid improvement of cell-cell integrity, evidenced by a significant junctional accumulation of VE-cadherin (p = 0.011, significant enforcement of peripheral F-actin (p = 0.008 and accompanied by a slower enhancement of cell-matrix interactions. The hyper-gravity triggered EC responses were force dependent and nitric-oxide (NO mediated showing a maximal resistance increase of 29.2±4.8 ohms at 2g and 60.9±6.2 ohms at 4g vs. baseline values that was significantly suppressed by NO blockage (p = 0.011.In conclusion, short-term application of hyper-gravity caused a sustained improvement of endothelial barrier integrity, whereas simulated micro-gravity weakened the endothelium. In clear contrast, classical forces of shear stress and hydrostatic pressure induced either short-lived or no changes to the EC barrier. Here, ECIS has proven a powerful tool to characterize subtle and distinct EC gravity-responses due to its high temporal resolution, wherefore ECIS has a great potential for the study of gravity-responses such as in real space flights providing quantitative assessment of a variety of cell biological characteristics of any adherent growing cell type in an

  1. An integral equation method for calculating sound field diffracted by a rigid barrier on an impedance ground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Sipei; Qiu, Xiaojun; Cheng, Jianchun

    2015-09-01

    This paper proposes a different method for calculating a sound field diffracted by a rigid barrier based on the integral equation method, where a virtual boundary is assumed above the rigid barrier to divide the whole space into two subspaces. Based on the Kirchhoff-Helmholtz equation, the sound field in each subspace is determined with the source inside and the boundary conditions on the surface, and then the diffracted sound field is obtained by using the continuation conditions on the virtual boundary. Simulations are carried out to verify the feasibility of the proposed method. Compared to the MacDonald method and other existing methods, the proposed method is a rigorous solution for whole space and is also much easier to understand.

  2. A microfluidic cell culture device with integrated microelectrodes for barrier studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Hsih-Yin; Dufva, Martin; Kutter, Jörg P.

    We present an eight cell culture microfluidic device fabricated using thiol-ene ‘click’ chemistry with embedded microelectrodes for evaluating barrier properties of human intestinal epithelial cells. The capability of the microelectrodes for trans-epithelial electrical resistance (TEER) measureme......We present an eight cell culture microfluidic device fabricated using thiol-ene ‘click’ chemistry with embedded microelectrodes for evaluating barrier properties of human intestinal epithelial cells. The capability of the microelectrodes for trans-epithelial electrical resistance (TEER......) measurements was demonstrated by using confluent human colorectal epithelial cells (Caco-2) and rat fibroblast (CT 26) cells cultured in the microfluidic device....

  3. Assessing barriers and facilitators of implementing an integrated HIV prevention and property rights program in Western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Tiffany; Zwicker, Lindsey; Kwena, Zachary; Bukusi, Elizabeth; Mwaura-Muiru, Esther; Dworkin, Shari L

    2013-04-01

    Despite the recognized need for structural HIV prevention interventions, few scientific programs have integrated women's property and inheritance rights with HIV prevention and treatment. The current study focused on a community-led land and property rights intervention that was implemented in two rural areas of Western Kenya with high HIV prevalence rates (24-30%). The program was designed to respond to women's property rights violations in order to reduce HIV risk at the local level. Through in-depth interviews with twenty program leaders, we identified several facilitators to program implementation, including the leadership of home-based HIV caregivers and involvement of traditional leaders in mediating property rights disputes. We also identified the voluntary basis of the intervention and its lack of integration with the formal justice system as implementation barriers. Our findings can guide future research and design of structural HIV prevention strategies that integrate women's economic empowerment through property and inheritance rights.

  4. Barriers Teachers Face in Integrating ICT during English Lessons: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Kumutha; Yamat, Hamidah

    2014-01-01

    The government has assured all Malaysians that no one; both in rural and urban areas; would be deprived of the Information and Communication Technology (ICT) development. This calls for a need for teachers nationwide to make necessary adjustments to the teaching and learning process. This paper takes a closer look at the barriers faced by teachers…

  5. Barrier to Autointegration Factor (BANF1): interwoven roles in nuclear structure, genome integrity, innate immunity, stress responses and progeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamin, Augusta; Wiebe, Matthew S

    2015-06-01

    The Barrier to Autointegration Factor (BAF or BANF1) is an abundant, highly conserved DNA binding protein. BAF is involved in multiple pathways including mitosis, nuclear assembly, viral infection, chromatin and gene regulation and the DNA damage response. BAF is also essential for early development in metazoans and relevant to human physiology; BANF1 mutations cause a progeroid syndrome, placing BAF within the laminopathy disease spectrum. This review summarizes previous knowledge about BAF in the context of recent discoveries about its protein partners, posttranslational regulation, dynamic subcellular localizations and roles in disease, innate immunity, transposable elements and genome integrity.

  6. Software Based Barriers To Integration Of Renewables To The Future Distribution Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, Emma; Kiliccote, Sila

    2014-06-01

    The future distribution grid has complex analysis needs, which may not be met with the existing processes and tools. In addition there is a growing number of measured and grid model data sources becoming available. For these sources to be useful they must be accurate, and interpreted correctly. Data accuracy is a key barrier to the growth of the future distribution grid. A key goal for California, and the United States, is increasing the renewable penetration on the distribution grid. To increase this penetration measured and modeled representations of generation must be accurate and validated, giving distribution planners and operators confidence in their performance. This study will review the current state of these software and modeling barriers and opportunities for the future distribution grid.

  7. Esophagogastric Junction Contractility Integral Reflect the Anti-reflux Barrier Dysfunction in Patients with Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Chenxi; Wang, Jinhui; Li, Yuwen; Tan, Niandi; Cui, Yi; Chen, Minhu; Xiao, Yinglian

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aims Anti-reflux barrier dysfunction is one of the primary mechanisms in gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) pathogenesis. The esophagogastric junction contractile integral (EGJ-CI) is a new metric adopted to evaluate the EGJ contractility, which implies the anti-reflux barrier function. The aim of the current study was to validate this new metric in patients with GERD and its correlation with the esophageal acid exposure, as well as the efficacy of proton pump inhibitor treatment. Methods Ninety-eight patients with GERD and 21 healthy controls were included in the study. Upper endoscopy, high-resolution manometry (HRM) and 24-hour multichannel intraluminal impedance-pH monitoring were performed in all patients. Three respiration cycles were chosen at the initial HRM resting frame and the value computed with distal contractile integral tool was then divided by the duration of the cycles to yield EGJ-CI. All the patients were treated with esomeprazole 20 mg twice-daily for 8 weeks. Results EGJ-CI was lower in the patients with GERD than that of the controls (P < 0.05). For patients with GERD, EGJ-CI was lower in those with hiatal hernia (P < 0.05). The new metric correlated with esophageal acid exposure in the supine position (P < 0.05), and it also negatively correlated to the total reflux episodes (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference on EGJ-CI between patients with and without response to the esomeprazole treatment (P = 0.627). Conclusions EGJ-CI reflected the dysfunction of the anti-reflux barrier in patients with GERD, but it had little impact on the esomeprazole response. PMID:27426485

  8. Barriers to Implementing Treatment Integrity Procedures in School Psychology Research: Survey of Treatment Outcome Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanetti, Lisa M. Hagermoser; DiGennaro Reed, Florence D.

    2012-01-01

    Treatment integrity data are essential to drawing valid conclusions in treatment outcome studies. Such data, however, are not always included in peer-reviewed research articles in school psychology or related fields. To gain a better understanding of why treatment integrity data are lacking in the school psychology research, we surveyed the…

  9. Polyploidization of glia in neural development links tissue growth to blood-brain barrier integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unhavaithaya, Yingdee; Orr-Weaver, Terry L

    2012-01-01

    Proper development requires coordination in growth of the cell types composing an organ. Many plant and animal cells are polyploid, but how these polyploid tissues contribute to organ growth is not well understood. We found the Drosophila melanogaster subperineurial glia (SPG) to be polyploid, and ploidy is coordinated with brain mass. Inhibition of SPG polyploidy caused rupture of the septate junctions necessary for the blood-brain barrier. Thus, the increased SPG cell size resulting from polyploidization is required to maintain the SPG envelope surrounding the growing brain. Polyploidization likely is a conserved strategy to coordinate tissue growth during organogenesis, with potential vertebrate examples.

  10. Heat stress reduces intestinal barrier integrity and favors intestinal glucose transport in growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Sarah C; Mani, Venkatesh; Boddicker, Rebecca L; Johnson, Jay S; Weber, Thomas E; Ross, Jason W; Rhoads, Robert P; Baumgard, Lance H; Gabler, Nicholas K

    2013-01-01

    Excessive heat exposure reduces intestinal integrity and post-absorptive energetics that can inhibit wellbeing and be fatal. Therefore, our objectives were to examine how acute heat stress (HS) alters intestinal integrity and metabolism in growing pigs. Animals were exposed to either thermal neutral (TN, 21°C; 35-50% humidity; n=8) or HS conditions (35°C; 24-43% humidity; n=8) for 24 h. Compared to TN, rectal temperatures in HS pigs increased by 1.6°C and respiration rates by 2-fold (Pintestinal integrity was compromised in the HS pigs (ileum and colon TER decreased; PIntestinal permeability was accompanied by an increase in protein expression of myosin light chain kinase (PIntestinal glucose transport and blood glucose were elevated due to HS (Pintestinal integrity and increase intestinal stress and glucose transport.

  11. Optimal fiscal barriers to international economic integration in the presence of tax havens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannesen, Niels

    2012-01-01

    This paper develops a model where firms can shift profits to tax havens by means of intra-firm loans and countries can protect themselves against profit shifting by taxing cross-border interest flows. The model considers two countries with a scope for welfare improving economic integration....... The first-best tax system has two important characteristics: (i) the tax rate on interest flows to the other country is zero to ensure the optimal level of economic integration; (ii) the tax rate on interest flows to tax havens is high enough to deter profit shifting to tax havens. In second......-best environments, countries face a trade-off between economic integration and protection against tax havens, which causes protection to be suboptimally low. The key to the result is that economic integration makes it easier for multinational firms to circumvent taxes on interest payments to tax havens with conduit...

  12. Integration of an optical CMOS sensor with a microfluidic channel allows a sensitive readout for biological assays in point-of-care tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dorst, Bieke; Brivio, Monica; Van Der Sar, Elfried; Blom, Marko; Reuvekamp, Simon; Tanzi, Simone; Groenhuis, Roelf; Adojutelegan, Adewole; Lous, Erik-Jan; Frederix, Filip; Stuyver, Lieven J

    2016-04-15

    In this manuscript, a microfluidic detection module, which allows a sensitive readout of biological assays in point-of-care (POC) tests, is presented. The proposed detection module consists of a microfluidic flow cell with an integrated Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS)-based single photon counting optical sensor. Due to the integrated sensor-based readout, the detection module could be implemented as the core technology in stand-alone POC tests, for use in mobile or rural settings. The performance of the detection module was demonstrated in three assays: a peptide, a protein and an antibody detection assay. The antibody detection assay with readout in the detection module proved to be 7-fold more sensitive that the traditional colorimetric plate-based ELISA. The protein and peptide assay showed a lower limit of detection (LLOD) of 200 fM and 460 fM respectively. Results demonstrate that the sensitivity of the immunoassays is comparable with lab-based immunoassays and at least equal or better than current mainstream POC devices. This sensitive readout holds the potential to develop POC tests, which are able to detect low concentrations of biomarkers. This will broaden the diagnostic capabilities at the clinician's office and at patient's home, where currently only the less sensitive lateral flow and dipstick POC tests are implemented.

  13. Theoretical investigation of silicide Schottky barrier detector integrated in horizontal metal-insulator-silicon-insulator-metal nanoplasmonic slot waveguide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shiyang; Lo, G Q; Kwong, D L

    2011-08-15

    An ultracompact integrated silicide Schottky barrier detector (SBD) is designed and theoretically investigated to electrically detect the surface plasmon polariton (SPP) propagating along horizontal metal-insulator-silicon-insulator-metal nanoplasmonic slot waveguides at the telecommunication wavelength of 1550 nm. An ultrathin silicide layer inserted between the silicon core and the insulator, which can be fabricated precisely using the well-developed self-aligned silicide process, absorbs the SPP power effectively if a suitable silicide is chosen. Moreover, the Schottky barrier height in the silicide-silicon-silicide configuration can be tuned substantially by the external voltage through the Schottky effect owing to the very narrow silicon core. For a TaSi(2) detector with optimized dimensions, numerical simulation predicts responsivity of ~0.07 A/W, speed of ~60 GHz, dark current of ~66 nA at room temperature, and minimum detectable power of ~-29 dBm. The design also suggests that the device's size can be reduced and the overall performances will be further improved if a silicide with smaller permittivity is used.

  14. Galectin-1 suppresses methamphetamine induced neuroinflammation in human brain microvascular endothelial cells: Neuroprotective role in maintaining blood brain barrier integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Neil U; Aalinkeel, R; Reynolds, J L; Nair, B B; Sykes, D E; Mammen, M J; Schwartz, S A; Mahajan, S D

    2015-10-22

    Methamphetamine (Meth) abuse can lead to the breakdown of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity leading to compromised CNS function. The role of Galectins in the angiogenesis process in tumor-associated endothelial cells (EC) is well established; however no data are available on the expression of Galectins in normal human brain microvascular endothelial cells and their potential role in maintaining BBB integrity. We evaluated the basal gene/protein expression levels of Galectin-1, -3 and -9 in normal primary human brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMVEC) that constitute the BBB and examined whether Meth altered Galectin expression in these cells, and if Galectin-1 treatment impacted the integrity of an in-vitro BBB. Our results showed that BMVEC expressed significantly higher levels of Galectin-1 as compared to Galectin-3 and -9. Meth treatment increased Galectin-1 expression in BMVEC. Meth induced decrease in TJ proteins ZO-1, Claudin-3 and adhesion molecule ICAM-1 was reversed by Galectin-1. Our data suggests that Galectin-1 is involved in BBB remodeling and can increase levels of TJ proteins ZO-1 and Claudin-3 and adhesion molecule ICAM-1 which helps maintain BBB tightness thus playing a neuroprotective role. Galectin-1 is thus an important regulator of immune balance from neurodegeneration to neuroprotection, which makes it an important therapeutic agent/target in the treatment of drug addiction and other neurological conditions.

  15. Addressing the unique psychosocial barriers to breast cancer treatment experienced by African-American women through integrative navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatman, Michelle C; Green, Rodney D

    2011-12-01

    African-American women face a disproportionally high breast cancer mortality rate and a significantly low five-year survival rate after breast cancer treatment. This study investigated, through a series of focus groups, how 32 African-American women (N = 32) breast cancer patients and survivors managed their cancer-related health needs. Participants also reported important barriers to care including problematic interactions with medical professionals, challenges in intimate relations, difficulties in handling the stigma and myths about breast cancer, and the psychological challenges that they faced. A patient navigation model was implemented at an eastern urban hospital that emphasized integrative therapies such as meditation, nutritional instruction, and yoga. Follow-up telephone interviews with 37 additional African-American participants (N = 37) indicated the rating of effectiveness to be at 3.8 to 3.9 out of 4 for the integrative patient navigation program. Over half of the survivors reported using some complementary techniques after treatment was completed, thus suggesting a long-term improvement in their quality of life as a result of the integrative techniques.

  16. Employability Skill Development in Work-Integrated Learning: Barriers and Best Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Denise

    2015-01-01

    Work-integrated learning (WIL) is widely considered instrumental in equipping new graduates with the required employability skills to function effectively in the work environment. Evaluation of WIL programs in enhancing skill development remains predominantly outcomes-focused with little attention to the process of what, how and from whom students…

  17. Opportunities and Barriers related to Supply Chain Collaboration for Delivering Integrated Single-Family Home Renovations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mlecnik, E.; Kondratenko, I.; Haavik, T.

    2013-01-01

    Single-family home renovations often show deficiencies in project management. There might be a market addressing house owners who would prefer integrated renovation services and clear responsibilities. Companies that would respond to these client’s needs would have a clear market potential, particul

  18. Histamine activates p38 MAP kinase and alters local lamellipodia dynamics, reducing endothelial barrier integrity and eliciting central movement of actin fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adderley, Shaquria P; Lawrence, Curtis; Madonia, Eyong; Olubadewo, Joseph O; Breslin, Jerome W

    2015-07-01

    The role of the actin cytoskeleton in endothelial barrier function has been debated for nearly four decades. Our previous investigation revealed spontaneous local lamellipodia in confluent endothelial monolayers that appear to increase overlap at intercellular junctions. We tested the hypothesis that the barrier-disrupting agent histamine would reduce local lamellipodia protrusions and investigated the potential involvement of p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase activation and actin stress fiber formation. Confluent monolayers of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) expressing green fluorescent protein-actin were studied using time-lapse fluorescence microscopy. The protrusion and withdrawal characteristics of local lamellipodia were assessed before and after addition of histamine. Changes in barrier function were determined using electrical cell-substrate impedance sensing. Histamine initially decreased barrier function, lamellipodia protrusion frequency, and lamellipodia protrusion distance. A longer time for lamellipodia withdrawal and reduced withdrawal distance and velocity accompanied barrier recovery. After barrier recovery, a significant number of cortical fibers migrated centrally, eventually resembling actin stress fibers. The p38 MAP kinase inhibitor SB203580 attenuated the histamine-induced decreases in barrier function and lamellipodia protrusion frequency. SB203580 also inhibited the histamine-induced decreases in withdrawal distance and velocity, and the subsequent actin fiber migration. These data suggest that histamine can reduce local lamellipodia protrusion activity through activation of p38 MAP kinase. The findings also suggest that local lamellipodia have a role in maintaining endothelial barrier integrity. Furthermore, we provide evidence that actin stress fiber formation may be a reaction to, rather than a cause of, reduced endothelial barrier integrity.

  19. Intestinal immune barrier integrity in rats with nonalcoholic hepatic steatosis and steatohepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Lin; LIU Yu-lan; WANG Jian-hua; CONG Xu; WANG Li-hong; LIU Feng; XIE Xing-wang; ZHANG Heng-hui; WANG Jiang-hua; FEI Ran

    2012-01-01

    Background Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has emerged as the major cause of chronic liver injury.Intestinal barrier plays an important role in the pathogenis of NAFLD.The aim of this article was to assess intestinal immune barrier function during the development of NAFLD.Methods Totally 60 male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into 2 groups:normal diet (ND) group and high-fat diet (HFD) group.NAFLD rat model was established in the HFD rat group.Portal blood endotoxin level was assessed by limulus test.The percentage of CD4+ cells and CD8+ cells in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and lymphocytes in Peyer's patches (PP) were analysed by flow cytometry.Intestinal secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) level was evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.Paired Student's t test was used for the statistic analysis.Results HFD rats presented with simple steatosis at the 4th and 8th week and progressed to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis at the 12th week.Elevated lipopolysaccharides (LPS) level in HFD rats was observed at the 8th week ((1.54±0.30) times of ND group,P <0.01).CD4/CD8 ratios in PBMC and PP of HFD rats were increased at the 4th week ((1.50±0.47) and (1.63±0.34) times of ND group,P <0.05) and decreased at the 8th week ((0.50±0.16) and (0.61±0.26)times of ND group,P <0.05).At the 12th week,CD4/CD8 ratio ((1.47±0.46) times,P <0.05) in PP increased to levels observed in the 4th week.Intestinal SIgA expression of HFD rats was remarkably up-regulated at 12th week ((2.70±1.65)times,P <0.05).Conclusion Liver-gut axis in rats with NAFLD may mediate and improve intestinal immune function by increased CD4/CD8 ratio in PP and increased production of SIgA.

  20. Dimethyl fumarate attenuates cerebral edema formation by protecting the blood-brain barrier integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunze, Reiner; Urrutia, Andrés; Hoffmann, Angelika; Liu, Hui; Helluy, Xavier; Pham, Mirko; Reischl, Stefan; Korff, Thomas; Marti, Hugo H

    2015-04-01

    Brain edema is a hallmark of various neuropathologies, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. We aim to characterize how tissue hypoxia, together with oxidative stress and inflammation, leads to capillary dysfunction and breakdown of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). In a mouse stroke model we show that systemic treatment with dimethyl fumarate (DMF), an antioxidant drug clinically used for psoriasis and multiple sclerosis, significantly prevented edema formation in vivo. Indeed, DMF stabilized the BBB by preventing disruption of interendothelial tight junctions and gap formation, and decreased matrix metalloproteinase activity in brain tissue. In vitro, DMF directly sustained endothelial tight junctions, inhibited inflammatory cytokine expression, and attenuated leukocyte transmigration. We also demonstrate that these effects are mediated via activation of the redox sensitive transcription factor NF-E2 related factor 2 (Nrf2). DMF activated the Nrf2 pathway as shown by up-regulation of several Nrf2 target genes in the brain in vivo, as well as in cerebral endothelial cells and astrocytes in vitro, where DMF also increased protein abundance of nuclear Nrf2. Finally, Nrf2 knockdown in endothelial cells aggravated subcellular delocalization of tight junction proteins during ischemic conditions, and attenuated the protective effect exerted by DMF. Overall, our data suggest that DMF protects from cerebral edema formation during ischemic stroke by targeting interendothelial junctions in an Nrf2-dependent manner, and provide the basis for a completely new approach to treat brain edema.

  1. The removal of multiplicative, systematic bias allows integration of breast cancer gene expression datasets – improving meta-analysis and prediction of prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pepper Stuart D

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The number of gene expression studies in the public domain is rapidly increasing, representing a highly valuable resource. However, dataset-specific bias precludes meta-analysis at the raw transcript level, even when the RNA is from comparable sources and has been processed on the same microarray platform using similar protocols. Here, we demonstrate, using Affymetrix data, that much of this bias can be removed, allowing multiple datasets to be legitimately combined for meaningful meta-analyses. Results A series of validation datasets comparing breast cancer and normal breast cell lines (MCF7 and MCF10A were generated to examine the variability between datasets generated using different amounts of starting RNA, alternative protocols, different generations of Affymetrix GeneChip or scanning hardware. We demonstrate that systematic, multiplicative biases are introduced at the RNA, hybridization and image-capture stages of a microarray experiment. Simple batch mean-centering was found to significantly reduce the level of inter-experimental variation, allowing raw transcript levels to be compared across datasets with confidence. By accounting for dataset-specific bias, we were able to assemble the largest gene expression dataset of primary breast tumours to-date (1107, from six previously published studies. Using this meta-dataset, we demonstrate that combining greater numbers of datasets or tumours leads to a greater overlap in differentially expressed genes and more accurate prognostic predictions. However, this is highly dependent upon the composition of the datasets and patient characteristics. Conclusion Multiplicative, systematic biases are introduced at many stages of microarray experiments. When these are reconciled, raw data can be directly integrated from different gene expression datasets leading to new biological findings with increased statistical power.

  2. Levels & Barriers to Supply Chain Integration: A conceptual model of Supply Chain Performance

    OpenAIRE

    RajaIrfan Sabir; Muhammad Irfan

    2014-01-01

    In modern business scenario Supply chain has become the back bone for every business organization. All supply chain partners are joined together in value delivery network of company that no one can perform better without support of other. The ultimate objective of this cohesive relationship is to deliver value to customers and gets desired state of customer satisfaction & loyalty for the organization. For this purpose it is necessary to integrate the internal and external partners of Supply c...

  3. Smart parking barrier

    KAUST Repository

    Alharbi, Abdulrazaq M.

    2016-05-06

    Various methods and systems are provided for smart parking barriers. In one example, among others, a smart parking barrier system includes a movable parking barrier located at one end of a parking space, a barrier drive configured to control positioning of the movable parking barrier, and a parking controller configured to initiate movement of the parking barrier, via the barrier drive. The movable parking barrier can be positioned between a first position that restricts access to the parking space and a second position that allows access to the parking space. The parking controller can initiate movement of the movable parking barrier in response to a positive identification of an individual allowed to use the parking space. The parking controller can identify the individual through, e.g., a RFID tag, a mobile device (e.g., a remote control, smartphone, tablet, etc.), an access card, biometric information, or other appropriate identifier.

  4. Actin related protein complex subunit 1b controls sperm release, barrier integrity and cell division during adult rat spermatogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anita; Dumasia, Kushaan; Deshpande, Sharvari; Gaonkar, Reshma; Balasinor, N H

    2016-08-01

    Actin remodeling is a vital process for signaling, movement and survival in all cells. In the testes, extensive actin reorganization occurs at spermatid-Sertoli cell junctions during sperm release (spermiation) and at inter Sertoli cell junctions during restructuring of the blood testis barrier (BTB). During spermiation, tubulobulbar complexes (TBCs), rich in branched actin networks, ensure recycling of spermatid-Sertoli cell junctional molecules. Similar recycling occurs during BTB restructuring around the same time as spermiation occurs. Actin related protein 2/3 complex is an essential actin nucleation and branching protein. One of its subunits, Arpc1b, was earlier found to be down-regulated in an estrogen-induced rat model of spermiation failure. Also, Arpc1b was found to be estrogen responsive through estrogen receptor beta in seminiferous tubule culture. Here, knockdown of Arpc1b by siRNA in adult rat testis led to defects in spermiation caused by failure in TBC formation. Knockdown also compromised BTB integrity and caused polarity defects of mature spermatids. Apart from these effects pertaining to Sertoli cells, Arpc1b reduction perturbed ability of germ cells to enter G2/M phase thus hindering cell division. In summary, Arpc1b, an estrogen responsive gene, is a regulator of spermiation, mature spermatid polarity, BTB integrity and cell division during adult spermatogenesis.

  5. Exocyst Sec10 protects epithelial barrier integrity and enhances recovery following oxidative stress, by activation of the MAPK pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kwon Moo; Fogelgren, Ben; Zuo, Xiaofeng; Kim, Jinu; Chung, Daniel C; Lipschutz, Joshua H

    2010-03-01

    Cell-cell contacts are essential for epithelial cell function, and disruption is associated with pathological conditions including ischemic kidney injury. We hypothesize that the exocyst, a highly-conserved eight-protein complex that targets secretory vesicles carrying membrane proteins, is involved in maintaining renal epithelial barrier integrity. Accordingly, increasing exocyst expression in renal tubule cells may protect barrier function from oxidative stress resulting from ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury. When cultured on plastic, Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells overexpressing Sec10, a central exocyst component, formed domes showing increased resistance to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Transepithelial electric resistance (TER) of Sec10-overexpressing MDCK cells grown on Transwell filters was higher than in control MDCK cells, and the rate of TER decrease following H2O2 treatment was less in Sec10-overexpressing MDCK cells compared with control MDCK cells. After removal of H2O2, TER returned to normal more rapidly in Sec10-overexpressing compared with control MDCK cells. In collagen culture MDCK cells form cysts, and H2O2 treatment damaged Sec10-overexpressing MDCK cell cysts less than control MDCK cell cysts. The MAPK pathway has been shown to protect animals from I/R injury. Levels of active ERK, the final MAPK pathway step, were higher in Sec10-overexpressing compared with control MDCK cells. U0126 inhibited ERK activation, exacerbated the H2O2-induced decrease in TER and cyst disruption, and delayed recovery of TER following H2O2 removal. Finally, in mice with renal I/R injury, exocyst expression decreased early and returned to normal concomitant with functional recovery, suggesting that the exocyst may be involved in the recovery following I/R injury.

  6. Volatile anesthetics influence blood-brain barrier integrity by modulation of tight junction protein expression in traumatic brain injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge C Thal

    Full Text Available Disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB results in cerebral edema formation, which is a major cause for high mortality after traumatic brain injury (TBI. As anesthetic care is mandatory in patients suffering from severe TBI it may be important to elucidate the effect of different anesthetics on cerebral edema formation. Tight junction proteins (TJ such as zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1 and claudin-5 (cl5 play a central role for BBB stability. First, the influence of the volatile anesthetics sevoflurane and isoflurane on in-vitro BBB integrity was investigated by quantification of the electrical resistance (TEER in murine brain endothelial monolayers and neurovascular co-cultures of the BBB. Secondly brain edema and TJ expression of ZO-1 and cl5 were measured in-vivo after exposure towards volatile anesthetics in native mice and after controlled cortical impact (CCI. In in-vitro endothelial monocultures, both anesthetics significantly reduced TEER within 24 hours after exposure. In BBB co-cultures mimicking the neurovascular unit (NVU volatile anesthetics had no impact on TEER. In healthy mice, anesthesia did not influence brain water content and TJ expression, while 24 hours after CCI brain water content increased significantly stronger with isoflurane compared to sevoflurane. In line with the brain edema data, ZO-1 expression was significantly higher in sevoflurane compared to isoflurane exposed CCI animals. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed disruption of ZO-1 at the cerebrovascular level, while cl5 was less affected in the pericontusional area. The study demonstrates that anesthetics influence brain edema formation after experimental TBI. This effect may be attributed to modulation of BBB permeability by differential TJ protein expression. Therefore, selection of anesthetics may influence the barrier function and introduce a strong bias in experimental research on pathophysiology of BBB dysfunction. Future research is required to investigate

  7. Amphiphilic HPMA-LMA copolymers increase the transport of Rhodamine 123 across a BBB model without harming its barrier integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmelmann, Mirjam; Metz, Verena V; Koynov, Kaloian; Blank, Kerstin; Postina, Rolf; Zentel, Rudolf

    2012-10-28

    The successful non-invasive treatment of diseases associated with the central nervous system (CNS) is generally limited by poor brain permeability of various developed drugs. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) prevents the passage of therapeutics to their site of action. Polymeric drug delivery systems are promising solutions to effectively transport drugs into the brain. We recently showed that amphiphilic random copolymers based on the hydrophilic p(N-(2-hydroxypropyl)-methacrylamide), pHPMA, possessing randomly distributed hydrophobic p(laurylmethacrylate), pLMA, are able to mediate delivery of domperidone into the brain of mice in vivo. To gain further insight into structure-property relations, a library of carefully designed polymers based on p(HPMA) and p(LMA) was synthesized and tested applying an in vitro BBB model which consisted of human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC). Our model drug Rhodamine 123 (Rh123) exhibits, like domperidone, a low brain permeability since both substances are recognized by efflux transporters at the BBB. Transport studies investigating the impact of the polymer architecture in relation to the content of hydrophobic LMA revealed that random p(HPMA)-co-p(LMA) having 10mol% LMA is the most auspicious system. The copolymer significantly increased the permeability of Rh123 across the HBMEC monolayer whereas transcytosis of the polymer was very low. Further investigations on the mechanism of transport showed that integrity and barrier function of the BBB model were not harmed by the polymer. According to our results, p(HPMA)-co-p(LMA) copolymers are a promising delivery system for neurological therapeutics and their application might open alternative treatment strategies.

  8. Impaired small-bowel barrier integrity in the presence of lumenal pancreatic digestive enzymes leads to circulatory shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistler, Erik B; Alsaigh, Tom; Chang, Marisol; Schmid-Schönbein, Geert W

    2012-08-01

    In bowel ischemia, impaired mucosal integrity may allow intestinal pancreatic enzyme products to become systemic and precipitate irreversible shock and death. This can be attenuated by pancreatic enzyme inhibition in the small-bowel lumen. It is unresolved, however, whether ischemically mediated mucosal disruption is the key event allowing pancreatic enzyme products systemic access and whether intestinal digestive enzyme activity in concert with increased mucosal permeability leads to shock in the absence of ischemia. To test this possibility, the small intestinal lumen of nonischemic rats was perfused for 2 h with either digestive enzymes, a mucin disruption strategy (i.e., mucolytics) designed to increase mucosal permeability, or both, and animals were observed for shock. Digestive enzymes perfused included trypsin, chymotrypsin, elastase, amylase, and lipase. Control (n = 6) and experimental animals perfused with pancreatic enzymes only (n = 6) or single enzymes (n = 3 for each of the five enzyme groups) maintained stable hemodynamics. After mucin disruption using a combination of enteral N-acetylcysteine, atropine, and increased flow rates, rats (n = 6) developed mild hypotension (P shock and increase systemic protease activation in the absence of ischemia, implicating bowel mucin disruption as a key event in early ischemia. Digestive enzymes and their products, if allowed to penetrate the gut wall, may trigger multiorgan failure and death.

  9. Integrated Renovation Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galiotto, Nicolas; Heiselberg, Per; Knudstrup, Mary-Ann

    2016-01-01

    structured and holistic method of decision making toward nearly zero-energy building renovation. The methodology is evolutive, implementable on a large scale, and allows an optimal integration of nonexpert decision makers. In practice, such a scheme allowed most behavioral barriers to sustainable home...

  10. Effect of uranium on proliferation and mortality of the major constitutive cell types of the skin: influence on skin barrier integrity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petitot, F.; Spessotto, S.; Paquet, F. [Inst. de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Lab. de Radiotoxicologie Experimentale, IRSN/DRPH/SRBE/LRTOX, Site du Tricastin - Pierrelatte (France)

    2005-07-01

    The skin is the initial barrier against mechanical, chemical or biological external stresses. It is a complex, multilayered organ. The upper layer is the epidermis that is mainly constituted by keratinocytes. The fibroblast is the major cell type of the dermis which is underlying the epidermis. In the case of an external contamination, uranium is able to diffuse through the skin [1-3] and can affect skin barrier integrity after chronic topical exposure[1, 3]. Our study tried to elucidate the cellular mechanisms leading to this skin alteration after uranyl nitrate contamination. Proliferation rate and mortality of primary cultures of rat skin fibroblasts and keratinocytes contaminated in vitro with different concentration of depleted-uranyl nitrate or 233-uranyl nitrate were measured. The huge difference between {sup 233}U and depleted-U specific activities, respectively 3.57 x 10{sup 8}Bq.g{sup -1} and 1.45 x 10{sup 4}Bq.g{sup -1}', allowed to distinguish cellular radiotoxicity and chemotoxicity of uranium. Concerning fibroblasts, a significant radiotoxicity of the emitted alpha particles of {sup 233}U was observed with no chemotoxicity for the lowest concentrations, i.e. 2{mu}M and 4{mu}M, of uranyl nitrate. Keratinocytes were more sensitive to both uranium radiotoxicity and chemotoxicity than fibroblasts. This can be explained by the about three times higher ability of keratinocytes to incorporate uranium compared to fibroblasts. This greater capacity of epidermal cells than dermal cells to incorporate uranium was confirmed in vivo for the hairless rat following a uranyl nitrate topical contamination. As a conclusion, the important toxic effect of uranium on keratinocyte demonstrated in our study can explain the previous observations [1, 3] that epidermis was atrophied and so skin permeability increased after an in vivo chronic topical exposure of rat skin to uranyl nitrate. These results are of great importance concerning radiation protection of exposed

  11. Effect of ecoimmunonutrition supports on maintenance of integrity of intestinal mucosal barrier in severe acute pancreatitis in dogs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Background One of the major causes of death in severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) is severe infection owing to bacterial translocation. Some clinical studies suggested that ecoimmunonutrition (EIN) as a new strategy had better treatment effect on SAP patients. But the experiment studies on the precise mechanism of the effect of EIN were less reported. In this study, we mainly investigated the effects of EIN on bacterial translocation in SAP model of dogs.Methods SAP was induced by retrograde infusion of 5% sodium taurocholate into the pancreatic duct in healthy hybrid dogs. The SAP dogs were supported with either parenteral nutrition (PN) or elemental enteral nutrition (EEN) or EIN. The levels of serum amylase, serum aminotransferase and plasma endotoxin were detected before and after pancreatitis induction. On the 7th day after nutrition supports, peritoneal fluid, mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN), liver, and pancreas were collected for bacterial culture with standard techniques to observe the incidence of bacterial translocation. Pathology changes of pancreas were analyzed by histopathologic grading and scoring of the severity of pancreas, and the degree of intestinal mucosal damage was assessed by measuring mucosal thickness, villus height, and crypt depth of ileum.Results Compared with PN and EEN, EIN significantly decreased the levels of serum amylase, serum aminotransferase, plasma endotoxin, and the incidence of bacterial translocation. Furthermore, compared with the others, the histology scores of inflammation in pancreas and the ileum injury (ileum mocosa thickness, villus height, and crypt depth) were significantly alleviated by EIN (P<0.05). Moreover, concerning liver function, the serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and albumin were ameliorating significantly in the EIN group.Conclusion Our results suggested that EIN could maintain the integrity of intestinal mucosal barrier and reducing the incidence of bacterial translocation

  12. Human oral isolate Lactobacillus fermentum AGR1487 reduces intestinal barrier integrity by increasing the turnover of microtubules in Caco-2 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel C Anderson

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus fermentum is found in fermented foods and thought to be harmless. In vivo and clinical studies indicate that some L. fermentum strains have beneficial properties, particularly for gastrointestinal health. However, L. fermentum AGR1487 decreases trans-epithelial electrical resistance (TEER, a measure of intestinal barrier integrity. The hypothesis was that L. fermentum AGR1487 decreases the expression of intestinal cell tight junction genes and proteins, thereby reducing barrier integrity. Transcriptomic and proteomic analyses of Caco-2 cells (model of human intestinal epithelial cells treated with L. fermentum AGR1487 were used to obtain a global view of the effect of the bacterium on intestinal epithelial cells. Specific functional characteristics by which L. fermentum AGR1487 reduces intestinal barrier integrity were examined using confocal microscopy, cell cycle progression and adherence bioassays. The effects of TEER-enhancing L. fermentum AGR1485 were investigated for comparison. L. fermentum AGR1487 did not alter the expression of Caco-2 cell tight junction genes (compared to L. fermentum AGR1485 and tight junction proteins were not able to be detected. However, L. fermentum AGR1487 increased the expression levels of seven tubulin genes and the abundance of three microtubule-associated proteins, which have been linked to tight junction disassembly. Additionally, Caco-2 cells treated with L. fermentum AGR1487 did not have defined and uniform borders of zona occludens 2 around each cell, unlike control or AGR1485 treated cells. L. fermentum AGR1487 cells were required for the negative effect on barrier integrity (bacterial supernatant did not cause a decrease in TEER, suggesting that a physical interaction may be necessary. Increased adherence of L. fermentum AGR1487 to Caco-2 cells (compared to L. fermentum AGR1485 was likely to facilitate this cell-to-cell interaction. These findings illustrate that bacterial strains of the

  13. Safety-barrier diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duijm, Nijs Jan

    2007-01-01

    are discussed. A simple method for quantification of safety-barrier diagrams is proposed, including situations where safety barriers depend on shared common elements. It is concluded that safety-barrier diagrams provide a useful framework for an electronic data structure that integrates information from risk......Safety-barrier diagrams and the related so-called "bow-tie" diagrams have become popular methods in risk analysis. This paper describes the syntax and principles for constructing consistent and valid safety-barrier diagrams. The relation with other methods such as fault trees and Bayesian networks...... analysis with operational safety management....

  14. Hydroxyethyl starch (HES 130/0.4 impairs intestinal barrier integrity and metabolic function: findings from a mouse model of the isolated perfused small intestine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuk Lung Wong

    Full Text Available The application of hydroxyethyl starch (HES for volume resuscitation is controversially discussed and clinical studies have suggested adverse effects of HES substitution, leading to increased patient mortality. Although, the intestine is of high clinical relevance and plays a crucial role in sepsis and inflammation, information about the effects of HES on intestinal function and barrier integrity is very scarce. We therefore evaluated the effects of clinically relevant concentrations of HES on intestinal function and barrier integrity employing an isolated perfused model of the mouse small intestine.An isolated perfused model of the mouse small intestine was established and intestines were vascularly perfused with a modified Krebs-Henseleit buffer containing 3% Albumin (N=7 or 3% HES (130/0.4; N=7. Intestinal metabolic function (galactose uptake, lactate-to-pyruvate ratio, edema formation (wet-to-dry weight ratio, morphology (histological and electron microscopical analysis, fluid shifts within the vascular, lymphatic and luminal compartments, as well as endothelial and epithelial barrier permeability (FITC-dextran translocation were evaluated in both groups.Compared to the Albumin group, HES perfusion did not significantly change the wet-to-dry weight ratio and lactate-to-pyruvate ratio. However, perfusing the small intestine with 3% HES resulted in a significant loss of vascular fluid (p<0.01, an increased fluid accumulation in the intestinal lumen (p<0.001, an enhanced translocation of FITC-dextran from the vascular to the luminal compartment (p<0.001 and a significantly impaired intestinal galactose uptake (p<0.001. Morphologically, these findings were associated with an aggregation of intracellular vacuoles within the intestinal epithelial cells and enlarged intercellular spaces.A vascular perfusion with 3% HES impairs the endothelial and epithelial barrier integrity as well as metabolic function of the small intestine.

  15. Evaluation of 320x240 pixel LEC GaAs Schottky barrier X-ray imaging arrays, hybridized to CMOS readout circuit based on charge integration

    CERN Document Server

    Irsigler, R; Alverbro, J; Borglind, J; Froejdh, C; Helander, P; Manolopoulos, S; O'Shea, V; Smith, K

    1999-01-01

    320x240 pixels GaAs Schottky barrier detector arrays were fabricated, hybridized to silicon readout circuits, and subsequently evaluated. The detector chip was based on semi-insulating LEC GaAs material. The square shaped pixel detector elements were of the Schottky barrier type and had a pitch of 38 mu m. The GaAs wafers were thinned down prior to the fabrication of the ohmic back contact. After dicing, the chips were indium bump, flip-chip bonded to CMOS readout circuits based on charge integration, and finally evaluated. A bias voltage between 50 and 100 V was sufficient to operate the detector. Results on I-V characteristics, noise behaviour and response to X-ray radiation are presented. Images of various objects and slit patterns were acquired by using a standard dental imaging X-ray source. The work done was a part of the XIMAGE project financed by the European Community (Brite-Euram). (author)

  16. Experienced barriers and facilitators for integrating smoking cessation advice and support into daily dental practice. A short report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosseel, J.P.; Jacobs, J.E.; Hilberink, S.R.; Maassen, I.M.; Segaar, D.; Plasschaert, A.J.M.; Grol, R.P.T.M.

