WorldWideScience

Sample records for barrier integrity allowing

  1. Barriers towards integrated product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Anita Friis; Dukovska-Popovska, Iskra; Steger-Jensen, Kenn

    2014-01-01

    The basis for product development in many large industrial companies is a traditional project management method positing non-overlapping phases, independent activities, and a dedicated project team. Research findings indicate that integrated product development methods increase performance compar...... product development in senior management, and a set of cross-organizational project governance structures.......The basis for product development in many large industrial companies is a traditional project management method positing non-overlapping phases, independent activities, and a dedicated project team. Research findings indicate that integrated product development methods increase performance compared...... to traditional methods, when it is a matter of complex problem solving where product development is a disruptive and non-linear process. Even though integrated product development has been the focus of a large number of research studies, most focus on identifying success criteria and improving performance while...

  2. Intestinal barrier integrity and inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmberg, Fredrik Eric Olof; Pedersen, Jannie; Jørgensen, Peter

    2017-01-01

    of antimicrobial peptides. Inflammatory bowel disease is associated with life-long morbidity for affected patients, and both the incidence and prevalence is increasing globally, resulting in substantial economic strain for society. Mucosal healing and re-establishment of barrier integrity is associated......, novel treatment strategies to accomplish mucosal healing and to re-establish normal barrier integrity in inflammatory bowel disease are warranted, and luminal stem cell-based approaches might have an intriguing potential. Transplantation of in vitro expanded intestinal epithelial stem cells derived...

  3. Near-Surface Engineered Environmental Barrier Integrity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piet, S.J.; Breckenridge, R.P.

    2002-01-01

    The INEEL Environmental Systems Research and Analysis (ESRA) program has launched a new R and D project on Near-Surface Engineered Environmental Barrier Integrity to increase knowledge and capabilities for using engineering and ecological components to improve the integrity of near-surface barriers used to confine contaminants from the public and the environment. The knowledge gained and the capabilities built will help verify the adequacy of past remedial decisions and enable improved solutions for future cleanup decisions. The research is planned to (a) improve the knowledge of degradation mechanisms (weathering, biological, geological, chemical, radiological, and catastrophic) in times shorter than service life, (b) improve modeling of barrier degradation dynamics, (c) develop sensor systems to identify degradation prior to failure, and (d) provide a better basis for developing and testing of new barrier systems to increase reliability and reduce the risk of failure. Our project combine s selected exploratory studies (benchtop and field scale), coupled effects accelerated aging testing and the meso-scale, testing of new monitoring concepts, and modeling of dynamic systems. The performance of evapo-transpiration, capillary, and grout-based barriers will be examined

  4. Markers for blood-brain barrier integrity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saunders, Norman R; Dziegielewska, Katarzyna M; Møllgård, Kjeld

    2015-01-01

    In recent years there has been a resurgence of interest in brain barriers and various roles their intrinsic mechanisms may play in neurological disorders. Such studies require suitable models and markers to demonstrate integrity and functional changes at the interfaces between blood, brain...... known when first introduced, but seem to have been forgotten since. Understanding these limitations is important because Evans blue is still the most commonly used marker of brain barrier integrity and those using it seem oblivious to problems arising from its in vivo application. The introduction...... of HRP in the mid twentieth-century was an important advance because its reaction product can be visualized at the electron microscopical level, but it also has limitations. Advantages and disadvantages of these markers will be discussed together with a critical evaluation of alternative approaches...

  5. Neutrophils Compromise Retinal Pigment Epithelial Barrier Integrity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiehao Zhou

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We hypothesized that neutrophils and their secreted factors mediate breakdown of the integrity of the outer blood-retina-barrier by degrading the apical tight junctions of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE. The effect of activated neutrophils or neutrophil cell lysate on apparent permeability of bovine RPE-Choroid explants was evaluated by measuring [H] mannitol flux in a modified Ussing chamber. The expression of matrix metalloproteinase- (MMP- 9 in murine peritoneal neutrophils, and the effects of neutrophils on RPE tight-junction protein expression were assessed by confocal microscopy and western blot. Our results revealed that basolateral incubation of explants with neutrophils decreased occludin and ZO-1 expression at 1 and 3 hours and increased the permeability of bovine RPE-Choroid explants by >3-fold (P<.05. Similarly, basolateral incubation of explants with neutrophil lysate decreased ZO-1 expression at 1 and 3 hours (P<.05 and increased permeability of explants by 75%. Further, we found that neutrophils prominently express MMP-9 and that incubation of explants with neutrophils in the presence of anti-MMP-9 antibody inhibited the increase in permeability. These data suggest that neutrophil-derived MMP-9 may play an important role in disrupting the integrity of the outer blood-retina barrier.

  6. Phase-integral method allowing nearlying transition points

    CERN Document Server

    Fröman, Nanny

    1996-01-01

    The efficiency of the phase-integral method developed by the present au­ thors has been shown both analytically and numerically in many publica­ tions. With the inclusion of supplementary quantities, closely related to new Stokes constants and obtained with the aid of comparison equation technique, important classes of problems in which transition points may approach each other become accessible to accurate analytical treatment. The exposition in this monograph is of a mathematical nature but has important physical applications, some examples of which are found in the adjoined papers. Thus, we would like to emphasize that, although we aim at mathematical rigor, our treatment is made primarily with physical needs in mind. To introduce the reader into the background of this book, we start by de­ scribing the phase-integral approximation of arbitrary order generated from an unspecified base function. This is done in Chapter 1, which is reprinted, after minor changes, from a review article. Chapter 2 is the re...

  7. Nigerian teachers' perception of barriers to technology integration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper documents chemistry teachers' perceptions of barriers to technology integration into the chemistry lessons. Underlying the study was a conceptual underpinning which focused on the concept of ICT integration, competencies of integration and chemistry curriculum. 13 participants were recruited for the study.

  8. Epithelial barrier disruption allows nondisease-causing bacteria to initiate and sustain IBD in the IL-10 gene-deficient mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sydora, Beate C; Macfarlane, Sarah M; Walker, John W; Dmytrash, Andrea L; Churchill, Thomas A; Doyle, Jason; Fedorak, Richard N

    2007-08-01

    In the IL-10 gene-deficient mouse model, development of intestinal inflammation is associated with a defect in epithelial barrier integrity that is thought to allow sufficient passage of bacteria or bacterial antigens to initiate a mucosal immune response. Microbial monoassociation experiments into axenic animals have shown that some, but not all, endogenous bacteria will initiate an intestinal inflammatory response. For instance, Bacteroides vulgatus does not initiate intestinal inflammation in axenic IL-10 gene-deficient mice. We investigated whether B. vulgatus requires concomitant disruption of the intestinal epithelial barrier integrity in order to initiate an inflammatory response. We first identified a dose of the indomethacin that would cause a primary disruption of the epithelial barrier without causing intestinal inflammation. IL-10 axenic mice were then administered this dose of indomethacin in their drinking water for 7 days and concomitantly monoassociated, by oral gavage, with B. vulgatus. Indomethacin treatment (2 microg/g/d) for 7 days resulted in disruption of epithelial barrier integrity, but it caused neither a systemic inflammatory response nor a mucosal inflammatory response in the colon or cecum. Monoassociation with B. vulgatus alone did not lead to a mucosal inflammatory response, despite a measurable systemic response. In contrast, administration of indomethacin plus B. vulgatus-monoassociation resulted in a marked intestinal inflammatory response in colon and cecum. Our data show that, in a genetically predisposed animal model, the nondisease-causing endogenous bacteria, B. vulgatus, is able to cause an intestinal inflammatory response provided that disruption of the intestinal epithelial barrier has occurred.

  9. Barriers to Asthma Management for School Nurses: An Integrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley Nadeau, Ellen; Toronto, Coleen E

    2016-04-01

    Childhood asthma is a growing health concern. Asthma is the most common chronic illness of childhood and a leading cause of emergency room visits, hospitalizations, and school absenteeism. School nurses play a valuable role in asthma management. The purpose of this integrative review is to examine barriers to asthma management for school nurses in the school setting. Findings revealed multiple barriers school nurses encounter in managing asthma. Six themes emerged that included lack of resources and support, insufficient time, communication challenges, limited knowledge, and lack of awareness of school nurses' expertise. Students, parents, primary care physicians, school administration, staff, and school nurses themselves all play a role in constructing barriers to asthma management. There is a need for school nurses and school nurse leaders to focus efforts to develop strategies to overcome barriers to ensure evidence-based, best practice management of asthma in the school setting. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Verification of the integrity of barriers using gas diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, D.B. [SPECTRA Research Inst., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Williams, C.V. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Environmental Restoration Technologies Dept.

    1997-06-01

    In-situ barrier materials and designs are being developed for containment of high risk contamination as an alternative to immediate removal or remediation. The intent of these designs is to prevent the movement of contaminants in either the liquid or vapor phase by long-term containment, essentially buying time until the contaminant depletes naturally or a remediation can be implemented. The integrity of the resultant soil-binder mixture is typically assessed by a number of destructive laboratory tests (leaching, compressive strength, mechanical stability with respect to wetting and freeze-thaw cycles) which as a group are used to infer the likelihood of favorable long-term performance of the barrier. The need exists for a minimally intrusive yet quantifiable methods for assessment of a barrier`s integrity after emplacement, and monitoring of the barrier`s performance over its lifetime. Here, the authors evaluate non-destructive measurements of inert-gas diffusion (specifically, SF{sub 6}) as an indicator of waste-form integrity. The goals of this project are to show that diffusivity can be measured in core samples of soil jet-grouted with Portland cement, validate the experimental method through measurements on samples, and to calculate aqueous diffusivities from a series of diffusion measurements. This study shows that it is practical to measure SF{sub 6} diffusion rates in the laboratory on samples of grout (Portland cement and soil) typical of what might be used in a barrier. Diffusion of SF{sub 6} through grout (Portland cement and soil) is at least an order of magnitude slower than through air. The use of this tracer should be sensitive to the presence of fractures, voids, or other discontinuities in the grout/soil structure. Field-scale measurements should be practical on time-scales of a few days.

  11. Integrated control of the wastewater system – potentials and barriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mollerup, Ane Loft; Grum, Morten; Muschalla, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    Applying integrated control to a sewer system and wastewater treatment plant often leads to additional benefits for both systems when compared to controlling them independently. However, barriers such as a lack of incentive for utilities to put this type of control in place mean that in practice...

  12. Barriers to Asthma Management for School Nurses: An Integrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley Nadeau, Ellen; Toronto, Coleen E.

    2016-01-01

    Childhood asthma is a growing health concern. Asthma is the most common chronic illness of childhood and a leading cause of emergency room visits, hospitalizations, and school absenteeism. School nurses play a valuable role in asthma management. The purpose of this integrative review is to examine barriers to asthma management for school nurses in…

  13. Integrating Religion and Spirituality into Counselor Education: Barriers and Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Christopher M.; Puig, Ana; Baggs, Adrienne; Wolf, Cheryl Pence

    2015-01-01

    Despite a professionally recognized need for training in religion/spirituality, literature indicates that religious and spirituality issues continue to be inconsistently addressed in counselor education. Ten experts were asked to identify potential barriers to integrating religion and spirituality into counselor education and indicate strategies…

  14. Identifying barriers to Muslim integration in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adida, Claire L; Laitin, David D; Valfort, Marie-Anne

    2010-12-28

    Is there a Muslim disadvantage in economic integration for second-generation immigrants to Europe? Previous research has failed to isolate the effect that religion may have on an immigrant family's labor market opportunities because other factors, such as country of origin or race, confound the result. This paper uses a correspondence test in the French labor market to identify and measure this religious effect. The results confirm that in the French labor market, anti-Muslim discrimination exists: a Muslim candidate is 2.5 times less likely to receive a job interview callback than is his or her Christian counterpart. A high-n survey reveals, consistent with expectations from the correspondence test, that second-generation Muslim households in France have lower income compared with matched Christian households. The paper thereby contributes to both substantive debates on the Muslim experience in Europe and methodological debates on how to measure discrimination. Following the National Academy of Sciences' 2001 recommendations on combining a variety of methodologies and applying them to real-world situations, this research identifies, measures, and infers consequences of discrimination based on religious affiliation, controlling for potentially confounding factors, such as race and country of origin.

  15. Fluidic interconnections for microfluidic systems: A new integrated fluidic interconnection allowing plug 'n' play functionality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perozziello, Gerardo; Bundgaard, Frederik; Geschke, Oliver

    2008-01-01

    for interconnecting polymer microsystems in terms of cost, space and performance. Following this path we propose a new reversible, integrated fluidic interconnection composed of custom-made cylindrical rings integrated in a polymer house next to the fluidic network. This allows plug 'n' play functionality between...... external metal ferrules and the system. Theoretical calculations are made to dimension and model the integrated fluidic interconnection. Leakage tests are performed on the interconnections, in order to experimentally confirm the model, and detect its limits....

  16. Verification of the integrity of barriers using gas diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, D.B.; Williams, C.V.

    1997-06-01

    In-situ barrier materials and designs are being developed for containment of high risk contamination as an alternative to immediate removal or remediation. The intent of these designs is to prevent the movement of contaminants in either the liquid or vapor phase by long-term containment, essentially buying time until the contaminant depletes naturally or a remediation can be implemented. The integrity of the resultant soil-binder mixture is typically assessed by a number of destructive laboratory tests (leaching, compressive strength, mechanical stability with respect to wetting and freeze-thaw cycles) which as a group are used to infer the likelihood of favorable long-term performance of the barrier. The need exists for a minimally intrusive yet quantifiable methods for assessment of a barrier's integrity after emplacement, and monitoring of the barrier's performance over its lifetime. Here, the authors evaluate non-destructive measurements of inert-gas diffusion (specifically, SF 6 ) as an indicator of waste-form integrity. The goals of this project are to show that diffusivity can be measured in core samples of soil jet-grouted with Portland cement, validate the experimental method through measurements on samples, and to calculate aqueous diffusivities from a series of diffusion measurements. This study shows that it is practical to measure SF 6 diffusion rates in the laboratory on samples of grout (Portland cement and soil) typical of what might be used in a barrier. Diffusion of SF 6 through grout (Portland cement and soil) is at least an order of magnitude slower than through air. The use of this tracer should be sensitive to the presence of fractures, voids, or other discontinuities in the grout/soil structure. Field-scale measurements should be practical on time-scales of a few days

  17. Hyperthermia of magnetic nanoparticles allows passage of sodium fluorescein and Evans blue dye across the blood-retinal barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatabaei, Seyed Nasrollah; Tabatabaei, Maryam Sadat; Girouard, Hélène; Martel, Sylvain

    2016-09-01

    The blood-retina barrier (BRB) is a biological barrier consisting of tightly interconnected endothelial cells inside the retinal vascular network that protects the neural tissue from harmful pathogens and neurotoxic molecules circulating in the bloodstream. Unfortunately, with regard to retinoblastoma, this barrier also prevents systemically administered therapeutics reaching the retinal tissue. In this study we introduce a novel technique to locally and transiently increase BRB permeability for drug delivery using hyperthermia of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs). An alternating current (AC) magnetic field was used to induce hyperthermia of locally injected MNPs in the left ophthalmic artery of a rat model. To improve adherence on the surface of the endothelium, commercially available MNPs coated with human transferrin glycoproteins were used. After hyperthermia we assessed the extravasation of systemically injected sodium fluorescein (NaF) as well as Evans blue dye (EBD) into the retinal tissue. Spectrofluorometry and fluorescent microscopy image analysis show a significant increase of dye penetration in the retina where hyperthermia of MNPs was applied. Our proposed new technique can allow both small and large dye molecules to cross the BRB. While the results are preliminary and thorough evaluation of the retinal tissue following hyperthermia is necessary, this technique has the potential to be an effective mean for the treatment of various diseases such as retinoblastoma.

  18. The "Third"-Order Barrier for Technology-Integration Instruction: Implications for Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chin-Chung; Chai, Ching Sing

    2012-01-01

    Technology integration is a major trend in contemporary education practice. When undertaking technology integration in classrooms, a first-order barrier and a second-order barrier, as proposed by Ertmer (1999), can hinder its implementation. The first-order barrier is external, such as lack of adequate access, time, training and institutional…

  19. Glovebox characterization and barrier integrity testing using fluorescent powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahlquist, D.R.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents a method for characterizing the spread of contamination and testing the barrier integrity of a new glovebox during material transfer operations and glove change-outs using fluorescent powder. Argonne National Laboratory-West has performed this test on several new gloveboxes prior to putting them into service. The test is performed after the glovebox has been leak tested and all systems have been verified to be operational. The purpose of the test is to show that bag-in/bag-out operations and glove change-outs can be accomplished without spreading the actual contaminated material to non-contaminated areas. The characterization test also provides information as to where contamination might be expected to build-up during actual operations. The fluorescent powder is used because it is easily detectable using an ultra-violet light and disperses in a similar fashion to radioactive material. The characterization and barrier integrity test of a glovebox using fluorescent powder provides a visual method of determining areas of potential contamination accumulation and helps evaluate the ability to perform clean transfer operations and glove change-outs

  20. Endothelial Regulator of Calcineurin 1 Promotes Barrier Integrity and Modulates Histamine-Induced Barrier Dysfunction in Anaphylaxis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ballesteros-Martinez, Constanza; Mendez-Barbero, Nerea; Montalvo-Yuste, Alma

    2017-01-01

    anaphylaxis. Functionalin vitroassays showed that overexpression of Rcan1 promotes barrier integrity, suggesting a role played by this molecule in vascular permeability. Consistent with these findings,in vivomodels of subcutaneous and intravenous histamine-mediated fluid extravasation showed increased...

  1. Overcoming barriers to integrating economic analysis into risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Sandra

    2011-09-01

    Regulatory risk analysis is designed to provide decisionmakers with a clearer understanding of how policies are likely to affect risk. The systems that produce risk are biological, physical, and social and economic. As a result, risk analysis is an inherently interdisciplinary task. Yet in practice, risk analysis has been interdisciplinary in only limited ways. Risk analysis could provide more accurate assessments of risk if there were better integration of economics and other social sciences into risk assessment itself. This essay examines how discussions about risk analysis policy have influenced the roles of various disciplines in risk analysis. It explores ways in which integrated bio/physical-economic modeling could contribute to more accurate assessments of risk. It reviews examples of the kind of integrated economics-bio/physical modeling that could be used to enhance risk assessment. The essay ends with a discussion of institutional barriers to greater integration of economic modeling into risk assessment and provides suggestions on how these might be overcome. © 2011 Society for Risk Analysis.

  2. Barriers and facilitators to integrating care: experiences from the English Integrated Care Pilots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Ling

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. In 2008, the English Department of Health appointed 16 'Integrated Care Pilots' which used a range of approaches to provide better integrated care. We report qualitative analyses from a three year multi-method evaluation to identify barriers and facilitators to successful integration of care.  Theory and methods. Data were analysed from transcripts of 213 in-depth staff interviews, and from semi-structured questionnaires (the 'Living Document' completed by staff in pilot sites at six points over a two-year period. Emerging findings were therefore built from 'bottom up' and grounded in the data. However, we were then interested in how these findings compared and contrasted with more generic analyses. Therefore after our analyses were complete we then systematically compared and contrasted the findings with the analysis of barriers and facilitators to quality improvement identified in a systematic review by Kaplan et al (2010 and the analysis of more micro-level shapers of behaviour found in Normalisation Process Theory (May et al 2007. Neither of these approaches claims to be full blown theories but both claim to provide mid-range theoretical arguments which may be used to structure existing data and which can be undercut or reinforced by new data. Results and discussion. Many barriers and facilitators to integrating care are those of any large scale organisational change. These include issues relating to leadership, organisational culture, information technology, physician involvement, and availability of resources. However, activities which appear particularly important for delivering integrated care include personal relationships between leaders in different organisations, the scale of planned activities, governance and finance arrangements, support for staff in new roles, and organisational and staff stability. We illustrate our analyses with a 'routemap' which identifies questions that providers may wish to consider when

  3. Three integrated photovoltaic/sound barrier power plants. Construction and operational experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordmann, T.; Froelich, A.; Clavadetscher, L.

    2002-01-01

    After an international ideas competition by TNC Switzerland and Germany in 1996, six companies where given the opportunity to construct a prototype of their newly developed integrated PV-sound barrier concepts. The main goal was to develop highly integrated concepts, allowing the reduction of PV sound barrier systems costs, as well as the demonstration of specific concepts for different noise situations. This project is strongly correlated with a German project. Three of the concepts of the competition are demonstrated along a highway near Munich, constructed in 1997. The three Swiss installations had to be constructed at different locations, reflecting three typical situations for sound barriers. The first Swiss installation was the world first Bi-facial PV-sound barrier. It was built on a highway bridge at Wallisellen-Aubrugg in 1997. The operational experience of the installation is positive. But due to the different efficiencies of the two cell sides, its specific yield lies somewhat behind a conventional PV installation. The second Swiss plant was finished in autumn 1998. The 'zig-zag' construction is situated along the railway line at Wallisellen in a densely inhabited area with some local shadowing. Its performance and its specific yield is comparatively low due to a combination of several reasons (geometry of the concept, inverter, high module temperature, local shadows). The third installation was constructed along the motor way A1 at Bruettisellen in 1999. Its vertical panels are equipped with amorphous modules. The report show, that the performance of the system is reasonable, but the mechanical construction has to be improved. A small trial field with cells directly laminated onto the steel panel, also installed at Bruettisellen, could be the key development for this concept. This final report includes the evaluation and comparison of the monitored data in the past 24 months of operation. (author)

  4. Allowable peak heat-up cladding temperature for spent fuel integrity during interim-dry storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki-Nam Jang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available To investigate allowable peak cladding temperature and hoop stress for maintenance of cladding integrity during interim-dry storage and subsequent transport, zirconium alloy cladding tubes were hydrogen-charged to generate 250 ppm and 500 ppm hydrogen contents, simulating spent nuclear fuel degradation. The hydrogen-charged specimens were heated to four peak temperatures of 250°C, 300°C, 350°C, and 400°C, and then cooled to room temperature at cooling rates of 0.3 °C/min under three tensile hoop stresses of 80 MPa, 100 MPa, and 120 MPa. The cool-down specimens showed that high peak heat-up temperature led to lower hydrogen content and that larger tensile hoop stress generated larger radial hydride fraction and consequently lower plastic elongation. Based on these out-of-pile cladding tube test results only, it may be said that peak cladding temperature should be limited to a level < 250°C, regardless of the cladding hoop stress, to ensure cladding integrity during interim-dry storage and subsequent transport.

  5. Engineering of tunnel barrier for highly integrated nonvolatile memory applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Hee-Wook; Son, Jung-Woo; Cho, Won-Ju

    2011-03-01

    In this paper, the engineered tunnel barrier technology is introduced by using the engineered tunnel barrier of VARIOT type (SiO2/Si3N4/SiO2) and CRESTED type (Si3N4/SiO2/Si3N4) with Si3N4 and high- k HfO2 layers as charge trapping layers, respectively. In addition, the high- k stacked VARIOT type of SiO2/HfO2/Al2O3 and Al2O3/HfO2/Al2O3 are compared with O/N/O tunnel barrier memory. As a result, the engineered tunnel barrier memory device showed excellent memory characteristics compared to the single SiO2 tunnel barrier memory device, such as very high P/E (program/erase) speed, good retention time and no degradation in endurance characteristics.

  6. Overcoming Pedagogical, Social/Cultural, and Attitudinal Barriers to Technology Integration in K-5 Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durff, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    Technology engages and increases academic achievement for K-5 students, but teachers face attitudinal, social/cultural, and pedagogical barriers when they integrate technology for student learning. Although some teachers overcome these barriers, it remains unclear how they do so. The purpose of this qualitative multiple case study was to analyze…

  7. Diffusion barriers for Cu metallisation in Si integrated circuits : deposition and related thin film properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nieuwkasteele-Bystrova, Svetlana Nikolajevna

    2004-01-01

    In modern integrated circuits with Cu interconnects a diffusion barrier is used between the dielectric and Cu in order to prevent diffusion of Cu through the dielectrics. The choice of such a barrier requires a material exploration and a study of the material reactivity with both Cu and the

  8. Barriers to Implementing the International Integrated Reporting Framework: A Contemporary Academic Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Dumay, John; Bernardi, Cristiana; Guthrie, James; La Torre, Matteo

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This paper is motivated by the International Integrated Reporting Council’s (IIRC) call for feedback from all stakeholders with knowledge of the International Integrated Reporting Framework , and specifically of the enablers, incentives and barriers to its implementation. The paper synthesises insights from contemporary accounting research into integrated reporting (IR) as a general concept, and integrated reporting as espoused by the IIRC in the (IIRC, 2013). We specifically focus...

  9. Barriers integrating dedicated software for quality management in pain centres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ten Hoopen, A.J.; Zanstra, P.E.; Van der Haring, E.J.; Tuil, W.S.; van Wijhe, M.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Explore the feasibility of integrating a dedicated pain centre information system as part of a quality management network with a number of different Hospital Information Systems. MATERIAL & METHODS: A systematic approach integrating and implementing the system in 15 selected hospital

  10. Thinking Allowed: Content and Language Integrated Learning--A Research Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton-Puffer, Christiane; Smit, Ute

    2013-01-01

    While Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) has received a considerable amount of research interest lately, its increasing popularity as an approach to teaching content subjects in a foreign language requires concerted investigation that reflects and recognises its fundamentally contextualised nature. In this contribution, we sketch…

  11. A novel integrated renewable energy system modelling approach, allowing fast FPGA controller prototyping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teodorescu, Remus; Ruiz, Alberto Parera; Cirstea, Marcian

    2008-01-01

    The paper describes a new holistic approach to the modeling of integrated renewable energy systems. The method is using the DK5 modeling/design environment from Celoxica and is based on the new Handel-C programming language. The goal of the work carried out was to achieve a combined model...... containing a Xilinx Spartan II FPGA and was successfully experimentally tested. This approach enables the design and fast hardware implementation of efficient controllers for Distributed Energy Resource (DER) hybrid systems....

  12. AN ACTIVITY THEORY APPROACH TO STUDY BARRIERS OF FACULTY REGARDING TECHNOLOGY INTEGRATION IN HIGHER EDUCATION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castro Guzman, Willy

    2016-01-01

    technology. Ertmer’s approach establishes first-order and second-orders barriers as hinderers for teacher’s adoption of technology. The study intends to answer what are the barriers existing in the socalled enthusiastic faculty teachers regarding technology integration in Education? Findings call......Information and communication technologies are instruments for supporting new ways of teaching and learning. Nevertheless, its impact concerning scope has not reached the expected level. This strain between benefits and impact has been inquired from the perspective of barriers of teachers to use...... dichotomies between enthusiastic-resistant teachers, the intrinsic-extrinsic barriers, and claims for passing from an individual to a collective approach to ICT integration in education...

  13. Alteration of blood-brain barrier integrity by retroviral infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe V Afonso

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The blood-brain barrier (BBB, which forms the interface between the blood and the cerebral parenchyma, has been shown to be disrupted during retroviral-associated neuromyelopathies. Human T Lymphotropic Virus (HTLV-1 Associated Myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis (HAM/TSP is a slowly progressive neurodegenerative disease associated with BBB breakdown. The BBB is composed of three cell types: endothelial cells, pericytes and astrocytes. Although astrocytes have been shown to be infected by HTLV-1, until now, little was known about the susceptibility of BBB endothelial cells to HTLV-1 infection and the impact of such an infection on BBB function. We first demonstrated that human cerebral endothelial cells express the receptors for HTLV-1 (GLUT-1, Neuropilin-1 and heparan sulfate proteoglycans, both in vitro, in a human cerebral endothelial cell line, and ex vivo, on spinal cord autopsy sections from HAM/TSP and non-infected control cases. In situ hybridization revealed HTLV-1 transcripts associated with the vasculature in HAM/TSP. We were able to confirm that the endothelial cells could be productively infected in vitro by HTLV-1 and that blocking of either HSPGs, Neuropilin 1 or Glut1 inhibits this process. The expression of the tight-junction proteins within the HTLV-1 infected endothelial cells was altered. These cells were no longer able to form a functional barrier, since BBB permeability and lymphocyte passage through the monolayer of endothelial cells were increased. This work constitutes the first report of susceptibility of human cerebral endothelial cells to HTLV-1 infection, with implications for HTLV-1 passage through the BBB and subsequent deregulation of the central nervous system homeostasis. We propose that the susceptibility of cerebral endothelial cells to retroviral infection and subsequent BBB dysfunction is an important aspect of HAM/TSP pathogenesis and should be considered in the design of future therapeutics strategies.

  14. A Theoretical Framework Mapping Barriers of Integrating and Adopting Educational Techonology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khalid, Md. Saifuddin; Buus, Lillian

    2018-01-01

    In the field of educational technology, a decades-long research question is: what barriers exist in integration and adoption of information and communication technology (ICT) in education educational technology? The intensity of integration and the rate of adoption are significantly low and the i......In the field of educational technology, a decades-long research question is: what barriers exist in integration and adoption of information and communication technology (ICT) in education educational technology? The intensity of integration and the rate of adoption are significantly low......) adoption decision. Instead of “system blame” or “individual blame”, an integration and adoption approach should consider national holistic view for careful strategic changes in policies, procedures, and practices at each decision level of the educational system and related external systems....

  15. Integrating surrogate models into subsurface simulation framework allows computation of complex reactive transport scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lucia, Marco; Kempka, Thomas; Jatnieks, Janis; Kühn, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Reactive transport simulations - where geochemical reactions are coupled with hydrodynamic transport of reactants - are extremely time consuming and suffer from significant numerical issues. Given the high uncertainties inherently associated with the geochemical models, which also constitute the major computational bottleneck, such requirements may seem inappropriate and probably constitute the main limitation for their wide application. A promising way to ease and speed-up such coupled simulations is achievable employing statistical surrogates instead of "full-physics" geochemical models [1]. Data-driven surrogates are reduced models obtained on a set of pre-calculated "full physics" simulations, capturing their principal features while being extremely fast to compute. Model reduction of course comes at price of a precision loss; however, this appears justified in presence of large uncertainties regarding the parametrization of geochemical processes. This contribution illustrates the integration of surrogates into the flexible simulation framework currently being developed by the authors' research group [2]. The high level language of choice for obtaining and dealing with surrogate models is R, which profits from state-of-the-art methods for statistical analysis of large simulations ensembles. A stand-alone advective mass transport module was furthermore developed in order to add such capability to any multiphase finite volume hydrodynamic simulator within the simulation framework. We present 2D and 3D case studies benchmarking the performance of surrogates and "full physics" chemistry in scenarios pertaining the assessment of geological subsurface utilization. [1] Jatnieks, J., De Lucia, M., Dransch, D., Sips, M.: "Data-driven surrogate model approach for improving the performance of reactive transport simulations.", Energy Procedia 97, 2016, p. 447-453. [2] Kempka, T., Nakaten, B., De Lucia, M., Nakaten, N., Otto, C., Pohl, M., Chabab [Tillner], E., Kühn, M

  16. Analyzing the barriers affecting the effective utilization of quality tools and techniques using Integrated ISM approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Sharma

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to recognize and scrutinize the barriers affecting the utilization of quality tools and techniques (QT&T in manufacturing organizations. For this purpose, twelve barriers af-fecting the execution of QT&T in manufacturing organizations have been identified from literature analysis and experts’ opinion (academicians and industrial. Questionnaire-based survey has been utilized for the validation of identified barriers. Afterwards, an integrated model of QT&T has been developed by using interpretive structural Modelling (ISM and Matriced Impacts Croisés Multi-plication Appliquée á un Classement (MICMAC approach. This research gives an apparent depic-tion to identify and handle the barriers by computing the effectiveness of each barrier. Barriers like accessibility of time and space, inability to change organizational culture and inadequate coordina-tion and teamwork are found to be the key barriers for utilization of QT&T in manufacturing organ-ization. The developed model will help the manufacturing organizations effectively utilize QT&T.

  17. Baccalaureate Minority Nursing Students Perceived Barriers and Facilitators to Clinical Education Practices: An Integrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Crystal L; Phillips, Shannon M; Newman, Susan D; Atz, Teresa W

    2016-01-01

    This integrative review synthesized baccalaureate minority nursing students' perceptions of their clinical experiences. The diversity of the nursing workforce does not mirror the United States population. Attrition rates of minority nursing students remain higher than rates for White students. Literature examining facilitators and barriers to minority student success predominantly focuses on academic factors, excluding those relevant to clinical education. An integrative review using literature from nursing and education. Three common perceived barriers were identified: discrimination from faculty, peers, nursing staff, and patients; bias in faculty grading practices; and isolation. Although little is known about the relationship between clinical failures and overall attrition, this review provides evidence that minority students encounter significant barriers in clinical education. To increase the diversity of the nursing workforce, faculty must address these issues and make modifications to ensure an equal opportunity at a quality education for all students.

  18. Evaluation of Barriers to the Integration of ICT in Teaching and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article examines the perceived barriers to information and communication technology (ICT) integration in science education. A questionnaire designed to elicit teachers' feedback was administered among 56 experienced male and female Science and Mathematics teachers within Zimbabwe. Initial results indicate that ...

  19. The Relationship between Social Cognitive Barriers and Technology Integration Frequency in a Northeastern School District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Pauline

    2013-01-01

    Although federal and state departments of education have provided funding, programs, and policies to address barriers to technology integration, the frequency to which technology is used in classrooms for teaching and learning remains relatively unchanged. Without justification for continued funding, districts stand to lose a portion of their…

  20. Examining Current Beliefs, Practices and Barriers about Technology Integration: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Pi-Sui

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to examine the current beliefs, practices and barriers concerning technology integration of Kindergarten through Grade Six teachers in the midwestern United States. The three data collection methods were online surveys with 152 teachers as well as interviews and observations with 8 teachers. The findings…

  1. Technology Integration in K-12 Science Classrooms: An Analysis of Barriers and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hechter, Richard P.; Vermette, Laurie Anne

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the barriers to technology integration for Manitoban K-12 inservice science educators (n = 430) based on a 10-item online survey; results are analyzed according to teaching stream using the Technology, Pedagogy, and Content Knowledge (TPACK) framework. Quantitative descriptive statistics indicated that the leading barriers…

  2. Integrating Technology into Instruction at a Public University in Kyrgyzstan: Barriers and Enablers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhametjanova, Gulshat; Cagiltay, Kursat

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine enablers and barriers to the technology integration into education based on the example of the situation at the Kyrgyz-Turkish Manas University as reported by students and instructors. The study employed the mixed-methods research design, combining data obtained from 477 student and 57 instructor…

  3. Barriers to the Integration and Adoption of iPads in Schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khalid, Md. Saifuddin; Kilic, Gökce; Christoffersen, Jeanette

    2015-01-01

    iPad, with its Apple platform and interoperability-dependent material conditions, bring complex barriers in its adoption and integration in secondary education system as a learning tool. In the schools’ context, it is an emerging educational technology for its affordances supporting collaborative...

  4. Coaching and barriers to weight loss: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz Obino, Karen Fernanda; Aguiar Pereira, Caroline; Caron-Lienert, Rafaela Siviero

    2017-01-01

    Coaching is proposed to raise a patient's awareness and responsibility for their health behaviour change by transforming the professional-patient relationship. To review the scientific literature on how coaching can assist in weight loss and improve a patient's state of health. An integrative literature search was performed using PubMed, Latin American and Caribbean Literature in Health Sciences, and Scientific Electronic Library Online. We selected articles that were published in Portuguese, English, and Spanish over the last 10 years. Data analysis was performed using a validated data collection instrument. Among the 289 articles identified in the search, 276 were excluded because they did not address the leading research question, their full texts were not available on the Internet, or they were duplicate publications. Therefore, for the analysis, we selected 13 articles that we classified as randomized clinical studies (46.15%; n=6), cohort studies (30.76%; n=4), cross-sectional studies (7.69%; n=1), case studies (7.69%; n=1), and review articles (7.69%; n=1). Joint intervention (combined in-person and telecoaching sessions) constituted the majority of session types. The use of technical coaching was superior in reducing anthropometric measurements and increasing the levels of motivation and personal satisfaction compared with formal health education alone. Coaching is an efficient, cost-effective method for combining formal education and treatment of health in the weight-loss process. Additional randomized studies are needed to demonstrate its effectiveness with respect to chronic disease indicators.

  5. Coaching and barriers to weight loss: an integrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muñoz Obino KF

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Karen Fernanda Muñoz Obino,1 Caroline Aguiar Pereira,1 Rafaela Siviero Caron-Lienert2 1Nutrology/Clinical Nutrition Unit, Ernesto Dornelles Hospital, 2Nutrition of the Educational and Research Institute of Moinhos de Vento Hospital, Porto Alegre, Brazil Introduction: Coaching is proposed to raise a patient’s awareness and responsibility for their health behaviour change by transforming the professional–patient relationship.Objective: To review the scientific literature on how coaching can assist in weight loss and improve a patient’s state of health.Methodology: An integrative literature search was performed using PubMed, Latin American and Caribbean Literature in Health Sciences, and Scientific Electronic Library Online. We selected articles that were published in Portuguese, English, and Spanish over the last 10 years. Data analysis was performed using a validated data collection instrument.Results: Among the 289 articles identified in the search, 276 were excluded because they did not address the leading research question, their full texts were not available on the Internet, or they were duplicate publications. Therefore, for the analysis, we selected 13 articles that we classified as randomized clinical studies (46.15%; n=6, cohort studies (30.76%; n=4, cross-sectional studies (7.69%; n=1, case studies (7.69%; n=1, and review articles (7.69%; n=1. Joint intervention (combined in-person and telecoaching sessions constituted the majority of session types. The use of technical coaching was superior in reducing anthropometric measurements and increasing the levels of motivation and personal satisfaction compared with formal health education alone.Conclusion: Coaching is an efficient, cost-effective method for combining formal education and treatment of health in the weight-loss process. Additional randomized studies are needed to demonstrate its effectiveness with respect to chronic disease indicators. Keywords: coaching, weight loss

  6. Facilitators and barriers to adjustment of international nurses: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawi, J; Xu, Y

    2009-06-01

    There is a scarcity of research focusing on issues encountered by international nurses (INs) in their adjustment to foreign health-care environments. Increasingly, INs are relied upon to address staffing shortages in many Western countries. As such, it is vital to identify what facilitates and what the barriers are to the successful adjustment in order to assist their integration into new workplace environments. This integrative review identifies facilitators and barriers encountered by INs as they adjust to foreign health-care environments. Based on Cooper's Five Stages of Integrative Research Review, a systematic search of eight electronic databases was conducted, combined with hand and ancestral searches. Two authors independently reviewed each qualified study for relevance and significance. Subsequently, facilitators and barriers were identified and categorized into themes and subthemes. Twenty-nine studies conducted in Australia, Canada, Iceland, UK and the USA were included in this review. Findings indicated that positive work ethic, persistence, psychosocial and logistical support, learning to be assertive and continuous learning facilitated the adjustment of INs to their new workplace environments. In contrast, language and communication difficulties, differences in culture-based lifeways, lack of support, inadequate orientation, differences in nursing practice and inequality were barriers. The review findings provide the basis for the development and testing of an evidence-informed programme to facilitate the successful adjustment of INs to their new work environments.

  7. Cerebrovascular requirement for sealant, anti-coagulant and remodeling molecules that allow for the maintenance of vascular integrity and blood supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwood, Craig S; Bowen, Richard L; Smith, Mark A; Perry, George

    2003-09-01

    The integrity of the vasculature and the maintenance of the blood supply to the brain are crucial for the survival of higher vertebrates. However, peripheral mechanisms of sealing the vasculature that rely on the clotting of blood and platelet aggregation around the site of a 'leak' would lead to decreased cerebral perfusion and compromise the viability of terminally differentiated and irreplaceable neurons. Therefore, in higher organisms it is likely that a sealant/anti-coagulant system that maintains vascular supply has evolved as a necessity to life. We propose that one such system involves the amyloid-beta precursor protein (AbetaPP) and its cleavage product Abeta since (1) both AbetaPP/Abeta are known to deposit in the media of the cerebrovasculature wall following localized injury, (2) Abeta is generated from AbetaPP, a known acute phase reactant, (3) Abeta's physiochemical properties allow it to span between the extracellular matrix and the (endothelial) cell membrane and under inflammatory conditions aggregate to form an intracranial 'scab', thereby maintaining structural integrity of the blood brain barrier, (4) AbetaPP/Abeta together act as an anti-coagulant, (5) Abeta promotes vascular/neuronal remodeling, and (6) Abeta deposits resolve after injury. These properties are consistent with the acute phase generation and rapid cortical deposition of AbetaPP/Abeta following injury (either sustained by trauma or stresses associated with aging) that would be an important compensatory response aimed at limiting the loss of terminally differentiated neurons. Such a system would allow the maintenance of blood supply to the brain by sealing vascular lesions, preventing hemorrhagic stroke while at the same time inhibiting the coagulation cascade from blocking capillaries. Obviously, strategies to remove Abeta would have serious consequences for the integrity of the blood-brain barrier. Indeed, recent in vivo evidence demonstrates that the removal of deposited Abeta

  8. Barriers and Enablers to Integrating Mental Health into Primary Care: A Policy Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durbin, Anna; Durbin, Janet; Hensel, Jennifer M; Deber, Raisa

    2016-01-01

    Integrating care for physical health and behavioural health (mental health and addictions) has been a longstanding challenge, although research supports the clinical and cost effectiveness of integrated care for many clients. In one such model, primary care (PC) physicians work with specialist physicians and non-physician providers (NPPs) to provide mental health and addictions care in PC settings. This Ontario, Canada-focused policy analysis draws on research evidence to examine potential barriers and enablers to this model of integrated care, focusing on mental health. Funding challenges pertain to incentivizing PC physicians to select patients with mental illness, include NPPs on the treatment team, and collaborate with specialist providers. Legal/regulatory challenges pertain to NPP scopes of practice for prescribing and counselling. Integrated care also requires revising the role of the physician and distribution of functions among the team. Policy support to integrate addictions treatment in PC may face similar challenges but requires further exploration.

  9. Endothelial Regulator of Calcineurin 1 Promotes Barrier Integrity and Modulates Histamine-Induced Barrier Dysfunction in Anaphylaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanza Ballesteros-Martinez

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Anaphylaxis, the most serious and life-threatening allergic reaction, produces the release of inflammatory mediators by mast cells and basophils. Regulator of calcineurin 1 (Rcan1 is a negative regulator of mast-cell degranulation. The action of mediators leads to vasodilation and an increase in vascular permeability, causing great loss of intravascular volume in a short time. Nevertheless, the molecular basis remains unexplored on the vascular level. We investigated Rcan1 expression induced by histamine, platelet-activating factor (PAF, and epinephrine in primary human vein (HV-/artery (HA-derived endothelial cells (ECs and human dermal microvascular ECs (HMVEC-D. Vascular permeability was analyzed in vitro in human ECs with forced Rcan1 expression using Transwell migration assays and in vivo using Rcan1 knockout mice. Histamine, but neither PAF nor epinephrine, induced Rcan1-4 mRNA and protein expression in primary HV-ECs, HA-ECs, and HMVEC-D through histamine receptor 1 (H1R. These effects were prevented by pharmacological inhibition of calcineurin with cyclosporine A. Moreover, intravenous histamine administration increased Rcan1 expression in lung tissues of mice undergoing experimental anaphylaxis. Functional in vitro assays showed that overexpression of Rcan1 promotes barrier integrity, suggesting a role played by this molecule in vascular permeability. Consistent with these findings, in vivo models of subcutaneous and intravenous histamine-mediated fluid extravasation showed increased response in skin, aorta, and lungs of Rcan1-deficient mice compared with wild-type animals. These findings reveal that endothelial Rcan1 is synthesized in response to histamine through a calcineurin-sensitive pathway and may reduce barrier breakdown, thus contributing to the strengthening of the endothelium and resistance to anaphylaxis. These new insights underscore its potential role as a regulator of sensitivity to anaphylaxis in humans.

  10. Integrated Review of Barriers to Cervical Cancer Screening in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Ditsapelo M; Gueldner, Sarah M; Mogobe, Keitshokile D

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to review published studies to identify and describe barriers to Papanicolaou (Pap) smear screening among women in sub-Saharan Africa. Guided by Cooper's integrative review methodology, studies published between 2006 and 2015 were identified by searching electronic databases: Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), PubMed, MEDLINE, ProQuest, and PsycINFO using specified search terms. Using this strategy, 224 articles were identified and screened for duplication and by reading titles, abstracts, and full texts. Seventeen articles met the inclusion criteria and were appraised using relevant tools for qualitative and quantitative designs. No relevant articles published in 2006, 2007, and 2014 were found. All 17 articles had good methodological quality and were included in the review. The studies were from 10 sub-Saharan countries and from different settings. Content analysis of the data revealed three major themes coded as client, provider, and system barriers. The most common client barriers were lack of knowledge and awareness about Pap smear screening, fear of cancer, belief of not being at risk for cervical cancer, and that a Pap smear is not important unless one is ill and cultural or religious factors. Provider barriers were failure to inform or encourage women to screen. Major system barriers were unavailability and inaccessibility of the Pap test. The review provided evidence of barriers to Pap smear screening among sub-Saharan women. Although there were some variations from country to country, sub-Saharan countries share similar constraints to Pap smear screening. These findings have important implications for practice and policy. Understanding the client, provider, and system barriers to cervical cancer screening could guide development of effective interventions. © 2016 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  11. Integration of health into urban spatial planning through impact assessment: Identifying governance and policy barriers and facilitators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carmichael, Laurence; Barton, Hugh; Gray, Selena; Lease, Helen; Pilkington, Paul

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the results of a review of literature examining the barriers and facilitators in integrating health in spatial planning at the local, mainly urban level, through appraisals. Our literature review covered the UK and non UK experiences of appraisals used to consider health issues in the planning process. We were able to identify four main categories of obstacles and facilitators including first the different knowledge and conceptual understanding of health by different actors/stakeholders, second the types of governance arrangements, in particular partnerships, in place and the political context, third the way institutions work, the responsibilities they have and their capacity and resources and fourth the timeliness, comprehensiveness and inclusiveness of the appraisal process. The findings allowed us to draw some lessons on the governance and policy framework regarding the integration of health impact into spatial planning, in particular considering the pros and cons of integrating health impact assessment (HIA) into other forms of impact assessment of spatial planning decisions such as environmental impact assessment (EIA) and strategic environment assessment (SEA). In addition, the research uncovered a gap in the literature that tends to focus on the mainly voluntary HIA to assess health outcomes of planning decisions and neglect the analysis of regulatory mechanisms such as EIA and SEA. - Highlights: ► Governance and policy barriers and facilitators to the integration of health into urban planning. ► Review of literature on impact assessment methods used across the world. ► Knowledge, partnerships, management/resources and processes can impede integration. ► HIA evaluations prevail uncovering research opportunities for evaluating other techniques.

  12. Method and device for detecting impact events on a security barrier which includes a hollow rebar allowing insertion and removal of an optical fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pies, Ross E.

    2016-03-29

    A method and device for the detection of impact events on a security barrier. A hollow rebar is farmed within a security barrier, whereby the hollow rebar is completely surrounded by the security barrier. An optical fiber passes through the interior of the hollow rebar. An optical transmitter and an optical receiver are both optically connected to the optical fiber and connected to optical electronics. The optical electronics are configured to provide notification upon the detection of an impact event at the security barrier based on the detection of disturbances within the optical fiber.

  13. Effect of human immunodeficiency virus on blood-brain barrier integrity and function: an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkata Subba Rao Atluri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The blood-brain barrier (BBB is a diffusion barrier and has an important role in maintaining a precisely regulated microenvironment and protects the neural tissue from infectious agents and toxins in the circulating system. Compromised BBB integrity plays a major role in the pathogenesis of retroviral associated neurological diseases. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV infection in the Central Nervous System (CNS is an early event even before the serodiagnosis for HIV positivity or the initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART, resulting in neurological complications in many of the infected patients. Macrophages/microglia and astrocytes (in low levels are the most productively/latently infected cell types within the CNS. In this brief review, we have discussed about the effect of HIV infection and viral proteins released on the integrity and function of BBB, which may contribute to the progression of HIV associated neurocognitive disorders.

  14. Incentives and barriers for wind power expansion and system integration in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvelplund, Frede; Ostergaard, Poul Alberg; Meyer, Niels I

    2017-01-01

    In Denmark expansion of on-shore, near-shore and off-shore wind power is planned to increase the wind power share to 50% of electricity consumption by 2020. In this situation a continuation of past policies will not suffice, and a dual-track incentive system that both establishes incentives...... for investing in wind power and integration infrastructure with integration between the electricity, heating and transportation sectors, is required. The current Danish taxation system discourages electricity use and works against this integration. Likewise, the current day-ahead electricity spot market...... is not appropriate for a high-wind future as wind reduces price levels, but integration across sectors can partly assist in increasing demand and prices. The European Emission Trading System does not suffice in providing a level playing field for wind power and thus needs a revision. Another barrier for on...

  15. How thin barrier metal can be used to prevent Co diffusion in the modern integrated circuits?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixit, Hemant; Konar, Aniruddha; Pandey, Rajan; Ethirajan, Tamilmani

    2017-01-01

    In modern integrated circuits (ICs), billions of transistors are connected to each other via thin metal layers (e.g. copper, cobalt, etc) known as interconnects. At elevated process temperatures, inter-diffusion of atomic species can occur among these metal layers, causing sub-optimal performance of interconnects, which may lead to the failure of an IC. Thus, typically a thin barrier metal layer is used to prevent the inter-diffusion of atomic species within interconnects. For ICs with sub-10 nm transistors (10 nm technology node), the design rule (thickness scaling) demands the thinnest possible barrier layer. Therefore, here we investigate the critical thickness of a titanium–nitride (TiN) barrier that can prevent the cobalt diffusion using multi-scale modeling and simulations. First, we compute the Co diffusion barrier in crystalline and amorphous TiN with the nudged elastic band method within first-principles density functional theory simulations. Later, using the calculated activation energy barriers, we quantify the Co diffusion length in the TiN metal layer with the help of kinetic Monte Carlo simulations. Such a multi-scale modelling approach yields an exact critical thickness of the metal layer sufficient to prevent the Co diffusion in IC interconnects. We obtain a diffusion length of a maximum of 2 nm for a typical process of thermal annealing at 400 °C for 30 min. Our study thus provides useful physical insights for the Co diffusion in the TiN layer and further quantifies the critical thickness (∼2 nm) to which the metal barrier layer can be thinned down for sub-10 nm ICs. (paper)

  16. Barriers and facilitators to healthy eating for nurses in the workplace: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Rachel; Perry, Lin; Duffield, Christine; Gallagher, Robyn; Pierce, Heather

    2017-05-01

    The aim was to conduct an integrative systematic review to identify barriers and facilitators to healthy eating for working nurses. There is growing recognition of the influence of the workplace environment on the eating habits of the workforce, which in turn may contribute to increased overweight and obesity. Overweight and obesity exact enormous costs in terms of reduced well-being, worker productivity and increased risk of non-communicable diseases. The workplace is an ideal place to intervene and support healthy behaviours. This review aimed to identify barriers and facilitators to nurses' healthy eating in the workplace. Integrative mixed method review. Five electronic databases were searched: CINAHL, MEDLINE, PROQUEST Health and Medicine, ScienceDirect and PsycINFO. Reference lists were searched. Included papers were published in English between 2000-2016. Of 26 included papers, 21 were qualitative and five quantitative. An integrative literature review was undertaken. Quality appraisal of included studies used standardized checklists. A social-ecological framework was used to examine workplace facilitators and constraints to healthy eating, derived from the literature. Emergent themes were identified by thematic analysis. Review participants were Registered, Enrolled and/or Nurse Assistants primarily working in hospitals in middle or high income countries. The majority of studies reported barriers to healthy eating related to adverse work schedules, individual barriers, aspects of the physical workplace environment and social eating practices at work. Few facilitators were reported. Overall, studies found the workplace exerts a considerable negative influence on nurses' dietary intake. Reorientation of the workplace to promote healthy eating among nurses is required. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Dielectric and diffusion barrier multilayer for Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} solar cells integration on stainless steel sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amouzou, Dodji, E-mail: dodji.amouzou@fundp.ac.be [Research Centre in Physics of Matter and Radiation (PMR), University of Namur (FUNDP), Rue de Bruxelles, 61, 5000 Namur (Belgium); Guaino, Philippe; Fourdrinier, Lionel; Richir, Jean-Baptiste; Maseri, Fabrizio [CRM-Group, Boulevard de Colonster, B 57, 4000 Liège (Belgium); Sporken, Robert [Research Centre in Physics of Matter and Radiation (PMR), University of Namur (FUNDP), Rue de Bruxelles, 61, 5000 Namur (Belgium)

    2013-09-02

    For the fabrication of monolithically integrated flexible Cu(In, Ga)Se{sub 2}, CIGS modules on stainless steel, individual photovoltaic cells must be insulated from metal substrates by a barrier layer that can sustain high thermal treatments. In this work, a combination of sol–gel (organosilane-sol) and sputtered SiAlxOy forming thin diffusion barrier layers (TDBL) was prepared on stainless steel substrates. The deposition of organosilane-sol dielectric layers on the commercial stainless steel (maximal roughness, Rz = 500 nm and Root Mean Square roughness, RMS = 56 nm) induces a planarization of the surface (RMS = 16.4 nm, Rz = 176 nm). The DC leakage current through the dielectric layers was measured for the metal-insulator-metal (MIM) junctions that act as capacitors. This method allowed us to assess the quality of our TDBL insulating layer and its lateral uniformity. Indeed, evaluating a ratio of the number of valid MIM capacitors to the number of tested MIM capacitors, a yield of ∼ 95% and 50% has been reached respectively with non-annealed and annealed samples based on sol–gel double layers. A yield of 100% was achieved for sol–gel double layers reinforced with a sputtered SiAlxOy coating and a third sol–gel monolayer. Since this yield is obtained on several samples, it can be extrapolated to any substrate size. Furthermore, according to Glow Discharge Optical Emission Spectroscopy and Time of Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy measurements, these barrier layers exhibit excellent barrier properties against the diffusion of undesired atoms which could otherwise spoil the electronic and optical properties of CIGS photovoltaic cells. - Highlights: • We functionalize steel for monolithically integrated Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} solar cells • Thin dielectric and diffusion barrier layers (TDDBL) prepared on steel • Reliability and breakdown voltage of dielectric layers have been studied. • Investigation of thermal treatment effect on dielectric

  18. Barriers to integrating information technology content in doctor of nursing practice curricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilly, Kezia; Fitzpatrick, Joyce; Madigan, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    To date, there is no benchmark data available on the measurement of program outcomes in doctor of nursing practice (DNP) programs. The purpose of this study was to identify barriers to integration of IT content in the curriculum in DNP programs, perceived IT competencies taught, and DNP faculty perception of competencies. The study location was DNP programs in the United States, and focus was on doctorate-prepared faculty with a DNP or PhD. A descriptive design using an Internet-based survey was done with 113 DNP programs administrators and faculty across the United States. Limitation of the study was that few DNP administrators forwarded the study to faculty, limiting the sample size. For the purpose of this study, the results were limited to responses from DNP administrators, and some comparative data of the faculty were used. Barriers measured included lack of qualified faculty, faculty's limited knowledge or skills in IT, lack of interest, age, lack of time to learn IT, lack of time to use IT, too many work demands, lack of administrative vision, unclear expectations of faculty, lack of technical support to faculty, or lack of resources. Leading barriers to IT implementation were lack of time of faculty, too many other work demands of faculty, lack of resources dedicated to IT, and lack of qualified faculty to teach IT. Further research is necessary on doctorate-prepared faculty and on interventions to overcome these barriers is needed. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Bovine dairy complex lipids improve in vitro measures of small intestinal epithelial barrier integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Rachel C; MacGibbon, Alastair K H; Haggarty, Neill; Armstrong, Kelly M; Roy, Nicole C

    2018-01-01

    Appropriate intestinal barrier maturation is essential for absorbing nutrients and preventing pathogens and toxins from entering the body. Compared to breast-fed infants, formula-fed infants are more susceptible to barrier dysfunction-associated illnesses. In infant formula dairy lipids are usually replaced with plant lipids. We hypothesised that dairy complex lipids improve in vitro intestinal epithelial barrier integrity. We tested milkfat high in conjugated linoleic acid, beta serum (SureStart™Lipid100), beta serum concentrate (BSC) and a ganglioside-rich fraction (G600). Using Caco-2 cells as a model of the human small intestinal epithelium, we analysed the effects of the ingredients on trans-epithelial electrical resistance (TEER), mannitol flux, and tight junction protein co-localisation. BSC induced a dose-dependent improvement in TEER across unchallenged cell layers, maintained the co-localisation of tight junction proteins in TNFα-challenged cells with increased permeability, and mitigated the TEER-reducing effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). G600 also increased TEER across healthy and LPS-challenged cells, but it did not alter the co-location of tight junction proteins in TNFα-challenged cells. SureStart™Lipid100 had similar TEER-increasing effects to BSC when added at twice the concentration (similar lipid concentration). Ultimately, this research aims to contribute to the development of infant formulas supplemented with dairy complex lipids that support infant intestinal barrier maturation.

  20. Na+/K+-ATPase α1 identified as an abundant protein in the blood-labyrinth barrier that plays an essential role in the barrier integrity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Yang

    2011-01-01

    capillary isolation from the inner ear and the first database on protein components in the blood-labyrinth-barrier. Additionally, we found that ATP1A1 interaction with PKCη and occludin was involved in the integrity of the blood-labyrinth-barrier.

  1. Lactobacillus protects the integrity of intestinal epithelial barrier damaged by pathogenic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghua eYu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Pathogens invade intestinal mucosal barrier through phagocytosis of antigen presenting cells (dendritic cell, microfold cells, or through the invasion into the intestinal epithelial directly. Some pathogens could damage the cell junction between epithelial cells and use the paracellular pathway as an entrance to invade. Moreover, some Lactobacillus could inhibit the adhesion of the pathogens and protect the integrity of the cell junction and mucosal barrier. This research focused on the potential therapeutic effect of Lactobacillus fructosus (L. fructosus C2 to attenuate ETEC K88 or S. typhimurium SL1344 induced changes to mucosal barrier. The results demonstrated that treatment of polarized Caco-2 cells with L. fructosus C2 reduced the permeation of dextran, and expression of IL-8, p-ERK and p-JNK when cells were infected with pathogenic bacteria. The findings indicated that L. fructosus C2 exerted a protective effect against the damage to the integrity of Caco-2 cells by ETEC or S. typhimurium infection.

