Sample records for barrier free design

  1. On barrier-free design for museums%博物馆的无障碍设计探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾祝军; 申黎明; 沈怡君


    The paper introduces the current status for the barrier-free design in museums in China,analyzes the shortages for the barrier-free design in museums in China,explores the barrier-free design in museums,indicates its important role for improving the service quality of the museums and the enhancing the construction of the harmonious society,and analyzes its development tendency in future,so as to enhance the better development of the barrier-free design for museums.%总结了我国博物馆无障碍设计的现状,分析了我国博物馆无障碍设计中的一些不足之处,并就此对博物馆无障碍设计进行了一些探索,说明了其对提高博物馆服务水平和推动建设和谐社会等方面的重要作用,对将来的发展趋势进行了分析,从而进一步促进博物馆无障碍设计更好的发展。

  2. 谈无障碍设计在居室的应用%On application of barrier-free design at residential rooms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    通过对人口现状的调查,阐述了无障碍设计的重要性以及无障碍设计概念意识层面的提高与普及,并分析了无障碍设计在居室设计中的推广与应用,为弱势群体的生活需要提供了保障。%According to the investigation over the population, the study illustrates the importance of the barrier-free design and the improvement and publicity of the barrier-free design at the ideological layer, and analyzes the extension and application of the barrier-free design in residential rooms, so as to provide the guarantee for the life of vulnerable people.

  3. 铁路客站中针对残疾人的无障碍设计%The Barrier-free Design for Disabled People in the Railway Station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    From the perspective of the actual use by disabled people, this paper investigates the problems in barrier-free design in large railway station with on-the-spot examination and interview of disabled people, and provides some related suggestions.%通过对我国铁路客站中无障碍设计的实地检视以及对残障人士的访问调研,从不同类型的障碍者(行动障碍者、视觉障碍者、听觉障碍者)实际使用的角度探讨铁路客站无障碍设计的缺失与不足,并提出相应的修改建议.

  4. Analysis of Barrier-free Design of Slow Traffic System——Taking Changshu City as an Example%常熟市慢行系统无障碍设计探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Most of the service objects of the current studies are the able-bodied adult,thus the design of products often can not meet the accessibility requirements of disabled people.To give disabled people a better life,this paper makes researches on handicapped accessibility design. This paper introduces the development and status quo of handicapped accessibility design at home and abroad,discusses the content,purpose and significance of barrier-free design,and makes a clear definition of the core concepts.Besides,through describing the range of project planning in detail,and analysing the requirements of barrier-free design,the paper determines the barrier-free design principles,and conducts in-depth design of barrier-free design,which meet the requirements of disabled people.%论述了无障碍设计内容、目的和意义,对其核心概念进行了明确的界定。探讨了无障碍设计要求、无障碍设计原则,提出了无障碍设计整体规划,设计出了符合残障者要求的慢行系统。

  5. 谈厨房空间的无障碍设计%Discussion on barrier-free design of kitchen space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱治科; 盛那


    深入分析老年人的生理特点和活动规律,结合室内设计中人体工程学和心理学的相关知识,分析厨房设计中存在的问题,并且运用无障碍设计的方法,为老年人设计一个更加人性化的厨房环境,确保老年人在厨房空间的方便和安全,提高老年人的自理能力和自信心。%This paper in-depth analyzed the physiological characteristics and activity patterns of the older people, combining with the related knowledge of ergonomics and psychology in interior design, analyzed the existing problems in the kitchen design, and used the barrier-free design method, designed a more user-friendly kitchen environment for the older people, ensure the convenience and safety of older people in the kitchen space, improved the self-care ability and self-confidence of older people.

  6. Changing Social Structure in Europe calls for Tailor-made, Barrier-free Living and new Interior Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brausch Carsten


    Full Text Available Europe is experiencing a demographic change, resulting in a change in social structure. People are living longer and birth rates are declining. This changing structure in Europe poses special challenges for housing designers and builders. A new approach in the design of real estate must be created and implemented that caters for the future needs of the occupants of the living space in all phases and allows residents to remain self-sufficient in their "home" for as long as possible. In the earliest stages of design, the typical requirements for each phase of life of future, potential residents must already be considered. This is especially true for people with special protection needs, such as those with visual or hearing impairments.

  7. Barrier-Free Design of Passenger Trains in China%中国铁路客车无障碍设计研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向泽锐; 徐伯初; 支锦亦; 董石羽; 郭小锋; 章勇


    为获取我国铁路客车无障碍设计的相关依据,从分析乘客的需求出发,先后建立了行动不便旅客乘坐铁路客车的需求模型、车厢的无障碍流线模型和无障碍区域的基本布局模型,对比得出了最优的理论布局方案;通过真人实验和虚拟人仿真研究,明确了轮椅回转空间、通行宽度、轮椅使用者手的可及范围等关键尺寸;最后整理提出了我国铁路客车无障碍信息符号及其放置位置.研究结果表明:我国铁路客车应设有优先座位、专用无障碍车厢和通用齐全的无障碍信息符号;宜将轮椅席位和无障碍厕所集中设置于无障碍车厢侧门入口处的两侧;优先座位数应不低于每列车总席位的5%;列车8节及以下数量编组时应设置1个轮椅席位,8节以上编组时应设置2个轮椅席位;无障碍流线上的转弯处应预留轮椅转弯空间,直径应不小于1500 mm;通行的最小宽度应不小于950 mm;操控设备宜安装于离地板面高389~1354 mm范围;操作台面深度宜小于423 mm.%To find out the solution for barrier-free design of passenger trains in China,three models were proposed by analyzing the passengers special needs,including the demand model of passenger with reduced mobility,the accessible passageway model of coach,and the basic layout model of wheelchair accessible zone. Then,the theoretically optimal layout was obtained by comparing the all schemes. By both human tests and virtual simulations,some key dimensions were determined for barrier-free design of passenger trains,such as wheelchair turning space,passage width,and the controllable range of wheelchair users' hands. Further, the accessibility information symbols in passenger trains were introduced and some suggestions were provided for their places. The results show that trains should be equipped with priority seats,accessible coach and accessibility information symbols. Wheelchair

  8. Evaluation of physical load of hand-rim wheelchair propulsion on barrier-free model courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Ikeda


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the effect of sidewalk developments on the physical load of hand-rim wheelchair propulsion using a barrier-free model course. Non-wheelchair users performed wheelchair exercise tests and R–R interval time, discomfort rating, and postural changes of seating were measured. As a result, due to excessively heavy load on certain parts of the body during active propulsion on the sidewalk, it was shown that barrier-free developments did not lead to a reduction of physical load. The results suggest the importance of a well-balanced barrier-free sidewalk design that takes into account the individual character of the wheelchair user's seating posture and physical load at the time of maneuvering. In addition, it is shown that the reduction of physical load can be considered as an effective method of evaluation.

  9. A conceptual model for barrier free facilities planning. (United States)

    Bittencourt, R S; de M Guimarães, L B


    This paper presents the proposal of a model for planning a barrier free industrial facilities, considering the demands that inclusion requires, ranging from outside the factory (social environment), to the needs of the production system and the workstation. Along with literature review, the demands were identified in a shoe manufacturer that employs people with disabilities, and organized taxonomically in agreement with the structure for planning facilities. The results show that the problems are not primarily related to eliminating architectural barriers and factors aimed at preventing risks to people's health and safety but, rather, are related to the company's cultural environment, because the main hazards are managerial. In special cases, it is suggested there is a need to adjust those parts of tasks that the worker cannot do, or even to re-schedule work so as to make it possible for employees with disabilities to perform their tasks.

  10. Design of the Muong Chuoi Barrier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Vliegen, K.; Van Oorschot, N.; Meinen, N.; Van Dijk, S.; Reimert, Z.


    Ho Chi Minh City has to deal with severe flooding in the rainy season. To prevent the city from this flooding, MARD set up plan 1547. The main idea of the plan is to build a ring dike around HCMC in combination with several movable tidal barriers. One of these barriers is the Muong Chuoi Barrier. I

  11. On the Eyesight Barrier-free Design for Elderly People's Living Space%浅谈老年居住空间的视力无障碍设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Elderly people are special group in the society, a comfortable living environment is particularly important for them. For elders, the barrier-free space means that they could walk more easily which requires the texture of materials used in the pursuit of quality and more comfort, so that they can rest to eliminate the life stress.%老年人属于特殊的群体,舒适的居住环境对老年人的身心健康特别重要.对于老人来说,流畅的空间意味着他们行走更加方便,这就要求所用材料更追求质地品质与舒适感,使他们可通过休息.过滤更多的的生活压力.

  12. Design for Glasses Free 3D Parallax Barrier Lamination Parameters%裸眼3D显示液晶光栅贴合控制参数设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张永栋; 谢佳; 陶宇虹


    文章根据视差液晶光栅立体显示原理和莫尔条纹形成规律.提出了一种视差液晶光栅贴合控制参数的设计规则及工艺指导方式。通过对实际产品立体效果的影响分析。得出了设计控制的关键因素:贴合间隙的厚度和光栅与显示屏之间贴合允许最大倾斜角度,根据贴合允许的最大倾斜角度推导出了贴合对位标记垂直方向上的最大允许误差。实验验证和量产实践表明,文中提出的理论和方法能很好地应用于裸眼3D显示液晶光栅贴合控制的设计与量产工艺控制。%According to 3D principle of parallax barrier and the Morie, fringe formulas, we propose a design method about 3D parallax barrier lamination parameters. Through the effect of the 3D performance analysis of the actual product, we obtain the effect factor which is the lamination gap and tilt angle between panel and barrier. The experiment and mass production shows that this method is very helpful to design and product 3D parallax module for a better 3D performance.

  13. The Functional Requirements and Design Basis for Information Barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, James L.


    This report summarizes the results of the Information Barrier Working Group workshop held at Sandia National Laboratory in Albuquerque, NM, February 2-4, 1999. This workshop was convened to establish the functional requirements associated with warhead radiation signature information barriers, to identify the major design elements of any such system or approach, and to identify a design basis for each of these major elements. Such information forms the general design basis to be used in designing, fabricating, and evaluating the complete integrated systems developed for specific purposes.

  14. Free energy and hidden barriers of the β-sheet structure of prion protein. (United States)

    Paz, S Alexis; Abrams, Cameron F


    On-the-fly free-energy parametrization is a new collective variable biasing approach akin to metadynamics with one important distinction: rather than acquiring an accelerated distribution via a history-dependent bias potential, sampling on this distribution is achieved from the beginning of the simulation using temperature-accelerated molecular dynamics. In the present work, we compare the performance of both approaches to compute the free-energy profile along a scalar collective variable measuring the H-bond registry of the β-sheet structure of the mouse Prion protein. Both methods agree on the location of the free-energy minimum, but free-energy profiles from well-tempered metadynamics are subject to a much higher degree of statistical noise due to hidden barriers. The sensitivity of metadynamics to hidden barriers is shown to be a consequence of the history dependence of the bias potential, and we detail the nature of these barriers for the prion β-sheet. In contrast, on-the-fly parametrization is much less sensitive to these barriers and thus displays improved convergence behavior relative to that of metadynamics. While hidden barriers are a frequent and central issue in free-energy methods, on-the-fly free-energy parametrization appears to be a robust and preferable method to confront this issue.

  15. Sign preference in ion-induced nucleation: contributions to the free energy barrier. (United States)

    Keasler, Samuel J; Kim, Hyunmi; Chen, Bin


    We have performed a series of computer simulations using the AVUS-HR approach to better understand the origin of the sign preference in ion-induced nucleation. In particular, we emphasize the importance of distinguishing between the total formation free energy of a cluster, and the nucleation free energy, which involves only those steps contributing to the free energy barrier. We have separately considered how the ion-water potential energy, the water-water potential energy, and the entropy contribute to both the cluster formation free energy, and the nucleation free energy. These simulations have shown that while the ion-water potential energies make the largest contribution to the formation free energy difference between positive and negative ions, the entropy is the contribution leading to lower nucleation free energy barriers for negative ions. The primary reason for this is the larger stable (but precritical) clusters formed around negative ions. We have further shown that the distinction between formation and nucleation free energies is of particular importance when comparing small cations with larger anions where the formation free energies can be much lower for the cationic clusters, even though the nucleation barriers are lower for the anionic clusters.

  16. Free Material Design with Multiple Load Cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pauli; Pedersen, Niels Leergaard


    with a practical recursive design procedure is presented and illustrated with examples. The presented finite element analysis involve many elements as well as many load cases. Separating the local amount of material from a description with unit trace for the local anisotropy, gives the free materials formulation......Multiple load cases and the consideration of strength is a reality that most structural designs are exposed to. Improved possibility to produce specific materials, say by fiber lay-up, put focus on research on free material optimization. A formulation for such design problems together...

  17. 轮/履耦合式无障碍轮椅系统设计及运动分析%Design and Kinematic Analysis of Barrier-free Wheelchair System with a Wheel-tracked Coupling Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王冬晓; 高学山; 刘云辉


    针对目前城市障碍环境下对无障碍轮椅的运动需求,将轮式移动快速性的优点和履带式移动的高越障性的优点有机地加以组合,研制开发了一种多运动模式的轮/履耦合式无障碍轮椅.其特点在于结构紧凑,通过内部变形机构和弹性履带能够快速便捷的对轮式和履带式进行自由转换,同时通过系统自动调节轮椅座椅位置和倾斜度,能够实现智能重心控制并保证轮椅的安全性和舒适性.对该轮椅的结构设计、运动特性、越障性能以及重心平衡控制功能进行了详细的分析.采用模糊控制的方法保证了无障碍轮椅调节响应速度快以及安全可靠性好的控制要求.仿真分析表明,这种无障碍轮椅具有很好的环境适应性和较高的越障能力.%The intention in the present paper is to provide a novel berried-free wheelchair with a wheel-tracked deformable mechanism for the needs in urban obstacle environment in general. To combine the advantages of normal wheelchair and crawler wheelchair, for example rapidity and high over-obstacle ability, we design a wheel-tracked deformable mechanism and an elastic crawler which can help the wheelchair to do the mode conversion from wheel to track quickly. Moreover, it also presents a fuzzy method for adjusting the gravity center and controlling inclination of a stair-climbing wheelchair. To validate the proposed berried-free wheelchair, we have carried out simulations with analysis. The results demonstrate that the wheelchair has good environmental adaptability and high over-obstacle ability.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina E. Mediastika


    Full Text Available Noise source for buildings adjacent to streets is traffic-generated predominantly. Where people are mostly spend their time indoors, it is important for buildings to have screening or blocking to control noise intrusion into living spaces. But this blocking should also permit airflow. This is important for middle to low-cost domestic buildings, which do not employ conditioned ventilation. A common feature of Indonesian buildings, fence, is studied to perform noise barrier. The fence -a barrier to be- should obey three factors: position, dimension, and material. All these three factors were studied to seek compromised design for acoustic performance and natural ventilation purpose. Domestic building situated in the urban area of Yogyakarta was studying to see the most possible design of the barrier to be. There are two calculation methods employed to investigate the proposed design. The study shows that it is possible to gain minimum of 10 dB noise reduction by placing windows within the shadow effect of approximately 1.5 height fence-barrier.

  19. Computational design and experimental validation of new thermal barrier systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Shengmin [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States)


    The focus of this project is on the development of a reliable and efficient ab initio based computational high temperature material design method which can be used to assist the Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) bond-coat and top-coat design. Experimental evaluations on the new TBCs are conducted to confirm the new TBCs’ properties. Southern University is the subcontractor on this project with a focus on the computational simulation method development. We have performed ab initio density functional theory (DFT) method and molecular dynamics simulation on screening the top coats and bond coats for gas turbine thermal barrier coating design and validation applications. For experimental validations, our focus is on the hot corrosion performance of different TBC systems. For example, for one of the top coatings studied, we examined the thermal stability of TaZr2.75O8 and confirmed it’s hot corrosion performance.

  20. Direct measurement of free-energy barrier to nucleation of crystallites in amorphous silicon thin films (United States)

    Shi, Frank G.


    A method is introduced to measure the free-energy barrier W(sup *), the activation energy, and activation entropy to nucleation of crystallites in amorphous solids, independent of the energy barrier to growth. The method allows one to determine the temperature dependence of W(sup *), and the effect of the preparation conditions of the initial amorphous phase, the dopants, and the crystallization methds on W(sup *). The method is applied to determine the free-energy barrier to nucleation of crystallites in amorphous silicon (a-Si) thin films. For thermally induced nucleation in a-Si thin films with annealing temperatures in the range of from 824 to 983 K, the free-energy barrier W(sup *) to nucleation of silicon crystals is about 2.0 - 2.1 eV regardless of the preparation conditions of the films. The observation supports the idea that a-Si transforms into an intermediate amorphous state through the structural relaxation prior to the onset of nucleation of crystallites in a-Si. The observation also indicates that the activation entropy may be an insignificant part of the free-energy barrier for the nucleation of crystallites in a-Si. Compared with the free-energy barrier to nucleation of crystallites in undoped a-Si films, a significant reduction is observed in the free-energy barrier to nucleation in Cu-doped a-Si films. For a-Si under irradiation of Xe(2+) at 10(exp 5) eV, the free-energy barrier to ion-induced nucleation of crystallites is shown to be about half of the value associated with thermal-induced nucleation of crystallites in a-Si under the otherwise same conditions, which is much more significant than previously expected. The present method has a general kinetic basis; it thus should be equally applicable to nucleation of crystallites in any amorphous elemental semiconductors and semiconductor alloys, metallic and polymeric glasses, and to nucleation of crystallites in melts and solutions.

  1. Designing coupled free-form surfaces. (United States)

    Hicks, R Andrew; Croke, Christopher


    The problem of designing optical systems that contain free-form surfaces is a challenging one, even in the case of designing a single surface. Here we present a method for the coupled design of two free-form reflective surfaces that will have a prescribed distortion. On one hand, the method can be described using traditional vectors and matrices, which we do, but it is motivated by viewing the problem in the language of distributions from differential geometry and makes use of the exterior differential systems, which we relegate to an appendix. Example applications are given to the design of a mirror pair that increases the field of view of an observer, a similar mirror pair that also rotates the observer's view, and a pair of mirrors that give the observer a traditional panoramic strip view of the scene.

  2. Estimation of protein folding free energy barriers from calorimetric data by multi-model Bayesian analysis. (United States)

    Naganathan, Athi N; Perez-Jimenez, Raul; Muñoz, Victor; Sanchez-Ruiz, Jose M


    The realization that folding free energy barriers can be small enough to result in significant population of the species at the barrier top has sprouted in several methods to estimate folding barriers from equilibrium experiments. Some of these approaches are based on fitting the experimental thermogram measured by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to a one-dimensional representation of the folding free-energy surface (FES). Different physical models have been used to represent the FES: (1) a Landau quartic polynomial as a function of the total enthalpy, which acts as an order parameter; (2) the projection onto a structural order parameter (i.e. number of native residues or native contacts) of the free energy of all the conformations generated by Ising-like statistical mechanical models; and (3) mean-field models that define conformational entropy and stabilization energy as functions of a continuous local order parameter. The fundamental question that emerges is how can we obtain robust, model-independent estimates of the thermodynamic folding barrier from the analysis of DSC experiments. Here we address this issue by comparing the performance of various FES models in interpreting the thermogram of a protein with a marginal folding barrier. We chose the small α-helical protein PDD, which folds-unfolds in microseconds crossing a free energy barrier previously estimated as ~1 RT. The fits of the PDD thermogram to the various models and assumptions produce FES with a consistently small free energy barrier separating the folded and unfolded ensembles. However, the fits vary in quality as well as in the estimated barrier. Applying Bayesian probabilistic analysis we rank the fit performance using a statistically rigorous criterion that leads to a global estimate of the folding barrier and its precision, which for PDD is 1.3 ± 0.4 kJ mol(-1). This result confirms that PDD folds over a minor barrier consistent with the downhill folding regime. We have further

  3. Free energy barrier for dissociation of the guanosine monophosphate anion in water (United States)

    Cornetta, Lucas M.; Coutinho, Kaline; Canuto, Sylvio; Varella, Márcio T. do N.


    We report free energy barriers for the ground-state dissociation of the guanosine nucleotide anion in solution, employing implicit and explicit solvation models. The latter was based on the Free Energy Perturbation technique and Monte Carlo simulations. For the lowest-energy structure, both solvation models indicate a solvent-induced transition from a dipole-bound state in the gas phase to a π∗ valence state in solution. The free barrier estimates obtained from explicit and implicit solvation are in fair agreement with each other, although significantly overestimated in comparison to a previously reported explicit solvation model based on ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. Accounting for corrections related to the different DFT functionals used in the present and previous studies significantly improves the agreement. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Advances in Positron and Electron Scattering", edited by Paulo Limao-Vieira, Gustavo Garcia, E. Krishnakumar, James Sullivan, Hajime Tanuma and Zoran Petrovic.

  4. Transition path time distribution and the transition path free energy barrier. (United States)

    Pollak, Eli


    The recent experimental measurement of the transition path time distributions of proteins presents several challenges to theory. Firstly, why do the fits of the experimental data to a theoretical expression lead to barrier heights which are much lower than the free energies of activation of the observed transitions? Secondly, there is the theoretical question of determining the transition path time distribution, without invoking the Smoluchowski limit. In this paper, we derive an exact expression for a transition path time distribution which is valid for arbitrary memory friction using the normal mode transformation which underlies Kramers' rate theory. We then recall that for low barriers, there is a noticeable difference between the transition path time distribution obtained with absorbing boundary conditions and free boundary conditions. For the former, the transition times are shorter, since recrossings of the boundaries are disallowed. As a result, if one uses the distribution based on absorbing boundary conditions to fit the experimental data, one will find that the transition path barrier will be larger than the values found based on a theory with free boundary conditions. We then introduce the paradigm of a transition path barrier height, and show that one should always expect it to be much smaller than the activation energy.

  5. Computational Design and Experimental Validation of New Thermal Barrier Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Shengmin; Yang, Shizhong; Khosravi, Ebrahim


    This project (10/01/2010-9/30/2014), “Computational Design and Experimental Validation of New Thermal Barrier Systems”, originates from Louisiana State University (LSU) Mechanical Engineering Department and Southern University (SU) Department of Computer Science. This project will directly support the technical goals specified in DE-FOA-0000248, Topic Area 3: Turbine Materials, by addressing key technologies needed to enable the development of advanced turbines and turbine-based systems that will operate safely and efficiently using coal-derived synthesis gases. In this project, the focus is to develop and implement novel molecular dynamics method to improve the efficiency of simulation on novel TBC materials; perform high performance computing (HPC) on complex TBC structures to screen the most promising TBC compositions; perform material characterizations and oxidation/corrosion tests; and demonstrate our new thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems experimentally under integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) environments.

  6. Estimating free-energy barrier heights for an ultrafast folding protein from calorimetric and kinetic data. (United States)

    Godoy-Ruiz, Raquel; Henry, Eric R; Kubelka, Jan; Hofrichter, James; Muñoz, Victor; Sanchez-Ruiz, Jose M; Eaton, William A


    Differential scanning calorimetry was used to measure the temperature dependence of the absolute heat capacity of the 35-residue subdomain of the villin headpiece, a protein that folds in 5 mus and is therefore assumed to have a small free-energy barrier separating folded and unfolded states. To obtain an estimate of the barrier height from the calorimetric data, two models, a variable-barrier model and an Ising-like model, were used to fit the heat capacity in excess of the folded state over the temperature range 15-125 degrees C. The variable-barrier model is based on an empirical mathematical form for the density of states, with four adjustable parameters and the enthalpy (H) as a reaction coordinate. The Ising-like model is based on the inter-residue contact map of the X-ray structure with exact enumeration of approximately 10(5) possible conformations, with two adjustable parameters in the partition function, and either the fraction of native contacts (Q) or the number of ordered residues (P) as reaction coordinates. The variable-barrier model provides an excellent fit to the data and yields a barrier height at the folding temperature ranging from 0.4 to 1.1 kcal mol(-1), while the Ising-like model provides a less good fit and yields barrier heights of 2.3 +/- 0.1 kcal mol(-1) and 2.1 +/- 0.1 kcal mol(-1) for the Q and P reaction coordinates, respectively. In both models, the barrier to folding increases with increasing temperature. Assuming a sufficiently large activation energy for diffusion on the free-energy surfaces, both models are consistent with the observation of a temperature-independent folding rate in previously published laser temperature-jump experiments. Analysis of this kinetic data, using an approximate form for the pre-exponential factor of Kramers theory and the 70 ns relaxation time for the fast phase that precedes the unfolding/refolding relaxation to determine the diffusion coefficient, results in a barrier height of 1.6 +/- 0.3 kcal mol

  7. Barriers to the free diffusion of proteins and lipids in the plasma membrane. (United States)

    Trimble, William S; Grinstein, Sergio


    Biological membranes segregate into specialized functional domains of distinct composition, which can persist for the entire life of the cell. How separation of their lipid and (glyco)protein components is generated and maintained is not well understood, but the existence of diffusional barriers has been proposed. Remarkably, the physical nature of such barriers and the manner whereby they impede the free diffusion of molecules in the plane of the membrane has rarely been studied in depth. Moreover, alternative mechanisms capable of generating membrane inhomogeneity are often disregarded. Here we describe prototypical biological systems where membrane segregation has been amply documented and discuss the role of diffusional barriers and other processes in the generation and maintenance of their structural and functional compartmentalization.

  8. Free energy barrier for melittin reorientation from a membrane-bound state to a transmembrane state

    CERN Document Server

    Irudayam, Sheeba J; Berkowitz, Max L


    An important step in a phospholipid membrane pore formation by melittin antimicrobial peptide is a reorientation of the peptide from a surface into a transmembrane conformation. In this work we perform umbrella sampling simulations to calculate the potential of mean force (PMF) for the reorientation of melittin from a surface-bound state to a transmembrane state and provide a molecular level insight into understanding peptide and lipid properties that influence the existence of the free energy barrier. The PMFs were calculated for a peptide to lipid (P/L) ratio of 1/128 and 4/128. We observe that the free energy barrier is reduced when the P/L ratio increased. In addition, we study the cooperative effect; specifically we investigate if the barrier is smaller for a second melittin reorientation, given that another neighboring melittin was already in the transmembrane state. We observe that indeed the barrier of the PMF curve is reduced in this case, thus confirming the presence of a cooperative effect.

  9. The precautionary principle and other non-tariff barriers to free and fair international food trade. (United States)

    Lupien, John R


    International food trade and world population are growing rapidly. National legislation has been enacted and implemented in many countries to assure good quality and safe foods to meet increased demand. No country is fully self-sufficient in domestic food production to meet population demands, and all require some food imports. Current international food trade agreements call for free and fair food trade between all countries, developed and developing. National food legislation and food production, processing and marketing systems have evolved in most countries to ensure better quality and safer foods. At the international level the work of the FAO/ WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission (Codex) and the World Trade Organization Agreements on Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS) and on Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) and related Uruguay Round agreements have been agreed to by over 140 countries with the aim to promoting the free and fair trade of good quality and safe foods between all countries. The SPS and TBT agreements rely on science-based Codex standards, guidelines, and recommendations as benchmarks for judging international food trade disputes. A number of non-tariff barriers to trade, often related to agricultural subsidies and other food trade payments in developed countries, continue to give rise to complaints to WTO. They also continue to prevent free and fair trade, particularly for developing countries in international food trade. A number of these non-tariff barriers to trade are briefly examined, along with other domestic and international food trade problems, and recommendations for improvements are made.

  10. Computational Design and Experimental Validation of New Thermal Barrier Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Shengmin; Yang, Shizhong; Khosravi, Ebrahim


    This project (10/01/2010-9/30/2013), “Computational Design and Experimental Validation of New Thermal Barrier Systems”, originates from Louisiana State University (LSU) Mechanical Engineering Department and Southern University (SU) Department of Computer Science. This proposal will directly support the technical goals specified in DE-FOA-0000248, Topic Area 3: Turbine Materials, by addressing key technologies needed to enable the development of advanced turbines and turbine-based systems that will operate safely and efficiently using coal-derived synthesis gases. We will develop novel molecular dynamics method to improve the efficiency of simulation on novel TBC materials; we will perform high performance computing (HPC) on complex TBC structures to screen the most promising TBC compositions; we will perform material characterizations and oxidation/corrosion tests; and we will demonstrate our new Thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems experimentally under Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) environments. The durability of the coating will be examined using the proposed High Temperature/High Pressure Durability Test Rig under real syngas product compositions.

  11. A Local Order Parameter-Based Method for Simulation of Free Energy Barriers in Crystal Nucleation. (United States)

    Eslami, Hossein; Khanjari, Neda; Müller-Plathe, Florian


    While global order parameters have been widely used as reaction coordinates in nucleation and crystallization studies, their use in nucleation studies is claimed to have a serious drawback. In this work, a local order parameter is introduced as a local reaction coordinate to drive the simulation from the liquid phase to the solid phase and vice versa. This local order parameter holds information regarding the order in the first- and second-shell neighbors of a particle and has different well-defined values for local crystallites and disordered neighborhoods but is insensitive to the type of the crystal structure. The order parameter is employed in metadynamics simulations to calculate the solid-liquid phase equilibria and free energy barrier to nucleation. Our results for repulsive soft spheres and the Lennard-Jones potential, LJ(12-6), reveal better-resolved solid and liquid basins compared with the case in which a global order parameter is used. It is also shown that the configuration space is sampled more efficiently in the present method, allowing a more accurate calculation of the free energy barrier and the solid-liquid interfacial free energy. Another feature of the present local order parameter-based method is that it is possible to apply the bias potential to regions of interest in the order parameter space, for example, on the largest nucleus in the case of nucleation studies. In the present scheme for metadynamics simulation of the nucleation in supercooled LJ(12-6) particles, unlike the cases in which global order parameters are employed, there is no need to have an estimate of the size of the critical nucleus and to refine the results with the results of umbrella sampling simulations. The barrier heights and the nucleation pathway obtained from this method agree very well with the results of former umbrella sampling simulations.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pryadko Igor’ Petrovich


    Full Text Available This paper reviews the current state of transport organization for people with limited mobility. The article evaluates the results of the actions the executive authorities of Moscow and Moscow Region take. Barrier-free space organization for disabled people and parents with prams is given a special attention. The lack of strategy in the sphere leads to considerable difficulties for people with limited ability. This problem should be solved in cooperation with the survey of other peoples' needs. The article gives examples of comfortable urban space in Sochi, Moscow, Chita, Mytishchi and analyses the ways urbanism influences people with limited abilities.