    2011-01-01

    In a controlled study, primary care dental professionals in the intervention group were encouraged to provide smoking cessation advice and support for all smoking patients with the help of a stage-based motivational protocol. The barriers and facilitators reported by the dental professionals on two

  17. Skin barrier function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    Renowned experts present the latest knowledge Although a very fragile structure, the skin barrier is probably one of the most important organs of the body. Inward/out it is responsible for body integrity and outward/in for keeping microbes, chemicals, and allergens from penetrating the skin. Since...... the role of barrier integrity in atopic dermatitis and the relationship to filaggrin mutations was discovered a decade ago, research focus has been on the skin barrier, and numerous new publications have become available. This book is an interdisciplinary update offering a wide range of information...... on the subject. It covers new basic research on skin markers, including results on filaggrin and on methods for the assessment of the barrier function. Biological variation and aspects of skin barrier function restoration are discussed as well. Further sections are dedicated to clinical implications of skin...

  18. Volatile Anesthetics Influence Blood-Brain Barrier Integrity by Modulation of Tight Junction Protein Expression in Traumatic Brain Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Thal, Serge C.; Clara Luh; Eva-Verena Schaible; Ralph Timaru-Kast; Jana Hedrich; Luhmann, Heiko J.; Kristin Engelhard; Zehendner, Christoph M.

    2012-01-01

    Disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) results in cerebral edema formation, which is a major cause for high mortalityrnafter traumatic brain injury (TBI). As anesthetic care is mandatory in patients suffering from severe TBI it may be importantrnto elucidate the effect of different anesthetics on cerebral edema formation. Tight junction proteins (TJ) such as zonularnoccludens-1 (ZO-1) and claudin-5 (cl5) play a central role for BBB stability. First, the influence of the volatile anesthet...

  19. The effect of first and second order barriers on the ideal and actual integration of computer technology into the high school science classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendren, Kevin L.

    2000-10-01

    Science teachers' decisions to integrate computer technology into their classrooms was impacted by their pedagogical beliefs and their computer attitudes. First order barriers, ones extrinsic to the teacher, and second order barriers, ones grounded in the teachers' beliefs about teaching and learning, interfered with the implementation of computer technology. This study examined the beliefs of high school educators in a large, suburban school district in the Southeast. Teachers identified their actual levels of computer use in the current school year and what their ideal levels of use would have been if they were given unlimited resources of time, technical support, computer hardware, and software. The level of computer use was measured in the areas of administration, communication, Internet, instruction, and laboratory. Research questions examined in the study were: (1) What are the pedagogical beliefs and computer attitudes of high school science teachers in the district? (2) How do first and second order barriers affect the actual use of computers? (3) How do first and second order barriers affect the teachers' perspective of the ideal use of computers? A significant interaction existed between computer use and the attitude of the science teachers toward computers, and the most notable interaction was between the teachers' computer attitudes and the use of the Internet. Teachers with constructivist beliefs were more likely to do Internet and use the computer in the laboratory. A significant difference existed between the actual use and the ideal use of computer technology in the areas of communication, Internet, instruction, and laboratory. A significant difference existed between male and female teachers in the amount of time computers were used in the laboratory, and years of teaching showed a significant interaction with constructivism and computer attitude. In their ideal visions, the science teachers expressed the greatest desire for growth in the areas of

  20. Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain UFMG 905 protects against bacterial translocation, preserves gut barrier integrity and stimulates the immune system in a murine intestinal obstruction model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Generoso, Simone V; Viana, Mirelle; Santos, Rosana; Martins, Flaviano S; Machado, José A N; Arantes, Rosa M E; Nicoli, Jacques R; Correia, Maria I T D; Cardoso, Valbert N

    2010-06-01

    Probiotic is a preparation containing microorganisms that confers beneficial effect to the host. This work assessed whether oral treatment with viable or heat-killed yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain UFMG 905 prevents bacterial translocation (BT), intestinal barrier integrity, and stimulates the immunity, in a murine intestinal obstruction (IO) model. Four groups of mice were used: mice undergoing only laparotomy (CTL), undergoing intestinal obstruction (IO) and undergoing intestinal obstruction after previous treatment with viable or heat-killed yeast. BT, determined as uptake of (99m)Tc-E. coli in blood, mesenteric lymph nodes, liver, spleen and lungs, was significantly higher in IO group than in CTL group. Treatments with both yeasts reduced BT in blood and all organs investigated. The treatment with both yeasts also reduced intestinal permeability as determined by blood uptake of (99m)Tc-DTPA. Immunological data demonstrated that both treatments were able to significantly increase IL-10 levels, but only viable yeast had the same effect on sIgA levels. Intestinal lesions were more severe in IO group when compared to CTL and yeasts groups. Concluding, both viable and heat-killed cells of yeast prevent BT, probably by immunomodulation and by maintaining gut barrier integrity. Only the stimulation of IgA production seems to depend on the yeast viability.

  1. Barrier mechanisms in the Drosophila blood-brain barrier

    OpenAIRE

    Samantha Jane Hindle; Roland Jerome Bainton

    2014-01-01

    The invertebrate blood-brain barrier field is growing at a rapid pace and, in recent years, studies have shown a physiologic and molecular complexity that has begun to rival its vertebrate counterpart. Novel mechanisms of paracellular barrier maintenance through GPCR signaling were the first demonstrations of the complex adaptive mechanisms of barrier physiology. Building upon this work, the integrity of the invertebrate blood-brain barrier has recently been shown to require coordinated funct...

  2. Promising perceptions, divergent practices and barriers to integrated malaria prevention in Wakiso district, Uganda: a mixed methods study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Musoke

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization recommends use of multiple approaches to control malaria. The integrated approach to malaria prevention advocates the use of several malaria prevention methods in a holistic manner. This study assessed perceptions and practices on integrated malaria prevention in Wakiso district, Uganda.A clustered cross-sectional survey was conducted among 727 households from 29 villages using both quantitative and qualitative methods. Assessment was done on awareness of various malaria prevention methods, potential for use of the methods in a holistic manner, and reasons for dislike of certain methods. Households were classified as using integrated malaria prevention if they used at least two methods. Logistic regression was used to test for factors associated with the use of integrated malaria prevention while adjusting for clustering within villages.Participants knew of the various malaria prevention methods in the integrated approach including use of insecticide treated nets (97.5%, removing mosquito breeding sites (89.1%, clearing overgrown vegetation near houses (97.9%, and closing windows and doors early in the evenings (96.4%. If trained, most participants (68.6% would use all the suggested malaria prevention methods of the integrated approach. Among those who would not use all methods, the main reasons given were there being too many (70.2% and cost (32.0%. Only 33.0% households were using the integrated approach to prevent malaria. Use of integrated malaria prevention by households was associated with reading newspapers (AOR 0.34; 95% CI 0.22 -0.53 and ownership of a motorcycle/car (AOR 1.75; 95% CI 1.03 - 2.98.Although knowledge of malaria prevention methods was high and perceptions on the integrated approach promising, practices on integrated malaria prevention was relatively low. The use of the integrated approach can be improved by promoting use of multiple malaria prevention methods through various communication

  3. Loss of EP2 Receptor Subtype in Colonic Cells Compromise Epithelial Barrier Integrity by Altering Claudin-4

    OpenAIRE

    Manigandan Lejeune; France Moreau; Kris Chadee

    2014-01-01

    Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is a bioactive lipid mediator that exerts its biological function through interaction with four different subtypes of E-Prostanoid receptor namely EP1, EP2, EP3 and EP4. It has been known that EP2 receptor is differentially over-expressed in the epithelia of inflamed human colonic mucosa. However, the significance of the differential expression in altering epithelial barrier function is not known. In this study, we used Caco-2 cells expressing EP2 receptor, either high...

  4. 46 CFR 154.421 - Allowable stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.421 Section 154.421 Shipping COAST... § 154.421 Allowable stress. The allowable stress for the integral tank structure must meet the American Bureau of Shipping's allowable stress for the vessel's hull published in “Rules for Building and...

  5. Early decision framework for integrating sustainable risk management for complex remediation sites: Drivers, barriers, and performance metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harclerode, Melissa A; Macbeth, Tamzen W; Miller, Michael E; Gurr, Christopher J; Myers, Teri S

    2016-12-15

    As the environmental remediation industry matures, remaining sites often have significant underlying technical challenges and financial constraints. More often than not, significant remediation efforts at these "complex" sites have not achieved stringent, promulgated cleanup goals. Decisions then have to be made about whether and how to commit additional resources towards achieving those goals, which are often not achievable nor required to protect receptors. Guidance on cleanup approaches focused on evaluating and managing site-specific conditions and risks, rather than uniformly meeting contaminant cleanup criteria in all media, is available to aid in this decision. Although these risk-based cleanup approaches, such as alternative endpoints and adaptive management strategies, have been developed, they are under-utilized due to environmental, socio-economic, and risk perception barriers. Also, these approaches are usually implemented late in the project life cycle after unsuccessful remedial attempts to achieve stringent cleanup criteria. In this article, we address these barriers by developing an early decision framework to identify if site characteristics support sustainable risk management, and develop performance metrics and tools to evaluate and implement successful risk-based cleanup approaches. In addition, we address uncertainty and risk perception challenges by aligning risk-based cleanup approaches with the concepts of risk management and sustainable remediation. This approach was developed in the context of lessons learned from implementing remediation at complex sites, but as a framework can, and should, be applied to all sites undergoing remediation.

  6. Barriers and opportunities for integrating social science into natural resource management: lessons from National Estuarine Research Reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Patrick; Genskow, Ken; Shaw, Bret; Shepard, Robin

    2012-12-01

    The need for cross-disciplinary scientific inquiries that facilitate improved natural resource management outcomes through increased understanding of both the biophysical and human dimensions of management issues has been widely recognized. Despite this broad recognition, a number of obstacles and barriers still sometimes challenge the successful implementation of cross-disciplinary approaches. Improving understanding of these challenges and barriers will help address them and thereby foster appropriate and effective utilization of cross-disciplinary approaches to solve natural resource management challenges. This research uses a case study analysis of the United States National Estuarine Research Reserve System to improve understanding of the critical factors that influence practitioners' decisions related to incorporating social science into their natural resource management work. The case study research is analyzed and evaluated within a Theory of Planned Behavior framework to (1) determine and describe the factors that predict practitioners' intent to incorporate social science into their natural resource related activities and (2) recommend potential strategies for encouraging and enabling cross-disciplinary approaches to natural resource management. The results indicate that National Estuarine Research Reserve practitioners' decisions related to incorporating social science are primarily influenced by (1) confidence in their own capability to incorporate social science into their work and (2) beliefs about whether the outcomes of incorporating social science into their work would be valuable or beneficial.

  7. 边界效应、国内市场一体化与区域壁垒%Border Effect,Domestic Market Integration and Regional Barriers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何雄浪; 张泽义

    2014-01-01

    Based on Dixit - Stiglitz model of monopolistic competition , this paper establishes an econometric model which applies border effect method ,and takes the panel data of China's 28 provinces range from the years of 1996 ~ 2011 as a research object ,to analyze Chinese domestic market integration and its evolution process by estimating the border effect ,and according to it ,explores the factors in-fluencing the border effect .The empirical study shows that : border barriers exist obviously in both areas ,and the trade barriers in the cen-tral and western region are higher than eastern region ; average border effect is on the rise ,and the domestic market tends to non - integra-tion ,specially average border effect in 2001 is fastest growing due to the reform of the fiscal and taxation system ,then the construction of the various economic zone and belt makes growth rate declined slightly ; the natural barriers are not the main element affecting the border ef-fect ,while administrative intervention is really the main factors influencing the process of our domestic market integration .%本文在 D - S 垄断竞争模型的基础上,使用边界效应的方法来构建计量模型,以我国1996~2011年28个省份的面板数据为研究对象,通过估计边界效应来分析我国国内市场一体化以及我国边界效应的演进过程,并在此基础上进一步探讨了影响我国边界效应的因素。实证结果显示:我国区域间存在明显的边界壁垒,中西部贸易壁垒高于东部;我国的平均边界效应存在上升趋势,国内市场并非走向一体化,特别地由于财税制度的改革2001年平均边界效应增幅最快,之后各种经济区和经济带的建设使得增长率小幅下降;自然壁垒不是影响边界效应的主要因素,行政人为干预才是影响我国市场一体化进程的主要因素。

  8. 4.0-nm-thick amorphous Nb–Ni film as a conducting diffusion barrier layer for integrating ferroelectric capacitor on Si

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, X.H. [Hebei Key Lab of Optic-electronic Information and Materials, College of Physics Science & Technology, Hebei University, Hebei 071002 (China); College of Electronic and Information Engineering, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300401 (China); Guo, J.X.; Zhang, L.; Jia, D.M.; Qi, C.G.; Zhou, Y.; Li, X.H.; Shi, J.B.; Fu, Y.J.; Wang, Y.L.; Lou, J.Z. [Hebei Key Lab of Optic-electronic Information and Materials, College of Physics Science & Technology, Hebei University, Hebei 071002 (China); Ma, L.X. [Department of Physics, Blinn College, Bryan, TX 77805 (United States); Zhao, H.D. [College of Electronic and Information Engineering, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300401 (China); Liu, B.T., E-mail: btliu@hbu.cn [Hebei Key Lab of Optic-electronic Information and Materials, College of Physics Science & Technology, Hebei University, Hebei 071002 (China)

    2015-10-05

    Highlights: • 4-nm-thick amorphous Nb–Ni film is first used as the conducting barrier layer. • No obvious interdiffusion/reaction can be found from the LSCO/PZT/LSCO/Nb–Ni/Si. • The LSCO/PZT/LSCO capacitor, measured at 5 V, possesses very good properties. • Ultrathin amorphous Nb–Ni film is ideal to fabricate silicon-based FRAM. - Abstract: We have successfully integrated La{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}CoO{sub 3}/PbZr{sub 0.4}Ti{sub 0.6}O{sub 3}/La{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}CoO{sub 3} (LSCO/PZT/LSCO) capacitors on silicon substrate using a ∼4.0-nm-thick amorphous Nb–Ni film as the conducting diffusion barrier layer. Transmission electron microscopy technique confirms that the Nb–Ni film is still amorphous after fabrication of the capacitors, and the interfaces related to Nb–Ni are clean and sharp without any findable interdiffusion/reaction. The LSCO/PZT/LSCO capacitor, measured at 5 V, possesses very good properties, such as large remanent polarization of ∼22.1 μC/cm{sup 2}, small coercive voltage of ∼1.27 V, good fatigue-resistance, and small pulse width dependence, implying that ultrathin amorphous Nb–Ni film is ideal as the conducting diffusion barrier layer to fabricate high-density silicon-based ferroelectric random access memories.

  9. Integrated geological-engineering model of Patrick Draw field and examples of similarities and differences among various shoreline barrier systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schatzinger, R.A.; Szpakiewicz, M.J.; Jackson, S.R.; Chang, M.M.; Sharma, B.; Tham, M.K.; Cheng, A.M.

    1992-04-01

    The Reservoir Assessment and Characterization Research Program at NIPER employs an interdisciplinary approach that focuses on the high priority reservoir class of shoreline barrier deposits to: (1) determine the problems specific to this class of reservoirs by identifying the reservoir heterogeneities that influence the movement and trapping of fluids; and (2) develop methods to characterize effectively this class of reservoirs to predict residual oil saturation (ROS) on interwell scales and improve prediction of the flow patterns of injected and produced fluids. Accurate descriptions of the spatial distribution of critical reservoir parameters (e.g., permeability, porosity, pore geometry, mineralogy, and oil saturation) are essential for designing and implementing processes to improve sweep efficiency and thereby increase oil recovery. The methodologies and models developed in this program will, in the near- to mid-term, assist producers in the implementation of effective reservoir management strategies such as location of infill wells and selection of optimum enhanced oil recovery methods to maximize oil production from their reservoirs.

  10. Effect of propofol post-treatment on blood-brain barrier integrity and cerebral edema after transient cerebral ischemia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Hoon; Cui, Hui Song; Shin, Seo Kyung; Kim, Jeong Min; Kim, So Yeon; Lee, Jong Eun; Koo, Bon-Nyeo

    2013-11-01

    Although propofol has been reported to offer neuroprotection against cerebral ischemia injury, its impact on cerebral edema following ischemia is not clear. The objective of this investigation is to evaluate the effects of propofol post-treatment on blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity and cerebral edema after transient cerebral ischemia and its mechanism of action, focusing on modulation of aquaporins (AQPs), matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1α. Cerebral ischemia was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 78) by occlusion of the right middle cerebral artery for 1 h. For post-treatment with propofol, 1 mg kg(-1) min(-1) of propofol was administered for 1 h from the start of reperfusion. Nineteen rats undergoing sham surgery were also included in the investigation. Edema and BBB integrity were assessed by quantification of cerebral water content and extravasation of Evans blue, respectively, following 24 h of reperfusion. In addition, the expression of AQP-1, AQP-4, MMP-2, and MMP-9 was determined 24 h after reperfusion and the expression of HIF-1α was determined 8 h after reperfusion. Propofol post-treatment significantly reduced cerebral edema (P cerebral edema after transient cerebral ischemia, in association with reduced expression of AQP-1, AQP-4, MMP-2, and MMP-9. The decreased expression of AQPs and MMPs after propofol post-treatment might result from suppression of HIF-1α expression.

  11. Fly proof net shed for livestock: A novel concept of physical barrier for integrated management of Culicoides spp. (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. W. Narladkar

    2014-11-01

    net shed with pitch roof (gable type fitted with hurricane type ventilator at its top serves the purpose of a physical barrier to minimize host-pest contact. Observations recorded in the experiment are sound enough to conclude and to recommend the use of net shed for livestock.

  12. Integrated evaluation of the performance of a more than seven year old permeable reactive barrier at a site contaminated with chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muchitsch, Nanna; Nooten, Thomas Van; Bastiaens, Leen;

    2011-01-01

    An important issue of concern for permeable reactive iron barriers is the long-term efficiency of the barriers due to the long operational periods required. Mineral precipitation resulting from the anaerobic corrosion of the iron filings and bacteria present in the barrier may play an important r...

  13. Potential barriers and facilitators for implementation of an integrated care pathway for hearing-impaired persons: an exploratory survey among patients and professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verschuure Hans

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because of the increasing costs and anticipated shortage of Ear Nose and Throat (ENT specialists in the care for hearing-impaired persons, an integrated care pathway that includes direct hearing aid provision was developed. While this direct pathway is still under investigation, in a survey we examined expectations and potential barriers and facilitators towards this direct pathway, of patients and professionals involved in the pathway. Methods Two study populations were assessed: members of the health professions involved in the care pathway for hearing-impaired persons (general practitioners (GPs, hearing aid dispensers, ENT-specialists and clinical audiologists and persons with hearing complaints. We developed a comprehensive semi-structured questionnaire for the professionals, regarding expectations, barriers, facilitators and conditions for implementation. We developed two questionnaires for persons with hearing complaints, both regarding evaluations and preferences, and administered them after they had experienced two key elements of the direct pathway: the triage and the hearing aid fitting. Results On average GPs and hearing aid dispensers had positive expectations towards the direct pathway, while ENT-specialists and clinical audiologists had negative expectations. Professionals stated both barriers and facilitators towards the direct pathway. Most professionals either supported implementation of the direct pathway, provided that a number of conditions were satisfied, or did not support implementation, unless roughly the same conditions were satisfied. Professionals generally agreed on which conditions need to be satisfied. Persons with hearing complaints evaluated the present referral pathway and the new direct pathway equally. Many, especially older, participants stated however that they would still visit the GP and ENT-specialist, even when this would not be necessary for reimbursement of the hearing aid, and

  14. Vector control programs in Saint Johns County, Florida and Guayas, Ecuador: successes and barriers to integrated vector management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Vector-borne diseases (VBDs) and mosquito control programs (MCPs) diverge in settings and countries, and lead control specialists need to be aware of the most effective control strategies. Integrated Vector Management (IVM) strategies, once implemented in MCPs, aim to reduce cost and optimize protection of the populations against VBDs. This study presents a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) analysis to compare IVM strategies used by MCPs in Saint Johns County, Florida and Guayas, Ecuador. This research evaluates MCPs strategies to improve vector control activities. Methods Methods included descriptive findings of the MCP operations. Information was obtained from vector control specialists, directors, and residents through field trips, surveys, and questionnaires. Evaluations of the strategies and assets of the control programs where obtained through SWOT analysis and within an IVM approach. Results Organizationally, the Floridian MCP is a tax-based District able to make decisions independently from county government officials, with the oversight of an elected board of commissioners. The Guayas program is directed by the country government and assessed by non-governmental organizations like the World health Organization. Operationally, the Floridian MCP conducts entomological surveillance and the Ecuadorian MCP focuses on epidemiological monitoring of human disease cases. Strengths of both MCPs were their community participation and educational programs. Weaknesses for both MCPs included limitations in budgets and technical capabilities. Opportunities, for both MCPs, are additional funding and partnerships with private, non-governmental, and governmental organizations. Threats experienced by both MCPs included political constraints and changes in the social and ecological environment that affect mosquito densities and control efforts. IVM pillars for policy making were used to compare the information among the programs. Differences

  15. Perceptions of risk, risk aversion, and barriers to adoption of decision support systems and integrated pest management: an introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gent, David H; De Wolf, Erick; Pethybridge, Sarah J

    2011-06-01

    Rational management of plant diseases, both economically and environmentally, involves assessing risks and the costs associated with both correct and incorrect tactical management decisions to determine when control measures are warranted. Decision support systems can help to inform users of plant disease risk and thus assist in accurately targeting events critical for management. However, in many instances adoption of these systems for use in routine disease management has been perceived as slow. The under-utilization of some decision support systems is likely due to both technical and perception constraints that have not been addressed adequately during development and implementation phases. Growers' perceptions of risk and their aversion to these perceived risks can be reasons for the "slow" uptake of decision support systems and, more broadly, integrated pest management (IPM). Decision theory provides some tools that may assist in quantifying and incorporating subjective and/or measured probabilities of disease occurrence or crop loss into decision support systems. Incorporation of subjective probabilities into IPM recommendations may be one means to reduce grower uncertainty and improve trust of these systems because management recommendations could be explicitly informed by growers' perceptions of risk and economic utility. Ultimately though, we suggest that an appropriate measure of the value and impact of decision support systems is grower education that enables more skillful and informed management decisions independent of consultation of the support tool outputs.

  16. Inhibiting endoplasmic reticulum stress by lithium chloride contributes to the integrity of blood-spinal cord barrier and functional recovery after spinal cord injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zili; Zhou, Yulong; Wang, Qingqing; Li, Jiawei; Zheng, Zengming; Chen, Jian; Zhang, Hongyu; Wang, Zhouguang; Xu, Huazi; Xiao, Jian

    2017-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress play important roles in the spinal cord injury (SCI), which including blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB) disruption. Lithium chloride (LiCl) is a clinical drug for bipolar mood disorders and contributes to neuroprotection. This study aims to investigate the effects of LiCl on BSCB disruption and the ER stress pathway induced by spinal cord injury. We examined the integrity of the BSCB with Evans Blue dye and macrophages extravasation, measured the microvessels loss, the junction proteins degeneration, the activation ER stress, and the locomotor function recovery. Our data indicated that LiCl treatment could attenuates BSCB disruption and improved the recovery of functional locomotion in rats SCI model, reduced the structure damage and number loss of microvessels, increased the expressions of junction proteins, including p120, β-catenin, occludin, and claudin-5, via reversed the upregulated ER stress associated proteins. In addition, LiCl significantly inhibited the increase of ER stress markers and prevents loss of junction proteins in thapsigargin (TG)-treated human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC). These findings suggest that LiCl treatment alleviates BSCB disruption and promote the neurological function recovery after SCI, partly through inhibiting the activation of ER stress.

  17. An integrated approach to natural and geo synthetic clay barriers performance against the diffusion of a pollution plume from municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuevas, J.; Sevilla, M. T.; Procopio, J. R.; Ruiz, A. I.; Da silva, P.; Gismera, M. J.; Regadio, M.; Sanchez Jimenez, N.; Soto, I. S. de; Rodriguez, M.; Leguey, S.

    2009-07-01

    Technical requirements for the landfills of municipal wastes in the European Union (EU) are given in the Council Directive 1993/31/EC. A geological barrier of at least 1 m thickness with a hydraulic conductivity (HC) of 1x10{sup -}9 m/s is required. Where the geological barrier does not naturally present the above conditions, a geological barrier of at least 0.5 m thick must be artificially established. (Author)

  18. Market and policy barriers to energy storage deployment :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatnagar, Dhruv; Currier, Aileen B.; Hernandez, Jacquelynne; Ma, Ookie; Kirby, Brendan

    2013-09-01

    Electric energy storage technologies have recently been in the spotlight, discussed as essential grid assets that can provide services to increase the reliability and resiliency of the grid, including furthering the integration of variable renewable energy resources. Though they can provide numerous grid services, there are a number of factors that restrict their current deployment. The most significant barrier to deployment is high capital costs, though several recent deployments indicate that capital costs are decreasing and energy storage may be the preferred economic alternative in certain situations. However, a number of other market and regulatory barriers persist, limiting further deployment. These barriers can be categorized into regulatory barriers, market (economic) barriers, utility and developer business model barriers, crosscutting barriers and technology barriers. This report, through interviews with stakeholders and review of regulatory filings in four regions roughly representative of the United States, identifies the key barriers restricting further energy storage development in the country. The report also includes a discussion of possible solutions to address these barriers and a review of initiatives around the country at the federal, regional and state levels that are addressing some of these issues. Energy storage could have a key role to play in the future grid, but market and regulatory issues have to be addressed to allow storage resources open market access and compensation for the services they are capable of providing. Progress has been made in this effort, but much remains to be done and will require continued engagement from regulators, policy makers, market operators, utilities, developers and manufacturers.

  19. Barrier mechanisms in the Drosophila blood-brain barrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Jane Hindle

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The invertebrate blood-brain barrier field is growing at a rapid pace and, in recent years, studies have shown a physiologic and molecular complexity that has begun to rival its vertebrate counterpart. Novel mechanisms of paracellular barrier maintenance through GPCR signaling were the first demonstrations of the complex adaptive mechanisms of barrier physiology. Building upon this work, the integrity of the invertebrate blood-brain barrier has recently been shown to require coordinated function of all layers of the compound barrier structure, analogous to signaling between the layers of the vertebrate neurovascular unit. These findings strengthen the notion that many blood-brain barrier mechanisms are conserved between vertebrates and invertebrates, and suggest that novel findings in invertebrate model organisms will have a significant impact on the understanding of vertebrate BBB functions. In this vein, important roles in coordinating localized and systemic signaling to dictate organism development and growth are beginning to show how the blood-brain barrier can govern whole animal physiologies. This includes novel functions of blood-brain barrier gap junctions in orchestrating synchronized neuroblast proliferation, and of blood-brain barrier secreted antagonists of insulin receptor signaling. These advancements and others are pushing the field forward in exciting new directions. In this review, we provide a synopsis of invertebrate blood-brain barrier anatomy and physiology, with a focus on insights from the past 5 years, and highlight important areas for future study.

  20. Can probiotics modulate human disease by impacting intestinal barrier function?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bron, Peter A.; Kleerebezem, Michiel; Brummer, Robert Jan; Cani, Patrice D.; Mercenier, Annick; MacDonald, Thomas T.; Garcia-Ródenas, Clara L.; Wells, Jerry M.

    2017-01-01

    Intestinal barrier integrity is a prerequisite for homeostasis of mucosal function, which is balanced to maximise absorptive capacity, while maintaining efficient defensive reactions against chemical and microbial challenges. Evidence is mounting that disruption of epithelial barrier integrity is

  1. 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) disrupts blood-brain barrier integrity through a mechanism involving P2X7 receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Araiz, Ana; Perez-Hernandez, Mercedes; Urrutia, Andrés; Porcu, Francesca; Borcel, Erika; Gutierrez-Lopez, Maria Dolores; O'Shea, Esther; Colado, Maria Isabel

    2014-08-01

    The recreational drug 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; 'ecstasy') produces a neuro-inflammatory response in rats characterized by an increase in microglial activation and IL-1β levels. The integrity of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is important in preserving the homeostasis of the brain and has been shown to be affected by neuro-inflammatory processes. We aimed to study the effect of a single dose of MDMA on the activity of metalloproteinases (MMPs), expression of extracellular matrix proteins, BBB leakage and the role of the ionotropic purinergic receptor P2X7 (P2X7R) in the changes induced by the drug. Adult male Dark Agouti rats were treated with MDMA (10 mg/kg, i.p.) and killed at several time-points in order to evaluate MMP-9 and MMP-3 activity in the hippocampus and laminin and collagen-IV expression and IgG extravasation in the dentate gyrus. Microglial activation, P2X7R expression and localization were also determined in the dentate gyrus. Separate groups were treated with MDMA and the P2X7R antagonists Brilliant Blue G (BBG; 50 mg/kg, i.p.) or A-438079 (30 mg/kg, i.p.). MDMA increased MMP-3 and MMP-9 activity, reduced laminin and collagen-IV expression and increased IgG immunoreactivity. In addition, MDMA increased microglial activation and P2X7R immunoreactivity in these cells. BBG suppressed the increase in MMP-9 and MMP-3 activity, prevented basal lamina degradation and IgG extravasation into the brain parenchyma. A-438079 also prevented the MDMA-induced reduction in laminin and collagen-IV immunoreactivity. These results indicate that MDMA alters BBB permeability through an early P2X7R-mediated event, which in turn leads to enhancement of MMP-9 and MMP-3 activity and degradation of extracellular matrix.

  2. Salvianolic acid A ameliorates the integrity of blood-spinal cord barrier via miR-101/Cul3/Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, De-Shui; Wang, Yan-Song; Bi, Yun-Long; Guo, Zhan-Peng; Yuan, Ya-Jiang; Tong, Song-Ming; Su, Rui-Chao; Ge, Li-Hao; Wang, Jian; Pan, Ya-Li; Guan, Ting-Ting; Cao, Yang

    2017-02-15

    Salvianolic acid A (Sal A), a bioactive compound isolated from the Chinese medicinal herb Danshen, is used for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. However, the protective function of Sal A on preserving the role of blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB) after spinal cord injury (SCI) is unclear. The present study investigated the effects and mechanisms of Sal A (2.5, 5, 10mg/kg, i.p.) on BSCB permeability at different time-points after compressive SCI in rats. Compared to the SCI group, treatment with Sal A decreased the content of the Evans blue in the spinal cord tissue at 24h post-SCI. The expression levels of tight junction proteins and HO-1 were remarkably increased, and that of p-caveolin-1 protein was greatly decreased after SCI Sal A. The effect of Sal A on the expression level of ZO-1, occluding, and p-caveolin-1 after SCI was blocked by the HO-1 inhibitor, zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP). Also, Sal A inhibited the level of apoptosis-related proteins and improved the motor function until 21days after SCI. In addition, Sal A significantly increased the expression of microRNA-101 (miR-101) in the RBMECs under hypoxia. AntagomiR-101 markedly increased the RBMECs permeability and the expression of the Cul3 protein by targeting with 3'-UTR of its mRNA. The expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and HO-1 was significantly increased after agomiR-101 treatment. Therefore, Sal A could improve the recovery of neurological function after SCI, which could be correlated with the repair of BSCB integrity by the miR-101/Cul3/Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway.

  3. Barrier to auto integration factor becomes dephosphorylated during HSV-1 Infection and Can Act as a host defense by impairing viral DNA replication and gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamin, Augusta; Thunuguntla, Prasanth; Wicklund, April; Jones, Clinton; Wiebe, Matthew S

    2014-01-01

    BAF (Barrier to Autointegration Factor) is a highly conserved DNA binding protein that senses poxviral DNA in the cytoplasm and tightly binds to the viral genome to interfere with DNA replication and transcription. To counteract BAF, a poxviral-encoded protein kinase phosphorylates BAF, which renders BAF unable to bind DNA and allows efficient viral replication to occur. Herein, we examined how BAF phosphorylation is affected by herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection and tested the ability of BAF to interfere with HSV-1 productive infection. Interestingly, we found that BAF phosphorylation decreases markedly following HSV-1 infection. To determine whether dephosphorylated BAF impacts HSV-1 productive infection, we employed cell lines stably expressing a constitutively unphosphorylated form of BAF (BAF-MAAAQ) and cells overexpressing wild type (wt) BAF for comparison. Although HSV-1 production in cells overexpressing wtBAF was similar to that in cells expressing no additional BAF, viral growth was reduced approximately 80% in the presence of BAF-MAAAQ. Experiments were also performed to determine the mechanism of the antiviral activity of BAF with the following results. BAF-MAAAQ was localized to the nucleus, whereas wtBAF was dispersed throughout cells prior to infection. Following infection, wtBAF becomes dephosphorylated and relocalized to the nucleus. Additionally, BAF was associated with the HSV-1 genome during infection, with BAF-MAAAQ associated to a greater extent than wtBAF. Importantly, unphosphorylated BAF inhibited both viral DNA replication and gene expression. For example, expression of two regulatory proteins, ICP0 and VP16, were substantially reduced in cells expressing BAF-MAAAQ. However, other viral genes were not dramatically affected suggesting that expression of certain viral genes can be differentially regulated by unphosphorylated BAF. Collectively, these results suggest that BAF can act in a phosphorylation-regulated manner to impair

  4. Simulation of energy barrier distributions using real particle parameters and comparison with experimental obtained results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Büttner, M., E-mail: Markus.Buettner@uni-jena.de [Institut für Festkörperphysik, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, Helmholtzweg 5, 07743 Jena (Germany); Schiffler, M. [Institut für Geowissenschaften, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, Burgweg 11, 07749 Jena (Germany); Weber, P.; Seidel, P. [Institut für Festkörperphysik, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, Helmholtzweg 5, 07743 Jena (Germany)

    2013-11-15

    Distributions of energy barriers in systems of magnetic nanoparticles have been calculated by means of the path integral method and the results have been compared with distributions previously obtained in our experiments by means of the temperature dependent magnetorelaxation method. The path integral method allowed to obtain energies of the interactions of magnetic moments of nanoparticles with axes of their easy magnetisation as well as energies of mutual interactions of magnetic moments. Calculated distributions of energy barriers have been described satisfactorily by curves of the lognormal distribution. We found an agreement between the theory and the experiment at temperatures above approximately 100 K. The influence of the volume concentration of nanoparticles and agglomeration on the energy barrier distribution has been investigated. - Highlights: • The path integral method of calculation allows to satisfactorily reproduce the quantitative experimental results. • The simulations of the energy barrier distributions reflect the lognormal distribution of the MNP found in real experiments. • Higher particle volume concentration leads to a broadening of the simulated energy barrier distribution. • At low particle concentration there is only anisotropy energy. • In case of agglomeration the energy barrier distribution broadens.

  5. Thermal barrier coating materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Clarke

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Improved thermal barrier coatings (TBCs will enable future gas turbines to operate at higher gas temperatures. Considerable effort is being invested, therefore, in identifying new materials with even better performance than the current industry standard, yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ. We review recent progress and suggest that an integrated strategy of experiment, intuitive arguments based on crystallography, and simulation may lead most rapidly to the development of new TBC materials.

  6. Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emerek, Ruth

    2004-01-01

    Bidraget diskuterer de forskellige intergrationsopfattelse i Danmark - og hvad der kan forstås ved vellykket integration......Bidraget diskuterer de forskellige intergrationsopfattelse i Danmark - og hvad der kan forstås ved vellykket integration...

  7. Degradation of thermal barrier coatings on an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) simulated film-cooled turbine vane pressure surface due to particulate fly ash deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Kevin

    Coal synthesis gas (syngas) can introduce contaminants into the flow of an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) industrial gas turbine which can form molten deposits onto components of the first stage of a turbine. Research is being conducted at West Virginia University (WVU) to study the effects of particulate deposition on thermal barrier coatings (TBC) employed on the airfoils of an IGCC turbine hot section. WVU had been working with U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to simulate deposition on the pressure side of an IGCC turbine first stage vane to study the effects on film cooling. To simulate the particulate deposition, TBC coated, angled film-cooled test articles were subjected to accelerated deposition injected into the flow of a combustor facility with a pressure of approximately 4 atm and a gas temperature of 1560 K. The particle characteristics between engine conditions and laboratory are matched using the Stokes number and particulate loading. To investigate the degradation on the TBC from the particulate deposition, non-destructive evaluations were performed using a load-based multiple-partial unloading micro-indentation technique and were followed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) evaluation and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) examinations. The micro-indentation technique used in the study was developed by Kang et al. and can quantitatively evaluate the mechanical properties of materials. The indentation results found that the Young's Modulus of the ceramic top coat is higher in areas with deposition formation due to the penetration of the fly ash. The increase in the modulus of elasticity has been shown to result in a reduction of strain tolerance of the 7% yttria-stabilized zirconia (7YSZ) TBC coatings. The increase in the Young's modulus of the ceramic top coat is due to the stiffening of the YSZ columnar microstructure from the cooled particulate fly ash. SEM evaluation was used to

  8. A LOOK AT CULTURAL BARRIERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen A. VRÂNCEANU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the global market allows each individual to work in foreign countries. This fact is a great opportunity for business development, but also puts into light the problem of cultural barriers. Ineffective cross-cultural communication and collaboration can harm employees, customers, and other stakeholders. A company with employees from different cultures must acknowledge and understand these barriers in order to overcome them and to obtain the desired performance. The present study aims to expose the cultural barriers encountered by foreigners in a multinational company from Romania.

  9. Approach to Quantum Kramers' Equation and Barrier Crossing Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Banerjee, Dhruba; Banik, S K; Ray, D S; Banerjee, Dhruba; Bag, Bidhan Chandra; Banik, Suman Kumar; Ray, Deb Shankar

    2002-01-01

    We have presented a simple approach to quantum theory of Brownian motion and barrier crossing dynamics. Based on an initial coherent state representation of bath oscillators and an equilibrium canonical distribution of quantum mechanical mean values of their co-ordinates and momenta we have derived a $c$-number generalized quantum Langevin equation. The approach allows us to implement the method of classical non-Markovian Brownian motion to realize an exact generalized non-Markovian quantum Kramers' equation. The equation is valid for arbitrary temperature and friction. We have solved this equation in the spatial diffusion-limited regime to derive quantum Kramers' rate of barrier crossing and analyze its variation as a function of temperature and friction. While almost all the earlier theories rest on quasi-probability distribution functions (like Wigner function) and path integral methods, the present work is based on {\\it true probability distribution functions} and is independent of path integral technique...

  10. Sensing of EGTA Mediated Barrier Tissue Disruption with an Organic Transistor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scherrine Tria

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Barrier tissue protects the body against external factors by restricting the passage of molecules. The gastrointestinal epithelium is an example of barrier tissue with the primary purpose of allowing the passage of ions and nutrients, while restricting the passage of pathogens and toxins. It is well known that the loss of barrier function can be instigated by a decrease in extracellular calcium levels, leading to changes in protein conformation and an increase in paracellular transport. In this study, ethylene glycol-bis(beta-aminoethyl ether-N,N,N',N'-tetra acetic acid (EGTA, a calcium chelator, was used to disrupt the gastrointestinal epithelial barrier. The effect of EGTA on barrier tissue was monitored by a novel label-free method based on an organic electrochemical transistor (OECT integrated with living cells and validated against conventional methods for measuring barrier tissue integrity. We demonstrate that the OECT can detect breaches in barrier tissue upon exposure to EGTA with the same sensitivity as existing methods but with increased temporal resolution. Due to the potential of low cost processing techniques and the flexibility in design associated with organic electronics, the OECT has great potential for high-throughput, disposable sensing and diagnostics.

  11. Protecting crops from non-persistently aphid-transmitted viruses: a review on the use of barrier plants as a management tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooks, Cerruti R R; Fereres, Alberto

    2006-09-01

    Barrier plants are a management tool based on secondary plants used within or bordering a primary crop for the purpose of disease control. Aphid-transmitted viruses account for approximately 50% of the 600 known viruses with an invertebrate vector. Barrier plants may act as real natural sinks for non-persistent aphid-transmitted viruses and have proved in the past to be an effective crop management strategy to protect against virus infection. Increasing the knowledge on aphid host seeking and flying behaviour, and on how barrier plants may affect the behaviour of aphids and their natural enemies will allow further development of this environmentally-friendly habitat manipulation strategy. An ideal plant barrier should be a non-host for the virus and the vector, but appealing to aphid landing and attractive to their natural enemies and should allow sufficient residence time to allow aphid probing before taking-off occurs. In this review, we have addressed why aphids are manageable by barrier cropping, the mechanisms by which barrier plants affect the occurrence of non-persistently aphid-transmitted viruses and the limitations of using barrier plants as a virus control strategy. Finally, we have pointed out future directions of research that should be conducted to integrate barrier cropping with other disease management strategies, and optimise and extend the use of barrier plants as a strategy for managing aphid-transmitted virus diseases.

  12. Effect of a Semi-Purified Oligosaccharide-Enriched Fraction from Caprine Milk on Barrier Integrity and Mucin Production of Co-Culture Models of the Small and Large Intestinal Epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia M. Barnett

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Caprine milk contains the highest amount of oligosaccharides among domestic animals, which are structurally similar to human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs. This suggests caprine milk oligosaccharides may offer similar protective and developmental effects to that of HMOs. However, to date, studies using oligosaccharides from caprine milk have been limited. Thus, this study aimed to examine the impact of a caprine milk oligosaccharide-enriched fraction (CMOF on barrier function of epithelial cell co-cultures of absorptive enterocytes (Caco-2 cells and mucus-secreting goblet cells (HT29-MTX cells, that more closely simulate the cell proportions found in the small (90:10 and large intestine (75:25. Treatment of epithelial co-cultures with 0.4, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 mg/mL of CMOF was shown to have no effect on metabolic activity but did enhance cell epithelial barrier integrity as measured by trans-epithelial electrical resistance (TEER, in a dose-dependent manner. The CMOF at the maximum concentration tested (4.0 mg/mL enhanced TEER, mucin gene expression and mucin protein abundance of epithelial co-cultures, all of which are essential components of intestinal barrier function.