  2. Esophagogastric junction contractile integral (EGJ-CI) quantifies changes in EGJ barrier function with surgical intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, D; Patel, A; Mello, M; Shriver, A; Gyawali, C P

    2016-05-01

    Esophagogastric junction contractile integral (EGJ-CI) assesses EGJ barrier function on esophageal high resolution manometry (HRM). We assessed EGJ-CI values in achalasia and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) to determine if postoperative EGJ-CI changes reflected surgical intervention. Twenty-one achalasia patients (42.8 ± 3.2 years, 62% F) with HRM before and after Heller myotomy (HM) and 68 GERD patients (53.9 ± 1.8 years, 66% F) undergoing antireflux surgery (ARS) were compared to 21 healthy controls (27.6 ± 0.6 years, 52% F). Esophagogastric junction contractile integral (mmHg.cm) was calculated using the distal contractile integral measurement across the EGJ, measured above the gastric baseline and corrected for respiration. Pre and postsurgical EGJ-CI and conventional lower esophageal sphincter pressure (LESP) metrics were compared within and between these groups using non-parametric tests. Correlation between EGJ-CI and conventional LESP metrics was assessed. Baseline EGJ-CI was higher in achalasia compared to GERD (p integral declined by 59.2% after HM in achalasia (p = 0.001), and increased by 26.3% after ARS in GERD (p = 0.005). End-expiratory and basal LESP decreased by 74.5% and 64.5% with HM, but increased by only 17.8% and 4.3% with ARS. Differences were noted between Dor vs Toupet fundoplication in achalasia (p = 0.007), and partial vs complete ARS in GERD (p = 0.03). Esophagogastric junction contractile integral correlated modestly with both end-expiratory and basal LESP (Pearson's r of 0.8 for all), but was less robust in GERD (0.7). Esophagogastric junction contractile integral has clinical utility in assessing EGJ barrier function at baseline and after surgical intervention to the EGJ, and could complement conventional EGJ metrics. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Protein Homeostasis Imposes a Barrier on Functional Integration of Horizontally Transferred Genes in Bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimon Bershtein

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Horizontal gene transfer (HGT plays a central role in bacterial evolution, yet the molecular and cellular constraints on functional integration of the foreign genes are poorly understood. Here we performed inter-species replacement of the chromosomal folA gene, encoding an essential metabolic enzyme dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR, with orthologs from 35 other mesophilic bacteria. The orthologous inter-species replacements caused a marked drop (in the range 10-90% in bacterial growth rate despite the fact that most orthologous DHFRs are as stable as E.coli DHFR at 37°C and are more catalytically active than E. coli DHFR. Although phylogenetic distance between E. coli and orthologous DHFRs as well as their individual molecular properties correlate poorly with growth rates, the product of the intracellular DHFR abundance and catalytic activity (kcat/KM, correlates strongly with growth rates, indicating that the drop in DHFR abundance constitutes the major fitness barrier to HGT. Serial propagation of the orthologous strains for ~600 generations dramatically improved growth rates by largely alleviating the fitness barriers. Whole genome sequencing and global proteome quantification revealed that the evolved strains with the largest fitness improvements have accumulated mutations that inactivated the ATP-dependent Lon protease, causing an increase in the intracellular DHFR abundance. In one case DHFR abundance increased further due to mutations accumulated in folA promoter, but only after the lon inactivating mutations were fixed in the population. Thus, by apparently distinguishing between self and non-self proteins, protein homeostasis imposes an immediate and global barrier to the functional integration of foreign genes by decreasing the intracellular abundance of their products. Once this barrier is alleviated, more fine-tuned evolution occurs to adjust the function/expression of the transferred proteins to the constraints imposed by the

  4. Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) application in metal barrier layer integrity for porous low- k materials

    CERN Document Server

    Simon, Lin; Gidley, D W; Wetzel, J T; Monnig, K A; Ryan, E T; Simon, Jang; Douglas, Yu; Liang, M S; En, W G; Jones, E C; Sturm, J C; Chan, M J; Tiwari, S C; Hirose, M

    2002-01-01

    Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy (PALS) is a useful tool to pre-screen metal barrier integrity for Si-based porous low-k dielectrics. Pore size of low-k, thickness of metal barrier Ta, positronium (Ps) leakage from PALS, trench sidewall morphology, electrical test from one level metal (1LM) pattern wafer and Cu diffusion analysis were all correlated. Macro-porous low-k (pore size >=200 AA) and large scale meso-porous low-k (>50~200 AA) encounter both Ps leakage and Cu diffusion into low-k dielectric in the 0.25 mu mL/0.3 mu mS structures when using SEMATECH in-house PVD Ta 250 AA as barrier layer. For small scale meso-porous (>20~50 AA) and micro- porous (<=20 AA) low-k, no Ps leakage and no Cu diffusion into low-k were observed even with PVD Ta 50 AA, which is proved also owing to sidewall densification to seal all sidewall pores due to plasma etch and ash. For future technology, smaller pore size of porous Si-based low-k (=<50 AA) will be preferential for dense low-k like trench sidewall to...

  5. Astrocyte-Derived Pentraxin 3 Supports Blood-Brain Barrier Integrity Under Acute Phase of Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shindo, Akihiro; Maki, Takakuni; Mandeville, Emiri T; Liang, Anna C; Egawa, Naohiro; Itoh, Kanako; Itoh, Naoki; Borlongan, Mia; Holder, Julie C; Chuang, Tsu Tshen; McNeish, John D; Tomimoto, Hidekazu; Lok, Josephine; Lo, Eng H; Arai, Ken

    2016-04-01

    Pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is released on inflammatory responses in many organs. However, roles of PTX3 in brain are still mostly unknown. Here we asked whether and how PTX3 contributes to blood-brain barrier dysfunction during the acute phase of ischemic stroke. In vivo, spontaneously hypertensive rats were subjected to focal cerebral ischemia by transient middle cerebral artery occlusion. At day 3, brains were analyzed to evaluate the cellular origin of PTX3 expression. Correlations with blood-brain barrier breakdown were assessed by IgG staining. In vitro, rat primary astrocytes and rat brain endothelial RBE.4 cells were cultured to study the role of astrocyte-derived PTX3 on vascular endothelial growth factor-mediated endothelial permeability. During the acute phase of stroke, reactive astrocytes in the peri-infarct area expressed PTX3. There was negative correlation between gradients of IgG leakage and PTX3-positive astrocytes. Cell culture experiments showed that astrocyte-conditioned media increased levels of tight junction proteins and reduced endothelial permeability under normal conditions. Removing PTX3 from astrocyte-conditioned media by immunoprecipitation increased endothelial permeability. PTX3 strongly bound vascular endothelial growth factor in vitro and was able to decrease vascular endothelial growth factor-induced endothelial permeability. Astrocytes in peri-infarct areas upregulate PTX3, which may support blood-brain barrier integrity by regulating vascular endothelial growth factor-related mechanisms. This response in astrocytes may comprise a compensatory mechanism for maintaining blood-brain barrier function after ischemic stroke. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. Leukotriene B4 receptor 2 regulates the proliferation, migration, and barrier integrity of bronchial epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Min; Shen, Juan; Yuan, Huimin; Chen, Fengling; Song, Huaidong; Qin, Hui; Li, Yanqin; Xu, Jiabo; Ye, Qing; Li, Shenxian; Saeki, Kazuko; Yokomizo, Takehiko

    2018-01-11

    The airway epithelium plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of asthma. The functions of leukotriene B4 receptor 2 (BLT2) on the airway epithelial cells remains unknown. In our study, BLT2 expression in 16HBE bronchial epithelial cells were manipulated by transfection with BLT2 overexpression plasmid or BLT2 small interference RNA. 16HBE cells were then exposed to BLT2 antagonist (LY255283) or BLT2 agonist (12(S)-hydroxyheptadeca-5Z,8E,10E-trienoic acid [12-HHT] or CAY10583). The results showed that BLT2 overexpression, 12-HHT stimulation, or CAY10583 treatment resulted in the enhanced proliferation and migration of 16HBE cells. In addition, BLT2 showed an inhibitory effect on epithelial permeability as illustrated by the measurement of transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) and epithelial permeability, and a promoting effect on the levels of tight junction proteins (occludin and claudin-4) and phosphorylated p38 as demonstrated by real-time PCR and Western blotting analyses. These results suggest BLT2 as a key determinant of airway epithelial barrier integrity. On the contrary, RNAi-mediated knockdown or LY255283 treatment had reversed effects on the proliferation, migration, and epithelial barrier integrity. Together, our findings suggest the critical roles of BLT2 on the functions of bronchial epithelial cells and that BLT2 agonists are potential therapeutic agents for asthma treatment. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Integrated prevention of obesity and eating disorders: barriers, developments and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Carracedo, David; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; López-Guimerà, Gemma

    2012-12-01

    The serious consequences of obesity and eating disorders (ED), difficulties encountered in treatment and the high prevalence of these conditions are important reasons to develop efforts aimed at their prevention. The implementation of integrated interventions aimed at preventing risk factors for both obesity and ED constitutes a very exciting development. In the present paper we discuss and review the main reasons for an integrated approach to the spectrum of eating- and weight-related problems, which include anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, anorexic and bulimic behaviours, unhealthy dieting practices, body dissatisfaction, binge-eating disorder, overweight and obesity. Given differences between the fields with regard to current perspectives and objectives, key barriers to an integrated approach to prevention are discussed. In order to show the possibilities of development of this approach, we review the main contributions made to date in the fields of both obesity and ED prevention. In particular, environmental approaches in the prevention of obesity and ED are reviewed, given their potential for preventing a broad spectrum of eating- and weight-related problems. Furthermore, several examples of initiatives that have utilized an integrated approach to prevention are discussed. Narrative review. We recommend a scenario in which the two fields share knowledge to enhance the difficult work of preventing and treating both ED and obesity.

  8. C5a alters blood-brain barrier integrity in experimental lupus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Alexander; Hack, Bradley; Chiang, Eddie; Garcia, Joe G. N.; Quigg, Richard J.; Alexander, Jessy J.

    2010-01-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a crucial anatomic location in the brain. Its dysfunction complicates many neurodegenerative diseases, from acute conditions, such as sepsis, to chronic diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Several studies suggest an altered BBB in lupus, but the underlying mechanism remains unknown. In the current study, we observed a definite loss of BBB integrity in MRL/MpJ-Tnfrsf6lpr (MRL/lpr) lupus mice by IgG infiltration into brain parenchyma. In line with this result, we examined the role of complement activation, a key event in this setting, in maintenance of BBB integrity. Complement activation generates C5a, a molecule with multiple functions. Because the expression of the C5a receptor (C5aR) is significantly increased in brain endothelial cells treated with lupus serum, the study focused on the role of C5a signaling through its G-protein-coupled receptor C5aR in brain endothelial cells, in a lupus setting. Reactive oxygen species production increased significantly in endothelial cells, in both primary cells and the bEnd3 cell line treated with lupus serum from MRL/lpr mice, compared with those treated with control serum from MRL+/+ mice. In addition, increased permeability monitored by changes in transendothelial electrical resistance, cytoskeletal remodeling caused by actin fiber rearrangement, and increased iNOS mRNA expression were observed in bEnd3 cells. These disruptive effects were alleviated by pretreating cells with a C5a receptor antagonist (C5aRant) or a C5a antibody. Furthermore, the structural integrity of the vasculature in MRL/lpr brain was maintained by C5aR inhibition. These results demonstrate the regulation of BBB integrity by the complement system in a neuroinflammatory setting. For the first time, a novel role of C5a in the maintenance of BBB integrity is identified and the potential of C5a/C5aR blockade highlighted as a promising therapeutic strategy in SLE and other neurodegenerative diseases

  9. Exposing barriers to end-of-life communication in heart failure: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Ella L; Bruce, Anne; Stajduhar, Kelli

    2013-01-01

    End-of-life (EOL) communication is lacking despite patients with heart failure (HF) and their caregivers desiring it. To review the existing literature to identify barriers that inhibit EOL communication in the HF population. We chose an integrative literature review method and began by searching CINAHL, Medline, PsychInfo, Web of Science, Health Source Nursing Academic, Evidence-Based Medicine Reviews (EBMR), dissertations and theses searches through the University of Victoria and through Proquest from 1995 to 2011. DATA EVALUATION: EOL communication regarding wishes, prognosis and options for care rarely happen. We noted that patients lacked understanding of HF, feared engaging health care professionals (HCP), did not wish to talk about EOL, or waited for HCPs to initiate the conversation. HCPs lacked communication skills, focused on curative therapies and found diagnosing and prognosticating HF difficult. Limited time and space for conversations played a role. The challenge of diagnosing and prognosticating HF, its unpredictable trajectory, HCP inexperience in recognizing nearing EOL and lack of communication skills lead to HCPs avoiding EOL conversations. Four categories of barriers to communication were identified: patient/caregiver, HCP, disease-specific and organizational challenges.

  10. Impact of Foreign Direct Investment and Barriers to MNC Supply Chain Integration in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilici Hamdi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The Vietnamese economy has been progressing to become a supplier to many multinational corporations (MNC. However, barriers presently exist that prevent Vietnamese firms from fully integrating into the supply chain of these global actors. Weak FDI overflow and block trading has government officials and business executives troubled that Vietnamese firms are still on the periphery of these global supply networks. Even as MNCs operating in Vietnam import many semi-finished products from other countries, Vietnamese firms are not benefiting from the opportunities to incorporate into the supply chain because of the lack of global experience, FDI, an educated workforce and outdated facilities. Vietnamese firms must upgrade their facilities and equip their labor forces to acquire MNC contracts and find global partners who can supply financing and knowhow.

  11. Implementation of Integrated Service Networks under the Quebec Mental Health Reform: Facilitators and Barriers associated with Different Territorial Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Josée Fleury

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study evaluates implementation of the Quebec Mental Health Reform (2005–2015, which promoted the development of integrated service networks, in 11 local service networks organized into four territorial groups according to socio-demographic characteristics and mental health services offered. Methods: Data were collected from documents concerning networks; structured questionnaires completed by 90 managers and by 16 respondent-psychiatrists; and semi-structured interviews with 102 network stakeholders. Factors associated with implementation and integration were organized according to: 1 reform characteristics; 2 implementation context; 3 organizational characteristics; and 4 integration strategies. Results: While local networks were in a process of development and expansion, none were fully integrated at the time of the study. Facilitators and barriers to implementation and integration were primarily associated with organizational characteristics. Integration was best achieved in larger networks including a general hospital with a psychiatric department, followed by networks with a psychiatric hospital. Formalized integration strategies such as service agreements, liaison officers, and joint training reduced some barriers to implementation in networks experiencing less favourable conditions. Conclusion: Strategies for the implementation of healthcare reform and integrated service networks should include sustained support and training in best-practices, adequate performance indicators and resources, formalized integration strategies to improve network coordination and suitable initiatives to promote staff retention.

  12. Evaluation of Novel Integrated Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma as Ozone Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Nur

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a characterization of an integrated ozone generator constructed by seven of reactors of Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma (DBDP. DBDP a has spiral-cylindrical configuration. Silence plasma produced ozone inside the DBDP reactor was generated by AC-HV with voltage up to 25 kV and maximum frequency of 23 kHz. As a source of ozone, dry air was pumped into the generator and controlled by valves system and a flowmeter. We found ozone concentration increased with the applied voltage, but in contrary, the concentration decreased with the flow rate of dry air. It was also found that a maximum concentration was 20 mg/L and ozone capacity of 48 g/h with an input power of 1.4 kW. Moreover, in this generator, IP efficiency of 8.13 g/kWh was obtained at input power 0.45 kW and air flow rate of 9 L/min. Therefore, be the higher ozone capacity can be produced with higher input power; however, it provided lower IP efficiency. The effect of dry air flow rate and applied voltage on ozone concentrations have been studied. At last, spiral wire copper was very corrosive done to the interaction with ozone, and it is necessary to do a research for finding the best metals as an active electrode inside of the quartz dielectric. Copyright © 2017 BCREC GROUP. All rights reserved Received: 18th July 2016; Revised: 25th September 2016; Accepted: 5th October 2016 How to Cite: Nur, M., Susan, A.I., Muhlisin, Z., Arianto, F., Kinandana, A.W., Nurhasanah, I., Sumariyah, S., Wibawa, P.J., Gunawan, G., Usman, A. (2017. Evaluation of Novel Integrated Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma as Ozone Generator. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 12 (1: 24-31 (doi:10.9767/bcrec.12.1.605.24-31 Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.12.1.605.24-31

  13. CHILD ALLOWANCE

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2001-01-01

    HR Division wishes to clarify to members of the personnel that the allowance for a dependent child continues to be paid during all training courses ('stages'), apprenticeships, 'contrats de qualification', sandwich courses or other courses of similar nature. Any payment received for these training courses, including apprenticeships, is however deducted from the amount reimbursable as school fees. HR Division would also like to draw the attention of members of the personnel to the fact that any contract of employment will lead to the suppression of the child allowance and of the right to reimbursement of school fees.

  14. An approximation to the adaptive exponential integrate-and-fire neuron model allows fast and predictive fitting to physiological data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loreen eHertäg

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available For large-scale network simulations, it is often desirable to have computationally tractable, yet in a defined sense still physiologically valid neuron models. In particular, these models should be able to reproduce physiological measurements, ideally in a predictive sense, and under different input regimes in which neurons may operate in vivo. Here we present an approach to parameter estimation for a simple spiking neuron model mainly based on standard f-I curves obtained from in vitro recordings. Such recordings are routinely obtained in standard protocols and assess a neuron's response under a wide range of mean input currents. Our fitting procedure makes use of closed-form expressions for the firing rate derived from an approximation to the adaptive exponential integrate-and-fire (AdEx model. The resulting fitting process is simple and about two orders of magnitude faster compared to methods based on numerical integration of the differential equations. We probe this method on different cell types recorded from rodent prefrontal cortex. After fitting to the f-I current-clamp data, the model cells are tested on completely different sets of recordings obtained by fluctuating ('in-vivo-like' input currents. For a wide range of different input regimes, cell types, and cortical layers, the model could predict spike times on these test traces quite accurately within the bounds of physiological reliability, although no information from these distinct test sets was used for model fitting. Further analyses delineated some of the empirical factors constraining model fitting and the model's generalization performance. An even simpler adaptive LIF neuron was also examined in this context. Hence, we have developed a 'high-throughput' model fitting procedure which is simple and fast, with good prediction performance, and which relies only on firing rate information and standard physiological data widely and easily available.

  15. Blood–brain barrier integrity, intrathecal immunoactivation, and neuronal injury in HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Aylin; Hagberg, Lars; Zetterberg, Henrik; Nilsson, Staffan; Brew, Bruce J.; Fuchs, Dietmar; Price, Richard W.; Gisslén, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Although blood–brain barrier (BBB) impairment has been reported in HIV-infected individuals, characterization of this impairment has not been clearly defined. Methods: BBB integrity was measured by CSF/plasma albumin ratio in this cross-sectional study of 631 HIV-infected individuals and 71 controls. We also analyzed CSF and blood HIV RNA and neopterin, CSF leukocyte count, and neurofilament light chain protein (NFL) concentrations. The HIV-infected participants included untreated neuroasymptomatic patients, patients with untreated HIV-associated dementia (HAD), and participants on suppressive antiretroviral treatment (ART). Results: The albumin ratio was significantly increased in patients with HAD compared to all other groups. There were no significant differences between untreated neuroasymptomatic participants, treated participants, and controls. BBB integrity, however, correlated significantly with CSF leukocyte count, CSF HIV RNA, serum and CSF neopterin, and age in untreated neuroasymptomatic participants. In a multiple linear regression analysis, age, CSF neopterin, and CSF leukocyte count stood out as independent predictors of albumin ratio. A significant correlation was found between albumin ratio and CSF NFL in untreated neuroasymptomatic patients and in participants on ART. Albumin ratio, age, and CD4 cell count were confirmed as independent predictors of CSF NFL in multivariable analysis. Conclusions: BBB disruption was mainly found in patients with HAD, where BBB damage correlated with CNS immunoactivation. Albumin ratios also correlated with CSF inflammatory markers and NFL in untreated neuroasymptomatic participants. These findings give support to the association among BBB deterioration, intrathecal immunoactivation, and neuronal injury in untreated neuroasymptomatic HIV-infected individuals. PMID:27868081

  16. Adaptive NN Control Using Integral Barrier Lyapunov Functionals for Uncertain Nonlinear Block-Triangular Constraint Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan-Jun; Tong, Shaocheng; Chen, C L Philip; Li, Dong-Juan

    2017-11-01

    A neural network (NN) adaptive control design problem is addressed for a class of uncertain multi-input-multi-output (MIMO) nonlinear systems in block-triangular form. The considered systems contain uncertainty dynamics and their states are enforced to subject to bounded constraints as well as the couplings among various inputs and outputs are inserted in each subsystem. To stabilize this class of systems, a novel adaptive control strategy is constructively framed by using the backstepping design technique and NNs. The novel integral barrier Lyapunov functionals (BLFs) are employed to overcome the violation of the full state constraints. The proposed strategy can not only guarantee the boundedness of the closed-loop system and the outputs are driven to follow the reference signals, but also can ensure all the states to remain in the predefined compact sets. Moreover, the transformed constraints on the errors are used in the previous BLF, and accordingly it is required to determine clearly the bounds of the virtual controllers. Thus, it can relax the conservative limitations in the traditional BLF-based controls for the full state constraints. This conservatism can be solved in this paper and it is for the first time to control this class of MIMO systems with the full state constraints. The performance of the proposed control strategy can be verified through a simulation example.

  17. The skin microbiome: impact of modern environments on skin ecology, barrier integrity, and systemic immune programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Susan L; Larcombe, Danica-Lea; Logan, Alan C; West, Christina; Burks, Wesley; Caraballo, Luis; Levin, Michael; Etten, Eddie Van; Horwitz, Pierre; Kozyrskyj, Anita; Campbell, Dianne E

    2017-01-01

    Skin barrier structure and function is essential to human health. Hitherto unrecognized functions of epidermal keratinocytes show that the skin plays an important role in adapting whole-body physiology to changing environments, including the capacity to produce a wide variety of hormones, neurotransmitters and cytokine that can potentially influence whole-body states, and quite possibly, even emotions. Skin microbiota play an integral role in the maturation and homeostatic regulation of keratinocytes and host immune networks with systemic implications. As our primary interface with the external environment, the biodiversity of skin habitats is heavily influenced by the biodiversity of the ecosystems in which we reside. Thus, factors which alter the establishment and health of the skin microbiome have the potential to predispose to not only cutaneous disease, but also other inflammatory non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Indeed, disturbances of the stratum corneum have been noted in allergic diseases (eczema and food allergy), psoriasis, rosacea, acne vulgaris and with the skin aging process. The built environment, global biodiversity losses and declining nature relatedness are contributing to erosion of diversity at a micro-ecological level, including our own microbial habitats. This emphasises the importance of ecological perspectives in overcoming the factors that drive dysbiosis and the risk of inflammatory diseases across the life course.

  18. Remodeling of Tight Junctions and Enhancement of Barrier Integrity of the CACO-2 Intestinal Epithelial Cell Layer by Micronutrients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzano, Mary Carmen; DiGuilio, Katherine; Mercado, Joanna; Teter, Mimi; To, Julie; Ferraro, Brendan; Mixson, Brittany; Manley, Isabel; Baker, Valerissa; Moore, Beverley A.; Wertheimer, Joshua; Mullin, James M.

    2015-01-01

    The micronutrients zinc, quercetin, butyrate, indole and berberine were evaluated for their ability to induce remodeling of epithelial tight junctions (TJs) and enhance barrier integrity in the CACO-2 gastrointestinal epithelial cell culture model. All five of these chemically very diverse micronutrients increased transepithelial electrical resistance (Rt) significantly, but only berberine also improved barrier integrity to the non-electrolyte D-mannitol. Increases of Rt as much as 200% of untreated controls were observed. Each of the five micronutrients also induced unique, signature-like changes in TJ protein composition, suggesting multiple pathways (and TJ arrangements) by which TJ barrier function can be enhanced. Decreases in abundance by as much as 90% were observed for claudin-2, and increases of over 300% could be seen for claudins -5 and -7. The exact effects of the micronutrients on barrier integrity and TJ protein composition were found to be highly dependent on the degree of differentiation of the cell layer at the time it was exposed to the micronutrient. The substratum to which the epithelial layer adheres was also found to regulate the response of the cell layer to the micronutrient. The implications of these findings for therapeutically decreasing morbidity in Inflammatory Bowel Disease are discussed. PMID:26226276

  19. Three integrated photovoltaic/sound barrier power plants. Construction and operational experience; Drei integrierte PV-Schallschutz Versuchsfelder. Bau und Erprobung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordmann, T.; Froelich, A.; Clavadetscher, L.

    2002-07-01

    After an international ideas competition by TNC Switzerland and Germany in 1996, six companies where given the opportunity to construct a prototype of their newly developed integrated PV-sound barrier concepts. The main goal was to develop highly integrated concepts, allowing the reduction of PV sound barrier systems costs, as well as the demonstration of specific concepts for different noise situations. This project is strongly correlated with a German project. Three of the concepts of the competition are demonstrated along a highway near Munich, constructed in 1997. The three Swiss installations had to be constructed at different locations, reflecting three typical situations for sound barriers. The first Swiss installation was the world first Bi-facial PV-sound barrier. It was built on a highway bridge at Wallisellen-Aubrugg in 1997. The operational experience of the installation is positive. But due to the different efficiencies of the two cell sides, its specific yield lies somewhat behind a conventional PV installation. The second Swiss plant was finished in autumn 1998. The 'zig-zag' construction is situated along the railway line at Wallisellen in a densely inhabited area with some local shadowing. Its performance and its specific yield is comparatively low due to a combination of several reasons (geometry of the concept, inverter, high module temperature, local shadows). The third installation was constructed along the motor way A1 at Bruettisellen in 1999. Its vertical panels are equipped with amorphous modules. The report show, that the performance of the system is reasonable, but the mechanical construction has to be improved. A small trial field with cells directly laminated onto the steel panel, also installed at Bruettisellen, could be the key development for this concept. This final report includes the evaluation and comparison of the monitored data in the past 24 months of operation. (author)

  20. Integrated Fluid and Materials Modeling of Environmental Barrier Coatings, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Environmental barrier coatings (EBC) prevent oxidation of ceramic materials in reactive, high temperature environments such as the exhaust regions of gas turbine...

  1. Achieving development goals for HIV, tuberculosis and malaria in sub-Saharan Africa through integrated antenatal care: barriers and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowkes, Freya J I; Draper, Bridget L; Hellard, Margaret; Stoové, Mark

    2016-12-12

    The global health community is currently transitioning from the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Unfortunately, progress towards maternal, newborn and infant health MDGs has lagged significantly behind other key health goals, demanding a renewed global effort in this key health area. The World Health Organization and other institutions heralded integrated antenatal care (ANC) as the best way to address the inter-related health issues of HIV, tuberculosis (TB) and malaria in the high risk groups of pregnant women and infants; integrated ANC services also offer a mechanism to address slow progress towards improved maternal health. There is remarkably limited evidence on best practice approaches of program implementation, acceptability and effectiveness for integrated ANC models targeting multiple diseases. Here, we discuss current integrated ANC global guidelines and the limited literature describing integrated ANC implementation and evidence for their role in addressing HIV, malaria and TB during pregnancy in sub-Saharan Africa. We highlight the paucity of data on the effectiveness of integrated ANC models and identify significant structural barriers in the health system (funding, infrastructure, distribution, human resources), the adoption system (limited buy-in from implementers, leadership, governance) and, in the broader context, patient-centred barriers (fear, stigma, personal burdens) and barriers in funding structures. We highlight recommendations for action and discuss avenues for the global health community to develop systems to integrate multiple disease programs into ANC models of care that better address these three priority infectious diseases. With the current transition to the SDGs and concerns regarding the failure to meet maternal health MDGs, the global health community, researchers, implementers and funding bodies must work together to ensure the establishment of quality operational and

  2. A Systematic Investigation on Barriers and Critical Success Factors for Clinical Information Systems in Integrated Care Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoerbst, A; Schweitzer, M

    2015-08-13

    Clinical Information Systems (CIS) have ever since the introduction of information technology in healthcare played an important role to support healthcare professionals and the process of treatment. With the rise of the concept of integrated care organizational borders, the sole focus on data aggregation or healthcare professionals as users disappear more and more. The manuscript discusses the concept of CISs and investigates critical success factors for CISs in the context of integrated care and in the course of time. In order to identify critical success factors and barriers for CISs a systematic literature review was conducted based on the results from PubMed and Cochrane, using MaxQDA. Search results were thereby limited to reviews or meta-analysis. We have found 1919 references of which 40 met the inclusion criteria. The analysis of the manuscripts resulted in a comprehensive list of success factors and barriers related to CISs in integrated care settings. Most barriers were user-related whereas for the success factors an even distribution of organizational, technical and user-related factors was observed. The vast majority of publications was focused on healthcare professionals. It is important to incorporate experiences made/ collected over time, as the problems encountered seem to remain almost unvaried. In order to support further systematic investigations on the topic it is necessary to rethink existing concepts and definitions to realign them with the ideas of integrated care.

  3. Barriers and Opportunities to Broader Adoption of Integrated Demand Side Management at Electric Utilities: A Scoping Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potter, Jennifer [Hawaii Natural Energy Institute, Honolulu, HI (United States); Stuart, Elizabeth [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Div.; Cappers, P [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Div.

    2018-02-13

    Integrated demand-side management (IDSM) is a strategic approach to designing and delivering a portfolio of demand side management (DSM) programs to customers. IDSM typically delivers customer centric strategies with the goal of increasing the amount of DSM in the field, but doing so in a way that integrates various measures and technologies to improve their collective performance and/or penetration. Specifically, IDSM can be defined as the integrated or coordinated delivery of three or more of: (1) energy efficiency (EE), (2) demand response (DR), (3) distributed generation (DG), (4) storage, (5) electric vehicle (EV) technologies, and (6) time-based rate programs to residential and commercial electric utility customers. The electric industry’s limited experience deploying IDSM to date suggests that significant barriers may exist. A Berkeley Lab report “Barriers and Opportunities to Broader Adoption of Integrated Demand Side Management at Electric Utilities: A Scoping Study” explores recent electric utility experience with IDSM to provide an assessment of the barriers and potential benefits perceived or experienced by program administrators in their attempts to implement integrated programs. The research draws on surveys and interviews with eleven staff from a sample of eight DSM program administrators and program implementers who were currently implementing or had previously attempted to implement an IDSM program or initiative. Respondents provided their perspectives on drivers for IDSM and barriers to broader deployment. They also reported on actions they had undertaken to promote expanded delivery of IDSM and provided their assessments of the most important under-tapped opportunities for expanding IDSM efforts, both for program administrator and regulatory organizations.

  4. A Review of Barriers to and Opportunities for the Integration of Renewable Energy in the Southeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McConnell, Ben W [ORNL; Hadley, Stanton W [ORNL; Xu, Yan [ORNL

    2011-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to prepare a summary report that examines the opportunities for and obstacles to the integration of renewable energy resources in the Southeast between now and the year 2030. The report, which is based on a review of existing literature regarding renewable resources in the Southeast, includes the following renewable energy resources: wind, solar, hydro, geothermal, biomass, and tidal. The evaluation was conducted by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the Energy Foundation and is a subjective review with limited detailed analysis. However, the report offers a best estimate of the magnitude, time frame, and cost of deployment of renewable resources in the Southeast based upon the literature reviewed and reasonable engineering and economic estimates. For the purposes of this report, the Southeast is defined as the states of Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, and West Virginia. In addition, some aspects of the report (wind and geothermal) also consider the extended Southeast, which includes Maryland, Missouri, Oklahoma, and Texas. A description of the existing base of renewable electricity installations in the region is given for each technology considered. Where available, the possible barriers and other considerations regarding renewable energy resources are listed in terms of availability, investment and maintenance costs, reliability, installation requirements, policies, and energy market. As stated above, the report is a comprehensive review of renewable energy resources in the southeastern region of United States based on a literature study that included information obtained from the Southern Bio-Power wiki, sources from the Energy Foundation, sources available to ORNL, and sources found during the review. The report consists of an executive summary, this introductory chapter describing report objectives, a chapter on analysis methods and

  5. Application of Texture Analysis to Study Small Vessel Disease and Blood-Brain Barrier Integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdés Hernández, Maria Del C; González-Castro, Victor; Chappell, Francesca M; Sakka, Eleni; Makin, Stephen; Armitage, Paul A; Nailon, William H; Wardlaw, Joanna M

    2017-01-01

    We evaluate the alternative use of texture analysis for evaluating the role of blood-brain barrier (BBB) in small vessel disease (SVD). We used brain magnetic resonance imaging from 204 stroke patients, acquired before and 20 min after intravenous gadolinium administration. We segmented tissues, white matter hyperintensities (WMH) and applied validated visual scores. We measured textural features in all tissues pre- and post-contrast and used ANCOVA to evaluate the effect of SVD indicators on the pre-/post-contrast change, Kruskal-Wallis for significance between patient groups and linear mixed models for pre-/post-contrast variations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) with Fazekas scores. Textural "homogeneity" increase in normal tissues with higher presence of SVD indicators was consistently more overt than in abnormal tissues. Textural "homogeneity" increased with age, basal ganglia perivascular spaces scores ( p  < 0.01) and SVD scores ( p  < 0.05) and was significantly higher in hypertensive patients ( p  < 0.002) and lacunar stroke ( p  = 0.04). Hypertension (74% patients), WMH load (median = 1.5 ± 1.6% of intracranial volume), and age (mean = 65.6 years, SD = 11.3) predicted the pre/post-contrast change in normal white matter, WMH, and index stroke lesion. CSF signal increased with increasing SVD post-contrast. A consistent general pattern of increasing textural "homogeneity" with increasing SVD and post-contrast change in CSF with increasing WMH suggest that texture analysis may be useful for the study of BBB integrity.

  6. A multi-purpose unit concept to integrate storage, transportation, and the engineered barrier system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollaway, W.R.; Rozier, R.; Nitti, D.A.; Williams, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    The Multi-Purpose Unit (MPU) is a new concept for standardizing and integrating the waste management functions of spent fuel storage, transportation, and geologic disposal. The MPU concept would use one unit, composed of a relatively thick-walled inner canister with a multi-purpose overpack, to meet the requirements for storage in 10 CFR 72, transportation in 10 CFR 71, and the engineered barrier system in 10 CFR 60. The MPU concept differs from the recently proposed Multi-Purpose Canister (MPC) concept in that the MPU concept uses a single multi-purpose overpack for storage, transportation, and geologic disposal, while the MPC concept uses separate and unique overpacks for each of these system functions. A design concept for the MPU is presented along with an estimate of unit costs. An initial evaluation of overall system cost showed that the MPU concept could be economically competitive with the current reference system. The MPU concept provides the potential for significant reduction, simplification, and standardization of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (CRWMS) facilities and operations, including those at the utilities, during waste acceptance and transportation, and at the Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility and the repository. The primary issues for the MPU concept relate to uncertainties with respect to licensing, and the programmatic risks associated with implementing the MPU concept before the repository design is finalized. The strong potential exhibited by the MPU concept demonstrates that this option merits additional development and should be considered in the next phase of work on multi-purpose concepts for the CRWMS

  7. Application of Texture Analysis to Study Small Vessel Disease and Blood–Brain Barrier Integrity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria del C. Valdés Hernández

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available ObjectivesWe evaluate the alternative use of texture analysis for evaluating the role of blood–brain barrier (BBB in small vessel disease (SVD.MethodsWe used brain magnetic resonance imaging from 204 stroke patients, acquired before and 20 min after intravenous gadolinium administration. We segmented tissues, white matter hyperintensities (WMH and applied validated visual scores. We measured textural features in all tissues pre- and post-contrast and used ANCOVA to evaluate the effect of SVD indicators on the pre-/post-contrast change, Kruskal–Wallis for significance between patient groups and linear mixed models for pre-/post-contrast variations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF with Fazekas scores.ResultsTextural “homogeneity” increase in normal tissues with higher presence of SVD indicators was consistently more overt than in abnormal tissues. Textural “homogeneity” increased with age, basal ganglia perivascular spaces scores (p < 0.01 and SVD scores (p < 0.05 and was significantly higher in hypertensive patients (p < 0.002 and lacunar stroke (p = 0.04. Hypertension (74% patients, WMH load (median = 1.5 ± 1.6% of intracranial volume, and age (mean = 65.6 years, SD = 11.3 predicted the pre/post-contrast change in normal white matter, WMH, and index stroke lesion. CSF signal increased with increasing SVD post-contrast.ConclusionA consistent general pattern of increasing textural “homogeneity” with increasing SVD and post-contrast change in CSF with increasing WMH suggest that texture analysis may be useful for the study of BBB integrity.

  8. Identifying the barriers to conducting outcomes research in integrative health care clinic settings - a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Findlay-Reece Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Integrative health care (IHC is an interdisciplinary blending of conventional medicine and complementary and alternative medicine (CAM with the purpose of enhancing patients' health. In 2006, we designed a study to assess outcomes that are relevant to people using such care. However, we faced major challenges in conducting this study and hypothesized that this might be due to the lack of a research climate in these clinics. To investigate these challenges, we initiated a further study in 2008, to explore the reasons why IHC clinics are not conducting outcomes research and to identify strategies for conducting successful in-house outcomes research programs. The results of the latter study are reported here. Methods A total of 25 qualitative interviews were conducted with key participants from 19 IHC clinics across Canada. Basic content analysis was used to identify key themes from the transcribed interviews. Results Barriers identified by participants fell into four categories: organizational culture, organizational resources, organizational environment and logistical challenges. Cultural challenges relate to the philosophy of IHC, organizational leadership and practitioner attitudes and beliefs. Participants also identified significant issues relating to their organization's lack of resources such as funding, compensation, infrastructure and partnerships/linkages. Environmental challenges such as the nature of a clinic's patient population and logistical issues such as the actual implementation of a research program and the applicability of research data also posed challenges to the conduct of research. Embedded research leadership, integration of personal and professional values about research, alignment of research activities and clinical workflow processes are some of the factors identified by participants that support IHC clinics' ability to conduct outcomes research. Conclusions Assessing and enhancing the broader

  9. Development of Integrated Real-Time Control of Internal Transport Barriers in Advanced Operation Scenarios on JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreau, D.; Crisanti, F.; Laborde, L.

    2005-01-01

    An important experimental programme is in progress on JET to investigate plasma control schemes which, with a limited number of actuators, could eventually enable ITER to sustain steady state burning plasmas in an 'advanced tokamak' operation scenario. A multi-variable model-based technique was recently developed for the simultaneous control of several plasma parameter profiles in discharges with internal transport barriers (ITB), using lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) together with neutral beam injection (NBI) and ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH). The proposed distributed-parameter control scheme relies on the experimental identification of an integral linear response model operator and retains the intrinsic couplings between the plasma parameter profiles. A first set of experiments was performed to control the current density profile in the low-density/low-power LH-driven phase of the JET advanced scenarios, using only one actuator (LHCD) and a simplified (lumped-parameter) version of the control scheme. Several requested steady state magnetic equilibria were thus obtained and sustained for about 7s, up to full relaxation of the ohmic current throughout the plasma. A second set of experiments was dedicated to the control of the q-profile with 3 actuators (LHCD, NBI and ICRH) during the intense heating phase of advanced scenarios. The safety factor profile was also shown to approach a requested profile within about 5s. The achieved plasma equilibrium was close to steady state. Finally, during the recent high power experimental campaign, experiments have been conducted in a 3T/1.7MA plasma, achieving the simultaneous control of the current density and electron temperature profiles in ITB plasmas. Here, the distributed-parameter version of the algorithm was used for the first time, again with 3 actuators. Real-time control was applied during 7s, and allowed to reach successfully different target q-profiles (monotonic and reversed-shear ones) and different ITB

  10. Barriers and potential solutions for Critical Zone data integration between environmental genomics and the geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, E. L.; Meyer, F.; Packman, A. I.; Mayorga, E.

    2015-12-01

    The Earth's permeable near-surface layer from bedrock to canopy is referred to as the Critical Zone (CZ). Integration of bio- and geoscience data is critical for understanding physical, biological and chemical interactions in the CZ. Genomic and meta-genomic scientists study organisms both in laboratory settings and in the environment, in order to understand the interactions of organisms with the environment. Geoscientists are using environmental data to describe and model dynamics of physical and chemical properties. Yet, there is no agreed upon method for integrating genomic and environmental data to address interactions of living and non-living components of the CZ. There are standards for data interchange being developed in the geosciences and genomics sciences, via standards organization such as the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC), as well as by research communities in biogeochemistry, hydrology, climatology, and other fields. These are in parallel to, but typically not in coordination with the standards the Genomics Standards Consortium (GSC) is developing for genomics. In addition, efforts are being made to allow for intercompatability of these CZ data with data generated by NEON, Inc. The interoperability of these types of data is limited with current software and cyberinfrastructure. A group of CZ geoscientists, environmental genomic scientists and cyberinfrastructure scientists are coming together to develop a set of common data collection and integration methods and sets of common standards. The data generated by this effort across multiple CZ sites (including the US CZ Observatories, or CZOs) around the world, along with NEON facility data, will be used to test EarthCube (an NSF initiative to develop cyberinfrastructure for the geosciences) cyberinfrastructure, with the goal of bridging this gap in standards and interoperability. Potential solutions to these issues of interoperability will be presented, and a way forward will be described.

  11. Integrating millennial and interdecadal shoreline changes: Morpho-sedimentary investigation of two prograded barriers in southeastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, T. S. N.; Tamura, T.; Hudson, J. P.; Woodroffe, C. D.

    2017-07-01

    Prograded barriers are distinctive coastal landforms preserving the position of past shorelines as low relief, shore-parallel ridges composed of beach sediments and commonly adorned with variable amounts of dune sand. Prograded barriers have been valued as coastal archives which contain palaeoenvironmental information, however integrating the millennial timescale geological history of barriers with observed inter-decadal modern beach processes has proved difficult. Technologies such as airborne LiDAR, ground penetrating radar (GPR) and optically stimulated luminescence dating (OSL) were utilised at Boydtown and Wonboyn, in southeastern Australia, and combined with previously reported radiocarbon dates and offshore seismic and sedimentological data to reconstruct the morpho-sedimentary history of prograded barrier systems. These technologies enabled reconstruction of geological timescale processes integrated with an inter-decadal model of ridge formation explaining the GPR-imaged subsurface character of the barriers. Both the Boydtown and Wonboyn barriers began prograding 7500-8000 years ago when sea level attained at or near present height along this coastline and continued prograding until the present-day with an initially slower rate of shoreline advancement. Sources of sediment for progradation appear to be the inner shelf and shoreface with a large shelf sand body likely contributing to progradation at Wonboyn. The Towamba River seems to have delivered sediment to Twofold Bay during flood events after transitioning to a mature estuarine system sometime after 4000 cal. yr BP. Some of this material appears to have been reworked onto the Boydtown barrier, increasing the rate of progradation in the seaward 50% of the barrier deposited over the past 1500 years. The GPR imaged beachfaces are shown to have similar geometry to beach profiles following recent storm events and a model of ridge formation involving cut and fill of the beachface, and dune building in the

  12. Overcoming Barriers to Family Planning through Integration: Perspectives of HIV-Positive Men in Nyanza Province, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel L. Steinfeld

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explored barriers to and facilitators of using family planning services among HIV-positive men in Nyanza Province, Kenya. From May to June 2010, in-depth interviews were conducted with 30 men receiving care at 15 HIV clinics. The key barriers to the use of family planning included concerns about side effects of contraceptives, lack of knowledge about contraceptive methods, myths and misconceptions including fear of infertility, structural barriers such as staffing shortages at HIV clinics, and a lack of male focus in family planning methods and service delivery. The integration of family planning into HIV clinics including family planning counseling and education was cited as an important strategy to improve family planning receptivity among men. Integrating family planning into HIV services is a promising strategy to facilitate male involvement in family planning. Integration needs to be rigorously evaluated in order to measure its impact on unmet need for contraception among HIV-positive women and their partners and assure that it is implemented in a manner that engages both men and women.

  13. Barriers to Integration of Traditional and Complementary Medicine in Supportive Cancer Care of Arab Patients in Northern Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eran Ben-Arye

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2008, an Integrative Oncology Program (IOP, aiming to improve patients’ quality of life during chemotherapy and advanced cancer, was launched within the Clalit Health Organization's oncology service at the Lin Medical Center, Haifa, Israel. The IOP clinical activity is documented using a research-based registry protocol. In this study, we present an analysis of the registry protocol of 15 Arab patients with cancer who were referred to the IOP. Analysis of patients’ reported outcomes using the Edmonton Symptom Assessment Scale suggests that integrative medicine care improves fatigue (=0.024, nausea (=0.043, depression (=0.012, anxiety (=0.044, appetite (=0.012, and general well-being (=0.031. Barriers to integration of traditional and complementary medicine in supportive care of Arab patients are discussed followed by six practical recommendations aimed at improving accessibility of patients to integrative supportive care, as well as compliance with treatments.

  14. Engineered barrier development for a nuclear waste repository in basalt: an integration of current knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.J.

    1980-05-01

    This document represents a compilation of data and interpretive studies conducted as part of the engineered barriers program of the Basalt Waste Isolation Project. The overall objective of these studies is to provide information on barrier system designs, emplacement and isolation techniques, and chemical reactions expected in a nuclear waste repository located in the basalts underlying the Hanford Site within the state of Washington. Backfills, waste-basalt interactions, sorption, borehole plugging, etc., are among the topics discussed

  15. Engineered barrier development for a nuclear waste repository in basalt: an integration of current knowledge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, M.J.

    1980-05-01

    This document represents a compilation of data and interpretive studies conducted as part of the engineered barriers program of the Basalt Waste Isolation Project. The overall objective of these studies is to provide information on barrier system designs, emplacement and isolation techniques, and chemical reactions expected in a nuclear waste repository located in the basalts underlying the Hanford Site within the state of Washington. Backfills, waste-basalt interactions, sorption, borehole plugging, etc., are among the topics discussed.

  16. Psoriasis: new insight about pathogenesis, role of barrier organ integrity, NLR / CATERPILLER family genes and microbial flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattozzi, Carlo; Richetta, Antonio G; Cantisani, Carmen; Macaluso, Laura; Calvieri, Stefano

    2012-09-01

    Psoriasis is a common, inflammatory, chronic, relapsing skin disease. New insight about the etiology of this disease shows the important role played by the epidermal barrier function, its integrity and pathogen responses in combination with microbial environmental factors. A pivotal role in the management of this balance is played by NLR genes, also known as NBD-LRR or CATERPILLER, that encode important mediators of innate immunity and provide the first line of defense against pathogens. The polymorphism of these genes is implicated in the pathogenesis of several immunological diseases and might be of importance in the pathogenesis of barrier organ disorders. Crohn's disease is considered archetypal of these kinds of disorders; similarities between Crohn's disease and psoriasis and their similar pathogenetic mechanisms may support the concept of psoriasis as a barrier organ disorder and common genetic ground lying behind these illnesses. Considering psoriasis as a "barrier organ disease" is not only a mere mental exercise; this consideration may, in fact, open new prospects in the treatment of these disorders just by preventing alterations of microbial flora or regulating the response of the host to infective diseases. © 2012 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  17. Accelerated barrier recovery and enhancement of the barrier integrity and properties by topical application of a pH 4 compared to a pH 5.8 w/o emulsion in aged skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelova-Fischer, I; Fischer, T W; Abels, C; Zillikens, D

    2018-03-25

    Increased skin surface pH is an important host-related factor for deteriorated barrier function in the aged. We investigated whether restoration of the skin pH through topical application of a water-in-oil (w/o) emulsion with pH 4 improved the barrier homeostasis in aged skin and compared the effects to an identical galenic formulation with pH 5.8. The effects of the test formulations on the barrier recovery were investigated by repeated measurements of transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and skin pH 3 h, 6 h and 24 h after acetone-induced impairment of the barrier function in aged skin. The long-term effects of the pH 4 and pH 5.8 emulsions were analyzed by investigation of the barrier integrity/cohesion, the skin surface pH and the skin roughness and scaliness before and after a 4-week, controlled application of the formulations. The application of the pH 4 emulsion accelerated the barrier recovery in aged skin: 3 h and 6 h after acetone-induced barrier disruption the differences in the TEWL recovery between the pH4-treated and acetone control field were significant. Furthermore, the long-term application of the pH 4 formulation resulted in significantly decreased skin pH, enhanced barrier integrity and reduced skin surface roughness and scaliness. At the same time points, the pH 5.8 formulation exerted only minor effects on the barrier function parameters. Exogenous acidification through topical application of a w/o emulsion with pH 4 leads to improvement of the barrier function and maintenance of the barrier homeostasis in aged skin. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  18. Integrated evaluation of the performance of a more than seven year old permeable reactive barrier at a site contaminated with chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muchitsch, Nanna; Nooten, Thomas Van; Bastiaens, Leen

    2011-01-01

    role in the long-term performance. An integrated study was performed on the Vapokon permeable reactive barrier (PRB) in Denmark by groundwater and iron core sample characterization. The detailed field groundwater sampling carried out from more than 75 well screens up and downstream the barrier showed...

  19. Barriers to Integrating Mental Health Services in Community-Based Primary Care Settings in Mexico City: A Qualitative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, William; Galván, Jorge; Saavedra, Nayelhi; Berenzon, Shoshana

    2017-05-01

    Despite the high prevalence of mental disorders in Mexico, minimal mental health services are available and there are large gaps in mental health treatment. Community-based primary care settings are often the first contact between patients and the health system and thus could serve as important settings for assessing and treating mental disorders. However, no formal assessment has been undertaken regarding the feasibility of implementing these services in Mexico. Before tools are developed to undertake such an assessment, a more nuanced understanding of the microprocesses affecting mental health service delivery must be acquired. A qualitative study used semistructured interviews to gather information from 25 staff in 19 community-based primary care clinics in Mexico City. Semistructured interviews were analyzed by using the meaning categorization method. In a second phase of coding, emerging themes were compared with an established typology of barriers to health care access. Primary care staff reported a number of significant barriers to implementing mental health services in primary care clinics, an already fragile and underfunded system. Barriers included the following broad thematic categories: service issues, language and cultural issues, care recipient characteristics, and issues with lack of knowledge. Results indicate that the implementation of mental health services in primary care clinics in Mexico will be difficult. However, the information in this study can help inform the integration of mental health into community-based primary care in Mexico through the development of adequate evaluative tools to assess the feasibility and progress of integrating these services.

  20. Penetration through the Skin Barrier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Bo; Benfeldt, Eva; Holmgaard, Rikke

    2016-01-01

    -through diffusion cells) as well as in vivo methods (microdialysis and microperfusion). Then follows a discussion with examples of how different characteristics of the skin (age, site and integrity) and of the penetrants (size, solubility, ionization, logPow and vehicles) affect the kinetics of percutaneous......The skin is a strong and flexible organ with barrier properties essential for maintaining homeostasis and thereby human life. Characterizing this barrier is the ability to prevent some chemicals from crossing the barrier while allowing others, including medicinal products, to pass at varying rates...

  1. Barriers in Palliative Care: Means to Integrate It into Health Care Mainstream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khudeir, Hamzeh

    2017-01-01

    Although palliative care has significant and positive effects on patients and their families, as it is scientifically proven, however, it is not a permanent part of health care mainstream. The aim of this systematic literature review was to describe barriers in palliative care that stops it from becoming a permanent component of healthcare…

  2. Teacher-Perceived Barriers to Integrating Instructional Technology in a Bermuda Senior High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry-Young, Marcia

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative phenomenological study was to identify, classify, and interpret, through the lived experiences of teachers, the subjective barriers to the use of new communications technology in the classroom. Three questions guided this study: (a) What in the teacher's experience prevented him or her in the adoption and active use…

  3. Barriers Teachers Face in Integrating ICT during English Lessons: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Kumutha; Yamat, Hamidah

    2014-01-01

    The government has assured all Malaysians that no one; both in rural and urban areas; would be deprived of the Information and Communication Technology (ICT) development. This calls for a need for teachers nationwide to make necessary adjustments to the teaching and learning process. This paper takes a closer look at the barriers faced by teachers…

  4. Development of pGEMINI, a Plant Gateway Destination Vector Allowing the Simultaneous Integration of Two cDNA via a Single LR-Clonase Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposito-Rodriguez, Marino; Laissue, Philippe P; López-Calcagno, Patricia E; Mullineaux, Philip M; Raines, Christine A; Simkin, Andrew J

    2017-11-12

    Gateway technology has been used to facilitate the generation of a large number of constructs for the modification of plants for research purposes. However, many of the currently available vectors only allow the integration of a single cDNA of interest into an expression clone. The ability to over-express multiple genes in combination is essential for the study of plant development where several transcripts have a role to play in one or more metabolic processes. The tools to carry out such studies are limited, and in many cases rely on the incorporation of cDNA into expression systems via conventional cloning, which can be both time consuming and laborious. To our knowledge, this study reports on the first development of a vector allowing the simultaneous integration of two independent cDNAs via a single LR-clonase reaction. This vector " pGEMINI " represents a powerful molecular tool offering the ability to study the role of multi-cDNA constructs on plant development, and opens up the process of gene stacking and the study of gene combinations through transient or stable transformation procedures.

  5. Current Practices and Barriers to the Integration of Oncoplastic Breast Surgery: A Canadian Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Jessica; Roberts, Amanda; Cil, Tulin; Somogyi, Ron; Osman, Fahima

    2016-10-01

    Despite the safety and popularity of oncoplastic surgery, there is limited data examining utilization and barriers associated with its incorporation into practice. This study examines the use of oncoplastic techniques in breast conserving surgery and determines the barriers associated with their implementation. A 13-item survey was mailed to all registered general surgeons in Ontario, Canada. The survey assessed surgeon demographics, utilization of specific oncoplastic techniques, and perceived barriers. A total of 234 survey responses were received, representing a response rate of 32.2 % (234 of 725). Of the respondents, 166 surgeons (70.9 %) reported a practice volume of at least 25 % breast surgery. Comparison was made between general surgeons performing oncoplastic breast surgery (N = 79) and those who did not use these techniques (N = 87). Surgeon gender, years in practice, fellowship training, and access to plastic surgery were similar across groups. Both groups rated the importance of breast cosmesis similarly. General surgeons with a practice volume involving >50 % breast surgery were more likely to use oncoplastic techniques (OR 8.82, p breast conserving surgery (OR 2.21, p = .02). For surgeons not performing oncoplastic surgery, a lack of training and access to plastic surgeons were identified as significant barriers. For those using oncoplastic techniques, the absence of specific billing codes was identified as a limiting factor. Lack of training, access to plastic surgeons, and absence of appropriate reimbursement for these cases are significant barriers to the adoption of oncoplastic techniques.

  6. Barriers and facilitators for integrating digital narratives in secondary school science instruction: A media specialist's action research study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midland, Susan

    Media specialists are increasingly assuming professional development roles as they collaborate with teachers to design instruction that combines content with technology. I am a media specialist in an independent school, and collaborated with two science teachers over a three-year period to integrate technology with their instruction. This action study explored integration of a digital narrative project in three eighth-grade earth science units and one ninth-grade physics unit with each unit serving as a cycle of research. Students produced short digital documentaries that combined still images with an accompanying narration. Students participating in the project wrote scripts based on selected science topics. The completed scripts served as the basis for the narratives. These projects were compared with a more traditional science writing project. Barriers and facilitators for implementation of this type of media project in a science classroom were identified. Lack of adequate access to computers proved to be a significant mechanical barrier. Acquisition of a laptop cart reduced but did not eliminate the technology access issues. The complexity of the project increased implementation time in comparison with traditional alternatives. Evaluation of the completed media projects presented problems. Scores by outside evaluators reflected evaluator unfamiliarity with assessing multimedia projects rather than student performance. Despite several revisions of the assessment rubric, low inter-rater reliability remained a concern even in the last cycle. This suggests that evaluation of media could present issues for teachers who attempt projects of this kind. A writing frame was developed to facilitate production of scripts. This reduced the time required to produce the scripts, but produced writing that was formulaic in the teacher's estimate. A graphic organizer was adopted in the final cycle to address this concern. New insights emerged as the study progressed through the

  7. From professors’ barriers to organisational conditions in ICT integration in higher education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castro Guzman, Willy; Nyvang, Tom

    2018-01-01

    The responsibility of innovation with ICT in education has mainly been placed on professors as pivotal to adoption. However, professors are part of complex organisations with inherent obstacles related to their cultural and historical conditions. Despite some studies have stablished the complexity......, considering the professor as part of the organization. It contributes to the field of limitations and obstacles of ICT adoption, transcending the teachers’ barriers approach toward organizational multi-dimensional limitations. The article describes the process of adoption of ICT as non-linear process...... of discovering barriers and proposing strategies to overcome them. Rather, as a process of development in which solving conflicts can generate other that must be contextually and collectively addressed. The findings contribute to the development of policies and strategies of professional development...

  8. USE OF PERFLUOROCARBON TRACER (PFT) TECHNOLOGY FOR SUBSURFACE BARRIER INTEGRITY VERIFICATION AT THE WALDO TEST SITE.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SULLIVAN,T.

    1999-06-01

    Testing of perfluorocarbon gas tracers (PFT) on a subsurface barrier with known flaws was conducted at the Waldo Test Site operated by Science and Engineering Associates, Inc (SEA). The tests involved the use of five unique PFTs with a different tracer injected along the interior of each wall of the barrier. A fifth tracer was injected exterior to the barrier to examine the validity of diffusion controlled transport of the PFTs. The PFTs were injected for three days at a nominal flow rate of 15 cm{sup 3}/min and concentrations in the range of a few hundred ppm. Approximately 65 liters of air laced with tracer was injected for each tracer. The tracers were able to accurately detect the presence of the engineered flaws. Two flaws were detected on the north and east walls, and one flaw was detected on the south and west walls. In addition, one non-engineered flaw at the seam between the north and east walls was also detected. The use of multiple tracers provided independent confirmation of the flaws and permitted a distinction between tracers arriving at a monitoring port after being released from a nearby flaw and non-engineered flaws. The PFTs detected the smallest flaw, 0.5 inches in diameter. Visual inspection of the data showed excellent agreement with the known flaw locations and the relative size of the flaws was accurately estimated. Simultaneous with the PFT tests, SEA conducted tests with another gas tracer sulfur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}).

  9. USE OF PERFLUOROCARBON TRACER (PFT) TECHNOLOGY FOR SUBSURFACE BARRIER INTEGRITY VERIFICATION AT THE WALDO TEST SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SULLIVAN,T.; HEISER,J.; SENUM,G.; MILLIAN,L.

    2000-02-27

    Researchers from Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) tested perfluorocarbon (PFT) gas tracers on a subsurface barrier with known flaws at the Waldo test facility [operated by Science and Engineering Associates, Inc (SEA)]. The tests involved the use of five unique PFT tracers with a different tracer injected along the interior of each wall of the barrier. A fifth tracer was injected exterior to the barrier to examine the validity of diffusion controlled transport of the PFTs. The PFTs were injected for three days at a nominal flow rate of 15 cm{sup 3}/min and a concentrations in the range of a few hundred ppm. Approximately 65 liters of air laced with tracer was injected for each tracer. The tracers were able to accurately detect the presence of the engineered flaws. Two flaws were detected on the north and east walls and lane flaw was detected on the south and west walls. In addition, one non-engineered flaw at the seam between the north and east walls was also detected. The use of multiple tracers provided independent confirmation of the flaws and permitted a distinction between tracers arriving at a monitoring port after being released from a nearby flaw and non-engineered flaws. The PFTs detected the smallest flaw, 0.5 inches in diameter. Visual inspection of the data showed excellent agreement with the known flaw locations and the relative size of the flaws was accurately estimated.