  13. 障碍研究论述与社会参与:无障碍、通用设计、能力与差异%Studies on Disability and Social Participation:Barrier Free,Universal Design,Capability and Difference

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    障碍研究在过去40年的发展奠定了其对公共政策影响的基础。障碍者社会参与的责任逐渐由以往个人承担与调适,转向社会与国家承担。本文简述西方国家障碍研究的两个主要论述———社会模式与普同主义取向,对比这两个主要论述所衍生出的政策:由早期的无障碍设施到通用设计,至最近的能力取向。障碍者参与社会生活与活动是其基本权利的一部分,这项权利内涵具有积极性,需要政府与社会投入资源,改善外部社会结构与环境,使环境对障碍者更为友善,为其社会参与权利提供保障。%Disability study as an academic discipline has existed for over four decades in the West. It has tremendous influence on public policies.The burden of providing accessible environment for people with disability has been shifted from individual adjustments to the state and society services.This paper compares the two major models in disability studies—the Social Model and the Universal Model,and their corresponding public policies on three areas of barrier free,universal design and capability approach.People with disability should enjoy the same rights to social participation as their basic human rights. Society and government play a major role in assuring such rights are protected. Providing a disability friendly environment is the key to the success.The Social Model is better recognized than the Universal Model in the West.When it comes to the environmental barriers, the Social Model looks at ways of removing barriers in social environment that restrict life choices for disabled people.The Social Model has undoubtedly made great contribution to the disability rights movement in the past decades.It is not until WHO put forward the model as its core paradigm to define disability and health in ICF in the late 1990s,the world knew very little about Irving Zola’s universal approach.Zola believes that disability is a

  14. How and Why To Free All Refereed Research From Access- and Impact-Barriers Online, Now

    CERN Document Server

    Harnad, S; Brody, T


    Researchers publish their findings in order to make an impact on research, not in order to sell their words. Access-tolls are barriers to research impact. Authors can now free their refereed research papers from all access tolls immediately by self-archiving them on-line in their own institution's Eprint Archives. Free software creates Archives compliant with the Open Archives Initiative metadata-tagging Protocol OAI 1.0. These distributed institutional Archives are interoperable and can hence be harvested into global "virtual" archives, citation-linked and freely navigable by all. Self-archiving should enhance research productivity and impact as well as providing powerful new ways of monitoring and measuring it.

  15. Coarse-grained molecular dynamics study of membrane fusion: Curvature effects on free energy barriers along the stalk mechanism. (United States)

    Kawamoto, Shuhei; Klein, Michael L; Shinoda, Wataru


    The effects of membrane curvature on the free energy barrier for membrane fusion have been investigated using coarse-grained molecular dynamics (CG-MD) simulations, assuming that fusion takes place through a stalk intermediate. Free energy barriers were estimated for stalk formation as well as for fusion pore formation using the guiding potential method. Specifically, the three different geometries of two apposed membranes were considered: vesicle-vesicle, vesicle-planar, and planar-planar membranes. The free energy barriers for the resulting fusion were found to depend importantly on the fusing membrane geometries; the lowest barrier was obtained for vesicular membranes. Further, lipid sorting was observed in fusion of the mixed membranes of dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine and dioleoyl phosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE). Specifically, DOPE molecules were found to assemble around the stalk to support the highly negative curved membrane surface. A consistent result for lipid sorting was observed when a simple continuum model (CM) was used, where the Helfrich energy and mixing entropy of the lipids were taken into account. However, the CM predicts a much higher free energy barrier than found using CG-MD. This discrepancy originates from the conformational changes of lipids, which were not considered in the CM. The results of the CG-MD simulations reveal that a large conformational change in the lipid takes place around the stalk region, which results in a reduction of free energy barriers along the stalk mechanism of membrane fusion.

  16. Coarse-grained molecular dynamics study of membrane fusion: Curvature effects on free energy barriers along the stalk mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamoto, Shuhei; Shinoda, Wataru, E-mail: [Department of Applied Chemistry, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8603 (Japan); Klein, Michael L. [Institute for Computational Molecular Science, Temple University, SERC Building 1925 North 12th Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19122 (United States)


    The effects of membrane curvature on the free energy barrier for membrane fusion have been investigated using coarse-grained molecular dynamics (CG-MD) simulations, assuming that fusion takes place through a stalk intermediate. Free energy barriers were estimated for stalk formation as well as for fusion pore formation using the guiding potential method. Specifically, the three different geometries of two apposed membranes were considered: vesicle–vesicle, vesicle–planar, and planar–planar membranes. The free energy barriers for the resulting fusion were found to depend importantly on the fusing membrane geometries; the lowest barrier was obtained for vesicular membranes. Further, lipid sorting was observed in fusion of the mixed membranes of dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine and dioleoyl phosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE). Specifically, DOPE molecules were found to assemble around the stalk to support the highly negative curved membrane surface. A consistent result for lipid sorting was observed when a simple continuum model (CM) was used, where the Helfrich energy and mixing entropy of the lipids were taken into account. However, the CM predicts a much higher free energy barrier than found using CG-MD. This discrepancy originates from the conformational changes of lipids, which were not considered in the CM. The results of the CG-MD simulations reveal that a large conformational change in the lipid takes place around the stalk region, which results in a reduction of free energy barriers along the stalk mechanism of membrane fusion.

  17. Random free energy barrier hopping model for ac conduction in chalcogenide glasses (United States)

    Murti, Ram; Tripathi, S. K.; Goyal, Navdeep; Prakash, Satya


    The random free energy barrier hopping model is proposed to explain the ac conductivity (σac) of chalcogenide glasses. The Coulomb correlation is consistently accounted for in the polarizability and defect distribution functions and the relaxation time is augmented to include the overlapping of hopping particle wave functions. It is observed that ac and dc conduction in chalcogenides are due to same mechanism and Meyer-Neldel (MN) rule is the consequence of temperature dependence of hopping barriers. The exponential parameter s is calculated and it is found that s is subjected to sample preparation and measurement conditions and its value can be less than or greater than one. The calculated results for a - Se, As2S3, As2Se3 and As2Te3 are found in close agreement with the experimental data. The bipolaron and single polaron hopping contributions dominates at lower and higher temperatures respectively and in addition to high energy optical phonons, low energy optical and high energy acoustic phonons also contribute to the hopping process. The variations of hopping distance with temperature is also studied. The estimated defect number density and static barrier heights are compared with other existing calculations.

  18. Design and performance evaluation of a 1000-year evapotranspiration-capillary surface barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zhuanfang Fred; Strickland, Christopher E.; Link, Steven O.


    Surface barrier technology is used to isolate radioactive waste and to reduce or eliminate recharge water to the waste zone for 1000 years or longer. However, the design and evaluation of such a barrier is challenging because of the extremely long design life. The Prototype Hanford Barrier (PHB) was designed as a 1000-year barrier with pre-determined design and performance objectives and demonstrated in field from 1994 to present. The barrier was tested to evaluate surface-barrier design and performance at the field scale under conditions of enhanced and natural precipitation and of no vegetation. The monitoring data demonstrate that the barrier satisfied nearly all key objectives. The PHB far exceeded the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act criteria, functioned in Hanford’s semiarid climate, limited drainage to well below the 0.5 mm yr-1 performance criterion, limited runoff, and minimized erosion. Given the two-decade record of successful performance and consideration of all the processes and mechanisms that could degrade the stability and hydrology in the future, the results suggest the PHB is very likely to perform for its 1000-year design life. This conclusion is based on two assumptions: (1) the exposed subgrade receives protection against erosion and (2) institutional controls prevent inadvertent human activity at the barrier. The PHB design can serve as the base for site-specific barriers over waste sites containing underground nuclear waste, uranium mine tailings, and hazardous mine waste.

  19. Analysis and experimental study on formation conditions of large-scale barrier-free diffuse atmospheric pressure air plasmas in repetitive pulse mode (United States)

    Li, Lee; Liu, Lun; Liu, Yun-Long; Bin, Yu; Ge, Ya-Feng; Lin, Fo-Chang


    Atmospheric air diffuse plasmas have enormous application potential in various fields of science and technology. Without dielectric barrier, generating large-scale air diffuse plasmas is always a challenging issue. This paper discusses and analyses the formation mechanism of cold homogenous plasma. It is proposed that generating stable diffuse atmospheric plasmas in open air should meet the three conditions: high transient power with low average power, excitation in low average E-field with locally high E-field region, and multiple overlapping electron avalanches. Accordingly, an experimental configuration of generating large-scale barrier-free diffuse air plasmas is designed. Based on runaway electron theory, a low duty-ratio, high voltage repetitive nanosecond pulse generator is chosen as a discharge excitation source. Using the wire-electrodes with small curvature radius, the gaps with highly non-uniform E-field are structured. Experimental results show that the volume-scaleable, barrier-free, homogeneous air non-thermal plasmas have been obtained between the gap spacing with the copper-wire electrodes. The area of air cold plasmas has been up to hundreds of square centimeters. The proposed formation conditions of large-scale barrier-free diffuse air plasmas are proved to be reasonable and feasible.

  20. Barrier Lyapunov function-based model-free constraint position control for mechanical systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Seong Ik; Ha, Hyun Uk; Lee, Jang Myung [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)


    In this article, a motion constraint control scheme is presented for mechanical systems without a modeling process by introducing a barrier Lyapunov function technique and adaptive estimation laws. The transformed error and filtered error surfaces are defined to constrain the motion tracking error in the prescribed boundary layers. Unknown parameters of mechanical systems are estimated using adaptive laws derived from the Lyapunov function. Then, robust control used the conventional sliding mode control, which give rise to excessive chattering, is changed to finite time-based control to alleviate undesirable chattering in the control action and to ensure finite-time error convergence. Finally, the constraint controller from the barrier Lyapunov function is designed and applied to the constraint of the position tracking error of the mechanical system. Two experimental examples for the XY table and articulated manipulator are shown to evaluate the proposed control scheme.

  1. Barrier properties of nano silicon carbide designed chitosan nanocomposites. (United States)

    Pradhan, Gopal C; Dash, Satyabrata; Swain, Sarat K


    Nano silicon carbide (SiC) designed chitosan nanocomposites were prepared by solution technique. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used for studying structural interaction of nano silicon carbide (SiC) with chitosan. The morphology of chitosan/SiC nanocomposites was investigated by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), and high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM). The thermal stability of chitosan was substantially increased due to incorporation of stable silicon carbide nanopowder. The oxygen permeability of chitosan/SiC nanocomposites was reduced by three folds as compared to the virgin chitosan. The chemical resistance properties of chitosan were enhanced due to the incorporation of nano SiC. The biodegradability was investigated using sludge water. The tensile strength of chitosan/SiC nanocomposites was increased with increasing percentage of SiC. The substantial reduction in oxygen barrier properties in combination with increased thermal stability, tensile strength and chemical resistance properties; the synthesized nanocomposite may be suitable for packaging applications.

  2. Barrier or Benefit? Emotion in Life-Career Design (United States)

    Hartung, Paul J.


    Emotion permeates human life, yet receives little attention in career theory and intervention. Long seen as a barrier to avoid, recent conceptual and empirical work indicate that emotion benefits human behavior and development. Advances in the interdisciplinary science of emotion support examining the construct across differential, developmental,…

  3. Primary Care Provider Perceptions of Colorectal Cancer Screening Barriers: Implications for Designing Quality Improvement Interventions (United States)

    Pickhardt, Perry J.; Schumacher, Jessica R.; Potvien, Aaron; Kim, David H.; Pfau, Patrick R.; Jacobs, Elizabeth A.; Smith, Maureen A.


    Aims. Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening is underutilized. Increasing CRC screening rates requires interventions targeting multiple barriers at each level of the healthcare organization (patient, provider, and system). We examined groups of primary care providers (PCPs) based on perceptions of screening barriers and the relationship to CRC screening rates to inform approaches for conducting barrier assessments prior to designing and implementing quality improvement interventions. Methods. We conducted a retrospective cohort study linking EHR and survey data. PCPs with complete survey responses for questions addressing CRC screening barriers were included (N = 166 PCPs; 39,430 patients eligible for CRC screening). Cluster analysis identified groups of PCPs. Multivariate logistic regression estimated odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for predictors of membership in one of the PCP groups. Results. We found two distinct groups: (1) PCPs identifying multiple barriers to CRC screening at patient, provider, and system levels (N = 75) and (2) PCPs identifying no major barriers to screening (N = 91). PCPs in the top half of CRC screening performance were more likely to identify multiple barriers than the bottom performers (OR, 4.14; 95% CI, 2.43–7.08). Conclusions. High-performing PCPs can more effectively identify CRC screening barriers. Targeting high-performers when conducting a barrier assessment is a novel approach to assist in designing quality improvement interventions for CRC screening.

  4. Smoke-free homes: what are the barriers, motivators and enablers? A qualitative systematic review and thematic synthesis (United States)

    Robinson, Jude; Wiggers, John


    Objective To thematically synthesise primary qualitative studies of the barriers, motivators and enablers of smoke-free homes (SFHs). Design Systematic review and thematic synthesis. Data sources Searches of MEDLINE, EBM Reviews (Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews), PsycINFO, Global Health, CINAHL, Web of Science, Informit and EMBASE, combining terms for families, households and vulnerable populations; SFH and secondhand smoke; and qualitative research, were supplemented by searches of PhD theses, key authors, specialist journals and reference lists. Study selection We included 22 articles, reporting on 18 studies, involving 646 participants. Inclusion criteria: peer-reviewed; English language; published from 1990 onwards (to week 3 of April 2014); used qualitative data collection methods; explored participants’ perspectives of home smoking behaviours; and the barriers, motivators and enablers to initiating and/or maintaining a SFH. Data extraction 1 of 3 authors extracted data with checking by a second. Data synthesis A thematic synthesis was performed to develop 7 core analytic themes: (1) knowledge, awareness and risk perception; (2) agency and personal skills/attributes; (3) wider community norms and personal moral responsibilities; (4) social relationships and influence of others; (5) perceived benefits, preferences and priorities; (6) addiction and habit; (7) practicalities. Conclusions This synthesis highlights the complexity faced by many households in having a SFH, the practical, social, cultural and personal issues that need to be addressed and balanced by households, and that while some of these are common across study settings, specific social and cultural factors play a critical role in shaping household smoking behaviours. The findings can inform policy and practice and the development of interventions aimed at increasing SFHs. Trial registration number CRD42014014115. PMID:26988351

  5. Programming-Free Form Conversion, Design, and Processing


    Fan, Ting-Jun; Machlin, Rona S.; Wang, Christopher P.; Chang, Ifay F.


    In this paper, we present the requirements and design considerations for programming-free form conversion, design, and processing. A set of object-oriented software tools are also presented to help users convert a paper form into an electronic form, design an electronic form, and fill in an electronic form directly on screen.

  6. Book Review: Eleanor Spaventa, Free Movement of Persons in the European Union: Barriers to Movement in Their Constitutional Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Pescăraşu


    Full Text Available The book analyses the evolution of the principle of free movement and places a special emphasis on the notion of boundaries that limit such freedom. The primary purpose of the investigation is to assess whether a satisfying concept and legal explanation may be provided for the broad interpretation given by the European Court of Justice in matters of free movement with respect to the provisions of the Treaty establishing the European Community. The author insists on the emergence of a new constitutional dimension in which Member States have considerable responsibilities to the citizens of the Union, as citizens rather than mere economic actors. Relevant aspects such as: the processing of the term of discrimination, the notion of non-discriminatory barrier, non-discriminatory barriers to the right of residence and free circulation of workers, the shortcomings of the access to the market are also included in the book.

  7. Optimization Design Model of Functional Gradient Thermal Barrier Coating Material by Using Parallel Computation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Zhao


    Full Text Available It is important for huge ship to find the ceramic/metal functional gradient thermal barrier coating materials. A parallel computation model is built for optimization design of three-dimensional ceramic/metal functionally gradient thermal barrier coating material. According to the control equation and initial-boundary conditions, the heat transfer problem is considered, and numerical algorithms of optimization design is constructed by adapting difference method. The numerical results shows that gradient thermal barrier coating material can improve the function of material.

  8. Resonator design for a visible wavelength free-electron laser (*)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhowmik, A.; Lordi, N. (Rockwell International Corp., Canoga Park, CA (United States). Rocketdyne Div.); Ben-Zvi, I.; Gallardo, J. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States))


    Design requirements for a visible wavelength free-electron laser being developed at the Accelerator Test Facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory are presented along with predictions of laser performance from 3-D numerical simulations. The design and construction of the optical resonator, its alignment and control systems are also described. 15 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Assessment as a Barrier in Developing Design Expertise: Interior Design Student Perceptions of Meanings and Sources of Grades (United States)

    Smith, Kennon M.


    This article reports on a portion of a larger qualitative study focused on a group of interior design students' perceptions of their educational experiences. Twelve interior design students enrolled in their final studio course participated in interviews intended to elicit their perceptions of key barriers encountered during their…

  10. A Matrix-Free Algorithm for Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (United States)

    Lambe, Andrew Borean

    Multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) is an approach to engineering design that exploits the coupling between components or knowledge disciplines in a complex system to improve the final product. In aircraft design, MDO methods can be used to simultaneously design the outer shape of the aircraft and the internal structure, taking into account the complex interaction between the aerodynamic forces and the structural flexibility. Efficient strategies are needed to solve such design optimization problems and guarantee convergence to an optimal design. This work begins with a comprehensive review of MDO problem formulations and solution algorithms. First, a fundamental MDO problem formulation is defined from which other formulations may be obtained through simple transformations. Using these fundamental problem formulations, decomposition methods from the literature are reviewed and classified. All MDO methods are presented in a unified mathematical notation to facilitate greater understanding. In addition, a novel set of diagrams, called extended design structure matrices, are used to simultaneously visualize both data communication and process flow between the many software components of each method. For aerostructural design optimization, modern decomposition-based MDO methods cannot efficiently handle the tight coupling between the aerodynamic and structural states. This fact motivates the exploration of methods that can reduce the computational cost. A particular structure in the direct and adjoint methods for gradient computation. motivates the idea of a matrix-free optimization method. A simple matrix-free optimizer is developed based on the augmented Lagrangian algorithm. This new matrix-free optimizer is tested on two structural optimization problems and one aerostructural optimization problem. The results indicate that the matrix-free optimizer is able to efficiently solve structural and multidisciplinary design problems with thousands of variables and

  11. Preliminary research on the design of flexible barriers for debris flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huan ZHANG; Li-zhou ZHANG


    Rigid barriers,including check dams,steel cells and retaining wal s,are widely utilized for debris flow mitigation.It has to be said that these rigid structures are general y effective and technical feasible.However,with the enhancement of environmental awareness and innovative materials,flexible barriers have been being created which are very engineering effective,envi-ronmental friendly,material saving as wel as easy construction in rugged terrain.Although the merits of such structures are summarized in above,the understanding of such barriers are very limited.Most of constructions are just on the basis of engineering experience and largely depend on the factor of safety to eliminate the uncertainties.In this paper,method for debris flow dynam-ics calibration and conventional ideas for the design of flexible barriers wil be il ustrated and an advanced method-finite element wil be used to analyze the debris flow.

  12. Spanning Knowledge Barriers in E-Learning Content Design (United States)

    Chu, Tsai-Hsin; Lee, Yi; Lee, Yen-Hsien


    E-learning content development can be regarded as an example of knowledge delivery process because the developers have to receive knowledge transferred from subject-matter experts (SMEs), to translate the received knowledge with appropriate instructional design, and to transform the project outcomes to fulfill learner's learning needs. As…

  13. Thermodynamics of downhill folding: multi-probe analysis of PDD, a protein that folds over a marginal free energy barrier. (United States)

    Naganathan, Athi N; Muñoz, Victor


    Downhill folding proteins fold in microseconds by crossing a very low or no free energy barrier (energy landscape in detail using multiprobe thermodynamic experiments. This type of thermodynamic behavior has been investigated in depth on the protein BBL, an example of extreme (one-state) downhill folding in which there is no free energy barrier at any condition, including the denaturation midpoint. However, an open question is, to what extent is such thermodynamic behavior observed on less extreme downhill folders? Here we perform a multiprobe spectroscopic characterization of the microsecond folder PDD, a structural and functional homologue of BBL that folds within the downhill regime, but is not an example of one-state downhill folding; rather at the denaturation midpoint PDD folds by crossing an incipient free energy barrier. Model-free analysis of the unfolding curves from four different spectroscopic probes together with differential scanning calorimetry reveals a dispersion of ∼9 K in the apparent melting temperature and also marked differences in unfolding broadness (from ∼50 to ∼130 kJ mol(-1) when analyzed with a two-state model), confirming that such properties are also observed on less extreme downhill folders. We subsequently perform a global quantitative analysis of the unfolding data of PDD using the same ME statistical mechanical model that was used before for the BBL domain. The analysis shows that this simple model captures all of the features observed on the unfolding of PDD (i.e., the intensity and temperature dependence of the different spectroscopic signals). From the model we estimate a free energy landscape for PDD in which the maximal thermodynamic barrier (i.e., at the denaturation midpoint) is only ∼0.5 RT, consistent with previous independent estimates. Our results highlight that multiprobe unfolding experiments in equilibrium combined with statistical mechanical modeling provide important insights into the structural events that

  14. Micro pore arrays in free standing cyclic olefin copolymer membranes: fabrication and surface functionalization strategies for in-vitro barrier tissue models (United States)

    Gel, M.; Kandasamy, S.; Cartledge, K.; Be, C. L.; Haylock, D.


    In recent years there has been growing interest in micro engineered in-vitro models of tissues and organs. These models are designed to mimic the in-vivo like physiological conditions with a goal to study human physiology in an organ-specific context or to develop in-vitro disease models. One of the challenges in the development of these models is the formation of barrier tissues in which the permeability is controlled locally by the tissues cultured at the interface. In-vitro models of barrier tissues are typically created by generating a monolayer of cells grown on thin porous membranes. This paper reports a robust preparation method for free standing porous cyclic olefin copolymer (COC) membranes. We also demonstrate that gelatin coated membranes facilitate formation of highly confluent monolayer of HUVECs. Membranes with thickness in the range of 2-3 um incorporating micro pores with diameter approximately 20 um were fabricated and integrated with microfluidic channels. The performance of the device was demonstrated with a model system mimicking the endothelial barrier in bone marrow sinusoids.

  15. Inclusive design drivers and barriers – a manufacturing perspective from Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amjad Hussain


    Full Text Available The demographics of older people and people with disabilities in developing countries are discussed in the context of inclusive design and the drivers and barriers to inclusive design have been identified. Data were collected from 50 individuals from various industrial sectors in Pakistan. Corporate social responsibility (CSR relates to inclusive aspects of products, but most respondents either did not know about CSR or did not have a CSR post in their organizations, but 64% had awareness of inclusive design terminology. The study concluded that motivation through social responsibility; innovation and differentiation; demographics and consumer trends; brand enhancement; customer satisfaction; new market opportunity; and legislation were the perceived drivers for manufacturers in Pakistan. Most respondents felt that lack of resources and guidance, lack of awareness about inclusive design, difficulty in changing the business culture, lack of government regulations, and the perception that inclusive design is expensive were the most significant barriers.

  16. Evaluating the long-term hydrology of an evapotranspiration-capillary barrier with a 1000 year design life: HYDROLOGY OF A 1000 YEAR ETC BARRIER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Z. Fred [Hydrology Group, Earth Systems Science Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA


    A surface barrier (or cover) is a commonly used technology for subsurface remediation. A key function of the barrier is to reduce or eliminate the movement of meteoric precipitation into the underlying waste zone, where it could mobilize and transport contaminants. Surface barriers are expected to perform for centuries to millennia, yet there are very few examples of performance for periods longer than a decade. The Prototype Hanford Barrier was constructed in 1994 over an existing waste site to demonstrate its long-term performance for a design period of 1000 years. This barrier is a field-scale evapotranspiration-capillary (ETC) barrier. In this design, the storage layer consists of 2-m-thick silt loam. The 19-year monitoring results show that the store-and-release mechanism for the ETC barrier worked efficiently as the storage layer was recharged in the winter season (November to March) and the stored water was released to the atmosphere in the summer season (April to October) via soil evaporation and plant transpiration. The capillary break functioned normally in improving the storage capacity and minimizing drainage. The maximum drainage observed through the ET barrier at any of the monitoring stations was only 0.178 mm yr-1 (under an enhanced precipitation condition), which is less than the design criterion. A very small amount (2.0 mm yr-1 on average) of runoff was observed during the 19-year monitoring period. The observed storage capacity of the storage layer was considerably (39%) larger than the estimated value based on the method of equilibrium of water pressure. After a controlled fire in 2008, the newly grown vegetation (primarily shallow-rooted grasses) could still release the stored water and summer precipitation to the atmosphere via transpiration. The findings are useful for predicting water storage and ET under different precipitation conditions and for the design of future barriers.

  17. Enzyme-Free Scalable DNA Digital Design Techniques: A Review. (United States)

    Konampurath George, Aby; Singh, Harpreet


    With the recent developments in DNA nanotechnology, DNA has been used as the basic building block for the design of nanostructures, autonomous molecular motors, various devices, and circuits. DNA is considered as a possible candidate for replacing silicon for designing digital circuits in a near future, especially in implantable medical devices, because of its parallelism, computational powers, small size, light weight, and compatibility with bio-signals. The research in DNA digital design is in early stages of development, and electrical and computer engineers are not much attracted towards this field. In this paper, we give a brief review of the existing enzyme-free scalable DNA digital design techniques which are recently developed. With the developments in DNA circuits, it would be possible to design synthetic molecular systems, therapeutic molecular devices, and other molecular scale devices and instruments. The ultimate aim will be to build complex digital designs using DNA strands which may even be placed inside a human body.

  18. Experimental Testing of Rockfall Barriers Designed for the Low Range of Impact Energy (United States)

    Buzzi, O.; Spadari, M.; Giacomini, A.; Fityus, S.; Sloan, S. W.


    Most of the recent research on rockfall and the development of protective systems, such as flexible rockfall barriers, have been focused on medium to high levels of impacting energy. However, in many regions of the world, the rockfall hazard involves low levels of energy. This is particularly the case in New South Wales, Australia, because of the nature of the geological environments. The state Road and Traffic Authority (RTA) has designed various types of rockfall barriers, including some of low capacity, i.e. 35 kJ. The latter were tested indoors using a pendulum equipped with an automatic block release mechanism triggered by an optical beam. Another three systems were also tested, including two products designed by rockfall specialised companies and one modification of the initial design of the RTA. The research focused on the influence of the system's stiffness on the transmission of load to components of the barrier such as posts and cables. Not surprisingly, the more compliant the system, the less loaded the cables and posts. It was also found that removing the intermediate cables and placing the mesh downslope could reduce the stiffness of the system designed by the RTA. The paper concludes with some multi-scale considerations on the capacity of a barrier to absorb the energy based on experimental evidence.

  19. Overcoming barriers to high performance seismic design using lessons learned from the green building industry (United States)

    Glezil, Dorothy

    NEHRP's Provisions today currently governing conventional seismic resistant design. These provisions, though they ensure the life-safety of building occupants, extensive damage and economic losses may still occur in the structures. This minimum performance can be enhanced using the Performance-Based Earthquake Engineering methodology and passive control systems like base isolation and energy dissipation systems. Even though these technologies and the PBEE methodology are effective reducing economic losses and fatalities during earthquakes, getting them implemented into seismic resistant design has been challenging. One of the many barriers to their implementation has been their upfront costs. The green building community has faced some of the same challenges that the high performance seismic design community currently faces. The goal of this thesis is to draw on the success of the green building industry to provide recommendations that may be used overcome the barriers that high performance seismic design (HPSD) is currently facing.

  20. Altered free radical metabolism in acute mountain sickness: implications for dynamic cerebral autoregulation and blood-brain barrier function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bailey, D M; Evans, K A; James, P E


    (2)) and following 6 h passive exposure to hypoxia (12% O(2)). Blood flow velocity in the middle cerebral artery (MCAv) and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) were measured for determination of CA following calculation of transfer function analysis and rate of regulation (RoR). Nine subjects......We tested the hypothesis that dynamic cerebral autoregulation (CA) and blood-brain barrier (BBB) function would be compromised in acute mountain sickness (AMS) subsequent to a hypoxia-mediated alteration in systemic free radical metabolism. Eighteen male lowlanders were examined in normoxia (21% O...

  1. A design study for a medium-scale field demonstration of the viscous barrier technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moridis, G. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Yen, P. [Bechtel Corp., San Francisco, CA (United States); Persoff, P.; Finsterle, S.; Williams, P.; Myer, L.; Pruess, K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)


    This report is the design study for a medium-scale field demonstration of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory`s new subsurface containment technology for waste isolation using a new generation of barrier liquids. The test site is located in central California in a quarry owned by the Los Banos Gravel Company in Los Banos, California, in heterogeneous unsaturated deposits of sand, silt, and -ravel typical of many of the and DOE cleanup sites and particularly analogous to the Hanford site. The coals of the field demonstration are (a) to demonstrate the ability to create a continuous subsurface barrier isolating a medium-scale volume (30 ft long by 30 ft wide by 20 ft deep, i.e. 1/10th to 1/8th the size of a buried tank at the Hanford Reservation) in the subsurface, and (b) to demonstrate the continuity, performance, and integrity of the barrier.

  2. Geotechnical, Hydrogeologic and Vegetation Data Package for 200-UW-1 Waste Site Engineered Surface Barrier Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, Andy L.


    Fluor Hanford (FH) is designing and assessing the performance of engineered barriers for final closure of 200-UW-1 waste sites. Engineered barriers must minimize the intrusion and water, plants and animals into the underlying waste to provide protection for human health and the environment. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) developed Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases (STOMP) simulator is being used to optimize the performance of candidate barriers. Simulating barrier performance involves computation of mass and energy transfer within a soil-atmosphere-vegetation continuum and requires a variety of input parameters, some of which are more readily available than others. Required input includes parameter values for the geotechnical, physical, hydraulic, and thermal properties of the materials comprising the barrier and the structural fill on which it will be constructed as well as parameters to allow simulation of plant effects. This report provides a data package of the required parameters as well as the technical basis, rationale and methodology used to obtain the parameter values.