  13. Development Strategies on Barrier-free Facility Integration of City Public Transportation System%城市公共交通无障碍设施一体化实施对策研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严亚丹; 过秀成

    2011-01-01

    Barrier-free construction of a public transportation system is an embodiment of human-oriented,transit priority policies and the requirement for promoting city grade.The relationship between the public transportation system and sustainable mobility was explored.The paper proposed a definition and the service objects of public transport barrier-free construction.Then,according to the existed problems in the process of accessibility construction of the public transportation system,the development strategies and measures from the perspectives of facility,design and management on barrier-free facility integration were discussed.%公共交通无障碍设施的建设是以人为本、公交优先的具体体现,亦是城市功能和品质提升的必然要求。论文探讨了公共交通与可持续机动性的关系,并在分析公共交通无障碍建设的服务对象和内涵的基础上,针对我国城市公共交通无障碍设施的建设现状,从设施配置、工程设计、运营管理等方面提出公共交通无障碍设施一体化的实施对策。

  14. Interorganisational Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngsø, Anne Marie; Godtfredsen, Nina Skavlan; Frølich, Anne

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Despite many initiatives to improve coordination of patient pathways and intersectoral cooperation, Danish health care is still fragmented, lacking intra- and interorganisational integration. This study explores barriers to and facilitators of interorganisational integration...... at a university hospital in the Capital Region of Denmark. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Our results can be grouped into five influencing areas for interorganisational integration: communication/information transfer, committed leadership, patient engagement, the role and competencies of the general practitioner...... and organisational culture. Proposed solutions to barriers in each area hold the potential to improve care integration as experienced by individuals responsible for supporting and facilitating it. Barriers and facilitators to integrating care relate to clinical, professional, functional and normative integration...

  15. SUBSURFACE BARRIER VALIDATION WITH THE SEAFACE SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandra Dalvit Dunn

    1997-11-30

    The overall objective of the effort was to develop and demonstrate an integrated methodology and field system to evaluate the integrity of in situ, impermeable barriers constructed in the vadose zone. An autonomous, remotely accessible, automatic monitoring and analysis system was designed and fabricated. It was thoroughly tested under field conditions, and was able to function as designed throughout the test period. Data inversion software was developed with enhanced capabilities over the previous prototype version, and integrated with the monitoring system for real time operation. Analytical simulations were performed to determine the inversion code's sensitivity to model parameters. Numerical simulations were performed to better understand how typical field conditions differ from the ideal model(s) which are used (or have been developed for use) in the inversion code and to further validate the flux limited forward model developed for use with the system. Results from the analytical and numerical assessment of the inversion code showed that the SEAtrace{trademark} approach could locate leaks within 0.4 to 1.2 m. Leak size determination was less accurate, but produced results within a factor of 3 to 8 for leaks in the 2.5 to 10 cm diameter range. The smallest engineered leak in the test 1.1 cm diameter, could be located but its size estimate was high by a factor of 30. Data analysis was performed automatically after each gas scan was completed, yielding results in less than thirty minutes, although the bulk of the results reported required post test data analysis to remove effects of high background concentrations. The field test of the integrated system was problematic, primarily due to unanticipated, unintentional leaks formed in the impermeable liner. The test facility constructed to proof the system was ambitious, initially having 11 engineered leaks of various dimensions that could be independently operated. While a great deal of care went into the

  16. Regulatory treatment of allowances and compliance costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, K. [National Regulatory Research Institute, Columbus, OH (United States)

    1993-07-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) established a national emission allowance trading system, a market-based form of environmental regulation designed to reduce and limit sulfur dioxide emissions. However, the allowance trading system is being applied primarily to an economically regulated electric utility industry. The combining of the new form of environmental regulation and economic regulation of electric utilities has raised a number of questions including what the role should be of the federal and state utility regulating commissions and how those actions will affect the decision making process of the utilities and the allowance market. There are several dimensions to the regulatory problems that commissions face. Allowances and utility compliance expenditures have implications for least-cost/IPR (integrated resource planning), prudence review procedures, holding company and multistate utility regulation and ratemaking treatment. The focus of this paper is on the ratemaking treatment. The following topics are covered: ratemaking treatment of allowances and compliance costs; Traditional cost-recovery mechanisms; limitations to the traditional approach; traditional approach and the allowance trading market; market-based cost recovery mechanisms; methods of determining the benchmark; determining the split between ratepayers and the utility; other regulatory approaches; limitations of incentive mechanisms.

  17. Examination of the Restoration of Epithelial Barrier Function Following Superficial Keratectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Hutcheon, Audrey E. K.; Sippel, Kimberly C.; Zieske, James D.

    2006-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to determine the rate of restoration of the corneal epithelial barrier following a superficial keratectomy using a functional assay of tight junction integrity. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were anesthetized and a 3-mm superficial keratectomy was performed. The eyes were allowed to heal from 4 hours to 8 weeks and the rate of epithelial wound closure was determined. To examine the restoration of the barrier function, EZ-Link Sulfo-NHS-LC-Biotin (LC-Biotin) was a...

  18. The Integrated Renovation Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galiotto, Nicolas

    is applied to two single-family homes. In practice, such a scheme allowed most informational barriers to sustainable home renovation to be overcome. The homeowners were better integrated and their preferences and immaterial values were better taken into account. They assimilated the multiple benefits......Buildings are one of the largest end users of energy. In the countries of the European Union, the building sector accounts for nearly 40% of the final energy use and represents one of the largest potentials for the reduction of energy use and of greenhouse gas emissions. Furthermore, today...... and greenhouse gas emissions in the building sector, this rate needs to increase to around 2,5%. Furthermore, minor and moderate energy renovations need to be replaced by extensive or nearly zero energy renovations. Therefore it is essential to overcome barriers and induce building owners to invest in high...

  19. Striatal blood-brain barrier permeability in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Madison T; Woulfe, John M

    2015-05-01

    In vivo studies have shown that blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction is involved in the course of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, these have lacked either anatomic definition or the ability to recognize minute changes in BBB integrity. Here, using histologic markers of serum protein, iron, and erythrocyte extravasation, we have shown significantly increased permeability of the BBB in the postcommissural putamen of PD patients. The dense innervation of the striatum by PD-affected regions allows for exploitation of this permeability for therapeutic goals. These results are also discussed in the context of the retrograde trans-synaptic hypothesis of PD spread.

  20. 'Integration'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olwig, Karen Fog

    2011-01-01

    After a long history dominated by out-migration, Denmark, Norway and Sweden have, in the past 50 years, become immigration societies. This article compares how these Scandinavian welfare societies have sought to incorporate immigrants and refugees into their national communities. It suggests that......, while the countries have adopted disparate policies and ideologies, differences in the actual treatment and attitudes towards immigrants and refugees in everyday life are less clear, due to parallel integration programmes based on strong similarities in the welfare systems and in cultural notions...... of equality in the three societies. Finally, it shows that family relations play a central role in immigrants’ and refugees’ establishment of a new life in the receiving societies, even though the welfare society takes on many of the social and economic functions of the family....

  1. ELECTROSTATICALLY ENHANCED BARRIER FILTER COLLECTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Erjavec; Michael D. Mann; Ryan Z. Knutson; Michael L. Swanson; Michael E. Collings

    2003-06-01

    This work was performed through the University of North Dakota (UND) Chemical Engineering Department with assistance from UND's Energy & Environmental Research Center. This research was undertaken in response to the U.S. Department of Energy Federal Technology Center Program Solicitation No. DE-PS26-99FT40479, Support of Advanced Coal Research at U.S. Universities and Colleges. Specifically, this research was in support of the UCR Core Program and addressees Topic 1, Improved Hot-Gas Contaminant and Particulate Removal Techniques, introducing an advanced design for particulate removal. Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) offers the potential for very high efficiency and clean electric generation. In IGCC, the product gas from the gasifier needs to be cleaned of particulate matter to avoid erosion and high-temperature corrosion difficulties arising with the turbine blades. Current methods involve cooling the gases to {approx}100 C to condense alkalis and remove sulfur and particulates using conventional scrubber technology. This ''cool'' gas is then directed to a turbine for electric generation. While IGCC has the potential to reach efficiencies of over 50%, the current need to cool the product gas for cleaning prior to firing it in a turbine is keeping IGCC from reaching its full potential. The objective of the current project was to develop a highly reliable particulate collector system that can meet the most stringent turbine requirements and emission standards, can operate at temperatures above 1500 F, is applicable for use with all U.S. coals, is compatible with various sorbent injection schemes for sulfur and alkali control, can be integrated into a variety of configurations for both pressurized gasification and combustion, increases allowable face velocity to reduce filter system capital cost, and is cost-competitive with existing technologies. The collector being developed is a new concept in particulate control called

  2. Filaggrin and Skin Barrier Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kezic, Sanja; Jakasa, Ivone

    2016-01-01

    The skin barrier function is greatly dependent on the structure and composition of the uppermost layer of the epidermis, the stratum corneum (SC), which is made up of flattened anucleated cells surrounded by highly organized and continuous lipid matrix. The interior of the corneocytes consists mainly of keratin filaments aggregated by filaggrin (FLG) protein. Next, together with several other proteins, FLG is cross-linked into a mechanically robust cornified cell envelope providing a scaffold for the extracellular lipid matrix. In addition to its role for the SC structural and mechanical integrity, FLG degradation products account in part for the water-holding capacity and maintenance of acidic pH of the SC, both crucial for the epidermal barrier homoeostasis by regulating activity of multiple enzymes that control desquamation, lipid synthesis and inflammation. The major determinant of FLG expression in the skin are loss-of-function mutations in FLG, the strongest genetic risk factor for atopic dermatitis (AD), an inflammatory skin disease characterized by a reduced skin barrier function. The prevalence of FLG mutations varies greatly among different populations and ranges from about 10% in Northern Europeans to less than 1% in the African populations. An impaired skin barrier facilitates absorption of potentially hazardous chemicals, which might cause adverse effects in the skin, such as contact dermatitis, or systemic toxicity after their passage into blood. In another direction, a leaky epidermal barrier will lead to enhanced loss of water from the skin. A recent study has shown that even subtle increase in epidermal water loss in newborns increases the risk for AD. Although there are multiple modes of action by which FLG might affect skin barrier it is still unclear whether and how FLG deficiency leads to the reduced skin barrier function. This chapter summarizes the current knowledge in this field obtained from clinical studies, and animal and in vitro models

  3. Sleep fragmentation and sepsis differentially impact blood-brain barrier integrity and transport of tumor necrosis factor-α in aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opp, Mark R; George, Amrita; Ringgold, Kristyn M; Hansen, Kim M; Bullock, Kristin M; Banks, William A

    2015-11-01

    The factors by which aging predisposes to critical illness are varied, complex, and not well understood. Sepsis is considered a quintessential disease of old age because the incidence and mortality of severe sepsis increases in old and the oldest old individuals. Aging is associated with dramatic changes in sleep quality and quantity and sleep increasingly becomes fragmented with age. In healthy adults, sleep disruption induces inflammation. Multiple aspects of aging and of sleep dysregulation interact via neuroimmune mechanisms. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF), a cytokine involved in sleep regulation and neuroimmune processes, exerts some of its effects on the CNS by crossing the blood-brain barrier (BBB). In this study we examined the impact of sepsis, sleep fragmentation, and aging on BBB disruption and TNF transport into brain. We used the cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model of sepsis in young and aged mice that were either undisturbed or had their sleep disrupted. There was a dichotomous effect of sepsis and sleep disruption with age: sepsis disrupted the BBB and increased TNF transport in young mice but not in aged mice, whereas sleep fragmentation disrupted the BBB and increased TNF transport in aged mice, but not in young mice. Combining sleep fragmentation and CLP did not produce a greater effect on either of these BBB parameters than did either of these manipulations alone. These results suggest that the mechanisms by which sleep fragmentation and sepsis alter BBB functions are fundamentally different from one another and that a major change in the organism's responses to those insults occurs with aging.

  4. Integrating Multiple Measurement Techniques to Understand how the Delivery of Sediments to the Great Barrier Reef has Changed Over Space and Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartley, R.; Bainbridge, Z. T.; Lewis, S.; Wilkinson, S. N.; Croke, J.; Bastin, G.; Brodie, J. E.

    2014-12-01

    Based on the ratio of various trace-elements from coral cores, there is considerable evidence that the amount of sediment reaching the Great Barrier Reef (GBR), Australia, has increased since agricultural development commenced in the 1870's. However, understanding the primary source and processes driving the increase in sediment delivery has been challenging due to the variable geology and episodic hydrology of adjacent catchments. This paper presents the results from several projects that use a range of measurement techniques all aimed at understanding the spatial and temporal changes in sediment yield from the Burdekin watershed, Australia. Cosmogenic nuclide analysis (10Be) was combined with contemporary sediment flux monitoring to help identify the high risk sub-watersheds. Particle size analysis of the sediment loads from the sub-watersheds has determined the primary source areas for the fine (clay) sediment fractions. Within the sub-watersheds, fallout radionuclides (137Cs, 7Pb and 7Be) showed that most of the fine sediment is coming from vertical channel walls (50%) or horizontal sub-surface soils (~42%). Changes to in-stream sedimentation rates, derived from OSL dating, suggest that sediment delivery to channels lags behind reductions to vegetative ground cover. Historical archives of remotely sensed ground cover data were then linked to animal stocking rates in the area. Together, these data sets help elucidate the often complex sediment delivery processes and provide a stronger link between grazing land management and sediment flux to the GBR. This study highlights the benefit of using a range of techniques and data sets to identify the major sediment sources in these highly variable systems. The implications for land management restoration, policy and investment are discussed.

  5. Blood-brain barrier permeability imaging using perfusion computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avsenik Jernej

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. The blood-brain barrier represents the selective diffusion barrier at the level of the cerebral microvascular endothelium. Other functions of blood-brain barrier include transport, signaling and osmoregulation. Endothelial cells interact with surrounding astrocytes, pericytes and neurons. These interactions are crucial to the development, structural integrity and function of the cerebral microvascular endothelium. Dysfunctional blood-brain barrier has been associated with pathologies such as acute stroke, tumors, inflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases.

  6. Blood-brain barrier permeability imaging using perfusion computed tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Avsenik Jernej; Bisdas Sotirios; Popovic Katarina Surlan

    2015-01-01

    Background. The blood-brain barrier represents the selective diffusion barrier at the level of the cerebral microvascular endothelium. Other functions of blood-brain barrier include transport, signaling and osmoregulation. Endothelial cells interact with surrounding astrocytes, pericytes and neurons. These interactions are crucial to the development, structural integrity and function of the cerebral microvascular endothelium. Dysfunctional blood-brain barrier has been associated with patholog...

  7. Vietnam recommended dietary allowances 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Nguyen Cong; Hoan, Pham Van

    2008-01-01

    It has been well acknowledged that Vietnam is undergoing a nutrition transition. With a rapid change in the country's reform and economic growth, food supply at the macronutrient level has improved. Changes of the Vietnamese diet include significantly more foods of animal origin, and an increase of fat/oils, and ripe fruits. Consequently, nutritional problems in Vietnam now include not only malnutrition but also overweight/obesity, metabolic syndrome and other chronic diseases related to nutrition and lifestyles. The recognition of these shifts, which is also associated with morbidity and mortality, was a major factor in the need to review and update the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) for the Vietnamese population. This revised RDA established an important science-based tool for evaluation of nutrition adequacy, for teaching, and for scientific communications within Vietnam. It is expected that the 2007 Vietnam RDA and its conversion to food-based dietary guidelines will facilitate education to the public, as well as the policy implementation of programs for prevention of non-communicable chronic diseases and addressing the double burden of both under and over nutrition.

  8. Using cloud-computing applications to support collaborative scientific inquiry: Examining pre-service teachers’ perceived barriers towards integration / Utilisation d'applications infonuagiques pour appuyer la recherche scientifique collaborative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Donna

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Technology plays a crucial role in facilitating collaboration within the scientific community. Cloud-computing applications can be used to model such collaboration and support inquiry within the secondary science classroom. Little is known about pre-service teachers’ beliefs related to the envisioned use of this technology in their teaching. These beliefs may influence future integration. This study finds several first-order barriers, such as perceptions that these tools would take too much time to use. Second-order barriers include perceptions that this technology would not promote face-to-face collaboration skills, would create social loafing situations, and beliefs that the technology does not help students understand the nature of science. Suggestions for mitigating these barriers within pre-service education technology courses are discussed. La technologie joue un rôle essentiel pour faciliter la collaboration au sein de la communauté scientifique. Les applications infonuagiques telles que Google Drive peuvent être utilisées pour donner forme à ce type de collaboration et pour appuyer le questionnement dans les cours de sciences du secondaire. On connaît pourtant peu les opinions que se font les futurs enseignants d’une telle utilisation des technologies collaboratives infonuagiques. Or, ces opinions pourraient influencer l’intégration future de ces technologies en salle de classe. Cette étude révèle plusieurs obstacles de premier plan, comme l’idée que l’utilisation de ces outils informatiques prend trop de temps. Parmi les obstacles de second plan, on note les perceptions selon lesquelles cette technologie ne promeut pas les compétences collaboratives de personne à personne, pose des problèmes de gestion de classe et n'aide pas les étudiants à comprendre la nature de la science. Des suggestions sont proposées pour atténuer ces obstacles dans les cours de technologie des programmes d’éducation.

  9. Wave packet propagation across barriers by semiclassical initial value methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Jakob; Kay, Kenneth G.

    2015-07-01

    Semiclassical initial value representation (IVR) formulas for the propagator have difficulty describing tunneling through barriers. A key reason is that these formulas do not automatically reduce, in the classical limit, to the version of the Van Vleck-Gutzwiller (VVG) propagator required to treat barrier tunneling, which involves trajectories that have complex initial conditions and that follow paths in complex time. In this work, a simple IVR expression, that has the correct tunneling form in the classical limit, is derived for the propagator in the case of one-dimensional barrier transmission. Similarly, an IVR formula, that reduces to the Generalized Gaussian Wave Packet Dynamics (GGWPD) expression [D. Huber, E. J. Heller, and R. Littlejohn, J. Chem. Phys. 89, 2003 (1988)] in the classical limit, is derived for the transmitted wave packet. Uniform semiclassical versions of the IVR formulas are presented and simplified expressions in terms of real trajectories and WKB penetration factors are described. Numerical tests show that the uniform IVR treatment gives good results for wave packet transmission through the Eckart and Gaussian barriers in all cases examined. In contrast, even when applied with the proper complex trajectories, the VVG and GGWPD treatments are inaccurate when the mean energy of the wave packet is near the classical transmission threshold. The IVR expressions for the propagator and wave packet are cast as contour integrals in the complex space of initial conditions and these are generalized to potentially allow treatment of a larger variety of systems. A steepest descent analysis of the contour integral formula for the wave packet in the present cases confirms its relationship to the GGWPD method, verifies its semiclassical validity, and explains results of numerical calculations.

  10. The Glomerular Filtration Barrier: Components and Crosstalk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhav C. Menon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The glomerular filtration barrier is a highly specialized blood filtration interface that displays a high conductance to small and midsized solutes in plasma but retains relative impermeability to macromolecules. Its integrity is maintained by physicochemical and signalling interplay among its three core constituents—the glomerular endothelial cell, the basement membrane and visceral epithelial cell (podocyte. Understanding the pathomechanisms of inherited and acquired human diseases as well as experimental injury models of this barrier have helped to unravel this interdependence. Key among the consequences of interference with the integrity of the glomerular filtration barrier is the appearance of significant amounts of proteins in the urine. Proteinuria correlates with kidney disease progression and cardiovascular mortality. With specific reference to proteinuria in human and animal disease phenotypes, the following review explores the roles of the endothelial cell, glomerular basement membrane, and the podocyte and attempts to highlight examples of essential crosstalk within this barrier.

  11. Optical Diagnostics for High-Temperature Thermal Barrier Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldridge, Jeffrey I.

    2009-01-01

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are typically composed of translucent ceramic oxides that provide thermal protection for metallic components exposed to high-temperature environments, such as in jet turbine engines. Taking advantage of the translucent nature of TBCs, optical diagnostics have been developed that can provide an informed assessment of TBC health that will allow mitigating action to be taken before TBC degradation threatens performance or safety. In particular, rare-earth-doped luminescent sublayers have been integrated into the TBC structure to produce luminescence that monitors TBC erosion, delamination, and temperature gradients. Erosion monitoring of TBC-coated specimens is demonstrated by utilizing visible luminescence that is excited from a sublayer that is exposed by erosion. TBC delamination monitoring is achieved in TBCs with a base rare-earth-doped luminescent sublayer by the reflectance-enhanced increase in luminescence produced in regions containing buried delamination cracks. TBC temperature monitoring is demonstrated using the temperature-dependent decay time for luminescence originating from the specific coating depth associated with a rare-earth-doped luminescent sublayer. The design and implementation of these TBCs with integrated luminescent sublayers is discussed, including co-doping strategies to produce more penetrating near-infrared luminescence. It is demonstrated that integration of the rare-earth-doped sublayers is achieved with no reduction in TBC life. In addition, results for multilayer TBCs designed to also perform as radiation barriers are also presented.

  12. Effect of diffusely adherent Escherichia coli strains isolated from diarrhoeal patients and healthy carriers on IL-8 secretion and tight junction barrier integrity of Caco-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanimoto, Yoshihiko; Arikawa, Kentaro; Nishikawa, Yoshikazu

    2013-03-15

    The pathogenesis of diffusely adherent Escherichia coli (DAEC) remains to be elucidated. Previously, we found that afimbrial adhesin gene (afa)-positive motile DAEC strains isolated from patients with diarrhoea induce high levels of IL-8 secretion in Caco-2 cells via toll-like receptor 5 (TLR-5), while non-motile strains did not. The aim of this study was to compare virulence properties, including the phylogenetic groups, afa subtypes, IL-8 secretion levels, and the effects on tight junctions, of DAEC strains isolated from healthy persons with those isolated from patients with diarrhoea. Induction of IL-8 secretion in Caco-2 cells was examined for a total of 36 afa-positive strains: 19 from diarrhoeal patients and 17 from healthy carriers. Irrespective of the source, all strains were classified into the phylogenetic group B2 or D, with the exception of two strains. All 7 motile strains isolated from diarrhoeal patients induced high levels of IL-8 secretion, while only 6 of 15 motile strains from healthy carriers induced IL-8 secretion to the same levels as the diarrhoeal strains. We speculated that additional virulence factors other than afa and motility cause the loosening of tight junctions that allows flagellin to reach TLR-5 located on the basolateral side of the epithelium. However, no differences in the TER and dextran permeability were observed between cells infected with diarrhoeal strains and those from healthy persons. Thus, diarrhoeagenic DAEC seems to possess additional factors, in addition to adhesin and flagellin, which can induce high IL-8 secretion.

  13. Breaching barriers to collaboration in public spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinemann, Trine; Mitchell, Robb

    2014-01-01

    Technology provoking disparate individuals to collaborate or share experiences in the public space faces a difficult barrier, namely the ordinary social order of urban places. We employed the notion of the breaching experiment to explore how this barrier might be overcome. We analyse responses...... to a set of city center social interventions to reveal four themes: "offering collaboration", "requesting collaboration", "allowing for collaboration" and "making collaboration contextually relevant". Each of these breaching experiments in different ways helps reveal the ordinary social organization...

  14. Extremal surface barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelhardt, Netta; Wall, Aron C. [Department of Physics, University of California,Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States)

    2014-03-13

    We present a generic condition for Lorentzian manifolds to have a barrier that limits the reach of boundary-anchored extremal surfaces of arbitrary dimension. We show that any surface with nonpositive extrinsic curvature is a barrier, in the sense that extremal surfaces cannot be continuously deformed past it. Furthermore, the outermost barrier surface has nonnegative extrinsic curvature. Under certain conditions, we show that the existence of trapped surfaces implies a barrier, and conversely. In the context of AdS/CFT, these barriers imply that it is impossible to reconstruct the entire bulk using extremal surfaces. We comment on the implications for the firewall controversy.

  15. CREVICE CORROSION & PITTING OF HIGH-LEVEL WASTE CONTAINERS: INTEGRATION OF DETERMINISTIC & PROBABILISTIC MODELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JOSEPH C. FARMER AND R. DANIEL MCCRIGHT

    1997-10-01

    A key component of the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) being designed for containment of spent-fuel and high-level waste at the proposed geological repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada is a two-layer canister. In this particular design, the inner barrier is made of a corrosion resistant material (CRM) such as Alloy 625 or C-22, while the outer barrier is made of a corrosion-allowance material (CAM) such as carbon steel or Monel 400. An integrated predictive model is being developed to account for the effects of localized environmental conditions in the CRM-CAM crevice on the initiation and propagation of pits through the CRM.

  16. An Ideal Integrating Bolometer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An ideal integrating bolometer can achieve breakthrough sensitivity in IR photon detection by removing practical barriers to extreme thermal isolation of the...

  17. Field-dependent energy barriers in Co/CoO core-shell nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieves, P.; Kechrakos, D.; Chubykalo-Fesenko, O.

    2016-02-01

    We perform atomistic modeling of Co/CoO nanoparticles with a diameter of a few nanometers and realistic values of the exchange and anisotropy parameters in order to study the field-dependent energy barriers under forward and backward reversal of the magnetization. The barriers are extracted from the constrained energy minimization using the integration of the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equations and the Lagrange multiplier method. We show that the applied field and the interface exchange strength have opposite effects on the values of the energy barriers. In particular, while the backward (forward) energy barrier increases (decreases) linearly with the strength of the interface exchange coupling, it decreases (increases) almost quadratically with the applied magnetic field. Our results are in good agreement with the well-known Meiklejohn-Bean model of exchange bias, and allow us to analyze the limits of applicability of the macrospin approach to the study of energy barriers in core-shell Co/CoO nanoparticles.

  18. Barriers to screening mammography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Elizabeth A

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer (BRCA) is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer among women in the USA, and mammography is an effective means for the early detection of BRCA. Identifying the barriers to screening mammography can inform research, policy and practice aiming to increase mammography adherence. A literature review was conducted to determine common barriers to screening mammography adherence. PsycINFO and PubMed databases were searched to identify studies published between 2000 and 2012 that examined barriers associated with reduced mammography adherence. Three thematic groups of barriers, based on social ecology, were identified from the literature: healthcare system-level, social and individual-level barriers. Researchers must consider screening behaviour in context and, therefore, should simultaneously consider each level of barriers when attempting to understand screening behaviour and create interventions to increase mammography adherence.

  19. Overcoming the Bradyon-Tachyon Barrier

    CERN Document Server

    Nanni, Luca

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the problem of overcoming the infinite energy barrier separating the bradyonic and tachyonic realms is investigated. Making use of the Majorana equation for particles with arbitrary spin and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle, it is proved that, under certain conditions of spatial confinement, quantum fluctuations allow particles with very small mass and velocity close to the speed of light to pass in the tachyonic realm, avoiding the problem of the infinite barrier. This theoretical approach allows an avoidance of the difficulties encountered in quantum field theory when it is extended to particles with imaginary rest mass.

  20. High Integrity Can Design Interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaber, E.L.

    1998-08-01

    The National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program is chartered with facilitating the disposition of DOE-owned spent nuclear fuel to allow disposal at a geologic repository. This is done through coordination with the repository program and by assisting DOE Site owners of SNF with needed information, standardized requirements, packaging approaches, etc. The High Integrity Can (HIC) will be manufactured to provide a substitute or barrier enhancement for normal fuel geometry and cladding. The can would be nested inside the DOE standardized canister which is designed to interface with the repository waste package. The HIC approach may provide the following benefits over typical canning approaches for DOE SNF. (a) It allows ready calculation and management of criticality issues for miscellaneous. (b) It segments and further isolates damaged or otherwise problem materials from normal SNF in the repository package. (c) It provides a very long term corrosion barrier. (d) It provides an extra internal pressure barrier for particulates, gaseous fission products, hydrogen, and water vapor. (e) It delays any potential release of fission products to the repository environment. (f) It maintains an additional level of fuel geometry control during design basis accidents, rock-fall, and seismic events. (g) When seal welded, it could provide the additional containment required for shipments involving plutonium content in excess of 20 Ci. (10 CFR 71.63.b) if integrated with an appropriate cask design. Long term corrosion protection is central to the HIC concept. The material selected for the HIC (Hastelloy C-22) has undergone extensive testing for repository service. The most severe theoretical interactions between iron, repository water containing chlorides and other repository construction materials have been tested. These expected chemical species have not been shown capable of corroding the selected HIC material. Therefore, the HIC should provide a significant barrier to DOE SNF dispersal

  1. Potential in vitro model for testing the effect of exposure to nanoparticles on the lung alveolar epithelial barrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Derk

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary barrier function plays a pivotal role in protection from inhaled particles. However, some nano-scaled particles, such as carbon nanotubes (CNT, have demonstrated the ability to penetrate this barrier in animal models, resulting in an unusual, rapid interstitial fibrosis. To delineate the underlying mechanism and specific bio-effect of inhaled nanoparticles in respiratory toxicity, models of lung epithelial barriers are required that allow accurate representation of in vivo systems; however, there is currently a lack of consistent methods to do so. Thus, this work demonstrates a well-characterized in vitro model of pulmonary barrier function using Calu-3 cells, and provides the experimental conditions required for achieving tight junction complexes in cell culture, with trans-epithelial electrical resistance measurement used as a biosensor for proper barrier formation and integrity. The effects of cell number and serum constituents have been examined and we found that changes in each of these parameters can greatly affect barrier formation. Our data demonstrate that use of 5.0 × 104 Calu-3 cells/well in the Transwell cell culture system, with 10% serum concentrations in culture media is optimal for assessing epithelial barrier function. In addition, we have utilized CNT exposure to analyze the dose-, time-, and nanoparticle property-dependent alterations of epithelial barrier permeability as a means to validate this model. Such high throughput in vitro cell models of the epithelium could be used to predict the interaction of other nanoparticles with lung epithelial barriers to mimic respiratory behavior in vivo, thus providing essential tools and bio-sensing techniques that can be uniformly employed.

  2. Advances in research on labyrinth membranous barriers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenfang Sun; Wuqing Wang

    2015-01-01

    Integrity of the membranous labyrinth barrier system is of critical importance, which promotes inner ear homeostasis and maintains its features. The membranous labyrinth barrier system is divided into several subsets of barriers which, although independent from each other, are interrelated. The same substance may demonstrate different permeability characteristics through different barriers and under different conditions, while different substances can have different permeability features even in the same barrier under the same condition. All parts of the mem-branous labyrinth barrier structure, including their morphology, enzymes and channel proteins, and theirs permeability characteristics under various physiological and pathological conditions are reviewed in this paper. Infections, noise exposure, ototoxicity may all increase perme-ability of the barriers and lead to disturbances in inner ear homeostasis. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Production & hosting by Elsevier (Singapore) Pte Ltd On behalf of PLA General Hospital Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

  3. Overcoming Barriers to Classroom Technology Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Daniel P.

    2015-01-01

    Technology-savvy teachers are often the "go to" staff members in schools for their colleagues' technology issues. These teachers are seen as leaders within their schools with respect to technology and often do not understand their peers' difficulties when bringing technology into the classroom. Understanding both the reasons teachers may…

  4. HIV and mucosal barrier interactions: consequences for transmission and pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgener, Adam; McGowan, Ian; Klatt, Nichole R

    2015-10-01

    The mucosal barrier plays an integral function in human health as it is the primary defense against pathogens, and provides a critical transition between the external environment and the human internal body. In the context of HIV infection, the most relevant mucosal surfaces include those of the gastrointestinal (GI) and genital tract compartments. Several components help maintain the effectiveness of this mucosal surface, including the physical anatomy of the barrier, cellular immunity, soluble factors, and interactions between the epithelial barrier and the local microenvironment, including mucus and host microbiota. Any defects in barrier integrity or function can rapidly lead to an increase in acquisition risk, or with established infection may result in increased pathogenesis, morbidities, or mortality. Indeed, a key feature to all aspects of HIV infection from transmission to pathogenesis is disruption and/or dysfunction of mucosal barriers. Herein, we will detail the host-pathogen relationship of HIV and mucosal barriers in both of these scenarios.

  5. 46 CFR 154.440 - Allowable stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.440 Section 154.440 Shipping COAST... Tank Type A § 154.440 Allowable stress. (a) The allowable stresses for an independent tank type A must... Commandant (CG-522). (b) A greater allowable stress than required in paragraph (a)(1) of this section may...

  6. A Bayesian Network to Predict Barrier Island Geomorphologic Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, B.; Plant, N. G.; Thieler, E. R.; Turecek, A.; Stippa, S.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding how barrier islands along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the United States respond to storms and sea-level rise is an important management concern. Although these threats are well recognized, quantifying the integrated vulnerability is challenging due to the range of time and space scalesover which these processes act. Developing datasets and methods to identify the physical vulnerabilities of coastal environments due to storms and sea-level rise thus is an important scientific focus that supports land management decision making. Here we employ a Bayesian Network (BN) to model the interactions between geomorphic variables sampled from existing datasets that capture both storm-and sea-level rise related coastal evolution. The BN provides a means of estimating probabilities of changes in specific geomorphic characteristics such as foredune crest height, beach width, beach height, given knowledge of barrier island width, maximum barrier island elevation, distance from an inlet, the presence of anthropogenic modifications, and long-term shoreline change rates, which we assume to be directly related to sea-level rise. We evaluate BN skill and explore how different constraints, such as shoreline change characteristics (eroding, stable, accreting), distance to nearby inlets and island width, affect the probability distributions of future morphological characteristics. Our work demonstrates that a skillful BN can be constructed and that factors such as distance to inlet, shoreline change rate, and the presence of human alterations have the strongest influences on network performance. For Assateague Island, Maryland/Virginia, USA, we find that different shoreline change behaviors affect the probabilities of specific geomorphic characteristics, such as dune height, which allows us to identify vulnerable locations on the barrier island where habitat or infrastructure may be vulnerable to storms and sea-level rise.

  7. Safety-barrier diagrams as a safety management tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duijm, Nijs Jan

    2009-01-01

    Safety-barrier diagrams and “bow-tie” diagrams have become popular methods in risk analysis and safety management. This paper describes the syntax and principles for constructing consistent and valid safety-barrier diagrams. The latter's relation to other methods such as fault trees and Bayesian...... the management and maintenance of these systems. Safety-barrier diagrams provide a useful framework for an electronic data structure that integrates information from risk analysis with operational safety management....

  8. Breaking the Barriers in Chinese Female Career Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Wei

    2013-01-01

    Career development is an important part of modern human resource management. Women are an important and integral part in human resources. Paying at ention to women's career development can’t be ignored both for women own career development and the economic development of society. But compared to men, the Chinese women encounter more barriers in the process of career development, the purpose of this paper is to analyze these barriers and put forward corresponding countermeasures to break the barriers.

  9. Tunneling without barriers with gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Kanno, Sugumi; Soda, Jiro

    2012-01-01

    We consider the vacuum decay of the flat Minkowski space to an anti-de Sitter space. We find a one-parameter family of potentials that allow exact, analytical instanton solutions describing tunneling without barriers in the presence of gravity. In the absence of gravity such instantons were found and discussed by Lee and Weinberg more than a quarter of a century ago. The bounce action is also analytically computed. We discuss possible implications of these new instantons to cosmology in the context of the string theory landscape.

  10. Converse Barrier Certificate Theorems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafael; Sloth, Christoffer

    2016-01-01

    This paper shows that a barrier certificate exists for any safe dynamical system. Specifically, we prove converse barrier certificate theorems for a class of structurally stable dynamical systems. Other authors have developed a related result by assuming that the dynamical system has neither sing...

  11. Permanent isolation surface barrier development plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wing, N.R.

    1994-01-01

    The exhumation and treatment of wastes may not always be the preferred alternative in the remediation of a waste site. In-place disposal alternatives, under certain circumstances, may be the most desirable alternatives to use in the protection of human health and the environment. The implementation of an in-place disposal alternative will likely require some type of protective covering that will provide long-term isolation of the wastes from the accessible environment. Even if the wastes are exhumed and treated, a long-term barrier may still be needed to adequately dispose of the treated wastes or any remaining waste residuals. Currently, no {open_quotes}proven{close_quotes} long-term barrier is available. The Hanford Site Permanent Isolation Surface Barrier Development Program (BDP) was organized to develop the technology needed to provide a long-term surface barrier capability for the Hanford Site. The permanent isolation barrier technology also could be used at other sites. Permanent isolation barriers use engineered layers of natural materials to create an integrated structure with redundant protective features. Drawings of conceptual permanent isolation surface barriers are shown. The natural construction materials (e.g., fine soil, sand, gravel, riprap, asphalt) have been selected to optimize barrier performance and longevity. The objective of current designs is to use natural materials to develop a maintenance-free permanent isolation surface barrier that isolates wastes for a minimum of 1,000 years by limiting water drainage to near-zero amounts; reducing the likelihood of plant, animal, and human intrusion; controlling the exhalation of noxious gases; and minimizing erosion-related problems.

  12. Wet Work and Barrier Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fartasch, Manigé

    2016-01-01

    Wet work defined as unprotected exposure to humid environments/water; high frequencies of hand washing procedures or prolonged glove occlusion is believed to cause irritant contact dermatitis in a variety of occupations. This review considers the recent studies on wet-work exposure and focuses on its influence on barrier function. There are different methods to study the effect of wet work on barrier function. On the one hand, occupational cohorts at risk can be monitored prospectively by skin bioengineering technology and clinical visual scoring systems; on the other hand, experimental test procedures with defined application of water, occlusion and detergents are performed in healthy volunteers. Both epidemiological studies and the results of experimental procedures are compared and discussed. A variety of epidemiological studies analyze occupational cohorts at risk. The measurement of transepidermal water loss, an indicator of the integrity of the epidermal barrier, and clinical inspection of the skin have shown that especially the frequencies of hand washing and water contact/contact to aqueous mixtures seem to be the main factors for the occurrence of barrier alterations. On the other hand, in a single cross-sectional study, prolonged glove wearing (e.g. occlusion for 6 h per shift in clean-room workers) without exposure to additional hazardous substances seemed not to affect the skin negatively. But regarding the effect of occlusion, there is experimental evidence that previously occluded skin challenged with sodium lauryl sulfate leads to an increased susceptibility to the irritant with an aggravation of the irritant reaction. These findings might have relevance for the real-life situation in so far as after occupational glove wearing, the skin is more susceptible to potential hazards to the skin even during leisure hours.

  13. Practical Application of Sheet Lead for Sound Barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lead Industries Association, New York, NY.

    Techniques for improving sound barriers through the use of lead sheeting are described. To achieve an ideal sound barrier a material should consist of the following properties--(1) high density, (2) freedom from stiffness, (3) good damping capacity, and (4) integrity as a non-permeable membrane. Lead combines these desired properties to a greater…

  14. Barriers to Implementing E-Learning: A Kuwaiti Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Ghadah Essa; Magalhaes, Rodrigo

    2008-01-01

    The paper reports on a research project that encompasses two key objectives: (1) finding out about the barriers affecting or preventing e-learning from being adopted by companies as an integral part of their workforce's training and learning processes and (2) establishing a comparison between the barriers and the e-learning implementation models…

  15. Barriers to Successful Treatment Completion in Child Sexual Abuse Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Paul; Scribano, Philip; Stevens, Jack

    2012-01-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) often requires psychological treatment to address the symptoms of victim trauma. Barriers to entry and completion of counseling services can compromise long-term well-being. An integrated medical and mental health evaluation and treatment model of a child advocacy center (CAC) has the potential to reduce barriers to mental…

  16. Allowance Holdings and Transfers Data Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Allowance Holdings and Transfers Data Inventory contains measured data on holdings and transactions of allowances under the NOx Budget Trading Program (NBP), a...

  17. Clean Air Markets - Allowances Query Wizard

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Allowances Query Wizard is part of a suite of Clean Air Markets-related tools that are accessible at http://camddataandmaps.epa.gov/gdm/index.cfm. The Allowances...

  18. An insight into the performance of road barriers - redistribution of barrier-relevant crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yaotian; Tarko, Andrew P

    2016-11-01

    Unlike most of traffic safety treatments that prevent crashes, road barriers reduce the severity of crash outcomes by replacing crashes with a high risk of severe injury and fatality (such as median crossover head-on collisions or collisions with high-hazard objects) with less risky events (such as collisions with barriers). This "crash conversion" is actually more complex than one-to-one replacement and it has not been studied yet. The published work estimated the reduction of selected types of crashes (typically, median crossover collisions) or the overall effect of barriers on crash severity. The objective of this study was to study the probabilities of various types of crash events possible under various road and barrier scenarios. The estimated probabilities are conditional given that at least one vehicle left the travelled way and the resulted crash had been recorded. The results are meant to deliver a useful insight onto the conversion of crashes by barriers from more to less risky to help better understand the mechanism of crash severity reduction. Such knowledge should allow engineers more accurate estimation of barriers' benefits and help researchers evaluate barriers' performance to improve the barrier's design. Seven barrier-relevant crash events possible after a vehicle departs the road could be identified based on the existing crash data and their probabilities estimated given the presence and location of three types of barriers: median concrete barriers, median and roadside W-beam steel guardrails, and high-tension median cable barriers. A multinomial logit model with variable outcomes was estimated based on 2049 barrier-relevant crashes occurred between 2003 and 2012 on 1258 unidirectional travelled ways in Indiana. The developed model allows calculating the changes in the probabilities of the barrier-relevant crash events. The results of this study indicated that road departures lead to less frequent crossings of unprotected (no barriers) medians

  19. 46 CFR 154.447 - Allowable stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.447 Section 154.447 Shipping COAST... Tank Type B § 154.447 Allowable stress. (a) An independent tank type B designed from bodies of revolution must have allowable stresses 3 determined by the following formulae: 3 See Appendix B for...

  20. 46 CFR 154.428 - Allowable stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.428 Section 154.428 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR... § 154.428 Allowable stress. The membrane tank and the supporting insulation must have allowable...

  1. Barreras y facilitadores de la coordinación asistencial en dos organizaciones sanitarias integradas en Cataluña Barriers and facilitators to health care coordination in two integrated health care organizations in Catalonia (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Vargas Lorenzo

    2007-04-01

    exploratory, descriptive, qualitative study was carried out based on case studies by means of document analysis and semi-structured individual interviews. A criterion sample of cases and, for each case, of documents and informants was selected. Study cases consisted of the Consorci Sanitari del Maresme (CSdM and the Consorci Sanitari de Terrassa/Fundació Hospital Sant Llàtzer (FHSLL. A total of 127 documents were analyzed and 29 informants were interviewed: IDS managers (n = 10, technical staff (n = 5, operational unit managers (n = 5 and health professionals (n = 9. Content analysis was conducted, with mixed generation of categories and segmentation by cases and subjects. Results: CSdM and CSdT/FHSLL are health care organizations with backward vertical integration, total services production, and real (CSdM and virtual (CSdT/FHSLL ownership. Funds are allocated by care level. The governing body is centralized in CSdM and decentralized in CSdT/FHSLL. In both organizations, the global objectives are oriented toward improving coordination and efficiency but are not in line with those of the operational units. Both organizations present a functional structure with integration of support functions and utilize mechanisms for collaboration between care levels based on work processes standardization. Conclusions: Both IDS present facilitators and barriers to health care coordination. To improve coordination, changes in external elements (payment mechanism and in internal elements (governing body role, organizational structure and coordination mechanisms are required.