  10. Adenosine A1 receptors promote vasa vasorum endothelial cell barrier integrity via Gi and Akt-dependent actin cytoskeleton remodeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddaramappa Nagavedi Umapathy

    Full Text Available In a neonatal model of hypoxic pulmonary hypertension, a dramatic pulmonary artery adventitial thickening, accumulation of inflammatory cells in the adventitial compartment, and angiogenic expansion of the vasa vasorum microcirculatory network are observed. These pathophysiological responses suggest that rapidly proliferating vasa vasorum endothelial cells (VVEC may exhibit increased permeability for circulating blood cells and macromolecules. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these observations remain unexplored. Some reports implicated extracellular adenosine in the regulation of vascular permeability under hypoxic and inflammatory conditions. Thus, we aimed to determine the role of adenosine in barrier regulation of VVEC isolated from the pulmonary arteries of normoxic (VVEC-Co or chronically hypoxic (VVEC-Hyp neonatal calves.We demonstrate via a transendothelial electrical resistance measurement that exogenous adenosine significantly enhanced the barrier function in VVEC-Co and, to a lesser extent, in VVEC-Hyp. Our data from a quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction show that both VVEC-Co and VVEC-Hyp express all four adenosine receptors (A1, A2A, A2B, and A3, with the highest expression level of A1 receptors (A1Rs. However, A1R expression was significantly lower in VVEC-Hyp compared to VVEC-Co. By using an A1R-specific agonist/antagonist and siRNA, we demonstrate that A1Rs are mostly responsible for adenosine-induced enhancement in barrier function. Adenosine-induced barrier integrity enhancement was attenuated by pretreatment of VVEC with pertussis toxin and GSK690693 or LY294002, suggesting the involvement of Gi proteins and the PI3K-Akt pathway. Moreover, we reveal a critical role of actin cytoskeleton in VVEC barrier regulation by using specific inhibitors of actin and microtubule polymerization. Further, we show that adenosine pretreatment blocked the tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF

  11. Adenosine A1 Receptors Promote Vasa Vasorum Endothelial Cell Barrier Integrity via Gi and Akt-Dependent Actin Cytoskeleton Remodeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddaramappa Umapathy, Nagavedi; Kaczmarek, Elzbieta; Fatteh, Nooreen; Burns, Nana; Lucas, Rudolf; Stenmark, Kurt R.; Verin, Alexander D.; Gerasimovskaya, Evgenia V.

    2013-01-01

    Background In a neonatal model of hypoxic pulmonary hypertension, a dramatic pulmonary artery adventitial thickening, accumulation of inflammatory cells in the adventitial compartment, and angiogenic expansion of the vasa vasorum microcirculatory network are observed. These pathophysiological responses suggest that rapidly proliferating vasa vasorum endothelial cells (VVEC) may exhibit increased permeability for circulating blood cells and macromolecules. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these observations remain unexplored. Some reports implicated extracellular adenosine in the regulation of vascular permeability under hypoxic and inflammatory conditions. Thus, we aimed to determine the role of adenosine in barrier regulation of VVEC isolated from the pulmonary arteries of normoxic (VVEC-Co) or chronically hypoxic (VVEC-Hyp) neonatal calves. Principal Findings We demonstrate via a transendothelial electrical resistance measurement that exogenous adenosine significantly enhanced the barrier function in VVEC-Co and, to a lesser extent, in VVEC-Hyp. Our data from a quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction show that both VVEC-Co and VVEC-Hyp express all four adenosine receptors (A1, A2A, A2B, and A3), with the highest expression level of A1 receptors (A1Rs). However, A1R expression was significantly lower in VVEC-Hyp compared to VVEC-Co. By using an A1R-specific agonist/antagonist and siRNA, we demonstrate that A1Rs are mostly responsible for adenosine-induced enhancement in barrier function. Adenosine-induced barrier integrity enhancement was attenuated by pretreatment of VVEC with pertussis toxin and GSK690693 or LY294002, suggesting the involvement of Gi proteins and the PI3K-Akt pathway. Moreover, we reveal a critical role of actin cytoskeleton in VVEC barrier regulation by using specific inhibitors of actin and microtubule polymerization. Further, we show that adenosine pretreatment blocked the tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF

  12. Climate change in the Cairns and Great Barrier Reef region. Scope and Focus for an Integrated Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crimp, S.; Balston, J.; Ash, A.; Anderson-Berry, L.; Done, T.; Greiner, R.; Hilbert, D.; Howden, M.; Jones, R.; Stokes, C.; Stoeckl, N.; Sutherst, B.; Whetton, P.

    2004-07-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the scope and focus for an integrated assessment of climate change impacts on, and adaptation options for, the Cairns Great Barrier Reef (CGBR) region. To achieve this, the authors employed both technical expertise and regional stakeholder input. This document describes the study objectives and the process used to meet these objectives, and provides an overview of the CGBR region, the views of technical experts on potential climate change impacts, stakeholder prioritisation of impacts and adaptation options, a list of perceived knowledge gaps, and a recommended structure for a future integrated assessment in the region. The aim of the study was to determine the scope and focus for an integrated regional assessment of climate change impacts on, and adaptation options for, the CGBR region. The key objectives of the study were: Define and describe the study region; Develop a process for the study, which includes key stakeholders in the region; Prepare a comprehensive list of the regional stakeholders; Brief regional stakeholders about potential climate changes in the region; Gain insight from stakeholders into the climatic dependencies of key sectors and issues in the region (agriculture, fishing, forestry, tourism, natural ecosystems, infrastructure, pests, diseases and human health); Identify possible adaptation and/or amelioration strategies for each sector; Identify synergies with other sectors, and possible barriers to undertaking climate change adaptation strategies; Identify knowledge gaps, research priorities and current activities that may need alteration or enhancement; Define the scope of a possible integrated assessment of climate change impacts on, and adaptation options for, the region

  13. Bacterial antigens alone can influence intestinal barrier integrity, but live bacteria are required for initiation of intestinal inflammation and injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sydora, Beate C; Martin, Sarah M; Lupicki, Maryla; Dieleman, Levinus A; Doyle, Jason; Walker, John W; Fedorak, Richard N

    2006-06-01

    Intestinal flora plays a critical role in the initiation and perpetuation of inflammatory bowel disease. This study examined whether live fecal bacteria were necessary for the initiation of this inflammatory response or whether sterile fecal material would provoke a similar response. Three preparations of fecal material were prepared: (1) a slurry of live fecal bacteria, (2) a sterile lysate of bacterial antigens, and (3) a sterile filtrate of fecal water. Each preparation was introduced via gastric gavage into the intestines of axenic interleukin-10 gene-deficient mice genetically predisposed to develop inflammatory bowel disease. Intestinal barrier integrity and degrees of mucosal and systemic inflammations were determined for each preparation group. Intestinal barrier integrity, as determined by mannitol transmural flux, was altered by both live fecal bacterial and sterile lysates of bacterial antigens, although it was not altered by sterile filtrates of fecal water. However, only live fecal bacteria initiated mucosal inflammation and injury and a systemic immune response. Fecal bacterial antigens in the presence of live bacteria and sterile fecal bacterial antigens have different effects on the initiation and perpetuation of intestinal inflammation.

  14. An integrative review of facilitators and barriers influencing collaboration and teamwork between general practitioners and nurses working in general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInnes, Susan; Peters, Kath; Bonney, Andrew; Halcomb, Elizabeth

    2015-09-01

    To identify facilitators and barriers influencing collaboration and teamwork between general practitioners and nurses working in general (family) practice. Internationally, a shortage of doctors entering and remaining in general practice and an increasing burden of chronic disease has diversified the nurse's role in this setting. Despite a well-established general practice nursing workforce, little attention has been paid to the ways doctors and nurses collaborate in this setting. Integrative literature review. CINAHL, Scopus, Web of Life, Cochrane Library, Joanna Briggs Institute Library of Systematic Reviews and Trove (dissertation and theses) were searched for papers published between 2000 and May 2014. This review was informed by the approach of Whittemore and Knafl (2005). All included papers were assessed for methodological quality. Findings were extracted, critically examined and grouped into themes. Eleven papers met the inclusion criteria. Thematic analysis revealed three themes common to the facilitators of and barriers to collaboration and teamwork between GPs in general practice: (1) roles and responsibilities; (2) respect, trust and communication; and (3) hierarchy, education and liability. This integrative review has provided insight into issues around role definition, communication and organizational constraints which influence the way nurses and general practitioners collaborate in a team environment. Future research should investigate in more detail the ways doctors and nurses work together in general practice and the impact of collaboration on nursing leadership and staff retention. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Development of an Integrated Natural Barrier Database System for Site Evaluation of a Deep Geologic Repository in Korea - 13527

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Haeryong; Lee, Eunyong; Jeong, YiYeong; Lee, Jeong-Hwan

    2013-01-01

    Korea Radioactive-waste Management Corporation (KRMC) established in 2009 has started a new project to collect information on long-term stability of deep geological environments on the Korean Peninsula. The information has been built up in the integrated natural barrier database system available on web (www.deepgeodisposal.kr). The database system also includes socially and economically important information, such as land use, mining area, natural conservation area, population density, and industrial complex, because some of this information is used as exclusionary criteria during the site selection process for a deep geological repository for safe and secure containment and isolation of spent nuclear fuel and other long-lived radioactive waste in Korea. Although the official site selection process has not been started yet in Korea, current integrated natural barrier database system and socio-economic database is believed that the database system will be effectively utilized to narrow down the number of sites where future investigation is most promising in the site selection process for a deep geological repository and to enhance public acceptance by providing readily-available relevant scientific information on deep geological environments in Korea. (authors)

  16. Identification of the benefits, enablers and barriers to integrating junior pharmacists into the ward team within one UK-based hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Man Yui; Wright, David John; Blacklock, Jeanette; Needle, Richard John

    2017-01-01

    A high nurse-vacancy rate combined with high numbers of applications for junior pharmacist roles resulted in Colchester Hospital University National Health System Foundation Trust trial employing junior pharmacists into traditional nursing posts with the aim of integrating pharmacists into the ward team and enhancing local medicines optimization. The aim of the evaluation was to describe the implementation process and practice of the integrated care pharmacists (ICPs) in order to inform future innovations of a similar nature. Four band 6 ward-based ICPs were employed on two wards funded within current ward staffing expenditure. With ethical committee approval, interviews were undertaken with the ICPs and focus groups with ward nurses, senior ward nurses and members of the medical team. Data were analyzed thematically to identify service benefits, barriers and enablers. Routine ward performance data were obtained from the two ICP wards and two wards selected as comparators. Appropriate statistical tests were performed to identify differences in performance. Four ICPs were interviewed, and focus groups were undertaken with three junior nurses, four senior nurses and three medical practitioners. Service enablers were continuous ward time, undertaking drug administration, positive feedback and use of effective communication methods. Barriers were planning, funding model, career development, and interprofessional working and social isolation. ICPs were believed to save nurse time and improve medicines safety. The proportion of patients receiving medicine reconciliation within 24 hours increased significantly in the ICP wards. All ICPs had resigned from their role within 12 months. It was believed that by locating pharmacists on the ward full time and allowing them to undertake medicines administration and medicines reconciliation, the nursing time would be saved and medicines safety improved. There was however significant learning to be derived from the implementation

  17. Measurement of human blood brain barrier integrity using 11C-inulin and positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hara, Toshihiko; Iio, Masaaki; Tsukiyama, Takashi

    1988-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) using 11 C-inulin was demonstrated to be applicable to the clinical measurement of blood brain barrier permeability and cerebral interstitial fluid volume. Kinetic data were analyzed by application of a two compartment model, in which blood plasma and interstitial fluid spaces constitute the compartments. The blood activity contribution was subtracted from the PET count with the aid of the 11 CO inhalation technique. The values we estimated in a human brain were in agreement with the reported values obtained for animal brains by the use of 14 C-inulin. (orig.)

  18. Can we address depression in vision rehabilitation settings? Professionals' perspectives on the barriers to integrating problem-solving treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Edith; Sturrock, Bonnie; Lamoureux, Ecosse; Keeffe, Jill; Hegel, Mark; Casten, Robin; Mellor, David; Rees, Gwyneth

    2018-02-01

    Low vision rehabilitation (LVR) is a pertinent context for integrating early, evidence-based psychological interventions given the high prevalence of untreated depression in adults with vision impairment. This study aims to identify the perceived barriers and facilitators to staff-delivered telephone-based problem-solving treatment for primary care (PST-PC) offered as an integrated component of LVR. Qualitative semi-structured interviews, developed using the theoretical domains framework (TDF) and Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR), were conducted with 21 LVR professionals and a clinical psychologist involved in the delivery of PST-PC. Barriers and facilitators at the practitioner, client, intervention, and organizational level were identified with thematic analysis using a "theoretical" approach. Prominent barriers were a lack of role recognition for PST-PC practitioners (n = 32), unmet client expectation with PST-PC (n = 28), dissatisfaction with telephone delivery (n = 27), and limited organizational awareness of PST-PC (n = 39). Facilitating factors included a recognized need for evidence-based psychological services (n = 28), clients experiencing benefits in early sessions (n = 38), PST-PC promoting practical skills (n = 26), and comprehensive PST-PC training (n = 36). PST-PC may provide an accessible early intervention for LVR clients with depressive symptoms. Ongoing practitioner training, clinical support, and screening potential LVR clients for treatment suitability are likely to enhance delivery in this setting. Implications for rehabilitation Depression is highly prevalent in adults engaged in low vision rehabilitation (LVR) programs, yet few receive support. Clinical guidelines recommend integrated models of care be offered within rehabilitation settings as early intervention for mild to moderate levels of depressive symptoms. Integrated telephone-based problem-solving treatment for primary care

  19. Barriers in rural technology integration: A case study from the trenches

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Botha, Adele

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Teachers recognize the importance of integrating technology into their classroom practice and the endeavour has attracted much attention. Teacher Professional Development (TPD) initiatives have focused on enabling and supporting teachers. Rural...

  20. Optimal fiscal barriers to international economic integration in the presence of tax havens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannesen, Niels

    2012-01-01

    This paper develops a model where firms can shift profits to tax havens by means of intra-firm loans and countries can protect themselves against profit shifting by taxing cross-border interest flows. The model considers two countries with a scope for welfare improving economic integration....... The first-best tax system has two important characteristics: (i) the tax rate on interest flows to the other country is zero to ensure the optimal level of economic integration; (ii) the tax rate on interest flows to tax havens is high enough to deter profit shifting to tax havens. In second......-best environments, countries face a trade-off between economic integration and protection against tax havens, which causes protection to be suboptimally low. The key to the result is that economic integration makes it easier for multinational firms to circumvent taxes on interest payments to tax havens with conduit...

  1. Breakdown of Epithelial Barrier Integrity and Overdrive Activation of Alveolar Epithelial Cells in the Pathogenesis of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome and Lung Fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigehisa Yanagi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Individual alveolar epithelial cells (AECs collaboratively form a tight barrier between atmosphere and fluid-filled tissue to enable normal gas exchange. The tight junctions of AECs provide intercellular sealing and are integral to the maintenance of the AEC barrier integrity. Disruption and failure of reconstitution of AEC barrier result in catastrophic consequences, leading to alveolar flooding and subsequent devastating fibrotic scarring. Recent evidences reveal that many of the fibrotic lung diseases involve AECs both as a frequent target of injury and as a driver of ongoing pathological processes. Aberrantly activated AECs express most of the growth factors and chemokines responsible for the proliferation, migration, and activation of fibroblasts. Current evidences suggest that AECs may acquire overdrive activation in the initial step of fibrosis by several mechanisms, including abnormal recapitulation of the developmental pathway, defects of the molecules essential for epithelial integrity, and acceleration of aging-related properties. Among these initial triggering events, epithelial Pten, a multiple phosphatase that negatively regulates the PI3K/Akt pathway and is crucial for lung development, is essential for the prevention of alveolar flooding and lung fibrosis through the regulation of AEC barrier integrity after injury. Reestablishment of AEC barrier integrity also involves the deployment of specialized stem/progenitor cells.

  2. Treatment Access Barriers and Disparities Among Individuals with Co-Occurring Mental Health and Substance Use Disorders: An Integrative Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priester, Mary Ann; Browne, Teri; Iachini, Aidyn; Clone, Stephanie; DeHart, Dana; Seay, Kristen D

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this integrative review is to examine and synthesize extant literature pertaining to barriers to substance abuse and mental health treatment for persons with co-occurring substance use and mental health disorders (COD). Electronic searches were conducted using ten scholarly databases. Thirty-six articles met inclusion criteria and were examined for this review. Narrative review of these articles resulted in the identification of two primary barriers to treatment access for individuals with COD: personal characteristics barriers and structural barriers. Clinical implications and directions for future research are discussed. In particular, additional studies on marginalized sub-populations are needed, specifically those that examine barriers to treatment access among older, non-White, non-heterosexual populations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Identification of the benefits, enablers and barriers to integrating junior pharmacists into the ward team within one UK-based hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung MY

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Man Yui Hung,1 David John Wright,2 Jeanette Blacklock,2 Richard John Needle1,2 1Pharmacy Department, Colchester Hospital University NHS Foundation Trust, Colchester, 2School of Pharmacy, University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK Introduction: A high nurse-vacancy rate combined with high numbers of applications for junior pharmacist roles resulted in Colchester Hospital University National Health System Foundation Trust trial employing junior pharmacists into traditional nursing posts with the aim of integrating pharmacists into the ward team and enhancing local medicines optimization. The aim of the evaluation was to describe the implementation process and practice of the integrated care pharmacists (ICPs in order to inform future innovations of a similar nature.Methods: Four band 6 ward-based ICPs were employed on two wards funded within current ward staffing expenditure. With ethical committee approval, interviews were undertaken with the ICPs and focus groups with ward nurses, senior ward nurses and members of the medical team. Data were analyzed thematically to identify service benefits, barriers and enablers. Routine ward performance data were obtained from the two ICP wards and two wards selected as comparators. Appropriate statistical tests were performed to identify differences in performance.Results: Four ICPs were interviewed, and focus groups were undertaken with three junior nurses, four senior nurses and three medical practitioners. Service enablers were continuous ward time, undertaking drug administration, positive feedback and use of effective communication methods. Barriers were planning, funding model, career development, and interprofessional working and social isolation. ICPs were believed to save nurse time and improve medicines safety. The proportion of patients receiving medicine reconciliation within 24 hours increased significantly in the ICP wards. All ICPs had resigned from their role within 12 months.Discussion: It was

  4. Zika Virus Infects Human Sertoli Cells and Modulates the Integrity of the In Vitro Blood-Testis Barrier Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemann, David N; Strange, Daniel P; Maharaj, Payal N; Shi, Pei-Yong; Verma, Saguna

    2017-11-15

    Confirmed reports of Zika virus (ZIKV) in human seminal fluid for months after the clearance of viremia suggest the ability of ZIKV to establish persistent infection in the seminiferous tubules, an immune-privileged site in the testis protected by the blood-testis barrier, also called the Sertoli cell (SC) barrier (SCB). However, cellular targets of ZIKV in human testis and mechanisms by which the virus enters seminiferous tubules remain unclear. We demonstrate that primary human SCs were highly susceptible to ZIKV compared to the closely related dengue virus and induced the expression of alpha interferon (IFN-α), key cytokines, and cell adhesion molecules (vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 [VCAM-1] and intracellular adhesion molecule 1 [ICAM-1]). Furthermore, using an in vitro SCB model, we show that ZIKV was released on the adluminal side of the SCB model with a higher efficiency than in the blood-brain barrier model. ZIKV-infected SCs exhibited enhanced adhesion of leukocytes that correlated with decreases in SCB integrity. ZIKV infection did not affect the expression of tight and adherens junction proteins such as ZO-1, claudin, and JAM-A; however, exposure of SCs to inflammatory mediators derived from ZIKV-infected macrophages led to the degradation of the ZO-1 protein, which correlated with increased SCB permeability. Taken together, our data suggest that infection of SCs may be one of the crucial steps by which ZIKV gains access to the site of spermatozoon development and identify SCs as a therapeutic target to clear testicular infections. The SCB model opens up opportunities to assess interactions of SCs with other testicular cells and to test the ability of anti-ZIKV drugs to cross the barrier. IMPORTANCE Recent outbreaks of ZIKV, a neglected mosquito-borne flavivirus, have identified sexual transmission as a new route of disease spread, which has not been reported for other flaviviruses. To be able to sexually transmit for months after the clearance of

  5. Integration Strategies and Barriers to Co-Operation in Cross-Border Regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Povl Adler; Serin, Göran Folke

    2007-01-01

    Abstract: The purpose of the article is to analyze strategies for cross-border integration in the Øresund Region. The point of departure is that the development of strategies for cross-border integration is dependent on the development on both the general level in the EU and deregulation of economy...... and business on the global level. In this respect, the article points out the importance of market forces and their influence on institutional change. Recent economic crises have put growth center stage at both the national and regional level, and have called for regional development programs on both...

  6. The removal of multiplicative, systematic bias allows integration of breast cancer gene expression datasets – improving meta-analysis and prediction of prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pepper Stuart D

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The number of gene expression studies in the public domain is rapidly increasing, representing a highly valuable resource. However, dataset-specific bias precludes meta-analysis at the raw transcript level, even when the RNA is from comparable sources and has been processed on the same microarray platform using similar protocols. Here, we demonstrate, using Affymetrix data, that much of this bias can be removed, allowing multiple datasets to be legitimately combined for meaningful meta-analyses. Results A series of validation datasets comparing breast cancer and normal breast cell lines (MCF7 and MCF10A were generated to examine the variability between datasets generated using different amounts of starting RNA, alternative protocols, different generations of Affymetrix GeneChip or scanning hardware. We demonstrate that systematic, multiplicative biases are introduced at the RNA, hybridization and image-capture stages of a microarray experiment. Simple batch mean-centering was found to significantly reduce the level of inter-experimental variation, allowing raw transcript levels to be compared across datasets with confidence. By accounting for dataset-specific bias, we were able to assemble the largest gene expression dataset of primary breast tumours to-date (1107, from six previously published studies. Using this meta-dataset, we demonstrate that combining greater numbers of datasets or tumours leads to a greater overlap in differentially expressed genes and more accurate prognostic predictions. However, this is highly dependent upon the composition of the datasets and patient characteristics. Conclusion Multiplicative, systematic biases are introduced at many stages of microarray experiments. When these are reconciled, raw data can be directly integrated from different gene expression datasets leading to new biological findings with increased statistical power.

  7. Hyperglycemia Induces Skin Barrier Dysfunctions with Impairment of Epidermal Integrity in Non-Wounded Skin of Type 1 Diabetic Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junko Okano

    Full Text Available Diabetes causes skin complications, including xerosis and foot ulcers. Ulcers complicated by infections exacerbate skin conditions, and in severe cases, limb/toe amputations are required to prevent the development of sepsis. Here, we hypothesize that hyperglycemia induces skin barrier dysfunction with alterations of epidermal integrity. The effects of hyperglycemia on the epidermis were examined in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice with/without insulin therapy. The results showed that dye leakages were prominent, and transepidermal water loss after tape stripping was exacerbated in diabetic mice. These data indicate that hyperglycemia impaired skin barrier functions. Additionally, the distribution of the protein associated with the tight junction structure, tight junction protein-1 (ZO-1, was characterized by diffuse and significantly wider expression in the diabetic mice compared to that in the control mice. In turn, epidermal cell number was significantly reduced and basal cells were irregularly aligned with ultrastructural alterations in diabetic mice. In contrast, the number of corneocytes, namely, denucleated and terminally differentiated keratinocytes significantly increased, while their sensitivity to mechanical stress was enhanced in the diabetic mice. We found that cell proliferation was significantly decreased, while apoptotic cells were comparable in the skin of diabetic mice, compared to those in the control mice. In the epidermis, Keratin 5 and keratin 14 expressions were reduced, while keratin 10 and loricrin were ectopically induced in diabetic mice. These data suggest that hyperglycemia altered keratinocyte proliferation/differentiation. Finally, these phenotypes observed in diabetic mice were mitigated by insulin treatment. Reduction in basal cell number and perturbation of the proliferation/differentiation process could be the underlying mechanisms for impaired skin barrier functions in diabetic mice.

  8. Employability Skill Development in Work-Integrated Learning: Barriers and Best Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Denise

    2015-01-01

    Work-integrated learning (WIL) is widely considered instrumental in equipping new graduates with the required employability skills to function effectively in the work environment. Evaluation of WIL programs in enhancing skill development remains predominantly outcomes-focused with little attention to the process of what, how and from whom students…

  9. Loss of mucin-type O-glycans impairs the integrity of the glomerular filtration barrier in the mouse kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Kai; Fu, Jianxin; Song, Jianhua; Herzog, Brett H; Bergstrom, Kirk; Kondo, Yuji; McDaniel, J Michael; McGee, Samuel; Silasi-Mansat, Robert; Lupu, Florea; Chen, Hong; Bagavant, Harini; Xia, Lijun

    2017-10-06

    The kidney's filtration activity is essential for removing toxins and waste products from the body. The vascular endothelial cells of the glomerulus are fenestrated, flattened, and surrounded by podocytes, specialized cells that support glomerular endothelial cells. Mucin-type core 1-derived O- glycans ( O -glycans) are highly expressed on both glomerular capillary endothelial cells and their supporting podocytes, but their biological role is unclear. Biosynthesis of core 1-derived O -glycans is catalyzed by the glycosyltransferase core 1 β1,3-galactosyltransferase (C1galt1). Here we report that neonatal or adult mice with inducible deletion of C1galt1 ( iC1galt1 -/- ) exhibit spontaneous proteinuria and rapidly progressing glomerulosclerosis. Ultrastructural analysis of the glomerular filtration barrier components revealed that loss of O -glycans results in altered podocyte foot processes. Further analysis indicated that O -glycan is essential for the normal signaling function of podocalyxin, a podocyte foot process-associated glycoprotein. Our results reveal a new function of O -glycosylation in the integrity of the glomerular filtration barrier. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  10. Efficient sampling over rough energy landscapes with high barriers: A combination of metadynamics with integrated tempering sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Y. Isaac [Institute of Theoretical and Computational Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Zhang, Jun; Che, Xing; Yang, Lijiang; Gao, Yi Qin, E-mail: gaoyq@pku.edu.cn [Institute of Theoretical and Computational Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Biodynamic Optical Imaging Center, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2016-03-07

    In order to efficiently overcome high free energy barriers embedded in a complex energy landscape and calculate overall thermodynamics properties using molecular dynamics simulations, we developed and implemented a sampling strategy by combining the metadynamics with (selective) integrated tempering sampling (ITS/SITS) method. The dominant local minima on the potential energy surface (PES) are partially exalted by accumulating history-dependent potentials as in metadynamics, and the sampling over the entire PES is further enhanced by ITS/SITS. With this hybrid method, the simulated system can be rapidly driven across the dominant barrier along selected collective coordinates. Then, ITS/SITS ensures a fast convergence of the sampling over the entire PES and an efficient calculation of the overall thermodynamic properties of the simulation system. To test the accuracy and efficiency of this method, we first benchmarked this method in the calculation of ϕ − ψ distribution of alanine dipeptide in explicit solvent. We further applied it to examine the design of template molecules for aromatic meta-C—H activation in solutions and investigate solution conformations of the nonapeptide Bradykinin involving slow cis-trans isomerizations of three proline residues.

  11. Effects of flavonoids on intestinal inflammation, barrier integrity and changes in gut microbiota during diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Cardoso, Katherine; Ginés, Iris; Pinent, Montserrat; Ardévol, Anna; Blay, Mayte; Terra, Ximena

    2016-12-01

    Diet-induced obesity is associated with low-grade inflammation, which, in most cases, leads to the development of metabolic disorders, primarily insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Although prior studies have implicated the adipose tissue as being primarily responsible for obesity-associated inflammation, the latest discoveries have correlated impairments in intestinal immune homeostasis and the mucosal barrier with increased activation of the inflammatory pathways and the development of insulin resistance. Therefore, it is essential to define the mechanisms underlying the obesity-associated gut alterations to develop therapies to prevent and treat obesity and its associated diseases. Flavonoids appear to be promising candidates among the natural preventive treatments that have been identified to date. They have been shown to protect against several diseases, including CVD and various cancers. Furthermore, they have clear anti-inflammatory properties, which have primarily been evaluated in non-intestinal models. At present, a growing body of evidence suggests that flavonoids could exert a protective role against obesity-associated pathologies by modulating inflammatory-related cellular events in the intestine and/or the composition of the microbiota populations. The present paper will review the literature to date that has described the protective effects of flavonoids on intestinal inflammation, barrier integrity and gut microbiota in studies conducted using in vivo and in vitro models.

  12. Advanced Environmental Barrier Coating and SA Tyrannohex SiC Composites Integration for Improved Thermomechanical and Environmental Durability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming; Halbig, Michael; Singh, Mrityunjay

    2018-01-01

    The development of 2700 degF capable environmental barrier coating (EBC) systems, particularly, the Rare Earth "Hafnium" Silicon bond coat systems, have significantly improved the temperature capability and environmental stability of SiC/SiC Ceramic Matrix Composite Systems. We have specifically developed the advanced 2700 degF EBC systems, integrating the EBC to the high temperature SA Tyrannohex SiC fiber composites, for comprehensive performance and durability evaluations for potential turbine engine airfoil component applications. The fundamental mechanical properties, environmental stability and thermal gradient cyclic durability performance of the EBC - SA Tyrannohex composites were investigated. The paper will particularly emphasize the high pressure combustion rig recession, cyclic thermal stress resistance and thermomechanical low cycle fatigue testing of uncoated and environmental barrier coated Tyrannohex SiC SA composites in these simulated turbine engine combustion water vapor, thermal gradients, and mechanical loading conditions. We have also investigated high heat flux and flexural fatigue degradation mechanisms, determined the upper limits of operating temperature conditions for the coated SA composite material systems in thermomechanical fatigue conditions. Recent progress has also been made by using the self-healing rare earth-silicon based EBCs, thus enhancing the SA composite hexagonal fiber columns bonding for improved thermomechanical and environmental durability in turbine engine operation environments. More advanced EBC- composite systems based on the new EBC-Fiber Interphases will also be discussed.

  13. Informatics in radiology: integration of the medical imaging resource center into a teaching hospital network to allow single sign-on access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevedello, Luciano M; Andriole, Katherine P; Khorasani, Ryan Roobian Ramin

    2009-01-01

    The RSNA Medical Imaging Resource Center (MIRC) software is an open-source program that allows users to identify, index, and retrieve images, teaching files, and other radiologic data that share a common underlying structure. The software is being continually improved as new challenges and different needs become apparent. Although version T30 is easily installed on a stand-alone computer, its implementation at healthcare enterprises with complex network architecture may be challenging with respect to security because users cannot log on by using a standard enterprise-wide authentication protocol. Instead, authentication takes place through the local MIRC database, creating security concerns and potential organizational problems. In this setting, the Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) can be used to provide a single sign-on environment and increase authentication security. A commercial directory service using LDAP has been successfully integrated with MIRC in a large multifacility enterprise to provide single sign-on capability compatible with the institutional networking policies for password security. Copyright RSNA, 2009

  14. Dimethyl fumarate attenuates cerebral edema formation by protecting the blood-brain barrier integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunze, Reiner; Urrutia, Andrés; Hoffmann, Angelika; Liu, Hui; Helluy, Xavier; Pham, Mirko; Reischl, Stefan; Korff, Thomas; Marti, Hugo H

    2015-04-01

    Brain edema is a hallmark of various neuropathologies, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. We aim to characterize how tissue hypoxia, together with oxidative stress and inflammation, leads to capillary dysfunction and breakdown of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). In a mouse stroke model we show that systemic treatment with dimethyl fumarate (DMF), an antioxidant drug clinically used for psoriasis and multiple sclerosis, significantly prevented edema formation in vivo. Indeed, DMF stabilized the BBB by preventing disruption of interendothelial tight junctions and gap formation, and decreased matrix metalloproteinase activity in brain tissue. In vitro, DMF directly sustained endothelial tight junctions, inhibited inflammatory cytokine expression, and attenuated leukocyte transmigration. We also demonstrate that these effects are mediated via activation of the redox sensitive transcription factor NF-E2 related factor 2 (Nrf2). DMF activated the Nrf2 pathway as shown by up-regulation of several Nrf2 target genes in the brain in vivo, as well as in cerebral endothelial cells and astrocytes in vitro, where DMF also increased protein abundance of nuclear Nrf2. Finally, Nrf2 knockdown in endothelial cells aggravated subcellular delocalization of tight junction proteins during ischemic conditions, and attenuated the protective effect exerted by DMF. Overall, our data suggest that DMF protects from cerebral edema formation during ischemic stroke by targeting interendothelial junctions in an Nrf2-dependent manner, and provide the basis for a completely new approach to treat brain edema. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Immune evasion by rabies viruses through the maintenance of blood-brain barrier integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Anirban; Hooper, D Craig

    2008-10-01

    The attenuated rabies virus (RV) strain Challenge Virus Standard (CVS)-F3 and a highly pathogenic strain associated with the silver-haired bats (SHBRV) can both be cleared from the central nervous system (CNS) tissues by appropriate antiviral immune mechanisms if the effectors are provided access across the blood-brain barrier (BBB). In the case of SHBRV infection, antiviral immunity develops normally in the periphery but fails to open the BBB, generally resulting in a lethal outcome. To determine whether or not an absence in the CNS targeted immune response is associated with the infection with other pathogenic RV strains, we have assessed the development of immunity, BBB permeability, and immune cell infiltration into the CNS tissues of mice infected with a variety of RV strains, including the dog variants responsible for the majority of human rabies cases. We demonstrate that the lethal outcomes of infection with a variety of known pathogenic RV strains are indeed associated with the inability to deliver immune effectors across the BBB. Survival from infection with certain of these viruses is improved in mice prone to CNS inflammation. The results suggest that competition between the activity of the immune effectors reaching CNS tissues and the inherent pathological attributes of the virus dictates the outcome and that intervention to deliver RV-specific immune effectors into CNS tissues may have general therapeutic value in rabies.

  16. Levels & Barriers to Supply Chain Integration: A conceptual model of Supply Chain Performance

    OpenAIRE

    RajaIrfan Sabir; Muhammad Irfan

    2014-01-01

    In modern business scenario Supply chain has become the back bone for every business organization. All supply chain partners are joined together in value delivery network of company that no one can perform better without support of other. The ultimate objective of this cohesive relationship is to deliver value to customers and gets desired state of customer satisfaction & loyalty for the organization. For this purpose it is necessary to integrate the internal and external partners of Supply c...

  17. Histamine activates p38 MAP kinase and alters local lamellipodia dynamics, reducing endothelial barrier integrity and eliciting central movement of actin fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adderley, Shaquria P.; Lawrence, Curtis; Madonia, Eyong; Olubadewo, Joseph O.

    2015-01-01

    The role of the actin cytoskeleton in endothelial barrier function has been debated for nearly four decades. Our previous investigation revealed spontaneous local lamellipodia in confluent endothelial monolayers that appear to increase overlap at intercellular junctions. We tested the hypothesis that the barrier-disrupting agent histamine would reduce local lamellipodia protrusions and investigated the potential involvement of p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase activation and actin stress fiber formation. Confluent monolayers of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) expressing green fluorescent protein-actin were studied using time-lapse fluorescence microscopy. The protrusion and withdrawal characteristics of local lamellipodia were assessed before and after addition of histamine. Changes in barrier function were determined using electrical cell-substrate impedance sensing. Histamine initially decreased barrier function, lamellipodia protrusion frequency, and lamellipodia protrusion distance. A longer time for lamellipodia withdrawal and reduced withdrawal distance and velocity accompanied barrier recovery. After barrier recovery, a significant number of cortical fibers migrated centrally, eventually resembling actin stress fibers. The p38 MAP kinase inhibitor SB203580 attenuated the histamine-induced decreases in barrier function and lamellipodia protrusion frequency. SB203580 also inhibited the histamine-induced decreases in withdrawal distance and velocity, and the subsequent actin fiber migration. These data suggest that histamine can reduce local lamellipodia protrusion activity through activation of p38 MAP kinase. The findings also suggest that local lamellipodia have a role in maintaining endothelial barrier integrity. Furthermore, we provide evidence that actin stress fiber formation may be a reaction to, rather than a cause of, reduced endothelial barrier integrity. PMID:25948734

  18. Barriers to Integration of Immigrants and Integration Policy in the Czech Republic with Focus on Stakeholders and Their Co-operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslava Rákoczyová

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Social integration of migrants and related social work with this target group is increasingly becoming a focus of the enlarged conception of social policies in advanced economies. While immigration policy is often defined and shaped at a national level, its effects influence the lives of migrants and, consequently, also the host society, particularly at the regions and localities, where this policy is confronted with the specifics of the measures in other policy areas. Integration policies at the local level are created and implemented by a wide range of stakeholders, which places considerable demands on the mutual coordination and co-operation to achieve maximum efficiency of services provided. In the Czech Republic, coordination among different actors is still under-developed. Non-governmental organizations, which are oriented towards specific needs of foreigners, are generally considered to be the principal actors in the delivery of services to and social work with migrants. Public institutions’ competences are usually limited to the exercise of specific services defined by the legislation. Yet the cooperation between actors from among representatives of government and nonprofit organizations is not based on equal partnership. Based on qualitative interviews with the key stakeholders of social integration in the Czech Republic, this study aims to provide some insight into strategies for the integration of foreigners charged with activities of local actors with special emphasis on the role of NGOs in this process. Moreover, the authors try to highlight some barriers of collaboration between the actors, and the risk of inefficient allocation of resources to support social services for migrants.

  19. The Palliative Care Challenge: Analysis of Barriers and Opportunities to Integrate Palliative Care in Europe in the View of National Associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centeno, Carlos; Garralda, Eduardo; Carrasco, José Miguel; den Herder-van der Eerden, Marlieke; Aldridge, Melissa; Stevenson, David; Meier, Diane E; Hasselaar, Jeroen

    2017-11-01

    Palliative care (PC) development is diverse and lacks an effective integration into European healthcare systems. This article investigates levels of integrated PC in European countries. A qualitative survey was undertaken for the 2013 EAPC Atlas of PC in Europe with boards of national associations, eliciting opinions on opportunities for, and barriers to, PC development. Barriers and opportunities directly related to PC integration were identified and analyzed thematically according (1) to the dimensions of the World Health Organization (WHO) public health model and (2) by the degree of service provision in each country. A frequency analysis of dimensions and level of provision was also conducted. In total, 48/53 (91%) European countries responded to the survey. A total of 43 barriers and 65 opportunities were identified as being related to PC integration. Main barriers were (1) lack of basic PC training, with a particular emphasis on the absence of teaching at the undergraduate level; (2) lack of official certification for professionals; (3) lack of coordination and continuity of care for users and providers; (4) lack of PC integration for noncancer patients; (5) absence of PC from countries' regulatory frameworks; and (6) unequal laws or regulations pertaining to PC within countries. Innovations in education and new regulatory frameworks were identified as main opportunities in some European countries, in addition to opportunities around the implementation of PC in home care, nursing home settings, and the earlier integration of PC into patients' continuum of care. With increasing provision of services, more challenges for the integration are detected (p integration has been identified across Europe, by national associations, offering a barometer against which to check the challenge of integration across countries.

  20. Effect of an acrylic terpolymer barrier film beneath transparent catheter dressings on skin integrity, risk of dressing disruption, catheter colonisation and infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivkina, A I; Gusarov, V G; Blot, S I; Zhivotneva, I V; Pasko, N V; Zamyatin, M N

    2018-03-23

    We assessed the effect of a skin-protective terpolymer barrier film around the catheter insertion site on frequency of dressing disruptions and skin integrity issues (hyperaemia, skin irritation, residues of adhesives and moisture under the dressing). Secondary outcomes included colonisation of the central venous catheter (CVC) and rates of central line-associated bloodstream infection. A monocentric, open-label, randomised controlled trial was performed comparing a control group receiving standard transparent catheter dressings without the skin-protecting barrier film and an intervention group receiving a transparent chlorhexidine-impregnated dressing with use of the skin-protective acrylic terpolymer barrier film (3M™ Cavilon™ No - Sting Barrier Film, 3 M Health Care, St. Paul, MN, USA). Sixty patients were enrolled and randomised in the study accounting for 60 central venous catheters and a total of 533 catheter days. Dressing disruptions occurred more frequently and at sooner time point in the control group. Skin integrity issues were significantly less observed in the intervention group. No differences in CVC colonisation or central line-associated bloodstream infection were observed. The application of a barrier film creating a skin-protective polymer layer beneath transparent catheter dressings is associated with less dressing disruptions and skin integrity issues without altering the risk of infectious complications if used in combination with a chlorhexidine-impregnated catheter dressing. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Markers for blood-brain barrier integrity: how appropriate is Evans blue in the twenty-first century and what are the alternatives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Norman R.; Dziegielewska, Katarzyna M.; Møllgård, Kjeld; Habgood, Mark D.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years there has been a resurgence of interest in brain barriers and various roles their intrinsic mechanisms may play in neurological disorders. Such studies require suitable models and markers to demonstrate integrity and functional changes at the interfaces between blood, brain, and cerebrospinal fluid. Studies of brain barrier mechanisms and measurements of plasma volume using dyes have a long-standing history, dating back to the late nineteenth-century. Their use in blood-brain barrier studies continues in spite of their known serious limitations in in vivo applications. These were well known when first introduced, but seem to have been forgotten since. Understanding these limitations is important because Evans blue is still the most commonly used marker of brain barrier integrity and those using it seem oblivious to problems arising from its in vivo application. The introduction of HRP in the mid twentieth-century was an important advance because its reaction product can be visualized at the electron microscopical level, but it also has limitations. Advantages and disadvantages of these markers will be discussed together with a critical evaluation of alternative approaches. There is no single marker suitable for all purposes. A combination of different sized, visualizable dextrans and radiolabeled molecules currently seems to be the most appropriate approach for qualitative and quantitative assessment of barrier integrity. PMID:26578854

  2. Social and Cultural Barriers to Women's Participation in Pap Smear Screening Programs in Low- and Middle-Income Latin American and Caribbean Countries: An Integrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebermann, Erica J; VanDevanter, Nancy; Hammer, Marilyn J; Fu, Mei R

    2018-01-01

    Pap smear screening programs have been ineffective in reducing cervical cancer mortality in most Latin American and Caribbean countries, in part due to low screening rates. The purpose of this review was to analyze recent studies to identify demographic, social, and cultural factors influencing women's participation in Pap screening programs in Latin America and the Caribbean. For this integrative review, cervical cancer screening in Latin America and the Caribbean was searched using PubMed, CINAHL, EMBASE, and PsycINFO databases. Findings/Results: Demographic barriers to screening were socioeconomic status, education, race/ethnicity, and geography. Social barriers included lack of uniformity in screening guidelines, lack of knowledge regarding cervical cancer, and lack of preventive culture. Cultural barriers were fear/embarrassment and gender roles. There are multilevel barriers to Pap smear utilization among women in Latin America and the Caribbean. Findings highlight a need for health system engagement, promotion of preventive care, and community-generated educational programs and solutions.

  3. Modulation of long-term endothelial-barrier integrity is conditional to the cross-talk between Akt and Src signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fei; Sabbineni, Harika; Artham, Sandeep; Somanath, Payaningal R

    2017-10-01

    Although numerous studies have implicated Akt and Src kinases in vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and Angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1)-induced endothelial-barrier regulation, a link between these two pathways has never been demonstrated. We determined the long-term effects of Akt inhibition on Src activity and vice versa, and in turn, on the human microvascular endothelial cell (HMEC) barrier integrity at the basal level, and in response to growth factors. Our data showed that Akt1 gene knockdown increases gap formation in HMEC monolayer at the basal level. Pharmacological inhibition of Akt, but not Src resulted in exacerbated VEGF-induced vascular leakage and impaired Ang-1-induced HMEC-barrier protection in vitro at 24 hr. Whereas inhibition of Akt had no effect on VEGF-induced HMEC gap formation in the short term, inhibition of Src blunted this process. In contrast, inhibition of Akt disrupted the VEGF and Ang-1 stabilized barrier integrity in the long-term while inhibition of Src did not. Interestingly, both long-term Akt inhibition and Akt1 gene knockdown in HMECs resulted in increased Tyr416 phosphorylation of Src. Treatment of HMECs with transforming growth factor-β1 (TGFβ1) that inhibited Akt Ser473 phosphorylation in the long-term, activated Src through increased Tyr416 phosphorylation and decreased HMEC-barrier resistance. The effect of TGFβ1 on endothelial-barrier breakdown was blunted in Akt1 deficient HMEC monolayers, where endothelial-barrier resistance was already impaired compared to the control. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating a direct cross-talk between Akt and Src in endothelial-barrier regulation. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Engineered Barrier System - Mechanical Integrity of KBS-3 Spent Fuel Canisters. Report from a Workshop. Synthesis and extended abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-09-15

    SKI is preparing to review the license applications being developed by the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) for a final repository for the geological disposal of spent nuclear fuel in the year 2009. As part of its preparation, SKI is conducting a series of technical workshops on key aspects of the Engineered Barrier System (EBS). The workshop reported here mainly dealt with the mechanical integrity of KBS-3 spent fuel canisters. This included assessment and review of various loading conditions, structural integrity models and mechanical properties of the copper shell and the cast iron insert. Degradation mechanisms such as stress corrosion cracking and brittle creep fracture were also briefly addressed. Previous workshops have addressed the overall concept for long-term integrity of the EBS, the manufacturing, testing and QA of the EBS, the performance confirmation for the EBS, long-term stability of the buffer and the backfill, corrosion properties of copper canisters and the spent fuel dissolution and source term modelling. The goal of ongoing review work in connection of the workshop series is to achieve a comprehensive overview of all aspects of SKB's EBS and spent fuel work prior to the handling of the forthcoming license application. This report aims to summarise the issues discussed at the workshop and to extract the essential viewpoints that have been expressed. The report is not a comprehensive record of all the discussions at the workshop, and individual statements made by workshop participants should be regarded as personal opinions rather than SKI viewpoints. Results from the EBS workshops series will be used as one important basis in future review work. This reports includes in addition to the workshop synthesis, questions to SKB identified prior to the workshop, and extended abstracts for introductory presentations

  5. Assessing the facilitators and barriers of interdisciplinary team working in primary care using normalisation process theory: An integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Pauline; Lee, Siew Hwa; O'Sullivan, Madeleine; Cullen, Walter; Kennedy, Catriona; MacFarlane, Anne

    2017-01-01

    Interdisciplinary team working is of paramount importance in the reform of primary care in order to provide cost-effective and comprehensive care. However, international research shows that it is not routine practice in many healthcare jurisdictions. It is imperative to understand levers and barriers to the implementation process. This review examines interdisciplinary team working in practice, in primary care, from the perspective of service providers and analyses 1 barriers and facilitators to implementation of interdisciplinary teams in primary care and 2 the main research gaps. An integrative review following the PRISMA guidelines was conducted. Following a search of 10 international databases, 8,827 titles were screened for relevance and 49 met the criteria. Quality of evidence was appraised using predetermined criteria. Data were analysed following the principles of framework analysis using Normalisation Process Theory (NPT), which has four constructs: sense making, enrolment, enactment, and appraisal. The literature is dominated by a focus on interdisciplinary working between physicians and nurses. There is a dearth of evidence about all NPT constructs apart from enactment. Physicians play a key role in encouraging the enrolment of others in primary care team working and in enabling effective divisions of labour in the team. The experience of interdisciplinary working emerged as a lever for its implementation, particularly where communication and respect were strong between professionals. A key lever for interdisciplinary team working in primary care is to get professionals working together and to learn from each other in practice. However, the evidence base is limited as it does not reflect the experiences of all primary care professionals and it is primarily about the enactment of team working. We need to know much more about the experiences of the full network of primary care professionals regarding all aspects of implementation work. International

  6. An integrative review of supports, facilitators and barriers to patient-centred nursing in the intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakimowicz, Samantha; Perry, Lin; Lewis, Joanne

    2017-12-01

    To systematically review the literature describing factors perceived by nurses as impacting the provision of patient-centred nursing in the intensive care unit. Patient-centred nursing in critical care differs from other healthcare areas, and the aggressive curative environment of the ICU has potential to compromise some of its elements. Understanding critical care, nurses' perceptions of promoting and deterrent factors may inform development of strategies to support effective patient-centred nursing and job satisfaction in this workforce. An integrative literature review. Whittemore and Knafl's method was used with "best-fit" framework synthesis. CINAHL, PsycINFO, Medline and EMBASE were searched for 2000-2016 literature using search terms drawn from the ICU patient-centred framework. In total, 3,079 papers were identified, with 23 retained after applying eligibility criteria. Five themes were identified: Nurse identity; Organisation; Communication; Relationships; and Ideology of ICU. Almost every theme and related categories referred to factors acting as barriers to patient-centred nursing in the ICU; only four referred to supports/facilitators. Findings showed that provision of patient-centred nursing may be compromised by some factors of the critical care environment, and illustrate the challenges and complexity of providing effective patient-centred nursing in this environment. Findings should be applied to address barriers and to enhance facilitators of effective patient-centred nursing in critical care. The emotional and physical demands of critical care nursing are major considerations; supporting these nurses to fulfil their challenging role may empower them in their professional quality of life and provide a basis for workforce retention as well as delivery of effective patient-centred nursing. Measures to enhance patient-centred nursing could promote critical care nurses' job satisfaction and workforce retention, and be applied more broadly and

  7. Ceramide synthase 2 deficiency aggravates AOM-DSS-induced colitis in mice: role of colon barrier integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oertel, Stephanie; Scholich, Klaus; Weigert, Andreas; Thomas, Dominique; Schmetzer, Julia; Trautmann, Sandra; Wegner, Marthe-Susanna; Radeke, Heinfried H; Filmann, Natalie; Brüne, Bernhard; Geisslinger, Gerd; Tegeder, Irmgard; Grösch, Sabine

    2017-08-01

    Loss of intestinal barrier functions is a hallmark of inflammatory bowel disease like ulcerative colitis. The molecular mechanisms are not well understood, but likely involve dysregulation of membrane composition, fluidity, and permeability, which are all essentially regulated by sphingolipids, including ceramides of different chain length and saturation. Here, we used a loss-of-function model (CerS2 +/+ and CerS2 -/- mice) to investigate the impact of ceramide synthase 2, a key enzyme in the generation of very long-chain ceramides, in the dextran sodium salt (DSS) evoked model of UC. CerS2 -/- mice developed more severe disease than CerS2 +/+ mice in acute DSS and chronic AOM/DSS colitis. Deletion of CerS2 strongly reduced very long-chain ceramides (Cer24:0, 24:1) but concomitantly increased long-chain ceramides and sphinganine in plasma and colon tissue. In naive CerS2 -/- mice, the expression of tight junction proteins including ZO-1 was almost completely lost in the colon epithelium, leading to increased membrane permeability. This could also be observed in vitro in CerS2 depleted Caco-2 cells. The increase in membrane permeability in CerS2 -/- mice did not manifest with apparent clinical symptoms in naive mice, but with slight inflammatory signs such as an increase in monocytes and IL-10. AOM/DSS and DSS treatment alone led to a further deterioration of membrane integrity and to severe clinical symptoms of the disease. This was associated with stronger upregulation of cytokines in CerS2 -/- mice and increased infiltration of the colon wall by immune cells, particularly monocytes, CD4 + and Th17 + T-cells, and an increase in tumor burden. In conclusion, CerS2 is crucial for the maintenance of colon barrier function and epithelial integrity. CerS2 knockdown, and associated changes in several sphingolipids such as a drop in very long-chain ceramides/(dh)-ceramides, an increase in long-chain ceramides/(dh)-ceramides, and sphinganine in the colon, may weaken

  8. Maintenance of Blood-Brain Barrier Integrity in Hypertension: A Novel Benefit of Exercise Training for Autonomic Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Buttler

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The blood-brain barrier (BBB is a complex multicellular structure acting as selective barrier controlling the transport of substances between these compartments. Accumulating evidence has shown that chronic hypertension is accompanied by BBB dysfunction, deficient local perfusion and plasma angiotensin II (Ang II access into the parenchyma of brain areas related to autonomic circulatory control. Knowing that spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR exhibit deficient autonomic control and brain Ang II hyperactivity and that exercise training is highly effective in correcting both, we hypothesized that training, by reducing Ang II content, could improve BBB function within autonomic brain areas of the SHR. After confirming the absence of BBB lesion in the pre-hypertensive SHR, but marked fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran (FITC, 10 kD leakage into the brain parenchyma of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN, nucleus of the solitary tract, and rostral ventrolateral medulla during the established phase of hypertension, adult SHR, and age-matched WKY were submitted to a treadmill training (T or kept sedentary (S for 8 weeks. The robust FITC leakage within autonomic areas of the SHR-S was largely reduced and almost normalized since the 2nd week of training (T2. BBB leakage reduction occurred simultaneously and showed strong correlations with both decreased LF/HF ratio to the heart and reduced vasomotor sympathetic activity (power spectral analysis, these effects preceding the appearance of resting bradycardia (T4 and partial pressure fall (T8. In other groups of SHR-T simultaneously infused with icv Ang II or saline (osmotic mini-pumps connected to a lateral ventricle cannula we proved that decreased local availability of this peptide and reduced microglia activation (IBA1 staining are crucial mechanisms conditioning the restoration of BBB integrity. Our data also revealed that Ang II-induced BBB lesion was faster within the PVN (T2, suggesting

  9. Smart parking barrier

    KAUST Repository

    Alharbi, Abdulrazaq M.

    2016-05-06

    Various methods and systems are provided for smart parking barriers. In one example, among others, a smart parking barrier system includes a movable parking barrier located at one end of a parking space, a barrier drive configured to control positioning of the movable parking barrier, and a parking controller configured to initiate movement of the parking barrier, via the barrier drive. The movable parking barrier can be positioned between a first position that restricts access to the parking space and a second position that allows access to the parking space. The parking controller can initiate movement of the movable parking barrier in response to a positive identification of an individual allowed to use the parking space. The parking controller can identify the individual through, e.g., a RFID tag, a mobile device (e.g., a remote control, smartphone, tablet, etc.), an access card, biometric information, or other appropriate identifier.

  10. Genes Linked to Endometriosis by GWAS Are Integral to Cytoskeleton Regulation and Suggests That Mesothelial Barrier Homeostasis Is a Factor in the Pathogenesis of Endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertsen, Hans M; Ward, Kenneth

    2017-06-01

    Endometriosis, defined by the presence of ectopic endometrial lesions, is a common disease in reproductive-age women that profoundly affects patients' quality of life. Various pathogenic models have been proposed, but the origin of endometriosis remains elusive. In this article, we propose that the mesothelial barrier, which protects the underlying stroma from endometrial transplants present in retrograde menstrual fluid, can be compromised by activation of the epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) repair mechanism that lead to temporary loss of barrier integrity. Absent of the mesothelial barrier, endometrial cells can more readily adhere to the underlying peritoneal stroma and establish endometrial lesions. The hypothesis is based on the clinical and experimental observations that correlate the location of endometrial lesions with areas of mesothelial damage, together with genetic evidence that 4 genes associated with endometriosis are direct regulators of the actin-cytoskeleton, which coordinates mesothelial barrier integrity. It supports past observations that implicate the peritoneum in the pathogenesis of endometriosis and unifies previously disparate theories that endometriosis may be triggered by infection, mechanical damage, and inflammation since each of these mechanisms can induce EMT in the mesothelium. If the hypothesis is correct, inhibition of EMT in the mesothelial barrier provides a novel paradigm for the prevention and treatment of endometriosis.

  11. Improvement of Blood-Brain Barrier Integrity in Traumatic Brain Injury and Hemorrhagic Shock Following Treatment With Valproic Acid and Fresh Frozen Plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolian, Vahagn C; Dekker, Simone E; Bambakidis, Ted; Higgins, Gerald A; Dennahy, Isabel S; Georgoff, Patrick E; Williams, Aaron M; Andjelkovic, Anuska V; Alam, Hasan B

    2018-01-01

    Combined traumatic brain injury and hemorrhagic shock are highly lethal. Following injuries, the integrity of the blood-brain barrier can be impaired, contributing to secondary brain insults. The status of the blood-brain barrier represents a potential factor impacting long-term neurologic outcomes in combined injuries. Treatment strategies involving plasma-based resuscitation and valproic acid therapy have shown efficacy in this setting. We hypothesize that a component of this beneficial effect is related to blood-brain barrier preservation. Following controlled traumatic brain injury, hemorrhagic shock, various resuscitation and treatment strategies were evaluated for their association with blood-brain barrier integrity. Analysis of gene expression profiles was performed using Porcine Gene ST 1.1 microarray. Pathway analysis was completed using network analysis tools (Gene Ontology, Ingenuity Pathway Analysis, and Parametric Gene Set Enrichment Analysis). Female Yorkshire swine were subjected to controlled traumatic brain injury and 2 hours of hemorrhagic shock (40% blood volume, mean arterial pressure 30-35 mmHg). Subjects were resuscitated with 1) normal saline, 2) fresh frozen plasma, 3) hetastarch, 4) fresh frozen plasma + valproic acid, or 5) hetastarch + valproic acid (n = 5 per group). After 6 hours of observation, brains were harvested for evaluation. Immunofluoroscopic evaluation of the traumatic brain injury site revealed significantly increased expression of tight-junction associated proteins (zona occludin-1, claudin-5) following combination therapy (fresh frozen plasma + valproic acid and hetastarch + valproic acid). The extracellular matrix protein laminin was found to have significantly improved expression with combination therapies. Pathway analysis indicated that valproic acid significantly modulated pathways involved in endothelial barrier function and cell signaling. Resuscitation with fresh frozen plasma results in improved expression of

  12. Barriers and facilitators to integration of physician associates into the general practice workforce: a grounded theory approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Ben; Marshall, Michelle; Schofield, Susie

    2017-11-01

    Physician associates (PAs) are described as one solution to workforce capacity in primary care in the UK. Despite new investment in the role, how effective this will be in addressing unmet primary care needs is unclear. To investigate the barriers and facilitators to the integration of PAs into the general practice workforce. A modified grounded theory study in a region unfamiliar with the PA role. No a priori themes were assumed. Themes generated from stakeholder interviews informed a literature review and theoretical framework, and were then tested in focus groups with GPs, advanced nurse practitioners (ANPs), and patients. Recorded data were transcribed verbatim, and organised using NVivo version 10.2.2, with iterative analysis of emergent themes. A reflexive diary and independent verification of coding and analysis were included. There were 51 participants (30 GPs, 11 ANPs, and 10 patients) in eight focus groups. GPs, ANPs, and patients recognised that support for general practice was needed to improve access. GPs expressed concerns regarding PAs around managing medical complexity and supervision burden, non-prescriber status, and medicolegal implications in routine practice. Patients were less concerned about specific competencies as long as there was effective supervision, and were accepting of a PA role. ANPs highlighted their own negative experiences entering advanced clinical practice, and the need for support to counteract stereotypical and prejudicial attitudes CONCLUSION: This study highlights the complex factors that may impede the introduction of PAs into UK primary care. A conceptual model is proposed to help regulators and educationalists support this integration, which has relevance to other proposed new roles in primary care. © British Journal of General Practice 2017.

  13. Inhibition of Myeloperoxidase at the Peak of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis Restores Blood-Brain-Barrier Integrity and Ameliorates Disease Severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Ray, Avijit; Miller, Nichole M; Hartwig, Danielle; Pritchard, Kirkwood A; Dittel, Bonnie N

    2015-11-12

    Oxidative stress is thought to contribute to disease pathogenesis in the central nervous system (CNS) disease multiple sclerosis (MS). Myeloperoxidase (MPO), a potent peroxidase that generates toxic radicals and oxidants, is increased in the CNS during MS. However, the exact mechanism whereby MPO drives MS pathology is not known. We addressed this question by inhibiting MPO in mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) using our non-toxic MPO inhibitor KYC. We found that therapeutic administration of KYC for five days starting at the peak of disease significantly attenuated EAE disease severity, reduced myeloid cell numbers and permeability of the blood-brain-barrier (BBB). These data indicate that inhibition of MPO by KYC restores BBB integrity thereby limiting migration of myeloid cells into the CNS that drive EAE pathogenesis. In addition, these observations indicate that KYC may be an effective therapeutic agent for the treatment of MS. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  14. Safety-barrier diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duijm, Nijs Jan

    2007-01-01

    are discussed. A simple method for quantification of safety-barrier diagrams is proposed, including situations where safety barriers depend on shared common elements. It is concluded that safety-barrier diagrams provide a useful framework for an electronic data structure that integrates information from risk...