  3. Design of active temperature compensated composite free-free beam MEMS resonators in a standard process (United States)

    Xereas, George; Chodavarapu, Vamsy P.


    Frequency references are used in almost every modern electronic device including mobile phones, personal computers, and scientific and medical instrumentation. With modern consumer mobile devices imposing stringent requirements of low cost, low complexity, compact system integration and low power consumption, there has been significant interest to develop batch-manufactured MEMS resonators. An important challenge for MEMS resonators is to match the frequency and temperature stability of quartz resonators. We present 1MHz and 20MHz temperature compensated Free-Free beam MEMS resonators developed using PolyMUMPS, which is a commercial multi-user process available from MEMSCAP. We introduce a novel temperature compensation technique that enables high frequency stability over a wide temperature range. We used three strategies: passive compensation by using a structural gold (Au) layer on the resonator, active compensation through using a heater element, and a Free-Free beam design that minimizes the effects of thermal mismatch between the vibrating structure and the substrate. Detailed electro-mechanical simulations were performed to evaluate the frequency response and Quality Factor (Q). Specifically, for the 20MHz device, a Q of 10,000 was obtained for the passive compensated design. Finite Element Modeling (FEM) simulations were used to evaluate the Temperature Coefficient of frequency (TCf) of the resonators between -50°C and 125°C which yielded +0.638 ppm/°C for the active compensated, compared to -1.66 ppm/°C for the passively compensated design and -8.48 ppm/°C for uncompensated design for the 20MHz device. Electro-thermo-mechanical simulations showed that the heater element was capable of increasing the temperature of the resonators by approximately 53°C with an applied voltage of 10V and power consumption of 8.42 mW.

  4. A Bayesian Chance-Constrained Method for Hydraulic Barrier Design Under Model Structure Uncertainty (United States)

    Chitsazan, N.; Pham, H. V.; Tsai, F. T. C.


    The groundwater community has widely recognized the model structure uncertainty as the major source of model uncertainty in groundwater modeling. Previous studies in the aquifer remediation design, however, rarely discuss the impact of the model structure uncertainty. This study combines the chance-constrained (CC) programming with the Bayesian model averaging (BMA) as a BMA-CC framework to assess the effect of model structure uncertainty in the remediation design. To investigate the impact of the model structure uncertainty on the remediation design, we compare the BMA-CC method with the traditional CC programming that only considers the model parameter uncertainty. The BMA-CC method is employed to design a hydraulic barrier to protect public supply wells of the Government St. pump station from saltwater intrusion in the "1,500-foot" sand and the "1-700-foot" sand of the Baton Rouge area, southeastern Louisiana. To address the model structure uncertainty, we develop three conceptual groundwater models based on three different hydrostratigraphy structures. The results show that using the traditional CC programming overestimates design reliability. The results also show that at least five additional connector wells are needed to achieve more than 90% design reliability level. The total amount of injected water from connector wells is higher than the total pumpage of the protected public supply wells. While reducing injection rate can be achieved by reducing reliability level, the study finds that the hydraulic barrier design to protect the Government St. pump station is not economically attractive.

  5. Efficient Design And Fabrication Of Free-Form Reciprocal Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parigi, Dario; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning


    Structures based on the principle of reciprocity have been autonomously studied and used since the antiquity on the basis of different needs and purposes. The application of the principle of reciprocity requires the presence of at least two elements, at the same time both supporting and being...... supported by the other with no hierarchy, meeting along their span and never in their vertices. A computational method has been developed to predict and control the geometry of large networks of reciprocally connected, round un-notched elements. The method enables the possibility of using reciprocal...... structures to closely fit any free-form geometry through the determination of the geometric parameters that describe the contact position of each element with the others in the assembly. This method has been applied for the design and realization of a free-form reciprocal structure composed of 506 round, un...

  6. Analysis and Design of Ship Collision Barriers on a Submerged Floating Tunnel subjected to Large Ship Collisions


    Århus, Gisle Hoel


    Reinertsen AS is developing a bridge crossing concept to cross the Sognefjord in Norway. The concept consists of floating bridge and submerged tunnel. The submerged tunnel is exposed to ship collisions from passing ship traffic. A protective ship collision barrier is used to protect the exposed part of the submerged tunnel. A design of the collision barrier is proposed. The barrier is made of Aluminium. There are some special considerations one must take into account when using aluminium...

  7. Fast printing of thin, large area, ITO free electrochromics on flexible barrier foil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Roar R.; Hösel, Markus; Jørgensen, Mikkel;


    Processing of large area, indium tin oxide (ITO) free electrochromic (EC) devices has been carried out using roll-toroll (R2R) processing. By use of very fine high-conductive silver grids with a hexagonal structure, it is possible to achieve good transparency of the electrode covered substrates...

  8. Simulation study of free-energy barriers in the wetting transition of an oily fluid on a rough surface with reentrant geometry. (United States)

    Savoy, Elizabeth S; Escobedo, Fernando A


    When in contact with a rough solid surface, fluids with low surface tension, such as oils and alkanes, have their lowest free energy in the fully wetted state. For applications where nonwetting by these phillic fluids is desired, some barrier must be introduced to maintain the nonwetted composite state. One way to create this free-energy barrier is to fabricate roughness with reentrant geometry, but the question remains as to whether the free-energy barrier is sufficiently high to prevent wetting. Our goal is to quantify the free-energy landscape for the wetting transition of an oily fluid on a surface of nails and identify significant surface features and conditions that maximize the wetting free-energy barrier (ΔGfwd*). This is a departure from most work on wetting, which focuses on the equilibrium composite and wetted states. We use boxed molecular dynamics (BXD) (Glowacki, D. R.; Paci, E.; Shalashilin, D. V. J. Phys. Chem. B2009, 113, 16603-16611) with a modified control scheme to evaluate both the thermodynamics and kinetics of the transition over a range of surface affinities (chemistry). We find that the reentrant geometry of the nails does create a free-energy barrier to transition for phillic chemistry whereas a corresponding system on straight posts wets spontaneously and, that doubling the nail height more than doubles ΔGfwd*. For neutral to phillic chemistry, the dewetting free-energy barrier is at least an order of magnitude higher than that for wetting, indicating an essentially irreversible wetting transition. Transition rates from BXD simulations and the associated trends agree well with those in our previous study that used forward flux sampling to compute transition rates for similar systems.

  9. Design of barrier coatings on kink-resistant peripheral nerve conduits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basak Acan Clements


    Full Text Available Here, we report on the design of braided peripheral nerve conduits with barrier coatings. Braiding of extruded polymer fibers generates nerve conduits with excellent mechanical properties, high flexibility, and significant kink-resistance. However, braiding also results in variable levels of porosity in the conduit wall, which can lead to the infiltration of fibrous tissue into the interior of the conduit. This problem can be controlled by the application of secondary barrier coatings. Using a critical size defect in a rat sciatic nerve model, the importance of controlling the porosity of the nerve conduit walls was explored. Braided conduits without barrier coatings allowed cellular infiltration that limited nerve recovery. Several types of secondary barrier coatings were tested in animal studies, including (1 electrospinning a layer of polymer fibers onto the surface of the conduit and (2 coating the conduit with a cross-linked hyaluronic acid-based hydrogel. Sixteen weeks after implantation, hyaluronic acid-coated conduits had higher axonal density, displayed higher muscle weight, and better electrophysiological signal recovery than uncoated conduits or conduits having an electrospun layer of polymer fibers. This study indicates that braiding is a promising method of fabrication to improve the mechanical properties of peripheral nerve conduits and demonstrates the need to control the porosity of the conduit wall to optimize functional nerve recovery.

  10. Design of barrier coatings on kink-resistant peripheral nerve conduits. (United States)

    Clements, Basak Acan; Bushman, Jared; Murthy, N Sanjeeva; Ezra, Mindy; Pastore, Christopher M; Kohn, Joachim


    Here, we report on the design of braided peripheral nerve conduits with barrier coatings. Braiding of extruded polymer fibers generates nerve conduits with excellent mechanical properties, high flexibility, and significant kink-resistance. However, braiding also results in variable levels of porosity in the conduit wall, which can lead to the infiltration of fibrous tissue into the interior of the conduit. This problem can be controlled by the application of secondary barrier coatings. Using a critical size defect in a rat sciatic nerve model, the importance of controlling the porosity of the nerve conduit walls was explored. Braided conduits without barrier coatings allowed cellular infiltration that limited nerve recovery. Several types of secondary barrier coatings were tested in animal studies, including (1) electrospinning a layer of polymer fibers onto the surface of the conduit and (2) coating the conduit with a cross-linked hyaluronic acid-based hydrogel. Sixteen weeks after implantation, hyaluronic acid-coated conduits had higher axonal density, displayed higher muscle weight, and better electrophysiological signal recovery than uncoated conduits or conduits having an electrospun layer of polymer fibers. This study indicates that braiding is a promising method of fabrication to improve the mechanical properties of peripheral nerve conduits and demonstrates the need to control the porosity of the conduit wall to optimize functional nerve recovery.

  11. An Approach for Design of Noise Barriers on Flyovers in Urban Areas in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvind Kumar Shukla


    Full Text Available Transport is a significant, often major source of environmental pollution consisting of noise and air. Noise pollution has become a major concern for communities living in the vicinity of urban roads and major highway corridors. In view of increasing noise levels along highways it has become essential to reduce the intensity of noise to acceptable limit by constructing noise barrier. To study the existing noise levels in the urban areas due to movement of vehicles, the entire city of Lucknow has been divided in different zones on the basis of different land use. Effect of other factors like type of terrain, speed of traffic, cross section of roads and traffic composition has also been considered during noise data analysis. In this paper noise levels on the fly over in front of Engineering College (IET Lucknow UP India has been taken for study and a noise barrier for this location has been designed for predicted noise levels worked out using modified FHWA model. This model makes use of traffic data like volume, speed composition, slope, ground cover etc. A program in EXCEL was developed to work out barrier height using traffic and road geometry data. The height of noise barrier to reduce the noise level from 63.79 db to 55 db was found as 4.2 meters above the floor level of flyover.

  12. Engineered barrier system and waste package design concepts for a potential geologic repository at Yucca Mountain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Short, D.W.; Ruffner, D.J.; Jardine, L.J.


    We are using an iterative process to develop preliminary concept descriptions for the Engineered Barrier System and waste-package components for the potential geologic repository at Yucca Mountain. The process allows multiple design concepts to be developed subject to major constraints, requirements, and assumptions. Involved in the highly interactive and interdependent steps of the process are technical specialists in engineering, metallic and nonmetallic materials, chemistry, geomechanics, hydrology, and geochemistry. We have developed preliminary design concepts that satisfy both technical and nontechnical (e.g., programmatic or policy) requirements.

  13. One-dimensional free-energy profiles of complex systems: progress variables that preserve the barriers. (United States)

    Krivov, Sergei V; Karplus, Martin


    We show that the balanced minimum-cut procedure introduced in PNAS 2004, 101, 14766 can be reinterpreted as a method for solving the constrained optimization problem of finding the minimum cut among the cuts with a particular value of an additive function of the nodes on either side of the cut. Such an additive function (e.g., the partition function of the reactant region) can be used as a progress coordinate to determine a one-dimensional profile (FEP) of the free-energy surface of the protein-folding reaction as well as other complex reactions. The algorithm is based on the network (obtained from an equilibrium molecular dynamics simulation) that represents the calculated reaction behavior. The resulting FEP gives the exact values of the free energy as a function of the progress coordinate; i.e., at each value of the progress coordinate, the profile is obtained from the surface with the minimal partition function among the surfaces that divide the full free-energy surface between two chosen end points. In many cases, the balanced minimum-cut procedure gives results for only a limited set of points. An approximate method based on p(fold) is shown to provide the profile for a more complete set of values of the progress coordinate. Applications of the approach to model problems and to realistic systems (beta-hairpin of protein G, LJ38 cluster) are presented.

  14. UWB Tracking System Design for Free-Flyers (United States)

    Ni, Jianjun; Arndt, Dickey; Phan, Chan; Ngo, Phong; Gross, Julia; Dusl, John


    This paper discusses an ultra-wideband (UWB) tracking system design effort for Mini-AERCam (Autonomous Extra-vehicular Robotic Camera), a free-flying video camera system under development at NASA Johnson Space Center for aid in surveillance around the International Space Station (ISS). UWB technology is exploited to implement the tracking system due to its properties, such as high data rate, fine time resolution, and low power spectral density. A system design using commercially available UWB products is proposed. A tracking algorithm TDOA (Time Difference of Arrival) that operates cooperatively with the UWB system is developed in this research effort. Matlab simulations show that the tracking algorithm can achieve fine tracking resolution with low noise TDOA data. Lab experiments demonstrate the UWB tracking capability with fine resolution.

  15. Blood-Brain Barrier Disruption and Oxidative Stress in Guinea Pig after Systemic Exposure to Modified Cell-Free Hemoglobin (United States)

    Butt, Omer I.; Buehler, Paul W.; D'Agnillo, Felice


    Systemic exposure to cell-free hemoglobin (Hb) or its breakdown products after hemolysis or with the use of Hb-based oxygen therapeutics may alter the function and integrity of the blood-brain barrier. Using a guinea pig exchange transfusion model, we investigated the effect of a polymerized cell-free Hb (HbG) on the expression of endothelial tight junction proteins (zonula occludens 1, claudin-5, and occludin), astrocyte activation, IgG extravasation, heme oxygenase (HO), iron deposition, oxidative end products (4-hydroxynonenal adducts and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine), and apoptosis (cleaved caspase 3). Reduced zonula occludens 1 expression was observed after HbG transfusion as evidenced by Western blot and confocal microscopy. Claudin-5 distribution was altered in small- to medium-sized vessels. However, total expression of claudin-5 and occludin remained unchanged except for a notable increase in occludin 72 hours after HbG transfusion. HbG-transfused animals also showed increased astrocytic glial fibrillary acidic protein expression and IgG extravasation after 72 hours. Increased HO activity and HO-1 expression with prominent enhancement of HO-1 immunoreactivity in CD163-expressing perivascular cells and infiltrating monocytes/macrophages were also observed. Consistent with oxidative stress, HbG increased iron deposition, 4-hydroxynonenal and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine immunoreactivity, and cleaved caspase-3 expression. Systemic exposure to an extracellular Hb triggers blood-brain barrier disruption and oxidative stress, which may have important implications for the use of Hb-based therapeutics and may provide indirect insight on the central nervous system vasculopathies associated with excessive hemolysis. PMID:21356382

  16. Barrier potential design criteria in multiple-quantum-well-based solar-cell structures (United States)

    Mohaidat, Jihad M.; Shum, Kai; Wang, W. B.; Alfano, R. R.


    The barrier potential design criteria in multiple-quantum-well (MQW)-based solar-cell structures is reported for the purpose of achieving maximum efficiency. The time-dependent short-circuit current density at the collector side of various MQW solar-cell structures under resonant condition was numerically calculated using the time-dependent Schroedinger equation. The energy efficiency of solar cells based on the InAs/Ga(y)In(1-y)As and GaAs/Al(x)Ga(1-x)As MQW structues were compared when carriers are excited at a particular solar-energy band. Using InAs/Ga(y)In(1-y)As MQW structures it is found that a maximum energy efficiency can be achieved if the structure is designed with barrier potential of about 450 meV. The efficiency is found to decline linearly as the barrier potential increases for GaAs/Al(x)Ga(1-x)As MQW-structure-based solar cells.

  17. Eco-Innovation in Global Hotel Chains: Designs, Barriers, Incentives and Motivations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa de Oliveira Menezes


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This article aims to verify the reality of eco-innovations developed by global hotel chains, highlighting the innovative designs employed by these organizations, the barriers and incentives faced by these companies and motivations to invest in innovations for this purpose. This multiple case study, of qualitative, descriptive and sectional nature used the thematic content analysis, using the NVivo® software to analyze some of the data obtained and supported on the triangulation of information to increase the reliability of the results. The data sources were empirical research, gathered through interviews and questionnaires, and documentary research. We found that the chains under study develop a large number of ecoinnovations in their companies, and most of them are end-of-pipe. In the respondents´ view, there are more barriers than incentives for the development of this type of innovation and the development is driven in large part as a mean to gain competitive advantage.

  18. Ultraviolet Free Electron Laser Facility preliminary design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben-Zvi, I. (ed.)


    This document, the Preliminary Design Report (PDR) for the Brookhaven Ultraviolet Free Electron Laser (UV FEL) facility, describes all the elements of a facility proposed to meet the needs of a research community which requires ultraviolet sources not currently available as laboratory based lasers. Further, for these experiments, the requisite properties are not extant in either the existing second or upcoming third generation synchrotron light sources. This document is the result of our effort at BNL to identify potential users, determine the requirements of their experiments, and to design a facility which can not only satisfy the existing need, but have adequate flexibility for possible future extensions as need dictates and as evolving technology allows. The PDR is comprised of three volumes. In this, the first volume, background for the development of the proposal is given, including descriptions of the UV FEL facility, and representative examples of the science it was designed to perform. Discussion of the limitations and potential directions for growth are also included. A detailed description of the facility design is then provided, which addresses the accelerator, optical, and experimental systems. Information regarding the conventional construction for the facility is contained in an addendum to volume one (IA).

  19. Bridging the Gap: A Roadmap to Breaking the Biological Design Barrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob eBeal


    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of an emerging bottleneck in organism engineering, and paths by which it may be overcome. Recent years have seen the development of a profusion of synthetic biology tools, largely falling into two categories: high-level design tools aimed at mapping from organism specifications to nucleic acid sequences implementing those specifications, and low-level build and test tools aimed at faster, cheaper, and more reliable fabrication of those sequence and assays of their behavior in engineered biological organisms. Between the two families, however, there is a major gap: we still largely lack the predictive models and component characterization data required to effectively determine which of the many possible candidate sequences considered in the design phase are the most likely to produce useful results when built and tested. As low-level tools continue to mature, the bottleneck in biological systems engineering is shifting to be dominated by design, making this gap a critical barrier to progress. Considering how to address this gap, we find that widespread adoption of readily available analytic and assay methods is likely to lead to rapid improvement in available predictive models and component characterization models, as evidenced by a number of recent results. Such an enabling development is, in turn, likely to allow high-level tools to break the design barrier and support rapid development of transformative biological applications.

  20. Functionalization of Hydrogen-free Diamond-like Carbon Films using Open-air Dielectric Barrier Discharge Atmospheric Plasma Treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA; Instituto de Materiales de Madrid, C.S.I.C., Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid, Spain; Instituto de Quimica-Fisica" Rocasolano" C.S.I.C., 28006 Madrid, Spain; Mahasarakham University, Mahasarakham 44150, Thailand; CASTI, CNR-INFM Regional Laboratory, L' Aquila 67100, Italy; SUNY Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, NY 13210, USA; Endrino, Jose; Endrino, J. L.; Marco, J. F.; Poolcharuansin, P.; Phani, A.R.; Allen, M.; Albella, J. M.; Anders, A.


    A dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) technique has been employed to produce uniform atmospheric plasmas of He and N2 gas mixtures in open air in order to functionalize the surface of filtered-arc deposited hydrogen-free diamond-like carbon (DLC) films. XPS measurements were carried out on both untreated and He/N2 DBD plasma treated DLC surfaces. Chemical states of the C 1s and N 1s peaks were collected and used to characterize the surface bonds. Contact angle measurements were also used to record the short- and long-term variations in wettability of treated and untreated DLC. In addition, cell viability tests were performed to determine the influence of various He/N2 atmospheric plasma treatments on the attachment of osteoblast MC3T3 cells. Current evidence shows the feasibility of atmospheric plasmas in producing long-lasting variations in the surface bonding and surface energy of hydrogen-free DLC and consequently the potential for this technique in the functionalization of DLC coated devices.

  1. Free-Energy Barrier of Filling a Spherical Cavity in the Presence of Line Tension: Implication to the Energy Barrier between the Cassie and Wenzel States on a Superhydrophobic Surface with Spherical Cavities. (United States)

    Iwamatsu, Masao


    The free-energy barrier of filling a spherical cavity having an inner wall of various wettabilities is studied. The morphology and free energy of a lens-shaped droplet are determined from the minimum of the free energy. The effect of line tension on the free energy is also studied. Then, the equilibrium contact angle of the droplet is determined from the generalized Young's equation. By increasing the droplet volume within the spherical cavity, the droplet morphology changes from spherical with an equilibrium contact angle of 180° to a lens with a convex meniscus, where the morphological complete drying transition occurs. By further increasing the droplet volume, the meniscus changes from convex to concave. Then, the lens-shaped droplet with concave meniscus spreads over the whole inner wall, resulting in an equilibrium contact angle of 0° to leave a spherical bubble, where the morphological complete wetting transition occurs. Finally, the whole cavity is filled with liquid. The free energy shows a barrier from complete drying to complete wetting as a function of droplet volume, which corresponds to the energy barrier between the Cassie and Wenzel states of the superhydrophobic surface with spherical cavities. The free-energy maximum occurs when the meniscus of the droplet becomes flat, and it is given by an analytic formula. The effect of line tension is expressed by the scaled line tension, and this effect is largest at the free-energy maximum. The positive line tension increases the free-energy maximum, which thus increases the stability of the Cassie superhydrophobic state, whereas the negative line tension destabilizes the superhydrophobic state.

  2. Development Strategies on Barrier-free Facility Integration of City Public Transportation System%城市公共交通无障碍设施一体化实施对策研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严亚丹; 过秀成


    Barrier-free construction of a public transportation system is an embodiment of human-oriented,transit priority policies and the requirement for promoting city grade.The relationship between the public transportation system and sustainable mobility was explored.The paper proposed a definition and the service objects of public transport barrier-free construction.Then,according to the existed problems in the process of accessibility construction of the public transportation system,the development strategies and measures from the perspectives of facility,design and management on barrier-free facility integration were discussed.%公共交通无障碍设施的建设是以人为本、公交优先的具体体现,亦是城市功能和品质提升的必然要求。论文探讨了公共交通与可持续机动性的关系,并在分析公共交通无障碍建设的服务对象和内涵的基础上,针对我国城市公共交通无障碍设施的建设现状,从设施配置、工程设计、运营管理等方面提出公共交通无障碍设施一体化的实施对策。

  3. Conceptual design of industrial free electron laser using superconducting accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saldin, E.L.; Schneidmiller, E.A.; Ulyanov, Yu.N. [Automatic Systems Corporation, Samara (Russian Federation)] [and others


    Paper presents conceptual design of free electron laser (FEL) complex for industrial applications. The FEL complex consists of three. FEL oscillators with the optical output spanning the infrared (IR) and ultraviolet (UV) wave-lengths ({lambda} = 0.3...20 {mu}m) and with the average output power 10 - 20 kW. The driving beam for the FELs is produced by a superconducting accelerator. The electron beam is transported to the FELs via three beam lines (125 MeV and 2 x 250 MeV). Peculiar feature of the proposed complex is a high efficiency of the. FEL oscillators, up to 20 %. This becomes possible due to the use of quasi-continuous electron beam and the use of the time-dependent undulator tapering.

  4. Kinetic barriers in the isomerization of substituted ureas: implications for computer-aided drug design (United States)

    Loeffler, Johannes R.; Ehmki, Emanuel S. R.; Fuchs, Julian E.; Liedl, Klaus R.


    Urea derivatives are ubiquitously found in many chemical disciplines. N, N'-substituted ureas may show different conformational preferences depending on their substitution pattern. The high energetic barrier for isomerization of the cis and trans state poses additional challenges on computational simulation techniques aiming at a reproduction of the biological properties of urea derivatives. Herein, we investigate energetics of urea conformations and their interconversion using a broad spectrum of methodologies ranging from data mining, via quantum chemistry to molecular dynamics simulation and free energy calculations. We find that the inversion of urea conformations is inherently slow and beyond the time scale of typical simulation protocols. Therefore, extra care needs to be taken by computational chemists to work with appropriate model systems. We find that both knowledge-driven approaches as well as physics-based methods may guide molecular modelers towards accurate starting structures for expensive calculations to ensure that conformations of urea derivatives are modeled as adequately as possible.

  5. 北京市无障碍建设法规执行状况调研%Investigation on the Implementation of Barrier-free Regulations in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安天义; 邓晓梅


    近年来我国的无障碍环境立法工作取得了瞩目的成绩,但也暴露出众多无障碍法规缺乏执行力的问题,限制了无障碍环境建设工作的落实和推广.本文关注于无障碍法规的执行力问题,以国内首部无障碍设施的地方性法规--为基准,对公共设施的无障碍建设情况开展实地调研.调研发现:以商业类设施和地铁类设施为代表的新建建筑比老建筑的无障碍建设情况要好;坡道、盲道、升降装置等设施的建设情况要明显好于警示标识、安全扶手、低位装置等设施;中的条款不够细致和全面,造成了在建设和验收环节没有明确的执行标准;而盲道被不合理占用等情况暴露出公众无障碍意识和知识缺乏的问题.本文的研究结果为无障碍法规的监督与执行提供了重要参考.%While the significant achievements have been obtained in respect of legislative work on barrier-free facilities, there are still problems with implementation of barrier-free regulations. This paper focuses on the implementation of Barrier-free regulations,and investigates the current situations of barrier-free environment of public buildings based on‘ The Regulation of Barrier-free Facilities Construction and Management in Beijing' , the first local regulation related to barrier-free in China. It is found that: ( 1 ) The barrierfree environment of new buildings, such as commercial buildings and subway facilities, is better than that of old buildings (2) Ramp way, blind walk way, barrier-free lift devices, and barrier-free lavatory are better built than warning sign, safety armrest, and lowposition devices; (3) The regulation is not comprehensive and explicit enough, which leads to no clear criteria to follow during construction and acceptance inspection; The misuse of blind walk way reveals that the public are lack of knowledge and awareness related to the barrier-free environment. The findings in this paper provide

  6. Parametric design of a part with free-form surfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KIM Yeoung-il; KIM Li-ra; JUN Cha-soo


    3D solid models for parts with regular-form surfaces (PRFSs) are effectively generated using traditional parametric design techniques. A new model is obtained by changing some parameters defining the model. The parts with free-form surfaces(PFFSs), however, cannot be defined by several parameters. Usually they are defined by some geometric elements like profile curves. The traditional parametric design approaches have not easily dealt with the PFFSs. A method for generating a solid model and an engineering drawing for PFFSs is proposed in this paper: First, the new profiles are generated from input point data. Second,the profile information is extracted from the existing model. Last, the old profiles are replaced with the new profiles. This method can preserve the associative information of the existing model and automatically generate the drawing including views, dimensions, and annotations. The proposed method has been implemented using a commercial CAD/CAM system, Unigraphics, and API functions written in C-language, and were applied to the blades of a turbine generator. Some illustrative examples are provided in order to show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  7. Transceiving protocol design for a free space optical communication system (United States)

    Wang, Hualong; Su, Wanxin; Xing, Zhongbao


    A new transceiving protocol is demonstrated for a Free Space Optical (FSO) communication system, and it's discussed in two parts: the transmitting protocol and the receiving protocol. During the discussion of these two parts, the cooperation of them is also discussed. Different from wired communication, an FSO system modulates the data on a narrow beam of laser transmitting through the free space or the atmosphere, and the protocol presented in this paper is mainly optimized for terrestrial Free Space Optical links, in which the signal channel of the system is mainly the atmosphere. Due to the complex composition and activity of the atmosphere, this signal channel brings in great influence on the transmitting laser in it, for example, the absorption and scattering of the atmosphere molecules and aerosols, the scintillation of received laser power caused by the turbulence of the atmosphere, all of which results in a much higher Bit Error Rate (BER) of the communication system. Thus in designing a protocol for an FSO system, more effort should be taken in the encoding of the data stream, the synchronization of the data stream, error checking and exception handling. The main function of the transmitting protocol includes interfacing the outer input data with a parallel port, buffering the input data, encoding the input data stream, serializing the parallel data and output the serialized data. It also has an output management unit to manage the activity of each part of the transmitting protocol. The main function of the receiving protocol includes filtering and synchronizing the input serial data stream, paralleling the serial data stream, decoding the input data, error checking, exception handling and interfacing the outer receiver with a parallel port. The entire transceiving protocol could be programmed into a single FPGA chip to improve system integrity and reduce the system cost. The presented protocol could be taken as "protocol transparent" for outer interfaces

  8. Barrier-free proton transfer in the valence anion of 2'-deoxyadenosine-5'-monophosphate. II. A computational study. (United States)

    Kobyłecka, Monika; Gu, Jiande; Rak, Janusz; Leszczynski, Jerzy


    The propensity of four representative conformations of 2(')-deoxyadenosine-5(')-monophosphate (5(')-dAMPH) to bind an excess electron has been studied at the B3LYP6-31++G(d,p) level. While isolated canonical adenine does not support stable valence anions in the gas phase, all considered neutral conformations of 5(')-dAMPH form adiabatically stable anions. The type of an anionic 5(')-dAMPH state, i.e., the valence, dipole bound, or mixed (valence/dipole bound), depends on the internal hydrogen bond(s) pattern exhibited by a particular tautomer. The most stable anion results from an electron attachment to the neutral syn-south conformer. The formation of this anion is associated with a barrier-free proton transfer triggered by electron attachment and the internal rotation around the C4(')-C5(') bond. The adiabatic electron affinity of the a_south-syn anion is 1.19 eV, while its vertical detachment energy is 1.89 eV. Our results are compared with the photoelectron spectrum (PES) of 5(')-dAMPH(-) measured recently by Stokes et al., [J. Chem. Phys. 128, 044314 (2008)]. The computational VDE obtained for the most stable anionic structure matches well with the experimental electron binding energy region of maximum intensity. A further understanding of DNA damage might require experimental and computational studies on the systems in which purine nucleotides are engaged in hydrogen bonding.