  2. Recycler barrier RF buckets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhat, C.M.; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01

    The Recycler Ring at Fermilab uses a barrier rf systems for all of its rf manipulations. In this paper, I will give an overview of historical perspective on barrier rf system, the longitudinal beam dynamics issues, aspects of rf linearization to produce long flat bunches and methods used for emittance measurements of the beam in the RR barrier rf buckets. Current rf manipulation schemes used for antiproton beam stacking and longitudinal momentum mining of the RR beam for the Tevatron collider operation are explained along with their importance in spectacular success of the Tevatron luminosity performance.

  3. An overview on novel thermal barrier coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) offer the potential to significantly improve efficiencies of aero engines as well as stationary gas turbines for power generation. On internally cooled turbine parts, temperature gradients of the order of 100-150℃ can be achieved. TBCs, typically consisting of an yttrium stabilized zirconia top coat and a metallic bond coat deposited onto a superalloy substrate, are mainly used to extend lifetime. Further efficiency improvements require TBCs being an integral part of the component which requires reliable and predictable TBC performance. TBCs produced by electron beam physical vapor deposition (EbPVD) or plasma spray (PS) deposition are favored for high performance applications. The paper highlights critical R&D needs for advanced TBC systems with a special focus on reduced thermal conductivity and life prediction needs. To further enhance the efficiency of gas turbines, higher temperature and a longer lifetime of the coating are needed for the next generation of TBCs. This paper presents the development of new materials, new deposition technologies, and new concept for application as novel TBCs. This paper summarizes the basic properties of conventional thermal barrier coatings. Based on our own investigation, we reviewed the progress on materials and technologies of novel thermal barrier coatings. Except yttria stabilized zirconia, other materials such as lanthanum zirconate and rare earth oxides are also promising materials for thermal barrier coatings. Nanostructure thermal barrier coating is presented as a new concept. This paper also summarizes the technologies for depositing the thermal barrier coatings.

  4. Barriers to Effective Listening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulbert, Jack E.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the following barriers which interfere with listening efficiency: content, speaker, medium, distractions, mindset, language, listening speed, and feedback. Suggests ways to combat these obstacles to accurate comprehension. (MM)

  5. [Vascular endothelial Barrier Function].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, A N; Puchinyan, D M; Norkin, I A

    2015-01-01

    Endothelium is an important regulator of selective permeability of the vascular wall for different molecules and cells. This review summarizes current data on endothelial barrier function. Endothelial glycocalyx structure, its function and role in the molecular transport and leukocytes migration across the endothelial barrier are discussed. The mechanisms of transcellular transport of macromolecules and cell migration through endothelial cells are reviewed. Special section of this article addresses the structure and function of tight and adherens endothelial junction, as well as their importance for the regulation of paracellular transport across the endothelial barrier. Particular attention is paid to the signaling mechanism of endothelial barrier function regulation and the factors that influence on the vascular permeability.

  6. Mechanisms of restriction of viral neuroinvasion at the blood-brain barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, Jonathan J; Diamond, Michael S

    2016-02-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) consists of highly specialized cells including brain microvascular endothelial cells, astrocytes, microglia, pericytes, and neurons, which act in concert to restrict the entry of pathogens, immune cells, and soluble molecules into the central nervous system (CNS). If pathogens manage to cross the BBB and establish infection within the CNS, the BBB can open in a regulated manner to allow leukocyte transmigration into the CNS so that microbes, infected cells, and debris can be cleared. This review highlights how different inflammatory cytokines or signaling pathways disrupt or enhance BBB integrity in a way that regulates entry of neurotropic viruses into the CNS.

  7. Examination of the restoration of epithelial barrier function following superficial keratectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutcheon, Audrey E K; Sippel, Kimberly C; Zieske, James D

    2007-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to determine the rate of restoration of the corneal epithelial barrier following a superficial keratectomy using a functional assay of tight junction integrity. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were anesthetized and a 3-mm superficial keratectomy was performed. The eyes were allowed to heal from 4 h to 8 weeks and the rate of epithelial wound closure was determined. To examine the restoration of the barrier function, EZ-Link Sulfo-NHS-LC-Biotin (LC-Biotin) was applied to all eyes, experimental and control, for 15 min at the time of sacrifice. This compound does not penetrate through intact tight junctions. Indirect immunofluorescence was performed with anti-laminin, a marker of basement membrane; fluorescein-conjugated streptavidin to detect the biotinylated marker; and anti-occludin and anti-ZO-1, markers of tight junctions. Epithelial wound closure was observed at 36-42 h after wounding. LC-Biotin did not penetrate the intact epithelium. Upon wounding, LC-Biotin penetrated into the stroma subjacent and slightly peripheral to the wound area. This pattern was present from 4-48 h post-wounding. The area of LC-Biotin localization decreased with time and the functional barrier was restored by 72 h. Occludin and ZO-1 were present at all time points. The number of cell layers expressing these proteins appeared to increase at 48 and 72 h. Continuous laminin localization was not observed until at least 7 days after wounding. Barrier function is restored within 1-1.5 days after epithelial wound closure. The loss of barrier function does not extend beyond the edge of the original wound. The restoration of barrier function does not appear to correlate with reassembly of the basement membrane in this model.

  8. Valuation of Discrete Barrier American Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Patrício Samanez

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an approach and a model to valuing discrete barrier American options. The developed model consists of an adaptation of the method of Grant, Vora and Weeks (1997, in order to allow to incorporate the barriers. The Hybrid Quasi-Monte Carlo method was used in the simulations and the Bisection method in the definition of the options trigger curves. The results found in the application of the developed model were compared with the estimated by the Adaptive Mesh Model, developed by Ahn et al (1999. In addition, the sensitivity of the options price relative to changes in inputs parameters was analyzed, confirming the consistence of the model.

  9. BARRIERS TO CALL PRACTICES IN AN EFL CONTEXT: A CASE STUDY OF PREPARATORY YEAR ENGLISH COURSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taj Mohammad

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study attempts to find out the practical barriers to technology integration in an Arab EFL scenario, particularly in the context of Preparatory Year English courses. The practical barriers to CALL practices are multifaceted and vary according to contexts. In this mixed method study, 50 ESL teachers were surveyed using a 5-point Likert-scale questionnaire. The questionnaire focused on the pedagogical, technological, personal and administrative barriers to CALL integration in an EFL context. In addition, 21 teachers participated in the focus group discussion. Overall, the survey results found that the barriers influencing CALL integration in the study context were moderate. However, lack of administrative support, inadequate training, and absence of suitable materials were found as significant barriers to CALL integration. The focus group discussion reiterated the issues and suggested practical solutions for maximization of CALL practices. The study suggests a holistic administrative approach to solve the barriers to CALL integration.

  10. Magnetic particle spectroscopy allows precise quantification of nanoparticles after passage through human brain microvascular endothelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gräfe, C.; Slabu, I.; Wiekhorst, F.; Bergemann, C.; von Eggeling, F.; Hochhaus, A.; Trahms, L.; Clement, J. H.

    2016-06-01

    Crossing the blood-brain barrier is an urgent requirement for the treatment of brain disorders. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) are a promising tool as carriers for therapeutics because of their physical properties, biocompatibility, and their biodegradability. In order to investigate the interaction of nanoparticles with endothelial cell layers in detail, in vitro systems are of great importance. Human brain microvascular endothelial cells are a well-suited blood-brain barrier model. Apart from generating optimal conditions for the barrier-forming cell units, the accurate detection and quantification of SPIONs is a major challenge. For that purpose we use magnetic particle spectroscopy to sensitively and directly quantify the SPION-specific iron content. We could show that SPION concentration depends on incubation time, nanoparticle concentration and location. This model system allows for further investigations on particle uptake and transport at cellular barriers with regard to parameters including particles’ shape, material, size, and coating.

  11. 40 CFR 258.74 - Allowable mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allowable mechanisms. 258.74 Section... MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Financial Assurance Criteria § 258.74 Allowable mechanisms. The mechanisms... operator establishes a trust fund after having used one or more alternate mechanisms specified in...

  12. 75 FR 4098 - Utility Allowance Adjustments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-26

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Utility Allowance Adjustments AGENCY: Office of the Chief Information Officer, HUD... are required to advise the Secretary of the need for and request of a new utility allowance for... whether the information will have practical utility; (2) Evaluate the accuracy of the agency's estimate...

  13. 28 CFR 100.11 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allowable costs. 100.11 Section 100.11 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) COST RECOVERY REGULATIONS, COMMUNICATIONS ASSISTANCE FOR LAW ENFORCEMENT ACT OF 1994 § 100.11 Allowable costs. (a) Costs that are eligible...

  14. 45 CFR 74.27 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 74.27 Section 74.27 Public..., AND COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 74.27 Allowable costs. (a) For each kind of recipient, there is a particular set of Federal principles...

  15. 29 CFR 1470.22 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting... grantee or subgrantee. (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization, there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable costs. Allowable costs will be determined in accordance...

  16. 5 CFR 180.104 - Allowable claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... mobile homes may be allowed only in cases of collision, theft, or vandalism. (5) Money. Claims for money... claimant's supervisor. (4) Mobile homes. Claims may be allowed for damage to or loss of mobile homes and their contents under the provisions of § 180.104(c)(2). Claims for structural damage to mobile...

  17. 45 CFR 2543.27 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 2543.27 Allowable costs. For each kind... Organizations.” The allowability of costs incurred by institutions of higher education is determined...

  18. 38 CFR 49.27 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 49.27 Allowable...-Profit Organizations.” The allowability of costs incurred by institutions of higher education...

  19. 20 CFR 435.27 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS, AND COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 435.27 Allowable costs. For each kind... Organizations.” (c) Allowability of costs incurred by institutions of higher education is determined...

  20. 28 CFR 70.27 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AND AGREEMENTS (INCLUDING SUBAWARDS) WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 70.27 Allowable costs. (a... Organizations.” The allowability of costs incurred by institutions of higher education is determined...

  1. 15 CFR 14.27 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, OTHER NON-PROFIT, AND COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 14.27 Allowable costs. For each kind of... Organizations.” The allowability of costs incurred by institutions of higher education is determined...

  2. 44 CFR 13.22 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... uniform cost accounting standards that comply with cost principles acceptable to the Federal agency. ... STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 13.22 Allowable costs. (a... increment above allowable costs) to the grantee or subgrantee. (b) Applicable cost principles. For each...

  3. 32 CFR 33.22 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... accounting standards that comply with cost principles acceptable to the Federal agency. ... Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 33.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of... allowable costs) to the grantee or subgrantee. (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of...

  4. 36 CFR 1207.22 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... uniform cost accounting standards that comply with cost principles acceptable to the Federal agency. ... GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 1207.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use... increment above allowable costs) to the grantee or subgrantee. (b) Applicable cost principles. For each...

  5. 34 CFR 74.27 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Procedures or uniform cost accounting standards that comply with cost principles acceptable to ED. (b) The... OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial... principles for determining allowable costs. Allowability of costs are determined in accordance with the...

  6. 45 CFR 2541.220 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... accounting standards that comply with cost principles acceptable to the Federal agency. ... the grantee or subgrantee. (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization, there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable costs. Allowable costs will be determined...

  7. Hedging Double Barriers with Singles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sbuelz, A.

    2000-01-01

    Double barrier options provide risk managers with good-deal flexibility in tailoring portfolio returns.Their hedges offer full protection only if unwound along the barriers.This work provides non-dynamic hedges that project the risk of double barriers on to single barriers.Non-dynamic hedges overcom

  8. Epidermal Growth Factor and Intestinal Barrier Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaopeng Tang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidermal growth factor (EGF is a 53-amino acid peptide that plays an important role in regulating cell growth, survival, migration, apoptosis, proliferation, and differentiation. In addition, EGF has been established to be an effective intestinal regulator helping to protect intestinal barrier integrity, which was essential for the absorption of nutrients and health in humans and animals. Several researches have demonstrated that EGF via binding to the EGF receptor and subsequent activation of Ras/MAPK, PI3K/AKT, PLC-γ/PKC, and STATS signal pathways regulates intestinal barrier function. In this review, the relationship between epidermal growth factor and intestinal development and intestinal barrier is described, to provide a better understanding of the effects of EGF on intestine development and health.

  9. Keynes, family allowances and Keynesian economic policy

    OpenAIRE

    Pressman, Steven

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides a short history of family allowances and documents the fact that Keynes supported family allowances as early as the 1920s, continuing through the 1930s and early 1940s. Keynes saw this policy as a way to help households raise their children and also as a way to increase consumption without reducing business investment. The paper goes on to argue that a policy of family allowances is consistent with Keynesian economics. Finally, the paper uses the Luxembourg Income Study to...

  10. Overcoming Barriers in Unhealthy Settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael K. Lemke

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the phenomenon of sustained health-supportive behaviors among long-haul commercial truck drivers, who belong to an occupational segment with extreme health disparities. With a focus on setting-level factors, this study sought to discover ways in which individuals exhibit resiliency while immersed in endemically obesogenic environments, as well as understand setting-level barriers to engaging in health-supportive behaviors. Using a transcendental phenomenological research design, 12 long-haul truck drivers who met screening criteria were selected using purposeful maximum sampling. Seven broad themes were identified: access to health resources, barriers to health behaviors, recommended alternative settings, constituents of health behavior, motivation for health behaviors, attitude toward health behaviors, and trucking culture. We suggest applying ecological theories of health behavior and settings approaches to improve driver health. We also propose the Integrative and Dynamic Healthy Commercial Driving (IDHCD paradigm, grounded in complexity science, as a new theoretical framework for improving driver health outcomes.

  11. 24 CFR 17.43 - Allowable claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... by the negligent or wrongful act of the claimant, his agent, the members of his family, or his..., superior authority. (6) Clothing and accessories. Claims may be allowed for damage to, or loss of,...

  12. 45 CFR 34.4 - Allowable claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... Damage or loss of personal property, including baggage and household items, while being transported by a carrier, agent or agency of the government, or private conveyance, may be allowed only if the property...

  13. Nutritional keys for intestinal barrier modulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania eDe Santis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The intestinal tract represents the largest interface between the external environment and the human body. Nutrient uptake mostly happens in the intestinal tract, where the epithelial surface is constantly exposed to dietary antigens. Since inflammatory response towards these antigens may be deleterious for the host, a plethora of protective mechanisms take places to avoid or attenuate local damage. For instance, the intestinal barrier is able to elicit a dynamic response that either promotes or impairs luminal antigens adhesion and crossing. Regulation of intestinal barrier is crucial to control intestinal permeability whose increase is associated to chronic inflammatory conditions. The cross talk among bacteria, immune and dietary factors is able to modulate the mucosal barrier function, as well as the intestinal permeability. Several nutritional products have recently been proposed as regulators of the epithelial barrier, even if their effects are in part contradictory. At the same time, the metabolic function of the microbiota generates new products with different effects based on the dietary content. Besides conventional treatments, novel therapies based on complementary nutrients is now growing. It has been recently used a fecal therapy approach for the clinical treatment of refractory Clostridium difficile infection instead of the classical antibiotic therapy.In the present review we will outline the epithelial response to nutritional components derived from diet intake and microbial fermentation focusing on the consequent effects on the epithelial barrier integrity.

  14. Sign Patterns That Allow the Given Matrix

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵燕灵; 孙良

    2003-01-01

    Let P be a property referring to a real matrix. For a sign pattern A, if there exists a real matrix B in the qualitative class of A such that B has property P, then we say A allows P. Three cases that A allows an M-matrix, an inverse M-matrix and a P0-matrix are considered. The complete characterizations are obtained.

  15. Barriers to cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Womeodu, R J; Bailey, J E

    1996-01-01

    Many barriers to cancer screening have been summarized and discussed. Barriers have been documented in all patient populations, but some groups such as ethnic minorities and the elderly face unique barriers. The barriers to cancer screening, are multifactorial, but much of the responsibility for change must lie with health care providers and the health care delivery industry. This is not to free the patient of all responsibility, but some significant barriers are beyond their direct control. Take, for example, socioeconomic status, disease knowledge, and culturally related perceptions and myths about cancer detection and treatment. The health care industry must do a better job identifying and overcoming these barriers. The significant effects of provider counseling and advice must not be underestimated. Patients must first be advised, and then further actions must be taken if they reject the screening advice. Did they refuse adherence to recommendations because they do not view themselves as susceptible, because of overwhelming personal barriers, or because of a fatalistic attitude toward cancer detection and treatment? If that is the case, physicians and health care institutions must attempt to change perceptions, educate, and personalize the message so that patients accept their disease susceptibility [table: see text]. Multiple patient and provider risk factors have been identified that can be used to target patients particularly at high risk for inadequate cancer screening and providers at high risk for performing inadequate screening. Research has clearly demonstrated the effectiveness of interventions to improve tracking of patient and physician compliance with screening recommendations. Further research is needed to show the impact of managed-care penetration and payer status on screening efforts, and incentive schemes need to be tested that reward institutions and third-party payers who develop uniform standards and procedures for cancer screening. The

  16. Quantifying system safety: A comparison of the SBOAT & Safety Barrier Manager tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee; Duijm, Nijs Jan; Markert, Frank;

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents two software tools for analyzing safety risks, SBOAT (Stochastic BPMN Optimisation and Analysis Tool) and SBM (SafetyBarrierManagerr). SBOAT employs principles from stochastic model checking to allow for the quantitative verification of workflows. SBM supports the creation...... of valid safety-barrier diagrams and allows the quantitative analysis of the probability of all possible end states of the barrier diagram, i.e. the outcomes if one or several of the barriers fail to perform their barrier function. We compare the foundations of these tools and describe how they can be used...

  17. Reduced barrier efficiency in axillary stratum corneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkinson, A; Lee, R S; Moore, A E; Pudney, P D A; Paterson, S E; Rawlings, A V

    2002-06-01

    The skin of the axilla is cosmetically important with millions of consumers daily applying antiperspirant/deodorant products. Despite this, we know virtually nothing about axillary skin or how antiperspirant (AP) use impacts upon it. To characterize the axillary stratum corneum and determine whether this is a unique skin type, we have looked at stratum corneum composition and function, particularly its barrier properties, and compared it with other body sites. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and corneosurfametry (CSM) revealed a reduced barrier function in the axilla. HPTLC analysis of the stratum corneum lipids demonstrated statistically elevated levels of fatty acids, ceramides, and particularly cholesterol in the axilla. Both ceramide and cholesterol did not appear to change with depth, indicating that they were predominantly of stratum corneum origin. On the other hand, at least some of the fatty acid had a sebaceous origin. We hypothesized that the reduced barrier function might be owing to the changes in the crucial ceramide : cholesterol ratio. To address this, we used a combination of attenuated total reflectance-Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) with cyanoacrylate sampling. These results demonstrated more ordered lipid-lamellae phase behaviour in the axilla, suggesting that the elevated cholesterol might form crystal microdomains within the lipid lamellae, allowing an increase in water flux. Since an exaggerated application of antiperspirant had no effect upon the axilla barrier properties, it is concluded that this region of skin physiologically has a reduced barrier function.

  18. Pratt & Whitney thermal barrier coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bornstein, N. [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States); Marcin, J. [Pratt & Whitney Aircraft Co., East Hartford, CT (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The objective of the Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) Program is to develop ultra-high efficient, environmentally superior, and cost competitive gas turbine systems. The operating profiles of these industrial gas turbines are long, less cyclic with fewer transients-compared with those for aircraft gas turbine engines. Therefore, creep rather than thermal fatigue, becomes primary life-limiting for hot section components. Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) will be used to achieve the objectives of the program. TBCs allow surface temperatures to increase without compromising the structural properties of the alloy. TBCs typically consist of a ceramic insulating layer, deposited onto the substrate with an intervening metallic layer, which imparts oxidation protection to the substrate and provides a surface to which the ceramic layer can adhere.

  19. The Glomerular Filtration Barrier: Components and Crosstalk

    OpenAIRE

    Madhav C. Menon; Chuang, Peter Y.; Cijiang John He

    2012-01-01

    The glomerular filtration barrier is a highly specialized blood filtration interface that displays a high conductance to small and midsized solutes in plasma but retains relative impermeability to macromolecules. Its integrity is maintained by physicochemical and signalling interplay among its three core constituents—the glomerular endothelial cell, the basement membrane and visceral epithelial cell (podocyte). Understanding the pathomechanisms of inherited and acquired human diseases as well...

  20. Overcoming Language Barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Buda, Yvonne

    1976-01-01

    Many family physicians in Canada experience language and cultural barriers between themselves and their patients. Several aspects of the ensuing problems are described and some practical suggestions for solutions are made. The importance of health education for new Canadians in the family physician's office as well as through the media and community projects is stressed. Imagesp68-ap68-bp70-a PMID:21308059

  1. Quantum theory allows for absolute maximal contextuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Barbara; Cunha, Marcelo Terra; Cabello, Adán

    2015-12-01

    Contextuality is a fundamental feature of quantum theory and a necessary resource for quantum computation and communication. It is therefore important to investigate how large contextuality can be in quantum theory. Linear contextuality witnesses can be expressed as a sum S of n probabilities, and the independence number α and the Tsirelson-like number ϑ of the corresponding exclusivity graph are, respectively, the maximum of S for noncontextual theories and for the theory under consideration. A theory allows for absolute maximal contextuality if it has scenarios in which ϑ /α approaches n . Here we show that quantum theory allows for absolute maximal contextuality despite what is suggested by the examination of the quantum violations of Bell and noncontextuality inequalities considered in the past. Our proof is not constructive and does not single out explicit scenarios. Nevertheless, we identify scenarios in which quantum theory allows for almost-absolute-maximal contextuality.

  2. IMS IN SMES - REASONS, ADVANTAGES AND BARRIERS ON IMPLEMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Rajković

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Appearance of a number of management systems with various and sometimes divergent demands, demands for revise of optimal strategy on implementation of these standards in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs and the attempt on their integration into integrated management system are suggested even more. Firstly question on choice and reasons for implementation of standards is raised. Management and employees expect benefits on the implementation and they pass and minimize the implementation barriers. Basic concept on integrated management system (IMS into SMEs and analyse on reasons, advantages and barriers at IMS implementation are presented in this paper.

  3. Geophysical characterization of subsurface barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borns, D.J.

    1995-08-01

    An option for controlling contaminant migration from plumes and buried waste sites is to construct a subsurface barrier of a low-permeability material. The successful application of subsurface barriers requires processes to verify the emplacement and effectiveness of barrier and to monitor the performance of a barrier after emplacement. Non destructive and remote sensing techniques, such as geophysical methods, are possible technologies to address these needs. The changes in mechanical, hydrologic and chemical properties associated with the emplacement of an engineered barrier will affect geophysical properties such a seismic velocity, electrical conductivity, and dielectric constant. Also, the barrier, once emplaced and interacting with the in situ geologic system, may affect the paths along which electrical current flows in the subsurface. These changes in properties and processes facilitate the detection and monitoring of the barrier. The approaches to characterizing and monitoring engineered barriers can be divided between (1) methods that directly image the barrier using the contrasts in physical properties between the barrier and the host soil or rock and (2) methods that reflect flow processes around or through the barrier. For example, seismic methods that delineate the changes in density and stiffness associated with the barrier represents a direct imaging method. Electrical self potential methods and flow probes based on heat flow methods represent techniques that can delineate the flow path or flow processes around and through a barrier.

  4. 77 FR 34218 - Clothing Allowance; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-11

    ... construed to impose a restriction that VA did not intend. This document corrects that error. DATES: This... Service, Veterans Benefits Administration, Department of Veterans Affairs, 810 Vermont Avenue NW... medication would be eligible for a clothing allowance for each such appliance or medication if each...

  5. 20 CFR 633.303 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... family income does not exceed either 70 percent of the lower living standard income level or the poverty... occupation trained for and at not less than the wage specified in the agreement. (g) Travel costs. (1) The... grantee per quarter. (2) Allowances and loss of wages. Any individual or family member who is a member...

  6. 33 CFR 136.211 - Compensation allowable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.211 Section 136.211 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.211...

  7. 33 CFR 136.205 - Compensation allowable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.205 Section 136.205 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.205...

  8. 33 CFR 136.241 - Compensation allowable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.241 Section 136.241 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.241...

  9. 33 CFR 136.223 - Compensation allowable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.223 Section 136.223 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.223...

  10. 33 CFR 136.217 - Compensation allowable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.217 Section 136.217 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.217...

  11. 33 CFR 136.235 - Compensation allowable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.235 Section 136.235 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.235...

  12. 33 CFR 136.229 - Compensation allowable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.229 Section 136.229 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.229...

  13. 43 CFR 12.62 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior ADMINISTRATIVE AND AUDIT REQUIREMENTS AND COST PRINCIPLES FOR ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Uniform Administrative Requirements for Grants and Cooperative... increment above allowable costs) to the grantee or subgrantee. (b) Applicable cost principles. For each...

  14. 22 CFR 145.27 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CIVIL RIGHTS GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 145...-Profit Organizations.” The allowability of costs incurred by institutions of higher education...

  15. 22 CFR 518.27 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 518.27 Allowable costs. For each kind of recipient, there is a set of... by institutions of higher education is determined in accordance with the provisions of OMB Circular...

  16. 36 CFR 1210.27 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... RULES UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 1210.27 Allowable costs. For each kind of recipient, there is a set of Federal principles...

  17. 34 CFR 80.22 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting standards that comply... COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 80.22... kind of organization, there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable costs. For...

  18. 13 CFR 143.22 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting... Financial Administration § 143.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used... grantee or subgrantee. (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization, there is a set...

  19. 38 CFR 43.22 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... accounting standards that comply with cost principles acceptable to the Federal agency. ... Requirements Financial Administration § 43.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may... the grantee or subgrantee. (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization, there is...

  20. 22 CFR 135.22 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Procedures, or uniform cost accounting standards that comply with cost principles acceptable to the Federal... AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 135.22 Allowable... principles. For each kind of organization, there is a set of Federal principles for determining...

  1. 40 CFR 31.22 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... accounting standards that comply with cost principles acceptable to the Federal agency. ... Requirements Financial Administration § 31.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may... the grantee or sub-grantee. (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization, there is...

  2. 45 CFR 92.22 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... to that circular 48 CFR Part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting... Financial Administration § 92.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used... grantee or subgrantee. (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization, there is a set...

  3. Realization of allowable qeneralized quantum gates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The most general duality gates were introduced by Long,Liu and Wang and named allowable generalized quantum gates (AGQGs,for short).By definition,an allowable generalized quantum gate has the form of U=YfkjsckUK,where Uk’s are unitary operators on a Hilbert space H and the coefficients ck’s are complex numbers with |Yfijo ck\\ ∧ 1 an d 1ck| <1 for all k=0,1,...,d-1.In this paper,we prove that an AGQG U=YfkZo ck∧k is realizable,i.e.there are two d by d unitary matrices W and V such that ck=W0kVk0 (0

  4. Making It Personal: Per Capita Carbon Allowances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fawcett, Tina; Hvelplund, Frede; Meyer, Niels I

    2009-01-01

    The Chapter highligts the importance of introducing new, efficient schemes for mitigation of global warming. One such scheme is Personal Carbon Allowances (PCA), whereby individuals are allotted a tradable ration of CO2 emission per year.This chapter reviews the fundamentals of PCA and analyzes its...... merits and problems. The United Kingdom and Denmark have been chosen as case studies because the energy situation and the institutional setup are quite different between the two countries....

  5. "Targeted disruption of the epithelial-barrier by Helicobacter pylori"

    OpenAIRE

    Wroblewski Lydia E; Peek Richard M

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Helicobacter pylori colonizes the human gastric epithelium and induces chronic gastritis, which can lead to gastric cancer. Through cell-cell contacts the gastric epithelium forms a barrier to protect underlying tissue from pathogenic bacteria; however, H. pylori have evolved numerous strategies to perturb the integrity of the gastric barrier. In this review, we summarize recent research into the mechanisms through which H. pylori disrupts intercellular junctions and disrupts the gas...

  6. ANALYSIS OF FLEXIBLE BARRIERS USED AS SAFETY PROTECTION IN WOODWORKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Pavlovic

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Machine tools use physical barriers, made by flexible thermoplastic materials, to protect the environment and the operators against the projections of wood chips and parts of cutting tools. These barriers constitute a partial closure and allow the passage of the workpiece, being simultaneously able to contain sharp fragments projected at high speed. The present research was conducted with the aim to evaluate the real effectiveness of these barriers, to investigate their dynamic behaviour by numerical simulations. Results showed that these barriers, if properly considered, could retain heavier masses and higher speeds. The research also allowed, in fact, to investigate the influence of several factors in design, selection and use, as material, shape, position, assemblages and many others, highlighting weaknesses and identifying possible measures to increase its effectiveness.

  7. Integrated Sensitivity Analysis Workflow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman-Hill, Ernest J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hoffman, Edward L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gibson, Marcus J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Clay, Robert L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Sensitivity analysis is a crucial element of rigorous engineering analysis, but performing such an analysis on a complex model is difficult and time consuming. The mission of the DART Workbench team at Sandia National Laboratories is to lower the barriers to adoption of advanced analysis tools through software integration. The integrated environment guides the engineer in the use of these integrated tools and greatly reduces the cycle time for engineering analysis.

  8. Gut barrier in health and disease: focus on childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viggiano, D; Ianiro, G; Vanella, G; Bibbò, S; Bruno, G; Simeone, G; Mele, G

    2015-01-01

    The gut barrier is a functional unit, organized as a multi-layer system, made up of two main components: a physical barrier surface, which prevents bacterial adhesion and regulates paracellular diffusion to the host tissues, and a deep functional barrier, that is able to discriminate between pathogens and commensal microorganisms, organizing the immune tolerance and the immune response to pathogens. Other mechanisms, such as gastric juice and pancreatic enzymes (which both have antibacterial properties) participate in the luminal integrity of the gut barrier. From the outer layer to the inner layer, the physical barrier is composed of gut microbiota (that competes with pathogens to gain space and energy resources, processes the molecules necessary to mucosal integrity and modulates the immunological activity of deep barrier), mucus (which separates the intraluminal content from more internal layers and contains antimicrobial products and secretory IgA), epithelial cells (which form a physical and immunological barrier) and the innate and adaptive immune cells forming the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (which is responsible for antigen sampling and immune responses). Disruption of the gut barrier has been associated with many gastrointestinal diseases, but also with extra-intestinal pathological condition, such as type 1 diabetes mellitus, allergic diseases or autism spectrum disorders. The maintenance of a healthy intestinal barrier is therefore of paramount importance in children, for both health and economic reasons. Many drugs or compounds used in the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders act through the restoration of a normal intestinal permeability. Several studies have highlighted the role of probiotics in the modulation and reduction of intestinal permeability, considering the strong influence of gut microbiota in the modulation of the function and structure of gut barrier, but also on the immune response of the host. To date, available weapons for the

  9. Enteric Pathogens and Their Toxin-Induced Disruption of the Intestinal Barrier through Alteration of Tight Junctions in Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wageha A. Awad

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Maintaining a healthy gut environment is a prerequisite for sustainable animal production. The gut plays a key role in the digestion and absorption of nutrients and constitutes an initial organ exposed to external factors influencing bird’s health. The intestinal epithelial barrier serves as the first line of defense between the host and the luminal environment. It consists of a continuous monolayer of intestinal epithelial cells connected by intercellular junctional complexes which shrink the space between adjacent cells. Consequently, free passing of solutes and water via the paracellular pathway is prevented. Tight junctions (TJs are multi-protein complexes which are crucial for the integrity and function of the epithelial barrier as they not only link cells but also form channels allowing permeation between cells, resulting in epithelial surfaces of different tightness. Tight junction’s molecular composition, ultrastructure, and function are regulated differently with regard to physiological and pathological stimuli. Both in vivo and in vitro studies suggest that reduced tight junction integrity greatly results in a condition commonly known as “leaky gut”. A loss of barrier integrity allows the translocation of luminal antigens (microbes, toxins via the mucosa to access the whole body which are normally excluded and subsequently destroys the gut mucosal homeostasis, coinciding with an increased susceptibility to systemic infection, chronic inflammation and malabsorption. There is considerable evidence that the intestinal barrier dysfunction is an important factor contributing to the pathogenicity of some enteric bacteria. It has been shown that some enteric pathogens can induce permeability defects in gut epithelia by altering tight junction proteins, mediated by their toxins. Resolving the strategies that microorganisms use to hijack the functions of tight junctions is important for our understanding of microbial pathogenesis

  10. Enteric Pathogens and Their Toxin-Induced Disruption of the Intestinal Barrier through Alteration of Tight Junctions in Chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Wageha A.; Hess, Claudia; Hess, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Maintaining a healthy gut environment is a prerequisite for sustainable animal production. The gut plays a key role in the digestion and absorption of nutrients and constitutes an initial organ exposed to external factors influencing bird’s health. The intestinal epithelial barrier serves as the first line of defense between the host and the luminal environment. It consists of a continuous monolayer of intestinal epithelial cells connected by intercellular junctional complexes which shrink the space between adjacent cells. Consequently, free passing of solutes and water via the paracellular pathway is prevented. Tight junctions (TJs) are multi-protein complexes which are crucial for the integrity and function of the epithelial barrier as they not only link cells but also form channels allowing permeation between cells, resulting in epithelial surfaces of different tightness. Tight junction’s molecular composition, ultrastructure, and function are regulated differently with regard to physiological and pathological stimuli. Both in vivo and in vitro studies suggest that reduced tight junction integrity greatly results in a condition commonly known as “leaky gut”. A loss of barrier integrity allows the translocation of luminal antigens (microbes, toxins) via the mucosa to access the whole body which are normally excluded and subsequently destroys the gut mucosal homeostasis, coinciding with an increased susceptibility to systemic infection, chronic inflammation and malabsorption. There is considerable evidence that the intestinal barrier dysfunction is an important factor contributing to the pathogenicity of some enteric bacteria. It has been shown that some enteric pathogens can induce permeability defects in gut epithelia by altering tight junction proteins, mediated by their toxins. Resolving the strategies that microorganisms use to hijack the functions of tight junctions is important for our understanding of microbial pathogenesis, because some pathogens

  11. ENGINEERED BARRIER SYSTEM: PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL ENVIRONMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Jarek

    2004-11-23

    The purpose of this report is to describe the evolution of the physical and chemical environmental conditions within the waste emplacement drifts of the repository, including the drip shield and waste package surfaces. The abstraction model is used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA LA) to assess the performance of the engineered barrier system and the waste form. This report develops and documents a set of these abstraction-level models that describe the engineered barrier system physical and chemical environment. Where possible, these models use information directly from other reports as input, which promotes integration among process models used for TSPA-LA. Specific tasks and activities of modeling the physical and chemical environment are included in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport In-Drift Geochemistry Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171156], Section 1.2.2). As described in the technical work plan, the development of this report is coordinated with the development of other engineered barrier system reports.

  12. ENGINEERED BARRIER SYSTEM: PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL ENVIRONMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G.H. Nieder-Westermann

    2005-04-07

    The purpose of this report is to describe the evolution of the physical and chemical environmental conditions within the waste emplacement drifts of the repository, including the drip shield and waste package surfaces. The abstraction model is used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA LA) to assess the performance of the engineered barrier system and the waste form. This report develops and documents a set of these abstraction-level models that describe the engineered barrier system physical and chemical environment. Where possible, these models use information directly from other reports as input, which promotes integration among process models used for TSPA-LA. Specific tasks and activities of modeling the physical and chemical environment are included in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport In-Drift Geochemistry Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171156], Section 1.2.2). As described in the technical work plan, the development of this report is coordinated with the development of other engineered barrier system reports.

  13. Barriers to increasing hospital birth rates in rural Shanxi Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yu; Barclay, Lesley; Kildea, Sue; Hao, Min; Belton, Suzanne

    2010-11-01

    This study investigated the reasons for continued high rates of home births in rural Shanxi Province, northern China, despite a national programme designed to encourage hospital deliveries. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 30 home-birthing women in five rural counties and drew on hospital audit data, observations and interviews with local health workers from a larger study. Multiple barriers were identified, including economic and geographic factors and poor quality of maternity care. Women's main reasons for not having institutional births were financial difficulties (n=26); poor quality of antenatal care (n=13); transport problems (n=11); dissatisfaction with hospital care expressed as fear of being in hospital (n=10); convenience of being at home and continuity of care provided by traditional birth attendants (TBAs) (n=10); and belief that the birth would be normal (n=6). These barriers must all be overcome to improve access to and acceptability of hospital birth. To ensure that the national policy of improving the hospital birth rate is implemented effectively, the government needs to improve the quality of antenatal and delivery care, increase financial subsidies to reduce out-of-pocket payments, remove transport barriers, and where hospital birth is not available in remote areas, consider allowing skilled attendance at home on an outreach basis and integrate TBAs into the health system.

  14. Glomerular endothelial surface layer acts as a barrier against albumin filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dane, Martijn J C; van den Berg, Bernard M; Avramut, M Cristina; Faas, Frank G A; van der Vlag, Johan; Rops, Angelique L W M M; Ravelli, Raimond B G; Koster, Bram J; van Zonneveld, Anton Jan; Vink, Hans; Rabelink, Ton J

    2013-05-01

    Glomerular endothelium is highly fenestrated, and its contribution to glomerular barrier function is the subject of debate. In recent years, a polysaccharide-rich endothelial surface layer (ESL) has been postulated to act as a filtration barrier for large molecules, such as albumin. To test this hypothesis, we disturbed the ESL in C57Bl/6 mice using long-term hyaluronidase infusion for 4 weeks and monitored albumin passage using immunolabeling and correlative light-electron microscopy that allows for complete and integral assessment of glomerular albumin passage. ESL ultrastructure was visualized by transmission electron microscopy using cupromeronic blue and by localization of ESL binding lectins using confocal microscopy. We demonstrate that glomerular fenestrae are filled with dense negatively charged polysaccharide structures that are largely removed in the presence of circulating hyaluronidase, leaving the polysaccharide surfaces of other glomerular cells intact. Both retention of native ferritin [corrected] in the glomerular basement membrane and systemic blood pressure were unaltered. Enzyme treatment, however, induced albumin passage across the endothelium in 90% of glomeruli, whereas this could not be observed in controls. Yet, there was no net albuminuria due to binding and uptake of filtered albumin by the podocytes and parietal epithelium. ESL structure and function completely recovered within 4 weeks on cessation of hyaluronidase infusion. Thus, the polyanionic ESL component, hyaluronan, is a key component of the glomerular endothelial protein permeability barrier.

  15. 76 FR 16629 - Federal Travel Regulation (FTR); Relocation Allowances-Relocation Income Tax Allowance (RITA) Tables

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    ... http://www.gsa.gov/relocationpolicy . Dated: March 21, 2011. Janet Dobbs, Director, Office of Travel... ADMINISTRATION Federal Travel Regulation (FTR); Relocation Allowances-- Relocation Income Tax Allowance (RITA... effective March 24, 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr. Ed Davis, Office of Governmentwide Policy...

  16. Technical barrier challenges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李思佳

    2014-01-01

    according to a famouse report,the foreign Technical Barriers to Trade(TBT)have some effects on the exports of the People’s Republic of China.Major findings are as follows:(1)TBT makes it more difficult for China to export;(2)TBT increases the costs of Chinese export commodities;(3)TBT causes friction and confilicts in the international trade;(4)SOME developed countries have moved their phase-outs to China and other developing countries,which have become victims of TBT.

  17. Support or Barrier?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanden, Guro Refsum; Lønsmann, Dorte

    This study offers a critical look at how corporate-level language management influences front-line language practices among employees in three multinational corporations (MNCs) headquartered in Scandinavia. Based on interview and document data, we examine, firstly, what front-line practices...... employees use to cross language boundaries in their everyday work, and, secondly, how these practices relate to top-down language management in the case companies. Our findings show that employees are often dependent on ad hoc and informal solutions in cross- language situations, which leads us...... to a discussion of how a company’s language policy may be seen as both support and a barrier....

  18. [Barrier methods of contraception].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, A; Edelman, D A

    1982-01-01

    Vaginal methods of contraception were the earliest types used and some references to them date back to antiquity. Most of the vaginal contraceptive agents identified by the ancient Greeks, Indians, Japanese, and Chinese have been found in modern laboratory tests to have spermicidal properties, but it is doubtful that the methods were fully reliable or were used by many people. During the 19th century the condom, vaginal spermicides, and diaphragm became available. The development of nonoxynol-9 and other nonirritating but effective spermicidal agents improved vaginal contraceptives greatly by the 1950s, but starting in the 1960s newer methods began to replace the vaginal methods. Interest in barrier methods has been reawakened somewhat by concern about the health effects of hormonal methods. At present all barrier methods leave something to be desired. Failure rates of 3-30% for barrier methods in general have been estimated, but the higher rates are believed due to incorrect or inconsistent use. Theoretical failure rates of condoms and diaphragms have been estimated at 3/100 women-years, but in actual use failure rates may reach 15 for condoms and 13 for diaphragms used with spermicides. Use-effectiveness rates are greatly influenced by motivation. For a variety of reasons, the acceptability of barrier methods is low, especially in developing countries. New developments in spermicidal agents include sperm inhibitors, which impede the fertilizing capacity of sperm rather than attempting a spermicidal effect; a number of such agents have been studied and have proven more effective in animal tests than conventional spermicides. Neosampoon, a new spermicidal foam, has attracted an increasing number of users, especially in developing countries. A new condom, made of thin polymers and containing a standard dose of nonoxynol-9, has been designed to dissolve in the vaginal fluid. Further studies are needed of its acceptability, efficacy, and side effects before it becomes

  19. Identifying and overcoming barriers to technology implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, M.; Warren, S.; McCune, M. [Dept. of Energy, Germantown, MD (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    In a recent General Accounting Office report, the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Environmental Management was found to be ineffective in integrating their environmental technology development efforts with the cleanup actions. As a result of these findings, a study of remediation documents was performed by the Technology Applications Team within DOE`s Office of Environmental Restoration (EM-40) to validate this finding and to understand why it was occurring. A second initiative built on the foundation of the remediation document study and evaluated solutions to the ineffective implementation of improved technologies. The Technology Applications Team examined over 50 remediation documents (17 projects) which included nearly 600 proposed remediation technologies. It was determined that very few technologies are reaching the Records of Decision documents. In fact, most are eliminated in the early stages of consideration. These observations stem from regulators` and stakeholders` uncertainties in cost and performance of the technology and the inability of the technology to meet site specific conditions. The Technology Applications Team also set out to identify and evaluate solutions to barriers to implementing innovative technology into the DOE`s environmental management activities. Through the combined efforts of DOE and the Hazardous Waste Action Coalition (HWAC), a full day workshop was conducted at the annual HWAC meeting in June 1995 to solve barriers to innovative technology implementation. Three barriers were identified as widespread throughout the DOE complex and industry. Identified barriers included a lack of verified or certified cost and performance data for innovative technologies; risk of failure to reach cleanup goals using innovative technologies; and communication barriers that are present at virtually every stage of the characterization/remediation process from development through implementation.