  15. Markers for blood-brain barrier integrity: how appropriate is Evans blue in the 21st century and what are the alternatives?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Ruthven Saunders

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been a resurgence of interest in brain barriers and various roles their intrinsic mechanisms may play in neurological disorders. Such studies require suitable models and markers to demonstrate integrity and functional changes at the interfaces between blood, brain and cerebrospinal fluid. Studies of brain barrier mechanisms and measurements of plasma volume using dyes have a long-standing history, dating back to the late 19th-Century. Their use continues in spite of their known serious limitations in in vivo applications. These were well known when first introduced, but seem to have been forgotten since. Understanding these limitations is important because Evans blue is still the most commonly used marker of brain barrier integrity and those using it seem oblivious to problems arising from its in vivo application. The introduction of HRP in the mid 20th-Century was an important advance because its reaction product can be visualized at the electron microscopical level. Advantages and disadvantages these markers will be discussed together with a critical evaluation of alternative approaches. There is no single marker suitable for all purposes. A combination of different sized, visualisable dextrans and radiolabelled molecules currently seems to be the most appropriate approach for qualitative and quantitative assessment of barrier integrity.

  16. Impaired small-bowel barrier integrity in the presence of lumenal pancreatic digestive enzymes leads to circulatory shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistler, Erik B; Alsaigh, Tom; Chang, Marisol; Schmid-Schönbein, Geert W

    2012-08-01

    In bowel ischemia, impaired mucosal integrity may allow intestinal pancreatic enzyme products to become systemic and precipitate irreversible shock and death. This can be attenuated by pancreatic enzyme inhibition in the small-bowel lumen. It is unresolved, however, whether ischemically mediated mucosal disruption is the key event allowing pancreatic enzyme products systemic access and whether intestinal digestive enzyme activity in concert with increased mucosal permeability leads to shock in the absence of ischemia. To test this possibility, the small intestinal lumen of nonischemic rats was perfused for 2 h with either digestive enzymes, a mucin disruption strategy (i.e., mucolytics) designed to increase mucosal permeability, or both, and animals were observed for shock. Digestive enzymes perfused included trypsin, chymotrypsin, elastase, amylase, and lipase. Control (n = 6) and experimental animals perfused with pancreatic enzymes only (n = 6) or single enzymes (n = 3 for each of the five enzyme groups) maintained stable hemodynamics. After mucin disruption using a combination of enteral N-acetylcysteine, atropine, and increased flow rates, rats (n = 6) developed mild hypotension (P shock and increase systemic protease activation in the absence of ischemia, implicating bowel mucin disruption as a key event in early ischemia. Digestive enzymes and their products, if allowed to penetrate the gut wall, may trigger multiorgan failure and death.

  17. Human Oral Isolate Lactobacillus fermentum AGR1487 Reduces Intestinal Barrier Integrity by Increasing the Turnover of Microtubules in Caco-2 Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Rachel C.; Young, Wayne; Clerens, Stefan; Cookson, Adrian L.; McCann, Mark J.; Armstrong, Kelly M.; Roy, Nicole C.

    2013-01-01

    Lactobacillus fermentum is found in fermented foods and thought to be harmless. In vivo and clinical studies indicate that some L. fermentum strains have beneficial properties, particularly for gastrointestinal health. However, L. fermentum AGR1487 decreases trans-epithelial electrical resistance (TEER), a measure of intestinal barrier integrity. The hypothesis was that L. fermentum AGR1487 decreases the expression of intestinal cell tight junction genes and proteins, thereby reducing barrier integrity. Transcriptomic and proteomic analyses of Caco-2 cells (model of human intestinal epithelial cells) treated with L. fermentum AGR1487 were used to obtain a global view of the effect of the bacterium on intestinal epithelial cells. Specific functional characteristics by which L. fermentum AGR1487 reduces intestinal barrier integrity were examined using confocal microscopy, cell cycle progression and adherence bioassays. The effects of TEER-enhancing L. fermentum AGR1485 were investigated for comparison. L. fermentum AGR1487 did not alter the expression of Caco-2 cell tight junction genes (compared to L. fermentum AGR1485) and tight junction proteins were not able to be detected. However, L. fermentum AGR1487 increased the expression levels of seven tubulin genes and the abundance of three microtubule-associated proteins, which have been linked to tight junction disassembly. Additionally, Caco-2 cells treated with L. fermentum AGR1487 did not have defined and uniform borders of zona occludens 2 around each cell, unlike control or AGR1485 treated cells. L. fermentum AGR1487 cells were required for the negative effect on barrier integrity (bacterial supernatant did not cause a decrease in TEER), suggesting that a physical interaction may be necessary. Increased adherence of L. fermentum AGR1487 to Caco-2 cells (compared to L. fermentum AGR1485) was likely to facilitate this cell-to-cell interaction. These findings illustrate that bacterial strains of the same species can

  18. High-Throughput Screening for Identification of Blood-Brain Barrier Integrity Enhancers: A Drug Repurposing Opportunity to Rectify Vascular Amyloid Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qosa, Hisham; Mohamed, Loqman A; Al Rihani, Sweilem B; Batarseh, Yazan S; Duong, Quoc-Viet; Keller, Jeffrey N; Kaddoumi, Amal

    2016-07-06

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a dynamic interface that maintains brain homeostasis and protects it from free entry of chemicals, toxins, and drugs. The barrier function of the BBB is maintained mainly by capillary endothelial cells that physically separate brain from blood. Several neurological diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), are known to disrupt BBB integrity. In this study, a high-throughput screening (HTS) was developed to identify drugs that rectify/protect BBB integrity from vascular amyloid toxicity associated with AD progression. Assessing Lucifer Yellow permeation across in-vitro BBB model composed from mouse brain endothelial cells (bEnd3) grown on 96-well plate inserts was used to screen 1280 compounds of Sigma LOPAC®1280 library for modulators of bEnd3 monolayer integrity. HTS identified 62 compounds as disruptors, and 50 compounds as enhancers of the endothelial barrier integrity. From these 50 enhancers, 7 FDA approved drugs were identified with EC50 values ranging from 0.76-4.56 μM. Of these 7 drugs, 5 were able to protect bEnd3-based BBB model integrity against amyloid toxicity. Furthermore, to test the translational potential to humans, the 7 drugs were tested for their ability to rectify the disruptive effect of Aβ in the human endothelial cell line hCMEC/D3. Only 3 (etodolac, granisetron, and beclomethasone) out of the 5 effective drugs in the bEnd3-based BBB model demonstrated a promising effect to protect the hCMEC/D3-based BBB model integrity. These drugs are compelling candidates for repurposing as therapeutic agents that could rectify dysfunctional BBB associated with AD.

  19. Skin barrier function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    barrier integrity, factors influencing the penetration of the skin, influence of wet work, and guidance for prevention and saving the barrier. Distinguished researchers have contributed to this book, providing a comprehensive and thorough overview of the skin barrier function. Researchers in the field...... on the subject. It covers new basic research on skin markers, including results on filaggrin and on methods for the assessment of the barrier function. Biological variation and aspects of skin barrier function restoration are discussed as well. Further sections are dedicated to clinical implications of skin...

  20. Safety- barrier diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duijm, Nijs Jan

    2008-01-01

    trees and Bayesian networks is discussed. A simple method for quantification of safety-barrier diagrams is proposed. It is concluded that safety-barrier diagrams provide a useful framework for an electronic data structure that integrates information from risk analysis with operational safety management.......Safety-barrier diagrams and the related so-called 'bow-tie' diagrams have become popular methods in risk analysis. This paper describes the syntax and principles for constructing consistent and valid safety-barrier diagrams. The relation of safety-barrier diagrams to other methods such as fault...

  1. A qualitative meta-summary using Sandelowski and Barroso's method for integrating qualitative research to explore barriers and facilitators to self-care in heart failure patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herber, Oliver Rudolf; Bücker, Bettina; Metzendorf, Maria-Inti; Barroso, Julie

    2017-12-01

    Individual qualitative studies provide varied reasons for why heart failure patients do not engage in self-care, yet articles that aggregated primary studies on the subject have methodological weaknesses that justified the execution of a qualitative meta-summary. The aim of this study is to integrate the findings of qualitative studies pertaining to barriers and facilitators to self-care using meta-summary techniques. Qualitative meta-summary techniques by Sandelowski and Barroso were used to combine the findings of qualitative studies. Meta-summary techniques include: (1) extraction of relevant statements of findings from each report; (2) reduction of these statements into abstracted findings and (3) calculation of effect sizes. Databases were searched systematically for qualitative studies published between January 2010 and July 2015. Out of 2264 papers identified, 31 reports based on the accounts of 814 patients were included in the meta-summary. A total of 37 statements of findings provided a comprehensive inventory of findings across all reports. Out of these statements of findings, 21 were classified as barriers, 13 as facilitators and three were classed as both barriers and facilitators. The main themes relating to barriers and facilitators to self-care were: beliefs, benefits of self-care, comorbidities, financial constraints, symptom recognition, ethnic background, inconsistent self-care, insufficient information, positive and negative emotions, organizational context, past experiences, physical environment, self-initiative, self-care adverse effects, social context and personal preferences. Based on the meta-findings identified in this study, future intervention development could address these barriers and facilitators in order to further enhance self-care abilities in heart failure patients.

  2. Self-management of health care: multimethod study of using integrated health care and supportive housing to address systematic barriers for people experiencing homelessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsell, Cameron; Ten Have, Charlotte; Denton, Michelle; Walter, Zoe

    2017-04-07

    Objectives The aims of the present study were to examine tenants' experiences of a model of integrated health care and supportive housing and to identify whether integrated health care and supportive housing improved self-reported health and healthcare access. Methods The present study used a mixed-method survey design (n=75) and qualitative interviews (n=20) performed between September 2015 and August 2016. Participants were tenants of permanent supportive housing in Brisbane (Qld, Australia). Qualitative data were analysed thematically. Results Integrated health care and supportive housing were resources for tenants to overcome systematic barriers to accessing mainstream health care experienced when homeless. When homeless, people did not have access to resources required to maintain their health. Homelessness meant not having a voice to influence the health care people received; healthcare practitioners treated symptoms of poverty rather than considering how homelessness makes people sick. Integrated healthcare and supportive housing enabled tenants to receive treatment for health problems that were compounded by the barriers to accessing mainstream healthcare that homelessness represented. Conclusions Extending the evidence about housing as a social determinant of health, the present study shows that integrated health care and supportive housing enabled tenants to take control to self-manage their health care. In addition to homelessness directly contributing to ill health, the present study provides evidence of how the experience of homelessness contributes to exclusions from mainstream healthcare. What is known about the topic? People who are homeless experience poor physical and mental health, have unmet health care needs and use disproportionate rates of emergency health services. What does the paper add? The experience of homelessness creates barriers to accessing adequate health care. The provision of onsite multidisciplinary integrated health care in

  3. Safety-barrier diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duijm, Nijs Jan

    2007-01-01

    Safety-barrier diagrams and the related so-called "bow-tie" diagrams have become popular methods in risk analysis. This paper describes the syntax and principles for constructing consistent and valid safety-barrier diagrams. The relation with other methods such as fault trees and Bayesian network...... analysis with operational safety management.......Safety-barrier diagrams and the related so-called "bow-tie" diagrams have become popular methods in risk analysis. This paper describes the syntax and principles for constructing consistent and valid safety-barrier diagrams. The relation with other methods such as fault trees and Bayesian networks...... are discussed. A simple method for quantification of safety-barrier diagrams is proposed, including situations where safety barriers depend on shared common elements. It is concluded that safety-barrier diagrams provide a useful framework for an electronic data structure that integrates information from risk...

  4. Zinc Supplementation, via GPR39, Upregulates PKCζ to Protect Intestinal Barrier Integrity in Caco-2 Cells Challenged by Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yu-Xin; Lei, Zhao; Wolf, Patricia G; Gao, Yan; Guo, Yu-Ming; Zhang, Bing-Kun

    2017-07-01

    Background: Zinc has been shown to improve intestinal barrier function against Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium ( S. typhimurium ) infection, but the mechanisms involved in this process remain undefined. Objective: We aimed to explore the roles of G protein-coupled receptor (GPR)39 and protein kinase Cζ (PKCζ) in the regulation by zinc of intestinal barrier function. Methods: A Transwell Caco-2 monolayer was pretreated with 0, 50, or 100 μM Zn and then incubated with S. typhimurium for 0-6 h. Afterward, cells silenced by the small interfering RNA for GPR39 or PKCζ were pretreated with 100 μM Zn and incubated with S. typhimurium for 3 h. Finally, transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER), permeability, tight junction (TJ) proteins, and signaling molecules GPR39 and PKCζ were measured. Results: Compared with controls, S. typhimurium decreased TEER by 62.3-96.2% at 4-6 h ( P 0.1). Silencing GPR39 decreased ( P zinc-activated PKCζ and blocked ( P zinc on epithelial integrity. Furthermore, silencing PKCζ counteracted the protective effect of zinc on epithelial integrity but did not inhibit GPR39 ( P = 0.138). Conclusion: We demonstrated that zinc upregulates PKCζ by activating GPR39 to enhance the abundance of ZO-1, thereby improving epithelial integrity in S. typhimurium- infected Caco-2 cells. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  5. Who cares about foot care? Barriers and enablers of foot self-care practices among non-institutionalized older adults diagnosed with diabetes: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matricciani, Lisa; Jones, Sara

    2015-02-01

    Appropriate and timely foot self-care practices may prevent diabetes-related foot complications. However, self-care practices are often neglected, particularly by older adults. The purpose of this study was to conduct an integrative, systematic literature review of the psychosocial barriers and enablers of foot self-care practices among older adults diagnosed with diabetes. An integrative, systematic literature review and a deductive thematic analysis was conducted to determine psychosocial barriers and enablers of foot self-care practices among older adults. A total of 130 different studies were retrieved from the search strategy. From these, 9 studies were identified and included for review. Physical ability, perceived importance, patient knowledge, provision of education, social integration, risk status, and patient-provider communication were identified as key barriers and enablers of foot self-care. Participants at high risk of foot complications were found to perceive themselves at greater risk of complications, receive more education, and engage in better overall foot self-care practices compared to those at low risk of foot complications. Foot self-care practices appear underutilized as primary prevention measures by older adults and are instead adopted only once complications have already occurred. Likewise, facilitators of foot self-care practices, such as education, appear to be reserved for individuals who have already developed foot complications. Health care professionals such as diabetes educators, podiatrists, and general practitioners may play an important role in the prevention of foot complications among older adults by recognizing, referring, and providing early education to older adults. © 2014 The Author(s).

  6. Integrity of geotechnical barriers. Pt. 1. Structural pre-analysis. Report on work package 9.2. Preliminary safety analysis for the site Gorleben

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller-Hoeppe, Nina; Engelhardt, Hans-Joachim; Lerch, Christian; Linkamp, Michael; Buhmann, Dieter; Czaikowski, Oliver; Herbert, Hans-Juergen; Wieczorek, Klaus; Xie, Mingliang

    2012-07-01

    The work package 9.2 of the preliminary safety analysis for the site Gorleben covers the integrity of geotechnical barriers. The report includes the issues Basis for the design of the closure system; design of the closure system; constructional design of the closure system - demonstration of the technical functionality; salt grit compaction; consideration of the functional time periods of the closures; pre-analysis of the closures; description of the modified design for the closure of the mining shaft; construction sequence/performance approach; deepened hydraulic pre-analysis of the closure system; plausibility assessment of the thermal design; evaluation of the closures system based on the pre-analysis.

  7. Tick-borne encephalitis virus infects human brain microvascular endothelial cells without compromising blood-brain barrier integrity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Palus, Martin; Vancová, Marie; Širmarová, J.; Elsterová, Jana; Perner, Jan; Růžek, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 507, JUL (2017), s. 110-122 ISSN 0042-6822 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NV16-34238A; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015062; GA TA ČR(CZ) TE01020118 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : tick-borne encephalitis * tick-borne encephalitis virus * blood-brain barrier * neuroinfection Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Virology Impact factor: 3.353, year: 2016

  8. Perceptions of Barriers and Facilitators to Cervical Cancer Screening among Low-Income, HIV-Infected Women from an Integrated HIV Clinic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchberg, Meredith; Schover, Leslie; Basen-Engquist, Karen; Kempf, Mirjam-Colette; Arduino, Roberto C.; Vidrine, Damon J.

    2014-01-01

    Significantly elevated rates of cervical cancer and low rates of Papanicolaou (Pap) smear screening have been documented among HIV-infected women. However, little is known about women’s perceptions of cervical cancer screening utilization. Hence, this study describes barriers and facilitators related to cervical cancer screening in a sample of HIV-infected women seeking care at an integrated HIV clinic in Houston, Texas. Using an inductive qualitative methodological approach, data were obtained from five focus group discussions with a total of 33, HIV-infected women. The majority of the study sample consisted of women who self-identified as Black (69.7%), and reported heterosexual contact as the mode of HIV acquisition (75.8%). Barriers to cervical cancer screening were described as pain and discomfort associated with receiving Pap smears and subsequent procedures; lack of awareness of cervical cancer as a preventable disease; limited transportation access; and systemic issues as it relates to scheduling gynecological appointments. Facilitators were described as awareness of HIV-infected women’s increased risk of cervical cancer and strong provider-patient relationships. To address disparities in cervical cancer screening among low-income HIV-infected women, programs should capitalize on the identified facilitators and alleviate modifiable barriers using multi-level strategies. PMID:24635664

  9. Nurse-Managed Clinics: Barriers and Benefits Toward Financial Sustainability when Integrating Primay Care and Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, Linda T

    2015-01-01

    Nurse-managed, integrated clinics offer access, affordability, and quality to the health care environment. The integration of mental health and primary care is a holistic, comprehensive model that addresses the complicated needs of those with mental illness. As nurses increase their education in leadership, financial management, and business, there is a correlating increase in the number of nurse-managed clinics. More research is needed to determine the financial structures that benefit sustainability of nurse-managed, integrated clinics. However, in an integrated review of the literature between 2000 and 2012, the data indicate nurse-managed health centers receive less federal financial support than the medically modeled federally qualified health center.

  10. A model of integrated health care in a poverty-impacted community in New York City: Importance of early detection and addressing potential barriers to intervention implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acri, Mary C; Bornheimer, Lindsay A; O'Brien, Kyle; Sezer, Sara; Little, Virna; Cleek, Andrew F; McKay, Mary M

    2016-04-01

    Disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs) are chronic, impairing, and costly behavioral health conditions that are four times more prevalent among children of color living in impoverished communities as compared to the general population. This disparity is largely due to the increased exposure to stressors related to low socioeconomic status including community violence, unstable housing, under supported schools, substance abuse, and limited support systems. However, despite high rates and greater need, there is a considerably lower rate of mental health service utilization among these youth. Accordingly, the current study aims to describe a unique model of integrated health care for ethnically diverse youth living in a New York City borough. With an emphasis on addressing possible barriers to implementation, integrated models for children have the potential to prevent ongoing mental health problems through early detection and intervention.

  11. Field Studies of the Electrical Properties of Permeable Reactive Barriers for Monitoring Barrier Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, R.; Labrecque, D. J.; Slater, L.

    2006-12-01

    Permeable reactive barriers (PRB) are a promising technology for the remediation of groundwater containing a range of organic and inorganic contaminants. Although there are number of different types of reactive barriers, some of the most important are constructed from granular zero valent iron (ZVI). One challenge in the large- scale, long-term implementation of PRBs is to monitor the change in barrier properties over time. For example, mineral precipitates can reduce the effectiveness of the barrier by either insulating the reaction surfaces of the ZVI particles and/or by filling the pore space in the barrier and thus reducing its hydraulic permeability. Previous research has shown that resistivity and induced polarization (IP) measurements are sensitive to corrosion and precipitation due to redox reactions between ions in solution and the ZVI mineral surface. New field studies, supported by additional laboratory studies appear to confirm this work. Resisitivity and IP surveys were conducted at a total of seven barriers at four different sites: the Denver Federal Center; Monticello, Utah; the Kansas City, Missouri Department of Energy site, and the Asarco Smelter Site in East Helena, Montana. These surveys used combinations of surface and borehole surveys to characterized barriers. The surveys are repeated at approximately six-month intervals to provide information on temporal changes. In addition, surveys at the Kansas City barrier followed up on earlier research by providing several years of historical data and a new barrier at East Helena Montana has been instrumented with an autonomous monitoring system allowing continuous monitoring of the barrier electrical properties. Results show an increase in both real and imaginary conductivity as barriers age. For new barriers, the conductivity of ZVI is typically a few tens of mS/m, only modestly higher than that of the background sediments surrounding the barrier. For heavily altered barriers such as the Monticello

  12. Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain UFMG 905 protects against bacterial translocation, preserves gut barrier integrity and stimulates the immune system in a murine intestinal obstruction model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Generoso, Simone V; Viana, Mirelle; Santos, Rosana; Martins, Flaviano S; Machado, José A N; Arantes, Rosa M E; Nicoli, Jacques R; Correia, Maria I T D; Cardoso, Valbert N

    2010-06-01

    Probiotic is a preparation containing microorganisms that confers beneficial effect to the host. This work assessed whether oral treatment with viable or heat-killed yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain UFMG 905 prevents bacterial translocation (BT), intestinal barrier integrity, and stimulates the immunity, in a murine intestinal obstruction (IO) model. Four groups of mice were used: mice undergoing only laparotomy (CTL), undergoing intestinal obstruction (IO) and undergoing intestinal obstruction after previous treatment with viable or heat-killed yeast. BT, determined as uptake of (99m)Tc-E. coli in blood, mesenteric lymph nodes, liver, spleen and lungs, was significantly higher in IO group than in CTL group. Treatments with both yeasts reduced BT in blood and all organs investigated. The treatment with both yeasts also reduced intestinal permeability as determined by blood uptake of (99m)Tc-DTPA. Immunological data demonstrated that both treatments were able to significantly increase IL-10 levels, but only viable yeast had the same effect on sIgA levels. Intestinal lesions were more severe in IO group when compared to CTL and yeasts groups. Concluding, both viable and heat-killed cells of yeast prevent BT, probably by immunomodulation and by maintaining gut barrier integrity. Only the stimulation of IgA production seems to depend on the yeast viability.

  13. 46 CFR 154.421 - Allowable stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.421 Section 154.421 Shipping COAST... § 154.421 Allowable stress. The allowable stress for the integral tank structure must meet the American Bureau of Shipping's allowable stress for the vessel's hull published in “Rules for Building and Classing...

  14. Neuropsychiatric disease relevance of circulating anti-NMDA receptor autoantibodies depends on blood-brain barrier integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, C; Stepniak, B; Schneider, A; Papiol, S; Tantra, M; Begemann, M; Sirén, A-L; Pardo, L A; Sperling, S; Mohd Jofrry, S; Gurvich, A; Jensen, N; Ostmeier, K; Lühder, F; Probst, C; Martens, H; Gillis, M; Saher, G; Assogna, F; Spalletta, G; Stöcker, W; Schulz, T F; Nave, K-A; Ehrenreich, H

    2014-10-01

    In 2007, a multifaceted syndrome, associated with anti-NMDA receptor autoantibodies (NMDAR-AB) of immunoglobulin-G isotype, has been described, which variably consists of psychosis, epilepsy, cognitive decline and extrapyramidal symptoms. Prevalence and significance of NMDAR-AB in complex neuropsychiatric disease versus health, however, have remained unclear. We tested sera of 2817 subjects (1325 healthy, 1081 schizophrenic, 263 Parkinson and 148 affective-disorder subjects) for presence of NMDAR-AB, conducted a genome-wide genetic association study, comparing AB carriers versus non-carriers, and assessed their influenza AB status. For mechanistic insight and documentation of AB functionality, in vivo experiments involving mice with deficient blood-brain barrier (ApoE(-/-)) and in vitro endocytosis assays in primary cortical neurons were performed. In 10.5% of subjects, NMDAR-AB (NR1 subunit) of any immunoglobulin isotype were detected, with no difference in seroprevalence, titer or in vitro functionality between patients and healthy controls. Administration of extracted human serum to mice influenced basal and MK-801-induced activity in the open field only in ApoE(-/-) mice injected with NMDAR-AB-positive serum but not in respective controls. Seropositive schizophrenic patients with a history of neurotrauma or birth complications, indicating an at least temporarily compromised blood-brain barrier, had more neurological abnormalities than seronegative patients with comparable history. A common genetic variant (rs524991, P=6.15E-08) as well as past influenza A (P=0.024) or B (P=0.006) infection were identified as predisposing factors for NMDAR-AB seropositivity. The >10% overall seroprevalence of NMDAR-AB of both healthy individuals and patients is unexpectedly high. Clinical significance, however, apparently depends on association with past or present perturbations of blood-brain barrier function.

  15. Barrier transgression driven by aeolian processes along the Portuguese coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costas, Susana; Ferreira, Óscar; Roelvink, Dano

    2017-04-01

    Coastal barriers around the world developed following sea level stabilization about 7000 years ago. Along the Southwestern European coast, this fact was largely supported by recent works exploring the sedimentary record of coastal lagoons and estuaries. However, direct evidences of barrier evolution/age obtained from the actual coastal barriers are rare, limiting our understanding about the dynamics and life time of these systems at long time scales. Here, we reconstruct the evolution of three coastal barriers located along the western Portuguese coast, determining their age, trends and life cycles. For that, we integrate information (stratigraphy and ages) from different coastal deposits indicative of major shifts on evolutionary trends, including published and unpublished data. Examined beach deposits set the age of the explored sand barriers between 6400 and 300 years ago, suggesting the coexistence of very mature and very recent coastal barriers. In addition, the results document the occurrence of transgressive dunefields with ages older than the preserved coastal barriers, supporting the existence of former barriers from which the dunes could derive and migrate inland. The latter suggests the occurrence of episodes of barrier building and shoreline progradation alternating with episodes of inland migration of transgressive dunefields and thus barrier rollover. Resultant trends are carefully examined to identify the major factors driving barrier evolution, with special attention to climate variability and local boundary conditions. Indeed, the episodic response of the explored sand barriers provides indications for shifting wave and wind conditions as a consequence of climate variability. Additionally, inter-site comparison provides significant insights into regional trends and allows rating the identified factors, based on the degree of direct influence over the evolution of the coast. In this regard, the exposure to wind and wave climate, usually linked to

  16. Barriers and opportunities for integrating social science into natural resource management: lessons from National Estuarine Research Reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Patrick; Genskow, Ken; Shaw, Bret; Shepard, Robin

    2012-12-01

    The need for cross-disciplinary scientific inquiries that facilitate improved natural resource management outcomes through increased understanding of both the biophysical and human dimensions of management issues has been widely recognized. Despite this broad recognition, a number of obstacles and barriers still sometimes challenge the successful implementation of cross-disciplinary approaches. Improving understanding of these challenges and barriers will help address them and thereby foster appropriate and effective utilization of cross-disciplinary approaches to solve natural resource management challenges. This research uses a case study analysis of the United States National Estuarine Research Reserve System to improve understanding of the critical factors that influence practitioners' decisions related to incorporating social science into their natural resource management work. The case study research is analyzed and evaluated within a Theory of Planned Behavior framework to (1) determine and describe the factors that predict practitioners' intent to incorporate social science into their natural resource related activities and (2) recommend potential strategies for encouraging and enabling cross-disciplinary approaches to natural resource management. The results indicate that National Estuarine Research Reserve practitioners' decisions related to incorporating social science are primarily influenced by (1) confidence in their own capability to incorporate social science into their work and (2) beliefs about whether the outcomes of incorporating social science into their work would be valuable or beneficial.

  17. Catalytic thermal barrier coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Anand A.; Campbell, Christian X.; Subramanian, Ramesh

    2009-06-02

    A catalyst element (30) for high temperature applications such as a gas turbine engine. The catalyst element includes a metal substrate such as a tube (32) having a layer of ceramic thermal barrier coating material (34) disposed on the substrate for thermally insulating the metal substrate from a high temperature fuel/air mixture. The ceramic thermal barrier coating material is formed of a crystal structure populated with base elements but with selected sites of the crystal structure being populated by substitute ions selected to allow the ceramic thermal barrier coating material to catalytically react the fuel-air mixture at a higher rate than would the base compound without the ionic substitutions. Precious metal crystallites may be disposed within the crystal structure to allow the ceramic thermal barrier coating material to catalytically react the fuel-air mixture at a lower light-off temperature than would the ceramic thermal barrier coating material without the precious metal crystallites.

  18. What are the Facilitators and Barriers to Integrated Health and Social Care in the Community? Insights from Care Providers

    OpenAIRE

    Kuluski, Kerry; Ho, Julia W; Hans, Parminder Kaur; Nelson, Michelle LA

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Growing numbers of people are living longer with co-existing health and social care needs and require access to integrated care in the community. Models of integrated care often focus on bridging the gap between various health care services (such as primary care and home care support), and less often between healthcare and services that address the determinants of health (such as housing, finances, food security, etc). Determining required elements of such health and social care...

  19. Large-scale pesticide monitoring across Great Barrier Reef catchments--Paddock to Reef Integrated Monitoring, Modelling and Reporting Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Rachael; Middlebrook, Rachael; Turner, Ryan; Huggins, Rae; Vardy, Suzanne; Warne, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The transport and potential toxicity of pesticides in Queensland (QLD) catchments from agricultural areas is a key concern for the Great Barrier Reef (GBR). In 2009, a pesticide monitoring program was established as part of the Australian and QLD Governments' Reef Plan (2009). Samples were collected at eight End of System sites (above the tidal zone) and three sub-catchment sites. At least two pesticides were detected at every site including insecticides, fungicides, herbicides, and the Reef Plan's (2009) five priority photosystem II (PSII) herbicides (diuron, atrazine, hexazinone, tebuthiuron and ametryn). Diuron, atrazine and metolachlor exceeded Australian and New Zealand water quality guideline trigger values (TVs) at eight sites. Accounting for PSII herbicide mixtures increased the estimated toxicity and led to larger exceedances of the TVs at more sites. This study demonstrates the widespread contamination of pesticides, particularly PSII herbicides, across the GBR catchment area which discharges to the GBR. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Impact on Social Change: Benefits and Barriers to School Culture and the Integration of M-Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen E. Smith

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines benefits and barriers of mtechnologyin its growing use in education through a surveyconducted at a Canadian teacher education institution(n=350. Topics included are the types of mobile technologydevices and how their uses have been rejected and acceptedas a socially-situated construct for learning in schools. Issuesfor new teachers range from the dollar cost of using thedevices to the cost of time in learning about these devices.The paper concludes with a central issue of why somedevices do not remain in the social construct but areadopted for short periods of time and do not last becausebarriers prevent their sustainability. The research for thispaper was supported in part by a grant from the ImperialOil Academy for the Learning of Mathematics, Science andTechnology.

  1. Health systems facilitators and barriers to the integration of HIV and chronic disease services: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Nicola; Sigfrid, Louise; Legido-Quigley, Helena; Hogarth, Sue; Maimaris, Will; Otero-García, Laura; Perel, Pablo; Buse, Kent; McKee, Martin; Piot, Peter; Balabanova, Dina

    2017-11-01

    Integration of services for patients with more than one diagnosed condition has intuitive appeal but it has been argued that the empirical evidence to support it is limited. We report the findings of a systematic review that sought to identify health system factors, extrinsic to the integration process, which either facilitated or hindered the integration of services for two common disorders, HIV and chronic non-communicable diseases. Findings were initially extracted and organized around a health system framework, followed by a thematic cross-cutting analysis and validation steps. Of the 150 articles included, 67% (n = 102) were from high-income countries. The articles explored integration with services for one or several chronic disorders, the most studied being alcohol or substance use disorders (47.7%), and mental health issues (29.5%). Four cross-cutting themes related to the health system were identified. The first and most common theme was the requirement for effective collaboration and coordination: formal and informal productive relationships throughout the system between providers and within teams, and between staff and patients. The second was the need for adequate and appropriately skilled and incentivized health workers-with the right expertise, training and operational support for the programme. The third was the need for supportive institutional structures and dedicated resources. The fourth was leadership in terms of political will, effective managerial oversight and organizational culture, indicating that actual implementation is as important as programme design. A fifth theme, outside the health system, but underpinning all aspects of the system operation, was that placing the patient at the centre of service delivery and responding holistically to their diverse needs. This was an important facilitator of integration. These findings confirm that integration processes in service delivery depend substantially for their success on characteristics of

  2. Breaking Barriers and Building Bridges: Understanding How a Student Organization Attends to the Social Integration of College Students with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialka, Christa S.; Morro, Danielle; Brown, Kara; Hannah, Gregory

    2017-01-01

    While scholars have indicated that social involvement is crucial to students' development and success in college life and beyond, very little empirical research investigates how students with disabilities become socially integrated in college settings. In response, this qualitative study examines the social experiences of five college students…

  3. Integrated Care to Address the Physical Health Needs of People with Severe Mental Illness: A Mapping Review of the Recent Evidence on Barriers, Facilitators and Evaluations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Rodgers

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available People with mental health conditions have a lower life expectancy and poorer physical health outcomes than the general population. Evidence suggests this is due to a combination of clinical risk factors, socioeconomic factors, and health system factors, notably a lack of integration when care is required across service settings. Several recent reports have looked at ways to better integrate physical and mental health care for people with severe mental illness (SMI. We built on these by conducting a mapping review that looked for the most recent evidence and service models in this area. This involved searching the published literature and speaking to people involved in providing or using current services. Few of the identified service models were described adequately and fewer still were evaluated, raising questions about the replicability and generalisability of much of the existing evidence. However, some common themes did emerge. Efforts to improve the physical health care of people with SMI should empower staff and service users and help remove everyday barriers to delivering and accessing integrated care. In particular, there is a need for improved communication among professionals and better information technology to support them, greater clarity about who is responsible and accountable for physical health care, and greater awareness of the effects of stigmatisation on the wider culture and environment in which services are delivered.

  4. Barriers to and Facilitators of the Evaluation of Integrated Community-Wide Overweight Intervention Approaches: A Qualitative Case Study in Two Dutch Municipalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Koperen, Tessa M.; de Kruif, Anja; van Antwerpen, Lisa; Hendriks, Anna-Marie; Seidell, Jacob C.; Schuit, Albertine J.; Renders, Carry M.

    2016-01-01

    To prevent overweight and obesity the implementation of an integrated community-wide intervention approach (ICIA) is often advocated. Evaluation can enhance implementation of such an approach and demonstrate the extent of effectiveness. To be able to support professionals in the evaluation of ICIAs we studied barriers to and facilitators of ICIA evaluation. In this study ten professionals of two Dutch municipalities involved in the evaluation of an ICIA participated. We conducted semi-structured interviews (n = 12), observed programme meetings (n = 4) and carried out document analysis. Data were analyzed using a thematic content approach. We learned that evaluation is hampered when it is perceived as unfeasible due to limited time and budget, a lack of evaluation knowledge or a negative evaluation attitude. Other barriers are a poor understanding of the evaluation process and its added value to optimizing the programme. Sufficient communication between involved professionals on evaluation can facilitate evaluation, as does support for evaluation of ICIAs together with stakeholders at a strategic and tactical level. To stimulate the evaluation of ICIAs, we recommend supporting professionals in securing evaluation resources, providing tailored training and tools to enhance evaluation competences and stimulating strategic communication on evaluation. PMID:27043600

  5. Integration of ICTs into the Curriculum of Cameroon Primary and Secondary Schools: A Review of Current Status, Barriers and Proposed Strategies for Effective Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngajie, Berty Nsolly; Ngo, Mback Marie Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Many sub-Saharan African countries are progressively integrating information and communication technologies (ICTs) into their education systems especially in primary and secondary schools. These efforts that are seen in both private and public schools to bring technologies into the classroom are just starting but are encountering a lot of…

  6. Characterization of citrus pectin films integrated with clove bud essential oil: Physical, thermal, barrier, antioxidant and antibacterial properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisar, Tanzeela; Wang, Zi-Chao; Yang, Xi; Tian, You; Iqbal, Muneeb; Guo, Yurong

    2018-01-01

    The increasing demand for bio-based materials to be used in food packaging has stimulated the development of novel, environmentally-friendly edible films. Antimicrobial films were developed by incorporating different levels of clove bud essential oil (0.5%, 1.0%, and 1.5%) into the citrus pectin in order to modify the functional properties of the films. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry analysis (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were performed, together with the determination of physical, optical, mechanical, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of pectin emulsified films. The inclusion of oil significantly enhanced the water barrier properties of the films. Addition of oil leads to more opaque films with relatively heterogeneous microstructure, resulting in an increase in film opacity. The composite films were more resistant to breakage and more flexible than the control films. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) demonstrated that films incorporating CEO exhibited improved heat stability with slightly higher degradation temperature, compared with control films. The inhibitory effect of pectin films with CEO was also evaluated on three common foodborne bacteria. These results revealed that clove oil has a good potential to be incorporated into citrus pectin to make antimicrobial edible films or coatings for various food applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Trading sulfur dioxide allowances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldburg, C.B.; Lave, L.B.

    1992-01-01

    The 1990 Clean Air Act is aimed at generators larger than 25 MW, as these are the largest polluters. Market incentives give each source an emissions allocation but also flexibility. If a plant has lower emissions than the target, it can sell the 'surplus' emissions as allowances to plants that fail to meet the target. Only a few trades have occurred to date. Market-based incentives should lower the costs of improving environmental quality significantly. However, currently institutional dificulties hamper implementation

  8. Dynamic monitoring of blood-brain barrier integrity using water exchange index (WEI) during mannitol and CO2 challenges in mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shuning; Farrar, Christian T; Dai, Guangping; Kwon, Seon Joo; Bogdanov, Alexei A; Rosen, Bruce R; Kim, Young R

    2013-04-01

    The integrity of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is critical to normal brain function. Traditional techniques for the assessment of BBB disruption rely heavily on the spatiotemporal analysis of extravasating contrast agents. However, such methods based on the leakage of relatively large molecules are not suitable for the detection of subtle BBB impairment or for the performance of repeated measurements in a short time frame. Quantification of the water exchange rate constant (WER) across the BBB using strictly intravascular contrast agents could provide a much more sensitive method for the quantification of the BBB integrity. To estimate WER, we have recently devised a powerful new method using a water exchange index (WEI) biomarker and demonstrated BBB disruption in an acute stroke model. Here, we confirm that WEI is sensitive to even very subtle changes in the integrity of the BBB caused by: (i) systemic hypercapnia and (ii) low doses of a hyperosmolar solution. In addition, we have examined the sensitivity and accuracy of WEI as a biomarker of WER using computer simulation. In particular, the dependence of the WEI-WER relation on changes in vascular blood volume, T1 relaxation of cellular magnetization and transcytolemmal water exchange was explored. Simulated WEI was found to vary linearly with WER for typically encountered exchange rate constants (1-4 Hz), regardless of the blood volume. However, for very high WER (>5 Hz), WEI became progressively more insensitive to increasing WER. The incorporation of transcytolemmal water exchange, using a three-compartment tissue model, helped to extend the linear WEI regime to slightly higher WER, but had no significant effect for most physiologically important WERs (WER < 4 Hz). Variation in cellular T1 had no effect on WEI. Using both theoretical and experimental approaches, our study validates the utility of the WEI biomarker for the monitoring of BBB integrity. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Alpha-Tocopherol Reduces Brain Edema and Protects Blood-Brain Barrier Integrity following Focal Cerebral Ischemia in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghnejad Azar, Adel; Oryan, Shahrbanoo; Bohlooli, Shahab; Panahpour, Hamdollah

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the neuroprotective effects of α-tocopherol against edema formation and disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) following transient focal cerebral ischemia in rats. Ninety-six male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 3 major groups (n = 32 in each), namely the sham, and control and α-tocopherol-treated (30 mg/kg) ischemic groups. Transient focal cerebral ischemia (90 min) was induced by occlusion of the left middle cerebral artery. At the end of the 24-hour reperfusion period, the animals were randomly selected and used for 4 investigations (n = 8) in each of the 3 main groups: (a) assessment of neurological score and measurement of infarct size, (b) detection of brain edema formation by the wet/dry method, (c) evaluation of BBB permeability using the Evans blue (EB) extravasation technique, and (d) assessment of the malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) concentrations using high-performance liquid chromatography methods. Induction of cerebral ischemia in the control group produced extensive brain edema (brain water content 83.8 ± 0.11%) and EB leakage into brain parenchyma (14.58 ± 1.29 µg/g) in conjunction with reduced GSH and elevated MDA levels (5.86 ± 0.31 mmol/mg and 63.57 ± 5.42 nmol/mg, respectively). Treatment with α-tocopherol significantly lowered brain edema formation and reduced EB leakage compared with the control group (p edema formation and produced protective effects on BBB function following ischemic stroke occurrence. This effect could be through increasing antioxidant activity. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Developing Enhanced Blood–Brain Barrier Permeability Models: Integrating External Bio-Assay Data in QSAR Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenyi; Kim, Marlene T.; Sedykh, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Experimental Blood–Brain Barrier (BBB) permeability models for drug molecules are expensive and time-consuming. As alternative methods, several traditional Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR) models have been developed previously. In this study, we aimed to improve the predictivity of traditional QSAR BBB permeability models by employing relevant public bio-assay data in the modeling process. Methods We compiled a BBB permeability database consisting of 439 unique compounds from various resources. The database was split into a modeling set of 341 compounds and a validation set of 98 compounds. Consensus QSAR modeling workflow was employed on the modeling set to develop various QSAR models. A five-fold cross-validation approach was used to validate the developed models, and the resulting models were used to predict the external validation set compounds. Furthermore, we used previously published membrane transporter models to generate relevant transporter profiles for target compounds. The transporter profiles were used as additional biological descriptors to develop hybrid QSAR BBB models. Results The consensus QSAR models have R2=0.638 for fivefold cross-validation and R2=0.504 for external validation. The consensus model developed by pooling chemical and transporter descriptors showed better predictivity (R2=0.646 for five-fold cross-validation and R2=0.526 for external validation). Moreover, several external bio-assays that correlate with BBB permeability were identified using our automatic profiling tool. Conclusions The BBB permeability models developed in this study can be useful for early evaluation of new compounds (e.g., new drug candidates). The combination of chemical and biological descriptors shows a promising direction to improve the current traditional QSAR models. PMID:25862462

  11. The Bile Acid Receptor GPBAR-1 (TGR5) Modulates Integrity of Intestinal Barrier and Immune Response to Experimental Colitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipriani, Sabrina; Mencarelli, Andrea; Chini, Maria Giovanna; Distrutti, Eleonora; Renga, Barbara; Bifulco, Giuseppe; Baldelli, Franco; Donini, Annibale; Fiorucci, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    Background GP-BAR1, a member G protein coupled receptor superfamily, is a cell surface bile acid-activated receptor highly expressed in the ileum and colon. In monocytes, ligation of GP-BAR1 by secondary bile acids results in a cAMP-dependent attenuation of cytokine generation. Aims To investigate the role GP-BAR1 in regulating intestinal homeostasis and inflammation-driven immune dysfunction in rodent models of colitis. Methods Colitis was induced in wild type and GP-BAR1−/− mice by DSS and TNBS administration. Potential GP-BAR1 agonists were identified by in silico screening and computational docking studies. Results GP-BAR1−/− mice develop an abnormal morphology of colonic mucous cells and an altered molecular architecture of epithelial tight junctions with increased expression and abnormal subcellular distribution of zonulin 1 resulting in increased intestinal permeability and susceptibility to develop severe colitis in response to DSS at early stage of life. By in silico screening and docking studies we identified ciprofloxacin as a GP-BAR1 ligand. In monocytes, ciprofloxacin increases cAMP concentrations and attenuates TNFα release induced by TLR4 ligation in a GP-BAR1 dependent manner. Treating mice rendered colitic by TNBS with ciprofloxacin and oleanolic acid, a well characterized GP-BAR1 ligand, abrogates signs and symptoms of colitis. Colonic expression of GP-BAR1 mRNA increases in rodent models of colitis and tissues from Crohn's disease patients. Flow cytometry analysis demonstrates that ≈90% of CD14+ cells isolated from the lamina propria of TNBS-treated mice stained positively for GP-BAR1. Conclusions GP-BAR1 regulates intestinal barrier structure. Its expression increases in rodent models of colitis and Crohn's disease. Ciprofloxacin is a GP-BAR1 ligand. PMID:22046243

  12. The bile acid receptor GPBAR-1 (TGR5 modulates integrity of intestinal barrier and immune response to experimental colitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Cipriani

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: GP-BAR1, a member G protein coupled receptor superfamily, is a cell surface bile acid-activated receptor highly expressed in the ileum and colon. In monocytes, ligation of GP-BAR1 by secondary bile acids results in a cAMP-dependent attenuation of cytokine generation. AIMS: To investigate the role GP-BAR1 in regulating intestinal homeostasis and inflammation-driven immune dysfunction in rodent models of colitis. METHODS: Colitis was induced in wild type and GP-BAR1(-/- mice by DSS and TNBS administration. Potential GP-BAR1 agonists were identified by in silico screening and computational docking studies. RESULTS: GP-BAR1(-/- mice develop an abnormal morphology of colonic mucous cells and an altered molecular architecture of epithelial tight junctions with increased expression and abnormal subcellular distribution of zonulin 1 resulting in increased intestinal permeability and susceptibility to develop severe colitis in response to DSS at early stage of life. By in silico screening and docking studies we identified ciprofloxacin as a GP-BAR1 ligand. In monocytes, ciprofloxacin increases cAMP concentrations and attenuates TNFα release induced by TLR4 ligation in a GP-BAR1 dependent manner. Treating mice rendered colitic by TNBS with ciprofloxacin and oleanolic acid, a well characterized GP-BAR1 ligand, abrogates signs and symptoms of colitis. Colonic expression of GP-BAR1 mRNA increases in rodent models of colitis and tissues from Crohn's disease patients. Flow cytometry analysis demonstrates that ≈90% of CD14+ cells isolated from the lamina propria of TNBS-treated mice stained positively for GP-BAR1. CONCLUSIONS: GP-BAR1 regulates intestinal barrier structure. Its expression increases in rodent models of colitis and Crohn's disease. Ciprofloxacin is a GP-BAR1 ligand.

  13. Building barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turksen, Kursad

    2017-10-02

    Formation of tissue barriers starts in early development where it is critical for normal cell fate selection, differentiation and organogenesis. Barrier maintenance is critical to the ongoing function of organs during adulthood and aging. Dysfunctional tissue barrier formation and function at any stage of the organismal life cycle underlies many disease states.

  14. Fly proof net shed for livestock: A novel concept of physical barrier for integrated management of Culicoides spp. (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. W. Narladkar

    2014-11-01

    net shed with pitch roof (gable type fitted with hurricane type ventilator at its top serves the purpose of a physical barrier to minimize host-pest contact. Observations recorded in the experiment are sound enough to conclude and to recommend the use of net shed for livestock.

  15. PS2-47: Systematic Stakeholder Assessment to Determine Facilitators of and Barriers to SBIRT Implementation in Multiple Integrated Health Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahm, Alanna Kulchak; Boggs, Jennifer; Martin, Carmen; Beck, Arne; Pearson, Marilyn; Backer, Thomas; Ahmedani, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims The US Preventive Services Task Force has identified alcohol and drug use screening as a high priority in primary care. SBIRT is a framework for population based screening and brief intervention with the goal of reducing substance use before it progresses to dependence. There has been limited uptake of SBIRT in any large health system, thus SAMHSA has supported a series of studies, led by Kaiser Permanente Colorado (KPCO), to determine strategies to promote large scale SBIRT implementation. Methods A qualitative examination of SBIRT feasibility and subsequent pilot testing within KPCO primary care guided a series of additional stakeholder interviews at Henry Ford Health System (HFHS) to assess feasibility of SBIRT implementation in additional organizations. Qualitative interviews were conducted with a broad spectrum of HFHS stakeholders using snowball sampling. A total of 28 HFHS stakeholders were interviewed. Interviews were conducted telephonically by trained interviewers from KPCO and lasted approximately 30 minutes. Interviews were digitally recorded and transcribed. After each interview, a detailed summary was generated and used to create the initial code book for analysis of interview transcripts. Results While current screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment processes for substance use were noted in HFHS, they were inconsistent and no systematic policies exist. Many facilitators for SBIRT implementation within HFHS were noted including: population, recent implementation of depression screening in primary care, and EMR tools to facilitate documentation. Barriers to SBIRT implementation included time and competing demands for primary care providers, access to treatment, and follow-up processes for positive screens. All stakeholders were supportive of pilot implementation of SBIRT within HFHS with adequate attention to barriers and facilitators. Conclusions This project successfully demonstrated the value of gaining stakeholder

  16. Vector control programs in Saint Johns County, Florida and Guayas, Ecuador: successes and barriers to integrated vector management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naranjo, Diana P; Qualls, Whitney A; Jurado, Hugo; Perez, Juan C; Xue, Rui-De; Gomez, Eduardo; Beier, John C

    2014-07-02

    Vector-borne diseases (VBDs) and mosquito control programs (MCPs) diverge in settings and countries, and lead control specialists need to be aware of the most effective control strategies. Integrated Vector Management (IVM) strategies, once implemented in MCPs, aim to reduce cost and optimize protection of the populations against VBDs. This study presents a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) analysis to compare IVM strategies used by MCPs in Saint Johns County, Florida and Guayas, Ecuador. This research evaluates MCPs strategies to improve vector control activities. Methods included descriptive findings of the MCP operations. Information was obtained from vector control specialists, directors, and residents through field trips, surveys, and questionnaires. Evaluations of the strategies and assets of the control programs where obtained through SWOT analysis and within an IVM approach. Organizationally, the Floridian MCP is a tax-based District able to make decisions independently from county government officials, with the oversight of an elected board of commissioners. The Guayas program is directed by the country government and assessed by non-governmental organizations like the World health Organization. Operationally, the Floridian MCP conducts entomological surveillance and the Ecuadorian MCP focuses on epidemiological monitoring of human disease cases. Strengths of both MCPs were their community participation and educational programs. Weaknesses for both MCPs included limitations in budgets and technical capabilities. Opportunities, for both MCPs, are additional funding and partnerships with private, non-governmental, and governmental organizations. Threats experienced by both MCPs included political constraints and changes in the social and ecological environment that affect mosquito densities and control efforts. IVM pillars for policy making were used to compare the information among the programs. Differences included how the Ecuadorian

  17. Vector control programs in Saint Johns County, Florida and Guayas, Ecuador: successes and barriers to integrated vector management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Vector-borne diseases (VBDs) and mosquito control programs (MCPs) diverge in settings and countries, and lead control specialists need to be aware of the most effective control strategies. Integrated Vector Management (IVM) strategies, once implemented in MCPs, aim to reduce cost and optimize protection of the populations against VBDs. This study presents a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) analysis to compare IVM strategies used by MCPs in Saint Johns County, Florida and Guayas, Ecuador. This research evaluates MCPs strategies to improve vector control activities. Methods Methods included descriptive findings of the MCP operations. Information was obtained from vector control specialists, directors, and residents through field trips, surveys, and questionnaires. Evaluations of the strategies and assets of the control programs where obtained through SWOT analysis and within an IVM approach. Results Organizationally, the Floridian MCP is a tax-based District able to make decisions independently from county government officials, with the oversight of an elected board of commissioners. The Guayas program is directed by the country government and assessed by non-governmental organizations like the World health Organization. Operationally, the Floridian MCP conducts entomological surveillance and the Ecuadorian MCP focuses on epidemiological monitoring of human disease cases. Strengths of both MCPs were their community participation and educational programs. Weaknesses for both MCPs included limitations in budgets and technical capabilities. Opportunities, for both MCPs, are additional funding and partnerships with private, non-governmental, and governmental organizations. Threats experienced by both MCPs included political constraints and changes in the social and ecological environment that affect mosquito densities and control efforts. IVM pillars for policy making were used to compare the information among the programs. Differences

  18. Barriers to and enablers for European rail freight transport for integrated door-to-door logistics service. Part 2: Enablers for multimodal rail freight transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewan Md Zahurul ISLAM

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to examine and identify barriers to and enablers for the European rail freight transport services as a transport chain partner along the supply chains in the changing market scenario. The changing market scenario includes, among others, requiring 'door-to-door' rather than 'terminal to terminal' and integrated service, competitive ability to attract non-rail cargo type, changes in the customer requirements (e.g. reliable service and changes in the operational requirements and practices. Using a literature review method, the paper is presented in two parts. The part 1 focuses on the identification of barriers to the European rail freight service by reviewing freight logistics services for global supply chains followed by the current performance of European rail freight transport followed by a discussion on the rail freight market liberalisation in Europe. Then rail freight transport in the Unites States (U.S. is discussed. The research notes that although the background, scope and necessity for reform measures in Europe differ from those of the U.S., some lessons can be learned and the main lesson is that an appropriate reform measure can enhance rail sector competitive ability in Europe. The part 2 of the paper is dedicated to recommend some concrete steps and actions as enablers to remove the barriers identified in the part 1 to develop multimodal rail freight transport. The enablers for multimodal rail freight transport include: •\tEuropean rail freight transport market needs full liberalisation so that incumbent and new entrants can compete freely. •\tThe rail operators need to acquire service (e.g. customer tailored services, door to door service quality offered by road freight operators. •\tThey need to conduct a combination of ‘terminal-to-terminal’ and door-to-door operations, as and when needed; •\tThey must build partnership with freight forwarder or 3PLs to include all types of customers

  19. Lactobacillus reuteri strains protect epithelial barrier integrity of IPEC-J2 monolayers from the detrimental effect of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Shokoufeh; Jonsson, Hans; Lundh, Torbjörn; Roos, Stefan

    2018-01-01

    Lactobacillus reuteri is an inhabitant of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of mammals and birds and several strains of this species are known to be effective probiotics. The mechanisms by which L. reuteri confers its health-promoting effects are far from being fully understood, but protection of the mucosal barrier is thought to be important. Leaky gut is a state of abnormal intestinal permeability with implications for the pathophysiology of various gastrointestinal disorders. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) can invade the intestinal mucosa and induce changes in barrier function by producing enterotoxin or by direct invasion of the intestinal epithelium. Our hypothesis was that L. reuteri can protect the mucosal barrier, and the goal of the study was to challenge this hypothesis by monitoring the protective effect of L. reuteri strains on epithelial dysfunction caused by ETEC. Using an infection model based on the porcine intestinal cell line IPEC-J2, it was demonstrated that pretreatment of the cells with human-derived L. reuteri strains (ATCC PTA 6475, DSM 17938 and 1563F) and a rat strain (R2LC) reduced the detrimental effect of ETEC in a dose-dependent manner, as monitored by permeability of FITC-dextran and transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER). Moreover, the results revealed that ETEC upregulated proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNFα and decreased expression of the shorter isoform of ZO-1 (187 kDa) and E-cadherin. In contrast, pretreatment with L. reuteri DSM 17938 and 1563F downregulated expression of IL-6 and TNFα, and led to an increase in production of the longer isoform of ZO-1 (195 kDa) and maintained E-cadherin expression. Interestingly, expression of ZO-1 (187 kDa) was preserved only when the infected cells were pretreated with strain 1563F. These findings demonstrate that L. reuteri strains exert a protective effect against ETEC-induced mucosal integrity disruption. © 2018 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by

  20. Potential barriers and facilitators for implementation of an integrated care pathway for hearing-impaired persons: an exploratory survey among patients and professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verschuure Hans

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because of the increasing costs and anticipated shortage of Ear Nose and Throat (ENT specialists in the care for hearing-impaired persons, an integrated care pathway that includes direct hearing aid provision was developed. While this direct pathway is still under investigation, in a survey we examined expectations and potential barriers and facilitators towards this direct pathway, of patients and professionals involved in the pathway. Methods Two study populations were assessed: members of the health professions involved in the care pathway for hearing-impaired persons (general practitioners (GPs, hearing aid dispensers, ENT-specialists and clinical audiologists and persons with hearing complaints. We developed a comprehensive semi-structured questionnaire for the professionals, regarding expectations, barriers, facilitators and conditions for implementation. We developed two questionnaires for persons with hearing complaints, both regarding evaluations and preferences, and administered them after they had experienced two key elements of the direct pathway: the triage and the hearing aid fitting. Results On average GPs and hearing aid dispensers had positive expectations towards the direct pathway, while ENT-specialists and clinical audiologists had negative expectations. Professionals stated both barriers and facilitators towards the direct pathway. Most professionals either supported implementation of the direct pathway, provided that a number of conditions were satisfied, or did not support implementation, unless roughly the same conditions were satisfied. Professionals generally agreed on which conditions need to be satisfied. Persons with hearing complaints evaluated the present referral pathway and the new direct pathway equally. Many, especially older, participants stated however that they would still visit the GP and ENT-specialist, even when this would not be necessary for reimbursement of the hearing aid, and

  1. Effects of zeolite supplementation on parameters of intestinal barrier integrity, inflammation, redoxbiology and performance in aerobically trained subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamprecht, Manfred; Bogner, Simon; Steinbauer, Kurt; Schuetz, Burkhard; Greilberger, Joachim F; Leber, Bettina; Wagner, Bernhard; Zinser, Erwin; Petek, Thomas; Wallner-Liebmann, Sandra; Oberwinkler, Tanja; Bachl, Norbert; Schippinger, Gert

    2015-01-01

    Zeolites are crystalline compounds with microporous structures of Si-tetrahedrons. In the gut, these silicates could act as adsorbents, ion-exchangers, catalysts, detergents or anti-diarrheic agents. This study evaluated whether zeolite supplementation affects biomarkers of intestinal wall permeability and parameters of oxidation and inflammation in aerobically trained individuals, and whether it could improve their performance. In a randomized, double-blinded, placebo controlled trial, 52 endurance trained men and women, similar in body fat, non-smokers, 20-50 years, received 1.85 g of zeolite per day for 12 weeks. Stool samples for determination of intestinal wall integrity biomarkers were collected. From blood, markers of redox biology, inflammation, and DNA damage were determined at the beginning and the end of the study. In addition, VO2max and maximum performance were evaluated at baseline and after 12 weeks of treatment. For statistical analyses a 2-factor ANOVA was used. At baseline both groups showed slightly increased stool zonulin concentrations above normal. After 12 weeks with zeolite zonulin was significantly (p zonulin. This was accompanied by mild anti-inflammatory effects in this cohort of aerobically trained subjects. Further research is needed to explore mechanistic explanations for the observations in this study.

  2. Perceptions of risk, risk aversion, and barriers to adoption of decision support systems and integrated pest management: an introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gent, David H; De Wolf, Erick; Pethybridge, Sarah J

    2011-06-01

    Rational management of plant diseases, both economically and environmentally, involves assessing risks and the costs associated with both correct and incorrect tactical management decisions to determine when control measures are warranted. Decision support systems can help to inform users of plant disease risk and thus assist in accurately targeting events critical for management. However, in many instances adoption of these systems for use in routine disease management has been perceived as slow. The under-utilization of some decision support systems is likely due to both technical and perception constraints that have not been addressed adequately during development and implementation phases. Growers' perceptions of risk and their aversion to these perceived risks can be reasons for the "slow" uptake of decision support systems and, more broadly, integrated pest management (IPM). Decision theory provides some tools that may assist in quantifying and incorporating subjective and/or measured probabilities of disease occurrence or crop loss into decision support systems. Incorporation of subjective probabilities into IPM recommendations may be one means to reduce grower uncertainty and improve trust of these systems because management recommendations could be explicitly informed by growers' perceptions of risk and economic utility. Ultimately though, we suggest that an appropriate measure of the value and impact of decision support systems is grower education that enables more skillful and informed management decisions independent of consultation of the support tool outputs.