  9. Design of a computer software for calculation of required barrier against radiation at the diagnostic x-ray units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Rahimi


    Full Text Available Background and purpose : Instalation of protective barrier against diagnostic x-ray is generally done based on the recommendations of NCRP49. There are analytic methods for designing protective barriers howerer, they lack sufficient efficiency and considering the NCRP49 reports, designing mechanical protective barrier in order to protect the initial x-ray radiation and absorption of the ray quality of such radiation is different.Therefore, the protective barrier for each radiation is measured separately. In this study, a computer software was designed to calculate the needed barrier with high accuracy.Materials and methods: Calculation of required protective barrier particularly when two or more generators are in use at diagnostic x-ray units and or installed diagnostic equipments do not have proper room space and the limitations for other clanges in parameters which are time- consuming and impossible to be manually calculated. For proper determination of thichness of the protective barrier, relevant information about curves of radiation weakness, dose limit etc should be entered. This program was done in windows and designed in such a way that the operator works easily, flexibility of the program is acceptable and its accuracy and sensitivity is high.Results : Results of this program indicate that, in most cases, in x-ray units required protective barrier was not used. Meanwhile sometimes shielding is more than what required which lacks technical standards and cost effectiveness. When the application index is contrasting zero, thichness of NCRP49 calculation is about 20% less than the calculated rate done by the method of this study. When the applied index is equal to zero (that is the only situation where the second barrier is considered, thickness of requined barrier is about 15% less than the lead barrier and concrete barrier calculated in this project is 8% less than that calculated by McGuire method.Conclusion : In this study proper

  10. Computing the Free Energy Barriers for Less by Sampling with a Coarse Reference Potential while Retaining Accuracy of the Target Fine Model. (United States)

    Plotnikov, Nikolay V


    Proposed in this contribution is a protocol for calculating fine-physics (e.g., ab initio QM/MM) free-energy surfaces at a high level of accuracy locally (e.g., only at reactants and at the transition state for computing the activation barrier) from targeted fine-physics sampling and extensive exploratory coarse-physics sampling. The full free-energy surface is still computed but at a lower level of accuracy from coarse-physics sampling. The method is analytically derived in terms of the umbrella sampling and the free-energy perturbation methods which are combined with the thermodynamic cycle and the targeted sampling strategy of the paradynamics approach. The algorithm starts by computing low-accuracy fine-physics free-energy surfaces from the coarse-physics sampling in order to identify the reaction path and to select regions for targeted sampling. Thus, the algorithm does not rely on the coarse-physics minimum free-energy reaction path. Next, segments of high-accuracy free-energy surface are computed locally at selected regions from the targeted fine-physics sampling and are positioned relative to the coarse-physics free-energy shifts. The positioning is done by averaging the free-energy perturbations computed with multistep linear response approximation method. This method is analytically shown to provide results of the thermodynamic integration and the free-energy interpolation methods, while being extremely simple in implementation. Incorporating the metadynamics sampling to the algorithm is also briefly outlined. The application is demonstrated by calculating the B3LYP//6-31G*/MM free-energy barrier for an enzymatic reaction using a semiempirical PM6/MM reference potential. These modifications allow computing the activation free energies at a significantly reduced computational cost but at the same level of accuracy compared to computing full potential of mean force.

  11. Maximum dose angle for oblique incidence on primary beam protective barriers in the design of medical radiation therapy facilities. (United States)

    Fondevila, Damián; Arbiser, Silvio; Sansogne, Rosana; Brunetto, Mónica; Dosoretz, Bernardo


    Primary barrier determinations for the shielding of medical radiation therapy facilities are generally made assuming normal beam incidence on the barrier, since this is geometrically the most unfavorable condition for that shielding barrier whenever the occupation line is allowed to run along the barrier. However, when the occupation line (for example, the wall of an adjacent building) runs perpendicular to the barrier (especially roof barrier), then two opposing factors come in to play: increasing obliquity angle with respect to the barrier increases the attenuation, while the distance to the calculation point decreases, hence, increasing the dose. As a result, there exists an angle (alpha(max)) for which the equivalent dose results in a maximum, constituting the most unfavorable geometric condition for that shielding barrier. Based on the usual NCRP Report No. 151 model, this article presents a simple formula for obtaining alpha(max), which is a function of the thickness of the barrier (t(E)) and the equilibrium tenth-value layer (TVL(e)) of the shielding material for the nominal energy of the beam. It can be seen that alpha(max) increases for increasing TVL(e) (hence, beam energy) and decreases for increasing t(E), with a range of variation that goes from 13 to 40 deg for concrete barriers thicknesses in the range of 50-300 cm and most commercially available teletherapy machines. This parameter has not been calculated in the existing literature for radiotherapy facilities design and has practical applications, as in calculating the required unoccupied roof shielding for the protection of a nearby building located in the plane of the primary beam rotation.

  12. Design, installation, and performance of a multi-layered permeable reactive barrier, Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaszuba, J. P. (John P.); Longmire, P. A. (Patrick A.); Strietelmeier, E. A. (Elizabeth A.); Taylor, T. P. (Tammy P.); Den-Baars, P. S. (Peter S.)


    A multi-layered permeable reactive barrier (PRB) has been installed in Mortandad Canyon, on the Pajarito Plateau in the north-central part of LANL, to demonstrate in-situ treatment of a suite of contaminants with dissimilar geochemical properties. The PRB will also mitigate possible vulnerabilities from downgradient contaminant movement within alluvial and deeper perched groundwater. Mortandad Canyon was selected as the location for this demonstration project because the flow of alluvial groundwater is constrained by the geology of the canyon, a large network of monitoring wells already were installed along the canyon reach, and the hydrochemistry and contaminant history of the canyon is well-documented. The PRB uses a funnel-and-gate system with a series of four reactive media cells to immobilize or destroy contaminants present in alluvial groundwater, including strontium-90, plutonium-238,239,240, americium-241, perchlorate, and nitrate. The four cells, ordered by sequence of contact with the groundwater, consist of gravel-sized scoria (for colloid removal); phosphate rock containing apatite (for metals and radionuclides); pecan shells and cotton seed admixed with gravel (bio-barrier, to deplete dissolved oxygen and destroy potential RCRA organic compounds, nitrate and perchlorate); and limestone (pH buffering and anion adsorption). Design elements of the PRB are based on laboratory-scale treatability studies and on a field investigation of hydrologic, geochemical, and geotechnical parameters. The PRB was designed with the following criteria: 1-day residence time within the biobarrier, 10-year lifetime, minimization of surface water infiltration and erosion, optimization of hydraulic capture, and minimization of excavated material requiring disposal. Each layer has been equipped with monitoring wells or ports to allow sampling of groundwater and reactive media, and monitor wells are located immediately adjacent to the up- and down-gradient perimeter of the

  13. A study of the silicon Bulk-Barrier Diodes designed in planar technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Georgopoulos


    Full Text Available In this paper, it is studied for the first time, the possibility of manufacturing a Bulk Barrier diode in planar technology usingsimulation. This study is based on simulation results obtained with a 2-D device simulator (S-PISCES. More precisely, theelectrical and switching behavior of the proposed devices in planar technology were investigated. The results of this studyshow that the technological parameters (doping concentrations, as well as the geometrical sizes (middle region widthand the bias conditions (applied voltage, have significant effects on the electrical and switching behavior of the proposeddevices. The appropriate choice of these parameters can reduce the switching time in the range of few picoseconds andalso dramatically modify the current through the device. The simulation results of devices in planar technology have beencompared with those designed in non planar technology. Finally, good agreement among theory and simulations results ofthe proposed devices observed.

  14. Designing a highly sensitive Eddy current sensor for evaluating damage on thermal barrier coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Min; Kim, Hak Joon; Song, Sung Jin; Seok, Chang Seong; Lee, Yeong Ze [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seul Gi [LG Electronics, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    A thermal barrier coating (TBC) has been widely applied to machine components working under high temperature as a thermal insulator owing to its critical financial and safety benefits to the industry. However, the nondestructive evaluation of TBC damage is not easy since sensing of the microscopic change that occurs on the TBC is required during an evaluation. We designed an eddy current probe for evaluating damage on a TBC based on the finite element method (FEM) and validated its performance through an experiment. An FEM analysis predicted the sensitivity of the probe, showing that impedance change increases as the TBC thermally degrades. In addition, the effect of the magnetic shield concentrating magnetic flux density was also observed. Finally, experimental validation showed good agreement with the simulation result.

  15. Design of experiment analysis of CO2 dielectric barrier discharge conditions on CO production (United States)

    Becker, Markus; Ponduri, Srinath; Engeln, Richard; van de Sanden, Richard; Loffhagen, Detlef


    Dielectric barrier discharges (DBD) are frequently used for the generation of CO from CO2 which is of particular interest for syngas production. It has been found by means of fluid modelling in that the CO2 conversion frequency in a CO2 DBD depends linearly on the specific energy input (SEI) while the energy efficiency of CO production is only weakly dependent on the SEI. Here, the same numerical model as in is applied to study systematically the influence of gas pressure, applied voltage amplitude and frequency on the CO2 conversion frequency and the energy efficiency of CO production based on a 2-level 3-factor full factorial experimental design. It is found that the operating conditions of the CO2 DBD for CO production can be chosen to either have an optimal throughput or a better energy efficiency. This work was partly supported by the German Research Foundation within the Collaborative Research Centre Transregio 24.

  16. Impact of barrier thickness on transistor performance in AlN/GaN high electron mobility transistors grown on free-standing GaN substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deen, David A., E-mail:; Storm, David F.; Meyer, David J.; Bass, Robert; Binari, Steven C. [Electronics Science and Technology Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375-5347 (United States); Gougousi, Theodosia [Physics Department, University of Maryland Baltimore County, Baltimore, Maryland 21250 (United States); Evans, Keith R. [Kyma Technologies, Raleigh, North Carolina 27617 (United States)


    A series of six ultrathin AlN/GaN heterostructures with varied AlN thicknesses from 1.5–6 nm have been grown by molecular beam epitaxy on free-standing hydride vapor phase epitaxy GaN substrates. High electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) were fabricated from the set in order to assess the impact of barrier thickness and homo-epitaxial growth on transistor performance. Room temperature Hall characteristics revealed mobility of 1700 cm{sup 2}/V s and sheet resistance of 130 Ω/□ for a 3 nm thick barrier, ranking amongst the lowest room-temperature sheet resistance values reported for a polarization-doped single heterostructure in the III-Nitride family. DC and small signal HEMT electrical characteristics from submicron gate length HEMTs further elucidated the effect of the AlN barrier thickness on device performance.

  17. Design and experimental tests of free electron laser wire scanners (United States)

    Orlandi, G. L.; Heimgartner, P.; Ischebeck, R.; Loch, C. Ozkan; Trovati, S.; Valitutti, P.; Schlott, V.; Ferianis, M.; Penco, G.


    SwissFEL is a x-rays free electron laser (FEL) driven by a 5.8 GeV linac under construction at Paul Scherrer Institut. In SwissFEL, wire scanners (WSCs) will be complementary to view-screens for emittance measurements and routinely used to monitor the transverse profile of the electron beam during FEL operations. The SwissFEL WSC is composed of an in-vacuum beam-probe—motorized by a stepper motor—and an out-vacuum pick-up of the wire signal. The mechanical stability of the WSC in-vacuum hardware has been characterized on a test bench. In particular, the motor induced vibrations of the wire have been measured and mapped for different motor speeds. Electron-beam tests of the entire WSC setup together with different wire materials have been carried out at the 250 MeV SwissFEL Injector Test Facility (SITF, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH) and at FERMI (Elettra-Sincrotrone Trieste, Italy). In particular, a comparative study of the relative measurement accuracy and the radiation-dose release of Al (99 )∶Si (1 ) and tungsten (W) wires has been carried out. On the basis of the outcome of the bench and electron-beam tests, the SwissFEL WSC can be qualified as a high resolution and machine-saving diagnostic tool in consideration of the mechanical stability of the scanning wire at the micrometer level and the choice of the wire material ensuring a drastic reduction of the radiation-dose release with respect to conventional metallic wires. The main aspects of the design, laboratory characterization and electron beam tests of the SwissFEL WSCs are presented.

  18. Living with comfort in the Kelheim district. Energy efficient - safe - barrier-free; Wohnen mit Komfort im Landkreis Kelheim. Energieeffizient - sicher - barrierefrei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    In the future, the increasing costs of energy will shape the housing conditions more and more. A house should be built not only energy efficiently but also barrier-free. Under this aspect, the brochure under consideration provides information on the future planning of a building and on the alteration of the existing housing situation. Financial supports and offers of consultancy as well as energy consultants in the Kelheim district (Federal Republic of Germany) are presented.

  19. Application of "Barrier-free" Design in Packaging of Personal Care Products%“无障碍”设计在洗护品容器包装上的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘春媛; 李国涛


    Through analyzing the idea of barrier-free design, combined with the container design of personal care, it discussed the embodiment of barrier-free design: just as convenient performance, appropriate psychological and emotional needs. It is an important part that packaging materials, structures, shape and color, texture and single or combinations of visual effects about personal care products. On this basis, it analyzed the development prospects of barrier-free design in the product packaging design and its application and development.%通过分析无障碍设计这一设计理念,并结合洗护品的容器设计论述了无障碍设计体现在便利的使用性能、适宜的心理和情感需求,论述了包装材料、结构、造型及其色彩、肌理及洗护品单体及其组合后的视觉效果是无障碍设计中的重要组成部分。在此基础上,进而分析了无障碍设计在洗护品包装中的发展前景,探讨无障碍设计在产品包装设计中的应用和发展。

  20. Design of dry barriers for containment of contaminants in unsaturated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, C.E. [Univ. of Wollongong (Australia); Thomson, B.M.; Stormont, J.C. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    A dry barrier is a region of very dry conditions in unsaturated soil that prevents vertical migration of water created by circulating dry air through the formation. Dry soil creates a barrier to vertical water movement by decreasing the soil`s hydraulic conductivity, a concept also used in capillary barriers. A dry barrier may be a viable method for providing containment of a contaminant plume in a setting with a thick unsaturated zone and dry climate. The principal factors which determine the feasibility of a dry barrier include: (1) an and environment, (2) thick vadose zone, and (3) the ability to circulate air through the vadose zone. This study investigated the technical and economic considerations associated with creating a dry barrier to provide containment of a hypothetical 1 ha aqueous contaminant plume. The concept appears to be competitive with other interim containment methods such as ground freezing.

  1. Design and Performance Optimizations of Advanced Erosion-Resistant Low Conductivity Thermal Barrier Coatings for Rotorcraft Engines (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.; Kuczmarski, Maria A.


    Thermal barrier coatings will be more aggressively designed to protect gas turbine engine hot-section components in order to meet future rotorcraft engine higher fuel efficiency and lower emission goals. For thermal barrier coatings designed for rotorcraft turbine airfoil applications, further improved erosion and impact resistance are crucial for engine performance and durability, because the rotorcraft are often operated in the most severe sand erosive environments. Advanced low thermal conductivity and erosion-resistant thermal barrier coatings are being developed, with the current emphasis being placed on thermal barrier coating toughness improvements using multicomponent alloying and processing optimization approaches. The performance of the advanced thermal barrier coatings has been evaluated in a high temperature erosion burner rig and a laser heat-flux rig to simulate engine erosion and thermal gradient environments. The results have shown that the coating composition and architecture optimizations can effectively improve the erosion and impact resistance of the coating systems, while maintaining low thermal conductivity and cyclic oxidation durability

  2. Design and Fabrication of a Free-Form Reciprocal Roof

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parigi, Dario


    framework is the Performance Aided/Assisted Design (PAD) approach, which focuses on the increasing range of available performance analysis, optimization strategies, interfaces, tools, methodologies, and their ability to foster creativity by increasing designers' understanding of the complex network...... for creative work in architectural design ....

  3. Design and Analysis of Megawatt Class Free Electron Laser Weapons (United States)


    25 H. THERMAL BLOOMING .......................................................................25 V. FREE ELECTRON LASER AND... thermal blooming. .................................................26 Figure 11. FEL 4-D model simulating an FEL oscillator configuration...nanoseconds apart . By contrast, normal conducting linear accelerators can only operate with microseconds-long macro-pulses separated by milliseconds due to

  4. pH homeostasis during coral calcification in a free ocean CO2 enrichment (FOCE) experiment, Heron Island reef flat, Great Barrier Reef. (United States)

    Georgiou, Lucy; Falter, James; Trotter, Julie; Kline, David I; Holcomb, Michael; Dove, Sophie G; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove; McCulloch, Malcolm


    Geochemical analyses (δ(11)B and Sr/Ca) are reported for the coral Porites cylindrica grown within a free ocean carbon enrichment (FOCE) experiment, conducted on the Heron Island reef flat (Great Barrier Reef) for a 6-mo period from June to early December 2010. The FOCE experiment was designed to simulate the effects of CO2-driven acidification predicted to occur by the end of this century (scenario RCP4.5) while simultaneously maintaining the exposure of corals to natural variations in their environment under in situ conditions. Analyses of skeletal growth (measured from extension rates and skeletal density) showed no systematic differences between low-pH FOCE treatments (ΔpH = ∼-0.05 to -0.25 units below ambient) and present day controls (ΔpH = 0) for calcification rates or the pH of the calcifying fluid (pHcf); the latter was derived from boron isotopic compositions (δ(11)B) of the coral skeleton. Furthermore, individual nubbins exhibited near constant δ(11)B compositions along their primary apical growth axes (±0.02 pHcf units) regardless of the season or treatment. Thus, under the highly dynamic conditions of the Heron Island reef flat, P. cylindrica up-regulated the pH of its calcifying fluid (pHcf ∼8.4-8.6), with each nubbin having near-constant pHcf values independent of the large natural seasonal fluctuations of the reef flat waters (pH ∼7.7 to ∼8.3) or the superimposed FOCE treatments. This newly discovered phenomenon of pH homeostasis during calcification indicates that coral living in highly dynamic environments exert strong physiological controls on the carbonate chemistry of their calcifying fluid, implying a high degree of resilience to ocean acidification within the investigated ranges.

  5. Design of noise barrier inspection system for high-speed railway (United States)

    Liu, Bingqian; Shao, Shuangyun; Feng, Qibo; Ma, Le; Cholryong, Kim


    The damage of noise barriers will highly reduce the transportation safety of the high-speed railway. In this paper, an online inspection system of noise barrier based on laser vision for the safety of high-speed railway is proposed. The inspection system, mainly consisted of a fast camera and a line laser, installed in the first carriage of the high-speed CIT(Composited Inspection Train).A Laser line was projected on the surface of the noise barriers and the images of the light line were received by the camera while the train is running at high speed. The distance between the inspection system and the noise barrier can be obtained based on laser triangulation principle. The results of field tests show that the proposed system can meet the need of high speed and high accuracy to get the contour distortion of the noise barriers.

  6. Damage-free back channel wet-etch process in amorphous indium-zinc-oxide thin-film transistors using a carbon-nanofilm barrier layer. (United States)

    Luo, Dongxiang; Zhao, Mingjie; Xu, Miao; Li, Min; Chen, Zikai; Wang, Lang; Zou, Jianhua; Tao, Hong; Wang, Lei; Peng, Junbiao


    Amorphous indium-zinc-oxide thin film transistors (IZO-TFTs) with damage-free back channel wet-etch (BCE) process were investigated. A carbon (C) nanofilm was inserted into the interface between IZO layer and source/drain (S/D) electrodes as a barrier layer. Transmittance electron microscope images revealed that the 3 nm-thick C nanofilm exhibited a good corrosion resistance to a commonly used H3PO4-based etchant and could be easily eliminated. The TFT device with a 3 nm-thick C barrier layer showed a saturated field effect mobility of 14.4 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1), a subthreshold swing of 0.21 V/decade, an on-to-off current ratio of 8.3 × 10(10), and a threshold voltage of 2.0 V. The favorable electrical performance of this kind of IZO-TFTs was due to the protection of the inserted C to IZO layer in the back-channel-etch process. Moreover, the low contact resistance of the devices was proved to be due to the graphitization of the C nanofilms after annealing. In addition, the hysteresis and thermal stress testing confirmed that the usage of C barrier nanofilms is an effective method to fabricate the damage-free BCE-type devices with high reliability.

  7. VLSI Design with Alliance Free CAD Tools: an Implementation Example


    Chávez-Bracamontes Ramón; García-López Reyna Itzel; Gurrola-Navarro Marco Antonio; Bandala-Sánchez Manuel


    This paper presents the methodology used for a digital integrated circuit design that implements the communication protocol known as Serial Peripheral Interface, using the Alliance CAD System. The aim of this paper is to show how the work of VLSI design can be done by graduate and undergraduate students with minimal resources and experience. The physical design was sent to be fabricated using the CMOS AMI C5 process that features 0.5 micrometer in transistor size, sponsored ...

  8. VLSI Design with Alliance Free CAD Tools: an Implementation Example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chávez-Bracamontes Ramón


    Full Text Available This paper presents the methodology used for a digital integrated circuit design that implements the communication protocol known as Serial Peripheral Interface, using the Alliance CAD System. The aim of this paper is to show how the work of VLSI design can be done by graduate and undergraduate students with minimal resources and experience. The physical design was sent to be fabricated using the CMOS AMI C5 process that features 0.5 micrometer in transistor size, sponsored by the MOSIS Educational Program. Tests were made on a platform that transfers data from inertial sensor measurements to the designed SPI chip, which in turn sends the data back on a parallel bus to a common microcontroller. The results show the efficiency of the employed methodology in VLSI design, as well as the feasibility of ICs manufacturing from school projects that have insufficient or no source of funding

  9. Rotordynamics and Design Methods of an Oil-Free Turbocharger (United States)

    Howard, Samuel A.


    The feasibility of supporting a turbocharger rotor on air foil bearings is investigated based upon predicted rotordynamic stability, load accommodations, and stress considerations. It is demonstrated that foil bearings offer a plausible replacement for oil-lubricated bearings in diesel truck turbochargers. Also, two different rotor configurations are analyzed and the design is chosen which best optimizes the desired performance characteristics. The method of designing machinery for foil bearing use and the assumptions made are discussed.

  10. An automatic grid generation approach over free-form surface for architectural design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏亮; 祝顺来; 肖南; 高博青


    An essential step for the realization of free-form surface structures is to create an efficient structural gird that satisfies not only the architectural aesthetics, but also the structural performance. Employing the main stress trajectories as the representation of force flows on a free-form surface, an automatic grid generation approach is proposed for the architectural design. The algorithm automatically plots the main stress trajectories on a 3D free-form surface, and adopts a modified advancing front meshing technique to generate the structural grid. Based on the proposed algorithm, an automatic grid generator named “St-Surmesh” is developed for the practical architectural design of free-form surface structure. The surface geometry of one of the Sun Valleys in Expo Axis for the Expo Shanghai 2010 is selected as a numerical example for validating the proposed approach. Comparative studies are performed to demonstrate how different structural grids affect the design of a free-form surface structure.

  11. Tailoring morphology in free-standing anodic aluminium oxide: control of barrier layer opening down to the sub-10 nm diameter. (United States)

    Gong, Jie; Butler, William H; Zangari, Giovanni


    Free-standing, highly ordered porous aluminium oxide templates were fabricated by three-step anodization in oxalic, sulfuric or phosphoric acid solutions, followed by dissolution of the aluminium substrate in HgCl(2). Opening of the pore bottoms on the barrier layer side of these templates was carried out by using chemical or ion beam etching. Chemical etching is capable of achieving full pore opening, but partial pore opening occurs inhomogeneously. On the contrary, ion beam etching enables homogeneous and reproducible partial pore opening, with the pore size controlled through the etching time. By this method, pore openings as small as 5 nm can reliably be obtained.

  12. Freeing the Serial Mechanism Designer from Inverse Kinematic Solvability Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana C. W. Friedman


    Full Text Available This paper presents a fast numerical solution for the inverse kinematics of a serial manipulator. The method is implemented on the C-arm, a manipulator designed for use in robotic surgery. The inverse kinematics solution provides all possible solutions for any six degree-of-freedom serial manipulator, assuming that the forward kinematics are known and that it is possible to solve for the remaining joint angles if one joint angle’s value is known. With a fast numerical method and the current levels of computing power, designing a manipulator with closed-form inverse kinematics is no longer necessary. When designing the C-arm, we therefore chose to weigh other factors, such as actuator size and patient safety, more heavily than the ability to find a closed-form inverse kinematics solution.

  13. Design and Fabrication of a Free-Form Reciprocal Roof

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parigi, Dario


    of relations between design parameters and a wide array of measurable performances. Due to the reciprocal structures geometric complexity, the shape generation process is handled using the Reciprocalizer, a software tool developed by the author that embeds in a computational environment the constructional...

  14. Terahertz Free Electron Laser: Design, Simulation and Analysis (United States)


    ray probe development at LCLS. [Online] Available: slac -pub- 14545.pdf. Accessed Nov. 22, 2014. [4] M...electromagnets design, fabrication, assembly and measurement. [Online]. Available: slac -r-754.pdf. [41

  15. Design and Analysis of an Electron Gun/Booster and Free Electron Laser Optical Theory (United States)


    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA DISSERTATION DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF AN ELECTRON GUN/BOOSTER AND FREE ELECTRON LASER OPTICAL THEORY by...298-102 September 2010 Dissertation Design and Analysis of an Electron Gun/Booster and Free Electron Laser Optical Theory Niles, Sean P. Naval...motor attached to a spool for adjusting the bead’s position in the cavity. The bead is a small piece of stainless steel hypodermic needle threaded

  16. Development of a solvent-free analytical method for paracetamol quantitative determination in Blood Brain Barrier in vitro model. (United States)

    Langlois, Marie-Hélène; Vekris, Antonios; Bousses, Christine; Mordelet, Elodie; Buhannic, Nathalie; Séguard, Céline; Couraud, Pierre-Olivier; Weksler, Babette B; Petry, Klaus G; Gaudin, Karen


    A Reversed Phase-High Performance Liquid Chromatography/Diode Array Detection method was developed and validated for paracetamol quantification in cell culture fluid from an in vitro Blood Brain Barrier model. The chromatographic method and sample preparation were developed using only aqueous solvents. The column was a XTerra RP18 150 × 4.6mm, 3.5 μm with a guard column XTerra RP18 20 × 4.6 mm, 3.5 μm at 35 °C and the mobile phase was composed by 100% formate buffer 20 mM at pH 4 and flow rate was set at 1 mL/min. The detection was at 242 nm. The sample was injected at 10 μL. Validation was performed using the accuracy profile approach. The analytical procedure was validated with the acceptance limits at ± 10% over a range of concentration from 1 to 58 mg L(-1). The procedure was then used in routine to determine paracetamol concentration in a brain blood barrier in vitro model. Application of the Unither paracetamol formulation in Blood Brain Barrier model allowed the determination and comparison of the transcellular passage of paracetamol at 37 °C and 4 °C, that excludes paracellular or non specific leakage.

  17. The design and implementation of the FreeBSD operating system

    CERN Document Server

    McKusick, Marshall Kirk; Watson, Robert N M


    The most complete, authoritative technical guide to the FreeBSD kernel's internal structure has now been extensively updated to cover all major improvements between Versions 5 and 11. Approximately one-third of this edition's content is completely new, and another one-third has been extensively rewritten. Three long-time FreeBSD project leaders begin with a concise overview of the FreeBSD kernel's current design and implementation. Next, they cover the FreeBSD kernel from the system-call level down-from the interface to the kernel to the hardware. Explaining key design decisions, they detail the concepts, data structures, and algorithms used in implementing each significant system facility, including process management, security, virtual memory, the I/O system, filesystems, socket IPC, and networking. This Second Edition * Explains highly scalable and lightweight virtualization using FreeBSD jails, and virtual-machine acceleration with Xen and Virtio device paravirtualization * Describes new security features...

  18. Decontamination systems information and research program -- Literature review in support of development of standard test protocols and barrier design models for in situ formed barriers project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The US Department of Energy is responsible for approximately 3,000 sites in which contaminants such as carbon tetrachloride, trichlorethylene, perchlorethylene, non-volatile and soluble organic and insoluble organics (PCBs and pesticides) are encountered. In specific areas of these sites radioactive contaminants are stored in underground storage tanks which were originally designed and constructed with a 30-year projected life. Many of these tanks are now 10 years beyond the design life and failures have occurred allowing the basic liquids (ph of 8 to 9) to leak into the unconsolidated soils below. Nearly one half of the storage tanks located at the Hanford Washington Reservation are suspected of leaking and contaminating the soils beneath them. The Hanford site is located in a semi-arid climate region with rainfall of less than 6 inches annually, and studies have indicated that very little of this water finds its way to the groundwater to move the water down gradient toward the Columbia River. This provides the government with time to develop a barrier system to prevent further contamination of the groundwater, and to develop and test remediation systems to stabilize or remove the contaminant materials. In parallel to remediation efforts, confinement and containment technologies are needed to retard or prevent the advancement of contamination plumes through the environment until the implementation of remediation technology efforts are completed. This project examines the various confinement and containment technologies and protocols for testing the materials in relation to their function in-situ.

  19. 上海轨道交通无障碍环境建设的再思考*%Rethinking Barrier Free Environment Construction in Shanghai Metro Transport

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘海啸; 邹为; 赵婷; 张仰斐


    The construction of the barrier free transport system has become a development trend of modern cities. Improving mobility of disabled people is an important responsibility of the city. At the same time, it can also improve the efficiency of travel for all citizens. Shanghai is now an aging society with high proportion senior citizens becoming disabled to travel. Mobility is a fundamental right of people; we must take effective response measures as early as possible to build a more livable city for all citizen. The concept for barrier free has been applied in Shanghai metro construction at early stage. Now handicapped people are much rely on metro to travel a long distance. But there are still some inconveniences for disabled people to use the system. This paper analyzes the background and problems in barrier free construction of Shanghai metro, pointing out the importance of shifting the concept from barrier free transport only for handicapped people to benefit al citizens. With the reference of international advanced concept and practice, some recommendations have been proposed on the reality of barrier free construction in Shanghai metro.%  城市无障碍交通体系的建设已经成为现代城市一种发展趋势。改善行动不方便者的交通出行是城市的一项重要责任,同时又可以提高城市运行的效率。已经进入老年社会的上海,因老致残的比例日益提高。交通出行是人们的一项基本权利,我们必须及早采取有效应对措施,建设一个更加宜居的城市。上海轨道交通无障碍环境建设起步早,已成为残疾人出行的重要交通工具,但也还存在一些不便之处。首先阐述了上海轨道交通无障碍环境建设的背景,分析存在的问题,指出在轨道交通无障碍环境建设中理念转变的重要性。通过对国际无障碍建设先进理念的分析,结合上海的实际情况,提出上海轨道交通无障碍建设的建议。

  20. Design Challenges in High Power Free-Electron Laser Oscillators

    CERN Document Server

    Benson, S V


    Several FELs have now demonstrated high power lasing and several projects are under construction to deliver higher power or shorter wavelengths. This presentation will summarize progress in upgrading FEL oscillators towards higher power and will discuss some of the challenges these projects face. The challenges fall into three categories: 1. energy recovery with large exhaust energy spread, 2. output coupling and maintaining mirror figure in the presence of high intracavity power loading, and 3. high current operation in an energy recovery linac (ERL). Progress in all three of these areas has been made in the last year. Energy recovery of over 12% of exhaust energy spread has been demonstrated and designs capable of accepting even larger energy spreads have been proposed. Cryogenic transmissive output couplers for narrow band operation and both hole and scraper output coupling have been developed. Investigation of short Rayleigh range operation has started as well. Energy recovery of over 20 mA CW has been de...