  20. Nanomedicine Faces Barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Debbage

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Targeted nanoparticles have the potential to improve drug delivery efficiencies by more than two orders of magnitude, from the ~ 0.1% which is common today. Most pharmacologically agents on the market today are small drug molecules, which diffuse across the body’s blood-tissue barriers and distribute not only into the lesion, but into almost all organs. Drug actions in the non-lesion organs are an inescapable part of the drug delivery principle, causing “side-effects” which limit the maximally tolerable doses and result in inadequate therapy of many lesions. Nanoparticles only cross barriers by design, so side-effects are not built into their mode of operation. Delivery rates of almost 90% have been reported. This review examines the significance of these statements and checks how far they need qualification. What type of targeting is required? Is a single targeting sufficient? What new types of clinical challenge, such as immunogenicity, might attend the use of targeted nanoparticles?

  1. Higgs vacua behind barriers

    CERN Document Server

    Tamarit, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Scenarios in which the Higgs vacuum arises radiatively and separated from the origin by a potential barrier at zero temperature are known to be attainable in models with extra singlet scalars, which in the limit of zero barrier height give rise to Coleman-Weinberg realizations of electroweak symmetry breaking. However, this requires large values of Higgs-portal couplings or a large number N of singlets. This is quantified in detail by considering, for varying N, the full two-loop effective potential at zero temperature, as well as finite temperature effects including the dominant two-loop corrections due to the singlets. Despite the large couplings, two-loop effects near the electroweak scale are under control, and actually better behaved in models with larger couplings yet fewer singlets. Strong first-order phase transitions are guaranteed even in the Coleman-Weinberg scenarios. Cubic Higgs couplings and Higgs associated-production cross sections exhibit deviations from the Standard Model predictions which c...

  2. Skin Barrier Function and Its Importance at the Start of the Atopic March

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Mary Beth; Peele, Kathy; Wilson, Nevin W.

    2012-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis can be due to a variety of causes from nonatopic triggers to food allergy. Control of egress of water and protection from ingress of irritants and allergens are key components of cutaneous barrier function. Current research suggests that a degraded barrier function of the skin allows the immune system inappropriate access to environmental allergens. Epidermal aeroallergen exposure may allow sensitization to allergen possibly initiating the atopic march. Further research into connections between epidermal barrier function and possible allergen sensitization will be important to undertake. Future clinical trials focused on skin barrier protection may be of value as a possible intervention in prevention of the initiation of the atopic march. PMID:22619686

  3. Synthetic Eelgrass Oil Barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, T. G.

    2013-05-01

    Although surviving in situ micro-organisms eventually consume spilled oil, extensive inundation of shore biota by oil requires cleanup to enable ecological recovery within normal time scales. Although effective in calm seas and quiet waters, oil is advected over and under conventional curtain oil booms by wave actions and currents when seas are running. Most sorbent booms are not reusable, and are usually disposed of in landfills, creating excessive waste. A new concept is proposed for a floating oil barrier, to be positioned off vulnerable coasts, to interdict, contain, and sequester spilled oil, which can then be recovered and the barrier reused. While conventional oil boom designs rely principally on the immiscibility of oil in water and its relative buoyancy, the new concept barrier avoids the pitfalls of the former by taking advantage of the synergistic benefits of numerous fluid and material properties, including: density, buoyancy, elasticity, polarity, and surface area to volume ratio. Modeled after Zostera marina, commonly called eelgrass, the new barrier, referred to as synthetic eelgrass (SE), behaves analogously. Eelgrass has very long narrow, ribbon-like, leaves which support periphyton, a complex matrix of algae and heterotrophic microbes, which position themselves there to extract nutrients from the seawater flowing past them. In an analogous fashion, oil on, or in, seawater, which comes in contact with SE, is adsorbed on the surface and sequestered there. Secured to the bottom, in shoal waters, SE rises to the surface, and, if the tide is low enough, floats on the sea surface down wind, or down current to snare floating oil. The leaves of SE, called filaments, consist of intrinsically buoyant strips of ethylene methyl acrylate, aka EMA. EMA, made of long chain, saturated, hydrocarbon molecules with nearly homogeneous electron charge distributions, is a non-polar material which is oleophilic and hydrophobic. Oil must be in close proximity to the

  4. Assessing allowable take of migratory birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runge, M.C.; Sauer, J.R.; Avery, M.L.; Blackwell, B.F.; Koneff, M.D.

    2009-01-01

    Legal removal of migratory birds from the wild occurs for several reasons, including subsistence, sport harvest, damage control, and the pet trade. We argue that harvest theory provides the basis for assessing the impact of authorized take, advance a simplified rendering of harvest theory known as potential biological removal as a useful starting point for assessing take, and demonstrate this approach with a case study of depredation control of black vultures (Coragyps atratus) in Virginia, USA. Based on data from the North American Breeding Bird Survey and other sources, we estimated that the black vulture population in Virginia was 91,190 (95% credible interval = 44,520?212,100) in 2006. Using a simple population model and available estimates of life-history parameters, we estimated the intrinsic rate of growth (rmax) to be in the range 7?14%, with 10.6% a plausible point estimate. For a take program to seek an equilibrium population size on the conservative side of the yield curve, the rate of take needs to be less than that which achieves a maximum sustained yield (0.5 x rmax). Based on the point estimate for rmax and using the lower 60% credible interval for population size to account for uncertainty, these conditions would be met if the take of black vultures in Virginia in 2006 was <3,533 birds. Based on regular monitoring data, allowable harvest should be adjusted annually to reflect changes in population size. To initiate discussion about how this assessment framework could be related to the laws and regulations that govern authorization of such take, we suggest that the Migratory Bird Treaty Act requires only that take of native migratory birds be sustainable in the long-term, that is, sustained harvest rate should be

  5. Barriers for recess physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine; Schipperijn, Jasper

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many children, in particular girls, do not reach the recommended amount of daily physical activity. School recess provides an opportunity for both boys and girls to be physically active, but barriers to recess physical activity are not well understood. This study explores gender...... differences in children's perceptions of barriers to recess physical activity. Based on the socio-ecological model four types of environmental barriers were distinguished: natural, social, physical and organizational environment. METHODS: Data were collected through 17 focus groups (at 17 different schools...... this study, we recommend promoting recess physical activity through a combination of actions, addressing barriers within the natural, social, physical and organizational environment....

  6. The role of plants on isolation barrier systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Link, S.O.; Downs, J.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Waugh, W.J. [UNC Chem-Nuclear Geotech, Grand Junction, CO (United States)

    1994-11-01

    Surface barriers are used to isolate buried wastes from the environment. Most have been built for short-term isolation. The need to isolate radioactive wastes from the environment requires that the functional integrity of a barrier be maintained for thousands of years. Barrier function strongly depends on vegetation. Plants reduce wind and water erosion and minimize drainage, but may transport contaminants if roots extend into buried wastes. Our review of the function of plants on surface barriers focuses on the role of plants across mesic to arid environments and gives special consideration to studies done at Hanford. The Hanford Barrier Development Program was created to design and test an earthen cover system to inhibit water infiltration, plant and animal intrusion, and wind and water erosion, while isolating buried wastes for at least 1000 years. Studies at the Hanford have shown that plants will significantly interact with the barrier. Plants transpire soil water back into the atmosphere. Deep-rooted perennials best recycle water; soil water may drain through the root zone of shallow-rooted annuals. Lysimeter studies indicate that a surface layer of fine soil with deep-rooted plants precludes drainage even with three times normal precipitation. The presence of vegetation greatly reduces water and wind erosion, but deep-rooted plants pose a threat of biointrusion and contaminant transport. The Hanford barrier includes a buried rock layer and asphalt layer to prevent biointrusion.

  7. Extending Our Understanding of Compliant Thermal Barrier Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demange, Jeffrey J.; Finkbeiner, Joshua R.; Dunlap, Patrick H.

    2014-01-01

    Thermal barriers and seals are integral components in the thermal protection systems (TPS) of nearly all aerospace vehicles. They are used to minimize the flow of hot gases through interfaces and protect underlying temperature-sensitive components and systems. Although thermal barriers have been used extensively on many aerospace vehicles, the factors affecting their thermal and mechanical performance are not well-understood. Because of this, vehicle TPS designers are often left with little guidance on how to properly design and optimize these barriers. An ongoing effort to better understand thermal barrier performance and develop models and design tools is in progress at the NASA Glenn Research Center. Testing has been conducted to understand the degree to which insulation density influences structural performance and permeability. In addition, the development of both thermal and mechanical models is ongoing with the goal of providing an improved ability to design and implement these critical TPS components.

  8. Hanford Permanent Isolation Barrier Program: Asphalt technology test plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, H.D.; Romine, R.A.

    1994-05-01

    The Hanford Permanent Isolation Barriers use engineered layers of natural materials to create an integrated structure with backup protective features. The objective of current designs is to develop a maintenance-free permanent barrier that isolates wastes for a minimum of 1000 years by limiting water drainage to near-zero amounts. Asphalt is being used as an impermeable water diversion layer to provide a redundant layer within the overall barrier design. Data on asphalt barrier properties in a buried environment are not available for the required 100-year time frame. The purpose of this test plan is to outline the activities planned to obtain data with which to estimate performance of the asphalt layers.

  9. Linguistic Barriers and Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Frederik

    2016-01-01

    and intercultural communication, this article analyses interviews with 31 employees from two highly ethnically diverse Danish workplaces. The article shows how linguistic barriers such as different levels of majority language competence and their consequent misunderstandings breed mistrust and hostility, whilst......The influence of language on social capital in low-skill and ethnically diverse workplaces has thus far received very limited attention within the sociology of work. As the ethnically diverse workplace is an important social space for the construction of social relations bridging different social...... groups, the sociology of work needs to develop a better understanding of the way in which linguistic diversity influences the formation of social capital, i.e. resources such as the trust and reciprocity inherent in social relations in such workplaces. Drawing on theories about intergroup contact...

  10. Countermeasures and barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, Johannes [Oersted - DTU, Automation, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2005-10-01

    In 1973 Haddon proposed ten strategies for reducing and avoiding damages based on a model of potential harmful energy transfer (Haddon, 1973). The strategies apply to a large variety of unwanted phenomena. Haddon's pioneering work on countermeasures has had a major influence on later thinking about safety. Considering its impact it is remarkable that the literature offers almost no discussions related to the theoretical foundations of Haddon's countermeasure strategies. The present report addresses a number of theoretical issues related to Haddon's countermeasure strategies, which are: 1) A reformulation and formalization of Haddon's countermeasure strategies. 2) An identification and description of some of the problems associated with the term 'barrier'. 3) Suggestions for a more precise terminology based on the causal structure of countermeasures. 4) Extending the scope of countermeasures to include sign-based countermeasures. (au)

  11. Recovery post treatment: plans, barriers and motivators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duffy Paul

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increasing focus on achieving a sustained recovery from substance use brings with it a need to better understand the factors (recovery capital that contribute to recovery following treatment. This work examined the factors those in recovery perceive to be barriers to (lack of capital or facilitators of (presence of capital sustained recovery post treatment. Methods A purposive sample of 45 participants was recruited from 11 drug treatment services in northern England. Semi-structured qualitative interviews lasting between 30 and 90 minutes were conducted one to three months after participants completed treatment. Interviews examined key themes identified through previous literature but focused on allowing participants to explore their unique recovery journey. Interviews were transcribed and analysed thematically using a combination of deductive and inductive approaches. Results Participants generally reported high levels of confidence in maintaining their recovery with most planning to remain abstinent. There were indications of high levels of recovery capital. Aftercare engagement was high, often through self referral, with non substance use related activity felt to be particularly positive. Supported housing was critical and concerns were raised about the ability to afford to live independently with financial stability and welfare availability a key concern in general. Employment, often in the substance use treatment field, was a desire. However, it was a long term goal, with substantial risks associated with pursuing this too early. Positive social support was almost exclusively from within the recovery community although the re-building of relationships with family (children in particular was a key motivator post treatment. Conclusions Addressing internal factors and underlying issues i.e. ‘human capital’, provided confidence for continued recovery whilst motivators focused on external factors such as family and

  12. Review of electromagnetic induction for mapping barrier island framework geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weymer, Bradley A.; Everett, Mark E.; de Smet, Timothy S.; Houser, Chris

    2015-05-01

    The geologic framework controls on modern barrier island transgression and the relationship of these controls to subsurface structure, hydrology and island geomorphology are not well understood. Recent evidence suggests that alongshore variations in pre-Holocene geology of barrier islands modify nearshore hydrodynamic processes and sediment transport, ultimately affecting how barrier islands will respond to relative sea-level rise. Explorations of Holocene barrier island geology are usually based on cores to supplement bathymetric, onshore/offshore seismic and/or ground-penetrating radar (GPR) surveys. The advantages and limitations of these methods with respect to barrier island investigations are briefly described in this review. Alternative near-surface geophysical methods including electromagnetic induction (EMI) sensors are increasingly being used for coastal research because they are non-invasive, provide continuous subsurface information across a variety of sub-environments, and are capable of characterizing large areas in a short time. Although these EMI sensors have shown promise in coastal applications, a number of issues primarily related to subsurface hydrology need to be addressed to fully assess the limitations of this technique. This paper reviews the theory, methodology and applications of EMI in support of geologic framework studies with particular reference to barrier islands. Resolution of these issues will allow EMI sensors to complement and offer significant advantages over traditional methods in support of an improved understanding of large-scale barrier island evolution.

  13. Gestão integrada e participativa da pesca artesanal: potencialidades e obstáculos no litoral do estado de Santa Catarina Integrated and participative management in small-scale fisheries: opportunities and barriers in Santa Catarina coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Nunes Maia Rebouças

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A profunda crise estrutural que afeta o setor da pesca artesanal pode ser vista como uma das inúmeras contradições do estilo de desenvolvimento adotado em nosso País. Esta crise tende a se agravar no bojo da globalização assimétrica, desafiando um sistema rígido, centralizado e tecnocrático de gestão de recursos naturais de uso comum. O artigo focaliza as oportunidades e bloqueios à re-criação deste sistema, com base nos avanços da pesquisa ecológico-humana e nos princípios do ecodesenvolvimento.The deep structural crisis that affects the small-scale fisheries sector can be seen as one among several shortcomings of the Brazilian development style. This crisis is becoming more and more acute, in the context of an asymmetrical globalization process. It challenges the performance of rigid, centralized and technocratic systems of common-property resource management. This article focuses on the opportunities and barriers for the re-creation of these systems, taking into account the advances in human-ecological research and eco-development principles.

  14. Probiotics the Good Neighbor: Guarding the Gut Mucosal Barrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. K. Rao

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The disruption of gut barrier function plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of not only gastrointestinal diseases, but also the diseases of liver and other organs. Mucosal protective factors that preserve the gut barrier integrity are beneficial in the prevention and treatment of such diseases. Probiotics is a group of helpful bacteria that protect the gastrointestinal mucosa from a variety of insults. Therefore, understanding the mechanism of probiotic-mediated protection of gut barrier function is an important area of investigation. Approach: Several studies had addressed the role of probiotics in the protection of gut barrier integrity. In a recent study, we investigated the role of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and two soluble proteins, p40 and p75, in the protection of gut barrier function in Caco-2 cell monolayer, a model of the intestinal epithelium. Results: Studies demonstrated that live or dead Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG prevents oxidative stress-induced disruption of tight junctions and barrier function in Caco-2 cell monolayers. The isolated soluble proteins of this probiotic, p40 and p75, also prevent hydrogen peroxide-induced tight junction disruption. This protective effect of probiotic proteins was mediated by the activation of ERK1/2 and protein kinase C isoforms, PKCβI and PKCε. Conclusion: Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG prevent oxidative stress-induced disruption of intestinal epithelial tight junctions and barrier function, suggesting that preservation of epithelial barrier function is one of the mechanisms involved in the mucosal protective role of probiotics in the gut.

  15. Modeling Safety Barriers and Defense in Depth with Mulitlevel Flow Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Morten

    2012-01-01

    The barrier concept plays a central role in designand operation of safety critical processes. In plant design barriers are provided as means of prevention to avoid critical process conditions which may be harmful to the environment. In plant operations barriers may beestablished and maintained...... through control actions in order to limit the consequences of critical plant events. The barrier concept has had a significant practical value for industry by guiding the design thinking of safety engineers. The provision of material barriers preventing the release of radioactive materials from...... the reactor core to the environment is accordingly a basic principle of nuclear safety design. The application of barriers is furthermore an integral part of the defence in depth principle applied by nuclear industry. Here several barriers are combined with reliability techniques such as redundancy...

  16. Microfluidic Flame Barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungas, Gregory S. (Inventor); Fisher, David J. (Inventor); Mungas, Christopher (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Propellants flow through specialized mechanical hardware that is designed for effective and safe ignition and sustained combustion of the propellants. By integrating a micro-fluidic porous media element between a propellant feed source and the combustion chamber, an effective and reliable propellant injector head may be implemented that is capable of withstanding transient combustion and detonation waves that commonly occur during an ignition event. The micro-fluidic porous media element is of specified porosity or porosity gradient selected to be appropriate for a given propellant. Additionally the propellant injector head design integrates a spark ignition mechanism that withstands extremely hot running conditions without noticeable spark mechanism degradation.

  17. Barriers to Women in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Rosemary

    2013-01-01

    The Presiding Officer of the National Assembly for Wales, Rosemary Butler AM, has put the issue of barriers to women in public life at the top of the political agenda in Wales. She has held sessions with women across Wales to find out what those barriers are and how they can be tackled. On International Women's Day in February, she invited…

  18. Spanning trees crossing few barriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asano, T.; Berg, M. de; Cheong, O.; Guibas, L.J.; Snoeyink, J.; Tamaki, H.

    2002-01-01

    We consider the problem of finding low-cost spanning trees for sets of n points in the plane, where the cost of a spanning tree is defined as the total number of intersections of tree edges with a given set of m barriers. We obtain the following results: (i) if the barriers are possibly intersecting

  19. BARRIERS OF STRATEGIC ALLIANCES ORGANIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladislav M. Sannikov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available General barriers of organization of different types of strategic alliances have beenconsidered in the article. There are several recommendations for overcoming themin cases of international alliances, and in case of work in one state. The article also identified goals and tasks of single coordination center of alliance to overcome organization barriers.

  20. Informal export barriers and poverty

    OpenAIRE

    Porto, Guido G.

    2004-01-01

    The author investigates the poverty impacts of informal export barriers like transport costs, cumbersome customs practices, costly regulations, and bribes. He models these informal barriers as export taxes that distort the efficient allocation of resources. In low-income agricultural economies, this distortion lowers wages and household agricultural income, thereby leading to higher pover...

  1. The Expanded Capabilities Of The Cementitious Barriers Partnership Software Toolbox Version 2.0 - 14331

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, Heather; Flach, Greg; Smith, Frank; Langton, Christine; Brown, Kevin; Kosson, David; Samson, Eric; Mallick, Pramod

    2014-01-10

    The Cementitious Barriers Partnership (CBP) Project is a multi-disciplinary, multi-institutional collaboration supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (US DOE) Office of Tank Waste Management. The CBP program has developed a set of integrated tools (based on state-of-the-art models and leaching test methods) that help improve understanding and predictions of the long-term structural, hydraulic and chemical performance of cementitious barriers used in nuclear applications. The CBP Software Toolbox – “Version 1.0” was released early in FY2013 and was used to support DOE-EM performance assessments in evaluating various degradation mechanisms that included sulfate attack, carbonation and constituent leaching. The sulfate attack analysis predicted the extent and damage that sulfate ingress will have on concrete vaults over extended time (i.e., > 1000 years) and the carbonation analysis provided concrete degradation predictions from rebar corrosion. The new release “Version 2.0” includes upgraded carbonation software and a new software module to evaluate degradation due to chloride attack. Also included in the newer version are a dual regime module allowing evaluation of contaminant release in two regimes – both fractured and un-fractured. The integrated software package has also been upgraded with new plotting capabilities and many other features that increase the “user-friendliness” of the package. Experimental work has been generated to provide data to calibrate the models to improve the credibility of the analysis and reduce the uncertainty. Tools selected for and developed under this program have been used to evaluate and predict the behavior of cementitious barriers used in near-surface engineered waste disposal systems for periods of performance up to or longer than 100 years for operating facilities and longer than 1000 years for waste disposal. The CBP Software Toolbox is and will continue to produce tangible benefits to the working DOE

  2. Automated Impedance Tomography for Monitoring Permeable Reactive Barrier Health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaBrecque, D J; Adkins, P L

    2009-07-02

    The objective of this research was the development of an autonomous, automated electrical geophysical monitoring system which allows for near real-time assessment of Permeable Reactive Barrier (PRB) health and aging and which provides this assessment through a web-based interface to site operators, owners and regulatory agencies. Field studies were performed at four existing PRB sites; (1) a uranium tailing site near Monticello, Utah, (2) the DOE complex at Kansas City, Missouri, (3) the Denver Federal Center in Denver, Colorado and (4) the Asarco Smelter site in East Helena, Montana. Preliminary surface data over the PRB sites were collected (in December, 2005). After the initial round of data collection, the plan was modified to include studies inside the barriers in order to better understand barrier aging processes. In September 2006 an autonomous data collection system was designed and installed at the EPA PRB and the electrode setups in the barrier were revised and three new vertical electrode arrays were placed in dedicated boreholes which were in direct contact with the PRB material. Final data were collected at the Kansas City, Denver and Monticello, Utah PRB sites in the fall of 2007. At the Asarco Smelter site in East Helena, Montana, nearly continuous data was collected by the autonomous monitoring system from June 2006 to November 2007. This data provided us with a picture of the evolution of the barrier, enabling us to examine barrier changes more precisely and determine whether these changes are due to installation issues or are normal barrier aging. Two rounds of laboratory experiments were carried out during the project. We conducted column experiments to investigate the effect of mineralogy on the electrical signatures resulting from iron corrosion and mineral precipitation in zero valent iron (ZVI) columns. In the second round of laboratory experiments we observed the electrical response from simulation of actual field PRBs at two sites: the

  3. Epistemological barriers to radical behaviorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donohue, W T; Callaghan, G M; Ruckstuhl, L E

    1998-01-01

    The historian and philosopher of science Gaston Bachelard proposed the concept of epistemological barriers to describe the intellectual challenges encountered by scientists in their work. In order to embrace novel ways of approaching a problem in science, scientists must overcome barriers or obstacles posed by their prior views. For example, Einsteinian physics presents scientists with claims that space is curved and that time and space are on the same continuum. We utilize Bachelard's concept of epistemological barriers to describe the differences between the intellectual journeys students pursuing advanced studies face when attempting to accept cognitive psychology or radical behaviorism. We contend that the folk psychological beliefs that students typically hold when entering these studies pose less challenge to cognitive psychology than to radical behaviorism. We also suggest that these barriers may also partly be involved in the problematic exegesis that has plagued radical behaviorism. In close, we offer some suggestions for dealing with these epistemological barriers.

  4. Epistemological barriers to radical behaviorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donohue, William T.; Callaghan, Glenn M.; Ruckstuhl, L. E.

    1998-01-01

    The historian and philosopher of science Gaston Bachelard proposed the concept of epistemological barriers to describe the intellectual challenges encountered by scientists in their work. In order to embrace novel ways of approaching a problem in science, scientists must overcome barriers or obstacles posed by their prior views. For example, Einsteinian physics presents scientists with claims that space is curved and that time and space are on the same continuum. We utilize Bachelard's concept of epistemological barriers to describe the differences between the intellectual journeys students pursuing advanced studies face when attempting to accept cognitive psychology or radical behaviorism. We contend that the folk psychological beliefs that students typically hold when entering these studies pose less challenge to cognitive psychology than to radical behaviorism. We also suggest that these barriers may also partly be involved in the problematic exegesis that has plagued radical behaviorism. In close, we offer some suggestions for dealing with these epistemological barriers. PMID:22478314

  5. Building Bridges, Breaking Barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Anne

    2016-10-28

    Essential facts Integrated care has been identified by the government and health and social care organisations as a vital step in responding to the increasing numbers of older people with complex needs, who are likely to receive care from several services in different locations.

  6. Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Dixon

    2004-04-26

    The conceptual and predictive models documented in this Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment Model report describe the evolution of the physical and chemical conditions within the waste emplacement drifts of the repository. The modeling approaches and model output data will be used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA-LA) to assess the performance of the engineered barrier system and the waste form. These models evaluate the range of potential water compositions within the emplacement drifts, resulting from the interaction of introduced materials and minerals in dust with water seeping into the drifts and with aqueous solutions forming by deliquescence of dust (as influenced by atmospheric conditions), and from thermal-hydrological-chemical (THC) processes in the drift. These models also consider the uncertainty and variability in water chemistry inside the drift and the compositions of introduced materials within the drift. This report develops and documents a set of process- and abstraction-level models that constitute the engineered barrier system: physical and chemical environment model. Where possible, these models use information directly from other process model reports as input, which promotes integration among process models used for total system performance assessment. Specific tasks and activities of modeling the physical and chemical environment are included in the technical work plan ''Technical Work Plan for: In-Drift Geochemistry Modeling'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 166519]). As described in the technical work plan, the development of this report is coordinated with the development of other engineered barrier system analysis model reports.

  7. On the pricing of investable securities and the role of implicit barriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carrieri, F.; Chaieb, I.; Errunza, V.

    2008-01-01

    Academics and practitioners implicitly assume that investable emerging market securities are priced in the global context. However the removal of explicit barriers may not necessarily result in increased market integration if implicit barriers are also important. To test this proposition, we use the

  8. Barrier island management; lessons from the past and directions for the future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oost, A.P.; Hoekstra, P.; Wiersma, A.; Flemming, B.; Lammerts, E.J.; Pejrup, M.; Hofstede, J.; Valk, B. de; Kiden, P.; Bartholdy, E.J.; Berg, M.W. van den; Vos, P.C.; Vries, S. de; Wang, Z.B.

    2012-01-01

    The article focuses on the morphological development of the Wadden Sea barrier island system, with emphasis on West and East Frisian islands on several temporal and spatial scales. In addition, it integrates the insights for management purposes. Barrier island management is addressed with respect to

  9. Development of engineered barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, Kwan Sik; Cho, Won Jin; Lee, Jae Owan; Kim, Seung Soo; Kang, Mu Ja

    1999-03-01

    Engineered barrier development was carried out into the three research fields : waste form, disposal container, and buffer. The waste form field dealt with long-term leaching tests with borosilicate waste glasses surrounded by compacted bentonite. The leach rate decreased with increasing time, and was higher for the waste specimen rich in U and Na. In the container field, preliminary concepts of disposal containers were recommended by conducting structural analysis, thermal analysis, and shielding analysis, and major properties of stainless steel, copper, and titanium as a container material were surveyed. The sensitization degrees of SUS 316 and316L were lower than those of SUS 304 and 304L, respectively. The crevice corrosion of sensitized stainless steel was sensitive to the content of salt. Researches into the buffer included establishment of its performance criteria followed by investigating major properties of buffer using potential material in Korea. Experiments were made for measuring hydraulic conductivities, swelling properties, mechanical properties, thermal conductivities, pore-water chemistry properties, and adsorption properties was also investigated. (author)

  10. 40 CFR 73.21 - Phase II repowering allowances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Phase II repowering allowances. 73.21... (CONTINUED) SULFUR DIOXIDE ALLOWANCE SYSTEM Allowance Allocations § 73.21 Phase II repowering allowances. (a) Repowering allowances. In addition to allowances allocated under § 73.10(b), the Administrator will...

  11. Nanoscale drug delivery systems and the blood–brain barrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyautdin R

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Renad Alyautdin,1 Igor Khalin,2 Mohd Ismail Nafeeza,1 Muhammad Huzaimi Haron,1 Dmitry Kuznetsov31Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM, Sungai Buloh, Selangor, Malaysia; 2Faculty of Medicine and Defence Health, National Defence University of Malaysia (NDUM, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 3Department of Medicinal Nanobiotechnologies, N. I. Pirogoff Russian State Medical University, Moscow, RussiaAbstract: The protective properties of the blood–brain barrier (BBB are conferred by the intricate architecture of its endothelium coupled with multiple specific transport systems expressed on the surface of endothelial cells (ECs in the brain's vasculature. When the stringent control of the BBB is disrupted, such as following EC damage, substances that are safe for peripheral tissues but toxic to neurons have easier access to the central nervous system (CNS. As a consequence, CNS disorders, including degenerative diseases, can occur independently of an individual's age. Although the BBB is crucial in regulating the biochemical environment that is essential for maintaining neuronal integrity, it limits drug delivery to the CNS. This makes it difficult to deliver beneficial drugs across the BBB while preventing the passage of potential neurotoxins. Available options include transport of drugs across the ECs through traversing occludins and claudins in the tight junctions or by attaching drugs to one of the existing transport systems. Either way, access must specifically allow only the passage of a particular drug. In general, the BBB allows small molecules to enter the CNS; however, most drugs with the potential to treat neurological disorders other than infections have large structures. Several mechanisms, such as modifications of the built-in pumping-out system of drugs and utilization of nanocarriers and liposomes, are among the drug-delivery systems that have been tested; however, each has its limitations and constraints. This review

  12. Guided bone regeneration : the influence of barrier membranes on bone grafts and bone defects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gielkens, Pepijn Frans Marie

    2008-01-01

    Guided bone regeneration (GBR) can be described as the use of a barrier membrane to provide a space available for new bone formation in a bony defect. The barrier membrane protects the defect from in-growth of soft tissue cells and allows bone progenitor cells to develop bone within a blood clot tha

  13. Evaluation of the Hot-Corrosion Behavior of Thermal Barrier Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-11-01

    coat the components with an insulating material. Ceramic thermal barriers intended for this application must be resistant to thermal shock, spalling...corrosive environment found in a gas turbine. 4428 APPROACH The purpose of using thermal barriers is to allow t-he utilization of high gas

  14. Improvement of light-current characteristic linearity in a quantum well laser with asymmetric barriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zubov, F. I.; Zhukov, A. E.; Shernyakov, Yu M.;

    2014-01-01

    The effect of asymmetric barriers on the light-current characteristic (LCC) of a quantum well laser was studied theoretically and experimentally. It is shown that the utilization of asymmetric barriers in a waveguide prevents the nonlinearity of LCC and, consequently, allows rising of the maximum...

  15. Barrier-protective effects of activated protein C in human alveolar epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferranda Puig

    Full Text Available Acute lung injury (ALI is a clinical manifestation of respiratory failure, caused by lung inflammation and the disruption of the alveolar-capillary barrier. Preservation of the physical integrity of the alveolar epithelial monolayer is of critical importance to prevent alveolar edema. Barrier integrity depends largely on the balance between physical forces on cell-cell and cell-matrix contacts, and this balance might be affected by alterations in the coagulation cascade in patients with ALI. We aimed to study the effects of activated protein C (APC on mechanical tension and barrier integrity in human alveolar epithelial cells (A549 exposed to thrombin. Cells were pretreated for 3 h with APC (50 µg/ml or vehicle (control. Subsequently, thrombin (50 nM or medium was added to the cell culture. APC significantly reduced thrombin-induced cell monolayer permeability, cell stiffening, and cell contraction, measured by electrical impedance, optical magnetic twisting cytometry, and traction microscopy, respectively, suggesting a barrier-protective response. The dynamics of the barrier integrity was also assessed by western blotting and immunofluorescence analysis of the tight junction ZO-1. Thrombin resulted in more elongated ZO-1 aggregates at cell-cell interface areas and induced an increase in ZO-1 membrane protein content. APC attenuated the length of these ZO-1 aggregates and reduced the ZO-1 membrane protein levels induced by thrombin. In conclusion, pretreatment with APC reduced the disruption of barrier integrity induced by thrombin, thus contributing to alveolar epithelial barrier protection.

  16. Development of microfluidic cell culture devices towards an in vitro human intestinal barrier model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Hsih-Yin

    to enable real-time detection of cell responses, adjustment of cellular stimulation etc. leading to establishment of conditional experiments. In this project, microfluidic systems engineering was leveraged to develop an eight chamber multi-layer microchip for intestinal barrier studies. Sandwiched between...... the layers was a modified Teflon porous membrane for cell culture. The novelty lies in modifying the surface of the porous Teflon support membrane using thiol-ene ‘click’ chemistry, thus allowing the modified Teflon membrane to be bonded between the chip layers to form an enclosed microchip. Successful...... application of the multi-layer microchip was demonstrated by integrating the microchip to an existing cell culture fluidic system to culture the human intestinal epithelial cells, Caco-2, for long term studies. Under the continuous low flow conditions, the cells differentiated into columnar cells displaying...

  17. Focused ultrasound-mediated drug delivery through the blood-brain barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Alison; Shah, Kairavi; Hough, Olivia; Hynynen, Kullervo

    2015-05-01

    Despite recent advances in blood-brain barrier (BBB) research, it remains a significant hurdle for the pharmaceutical treatment of brain diseases. Focused ultrasound (FUS) is one method to transiently increase permeability of the BBB to promote drug delivery to specific brain regions. An introduction to the BBB and a brief overview of the methods, which can be used to circumvent the BBB to promote drug delivery, is provided. In particular, we discuss the advantages and limitations of FUS technology and the efficacy of FUS-mediated drug delivery in models of disease. MRI for targeting and evaluating FUS treatments, combined with administration of microbubbles, allows for transient, reproducible BBB opening. The integration of a real-time acoustic feedback controller has improved treatment safety. Successful clinical translation of FUS has the potential to transform the treatment of brain disease worldwide without requiring the development of new pharmaceutical agents.

  18. "Crossing the Sahara without Water": Experiencing Class Inequality through the Back to Education Allowance Welfare to Education Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Martin

    2008-01-01

    This article critically appraises the success of the Back To Education Allowance (BTEA) in removing barriers to participation in 3rd level education for welfare recipients in Ireland. The paper is based on empirical data from focus group and in-depth qualitative interviews with 3rd level students on the BTEA. This study argues that it is…

  19. Subsurface barrier validation with the SEAtrace{trademark} system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandra Dalvit Dunn; William Lowry; Veraun Chipman

    1999-09-01

    Under contract to the Department of Energy, Science and Engineering Associates has completed development and testing of a subsurface barrier verification and monitoring system. This system, called SEAtrace{trademark}, is able to locate and size leaks with a high degree of accuracy in subsurface barriers that are emplaced in an unsaturated medium. It uses gaseous tracer injection, in-field real-time monitoring, and real time data analysis to evaluate barrier integrity. The approach is: Conservative as it measures vapor leaks in a containment system whose greatest risk is posed by liquid leaks; Applicable to any impermeable type of barrier emplacement technology in the unsaturated zone; Inexpensive as it uses readily available, non-toxic, nonhazardous gaseous tracers, does not require an inordinately large number of sampling points, and injection and sampling points can be emplaced by direct push techniques; Capable of assessing not only a barrier's initial integrity, but can also provide long-term monitoring. To date, six demonstrations of the system have been completed. Results from two of the demonstrations are detailed in this report. They include the final developmental demonstration of the SEAtrace system and a comparison demonstration of two tracer based verification technologies. The final developmental demonstration of SEAtrace was completed at a naval facility in Brunswick, Maine. The demonstration was funded solely by the DOE and was performed in cooperation with the US Navy, the Environmental Protection Agency, and the Maine Department of Environmental Protection.

  20. Aircraft engine-mounted camera system for long wavelength infrared imaging of in-service thermal barrier coated turbine blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markham, James; Cosgrove, Joseph; Scire, James; Haldeman, Charles; Agoos, Ian

    2014-12-01

    This paper announces the implementation of a long wavelength infrared camera to obtain high-speed thermal images of an aircraft engine's in-service thermal barrier coated turbine blades. Long wavelength thermal images were captured of first-stage blades. The achieved temporal and spatial resolutions allowed for the identification of cooling-hole locations. The software and synchronization components of the system allowed for the selection of any blade on the turbine wheel, with tuning capability to image from leading edge to trailing edge. Its first application delivered calibrated thermal images as a function of turbine rotational speed at both steady state conditions and during engine transients. In advance of presenting these data for the purpose of understanding engine operation, this paper focuses on the components of the system, verification of high-speed synchronized operation, and the integration of the system with the commercial jet engine test bed.

  1. Do barriers to pediatric pain management as perceived by nurses change over time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnecki, Michelle L; Salamon, Katherine S; Thompson, Jamie J; Hainsworth, Keri R

    2014-03-01

    For decades, nurses (RNs) have identified barriers to providing the optimal pain management that children deserve; yet no studies were found in the literature that assessed these barriers over time or across multiple pediatric hospitals. The purpose of this study was to reassess barriers that pediatric RNs perceive, and how they describe optimal pain management, 3 years after our initial assessment, collect quantitative data regarding barriers identified through comments during our initial assessment, and describe any changes over time. The Modified Barriers to Optimal Pain Management survey was used to measure barriers in both studies. RNs were invited via e-mail to complete an electronic survey. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to compare results over time. Four hundred forty-two RNs responded, representing a 38% response rate. RNs continue to describe optimal pain management most often in terms of patient comfort and level of functioning. While small changes were seen for several of the barriers, the most significant barriers continued to involve delays in the availability of medications, insufficient physician medication orders, and insufficient orders and time allowed to pre-medicate patients before procedures. To our knowledge, this is the first study to reassess RNs' perceptions of barriers to pediatric pain management over time. While little change was seen in RNs' descriptions of optimal pain management or in RNs' perceptions of barriers, no single item was rated as more than a moderate barrier to pain management. The implications of these findings are discussed in the context of improvement strategies.

  2. Nanoscale drug delivery systems and the blood-brain barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alyautdin, Renad; Khalin, Igor; Nafeeza, Mohd Ismail; Haron, Muhammad Huzaimi; Kuznetsov, Dmitry

    2014-01-01

    The protective properties of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) are conferred by the intricate architecture of its endothelium coupled with multiple specific transport systems expressed on the surface of endothelial cells (ECs) in the brain's vasculature. When the stringent control of the BBB is disrupted, such as following EC damage, substances that are safe for peripheral tissues but toxic to neurons have easier access to the central nervous system (CNS). As a consequence, CNS disorders, including degenerative diseases, can occur independently of an individual's age. Although the BBB is crucial in regulating the biochemical environment that is essential for maintaining neuronal integrity, it limits drug delivery to the CNS. This makes it difficult to deliver beneficial drugs across the BBB while preventing the passage of potential neurotoxins. Available options include transport of drugs across the ECs through traversing occludins and claudins in the tight junctions or by attaching drugs to one of the existing transport systems. Either way, access must specifically allow only the passage of a particular drug. In general, the BBB allows small molecules to enter the CNS; however, most drugs with the potential to treat neurological disorders other than infections have large structures. Several mechanisms, such as modifications of the built-in pumping-out system of drugs and utilization of nanocarriers and liposomes, are among the drug-delivery systems that have been tested; however, each has its limitations and constraints. This review comprehensively discusses the functional morphology of the BBB and the challenges that must be overcome by drug-delivery systems and elaborates on the potential targets, mechanisms, and formulations to improve drug delivery to the CNS.

  3. Low Conductivity Thermal Barrier Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dong-Ming

    2005-01-01

    Thermal barrier coatings will be more aggressively designed to protect gas turbine engine hot-section components in order to meet future engine higher fuel efficiency and lower emission goals. In this presentation, thermal barrier coating development considerations and requirements will be discussed. An experimental approach is established to monitor in real time the thermal conductivity of the coating systems subjected to high-heat-flux, steady-state and cyclic temperature gradients. Advanced low conductivity thermal barrier coatings have also been developed using a multi-component defect clustering approach, and shown to have improved thermal stability. The durability and erosion resistance of low conductivity thermal barrier coatings have been improved utilizing advanced coating architecture design, composition optimization, in conjunction with more sophisticated modeling and design tools.

  4. Coastal Structures and Barriers 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This dataset is a compilation of the UCSC Sand Retention Structures, MC Barriers, and USACE Coastal Structures. UCSC Sand Retention Structures originate from a...

  5. Guided tissue regeneration. Absorbable barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H L; MacNeil, R L

    1998-07-01

    Over the past 15 years, techniques aimed at regeneration of lost periodontal tissue have become widely used and accepted in clinical practice. Among these techniques are those which use the principles of guided tissue regeneration (GTR), wherein barriers (i.e., membranes) are used to control cell and tissue repopulation of the periodontal wound. A variety of non-absorbable and absorbable barriers have been developed and used for this purpose, with a trend in recent years toward increased use of absorbable GTR materials. This article describes the evolution of absorbable barrier materials and overview materials available for clinical use today. In addition, advantages and disadvantages of these materials are discussed, as well as possible new developments in barrier-based GTR therapy.

  6. The Functional Requirements and Design Basis for Information Barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, James L.

    2012-05-01

    This report summarizes the results of the Information Barrier Working Group workshop held at Sandia National Laboratory in Albuquerque, NM, February 2-4, 1999. This workshop was convened to establish the functional requirements associated with warhead radiation signature information barriers, to identify the major design elements of any such system or approach, and to identify a design basis for each of these major elements. Such information forms the general design basis to be used in designing, fabricating, and evaluating the complete integrated systems developed for specific purposes.

  7. Nonlocal reflection by photonic barriers

    OpenAIRE

    Vetter, R. -M.; A. Haibel; Nimtz, G.

    2001-01-01

    The time behaviour of microwaves undergoing partial reflection by photonic barriers was measured in the time and in the frequency domain. It was observed that unlike the duration of partial reflection by dielectric layers, the measured reflection duration of barriers is independent of their length. The experimental results point to a nonlocal behaviour of evanescent modes at least over a distance of some ten wavelengths. Evanescent modes correspond to photonic tunnelling in quantum mechanics.