  3. Acute barrier disruption by adhesive tapes is influenced by pressure, time and anatomical location: integrity and cohesion assessed by sequential tape stripping. A randomized, controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breternitz, M; Flach, M; Prässler, J; Elsner, P; Fluhr, J W

    2007-02-01

    Tape stripping is an established procedure in stratum corneum (SC) physiology research. Adhesive films are pressed to the surface of the skin and then removed. The superficial layers of the SC adhere to the film and are accessible for further investigations. Although this method is widely used, only scant information about standardization is known. Various protocols are used but are difficult to compare. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of the type of tape, pressure, time, anatomical site and type of applied pressure. Twelve healthy volunteers (age range 20-31 years) were entered in a randomized, controlled study with sequential tape stripping at the volar forearm, upper arm, cheek and back. Different methods (roller, stamp, thumb, stretched skin), total duration of applied pressure (2 s, 10 s), degrees of pressure (2 N stamp, 7 N stamp) and different tapes (D-Squame, Corneofix, Blenderm) were investigated and the impact on barrier function assessed by transepidermal water loss measurements. Furthermore, measurements of SC hydration, skin colour and skin surface pH were performed. Spectroscopic measurements and a Bradford protein assay to determine the mass of removed SC were carried out in parallel. The degree of barrier disruption, irritation and SC cohesion is influenced by the character of adhesive tapes, total duration of applied pressure (2 s, 10 s; 2 N, 7 N), the kind of method for pressure application (roller, stamp, thumb, stretched skin), anatomical site and condition before stripping (occlusion vs. nonocclusion). The spectroscopic assessment and Bradford protein assay determination showed a significant correlation (P tape strips on the volar forearm and then discarding the first and second strips. This approach allows the performance of a standardized study with a reasonable amount of resources.

  4. Impact of copper oxide nanomaterials on differentiated and undifferentiated Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cells; assessment of cytotoxicity, barrier integrity, cytokine production and nanomaterial penetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ude, Victor C; Brown, David M; Viale, Luca; Kanase, Nilesh; Stone, Vicki; Johnston, Helinor J

    2017-08-23

    Copper oxide nanomaterials (CuO NMs) are exploited in a diverse array of products including antimicrobials, inks, cosmetics, textiles and food contact materials. There is therefore a need to assess the toxicity of CuO NMs to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract since exposure could occur via direct oral ingestion, mucocillary clearance (following inhalation) or hand to mouth contact. Undifferentiated Caco-2 intestinal cells were exposed to CuO NMs (10 nm) at concentrations ranging from 0.37 to 78.13 μg/cm 2 Cu (equivalent to 1.95 to 250 μg/ml) and cell viability assessed 24 h post exposure using the alamar blue assay. The benchmark dose (BMD 20), determined using PROAST software, was identified as 4.44 μg/cm 2 for CuO NMs, and 4.25 μg/cm 2 for copper sulphate (CuSO 4 ), which informed the selection of concentrations for further studies. The differentiation status of cells and the impact of CuO NMs and CuSO 4 on the integrity of the differentiated Caco-2 cell monolayer were assessed by measurement of trans-epithelial electrical resistance (TEER), staining for Zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) and imaging of cell morphology using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The impact of CuO NMs and CuSO 4 on the viability of differentiated cells was performed via assessment of cell number (DAPI staining), and visualisation of cell morphology (light microscopy). Interleukin-8 (IL-8) production by undifferentiated and differentiated Caco-2 cells following exposure to CuO NMs and CuSO 4 was determined using an ELISA. The copper concentration in the cell lysate, apical and basolateral compartments were measured with Inductive Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES) and used to calculate the apparent permeability coefficient (P app ); a measure of barrier permeability to CuO NMs. For all experiments, CuSO 4 was used as an ionic control. CuO NMs and CuSO 4 caused a concentration dependent decrease in cell viability in undifferentiated cells. CuO NMs and CuSO 4

  5. Internal transport barriers in plasmas with reversed plasma flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, R. M.; Caldas, I. L.

    2018-04-01

    Evidences of internal particle transport barriers have been observed in plasma discharges with reversed plasma flow. To investigate the influence of the radial electric field profile on these barriers, we apply a drift wave map that describe the plasma particle transport and allows the integration of particle drift in the presence of a given electrostatic turbulence spectrum. With this procedure we show that transport barriers due to the shearless flow invariant lines are created inside the plasma. Moreover, by varying the radial electric field profile, we observe the formation and destruction of internal transport barriers constituted by shearless invariant lines, as well as its effects on the transport in the map's phase space. Applicability of our results are discussed for the Texas Helimak, a toroidal plasma device in which the radial electric field can be changed by application of bias potential.

  6. Vehicle barrier systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sena, P.A.

    1986-01-01

    The ground vehicle is one of the most effective tools available to an adversary force. Vehicles can be used to penetrate many types of perimeter barriers, transport equipment and personnel rapidly over long distances, and deliver large amounts of explosives directly to facilities in suicide missions. The function of a vehicle barrier system is to detain or disable a defined threat vehicle at a selected distance from a protected facility. Numerous facilities are installing, or planning to install, vehicle barrier systems and many of these facilities are requesting guidance to do so adequately. Therefore, vehicle barriers are being evaluated to determine their stopping capabilities so that systems can be designed that are both balanced and capable of providing a desired degree of protection. Equally important, many of the considerations that should be taken into account when establishing a vehicle barrier system have been identified. These considerations which pertain to site preparation, barrier selection, system integration and operation, and vehicle/barrier interaction, are discussed in this paper

  7. Protective barrier development: Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wing, N.R.; Gee, G.W.

    1990-01-01

    Protective barrier and warning marker systems are being developed to isolate wastes disposed of near the earth's surface at the Hanford Site. The barrier is designed to function in an arid to semiarid climate, to limit infiltration and percolation of water through the waste zone to near-zero, to be maintenance free, and to last up to 10,000 yr. Natural materials (e.g., fine soil, sand, gravel, riprap, clay, asphalt) have been selected to optimize barrier performance and longevity and to create an integrated structure with redundant features. These materials isolate wastes by limiting water drainage; reducing the likelihood of plant, animal, and human intrusion; controlling emission of noxious gases; and minimizing erosion. Westinghouse Hanford Company and Pacific Northwest Laboratory efforts to assess the performance of various barrier and marker designs will be discussed

  8. Can paddock scale data integration achieve more cost effective outcomes in the Great Barrier Reef? A case study in the Fitzroy Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Star, Megan; Rolfe, John; East, Miriam; Beutel, Terry; McCosker, Kevin; Ellis, Robin; Darr, Shaun; Coughlin, Tom

    2017-11-01

    The decline in health of the Great Barrier Reef and the pressure on allocating funds efficiently has increased efforts to prioritise where public funds are invested. The Fitzroy basin and coastal catchments is 152,000 square kilometres and geographically diverse. Past work has identified that sediment loads leaving the catchment are posing a high risk to the ongoing health of the Reef and that there is a need to prioritise funds to achieve cost effective outcomes. In this paper we aim to present an alternative approach to effective prioritisation of sediment reductions. The approach integrates spatial information regarding the sediment source and process, levels of adoption, bare ground cover, and cost into a function to rank neighbourhood catchments. The results demonstrate the complexity of the issue and the challenge the Fitzroy Basin Association faces when allocating funds. They also illustrate that there are effective opportunities in particular priority areas within the catchment in which on-ground actions could be undertaken, proving it to be a useful approach in prioritising future investments aimed at achieving cost effective sediment reductions to the Reef. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Noninvasive evaluation of the barrier properties of the skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utz S.R.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Skin as an organ of protection covers the body and accomplishes multiple defensive functions. The intact skin represents a barrier to the uncontrolled loss of water, proteins, and plasma components from the organism. Due to its complex structure, the epidermal barrier with its major component, stratum corneum, is the rate-limiting unit for the penetration of exogenous substances through the skin. The epidermal barrier is not a static structure. The permeability barrier status can be modified by different external and internal factors such as climate, physical stressors, and a number of skin and systemic diseases. Today, different non-invasive approaches are used to monitor the skin barrier physical properties in vivo. The quantification of parameters such as transepidermal water loss, stratum corneum hydration, and skin surface acidity is essential for the integral evaluation of the epidermal barrier status. This paper will allow the readership to get acquainted with the non-invasive, in vivo methods for the investigation of the skin barrier.

  10. Market and policy barriers to energy storage deployment :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatnagar, Dhruv; Currier, Aileen B.; Hernandez, Jacquelynne; Ma, Ookie; Kirby, Brendan

    2013-09-01

    Electric energy storage technologies have recently been in the spotlight, discussed as essential grid assets that can provide services to increase the reliability and resiliency of the grid, including furthering the integration of variable renewable energy resources. Though they can provide numerous grid services, there are a number of factors that restrict their current deployment. The most significant barrier to deployment is high capital costs, though several recent deployments indicate that capital costs are decreasing and energy storage may be the preferred economic alternative in certain situations. However, a number of other market and regulatory barriers persist, limiting further deployment. These barriers can be categorized into regulatory barriers, market (economic) barriers, utility and developer business model barriers, crosscutting barriers and technology barriers. This report, through interviews with stakeholders and review of regulatory filings in four regions roughly representative of the United States, identifies the key barriers restricting further energy storage development in the country. The report also includes a discussion of possible solutions to address these barriers and a review of initiatives around the country at the federal, regional and state levels that are addressing some of these issues. Energy storage could have a key role to play in the future grid, but market and regulatory issues have to be addressed to allow storage resources open market access and compensation for the services they are capable of providing. Progress has been made in this effort, but much remains to be done and will require continued engagement from regulators, policy makers, market operators, utilities, developers and manufacturers.

  11. Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emerek, Ruth

    2004-01-01

    Bidraget diskuterer de forskellige intergrationsopfattelse i Danmark - og hvad der kan forstås ved vellykket integration......Bidraget diskuterer de forskellige intergrationsopfattelse i Danmark - og hvad der kan forstås ved vellykket integration...

  12. Dynamic genome wide expression profiling of Drosophila head development reveals a novel role of Hunchback in retinal glia cell development and blood-brain barrier integrity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat Torres-Oliva

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Drosophila melanogaster head development represents a valuable process to study the developmental control of various organs, such as the antennae, the dorsal ocelli and the compound eyes from a common precursor, the eye-antennal imaginal disc. While the gene regulatory network underlying compound eye development has been extensively studied, the key transcription factors regulating the formation of other head structures from the same imaginal disc are largely unknown. We obtained the developmental transcriptome of the eye-antennal discs covering late patterning processes at the late 2nd larval instar stage to the onset and progression of differentiation at the end of larval development. We revealed the expression profiles of all genes expressed during eye-antennal disc development and we determined temporally co-expressed genes by hierarchical clustering. Since co-expressed genes may be regulated by common transcriptional regulators, we combined our transcriptome dataset with publicly available ChIP-seq data to identify central transcription factors that co-regulate genes during head development. Besides the identification of already known and well-described transcription factors, we show that the transcription factor Hunchback (Hb regulates a significant number of genes that are expressed during late differentiation stages. We confirm that hb is expressed in two polyploid subperineurial glia cells (carpet cells and a thorough functional analysis shows that loss of Hb function results in a loss of carpet cells in the eye-antennal disc. Additionally, we provide for the first time functional data indicating that carpet cells are an integral part of the blood-brain barrier. Eventually, we combined our expression data with a de novo Hb motif search to reveal stage specific putative target genes of which we find a significant number indeed expressed in carpet cells.

  13. 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) disrupts blood-brain barrier integrity through a mechanism involving P2X7 receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Araiz, Ana; Perez-Hernandez, Mercedes; Urrutia, Andrés; Porcu, Francesca; Borcel, Erika; Gutierrez-Lopez, Maria Dolores; O'Shea, Esther; Colado, Maria Isabel

    2014-08-01

    The recreational drug 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; 'ecstasy') produces a neuro-inflammatory response in rats characterized by an increase in microglial activation and IL-1β levels. The integrity of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is important in preserving the homeostasis of the brain and has been shown to be affected by neuro-inflammatory processes. We aimed to study the effect of a single dose of MDMA on the activity of metalloproteinases (MMPs), expression of extracellular matrix proteins, BBB leakage and the role of the ionotropic purinergic receptor P2X7 (P2X7R) in the changes induced by the drug. Adult male Dark Agouti rats were treated with MDMA (10 mg/kg, i.p.) and killed at several time-points in order to evaluate MMP-9 and MMP-3 activity in the hippocampus and laminin and collagen-IV expression and IgG extravasation in the dentate gyrus. Microglial activation, P2X7R expression and localization were also determined in the dentate gyrus. Separate groups were treated with MDMA and the P2X7R antagonists Brilliant Blue G (BBG; 50 mg/kg, i.p.) or A-438079 (30 mg/kg, i.p.). MDMA increased MMP-3 and MMP-9 activity, reduced laminin and collagen-IV expression and increased IgG immunoreactivity. In addition, MDMA increased microglial activation and P2X7R immunoreactivity in these cells. BBG suppressed the increase in MMP-9 and MMP-3 activity, prevented basal lamina degradation and IgG extravasation into the brain parenchyma. A-438079 also prevented the MDMA-induced reduction in laminin and collagen-IV immunoreactivity. These results indicate that MDMA alters BBB permeability through an early P2X7R-mediated event, which in turn leads to enhancement of MMP-9 and MMP-3 activity and degradation of extracellular matrix.

  14. Dynamic genome wide expression profiling of Drosophila head development reveals a novel role of Hunchback in retinal glia cell development and blood-brain barrier integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Oliva, Montserrat; Schneider, Julia; Wiegleb, Gordon

    2018-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster head development represents a valuable process to study the developmental control of various organs, such as the antennae, the dorsal ocelli and the compound eyes from a common precursor, the eye-antennal imaginal disc. While the gene regulatory network underlying compound eye development has been extensively studied, the key transcription factors regulating the formation of other head structures from the same imaginal disc are largely unknown. We obtained the developmental transcriptome of the eye-antennal discs covering late patterning processes at the late 2nd larval instar stage to the onset and progression of differentiation at the end of larval development. We revealed the expression profiles of all genes expressed during eye-antennal disc development and we determined temporally co-expressed genes by hierarchical clustering. Since co-expressed genes may be regulated by common transcriptional regulators, we combined our transcriptome dataset with publicly available ChIP-seq data to identify central transcription factors that co-regulate genes during head development. Besides the identification of already known and well-described transcription factors, we show that the transcription factor Hunchback (Hb) regulates a significant number of genes that are expressed during late differentiation stages. We confirm that hb is expressed in two polyploid subperineurial glia cells (carpet cells) and a thorough functional analysis shows that loss of Hb function results in a loss of carpet cells in the eye-antennal disc. Additionally, we provide for the first time functional data indicating that carpet cells are an integral part of the blood-brain barrier. Eventually, we combined our expression data with a de novo Hb motif search to reveal stage specific putative target genes of which we find a significant number indeed expressed in carpet cells. PMID:29360820

  15. Barrier to auto integration factor becomes dephosphorylated during HSV-1 Infection and Can Act as a host defense by impairing viral DNA replication and gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamin, Augusta; Thunuguntla, Prasanth; Wicklund, April; Jones, Clinton; Wiebe, Matthew S

    2014-01-01

    BAF (Barrier to Autointegration Factor) is a highly conserved DNA binding protein that senses poxviral DNA in the cytoplasm and tightly binds to the viral genome to interfere with DNA replication and transcription. To counteract BAF, a poxviral-encoded protein kinase phosphorylates BAF, which renders BAF unable to bind DNA and allows efficient viral replication to occur. Herein, we examined how BAF phosphorylation is affected by herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection and tested the ability of BAF to interfere with HSV-1 productive infection. Interestingly, we found that BAF phosphorylation decreases markedly following HSV-1 infection. To determine whether dephosphorylated BAF impacts HSV-1 productive infection, we employed cell lines stably expressing a constitutively unphosphorylated form of BAF (BAF-MAAAQ) and cells overexpressing wild type (wt) BAF for comparison. Although HSV-1 production in cells overexpressing wtBAF was similar to that in cells expressing no additional BAF, viral growth was reduced approximately 80% in the presence of BAF-MAAAQ. Experiments were also performed to determine the mechanism of the antiviral activity of BAF with the following results. BAF-MAAAQ was localized to the nucleus, whereas wtBAF was dispersed throughout cells prior to infection. Following infection, wtBAF becomes dephosphorylated and relocalized to the nucleus. Additionally, BAF was associated with the HSV-1 genome during infection, with BAF-MAAAQ associated to a greater extent than wtBAF. Importantly, unphosphorylated BAF inhibited both viral DNA replication and gene expression. For example, expression of two regulatory proteins, ICP0 and VP16, were substantially reduced in cells expressing BAF-MAAAQ. However, other viral genes were not dramatically affected suggesting that expression of certain viral genes can be differentially regulated by unphosphorylated BAF. Collectively, these results suggest that BAF can act in a phosphorylation-regulated manner to impair

  16. Can probiotics modulate human disease by impacting intestinal barrier function?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bron, Peter A.; Kleerebezem, Michiel; Brummer, Robert Jan; Cani, Patrice D.; Mercenier, Annick; MacDonald, Thomas T.; Garcia-Ródenas, Clara L.; Wells, Jerry M.

    2017-01-01

    Intestinal barrier integrity is a prerequisite for homeostasis of mucosal function, which is balanced to maximise absorptive capacity, while maintaining efficient defensive reactions against chemical and microbial challenges. Evidence is mounting that disruption of epithelial barrier integrity is

  17. Barrier mechanisms in the Drosophila blood-brain barrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Jane Hindle

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The invertebrate blood-brain barrier field is growing at a rapid pace and, in recent years, studies have shown a physiologic and molecular complexity that has begun to rival its vertebrate counterpart. Novel mechanisms of paracellular barrier maintenance through GPCR signaling were the first demonstrations of the complex adaptive mechanisms of barrier physiology. Building upon this work, the integrity of the invertebrate blood-brain barrier has recently been shown to require coordinated function of all layers of the compound barrier structure, analogous to signaling between the layers of the vertebrate neurovascular unit. These findings strengthen the notion that many blood-brain barrier mechanisms are conserved between vertebrates and invertebrates, and suggest that novel findings in invertebrate model organisms will have a significant impact on the understanding of vertebrate BBB functions. In this vein, important roles in coordinating localized and systemic signaling to dictate organism development and growth are beginning to show how the blood-brain barrier can govern whole animal physiologies. This includes novel functions of blood-brain barrier gap junctions in orchestrating synchronized neuroblast proliferation, and of blood-brain barrier secreted antagonists of insulin receptor signaling. These advancements and others are pushing the field forward in exciting new directions. In this review, we provide a synopsis of invertebrate blood-brain barrier anatomy and physiology, with a focus on insights from the past 5 years, and highlight important areas for future study.

  18. Intestinal Barrier and Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julio-Pieper, M; Bravo, J A

    2016-01-01

    The intestinal barrier function contributes to gut homeostasis by modulating absorption of water, electrolytes, and nutrients from the lumen into the circulation while restricting the passage of noxious luminal substances and microorganisms. Chronic conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and celiac disease are associated to intestinal barrier dysfunction. Here, the hypothesis is that a leaky intestinal wall allowing for indiscriminate passage of intraluminal compounds to the vascular compartment could in turn lead to systemic inflammation. An increasing number of studies are now investigating the association between gut permeability and CNS disorders, under the premise that translocation of intestinal luminal contents could affect CNS function, either directly or indirectly. Still, it is unknown whether disruption of intestinal barrier is a causative agent or a consequence in these situations. Here, we discuss the latest evidence pointing to an association between increased gut permeability and disrupted behavioral responses. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Prototype Hanford Surface Barrier: Design basis document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, D.R.; Duranceau, D.A.

    1994-11-01

    The Hanford Site Surface Barrier Development Program (BDP) was organized in 1985 to develop the technology needed to provide a long-term surface barrier capability for the Hanford Site and other arid sites. This document provides the basis of the prototype barrier. Engineers and scientists have momentarily frozen evolving barrier designs and incorporated the latest findings from BDP tasks. The design and construction of the prototype barrier has required that all of the various components of the barrier be brought together into an integrated system. This integration is particularly important because some of the components of the protective barreir have been developed independently of other barreir components. This document serves as the baseline by which future modifications or other barrier designs can be compared. Also, this document contains the minutes of meeting convened during the definitive design process in which critical decisions affecting the prototype barrier's design were made and the construction drawings

  20. The Barriers and Needs of Online Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srichanyachon, Napaporn

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated some specific barriers and needs that online students are facing when learning English through WebEx system. It compared students' barriers and needs with their background including gender, computer ownership, and monthly allowance. It also investigated the relationship among computer aptitude, barriers and needs of online…

  1. A defect in epithelial barrier integrity is not required for a systemic response to bacterial antigens or intestinal injury in T cell receptor-alpha gene-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sydora, Beate C; Tavernini, Michele M; Doyle, Jason; Fedorak, Richard N

    2006-08-01

    Genetically induced disruption of the intestinal epithelial barrier leads to development of intestinal inflammation. In the interleukin-10 gene-deficient inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) mouse model, for instance, a primary defect in intestinal epithelial integrity occurs before the development of enterocolitis. In humans, a causal role for epithelial barrier disruption is still controversial. Although studies with first-degree relatives of IBD patients suggests an underlying role of impaired barrier function, a primary epithelial barrier defect in IBD patients has not been confirmed. The purpose of this article is to examine whether a primary epithelial barrier disruption is a prerequisite for the development of intestinal inflammation or whether intestinal inflammation can develop in the absence of epithelial disruption. We examined the intestinal epithelial integrity of the T cell receptor (TCR)-alpha gene-deficient mouse model of IBD. In vivo colonic permeability, determined by mannitol transmural flux, was assessed in 6-week-, 12-week-, and 25-week-old TCR-alpha gene-deficient and wild-type control mice using a single-pass perfusion technique. Mice were scored for intestinal histological injury and intestinal cytokine levels measured in organ cultures. Systemic responses to bacterial antigens were determined through 48-h spleen cell cultures stimulated with sonicate derived from endogenous bacterial strains. In contrast with previous findings in the interleukin-10 gene-deficient IBD model, TCR-alpha gene-deficient mice did not demonstrate evidence of primary intestinal epithelial barrier disruption at any age, despite developing a moderate to severe colitis within 12 weeks. A rise in intestinal interferon (IFN)-gamma levels preceded the onset of mucosal inflammation and then correlated closely with the degree of intestinal inflammation and injury. Spleen cells from TCR-alpha gene-deficient mice released IFN-gamma in response to stimulation with endogenous

  2. Reaction rates when barriers fluctuate

    OpenAIRE

    Reimann, Peter

    1999-01-01

    Reaction rates when barriers fluctuate : a path integral approach / P. Hänggi and P. Reimann. - In: International Conference on Path Integrals from peV to TeV : Proceedings of the ... / eds.: R. Casalbuoni ... - Singapore u.a. : World Scientific, 1999. - S. 407-409

  3. Barrier Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heteren, S. van

    2015-01-01

    Barrier-system dynamics are a function of antecedent topography and substrate lithology, Relative sea-level (RSL) changes, sediment availability and type, climate, vegetation type and cover, and various aero- and hydrodynamic processes during fair-weather conditions and extreme events. Global change

  4. 76 FR 5733 - Clothing Allowance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS 38 CFR Part 3 RIN 2900-AN64 Clothing Allowance AGENCY: Department... to amend its adjudication regulations regarding clothing allowances. The amendment would provide for annual clothing allowances for each qualifying prosthetic or orthopedic appliance worn or used by a...

  5. Integrated Renovation Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galiotto, Nicolas; Heiselberg, Per; Knudstrup, Mary-Ann

    2016-01-01

    renovation to be overcome. The homeowners were better integrated and their preferences and immaterial values were better taken into account. To keep the decision-making process economically viable and timely, the process as known today still needs to be improved, and new tools need to be developed...... structured and holistic method of decision making toward nearly zero-energy building renovation. The methodology is evolutive, implementable on a large scale, and allows an optimal integration of nonexpert decision makers. In practice, such a scheme allowed most behavioral barriers to sustainable home....... This paper presents a new scheme: the integrated renovation process. One successful case study is introduced, and recommendations for future developments needed in the field are provided....

  6. 'Integration'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olwig, Karen Fog

    2011-01-01

    , while the countries have adopted disparate policies and ideologies, differences in the actual treatment and attitudes towards immigrants and refugees in everyday life are less clear, due to parallel integration programmes based on strong similarities in the welfare systems and in cultural notions...

  7. Interorganisational Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngsø, Anne Marie; Godtfredsen, Nina Skavlan; Frølich, Anne

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Despite many initiatives to improve coordination of patient pathways and intersectoral cooperation, Danish health care is still fragmented, lacking intra- and interorganisational integration. This study explores barriers to and facilitators of interorganisational integration...... at a university hospital in the Capital Region of Denmark. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Our results can be grouped into five influencing areas for interorganisational integration: communication/information transfer, committed leadership, patient engagement, the role and competencies of the general practitioner...... and organisational culture. Proposed solutions to barriers in each area hold the potential to improve care integration as experienced by individuals responsible for supporting and facilitating it. Barriers and facilitators to integrating care relate to clinical, professional, functional and normative integration...

  8. A LOOK AT CULTURAL BARRIERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen A. VRÂNCEANU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the global market allows each individual to work in foreign countries. This fact is a great opportunity for business development, but also puts into light the problem of cultural barriers. Ineffective cross-cultural communication and collaboration can harm employees, customers, and other stakeholders. A company with employees from different cultures must acknowledge and understand these barriers in order to overcome them and to obtain the desired performance. The present study aims to expose the cultural barriers encountered by foreigners in a multinational company from Romania.

  9. Sensing of EGTA Mediated Barrier Tissue Disruption with an Organic Transistor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scherrine Tria

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Barrier tissue protects the body against external factors by restricting the passage of molecules. The gastrointestinal epithelium is an example of barrier tissue with the primary purpose of allowing the passage of ions and nutrients, while restricting the passage of pathogens and toxins. It is well known that the loss of barrier function can be instigated by a decrease in extracellular calcium levels, leading to changes in protein conformation and an increase in paracellular transport. In this study, ethylene glycol-bis(beta-aminoethyl ether-N,N,N',N'-tetra acetic acid (EGTA, a calcium chelator, was used to disrupt the gastrointestinal epithelial barrier. The effect of EGTA on barrier tissue was monitored by a novel label-free method based on an organic electrochemical transistor (OECT integrated with living cells and validated against conventional methods for measuring barrier tissue integrity. We demonstrate that the OECT can detect breaches in barrier tissue upon exposure to EGTA with the same sensitivity as existing methods but with increased temporal resolution. Due to the potential of low cost processing techniques and the flexibility in design associated with organic electronics, the OECT has great potential for high-throughput, disposable sensing and diagnostics.

  10. Seismic waves and seismic barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, S. V.

    2011-05-01

    The basic idea of seismic barrier is to protect an area occupied by a building or a group of buildings from seismic waves. Depending on nature of seismic waves that are most probable in a specific region, different kinds of seismic barriers are suggested. For example, vertical barriers resembling a wall in a soil can protect from Rayleigh and bulk waves. The FEM simulation reveals that to be effective, such a barrier should be (i) composed of layers with contrast physical properties allowing "trapping" of the wave energy inside some of the layers, and (ii) depth of the barrier should be comparable or greater than the considered seismic wave length. Another type of seismic barrier represents a relatively thin surface layer that prevents some types of surface seismic waves from propagating. The ideas for these barriers are based on one Chadwick's result concerning non-propagation condition for Rayleigh waves in a clamped half-space, and Love's theorem that describes condition of non-existence for Love waves. The numerical simulations reveal that to be effective the length of the horizontal barriers should be comparable to the typical wavelength.

  11. Effect of a Semi-Purified Oligosaccharide-Enriched Fraction from Caprine Milk on Barrier Integrity and Mucin Production of Co-Culture Models of the Small and Large Intestinal Epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia M. Barnett

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Caprine milk contains the highest amount of oligosaccharides among domestic animals, which are structurally similar to human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs. This suggests caprine milk oligosaccharides may offer similar protective and developmental effects to that of HMOs. However, to date, studies using oligosaccharides from caprine milk have been limited. Thus, this study aimed to examine the impact of a caprine milk oligosaccharide-enriched fraction (CMOF on barrier function of epithelial cell co-cultures of absorptive enterocytes (Caco-2 cells and mucus-secreting goblet cells (HT29-MTX cells, that more closely simulate the cell proportions found in the small (90:10 and large intestine (75:25. Treatment of epithelial co-cultures with 0.4, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 mg/mL of CMOF was shown to have no effect on metabolic activity but did enhance cell epithelial barrier integrity as measured by trans-epithelial electrical resistance (TEER, in a dose-dependent manner. The CMOF at the maximum concentration tested (4.0 mg/mL enhanced TEER, mucin gene expression and mucin protein abundance of epithelial co-cultures, all of which are essential components of intestinal barrier function.

  12. Disruption of the F-actin cytoskeleton and monolayer barrier integrity induced by PAF and the protective effect of ITF on intestinal epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ling-fen; Xu, Cheng; Mao, Zhi-Qin; Teng, Xu; Ma, Li; Sun, Mei

    2011-02-01

    To explore whether platelet-activating factor (PAF) can disrupt the intestinal epithelial barrier directly and is associated with structural alterations of the F-actin-based cytoskeleton, and to observe the protective effect of intestinal trefoil factor (ITF), we establish an intestinal epithelia barrier model using Caco-2 cells in vitro. Transepithelial electrical resistance and unidirectional flux of lucifer yellow were measured to evaluate barrier permeability; immunofluorescent staining and flow cytometry were applied to observe morphological alterations and to quantify proteins of the F-actin cytoskeleton: the tight junction marker ZO-1 and Claudin-1 were observed using immunofluorescent staining. PAF significantly increased paracellular permeability, at the same time, F-actin and tight junction proteins were disrupted. It was thought that ITF could reverse the high permeability by restoring normal F-actin, ZO-1 and Claudin-1 structures. These results collectively demonstrated that PAF plays an important role in the regulation of mucosal permeability and the effects of PAF are correlated with structural alterations of the F-actin-based cytoskeleton and of tight junctions. ITF can protect intestinal epithelium against PAF-induced disruption by restricting the rearrangement of the F-actin cytoskeleton and of tight junctions.

  13. Barrier island facies models and recognition criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulhern, J.; Johnson, C. L.

    2017-12-01

    Barrier island outcrops record transgressive shoreline motion at geologic timescales, providing integral clues to understanding how coastlines respond to rising sea levels. However, barrier island deposits are difficult to recognize. While significant progress has been made in understanding the modern coastal morphodynamics, this insight is not fully leveraged in existing barrier island facies models. Excellent outcrop exposures of the paralic Upper Cretaceous Straight Cliffs Formation of southern Utah provide an opportunity to revise facies models and recognition criteria for barrier island deposits. Preserved barrier islands are composed of three main architectural elements (shorefaces, tidal inlets, and tidal channels) which occur independently or in combination to create larger-scale barrier island deposits. Barrier island shorefaces record progradation, while barrier island tidal inlets record lateral migration, and barrier island tidal channels record aggradation within the tidal inlet. Four facies associations are used to describe and characterize these barrier island architectural elements. Barrier islands occur in association with backarrier fill and internally contain lower and upper shoreface, high-energy upper shoreface, and tidal channel facies. Barrier islands bound lagoons or estuaries, and are distinguished from other shoreface deposits by their internal facies and geometry, association with backbarrier facies, and position within transgressive successions. Tidal processes, in particular tidal inlet migration and reworking of the upper shoreface, also distinguish barrier island deposits. Existing barrier island models highlight the short term heterogeneous and dynamic nature of barrier island systems, yet overlook processes tied to geologic time scales, such as multi-directional motion, erosion, and reworking, and their expressions in preserved barrier island strata. This study uses characteristic outcrop expressions of barrier island successions to

  14. The Palliative Care Challenge: Analysis of Barriers and Opportunities to Integrate Palliative Care in Europe in the View of National Associations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Centeno, C.; Garralda, E.; Carrasco, J.M.; Eerden, M.E. van der; Aldridge, M.; Stevenson, D.; Meier, D.E.; Hasselaar, J.G.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Palliative care (PC) development is diverse and lacks an effective integration into European healthcare systems. This article investigates levels of integrated PC in European countries. METHODS: A qualitative survey was undertaken for the 2013 EAPC Atlas of PC in Europe with boards of

  15. Subsurface barrier verification technologies, informal report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiser, J.H.

    1994-06-01

    One of the more promising remediation options available to the DOE waste management community is subsurface barriers. Some of the uses of subsurface barriers include surrounding and/or containing buried waste, as secondary confinement of underground storage tanks, to direct or contain subsurface contaminant plumes and to restrict remediation methods, such as vacuum extraction, to a limited area. To be most effective the barriers should be continuous and depending on use, have few or no breaches. A breach may be formed through numerous pathways including: discontinuous grout application, from joints between panels and from cracking due to grout curing or wet-dry cycling. The ability to verify barrier integrity is valuable to the DOE, EPA, and commercial sector and will be required to gain full public acceptance of subsurface barriers as either primary or secondary confinement at waste sites. It is recognized that no suitable method exists for the verification of an emplaced barrier's integrity. The large size and deep placement of subsurface barriers makes detection of leaks challenging. This becomes magnified if the permissible leakage from the site is low. Detection of small cracks (fractions of an inch) at depths of 100 feet or more has not been possible using existing surface geophysical techniques. Compounding the problem of locating flaws in a barrier is the fact that no placement technology can guarantee the completeness or integrity of the emplaced barrier. This report summarizes several commonly used or promising technologies that have been or may be applied to in-situ barrier continuity verification

  16. Hanford Protective Barriers Program asphalt barrier studies -- FY 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, H.D.; Gee, G.W.

    1989-05-01

    The Hanford Protective Barrier (HPB) Program is evaluating alternative barriers to provide a means of meeting stringent water infiltration requirements. One type of alternative barrier being considered is an asphalt-based layer, 1.3 to 15 cm thick, which has been shown to be very effective as a barrier for radon gas and, hence, should be equally effective as a barrier for the larger molecules of water. Fiscal Year 1988 studies focused on the selection and formulation of the most promising asphalt materials for further testing in small-tube lysimeters. Results of laboratory-scale formulation and hydraulic conductivity tests led to the selection of a rubberized asphalt material and an admixture of 24 wt% asphalt emulsion and concrete sand as the two barriers for lysimeter testing. Eight lysimeters, four each containing the two asphalt treatments, were installed in the Small Tube Lysimeter Facility on the Hanford Site. The lysimeter tests allow the performance of these barrier formulations to be evaluated under more natural environmental conditions

  17. Inulin-Type Fructans Modulates Pancreatic-Gut Innate Immune Responses and Gut Barrier Integrity during Experimental Acute Pancreatitis in a Chain Length-Dependent Manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yue; Wu, Chengfei; Li, Jiahong; Li, Hongli; Sun, Zhenghua; Zhang, Hao; de Vos, Paul; Pan, Li-Long; Sun, Jia

    2017-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a common abdominal inflammatory disorder and one of the leading causes of hospital admission for gastrointestinal disorders. No specific pharmacological or nutritional therapy is available but highly needed. Inulin-type fructans (ITFs) are capable of modifying gut immune and barrier homeostasis in a chemistry-dependent manner and hence potentially applicable for managing AP, but their efficacy in AP has not been demonstrated yet. The current study aimed to examine and compare modulatory effects of ITFs with different degrees of fermentability on pancreatic-gut immunity and barrier function during experimentally induced AP in mice. BALB/c mice were fed short (I)- or long (IV)-chain ITFs supplemented diets for up to 3 days before AP induction by caerulein. Attenuating effects on AP development were stronger with ITF IV than with ITF I. We found that long-chain ITF IV attenuated the severity of AP, as evidenced by reduced serum amylase levels, lipase levels, pancreatic myeloperoxidase activity, pancreatic edema, and histological examination demonstrating reduced pancreatic damage. Short-chain ITF I demonstrated only partial protective effects. Both ITF IV and ITF I modulated AP-associated systemic cytokine levels. ITF IV but not ITF I restored AP-associated intestinal barrier dysfunction by upregulating colonic tight junction modulatory proteins, antimicrobial peptides, and improved general colonic histology. Additionally, differential modulatory effects of ITF IV and ITF I were observed on pancreatic and gut immunity: ITF IV supplementation prevented innate immune cell infiltration in the pancreas and colon and tissue cytokine production. Similar effects were only observed in the gut with ITF I and not in the pancreas. Lastly, ITF IV but not ITF I downregulated AP-triggered upregulation of IL-1 receptor-associated kinase 4 (IRAK-4) and phosphor-c-Jun N-terminal kinase (p-JNK), and a net decrease of phosphor-nuclear factor kappa

  18. Inulin-Type Fructans Modulates Pancreatic–Gut Innate Immune Responses and Gut Barrier Integrity during Experimental Acute Pancreatitis in a Chain Length-Dependent Manner

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yue; Wu, Chengfei; Li, Jiahong; Li, Hongli; Sun, Zhenghua; Zhang, Hao; de Vos, Paul; Pan, Li-Long; Sun, Jia

    2017-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a common abdominal inflammatory disorder and one of the leading causes of hospital admission for gastrointestinal disorders. No specific pharmacological or nutritional therapy is available but highly needed. Inulin-type fructans (ITFs) are capable of modifying gut immune and barrier homeostasis in a chemistry-dependent manner and hence potentially applicable for managing AP, but their efficacy in AP has not been demonstrated yet. The current study aimed to examine and compare modulatory effects of ITFs with different degrees of fermentability on pancreatic–gut immunity and barrier function during experimentally induced AP in mice. BALB/c mice were fed short (I)- or long (IV)-chain ITFs supplemented diets for up to 3 days before AP induction by caerulein. Attenuating effects on AP development were stronger with ITF IV than with ITF I. We found that long-chain ITF IV attenuated the severity of AP, as evidenced by reduced serum amylase levels, lipase levels, pancreatic myeloperoxidase activity, pancreatic edema, and histological examination demonstrating reduced pancreatic damage. Short-chain ITF I demonstrated only partial protective effects. Both ITF IV and ITF I modulated AP-associated systemic cytokine levels. ITF IV but not ITF I restored AP-associated intestinal barrier dysfunction by upregulating colonic tight junction modulatory proteins, antimicrobial peptides, and improved general colonic histology. Additionally, differential modulatory effects of ITF IV and ITF I were observed on pancreatic and gut immunity: ITF IV supplementation prevented innate immune cell infiltration in the pancreas and colon and tissue cytokine production. Similar effects were only observed in the gut with ITF I and not in the pancreas. Lastly, ITF IV but not ITF I downregulated AP-triggered upregulation of IL-1 receptor-associated kinase 4 (IRAK-4) and phosphor-c-Jun N-terminal kinase (p-JNK), and a net decrease of phosphor-nuclear factor kappa

  19. 76 FR 70883 - Clothing Allowance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-16

    ...), Compensation Service, Veterans Benefits Administration, Department of Veterans Affairs, 810 Vermont Avenue NW... limited knee movement when walking'' which causes shoes to wear out faster. VA makes no change based on... that multiple appliances might allow the award of multiple benefits.'' That decision provides no basis...

  20. Integrated Care, Competition and Choice - Removing barriers to care coordination in the context of market-oriented governance in Germany and Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Leichsenring, Kai; Rodrigues, Ricardo; Winkelmann, Juliane; Falk, Rebecka

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Many scholars have argued for already more than two decades that integration between health and social care services would be needed to enhance system efficiency, quality of care and users’ quality of life. This has been emphasised worldwide by the implementation and evaluation of countless models, initiatives and innovative practice examples across the health and social care continuum. As the advance of integrated care took place in the context of a pronounced shift towards mar...

  1. Characterization of Hit Compounds Identified from High-throughput Screening for their Effect on Blood-brain Barrier Integrity and Amyloid-β Clearance: In Vitro and In Vivo Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfakhri, Khaled H; Duong, Quoc-Viet; Langley, Courtney; Depaula, Ashley; Mousa, Youssef M; Lebeouf, Trista; Cain, Courtney; Kaddoumi, Amal

    2018-03-26

    In Alzheimer's disease (AD) the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is compromised, thus therapeutic targeting of the BBB to enhance its integrity and function could be a unique approach to treat, slow or hold the progression of AD. Recently, we have developed an in vitro high-throughput screening assay to screen for compounds that increase the integrity of a cell-based BBB model. Results from primary screen identified multiple hit compounds that enhanced the monolayer integrity. Herein, further characterization of selected hit compounds, namely 8-bromoguanosine cyclic monophosphate, JW74, 1,10-phenanthroline monohydrate, SB216763 and α-tocopherol was performed. Compounds were subjected to concentration-dependent studies to determine their EC50 and potency to enhance the cell-based model integrity by the Lucifer Yellow permeability and amyloid-beta (Aβ) transport across the monolayer. The compounds demonstrated different EC50s to enhance the monolayer integrity ranging from 0.4 to 12.8 µM, and different effect on enhancing Aβ transport with highest transport observed for α-tocopherol (2.2-fold increase). Such effects were associated with increased levels of tight junction proteins such as claudin-5 and/or ZO-1, and Aβ major transport proteins LRP1 and P-glycoprotein. In vivo studies for α-tocopherol were performed in AD mouse model; consistent with the in vitro results α-tocopherol significantly increased BBB integrity measured by IgG extravasation, and reduced brain Aβ levels. In conclusion, findings support our developed cell-based BBB model as a functional predictive in vivo tool to select hit compounds, and suggest that enhancing BBB tightness and function has the potential to reduce Aβ pathology associated with AD. Copyright © 2018 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. BARRIERS, FACILITATORS AND SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS ASSOCIATED WITH CONDOM USAGE AMONGST MALE HIV INTEGRATED COUNSELLING AND TESTING CENTRE ATTENDEES AT THE GOVERNMENT HOSPITAL OF THORACIC MEDICINE, AN HIV TERTIARY CARE CENTRE IN CHENNAI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Mahajan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: HIV is transmitted largely through sexual route which can be prevented by using condoms. The objectives of this study were to describe condom usage with various barriers, facilitators and to determine association between different socioeconomic characteristics among male Integrated Counselling and Testing Centre (ICTC attendees. Methods: This is a hospital based cross sectional study (n=300. Clients (18-45years attending ICTC for first time, between June-October ‘2010, were interviewed with structured questionnaire after obtaining informed consent. Description of demographic characteristics of respondents; univariate, multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed for estimation of association. Results: Among respondents, awareness of HIV and condom were 80% and 85.3% respectively; Knowledge of prevention from STI/HIV (97.7% was most common facilitator while forgetfulness after drinking alcohol (64.1% was most common barrier to use condom; Respondents who had education up to secondary or above level were more associated with condom usage (AOR 2.9,95%CI1.34-6.24, after adjusting for income compared to non educated respondents; considering less than Indian rupee (INR 3000 per month as reference category, there were association of condom usage among relatively higher income groups between INR.3000 to 5000 per month (AOR 2.6, 95%CI 1.38-5.0,adjusting education and income above INR5000 per month (AOR 2.85,95%CI1.37-5.9, adjusting education. Conclusions: Condom usage was independently associated with education and income level of respondents. Forgetfulness after drinking alcohol was main barrier; knowledge of prevention from HIV was main facilitator of condom usage. Dissemination of knowledge regarding facilitator of condom usage and implementation of Rapid Needs Assessment Tool for Condom Programming can encourage condom use.

  3. The dominance of the Lisbon agreement as a barrier for an environmentally oriented transport policy in Europe : The gap between theory and implementation in policy integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerlings, H.; Van der Sluis-van Meijeren, M.

    2008-01-01

    There is an increasing demand for policy integration in a number of policy areas. This is also the case when it comes to the ambition to realize a sustainable transport system, where seemingly contrasting issues such as economic growth and the related negative effects, increasing emissions for

  4. Identifying barriers to large-scale integration of variable renewable electricity into the electricity market : A literature review of market design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/412681994; Harmsen, R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/195454278; Crijns-Graus, Wina|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/308005015; Worrell, E.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/106856715; van den Broek, M.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/092946895

    For reaching the 2 °C climate target, the robust growth of electricity generation from variable renewable energy sources (VRE) in the power sector is expected to continue. Accommodation of the power system to the variable, uncertain and locational-dependent outputs of VRE causes integration costs.

  5. Breaking the entry barriers of startup companies to offer AAL services through integrated eHealth solutions based on a hybrid business model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyriazakos, Sofoklis

    Healthcare sector is one of the main pillars of the economy at a global level that involves patients, physicians, National Health Systems, insurance companies, pharmaceuticals, vendors, researchers and providers. Healthcare sector represents a good portion of the GDP of any Government and attract...... Organizations (CRO). The full paper will elaborate on the hybrid business model and present how a multi-million € research project has applied this model in order to encounter the challenges and create a solid startup.......Healthcare sector is one of the main pillars of the economy at a global level that involves patients, physicians, National Health Systems, insurance companies, pharmaceuticals, vendors, researchers and providers. Healthcare sector represents a good portion of the GDP of any Government and attracts...... billion dollar investments every year. The technology and Internet evolution have contributed significantly to the creation of eHealth within the Healthcare sector that aims to improve citizens’ health and wellbeing. Nevertheless, the barriers to entry in this highly regulated business sector are huge...

  6. Lithium chloride contributes to blood-spinal cord barrier integrity and functional recovery from spinal cord injury by stimulating autophagic flux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Minji; He, Zili; Lin, Xiaoxiao; Zhou, Yulong; Wang, Qingqing; Zheng, Zengming; Chen, Jian; Xu, Huazi; Tian, Naifeng

    2018-01-22

    Blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB) disruption following spinal cord injury (SCI) significantly compromises functional neuronal recovery. Autophagy is a potential therapeutic target when seeking to protect the BSCB. We explored the effects of lithium chloride (LiCl) on BSCB permeability and autophagy-induced SCI both in a rat model of SCI and in endothelial cells subjected to oxygen-glucose deprivation. We evaluated BSCB status using the Evans Blue dye extravasation test and measurement of tight junction (TJ) protein levels; we also assessed functional locomotor recovery. We detected autophagy-associated proteins in vivo and in vitro using both Western blotting and immunofluorescence staining. We found that, in a rat model of SCI, LiCl attenuated the elevation in BSCB permeability, improved locomotor recovery, and inhibited the degradation of TJ proteins including occludin and claudin-5. LiCl significantly induced the extent of autophagic flux after SCI by increasing LC3-II and ATG-5 levels, and abolishing p62 accumulation. In addition, a combination of LiCl and the autophagy inhibitor chloroquine not only partially eliminated the BSCB-protective effect of LiCl, but also exacerbated TJ protein degradation both in vivo and in vitro. Together, these findings suggest that LiCl treatment alleviates BSCB disruption and promotes locomotor recovery after SCI, partly by stimulating autophagic flux. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Thermal-Hydraulic-Mechanical (THM) Coupled Simulation of a Generic Site for Disposal of High Level Nuclear Waste in Claystone in Germany: Exemplary Proof of the Integrity of the Geological Barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massmann, J.; Ziefle, G.; Jobmann, M.

    2016-12-01

    Claystone is investigated as a potential host rock for the disposal of high level nuclear waste (HLW). In Germany, DBE TECHNOLOGY GmbH, the BGR and the "Gesellschaft für Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS)" are developing an integrated methodology for safety assessment within the R&D project "ANSICHT". One part herein is the demonstration of integrity of the geological barrier to ensure safe containment of radionuclides over 1 million years. The mechanical excavation of an underground repository, the ex­po­si­tion of claystone to at­mos­pheric air, the insertion of backfill, buffer, sealing and supporting material as well as the deposition of heat producing waste constitute a sig­nif­i­cant disturbance of the underground system. A complex interacting scheme of thermal, hydraulic and mechanical (THM) processes can be expected. In this work, the finite element software OpenGeoSys, main­ly de­vel­oped at the "Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research GmbH (UFZ)", is used to simulate and evaluate several THM coupled effects in the repository surroundings up to the surface over a time span of 1 million years. The numerical setup is based on two generic geological models inspired by the representative geology of potentially suitable regions in North- and South Germany. The results give an insight into the evolution of temperature, pore pressure, stresses as well as deformation and enables statements concerning the extent of the significantly influenced area. One important effect among others is the temperature driven change in the densities of the solid and liquid phase and its influence on the stress field. In a further step, integrity criteria have been quantified, based on specifications of the German federal ministry of the environment. The exemplary numerical evaluation of these criteria demonstrates, how numerical simulations can be used to prove the integrity of the geological barrier and detect potential vulnerabilities. Fig.: Calculated zone of

  8. In situ remediation integrated program: Development of containment technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, M.E.

    1994-08-01

    The In Situ Remediation Integrated Program (ISR IP) is supporting the development of subsurface containment barrier technology for use in site restoration applications at contaminated sites throughout the US Department of Energy (DOE) complex. The types of subsurface barriers being developed include impermeable barriers and sorbent barriers. The specific containment technology projects described in this paper include frozen soil barriers, flowable grout techniques, hydraulic and diffusion barriers, horizontal grout barriers, chemically enhanced barriers, and viscous liquid barriers

  9. Diffusion chamber system for testing of collagen-based cell migration barriers for separation of ligament enthesis zones in tissue-engineered ACL constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahner, J; Hoyer, M; Hillig, S; Schulze-Tanzil, G; Meyer, M; Schröpfer, M; Lohan, A; Garbe, L-A; Heinrich, G; Breier, A

    2015-01-01

    A temporary barrier separating scaffold zones seeded with different cell types prevents faster growing cells from overgrowing co-cultured cells within the same construct. This barrier should allow sufficient nutrient diffusion through the scaffold. The aim of this study was to test the effect of two variants of collagen-based barriers on macromolecule diffusion, viability, and the spreading efficiency of primary ligament cells on embroidered scaffolds. Two collagen barriers, a thread consisting of a twisted film tape and a sponge, were integrated into embroidered poly(lactic-co-caprolactone) and polypropylene scaffolds, which had the dimension of lapine anterior cruciate ligaments (ACL). A diffusion chamber system was designed and established to monitor nutrient diffusion using fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled dextran of different molecular weights (20, 40, 150, 500 kDa). Vitality of primary lapine ACL cells was tested at days 7 and 14 after seeding using fluorescein diacetate and ethidium bromide staining. Cell spreading on the scaffold surface was measured using histomorphometry. Nuclei staining of the cross-sectioned scaffolds revealed the penetration of ligament cells through both barrier types. The diffusion chamber was suitable to characterize the diffusivity of dextran molecules through embroidered scaffolds with or without integrated collagen barriers. The diffusion coefficients were generally significantly lower in scaffolds with barriers compared to those without barriers. No significant differences between diffusion coefficients of both barrier types were detected. Both barriers were cyto-compatible and prevented most of the ACL cells from crossing the barrier, whereby the collagen thread was easier to handle and allowed a higher rate of cell spreading.

  10. Health professionals' views on health literacy issues for culturally and linguistically diverse women in maternity care: barriers, enablers and the need for an integrated approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughson, Jo-Anne; Marshall, Fiona; Daly, Justin Oliver; Woodward-Kron, Robyn; Hajek, John; Story, David

    2018-02-01

    Objective To identify health literacy issues when providing maternity care to culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) women, and the strategies needed for health professionals to collaboratively address these issues. Methods A qualitative case study design was undertaken at one large metropolitan Australian hospital serving a highly CALD population. Semistructured interviews were conducted with a range of maternity healthcare staff. The data were analysed thematically. The study is informed by a framework of cultural competence education interventions for health professionals and a health literacy framework. Results Eighteen clinicians participated in the interviews (seven midwives, five obstetricians, five physiotherapists, one social worker, and one occupational therapist). Emergent themes of health literacy-related issues were: patient-based factors (communication and cultural barriers, access issues); provider-based factors (time constraints, interpreter issues); and enablers (cultural awareness among staff, technology). Conclusions There are significant health literacy and systemic issues affecting the hospital's provision of maternity care for CALD women. These findings, mapped onto the four domains of cultural competence education interventions will inform a technology-delivered health literacy intervention for CALD maternity patients. This approach may be applied to other culturally diverse healthcare settings to foster patient health literacy. What is known about the topic? There are health inequities for pregnant women of culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) backgrounds. Low health literacy compounded by language and cultural factors contribute to these inequities and access to interpreters in pregnancy care remains an ongoing issue. Pregnancy smart phone applications are a popular source of health information for pregnant women yet these apps are not tailored for CALD women nor are they part of a regulated industry. What does this paper add

  11. Facilitators and Barriers to Implementing Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) in Primary Care in Integrated Health Care Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahm, Alanna Kulchak; Boggs, Jennifer M; Martin, Carmen; Price, David W; Beck, Arne; Backer, Thomas E; Dearing, James W

    2015-01-01

    Substance abuse in the United States is a serious public health concern impacting morbidity and mortality. However, systematic screening and intervention has not been widely adopted into routine practice by health care organizations and routine screening and intervention is not currently in place for primary care at Kaiser Permanente Colorado. Therefore, a formative evaluation was conducted to explore and enhance implementation of the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) approach in the organization. Key clinical stakeholders, including internal and family medicine physicians, primary care nurses, mental health therapists, chemical dependency clinicians, and clinic-based psychologists provided feedback. Two focus groups were also conducted with patient stakeholders: one in English and one in Spanish. All clinical stakeholders promoted clinic-based psychologists to conduct brief intervention and determine referral to treatment as the optimal implementation program. Inclusion of the patient perspective also highlighted the importance of considering this perspective in implementation. Both patient groups were generally supportive of SBIRT, especially the educational value of screening questions defining healthy drinking limits; however, English-speaking patients noted privacy concerns and Spanish-speaking patients noted frequently being asked about drug or alcohol use. Organizationally, systems exist to facilitate drug and alcohol use screening, intervention, and referral to treatment. However, physician time, alignment with other priorities, and lack of consistent communication were noted potential barriers to SBIRT implementation. Clinicians expressed concerns about competing priorities and the need for organizational leadership involvement for successful SBIRT implementation. A unique suggestion for successful implementation is to utilize existing primary care clinic

  12. One hand cannot clap-a study of Arab practitioners of traditional and complementary medicine in Israel: identifying barriers to integrative oncology care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popper-Giveon, Ariela; Schiff, Elad; Hatem, David; Samuels, Noah; Ben-Arye, Eran

    2014-01-01

    The integration of complementary medicine is gradually becoming an accepted part of standard care for patients with cancer. In our integrative oncology program, we have encountered difficulties in recruiting Arab patients. In order to understand the special needs of this population, we conducted interviews among Arab practitioners of complementary and traditional medicine (CTM). The characteristics of practitioners and their views regarding the therapeutic process were examined. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were administered to 27 Arab practitioners of CTM whose clientele was comprised primarily of Arab cancer patients. Conventional content analysis of the transcribed interviews and field notes was performed in order to identify key themes. Three groups of CTM practice were identified: Folk-herbal medicine (n = 9), complementary medicine (CM; n = 14), and religious healing (n = 4). Seven factors were identified in the practitioner accounts: the duration and scheduling of treatment sessions, the language of communication, the presence of family members, the appearance of the practitioner, the definition of treatment goals, the discussion of behavioral and lifestyle changes, and finally, the use of tangible elements in treatment. The study of Arab CTM practitioner recommendations may help facilitate a culture-sensitive encounter with Arab patients with cancer. This approach may also have implications for other ethno-culturally unique populations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Defective channels lead to an impaired skin barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaydon, Diana C; Kelsell, David P

    2014-10-15

    Channels are integral membrane proteins that form a pore, allowing the passive movement of ions or molecules across a membrane (along a gradient), either between compartments within a cell, between intracellular and extracellular environments or between adjacent cells. The ability of cells to communicate with one another and with their environment is a crucial part of the normal physiology of a tissue that allows it to carry out its function. Cell communication is particularly important during keratinocyte differentiation and formation of the skin barrier. Keratinocytes in the skin epidermis undergo a programme of apoptosis-driven terminal differentiation, whereby proliferating keratinocytes in the basal (deepest) layer of the epidermis stop proliferating, exit the basal layer and move up through the spinous and granular layers of the epidermis to form the stratum corneum, the external barrier. Genes encoding different families of channel proteins have been found to harbour mutations linked to a variety of rare inherited monogenic skin diseases. In this Commentary, we discuss how human genetic findings in aquaporin (AQP) and transient receptor potential (TRP) channels reveal different mechanisms by which these channel proteins function to ensure the proper formation and maintenance of the skin barrier. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  14. Review: Siegfried Jäger & Dirk Halm (Eds. (2007. Mediale Barrieren? Rassismus als Integrationshindernis [Media Barriers? Racism as a Means Against Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Wodak

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This volume is an important contribution to the big debates about on-going social change in our societies: The topics of integration, multiculturalism, security and freedom of press are touched upon. More specifically, the analysis focuses on the implications of, and the reporting on, the "caricature-debate" 2005/6. Commonly used, mostly negative stereotypes and frames regarding Muslims are detected; moreover, the genesis of "enemy images" is made explicit through detailed discourse analysis. In sum: alternative discourses have to be created which deconstruct the "binary reductionism". Hence, other opinions, voices and positions should find access to the media and become visible. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0801224

  15. THE BARRIERS AND NEEDS OF ONLINE LEARNERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Napaporn SRICHANYACHON

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated some specific barriers and needs that online students are facing when learning English through WebEx system. It compared students’ barriers and needs with their background including gender, computer ownership, and monthly allowance. It also investigated the relationship among computer aptitude, barriers and needs of online learners. The samples were 211 undergraduate students enrolled in Fundamental English course. The instrument in this study was a questionnaire. Results indicated that the levels of needs and barriers of online learners in general were moderate. There were no statistically significant differences at .05 level found in barriers and needs of online learners as classified by gender, computer ownership, and computer aptitude. As hypothesised, there was a negative relationship between computer aptitude and barriers of online learners at .01 level. Students with high computer aptitude had fewer barriers to learn online than those with low computer aptitude. In addition, there was a positive relationship between barriers and needs of online learners at .01 levels. Students with more barriers were found to have more needs to help them to learn online than those with few barriers. Teachers and institutions can take the results of this study into consideration when developing online courses.