  1. Friction material composites copper-metal-free material design perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Sundarkrishnaa, K L


    This book examines material composites used in connection with brake friction, their design and safety. To aid in understanding, the essentials of friction are explained. This second edition was extended to include friction material composites without copper, as they offer an environmentally friendlier option. The second edition is intended to support beginners by offering insights into the essentials of friction material composites, helping them to develop a broader understanding of brake friction materials. Friction materials find wide-ranging applications in household and industrial appliances, brake pads for automotive applications, rail brake friction pads and composition brake blocks. This second edition is an introductory volume to a set of related books, and is based on the author’s experience and expertise with various material manufacturers, brake manufacturers, vehicle manufacturers, researchers and testing labs around the world with which the author has been associated for the past 28 years.

  2. Design New Online Tuning Intelligent Chattering Free Fuzzy Compensator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Khalilian


    Full Text Available This research is focused on proposed adaptive fuzzy sliding mode algorithms with the adaptation laws derived in the Lyapunov sense. The stability of the closed-loop system is proved mathematically based on the Lyapunov method. Adaptive MIMO fuzzy compensate fuzzy sliding mode method design a MIMO fuzzy system to compensate for the model uncertainties of the system, and chattering also solved by new adaption method. Since there is no tuning method to adjust the premise part of fuzzy rules so we presented a scheme to online tune consequence part of fuzzy rules. Classical sliding mode control is robust to control model uncertainties and external disturbances. A sliding mode method with a switching control low guarantees the stability of the certain and/or uncertain system, but the addition of the switching control low introduces chattering into the system. One of the main targets in this research to reduce or eliminate chattering is to insert online tuning method. Classical sliding mode control method has difficulty in handling unstructured model uncertainties. One can overcome this problem by combining a sliding mode controller and artificial intelligence (e.g. fuzzy logic. To approximate a time-varying nonlinear dynamic system, a fuzzy system requires a large amount of fuzzy rule base. This large number of fuzzy rules will cause a high computation load. The addition of an adaptive law to a fuzzy sliding mode controller to online tune the parameters of the fuzzy rules in use will ensure a moderate computational load. The adaptive laws in this algorithm are designed based on the Lyapunov stability theorem. Asymptotic stability of the closed loop system is also proved in the sense of Lyapunov. This method is applied to continuum robot manipulator to have the best performance.

  3. Tunnel barrier design in donor nanostructures defined by hydrogen-resist lithography (United States)

    Pascher, Nikola; Hennel, Szymon; Mueller, Susanne; Fuhrer, Andreas


    A four-terminal donor quantum dot (QD) is used to characterize potential barriers between degenerately doped nanoscale contacts. The QD is fabricated by hydrogen-resist lithography on Si(001) in combination with n-type doping by phosphine. The four contacts have different separations (d = 9, 12, 16 and 29 nm) to the central 6 nm × 6 nm QD island, leading to different tunnel and capacitive coupling. Cryogenic transport measurements in the Coulomb-blockade (CB) regime are used to characterize these tunnel barriers. We find that field enhancement near the apex of narrow dopant leads is an important effect that influences both barrier breakdown and the magnitude of the tunnel current in the CB transport regime. From CB-spectroscopy measurements, we extract the mutual capacitances between the QD and the four contacts, which scale inversely with the contact separation d. The capacitances are in excellent agreement with numerical values calculated from the pattern geometry in the hydrogen resist. Furthermore, we show that by engineering the source-drain tunnel barriers to be asymmetric, we obtain a much simpler excited-state spectrum of the QD, which can be directly linked to the orbital single-particle spectrum.

  4. Probabilistic design of the steel structure of the new waterway storm surge barrier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manen, S.E. van; Vrouwenvelder, A.C.W.M.; Foeken, R.J. van


    As part of the sea defence system along the Dutch coast, a storm surge barrier is under construction in the New Waterway, near Rotterdam. The Dutch Ministry of Public Works requires for this structure that the probability of failure is at most 10' per year (104 in life time of 100 years). This is al

  5. Design and testing of 45 kV, 50 kHz pulse power supply for dielectric barrier discharges. (United States)

    Sharma, Surender Kumar; Shyam, Anurag


    The design, construction, and testing of high frequency, high voltage pulse power supply are reported. The purpose of the power supply is to generate dielectric barrier discharges for industrial applications. The power supply is compact and has the advantage of low cost, over current protection, and convenient control for voltage and frequency selection. The power supply can generate high voltage pulses of up to 45 kV at the repetitive frequency range of 1 kHz-50 kHz with 1.2 kW input power. The output current of the power supply is limited to 500 mA. The pulse rise time and fall time are less than 2 μs and the pulse width is 2 μs. The power supply is short circuit proof and can withstand variable plasma load conditions. The power supply mainly consists of a half bridge series resonant converter to charge an intermediate capacitor, which discharges through a step-up transformer at high frequency to generate high voltage pulses. Semiconductor switches and amorphous cores are used for power modulation at higher frequencies. The power supply is tested with quartz tube dielectric barrier discharge load and worked stably. The design details and the performance of the power supply on no load and dielectric barrier discharge load are presented.

  6. Efficacy of Elimination of Pasteurella pneumotropica from a Mouse Specific Pathogen-Free Barrier Breeding Unit through Treatment with Enrofloxacin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Grete; Arnorsdottir, Stefania Embla; Schumacher-Petersen, Camilla


    and administered in drinking water based on an assumed daily water intake of 150 mL/kg body weight. Prior to treatment, all imports of mice (caesarean section or embryo transfer) were stopped. The populations of the various mouse strains bred in the barrier were minimized. Measures were taken to ensure there would......, no P. pneumotropica positive animals have been identified. Interestingly, the mice in the unit tested positive to Helicobacter spp. prior to the treatment, but not after the treatment, indicating an effect of the EF treatment on Helicobacter spp. as well as on P. pneumotropica....

  7. Local minima-free design of artificial coordinating fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xingjian JING; Yuechao WANG


    In order to overcome the drawbacks of conventional artificial potential fields (APF) based methods for the motion planning problems of mobile robots in dynamic uncertain environments,an artificial coordinating fields (ACF) based method has been proposed recently.This paper deals with the reachability problem of the ACF,that is,how to design and choose the parameters of the ACF and how the environment should be such that the robot can reach its goal without being trapped in local minima.Some sufficient conditions for these purposes are developed theoretically.Theoretical analyses show that,the ACF can effectively remove local minima in dynamic uncertain environments with V-shape or U-shape obstacles,and guide the mobile robot to reach its goal with some necessary environment constraints and based on the methods provided in this paper to properly choose the parameters of the ACF.Comparisons between the ACF and APF,and simulations are provided to illustrate the advantages of the ACF.

  8. On strength design using free material subjected to multiple load cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pauli; Pedersen, Niels Leergaard


    with a practical recursive design procedure is presented and illustrated with examples. The presented finite element analysis involve many elements as well as many load cases. Separating the local amount of material from a description with unit trace for the local anisotropy, gives the free materials formulation......Multiple load cases and the consideration of strength is a reality that most structural designs are exposed to. Improved possibility to produce specific materials, say by fiber lay-up, put focus on research on free material optimization. A formulation for such design problems together...

  9. On the synthesis of sliding mode controller for the autopilot design of free flight system (United States)

    Devika K., B.; Thomas, Susy


    Today's rapid growth in air transportation demand leads to the problem of congestion in air traffic routes. In recent years, free flight concept is widely discussed as the solution to this problem. Free flight is a decentralized method of air traffic management, in which each aircraft has the freedom to self optimize its own route. Conflict detection and its subsequent resolution are the major challenges in the realization of this concept. Today's modern navigation and surveillance equipment can ensure accurate conflict predictions. Once a conflict is detected, it should be avoided through suitable conflict avoidance maneuvers. An autopilot capable of initiating these conflict free maneuvers should be a necessary part of any aircraft in free flight to ensure conflict avoided flight. Controller design based on Sliding Mode Control (SMC) strategy is presented in this paper for the purpose of free flight autopilot implementation. Since SMC has the inherent property of robustness in sliding mode, it can ensure a highly efficient autopilot design. Conventional and reaching law approaches of SMC design are considered here for controller design. Conventional SMC technique usually exhibits an unacceptable phenomenon, viz., chattering. Reaching law approaches for SMC design are being investigated here so as to identify an appropriate strategy that can ensure near chattering free operation. Considering typical free flight conflict avoidance modes of operation, the performance of all the considered SMC strategies are compared through simulation studies. The comparison is based on their ability to reduce chattering and the effectiveness in ensuring quick conflict resolution maneuvers, so that an efficient controller for free flight autopilot system can be recommended.

  10. Advances in Design and Fabrication of Free-Form Reciprocal Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parigi, Dario


    The paper presents the advances in design and fabrication of free-form Reciprocal Structures, and their application a during a one-week long workshop with the students of the 1st semester of the Master of Science in Architecture and Design, fall 2015, at Aalborg University. Two new factors were...... introduced and tested: a new version of the software Reciprocalizer, and an evolution of the Reciprocalizer Robot. The workshop didactic framework Performance Aided/Assisted Design (PAD) is presented....

  11. Optimized design of 4H-SiC floating junction power Schottky barrier diodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pu Hongbin; Cao Lin; Chen Zhiming; Ren Jie


    SiC floating junction Schottky barrier diodes were simulated with software MEDICI 4.0 and their device structures were optimized based on forward and reverse electrical characteristics.Compared with the conventional power Schottky barrier diode,the device structure is featured by a highly doped drift region and embedded floating junction region,which can ensure high breakdown voltage while keeping lower specific on-state resistance,solved the contradiction between forward voltage drop and breakdown voltage.The simulation results show that with optimized structure parameter,the breakdown voltage Can reach 4 kV and the specific on-resistance is 8.3 mΩ·cm2.

  12. Design and construction of the X-2 two-stage free piston driven expansion tube (United States)

    Doolan, Con


    This report outlines the design and construction of the X-2 two-stage free piston driven expansion tube. The project has completed its construction phase and the facility has been installed in the new impulsive research laboratory where commissioning is about to take place. The X-2 uses a unique, two-stage driver design which allows a more compact and lower overall cost free piston compressor. The new facility has been constructed in order to examine the performance envelope of the two-stage driver and how well it couple to sub-orbital and super-orbital expansion tubes. Data obtained from these experiments will be used for the design of a much larger facility, X-3, utilizing the same free piston driver concept.

  13. 闭孔泡沫铝声屏障设计%Design of Closed-Cell Aluminum Foam Sound Barriers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁李斯; 姚广春; 穆永亮; 华中胜


    为改变高速路两侧噪声污染严重,为设计性能更加优越的公路声屏障,结合沈阳市东西快速干道高架桥声屏障建设的工程要求,设计闭孔泡沫铝材的吸声共振型声屏障.使用噪声频谱分析仪实地测量噪声污染情况,利用驻波管法测试打孔闭孔泡沫铝板的吸声系数值.设计的声屏障主要吸声结构为密度0.3 g/cm3,厚度10 mm,打孔率3%的闭孔泡沫铝吸声板,背后设置30 mm厚空腔,其吸声特性为:吸声主频率为300~400 Hz,对500 Hz以下的低频噪声吸声率可达到60 %~90 %.%To reduce noise pollution of expressway and design better-performance sound barriers, an acoustic resonance type sound barrier is designed using closed-cell aluminum foam.The noise spectrum analyzer is used to measure the noise pollution.The sound absorption coefficient is measured using stationary-wave method.The closed-cell aluminum foam panel with 0.3g/cm3 mass density, 10mm thickness and 3% perforation rate are used for the noise barrier.A 30mm thick cavity is designed on its back.The results of measurement show that the main sound absorption frequency range is from 300 to 400Hz, the sound absorption coefficient can reach 60%-90% for the noise frequencies lower than 500Hz.

  14. New strategies and developments in transparent free-form design: From facetted to nearly smooth envelopes

    KAUST Repository

    Baldassini, Niccolo


    Free-form geometries in architecture pose new challenges to designers and engineers. Form, structure and fabrication processes are closely linked, which makes the realization of complex architectural free-form structures even harder. Free-form transparent design today is mainly based on triangularly facetted forms or quadrilateral meshes supported by a structure composed of rectilinear bars, with strong shape restrictions. After a brief review of the history, we report on some very recent progress in this area. Beginning with a presentation of improved methods for triangle mesh design, we also discuss experiences in coupling triangular glass panels with continuous curved structures, seeking an optimised structural behaviour and simplified connections. Furthermore, we present how the results of research on planar quadrilateral (PQ) meshes lead the way to optimized beam layouts and the breakdown of free-form shapes using planar quadrilateral panels. PQ meshes are rooted in discrete differential geometry, an active area of mathematical research. Using recent projects as examples, we discuss how transparent free-form envelopes with a smooth visual appearance are achievable if the structure is designed to adhere to the limits of current glazing technology and the surfaces are reasonably simple (e.g. rotational, overall developable, or of a small scale). In section 6 we show how the latter restriction can be relaxed: the theoretical and computational methodology for PQ meshes can easily be extended to create nearly smooth approximations of free-form surfaces by single-curved panels. This has a strong impact on glass panelling design, since it avoids expensive double-curvature glass and exploits cold-bending technology. We elaborate on how this discretisation technique goes hand in hand with the technology for construction of the structure, glazing system and structural joints. Our approach has been tested in three case studies, each one validating a particular aspect of

  15. Development of a serum-free human cornea construct for in vitro drug absorption studies: the influence of varying cultivation parameters on barrier characteristics. (United States)

    Hahne, Matthias; Reichl, Stephan


    The increased use of ophthalmic products in recent years has led to an increased demand for in vitro and in vivo transcorneal drug absorption studies. Cell-culture models of the human cornea can avoid several of the disadvantages of widely used animal experimental models, including ethical concerns and poor standardisation. This study describes the development of a serum-free cultivated, three-dimensional human cornea model (Hemicornea, HC) for drug absorption experiments. The impact of varying cultivation conditions on the corneal barrier function was analysed and compared with excised rabbit and porcine corneas. The HC was cultivated on permeable polycarbonate filters using immortalised human keratocytes and a corneal epithelial cell line. The equivalence to native tissue was investigated through absorption studies using model substances with a wide range of molecular characteristics, including hydrophilic sodium fluorescein, lipophilic rhodamine B and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labelled macromolecule dextran. To study the intra-laboratory repeatability and construct cultivation, the permeation studies were performed independently by different researchers. The HC exhibited a permeation barrier in the same range as excised animal corneas, high reproducibility and a lower standard deviation. Therefore, the HC could be a promising in vitro alternative to ex vivo corneal tissues in preclinical permeation studies.

  16. Designed azurins show lower reorganization free energies for intraprotein electron transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farver, Ole; Marshall, Nicholas M; Wherland, Scot;


    Low reorganization free energies are necessary for fast electron transfer (ET) reactions. Hence, rational design of redox proteins with lower reorganization free energies has been a long-standing challenge, promising to yield a deeper understanding of the underlying principles of ET reactivity...... and to enable potential applications in different energy conversion systems. Herein we report studies of the intramolecular ET from pulse radiolytically produced disulfide radicals to Cu(II) in rationally designed azurin mutants. In these mutants, the copper coordination sphere has been fine-tuned to span...

  17. Design of a scanning gate microscope in a cryogen-free dilution refrigerator

    CERN Document Server

    Pelliccione, Matthew; Bartel, John; Keller, Andrew; Goldhaber-Gordon, David


    We report on our design of a scanning gate microscope housed in a cryogen-free dilution refrigerator with a base temperature of 15 mK. The recent increase in efficiency of pulse tube cryocoolers has made cryogen-free systems popular in recent years. However, this new style of cryostat presents challenges for performing scanning probe measurements, mainly as a result of the vibrations introduced by the cryocooler. We demonstrate scanning with root-mean-square vibrations of 0.8 nm at 3 K and 2.1 nm at 15 mK in a 1 kHz bandwidth with our design.

  18. Design, Construction and Test of Cryogen-Free HTS Coil Structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hocker, H.; Anerella, M.; Gupta, R.; Plate, S.; Sampson, W.; Schmalzle, J.; Shiroyanagi, Y.


    This paper will describe design, construction and test results of a cryo-mechanical structure to study coils made with the second generation High Temperature Superconductor (HTS) for the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB). A magnet comprised of HTS coils mounted in a vacuum vessel and conduction-cooled with Gifford-McMahon cycle cryocoolers is used to develop and refine design and construction techniques. The study of these techniques and their effect on operations provides a better understanding of the use of cryogen free magnets in future accelerator projects. A cryogen-free, superconducting HTS magnet possesses certain operational advantages over cryogenically cooled, low temperature superconducting magnets.

  19. Oxidative and pro-inflammatory impact of regular and denicotinized cigarettes on blood brain barrier endothelial cells: is smoking reduced or nicotine-free products really safe? (United States)


    Background Both active and passive tobacco smoke (TS) potentially impair the vascular endothelial function in a causative and dose-dependent manner, largely related to the content of reactive oxygen species (ROS), nicotine, and pro-inflammatory activity. Together these factors can compromise the restrictive properties of the blood–brain barrier (BBB) and trigger the pathogenesis/progression of several neurological disorders including silent cerebral infarction, stroke, multiple sclerosis and Alzheimer’s disease. Based on these premises, we analyzed and assessed the toxic impact of smoke extract from a range of tobacco products (with varying levels of nicotine) on brain microvascular endothelial cell line (hCMEC/D3), a well characterized human BBB model. Results Initial profiling of TS showed a significant release of reactive oxygen (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) in full flavor, nicotine-free (NF, “reduced-exposure” brand) and ultralow nicotine products. This release correlated with increased oxidative cell damage. In parallel, membrane expression of endothelial tight junction proteins ZO-1 and occludin were significantly down-regulated suggesting the impairment of barrier function. Expression of VE-cadherin and claudin-5 were also increased by the ultralow or nicotine free tobacco smoke extract. TS extract from these cigarettes also induced an inflammatory response in BBB ECs as demonstrated by increased IL-6 and MMP-2 levels and up-regulation of vascular adhesion molecules, such as VCAM-1 and PECAM-1. Conclusions In summary, our results indicate that NF and ultralow nicotine cigarettes are potentially more harmful to the BBB endothelium than regular tobacco products. In addition, this study demonstrates that the TS-induced toxicity at BBB ECs is strongly correlated to the TAR and NO levels in the cigarettes rather than the nicotine content. PMID:24755281

  20. High-efficiency silicon solar-cell design and practical barriers (United States)

    Mokashi, A.


    A numerical evaluation technique is used to study the impact of practical barriers, such as heavy doping effects (Auger recombination, band gap narrowing), surface recombination, shadowing losses and minority-carrier lifetime (Tau), on a high efficiency silicon solar cell performance. Considering a high Tau of 1 ms, efficiency of a silicon solar cell of the hypothetical case is estimated to be around 29%. This is comparable with (detailed balance limit) maximum efficiency of a p-n junction solar cell of 30%. Value of Tau is varied from 1 second to 20 micro. Heavy doping effects, and realizable values of surface recombination velocities and shadowing, are then considered in succession and their influence on cell efficiency is evaluated and quantified. These practical barriers cause the cell efficiency to reduce from the maximum value of 29% to the experimentally achieved value of about 19%. Improvement in open circuit voltage V sub oc is required to achieve cell efficiency greater than 20%. Increased value of Tau reduces reverse saturation current and, hence, improves V sub oc. Control of surface recombination losses becomes critical at higher V sub oc. Substantial improvement in Tau and considerable reduction in surface recombination velocities is essential to achieve cell efficiencies greater than 20%.

  1. The study, design and simulation of a free piston Stirling engine linear alternatorThe study, design and simulation of a free piston Stirling engine linear alternator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodora Susana Oros


    Full Text Available This paper presents a study, design and simulation of a Free Piston Stirling Engine Linear Alternator. There are presented the main steps of the magnetic and electric calculations for a permanent magnet linear alternator of fixed coil and moving magnets type. Finally, a detailed thermal, mechanical and electrical model for a Stirling engine linear alternator have been made in SIMULINK simulation program. The linear alternator simulation model uses a controllable DC voltage which simulates the linear alternator combined with a rectifier, a variable load and a DC-DC converter, which compensates for the variable nature of Stirling engine operation, and ensures a constant voltage output regardless of the load.

  2. The prepuce free flap in 10 patients : modifications in flap design and surgical technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werker, Paul M N


    The prepuce free flap was used in 10 oral and oropharyngeal reconstructions. During the course of this study, various modifications took place. Residual penile skin necrosis and skin island necrosis early in the series led to modification of flap design. This solved the donor-site problem by placing

  3. A Simple Method for Assessing Free Brain/Free Plasma Ratios Using an In Vitro Model of the Blood Brain Barrier (United States)

    Sevin, Emmanuel; Szorath, Erica; Martinsson, Stefan; Renftel, Mila; Hongmei, Yan; Cecchelli, Romeo; Lundquist, Stefan


    Historically, the focus has been to use in vitro BBB models to optimize rate of drug delivery to the CNS, whereas total in vivo brain/plasma ratios have been used for optimizing extent. However, these two parameters do not necessarily show good correlations with receptor occupancy data or other pharmacological readouts. In line with the free drug hypothesis, the use of unbound brain concentrations (Cu,br) has been shown to provide the best correlations with pharmacological data. However, typically the determination of this parameter requires microdialysis, a technique not ideally suited for screening in early drug development. Alternative, and less resource-demanding methodologies to determine Cu,br employ either equilibrium dialysis of brain homogenates or incubations of brain slices in buffer to determine fraction unbound brain (fu,br), which is subsequently multiplied by the total brain concentration to yield Cu,br. To determine Cu,br/Cu,pl ratios this way, still requires both in vitro and in vivo experiments that are quite time consuming. The main objective of this study was to explore the possibility to directly generate Cu,br/Cu,pl ratios in a single in vitro model of the BBB, using a co-culture of brain capillary endothelial and glial cells in an attempt to mimick the in vivo situation, thereby greatly simplifying existing experimental procedures. Comparison to microdialysis brain concentration profiles demonstrates the possibility to estimate brain exposure over time in the BBB model. A stronger correlation was found between in vitro Cu,br/Cu,pl ratios and in vivo Cu,br/Cu,pl obtained using fu,br from brain slice than with fu,br from brain homogenate for a set of 30 drugs. Overall, Cu,br/Cu,pl ratios were successfully predicted in vitro for 88% of the 92 studied compounds. This result supports the possibility to use this methodology for identifying compounds with a desirable in vivo response in the CNS early on in the drug discovery process. PMID:24312489

  4. Design-with-nature for multifunctional landscapes: environmental benefits and social barriers in community development. (United States)

    Yang, Bo; Li, Ming-Han; Li, Shujuan


    Since the early 1970s, Ian McHarg's design-with-nature concept has been inspiring landscape architects, community and regional planners, and liked-minded professionals to create designs that take advantage of ecosystem services and promote environmental and public health. This study bridges the gap in the literature that has resulted from a lack of empirical examinations on the multiple performance benefits derived through design-with-nature and the under-investigated social aspect emanated from McHarg's Ecological Determinism design approach. The Woodlands, TX, USA, an ecologically designed community development under McHarg's approach, is compared with two adjacent communities that follow the conventional design approach. Using national environmental databases and multiple-year residents' survey information, this study assesses three landscape performance metrics of McHarg's approach: stormwater runoff, urban heat island effect, and social acceptance. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) was used to assess the development extent and land surface temperature distribution. Results show that McHarg's approach demonstrates benefits in reducing runoff and urban heat island effect, whereas it confronts challenges with the general acceptance of manicured landscapes and thus results in a low safety perception level when residents interact with naturally designed landscapes. The authors argue that design-with-nature warrants multifunctionality because of its intrinsic interdisciplinary approach. Moreover, education and dissemination of successful examples can achieve a greater level of awareness among the public and further promote multifunctional design for landscape sustainability.

  5. Novel free-form hohlraum shape design and optimization for laser-driven inertial confinement fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Shaoen; Jing, Longfei, E-mail:; Ding, Yongkun [Laser Fusion Research Center, China Academy Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Huang, Yunbao, E-mail: [Mechatronics School of Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China)


    The hohlraum shape attracts considerable attention because there is no successful ignition method for laser-driven inertial confinement fusion at the National Ignition Facility. The available hohlraums are typically designed with simple conic curves, including ellipses, parabolas, arcs, or Lame curves, which allow only a few design parameters for the shape optimization, making it difficult to improve the performance, e.g., the energy coupling efficiency or radiation drive symmetry. A novel free-form hohlraum design and optimization approach based on the non-uniform rational basis spline (NURBS) model is proposed. In the present study, (1) all kinds of hohlraum shapes can be uniformly represented using NURBS, which is greatly beneficial for obtaining the optimal available hohlraum shapes, and (2) such free-form uniform representation enables us to obtain an optimal shape over a large design domain for the hohlraum with a more uniform radiation and higher drive temperature of the fuel capsule. Finally, a hohlraum is optimized and evaluated with respect to the drive temperature and symmetry at the Shenguang III laser facility in China. The drive temperature and symmetry results indicate that such a free-form representation is advantageous over available hohlraum shapes because it can substantially expand the shape design domain so as to obtain an optimal hohlraum with high performance.

  6. A design study for the isolation of the 281-3H retention basin at the Savannah River Site using the viscous liquid barrier technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moridis, G.J.; Persoff, P.; Apps, J.; James, A.; Oldenburg, C.; McGrath, A.; Myer, L.; Pellerin, L.; Pruess, K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Earth Sciences Div.


    This report is a description of the design study for a pilot-scale field demonstration of the Viscous Liquid Barrier (VLB) technology, a new subsurface containment technology for waste isolation using a new generation of barrier liquids. The demonstration site was Retention Basin 281-3H, a shallow catchment basin at the Savannah River Site, which is contaminated mainly by radionuclides ({sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, and {sup 238}Pu). The goals of the field demonstration were (a) to demonstrate the ability to create a continuous subsurface barrier in order to isolate the contaminants, and (b) to demonstrate the continuity, performance, and integrity of the barrier. The site was characterized, and preliminary hydraulic conductivity data were obtained from core samples. Based on the site characteristics and the functional requirements, a conceptual model was developed, the barrier specifications were defined, and lance injection was selected as the emplacement method. The injection strategy for the subsurface conditions at the site was determined using numerical simulations. An appropriate variant of Colloidal Silica (CS) was selected as the barrier liquid based on its relative insensitivity to interactions with the site soils, and the formulation for optimum site performance was determined. A barrier verification strategy, including hydraulic, pneumatic, tracer, and geophysical methods, was developed. A lance water injection test was conducted in order to obtain representative estimates of the hydraulic conductivity and its distribution for the design of the barrier emplacement. The water injection test demonstrated the lack of permeable zones for CS injection, and a decision not to proceed with the barrier emplacement was reached.

  7. Geomorphologic Evolution of Barrier Islands along the Northern U.S. Gulf of Mexico and Implications for Engineering Design in Barrier Restoration (United States)


    Superconstruction (via over- wash and eolian) - Autocompaction (discussed for islands in Virginia) 3. Aggradation and shoal growth Otvos (1970, 1979, 1981, 1985) 4...the island responds to rising sea level by aggradation (through overwash or eolian deposition on the subaerial barrier) until it is drowned and later

  8. A descriptive study of the barriers to study abroad in engineering undergraduate education and recommendations for program design (United States)

    Klahr, Sabine Christine

    This study analyzed and compared the program designs of international exchange and internship programs for engineering students in the United States and the European Union (E.U.) as well as the extent to which these programs have removed barriers to study abroad. The purpose of this study was to provide recommendations for the design of international programs in the U.S. that would increase the proportion of engineering students who choose to study or intern abroad. Coordinators of international programs in engineering were surveyed about their perceptions of program success and a number of variables related to program design. A Chi-Square Test of Independence of (A) program success and (B) European and U.S. programs (i.e. institution location) cross-tabulated with all other variables and each other indicated those variables that contribute to the success of programs and those variables that are associated with either U.S. or European programs. In addition, all programs were described and the answers to open-ended survey questions were analyzed quantitatively. The analyses indicated that European programs tend to be more successful in implementing study/intern abroad programs for engineering students than U.S. programs. The elements of program design contributing to the greater success of European programs and the success of specific U.S. programs were described. In addition, the characteristics of overall successful programs (U.S. and E.U. data combined) were explained. The results indicated that successful programs tend to: (1) be promoted by the college and/or departments of engineering, (2) offer study/intern abroad opportunities in English-speaking settings, (3) award full credit at the home institution for required engineering courses completed at the host institution, (4) offer scholarships and financial aid for participation in the program, (5) require participating students to have completed their second year of university course work prior to applying to

  9. Feasibility study on nuclear core design for soluble boron free small modular reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabir, Mohamad Hairie, E-mail:; Hah, Chang Joo; Ju, Cho Sung [Department of NPP Engineering, KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)


    A feasibility study on nuclear core design of soluble boron free (SBF) core for small size (150MWth) small modular reactor (SMR) was investigated. The purpose of this study was to design a once through cycle SMR core, where it can be used to supply electricity to a remote isolated area. PWR fuel assembly design with 17×17 arrangement, with 264 fuel rods per assembly was adopted as the basis design. The computer code CASMO-3/MASTER was used for the search of SBF core and fuel assembly analysis for SMR design. A low critical boron concentration (CBC) below 200 ppm core with 4.7 years once through cycle length was achieved using 57 fuel assemblies having 170 cm of active height. Core reactivity controlled using mainly 512 number of 4 wt% and 960 12 wt% Gd rods.