  8. Schooling Inequality and Language Barriers

    OpenAIRE

    Parker, Susan W.; Rubalcava, Luis; Teruel, Graciela

    2005-01-01

    This article estimates the impact of language barriers on school achievement and the potential ameliorating role of bilingual education. Using large household data sets from poor rural communities in Mexico, we find that parental language (failure to speak Spanish) represents an important barrier to the schooling of indigenous children. We provide an empirical test suggesting that this largely reflects parental human capital related to culture/language, rather than unobserved wealth effects. ...

  9. Economic alternatives for containment barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicholson, P.J.; Jasperse, B.H.; Fisher, M.J. [Geo-Con, Inc., Monroeville, PA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Fixation, barriers, and containment of existing landfills and other disposal areas are often performed by insitu auger type soil mixing and jet grouting. Cement or other chemical reagents are mixed with soil to form both vertical and horizontal barriers. Immobilization of contaminants can be economically achieved by mixing soil and the contaminants with reagents that solidify or stabilize the contaminated area. Developed in Japan, and relatively new to the United States, the first large scale application was for a vertical barrier at the Jackson Lake Dam project in 1986. This technology has grown in both the civil and environmental field since. The paper describes current United States practice for Deep Soil Mixing (over 12 meters in depth), and Shallow Soil Mixing for vertical barriers and stabilization/solidification, and Jet Grouting for horizontal and vertical barriers. Creating very low permeability barriers at depth with minimal surface return often makes these techniques economical when compared to slurry trenches. The paper will discuss equipment, materials, soil and strength parameters, and quality control.

  10. Implementation of renewable technologies - Opportunities and barriers. Zimbabwe country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    Renewable Energy Technologies (RETS) have over the years become an integral part of the energy supply chain in most developed countries. Recent projections show that 13.5% of the world's primary energy supply comes from renewable and this figure has an aggregated annual growth rate of 16%. Wind has the highest annual growth rate of 22% while the least annual growth rate of 2% is for hydropower. The main push for renewable like wind in the OECD countries are environmental concerns and the business aspect in power generation. The situation is however completely different in Africa, where the thrust for RETs is developmental based. Although the continent has abundant renewable energy resources like solar, biomass, wind and hydro potential, they have remained largely unexploited. Several efforts have been made to help African countries like Zimbabwe to exploit such resources. The main objectives of this country study included review of Zimbabwe's development of past RETs, establish barriers related lessons learnt from such projects and currently running RETs projects, identify barriers experienced by other projects and then select a few barrier removal projects and then develop them with the help of all stake holders in the country. The methodology of this study involved a review of past RETs projects to establish barriers faced and barriers related lessons learnt. An examination of the policy instruments related to RETs was done to establish how they promote the dissemination of the technologies as well as their adequacy. A survey of all possible RETs projects in the country was carried out and in this survey the end-users were visited and interviewed by the research team. An initial workshop, which was attended by all stake holders, was held in November 1999. An Advisory committee on RETs in Zimbabwe was then set up comprising of various stake holders from government, the private sector, research institutions, interviewed end-users and the NGO community

  11. Damage of vascular endothelial barrier induced by explosive blast and its clinical significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Min Wang; Jing Chen

    2016-01-01

    In recent years,injuries induced by explosive blast have got more and more attention owing to weapon development and frequent terrorist activities.Tear.bleeding and edema of tissues and organs are the main manifestations of blast shock wave damage.Vascular endothelial barrier is the main defense of tissues and organs' integrity.This article aims to discuss possible mechanisms of endothelial barrier damage induced by explosive blast and main manifestations of blood brain barrier,blood-air barrier,and intestinal vascular barrier impairments.In addition,the main regulatory factors of vascular permeability are also summarized so as to provide theoretical basis for prevention and cure of vascular endothelial barrier damage resulting from explosive blast.

  12. A 3D self-organizing multicellular epidermis model of barrier formation and hydration with realistic cell morphology based on EPISIM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sütterlin, Thomas; Tsingos, Erika; Bensaci, Jalil; Stamatas, Georgios N.; Grabe, Niels

    2017-01-01

    The epidermis and the stratum corneum (SC) as its outermost layer have evolved to protect the body from evaporative water loss to the environment. To morphologically represent the extremely flattened cells of the SC - and thereby the epidermal barrier - in a multicellular computational model, we developed a 3D biomechanical model (BM) based on ellipsoid cell shapes. We integrated the BM in the multicellular modelling and simulation platform EPISIM. We created a cell behavioural model (CBM) with EPISIM encompassing regulatory feedback loops between the epidermal barrier, water loss to the environment, and water and calcium flow within the tissue. This CBM allows a small number of stem cells to initiate self-organizing epidermal stratification, yielding the spontaneous emergence of water and calcium gradients comparable to experimental data. We find that the 3D in silico epidermis attains homeostasis most quickly at high ambient humidity, and once in homeostasis the epidermal barrier robustly buffers changes in humidity. Our model yields an in silico epidermis with a previously unattained realistic morphology, whose cell neighbour topology is validated with experimental data obtained from in vivo images. This work paves the way to computationally investigate how an impaired SC barrier precipitates disease. PMID:28262741

  13. Breaking the Language Barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Preparation for the Apollo Soyuz mission entailed large-scale informational exchange that was accomplished by a computerized translation system. Based on this technology of commercial machine translation, a system known as SYSTRAN II was developed by LATSEC, Inc. and the World Translation Company of Canada. This system increases the output of a human translator by five to eight times, affording cost savings by allowing a large increase in document production without hiring additional people. Extra savings accrue from automatic production of camera-ready copy. Applications include translation of service manuals, proposals and tenders, planning studies, catalogs, list of parts and prices, textbooks, technical reports and education/training materials. System is operational for six language pairs. Systran users include Xerox Corporation, General Motors of Canada, Bell Northern Research of Canada, the U.S. Air Force and the European Commission. The company responsible for the production of SYSTRAN II has changed its name to SYSTRAN.

  14. Ultrathin, transferred layers of thermally grown silicon dioxide as biofluid barriers for biointegrated flexible electronic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Hui; Zhao, Jianing; Yu, Ki Jun; Song, Enming; Barati Farimani, Amir; Chiang, Chia-Han; Jin, Xin; Xue, Yeguang; Xu, Dong; Du, Wenbo; Seo, Kyung Jin; Zhong, Yiding; Yang, Zijian; Won, Sang Min; Fang, Guanhua; Choi, Seo Woo; Chaudhuri, Santanu; Huang, Yonggang; Ashraful Alam, Muhammad; Viventi, Jonathan; Aluru, N. R.; Rogers, John A.

    2016-10-01

    Materials that can serve as long-lived barriers to biofluids are essential to the development of any type of chronic electronic implant. Devices such as cardiac pacemakers and cochlear implants use bulk metal or ceramic packages as hermetic enclosures for the electronics. Emerging classes of flexible, biointegrated electronic systems demand similar levels of isolation from biofluids but with thin, compliant films that can simultaneously serve as biointerfaces for sensing and/or actuation while in contact with the soft, curved, and moving surfaces of target organs. This paper introduces a solution to this materials challenge that combines (i) ultrathin, pristine layers of silicon dioxide (SiO2) thermally grown on device-grade silicon wafers, and (ii) processing schemes that allow integration of these materials onto flexible electronic platforms. Accelerated lifetime tests suggest robust barrier characteristics on timescales that approach 70 y, in layers that are sufficiently thin (less than 1 μm) to avoid significant compromises in mechanical flexibility or in electrical interface fidelity. Detailed studies of temperature- and thickness-dependent electrical and physical properties reveal the key characteristics. Molecular simulations highlight essential aspects of the chemistry that governs interactions between the SiO2 and surrounding water. Examples of use with passive and active components in high-performance flexible electronic devices suggest broad utility in advanced chronic implants.

  15. ENGINEERED BARRIER SYSTEM: PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL ENVIRONMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Jarek

    2005-08-29

    The purpose of this model report is to describe the evolution of the physical and chemical environmental conditions within the waste emplacement drifts of the repository, including the drip shield and waste package surfaces. The resulting seepage evaporation and gas abstraction models are used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) to assess the performance of the engineered barrier system and the waste form. This report develops and documents a set of abstraction-level models that describe the engineered barrier system physical and chemical environment. Where possible, these models use information directly from other reports as input, which promotes integration among process models used for TSPA-LA. Specific tasks and activities of modeling the physical and chemical environment are included in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport In-Drift Geochemistry Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173782], Section 1.2.2). As described in the technical work plan, the development of this report is coordinated with the development of other engineered barrier system reports. To be consistent with other project documents that address features, events, and processes (FEPs), Table 6.14.1 of the current report includes updates to FEP numbers and FEP subjects for two FEPs identified in the technical work plan (TWP) governing this report (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173782]). FEP 2.1.09.06.0A (Reduction-oxidation potential in EBS), as listed in Table 2 of the TWP (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173782]), has been updated in the current report to FEP 2.1.09.06.0B (Reduction-oxidation potential in Drifts; see Table 6.14-1). FEP 2.1.09.07.0A (Reaction kinetics in EBS), as listed in Table 2 of the TWP (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173782]), has been updated in the current report to FEP 2.1.09.07.0B (Reaction kinetics in Drifts; see Table 6.14-1). These deviations from the TWP are justified because they improve integration with FEPs

  16. Diabetes and diet: Managing dietary barriers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Friele, R.D.

    1989-01-01

    This thesis reports on the barriers diabetic patients experience with their diet, and the ways they cope with these barriers. A dietary barrier is a hinderance to a person's well-being, induced by being advised a diet. First inventories were made of possible dietary barriers and ways of coping with

  17. The Use of Feature Parameters to Asses Barrier Properties of ALD coatings for Flexible PV Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blunt, Liam; Robbins, David; Fleming, Leigh; Elrawemi, Mohamed

    2014-03-01

    This paper reports on the recent work carried out as part of the EU funded NanoMend project. The project seeks to develop integrated process inspection, cleaning, repair and control systems for nano-scale thin films on large area substrates. In the present study flexible photovoltaic films have been the substrate of interest. Flexible PV films are the subject of significant development at present and the latest films have efficiencies at or beyond the level of Si based rigid PV modules. These flexible devices are fabricated on polymer film by the repeated deposition, and patterning, of thin layer materials using roll-to-roll processes, where the whole film is approximately 3um thick prior to encapsulation. Whilst flexible films offer significant advantages in terms of mass and the possibility of building integration (BIPV) they are at present susceptible to long term environmental degradation as a result of water vapor transmission through the barrier layers to the CIGS (Copper Indium Gallium Selenide CuInxGa(1-x)Se2) PV cells thus causing electrical shorts and efficiency drops. Environmental protection of the GIGS cell is provided by a thin (40nm) barrier coating of Al2O3. The highly conformal aluminium oxide barrier layer is produced by atomic layer deposition (ALD) where, the ultra-thin Al2O3 layer is deposited onto polymer thin films before these films encapsulate the PV cell. The surface of the starting polymer film must be of very high quality in order to avoid creating defects in the device layers. Since these defects reduce manufacturing yield, in order to prevent them, a further thin polymer coating (planarization layer) is generally applied to the polymer film prior to deposition. The presence of surface irregularities on the uncoated film can create defects within the nanometre-scale, aluminium oxide, barrier layer and these are measured and characterised. This paper begins by reporting the results of early stage measurements conducted to characterise

  18. Investigating the extent to which mobile phones reduce Knowledge Transfer barriers in Student Project Teams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E. Kyobe

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Group learning plays a key role in the transfer of knowledge. In institutions of learning, it enhances students’ understanding, critical thinking, integration of knowledge and knowledge sharing. However, the transfer of knowledge in group projects is often impeded by factors such as time and budget constraints, individual and social barriers, and a lack of motivation.Institutions of learning are increasingly adopting information and communication technologies (e.g. mobile technologies to provide solutions to the challenges facing them. Whilst the integration of the mobile context and technologies in learning environment has been encouraged over the years, and indeed many students today can use mobile phones, the effectiveness of these technologies in reducing impediments to knowledge transfer in group learning has not been investigated.This study investigated the extent to which mobile phones reduce the barriers to knowledge transfer in project groups. The impediments examined include the nature of knowledge, social barriers, lack of time and lack of motivation. Quantitative and qualitative approaches were used to collect and analyse the data. The sample consisted of 85 students engaged in group projects in the departments of Information Systems, Civil Engineering, Computer Science and Construction Engineering.The results show that mobile phones reduce all four knowledge transfer barriers investigated in the project groups. We found no significant difference in the nature of knowledge shared by teams with weak and strong ties. This suggests that teams with weak social ties who normally experience difficulty sharing complex (tacit knowledge can easily do so with the aid of mobile facilities. In addition, frequent users of mobile phones were motivated to share explicit knowledge with their peers whilst those who often work with tacit knowledge could convert it to explicit form and share it with others. Mobile features like short messaging

  19. Progress in forming bottom barriers under waste sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, E.E. [Carter Technologies, Sugar Land, TX (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The paper describes an new method for the construction, verification, and maintenance of underground vaults to isolate and contain radioactive burial sites without excavation or drilling in contaminated areas. The paper begins with a discussion of previous full-scale field tests of horizontal barrier tools which utilized high pressure jetting technology. This is followed by a discussion of the TECT process, which cuts with an abrasive cable instead of high pressure jets. The new method is potentially applicable to more soil types than previous methods and can form very thick barriers. Both processes are performed from the perimeter of a site and require no penetration or disturbance of the active waste area. The paper also describes long-term verification methods to monitor barrier integrity passively.

  20. Cylindrical air flow reversal barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woznica, C.; Rodziewicz, M.

    1988-06-01

    Describes an innovative design introduced in the ZMP mine in Zory for quick reversal of ventilation air flow. Geologic mining conditions at the 705 m deep horizon, where the barrier was built, are described. According to the design used until now, a reversal system consisted of safety barriers, ventilation air locks, a ventilation bridge and stopping needed in case of a fire when air flow direction must be reversed. Nine air locks and an expensive concrete ventilation bridge were needed and the air locks had to be operated at 8 points of the region to effect reversal. The new design consists of a 2-storey cylindrical barrier which also fulfills the function of a ventilation bridge. It can be manually or remotely operated by a mechanical or pneumatic system. Tests showed that the new barrier permits immediate air flow reversal while retaining 60% of the original air, which is important in the case of fire and methane hazards. It permits improved seam panelling and splitting of pillars and brings an economy of about 40 million zlotys in construction cost. Design and operation of the barrier is illustrated and ventilation air circulation is explained. 7 figs.

  1. 38 CFR 21.4145 - Work-study allowance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Work-study allowance. 21...; Educational Assistance Allowance § 21.4145 Work-study allowance. (a) Eligibility. (1) A veteran or reservist... rate of three-quarter time or full time is eligible to receive a work-study allowance. (2) An...

  2. 7 CFR 3560.202 - Establishing rents and utility allowances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Establishing rents and utility allowances. 3560.202... Establishing rents and utility allowances. (a) General. Rents and utility allowances for rental units in Agency... Agency. (b) Agency approval. All rents and utility allowances set by borrowers are subject to...

  3. Barriers to comparing the usability of electronic health records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratwani, Raj M; Hettinger, A Zachary; Fairbanks, Rollin J

    2016-08-29

    Despite the widespread adoption of electronic health records (EHRs), usability of many EHRs continues to be suboptimal, with some vendors failing to meet usability standards, resulting in clinician frustration and patient safety hazards. In an effort to increase EHR vendor competition on usability, recommendations have been made and legislation drafted to develop comparison tools that would allow purchasers to better understand the usability of EHR products prior to purchase. Usability comparison can be based on EHR vendor design and development processes, vendor usability testing as part of the Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology certification program, and usability of implemented products. Barriers exist within the current certified health technology program that prevent effective comparison of usability during each of these stages. We describe the importance of providing purchasers with improved information about EHR usability, barriers to making usability comparisons, and solutions to overcome these barriers.

  4. Room Temperature Magnetic Barrier Layers in Magnetic Tunnel Junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson-Cheeseman, B. B.; Wong, F. J.; Chopdekar, R. V.; Arenholz, E.; Suzuki, Y.

    2010-03-09

    We investigate the spin transport and interfacial magnetism of magnetic tunnel junctions with highly spin polarized LSMO and Fe3O4 electrodes and a ferrimagnetic NiFe2O4 (NFO) barrier layer. The spin dependent transport can be understood in terms of magnon-assisted spin dependent tunneling where the magnons are excited in the barrier layer itself. The NFO/Fe3O4 interface displays strong magnetic coupling, while the LSMO/NFO interface exhibits clear decoupling as determined by a combination of X-ray absorption spectroscopy and X-ray magnetic circular dichroism. This decoupling allows for distinct parallel and antiparallel electrode states in this all-magnetic trilayer. The spin transport of these devices, dominated by the NFO barrier layer magnetism, leads to a symmetric bias dependence of the junction magnetoresistance at all temperatures.

  5. Integrated epidemiology for vector-borne zoonoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardrop, Nicola A

    2016-02-01

    The development and application of interventions for the control of vector-borne zoonoses requires broad understanding of epidemiological linkages between vector, animal infection and human infection. However, there are significant gaps in our understanding of these linkages and a lack of appropriate data poses a considerable barrier to addressing this issue. A move towards strengthened surveillance of vectors and disease in both animal and human hosts, in combination with linked human-animal surveys, could form the backbone for epidemiological integration, enabling explicit assessment of the animal-human (and vector) interface, and subsequent implications for spill-over to human populations. Currently available data on the spatial distribution of human African trypanosomiasis allow an illustrative example.

  6. Provider barriers to telemental health: obstacles overcome, obstacles remaining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Elizabeth; Turvey, Carolyn; Augusterfer, Eugene F

    2013-06-01

    Many providers are hesitant to use telemental health technologies. When providers are queried, various barriers are presented, such as the clinician's skepticism about the effectiveness of telemental health (TMH), viewing telehealth technologies as inconvenient, or reporting difficulties with medical reimbursement. Provider support for TMH is critical to its diffusion because clinicians often serve as the initial gatekeepers to telehealth implementation and program success. In this article, we address provider concerns in three broad domains: (1) personal barriers, (2) clinical workflow and technology barriers, and (3) licensure, credentialing, and reimbursement barriers. We found evidence that, although many barriers have been discussed in the literature for years, advancements in TMH have rapidly reduced obstacles for its use. Improvements include extensive opportunities for training, a growing evidence base supporting positive TMH outcomes, and transformations in technologies that improve provider convenience and transmission quality. Recommendations for further change are discussed within each domain. In particular, it is important to grow and disseminate data underscoring the promise and effectiveness of TMH, integrate videoconferencing capabilities into electronic medical record platforms, expand TMH reimbursement, and modify licensure standards.

  7. Microtubule dynamics control HGF-induced lung endothelial barrier enhancement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyong Tian

    Full Text Available Microtubules (MT play a vital role in many cellular functions, but their role in peripheral actin cytoskeletal dynamics which is essential for control of endothelial barrier and monolayer integrity is less understood. We have previously described the enhancement of lung endothelial cell (EC barrier by hepatocyte growth factor (HGF which was associated with Rac1-mediated remodeling of actin cytoskeleton. This study investigated involvement of MT-dependent mechanisms in the HGF-induced enhancement of EC barrier. HGF-induced Rac1 activation was accompanied by phosphorylation of stathmin, a regulator of MT dynamics. HGF also stimulated MT peripheral growth monitored by time lapse imaging and tracking analysis of EB-1-decorated MT growing tips, and increased the pool of acetylated tubulin. These effects were abolished by EC pretreatment with HGF receptor inhibitor, downregulation of Rac1 pathway, or by expression of a stathmin-S63A phosphorylation deficient mutant. Expression of stathmin-S63A abolished the HGF protective effects against thrombin-induced activation of RhoA cascade, permeability increase, and EC barrier dysfunction. These results demonstrate a novel MT-dependent mechanism of HGF-induced EC barrier regulation via Rac1/PAK1/stathmin-dependent control of MT dynamics.

  8. Barriers to diabetes management: patient and provider factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Soohyun; Chesla, Catherine; Stotts, Nancy A; Kroon, Lisa; Janson, Susan L

    2011-07-01

    Despite significant advances in diagnosis and treatment, the persistence of inadequate metabolic control continues. Poor glycemic control may be reflected by both the failure of diabetes self-management by patients as well as inadequate intervention strategies by clinicians. The purpose of this systematic review is to summarize existing knowledge regarding various barriers of diabetes management from the perspectives of both patients and clinicians. A search of PubMed, CINAHL, ERIC, and PsycINFO identified 1454 articles in English published between 1990 and 2009, addressing type 2 diabetes, patient's barriers, clinician's barriers, and self-management. Patients' adherence, attitude, beliefs, and knowledge about diabetes may affect diabetes self-management. Culture and language capabilities influence the patient's health beliefs, attitudes, health literacy, thereby affecting diabetes self-management. Other influential factors include the patient's financial resources, co-morbidities, and social support. Clinician's attitude, beliefs and knowledge about diabetes also influence diabetes management. Clinicians may further influence the patient's perception through effective communication skills and by having a well-integrated health care system. Identifying barriers to diabetes management is necessary to improve the quality of diabetes care, including the improvement of metabolic control, and diabetes self-management. Further research that considers these barriers is necessary for developing interventions for individuals with type 2 diabetes.

  9. Structure information from fusion barriers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S V S Sastry; S Santra

    2000-06-01

    It is shown that the analysis of fusion barrier distributions is not always an unambiguous test or a ‘fingerprint’ of the structure information of the colliding nuclei. Examples are presented with same fusion barrier distributions for nuclei having different structures. The fusion excitation functions for 16O+208Pb, using the coupled reaction channel (CRC) method and correct structure information, have been analysed. The barrier distributions derived from these excitation functions including many of the significant channels are featureless, although these channels have considerable effects on the fusion excitation function. However, a simultaneous analysis of the fusion, elastic and quasi-elastic channels would fix the structure and the reaction unambiguously

  10. Skin Barrier Function and Allergens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engebretsen, Kristiane Aasen; Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan

    2016-01-01

    The skin is an important barrier protecting us from mechanical insults, microorganisms, chemicals and allergens, but, importantly, also reducing water loss. A common hallmark for many dermatoses is a compromised skin barrier function, and one could suspect an elevated risk of contact sensitization...... and skin barrier status. Psoriasis has traditionally been regarded a Th1-dominated disease, but the discovery of Th17 cells and IL-17 provides new and interesting information regarding the pathogenesis of the disease. Research suggests an inverse relationship between psoriasis and CA, possibly due......) and Th2 (AD) have been proposed as an explanation. Finally, there is convincing evidence that exposure to irritants increases the risk of CS, and patients with ICD are, therefore, at great risk of developing CA. Skin irritation leads to the release of IL-1 and TNF-α, which affects the function of antigen...

  11. Rare disease research: Breaking the privacy barrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Mascalzoni

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to the few patients affected, rare disease research has to count on international registries to exist in order to produce significant research outputs. Data sharing of registries is therefore a unique resource to allow rare disease research to flourish and any lost data will jeopardize the quality of an already extremely difficult research. The rules usually applied to research such as the right to withdraw or the need for specific consent for every use of data can be detrimental in order to get effective results. Privacy rights regulated through traditional informed consent mechanisms have been regarded as a major barrier in order to effectively share data worldwide. Some authors argue that this barrier hampers results that could be beneficial to the patients so that another right will be overstated: the right to quality healthcare. We argue in this paper that privacy has been often interpreted just one-sided as the right to secrecy but it can entail another meaning: the right to manage one's own private sphere. Managing it pertains, not only to the right to deny access, but also to the right to grant access. At the same time research on patient participation and transparency shows that new forms of IT-based informed consent can provide a good balance between the right of individuals to be in control of their data and the opportunity for science to pursue international research.

  12. Rare disease research: Breaking the privacy barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascalzoni, Deborah; Paradiso, Angelo; Hansson, Matts

    2014-06-01

    Due to the few patients affected, rare disease research has to count on international registries to exist in order to produce significant research outputs. Data sharing of registries is therefore a unique resource to allow rare disease research to flourish and any lost data will jeopardize the quality of an already extremely difficult research. The rules usually applied to research such as the right to withdraw or the need for specific consent for every use of data can be detrimental in order to get effective results. Privacy rights regulated through traditional informed consent mechanisms have been regarded as a major barrier in order to effectively share data worldwide. Some authors argue that this barrier hampers results that could be beneficial to the patients so that another right will be overstated: the right to quality healthcare. We argue in this paper that privacy has been often interpreted just one-sided as the right to secrecy but it can entail another meaning: the right to manage one's own private sphere. Managing it pertains, not only to the right to deny access, but also to the right to grant access. At the same time research on patient participation and transparency shows that new forms of IT-based informed consent can provide a good balance between the right of individuals to be in control of their data and the opportunity for science to pursue international research.

  13. Sound propagation over curved barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Allan D.; Main, Geoffrey L.; Kearns, James A.; Hsieh, H.-A.

    1986-01-01

    Wide barriers with curved tops are studied with emphasis placed on circumstances whereby the local radius of curvature R of the barrier is continuous along the surface and is large compared to a wavelength. Results analogous to those given by Hayek et al. (1978) are reviewed and extended to cases where the radius of curvature and the surface impedance may vary with position. Circumstances not easily interpreted within the framework of the model proposed by Keller (1956) and Hayek et al. are also considered.

  14. Reduction of Train-induced Vibrations by using Barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Leonardi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The problem of the ground-borne vibration caused by high speed trains has received considerable attention in recent years, due to the effects of vibration on buildings, in terms of physical damage and on population, in terms of discomfort. The problem has become more significant with the increase of speed and weight of trains, which results in heavier loads on the tracks. Therefore, there is the necessity to find a method, which allows investigating the propagation of vibration waves in the soil. This study aims to study the train-induced ground vibration and the mitigation effects of barriers using a Finite Element Method (FEM model. Two different types of barriers were evaluated considering their stiffness and a benchmark model without mitigation measures was also analyzed to evaluate the effectiveness of the considered barriers. The results of the proposed elaborations have been finalized to the assessment of the incidence of the barrier on the vibration state induced from the passage of a high speed trains and the following conclusions can be made: concrete seems to provide a significative reduction of the vibration. The proposed method can be successfully applied to a preliminary analysis of the influence of different types of barriers on the dynamic properties of vibration waves in the soil.

  15. Systems study on engineered barriers: barrier performance analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stula, R.T.; Albert, T.E.; Kirstein, B.E.; Lester, D.H.

    1980-09-01

    A performance assessment model for multiple barrier packages containing unreprocessed spent fuel has been modified and applied to several package designs. The objective of the study was to develop information to be used in programmatic decision making concerning engineered barrier package design and development. The assessment model, BARIER, was developed in previous tasks of the System Study on Engineered Barriers (SSEB). The new version discussed in this report contains a refined and expanded corrosion rate data base which includes pitting, crack growth, and graphitization as well as bulk corrosion. Corrosion rates for oxic and anoxic conditions at each of the two temperature ranges are supplied. Other improvements include a rigorous treatment of radionuclide release after package failure which includes resistance of damaged barriers and backfill, refined temperature calculations that account for convection and radiation, a subroutine to calculate nuclear gamma radiation field at each barrier surface, refined stress calculations with reduced conservatism and various coding improvements to improve running time and core usage. This report also contains discussion of alternative scenarios to the assumed flooded repository as well as the impact of water exclusion backfills. The model was used to assess post repository closure performance for several designs which were all variation of basic designs from the Spent Unreprocessed Fuel (SURF) program. Many designs were found to delay the onset of leaching by at least a few hundreds of years in all geologic media. Long delay times for radionuclide release were found for packages with a few inches of sorption backfill. Release of uranium, plutonium, and americium was assessed.

  16. Managing troubled data: coastal data partnerships smooth data integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Stephen S; Miglarese, Anne Hale; Bradley, M Patricia; Belton, Thomas J; Cooper, Larry D; Frame, Michael T; Friel, Christopher A; Harwell, Linda M; King, Robert E; Michener, William K; Nicolson, David T; Peterjohn, Bruce G

    2003-01-01

    Understanding the ecology, condition, and changes of coastal areas requires data from many sources. Broad-scale and long-term ecological questions, such as global climate change, biodiversity, and cumulative impacts of human activities, must be addressed with databases that integrate data from several different research and monitoring programs. Various barriers, including widely differing data formats, codes, directories, systems, and metadata used by individual programs, make such integration troublesome. Coastal data partnerships, by helping overcome technical, social, and organizational barriers, can lead to a better understanding of environmental issues, and may enable better management decisions. Characteristics of successful data partnerships include a common need for shared data, strong collaborative leadership, committed partners willing to invest in the partnership, and clear agreements on data standards and data policy. Emerging data and metadata standards that become widely accepted are crucial. New information technology is making it easier to exchange and integrate data. Data partnerships allow us to create broader databases than would be possible for any one organization to create by itself.

  17. Managing troubled data: Coastal data partnerships smooth data integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, S.S.; Hale, Miglarese A.; Bradley, M.P.; Belton, T.J.; Cooper, L.D.; Frame, M.T.; Friel, C.A.; Harwell, L.M.; King, R.E.; Michener, W.K.; Nicolson, D.T.; Peterjohn, B.G.

    2003-01-01

    Understanding the ecology, condition, and changes of coastal areas requires data from many sources. Broad-scale and long-term ecological questions, such as global climate change, biodiversity, and cumulative impacts of human activities, must be addressed with databases that integrate data from several different research and monitoring programs. Various barriers, including widely differing data formats, codes, directories, systems, and metadata used by individual programs, make such integration troublesome. Coastal data partnerships, by helping overcome technical, social, and organizational barriers, can lead to a better understanding of environmental issues, and may enable better management decisions. Characteristics of successful data partnerships include a common need for shared data, strong collaborative leadership, committed partners willing to invest in the partnership, and clear agreements on data standards and data policy. Emerging data and metadata standards that become widely accepted are crucial. New information technology is making it easier to exchange and integrate data. Data partnerships allow us to create broader databases than would be possible for any one organization to create by itself.

  18. Road Safety Barriers, the Need and Influence on Road Traffic Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butāns, Ž.; Gross, K. A.; Gridnevs, A.; Karzubova, E.

    2015-11-01

    Constantly increasing intensity of road traffic and the allowed speed limits seem to impose stronger requirements on road infrastructure and use of road safety systems. One of the ways to improve road safety is the use of road restraint systems. Road safety barriers allow not only reducing the number of road traffic accidents, but also lowering the severity of accidents. The paper provides information on the technical requirements of road safety barriers. Various types of road safety barriers and their selection criteria for different types of road sections are discussed. The article views an example of a road traffic accident, which is also modelled by PC-Crash computer program. The given example reflects a road accident mechanism in case of a car-to-barrier collision, and provides information about the typical damage to the car and the barrier. The paper describes an impact of the road safety barrier type and its presence on the road traffic accident mechanism. Implementation and maintenance costs of different barrier types are viewed. The article presents a discussion on the necessity to use road safety barriers, as well as their optimal choice.

  19. Crossing the barrier: treatment of brain tumors using nanochain particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karathanasis, Efstathios; Ghaghada, Ketan B

    2016-09-01

    Despite advancements in surgery and radiotherapy, the aggressive forms of brain tumors, such as gliomas, are still uniformly lethal with current therapies offering only palliation complicated by significant toxicities. Gliomas are characteristically diffuse with infiltrating edges, resistant to drugs and nearly inaccessible to systemic therapies due to the brain-tumor barrier. Currently, aggressive efforts are underway to further understand brain-tumor's microenvironment and identify brain tumor cell-specific regulators amenable to pharmacologic interventions. While new potent agents are continuously becoming available, efficient drug delivery to brain tumors remains a limiting factor. To tackle the drug delivery issues, a multicomponent chain-like nanoparticle has been developed. These nanochains are comprised of iron oxide nanospheres and a drug-loaded liposome chemically linked into a 100-nm linear, chain-like assembly with high precision. The nanochain possesses a unique ability to scavenge the tumor endothelium. By utilizing effective vascular targeting, the nanochains achieve rapid deposition on the vascular bed of glioma sites establishing well-distributed drug reservoirs on the endothelium of brain tumors. After reaching the target sites, an on-command, external low-power radiofrequency field can remotely trigger rapid drug release, due to mechanical disruption of the liposome, facilitating widespread and effective drug delivery into regions harboring brain tumor cells. Integration of the nanochain delivery system with the appropriate combination of complementary drugs has the potential to unfold the field and allow significant expansion of therapies for the disease where success is currently very limited. WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol 2016, 8:678-695. doi: 10.1002/wnan.1387 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  20. Striatal blood–brain barrier permeability in Parkinson's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Gray , Madison T.; Woulfe, John M.

    2015-01-01

    In vivo studies have shown that blood–brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction is involved in the course of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, these have lacked either anatomic definition or the ability to recognize minute changes in BBB integrity. Here, using histologic markers of serum protein, iron, and erythrocyte extravasation, we have shown significantly increased permeability of the BBB in the postcommissural putamen of PD patients. The dense innervation of the striatum by PD-affected regions a...

  1. Functional barriers: Properties and evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feigenbaum, A.; Dole, P.; Aucejo, S.; Dainelli, D.; Cruz Garcia, C. de la; Hankemeier, T.; N'Gono, Y.; Papaspyrides, C.D.; Paseiro, P.; Pastorelli, S.; Pavlidou, S.; Pennarun, P.Y.; Saillard, P.; Vidal, L.; Vitrac, O.; Voulzatis, Y.

    2005-01-01

    Functional barriers are multilayer structures deemed to prevent migration of some chemicals released by food-contact materials into food. In the area of plastics packaging, different migration behaviours of mono- and multilayer structures are assessed in terms of lag time and of their influence of t

  2. Barrier/Cu contact resistivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, J.S.; Nicolet, M.A. [California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States); Angyal, M.S.; Lilienfeld, D.; Shacham-Diamand, Y. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States); Smith, P.M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-10-17

    The specific contact resistivity of Cu with ({alpha} + {beta})-Ta, TiN, {alpha}-W, and amorphous-Ta{sub 36}Si{sub 14}N{sub 50} barrier films is measured using a novel four-point-probe approach. Geometrically, the test structures consist of colinear sets of W-plugs to act as current and voltage probes that contact the bottom of a planar Cu/barrier/Cu stack. Underlying Al interconnects link the plugs to the current source and voltmeter. The center-to-center distance of the probes ranges from 3 to 200 {micro}m. Using a relation developed by Vu et al., a contact resistivity of roughly 7 {times} 10{sup {minus}9} {Omega} cm{sup 2} is obtained for all tested barrier/Cu combinations. By reflective-mode small-angle X-ray scattering, the similarity in contact resistivity among the barrier films may be related to interfacial impurities absorbed from the deposition process.

  3. Planar doped barrier subharmonic mixers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, T. H.; East, J. R.; Haddad, G. I.

    1992-01-01

    The Planar Doped Barrier (PDB) diode is a device consisting of a p(+) doping spike between two intrinsic layers and n(+) ohmic contacts. This device has the advantages of controllable barrier height, diode capacitance and forward to reverse current ratio. A symmetrically designed PDB has an anti-symmetric current vs. voltage characteristic and is ideal for use as millimeter wave subharmonic mixers. We have fabricated such devices with barrier heights of 0.3, 0.5 and 0.7 volts from GaAs and InGaAs using a multijunction honeycomb structure with junction diameters between one and ten microns. Initial RF measurements are encouraging. The 0.7 volt barrier height 4 micron GaAs devices were tested as subharmonic mixers at 202 GHz with an IF frequency of 1 GHz and had 18 dB of conversion loss. The estimated mismatch loss was 7 dB and was due to higher diode capacitance. The LO frequency was 100.5 GHz and the pump power was 8 mW.

  4. FX barriers with smile dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baker, Glyn; Beneder, Reimer; Zilber, Alex

    2004-01-01

    Our mandate in this work has been to isolate the features of smile consistent models that are most relevant to the pricing of barrier options. We consider the two classical approaches of stochastic and (parametric) local volatility. Although neither has been particularly successful in practice their

  5. Plastic Schottky barrier solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldrop, James R.; Cohen, Marshall J.

    1984-01-24

    A photovoltaic cell structure is fabricated from an active medium including an undoped, intrinsically p-type organic semiconductor comprising polyacetylene. When a film of such material is in rectifying contact with a magnesium electrode, a Schottky-barrier junction is obtained within the body of the cell structure. Also, a gold overlayer passivates the magnesium layer on the undoped polyacetylene film.

  6. Business Case Analysis: Continuous Integrated Logistics Support-Targeted Allowance Technique (CILS-TAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    treated as fixed values, linearity is really only a restriction on the parameters ( Noether , 1971). In order to check for model linearity and constant...1990). Applied linear statistical models: Regression, analysis of variance, and experimental designs (3rd ed.). Homewood, IL: Irwin. Noether , G. E

  7. Thinking Allowed: Integrating Process and Genre into the Second Language Writing Classroom: Research into Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racelis, Juval V.; Matsuda, Paul Kei

    2013-01-01

    The field of second language (L2) writing has moved beyond the false dichotomies between process- and genre-based pedagogies perpetuated in the 1980s and 1990s, but there has still been little research on how the two are actually reconciled in the classroom. Consequently, L2 writing instructors are left with an incomplete picture, unsure how to…

  8. Business Case Analysis: Continuous Integrated Logistics Support-Targeted Allowance Technique (CILS-TAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-30

    AOE-4), supply officer, USS Henry M. Jackson SSBN 730 (Gold), supply officer, USS Nebraska SSBN 739 (Blue), J4 Logistics OIC for Task Force 373...bachelor’s degree in business management from Troy University and was selected for Officer Candidate School in Pensacola, FL. Following his...commissioning in 2001, he attended Navy Supply Corps School in Athens, GA. LCDR Bannister also holds a Master of Public Administration from Troy

  9. Effect of electric barrier on passage and physical condition of juvenile and adult rainbow trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layhee, Megan J.; Sepulveda, Adam; Shaw, Amy; Smuckall, Matthew; Kapperman, Kevin; Reyes, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Electric barriers can inhibit passage and injure fish. Few data exist on electric barrier parameters that minimize these impacts and on how body size affects susceptibility, especially to nontarget fish species. The goal of this study was to determine electric barrier voltage and pulse-width settings that inhibit passage of larger bodied rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (215–410 mm fork length) while allowing passage of smaller bodied juvenile rainbow trout (52–126 mm) in a static laboratory setting. We exposed rainbow trout to 30-Hz pulsed-direct current voltage gradients (0.00–0.45 V cm−1) and pulse widths (0.0–0.7 ms) and recorded their movement, injury incidence, and mortality. No settings tested allowed all juveniles to pass while impeding all adult passage. Juvenile and adult rainbow trout avoided the barrier at higher pulse widths, and fewer rainbow trout passed the barrier at 0.7-ms pulse width compared to 0.1 ms and when the barrier was turned off. We found no effect of voltage gradient on fish passage. No mortality occurred, and we observed external bruising in 5 (7%) juvenile rainbow trout and 15 (21%) adult rainbow trout. This study may aid managers in selecting barrier settings that allow for increased juvenile passage.

  10. 27 CFR 20.24 - Allowance of claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTRIBUTION AND USE OF DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Administrative Provisions Authorities § 20.24 Allowance of claims. The appropriate TTB officer is authorized to allow claims for...

  11. 27 CFR 22.23 - Allowance of claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTRIBUTION AND USE OF TAX-FREE ALCOHOL Administrative Provisions Authorities § 22.23 Allowance of claims. The appropriate TTB officer is authorized to allow claims for...

  12. 32 CFR 842.35 - Depreciation and maximum allowances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Depreciation and maximum allowances. 842.35... LITIGATION ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS Personnel Claims (31 U.S.C. 3701, 3721) § 842.35 Depreciation and maximum allowances. The military services have jointly established the “Allowance List-Depreciation Guide”...

  13. 42 CFR 50.504 - Allowable cost of drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable cost of drugs. 50.504 Section 50.504... APPLICABILITY Maximum Allowable Cost for Drugs § 50.504 Allowable cost of drugs. (a) The maximum amount which may be expended from program funds for the acquisition of any drug shall be the lowest of (1)...

  14. 45 CFR 1801.43 - Allowance for books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowance for books. 1801.43 Section 1801.43... HARRY S. TRUMAN SCHOLARSHIP PROGRAM Payments to Finalists and Scholars § 1801.43 Allowance for books. The cost allowance for a Scholar's books is $1000 per year, or such higher amount published on...

  15. 24 CFR 891.785 - Adjustment of utility allowances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adjustment of utility allowances... Handicapped Families and Individuals-Section 162 Assistance § 891.785 Adjustment of utility allowances. In... adjustment of utility allowances provided in § 891.440 apply....

  16. 24 CFR 891.440 - Adjustment of utility allowances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adjustment of utility allowances... Project Management § 891.440 Adjustment of utility allowances. This section shall apply to projects funded... submit an analysis of any utility allowances applicable. Such data as changes in utility rates and...

  17. 24 CFR 886.326 - Adjustment of utility allowances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adjustment of utility allowances... utility allowances. When the owner requests HUD approval of an adjustment in Contract Rents under § 886.312, an analysis of the project's Utility Allowances must be included. Such data as changes in...

  18. 24 CFR 880.610 - Adjustment of utility allowances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adjustment of utility allowances... Management § 880.610 Adjustment of utility allowances. In connection with annual and special adjustments of contract rents, the owner must submit an analysis of the project's Utility Allowances. Such data as...

  19. 24 CFR 886.126 - Adjustment of utility allowances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adjustment of utility allowances... utility allowances. When the owner requests HUD approval of adjustment in Contract Rents under § 886.112, an analysis of the project's Utility Allowances must be included. Such data as changes in...

  20. 24 CFR 884.220 - Adjustment of utility allowances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adjustment of utility allowances... Adjustment of utility allowances. In connection with annual and special adjustments of contract rents, the owner must submit an analysis of the project's Utility Allowances. Such data as changes in utility...

  1. 50 CFR 665.127 - Allowable gear and gear restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable gear and gear restrictions. 665... Fisheries § 665.127 Allowable gear and gear restrictions. (a) American Samoa coral reef ecosystem MUS may be taken only with the following allowable gear and methods: (1) Hand harvest; (2) Spear; (3) Slurp gun;...