  16. A pilot study to compare the views of traditionally trained and CAM-trained therapists using the clinical exemplar of the management of neck/upper limb pain to assess barriers to effective integration of approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denyer, Karen; Smith, Helen; Davies, Kevin; Horne, Rob; Hankins, Matthew; Walker-Bone, Karen

    2012-01-01

    In the UK, patients frequently choose complementary (CAM) therapies, particularly for chronic painful musculoskeletal conditions. It is widely agreed that better integration of complementary and traditional healthcare is desirable. We piloted the Benefits and Risks of Treatment Questionnaire to compare the views of different healthcare practitioners about traditional and alternative approaches in one clinical scenario in order to assess barriers to effective integration. A cross-sectional survey of healthcare practitioners (primary care practitioners, physiotherapists, pharmacists, osteopaths, chiropractors and acupuncturists) in the UK. The views of all healthcare providers were compared using the exemplar of neck, shoulder and upper arm pain to explore the perceived risks and benefits of different types of therapeutic intervention using a mathematical cluster approach. 448/1254 (36%) useable replies were received representing all six professions. A mean of 14.9 years of experience was reported by participants. The cluster analyses revealed distinct clusters of opinion of benefit: primary care physicians, physiotherapists and pharmacists were significantly more likely to rate a cluster including: anti-inflammatory drugs, steroid injections, steroids, physiotherapy, paracetamol and antidepressants as beneficial for neck, shoulder and upper arm pain. In contrast, osteopaths and chiropractors, but not physiotherapists were significantly more likely to rate a cluster including chiropractic, osteopathy and physiotherapy as beneficial. The Beliefs about Risks and Benefits of Treatments Questionnaire can be applied using a postal approach and achieves similar response rates to other surveys amongst healthcare practitioners. Despite widespread agreement that increased integration of traditional and alternative approaches is desirable, the results of this study suggest that experienced practitioners show the strongest belief in the benefit of approaches closest to their

  17. Chasing boundaries and cascade effects in a coupled barrier-marsh-lagoon system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo-Trueba, Jorge; Mariotti, Giulio

    2017-08-01

    The long-term dynamic evolution of an idealized barrier-marsh-lagoon system experiencing sea-level rise is studied by coupling two existing numerical models. The barrier model accounts for the interaction between shoreface dynamics and overwash flux, which allows the occurrence of barrier drowning. The marsh-lagoon model includes both a backbarrier marsh and an interior marsh, and accounts for the modification of the wave regime associated with changes in lagoon width and depth. Overwash, the key process that connects the barrier shoreface with the marsh-lagoon ecosystems, is formulated to account for the role of the backbarrier marsh. Model results show that a number of factors that are not typically associated with the dynamics of coastal barriers can enhance the rate of overwash-driven landward migration by increasing backbarrier accommodation space. For instance, lagoon deepening could be triggered by marsh edge retreat and consequent export of fine sediment via tidal dispersion, as well as by an expansion of inland marshes and consequent increase in accommodation space to be filled in with sediment. A deeper lagoon results in a larger fraction of sediment overwash being subaqueous, which coupled with a slow shoreface response sending sediment onshore can trigger barrier drowning. We therefore conclude that the supply of fine sediments to the back-barrier and the dynamics of both the interior and backbarrier marsh can be essential for maintaining the barrier system under elevated rates of sea-level rise. Our results highlight the importance of considering barriers and their associated backbarriers as part of an integrated system in which sediment is exchanged.

  18. Using cloud-computing applications to support collaborative scientific inquiry: Examining pre-service teachers’ perceived barriers towards integration / Utilisation d'applications infonuagiques pour appuyer la recherche scientifique collaborative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Donna

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Technology plays a crucial role in facilitating collaboration within the scientific community. Cloud-computing applications can be used to model such collaboration and support inquiry within the secondary science classroom. Little is known about pre-service teachers’ beliefs related to the envisioned use of this technology in their teaching. These beliefs may influence future integration. This study finds several first-order barriers, such as perceptions that these tools would take too much time to use. Second-order barriers include perceptions that this technology would not promote face-to-face collaboration skills, would create social loafing situations, and beliefs that the technology does not help students understand the nature of science. Suggestions for mitigating these barriers within pre-service education technology courses are discussed. La technologie joue un rôle essentiel pour faciliter la collaboration au sein de la communauté scientifique. Les applications infonuagiques telles que Google Drive peuvent être utilisées pour donner forme à ce type de collaboration et pour appuyer le questionnement dans les cours de sciences du secondaire. On connaît pourtant peu les opinions que se font les futurs enseignants d’une telle utilisation des technologies collaboratives infonuagiques. Or, ces opinions pourraient influencer l’intégration future de ces technologies en salle de classe. Cette étude révèle plusieurs obstacles de premier plan, comme l’idée que l’utilisation de ces outils informatiques prend trop de temps. Parmi les obstacles de second plan, on note les perceptions selon lesquelles cette technologie ne promeut pas les compétences collaboratives de personne à personne, pose des problèmes de gestion de classe et n'aide pas les étudiants à comprendre la nature de la science. Des suggestions sont proposées pour atténuer ces obstacles dans les cours de technologie des programmes d’éducation.

  19. Long distance relationships : the secret for fuel cell success? fuel cell developers and integrators form trans-oceanic partnerships to crash through cultural barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horwitz, J.

    2009-01-01

    The varieties of viable fuel cell applications and widely varying regional market conditions have created global partnerships among entities with complementary attributes. Although it may appear that domestic liaisons among culturally similar players spawned from industry clusters should provide the clearest route to success in this industry, it is the intercontinental groupings which are demonstrating the most potential. This paper discussed the global fuel cell challenge and the vertical integration of multi-national partnerships. The paper also discussed the current global stationary market in perspective. Fuel cells require unique maintenance, support, and refueling including operator instruction and a new supply infrastructure. The paper addressed the fact that fuel cells represent a disruptive technology. A telecom backup status report was also presented. Other topics that were discussed included developing markets as well as specific examples of global organizations such as Canadian Ballard and Danish Dantherm Power and their fuel cell application solutions. It was concluded that after an inconsistent history, fuel cells have finally achieved viability in the real world. However, there is significant cultural resistance to their implementation in the United States. 4 figs

  20. Blood-brain barrier permeability imaging using perfusion computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avsenik Jernej

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. The blood-brain barrier represents the selective diffusion barrier at the level of the cerebral microvascular endothelium. Other functions of blood-brain barrier include transport, signaling and osmoregulation. Endothelial cells interact with surrounding astrocytes, pericytes and neurons. These interactions are crucial to the development, structural integrity and function of the cerebral microvascular endothelium. Dysfunctional blood-brain barrier has been associated with pathologies such as acute stroke, tumors, inflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases.

  1. Barrier mechanisms in the Drosophila blood-brain barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindle, Samantha J; Bainton, Roland J

    2014-01-01

    The invertebrate blood-brain barrier (BBB) field is growing at a rapid pace and, in recent years, studies have shown a physiologic and molecular complexity that has begun to rival its vertebrate counterpart. Novel mechanisms of paracellular barrier maintenance through G-protein coupled receptor signaling were the first demonstrations of the complex adaptive mechanisms of barrier physiology. Building upon this work, the integrity of the invertebrate BBB has recently been shown to require coordinated function of all layers of the compound barrier structure, analogous to signaling between the layers of the vertebrate neurovascular unit. These findings strengthen the notion that many BBB mechanisms are conserved between vertebrates and invertebrates, and suggest that novel findings in invertebrate model organisms will have a significant impact on the understanding of vertebrate BBB functions. In this vein, important roles in coordinating localized and systemic signaling to dictate organism development and growth are beginning to show how the BBB can govern whole animal physiologies. This includes novel functions of BBB gap junctions in orchestrating synchronized neuroblast proliferation, and of BBB secreted antagonists of insulin receptor signaling. These advancements and others are pushing the field forward in exciting new directions. In this review, we provide a synopsis of invertebrate BBB anatomy and physiology, with a focus on insights from the past 5 years, and highlight important areas for future study.

  2. The integration of physiologically-targeted skin care in the management of atopic dermatitis: focus on the use of a cleanser and moisturizer system incorporating a ceramide precursor, filaggrin degradation products, and specific "skin-barrier-friendly" excipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Rosso, James Q; Kircik, Leon H

    2013-07-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) may be considered the "poster disease" for exemplifying the significance of abnormalities of the epidermal barrier that occur predominantly within the stratum corneum (SC) and upper epidermis. Specifically, impairments of the SC permeability barrier, antimicrobial barrier, and immunologic barrier contribute markedly to the fundamental pathophysiology of AD. The multiple clinical sequelae associated with epidermal barrier impairments inherent to AD include dry skin, pruritus, increased skin sensitivity to irritants and allergens, eczematous skin changes, staphylococcal skin and anterior nares colonization, and increase in some cutaneous infections (ie, molluscum contagiosum). This article addresses the pathophysiology of AD with clinically relevant correlations, and discusses the scientific basis of a specially designed cleanser and moisturizer system that incorporates ceramide technology and filaggrin degradation products along with other "barrier-friendly" excipients.

  3. Self-fulfillment despite barriers: volunteer work of people living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, André; Lavigne, René M; MacPherson, Paul

    2009-11-01

    With the decline in the morbidity and mortality associated with HIV infection, the majority of people living with HIV (PWHIV) experience a higher quality of life and longer life expectancy. Since this diagnosis no longer prevents an active lifestyle, many PWHIV are re-integrating into the workplace or are contemplating this possibility. Despite the multiple advantages associated with a return to work, research has identified barriers related to work and HIV infection. These barriers could prevent an important minority of PWHIV who wish to return to work from re-integrating into this environment. In this context, volunteering could be an alternate way to regain an active lifestyle. This research found that volunteer work allowed participants to enrich their social lives, to regain a sense of psychological well-being, and to apply their abilities to the benefit of others. However, participants are restricted by their preference to volunteer for HIV-related organizations in order to avoid social stigma and rejection.

  4. CREVICE CORROSION and PITTING OF HIGH-LEVEL WASTE CONTAINERS: INTEGRATION OF DETERMINISTIC and PROBABILISTIC MODELS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JOSEPH C. FARMER AND R. DANIEL MCCRIGHT

    1997-01-01

    A key component of the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) being designed for containment of spent-fuel and high-level waste at the proposed geological repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada is a two-layer canister. In this particular design, the inner barrier is made of a corrosion resistant material (CRM) such as Alloy 625 or C-22, while the outer barrier is made of a corrosion-allowance material (CAM) such as carbon steel or Monel 400. An integrated predictive model is being developed to account for the effects of localized environmental conditions in the CRM-CAM crevice on the initiation and propagation of pits through the CRM

  5. Regulation of human feto-placental endothelial barrier integrity by vascular endothelial growth factors: competitive interplay between VEGF-A165a, VEGF-A165b, PIGF and VE-cadherin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Vincent; Bates, David O; Leach, Lopa

    2017-12-01

    The human placenta nourishes and protects the developing foetus whilst influencing maternal physiology for fetal advantage. It expresses several members of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family including the pro-angiogenic/pro-permeability VEGF-A 165 a isoform, the anti-angiogenic VEGF-A 165 b, placental growth factor (PIGF) and their receptors, VEGFR1 and VEGFR2. Alterations in the ratio of these factors during gestation and in complicated pregnancies have been reported; however, the impact of this on feto-placental endothelial barrier integrity is unknown. The present study investigated the interplay of these factors on junctional occupancy of VE-cadherin and macromolecular leakage in human endothelial monolayers and the perfused placental microvascular bed. Whilst VEGF-A 165 a (50 ng/ml) increased endothelial monolayer albumin permeability ( P 0.05) or PlGF ( P >0.05) did not. Moreover, VEGF-A 165 b (100 ng/ml; P 0.05) inhibited VEGF-A 165 a-induced permeability when added singly. PlGF abolished the VEGF-A 165 b-induced reduction in VEGF-A 165 a-mediated permeability ( P >0.05); PlGF was found to compete with VEGF-A 165 b for binding to Flt-1 at equimolar affinity. Junctional occupancy of VE-cadherin matched alterations in permeability. In the perfused microvascular bed, VEGF-A 165 b did not induce microvascular leakage but inhibited and reversed VEGF-A 165 a-induced loss of junctional VE-cadherin and tracer leakage. These results indicate that the anti-angiogenic VEGF-A 165 b isoform does not increase permeability in human placental microvessels or HUVEC primary cells and can interrupt VEGF-A 165 a-induced permeability. Moreover, the interplay of these isoforms with PIGF (and s-flt1) suggests that the ratio of these three factors may be important in determining the placental and endothelial barrier in normal and complicated pregnancies. © 2017 The Author(s).

  6. High Integrity Can Design Interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaber, E.L.

    1998-01-01

    The National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program is chartered with facilitating the disposition of DOE-owned spent nuclear fuel to allow disposal at a geologic repository. This is done through coordination with the repository program and by assisting DOE Site owners of SNF with needed information, standardized requirements, packaging approaches, etc. The High Integrity Can (HIC) will be manufactured to provide a substitute or barrier enhancement for normal fuel geometry and cladding. The can would be nested inside the DOE standardized canister which is designed to interface with the repository waste package. The HIC approach may provide the following benefits over typical canning approaches for DOE SNF. (a) It allows ready calculation and management of criticality issues for miscellaneous. (b) It segments and further isolates damaged or otherwise problem materials from normal SNF in the repository package. (c) It provides a very long term corrosion barrier. (d) It provides an extra internal pressure barrier for particulates, gaseous fission products, hydrogen, and water vapor. (e) It delays any potential release of fission products to the repository environment. (f) It maintains an additional level of fuel geometry control during design basis accidents, rock-fall, and seismic events. (g) When seal welded, it could provide the additional containment required for shipments involving plutonium content in excess of 20 Ci. (10 CFR 71.63.b) if integrated with an appropriate cask design. Long term corrosion protection is central to the HIC concept. The material selected for the HIC (Hastelloy C-22) has undergone extensive testing for repository service. The most severe theoretical interactions between iron, repository water containing chlorides and other repository construction materials have been tested. These expected chemical species have not been shown capable of corroding the selected HIC material. Therefore, the HIC should provide a significant barrier to DOE SNF dispersal

  7. High Integrity Can Design Interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaber, E.L.

    1998-08-01

    The National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program is chartered with facilitating the disposition of DOE-owned spent nuclear fuel to allow disposal at a geologic repository. This is done through coordination with the repository program and by assisting DOE Site owners of SNF with needed information, standardized requirements, packaging approaches, etc. The High Integrity Can (HIC) will be manufactured to provide a substitute or barrier enhancement for normal fuel geometry and cladding. The can would be nested inside the DOE standardized canister which is designed to interface with the repository waste package. The HIC approach may provide the following benefits over typical canning approaches for DOE SNF. (a) It allows ready calculation and management of criticality issues for miscellaneous. (b) It segments and further isolates damaged or otherwise problem materials from normal SNF in the repository package. (c) It provides a very long term corrosion barrier. (d) It provides an extra internal pressure barrier for particulates, gaseous fission products, hydrogen, and water vapor. (e) It delays any potential release of fission products to the repository environment. (f) It maintains an additional level of fuel geometry control during design basis accidents, rock-fall, and seismic events. (g) When seal welded, it could provide the additional containment required for shipments involving plutonium content in excess of 20 Ci. (10 CFR 71.63.b) if integrated with an appropriate cask design. Long term corrosion protection is central to the HIC concept. The material selected for the HIC (Hastelloy C-22) has undergone extensive testing for repository service. The most severe theoretical interactions between iron, repository water containing chlorides and other repository construction materials have been tested. These expected chemical species have not been shown capable of corroding the selected HIC material. Therefore, the HIC should provide a significant barrier to DOE SNF dispersal

  8. Engineered barrier development for a nuclear waste repository in basalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.J.

    1980-05-01

    The BWIP Engineered Barrier Program has been developed to provide an integrated approach to the development of site-specific Engineered Barrier assemblages for a repository located in basalt. The goal of this program is to specify engineered and natural barriers which will ensure that nuclear and non-radioactive hazardous materials emplaced in a repository in basalt do not exceed acceptable rates of release to the biosphere. A wide range of analytical and experimental activities related to the basalt repository environment, waste package environment, waste/barrier/rock interactions, and barrier performance assessment provide the basis for selection of systems capable of meeting licensing requirements. Work has concentrated on specifying and testing natural and man-made materials which can be used to plug boreholes in basalt and which can be used as multiple barriers to surround nuclear waste forms and containers. The Engineered Barriers Program is divided into two major activities: multiple barrier studies and borehole plugging. 8 figures, 4 tables

  9. Permeability Barrier Generation in the Martian Lithosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schools, Joe; Montési, Laurent

    2015-11-01

    Permeability barriers develop when a magma produced in the interior of a planet rises into the cooler lithosphere and crystallizes more rapidly than the lithosphere can deform (Sparks and Parmentier, 1991). Crystallization products may then clog the porous network in which melt is propagating, reducing the permeability to almost zero, i.e., forming a permeability barrier. Subsequent melts cannot cross the barrier. Permeability barriers have been useful to explain variations in crustal thickness at mid-ocean ridges on Earth (Magde et al., 1997; Hebert and Montési, 2011; Montési et al., 2011). We explore here under what conditions permeability barriers may form on Mars.We use the MELTS thermodynamic calculator (Ghiorso and Sack, 1995; Ghiorso et al., 2002; Asimow et al., 2004) in conjunction with estimated Martian mantle compositions (Morgan and Anders, 1979; Wänke and Dreibus, 1994; Lodders and Fegley, 1997; Sanloup et al., 1999; Taylor 2013) to model the formation of permeability barriers in the lithosphere of Mars. In order to represent potential past and present conditions of Mars, we vary the lithospheric thickness, mantle potential temperature (heat flux), oxygen fugacity, and water content.Our results show that permeability layers can develop in the thermal boundary layer of the simulated Martian lithosphere if the mantle potential temperature is higher than ~1500°C. The various Martian mantle compositions yield barriers in the same locations, under matching variable conditions. There is no significant difference in barrier location over the range of accepted Martian oxygen fugacity values. Water content is the most significant influence on barrier development as it reduces the temperature of crystallization, allowing melt to rise further into the lithosphere. Our lower temperature and thicker lithosphere model runs, which are likely the most similar to modern Mars, show no permeability barrier generation. Losing the possibility of having a permeability

  10. 38 CFR 3.810 - Clothing allowance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Clothing allowance. 3.810..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Special Benefits § 3.810 Clothing allowance. (a) Except... therefor, to an annual clothing allowance as specified in 38 U.S.C. 1162. The annual clothing allowance is...

  11. 45 CFR 2543.27 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 2543.27 Section 2543.27 Public... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 2543.27 Allowable costs. For each kind of recipient, there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable costs. Allowability of...

  12. 34 CFR 304.21 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allowable costs. 304.21 Section 304.21 Education... Grantee § 304.21 Allowable costs. In addition to the allowable costs established in the Education... allowable expenditures by projects funded under the program: (a) Cost of attendance, as defined in Title IV...

  13. 45 CFR 602.22 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 602.22 Section 602.22 Public... Requirements § 602.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1) The allowable costs of the grantees, subgrantees and cost-type contractors, including allowable costs...

  14. 2 CFR 215.27 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allowable costs. 215.27 Section 215.27... § 215.27 Allowable costs. For each kind of recipient, there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable costs. Allowability of costs shall be determined in accordance with the cost principles...

  15. 24 CFR 84.27 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allowable costs. 84.27 Section 84....27 Allowable costs. For each kind of recipient, there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable costs. Allowability of costs shall be determined in accordance with the cost principles applicable...

  16. 50 CFR 80.15 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 80.15 Section 80.15... WILDLIFE RESTORATION AND DINGELL-JOHNSON SPORT FISH RESTORATION ACTS § 80.15 Allowable costs. (a) What are allowable costs? Allowable costs are costs that are necessary and reasonable for accomplishment of approved...

  17. 49 CFR 266.11 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 266.11 Section 266.11... TRANSPORTATION ACT § 266.11 Allowable costs. Allowable costs include only the following costs which are properly allocable to the work performed: Planning and program operation costs which are allowed under Federal...

  18. 46 CFR 154.440 - Allowable stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.440 Section 154.440 Shipping COAST... Tank Type A § 154.440 Allowable stress. (a) The allowable stresses for an independent tank type A must... Commandant (CG-522). (b) A greater allowable stress than required in paragraph (a)(1) of this section may be...

  19. Overcoming Barriers to Classroom Technology Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Daniel P.

    2015-01-01

    Technology-savvy teachers are often the "go to" staff members in schools for their colleagues' technology issues. These teachers are seen as leaders within their schools with respect to technology and often do not understand their peers' difficulties when bringing technology into the classroom. Understanding both the reasons teachers may…

  20. Omnidirectional ventilated acoustic barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hai-long; Zhu, Yi-fan; Liang, Bin; Yang, Jing; Yang, Jun; Cheng, Jian-chun

    2017-11-01

    As an important problem in acoustics, sound insulation finds applications in a great variety of situations. In the existing schemes, however, there has always been a trade-off between the thinness of sound-insulating devices and their ventilating capabilities, limiting their potentials in the control of low-frequency sound in high ventilation environments. Here, we design and experimentally implement an omnidirectional acoustic barrier with a planar profile, subwavelength thickness ( 0.18 λ ), yet high ventilation. The proposed mechanism is based on the interference between the resonant scattering of discrete states and the background scattering of continuous states which induces a Fano-like asymmetric transmission profile. Benefitting from the binary-structured design of the coiled unit and hollow pipe, it maximally simplifies the design and fabrication while ensuring the ventilation for all the non-resonant units with open tubes. The simulated and measured results agree well, showing the effectiveness of our proposed mechanism to block low frequency sound coming from various directions while allowing 63% of the air flow to pass. We anticipate our design to open routes to design sound insulators and to enable applications in traditionally unattainable cases such as those calling for noise reduction and cooling simultaneously.

  1. Multilayer moisture barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankow, Joel W; Jorgensen, Gary J; Terwilliger, Kent M; Glick, Stephen H; Isomaki, Nora; Harkonen, Kari; Turkulainen, Tommy

    2015-04-21

    A moisture barrier, device or product having a moisture barrier or a method of fabricating a moisture barrier having at least a polymer layer, and interfacial layer, and a barrier layer. The polymer layer may be fabricated from any suitable polymer including, but not limited to, fluoropolymers such as polyethylene terephthalate (PET) or polyethylene naphthalate (PEN), or ethylene-tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE). The interfacial layer may be formed by atomic layer deposition (ALD). In embodiments featuring an ALD interfacial layer, the deposited interfacial substance may be, but is not limited to, Al.sub.2O.sub.3, AlSiO.sub.x, TiO.sub.2, and an Al.sub.2O.sub.3/TiO.sub.2 laminate. The barrier layer associated with the interfacial layer may be deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). The barrier layer may be a SiO.sub.xN.sub.y film.

  2. Thermal barriers for compartments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreutzer, Cory J.; Lustbader, Jason A.

    2017-10-17

    An aspect of the present disclosure is a thermal barrier that includes a core layer having a first surface, a second surface, and a first edge, and a first outer layer that includes a third surface and a second edge, where the third surface substantially contacts the first surface, the core layer is configured to minimize conductive heat transfer through the barrier, and the first outer layer is configured to maximize reflection of light away from the barrier.

  3. 40 CFR 265.113 - Closure; time allowed for closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Closure and Post-Closure § 265.113 Closure; time allowed for closure. (a) Within 90... assessment required under RCRA section 3019, and closure and post-closure plans, and updated cost estimates... sludges to the extent practicable without impairing the integrity of the liner(s), if any. (3) Removal of...

  4. Tunnel barrier schottky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Rongming; Cao, Yu; Li, Zijian; Williams, Adam J.

    2018-02-20

    A diode includes: a semiconductor substrate; a cathode metal layer contacting a bottom of the substrate; a semiconductor drift layer on the substrate; a graded aluminum gallium nitride (AlGaN) semiconductor barrier layer on the drift layer and having a larger bandgap than the drift layer, the barrier layer having a top surface and a bottom surface between the drift layer and the top surface, the barrier layer having an increasing aluminum composition from the bottom surface to the top surface; and an anode metal layer directly contacting the top surface of the barrier layer.

  5. Allowance Holdings and Transfers Data Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Allowance Holdings and Transfers Data Inventory contains measured data on holdings and transactions of allowances under the NOx Budget Trading Program (NBP), a...

  6. Clean Air Markets - Allowances Query Wizard

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Allowances Query Wizard is part of a suite of Clean Air Markets-related tools that are accessible at http://camddataandmaps.epa.gov/gdm/index.cfm. The Allowances...

  7. Potential in vitro model for testing the effect of exposure to nanoparticles on the lung alveolar epithelial barrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Derk

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary barrier function plays a pivotal role in protection from inhaled particles. However, some nano-scaled particles, such as carbon nanotubes (CNT, have demonstrated the ability to penetrate this barrier in animal models, resulting in an unusual, rapid interstitial fibrosis. To delineate the underlying mechanism and specific bio-effect of inhaled nanoparticles in respiratory toxicity, models of lung epithelial barriers are required that allow accurate representation of in vivo systems; however, there is currently a lack of consistent methods to do so. Thus, this work demonstrates a well-characterized in vitro model of pulmonary barrier function using Calu-3 cells, and provides the experimental conditions required for achieving tight junction complexes in cell culture, with trans-epithelial electrical resistance measurement used as a biosensor for proper barrier formation and integrity. The effects of cell number and serum constituents have been examined and we found that changes in each of these parameters can greatly affect barrier formation. Our data demonstrate that use of 5.0 × 104 Calu-3 cells/well in the Transwell cell culture system, with 10% serum concentrations in culture media is optimal for assessing epithelial barrier function. In addition, we have utilized CNT exposure to analyze the dose-, time-, and nanoparticle property-dependent alterations of epithelial barrier permeability as a means to validate this model. Such high throughput in vitro cell models of the epithelium could be used to predict the interaction of other nanoparticles with lung epithelial barriers to mimic respiratory behavior in vivo, thus providing essential tools and bio-sensing techniques that can be uniformly employed.

  8. The Integrated Renovation Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galiotto, Nicolas

    is applied to two single-family homes. In practice, such a scheme allowed most informational barriers to sustainable home renovation to be overcome. The homeowners were better integrated and their preferences and immaterial values were better taken into account. They assimilated the multiple benefits......Buildings are one of the largest end users of energy. In the countries of the European Union, the building sector accounts for nearly 40% of the final energy use and represents one of the largest potentials for the reduction of energy use and of greenhouse gas emissions. Furthermore, today....... In this thesis, examples of nearly zero energy single-family home renovations are presented. The most relevant existing decision support methods and tools applicable to sustainable renovation processes are reviewed and their applicability to high performance sustainable renovation is discussed. A qualitative...

  9. Protective Barrier Safety Assessment for Subsurface Radioactive Waste Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prozorov, L.B.; Veselov, E.L.; Rybakov, A.I.

    1999-01-01

    Protective barrier integrity is a guarantee of radioactive waste storage safety. Therefore protective safety assessment during long term radioactive storage is very important for subsurface repositories. In this paper in-sity testing results of changing surrounding rock properties and constructional material of protective packages and the storage are presented. Storage site hydrogeological conditions are reviewed. Possible action of protective barrier integrity destruction also as probable radionuclide migration into Environment are demonstrated and analyzed Partial destruction of protective barrier integrity occurs during long-term storage operation and this fact increases hazard of radionuclide migration into Environment

  10. 20 CFR 632.258 - Allowable activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allowable activities. 632.258 Section 632.258... EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAMS Summer Youth Employment and Training Programs § 632.258 Allowable activities. Allowable activities are those listed in § 632.78-80 except that community service employment is not...

  11. 42 CFR 417.802 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 417.802 Section 417.802 Public... PLANS Health Care Prepayment Plans § 417.802 Allowable costs. (a) General rule. The costs that are considered allowable for HCPP reimbursement are the same as those for reasonable cost HMOs and CMPs specified...

  12. 45 CFR 1180.56 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 1180.56 Section 1180.56 Public... by a Grantee General Administrative Responsibilities § 1180.56 Allowable costs. (a) Determination of costs allowable under a grant is made in accordance with government-wide cost principles in applicable...

  13. 45 CFR 2541.220 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 2541.220 Section 2541.220 Public... Post-Award Requirements § 2541.220 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for— (1) The allowable costs of the grantees, subgrantees and cost-type contractors...

  14. 50 CFR 85.41 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 85.41 Section 85.41... Use/Acceptance of Funds § 85.41 Allowable costs. (a) Allowable grant costs are limited to those costs... applicable Federal cost principles in 43 CFR 12.60(b). Purchase of informational signs, program signs, and...

  15. 43 CFR 12.927 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 12.927 Section 12.927... COST PRINCIPLES FOR ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Uniform Administrative Requirements for Grants and Agreements... Requirements § 12.927 Allowable costs. Federal awarding agencies shall determine allowable costs in accordance...

  16. 46 CFR 154.428 - Allowable stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.428 Section 154.428 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR... § 154.428 Allowable stress. The membrane tank and the supporting insulation must have allowable stresses...

  17. 46 CFR 154.447 - Allowable stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.447 Section 154.447 Shipping COAST... Tank Type B § 154.447 Allowable stress. (a) An independent tank type B designed from bodies of revolution must have allowable stresses 3 determined by the following formulae: 3 See Appendix B for stress...

  18. 34 CFR 642.40 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allowable costs. 642.40 Section 642.40 Education...? § 642.40 Allowable costs. Allowable project costs may include the following costs reasonably related to carrying out a Training Program project: (a) Rental of space, if space is not available at a sponsoring...

  19. 34 CFR 675.33 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... costs. (a)(1) Allowable and unallowable costs. Except as provided in paragraph (a)(2) of this section, costs reasonably related to carrying out the programs described in § 675.32 are allowable. (2) Costs... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allowable costs. 675.33 Section 675.33 Education...

  20. Gliovascular and cytokine interactions modulate brain endothelial barrier in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaitanya, Ganta V; Cromer, Walter E; Wells, Shannon R; Jennings, Merilyn H; Couraud, P Olivier; Romero, Ignacio A; Weksler, Babette; Erdreich-Epstein, Anat; Mathis, J Michael; Minagar, Alireza; Alexander, J Steven

    2011-11-23

    The glio-vascular unit (G-unit) plays a prominent role in maintaining homeostasis of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and disturbances in cells forming this unit may seriously dysregulate BBB. The direct and indirect effects of cytokines on cellular components of the BBB are not yet unclear. The present study compares the effects of cytokines and cytokine-treated astrocytes on brain endothelial barrier. 3-dimensional transwell co-cultures of brain endothelium and related-barrier forming cells with astrocytes were used to investigate gliovascular barrier responses to cytokines during pathological stresses. Gliovascular barrier was measured using trans-endothelial electrical resistance (TEER), a sensitive index of in vitro barrier integrity. We found that neither TNF-α, IL-1β or IFN-γ directly reduced barrier in human or mouse brain endothelial cells or ECV-304 barrier (independent of cell viability/metabolism), but found that astrocyte exposure to cytokines in co-culture significantly reduced endothelial (and ECV-304) barrier. These results indicate that the barrier established by human and mouse brain endothelial cells (and other cells) may respond positively to cytokines alone, but that during pathological conditions, cytokines dysregulate the barrier forming cells indirectly through astrocyte activation involving reorganization of junctions, matrix, focal adhesion or release of barrier modulating factors (e.g. oxidants, MMPs). © 2011 Chaitanya et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  1. Barreras y facilitadores de la coordinación asistencial en dos organizaciones sanitarias integradas en Cataluña Barriers and facilitators to health care coordination in two integrated health care organizations in Catalonia (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Vargas Lorenzo

    2007-04-01

    exploratory, descriptive, qualitative study was carried out based on case studies by means of document analysis and semi-structured individual interviews. A criterion sample of cases and, for each case, of documents and informants was selected. Study cases consisted of the Consorci Sanitari del Maresme (CSdM and the Consorci Sanitari de Terrassa/Fundació Hospital Sant Llàtzer (FHSLL. A total of 127 documents were analyzed and 29 informants were interviewed: IDS managers (n = 10, technical staff (n = 5, operational unit managers (n = 5 and health professionals (n = 9. Content analysis was conducted, with mixed generation of categories and segmentation by cases and subjects. Results: CSdM and CSdT/FHSLL are health care organizations with backward vertical integration, total services production, and real (CSdM and virtual (CSdT/FHSLL ownership. Funds are allocated by care level. The governing body is centralized in CSdM and decentralized in CSdT/FHSLL. In both organizations, the global objectives are oriented toward improving coordination and efficiency but are not in line with those of the operational units. Both organizations present a functional structure with integration of support functions and utilize mechanisms for collaboration between care levels based on work processes standardization. Conclusions: Both IDS present facilitators and barriers to health care coordination. To improve coordination, changes in external elements (payment mechanism and in internal elements (governing body role, organizational structure and coordination mechanisms are required.

  2. "Targeted disruption of the epithelial-barrier by Helicobacter pylori"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wroblewski Lydia E

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Helicobacter pylori colonizes the human gastric epithelium and induces chronic gastritis, which can lead to gastric cancer. Through cell-cell contacts the gastric epithelium forms a barrier to protect underlying tissue from pathogenic bacteria; however, H. pylori have evolved numerous strategies to perturb the integrity of the gastric barrier. In this review, we summarize recent research into the mechanisms through which H. pylori disrupts intercellular junctions and disrupts the gastric epithelial barrier.

  3. Transforming Education: Overcoming Barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Jane L.; Goren, Paul D.

    Barriers to progress in educational reform exist inside and outside the education system. Some arise where new practices encounter traditional expectations and boundaries, but others go much deeper than education, such as poverty, racism, local political conflicts, and human resistance to change. The following five categories of barriers are…

  4. Mechanical control of the endothelial barrier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldenburg, Joppe; de Rooij, Johan

    The integrity of the endothelial barrier is controlled by the combined action of chemical and mechanical signaling systems. Permeability-regulating factors signal through small GTPases to regulate the architecture of the cytoskeleton and this has a strong impact on the morphology and stability of

  5. Permanent isolation surface barrier development plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wing, N.R.

    1994-01-01

    The exhumation and treatment of wastes may not always be the preferred alternative in the remediation of a waste site. In-place disposal alternatives, under certain circumstances, may be the most desirable alternatives to use in the protection of human health and the environment. The implementation of an in-place disposal alternative will likely require some type of protective covering that will provide long-term isolation of the wastes from the accessible environment. Even if the wastes are exhumed and treated, a long-term barrier may still be needed to adequately dispose of the treated wastes or any remaining waste residuals. Currently, no {open_quotes}proven{close_quotes} long-term barrier is available. The Hanford Site Permanent Isolation Surface Barrier Development Program (BDP) was organized to develop the technology needed to provide a long-term surface barrier capability for the Hanford Site. The permanent isolation barrier technology also could be used at other sites. Permanent isolation barriers use engineered layers of natural materials to create an integrated structure with redundant protective features. Drawings of conceptual permanent isolation surface barriers are shown. The natural construction materials (e.g., fine soil, sand, gravel, riprap, asphalt) have been selected to optimize barrier performance and longevity. The objective of current designs is to use natural materials to develop a maintenance-free permanent isolation surface barrier that isolates wastes for a minimum of 1,000 years by limiting water drainage to near-zero amounts; reducing the likelihood of plant, animal, and human intrusion; controlling the exhalation of noxious gases; and minimizing erosion-related problems.

  6. Barrierer i lægesamtalen med indvandrerpatienten

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sodemann, Morten; Kristensen, Trine Rønde; Sångren, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Summary: Barriers to communication between clinicians and immigrants Clinicians lack cultural competencies and communication skills relevant to clinical decision-making in cases of language and cultural barriers. Life course perspectives and basic understanding of life in exile are not integrated...

  7. Barriers to Successful Treatment Completion in Child Sexual Abuse Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Paul; Scribano, Philip; Stevens, Jack

    2012-01-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) often requires psychological treatment to address the symptoms of victim trauma. Barriers to entry and completion of counseling services can compromise long-term well-being. An integrated medical and mental health evaluation and treatment model of a child advocacy center (CAC) has the potential to reduce barriers to mental…

  8. Barrierer i lægesamtalen med indvandrerpatienten

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sodemann, Morten; Kristensen, Trine Rønde; Sångren, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Summary: Barriers to communication between clinicians and immigrants Clinicians lack cultural competencies and communication skills relevant to clinical decision-making in cases of language and cultural barriers. Life course perspectives and basic understanding of life in exile are not integrated......, listen and avoid guessing....

  9. Effects of barrier fluctuation on the tunneling dynamics in the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We present a numerical investigation of the tunneling dynamics of a particle moving in a bistable potential with fluctuating barrier which is coupled to a non-integrable classical system and study the interplay between classical chaos and barrier fluctuation in the tunneling dynamics. We found that the coupling of the ...

  10. Practical Application of Sheet Lead for Sound Barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lead Industries Association, New York, NY.

    Techniques for improving sound barriers through the use of lead sheeting are described. To achieve an ideal sound barrier a material should consist of the following properties--(1) high density, (2) freedom from stiffness, (3) good damping capacity, and (4) integrity as a non-permeable membrane. Lead combines these desired properties to a greater…

  11. Path Integrals in Quantum Mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louko, J

    2005-01-01

    Jean Zinn-Justin's textbook Path Integrals in Quantum Mechanics aims to familiarize the reader with the path integral as a calculational tool in quantum mechanics and field theory. The emphasis is on quantum statistical mechanics, starting with the partition function Tr exp(-β H) and proceeding through the diffusion equation to barrier penetration problems and their semiclassical limit. The 'real time' path integral is defined via analytic continuation and used for the path-integral representation of the nonrelativistic S-matrix and its perturbative expansion. Holomorphic and Grassmannian path integrals are introduced and applied to nonrelativistic quantum field theory. There is also a brief discussion of path integrals in phase space. The introduction includes a brief historical review of path integrals, supported by a bibliography with some 40 entries. As emphasized in the introduction, mathematical rigour is not a central issue in the book. This allows the text to present the calculational techniques in a very readable manner: much of the text consists of worked-out examples, such as the quartic anharmonic oscillator in the barrier penetration chapter. At the end of each chapter there are exercises, some of which are of elementary coursework type, but the majority are more in the style of extended examples. Most of the exercises indeed include the solution or a sketch thereof. The book assumes minimal previous knowledge of quantum mechanics, and some basic quantum mechanical notation is collected in an appendix. The material has a large overlap with selected chapters in the author's thousand-page textbook Quantum Field Theory and Critical Phenomena (2002 Oxford: Clarendon). The stand-alone scope of the present work has, however, allowed a more focussed organization of this material, especially in the chapters on, respectively, holomorphic and Grassmannian path integrals. In my view the book accomplishes its aim admirably and is eminently usable as a textbook

  12. The Clean Air Act and bonus allowances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markey, E.J.; Moorhead, C.J.

    1991-01-01

    This article discusses how utility companies can benefit in the form of bonus sulfur dioxide allowances from the Environmental Protection Agency by investing in renewable energy sources such as wind and promoting conservation. Topics discussed include the Clean Air Act Amendments, acid rain, energy conservation, renewable energy sources, and the procedure for gaining bonus allowances

  13. 36 CFR 1210.27 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 1210.27 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION GENERAL... Management § 1210.27 Allowable costs. For each kind of recipient, there is a set of Federal principles for... Educational Institutions.” The allowability of costs incurred by hospitals is determined in accordance with...

  14. 20 CFR 631.84 - Allowable projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allowable projects. 631.84 Section 631.84... THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Disaster Relief Employment Assistance § 631.84 Allowable projects...) Shall be used exclusively to provide employment on projects that provide food, clothing, shelter and...

  15. 36 CFR 1207.22 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... uniform cost accounting standards that comply with cost principles acceptable to the Federal agency. ... GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 1207.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use... increment above allowable costs) to the grantee or subgrantee. (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind...

  16. 44 CFR 13.22 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... uniform cost accounting standards that comply with cost principles acceptable to the Federal agency. ... STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 13.22 Allowable costs. (a... increment above allowable costs) to the grantee or subgrantee. (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind...

  17. 24 CFR 85.22 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... uniform cost accounting standards that comply with cost principles acceptable to the Federal agency. ... TRIBAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 85.22 Allowable costs. (a... increment above allowable costs) to the grantee or subgrantee. (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind...

  18. 29 CFR 97.22 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... accounting standards that comply with cost principles acceptable to the Federal agency. [53 FR 8069, 8087... LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 97.22 Allowable costs. (a... increment above allowable costs) to the grantee or subgrantee. (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind...

  19. 34 CFR 74.27 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Procedures or uniform cost accounting standards that comply with cost principles acceptable to ED. (b) The... OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial... principles for determining allowable costs. Allowability of costs are determined in accordance with the cost...

  20. 22 CFR 135.22 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Procedures, or uniform cost accounting standards that comply with cost principles acceptable to the Federal... AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 135.22 Allowable... principles. For each kind of organization, there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable...

  1. 32 CFR 33.22 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... accounting standards that comply with cost principles acceptable to the Federal agency. ... Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 33.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of... allowable costs) to the grantee or subgrantee. (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization...

  2. 43 CFR 12.62 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 12.62 Section 12.62... COST PRINCIPLES FOR ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Uniform Administrative Requirements for Grants and Cooperative Agreements to State and Local Governments Post-Award Requirements § 12.62 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on...

  3. 45 CFR 34.4 - Allowable claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... claims for damage or loss when traveling between place of residence and duty station, or when the loss or... in exceptional cases may be allowed by the Claims Officer. (9) Transportation or travel losses... carrier, agent or agency of the government, or private conveyance, may be allowed only if the property is...

  4. Recycler barrier RF buckets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhat, C.M.; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01

    The Recycler Ring at Fermilab uses a barrier rf systems for all of its rf manipulations. In this paper, I will give an overview of historical perspective on barrier rf system, the longitudinal beam dynamics issues, aspects of rf linearization to produce long flat bunches and methods used for emittance measurements of the beam in the RR barrier rf buckets. Current rf manipulation schemes used for antiproton beam stacking and longitudinal momentum mining of the RR beam for the Tevatron collider operation are explained along with their importance in spectacular success of the Tevatron luminosity performance.

  5. Converse Barrier Certificate Theorem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafael; Sloth, Christoffer

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a converse barrier certificate theorem for a generic dynamical system.We show that a barrier certificate exists for any safe dynamical system defined on a compact manifold. Other authors have developed a related result, by assuming that the dynamical system has no singular...... points in the considered subset of the state space. In this paper, we redefine the standard notion of safety to comply with generic dynamical systems with multiple singularities. Afterwards, we prove the converse barrier certificate theorem and illustrate the differences between ours and previous work...

  6. Converse Barrier Certificate Theorems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafael; Sloth, Christoffer

    2016-01-01

    This paper shows that a barrier certificate exists for any safe dynamical system. Specifically, we prove converse barrier certificate theorems for a class of structurally stable dynamical systems. Other authors have developed a related result by assuming that the dynamical system has neither...... singular points nor closed orbits. In this paper, we redefine the standard notion of safety to comply with dynamical systems with multiple singular elements. Hereafter, we prove the converse barrier certificate theorems and highlight the differences between our results and previous work by a number...

  7. Field applications of a radon barrier to reduce indoor airborne progeny

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Culot, M.V.J.; Olson, H.G.; Schiager, K.J.

    1978-01-01

    The use of uranium mill tailings in the foundations of dwellings has resulted in indoor radon progeny concentrations and gamma exposures in excess of levels presently allowed for the general public. An account is given of the applications of an epoxy coating on the indoor faces of the concrete foundations of three buildings in Grand Junction, Colorado. Epoxy barriers were shown to be effective for preventing radon influx into structures. Gamma exposure rates must be analyzed to ensure that buildup behind the barrier will not introduce an unacceptable gamma exposure level. The use of a sealant is especially economical in situations where structural integrity may be jeopardized by physical removal of uranium mill tailings. (author)

  8. Utility allowed returns and market extremes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murry, D.A.; Nan, G.D.; Harrington, B.M.

    1993-01-01

    In recent years interest rates have fluctuated from exceptionally high levels in the early 1980s to their current levels, the lowest in two decades. Observers and analysts generally have assumed that allowed returns by regulatory commissions follow the movement of interest rates; indeed some analysts use a risk premium method to estimate the cost of common equity, assuming a constant and linear relationship between interest rates and the cost of common equity. That suggests we could expect a relatively stable relationship between interest rates and allowed returns, as well. However, a simple comparison of allowed returns and interest rates shows that this is not the case in recent years. The relationship between market interest rates and the returns allowed by commissions varies and is obviously a great deal more complicated. Empirically, there appears to be only a narrow range where market interest rates significantly affect the allowed returns on common stock set by state commissions, at least for electric and combination utilities. If rates are at historically low levels, allowed returns based largely on market rates will hasten subsequent rate filings, and commissions appear to look beyond the low rate levels. Conversely, it appears that regulators do not let historically high market rates determine allowed returns either. At either high or low interest levels, caution seems to be the policy

  9. Optimistic barrier synchronization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicol, David M.

    1992-01-01

    Barrier synchronization is fundamental operation in parallel computation. In many contexts, at the point a processor enters a barrier it knows that it has already processed all the work required of it prior to synchronization. The alternative case, when a processor cannot enter a barrier with the assurance that it has already performed all the necessary pre-synchronization computation, is treated. The problem arises when the number of pre-sychronization messages to be received by a processor is unkown, for example, in a parallel discrete simulation or any other computation that is largely driven by an unpredictable exchange of messages. We describe an optimistic O(log sup 2 P) barrier algorithm for such problems, study its performance on a large-scale parallel system, and consider extensions to general associative reductions as well as associative parallel prefix computations.

  10. Barrier Infrared Detector (BIRD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A recent breakthrough in MWIR detector design, has resulted in a high operating temperature (HOT) barrier infrared detector (BIRD) that is capable of spectral...

  11. The future(s) of emission allowances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenzweig, K.M.; Villarreal, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) established a sulfur dioxide emission allowance system to be implemented by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Under the two-phase implementation of the program, electric utilities responsible for approximately 70 percent of SO 2 emissions in the United States will be issued emission allowances, each representing authorization to emit one ton of sulfur dioxide during a specified calendar year or a later year. Allowances will be issued to utilities with electric-generating units affected by the CAAA limits, as well as to certain entities which may choose to opt-in to the program. Each utility or other emission source must hold a number of allowances at least equal to its total SO 2 emissions during any given year. Unused allowances may be sold, traded, or held in inventory for use against SO 2 emissions in future years. Anyone can buy and hold allowances, including affected utilities, non-utility companies, SO 2 allowances brokers and dealers, environmental groups, and individuals. During Phase I of the program, allowances equivalent to approximately 6.4 million tons of SO 2 emissions will be allocated annually to a group of 110 large, high-SO 2 -emitting power plants. In Phase II, virtually all power-generating utilities (representing approximately 99.4 percent of total US utility emissions) will be subject to the program. The number of allowances issued will increase to approximately 8.9 million a year, with certain special allocations raising the actual number issued to 9.48 million between the years 2000 to 2009, and 8.95 million yearly thereafter. Thus, the CAAA goal of annual emissions of 9 million tons should be achieved by 2010, when virtually all US emission sources will be participating in the program

  12. Keynes, family allowances and Keynesian economic policy

    OpenAIRE

    Pressman, Steven

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides a short history of family allowances and documents the fact that Keynes supported family allowances as early as the 1920s, continuing through the 1930s and early 1940s. Keynes saw this policy as a way to help households raise their children and also as a way to increase consumption without reducing business investment. The paper goes on to argue that a policy of family allowances is consistent with Keynesian economics. Finally, the paper uses the Luxembourg Income Study to...

  13. 29 CFR 15.22 - Allowable claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... may be considered and allowed. For the purpose of subpart B of this part, an alternative work location..., including property in the custody of a carrier, an agent or agency of the Government, or the claimant. (3...

  14. Maximum allowable load on wheeled mobile manipulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habibnejad Korayem, M.; Ghariblu, H.

    2003-01-01

    This paper develops a computational technique for finding the maximum allowable load of mobile manipulator during a given trajectory. The maximum allowable loads which can be achieved by a mobile manipulator during a given trajectory are limited by the number of factors; probably the dynamic properties of mobile base and mounted manipulator, their actuator limitations and additional constraints applied to resolving the redundancy are the most important factors. To resolve extra D.O.F introduced by the base mobility, additional constraint functions are proposed directly in the task space of mobile manipulator. Finally, in two numerical examples involving a two-link planar manipulator mounted on a differentially driven mobile base, application of the method to determining maximum allowable load is verified. The simulation results demonstrates the maximum allowable load on a desired trajectory has not a unique value and directly depends on the additional constraint functions which applies to resolve the motion redundancy

  15. Future prices and market for SO2 allowances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanghi, A.; Joseph, A.; Michael, K.; Munro, W.; Wang, J.

    1993-01-01

    The expected price of SO 2 emission allowances is an important issue in energy and integrated resource planning activities. For example, the expected price of SO 2 allowances in needed in order to evaluate alternative strategies for meeting SO 2 provisions of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. In addition, the expected SO 2 allowance price is important to state public utility regulators who must provide guidance on rate-making issues regarding utility compliance plans which involve allowance trading and direct investment of SO 2 control technologies. Last but not the least, the expected SO 2 allowance price is an important determinant of the future market for natural gas and low sulfur coal. The paper develops estimates of SO 2 allowance prices over time by constructing national supply and demand curves for SO 2 reductions. Both the supply and demand for SO 2 reductions are based on an analysis of the sulfur content of fuels burned in 1990 by utilities throughout the United States; and on assumptions about plant retirements, the rate of new capacity growth, the types of new and replacement plants constructed, the costs of SO 2 reduction measures and legislation by midwest states to maintain the use of high sulfur coal to protect local jobs. The paper shows that SO 2 allowance prices will peak around the year 2000 at about $500 per ton, and will eventually fall to zero by about the year 2020. A sensitivity analysis indicates that the price of SO 2 allowances is relatively insensitive to assumptions regarding the availability of natural gas or energy demand growth. However, SO 2 allowance prices tend to be quite sensitive to assumptions regarding regulations which may force early retirement of existing power plants and possible legislation which may reduce CO 2 emissions

  16. Use of current-voltage diagrams in locating peak energy barriers in cell membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, S; Noble, D

    1976-11-22

    The current-voltage relations obtained by integrating the Nernst-Planck equations for a variety of energy profiles are obtained. A simple and approximate method for comparing these relations is described. The method is based on using a linearized transform of current-voltage relations for an Eyring single barrier model. A parameter, gamma, related to the location of the single barrier in the Eyring model, and to the shape of the barrier in other models, is readily obtained from the slopes of the linearized relations. It is then a simple matter to determine whether a given current-voltage relation allows discrimination between any particular energy profiles. The results show that the equivalent Eyring model does not always place the peak energy barrier in the same position as other models and that quite large errors in the assignment of position may be made if such a model is used. The results are also used to test the ability of some experimental current-voltage diagrams to discriminate between various energy profiles.

  17. Epidermal Growth Factor and Intestinal Barrier Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaopeng Tang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidermal growth factor (EGF is a 53-amino acid peptide that plays an important role in regulating cell growth, survival, migration, apoptosis, proliferation, and differentiation. In addition, EGF has been established to be an effective intestinal regulator helping to protect intestinal barrier integrity, which was essential for the absorption of nutrients and health in humans and animals. Several researches have demonstrated that EGF via binding to the EGF receptor and subsequent activation of Ras/MAPK, PI3K/AKT, PLC-γ/PKC, and STATS signal pathways regulates intestinal barrier function. In this review, the relationship between epidermal growth factor and intestinal development and intestinal barrier is described, to provide a better understanding of the effects of EGF on intestine development and health.

  18. Allowance System: Proposed acid-rain rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-12-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has proposed four rules containing the core acid rain requirements: the Permits Rule (40 CFR Part 72), the Allowance System Rule (40 CFR Part 73), the Continuous Emission Monitoring Rule (40 CFR Part 75), and the Excess Emissions Rule (40 CFR Part 77). EPA will also propose additional rules at a future date. These rules will include requirements for facilities that elect to opt into the Acid Rain Program (40 CFR Part 74) and for the nitrogen oxide (NOx) control program (40 CFR Part 76). The fact sheet summarizes the key components of EPA's proposed Allowance System

  19. Effectiveness of cable barriers, guardrails, and concrete barrier walls in reducing the risk of injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yaotian; Tarko, Andrew P; Chen, Erdong; Romero, Mario A

    2014-11-01

    and 65% lower when striking a median concrete barrier offset 7-14ft. The odds of injury when striking a near-side median cable barrier is 57% lower than the odds for a guardrail face. This reduction for a far side median cable barrier is 37%. Thus, a guardrail should be preferred over a concrete wall and a cable barrier should be preferred over a guardrail where the road and traffic conditions allow. In the light of the results, installing median cable barriers on both sides of the median to reduce their lateral offset is beneficial for safety. The study also found that the unexplained heterogeneity across vehicles is much larger than it was across matched segment pairs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Skin barrier in rosacea*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addor, Flavia Alvim Sant'Anna

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies about the cutaneous barrier demonstrated consistent evidence that the stratum corneum is a metabolically active structure and also has adaptive functions, may play a regulatory role in the inflammatory response with activation of keratinocytes, angiogenesis and fibroplasia, whose intensity depends primarily on the intensity the stimulus. There are few studies investigating the abnormalities of the skin barrier in rosacea, but the existing data already show that there are changes resulting from inflammation, which can generate a vicious circle caused a prolongation of flare-ups and worsening of symptoms. This article aims to gather the most relevant literature data about the characteristics and effects of the state of the skin barrier in rosacea. PMID:26982780

  1. Health Barriers to Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delaney Gracy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article summarizes the results from a 2013 online survey with 408 principals and assistant principals in New York City public elementary and middle schools. The survey assessed three primary areas: health issues in the school, health issues perceived as barriers to learning for affected students, and resources needed to address these barriers. Eighteen of the 22 health conditions listed in the survey were considered a moderate or serious issue within their schools by at least 10% of respondents. All 22 of the health issues were perceived as a barrier to learning by between 12% and 87% of the respondents. Representatives from schools that serve a higher percentage of low-income students reported significantly higher levels of concern about the extent of health issues and their impact on learning. Respondents most often said they need linkages with organizations that can provide additional services and resources at the school, especially for mental health.

  2. 77 FR 34218 - Clothing Allowance; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-11

    ... could be construed to impose a restriction that VA did not intend. This document corrects that error... medication would be eligible for a clothing allowance for each such appliance or medication if each appliance or medication ``[a]ffects a distinct article of clothing or outergarment.'' On November 16, 2011, VA...

  3. International carbon trade with constrained allowance choices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, S.; Weikard, H.P.; Zhu, X.; Ierland, van E.C.

    2017-01-01

    International carbon markets are advocated in order to involve more countries in an agreement for the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions and to reduce the costs of mitigation. In this paper we develop a model where allowances are endogenously determined by each member of a carbon trade

  4. 20 CFR 435.27 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 435.27 Allowable costs. For each kind... accordance with the provisions of OMB Circular A-21, “Cost Principles for Educational Institutions.” (d...

  5. 22 CFR 226.27 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION OF ASSISTANCE AWARDS TO U.S. NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 226.27 Allowable costs. For each kind... determined in accordance with the provisions of OMB Circular A-21, “Cost Principles for Educational...

  6. 10 CFR 600.317 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... applicable cost principles; and (3) Less than the total value of the award. ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allowable costs. 600.317 Section 600.317 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE RULES Administrative Requirements...

  7. 42 CFR 417.534 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... typical “provider” costs, and costs (such as marketing, enrollment, membership, and operation of the HMO... principles applicable to provider costs, as set forth in § 417.536. (2) The allowability of other costs is determined in accordance with principles set forth in §§ 417.538 through 417.550. (3) Costs for covered...

  8. 40 CFR 35.6245 - Allowable activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Cooperative Agreements and Superfund State Contracts for Superfund Response Actions Support Agency Cooperative Agreements § 35.6245 Allowable activities. Support agency activities... CFR part 300), are eligible for funding under a support agency Cooperative Agreement. Participation in...

  9. 13 CFR 143.22 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting... Financial Administration § 143.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used... grantee or subgrantee. (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization, there is a set of...

  10. 29 CFR 1470.22 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting... Financial Administration § 1470.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used... grantee or subgrantee. (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization, there is a set of...

  11. 40 CFR 31.22 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... accounting standards that comply with cost principles acceptable to the Federal agency. ... Requirements Financial Administration § 31.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may... the grantee or sub-grantee. (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization, there is a...

  12. 34 CFR 80.22 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting standards that comply... COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 80.22... kind of organization, there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable costs. For the...

  13. 38 CFR 43.22 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... accounting standards that comply with cost principles acceptable to the Federal agency. ... Requirements Financial Administration § 43.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may... the grantee or subgrantee. (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization, there is a...

  14. 45 CFR 92.22 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... to that circular 48 CFR Part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting... Financial Administration § 92.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used... grantee or subgrantee. (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization, there is a set of...

  15. 7 CFR 3016.22 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... uniform cost accounting standards that comply with cost principles acceptable to the Federal agency. ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF THE CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER, DEPARTMENT OF... GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 3016.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use...

  16. 33 CFR 136.217 - Compensation allowable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; CLAIMS PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.217 Compensation... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.217...

  17. 33 CFR 136.205 - Compensation allowable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; CLAIMS PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.205 Compensation... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.205...

  18. 33 CFR 136.223 - Compensation allowable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; CLAIMS PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.223 Compensation... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.223...

  19. 40 CFR 258.74 - Allowable mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... institution, the owner or operator must obtain alternate financial assurance. (4) The owner or operator may... certified public accountant (or appropriate State agency) auditing its financial statement as required under... MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Financial Assurance Criteria § 258.74 Allowable mechanisms. The mechanisms...

  20. 20 CFR 632.37 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... otherwise indicated below, direct and indirect costs shall be charged in accordance with 41 CFR 29-70 and 41... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allowable costs. 632.37 Section 632.37 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR INDIAN AND NATIVE AMERICAN...

  1. Surface stability test plan for protective barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ligotke, M.W.

    1989-01-01

    Natural-material protective barriers for long-term isolation of buried waste have been identified as integral components of a plan to isolate a number of Hanford defense waste sites. Standards currently being developed for internal and external barrier performance will mandate a barrier surface layer that is resistant to the eolian erosion processes of wind erosion (deflation) and windborne particle deposition (formation of sand dunes). Thus, experiments are needed to measure rates of eolian erosion processes impacting those surfaces under different surface and climatological conditions. Data from these studies will provide information for use in the evaluation of selected surface layers as a means of providing stable cover over waste sites throughout the design life span of protective barriers. The multi-year test plan described in this plan is directed at understanding processes of wind erosion and windborne particle deposition, providing measurements of erosion rates for models, and suggesting construction materials and methods for reducing the effect of long-term eolian erosion on the barrier. Specifically, this plan describes possible methods to measure rates of eolian erosion, including field and laboratory procedure. Advantages and disadvantages of laboratory (wind tunnel) tests are discussed, and continued wind tunnel tests are recommended for wind erosion studies. A comparison between field and wind tunnel erosive forces is discussed. Plans for testing surfaces are described. Guidance is also presented for studying the processes controlling sand dune and blowout formation. 24 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs

  2. The ability of sheep to reach for food through tombstone barriers, as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ability of sheep to reach for food through tombstone barriers, as affected by position of food, body weight and body dimensions. ... The barrier allowed the neck to pass through, but not the shoulders. It was hypothesised that horizontal reach forwards (F. distance from mid-point of barrier to uneaten meal) and sideways ...

  3. Metallic oxide nanoparticle translocation across the human bronchial epithelial barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Isabelle; Naudin, Grégoire; Boland, Sonja; Mornet, Stéphane; Contremoulins, Vincent; Beugnon, Karine; Martinon, Laurent; Lambert, Olivier; Baeza-Squiban, Armelle

    2015-03-14

    Inhalation is the most frequent route of unintentional exposure to nanoparticles (NPs). Our aim was to quantify the translocation of different metallic NPs across human bronchial epithelial cells and to determine the factors influencing this translocation. Calu-3 cells forming a tight epithelial barrier when grown on a porous membrane in a two compartment chamber were exposed to fluorescently labelled NPs to quantify the NP translocation. NP translocation and uptake by cells were also studied by confocal and transmission electron microscopy. Translocation was characterized according to NP size (16, 50, or 100 nm), surface charge (negative or positive SiO2), composition (SiO2 or TiO2), presence of proteins or phospholipids and in an inflammatory context. Our results showed that NPs can translocate through the Calu-3 monolayer whatever their composition (SiO2 or TiO2), but this translocation was increased for the smallest and negatively charged NPs. Translocation was not associated with an alteration of the integrity of the epithelial monolayer, suggesting a transcytosis of the internalized NPs. By modifying the NP corona, the ability of NPs to cross the epithelial barrier differed depending on their intrinsic properties, making positively charged NPs more prone to translocate. NP translocation can be amplified by using agents known to open tight junctions and to allow paracellular passage. NP translocation was also modulated when mimicking an inflammatory context frequently found in the lungs, altering the epithelial integrity and inducing transient tight junction opening. This in vitro evaluation of NP translocation could be extended to other inhaled NPs to predict their biodistribution.