  10. Decoupling Design and Verification of a Free-Piston Linear Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Sun


    Full Text Available This paper proposes a decoupling design approach for a free-piston linear generator (FPLG constituted of three key components, including a combustion chamber, a linear generator and a gas spring serving as rebounding device. The approach is based on the distribution of the system power and efficiency, which provides a theoretical design method from the viewpoint of the overall power and efficiency demands. The energy flow and conversion processes of the FPLG are analyzed, and the power and efficiency demands of the thermal-mechanical and mechanical-electrical energy conversion are confirmed. The energy and efficiency distributions of the expansion and compression strokes within a single stable operation cycle are analyzed and determined. Detailed design methodologies of crucial geometric dimensions and operational parameters of each key component are described. The feasibility of the proposed decoupling design approach is validated through several design examples with different output power.

  11. Feasibility study on nuclear core design for soluble boron free small modular reactor (United States)

    Rabir, Mohamad Hairie; Hah, Chang Joo; Ju, Cho Sung


    A feasibility study on nuclear core design of soluble boron free (SBF) core for small size (150MWth) small modular reactor (SMR) was investigated. The purpose of this study was to design a once through cycle SMR core, where it can be used to supply electricity to a remote isolated area. PWR fuel assembly design with 17×17 arrangement, with 264 fuel rods per assembly was adopted as the basis design. The computer code CASMO-3/MASTER was used for the search of SBF core and fuel assembly analysis for SMR design. A low critical boron concentration (CBC) below 200 ppm core with 4.7 years once through cycle length was achieved using 57 fuel assemblies having 170 cm of active height. Core reactivity controlled using mainly 512 number of 4 wt% and 960 12 wt% Gd rods.

  12. Modelling the effects of orange pomace using response surface design for gluten-free bread baking. (United States)

    O'Shea, N; Rößle, C; Arendt, E; Gallagher, E


    The development of gluten-free bread creates many challenges; producing bread that will match the properties of its wheat counterpart can be difficult. Fruit by-products are know from literature to contain a high level of dietary fibre which could improve the bread properties and fibre contents of gluten-free bread. Therefore, a mathematical design was created; three variables were identified from preliminary tests (water (85-100% flour weight, OP 0-8% flour weight and proofing time 35-100 min) as being crucial in the development of acceptable bread. Results illustrated longer proofing times (pbread with a greater specific volume. OP had the most significant (pbread (2.1%) was successfully increased t o 3.9% in the OP containing bread. Substituting gluten-free flours with orange pomace flour can help improve the total dietary intake of a coeliac while not negating on the quality properties of the bread.

  13. The Lead-Free Solder Selection Method and Process Optimization Based on Design of Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Bing


    Full Text Available In the study, through researching the characteristic of the lead-free solder, we introduce the method of QFD (Quality Function Deployment to transform the demand of production properties and process into the technical demand of the lead-free solder, thus we could transform the demand concept of sampling into a concrete performance index. Finally we can obtain two parameters of the technological competitive power index and market competitive power index to evaluate performance of the lead-free solder through making a series of experiments. We utilize the design of experiment method to find out key parameter of process and the best collocation of parameter, which make the co planarity of tin ball descend to 149 from 178 and promote the process’s ability up to 95.2 from 85%.

  14. Design Optimization of Structural Parameters for Highly Sensitive Photonic Crystal Label-Free Biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-ah Han


    Full Text Available The effects of structural design parameters on the performance of nano-replicated photonic crystal (PC label-free biosensors were examined by the analysis of simulated reflection spectra of PC structures. The grating pitch, duty, scaled grating height and scaled TiO2 layer thickness were selected as the design factors to optimize the PC structure. The peak wavelength value (PWV, full width at half maximum of the peak, figure of merit for the bulk and surface sensitivities, and surface/bulk sensitivity ratio were also selected as the responses to optimize the PC label-free biosensor performance. A parametric study showed that the grating pitch was the dominant factor for PWV, and that it had low interaction effects with other scaled design factors. Therefore, we can isolate the effect of grating pitch using scaled design factors. For the design of PC-label free biosensor, one should consider that: (1 the PWV can be measured by the reflection peak measurement instruments, (2 the grating pitch and duty can be manufactured using conventional lithography systems, and (3 the optimum design is less sensitive to the grating height and TiO2 layer thickness variations in the fabrication process. In this paper, we suggested a design guide for highly sensitive PC biosensor in which one select the grating pitch and duty based on the limitations of the lithography and measurement system, and conduct a multi objective optimization of the grating height and TiO2 layer thickness for maximizing performance and minimizing the influence of parameter variation. Through multi-objective optimization of a PC structure with a fixed grating height of 550 nm and a duty of 50%, we obtained a surface FOM of 66.18 RIU−1 and an S/B ratio of 34.8%, with a grating height of 117 nm and TiO2 height of 210 nm.

  15. Efficient Transmit Beamspace Design for Search-Free Based DOA Estimation in MIMO Radar (United States)

    Khabbazibasmenj, Arash; Hassanien, Aboulnasr; Vorobyov, Sergiy A.; Morency, Matthew W.


    In this paper, we address the problem of transmit beamspace design for multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar with colocated antennas in application to direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation. A new method for designing the transmit beamspace matrix that enables the use of search-free DOA estimation techniques at the receiver is introduced. The essence of the proposed method is to design the transmit beamspace matrix based on minimizing the difference between a desired transmit beampattern and the actual one under the constraint of uniform power distribution across the transmit array elements. The desired transmit beampattern can be of arbitrary shape and is allowed to consist of one or more spatial sectors. The number of transmit waveforms is even but otherwise arbitrary. To allow for simple search-free DOA estimation algorithms at the receive array, the rotational invariance property is established at the transmit array by imposing a specific structure on the beamspace matrix. Semi-definite relaxation is used to transform the proposed formulation into a convex problem that can be solved efficiently. We also propose a spatial-division based design (SDD) by dividing the spatial domain into several subsectors and assigning a subset of the transmit beams to each subsector. The transmit beams associated with each subsector are designed separately. Simulation results demonstrate the improvement in the DOA estimation performance offered by using the proposed joint and SDD transmit beamspace design methods as compared to the traditional MIMO radar technique.

  16. Testing VHF/GPS collar design and safety in the study of free-roaming horses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gail H Collins

    Full Text Available Effective and safe monitoring techniques are needed by U.S. land managers to understand free-roaming horse behavior and habitat use and to aid in making informed management decisions. Global positioning system (GPS and very high frequency (VHF radio collars can be used to provide high spatial and temporal resolution information for detecting free-roaming horse movement. GPS and VHF collars are a common tool used in wildlife management, but have rarely been used for free-roaming horse research and monitoring in the United States. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the design, safety, and detachment device on GPS/VHF collars used to collect free-roaming horse location and movement data. Between 2009 and 2010, 28 domestic and feral horses were marked with commercial and custom designed VHF/GPS collars. Individual horses were evaluated for damage caused by the collar placement, and following initial observations, collar design was modified to reduce the potential for injury. After collar modifications, which included the addition of collar length adjustments to both sides of the collar allowing for better alignment of collar and neck shapes, adding foam padding to the custom collars to replicate the commercial collar foam padding, and repositioning the detachment device to reduce wear along the jowl, we observed little to no evidence of collar wear on horses. Neither custom-built nor commercial collars caused injury to study horses, however, most of the custom-built collars failed to collect data. During the evaluation of collar detachment devices, we had an 89% success rate of collar devices detaching correctly. This study showed that free-roaming horses can be safely marked with GPS and/or VHF collars with minimal risk of injury, and that these collars can be a useful tool for monitoring horses without creating a risk to horse health and wellness.

  17. Influence of the Thermal Barrier Coatings Design on the Oxidation Behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B.Saeedi; A.Sabour; A.Ebadi; A.M.Khoddami


    The properties of two different types of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) were compared to improve the surface characteristics on high temperature components. These TBCs consisted of a duplex TBC and a five-layered functionally graded TBC. NiCrAlY bond coats were deposited on a number of Inconel-738LC specimens using high velocity oxy-fuel spraying (HVOF) technique. For duplex coating, a group of these specimens were coated with yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) using plasma spray technique. Functionally graded NiCrAlY/YSZ coatings were fabricated by plasma spray using co-injection of the two different powders in a single plasma torch. The amount of zirconia in functionally graded coatings were gradually increased from 30 to 100 vol. pct. Microstructural changes, thermally grown oxide (TGO) layer growth and damage initiation of the coatings were investigated as a function of isothermal oxidation test at 970℃. As a complementary test, the performance of the fabricated coatings by the optimum processing conditions was evaluated as a function of intense thermal cycling test at 1100℃. Also the strength of the adhesive coatings of the substrate was also measured. Microstructural characterization was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical microscopy whereas phase analysis and chemical composition changes of the coatings and oxides formed during the tests were studied by XRD (X-ray diffraction) and EDS (energy dispersive spectrometer). The results showed that microstructure and compositions gradually varied in the functionally graded coatings. By comparison of duplex and functionally graded TBCs oxidation behavior (duplex failure after 1700 h and funcitionally graded TECs failure after 2000 h), thermal shock test and adhesion strength of the coatings, the functionally graded TBC had better performance and more durability.

  18. Advanced insulations for refrigerator/freezers: The potential for new shell designs incorporating polymer barrier construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffith, B.T.; Arasteh, D.


    The impending phase-out of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) used to expand foam insulation, combined with requirements for increased energy efficiency, make the use of non-CFC-based high performance insulation technologies increasingly attractive. The majority of current efforts are directed at using advanced insulations in the form of thin, flat low-conductivity gas-filled or evacuated orthogonal panels, which we refer to as Advanced Insulation Panels (AIPs). AIPs can be used in composite with blown polymer foams to improve insulation performance in refrigerator/freezers (R/Fs) of conventional design and manufacture. This AIP/foam composite approach is appealing because it appears to be a feasible, near-term method for incorporating advanced insulations into R/Fs without substantial redesign or retooling. However, the requirements for adequate flow of foam during the foam-in-place operation impose limitations on the allowable thickness and coverage area of AIPs. This report examines design alternatives which may offer a greater increase in overall thermal resistance than is possible with the use of AIP/foam composites in current R/F design. These design alternatives generally involve a basic redesign of the R/F taking into account the unique requirements of advanced insulations and the importance of minimizing thermal bridging with high thermal resistance insulations. The focus here is on R/F doors because they are relatively simple and independent R/F components and are therefore good candidates for development of alterative designs. R/F doors have significant thermal bridging problems due to the steel outer shell construction. A three dimensional finite difference computer modeling exercise of a R/F door geometry was used to compare the overall levels of thermal resistance (R-value) for various design configurations.

  19. Advanced insulations for refrigerator/freezers: The potential for new shell designs incorporating polymer barrier construction (United States)

    Griffith, B. T.; Arasteh, D.


    The impending phase-out of chlorofluorocarbons (CFC's) used to expand foam insulation, combined with requirements for increased energy efficiency, make the use of non-CFC-based high performance insulation technologies increasingly attractive. The majority of current efforts are directed at using advanced insulations in the form of thin, flat low-conductivity gas-filled or evacuated orthogonal panels, which are referred to as Advanced Insulation Panels (AIP's). AIP's can be used in composite with blown polymer foams to improve insulation performance in refrigerator/freezers (R/F's) of conventional design and manufacture. This AIP/foam composite approach is appealing because it appears to be a feasible, near-term method for incorporating advanced insulations into R/F's without substantial redesign or retooling. However, the requirements for adequate flow of foam during the foam-in-place operation impose limitations on the allowable thickness and coverage area of AIP's. Design alternatives which may offer a greater increase in overall thermal resistance than is possible with the use of AIP/foam composites in current R/F design are examined. These design alternatives generally involve a basic redesign of the R/F taking into account the unique requirements of advanced insulations and the importance of minimizing thermal bridging with high thermal resistance insulations. The focus is on R/F doors because they are relatively simple and independent R/F components and are therefore good candidates for development of alternative designs. R/F doors have significant thermal bridging problems due to the steel outer shell construction. A three dimensional finite difference computer modeling exercise of a R/F door geometry was used to compare the overall levels of thermal resistance (R-value) for various design configurations.

  20. Incorporating Army Design Methodology into Army Operations: Barriers and Recommendations for Facilitating Integration (United States)


    play; the musical score is not the performance; the agenda is not the meeting—the Design framework is not Design. The framework is a structure that...activities. At the end, it was the non- kinetic things that were getting us traction. We had to change our rhythm —like how often we met for normal...battle rhythm involved spending first part of the morning reviewing intel reports. I would discuss these with the S2. We just talked about things like

  1. Generation of large-scale, barrier-free diffuse plasmas in air at atmospheric pressure using array wire electrodes and nanosecond high-voltage pulses (United States)

    Teng, Yun; Li, Lee; Liu, Yun-Long; Liu, Lun; Liu, Minghai


    This paper introduces a method to generate large-scale diffuse plasmas by using a repetition nanosecond pulse generator and a parallel array wire-electrode configuration. We investigated barrier-free diffuse plasmas produced in the open air in parallel and cross-parallel array line-line electrode configurations. We found that, when the distance between the wire-electrode pair is small, the discharges were almost extinguished. Also, glow-like diffuse plasmas with little discharge weakening were obtained in an appropriate range of line-line distances and with a cathode-grounding cross-electrode configuration. As an example, we produced a large-scale, stable diffuse plasma with volumes as large as 18 × 15 × 15 cm3, and this discharge region can be further expanded. Additionally, using optical and electrical measurements, we showed that the electron temperature was higher than the gas temperature, which was almost the same as room temperature. Also, an array of electrode configuration with more wire electrodes had helped to prevent the transition from diffuse discharge to arc discharge. Comparing the current waveforms of configurations with 1 cell and 9 cells, we found that adding cells significantly increased the conduction current and the electrical energy delivered in the electrode gaps.

  2. Improving the Reliability of Si Die Attachment with Zn-Sn-Based High-Temperature Pb-Free Solder Using a TiN Diffusion Barrier (United States)

    Kim, Seongjun; Kim, Keun-Soo; Kim, Sun-Sik; Suganuma, Katsuaki; Izuta, Goro


    The thermal fatigue reliability of Si die-attached joints with Zn-30wt.%Sn, high-temperature, Pb-free solder was investigated, focusing on the interfacial microstructure and joining strength of a Cu/solder/Cu joint during thermal cycling. A sound die attachment on an aluminum nitride (AlN) direct-bonded copper (DBC) substrate was achieved by forming Cu-Zn intermetallic compound (IMC) layers at the interface with the Cu of the substrate. During the thermal cycling test performed between -40°C and 125°C, thermal fatigue cracks were induced by the growth of Cu-Zn IMCs at the interface with the Cu. A thin titanium nitride (TiN) film was applied to suppress the formation of Cu-Zn IMCs. Adequate joint formation was accomplished by using an Au/TiN-coated DBC substrate, and only the TiN layer was observed at both interfaces. In conjunction with the TiN diffusion barrier, the Si die-attached joint created with Zn-30wt.%Sn solder exhibited a stable interfacial microstructure during thermal cycling. No microstructural changes, such as IMC formation, grain growth or formation of fatigue cracks, were observed, and the joining strength was maintained even after 2000 cycles.

  3. ELOIS: an innovative spectrometer design using a free-form grating (United States)

    De Clercq, Coralie; Moreau, Vincent; Jamoye, Jean-François; Zuccaro Marchi, Alessandro; Gloesener, Pierre


    For spaceborne hyperspectral applications1, grating-based spectrometers are of special interest due to the high spectral resolution and optical throughput that can be achieved. The classical spectrometer designs are 1:1 systems. For these systems the achievable signal to noise ratio is limited by the slit width/pixel pitch combination. One way to increase the signal to noise ratio of a spectrometer without increasing the global instrument size is to design an instrument with a magnification power of less than one. With a smaller magnification, the entrance slit is wider and a larger amount of light is collected while the image is smaller and compatible with typical detector size and pixel pitch. We presents an innovative spectrometer design with 2:1 magnification and high image quality and radiometric performances. This spectrometer called ELOIS (for Enhanced Light Offner Imaging Spectrometer) is designed with a grating atop a free-form surface. The use non-rotationally symmetric surfaces offer additional freedom for designing compact and well-corrected instruments. Nevertheless, most of the available manufacturing techniques, such as direct ruling, holography, lithography or e-beam writing, are typically applicable on simple shape of the grating surface, such as flat or spherical surface. AMOS demonstrated the feasibility of the Free Form Grating (FFG), i.e. a ruled grating on a surface without any rotational symmetry, using cost-effective approach for manufacturing blazed grating by Single Point Diamond Turning (SPDT).

  4. Beyond consensus: statistical free energies reveal hidden interactions in the design of a TPR motif. (United States)

    Magliery, Thomas J; Regan, Lynne


    Consensus design methods have been used successfully to engineer proteins with a particular fold, and moreover to engineer thermostable exemplars of particular folds. Here, we consider how a statistical free energy approach can expand upon current methods of phylogenetic design. As an example, we have analyzed the tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) motif, using multiple sequence alignment to identify the significance of each position in the TPR. The results provide information above and beyond that revealed by consensus design alone, especially at poorly conserved positions. A particularly striking finding is that certain residues, which TPR-peptide co-crystal structures show are in direct contact with the ligand, display a marked hypervariability. This suggests a novel means of identifying ligand-binding sites, and also implies that TPRs generally function as ligand-binding domains. Using perturbation analysis (or statistical coupling analysis), we examined site-site interactions within the TPR motif. Correlated occurrences of amino acid residues at poorly conserved positions explain how TPRs achieve their near-neutral surface charge distributions, and why a TPR designed from straight consensus has an unusually high net charge. Networks of interacting sites revealed that TPRs fall into two unrecognized families with distinct sets of interactions related to the identity of position 7 (Leu or Lys/Arg). Statistical free energy analysis provides a more complete description of "What makes a TPR a TPR?" than consensus alone, and it suggests general approaches to extend and improve the phylogenetic design of proteins.

  5. Large Wind Turbine Rotor Design using an Aero-Elastic / Free-Wake Panel Coupling Code (United States)

    Sessarego, Matias; Ramos-García, Néstor; Shen, Wen Zhong; Nørkær Sørensen, Jens


    Despite the advances in computing resources in the recent years, the majority of large wind-turbine rotor design problems still rely on aero-elastic codes that use blade element momentum (BEM) approaches to model the rotor aerodynamics. The present work describes an approach to wind-turbine rotor design by incorporating a higher-fidelity free-wake panel aero-elastic coupling code called MIRAS-FLEX. The optimization procedure includes a series of design load cases and a simple structural design code. Due to the heavy MIRAS-FLEX computations, a surrogate-modeling approach is applied to mitigate the overall computational cost of the optimization. Improvements in cost of energy, annual energy production, maximum flap-wise root bending moment, and blade mass were obtained for the NREL 5MW baseline wind turbine.

  6. Designing molecular complexes using free-energy derivatives from liquid-state integral equation theory. (United States)

    Mrugalla, Florian; Kast, Stefan M


    Complex formation between molecules in solution is the key process by which molecular interactions are translated into functional systems. These processes are governed by the binding or free energy of association which depends on both direct molecular interactions and the solvation contribution. A design goal frequently addressed in pharmaceutical sciences is the optimization of chemical properties of the complex partners in the sense of minimizing their binding free energy with respect to a change in chemical structure. Here, we demonstrate that liquid-state theory in the form of the solute-solute equation of the reference interaction site model provides all necessary information for such a task with high efficiency. In particular, computing derivatives of the potential of mean force (PMF), which defines the free-energy surface of complex formation, with respect to potential parameters can be viewed as a means to define a direction in chemical space toward better binders. We illustrate the methodology in the benchmark case of alkali ion binding to the crown ether 18-crown-6 in aqueous solution. In order to examine the validity of the underlying solute-solute theory, we first compare PMFs computed by different approaches, including explicit free-energy molecular dynamics simulations as a reference. Predictions of an optimally binding ion radius based on free-energy derivatives are then shown to yield consistent results for different ion parameter sets and to compare well with earlier, orders-of-magnitude more costly explicit simulation results. This proof-of-principle study, therefore, demonstrates the potential of liquid-state theory for molecular design problems.

  7. Designing molecular complexes using free-energy derivatives from liquid-state integral equation theory (United States)

    Mrugalla, Florian; Kast, Stefan M.


    Complex formation between molecules in solution is the key process by which molecular interactions are translated into functional systems. These processes are governed by the binding or free energy of association which depends on both direct molecular interactions and the solvation contribution. A design goal frequently addressed in pharmaceutical sciences is the optimization of chemical properties of the complex partners in the sense of minimizing their binding free energy with respect to a change in chemical structure. Here, we demonstrate that liquid-state theory in the form of the solute-solute equation of the reference interaction site model provides all necessary information for such a task with high efficiency. In particular, computing derivatives of the potential of mean force (PMF), which defines the free-energy surface of complex formation, with respect to potential parameters can be viewed as a means to define a direction in chemical space toward better binders. We illustrate the methodology in the benchmark case of alkali ion binding to the crown ether 18-crown-6 in aqueous solution. In order to examine the validity of the underlying solute-solute theory, we first compare PMFs computed by different approaches, including explicit free-energy molecular dynamics simulations as a reference. Predictions of an optimally binding ion radius based on free-energy derivatives are then shown to yield consistent results for different ion parameter sets and to compare well with earlier, orders-of-magnitude more costly explicit simulation results. This proof-of-principle study, therefore, demonstrates the potential of liquid-state theory for molecular design problems.

  8. Passing of northern pike and common carp through experimental barriers designed for use in wetland restoration (United States)

    French, John R. P.; Wilcox, Douglas A.; Nichols, S. Jerrine


    Restoration plans for Metzger Marsh, a coastal wetland on the south shore of western Lake Erie, incorporated a fish-control system designed to restrict access to the wetland by large common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Ingress fish passageways in the structure contain slots into which experimental grates of varying size and shape can be placed to selectively allow entry and transfer of other large fish species while minimizing the number of common carp to be handled. We tested different sizes and shapes of grates in experimental tanks in the laboratory to determine the best design for testing in the field. We also tested northern pike (Esox lucius) because lack of access to wetland spawning habitat has greatly reduced their populations in western Lake Erie. Based on our results, vertical bar grates were chosen for installation because common carp were able to pass through circular grates smaller than body height by compressing their soft abdomens; they passed through rectangular grates on the diagonal. Vertical bar grates with 5-cm spacing that were installed across much of the control structure should limit access of common carp larger than 34 cm total length (TL) and northern pike larger than 70 cm. Vertical bar grates selected for initial field trials in the fish passageway had spacings of 5.8 and 6.6 cm, which increased access by common carp to 40 and 47 cm TL and by northern pike to 76 and 81 cm, respectively. The percentage of potential common carp biomass (fish seeking entry) that must be handled in lift baskets in the passageway increased from 0.9 to 4.8 to 15.4 with each increase in spacing between bars. Further increases in spacing would greatly increase the number of common carp that would have to be handled. The results of field testing should be useful in designing selective fish-control systems for other wetland restoration sites adjacent to large water bodies.

  9. Design of a cusped field thruster for drag-free flight (United States)

    Liu, H.; Chen, P. B.; Sun, Q. Q.; Hu, P.; Meng, Y. C.; Mao, W.; Yu, D. R.


    Drag-free flight has played a more and more important role in many space missions. The thrust control system is the key unit to achieve drag-free flight by providing a precise compensation for the disturbing force except gravity. The cusped field thruster has shown a significant potential to be capable of the function due to its long life, high efficiency, and simplicity. This paper demonstrates a cusped field thruster's feasibility in drag-free flight based on its instinctive characteristics and describes a detailed design of a cusped field thruster made by Harbin Institute of Technology (HIT). Furthermore, the performance test is conducted, which shows that the cusped field thruster can achieve a continuously variable thrust from 1 to 20 mN with a low noise and high resolution below 650 W, and the specific impulse can achieve 1800 s under a thrust of 18 mN and discharge voltage of 1000 V. The thruster's overall performance indicates that the cusped field thruster is quite capable of achieving drag-free flight. With the further optimization, the cusped field thruster will exhibit a more extensive application value.

  10. Improvement Strategy of the Barrier-free Pedestrian System around Representative Region of Urban Transportation%典型区域周边交通设施无障碍化方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘新华; 蒋光胜; 钱堃; 陈松


    It is very important to improve the service level of barrier-free traffic system to protect the aged and the disabled and adapt to the trend of population aging of our country. This study has summarized the common problems of barrier-free facilities around hospitals, shopping areas and parks and proposed corresponding countermeasures based on the analysis of present service level of barrier-free facilities in our country. Index evaluation system on the improvement effect of barrier-free traffic facilities around parks is established with the actual situation of barrier-free traffic facilities in typical region. Finally, the reason of low service level of the barrier-free facilities has been analyzed and three improvement proposals have been discussed by simulating Taiping Street nearby the east gate of Taoranting Park. Meanwhile, the effect of the improvement has been evaluated with using the index evaluation system. It is turned out that the delay of the pedestrian is reduced by 67.4% after the implementation of the proposed methods.%交通设施无障碍化程度的提高对于保障老年人和残疾人的交通安全、适应我国人口结构老龄化趋势具有十分重要的意义.本文在分析我国无障碍服务水平现状的基础上,归纳了医院、购物场所和公园周边无障碍交通设施的常见问题,提出了相应的改善措施;然后,结合典型区域周边交通设施无障碍化的实际情况,建立了公园周边交通设施无障碍化改善效果的评价指标体系;最后,结合陶然亭公园东门的太平街道路交通实例,分析了该路段交通无障碍服务水平较低的原因,提出了3个改善方案,并利用评价指标体系对改善效果进行评价;最后应用VISSIM仿真得到,改善方案实施后,行人延误降低了67.4%.

  11. Designed to deter: Barriers to facilities at secondary schools in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony K. Danso


    Full Text Available Background: There are varied and complex problems associated with the admission of students with disabilities into secondary (senior high schools all over the world. This situation is further complicated by difficulties encountered in the built environment of these institutions and, in this, Ghana is no exception. Objectives: This exploratory study investigated the level of accessibility of the built environment in secondary schools in eight out of the ten regions of Ghana, in order to determine whether they conform to guidelines provided in international building standards and also assess the extent to which they have been designed and constructed to meet the provisions of the Persons with Disability Act 2006, which allows for equal access to public buildings in Ghana.Method: In total, 705 building elements in 264 facilities were surveyed using international standards, building codes, regulations and guidelines. These facilities included car parks, classrooms, dormitories, assembly halls, telephone booths and administration blocks.Results: Our findings revealed that most of the building elements were barring and not disability-friendly. Just to name a few: there were obstructions on access routes to and around buildings, absence of designated car parks, unfriendly vertical and horizontal means of circulation in buildings and lack of accessible sanitary accommodations. In addition, the general lighting and signage were poor. As a result, very few students with disabilities are admitted and retained in these schools.Conclusion: Mainstreaming of people with disabilities into the Ghanaian educational system remains impossible unless urgent action is taken to alter the facilities at secondary schools. Based on this research outcome, recommendations have been made to the Ghanaian government and the Ghana Education Service, as well as non-governmental organisations and relevant professional bodies for the amelioration of the present situation in our

  12. Free-form thin lens design with light scattering surfaces for practical LED down light illumination (United States)

    Lin, Raychiy J.; Sun, Ching-Cherng


    The free-form optical quasilens surface technology was utilized to develop and design a solid transparent plastic optical lens for the LED down light with the narrow angular light distribution requirement in the LED lighting applications. In order to successfully complete the mission, the precise mid-field angular distribution model of the LED light source was established and built. And also the optical scattering surface property of the Harvey BSDF scattering model was designed, measured, and established. Then, the optical simulation for the entire optical system was performed to develop and design this solid transparent plastic optical lens system. Finally, the goals of 40 deg angular light distribution pattern defined at full width half maximum with glare reduced in the areas of interest and the optical performance of nearly 82% light energy transmission optics were achieved for the LED down light illumination.

  13. Free material stiffness design of laminated composite structures using commercial finite element analysis codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henrichsen, Søren Randrup; Lindgaard, Esben; Lund, Erik


    In this work optimum stiffness design of laminated composite structures is performed using the commercially available programs ANSYS and MATLAB. Within these programs a Free Material Optimization algorithm is implemented based on an optimality condition and a heuristic update scheme. The heuristic...... update scheme is needed because commercially available finite element analysis software is used. When using a commercial finite element analysis code it is not straight forward to implement a computationally efficient gradient based optimization algorithm. Examples considered in this work are a clamped......-clamped 2D plate loaded in two load cases and a point loaded six layered 3D double curved corner hinged shell. The first example displays the effect of varying the size of patches having the same parametrization, and the second illustrates the benefit of using a layered free material parametrization...

  14. Hardware design for a cable-free fully insertable wireless laparoscopic robotic camera. (United States)

    Ning Li; Mancini, Gregory J; Jindong Tan


    The field of insertable laparoscopic robotic camera is gaining increasing attentions from researchers, surgeons, and also patients. Although many insertable laparoscope prototypes have been introduced, few of them get rid of the encumbrance tethering cable. In this paper, we proposed a hardware architecture for a magnetic actuated robotic surgical (MARS) camera, which facilitates a cable-free fully insertable laparoscopic surgical robotic camera with adequate in-vivo mobility. Modular design and preliminary test of on-board functional payloads have shown feasibility of a cable-free insertable wireless laparoscopic surgical camera based on off-the-shelf electronics and industrial wireless standards operating in ISM frequency bands at 2.4GHz. Potential improvements for laparoscopic surgery benefited from this hardware architecture include more dexterous in-vivo camera mobility and intuitive closed-loop robotic camera control.

  15. Experimental Design for One Dimensional Electrolytic Reactive Barrier for Remediation of Munition Constituent in Groundwater (United States)

    Gent, David B.; Wani, Altaf; Alshawabkeh, Akram N.