  2. 50 CFR 665.427 - Allowable gear and gear restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable gear and gear restrictions. 665... Archipelago Fisheries § 665.427 Allowable gear and gear restrictions. (a) Mariana coral reef ecosystem MUS may be taken only with the following allowable gear and methods: (1) Hand harvest; (2) Spear; (3)...

  3. 50 CFR 665.227 - Allowable gear and gear restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable gear and gear restrictions. 665... Fisheries § 665.227 Allowable gear and gear restrictions. (a) Hawaii coral reef ecosystem MUS may be taken only with the following allowable gear and methods: (1) Hand harvest; (2) Spear; (3) Slurp gun;...

  4. 46 CFR 154.412 - Cargo tank corrosion allowance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo tank corrosion allowance. 154.412 Section 154.412... Containment Systems § 154.412 Cargo tank corrosion allowance. A cargo tank must be designed with a corrosion...) carries a cargo that corrodes the tank material. Note: Corrosion allowance for independent tank type C...

  5. 46 CFR 54.25-5 - Corrosion allowance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Construction With Carbon, Alloy, and Heat Treated Steels § 54.25-5 Corrosion allowance. The corrosion allowance must be as required in 46 CFR 54.01-35. ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Corrosion allowance. 54.25-5 Section 54.25-5...

  6. Tanycyte-Like Cells Form a Blood–Cerebrospinal Fluid Barrier in the Circumventricular Organs of the Mouse Brain

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Tanycytes are highly specialized ependymal cells that form a blood–cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier at the level of the median eminence (ME), a circumventricular organ (CVO) located in the tuberal region of the hypothalamus. This ependymal layer harbors well-organized tight junctions, a hallmark of central nervous system barriers that is lacking in the fenestrated portal vessels of the ME. The displacement of barrier properties from the vascular to the ventricular side allows the diffusion o...

  7. The complex influences of back-barrier deposition, substrate slope and underlying stratigraphy in barrier island response to sea-level rise: Insights from the Virginia Barrier Islands, Mid-Atlantic Bight, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Owen T.; Moore, Laura J.; Murray, A. Brad

    2015-10-01

    To understand the relative importance of back barrier environment, substrate slope and underlying stratigraphy in determining barrier island response to RSLR (relative sea-level rise), we use a morphological-behavior model (GEOMBEST) to conduct a series of sensitivity experiments, based on late-Holocene hindcast simulations of an island in the U.S. mid-Atlantic Bight (Metompkin Island, VA) having both salt marsh and lagoonal back-barrier environments, and we draw comparisons between these results and future simulations (2000-2100 AD) of island response to RSLR. Sensitivity analyses indicate that, as a whole, the island is highly sensitive to factors that reduce overall sand availability (i.e., high sand-loss rates and substrates containing little sand). Results also indicate that for all predicted future RSLR scenarios tested, islands having high substrate sand proportions (if allowed to migrate freely) will likely remain subaerial for centuries because of sufficient substrate sand supply and elevation to assist in keeping islands above sea level. Simulation results also lead to basic insights regarding the interactions among substrate slope, back-barrier deposition and island migration rates. In contrast to previous studies, which suggest that changes in substrate slope directly affect the island migration trajectory, we find that-in the presence of back-barrier deposition-the connection between substrate slope and island behavior is modulated (i.e., variability in migration rates is dampened) by changes in back-barrier width. These interactions-which tend to produce changes in shoreface sand content-lead to a negative feedback when the back-barrier deposit contains less sand than the underlying layer, resulting in a stable back-barrier width. Alternatively, a positive feedback arises when the back-barrier deposit contains more sand than the underlying layer, resulting in either back-barrier disappearance or perpetual widening.

  8. Breaking wheat yield barriers requires integrated efforts in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most yield progress obtained through the so called “green revolution”, particularly in the irrigated areas of Asia, has reached a limit, and major resistance genes are quickly overcome by the appearance of new strains of disease causing organisms. New plant stresses due to a changing environment are...

  9. Breaking wheat yield barriers requires integrated efforts in developing countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Saeed Rauf; Maria Zaharieva; Marilyn L Warburton; ZHANG Ping-zhi; Abdullah M AL-Sadi; Farghama Khalil; Marcin Kozak; Sultan A Tariq

    2015-01-01

    Most yield progress obtained through the so cal ed“Green Revolution”, particularly in the irrigated areas of Asia, has reached a limit, and major resistance genes are quickly overcome by the appearance of new strains of disease causing organisms. New plant stresses due to a changing environment are dififcult to breed for as quickly as the changes occur. There is con-sequently a continual need for new research programs and breeding strategies aimed at improving yield potential, abiotic stress tolerance and resistance to new, major pests and diseases. Recent advances in plant breeding encompass novel methods of expanding genetic variability and selecting for recombinants, including the development of synthetic hexaploid, hybrid and transgenic wheats. In addition, the use of molecular approaches such as quantitative trait locus (QTL) and asso-ciation mapping may increase the possibility of directly selecting positive chromosomal regions linked with natural variation for grain yield and stress resistance. The present article reviews the potential contribution of these new approaches and tools to the improvement of wheat yield in farmer’s ifelds, with a special emphasis on the Asian countries, which are major wheat producers, and contain the highest concentration of resource-poor wheat farmers.

  10. The Invisible Barrier to Integrating Computer Technology in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aflalo, Ester

    2014-01-01

    The article explores contradictions in teachers' perceptions regarding the place of computer technologies in education. The research population included 47 teachers who have incorporated computers in the classroom for several years. The teachers expressed positive attitudes regarding the decisive importance of computer technologies in furthering…

  11. AlzPharm: integration of neurodegeneration data using RDF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miller Perry

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neuroscientists often need to access a wide range of data sets distributed over the Internet. These data sets, however, are typically neither integrated nor interoperable, resulting in a barrier to answering complex neuroscience research questions. Domain ontologies can enable the querying heterogeneous data sets, but they are not sufficient for neuroscience since the data of interest commonly span multiple research domains. To this end, e-Neuroscience seeks to provide an integrated platform for neuroscientists to discover new knowledge through seamless integration of the very diverse types of neuroscience data. Here we present a Semantic Web approach to building this e-Neuroscience framework by using the Resource Description Framework (RDF and its vocabulary description language, RDF Schema (RDFS, as a standard data model to facilitate both representation and integration of the data. Results We have constructed a pilot ontology for BrainPharm (a subset of SenseLab using RDFS and then converted a subset of the BrainPharm data into RDF according to the ontological structure. We have also integrated the converted BrainPharm data with existing RDF hypothesis and publication data from a pilot version of SWAN (Semantic Web Applications in Neuromedicine. Our implementation uses the RDF Data Model in Oracle Database 10g release 2 for data integration, query, and inference, while our Web interface allows users to query the data and retrieve the results in a convenient fashion. Conclusion Accessing and integrating biomedical data which cuts across multiple disciplines will be increasingly indispensable and beneficial to neuroscience researchers. The Semantic Web approach we undertook has demonstrated a promising way to semantically integrate data sets created independently. It also shows how advanced queries and inferences can be performed over the integrated data, which are hard to achieve using traditional data integration

  12. Factors affecting the carbon allowance market in the US

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Seok; Koo, Won W. [Center for Agricultural Policy and Trade Studies, Department of Agribusiness and Applied Economics, North Dakota State University, Dept 7610, P.O. Box 6050, Fargo, ND 58103-6050 (United States)

    2010-04-15

    The US carbon allowance market has different characteristic and price determination process from the EU ETS market, since emitting installations voluntarily participate in emission trading scheme. This paper examines factors affecting the US carbon allowance market. An autoregressive distributed lag model is used to examine the short- and long-run relationships between the US carbon allowance market and its determinant factors. In the long-run, the price of coal is a main factor in the determination of carbon allowance trading. In the short-run, on the other hand, the changes in crude oil and natural gas prices as well as coal price have significant effects on carbon allowance market. (author)

  13. Financial Integrity Benchmarks

    Data.gov (United States)

    City of Jackson, Mississippi — This data compiles standard financial integrity benchmarks that allow the City to measure its financial standing. It measure the City's debt ratio and bond ratings....

  14. Magnetic Nanoparticles Cross the Blood-Brain Barrier: When Physics Rises to a Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Antònia Busquets

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The blood-brain barrier is a physical and physiological barrier that protects the brain from toxic substances within the bloodstream and helps maintain brain homeostasis. It also represents the main obstacle in the treatment of many diseases of the central nervous system. Among the different approaches employed to overcome this barrier, the use of nanoparticles as a tool to enhance delivery of therapeutic molecules to the brain is particularly promising. There is special interest in the use of magnetic nanoparticles, as their physical characteristics endow them with additional potentially useful properties. Following systemic administration, a magnetic field applied externally can mediate the capacity of magnetic nanoparticles to permeate the blood-brain barrier. Meanwhile, thermal energy released by magnetic nanoparticles under the influence of radiofrequency radiation can modulate blood-brain barrier integrity, increasing its permeability. In this review, we present the strategies that use magnetic nanoparticles, specifically iron oxide nanoparticles, to enhance drug delivery to the brain.

  15. Properties of group delay for photon tunneling through dispersive metamaterial barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinglin; Wang, Huisheng; Zheng, Fanong

    2017-01-01

    We make a detailed investigation on properties of the group delay for photon tunneling through dispersive metamaterial barriers by employing stationary phase method. Due to the anomalous dispersion of the different barriers, it is found that the group delay is positive for double negative metamaterial (DNM) barrier, while for single negative metamaterial (SNM) and negative-zero-positive index metamaterial (NZPIM) barriers, they can change from negative to positive with variations of both frequency and incident angle. The lateral shift for the photon tunneling has also been studied, whose sign is found not to dominate the sign of the group delay. It is further confirmed that the group delay tends to a saturation value with increasing barrier length because of Hartman effect. These results may provide some ideas for further study on the photon tunneling, suggest the analogous phenomena of valence electron in graphene, and produce some potential application in integrated optics and optical devices.

  16. Patient advocacy: barriers and facilitators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikravesh Mansoure

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the two recent decades, advocacy has been a topic of much debate in the nursing profession. Although advocacy has embraced a crucial role for nurses, its extent is often limited in practice. While a variety of studies have been generated all over the world, barriers and facilitators in the patient advocacy have not been completely identified. This article presents the findings of a study exploring the barriers and facilitators influencing the role of advocacy among Iranian nurses. Method This study was conducted by grounded theory method. Participants were 24 Iranian registered nurses working in a large university hospital in Tehran, Iran. Semi-structured interviews were used for data collection. All interviews were transcribed verbatim and simultaneously Constant comparative analysis was used according to the Strauss and Corbin method. Results Through data analysis, several main themes emerged to describe the factors that hindered or facilitated patient advocacy. Nurses in this study identified powerlessness, lack of support, law, code of ethics and motivation, limited communication, physicians leading, risk of advocacy, royalty to peers, and insufficient time to interact with patients and families as barriers to advocacy. As for factors that facilitated nurses to act as a patient advocate, it was found that the nature of nurse-patient relationship, recognizing patients' needs, nurses' responsibility, physician as a colleague, and nurses' knowledge and skills could be influential in adopting the advocacy role. Conclusion Participants believed that in this context taking an advocacy role is difficult for nurses due to the barriers mentioned. Therefore, they make decisions and act as a patient's advocate in any situation concerning patient needs and status of barriers and facilitators. In most cases, they can not act at an optimal level; instead they accept only what they can do, which we called 'limited advocacy' in

  17. Dielectric barrier discharges applied for optical spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, S.; Schütz, A.; Klute, F. D.; Kratzer, J.; Franzke, J.

    2016-09-01

    The present review reflects the importance of dielectric barrier discharges for optical spectrometric detection in analytical chemistry. In contrast to usual discharges with a direct current the electrodes are separated by at least one dielectric barrier. There are two main features of the dielectric barrier discharges: they can serve as dissociation and excitation devices as well as ionization sources, respectively. This article portrays various application fields of dielectric barrier discharges in analytical chemistry used for elemental and molecular detection with optical spectrometry.

  18. HIV-1 Nef breaches placental barrier in rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Poonam; Agnihotri, Saurabh Kumar; Tewari, Mahesh Chandra; Kumar, Sadan; Sachdev, Monika; Tripathi, Raj Kamal

    2012-01-01

    The vertical transmission of HIV-1 from the mother to fetus is known, but the molecular mechanism regulating this transmission is not fully characterized. The fetus is highly protected by the placenta, which does not permit microbial pathogens to cross the placental barrier. In the present study, a rat model was established to observe the effect of HIV-1 protein Nef on placental barrier. Evans blue dye was used to assay permeability of placental barrier and fourteen day pregnant Sprague Dawley rats were injected intravenously with 2% Evans blue dye along with various concentrations of recombinant Nef. After an hour, animals were sacrificed and dye migration was observed through the assimilation of peripheral blood into fetus. Interestingly, traces of recombinant Nef protein were detected in the embryo as well as amniotic fluid and amniotic membrane along with placenta and uterus. Our study indicates that recombinant HIV-1-Nef protein breaches the placental barrier and allows the migration of Evans blue dye to the growing fetus. Further the concentration of Nef protein in blood is directly proportional to the intensity of dye migration and to the amount of Nef protein detected in uterus, placenta, amniotic membrane, amniotic fluid and embryo. Based on this study, it can be concluded that the HIV-1 Nef protein has a direct effect on breaching of the placental barrier in the model we have established in this study. Our observations will be helpful to understand the molecular mechanisms related to this breach of placental barrier by Nef in humans and may be helpful to identify specific Nef inhibitors.

  19. Smuggling Drugs into the Brain: An Overview of Ligands Targeting Transcytosis for Drug Delivery across the Blood-Brain Barrier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuhorn, Inge; Georgieva, Julia V.; Hoekstra, Dick

    2015-01-01

    The blood-brain barrier acts as a physical barrier that prevents free entry of blood-derived substances, including those intended for therapeutic applications. The development of molecular Trojan horses is a promising drug targeting technology that allows for non-invasive delivery of therapeutics in

  20. Article Including Environmental Barrier Coating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang N. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An enhanced environmental barrier coating for a silicon containing substrate. The enhanced barrier coating may include a bond coat doped with at least one of an alkali metal oxide and an alkali earth metal oxide. The enhanced barrier coating may include a composite mullite bond coat including BSAS and another distinct second phase oxide applied over said surface.

  1. Barriers to Mammography among Inadequately Screened Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, Carolyn R. T.; Roberts, Summer; Cheng, Meng-Ru; Crayton, Eloise V.; Jackson, Sherrill; Politi, Mary C.

    2015-01-01

    Mammography use has increased over the past 20 years, yet more than 30% of women remain inadequately screened. Structural barriers can deter individuals from screening, however, cognitive, emotional, and communication barriers may also prevent mammography use. This study sought to identify the impact of number and type of barriers on mammography…

  2. Design of the Muong Chuoi Barrier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Vliegen, K.; Van Oorschot, N.; Meinen, N.; Van Dijk, S.; Reimert, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Ho Chi Minh City has to deal with severe flooding in the rainy season. To prevent the city from this flooding, MARD set up plan 1547. The main idea of the plan is to build a ring dike around HCMC in combination with several movable tidal barriers. One of these barriers is the Muong Chuoi Barrier. I

  3. Market barriers to welfare product innovations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binnekamp, M.H.A.; Ingenbleek, P.T.M.

    2006-01-01

    New products that are based on higher animal welfare standards encounter several barriers on the road to market acceptance. The authors focus on the Dutch poultry sector and distinguish between retailer and consumer barriers. Retailer barriers include the powerful position of retailers, the price co

  4. Indicators to Monitor Deeper Regional Trade Integration in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2015-01-01

    Stronger regional integration has been a policy priority in Africa for several decades. Countries in Africa have committed to a process of deeper integration, but have made little progress in implementing commitments and removing barriers. This report looks at the monitoring of regional integration in Africa and argues that more effective monitoring processes for existing integration arran...

  5. Project Work Plan: Hanford 100-D Area Treatability Demonstration - In Situ Biostimulation for Reducing Barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Truex, Michael J.; Vermeul, Vince R.; Long, Philip E.

    2006-05-31

    This work plan supports a new, integrated approach to accelerate cleanup of chromium in the Hanford 100 Areas. This new approach will provide supplemental treatment upgradient of the ISRM barrier by directly treating chromium and other oxidizing species in groundwater (i.e., nitrate and dissolved oxygen), thereby increasing the longevity of the ISRM barrier and protecting the ecological receptors and human health at the river boundary.

  6. Investigating Barriers to Knowledge Management Success: A Conceptual Model and a Comparative Case Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Chihab BenMoussa

    2010-01-01

    What barriers obstruct the success of knowledge management programs? This paper has integrated studies on the barriers to knowledge management (KM) into a theoretical framework. Based on this framework, five cases documenting failed KM initiatives were analysed. The analysis gives a clear picture about why certain KM projects fail. The high failure rate of KM can be explained by the supply-IT based approach many organisations adopt when it comes to their KM programs. To increase the success r...

  7. Overcome barriers to career success

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raudsepp, E.

    1983-04-01

    A test is given to determine if an engineer suffers from one of the three barriers to technical success: fear of success, fear of failure, or perfectionism. As in most such tests, the middle way is best. Successful engineers know that perfection cannot be attained, that they don't have time to worry about failure or success, and that by aiming and perservering in doing things well, success can be achieved.

  8. Removing Barriers to Interdisciplinary Research

    CERN Document Server

    Jacobs, Naomi

    2010-01-01

    A significant amount of high-impact contemporary scientific research occurs where biology, computer science, engineering and chemistry converge. Although programmes have been put in place to support such work, the complex dynamics of interdisciplinarity are still poorly understood. In this paper we interrogate the nature of interdisciplinary research and how we might measure its "success", identify potential barriers to its implementation, and suggest possible mechanisms for removing these impediments.

  9. Flexible pile thermal barrier insulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, G. E.; Fell, D. M.; Tesinsky, J. S. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A flexible pile thermal barrier insulator included a plurality of upstanding pile yarns. A generally planar backing section supported the upstanding pile yarns. The backing section included a plurality of filler yarns forming a mesh in a first direction. A plurality of warp yarns were looped around said filler yarns and pile yarns in the backing section and formed a mesh in a second direction. A binder prevented separation of the yarns in the backing section.

  10. Lake Borgne Surge Barrier Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    Savant , and Darla C. McVan September 2010 Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. ERDC/CHL TR-10-10 September 2010 Lake...Borgne Surge Barrier Study S. Keith Martin, Gaurav Savant , and Darla C. McVan Coastal and Hydraulics Laboratory U.S. Army Engineer Research and...conducted by Keith Martin, Dr. Gaurav Savant , and Darla C. McVan. This work was conducted at the Coastal and Hydraulics Laboratory (CHL) of the

  11. Skin Barrier Function and Its Importance at the Start of the Atopic March

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Beth Hogan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Atopic dermatitis can be due to a variety of causes from nonatopic triggers to food allergy. Control of egress of water and protection from ingress of irritants and allergens are key components of cutaneous barrier function. Current research suggests that a degraded barrier function of the skin allows the immune system inappropriate access to environmental allergens. Epidermal aeroallergen exposure may allow sensitization to allergen possibly initiating the atopic march. Further research into connections between epidermal barrier function and possible allergen sensitization will be important to undertake. Future clinical trials focused on skin barrier protection may be of value as a possible intervention in prevention of the initiation of the atopic march.

  12. Factorization of Behavioral Integrity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Ximeng; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2015-01-01

    We develop a bisimulation-based nonintereference property that describes the allowed dependencies between communication behaviors of different integrity levels. The property is able to capture all possible combinations of integrity levels for the “presence” and “content” of actual communications...

  13. Integrated care: a Danish perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudkjøbing, Andreas; Olejaz, Maria; Birk, Hans Okkels

    2012-01-01

    that it generally provides high quality services and patient satisfaction with primary care and hospital services is high. Nevertheless, despite a raft of policies aimed at integrating health services, the Danish system still suffers from a lack of coordination of care. Although Denmark’s health information systems...... are widely admired, barriers to integration include organisational fragmentation, perverse financial incentives, and the absence of a single electronic medical record....

  14. 29 CFR 778.600 - Veterans' subsistence allow- ances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS OVERTIME COMPENSATION... subsistence allowances provided by Public Law 346 for payment to veterans are not paid as compensation...

  15. The Effect of Core Configuration on Thermal Barrier Thermal Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMange, Jeffrey J.; Bott, Robert H.; Druesedow, Anne S.

    2015-01-01

    Thermal barriers and seals are integral components in the thermal protection systems (TPS) of nearly all aerospace vehicles. They are used to minimize heat transfer through interfaces and gaps and protect underlying temperature-sensitive components. The core insulation has a significant impact on both the thermal and mechanical properties of compliant thermal barriers. Proper selection of an appropriate core configuration to mitigate conductive, convective and radiative heat transfer through the thermal barrier is challenging. Additionally, optimization of the thermal barrier for thermal performance may have counteracting effects on mechanical performance. Experimental evaluations have been conducted to better understand the effect of insulation density on permeability and leakage performance, which can significantly impact the resistance to convective heat transfer. The effect of core density on mechanical performance was also previously investigated and will be reviewed. Simple thermal models were also developed to determine the impact of various core parameters on downstream temperatures. An extended understanding of these factors can improve the ability to design and implement these critical TPS components.

  16. Genetic mouse models to study blood–brain barrier development and function

    OpenAIRE

    Sohet, Fabien; Daneman, Richard

    2013-01-01

    The blood–brain barrier (BBB) is a complex physiological structure formed by the blood vessels of the central nervous system (CNS) that tightly regulates the movement of substances between the blood and the neural tissue. Recently, the generation and analysis of different genetic mouse models has allowed for greater understanding of BBB development, how the barrier is regulated during health, and its response to disease. Here we discuss: 1) Genetic mouse models that have been used to study th...

  17. Exploring the stability of super heavy elements: First Measurement of the Fission Barrier of 254No

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning G.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The gamma-ray multiplicity and total energy emitted by the heavy nucleus 254No have been measured at 2 different beam energies. From these measurements, the initial distributions of spin I and excitation energy E∗ of 254No were constructed. The distributions display a saturation in excitation energy, which allows a direct determination of the fission barrier. 254No is the heaviest shell-stabilized nucleus with a measured fission barrier.

  18. Diffraction of sound by nearly rigid barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadden, W. J., Jr.; Pierce, A. D.

    1976-01-01

    The diffraction of sound by barriers with surfaces of large, but finite, acoustic impedance was analyzed. Idealized source-barrier-receiver configurations in which the barriers may be considered as semi-infinite wedges are discussed. Particular attention is given to situations in which the source and receiver are at large distances from the tip of the wedge. The expression for the acoustic pressure in this limiting case is compared with the results of Pierce's analysis of diffraction by a rigid wedge. An expression for the insertion loss of a finite impedance barrier is compared with insertion loss formulas which are used extensively in selecting or designing barriers for noise control.

  19. Mathematical modeling of complex noise barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayek, S.I.

    1982-01-01

    Mathematical modeling of the noise reduction efficiency of highway noise barriers depends on the shape and absorptivity of the barrier, the influence of the impedance of the ground under the receiver, the atmospheric conditions as well as traffic details. The mathematical model for a barrier's noise reduction requires the knowledge of point-to-point acoustic diffraction models. In many instances, the shape of the barrier is simple; such as thin wall (edge), sharp wedge, and cylindrically topped berms. However, new designs of more efficient barriers have been investigated recently.

  20. Neurosurgical Techniques for Disruption of the Blood–Brain Barrier for Glioblastoma Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Analiz Rodriguez

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The blood–brain barrier remains a main hurdle to drug delivery to the brain. The prognosis of glioblastoma remains grim despite current multimodal medical management. We review neurosurgical technologies that disrupt the blood–brain barrier (BBB. We will review superselective intra-arterial mannitol infusion, focused ultrasound, laser interstitial thermotherapy, and non-thermal irreversible electroporation (NTIRE. These technologies can lead to transient BBB and blood–brain tumor barrier disruption and allow for the potential of more effective local drug delivery. Animal studies and preliminary clinical trials show promise for achieving this goal.

  1. Collagen based barrier membranes for periodontal guided bone regeneration applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Zeeshan; Qureshi, Javairia; Alshahrani, Abdullah M; Nassar, Heba; Ikeda, Yuichi; Glogauer, Michael; Ganss, Bernhard

    2017-01-01

    Certain cell populations within periodontal tissues possess the ability to induce regeneration, provided they have the opportunity to populate the wound or defect. Guided regeneration techniques have been investigated for regenerating periodontal tissues and such therapies usually utilize barrier membranes. Various natural and synthetic barrier membranes have been fabricated and tested to prevent epithelial and connective tissue cells from invading while allowing periodontal cells to selectively migrate into the defect. This paper focuses on the literature relevant to the use and potential of resorbable collagen membranes in GBR procedures, sites of periodontal and intrabony defects, in cases of socket and alveolar ridge preservation and at implant sites. The results of their use in GBR procedures has shown them to be effective and comparable with non-resorbable membranes with regards to clinical attachment gain, probing depth reduction and defect bone filling. They have also shown to prevent epithelial ingrowth into the defect space during the initial wound healing phase postsurgically. Collagen membranes have also been used for root coverage and GBR procedures and have shown good success rates comparable to subepithelial connective tissue grafts and expanded-polytetrafluoroethylene (e-PTFE) membranes. The future for periodontal tissue engineering is very exciting with the use of barrier membranes expected to continue playing a critical role. However, long-term clinical trials are required to further evaluate and confirm the efficacy of the available collagen barrier membranes for periodontal and bone regeneration use.

  2. Distributions of methyl group rotational barriers in polycrystalline organic solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckmann, Peter A., E-mail: pbeckman@brynmawr.edu, E-mail: wangxianlong@uestc.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Bryn Mawr College, 101 North Merion Ave., Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania 19010-2899 (United States); Conn, Kathleen G. [Department of Physics, Bryn Mawr College, 101 North Merion Ave., Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania 19010-2899 (United States); Division of Education and Human Services, Neumann University, One Neumann Drive, Aston, Pennsylvania 19014-1298 (United States); Mallory, Clelia W. [Department of Chemistry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104-6323 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Bryn Mawr College, 101 North Merion Ave., Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania 19010-2899 (United States); Mallory, Frank B. [Department of Chemistry, Bryn Mawr College, 101 North Merion Ave., Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania 19010-2899 (United States); Rheingold, Arnold L. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, California 92093-0358 (United States); Rotkina, Lolita [Regional Nanotechnology Facility, Laboratory for Research on the Structure of Matter, University of Pennsylvania, 3231 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104-6202 (United States); Wang, Xianlong, E-mail: pbeckman@brynmawr.edu, E-mail: wangxianlong@uestc.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for NeuroInformation of Ministry of Education, School of Life Science and Technology, University of Electronic Science and Technology, 4 North Jianshe Rd., 2nd Section, Chengdu 610054 (China)

    2013-11-28

    We bring together solid state {sup 1}H spin-lattice relaxation rate measurements, scanning electron microscopy, single crystal X-ray diffraction, and electronic structure calculations for two methyl substituted organic compounds to investigate methyl group (CH{sub 3}) rotational dynamics in the solid state. Methyl group rotational barrier heights are computed using electronic structure calculations, both in isolated molecules and in molecular clusters mimicking a perfect single crystal environment. The calculations are performed on suitable clusters built from the X-ray diffraction studies. These calculations allow for an estimate of the intramolecular and the intermolecular contributions to the barrier heights. The {sup 1}H relaxation measurements, on the other hand, are performed with polycrystalline samples which have been investigated with scanning electron microscopy. The {sup 1}H relaxation measurements are best fitted with a distribution of activation energies for methyl group rotation and we propose, based on the scanning electron microscopy images, that this distribution arises from molecules near crystallite surfaces or near other crystal imperfections (vacancies, dislocations, etc.). An activation energy characterizing this distribution is compared with a barrier height determined from the electronic structure calculations and a consistent model for methyl group rotation is developed. The compounds are 1,6-dimethylphenanthrene and 1,8-dimethylphenanthrene and the methyl group barriers being discussed and compared are in the 2–12 kJ mol{sup −1} range.

  3. InGaP Heterojunction Barrier Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welser, Roger E. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A new solar cell structure called a heterojunction barrier solar cell is described. As with previously reported quantum-well and quantum-dot solar cell structures, a layer of narrow band-gap material, such as GaAs or indium-rich InGaP, is inserted into the depletion region of a wide band-gap PN junction. Rather than being thin, however, the layer of narrow band-gap material is about 400-430 nm wide and forms a single, ultrawide well in the depletion region. Thin (e.g., 20-50 nm), wide band-gap InGaP barrier layers in the depletion region reduce the diode dark current. Engineering the electric field and barrier profile of the absorber layer, barrier layer, and p-type layer of the PN junction maximizes photogenerated carrier escape. This new twist on nanostructured solar cell design allows the separate optimization of current and voltage to maximize conversion efficiency.

  4. Ab initio transport across bismuth selenide surface barriers

    KAUST Repository

    Narayan, Awadhesh

    2014-11-24

    © 2014 American Physical Society. We investigate the effect of potential barriers in the form of step edges on the scattering properties of Bi2Se3(111) topological surface states by means of large-scale ab initio transport simulations. Our results demonstrate the suppression of perfect backscattering, while all other scattering processes, which do not entail a complete spin and momentum reversal, are allowed. Furthermore, we find that the spin of the surface state develops an out-of-plane component as it traverses the barrier. Our calculations reveal the existence of quasibound states in the vicinity of the surface barriers, which appear in the form of an enhanced density of states in the energy window corresponding to the topological state. For double barriers we demonstrate the formation of quantum well states. To complement our first-principles results we construct a two-dimensional low-energy effective model and illustrate its shortcomings. Our findings are discussed in the context of a number of recent experimental works.

  5. 9 CFR 51.32 - Claims not allowed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.32 Claims not allowed. Claims for indemnity for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed because of brucellosis will not be allowed if any of the following...

  6. 38 CFR 21.9670 - Work-study allowance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Work-study allowance. 21... rate of pursuit of at least 75 percent may receive a work-study allowance in accordance with the...) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Post-9/11 GI Bill Payments-Educational Assistance § 21.9670...

  7. 26 CFR 31.3402(m)-1 - Withholding allowances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... individuals. (i) Except as provided in subdivision (ii) of this subparagraph, a husband and wife shall... of their combined wages and allowable items. The withholding allowances to which a husband and wife are entitled may be claimed by the husband, by the wife, or they may be allocated between...

  8. 49 CFR 174.86 - Maximum allowable operating speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maximum allowable operating speed. 174.86 Section... operating speed. (a) For molten metals and molten glass shipped in packagings other than those prescribed in § 173.247 of this subchapter, the maximum allowable operating speed may not exceed 24 km/hour (15...

  9. 40 CFR 86.1725-01 - Allowable maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allowable maintenance. 86.1725-01... Trucks § 86.1725-01 Allowable maintenance. This section includes text that specifies requirements that... are subject to the applicable Otto-cycle or diesel engine maintenance requirements of §...

  10. 20 CFR 362.10 - Principal types of claims allowable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... which the loss or damage occurred: (1) In a common or natural disaster; (2) When the property was... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Principal types of claims allowable. 362.10... PROCEDURES EMPLOYEES' PERSONAL PROPERTY CLAIMS § 362.10 Principal types of claims allowable. (a) In...

  11. 24 CFR 882.510 - Adjustment of utility allowance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adjustment of utility allowance... Moderate Rehabilitation-Program Development and Operation § 882.510 Adjustment of utility allowance. The PHA must determine, at least annually, whether an adjustment is required in the Utility...

  12. 24 CFR 891.645 - Adjustment of utility allowances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adjustment of utility allowances... Handicapped-Section 8 Assistance § 891.645 Adjustment of utility allowances. In connection with adjustments of contract rents as provided in § 891.640(a), the requirements for the adjustment of utility...

  13. 24 CFR 982.517 - Utility allowance schedule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... reasonable accommodation in accordance with 24 CFR part 8 to make the program accessible to and usable by the... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Utility allowance schedule. 982.517... Payment § 982.517 Utility allowance schedule. (a) Maintaining schedule. (1) The PHA must maintain...

  14. 77 FR 66938 - Utility Allowances Submetering; Hearing Cancellation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-08

    ... Federal Register on August 7, 2012 (77 FR 46987) announced that a public hearing was scheduled for... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BI91 Utility Allowances Submetering; Hearing Cancellation... 42 of the Internal Revenue Code; relating to the utility allowance regulations. DATES: The...

  15. 42 CFR 489.31 - Allowable charges: Blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable charges: Blood. 489.31 Section 489.31... Allowable charges: Blood. (a) Limitations on charges. (1) A provider may charge the beneficiary (or other person on his or her behalf) only for the first three pints of blood or units of packed red...

  16. 48 CFR 1352.216-70 - Estimated and allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Estimated and allowable costs. As prescribed in 48 CFR 1316.307(a), insert the following clause: Estimated and Allowable Costs (APR 2010) (a) Estimated Costs. The estimated cost of this contract is... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Estimated and...

  17. Dielectric barrier discharges in analytical chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, C; Müller, S; Gurevich, E L; Franzke, J

    2011-06-21

    The present review reflects the importance of dielectric barrier discharges in analytical chemistry. Special about this discharge is-and in contrast to usual discharges with direct current-that the plasma is separated from one or two electrodes by a dielectric barrier. This gives rise to two main features of the dielectric barrier discharges; it can serve as dissociation and excitation device and as ionization mechanism, respectively. The article portrays the various application fields for dielectric barrier discharges in analytical chemistry, for example the use for elemental detection with optical spectrometry or as ionization source for mass spectrometry. Besides the introduction of different kinds of dielectric barrier discharges used for analytical chemistry from the literature, a clear and concise classification of dielectric barrier discharges into capacitively coupled discharges is provided followed by an overview about the characteristics of a dielectric barrier discharge concerning discharge properties and the ignition mechanism.

  18. Avoiding barriers in control of mowing robot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Bai-jing; QIAN Guo-hong; XIANG Zhong-ping; LI Zuo-peng

    2006-01-01

    Due to complicated barriers,it is difficult to track the path of the mowing robot and to avoid barriers.In order to solve the problem,a method based on distance-measuring sensors and fuzzy control inputs was proposed.Its track was composed of beelines and was easy to tail.The fuzzy control inputs were based on the front barrier distance and the difference between the left and right barrier distance measured by ultrasonic sensors;the output was the direction angle.The infrared sensors around the robot improved its safety in avoiding barriers.The result of the method was feasible,agile,and stable.The distance between the robot and the barriers could be changed by altering the inputs and outputs of fuzzy control and the length of the beelines.The disposed sensors can fulfill the need of the robot in avoiding barriers.

  19. Integrated Surface/subsurface flow modeling in PFLOTRAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Painter, Scott L [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Understanding soil water, groundwater, and shallow surface water dynamics as an integrated hydrological system is critical for understanding the Earth’s critical zone, the thin outer layer at our planet’s surface where vegetation, soil, rock, and gases interact to regulate the environment. Computational tools that take this view of soil moisture and shallow surface flows as a single integrated system are typically referred to as integrated surface/subsurface hydrology models. We extend the open-source, highly parallel, subsurface flow and reactive transport simulator PFLOTRAN to accommodate surface flows. In contrast to most previous implementations, we do not represent a distinct surface system. Instead, the vertical gradient in hydraulic head at the land surface is neglected, which allows the surface flow system to be eliminated and incorporated directly into the subsurface system. This tight coupling approach leads to a robust capability and also greatly simplifies implementation in existing subsurface simulators such as PFLOTRAN. Successful comparisons to independent numerical solutions build confidence in the approximation and implementation. Example simulations of the Walker Branch and East Fork Poplar Creek watersheds near Oak Ridge, Tennessee demonstrate the robustness of the approach in geometrically complex applications. The lack of a robust integrated surface/subsurface hydrology capability had been a barrier to PFLOTRAN’s use in critical zone studies. This work addresses that capability gap, thus enabling PFLOTRAN as a community platform for building integrated models of the critical zone.

  20. Strategies for monitoring of priority pollutant emission barriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pettersson, Maria; De Keyser, Webbey; Birch, Heidi;

    2010-01-01

    The objective of Task 7.5 was to develop tools for model-based planning of sampling campaigns in the design of monitoring strategies for priority pollutant emission barriers. Using integrated urban wastewater system (IUWS) models, measurement campaigns can be designed to improve the calibration...... of the model‟s parameters (Optimal Experiment Design for Parameter Estimation (OED/PE)). Furthermore, the knowledge contained in the IUWS models can be used to optimize the planning of sampling campaigns aiming at assessing the efficiency of emission control strategies. To do this, the emission barriers need...... to be implemented in the IUWS model, as well as the sampling and measuring devices that will be used. The simulation results are presented as a Substance Flow Analysis (SFA). These SFAs can be compared with empirical SFAs and can also be used to set up measurement campaigns aiming at gathering information...

  1. Computational Design and Experimental Validation of New Thermal Barrier Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Shengmin; Yang, Shizhong; Khosravi, Ebrahim

    2014-04-01

    This project (10/01/2010-9/30/2014), “Computational Design and Experimental Validation of New Thermal Barrier Systems”, originates from Louisiana State University (LSU) Mechanical Engineering Department and Southern University (SU) Department of Computer Science. This project will directly support the technical goals specified in DE-FOA-0000248, Topic Area 3: Turbine Materials, by addressing key technologies needed to enable the development of advanced turbines and turbine-based systems that will operate safely and efficiently using coal-derived synthesis gases. In this project, the focus is to develop and implement novel molecular dynamics method to improve the efficiency of simulation on novel TBC materials; perform high performance computing (HPC) on complex TBC structures to screen the most promising TBC compositions; perform material characterizations and oxidation/corrosion tests; and demonstrate our new thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems experimentally under integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) environments.

  2. Chemical gel barriers as low-cost alternative to containment and in situ cleanup of hazardous wastes to protect groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    Chemical gel barriers are being considered as a low-cost alternative for containment and in situ cleanup of hazardous wastes to protect groundwater. Most of the available gels in petroleum application are non-reactive and relative impermeable, providing a physical barriers for all fluids and contaminants. However, other potential systems can be envisioned. These systems could include gels that are chemically reactive and impermeable such that most phase are captured by the barriers but the contaminants could diffuse through the barriers. Another system that is chemically reactive and permeable could have potential applications in selectivity capturing contaminants while allowing water to pass through the barriers. This study focused on chemically reactive and permeable gel barriers. The gels used in experiment are DuPont LUDOX SM colloidal silica gel and Pfizer FLOPAAM 1330S hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM) gel.

  3. Inconsistencias en la afiliación al sistema de salud colombiano: barrera administrativa para la atención integral de las urgencias médicas / Inconsistencies in the affiliation of the Colombian health system: an administrative barrier to the comprehensive treatment of medical emergencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuly A. Marín O

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: explorar la atención de las urgencias médicas de los pacientes con inconsistencias en la afiliación al Sistema General de Seguridad Social en Salud (sgsss, en diferentes IPS de Medellín en el año 2012. Metodología: Se realizó una investigación cualitativa aplicando la Teoría Fundamentada; se realizaron 20 entrevistas semiestructuradas al personal de salud que laboraba en los servicios de urgencias y a pacientes con inconsistencias en la afiliación al sgsss. Resultados: existe incumplimiento de la normatividad que regula la prestación de los servicios de urgencias, convirtiendo los procesos administrativos en barreras para el acceso y la atención de las urgencias médicas, lo que deriva en atenciones carentes de integralidad. Conclusión: es necesario que los organismos de vigilancia del sgsss garanticen el cumplimiento de la normatividad vigente; además se requiere de un cambio en la legislación que supere los vacíos normativos, y una transformación en la forma de vinculación de los ciudadanos al sistema de salud que garantice el acceso universal y la atención integral de manera independiente de la estabilidad de las relaciones laborales Objective: to explore the healthcare provided for medical emergencies to patients with inconsistencies in their affiliation with the General System of Social Health Security (gsshs in various Health Providing Institutions (hpi of Medellin in 2012. Methodology: we conducted a qualitative study using Grounded Theory. Twenty semi-structured interviews were applied to healthcare professionals working at emergency departments and to patients with inconsistencies in their gsshs affiliation. Results: there is non-compliance with the regulations governing the provision of emergency services, which turns the administrative processes into barriers preventing access to the system and for providing healthcare in medical emergencies; this ultimately results in a lack of comprehensive healthcare

  4. 7 CFR 52.782 - Allowances for quality factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Canned Red Tart Pitted Cherries 1 Allowances... average 1 per 30 ozs 4 or more in any sample unit Sample average 1 per 20 ozs. Defects: 100 cherries...

  5. 45 CFR 1386.25 - Allowable litigation costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEVELOPMENTAL DISABILITIES PROGRAM FORMULA GRANT PROGRAMS State System for Protection and Advocacy of the Rights... be used to pay the otherwise allowable costs incurred by a Protection and Advocacy System in...

  6. 50 CFR 665.627 - Allowable gear and gear restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., Johnston Atoll and Palmyra Atoll. (d) Existing FEP fisheries shall follow the allowable gear and methods... decision on the permissibility of this gear type will be made by the Regional Administrator...

  7. A new type of remote sensors which allow directly forming certain statistical estimates of images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podlaskin, Boris; Guk, Elena; Karpenko, Andrey

    2010-10-01

    A new approach to the problems of statistical and structural pattern recognition, a signal processing and image analysis techniques has been considered. These problems are extremely important for tasks being solved by airborne and space borne remote sensing systems. Development of new remote sensors for image and signal processing is inherently connected with a possibility of statistical processing of images. Fundamentally new optoelectronic sensors "Multiscan" have been suggested in the present paper. Such sensors make it possible to form directly certain statistical estimates, which describe completely enough the different types of images. The sensors under discussion perform the Lebesgue-Stieltjes signal integration rather than the Cauchy-Riemann one. That permits to create integral functionals for determining statistical features of images. The use of the integral functionals for image processing provides a good agreement of obtained statistical estimates with required image information features. The Multiscan remote sensors allows to create a set of integral moments of an input image right up to high-order integral moments, to form a quantile representation of an input image, which provides a count number limited texture, to form a median, which provides a localisation of a low-contrast horizon line in fog, localisation of water flow boundary etc. This work presents both the description of the design concept of the new remote sensor and mathematical apparatus providing the possibility to create input image statistical features and integral functionals.