  4. Making It Personal: Per Capita Carbon Allowances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fawcett, Tina; Hvelplund, Frede; Meyer, Niels I

    2009-01-01

    The Chapter highligts the importance of introducing new, efficient schemes for mitigation of global warming. One such scheme is Personal Carbon Allowances (PCA), whereby individuals are allotted a tradable ration of CO2 emission per year.This chapter reviews the fundamentals of PCA and analyzes i...... merits and problems. The United Kingdom and Denmark have been chosen as case studies because the energy situation and the institutional setup are quite different between the two countries....

  5. [Barriers to communication between clinicians and immigrants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodemann, Morten; Kristensen, Trine Rønde; Sångren, Henrik; Nielsen, Dorthe

    2015-08-24

    Clinicians lack cultural competencies and communication skills relevant to clinical decision-making in cases of language and cultural barriers. Life course perspectives and basic understanding of life in exile are not integrated in diagnostics, treatment or follow-up resulting in low patient compliance, mistrust, complications, diagnostic errors and delays. Stereotyping and generalizations put patients in a position where they are forced to protect themselves by withholding important information. When in doubt clinicians should ask, listen and avoid guessing.

  6. The US SO2 allowance trading program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellerman, A.D.

    2001-01-01

    The US SO 2 Allowance Trading Program is the world's first large-scale application of a cap-and-trade mechanism for limiting emissions, and it is often cited as an example for the control of other pollutants and of greenhouse gases. Drawing upon experience with this novel approach to omissions control since 1995, this article makes five observations that address common misunderstandings about emissions trading and that are applicable to the control of greenhouse gases. First, emissions trading did not compromise environmental effectiveness, and even enhanced it. Second, the program works because of the simplicity of the compliance requirement, the unavoidably strict accountability of the system, and the complete flexibility given to emitting sources. All three go together to form what may be regarded as a virtuous circle. Third, despite fears to the contrary, allowance markets developed in response to trading opportunities. Fourth, the politics of allowance allocation can be helpful in overcoming objections to emission control measures. Finally, provisions for voluntary accession present problems of moral hazard that must be carefully considered. (author)

  7. Barriers to Technology Use in Large and Small School Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francom, Gregory M.

    2016-01-01

    Barriers to effective technology integration come in several different categories, including access to technology tools and resources, technology training and support, administrative support, time to plan and prepare for technology integration, and beliefs about the importance and usefulness of technology tools and resources. This study used…

  8. Crossing the Salt Barrier

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fry. RIVER. To cross the salt barrier is, therefore, an obligatory part of every amphihaline fish cycle. Figure 2a. Life Cycle of. Salmon. Adult salmon migrate from sea towards the river. After reaching their hatching ground, the eggs are laid in the gravel. The spawned fishes are called kelts. Alevin is a stage from hatching to fry.

  9. Great Barrier Reef

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    A better than average view of the Great Barrier Reef was captured by SeaWiFS on a recent overpass. There is sunglint northeast of the reef and there appears to be some sort of filamentous bloom in the Capricorn Channel.

  10. Integrated Sensitivity Analysis Workflow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman-Hill, Ernest J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hoffman, Edward L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gibson, Marcus J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Clay, Robert L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Sensitivity analysis is a crucial element of rigorous engineering analysis, but performing such an analysis on a complex model is difficult and time consuming. The mission of the DART Workbench team at Sandia National Laboratories is to lower the barriers to adoption of advanced analysis tools through software integration. The integrated environment guides the engineer in the use of these integrated tools and greatly reduces the cycle time for engineering analysis.

  11. IMS IN SMES - REASONS, ADVANTAGES AND BARRIERS ON IMPLEMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Rajković

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Appearance of a number of management systems with various and sometimes divergent demands, demands for revise of optimal strategy on implementation of these standards in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs and the attempt on their integration into integrated management system are suggested even more. Firstly question on choice and reasons for implementation of standards is raised. Management and employees expect benefits on the implementation and they pass and minimize the implementation barriers. Basic concept on integrated management system (IMS into SMEs and analyse on reasons, advantages and barriers at IMS implementation are presented in this paper.

  12. Sound trapping and dredging barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu; Wang, Xiaonan; Yu, Wuzhou; Jiang, Zaixiu; Mao, Dongxing

    2017-06-01

    When sound barriers are installed on both sides of a noise source, degradation in performance is observed. Barriers having negative-phase-gradient surfaces successfully eliminate this drawback by trapping sound energy in between the barriers. In contrast, barriers can also be designed to "dredge" the energy flux out. An extended model considering higher-order diffractions, which resulted from the interplay of the induced surface wave and barrier surface periodicity, is presented. It is found that the sound dredging barriers provide a remarkable enhancement over the trapping ones, and hence have the potential to be widely used in noise control engineering.

  13. Allowing the Data to Speak Freely

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoover, Kevin D.; Juselius, Katarina; Johansen, Søren

    An explication of the key ideas behind the Cointegrated Vector Autoregression Approach. The CVAR approach is related to Haavelmo's famous "Probability Approach in Econometrics" (1944). It insists on careful stochastic specification as a necessary groundwork for econometric inference and the testing...... of economic theories. In time-series data, the probability approach requires careful specification of the integration and cointegration properties of variables in systems of equations. The relationship between the CVAR approach and wider methodological issues and between it and related approaches (e...

  14. Barrier for Continuous-Crystal-Growth Crucible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skutch, M. E.; Piotrowski, P. A.

    1983-01-01

    Properly designed openings permit free flow of melt while restraining pellets. Redesigned partition between growth region and melt-replenishment region of crystal-growth crucible makes it less likely crucible will run out of feed material in middle of cycle. Supply of molten silicon is maintained by addition of silicon pellets to compartment at one end of heated crucible, and partition or barrier is required to hold pellets while allowing melted silicon to flow from compartment.

  15. ASVCP guidelines: Allowable total error hematology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabity, Mary B; Harr, Kendal E; Camus, Melinda S; Flatland, Bente; Vap, Linda M

    2018-02-11

    The purpose of this document is to provide total allowable error (TE a ) recommendations for commonly analyzed hematology measurands for veterinary personnel. These guidelines define relevant terminology and highlight considerations specific to hematology measurands. They also provide reasons and guidelines for using TE a in instrument performance evaluation, including recommendations for when the total observed error exceeds the recommended TE a . Biological variation-based quality specifications are briefly discussed. The appendix describes the derivation of the hematology TE a recommendations and provides resources for external quality assurance/proficiency testing programs and a worksheet for implementation of the guidelines. © 2018 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  16. Robust technique allowing manufacturing superoleophobic surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bormashenko, Edward; Grynyov, Roman; Chaniel, Gilad; Taitelbaum, Haim; Bormashenko, Yelena

    2013-04-01

    We report the robust technique allowing manufacturing of superhydrophobic and oleophobic (omniphobic) surfaces with industrial grade low density polyethylene. The reported process includes two stages: (1) hot embossing of polyethylene with micro-scaled steel gauzes; (2) treatment of embossed surfaces with cold radiofrequency plasma of tetrafluoromethane. The reported surfaces demonstrate not only pronounced superhydrophobicity but also superoleophobicity. Superoleophobicity results from the hierarchical nano-scaled topography of fluorinated polyethylene surface. The observed superoleophobicity is strengthened by the hydrophobic recovery. The stability of the Cassie wetting regime was studied.

  17. Geophysical characterization of subsurface barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borns, D.J.

    1995-08-01

    An option for controlling contaminant migration from plumes and buried waste sites is to construct a subsurface barrier of a low-permeability material. The successful application of subsurface barriers requires processes to verify the emplacement and effectiveness of barrier and to monitor the performance of a barrier after emplacement. Non destructive and remote sensing techniques, such as geophysical methods, are possible technologies to address these needs. The changes in mechanical, hydrologic and chemical properties associated with the emplacement of an engineered barrier will affect geophysical properties such a seismic velocity, electrical conductivity, and dielectric constant. Also, the barrier, once emplaced and interacting with the in situ geologic system, may affect the paths along which electrical current flows in the subsurface. These changes in properties and processes facilitate the detection and monitoring of the barrier. The approaches to characterizing and monitoring engineered barriers can be divided between (1) methods that directly image the barrier using the contrasts in physical properties between the barrier and the host soil or rock and (2) methods that reflect flow processes around or through the barrier. For example, seismic methods that delineate the changes in density and stiffness associated with the barrier represents a direct imaging method. Electrical self potential methods and flow probes based on heat flow methods represent techniques that can delineate the flow path or flow processes around and through a barrier

  18. Chemical vapor deposition of refractory ternary nitrides for advanced diffusion barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Custer, Jonathan S.; Fleming, James G.; Roherty-Osmun, Elizabeth; Smith, Paul Martin

    1998-09-22

    Refractory ternary nitride films for diffusion barriers in microelectronics have been grown using chemical vapor deposition. Thin films of titanium-silicon-nitride, tungsten-boron-nitride, and tungsten-silicon-nitride of various compositions have been deposited on 150 mm Si wafers. The microstructure of the films are either fully amorphous for the tungsten based films, or nauocrystalline TiN in an amorphous matrix for titanium-silicon-nitride. All films exhibit step coverages suitable for use in future microelectronics generations. Selected films have been tested as diffusion barriers between copper and silicon, and generally perform extremely weH. These fiIms are promising candidates for advanced diffusion barriers for microelectronics applications. The manufacturing of silicon wafers into integrated circuits uses many different process and materials. The manufacturing process is usually divided into two parts: the front end of line (FEOL) and the back end of line (BEOL). In the FEOL the individual transistors that are the heart of an integrated circuit are made on the silicon wafer. The responsibility of the BEOL is to wire all the transistors together to make a complete circuit. The transistors are fabricated in the silicon itself. The wiring is made out of metal, currently aluminum and tungsten, insulated by silicon dioxide, see Figure 1. Unfortunately, silicon will diffuse into aluminum, causing aluminum spiking of junctions, killing transistors. Similarly, during chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of tungsten from ~fj, the reactivity of the fluorine can cause "worn-holes" in the silicon, also destroying transistors. The solution to these problems is a so-called diffusion barrier, which will allow current to pass from the transistors to the wiring, but will prevent reactions between silicon and the metal.

  19. Examples of storm impacts on barrier islands: Chapter 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant, Nathaniel G.; Doran, Kara; Stockdon, Hilary F.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the morphologic variability of barrier islands and on the differences in storm response. It describes different types of barrier island response to individual storms, as well as the integrated response of barrier islands to many storms. The chapter considers case study on the Chandeleur Island chain, where a decadal time series of island elevation measurements have documented a wide range of barrier island responses to storms and long-term processes that are representative of barrier island behaviour at many other locations. These islands are low elevation, extremely vulnerable to storms and exhibit a diversity of storm responses. Additionally, this location experiences a moderately high rate of relative sea-level rise, increasing its vulnerability to the combined impacts of storms and long-term erosional processes. Understanding how natural processes, including storm impacts and intervening recovery periods interact with man-made restoration processes is also broadly relevant to understand the natural and human response to future storms.

  20. Trends and barriers to lateral gene transfer in prokaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, Ovidiu; Dagan, Tal

    2011-10-01

    Gene acquisition by lateral gene transfer (LGT) is an important mechanism for natural variation among prokaryotes. Laboratory experiments show that protein-coding genes can be laterally transferred extremely fast among microbial cells, inherited to most of their descendants, and adapt to a new regulatory regime within a short time. Recent advance in the phylogenetic analysis of microbial genomes using networks approach reveals a substantial impact of LGT during microbial genome evolution. Phylogenomic networks of LGT among prokaryotes reconstructed from completely sequenced genomes uncover barriers to LGT in multiple levels. Here we discuss the kinds of barriers to gene acquisition in nature including physical barriers for gene transfer between cells, genomic barriers for the integration of acquired DNA, and functional barriers for the acquisition of new genes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Barriers and post-closure monitoring (AL121125)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bostick, K.V.; Janecky, D.

    1995-01-01

    This project focuses on the rapid implementation of near-surface barriers, biotreatment, and post-closure monitoring technology. It uses water-permeable and biologic barriers that chemically capture and/or degrade contaminants without significantly altering the natural water flow regime. Barrier approaches are being tested for two different applications. The first is the use of barriers for confinement of chemical contaminants for in-trench treatments with leach systems or an in-place bioreactor. The second is an enhancement of the current practice of emplacing grout or clay slurry walls into direct horizontal surface and subsurface water flows around a contaminated area by integrating permeable reactive barriers and petroleum reservoir gel/foam/polymer technology

  2. Apoplastic Diffusion Barriers in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Lukas; Franke, Rochus Benni; Geldner, Niko; Reina-Pinto, José J.; Kunst, Ljerka

    2013-01-01

    During the development of Arabidopsis and other land plants, diffusion barriers are formed in the apoplast of specialized tissues within a variety of plant organs. While the cuticle of the epidermis is the primary diffusion barrier in the shoot, the Casparian strips and suberin lamellae of the endodermis and the periderm represent the diffusion barriers in the root. Different classes of molecules contribute to the formation of extracellular diffusion barriers in an organ- and tissue-specific manner. Cutin and wax are the major components of the cuticle, lignin forms the early Casparian strip, and suberin is deposited in the stage II endodermis and the periderm. The current status of our understanding of the relationships between the chemical structure, ultrastructure and physiological functions of plant diffusion barriers is discussed. Specific aspects of the synthesis of diffusion barrier components and protocols that can be used for the assessment of barrier function and important barrier properties are also presented. PMID:24465172

  3. 40 CFR 82.8 - Grant of essential use allowances and critical use allowances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grant of essential use allowances and critical use allowances. 82.8 Section 82.8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Albemarle Bill Clark Pest Control, Inc. Burnside Services, Inc. Cardinal Professional Products Chemtura Corp...

  4. Performance of engineered barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajaram, V.; Dean, P.V.; McLellan, S.A.

    1997-01-01

    Engineered barriers, both vertical and horizontal, have been used to isolate hazardous wastes from contact, precipitation, surface water and groundwater. The primary objective of this study was to determine the performance of subsurface barriers installed throughout the U.S. over the past 20 years to contain hazardous wastes. Evaluation of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Subtitle C or equivalent caps was a secondary objective. A nationwide search was launched to select hazardous waste sites at which vertical barrier walls and/or caps had been used as the containment method. None of the sites selected had an engineered floor. From an initial list of 130 sites, 34 sites were selected on the basis of availability of monitoring data for detailed analysis of actual field performance. This paper will briefly discuss preliminary findings regarding the design, construction quality assurance/construction quality control (CQA/CQC), and monitoring at the 34 sites. In addition, the short-term performance of these sites (less than 5 years) is presented since very little long-term performance data was available

  5. ANALYSIS OF FLEXIBLE BARRIERS USED AS SAFETY PROTECTION IN WOODWORKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Pavlovic

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Machine tools use physical barriers, made by flexible thermoplastic materials, to protect the environment and the operators against the projections of wood chips and parts of cutting tools. These barriers constitute a partial closure and allow the passage of the workpiece, being simultaneously able to contain sharp fragments projected at high speed. The present research was conducted with the aim to evaluate the real effectiveness of these barriers, to investigate their dynamic behaviour by numerical simulations. Results showed that these barriers, if properly considered, could retain heavier masses and higher speeds. The research also allowed, in fact, to investigate the influence of several factors in design, selection and use, as material, shape, position, assemblages and many others, highlighting weaknesses and identifying possible measures to increase its effectiveness.

  6. Kiwifruit, mucins, and the gut barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moughan, Paul J; Rutherfurd, Shane M; Balan, Prabhu

    2013-01-01

    Kiwifruit has long been regarded in China, where it originated from, for its health properties and particularly in relation to digestion and general gut health. There are a number of physical and chemical properties of the fruit, including its dietary fiber content, the presence of raphides, its high water holding capacity and actinidin content, that suggest that kiwifruit may be effective in influencing gut mucin production and thus enhancing the integrity of the gut barrier. The mucous layer, which comprises mucins and other materials, overlying the mucosal epithelium, is an important component of the gut barrier. The gut barrier plays a crucial role in separating the host from the often noxious external environment. The mucous layer, which covers the entire gastrointestinal tract (GIT), is the front line of innate host defense. There have been few direct studies of the effect of kiwifruit ingestion on mucin production in the GIT, and findings that are available using animal models are somewhat inconsistent. Taking results for digesta mucin content, number of goblet cells, and mucin gene expression, together, it would seem that green kiwifruit and possibly gold kiwifruit do influence gut mucin production, and the kiwifruit as part of a balanced diet may help to maintain the mucous layer and gut barrier. More corroborative experimental evidence is needed, and studies need to be undertaken in humans. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Physical protection system using activated barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timm, R.E.; Zinneman, T.E.; Haumann, J.R.; Flaugher, H.A.; Reigle, D.L.

    1984-03-01

    The Argonne National Laboratory has recently installed an activated barrier, the Access Denial System, to upgrade its security. The technology of this system was developed in the late 70's by Sandia National Laboratory-Albuquerque. The Argonne National Laboratory is the first Department of Energy facility to use this device. Recent advancements in electronic components provide the total system support that makes the use of an activated barrier viable and desirable. The premise of an activated barrier is that it is deployed after a positive detection of an adversary is made and before the adversary can penetrate vital area. To accomplish this detection, sophisticated alarms, assessment, and communications must be integrated into a system that permits a security inspector to make a positive evaluation and to activate the barrier. The alarm sensor locations are selected to provide protection in depth. Closed circuit television is used with components that permit multiple video frames to be stored for automated, priority-based playback to the security inspector. Further, algorithms permit look-ahead surveillance of vital areas so that the security inspector can activate the access denial system in a timely manner and not be restricted to following the adversaries' penetration path(s)

  8. Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, P.

    2004-01-01

    The conceptual and predictive models documented in this Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment Model report describe the evolution of the physical and chemical conditions within the waste emplacement drifts of the repository. The modeling approaches and model output data will be used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA-LA) to assess the performance of the engineered barrier system and the waste form. These models evaluate the range of potential water compositions within the emplacement drifts, resulting from the interaction of introduced materials and minerals in dust with water seeping into the drifts and with aqueous solutions forming by deliquescence of dust (as influenced by atmospheric conditions), and from thermal-hydrological-chemical (THC) processes in the drift. These models also consider the uncertainty and variability in water chemistry inside the drift and the compositions of introduced materials within the drift. This report develops and documents a set of process- and abstraction-level models that constitute the engineered barrier system: physical and chemical environment model. Where possible, these models use information directly from other process model reports as input, which promotes integration among process models used for total system performance assessment. Specific tasks and activities of modeling the physical and chemical environment are included in the technical work plan ''Technical Work Plan for: In-Drift Geochemistry Modeling'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 166519]). As described in the technical work plan, the development of this report is coordinated with the development of other engineered barrier system analysis model reports

  9. Different dispersal abilities allow reef fish to coexist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bode, Michael; Bode, Lance; Armsworth, Paul R

    2011-09-27

    The coexistence of multiple species on a smaller number of limiting resources is an enduring ecological paradox. The mechanisms that maintain such biodiversity are of great interest to ecology and of central importance to conservation. We describe and prove a unique and robust mechanism for coexistence: Species that differ only in their dispersal abilities can coexist, if habitat patches are distributed at irregular distances. This mechanism is straightforward and ecologically intuitive, but can nevertheless create complex coexistence patterns that are robust to substantial environmental stochasticity. The Great Barrier Reef (GBR) is noted for its diversity of reef fish species and its complex arrangement of reef habitat. We demonstrate that this mechanism can allow fish species with different pelagic larval durations to stably coexist in the GBR. Further, coexisting species on the GBR often dominate different subregions, defined primarily by cross-shelf position. Interspecific differences in dispersal ability generate similar coexistence patterns when dispersal is influenced by larval behavior and variable oceanographic conditions. Many marine and terrestrial ecosystems are characterized by patchy habitat distributions and contain coexisting species that have different dispersal abilities. This coexistence mechanism is therefore likely to have ecological relevance beyond reef fish.

  10. Department of Energy environmental management complex-wide integration using systems engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairbourn, P.

    1997-10-01

    A systems engineering approach was successfully used to recommend changes to environmental management activities across the DOE Complex. A team of technical experts and systems engineers developed alternatives that could save tax payers billions of dollars if the barriers are removed to allow complete implementation. The alternatives are technically-based and defensible, and are being worked through the stakeholder review process. The integration process and implementing project structure are both discussed.

  11. Department of Energy environmental management complex-wide integration using systems engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fairbourn, P.

    1997-01-01

    A systems engineering approach was successfully used to recommend changes to environmental management activities across the DOE Complex. A team of technical experts and systems engineers developed alternatives that could save tax payers billions of dollars if the barriers are removed to allow complete implementation. The alternatives are technically-based and defensible, and are being worked through the stakeholder review process. The integration process and implementing project structure are both discussed

  12. Enteric Pathogens and Their Toxin-Induced Disruption of the Intestinal Barrier through Alteration of Tight Junctions in Chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Wageha A; Hess, Claudia; Hess, Michael

    2017-02-10

    Maintaining a healthy gut environment is a prerequisite for sustainable animal production. The gut plays a key role in the digestion and absorption of nutrients and constitutes an initial organ exposed to external factors influencing bird's health. The intestinal epithelial barrier serves as the first line of defense between the host and the luminal environment. It consists of a continuous monolayer of intestinal epithelial cells connected by intercellular junctional complexes which shrink the space between adjacent cells. Consequently, free passing of solutes and water via the paracellular pathway is prevented. Tight junctions (TJs) are multi-protein complexes which are crucial for the integrity and function of the epithelial barrier as they not only link cells but also form channels allowing permeation between cells, resulting in epithelial surfaces of different tightness. Tight junction's molecular composition, ultrastructure, and function are regulated differently with regard to physiological and pathological stimuli. Both in vivo and in vitro studies suggest that reduced tight junction integrity greatly results in a condition commonly known as "leaky gut". A loss of barrier integrity allows the translocation of luminal antigens (microbes, toxins) via the mucosa to access the whole body which are normally excluded and subsequently destroys the gut mucosal homeostasis, coinciding with an increased susceptibility to systemic infection, chronic inflammation and malabsorption. There is considerable evidence that the intestinal barrier dysfunction is an important factor contributing to the pathogenicity of some enteric bacteria. It has been shown that some enteric pathogens can induce permeability defects in gut epithelia by altering tight junction proteins, mediated by their toxins. Resolving the strategies that microorganisms use to hijack the functions of tight junctions is important for our understanding of microbial pathogenesis, because some pathogens can

  13. TECHNOLOGICAL PECULIARITIES OF THERMAL BARRIER COATINGS BASED ON ZIRCONIUM DIOXIDE

    OpenAIRE

    V. V. Okovity; O. G. Devoino; V. A. Okovity; V. M. Astashinsky

    2016-01-01

    A technology for formation of thermal barrier coatings (TBC) based on zirconium dioxide has been developed in the paper. The paper investigates structures of phase composition and thermal stability of such developed coatings. Investigation results pertaining to formation of an oxide system ZrO2 – Y2O3, while using plasma spraying and subsequent high-energy processing, which allows to increase resistance of a thermal barrier coating to thermal cycling heat resistance of the coating at temperat...

  14. Increase in seizure susceptibility in sepsis like condition explained by spiking cytokines and altered adhesion molecules level with impaired blood brain barrier integrity in experimental model of rats treated with lipopolysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewal, Rakesh K; Modi, Manish; Saikia, Uma Nahar; Chakrabarti, Amitava; Medhi, Bikash

    2017-09-01

    Epilepsy is a neurological disorder characterized by recurrent unprovoked seizures. Sepsis is a condition which initiates a cascade of a surge of inflammatory mediators. Interplay between seizures and inflammation other than of brain origin is yet to be explored. The present study was designed to evaluate the seizure susceptibility in experimental models of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced sepsis. Experimental sepsis was induced using lipopolysaccharides in Wistar rats. Valproic acid, dexametasone were given to two different groups of animals along with LPS. Two groups of animals were subjected to administration of vehicle and LPS respectively with no other treatment. 24h later, animals were subjected to seizures by using either maximal electro shock or pentylenetetrazole. Seizures related parameters, oxidative stress and TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, ICAM-1, ICAM-2, VCAM-1, MMP-9 level in serum and brain samples were evaluated. Histopathological and blood brain barrier permeability studies were conducted. Seizures were decreased in valproic acid treated animals. Reduced oxidative stress was seen in dexamethasone plus valproic acid treated groups as compared to LPS alone treated group. TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, MMP-9 levels were found increased in LPS treated animals whereas a reverse observation was noted for ICAM-2 level in brain and serum. Histopathological findings confirmed the successful establishment of sepsis like state in animals. Blood brain barrier permeability was found increased in LPS treated groups of animals. Seizure susceptibility may escalate during the sepsis like inflammatory conditions and curbing the inflammatory state might reverse the phenomenon. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. ENGINEERED BARRIER SYSTEM: PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL ENVIRONMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Jarek

    2004-11-23

    The purpose of this report is to describe the evolution of the physical and chemical environmental conditions within the waste emplacement drifts of the repository, including the drip shield and waste package surfaces. The abstraction model is used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA LA) to assess the performance of the engineered barrier system and the waste form. This report develops and documents a set of these abstraction-level models that describe the engineered barrier system physical and chemical environment. Where possible, these models use information directly from other reports as input, which promotes integration among process models used for TSPA-LA. Specific tasks and activities of modeling the physical and chemical environment are included in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport In-Drift Geochemistry Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171156], Section 1.2.2). As described in the technical work plan, the development of this report is coordinated with the development of other engineered barrier system reports.

  16. ENGINEERED BARRIER SYSTEM: PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL ENVIRONMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarek, R.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the evolution of the physical and chemical environmental conditions within the waste emplacement drifts of the repository, including the drip shield and waste package surfaces. The abstraction model is used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA LA) to assess the performance of the engineered barrier system and the waste form. This report develops and documents a set of these abstraction-level models that describe the engineered barrier system physical and chemical environment. Where possible, these models use information directly from other reports as input, which promotes integration among process models used for TSPA-LA. Specific tasks and activities of modeling the physical and chemical environment are included in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport In-Drift Geochemistry Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171156], Section 1.2.2). As described in the technical work plan, the development of this report is coordinated with the development of other engineered barrier system reports

  17. Glomerular endothelial surface layer acts as a barrier against albumin filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dane, Martijn J C; van den Berg, Bernard M; Avramut, M Cristina; Faas, Frank G A; van der Vlag, Johan; Rops, Angelique L W M M; Ravelli, Raimond B G; Koster, Bram J; van Zonneveld, Anton Jan; Vink, Hans; Rabelink, Ton J

    2013-05-01

    Glomerular endothelium is highly fenestrated, and its contribution to glomerular barrier function is the subject of debate. In recent years, a polysaccharide-rich endothelial surface layer (ESL) has been postulated to act as a filtration barrier for large molecules, such as albumin. To test this hypothesis, we disturbed the ESL in C57Bl/6 mice using long-term hyaluronidase infusion for 4 weeks and monitored albumin passage using immunolabeling and correlative light-electron microscopy that allows for complete and integral assessment of glomerular albumin passage. ESL ultrastructure was visualized by transmission electron microscopy using cupromeronic blue and by localization of ESL binding lectins using confocal microscopy. We demonstrate that glomerular fenestrae are filled with dense negatively charged polysaccharide structures that are largely removed in the presence of circulating hyaluronidase, leaving the polysaccharide surfaces of other glomerular cells intact. Both retention of native ferritin [corrected] in the glomerular basement membrane and systemic blood pressure were unaltered. Enzyme treatment, however, induced albumin passage across the endothelium in 90% of glomeruli, whereas this could not be observed in controls. Yet, there was no net albuminuria due to binding and uptake of filtered albumin by the podocytes and parietal epithelium. ESL structure and function completely recovered within 4 weeks on cessation of hyaluronidase infusion. Thus, the polyanionic ESL component, hyaluronan, is a key component of the glomerular endothelial protein permeability barrier. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Does Confucianism allow for body donation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D Gareth; Nie, Jing-Bao

    2018-01-16

    Confucianism has been widely perceived as a major moral and cultural obstacle to the donation of bodies for anatomical purposes. The rationale for this is the Confucian stress on xiao (filial piety), whereby individuals' bodies are to be intact at death. In the view of many, the result is a prohibition on the donation of bodies to anatomy departments for the purpose of dissection. The role of dissection throughout the development of anatomy within a Confucian context is traced, and in contemporary China the establishment of donation programs and the appearance of memorial monuments is noted. In reassessing Confucian attitudes, the stress laid on a particular interpretation of filial piety is questioned, and an attempt is made to balance this with the Confucian emphasis on a moral duty to those outside one's immediate family. The authors argue that the fundamental Confucian norm ren (humaneness or benevolence) allows for body donation as people have a moral duty to help others. Moreover, the other central Confucian value, li (rites), offers important insights on how body donation should be performed as a communal activity, particularly the necessity of developing ethically and culturally appropriate rituals for body donation. In seeking to learn from this from a Western perspective, it is contended that in all societies the voluntary donation of bodies is a deeply human activity that is to reflect the characteristics of the community within which it takes place. This is in large part because it has educational and personal repercussions for students. Anat Sci Educ. © 2018 American Association of Anatomists. © 2018 American Association of Anatomists.

  19. Linguistic Barriers and Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Frederik

    2016-01-01

    The influence of language on social capital in low-skill and ethnically diverse workplaces has thus far received very limited attention within the sociology of work. As the ethnically diverse workplace is an important social space for the construction of social relations bridging different social...... and intercultural communication, this article analyses interviews with 31 employees from two highly ethnically diverse Danish workplaces. The article shows how linguistic barriers such as different levels of majority language competence and their consequent misunderstandings breed mistrust and hostility, whilst...... communication related to collaboration and ‘small talk’ may provide linguistic bridges to social capital formation....

  20. [Barrier methods of contraception].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, A; Edelman, D A

    1982-01-01

    Vaginal methods of contraception were the earliest types used and some references to them date back to antiquity. Most of the vaginal contraceptive agents identified by the ancient Greeks, Indians, Japanese, and Chinese have been found in modern laboratory tests to have spermicidal properties, but it is doubtful that the methods were fully reliable or were used by many people. During the 19th century the condom, vaginal spermicides, and diaphragm became available. The development of nonoxynol-9 and other nonirritating but effective spermicidal agents improved vaginal contraceptives greatly by the 1950s, but starting in the 1960s newer methods began to replace the vaginal methods. Interest in barrier methods has been reawakened somewhat by concern about the health effects of hormonal methods. At present all barrier methods leave something to be desired. Failure rates of 3-30% for barrier methods in general have been estimated, but the higher rates are believed due to incorrect or inconsistent use. Theoretical failure rates of condoms and diaphragms have been estimated at 3/100 women-years, but in actual use failure rates may reach 15 for condoms and 13 for diaphragms used with spermicides. Use-effectiveness rates are greatly influenced by motivation. For a variety of reasons, the acceptability of barrier methods is low, especially in developing countries. New developments in spermicidal agents include sperm inhibitors, which impede the fertilizing capacity of sperm rather than attempting a spermicidal effect; a number of such agents have been studied and have proven more effective in animal tests than conventional spermicides. Neosampoon, a new spermicidal foam, has attracted an increasing number of users, especially in developing countries. A new condom, made of thin polymers and containing a standard dose of nonoxynol-9, has been designed to dissolve in the vaginal fluid. Further studies are needed of its acceptability, efficacy, and side effects before it becomes

  1. Support or Barrier?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanden, Guro Refsum; Lønsmann, Dorte

    employees use to cross language boundaries in their everyday work, and, secondly, how these practices relate to top-down language management in the case companies. Our findings show that employees are often dependent on ad hoc and informal solutions in cross- language situations, which leads us......This study offers a critical look at how corporate-level language management influences front-line language practices among employees in three multinational corporations (MNCs) headquartered in Scandinavia. Based on interview and document data, we examine, firstly, what front-line practices...... to a discussion of how a company’s language policy may be seen as both support and a barrier....

  2. On the existence of compositional barrier certificates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Christoffer; Wisniewski, Rafael; Pappas, George J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides a necessary and sufficient condition for the compositional verification of a continuous system with additively separable barrier functions. The compositional safety verification enables the verification of an interconnection of subsystems. The idea behind the compositional...... analysis is to allow the verification of systems with a high dimension, by the verification of multiple lower dimensional subproblems. In the compositional safety analysis, a particular structure is imposed on the barrier certificate, restricting the applicability of the method. We show an example...... of a system that cannot be verified using the compositional method, but can be verified using a centralized method. This example highlights how not to decompose systems, and should be used to guide the decomposition of a system into appropriate subsystems. Finally, we provide a second condition...

  3. Function integrated track system

    OpenAIRE

    Hohnecker, Eberhard

    2010-01-01

    The paper discusses a function integrated track system that focuses on the reduction of acoustic emissions from railway lines. It is shown that the combination of an embedded rail system (ERS), a sound absorbing track surface, and an integrated mini sound barrier has significant acoustic advantages compared to a standard ballast superstructure. The acoustic advantages of an embedded rail system are particularly pronounced in the case of railway bridges. Finally, it is shown that a...

  4. Optical Diagnostics of Thermal Barrier Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewski, Mark Steven

    The high temperature properties of ceramic materials make them suitable for the extreme environments of gas combustion powered turbines. They are instrumental in providing thermal insulation for the metallic turbine components from the combustion products. Also, the addition of specific rare earth elements to ceramics creates materials with temperature diagnostic applications. Laser based methods have been applied to these ceramic coatings to predict their remaining thermal insulation service life and to explore their high temperature diagnostic capabilities. A method for cleaning thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) contaminated during engine operation has been developed using laser ablation. Surface contamination on the turbine blades hinders nondestructive remaining life prediction using photo luminescence piezospectroscopy (PLPS). Real time monitoring of the removed material is employed to prevent damage to the underlying coating. This method relies on laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) to compute the cross correlation coefficient between the spectral emissions of a sample TBC that is contaminated and a reference clean TBC. It is possible to remove targeted contaminants and cease ablation when the top surface of the TBC has been reached. In collaboration with this work, Kelley's thesis [1] presents microscopy images and PLPS measurements indicating the integrity of the TBC has been maintained during the removal of surface contaminants. Thermographic phosphors (TGP) have optical emission properties when excited by a laser that are temperature dependent. These spectral and temporal properties have been investigated and utilized for temperature measurement schemes by many previous researchers. The compounds presented in this dissertation consist of various rare earth (Lanthanide) elements doped into a host crystal lattice. As the temperature of the lattice changes, both the time scale for vibrational quenching and the distribution of energy among atomic energy

  5. Performing a local barrier operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Charles J; Blocksome, Michael A; Ratterman, Joseph D; Smith, Brian E

    2014-03-04

    Performing a local barrier operation with parallel tasks executing on a compute node including, for each task: retrieving a present value of a counter; calculating, in dependence upon the present value of the counter and a total number of tasks performing the local barrier operation, a base value, the base value representing the counter's value prior to any task joining the local barrier; calculating, in dependence upon the base value and the total number of tasks performing the local barrier operation, a target value of the counter, the target value representing the counter's value when all tasks have joined the local barrier; joining the local barrier, including atomically incrementing the value of the counter; and repetitively, until the present value of the counter is no less than the target value of the counter: retrieving the present value of the counter and determining whether the present value equals the target value.

  6. Summary and overview of the allowance program in the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) created a new regulatory instrument, an emission allowance, that electric power producers will be required to possess and expend to emit sulfur dioxide into the atmosphere. The emission allowance system will be integrated into an already complex system of state and federal electric utility regulation. The way state public utility commissions and the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission respond to utility compliance actions will greatly affect the decisions that electric utilities under their jurisdiction make to comply with the CAAA and the cost of compliance to ratepayers. This chapter summarizes the CAAA, presenting dates for the implementation of the allowance system rule, and discusses conservation and renewable energy bonus allowances, EPA allowance sales and auctions, allowance pooling, exempt power facilities, election by additional resources, nitrogen oxides control, compliance planning third-party ownership, allowance property rights, and an example of utility compliance options with allowances. 11 refs., 6 tabs

  7. Abnormal epidermal barrier in the pathogenesis of psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Ronni; Orion, Edith; Ruocco, Eleonora; Ruocco, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    Almost 2 decades ago, Williams and Elias suggested a unifying concept for the pathogenesis of disorders of cornification, according to which the integrity of the epidermal barrier and its effective function is an important factor in the regulation of epidermal DNA synthesis. Interference with the barrier integrity or function will result in epidermal hyperplasia and may be the primary event leading to hyperproliferative skin diseases, such as psoriasis. We have analyzed alterations to several structures of the epidermal barrier that might be responsible for barrier dysfunction and thus lead to hyperproliferation of the epidermis in an attempt to repair the barrier and, as a result, might be inducers of psoriasis. There are several convincing reports indicating that inhibiting of epidermal transglutaminase may lead to epidermal hyperproliferation and that this stimulus might trigger psoriasis among genetically predisposed patients. Disturbance of epidermal barrier function caused by derangement of lipid or cholesterol or ceramide synthesis leads to increased DNA synthesis and epidermal hyperplasia and as a result might be an inducer of psoriasis. We could find little evidence to show that defective defense of the epidermis or an abnormal response of it to bacteria plays a role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. Accumulating data indicate that there is an association of psoriasis and mutations of genes within the epidermal differentiation complex, which are crucial for the development, maturation, cornification, cross-linking, and terminal differentiation of the epidermis, called psoriasis susceptibility locus 4. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Recovery post treatment: plans, barriers and motivators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duffy Paul

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increasing focus on achieving a sustained recovery from substance use brings with it a need to better understand the factors (recovery capital that contribute to recovery following treatment. This work examined the factors those in recovery perceive to be barriers to (lack of capital or facilitators of (presence of capital sustained recovery post treatment. Methods A purposive sample of 45 participants was recruited from 11 drug treatment services in northern England. Semi-structured qualitative interviews lasting between 30 and 90 minutes were conducted one to three months after participants completed treatment. Interviews examined key themes identified through previous literature but focused on allowing participants to explore their unique recovery journey. Interviews were transcribed and analysed thematically using a combination of deductive and inductive approaches. Results Participants generally reported high levels of confidence in maintaining their recovery with most planning to remain abstinent. There were indications of high levels of recovery capital. Aftercare engagement was high, often through self referral, with non substance use related activity felt to be particularly positive. Supported housing was critical and concerns were raised about the ability to afford to live independently with financial stability and welfare availability a key concern in general. Employment, often in the substance use treatment field, was a desire. However, it was a long term goal, with substantial risks associated with pursuing this too early. Positive social support was almost exclusively from within the recovery community although the re-building of relationships with family (children in particular was a key motivator post treatment. Conclusions Addressing internal factors and underlying issues i.e. ‘human capital’, provided confidence for continued recovery whilst motivators focused on external factors such as family and

  9. Exposure, Uptake, and Barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeza-Squiban, Armelle; Lanone, Sophie

    The nanotechnologies market is booming, e.g., in the food industry (powder additives, etc.) and in medical applications (drug delivery, prosthetics, diagnostic imaging, etc.), but also in other industrial sectors, such as sports, construction, cosmetics, and so on. In this context, with an exponential increase in the number of current and future applications, it is particularly important to evaluate the problem of unintentional (i.e., non-medical) exposure to manufactured nanoparticles (so excluding nanoparticles found naturally in the environment). In this chapter, we begin by discussing the various parameters that must be taken into account in any serious assessment of exposure to man-made nanoparticles. We then list the potential routes by which nanoparticles might enter into the organism, and outline the mechanisms whereby they could get past the different biological barriers. Finally, we describe the biodistribution of nanoparticles in the organism and the way they are eliminated.

  10. Countermeasures and barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, Johannes

    2005-10-01

    In 1973 Haddon proposed ten strategies for reducing and avoiding damages based on a model of potential harmful energy transfer (Haddon, 1973). The strategies apply to a large variety of unwanted phenomena. Haddon's pioneering work on countermeasures has had a major influence on later thinking about safety. Considering its impact it is remarkable that the literature offers almost no discussions related to the theoretical foundations of Haddon's countermeasure strategies. The present report addresses a number of theoretical issues related to Haddon's countermeasure strategies, which are: 1) A reformulation and formalization of Haddon's countermeasure strategies. 2) An identification and description of some of the problems associated with the term 'barrier'. 3) Suggestions for a more precise terminology based on the causal structure of countermeasures. 4) Extending the scope of countermeasures to include sign-based countermeasures. (au)

  11. Countermeasures and barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, Johannes [Oersted - DTU, Automation, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2005-10-01

    In 1973 Haddon proposed ten strategies for reducing and avoiding damages based on a model of potential harmful energy transfer (Haddon, 1973). The strategies apply to a large variety of unwanted phenomena. Haddon's pioneering work on countermeasures has had a major influence on later thinking about safety. Considering its impact it is remarkable that the literature offers almost no discussions related to the theoretical foundations of Haddon's countermeasure strategies. The present report addresses a number of theoretical issues related to Haddon's countermeasure strategies, which are: 1) A reformulation and formalization of Haddon's countermeasure strategies. 2) An identification and description of some of the problems associated with the term 'barrier'. 3) Suggestions for a more precise terminology based on the causal structure of countermeasures. 4) Extending the scope of countermeasures to include sign-based countermeasures. (au)

  12. High precision analytical description of the allowed β spectrum shape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayen, Leendert; Severijns, Nathal; Bodek, Kazimierz; Rozpedzik, Dagmara; Mougeot, Xavier

    2018-01-01

    A fully analytical description of the allowed β spectrum shape is given in view of ongoing and planned measurements. Its study forms an invaluable tool in the search for physics beyond the standard electroweak model and the weak magnetism recoil term. Contributions stemming from finite size corrections, mass effects, and radiative corrections are reviewed. Particular focus is placed on atomic and chemical effects, where the existing description is extended and analytically provided. The effects of QCD-induced recoil terms are discussed, and cross-checks were performed for different theoretical formalisms. Special attention was given to a comparison of the treatment of nuclear structure effects in different formalisms. Corrections were derived for both Fermi and Gamow-Teller transitions, and methods of analytical evaluation thoroughly discussed. In its integrated form, calculated f values were in agreement with the most precise numerical results within the aimed for precision. The need for an accurate evaluation of weak magnetism contributions was stressed, and the possible significance of the oft-neglected induced pseudoscalar interaction was noted. Together with improved atomic corrections, an analytical description was presented of the allowed β spectrum shape accurate to a few parts in 10-4 down to 1 keV for low to medium Z nuclei, thereby extending the work by previous authors by nearly an order of magnitude.

  13. Allowable carbon emissions lowered by multiple climate targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinacher, Marco; Joos, Fortunat; Stocker, Thomas F

    2013-07-11

    Climate targets are designed to inform policies that would limit the magnitude and impacts of climate change caused by anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases and other substances. The target that is currently recognized by most world governments places a limit of two degrees Celsius on the global mean warming since preindustrial times. This would require large sustained reductions in carbon dioxide emissions during the twenty-first century and beyond. Such a global temperature target, however, is not sufficient to control many other quantities, such as transient sea level rise, ocean acidification and net primary production on land. Here, using an Earth system model of intermediate complexity (EMIC) in an observation-informed Bayesian approach, we show that allowable carbon emissions are substantially reduced when multiple climate targets are set. We take into account uncertainties in physical and carbon cycle model parameters, radiative efficiencies, climate sensitivity and carbon cycle feedbacks along with a large set of observational constraints. Within this framework, we explore a broad range of economically feasible greenhouse gas scenarios from the integrated assessment community to determine the likelihood of meeting a combination of specific global and regional targets under various assumptions. For any given likelihood of meeting a set of such targets, the allowable cumulative emissions are greatly reduced from those inferred from the temperature target alone. Therefore, temperature targets alone are unable to comprehensively limit the risks from anthropogenic emissions.

  14. The role of plants on isolation barrier systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Link, S.O.; Downs, J.L.; Waugh, W.J.

    1994-11-01

    Surface barriers are used to isolate buried wastes from the environment. Most have been built for short-term isolation. The need to isolate radioactive wastes from the environment requires that the functional integrity of a barrier be maintained for thousands of years. Barrier function strongly depends on vegetation. Plants reduce wind and water erosion and minimize drainage, but may transport contaminants if roots extend into buried wastes. Our review of the function of plants on surface barriers focuses on the role of plants across mesic to arid environments and gives special consideration to studies done at Hanford. The Hanford Barrier Development Program was created to design and test an earthen cover system to inhibit water infiltration, plant and animal intrusion, and wind and water erosion, while isolating buried wastes for at least 1000 years. Studies at the Hanford have shown that plants will significantly interact with the barrier. Plants transpire soil water back into the atmosphere. Deep-rooted perennials best recycle water; soil water may drain through the root zone of shallow-rooted annuals. Lysimeter studies indicate that a surface layer of fine soil with deep-rooted plants precludes drainage even with three times normal precipitation. The presence of vegetation greatly reduces water and wind erosion, but deep-rooted plants pose a threat of biointrusion and contaminant transport. The Hanford barrier includes a buried rock layer and asphalt layer to prevent biointrusion

  15. The role of plants on isolation barrier systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Link, S.O.; Downs, J.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Waugh, W.J. [UNC Chem-Nuclear Geotech, Grand Junction, CO (United States)

    1994-11-01

    Surface barriers are used to isolate buried wastes from the environment. Most have been built for short-term isolation. The need to isolate radioactive wastes from the environment requires that the functional integrity of a barrier be maintained for thousands of years. Barrier function strongly depends on vegetation. Plants reduce wind and water erosion and minimize drainage, but may transport contaminants if roots extend into buried wastes. Our review of the function of plants on surface barriers focuses on the role of plants across mesic to arid environments and gives special consideration to studies done at Hanford. The Hanford Barrier Development Program was created to design and test an earthen cover system to inhibit water infiltration, plant and animal intrusion, and wind and water erosion, while isolating buried wastes for at least 1000 years. Studies at the Hanford have shown that plants will significantly interact with the barrier. Plants transpire soil water back into the atmosphere. Deep-rooted perennials best recycle water; soil water may drain through the root zone of shallow-rooted annuals. Lysimeter studies indicate that a surface layer of fine soil with deep-rooted plants precludes drainage even with three times normal precipitation. The presence of vegetation greatly reduces water and wind erosion, but deep-rooted plants pose a threat of biointrusion and contaminant transport. The Hanford barrier includes a buried rock layer and asphalt layer to prevent biointrusion.

  16. Thames barrier (flood protection barriers on the Thames)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilkovic, J.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper the flood protection barriers on the Thames are presented. The flood protection system on the Thames in 1984 was commissioned. During two decades this barrier was used 54 times against to the high water and 34 times against storm-sewage. There is installed buttress type hydroelectric power plant

  17. Hanford Permanent Isolation Barrier Program: Asphalt technology test plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, H.D.; Romine, R.A.

    1994-05-01

    The Hanford Permanent Isolation Barriers use engineered layers of natural materials to create an integrated structure with backup protective features. The objective of current designs is to develop a maintenance-free permanent barrier that isolates wastes for a minimum of 1000 years by limiting water drainage to near-zero amounts. Asphalt is being used as an impermeable water diversion layer to provide a redundant layer within the overall barrier design. Data on asphalt barrier properties in a buried environment are not available for the required 100-year time frame. The purpose of this test plan is to outline the activities planned to obtain data with which to estimate performance of the asphalt layers.

  18. Extending Our Understanding of Compliant Thermal Barrier Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demange, Jeffrey J.; Finkbeiner, Joshua R.; Dunlap, Patrick H.

    2014-01-01

    Thermal barriers and seals are integral components in the thermal protection systems (TPS) of nearly all aerospace vehicles. They are used to minimize the flow of hot gases through interfaces and protect underlying temperature-sensitive components and systems. Although thermal barriers have been used extensively on many aerospace vehicles, the factors affecting their thermal and mechanical performance are not well-understood. Because of this, vehicle TPS designers are often left with little guidance on how to properly design and optimize these barriers. An ongoing effort to better understand thermal barrier performance and develop models and design tools is in progress at the NASA Glenn Research Center. Testing has been conducted to understand the degree to which insulation density influences structural performance and permeability. In addition, the development of both thermal and mechanical models is ongoing with the goal of providing an improved ability to design and implement these critical TPS components.

  19. Hanford Permanent Isolation Barrier Program: Asphalt technology test plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, H.D.; Romine, R.A.

    1994-05-01

    The Hanford Permanent Isolation Barriers use engineered layers of natural materials to create an integrated structure with backup protective features. The objective of current designs is to develop a maintenance-free permanent barrier that isolates wastes for a minimum of 1000 years by limiting water drainage to near-zero amounts. Asphalt is being used as an impermeable water diversion layer to provide a redundant layer within the overall barrier design. Data on asphalt barrier properties in a buried environment are not available for the required 100-year time frame. The purpose of this test plan is to outline the activities planned to obtain data with which to estimate performance of the asphalt layers

  20. Safety-barrier diagrams as a safety management tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duijm, Nijs Jan

    2009-01-01

    Safety-barrier diagrams and “bow-tie” diagrams have become popular methods in risk analysis and safety management. This paper describes the syntax and principles for constructing consistent and valid safety-barrier diagrams. The latter's relation to other methods such as fault trees and Bayesian...... the management and maintenance of these systems. Safety-barrier diagrams provide a useful framework for an electronic data structure that integrates information from risk analysis with operational safety management....... Networks is discussed. Important advantages of safety-barrier diagrams as compared to other graphical risk-analysis methods are, firstly, the relative simplicity that supports communication with non-expert stakeholders and, secondly, the focus on deliberately inserted safety systems that supports...

  1. Surfactants have multi-fold effects on skin barrier function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemery, Emmanuelle; Briançon, Stéphanie; Chevalier, Yves; Oddos, Thierry; Gohier, Annie; Boyron, Olivier; Bolzinger, Marie-Alexandrine

    2015-01-01

    The stratum corneum (SC) is responsible for the barrier properties of the skin and the role of intercorneocyte skin lipids, particularly their structural organization, in controlling SC permeability is acknowledged. Upon contacting the skin, surfactants interact with the SC components leading to barrier damage. To improve knowledge of the effect of several classes of surfactant on skin barrier function at three different levels. The influence of treatments of human skin explants with six non-ionic and four ionic surfactant solutions on the physicochemical properties of skin was investigated. Skin surface wettability and polarity were assessed through contact angle measurements. Infrared spectroscopy allowed monitoring the SC lipid organization. The lipid extraction potency of surfactants was evaluated thanks to HPLC-ELSD assays. One anionic and one cationic surfactant increased the skin polarity by removing the sebaceous and epidermal lipids and by disturbing the organization of the lipid matrix. Another cationic surfactant displayed a detergency effect without disturbing the skin barrier. Several non-ionic surfactants disturbed the lipid matrix organization and modified the skin wettability without any extraction of the skin lipids. Finally two non-ionic surfactants did not show any effect on the investigated parameters or on the skin barrier. The polarity, the organization of the lipid matrix and the lipid composition of the skin allowed describing finely how surfactants can interact with the skin and disturb the skin barrier function.

  2. The intestinal barrier function and its involvement in digestive disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvo Romero, Eloísa; Alonso Cotoner, Carmen; Pardo Camacho, Cristina; Casado Bedmar, Maite; Vicario, María

    2015-11-01

    The gastrointestinal mucosal surface is lined with epithelial cells representing an effective barrier made up with intercellular junctions that separate the inner and the outer environments, and block the passage of potentially harmful substances. However, epithelial cells are also responsible for the absorption of nutrients and electrolytes, hence a semipermeable barrier is required that selectively allows a number of substances in while keeping others out. To this end, the intestine developed the "intestinal barrier function", a defensive system involving various elements, both intra- and extracellular, that work in a coordinated way to impede the passage of antigens, toxins, and microbial byproducts, and simultaneously preserves the correct development of the epithelial barrier, the immune system, and the acquisition of tolerance against dietary antigens and the intestinal microbiota. Disturbances in the mechanisms of the barrier function favor the development of exaggerated immune responses; while exact implications remain unknown, changes in intestinal barrier function have been associated with the development of inflammatory conditions in the gastrointestinal tract. This review details de various elements of the intestinal barrier function, and the key molecular and cellular changes described for gastrointestinal diseases associated with dysfunction in this defensive mechanism.

  3. Overwash threshold experiment for gravel barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matias, Ana; Williams, Jon; Bradbury, Andrew; Masselink, Gerhard; Ferreira, Óscar

    2010-05-01

    Field measurements of overwash effects, associated physical forcing, and determination of threshold conditions, are much less common for gravel than for sandy barriers (e.g., field measurements by Lorang, 2002; Bradbury et al., 2005; and laboratory studies by Obhrai et al., 2008). In order to define overwash thresholds for gravel there is a need for measurements under a variety of forcing conditions that include waves, tides and surges. Flume experiments allow the manipulation of physical forcing and can make a valuable contribution to improve the understanding and prediction of overwash. To study gravel barrier overwash processes, BARDEX proto-type scale laboratory experiment was undertaken in the Delta flume (Williams et al., 2009). A 4 m high, 50 m wide gravel barrier composed of sediments with D50 = 10 mm was emplaced in the flume and subjected to a range of water levels, wave heights and wave periods. Barrier morphology was surveyed before and after each run. Two situations were simulated: overwashing and overtopping. Following Orford and Carter (1982) terminology, the distinction between overtopping and overwash was based on the type of morphological change over the barrier crest. Overtopping causes vertical accretion at the crest, whereas overwashing promotes the formation of washover deposits landwards from the crest. Ten overwash experiments were conducted (divided in 63 runs), and overtopping was recorded in 22 runs and overwash in 20 runs. In other runs, only the beach face was reworked by waves. In a systematic series of tests water levels were varied between 3.00 m and 3.75 m (in steps of 0.125 m); wave height was varied between 0.8 m and 1.3 m (in steps of 0.05 or 0.1 m); and wave periods of 4.5, 6, 7 and 8 seconds were used. These hydrodynamic conditions were used to compute wave run-up using several well-known formulae (cf., Powell, 1990; Stockdon et al., 2007). Comparison between run-up estimations and the barrier crest elevation prior to wave

  4. Reliability modeling of an engineered barrier system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ananda, M.M.A.; Singh, A.K.; Flueck, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    The Weibull distribution is widely used in reliability literature as a distribution of time to failure, as it allows for both increasing failure rate (IFR) and decreasing failure rate (DFR) models. It has also been used to develop models for an engineered barrier system (EBS), which is known to be one of the key components in a deep geological repository for high level radioactive waste (HLW). The EBS failure time can more realistically be modelled by an IFR distribution, since the failure rate for the EBS is not expected to decrease with time. In this paper, we use an IFR distribution to develop a reliability model for the EBS

  5. Hanford prototype-barrier status report: FY 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, A.L.; Gee, G.W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Link, S.O. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States)

    1997-12-01

    An above-grade surface barrier consisting of a vegetated soil-cover, surrounded by gravel and rock side slopes, is being tested for the US Department of Energy (DOE). It is part of a treatability study at the 200-BP-1 Operable Unit in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site, near Richland, Washington. The surface barrier, constructed in 1994, covers 2.5 ha (6.9 acre) of land surface and is situated over an inactive liquid-waste disposal crib. A set of under drains, built into the barrier using curbed asphalt, allows precise measurement of drainage from the soil cover and the side slopes. The treatability test includes measurements of water balance, wind and water erosion, subsidence, plant growth, and plant and animal intrusion. The test compares the performance of the barrier under ambient and simulated climate change (elevated precipitation) conditions. This report documents findings from the third year of testing.

  6. Hanford prototype-barrier status report: FY 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, A.L.; Gee, G.W.; Link, S.O.

    1997-12-01

    An above-grade surface barrier consisting of a vegetated soil-cover, surrounded by gravel and rock side slopes, is being tested for the US Department of Energy (DOE). It is part of a treatability study at the 200-BP-1 Operable Unit in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site, near Richland, Washington. The surface barrier, constructed in 1994, covers 2.5 ha (6.9 acre) of land surface and is situated over an inactive liquid-waste disposal crib. A set of under drains, built into the barrier using curbed asphalt, allows precise measurement of drainage from the soil cover and the side slopes. The treatability test includes measurements of water balance, wind and water erosion, subsidence, plant growth, and plant and animal intrusion. The test compares the performance of the barrier under ambient and simulated climate change (elevated precipitation) conditions. This report documents findings from the third year of testing

  7. Catchment management and the Great Barrier Reef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodie, J; Christie, C; Devlin, M; Haynes, D; Morris, S; Ramsay, M; Waterhouse, J; Yorkston, H

    2001-01-01

    Pollution of coastal regions of the Great Barrier Reef is dominated by runoff from the adjacent catchment. Catchment land-use is dominated by beef grazing and cropping, largely sugarcane cultivation, with relatively minor urban development. Runoff of sediment, nutrients and pesticides is increasing and for nitrogen is now four times the natural amount discharged 150 years ago. Significant effects and potential threats are now evident on inshore reefs, seagrasses and marine animals. There is no effective legislation or processes in place to manage agricultural pollution. The Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Act does not provide effective jurisdiction on the catchment. Queensland legislation relies on voluntary codes and there is no assessment of the effectiveness of the codes. Integrated catchment management strategies, also voluntary, provide some positive outcomes but are of limited success. Pollutant loads are predicted to continue to increase and it is unlikely that current management regimes will prevent this. New mechanisms to prevent continued degradation of inshore ecosystems of the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area are urgently needed.

  8. Vibration behavior of the artificial barrier system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikoshiba, Tadashi; Ogawa, Nobuyuki; Nakamura, Izuru [National Research Inst. for Earth sceince and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

    2000-02-01

    This study aims at production of a mimic specimen of artificial barrier, experimental elucidation of influence of seismic motion due to a vibration experiment on the artificial barrier system, and establishment of an evaluating method on its long-term behavior. The study has been carried out under a cooperative study of the National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention and the Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute. In 1998 fiscal year, an artificial barrier specimen initiated by crosscut road was produced, and their random wave and actual seismic wave vibrations were carried out to acquire their fundamental data. As a result of the both vibrations, it was found that in a Case 2 specimen of which buffer material was swelled by poured water, the material was integrated with a mimic over-pack to vibrate under judgement of eigen-frequency, maximum acceleration ratio, and so forth on the test results. And, in a Case 1 specimen, it was thought that the mimic over-pack showed an extreme non-linear performance (soft spring) because of reducing eigen-frequency with increase of its vibration level. (G.K.)