    A combination of direct electrochemical reduction and in-situ alkaline hydrolysis has been proposed to decompose energetic contaminants such as 1,3,5-Trinitroperhydro- 1,3,5-triazine and 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (RDX) in deep aquifers. This process utilizes natural groundwater convection to carry hydroxide produced by an upstream cathode to remove the contaminant at the cathode as well as in the pore water downstream as it migrates toward the anode. Laboratory evaluation incorporated fundamental principles of column design coupled with reactive contaminant modeling including electrokinetics transport. Batch and horizontal sand-packed column experiments included both alkaline hydrolysis and electrochemical treatment to determine RDX decomposition reaction rate coefficients. The sand packed columns simulated flow through a contaminated aquifer with a seepage velocity of 30.5 cm/day. Techniques to monitor and record the transient electric potential, hydroxide transport and contaminant concentration within the column were developed. The average reaction rate coefficients for both the alkaline batch (0.0487 hr−1) and sand column (0.0466 hr−1) experiments estimated the distance between the cathode and anode required to decompose 0.5 mg/L RDX to the USEPA drinking water lifetime Health Advisory level of 0.002 mg/L to be 145 and 152 cm. PMID:23472044

  16. Experimental Design for One Dimensional Electrolytic Reactive Barrier for Remediation of Munition Constituent in Groundwater. (United States)

    Gent, David B; Wani, Altaf; Alshawabkeh, Akram N


    A combination of direct electrochemical reduction and in-situ alkaline hydrolysis has been proposed to decompose energetic contaminants such as 1,3,5-Trinitroperhydro- 1,3,5-triazine and 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (RDX) in deep aquifers. This process utilizes natural groundwater convection to carry hydroxide produced by an upstream cathode to remove the contaminant at the cathode as well as in the pore water downstream as it migrates toward the anode. Laboratory evaluation incorporated fundamental principles of column design coupled with reactive contaminant modeling including electrokinetics transport. Batch and horizontal sand-packed column experiments included both alkaline hydrolysis and electrochemical treatment to determine RDX decomposition reaction rate coefficients. The sand packed columns simulated flow through a contaminated aquifer with a seepage velocity of 30.5 cm/day. Techniques to monitor and record the transient electric potential, hydroxide transport and contaminant concentration within the column were developed. The average reaction rate coefficients for both the alkaline batch (0.0487 hr(-1)) and sand column (0.0466 hr(-1)) experiments estimated the distance between the cathode and anode required to decompose 0.5 mg/L RDX to the USEPA drinking water lifetime Health Advisory level of 0.002 mg/L to be 145 and 152 cm.

  17. Estimation of free energy barriers in the cytoplasmic and mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase reactions probed by hydrogen-exchange kinetics of C alpha-labeled amino acids with solvent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julin, D.A.; Wiesinger, H.; Toney, M.D.; Kirsch, J.F. (Univ. of California, Berkeley (USA))


    The existence of the postulated quinonoid intermediate in the cytoplasmic aspartate amino-transferase catalyzed transamination of aspartate to oxaloacetate was probed by determining the extent of transfer of tritium from the C alpha position of tritiated L-aspartate to pyridoxamine 5'-phosphate in single turnover experiments in which washout from the back-reaction was obviated by product trapping. The maximum amount of transferred tritium observed was 0.7%, consistent either with a mechanism in which a fraction of the net transamination reaction proceeds through a quinonoid intermediate or with a mechanism in which this intermediate is formed off the main reaction pathway. It is shown that transfer of labeled hydrogen from the amino acid to cofactor cannot be used to differentiate a stepwise from a concerted transamination mechanism. The amount of tritium transferred is a function of the rate constant for torsional equilibration about the epsilon-amino group of Lys-258, the presumptive abstractor of the C alpha proton; the relative rate constants for hydrogen exchange with solvent versus cofactor protonation; and the tritium isotope effect on this ratio. The free energy barriers facing the covalent intermediate between aldimine and keto acid product (i.e., ketimine and possibly quinonoid) were evaluated relatively by comparing the rates of C alpha-hydrogen exchange in starting amino acid with the rates of keto acid formation. The value of theta (= kexge/kprod) was found to be 2.6 for the reaction of cytoplasmic isozyme with aspartate and ca. 0.5 for that of the mitochondrial form with glutamate.

  18. Problems of Children with Special Needs (CWSNs in Assessing the Education: Role of Barrier Free Environment - A Case Study of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Uma Devi


    Full Text Available Education is envisaged as an important tool for the socio-economic and cultural development of an individual and acts as a catalyst for the pace of the development of the country. Keeping this in view, the Government of India has launched several programmes for the promotion of the education among the children as well as adults in the country. But, due to the malnutrition, superstitions, fluoride in the water, diseases like polio etc., natural calamities and other adverse conditions some children are becoming disabled. The place of the differently abled in the Indian society is lower when compared with the normal children as there is a notion that their disability is due to curse for the sins in the previous birth etc. and they were deprived in all spheres of life including education. To mainstream them on par with the normal population and to make them as partners of the pace of development of the country, the Government of India from time to time launched several programmes and started special schools. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan is one of the programme implemented to create barrier free environment in the school and to promote inclusive education for the children with special needs (CWSN as one of the components. The present study was taken up in the state of Andhra Pradesh in India to find out the extent of accessibility of education to the CWSNs in normal schools. The study covered a sample of CWSNs (300, teachers (90, parents (150, heads of the schools (30, home based teachers (30 and tried to identify the problems of the CWSNs in accessing the education, problems of the teachers in tackling with the children, parents opinions towards the efforts of the schools in making education to be accessible to their CSWN.

  19. Intra-Arterial Delivery of Bevacizumab after Blood-Brain Barrier Disruption for the Treatment of Recurrent Glioblastoma: Progression-Free Survival and Overall Survival (United States)

    Burkhardt, Jan-Karl; Riina, Howard; Shin, Benjamin J.; Christos, Paul; Kesavabhotla, Kartik; Hofstetter, Christoph P.; Tsiouris, Apostolos John; Boockvar, John A.


    BACKGROUND This prospective, single-center study assesses progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in patients with recurrent glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) treated with a single dose of superselective intra-arterial cerebral infusion (SIACI) of bevacizumab (BV) after blood-brain barrier disruption (BBBD). Patients were initially enrolled in our phase I study, for which the primary end point was to determine the safety and maximum tolerated dose of SIACI BV. METHODS Fourteen patients with recurrent GBM were recruited between August 2009 and November 2010 after failing the standard treatment with radiation therapy and temozolomide. None of these patients were previously treated with BV. After receiving a single dose of IA BV (2 to 15 mg/kg), standard IV BV chemotherapy was continued in 12 of 14 patients (86%). The recently updated Response Assessment in Neuro-Oncology Working Group (RANO) criteria were used to evaluate PFS, and the Kaplan-Meier estimator was used to evaluate PFS and OS. RESULTS Using RANO criteria, the median PFS in these patients was 10 months. The median OS estimation for this cohort was 8.8 months. The OS was less than the PFS because 4 patients died without progressing. Toxicity attributed to the IA BV treatment was present in 2 patients (wound dehiscence and rash). Another patient suffered from seizures 1 week after the SIACI procedure; however, this patient had epilepsy before and seizure type/frequency were similar before and after therapy. CONCLUSIONS Our study shows that for patients naïve to BV, a single dose of SIACI BV after BBBD followed by IV BV offers an encouraging outcome in terms of PFS when compared with previous trials using IV BV with and without concomitant irinotecan (CPT-11). Larger phase II trials are warranted to determine whether repeated IA BV alone is superior to IV BV for recurrent GBM. PMID:22405392

  20. Dose equivalent rate constants and barrier transmission data for nuclear medicine facility dose calculations and shielding design. (United States)

    Kusano, Maggie; Caldwell, Curtis B


    A primary goal of nuclear medicine facility design is to keep public and worker radiation doses As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA). To estimate dose and shielding requirements, one needs to know both the dose equivalent rate constants for soft tissue and barrier transmission factors (TFs) for all radionuclides of interest. Dose equivalent rate constants are most commonly calculated using published air kerma or exposure rate constants, while transmission factors are most commonly calculated using published tenth-value layers (TVLs). Values can be calculated more accurately using the radionuclide's photon emission spectrum and the physical properties of lead, concrete, and/or tissue at these energies. These calculations may be non-trivial due to the polyenergetic nature of the radionuclides used in nuclear medicine. In this paper, the effects of dose equivalent rate constant and transmission factor on nuclear medicine dose and shielding calculations are investigated, and new values based on up-to-date nuclear data and thresholds specific to nuclear medicine are proposed. To facilitate practical use, transmission curves were fitted to the three-parameter Archer equation. Finally, the results of this work were applied to the design of a sample nuclear medicine facility and compared to doses calculated using common methods to investigate the effects of these values on dose estimates and shielding decisions. Dose equivalent rate constants generally agreed well with those derived from the literature with the exception of those from NCRP 124. Depending on the situation, Archer fit TFs could be significantly more accurate than TVL-based TFs. These results were reflected in the sample shielding problem, with unshielded dose estimates agreeing well, with the exception of those based on NCRP 124, and Archer fit TFs providing a more accurate alternative to TVL TFs and a simpler alternative to full spectral-based calculations. The data provided by this paper should assist

  1. Updated free span design procedure DNV RP-F105 Ormen Lange experiences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fyrileiv, Olav; Moerk, Kim; Chezhian, Muthu [Det Norsk Veritas (Norway)


    The Ormen Lange gas field is located within a prehistoric slide area with varying water depths from 250 to 1100 m. Due to the slide area, the seabed is very uneven including steep slopes and seabed obstacles up to 50 meters tall. The major technical challenges with respect to pipeline design in this area are: extreme seabed topography combined with inhomogeneous soil conditions; uncertainties related to current velocities and distribution; high number of spans including some very long spans; deep waters and therefore difficult and costly seabed preparation/span intervention; flowlines with large potential to buckle laterally in combination with free spans. In order to minimise span intervention costs, a major testing campaign and research programme has been conducted in the Ormen Lange project to come up with a design procedure in compliance with the DNV-RP-F105 (DNV, 2002) design philosophy. The improvements in terms of reduced seabed intervention and rock dumping costs are in the order of several 100 MNOKs. The lessons learned and the improved knowledge will also be a great value for other project dealing with similar free span problems. (author)

  2. 城市快速路声屏障基础结构设计探讨%Design of Understructure of the Sound Barrier for Urban Expresswaies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘俊宇; 王艳雯; 邱贤锋


    结合现有声屏障基础结构的设计经验,以中环线声屏障基础设计为例,对城市快速路声屏障基础结构设计进行了探讨,总结了行之有效的设计方法。基础结构施工可操作性强,是适合城市快速路的基础型式。%The design of Understructure of Sound Barriers for urban expressways is discussed. The experience in Designing Un- derstructure of Sound Barrier is presented with the practical project for the Shanghai Middle Ring as the example. The complete design procedure is given. The design, featuring excellent constructability, is suitable for urban expressways.

  3. Design and Implementation of a Sort-Free K-Best Sphere Decoder

    KAUST Repository

    Mondal, Sudip


    This paper describes the design and VLSI architecture for a 4x4 breadth first K-Best MIMO decoder using a 64 QAM scheme. A novel sort free approach to path extension, as well as quantized metrics result in a high throughput VLSI architecture with lower power and area consumption compared to state of the art published systems. Functionality is confirmed via an FPGA implementation on a Xilinx Virtex II Pro FPGA. Comparison of simulation and measurements are given and FPGA utilization figures are provided. Finally, VLSI architectural tradeoffs are explored for a synthesized ASIC implementation in a 65nm CMOS technology.

  4. Design of a scanning gate microscope in a cryogen-free dilution refrigerator (United States)

    Pelliccione, Matthew; Sciambi, Adam; Goldhaber-Gordon, David


    We report on our design of an ultra-low temperature scanning gate microscope housed in a system with no liquid helium bath. The recent increase in efficiency of pulse-tube cryocoolers and pending scarcity of liquid helium have made ``cryogen-free'' dewars popular in recent years. However, this new style of dewar presents challenges for performing scanning measurements, most notably the increased vibrations introduced by the cryocooler. We will highlight the tradeoffs made in choosing such a system to house a scanner, and describe our efforts to achieve a stability suitable for measurements on mesoscopic systems.

  5. Design of a Nickel-Based Bond-Coat Alloy for Thermal Barrier Coatings on Copper Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torben Fiedler


    Full Text Available To increase the lifetime of rocket combustion chambers, thermal barrier coatings (TBC may be applied on the copper chamber wall. Since standard TBC systems used in gas turbines are not suitable for rocket-engine application and fail at the interface between the substrate and bond coat, a new bond-coat material has to be designed. This bond-coat material has to be chemically compatible to the copper substrate to improve the adhesion and needs a coefficient of thermal expansion close to that of copper to reduce thermal stresses. One approach to achieve this is to modify the standard NiCrAlY alloy used in gas turbines by adding copper. In this work, the influence of copper on the microstructure of NiCrAlY-alloys is investigated with thermodynamical calculations, optical microscopy, SEM, EDX and calorimetry. Adding copper leads to the formation of a significant amount of \\(\\beta\\ and \\(\\alpha\\ Reducing the aluminum and chromium content leads furthermore to a two-phase fcc microstructure.

  6. 声屏障声学设计与计算机仿真应用%Acoustic Design of Sound Barriers and Simulation of Their Noise Control Performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈永光; 袁启慧; 蔡伟明; 郑佰平


    In order to analyze the acoustic design process of sound barriers, survey analysis of traffic noise in the region around the residential buildings adjacent to an avenue was conducted. Based on the data obtained, three preliminary designs of sound insulation reflective barriers with different top structures were done for this region. To verify the result, acoustic software of Virtual. Lab Acoustic was applied to simulate the noise control performance of the three sound barriers. The simulation results show that the design of the vertical sound barrier can meet the practical noise reduction requirements effectively.%通过对重庆市某道路某处居民楼所存在的噪声污染情况进行实际监测,根据声屏障声学设计的步骤设计出适合该区域的三个不同顶部造型的声屏障,采用声学软件Virtual. Lab Acoustic对三种声屏障的降噪效果进行模拟,对模拟结果进行分析;确认直立型声屏障的设计可满足要求。

  7. Computer aided design of free-machinability prehardened mold steel for plastic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Yan-lin; LI Lin; GAO Wen; WANG Qing-liang; WU Xiao-chun


    In order to improve the machinability but not to impair other properties of the prehardened mold steel for plastic, the composition was designed by application of Thermo-Calc software package to regulate the type of nonmetallic inclusion formed in the steel. The regulated non-metallic inclusion type was also observed by SEM and EDX. Then the maehinability assessment of the steel with designed composition under different conditions was studied by the measurement of tool wear amount and cutting force. The results show that the composition of free cutting elements adding to mold steel for plastic can be optimized to obtain proper type of non-metallic inclusion in the aid of Thermo-Calc, compared with the large volume fraction of soft inclusion which is needed for promoting ductile fracture at low cutting speeds, the proper type of inclusion at high cutting speeds is glassy oxide inclusion. All those can be obtained in the present work.

  8. Design, construction and characterization of the compact ultrafast terahertz free-electron laser undulator

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B Biswas; V Kumar; S Chouksey; S Krishnagopal


    A compact ultrafast terahertz (CUTE) free-electron laser (FEL) is being developed at the Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology (RRCAT), Indore. The undulator required for the CUTE-FEL has recently been developed. We have designed, built and characterized a variable gap, 5 cm period, 2.5 m long pure permanent magnet undulator in two identical segments. The tolerable error in the magnetic field was 1% in rms, and we have measured it to be 0.7%. The obtained rms phase shake is around 2°. To ensure that the trajectories do not have an exit error in position or angle, corrector coils have been designed. Shimming coils have been applied for both the undulator segments to reduce the amplitude of the betatron oscillations in the vertical trajectory. Details of novel corrector coils and soft iron shims are given and their performance is discussed.

  9. Design and optimization of coating structure for the thermal barrier coatings fabricated by atmospheric plasma spraying via finite element method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Wang


    Full Text Available The first prerequisite for fabricating the thermal barrier coatings (TBCs with excellent performance is to find an optimized coating structure with high thermal insulation effect and low residual stress. This paper discusses the design and optimization of a suitable coating structure for the TBCs prepared by atmospheric plasma spraying (APS using the finite element method. The design and optimization processes comply with the rules step by step, as the structure develops from a simple to a complex one. The research results indicate that the suitable thicknesses of the bond-coating and top-coating are 60–120 μm and 300–420 μm, respectively, for the single ceramic layer YSZ/NiCoCrAlY APS-TBC. The embedded interlayer (50 wt.%YSZ + 50 wt.%NiCoCrAlY will further reduce the residual stress without sacrificing the thermal insulation effect. The double ceramic layer was further considered which was based on the single ceramic layer TBC. The embedded interlayer and the upper additional ceramic layer will have a best match between the low residual stress and high thermal insulation effect. Finally, the optimized coating structure was obtained, i.e., the La2Ce2O7(LC/YSZ/Interlayer/NiCoCrAlY coating structure with appropriate layer thickness is the best choice. The effective thermal conductivity of this optimized LC/YSZ/IL/BL TBC is 13.2% lower than that of the typical single ceramic layer YSZ/BL TBC.

  10. Optimal design of label-free silicon “lab on a chip” biosensors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yaping Zhang


    This paper reported the optimal design of label-free silicon on insulator (SOI)“lab on a chip”biosensors. These devices are designed on the basis of the evanescent field detection principles and interferometer technologies. The well-established silicon device process technology can be applied to fabricate and test these biosensor devices. In addition, these devices can be monolithically integrated with CMOS electronics and microfluidics. For these biosensor devices, multi-mode interferometer (MMI) was employed to combine many stand-alone biosensors to form chip-level biosensor arrays, which enable real-time and label-free monitoring and parallel detection of various analytes in multiple test samples. This sensing and detection technology features the highest detection sensitivity, which can detect analytes at extremely low concentrations instantaneously. This research can lead to innovative commercial development of the new generation of high sensitivity biosensors for a wide range of applications in many fields, such as environmental monitoring, food security control, medical and biological applications.

  11. Protein:Ligand binding free energies: A stringent test for computational protein design. (United States)

    Druart, Karen; Palmai, Zoltan; Omarjee, Eyaz; Simonson, Thomas


    A computational protein design method is extended to allow Monte Carlo simulations where two ligands are titrated into a protein binding pocket, yielding binding free energy differences. These provide a stringent test of the physical model, including the energy surface and sidechain rotamer definition. As a test, we consider tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase (TyrRS), which has been extensively redesigned experimentally. We consider its specificity for its substrate l-tyrosine (l-Tyr), compared to the analogs d-Tyr, p-acetyl-, and p-azido-phenylalanine (ac-Phe, az-Phe). We simulate l- and d-Tyr binding to TyrRS and six mutants, and compare the structures and binding free energies to a more rigorous "MD/GBSA" procedure: molecular dynamics with explicit solvent for structures and a Generalized Born + Surface Area model for binding free energies. Next, we consider l-Tyr, ac- and az-Phe binding to six other TyrRS variants. The titration results are sensitive to the precise rotamer definition, which involves a short energy minimization for each sidechain pair to help relax bad contacts induced by the discrete rotamer set. However, when designed mutant structures are rescored with a standard GBSA energy model, results agree well with the more rigorous MD/GBSA. As a third test, we redesign three amino acid positions in the substrate coordination sphere, with either l-Tyr or d-Tyr as the ligand. For two, we obtain good agreement with experiment, recovering the wildtype residue when l-Tyr is the ligand and a d-Tyr specific mutant when d-Tyr is the ligand. For the third, we recover His with either ligand, instead of wildtype Gln.

  12. Permanent isolation surface barrier development plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wing, N.R.


    The exhumation and treatment of wastes may not always be the preferred alternative in the remediation of a waste site. In-place disposal alternatives, under certain circumstances, may be the most desirable alternatives to use in the protection of human health and the environment. The implementation of an in-place disposal alternative will likely require some type of protective covering that will provide long-term isolation of the wastes from the accessible environment. Even if the wastes are exhumed and treated, a long-term barrier may still be needed to adequately dispose of the treated wastes or any remaining waste residuals. Currently, no {open_quotes}proven{close_quotes} long-term barrier is available. The Hanford Site Permanent Isolation Surface Barrier Development Program (BDP) was organized to develop the technology needed to provide a long-term surface barrier capability for the Hanford Site. The permanent isolation barrier technology also could be used at other sites. Permanent isolation barriers use engineered layers of natural materials to create an integrated structure with redundant protective features. Drawings of conceptual permanent isolation surface barriers are shown. The natural construction materials (e.g., fine soil, sand, gravel, riprap, asphalt) have been selected to optimize barrier performance and longevity. The objective of current designs is to use natural materials to develop a maintenance-free permanent isolation surface barrier that isolates wastes for a minimum of 1,000 years by limiting water drainage to near-zero amounts; reducing the likelihood of plant, animal, and human intrusion; controlling the exhalation of noxious gases; and minimizing erosion-related problems.

  13. Incorporation of a barrier protection cream in the management of chronic hand dermatitis: focus on data supporting an established hand protectant formulation and modifications designed to assist in barrier repair. (United States)

    Del Rosso, James Q


    overview of hand dermatitis, reviews data supporting the therapeutic benefit of a specific barrier protection hand cream, and discusses ingredient modifications to the original formulation. The newer formulation does not alter the skin barrier protection components; however, the new ingredients were selected to add barrier repair properties to the original product, which was designed only as a skin barrier protectant.

  14. Research Initiatives and Preliminary Results In Automation Design In Airspace Management in Free Flight (United States)

    Corker, Kevin; Lebacqz, J. Victor (Technical Monitor)


    The NASA and the FAA have entered into a joint venture to explore, define, design and implement a new airspace management operating concept. The fundamental premise of that concept is that technologies and procedures need to be developed for flight deck and ground operations to improve the efficiency, the predictability, the flexibility and the safety of airspace management and operations. To that end NASA Ames has undertaken an initial development and exploration of "key concepts" in the free flight airspace management technology development. Human Factors issues in automation aiding design, coupled aiding systems between air and ground, communication protocols in distributed decision making, and analytic techniques for definition of concepts of airspace density and operator cognitive load have been undertaken. This paper reports the progress of these efforts, which are not intended to definitively solve the many evolving issues of design for future ATM systems, but to provide preliminary results to chart the parameters of performance and the topology of the analytic effort required. The preliminary research in provision of cockpit display of traffic information, dynamic density definition, distributed decision making, situation awareness models and human performance models is discussed as they focus on the theme of "design requirements".

  15. 城市地面道路声屏障设计研究%Study on Noise Barriers Design for City Ground Road

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路晓东; 唐建; 蔡军


    不同于欧美各国,作为交通噪声防治的主要措施,我国声屏障主要用于高架路,城市地面道路应用很少.随着交通噪声增加,城市地面道路声屏障亟需重视,其设计约束多,难度大,问题复杂,需在规划前期便开始着手考虑.该文结合欧美各国及香港地区的实例,总结声屏障设计的四种方式,即与道路设计结合,与场地设计结合,与建筑设计结合,与视觉效果结合,为交通噪声防治提供借鉴.%As the main measures of traffic noise prevention, unlike Europe and the United States, noise barrier in China is mainly used for the elevated road, while seldom for ground road. With the increase of traffic noise, the noise barrier for city ground road urgently needs to be paid attention. In the planning phase, it needs to be considered because of design constraints, difficulty and complexity. Combining with the European and American examples, the paper summarizes four ways to set the sound barrier in planning phase ,and provides a reference for traffic noise prevention, for example road barrier design combined with road design, site design, architectural design, aesthetics effert and so on.

  16. Hanford Permanent Isolation Barrier Program: Asphalt technology test plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, H.D.; Romine, R.A.


    The Hanford Permanent Isolation Barriers use engineered layers of natural materials to create an integrated structure with backup protective features. The objective of current designs is to develop a maintenance-free permanent barrier that isolates wastes for a minimum of 1000 years by limiting water drainage to near-zero amounts. Asphalt is being used as an impermeable water diversion layer to provide a redundant layer within the overall barrier design. Data on asphalt barrier properties in a buried environment are not available for the required 100-year time frame. The purpose of this test plan is to outline the activities planned to obtain data with which to estimate performance of the asphalt layers.

  17. Design and Fabrication of a 5-kWe Free-Piston Stirling Power Conversion System (United States)

    Chapman, Peter A.; Walter, Thomas J.; Brandhorst, Henry W., Jr.


    Progress in the design and fabrication of a 5-kWe free-piston Stirling power conversion system is described. A scaled-down version of the successful 12.5-kWe Component Test Power Converter (CTPC) developed under NAS3-25463, this single cylinder prototype incorporates cost effective and readily available materials (steel versus beryllium) and components (a commercial linear alternator). The design consists of a displacer suspended on internally pumped gas bearings and a power piston/alternator supported on flexures. Non-contacting clearance seals are used between internal volumes. Heat to and from the prototype is supplied via pumped liquid loops passing through shell and tube heat exchangers. The control system incorporates several novel ideas such as a pulse start capability and a piston stroke set point control strategy that provides the ability to throttle the engine to match the required output power. It also ensures stable response to various disturbances such as electrical load variations while providing useful data regarding the position of both power piston and displacer. All design and analysis activities are complete and fabrication is underway. Prototype test is planned for summer 2008 at Foster-Miller to characterize the dynamics and steady-state operation of the prototype and determine maximum power output and system efficiency. Further tests will then be performed at Auburn University to determine start-up and shutdown characteristics and assess transient response to temperature and load variations.

  18. Prediction of free air space in initial composting mixtures by a statistical design approach. (United States)

    Soares, Micaela A R; Quina, Margarida J; Quinta-Ferreira, Rosa


    Free air space (FAS) is a physical parameter that can play an important role in composting processes to maintain favourable aerobic conditions. Aiming to predict the FAS of initial composting mixtures, specific materials proportions ranged from 0 to 1 were tested for a case study comprising industrial potato peel, which is characterized by low air void volume, thus requiring additional components for its composting. The characterization and prediction of FAS for initial mixtures involving potato peel, grass clippings and rice husks (set A) or sawdust (set B) was accomplished by means of an augmented simplex-centroid mixture design approach. The experimental data were fitted to second order Scheffé polynomials. Synergistic or antagonistic effects of mixture proportions in the FAS response were identified from the surface and response trace plots in the FAS response. Moreover, a good agreement was achieved between the model predictions and supplementary experimental data. Moreover, theoretical and empirical approaches for estimating FAS available in literature were compared with the predictions generated by the mixture design approach. This study demonstrated that the mixture design methodology can be a valuable tool to predict the initial FAS of composting mixtures, specifically in making adjustments to improve composting processes containing primarily potato peel.

  19. Experimental design of a loophole-free Bell test with spin qubits in diamond (United States)

    Hensen, Bas; Bernien, Hannes; Dréau, Anaïs; Reiserer, Andreas; Ruitenberg, Just; Blok, Machiel; Wehner, Stephanie; Markham, M.; Twitchen, D.; Hanson, Ronald


    50 years ago, John Bell formulated his famous theorem. The outcomes of independent measurements on entangled objects can reveal strong correlations that violate Bell's inequality. Until now, all experimental implementations of Bell's test required additional assumptions, that open the door for so-called loopholes. These loopholes are particularly important in a cryptography setting where Bell violations enable fully device-independent protocols for quantum key distribution and certified generation of randomness. Here we will present the experimental design of a Bell test, aimed at closing the detection loophole and addressing the locality and free-will loopholes in a single experiment. We use two qubits associated with the electronic spin of the nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center in diamond, separated far enough to allow space-like separation between the two qubits during their measurement. The heralded nature of our remote entanglement protocol and efficient qubit readout allow us to use all entangled pairs, avoiding the fair-sampling assumption. Finally, the free-will loophole is addressed by the use of fast random number generators.

  20. Design of a holographic tracking module for long-range retroreflector free-space systems. (United States)

    Quintana, C; Erry, G; Gomez, A; Thueux, Y; Faulkner, G E; O'Brien, D C


    Weight reduction and low power consumption are key requirements in the next generation of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). To communicate with an operator, a secured link between the UAV and a ground-based station is desirable. To realize these links, retroreflecting free-space optics is potentially attractive as it offers light weight and low complexity at the UAV. However, the base station requires a high-performance tracking module to enable a steady illumination of the UAV retroreflector. In this paper, we present the design and implementation of a tracking system, which consists of coarse tracking and holographic fine tracking modules working cooperatively. Using this system, experimental field trials were carried out by mounting a multiple-quantum-well-based modulated retroreflector on a commercial UAV. A 2 Mbps optical link was achieved with a bit error rate of ∼2×10-4 at a link range of 300 m.

  1. Design of a multi-channel free space optical interconnec-tion component

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Da-gong; ZHANG Pei-song; JING Wen-cai; TAN Jun; ZHANG Hong-xia; ZHANG Yi-mo


    A multi-channel free space optical interconnection component, fiber optic rotary joint, was designed using a Dove prism.When the Dove prism is rotated an angle of α around the longitudinal axis, the image rotates an angle of 2α. The opticalinterconnection component consists of the signal transmission system, Dove prim and driving mechanism. The planetarygears are used to achieve the speed ratio of 2:1 between the total optical interconnection component and the Dove prism.The C-lenses are employed to couple different optical signals in the signal transmission system. The coupling loss betweenthe receiving fiber of stationary part and the transmitting fiber of rotary part is measured.

  2. PVDF core-free actuator for Braille displays: design, fabrication process, and testing (United States)

    Levard, Thomas; Diglio, Paul J.; Lu, Sheng-Guo; Gorny, Lee J.; Rahn, Christopher D.; Zhang, Q. M.


    Refreshable Braille displays require many, small diameter actuators to move the pins. The electrostrictive P(VDF-TrFECFE) terpolymer can provide the high strain and actuation force under modest electric fields that are required of this application. In this paper, we develop core-free tubular actuators and integrate them into a 3 × 2 Braille cell. The films are solution cast, stretched to 6 μm thick, electroded, laminated into a bilayer, rolled into a 2 mm diameter tube, bonded, and provided with top and bottom contacts. Experimental testing of 17 actuators demonstrates significant strains (up to 4%). A novel Braille cell is designed and fabricated using six of these actuators.