  8. Strange Horizons: Understanding Causal Barriers Beyond General Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Cropp, Bethan

    2016-01-01

    This thesis explores two avenues into understanding the physics of black holes and horizons beyond general relativity, via analogue models and Lorentz violating theories. Analogue spacetimes have wildly different dynamics to general relativity; this allows the possibility of non-Killing horizons in stationary solutions. In the case of non-Killing horizons different definitions of surface gravity are truly different quantities. This also has application to modified theories of gravity, where there is no reason to expect all horizons to be Killing horizons. In Lorentz violating theories, the situation becomes even stranger, as Killing horizons are at best low energy barriers, but for superluminal dispersion relations a true causal barrier, the universal horizon, may be present. We investigate the nature of these universal horizons via a ray tracing study, and delve into what happens near both the universal and Killing horizons. From this study we determine the surface gravity of universal horizons by the peelin...

  9. Thermal and Environmental Barrier Coatings for Advanced Propulsion Engine Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dong-Ming; Miller, Robert A.

    2004-01-01

    Ceramic thermal and environmental barrier coatings (TEBCs) are used in gas turbine engines to protect engine hot-section components in the harsh combustion environments, and extend component lifetimes. For future high performance engines, the development of advanced ceramic barrier coating systems will allow these coatings to be used to simultaneously increase engine operating temperature and reduce cooling requirements, thereby leading to significant improvements in engine power density and efficiency. In order to meet future engine performance and reliability requirements, the coating systems must be designed with increased high temperature stability, lower thermal conductivity, and improved thermal stress and erosion resistance. In this paper, ceramic coating design and testing considerations will be described for high temperature and high-heat-flux engine applications in hot corrosion and oxidation, erosion, and combustion water vapor environments. Further coating performance and life improvements will be expected by utilizing advanced coating architecture design, composition optimization, and improved processing techniques, in conjunction with modeling and design tools.

  10. Exiting prostitution: an integrated model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Lynda M; Dalla, Rochelle L; Williamson, Celia

    2010-05-01

    Exiting street-level prostitution is a complex, convoluted process. Few studies have described this process within any formal conceptual framework. This article reviews two general models and two prostitution-specific models and their applicability to the exiting process. Barriers encountered as women attempt to leave the streets are identified. Based on the four models, the barriers, the prostitution literature, and the authors' experience with prostituted women, a new integrated six-stage model that is comprehensive in scope and sensitive to women's attempts to exit prostitution is offered as a foundation for continued research on the process of women leaving the streets.

  11. Westinghouse thermal barrier coatings development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goedjen, J.G.; Wagner, G. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Orlando, FL (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Westinghouse, in conjunction with the Department of Energy and Oak Ridge National Laboratory, has embarked upon a program for the development of advanced thermal barrier coatings for industrial gas turbines. Development of thermal barrier coatings (TBC`s) for industrial gas turbines has relied heavily on the transfer of technology from the aerospace industry. Significant differences in the time/temperature/stress duty cycles exist between these two coating applications. Coating systems which perform well in aerospace applications may not been optimized to meet power generation performance requirements. This program will focus on development of TBC`s to meet the specific needs of power generation applications. The program is directed at developing a state-of-the-art coating system with a minimum coating life of 25,000 hours at service temperatures required to meet increasing operating efficiency goals. Westinghouse has assembled a team of university and industry leaders to accomplish this goal. Westinghouse will coordinate the efforts of all program participants. Chromalloy Turbine Technologies, Inc. and Sermatech International, Inc. will be responsible for bond coat and TBC deposition technology. Praxair Specialty Powders, Inc. will be responsible for the fabrication of all bond coat and ceramic powders for the program. Southwest Research Institute will head the life prediction modelling effort; they will also be involved in coordinating nondestructive evaluation (NDE) efforts. Process modelling will be provided by the University of Arizona.

  12. PWM Converter Power Density Barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolar, Johann W.; Drofenik, Uwe; Biela, Juergen; Heldwein, Marcelo; Ertl, Hans; Friedli, Thomas; Round, Simon

    Power density of power electronic converters has roughly doubled every 10 years since 1970. Behind this trajectory is the continuous advancement of power semiconductor devices, which has increased the converter switching frequencies by a factor of 10 every decade. However, today's cooling concepts and passive components are major barriers for a continuation of this trend. To identify such technological barriers, this paper investigates the volume of the cooling system and passive components as a function of the switching frequency for power electronic converters and determines the switching frequency that minimizes the total volume. A power density limit of 28kW/dm3 at 300kHz is calculated for an isolated DC-DC converter, 44kW/dm3 at 820kHz for a three-phase unity power factor PWM rectifier, and 26kW/dm3 at 21kHz for a sparse matrix converter. For single-phase AC-DC conversion a general limit of 35kW/dm3 results from the DC link capacitor. These power density limits highlight the need to broaden the scope of power electronics research to include cooling systems, high frequency electromagnetics, interconnection and packaging technology, and multi-domain modelling and simulation to ensure further advancement along the power density trajectory.

  13. Barriers to medical error reporting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal Poorolajal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was conducted to explore the prevalence of medical error underreporting and associated barriers. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed from September to December 2012. Five hospitals, affiliated with Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, in Hamedan,Iran were investigated. A self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. Participants consisted of physicians, nurses, midwives, residents, interns, and staffs of radiology and laboratory departments. Results: Overall, 50.26% of subjects had committed but not reported medical errors. The main reasons mentioned for underreporting were lack of effective medical error reporting system (60.0%, lack of proper reporting form (51.8%, lack of peer supporting a person who has committed an error (56.0%, and lack of personal attention to the importance of medical errors (62.9%. The rate of committing medical errors was higher in men (71.4%, age of 50-40 years (67.6%, less-experienced personnel (58.7%, educational level of MSc (87.5%, and staff of radiology department (88.9%. Conclusions: This study outlined the main barriers to reporting medical errors and associated factors that may be helpful for healthcare organizations in improving medical error reporting as an essential component for patient safety enhancement.

  14. A double barrier memristive device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, M.; Ziegler, M.; Kolberg, L.; Soni, R.; Dirkmann, S.; Mussenbrock, T.; Kohlstedt, H.

    2015-09-01

    We present a quantum mechanical memristive Nb/Al/Al2O3/NbxOy/Au device which consists of an ultra-thin memristive layer (NbxOy) sandwiched between an Al2O3 tunnel barrier and a Schottky-like contact. A highly uniform current distribution for the LRS (low resistance state) and HRS (high resistance state) for areas ranging between 70 μm2 and 2300 μm2 were obtained, which indicates a non-filamentary based resistive switching mechanism. In a detailed experimental and theoretical analysis we show evidence that resistive switching originates from oxygen diffusion and modifications of the local electronic interface states within the NbxOy layer, which influences the interface properties of the Au (Schottky) contact and of the Al2O3 tunneling barrier, respectively. The presented device might offer several benefits like an intrinsic current compliance, improved retention and no need for an electric forming procedure, which is especially attractive for possible applications in highly dense random access memories or neuromorphic mixed signal circuits.

  15. Effects of Carbon Nanotubes in Barrier Epithelial Cells via Effects on Lipid Bilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Shanta

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are one of the most common nanoparticles (NP) found in workplace air. Therefore, there is a strong chance that these NP will enter the human body. They have similar physical properties to asbestos, a known toxic material, yet there is limited evidence showing that CNTs may be hazardous to human barrier epithelia. In previous studies done in our laboratory, the effects of CNTs on the barrier function in the human airway epithelial cell line (Calu-3) were measured. Measurements were done using electrophysiology, a technique which measures both transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER), a measure of monolayer integrity, and short circuit current (SCC) which is a measure of vectorial ion transport across the cell monolayer. The research findings showed that select physiologically relevant concentrations of long single-wall (SW) and multi-wall (MW) CNTs significantly decreased the stimulated SCC of the Calu-3 cells compared to untreated cultures. Calu-3 cells showed decreases in TEER when incubated for 48 hours (h) with concentrations of MWCNT ranging from 4microg/cm2 to 0.4ng/cm2 and SWCNT ranging from 4microg/cm2 to 0.04ng/cm2. The impaired cellular function, despite sustained cell viability, led us to investigate the mechanism by which the CNTs were affecting the cell membrane. We investigated the interaction of short MWCNTs with model lipid membranes using an ion channel amplifier, Planar Bilayer Workstation. Membranes were synthesized using neutral diphytanoylphosphatidylcholine (DPhPC) and negatively charged diphytanoylphosphatidylserine (DPhPS) lipids. Gramicidin A (GA), an ion channel reporter protein, was used to measure changes in ion channel conductance due to CNT exposures. Synthetic membranes exposed to CNTs allowed bursts of currents to cross the membrane when they were added to the membrane buffer system. When added to the membrane in the presence of GA, they distorted channel formation and reduced membrane stability.

  16. Learning from the best: Overcoming barriers to reforms-based elementary science teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banchi, Heather May

    This study explored the characteristics of elementary science teachers who employ reforms-based practices. Particular attention was paid to the consistency of teachers' practices and their beliefs, the impact of professional development experiences on practices, and how teachers mitigated barriers to reforms-based instruction. Understanding how successful elementary science teachers develop fills a gap in the science reforms literature. Participants included 7 upper elementary science teachers from six different schools. All schools were located within two suburban school districts in the south-Atlantic United States and data was collected during the spring of 2008. Data collection included use of the Reformed Teaching Observation Protocol (RTOP) to evaluate the level of reforms-based instruction, as well as 35 hours of classroom observation field notes and 21 hours of audio-taped teacher interviews. The variety of data sources allowed for triangulation of evidence. The RTOP was analyzed using descriptive statistics and classroom observations and interview data were analyzed using Erickson's (1986) guidelines for analytic induction. Findings indicated (a) reforms-based elementary science teaching was attainable, (b) beliefs and practices were consistent and both reflected reforms-based philosophies and practices, (c) formal professional development experiences were limited and did not foster reforms-based practices, (d) informal professional development pursued by teachers had a positive impact on practices, (e) barriers to reforms-based instruction were present but mitigated by strong beliefs and practical strategies like curriculum integration. These findings suggest that there are common, salient characteristics of reforms-based teachers' beliefs, practices, and professional development experiences. These commonalities contribute to an understanding of how reforms-based teachers develop, and inform efforts to move all elementary teachers in the direction of

  17. Reactive Membrane Barriers for Containment of Subsurface Contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William A. Arnold; Edward L. Cussler

    2007-02-26

    The overall goal of this project was to develop reactive membrane barriers--a new and flexible technique to contain and stabilize subsurface contaminants. Polymer membranes will leak once a contaminant is able to diffuse through the membrane. By incorporating a reactive material in the polymer, however, the contaminant is degraded or immobilized within the membrane. These processes increase the time for contaminants to breakthrough the barrier (i.e. the lag time) and can dramatically extend barrier lifetimes. In this work, reactive barrier membranes containing zero-valent iron (Fe{sup 0}) or crystalline silicotitanate (CST) were developed to prevent the migration of chlorinated solvents and cesium-137, respectively. These studies were complemented by the development of models quantifying the leakage/kill time of reactive membranes and describing the behavior of products produced via the reactions within the membranes. First, poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) membranes containing Fe{sup 0} and CST were prepared and tested. Although PVA is not useful in practical applications, it allows experiments to be performed rapidly and the results to be compared to theory. For copper ions (Cu{sup 2+}) and carbon tetrachloride, the barrier was effective, increasing the time to breakthrough over 300 times. Even better performance was expected, and the percentage of the iron used in the reaction with the contaminants was determined. For cesium, the CST laden membranes increased lag times more than 30 times, and performed better than theoretical predictions. A modified theory was developed for ion exchangers in reactive membranes to explain this result. With the PVA membranes, the effect of a groundwater matrix on barrier performance was tested. Using Hanford groundwater, the performance of Fe{sup 0} barriers decreased compared to solutions containing a pH buffer and high levels of chloride (both of which promote iron reactivity). For the CST bearing membrane, performance improved by a

  18. Relativistic Double Barrier Problem with Three Sub-Barrier Transmission Resonance Regions

    CERN Document Server

    Alhaidari, A D; Jellal, A

    2010-01-01

    We obtain exact scattering solutions of the Dirac equation in 1+1 dimensions for a double square barrier vector potential. The potential floor between the two barriers is higher than 2mc^2 whereas the top of the barriers is at least 2mc^2 above the floor. The relativistic version of the conventional double barrier transmission resonance is obtained for energies within + or - mc^2 from the height of the barriers. However, we also find two more (sub-barrier) transmission resonance regions below the conventional one. Both are located within the two Klein energy zones and characterized by resonances that are broader than the conventional ones.

  19. Barrier experiment: Shock initiation under complex loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menikoff, Ralph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-01-12

    The barrier experiments are a variant of the gap test; a detonation wave in a donor HE impacts a barrier and drives a shock wave into an acceptor HE. The question we ask is: What is the trade-off between the barrier material and threshold barrier thickness to prevent the acceptor from detonating. This can be viewed from the perspective of shock initiation of the acceptor subject to a complex pressure drive condition. Here we consider key factors which affect whether or not the acceptor undergoes a shock-to-detonation transition. These include the following: shock impedance matches for the donor detonation wave into the barrier and then the barrier shock into the acceptor, the pressure gradient behind the donor detonation wave, and the curvature of detonation front in the donor. Numerical simulations are used to illustrate how these factors affect the reaction in the acceptor.

  20. On the Methods for Calculating Annual Allowable Cut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. А. Sokolov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Crisis in supplying regions and the country related to available forest resources and low profitability of forest sector, as a whole, is an indicator of failure of the existing model of forest management and forest use organization in Russia at the present time. Many Russian regions, which are traditionally considered as forest industrial territories, face the challenge of lack of economically accessible forests. The forests are decreasing against a background of under exploitation of the annual allowable cut. This situation occurs in Siberia as well. In many cases, using calculated allowable cut will result in unsustainable harvest levels and a future decrease of accessible forest resources. Thus, the statement that «a volume of wood resource utilization is determined by allowable cut represented the scientifically grounded norm of sustainable forest use» is considered as no more than the declarative proposition. Modeling the normal forest, and using a formula of allowable cut calculation estimated for some decades based on the modeling, is totally unreliable and unreal. The long-term forecast should use analog methods, but it will hardly be sufficiently accurate and adequate to set norms. In order to estimate ecological and economic accessibility of forest resources, an algorithm was made, and a method and model were developed. This model is based on GIS-database and makes it possible to estimate accessibility of forest resources and to map it as well. The conclusion on necessity to determine annual allowable cut in two varieties was drawn following the procedures for calculating annual allowable cut. The first variety is silvicultural (according the currently used methods and the other one is economically accessible allowable cut, which could provide economic effective use of tradable mature wood, taking in to account ecological and economic accessibility of forest resources.

  1. ACCOUNTING FOR GREENHOUSE GASES EMISSIONS ALLOWANCES IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Deac

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The present paper tries to analyze the accounting challenges that the implementation of EU Emissions Trading Scheme has risen. On 2 December 2004, IASB has issued an interpretation regarding the accounting of the GHG emissions allowances (IFRIC 3 „Emission Rights”. This interpretation should have been effective for annual periods beginning after 1 March 2005, the first year of the EU Emission Trading Scheme implementation. Less than a year after it was issued, IFRIC has withdrawn IFRIC 3. In December 2007, IASB has started a new project in order to provide guidance on accounting for carbon allowances called Emissions Trading Schemes Project. In the absence of an accounting standard regarding the accounting of these emissions allowances a diversity of accounting practices have been identified. Nowadays, there are three main accounting practices for the recognition of the emissions allowances and the GHG emissions liabilities: IFRIC 3 approach, the government grants approach and the net liability or off balance sheet approach. The accounting treatment of greenhouse gas emissions allowances by Romanian companies resembles the net liability or off balance sheet approach. Finance Ministry Order no. 1118/2012 states that GHG emission certificates should be recognized as fixed assets (if the entity is expecting a profit in the long term or in the category of short term investments (if the entity is expecting a profit in the short term. The accounting of the greenhouse gas emissions allowances described above is applicable mainly to traders of such certificates and not for the installations in the scope of the EU ETS directive, which should recognize GHG emissions off balance sheet, at their nominal value (nil if received for free. The shortfall or excess of allowances will be recognized in the profit or loss as they are bought or sold by the entity (the accounting treatment imposed by Finance Ministry Order no. 3055/2009.

  2. A highly precise and portable genome engineering method allows comparison of mutational effects across bacterial species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyerges, Ákos; Csörgő, Bálint; Nagy, István; Bálint, Balázs; Bihari, Péter; Lázár, Viktória; Apjok, Gábor; Umenhoffer, Kinga; Bogos, Balázs; Pósfai, György; Pál, Csaba

    2016-03-01

    Currently available tools for multiplex bacterial genome engineering are optimized for a few laboratory model strains, demand extensive prior modification of the host strain, and lead to the accumulation of numerous off-target modifications. Building on prior development of multiplex automated genome engineering (MAGE), our work addresses these problems in a single framework. Using a dominant-negative mutant protein of the methyl-directed mismatch repair (MMR) system, we achieved a transient suppression of DNA repair in Escherichia coli, which is necessary for efficient oligonucleotide integration. By integrating all necessary components into a broad-host vector, we developed a new workflow we term pORTMAGE. It allows efficient modification of multiple loci, without any observable off-target mutagenesis and prior modification of the host genome. Because of the conserved nature of the bacterial MMR system, pORTMAGE simultaneously allows genome editing and mutant library generation in other biotechnologically and clinically relevant bacterial species. Finally, we applied pORTMAGE to study a set of antibiotic resistance-conferring mutations in Salmonella enterica and E. coli. Despite over 100 million y of divergence between the two species, mutational effects remained generally conserved. In sum, a single transformation of a pORTMAGE plasmid allows bacterial species of interest to become an efficient host for genome engineering. These advances pave the way toward biotechnological and therapeutic applications. Finally, pORTMAGE allows systematic comparison of mutational effects and epistasis across a wide range of bacterial species.

  3. Complementary Barrier Infrared Detector (CBIRD) with Double Tunnel Junction Contact and Quantum Dot Barrier Infrared Detector (QD-BIRD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, David Z.-Y; Soibel, Alexander; Khoshakhlagh, Arezou; Keo, Sam A.; Nguyen, Jean; Hoglund, Linda; Mumolo, Jason M.; Liu, John K.; Rafol, Sir B.; Hill, Cory J.; Gunapala, Sarath D.

    2012-01-01

    The InAs/GaSb type-II superlattice based complementary barrier infrared detector (CBIRD) has already demonstrated very good performance in long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) detection. In this work, we describe results on a modified CBIRD device that incorporates a double tunnel junction contact designed for robust device and focal plane array processing. The new device also exhibited reduced turn-on voltage. We also report results on the quantum dot barrier infrared detector (QD-BIRD). By incorporating self-assembled InSb quantum dots into the InAsSb absorber of the standard nBn detector structure, the QD-BIRD extend the detector cutoff wavelength from approximately 4.2 micrometers to 6 micrometers, allowing the coverage of the mid-wavelength infrared (MWIR) transmission window. The device has been observed to show infrared response at 225 K.

  4. Identification of Key Barriers in Workforce Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2008-03-31

    This report documents the identification of key barriers in the development of an adequate national security workforce as part of the National Security Preparedness Project, being performed under a Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration grant. Many barriers exist that prevent the development of an adequate number of propertly trained national security personnel. Some barriers can be eliminated in a short-term manner, whereas others will involve a long-term strategy that takes into account public policy.

  5. Assessment of skin barrier function and biochemical changes of ex vivo human skin in response to physical and chemical barrier disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döge, Nadine; Avetisyan, Araks; Hadam, Sabrina; Pfannes, Eva Katharina Barbosa; Rancan, Fiorenza; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike; Vogt, Annika

    2016-12-21

    Topical dermatotherapy is intended to be used on diseased skin. Novel drug delivery systems even address differences between intact and diseased skin underlining the need for pre-clinical assessment of different states of barrier disruption. Herein, we studied how short-term incubation in culture media compared to incubation in humidified chambers affects human skin barrier function and viability. On both models we assessed different types and intensities of physical and chemical barrier disruption methods with regard to structural integrity, biophysical parameters and cytokine levels. Tissue degeneration and proliferative activity limited the use of tissue cultures to 48h. Viability is better preserved in cultured tissue. Tape-stripping (50×TS) and 4h sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) pre-treatment were identified as highly reproducible and effective procedures for barrier disruption. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) values reproducibly increased with the intensity of disruption while sebum content and skin surface pH were of limited value. Interleukin (IL)-6/8 and various chemokines and proteases were increased in tape-stripped skin which was more pronounced in SLS-treated skin tissue extracts. Thus, albeit limited to 48h, cultured full-thickness skin maintained several barrier characteristics and responded to different intensities of barrier disruption. Potentially, these models can be used to assess pre-clinically the efficacy and penetration of anti-inflammatory compounds.

  6. Altered permeability barrier structure in cholesteatoma matrix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svane-Knudsen, Viggo; Halkier-Sørensen, Lars; Rasmussen, Gurli

    2002-01-01

    The stratum corneum of the cholesteatoma epithelium comprises the greater part of the cholesteatoma matrix. The permeability barrier that militates against diffusion and penetration of infectious and toxic agents into and through the epithelium is situated here. The multiple long sheets of lamellar...... lipid structures filling the intercellular spaces mainly control the barrier function. The barrier in cholesteatoma epithelium is several times thicker than in unaffected skin but presents distinctive features of a defective barrier as seen in other scaling skin diseases. The intercellular spaces appear...

  7. Barriers Approach to Innovation in Academic Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-Hsuan Chuang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Innovation in academic libraries is not a brand new issue. Academic libraries can benefit from successful innovation, since innovation is a key contributor to gaining and sustaining competitive advantage for survival. Building on two case studies, 28 participants from leadership teams to practitioners are involved, the qualitative findings identified the specific two types of barriers that academic libraries face by applying a barriers approach to innovation, that’s, environmental and organizational barriers. Especially, seven dimensions of two types of barriers to innovation are found.

  8. Protection of the blood-brain barrier by pentosan against amyloid-β-induced toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deli, Mária A; Veszelka, Szilvia; Csiszár, Boglárka; Tóth, Andrea; Kittel, Agnes; Csete, Mária; Sipos, Aron; Szalai, Anikó; Fülöp, Lívia; Penke, Botond; Abrahám, Csongor S; Niwa, Masami

    2010-01-01

    Endothelial cells of brain capillaries forming the blood-brain barrier play an important role in the pathogenesis and therapy of Alzheimer's disease. Amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides are key pathological elements in the development of the disease. A blood-brain barrier model, based on primary rat brain endothelial cells was used in which the barrier properties were induced by glial cells. The effects of amyloid peptides have been tested on cell viability and barrier functions. Aβ showed toxic effects on primary rat brain endothelial cells measured by MTT dye conversion and the lactate dehydrogenase release. Morphologically cytoplasmic vacuolization, disruption of the structure of cytoplasmic organelles and tight junctions could be observed in brain endothelial cells. Treatment with Aβ1-42 decreased the electrical resistance, and increased the permeability of brain endothelial cell monolayers for both fluorescein and albumin. Serum amyloid P component which stabilizes Aβ fibrils in cortical amyloid plaques and cerebrovascular amyloid deposits significantly potentiated the barrier-weakening effect of Aβ1-42. Sulfated polysaccharide pentosan could decrease the toxic effects of Aβ peptides in brain endothelial cells. It could also significantly protect the barrier integrity of monolayers from damaging actions of peptides. Pentosan modified the size, and significantly decreased the number of amyloid aggregates demonstrated by atomic force microscopy. The present data further support the toxic effects of amyloid peptides on brain endothelial cells, and can contribute to the development of molecules protecting the blood-brain barrier in Alzheimer's disease.

  9. Opportunities and challenges of integrating ecological restoration into assessment and management of contaminated ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Ruth N; Luoma, Samuel N; Bayne, Bruce A; Iliff, John; Larkin, Daniel J; Paschke, Mark W; Victor, Sasha L; Ward, Sara E

    2016-04-01

    Ecosystem restoration planning near the beginning of the site assessment and management process ("early integration") involves consideration of restoration goals from the outset in developing solutions for contaminated ecosystems. There are limitations to integration that stem from institutional barriers, few successful precedents, and limited availability of guidance. Challenges occur in integrating expertise from various disciplines and multiple, sometimes divergent interests and goals. The more complex process can result in timing, capacity, communication, and collaboration challenges. On the other hand, integrating the 2 approaches presents new and creative opportunities. For example, integration allows early planning for expanding ecosystem services on or near contaminated lands or waters that might otherwise have been unaddressed by remediation alone. Integrated plans can explicitly pursue ecosystem services that have market value, which can add to funds for long-term monitoring and management. Early integration presents opportunities for improved and productive collaboration and coordination between ecosystem restoration and contaminant assessment and management. Examples exist where early integration facilitates liability resolution and generates positive public relations. Restoration planning and implementation before the completion of the contaminated site assessment, remediation, or management process ("early restoration") can facilitate coordination with offsite restoration options and a regional approach to restoration of contaminated environments. Integration of performance monitoring, for both remedial and restoration actions, can save resources and expand the interpretive power of results. Early integration may aid experimentation, which may be more feasible on contaminated lands than in many other situations. The potential application of concepts and tools from adaptive management is discussed as a way of avoiding pitfalls and achieving benefits in

  10. Religious culture as a barrier?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agergaard, Sine

    2016-01-01

    Political interventions, media coverage and research often refer to the underrepresentation of ethnic minorities, particularly girls and women, participating in physical activity and organised sports. In both public and academic debates, reference is made to the religious culture as a particular...... barrier to participation in sports among Muslim girls and women. This article aims to provide a counter-narrative by focusing on young Muslim girls who simultaneously practice their religion and sports. The main research question was: How do young Danish Muslim girls align participation in sports...... religion as hegemonic, embodied and dynamic cultural phenomena, the analysis points to the diversity through which Muslim girls and women participate and engage in sports. Finally, the article discusses the extent to which counter-narratives may contribute to changing perspectives on so-called hard...

  11. Barriers and Facilitators to the Uptake and Maintenance of Healthy Behaviours by People at Mid-Life: A Rapid Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Kelly

    Full Text Available With an ageing population, there is an increasing societal impact of ill health in later life. People who adopt healthy behaviours are more likely to age successfully. To engage people in health promotion initiatives in mid-life, a good understanding is needed of why people do not undertake healthy behaviours or engage in unhealthy ones.Searches were conducted to identify systematic reviews and qualitative or longitudinal cohort studies that reported mid-life barriers and facilitators to healthy behaviours. Mid-life ranged from 40 to 64 years, but younger adults in disadvantaged or minority groups were also eligible to reflect potential earlier disease onset. Two reviewers independently conducted reference screening and study inclusion. Included studies were assessed for quality. Barriers and facilitators were identified and synthesised into broader themes to allow comparisons across behavioural risks.From 16,426 titles reviewed, 28 qualitative studies, 11 longitudinal cohort studies and 46 systematic reviews were included. Evidence was found relating to uptake and maintenance of physical activity, diet and eating behaviours, smoking, alcohol, eye care, and other health promoting behaviours and grouped into six themes: health and quality of life, sociocultural factors, the physical environment, access, psychological factors, evidence relating to health inequalities. Most of the available evidence was from developed countries. Barriers that recur across different health behaviours include lack of time (due to family, household and occupational responsibilities, access issues (to transport, facilities and resources, financial costs, entrenched attitudes and behaviours, restrictions in the physical environment, low socioeconomic status, lack of knowledge. Facilitators include a focus on enjoyment, health benefits including healthy ageing, social support, clear messages, and integration of behaviours into lifestyle. Specific issues relating to

  12. The role of plants and animals in isolation barriers at Hanford, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Link, S.O.; Cadwell, L.L.; Petersen, K.L.; Sackschewsky, M.R.; Landeen, D.S.

    1995-09-01

    The Hanford Site Surface Barrier Development Program was organized in 1985 to test the effectiveness of various barrier designs in minimizing the effects of water infiltration; plant, animal, and human intrusion; and wind and water erosion on buried wastes, and in minimizing the emanation of noxious gases. Plants will serve to minimize drainage and erosion, but present,the potential for growing roots into wastes. Animals burrow holes into the soil, and the burrow holes could allow water to preferentially drain into the waste. They also bring soil to the surface which, if wastes are incorporated, could present a risk for the dispersion of wastes into the environment. This report reviews work done to assess the role of plants and animals in isolation barriers at Hanford. It also reviews work done to understand the potential effects from climate change on the plants and animals that may inhabit barriers in the future.

  13. 9 CFR 50.22 - Claims not allowed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Claims not allowed. 50.22 Section 50.22 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF...

  14. 34 CFR 390.41 - What are allowable costs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... conduct of the seminar, institute, workshop or other short course for which the grant support has been... AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION REHABILITATION SHORT-TERM TRAINING What... costs established in EDGAR §§ 75.530-75.562, the following items are allowable under short-term...

  15. 40 CFR 18.8 - Stipends, Allowances, and Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stipends, Allowances, and Benefits. 18.8 Section 18.8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL... continental United States, the payment of expenses of preparing the remains for burial and transporting...

  16. Disability and Supported Employment: Impact on Employment, Income, and Allowances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germundsson, Per; Gustafsson, Johanna; Lind, Martin; Danermark, Berth

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we examine supported employment and its impact on the level of employment, disposable income, and sum of allowances, targeting a group of individuals with disabilities. We have particularly focused on individuals with psychiatric disabilities. Supported employment is a vocational rehabilitation service with an empowerment approach…

  17. Can preapproval jump-start the allowance market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudek, D.J.; Goffman, J.

    1992-06-01

    With compliance deadlines approaching in three years, utility, environmental and financial planners and their regulators are in the process of grappling with the requirements imposed, and opportunities created, by the acid rain program established under Title 4 of the Clean Air Act amendments of 1990. The novel element of the program - emissions or allowance trading through a nationwide allowance market - presents great challenges for utilities and their regulators. Perhaps the foremost challenge is establishing the allowance market. If state utility commissions subject utilities' compliance strategies to traditional after-the-fact prudence reviews, as tradition would impel them to do, the attendant regulatory risks are likely to push utilities toward more conservative compliance schemes that underuse allowance trading (as the exchange at the head of this article demonstrates). If that happens, the market will fail to develop, and its full potential for environmental benefit at least cost will go unrealized. This, in turn, is likely to strengthen the case for non-market regulatory mechanisms - a vicious circle. In this paper, the authors suggest a way out of this.

  18. Conditions allowing the formation of biogenic amines in cheese.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, H.M.L.J.

    1988-01-01

    A study was undertaken to reveal the conditions that allow the formation of biogenic amines in cheese.The starters most commonly used in the Dutch cheese industry do not have decarboxylative properties. Only if the milk or curd is contaminated with non-starter bacteria, amine formation may be observ

  19. 48 CFR 752.7028 - Differential and allowances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Differential and allowances. 752.7028 Section 752.7028 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL... compensation to an employee in a foreign area where civil insurrection, civil war, terrorism or...

  20. 30 CFR 206.261 - Transportation allowances-general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quantity of clean coal output and the rejected waste material. The transportation allowance shall be... MANAGEMENT PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Coal § 206.261 Transportation allowances—general. (a) For ad valorem... the coal from a Federal lease to a sales point which is remote from both the lease and mine; or...

  1. 30 CFR 206.460 - Transportation allowances-general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quantity of clean coal output and the rejected waste material. The transportation allowance shall be... MANAGEMENT PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Coal § 206.460 Transportation allowances—general. (a) For ad valorem... the coal from an Indian lease to a sales point which is remote from both the lease and mine; or...

  2. 30 CFR 206.262 - Determination of transportation allowances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... REVENUE MANAGEMENT PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Coal § 206.262 Determination of transportation allowances. (a... transporting the coal under that contract, subject to monitoring, review, audit, and possible future adjustment... are generally those for depreciable fixed assets (including costs of delivery and installation...

  3. 41 CFR 101-27.503 - Allowable credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Allowable credit. 101-27.503 Section 101-27.503 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS SUPPLY AND PROCUREMENT 27-INVENTORY MANAGEMENT...

  4. 20 CFR 322.7 - Dismissal, coordination, and separation allowances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT REMUNERATION § 322.7 Dismissal, coordination, and separation allowances. (a... relationship and remains subject to call. Such pay is remuneration with respect to each day in the month or... employee who voluntarily or involuntarily terminates his or her employment relationship is not...

  5. 20 CFR 429.203 - When is a claim allowable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... paragraph (a) of this section and the other provisions of this subpart, any claim you make for damage to, or... excluded under this subpart: (1) Property damage in quarters or other authorized places. Claims are allowable for damage to, or loss of, property arising from fire, flood, hurricane, other natural...

  6. 49 CFR 230.24 - Maximum allowable stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances... allowable stress value on any component of a steam locomotive boiler shall not exceed 1/4 of the ultimate... construction in boiler calculations, the safety factor value shall not be less than 4....

  7. 44 CFR 11.74 - Claims not allowed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Claims not allowed. 11.74 Section 11.74 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF..., checks, promissory notes, stock certificates, bonds, bills of lading, warehouse receipts, baggage...

  8. 38 CFR 21.332 - Payments of subsistence allowance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... payment only: (1) At the beginning of an ordinary school year; or (2) At the beginning of any other....C. 3680(g)) (g) Payments for courses which are repeated. VA may pay subsistence allowance to a veteran who repeats a course under conditions described in § 21.132. (Authority: 38 U.S.C. 3680(a))...

  9. 30 CFR 206.157 - Determination of transportation allowances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... industry and gas customers. GRI fees are allowable provided such fees are mandatory in FERC-approved... or off the lease, for more than 30 days; (2) Aggregator/marketer fees. This includes fees you pay to... arrange marketing or transportation, if such fees are separately identified from aggregator/marketer...

  10. 30 CFR 206.159 - Determination of processing allowances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... depreciation, the lessee may elect to use either a straight-line depreciation method based on the life of..., including operating and maintenance expenses, overhead, and either depreciation and a return on..., including royalties, are not allowable expenses. (iv) A lessee may use either depreciation or a return...

  11. Video Allows Young Scientists New Ways to Be Seen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, John C.

    2009-01-01

    Science is frequently a visual endeavor, dependent on direct or indirect observations. Teachers have long employed motion pictures in the science classroom to allow students to make indirect observations, but the capabilities of digital video offer opportunities to engage students in active science learning. Not only can watching a digital video…

  12. Mitigation of Global Warming with Focus on Personal Carbon Allowances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Niels I

    2008-01-01

    The mitigation of global warming requires new efficient systems and methods. The paper presents a new proposal called personal carbon allowances with caps on the CO2 emission from household heating and electricity and on emission from transport in private cars and in personal air flights. Results...

  13. 32 CFR 584.7 - Basic allowance for quarters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CUSTODY, AND PATERNITY § 584.7 Basic allowance for quarters. (a) Eligibility. (1) Soldiers entitled to...-dependents rate each month in support of their families. (See DODPM, part 3.) This is so even if a divorce... spouse or stepchildren after the divorce. BAQ at the “with dependents” rate is not authorized when...

  14. 38 CFR 38.629 - Outer Burial Receptacle Allowance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Outer Burial Receptacle... (CONTINUED) NATIONAL CEMETERIES OF THE DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS § 38.629 Outer Burial Receptacle Allowance. (a) Definitions—Outer burial receptacle. For purposes of this section, an outer burial...

  15. CBP PHASE I CODE INTEGRATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, F.; Brown, K.; Flach, G.; Sarkar, S.

    2011-09-30

    The goal of the Cementitious Barriers Partnership (CBP) is to develop a reasonable and credible set of software tools to predict the structural, hydraulic, and chemical performance of cement barriers used in nuclear applications over extended time frames (greater than 100 years for operating facilities and greater than 1000 years for waste management). The simulation tools will be used to evaluate and predict the behavior of cementitious barriers used in near surface engineered waste disposal systems including waste forms, containment structures, entombments, and environmental remediation. These cementitious materials are exposed to dynamic environmental conditions that cause changes in material properties via (i) aging, (ii) chloride attack, (iii) sulfate attack, (iv) carbonation, (v) oxidation, and (vi) primary constituent leaching. A set of state-of-the-art software tools has been selected as a starting point to capture these important aging and degradation phenomena. Integration of existing software developed by the CBP partner organizations was determined to be the quickest method of meeting the CBP goal of providing a computational tool that improves the prediction of the long-term behavior of cementitious materials. These partner codes were selected based on their maturity and ability to address the problems outlined above. The GoldSim Monte Carlo simulation program (GTG 2010a, GTG 2010b) was chosen as the code integration platform (Brown & Flach 2009b). GoldSim (current Version 10.5) is a Windows based graphical object-oriented computer program that provides a flexible environment for model development (Brown & Flach 2009b). The linking of GoldSim to external codes has previously been successfully demonstrated (Eary 2007, Mattie et al. 2007). GoldSim is capable of performing deterministic and probabilistic simulations and of modeling radioactive decay and constituent transport. As part of the CBP project, a general Dynamic Link Library (DLL) interface was

  16. Stratum corneum: a barrier of skin resistants light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dan; Hu, Yating; Mao, Zongzhen; Zheng, Ying; Lu, Wei; Luo, Qingming

    2007-05-01

    Benzisothiazdone, a kind of safe and effective ketone containing heterocycle, was introduced as an enhancer to investigate the effect on optical clearing of the piglet skin with and without stratum corneum in vitro. The skin samples were treated with different agents, such as, pure polyethyleneglycol 400, mixed solution (benzisothiazdone combining with polyethyleneglycol 400) and isotonic saline. The total transmittance of samples was monitored by a single integrating sphere system. The results show that the saline does not affect the rate of optical clearing obviously. For the sample with stratum corneum, single optical clearing agent such as PEG400 penetrates slowly because of the barrier function of SC. The stratum corneum makes the effect of optical clearing on the sample inconspicuous. In contrast, the mixed solution can damage the barrier function of SC to some extent. For the sample without stratum corneum, an obvious increase in the rate of optical clearing is in the single PEG400 administration stage, this effect will be more remarkable if the Benzisothiazdone was used as an enhancer. We can conclude that SC can prevent skin from effecting of single OCA, but the barrier will become weaker if right immersion agent is adopted as the enhancer.

  17. The Idefix enhancer-blocking insulator also harbors barrier activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasset, E; Hermant, C; Jensen, S; Vaury, C

    2010-01-15

    Chromatin insulators are cis-regulatory sequences participating in the regulation of gene expression. Their presence within the genome is associated with two main functions. One of them is an enhancer-blocking function that blocks enhancer-promoter communication when the insulator is located in between. The second is a boundary or barrier function that insulates independent units of transcription. This latter is observed when two insulators flanking a gene and its regulatory sequences block the regulatory influences of surrounding chromatin. Some years ago, we reported the presence of an insulator within the retrotransposon Idefix from Drosophila melanogaster. This insulator displays an enhancer-blocking activity toward an enhancer located within a second retrotransposon called ZAM. Here, we show that this insulator is not specific to the ZAM enhancer but has the capacity to interfere in the communication established between a broad range of cis-regulatory enhancer and a promoter. Furthermore, we show that, if it is placed on both sides of a transgene, this insulator acts as a barrier able to isolate the transgene from its repressive or enhancing environment. Thus, the Idefix insulator carries both an enhancer-blocking and a barrier activity. According to these properties, the Idefix insulator might prove to be a useful tool to isolate artificial transgenes from positive or negative influences from their integration sites.

  18. Implementation of electronic data capture systems: barriers and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welker, James A

    2007-05-01

    Although increasing in pace, the conversion to Electronic Data Capture (EDC) has been a slow progression. The use of EDC systems should confer improved data integrity, cost savings and a shorter time to study database closure. This will reduce the time to market and cost of new medications. With the current sentiment of the industry suggesting the cost analysis has been accepted to be in favor of EDC, the likely limitation to disseminated use is an inability to implement these systems. If the leadership at the sponsor, clinical research organization and investigator site is cognizant of the barriers to implementation, they can anticipate and mitigate them prior to the users becoming disgruntled and resistant to the new method of data capture. Once understood, barriers such as user input, technical support, user motivation, regulatory requirements, communication with users, timing of implementation, software installation, graphical user interface, identification of bridgers, patient participation, availability of technology, and costs can be better addressed at the beginning of the implementation process and successfully averted. This review discusses these barriers and potential solutions that can assist the clinical trial industry in achieving more wide-spread EDC use and the resulting improvement in operating efficiencies.

  19. Colonization of steelhead in a natal stream after barrier removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigel, Dana E.; Connolly, Patrick J.; Martens, Kyle D.; Powell, Madison S.

    2013-01-01

    Colonization of vacant habitats is an important process for supporting the long-term persistence of populations and species. We used a before–after experimental design to follow the process of colonization by steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss (anadromous Rainbow Trout) at six monitoring sites in a natal stream, Beaver Creek, after the modification or removal of numerous stream passage barriers. Juvenile O. mykiss were collected at monitoring sites by using a backpack electrofisher. Passive integrated transponder tags and instream tag reading stations were used in combination with 16 microsatellite markers to determine the source, extent, and success of migrant O. mykiss after implementation of the barrier removal projects. Steelhead migrated into the study area during the first spawning season after passage was established. Hatchery steelhead, although comprising more than 80% of the adult returns to the Methow River basin, constituted a small proportion (23%) of the adult O. mykiss colonizing the study area. Adult steelhead and fluvial Rainbow Trout entered the stream during the first spawning season after barrier removal and were passing the uppermost tag reader (12 km upstream from the mouth) 3–4 years later. Parr that were tagged in Beaver Creek returned as adults, indicating establishment of the anadromous life history in the study area. Population genetic measures at the lower two monitoring sites (lower 4 km of Beaver Creek) significantly changed within one generation (4–5 years). Colonization and expansion of steelhead occurred more slowly than expected due to the low number of adults migrating into the study area.

  20. Intramolecular vibrational dynamical barrier due to extremely irrational couplings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The intramolecular vibrational dynamics due to extremely irrational couplings is demonstrated by contrast to the resonance couplings, for the three-mode case of H2O as an example. The extremely irrational couplings are shown to impose such strong hindrance to intramolecular vibrational relaxation (IVR) that they act as barriers. They restrict the direct action/energy transfer between the two stretching modes, though they allow the transfer between a stretching and a bending modes. In contrast, the resonance is more mediated by the bending mode and leads to chaotic IVR. It is also shown that there is a region in the dynamical space in which resonance and extremely irrational couplings coexist.