  9. The Expanded Capabilities Of The Cementitious Barriers Partnership Software Toolbox Version 2.0 - 14331

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, Heather; Flach, Greg; Smith, Frank; Langton, Christine; Brown, Kevin; Kosson, David; Samson, Eric; Mallick, Pramod

    2014-01-10

    The Cementitious Barriers Partnership (CBP) Project is a multi-disciplinary, multi-institutional collaboration supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (US DOE) Office of Tank Waste Management. The CBP program has developed a set of integrated tools (based on state-of-the-art models and leaching test methods) that help improve understanding and predictions of the long-term structural, hydraulic and chemical performance of cementitious barriers used in nuclear applications. The CBP Software Toolbox – “Version 1.0” was released early in FY2013 and was used to support DOE-EM performance assessments in evaluating various degradation mechanisms that included sulfate attack, carbonation and constituent leaching. The sulfate attack analysis predicted the extent and damage that sulfate ingress will have on concrete vaults over extended time (i.e., > 1000 years) and the carbonation analysis provided concrete degradation predictions from rebar corrosion. The new release “Version 2.0” includes upgraded carbonation software and a new software module to evaluate degradation due to chloride attack. Also included in the newer version are a dual regime module allowing evaluation of contaminant release in two regimes – both fractured and un-fractured. The integrated software package has also been upgraded with new plotting capabilities and many other features that increase the “user-friendliness” of the package. Experimental work has been generated to provide data to calibrate the models to improve the credibility of the analysis and reduce the uncertainty. Tools selected for and developed under this program have been used to evaluate and predict the behavior of cementitious barriers used in near-surface engineered waste disposal systems for periods of performance up to or longer than 100 years for operating facilities and longer than 1000 years for waste disposal. The CBP Software Toolbox is and will continue to produce tangible benefits to the working DOE

  10. The development of permanent isolation barriers for buried wastes in cool deserts: Hanford, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Link, S.O.; Gee, G.W.; Wing, N.R.

    1993-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to present the results of research on surface hydrology and the role of plants and animals on permanent isolation barrier effectiveness at Hanford. These topics are a subset of a larger set of studies on permanent isolation barriers. A complete review of these tasks has been documented. We also discuss current work that tests our integrated scientific and engineering concepts on a large prototype barrier to determine if it can isolate buried wastes from environmental dispersion

  11. Informal export barriers and poverty

    OpenAIRE

    Porto, Guido G.

    2004-01-01

    The author investigates the poverty impacts of informal export barriers like transport costs, cumbersome customs practices, costly regulations, and bribes. He models these informal barriers as export taxes that distort the efficient allocation of resources. In low-income agricultural economies, this distortion lowers wages and household agricultural income, thereby leading to higher pover...

  12. Barriers to Women in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Rosemary

    2013-01-01

    The Presiding Officer of the National Assembly for Wales, Rosemary Butler AM, has put the issue of barriers to women in public life at the top of the political agenda in Wales. She has held sessions with women across Wales to find out what those barriers are and how they can be tackled. On International Women's Day in February, she invited…

  13. Structure information from fusion barriers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It is shown that the analysis of fusion barrier distributions is not always an unambiguous test or a 'fingerprint' of the structure information of the colliding nuclei. Examples are presented with same fusion barrier distributions for nuclei having different structures. The fusion excitation functions for 16O+208Pb, using the coupled ...

  14. BARRIERS OF STRATEGIC ALLIANCES ORGANIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladislav M. Sannikov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available General barriers of organization of different types of strategic alliances have beenconsidered in the article. There are several recommendations for overcoming themin cases of international alliances, and in case of work in one state. The article also identified goals and tasks of single coordination center of alliance to overcome organization barriers.

  15. Organizational Barriers to Transition: Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, John; Justice, Thomas I., Ed.

    This study sought to identify the barriers that negatively impact the ability of disabled youth to successfully make a transition from school into employment and a quality adult life, and sought to specifically define organizational disincentives to successful transition. Current research is reviewed relating to organizational barriers to…

  16. Erythropoietin protects the retinal pigment epithelial barrier against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    zhanghongmei

    2011-05-09

    May 9, 2011 ... by EPO pre-treatment. EPO treatment also induced lower MDA levels and higher SOD activity in H2O2 treated RPE cells. So, it is concluded that, non-lethal concentrations of H2O2 could damage RPE barrier and destroy its integrity. EPO showed the protective effects on H2O2-induced hyperpermeability by.

  17. Epistemological barriers to radical behaviorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donohue, W T; Callaghan, G M; Ruckstuhl, L E

    1998-01-01

    The historian and philosopher of science Gaston Bachelard proposed the concept of epistemological barriers to describe the intellectual challenges encountered by scientists in their work. In order to embrace novel ways of approaching a problem in science, scientists must overcome barriers or obstacles posed by their prior views. For example, Einsteinian physics presents scientists with claims that space is curved and that time and space are on the same continuum. We utilize Bachelard's concept of epistemological barriers to describe the differences between the intellectual journeys students pursuing advanced studies face when attempting to accept cognitive psychology or radical behaviorism. We contend that the folk psychological beliefs that students typically hold when entering these studies pose less challenge to cognitive psychology than to radical behaviorism. We also suggest that these barriers may also partly be involved in the problematic exegesis that has plagued radical behaviorism. In close, we offer some suggestions for dealing with these epistemological barriers.

  18. Epistemological barriers to radical behaviorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donohue, William T.; Callaghan, Glenn M.; Ruckstuhl, L. E.

    1998-01-01

    The historian and philosopher of science Gaston Bachelard proposed the concept of epistemological barriers to describe the intellectual challenges encountered by scientists in their work. In order to embrace novel ways of approaching a problem in science, scientists must overcome barriers or obstacles posed by their prior views. For example, Einsteinian physics presents scientists with claims that space is curved and that time and space are on the same continuum. We utilize Bachelard's concept of epistemological barriers to describe the differences between the intellectual journeys students pursuing advanced studies face when attempting to accept cognitive psychology or radical behaviorism. We contend that the folk psychological beliefs that students typically hold when entering these studies pose less challenge to cognitive psychology than to radical behaviorism. We also suggest that these barriers may also partly be involved in the problematic exegesis that has plagued radical behaviorism. In close, we offer some suggestions for dealing with these epistemological barriers. PMID:22478314

  19. Barriers for recess physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine; Schipperijn, Jasper

    2014-01-01

    . This was verified by a thematic analysis of transcripts from the open discussions and go-along interviews. RESULTS: The most frequently identified barriers for both boys and girls were weather, conflicts, lack of space, lack of play facilities and a newly-found barrier, use of electronic devices. While boys......BACKGROUND: Many children, in particular girls, do not reach the recommended amount of daily physical activity. School recess provides an opportunity for both boys and girls to be physically active, but barriers to recess physical activity are not well understood. This study explores gender...... differences in children's perceptions of barriers to recess physical activity. Based on the socio-ecological model four types of environmental barriers were distinguished: natural, social, physical and organizational environment. METHODS: Data were collected through 17 focus groups (at 17 different schools...

  20. Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Dixon

    2004-04-26

    The conceptual and predictive models documented in this Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment Model report describe the evolution of the physical and chemical conditions within the waste emplacement drifts of the repository. The modeling approaches and model output data will be used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA-LA) to assess the performance of the engineered barrier system and the waste form. These models evaluate the range of potential water compositions within the emplacement drifts, resulting from the interaction of introduced materials and minerals in dust with water seeping into the drifts and with aqueous solutions forming by deliquescence of dust (as influenced by atmospheric conditions), and from thermal-hydrological-chemical (THC) processes in the drift. These models also consider the uncertainty and variability in water chemistry inside the drift and the compositions of introduced materials within the drift. This report develops and documents a set of process- and abstraction-level models that constitute the engineered barrier system: physical and chemical environment model. Where possible, these models use information directly from other process model reports as input, which promotes integration among process models used for total system performance assessment. Specific tasks and activities of modeling the physical and chemical environment are included in the technical work plan ''Technical Work Plan for: In-Drift Geochemistry Modeling'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 166519]). As described in the technical work plan, the development of this report is coordinated with the development of other engineered barrier system analysis model reports.

  1. Development of engineered barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, Kwan Sik; Cho, Won Jin; Lee, Jae Owan; Kim, Seung Soo; Kang, Mu Ja

    1999-03-01

    Engineered barrier development was carried out into the three research fields : waste form, disposal container, and buffer. The waste form field dealt with long-term leaching tests with borosilicate waste glasses surrounded by compacted bentonite. The leach rate decreased with increasing time, and was higher for the waste specimen rich in U and Na. In the container field, preliminary concepts of disposal containers were recommended by conducting structural analysis, thermal analysis, and shielding analysis, and major properties of stainless steel, copper, and titanium as a container material were surveyed. The sensitization degrees of SUS 316 and316L were lower than those of SUS 304 and 304L, respectively. The crevice corrosion of sensitized stainless steel was sensitive to the content of salt. Researches into the buffer included establishment of its performance criteria followed by investigating major properties of buffer using potential material in Korea. Experiments were made for measuring hydraulic conductivities, swelling properties, mechanical properties, thermal conductivities, pore-water chemistry properties, and adsorption properties was also investigated. (author)

  2. Alternative geochemical barrier materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-07-01

    Previous investigations of the effects of neutralization and reduction on uranium mill tailings pore fluids by the Technical Support Contractor indicated that arsenic, selenium, and molybdenum continue to remain in solution in all but reducing conditions. These hazardous constituents are present in groundwaters as oxyanions and, therefore, are not expected to be removed by adsorption into clays and most other soil constituents. It was decided to investigate the attenuation capacity of two commonly available crystalline iron oxides, taconite and scoria, and a zeolite, a network aluminosilicate with a cage structure. Columns of the candidate materials were exposed to solutions of individual constituents, including arsenic, molybdenum, selenium, and, uranium, and to the spiked tailings pore fluid from the Bodo Canyon disposal cell near Durango, Colorado. In addition to the single material columns, a homogeneous blend of the three materials and layers of the materials were exposed to spiked tailings pore fluids. The results of these experiments indicate that with the exception of molybdenum, the constituents of concern are attenuated by the taconite; however, they are not sufficiently attenuated to meet the groundwater protection standards applicable to the UMTRA Project. Therefore, the candidate barrier materials did not prove to be useful to the UMTRA Project for the cleanup of groundwaters

  3. 49 CFR 230.24 - Maximum allowable stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress. 230.24 Section 230.24... Allowable Stress § 230.24 Maximum allowable stress. (a) Maximum allowable stress value. The maximum allowable stress value on any component of a steam locomotive boiler shall not exceed 1/4 of the ultimate...

  4. On the pricing of investable securities and the role of implicit barriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carrieri, F.; Chaieb, I.; Errunza, V.

    2008-01-01

    Academics and practitioners implicitly assume that investable emerging market securities are priced in the global context. However the removal of explicit barriers may not necessarily result in increased market integration if implicit barriers are also important. To test this proposition, we use the

  5. Mechanisms of restriction of viral neuroinvasion at the blood-brain barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, Jonathan J; Diamond, Michael S

    2016-02-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) consists of highly specialized cells including brain microvascular endothelial cells, astrocytes, microglia, pericytes, and neurons, which act in concert to restrict the entry of pathogens, immune cells, and soluble molecules into the central nervous system (CNS). If pathogens manage to cross the BBB and establish infection within the CNS, the BBB can open in a regulated manner to allow leukocyte transmigration into the CNS so that microbes, infected cells, and debris can be cleared. This review highlights how different inflammatory cytokines or signaling pathways disrupt or enhance BBB integrity in a way that regulates entry of neurotropic viruses into the CNS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Reducing Barriers to the use of the Intrauterine Contraceptive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Most are based on psychological, moral and religious prejudices. These should not be allowed to interfere with the provision of LARC methods of contraception. There are also acceptor barriers which can be modified by providing education about the method. The use of the IUD as a LARC method is increasing in many ...

  7. Aircraft engine-mounted camera system for long wavelength infrared imaging of in-service thermal barrier coated turbine blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markham, James; Cosgrove, Joseph; Scire, James; Haldeman, Charles; Agoos, Ian

    2014-12-01

    This paper announces the implementation of a long wavelength infrared camera to obtain high-speed thermal images of an aircraft engine's in-service thermal barrier coated turbine blades. Long wavelength thermal images were captured of first-stage blades. The achieved temporal and spatial resolutions allowed for the identification of cooling-hole locations. The software and synchronization components of the system allowed for the selection of any blade on the turbine wheel, with tuning capability to image from leading edge to trailing edge. Its first application delivered calibrated thermal images as a function of turbine rotational speed at both steady state conditions and during engine transients. In advance of presenting these data for the purpose of understanding engine operation, this paper focuses on the components of the system, verification of high-speed synchronized operation, and the integration of the system with the commercial jet engine test bed.

  8. Integrating Adults' Characteristics and the Requirements for Their Effective Learning in an e-Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korres, Maria Pavlis; Karalis, Thanassis; Leftheriotou, Piera; Barriocanal, Elena García

    Learning technology, through e-learning, allows adults to adapt learning to their own time, place and pace. On the other hand, the adults' specific characteristics as learners and the requirements for their effective learning must be integrated in the design and the development of any learning environment addressed to them. Adults in an online environment have also to deal with new barriers related to access to the courses, the sense of isolation and the sense of immediacy with educator and other learners. This paper is dealing with the way through which an online environment can overcome these barriers and can integrate adults' characteristics and requirements for effective learning. The use of the appropriate communication tools by designers, developers and educators seem to provide the answers as these tools promote immediacy and interaction, both considered very important factors in online educational environments and affect the nature and the quality of communication and learning.

  9. Barrier-protective effects of activated protein C in human alveolar epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferranda Puig

    Full Text Available Acute lung injury (ALI is a clinical manifestation of respiratory failure, caused by lung inflammation and the disruption of the alveolar-capillary barrier. Preservation of the physical integrity of the alveolar epithelial monolayer is of critical importance to prevent alveolar edema. Barrier integrity depends largely on the balance between physical forces on cell-cell and cell-matrix contacts, and this balance might be affected by alterations in the coagulation cascade in patients with ALI. We aimed to study the effects of activated protein C (APC on mechanical tension and barrier integrity in human alveolar epithelial cells (A549 exposed to thrombin. Cells were pretreated for 3 h with APC (50 µg/ml or vehicle (control. Subsequently, thrombin (50 nM or medium was added to the cell culture. APC significantly reduced thrombin-induced cell monolayer permeability, cell stiffening, and cell contraction, measured by electrical impedance, optical magnetic twisting cytometry, and traction microscopy, respectively, suggesting a barrier-protective response. The dynamics of the barrier integrity was also assessed by western blotting and immunofluorescence analysis of the tight junction ZO-1. Thrombin resulted in more elongated ZO-1 aggregates at cell-cell interface areas and induced an increase in ZO-1 membrane protein content. APC attenuated the length of these ZO-1 aggregates and reduced the ZO-1 membrane protein levels induced by thrombin. In conclusion, pretreatment with APC reduced the disruption of barrier integrity induced by thrombin, thus contributing to alveolar epithelial barrier protection.

  10. Social inclusion and integrative practices

    OpenAIRE

    Cappo, David; Verity, Fiona

    2014-01-01

    With the passage of time valuable lessons have been learnt about both effective practices for program and system integration and the sizable barriers, including the challenges in sustaining constructive integration. This paper is a reflection on sustainable integrative practices and is grounded in the direct experience of one of the authors, who held the post of the South Australian Social Inclusion Commissioner. We reflect upon the structure and mechanism of the South Australian Social Inclu...

  11. Subsurface barrier validation with the SEAtrace{trademark} system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandra Dalvit Dunn; William Lowry; Veraun Chipman

    1999-09-01

    Under contract to the Department of Energy, Science and Engineering Associates has completed development and testing of a subsurface barrier verification and monitoring system. This system, called SEAtrace{trademark}, is able to locate and size leaks with a high degree of accuracy in subsurface barriers that are emplaced in an unsaturated medium. It uses gaseous tracer injection, in-field real-time monitoring, and real time data analysis to evaluate barrier integrity. The approach is: Conservative as it measures vapor leaks in a containment system whose greatest risk is posed by liquid leaks; Applicable to any impermeable type of barrier emplacement technology in the unsaturated zone; Inexpensive as it uses readily available, non-toxic, nonhazardous gaseous tracers, does not require an inordinately large number of sampling points, and injection and sampling points can be emplaced by direct push techniques; Capable of assessing not only a barrier's initial integrity, but can also provide long-term monitoring. To date, six demonstrations of the system have been completed. Results from two of the demonstrations are detailed in this report. They include the final developmental demonstration of the SEAtrace system and a comparison demonstration of two tracer based verification technologies. The final developmental demonstration of SEAtrace was completed at a naval facility in Brunswick, Maine. The demonstration was funded solely by the DOE and was performed in cooperation with the US Navy, the Environmental Protection Agency, and the Maine Department of Environmental Protection.

  12. Improvement of light-current characteristic linearity in a quantum well laser with asymmetric barriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zubov, F. I.; Zhukov, A. E.; Shernyakov, Yu M.

    2014-01-01

    The effect of asymmetric barriers on the light-current characteristic (LCC) of a quantum well laser was studied theoretically and experimentally. It is shown that the utilization of asymmetric barriers in a waveguide prevents the nonlinearity of LCC and, consequently, allows rising of the maximum...... output power....

  13. Guided bone regeneration : the influence of barrier membranes on bone grafts and bone defects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gielkens, Pepijn Frans Marie

    2008-01-01

    Guided bone regeneration (GBR) can be described as the use of a barrier membrane to provide a space available for new bone formation in a bony defect. The barrier membrane protects the defect from in-growth of soft tissue cells and allows bone progenitor cells to develop bone within a blood clot

  14. Fusion barrier characteristics of actinides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjunatha, H. C.; Sridhar, K. N.

    2018-03-01

    We have studied fusion barrier characteristics of actinide compound nuclei with atomic number range 89 ≤ Z ≤ 103 for all projectile target combinations. After the calculation of fusion barrier heights and positions, we have searched for their parameterization. We have achieved the empirical formula for fusion barrier heights (VB), positions (RB), curvature of the inverted parabola (ħω) of actinide compound nuclei with atomic number range 89 ≤ Z ≤ 103 for all projectile target combinations (6 actinides with the simple inputs of mass number (A) and atomic number (Z) of projectile-targets.

  15. Vehicle barrier with access delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swahlan, David J; Wilke, Jason

    2013-09-03

    An access delay vehicle barrier for stopping unauthorized entry into secure areas by a vehicle ramming attack includes access delay features for preventing and/or delaying an adversary from defeating or compromising the barrier. A horizontally deployed barrier member can include an exterior steel casing, an interior steel reinforcing member and access delay members disposed within the casing and between the casing and the interior reinforcing member. Access delay members can include wooden structural lumber, concrete and/or polymeric members that in combination with the exterior casing and interior reinforcing member act cooperatively to impair an adversarial attach by thermal, mechanical and/or explosive tools.

  16. Barriers to the collaborative care of patients with orofacial injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Eunice C; Marshall, Grant N

    2010-05-01

    Collaborative care interventions show significant promise in facilitating integrative care, which addresses the physical and mental health needs of patients with orofacial trauma. Ensuring the successful implementation of collaborative care interventions depends on having an adequate understanding of the potential barriers to the provision and receipt of mental health services within specific clinical settings. This article reviews recent findings on the patients' and providers' perceptions of barriers to psychosocial aftercare services in oral and maxillofacial trauma care settings. These findings indicate that although patients and providers recognize the need for psychosocial aftercare, they report substantial barriers to these services. Structural barriers, such as not knowing where to obtain services and financial cost, are the major obstacles among patients. Among providers, structural barriers also serve as significant impediments to the provision of psychosocial services. Some of the most common structural barriers reported by providers include a shortage of financial resources, trained clinical staff, and space. Although collaborative care interventions may be well suited to capitalize on patients' and providers' interests in psychosocial aftercare programs, further research is needed to determine the viability of this promising aftercare model within oral and maxillofacial trauma care settings.

  17. Polymers for subterranean containment barriers for underground storage tanks (USTs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiser, J.H.; Colombo, P.; Clinton, J.

    1992-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) set up the Underground Storage Tank Integrated Demonstration Program (USTID) to demonstrate technologies for the retrieval and treatment of tank waste, and closure of underground storage tanks (USTs). There are more than 250 underground storage tanks throughout the DOE complex. These tanks contain a wide variety of wastes including high level, low level, transuranic, mixed and hazardous wastes. Many of the tanks have performed beyond the designed lifetime resulting in leakage and contamination of the local geologic media and groundwater. To mitigate this problem it has been proposed that an interim subterranean containment barrier be placed around the tanks. This would minimize or prevent future contamination of soil and groundwater in the event that further tank leakages occur before or during remediation. Use of interim subterranean barriers can also provide sufficient time to evaluate and select appropriate remediation alternatives. The DOE Hanford site was chosen as the demonstration site for containment barrier technologies. A panel of experts for the USTID was convened in February, 1992, to identify technologies for placement of subterranean barriers. The selection was based on the ability of candidate grouts to withstand high radiation doses, high temperatures and aggressive tank waste leachates. The group identified and ranked nine grouting technologies that have potential to place vertical barriers and five for horizontal barriers around the tank. The panel also endorsed placement technologies that require minimal excavation of soil surrounding the tanks

  18. A method for determining allowable residual contamination levels of radionuclide mixtures in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Napier, B.A.

    1982-05-01

    An important consideration in the disposal of radioactive wastes, and consequently in the preparation of plans for remedial actions at contaminated sites, is the amount of radioactive contamination that may be allowed to remain at any particular waste site. The allowable residual contamination level (ARCL) is dependent on the radiation dose limit imposed, the physical and environmental characteristics of the waste site, and the time at which exposure to the wastes is assumed to occur. The steps in generating an ARCL are generally as follows: (1) develop plausible, credible site-specific exposure scenario; (2) calculate maximum annual radiation doses to an individual for each radionuclide based on the existing physical characteristics of the waste site and the site-specific exposure scenario; (3) calculate the ARCL for the dose limit desired, including all radionuclides present, uncorrected for site cleanup or barrier considerations; and (4) apply any corrections for proposed cleanup activity or addition of barriers to waste migration or uptake to obtain the ARCL applicable to the proposed action. Use of this method allows appropriate application of resources to achieve uniform compliance with a single regulatory standard, i.e., a radiation dose rate limit. Application and modification of the ARCL method requires appropriate models of the environmental transport and fate of radionuclides. Example calculations are given for several specific waste forms and waste site types in order to demonstrate the technique and generate comparisons with other approaches

  19. Walk-friendly suburbs for older adults? Exploring the enablers and barriers to walking in a large suburban municipality in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Raktim; Siva, Herthana; Kehler, Mark

    2015-12-01

    The neighbourhood environment may enable active aging by allowing the integration of walking into an older adult's daily routine. This study explores the relationship between the neighbourhood built environment and walking among a small group of older adults in a large suburban municipality in Canada. In-depth interviews using a photo-voice approach revealed that the participants walked largely to accumulated physical activity. Older adults who lived in either conventional residential or condominium neighbourhoods discussed poor traffic conditions and lack of benches/trees/places as barriers, and proximity to parks and access to shops as enablers to walking. Poor sidewalk quality, absence of street lights and personal safety concerns were major barriers to walking only for those living in suburban residential neighbourhoods. Our results indicate that high quality- and safe walking infrastructure may facilitate walking for physical activity among older adults living in the suburban communities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Time as a trade barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-07-01

    International trade occurs in physical space and moving goods requires time. This paper examines the importance of time as a trade barrier, estimates the magnitude of time costs, and relates these to patterns of trade and the international organizati...

  1. Coastal Structures and Barriers 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This dataset is a compilation of the UCSC Sand Retention Structures, MC Barriers, and USACE Coastal Structures. UCSC Sand Retention Structures originate from a...

  2. Coastal Structures and Barriers 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This dataset is a compilation of the UCSC Sand Retention Structures, MC Barriers, and USACE Coastal Structures. UCSC Sand Retention Structures originate from a...

  3. Low Conductivity Thermal Barrier Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dong-Ming

    2005-01-01

    Thermal barrier coatings will be more aggressively designed to protect gas turbine engine hot-section components in order to meet future engine higher fuel efficiency and lower emission goals. In this presentation, thermal barrier coating development considerations and requirements will be discussed. An experimental approach is established to monitor in real time the thermal conductivity of the coating systems subjected to high-heat-flux, steady-state and cyclic temperature gradients. Advanced low conductivity thermal barrier coatings have also been developed using a multi-component defect clustering approach, and shown to have improved thermal stability. The durability and erosion resistance of low conductivity thermal barrier coatings have been improved utilizing advanced coating architecture design, composition optimization, in conjunction with more sophisticated modeling and design tools.

  4. Engineered barriers: current status 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkinson, A.; Marsh, G.B.

    1989-06-01

    This report summarises the current state of research relevant to assessing the performance of engineered barriers made of steel and concrete in radioactive waste repositories. The objective of these barriers is to contain substantially the radionuclides within them by providing both physical and chemical impediment to their release. The physical barriers are of most value for highly soluble isotopes with relatively short half-lives (eg 137 Cs), since they can provide a measure of containment until a large fraction of the activity has decayed. In addition they can facilitate retrievability for some period after disposal. The chemical barriers operate by beneficial conditioning of the near field groundwater and providing sites for sorption of radionuclides. Both of these reduce the aqueous concentration of radionuclides in the near field. (author)

  5. A Qualitative Study of Barriers to Care for People With Co-Occurring Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorsa, Minna; Greacen, Tim; Lehto, Juhani; Åstedt-Kurki, Päivi

    2017-08-01

    The present qualitative study used face-to-face and telephone interviews with service providers in the Tampere area in Finland to describe the provider viewpoint on barriers to care for people with co-occurring disorders. The core barrier concerns the definition and understanding of the problems: client and professional perspectives often differ, and both can be out of step with what the care system actually proposes. Professionals need to take into account contexts with potentially multiple barriers to care. Providers in each local area should examine possible barriers and find solutions together, integrating the client perspective at each step in the process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Great Barrier Reef, Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    This detailed view of the Great Barrier Reef, Queensland, Australia (19.5S, 149.5E) shows several small patch reefs within the overall reef system. The Great Barrier Reef, largest in the world, comprises thousands of individual reefs of great variety and are closely monitored by marine ecologists. These reefs are about 6000 years old and sit on top of much older reefs. The most rapid coral growth occurs on the landward side of the reefs.

  7. Patient advocacy: barriers and facilitators

    OpenAIRE

    Nikravesh Mansoure; Ahmadi Fazlollah; Oskouie Fatemeh; Negarandeh Reza; Hallberg Ingalill

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background During the two recent decades, advocacy has been a topic of much debate in the nursing profession. Although advocacy has embraced a crucial role for nurses, its extent is often limited in practice. While a variety of studies have been generated all over the world, barriers and facilitators in the patient advocacy have not been completely identified. This article presents the findings of a study exploring the barriers and facilitators influencing the role of advocacy among ...

  8. Barriers to Cyber Information Sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    finding out relationships or no relationships. It is more equivalent with this study’s epistemology and methodology than free-mapping or pure...and industry remain educated on and sensitive to methods that can mitigate this concern and ensure antitrust compliance.151 4. Technology...legal scholars. One way to overcome the legal barriers is through education and clarity about the laws that are currently barriers such as anti-trust

  9. 40 CFR 60.4160 - Submission of Hg allowance transfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Submission of Hg allowance transfers... Times for Coal-Fired Electric Steam Generating Units Hg Allowance Transfers § 60.4160 Submission of Hg allowance transfers. An Hg authorized account representative seeking recordation of a Hg allowance transfer...

  10. 40 CFR 60.4142 - Hg allowance allocations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hg allowance allocations. 60.4142... Coal-Fired Electric Steam Generating Units Hg Allowance Allocations § 60.4142 Hg allowance allocations. (a)(1) The baseline heat input (in MMBtu) used with respect to Hg allowance allocations under...

  11. Homeostasis of the gut barrier and potential biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brummer, Robert J.; Derrien, Muriel; MacDonald, Thomas T.; Troost, Freddy; Cani, Patrice D.; Theodorou, Vassilia; Dekker, Jan; Méheust, Agnes; de Vos, Willem M.; Mercenier, Annick; Nauta, Arjen; Garcia-Rodenas, Clara L.

    2017-01-01

    The gut barrier plays a crucial role by spatially compartmentalizing bacteria to the lumen through the production of secreted mucus and is fortified by the production of secretory IgA (sIgA) and antimicrobial peptides and proteins. With the exception of sIgA, expression of these protective barrier factors is largely controlled by innate immune recognition of microbial molecular ligands. Several specialized adaptations and checkpoints are operating in the mucosa to scale the immune response according to the threat and prevent overreaction to the trillions of symbionts inhabiting the human intestine. A healthy microbiota plays a key role influencing epithelial barrier functions through the production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and interactions with innate pattern recognition receptors in the mucosa, driving the steady-state expression of mucus and antimicrobial factors. However, perturbation of gut barrier homeostasis can lead to increased inflammatory signaling, increased epithelial permeability, and dysbiosis of the microbiota, which are recognized to play a role in the pathophysiology of a variety of gastrointestinal disorders. Additionally, gut-brain signaling may be affected by prolonged mucosal immune activation, leading to increased afferent sensory signaling and abdominal symptoms. In turn, neuronal mechanisms can affect the intestinal barrier partly by activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis and both mast cell-dependent and mast cell-independent mechanisms. The modulation of gut barrier function through nutritional interventions, including strategies to manipulate the microbiota, is considered a relevant target for novel therapeutic and preventive treatments against a range of diseases. Several biomarkers have been used to measure gut permeability and loss of barrier integrity in intestinal diseases, but there remains a need to explore their use in assessing the effect of nutritional factors on gut barrier function. Future studies

  12. Evaluación de barreras vegetales en el manejo integrado de la mancha anular del papayo (PRSV-P en Michoacán, México Evaluation of plant barriers in an integrated management of papayo ringspot in Michoacan, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Rivas-Valencia

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El efecto de barreras vegetales como componente de un programa de manejo integrado (MI, se validó y adaptó en 1999 en Michoacán, México, para controlar la Mancha Anular del Papayo, enfermedad causada por el Papaya ringspot potyvirus type-P (PRSV-P. Se estableció un experimento en parcelas divididas con dos factores experimentales: barreras vegetales (Hibiscus sabdariffa, y componentes de MI: MI sin aspersión de citrolina (1.5% (MI-A, MI sin eliminación de plantas con síntomas iniciales de virosis antes de floración (MI-D y MI. Las barreras vegetales sembradas 20 días antes del trasplante del papayo y el desplante retrasaron en 19 días el inicio del progreso de epidemias en el MI lo que resultó en una mayor producción (14.2% que el resto de tratamientos, aunque fue superado por MI-A en vigor (4% en diámetro de tallo. La citrolina fue fitotóxica, disminuyó el vigor de plantas (5.3% y no limitó significativamente el desarrollo de la enfermedad ya que la intensidad de las epidemias (X0 = 47días, Yf = 84% y ABCPE = 3220% días fue similar al testigo. El uso de barreras vegetales por si sola aparentemente no es suficiente para la reducción de la incidencia y dispersión de la enfermedad. Los áfidos más abundantes, con reconocida capacidad transmisora del PRSV-P, fueron Aphis gossypii, A. nerii, A. spiraecola y Macrosiphum euphorbiae, los cuales representaron aproximadamente el 13% del total de áfidos capturados.The effect of plant barriers as a component of an integrated management program (IM was validated and adapted in 1999, in Michoacan, Mexico, to control papaya ringspot, caused by papaya ringspot potyvirus type-P (PRSV-P. A split-plot design was established with two experimental factors: plant barriers and components of IM: IM without oil sprinkling (IM-O, IM without plant rouging (IM-R, and complete IM. Plant barriers (Hibiscus sabdariffa, sowed 20 days before papaya transplanting, and plant rouging delayed the epidemics

  13. Integrated epidemiology for vector-borne zoonoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardrop, Nicola A

    2016-02-01

    The development and application of interventions for the control of vector-borne zoonoses requires broad understanding of epidemiological linkages between vector, animal infection and human infection. However, there are significant gaps in our understanding of these linkages and a lack of appropriate data poses a considerable barrier to addressing this issue. A move towards strengthened surveillance of vectors and disease in both animal and human hosts, in combination with linked human-animal surveys, could form the backbone for epidemiological integration, enabling explicit assessment of the animal-human (and vector) interface, and subsequent implications for spill-over to human populations. Currently available data on the spatial distribution of human African trypanosomiasis allow an illustrative example. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  14. Air barrier systems: Construction applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perrault, J.C

    1989-01-01

    An examination is presented of how ordinary building materials can be used in an innovative manner to design, detail, and construct effective air barrier systems for common types of walls. For residential construction, the air drywall approach uses the interior gypsum board as the main component of the wall air barrier system. Joints between the gypsum board and adjacent materials or assemblies are sealed by gaskets. In commercial construction, two different techniques are employed for using gypsum board as air barrier material: the accessible drywall and non-accessible drywall approaches. The former is similar to the air drywall approach except that high performance sealants are used instead of gaskets. In the latter approach, exterior drywall sheathing is the main component of the air barrier system; joints between boards are taped and joints between boards and other components are sealed using elastomeric membrane strips. For various types of commercial and institutional buildings, metal air barrier systems are widely used and include pre-engineered curtain walls or sheet metal walls. Masonry wall systems are regarded as still the most durable, fireproof, and soundproof wall type available but an effective air barrier system has typically been difficult to implement. Factory-made elastomeric membranes offer the potential to provide airtightness to masonry walls. These membranes are applied on the entire masonry wall surface and are used to make airtight connections with other building components. Two types of product are available: thermofusible and peel-and-stick membranes. 5 figs.

  15. Economic alternatives for containment barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholson, P.J.; Jasperse, B.H.; Fisher, M.J.

    1997-01-01

    Fixation, barriers, and containment of existing landfills and other disposal areas are often performed by insitu auger type soil mixing and jet grouting. Cement or other chemical reagents are mixed with soil to form both vertical and horizontal barriers. Immobilization of contaminants can be economically achieved by mixing soil and the contaminants with reagents that solidify or stabilize the contaminated area. Developed in Japan, and relatively new to the United States, the first large scale application was for a vertical barrier at the Jackson Lake Dam project in 1986. This technology has grown in both the civil and environmental field since. The paper describes current United States practice for Deep Soil Mixing (over 12 meters in depth), and Shallow Soil Mixing for vertical barriers and stabilization/solidification, and Jet Grouting for horizontal and vertical barriers. Creating very low permeability barriers at depth with minimal surface return often makes these techniques economical when compared to slurry trenches. The paper will discuss equipment, materials, soil and strength parameters, and quality control

  16. Volumetric analysis of a New England barrier system using ground-penetrating-radar and coring techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Heteren, S.; FitzGerald, D.M.; Barber, D.C.; Kelley, J.T.; Belknap, D.F.

    1996-01-01

    Ground-penetrating-radar (GPR) profiles calibrated with core data allow accurate assessments of coastal barrier volumes. We applied this procedure successfully to the barrier system along Saco Bay, Maine (USA), as part of a sediment-budget study that focused on present-day sand volumes in various coastal, shoreface, and inner-shelf lith-osomes, and on sand fluxes that have affected the volume or distribution of sand in these sediment bodies through time. On GPR profiles, the components of the barrier lithosome are readily differentiated from other facies, except where the radar signal is attenuated by brackish or salty groundwater. Significant differences between dielectric properties of the barrier lithosome and other units commonly result in strong boundary reflectors. The mostly sandy barrier sediments allow deep penetration of GPR waves, in contrast to finer-grained strata and till-covered bedrock. Within the Saco Bay barrier system, 22 ??3 x 106 m3 of sediment are unevenly distributed. Two-thirds of the total barrier volume is contained within the northern and southern ends of the study area, in the Pine Point spit and the Ferry Beach/Goosefare complex, respectively. The central area around Old Orchard Beach is locally covered by only a thin veneer of barrier sand, averaging <3 m, that unconformably overlies shallow pre-Holocene facies. The prominence of barrier-spit facies and the distribution pattern of back-barrier sediments indicate that a high degree of segmentation, governed by antecedent topography, has affected the development of the Saco Bay barrier system. The present-day configuration of the barrier and back-barrier region along Saco Bay, however, conceals much of its early compartmentalized character.

  17. Identification of barriers to medication adherence in a Latino population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, Sheryl; Haack, Sally; Phillips, Charles R

    2010-12-01

    Barriers to medication adherence may present differently in diverse patient populations. Because of changing U.S. demographics, health care providers will be required to identify alternative strategies for managing increasingly diverse patient populations. This pilot project identified barriers that may hinder medication adherence in a Latino population. The results of the survey may identify trends in barriers allowing for the development of interventions aimed at improving medication adherence. The study used a convenience sample of Spanish-labeled prescriptions that had not been picked up from a community pharmacy after a 2-week period to identify study subjects. Patients were contacted by phone and surveyed regarding reasons for not picking up their prescription medication. The 24-item survey instrument consisted of demographic and medication-related questions, reasons for, and associated barriers with failure to pick up medications. The most common classes of medications patients failed to pick up were chronic medications. More than 90% of the patients thought that the medication in question was helpful to them, and nearly 80% thought that the medicine was still needed. Patients cited communication issues (ie, content matter, such as when the prescription was ready), logistics, and limited hours of pharmacy operation as the primary barriers in picking up their medications, whereas nearly 40% failed to identify any barriers. Barriers identified by patients that could be improved included confusion regarding when their prescription was ready and limited hours of pharmacy operation. Most of the patients were comfortable using the American health care system. The barriers to medication adherence identified did not appear to be the result of cultural influences. This could be because the community pharmacy had bilingual staff and interpreters available for patient education and prescription processing. Alternative methods are needed to further identify reasons for

  18. Breaking the Language Barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Preparation for the Apollo Soyuz mission entailed large-scale informational exchange that was accomplished by a computerized translation system. Based on this technology of commercial machine translation, a system known as SYSTRAN II was developed by LATSEC, Inc. and the World Translation Company of Canada. This system increases the output of a human translator by five to eight times, affording cost savings by allowing a large increase in document production without hiring additional people. Extra savings accrue from automatic production of camera-ready copy. Applications include translation of service manuals, proposals and tenders, planning studies, catalogs, list of parts and prices, textbooks, technical reports and education/training materials. System is operational for six language pairs. Systran users include Xerox Corporation, General Motors of Canada, Bell Northern Research of Canada, the U.S. Air Force and the European Commission. The company responsible for the production of SYSTRAN II has changed its name to SYSTRAN.

  19. The critical role of the barrier thickness in spin filter tunneling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Casey W.

    2009-01-01

    Spin filter tunneling is considered in the low bias limit as functions of the temperature dependent barrier parameters. We demonstrate the generation of spin polarized tunneling currents in relation to the magnetic order parameter, and discuss how an interfacially suppressed order parameter leads to a temperature dependent tunneling current asymmetry. Analyzing the full parameter space reveals that the often overlooked barrier thickness plays a critical role in spin filter tunneling. With all else fixed, thicker barriers yield higher spin polarization, and allow a given polarization to be achieved at higher temperatures. This insight may open the door for new materials to serve as spin filter barriers.

  20. Implementation of renewable technologies - Opportunities and barriers. Zimbabwe country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    Renewable Energy Technologies (RETS) have over the years become an integral part of the energy supply chain in most developed countries. Recent projections show that 13.5% of the world's primary energy supply comes from renewable and this figure has an aggregated annual growth rate of 16%. Wind has the highest annual growth rate of 22% while the least annual growth rate of 2% is for hydropower. The main push for renewable like wind in the OECD countries are environmental concerns and the business aspect in power generation. The situation is however completely different in Africa, where the thrust for RETs is developmental based. Although the continent has abundant renewable energy resources like solar, biomass, wind and hydro potential, they have remained largely unexploited. Several efforts have been made to help African countries like Zimbabwe to exploit such resources. The main objectives of this country study included review of Zimbabwe's development of past RETs, establish barriers related lessons learnt from such projects and currently running RETs projects, identify barriers experienced by other projects and then select a few barrier removal projects and then develop them with the help of all stake holders in the country. The methodology of this study involved a review of past RETs projects to establish barriers faced and barriers related lessons learnt. An examination of the policy instruments related to RETs was done to establish how they promote the dissemination of the technologies as well as their adequacy. A survey of all possible RETs projects in the country was carried out and in this survey the end-users were visited and interviewed by the research team. An initial workshop, which was attended by all stake holders, was held in November 1999. An Advisory committee on RETs in Zimbabwe was then set up comprising of various stake holders from government, the private sector, research institutions, interviewed end-users and the NGO community

  1. Integral or integrated marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davčik Nebojša

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Marketing theorists and experts try to develop business efficient organization and to get marketing performance at higher, business integrated level since its earliest beginnings. The core issue in this paperwork is the dialectic and practical approach dilemma should we develop integrated or integral marketing approach in the organization. The presented company cases as well as dialectic and functional explanations of this dilemma clearly shows that integrated marketing is narrower approach than integral marketing if we take as focal point new, unique and completed entity. In the integration the essence is in getting different parts together, which do not have to make necessary the new entity. The key elements in the definition of the integral marketing are necessity and holistic, e.g. necessity to develop new, holistic entity.

  2. ENGINEERED BARRIER SYSTEM: PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL ENVIRONMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R. Jarek

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this model report is to describe the evolution of the physical and chemical environmental conditions within the waste emplacement drifts of the repository, including the drip shield and waste package surfaces. The resulting seepage evaporation and gas abstraction models are used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) to assess the performance of the engineered barrier system and the waste form. This report develops and documents a set of abstraction-level models that describe the engineered barrier system physical and chemical environment. Where possible, these models use information directly from other reports as input, which promotes integration among process models used for TSPA-LA. Specific tasks and activities of modeling the physical and chemical environment are included in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport In-Drift Geochemistry Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173782], Section 1.2.2). As described in the technical work plan, the development of this report is coordinated with the development of other engineered barrier system reports. To be consistent with other project documents that address features, events, and processes (FEPs), Table 6.14.1 of the current report includes updates to FEP numbers and FEP subjects for two FEPs identified in the technical work plan (TWP) governing this report (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173782]). FEP 2.1.09.06.0A (Reduction-oxidation potential in EBS), as listed in Table 2 of the TWP (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173782]), has been updated in the current report to FEP 2.1.09.06.0B (Reduction-oxidation potential in Drifts; see Table 6.14-1). FEP 2.1.09.07.0A (Reaction kinetics in EBS), as listed in Table 2 of the TWP (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173782]), has been updated in the current report to FEP 2.1.09.07.0B (Reaction kinetics in Drifts; see Table 6.14-1). These deviations from the TWP are justified because they improve integration with FEPs documents. The updates

  3. ENGINEERED BARRIER SYSTEM: PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL ENVIRONMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Jarek

    2005-08-29

    The purpose of this model report is to describe the evolution of the physical and chemical environmental conditions within the waste emplacement drifts of the repository, including the drip shield and waste package surfaces. The resulting seepage evaporation and gas abstraction models are used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) to assess the performance of the engineered barrier system and the waste form. This report develops and documents a set of abstraction-level models that describe the engineered barrier system physical and chemical environment. Where possible, these models use information directly from other reports as input, which promotes integration among process models used for TSPA-LA. Specific tasks and activities of modeling the physical and chemical environment are included in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport In-Drift Geochemistry Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173782], Section 1.2.2). As described in the technical work plan, the development of this report is coordinated with the development of other engineered barrier system reports. To be consistent with other project documents that address features, events, and processes (FEPs), Table 6.14.1 of the current report includes updates to FEP numbers and FEP subjects for two FEPs identified in the technical work plan (TWP) governing this report (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173782]). FEP 2.1.09.06.0A (Reduction-oxidation potential in EBS), as listed in Table 2 of the TWP (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173782]), has been updated in the current report to FEP 2.1.09.06.0B (Reduction-oxidation potential in Drifts; see Table 6.14-1). FEP 2.1.09.07.0A (Reaction kinetics in EBS), as listed in Table 2 of the TWP (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173782]), has been updated in the current report to FEP 2.1.09.07.0B (Reaction kinetics in Drifts; see Table 6.14-1). These deviations from the TWP are justified because they improve integration with FEPs

  4. Demonstration of close-coupled barriers for subsurface containment of buried waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwyer, B.P.; Heiser, J.; Stewart, W.

    1996-01-01

    The primary objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate a close-coupled barrier for the containment of subsurface waste or contaminant migration. A close-coupled barrier is produced by first installing a conventional cement grout curtain followed by a thin inner lining of a polymer grout. The resultant barrier is a cement polymer composite that has economic benefits derived from the cement and performance benefits from the durable and resistant polymer layer. Close-coupled barrier technology is applicable for final, interim, or emergency containment of subsurface waste forms. Consequently, when considering the diversity of technology application, the construction emplacement and material technology maturity, general site operational requirements, and regulatory compliance incentives, the close-coupled barrier system provides an alternative for any hazardous or mixed waste remediation plan. This paper discusses the installation of a close-coupled barrier and the subsequent integrity verification

  5. Fostering renewable energy integration in the industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galichon, Ines; Dennery, Pierre; Julien, Emmanuel; Wiedmer, Damien; Brochier, Jean Baptiste; Martin, Etienne; Touokong, Benoit; Paunescu, Michael; Philibert, Cedric; ); Gerbaud, Manon; Streiff, Frederic; Petrick, Kristian; Bucquet, Coraline; Jager, David de; )

    2017-03-01

    developed. Beyond direct financial incentives, innovative public support schemes should be implemented; and technical, contractual and business innovations are still required. Policy makers should ensure that regulation allows and even fosters different RE integration schemes. Industrial actors should accelerate their commitment to adapt their financial and contractual engineering to such schemes. If those barriers are lifted there is plenty of room to generate many new and successful projects in the coming years

  6. Financial Integrity Benchmarks

    Data.gov (United States)

    City of Jackson, Mississippi — This data compiles standard financial integrity benchmarks that allow the City to measure its financial standing. It measure the City's debt ratio and bond ratings....

  7. EICOSAPENTAENOIC ACID ENHANCES HEATSTROKE-IMPAIRED INTESTINAL EPITHELIAL BARRIER FUNCTION IN RATS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Guizhen; Yuan, Fangfang; Geng, Yan; Qiu, Xiaowen; Liu, Zhifeng; Lu, Jiefu; Tang, Liqun; Zhang, Yali; Su, Lei

    2015-10-01

    Dysfunction of the intestinal barrier plays an important role in the pathological process of heatstroke. Omega-3 (or n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids, including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), help protect the intestinal mucosal barrier. This study assessed if pretreating rats with EPA or DHA could alleviate heat stress-induced damage to the intestinal barrier caused by experimental heatstroke. Male Wistar rats were pregavaged with either EPA, DHA, corn oil, or normal saline (all 1 g/kg) for 21 days before the heatstroke experiment (control rats were not exposed to heat). Experimental rats were exposed to an ambient temperature of 37°C and 60% humidity to induce heatstroke, and then they were allowed to recover at room temperature after rapid cooling. Survival time of rats was monitored after heatstroke. Horseradish peroxidase flux from the gut lumen and the level of plasma D-lactate were measured to analyze intestinal permeability at 6 h after heatstroke. Plasma endotoxin levels were determined using a limulus amoebocyte lysate assay. Expressions of the tight junction (TJ) proteins occludin and ZO-1 were analyzed by Western blot and localized by immunofluorescence microscopy. Tight junction protein morphology was observed by transmission electron microscopy. Fatty acids of ileal mucosa were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass selective detector. Eicosapentaenoic acid significantly increased survival time after heatstroke. Eicosapentaenoic acid significantly decreased intestinal permeability and plasma endotoxin levels. Eicosapentaenoic acid effectively attenuated the heatstroke-induced disruption of the intestinal structure and improved the histology score, whereas DHA was less effective, and corn oil was ineffective. Pretreatment with EPA also increased expression of occludin and ZO-1 to effectively prevent TJ disruption. Eicosapentaenoic acid pretreatment enriched itself in the membrane of intestinal cells. Our results

  8. Investigating the extent to which mobile phones reduce Knowledge Transfer barriers in Student Project Teams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E. Kyobe

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Group learning plays a key role in the transfer of knowledge. In institutions of learning, it enhances students’ understanding, critical thinking, integration of knowledge and knowledge sharing. However, the transfer of knowledge in group projects is often impeded by factors such as time and budget constraints, individual and social barriers, and a lack of motivation.Institutions of learning are increasingly adopting information and communication technologies (e.g. mobile technologies to provide solutions to the challenges facing them. Whilst the integration of the mobile context and technologies in learning environment has been encouraged over the years, and indeed many students today can use mobile phones, the effectiveness of these technologies in reducing impediments to knowledge transfer in group learning has not been investigated.This study investigated the extent to which mobile phones reduce the barriers to knowledge transfer in project groups. The impediments examined include the nature of knowledge, social barriers, lack of time and lack of motivation. Quantitative and qualitative approaches were used to collect and analyse the data. The sample consisted of 85 students engaged in group projects in the departments of Information Systems, Civil Engineering, Computer Science and Construction Engineering.The results show that mobile phones reduce all four knowledge transfer barriers investigated in the project groups. We found no significant difference in the nature of knowledge shared by teams with weak and strong ties. This suggests that teams with weak social ties who normally experience difficulty sharing complex (tacit knowledge can easily do so with the aid of mobile facilities. In addition, frequent users of mobile phones were motivated to share explicit knowledge with their peers whilst those who often work with tacit knowledge could convert it to explicit form and share it with others. Mobile features like short messaging

  9. The Use of Feature Parameters to Asses Barrier Properties of ALD coatings for Flexible PV Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blunt, Liam; Robbins, David; Fleming, Leigh; Elrawemi, Mohamed

    2014-03-01

    This paper reports on the recent work carried out as part of the EU funded NanoMend project. The project seeks to develop integrated process inspection, cleaning, repair and control systems for nano-scale thin films on large area substrates. In the present study flexible photovoltaic films have been the substrate of interest. Flexible PV films are the subject of significant development at present and the latest films have efficiencies at or beyond the level of Si based rigid PV modules. These flexible devices are fabricated on polymer film by the repeated deposition, and patterning, of thin layer materials using roll-to-roll processes, where the whole film is approximately 3um thick prior to encapsulation. Whilst flexible films offer significant advantages in terms of mass and the possibility of building integration (BIPV) they are at present susceptible to long term environmental degradation as a result of water vapor transmission through the barrier layers to the CIGS (Copper Indium Gallium Selenide CuInxGa(1-x)Se2) PV cells thus causing electrical shorts and efficiency drops. Environmental protection of the GIGS cell is provided by a thin (40nm) barrier coating of Al2O3. The highly conformal aluminium oxide barrier layer is produced by atomic layer deposition (ALD) where, the ultra-thin Al2O3 layer is deposited onto polymer thin films before these films encapsulate the PV cell. The surface of the starting polymer film must be of very high quality in order to avoid creating defects in the device layers. Since these defects reduce manufacturing yield, in order to prevent them, a further thin polymer coating (planarization layer) is generally applied to the polymer film prior to deposition. The presence of surface irregularities on the uncoated film can create defects within the nanometre-scale, aluminium oxide, barrier layer and these are measured and characterised. This paper begins by reporting the results of early stage measurements conducted to characterise

  10. Barrier-relevant crash modification factors and average costs of crashes on arterial roads in Indiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yaotian; Tarko, Andrew P

    2018-02-01

    The objective of this study was to develop crash modification factors (CMFs) and estimate the average crash costs applicable to a wide range of road-barrier scenarios that involved three types of road barriers (concrete barriers, W-beam guardrails, and high-tension cable barriers) to produce a suitable basis for comparing barrier-oriented design alternatives and road improvements. The intention was to perform the most comprehensive and in-depth analysis allowed by the cross-sectional method and the crash data available in Indiana. To accomplish this objective and to use the available data efficiently, the effects of barrier were estimated on the frequency of barrier-relevant (BR) crashes, the types of harmful events and their occurrence during a BR crash, and the severity of BR crash outcomes. The harmful events component added depth to the analysis by connecting the crash onset with its outcome. Further improvement of the analysis was accomplished by considering the crash outcome severity of all the individuals involved in a crash and not just drivers, utilizing hospital data, and pairing the observations with and without road barriers along same or similar road segments to better control the unobserved heterogeneity. This study confirmed that the total number of BR crashes tended to be higher where medians had installed barriers, mainly due to collisions with barriers and, in some cases, with other vehicles after redirecting vehicles back to traffic. These undesirable effects of barriers were surpassed by the positive results of reducing cross-median crashes, rollover events, and collisions with roadside hazards. The average cost of a crash (unit cost) was reduced by 50% with cable barriers installed in medians wider than 50ft. A similar effect was concluded for concrete barriers and guardrails installed in medians narrower than 50ft. The studied roadside guardrails also reduced the unit cost by 20%-30%. Median cable barriers were found to be the most effective

  11. AN INTEGRATED MAP OF HUMAN-CHROMOSOME-13 ALLOWING REGIONAL LOCALIZATION OF GENETIC-MARKERS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KOOY, RF; WIJNGAARD, A; VERLIND, E; SCHEFFER, H; BUYS, CHCM

    1995-01-01

    37 CA repeats, 5 STSs, 9 ESTs, and 4 genes were mapped to 19 different intervals of chromosome 13 determined by the cytogenetic breakpoints of 19 different cell lines with interstitial deletions or translocations involving various parts of chromosome 13. A framework genetic linkage map was

  12. The acid rain allowance system and the integration of energy and environmental policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connor, P.R.

    1991-01-01

    Now that the Acid Rain Title of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 is almost a year old and the process leading to the issuance of proposed rules by EPA is well underway, both utilities and their state regulators are facing some imminent and important decisions. Given the constraints posed by the January 1, 1995 compliance date for Phase 1 affected units, utilities and regulators will be forced to make many of these decisions in the absence of complete information. In addition, the market-based compliance system adds a considerable amount of uncertainty for utility managers and regulators more accustomed to monopoly and 'command and control' than to the rigors of competitive markets. At the same time, these uncertainties are precisely the type which can serve to elicit invention and creativity, whether technological, financial or informational. It is also a near certainty that regulators' attempts to direct the flow of compliance toward pre-selected options rather than permitting the market to function, will not only undermine creativity but also increase compliance costs

  13. Quantifying system safety: A comparison of the SBOAT & Safety Barrier Manager tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee; Duijm, Nijs Jan; Markert, Frank

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents two software tools for analyzing safety risks, SBOAT (Stochastic BPMN Optimisation and Analysis Tool) and SBM (SafetyBarrierManagerr). SBOAT employs principles from stochastic model checking to allow for the quantitative verification of workflows. SBM supports the creation...... of valid safety-barrier diagrams and allows the quantitative analysis of the probability of all possible end states of the barrier diagram, i.e. the outcomes if one or several of the barriers fail to perform their barrier function. We compare the foundations of these tools and describe how they can be used...... and how they complement each other by means of the analysis of a production workflow inspired by a real-world industry case....

  14. Barriers Against Adoption of Electronic Health Record in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Bonacina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to expose the barriers which work against the satisfactory adoption and utilization of Electronic Health Records (EHRs in Italy. Experts from six operating areas were involved where barriers associated with practical daily use of EHRs might arise. Experts disclosed different barriers in their operating areas: the low interoperability of healthcare system infrastructures in diagnostic services; the lack of systems able to represent complex processes characterized by uncertainties in hospital wards; the unsatisfactory information exchange between heterogeneous healthcare providers in territorial healthcare; the lack of models and guidelines for administration process management; the lack of Health Information engineers who are recognized as professionals in Italian hospitals; the lack of domain vocabularies and ontologies for conceptual integration in clinical communication. Our findings suggest how future solutions must be designed considering the environment of specific areas.

  15. Progress in forming bottom barriers under waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, E.E.

    1997-01-01

    The paper describes an new method for the construction, verification, and maintenance of underground vaults to isolate and contain radioactive burial sites without excavation or drilling in contaminated areas. The paper begins with a discussion of previous full-scale field tests of horizontal barrier tools which utilized high pressure jetting technology. This is followed by a discussion of the TECT process, which cuts with an abrasive cable instead of high pressure jets. The new method is potentially applicable to more soil types than previous methods and can form very thick barriers. Both processes are performed from the perimeter of a site and require no penetration or disturbance of the active waste area. The paper also describes long-term verification methods to monitor barrier integrity passively

  16. Diabetes and diet : managing dietary barriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Friele, R.D.

    1989-01-01

    This thesis reports on the barriers diabetic patients experience with their diet, and the ways they cope with these barriers. A dietary barrier is a hinderance to a person's well-being, induced by being advised a diet. First inventories were made of possible dietary barriers and ways of

  17. 76 FR 1504 - Pipeline Safety: Establishing Maximum Allowable Operating Pressure or Maximum Operating Pressure...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-10

    .... PHMSA-2010-0381 Pipeline Safety: Establishing Maximum Allowable Operating Pressure or Maximum Operating Pressure Using Record Evidence, and Integrity Management Risk Identification, Assessment, Prevention, and... Pressure (MAOP) or Maximum Operating Pressure (MOP), and to utilize these risk analyses in the...

  18. Managing troubled data: Coastal data partnerships smooth data integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, S.S.; Hale, Miglarese A.; Bradley, M.P.; Belton, T.J.; Cooper, L.D.; Frame, M.T.; Friel, C.A.; Harwell, L.M.; King, R.E.; Michener, W.K.; Nicolson, D.T.; Peterjohn, B.G.

    2003-01-01

    Understanding the ecology, condition, and changes of coastal areas requires data from many sources. Broad-scale and long-term ecological questions, such as global climate change, biodiversity, and cumulative impacts of human activities, must be addressed with databases that integrate data from several different research and monitoring programs. Various barriers, including widely differing data formats, codes, directories, systems, and metadata used by individual programs, make such integration troublesome. Coastal data partnerships, by helping overcome technical, social, and organizational barriers, can lead to a better understanding of environmental issues, and may enable better management decisions. Characteristics of successful data partnerships include a common need for shared data, strong collaborative leadership, committed partners willing to invest in the partnership, and clear agreements on data standards and data policy. Emerging data and metadata standards that become widely accepted are crucial. New information technology is making it easier to exchange and integrate data. Data partnerships allow us to create broader databases than would be possible for any one organization to create by itself.

  19. Supply chain integration in the product return process: A study of consumer electronics retailers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wynand Mostert

    2017-07-01

    Contribution: Academically, this study expands the literature on supply chain integration in an unexplored context. For managers, this study identifies various reverse logistics integration barriers and details what practices and strategies improve the probability of successful integration efforts.

  20. Modelization and simulation of capillary barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisbona Cortes, F.; Aguilar Villa, G.; Clavero Gracia, C.; Gracia Lozano, J.L.

    1998-01-01

    Among the different underground transport phenomena, that due to water flows is of great relevance. Water flows in infiltration and percolation processes are responsible of the transport of hazardous wastes towards phreatic layers. From the industrial and geological standpoints, there is a great interest in the design of natural devices to avoid the flows transporting polluting substances. This interest is increased when devices are used to isolate radioactive waste repositories, whose life is to be longer than several hundred years. The so-called natural devices are those based on the superimposition of material with different hydraulic properties. In particular, the flow retention in this kind stratified media, in unsaturated conditions, is basically due to the capillary barrier effect, resulting from placing a low conductivity material over another with a high hydraulic conductivity. Covers designed from the effect above have also to allow a drainage of the upper layer. The lower cost of these covers, with respect to other kinds of protection systems, and the stability in time of their components make them very attractive. However, a previous investigation to determine their effectivity is required. In this report we present the computer code BCSIM, useful for easy simulations of unsaturated flows in a capillary barrier configuration with drainage, and which is intended to serve as a tool for designing efficient covers. The model, the numerical algorithm and several implementation aspects are described. Results obtained in several simulations, confirming the effectivity of capillary barriers as a technique to build safety covers for hazardous waste repositories, are presented. (Author)