  3. An infrared free-electron laser for the Chemical Dynamics Research Laboratory. Design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaughan, D. [comp.


    This document describes a free-electron laser (FEL) proposed as part of the Chemical Dynamics Research Laboratory (CDRL), a user facility that also incorporates several advanced lasers of conventional design and two beamlines for the ALS. The FEL itself addresses the needs of the chemical sciences community for a high-brightness, tunable source covering a broad region of the infrared spectrum -- from 3 to 50 {mu}m. All of these sources, together with a variety of sophisticated experimental stations, will be housed in a new building to be located adjacent to the ALS. The radiation sources can be synchronized to permit powerful two-color, pump-probe experiments that will further our fundamental understanding of chemical dynamics at the molecular level, especially those aspects relevant to practical issues in combustion chemistry. The technical approach adopted in this design makes use of superconducting radiofrequency (SCRF) accelerating structures. The primary motivation for adopting this approach was to meet the user requirement for wavelength stability equal to one part in 10{sup 4}. Previous studies concluded that a wavelength stability of only one part in 10{sup 3} could be achieved with currently available room-temperature technology. In addition, the superconducting design operates in a continuous-wave (cw) mode and hence offers considerably higher average optical output power. It also allows for various pulse-gating configurations that will permit simultaneous multiuser operations. A summary of the comparative performance attainable with room-temperature and superconducting designs is given. The FEL described in this report provides a continuous train of 30-ps micropulses, with 100{mu}J of optical energy per micropulse, at a repetition rate of 6.1 MHz. The device can also deliver pulses at a cw repetition rate of 12.2 MHz, with a peak power of 50 {mu}J per micropulse. 70 ref.

  4. Computational Sampling and Simulation Based Assessment of Novel Mycobacterium tuberculosis Glutamine Synthetase Inhibitors: Study Involving Structure Based Drug Design and Free Energy Perturbation. (United States)

    Suryadevara, Priyanka; Yogeeswari, Perumal; Soni, Vijay; Devi, Parthiban Brindha; Nandicoori, Vinay Kumar; Sriram, Dharmarajan


    The highly persistent nature of Mycobacterium tuberculosis can be attributed to its lipophilic cell wall which acts as a major barrier in the process of drug discovery against tuberculosis. Glutamine synthetase plays a major role in nitrogen metabolism and cell wall biosynthesis of pathogenic mycobacteria. The current review focuses on the structural and functional aspects of Mtb glutamine synthetase and an overview of its reported inhibitors till date. Also in the present study, we employed a computational structure based drug design protocol for identifying novel inhibitors against Mtb glutamine synthetase (MtbGS). A total of 12 hits were identified based on e-pharmacophore related search and virtual screening, which were further tested for their in vitro MtbGS inhibitory activity. Three compounds (compound 6, 1 and 12) were found with IC50 less than 5 µM, of which compound 6 being top active with IC50 of 2.124 µM. Differential scanning fluorimetry studies were employed so as to measure the thermal stability of the protein complexed with the most active compound. Also the protein complexes with top three active compounds were subjected for molecular dynamics simulations to study their binding pattern and stabilization effect. The solvation free energies were also determined for these compounds, undertaking free energy perturbation studies, which can be used further for lead optimization in the process of anti-tubercular drug discovery targeting Mtb glutamine synthetase.

  5. Durability and Design Issues of Thermal/environmental Barrier Coatings on Sic/sic Ceramic Matrix Composites Under 1650 C Test Conditions (United States)

    Zhu, Dong-Ming; Choi, Sung R.; Ghosn, Louis J.; Miller, Robert A.


    Ceramic thermal/environmental barrier coatings for SiC-based ceramics will play an increasingly important role in future gas turbine engines because of their ability to effectively protect the engine components and further raise engine temperatures. However, the coating durability remains a major concern with the ever-increasing temperature requirements. Currently, advanced T/EBC systems, which typically include a high temperature capable zirconia- (or hahia-) based oxide top coat (thermal barrier) on a less temperature capable mullite/barium-strontium-aluminosilicate (BSAS)/Si inner coat (environmental barrier), are being developed and tested for higher temperature capability Sic combustor applications. In this paper, durability of several thermal/environmental barrier coating systems on SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composites was investigated under laser simulated engine thermal gradient cyclic, and 1650 C (3000 F) test conditions. The coating cracking and delamination processes were monitored and evaluated. The effects of temperature gradients and coating configurations on the ceramic coating crack initiation and propagation were analyzed using finite element analysis (FEA) models based on the observed failure mechanisms, in conjunction with mechanical testing results. The environmental effects on the coating durability will be discussed. The coating design approach will also be presented.

  6. Design New Intelligent-Base Chattering Free Nonlinear Control of Spherical Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Tayebi


    Full Text Available The main four objectives to design controllers are: stability, robust, minimum error and reliability. Linear PID controller is model-free controller and this controller is not reliable. One of the robust nonlinear controller to control of nonlinear systems is sliding mode controller (SMC. Sliding mode controller (SMC is robust conventional nonlinear controller in a partly uncertain dynamic system’s parameters. Sliding mode controller is divided into two main sub parts: discontinues controller〖(τ〗_dis and equivalent controller〖(τ〗_eq. Discontinues controller is used to design suitable tracking performance based on very fast switching. Fast switching or discontinuous part have essential role to achieve to good trajectory following, but it is caused system instability and chattering phenomenon. Chattering phenomenon is one of the main challenges in conventional sliding mode controller and it can causes some important mechanical problems such as saturation and heats the mechanical parts of robot manipulators or drivers. To reduce or eliminate the chattering two methods are used in many researches which these methods are: boundary layer saturation method and artificial intelligence based method. In this research fuzzy switching methodology is used to eliminate the chattering in presence of uncertainty to increase the robust of this controller with application to three dimensions of spherical motor.

  7. SiteOut: An Online Tool to Design Binding Site-Free DNA Sequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Estrada

    Full Text Available DNA-binding proteins control many fundamental biological processes such as transcription, recombination and replication. A major goal is to decipher the role that DNA sequence plays in orchestrating the binding and activity of such regulatory proteins. To address this goal, it is useful to rationally design DNA sequences with desired numbers, affinities and arrangements of protein binding sites. However, removing binding sites from DNA is computationally non-trivial since one risks creating new sites in the process of deleting or moving others. Here we present an online binding site removal tool, SiteOut, that enables users to design arbitrary DNA sequences that entirely lack binding sites for factors of interest. SiteOut can also be used to delete sites from a specific sequence, or to introduce site-free spacers between functional sequences without creating new sites at the junctions. In combination with commercial DNA synthesis services, SiteOut provides a powerful and flexible platform for synthetic projects that interrogate regulatory DNA. Here we describe the algorithm and illustrate the ways in which SiteOut can be used; it is publicly available at

  8. SiteOut: An Online Tool to Design Binding Site-Free DNA Sequences. (United States)

    Estrada, Javier; Ruiz-Herrero, Teresa; Scholes, Clarissa; Wunderlich, Zeba; DePace, Angela H


    DNA-binding proteins control many fundamental biological processes such as transcription, recombination and replication. A major goal is to decipher the role that DNA sequence plays in orchestrating the binding and activity of such regulatory proteins. To address this goal, it is useful to rationally design DNA sequences with desired numbers, affinities and arrangements of protein binding sites. However, removing binding sites from DNA is computationally non-trivial since one risks creating new sites in the process of deleting or moving others. Here we present an online binding site removal tool, SiteOut, that enables users to design arbitrary DNA sequences that entirely lack binding sites for factors of interest. SiteOut can also be used to delete sites from a specific sequence, or to introduce site-free spacers between functional sequences without creating new sites at the junctions. In combination with commercial DNA synthesis services, SiteOut provides a powerful and flexible platform for synthetic projects that interrogate regulatory DNA. Here we describe the algorithm and illustrate the ways in which SiteOut can be used; it is publicly available at

  9. On exploration for some problems in design for noise barrier on roads%公路声屏障设计中几个问题的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    According to the noise reduction principle for the noise barrier, the paper introduces the problems for the acoustic dynamics of the noise barrier and its coordination with the surrounding environment, and points out the construction requirements for the design of the construction by combining with the selection for the noise barrier and the design principle for the structure, so as to provide some reference for the effective en- vironment protection to prevent the noise from road traffic.%根据声屏障的降噪原理,介绍了在声屏障声学、力学及与周围环境协调方面遇到的问题,并结合声屏障的选用及结构设计原则,提出了设计建造中的施工要求,为防治公路交通噪声的有效环保提供参考。

  10. Design Studies for a VUV--Soft X-ray Free-Electron Laser Array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corlett, J.; Baptiste, K.; Byrd, J.M.; Denes, P.; Falcone, R.; Kirz, J.; McCurdy, W.; Padmore, H.; Penn, G.; Qiang, J.; Robin, D.; Sannibale, F.; Schoenlein, R.; Staples, J.; Steier, C.; Venturnini, M.; Wan, W.; Wells, R.; Wilcox, R.; Zholents, A.


    Several recent reports have identified the scientific requirements for a future soft X-ray light source [1, 2, 3, 4, 5], and a high-repetition-rate free-electron laser (FEL) facility responsive to them is being studied at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) [6]. The facility is based on a continuous-wave (CW) superconducting linear accelerator with beam supplied by a high-brightness, high-repetition-rate photocathode electron gun operating in CW mode, and on an array of FELs to which the accelerated beam is distributed, each operating at high repetition rate and with even pulse spacing. Dependent on the experimental requirements, the individualFELs may be configured for either self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE), seeded highgain harmonic generation (HGHG), echo-enabled harmonic generation (EEHG), or oscillator mode of operation, and will produce high peak and average brightness x-rays with a flexible pulse format ranging from sub-femtoseconds to hundreds of femtoseconds. This new light source would serve a broad community of scientists in many areas of research, similar to existing utilization of storage ring based light sources. To reduce technical risks and constructioncosts, accelerator research, development, and design studies at LBNL target the most critical components and systems of the facility. We are developing a high-repetition-rate low-emittance electron gun, high quantum efficiency photocathodes, and have embarked on design and optimization of the electron beam accelerator, FEL switchyard, and array of FELs. We continue our work on precision timing and synchronization systems critical for time-resolved experiments using pump-probe techniques.

  11. Antibiotic-free selection in E. coli: new considerations for optimal design and improved production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peubez Isabelle


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increasing regulatory requirements to which biological agents are subjected will have a great impact in the field of industrial protein expression and production. There is an expectation that in a near future, there may be "zero tolerance" towards antibiotic-based selection and production systems. Besides the antibiotic itself, the antibiotic resistance gene is an important consideration. The complete absence of antibiotic-resistance gene being the only way to ensure that there is no propagation in the environment or transfer of resistance to pathogenic strains. Results In a first step, we have designed a series of vectors, containing a stabilization element allowing a complete elimination of antibiotics during fermentation. Vectors were further improved in order to include alternative selection means such as the well known poison/antidote stabilization system. Eventually we propose an elegant positive pressure of selection ensuring the elimination of the antibiotic-resistance gene through homologous recombination. In addition, we have shown that the presence of an antibiotic resistance gene can indirectly reduce the amount of expressed protein, since even in absence of selection pressure the gene would be transcribed and account for an additional stress for the host during the fermentation process. Conclusions We propose a general strategy combining plasmid stabilization and antibiotic-free selection. The proposed host/vector system, completely devoid of antibiotic resistance gene at the end of construction, has the additional advantage of improving recombinant protein expression and/or plasmid recovery.

  12. Hybrid Radio/Free-Space Optical Design for Next Generation Backhaul Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Douik, Ahmed


    The deluge of date rate in today\\'s networks imposes a cost burden on the backhaul network design. Developing cost-efficient backhaul solutions becomes an exciting, yet challenging, problem. Traditional technologies for backhaul networks, including either radio-frequency (RF) backhauls or optical fibers (OF). While RF is a cost-effective solution as compared with OF, it supports the lower data rate requirements. Another promising backhaul solution is the free-space optics (FSO) as it offers both a high data rate and a relatively low cost. The FSO, however, is sensitive to nature conditions, e.g., rain, fog, and line-of-sight. This paper combines both the RF and FSO advantages and proposes a hybrid RF/FSO backhaul solution. It considers the problem of minimizing the cost of the backhaul network by choosing either OF or hybrid RF/FSO backhaul links between the base stations, so as to satisfy data rate, connectivity, and reliability constraints. It shows that under a specified realistic assumption about the cost of OF and hybrid RF/FSO links, the problem is equivalent to a maximum weight clique problem, which can be solved with moderate complexity. Simulation results show that the proposed solution shows a close-to-optimal performance, especially for reasonable prices of the hybrid RF/FSO links. They further reveal that the hybrid RF/FSO is a cost-efficient solution and a good candidate for upgrading the existing backhaul networks. © 2016 IEEE.

  13. Distortion-free spectrum sliced microwave photonic signal processor: analysis, design and implementation. (United States)

    Li, Liwei; Yi, Xiaoke; Huang, Thomas X H; Minasian, Robert A


    A new switchable microwave photonic filter based on a novel spectrum slicing technique is presented. The processor enables programmable multi-tap generation with general transfer function characteristics and offers tunability, reconfigurabiliy, and switchability. It is based on connecting a dispersion controlled spectrum slicing filter after the modulated bipolar broadband light source, which consequently generates multiple spectrum slices with bipolarity, and compensates dispersion induced RF degradation simultaneously within a single device. A detailed theoretical model for this microwave photonic filter design is presented. Experimental results are presented which verify the model, and demonstrate a 33 bipolar-tap microwave filter with significant reduction of passband attenuations at high frequencies. The RF response improvement of the new microwave photonic filter is investigated, for both an ideal linear group delay line and for the experimental fiber delay line that has second order group delay and the results show that this new structure is effective for RF filters with various free spectral range values and spectrum slice bandwidths. Finally, a switchable bipolar filter that has a square-top bandpass filter response with more than 30 dB stopband attenuation that can be switched on/off via software control is demonstrated.

  14. Design and operation of an inverse free-electron-laser accelerator in the microwave regime (United States)

    Yoder, Rodney Bruce


    A novel electron accelerator demonstrating the inverse free-electron-laser (IFEL) principle has been designed, built, and operated using radio-frequency power at 2.856 GHz. Such an accelerator uses a stationary, periodic magnetic field to impart transverse motion to charged particles, which are then accelerated by guided electromagnetic waves. The experiment described here demonstrates for the first time the phase dependence of IFEL acceleration. This design uses up to 15 MW of RF power propagating in a smooth-walled circular waveguide surrounded by a pulsed bifilar helical undulator; an array of solenoids provides an axial guiding magnetic field undulator; pitch, which is initially 11.75 cm, is linearly increased to 12.3 cm. over the 1-meter length of the structure to maintain acceleration gradient. Numerical computations predict an energy gain of up to 0.7 MeV using a 6 MeV injected beam from a 2-1/2 cell RF gun, with small energy spread and strong phase trapping. The initial injection phase is the most important parameter, determining the rate of energy gain or loss. These simulations are compared with experimental measurements at low power in which electron beams at energies between 5 and 6 MeV gain up to 0.35 MeV with minimal energy spread, all exiting particles having been accelerated. The predicted phase sensitivity of the mechanism is verified, with beams injected into accelerating phases gaining energy cleanly while those injected into ``decelerating'' phases are shown to be degraded in quality and hardly changed in energy, demonstrating the asymmetry of a tapered-wiggler design. Agreement with simulation is very good for accelerating phases, though less exact otherwise. Scaling to higher power and frequency is investigated. The maximum attainable acceleration gradient for a MIFELA using 150 MW of RF power at 34 GHz is estimated to be at least 30 MV/m, and laser IFELs could conceivably reach gradients in the GeV/m range.

  15. Design and preliminary test of a free-air ionization chamber for low-energy X-ray

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴金杰; 杨元第; 王培玮; 陈靖; 柳加成


    A free-air ionization chamber in low-energy X-ray has been designed and manufactured at the National Institute of Metrology (NIM, China) according to the defination of air-kerma. The results of a preliminary test show that the leakage current of ionizatio

  16. Assisting People with Disabilities in Actively Performing Designated Occupational Activities with Battery-Free Wireless Mice to Control Environmental Stimulation (United States)

    Shih, Ching-Hsiang


    The latest researches use software technology (OLDP, object location detection programs) to turn a commercial high-technology product, i.e. a battery-free wireless mouse, into a high performance/precise object location detector to detect whether or not an object has been placed in the designated location. The preferred environmental stimulation is…

  17. Optimization Design of Highway Noise Barriers Based on Response Surface Methodology%采用响应曲面分析的声屏障优化设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张林; 殷承启; 仝凯; 胡婕


    The Box-Behnken design and response surface method were applied to optimize the parameters of noise barriers. The height, length and initial stake of noise barrier were studied as arguments, while the insertion loss of three sound-sensitive points, construction cost as variables. Quadratic equation models were developed to express the functional relationship between arguments and variables. Optimization parameters of noise barrier were obtained by Minitab analysis, basing on the goals of acoustic environmental standard in sensitive area, as well as minimization of construction cost.%采用响应曲面法和Box-Behnken设计优化声屏障设计参数.以声屏障设计高度、长度、起点桩号为考察自变量,以声屏障对敏感区域内三处受声点理论插入损失、工程造价为考察因变量,构建多元二次回归模型考察因变量与自变量间的函数关系.设定以敏感区域内声环境质量达标、工程造价最低为优化目标,利用Minitab软件优化分析得到声屏障最优设计参数.

  18. 铁路车站声屏障设计要点%Brief Introduction to Design of Railway Station Noise Barrier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    通常铁路站区轨道较多,声源分布较宽,常规高度的声屏障已无法达到其降噪效果。因此站区声屏障在高度及结构形式突破了铁路常规的声屏障。文章从声学设计和结构设计2个方面对车站声屏障的设计要点进行了介绍,同时也对高速铁路车站设置降噪措施提出了一些建议。%Generally, the noise barriers of normal height in a railway station area are no longer to effectively reduce noise with the growth of tracks and wider source of noise, so that the height and formation of station noise barrier have to break through their conventional form. This paper presents a brief introduction to the design of station noise barrier to acoustics and structure, and it also brings forward some suggestions on the noise reduction measures for with regard high-speed railway stations.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The objective of this field test instruction is to provide technical guidance for aqueous injection emplacement of an extension apatite permeable reactive barrier (PRE) for the sequestration of strontium-90 (Sr-90) using a high concentration amendment formulation. These field activities will be conducted according to the guidelines established in DOE/RL-2010-29, 100-NR-2 Design Optimization Study, hereafter referred to as the DOS. The DOS supports the Federal Facility Agreement Consent Order (EPA et al., 1989), Milestone M-16-06-01, and 'Complete Construction of a Permeable Reactive Barrier at 100-N.' Injections of apatite precursor chemicals will occur at an equal distance intervals on each end of the existing PRE to extend the PRB from the existing 91 m (300 ft) to at least 274 m (900 ft). Field testing at the 100-N Area Apatite Treatability Test Site, as depicted on Figure 1, shows that the barrier is categorized by two general hydrologic conceptual models based on overall well capacity and contrast between the Hanford and Ringold hydraulic conductivities. The upstream portion of the original barrier, shown on Figure 1, is characterized by relatively low overall well specific capacity. This is estimated from well development data and a lower contrast in hydraulic conductivity between the Hanford formation and Ringold Formations. Comparison of test results from these two locations indicate that permeability contrast between the Hanford formation and Ringold Formation is significantly less over the upstream one-third of the barrier. The estimated hydraulic conductivity for the Hanford formation and Ringold Formation over the upstream portion of the barrier based on observations during emplacement of the existing 91 m (300 ft) PRB is approximately 12 and 10 m/day (39 and 32 ft/day), respectively (PNNL-17429). However, these estimates should be used as a rough guideline only, as significant variability in hydraulic conductivity is likely to be observed in

  20. Cost-effective backhaul design using hybrid radio/free-space optical technology

    KAUST Repository

    Douik, Ahmed S.


    The deluge of date rate in today\\'s networks poses a cost burden on the backhaul network design. Developing cost efficient backhaul solutions becomes an interesting, yet challenging, problem. Traditional technologies for backhaul networks include either radio-frequency backhauls (RF) or optical fibres (OF). While RF is a cost-effective solution as compared to OF, it supports lower data rate requirements. Another promising backhaul solution that may combine both a high data rate and a relatively low cost is the free-space optics (FSO). FSO, however, is sensitive to nature conditions (e.g., rain, fog, line-ofsight, etc.). A more reliable alternative is, therefore, to combine RF and FSO solutions through a hybrid structure called hybrid RF/FSO. Consider a backhaul network, where the base-stations (BS) can be connected to each other either via OF or hybrid RF/FSO backhaul links. The paper addresses the problem of minimizing the cost of backhaul planning under connectivity and data rates constraints, so as to choose the appropriate costeffective backhaul type between BSs (i.e., either OF or hybrid RF/FSO). The paper solves the problem using graph theory techniques by introducing the corresponding planning graph. It shows that under a specified realistic assumption about the cost of OF and hybrid RF/FSO links, the problem is equivalent to a maximum weight clique problem, which can be solved with moderate complexity. Simulation results show that our proposed solution shows a close-to-optimal performance, especially for practical prices of the hybrid RF/FSO.

  1. HELIOS: the new design of the irradiation of U-free fuels for americium transmutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Agata, E. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Energy, P.O. Box 2, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Klaassen, F.; Sciolla, C. [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group, Dept. Life Cycle and Innovations, P.O. Box 25 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Fernandez-Carretero, A. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements, P.O. Box 2340, 76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Bonnerot, J.M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, DEC/SESC/LC2I CEA-Cadarache, 13108 St. Paul lez Durance Cedex (France)


    Americium is one of the radioactive elements that mostly contribute to the radiotoxicity of the nuclear spent fuel. Transmutation of long-lived nuclides like Americium is an option for the reduction of the mass, the radiotoxicity and the decay heat of nuclear waste. The HELIOS irradiation experiment is the last evolution in a series of experiments on americium transmutation. The previous experiments, EFTTRA-T4 and T4bis, have shown that the release or trapping of helium is the key issue for the design of such kind of target. In fact, the production of helium, which is characteristic of {sup 241}Am transmutation, is quite significant. The experiment is carried out in the framework of the 4-year project EUROTRANS of the EURATOM 6. Framework Programme (FP6). Therefore, the main objective of the HELIOS experiment is to study the in-pile behaviour of U-free fuels such as CerCer (Pu, Am, Zr)O{sub 2} and Am{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7}+MgO or CerMet (Pu, Am)O{sub 2}+Mo in order to gain knowledge on the role of the fuel microstructure and of the temperature on the gas release and on the fuel swelling. The experiment was planned to be conducted in the HFR (High Flux Reactor) in Petten (The Netherlands) starting the first quarter of 2007. Because of the innovative aspects of the fuel, the fabrication has had some delays as well as the final safety analyses of the original design showed some unexpected deviation. Besides, the HFR reactor has been unavailable since August 2008. Due to the reasons described above, the experiment has been postponed. HELIOS should start in the first quarter of 2009 and will last 300 full power days. The paper will cover the description of the new design of the irradiation experiment HELIOS. The experiment has been split in two parts (HELIOS1 and HELIOS2) which will be irradiated together. Moreover, due to the high temperature achieved in cladding and to the high amount of helium produced during transmutation the experiment previously designed for a

  2. Design and preliminary test of a free-air ionization chamber for low-energy X-ray

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Jin-Jie; YANG Yuan-Di; WANG Pei-Wei; CHEN Jing; LIU Jia-Cheng


    A free-air ionization chamber in low-energy X-ray has been designed and manufactured at theNational Institute of Metrology (NIM, China) according to the defination of alr-kerma. The results of a preliminary test show that the leakage current of ionization chamber is around 2×10A, and the correction factor of ion recombination for the ionization chamber is also obtained. The free-air ionization chamber is suitable for the primary standard in low-energy X-rays.

  3. Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) and Design and Construction of Hydraulic Barriers against Seawater Intrusion: the California Case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foreman, T. L.


    Managed aquifer recharge (MAR) has been practiced in California for over a century, using a range of artificial recharge methods, including surface spreading basins, injection wells and aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) wells. Intense municipal and industrial development of coastal regions, particularly in southern California, during and following World War II, led to overdraft of coastal groundwater basins, where groundwater levels were drawn down below sea level, resulting in seawater intrusion into freshwater aquifers. Surface water is imported from the Colorado River and later northern California to satisfy water demands of a growing population. This imported water is also a water supply used for injection into to injection wells constructed in the 1960s along the coastline to repel seawater from intruding into coastal aquifers. Since the 1960s, these seawater intrusion barriers have evolved in terms of water supplied for injection and in their construction and operation details. Imported water supplies are being completely replaced with highly treated wastewater and the injection wells are being constructed so that they are more automated to reduce operational costs. The West Coast Basin of southern California is provided as a case study of the evolution of hydraulic barriers used for protection against seawater intrusion into coastal aquifers. (Author)

  4. Robust Design of a Particle-Free Silver-Organo-Complex Ink with High Conductivity and Inkjet Stability for Flexible Electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Vaseem, Mohammad


    Currently, silver-nanoparticle-based inkjet ink is commercially available. This type of ink has several serious problems such as a complex synthesis protocol, high cost, high sintering temperatures (∼200 °C), particle aggregation, nozzle clogging, poor shelf life, and jetting instability. For the emerging field of printed electronics, these shortcomings in conductive inks are barriers for their widespread use in practical applications. Formulating particle-free silver inks has potential to solve these issues and requires careful design of the silver complexation. The ink complex must meet various requirements, such as in situ reduction, optimum viscosity, storage and jetting stability, smooth uniform sintered films, excellent adhesion, and high conductivity. This study presents a robust formulation of silver–organo-complex (SOC) ink, where complexing molecules act as reducing agents. The 17 wt % silver loaded ink was printed and sintered on a wide range of substrates with uniform surface morphology and excellent adhesion. The jetting stability was monitored for 5 months to confirm that the ink was robust and highly stable with consistent jetting performance. Radio frequency inductors, which are highly sensitive to metal quality, were demonstrated as a proof of concept on flexible PEN substrate. This is a major step toward producing high-quality electronic components with a robust inkjet printing process.

  5. Robust Design of a Particle-Free Silver-Organo-Complex Ink with High Conductivity and Inkjet Stability for Flexible Electronics. (United States)

    Vaseem, Mohammad; McKerricher, Garret; Shamim, Atif


    Currently, silver-nanoparticle-based inkjet ink is commercially available. This type of ink has several serious problems such as a complex synthesis protocol, high cost, high sintering temperatures (∼200 °C), particle aggregation, nozzle clogging, poor shelf life, and jetting instability. For the emerging field of printed electronics, these shortcomings in conductive inks are barriers for their widespread use in practical applications. Formulating particle-free silver inks has potential to solve these issues and requires careful design of the silver complexation. The ink complex must meet various requirements, such as in situ reduction, optimum viscosity, storage and jetting stability, smooth uniform sintered films, excellent adhesion, and high conductivity. This study presents a robust formulation of silver-organo-complex (SOC) ink, where complexing molecules act as reducing agents. The 17 wt % silver loaded ink was printed and sintered on a wide range of substrates with uniform surface morphology and excellent adhesion. The jetting stability was monitored for 5 months to confirm that the ink was robust and highly stable with consistent jetting performance. Radio frequency inductors, which are highly sensitive to metal quality, were demonstrated as a proof of concept on flexible PEN substrate. This is a major step toward producing high-quality electronic components with a robust inkjet printing process.

  6. A Novel Drag-Free Design for a Geostationary Gravitational Wave Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Given the large volume and additional mass available for scientific use on planned commercial geostationary platforms, we have conceived an alternative drag-free...

  7. Research On The Acoustical Design Of Rail Traffic Sound Barrier%轨道交通声屏障声学设计思路探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    With the development of Rail Traffic construction, the traffic noise pollution becomes very im-portant problem. People will pay more attention to the Sound barrier as an effective measure of controlling noise. The design of sound barrier is a very complicated problem.It is influenced by acoustical characteris-tics, landscape effects, structural safety, fire performance and maintenance. But the most important thing is still the acoustical design.%随着轨道交通建设的发展,交通噪声的污染越来越严重。声屏障作为一种降低交通噪声有效的方法,越来越受到人们的重视。声屏障设计是一个综合复杂的问题,需要考虑多项因素,包括声学特性、景观效果、结构安全、防火性能以及维护保养等,但最主要的还是声学设计。

  8. The Reaction Mechanism with Free Energy Barriers at Constant Potentials for the Oxygen Evolution Reaction at the IrO2 (110) Surface. (United States)

    Ping, Yuan; Nielsen, Robert J; Goddard, William A


    How to efficiently oxidize H2O to O2 (oxygen evolution reaction, OER) in photoelectrochemical cells (PEC) is a great challenge due to its complex charge transfer process, high overpotential, and corrosion. So far no OER mechanism has been fully explained atomistically with both thermodynamic and kinetics. IrO2 is the only known OER catalyst with both high catalytic activity and stability in acidic conditions. This is important because PEC experiments often operate at extreme pH conditions. In this work, we performed first-principles calculations integrated with implicit solvation at constant potentials to examine the detailed atomistic reaction mechanism of OER at the IrO2 (110) surface. We determined the surface phase diagram, explored the possible reaction pathways including kinetic barriers, and computed reaction rates based on the microkinetic models. This allowed us to resolve several long-standing puzzles about the atomistic OER mechanism.

  9. Proton transfer from water to ketyl radical anion: Assessment of critical size of hydrated cluster and free energy barrier in solution from first principles simulations (United States)

    Biswas, Sohag; Dasgupta, Teesta; Mallik, Bhabani S.


    We present the reactivity of an organic intermediate by studying the proton transfer process from water to ketyl radical anion using gas phase electronic structure calculations and the metadynamics method based first principles molecular dynamics (FPMD) simulations. Our results indicate that during the micro solvation of anion by water molecules systematically, the presence of minimum three water molecules in the gas phase cluster is sufficient to observe the proton transfer event. The analysis of trajectories obtained from initial FPMD simulation of an aqueous solution of the anion does not show any evident of complete transfer of the proton from water. The cooperativity of water molecules and the relatively weak anion-water interaction in liquid state prohibit the full release of the proton. Using biasing potential through first principles metadynamics simulations, we report the observation of proton transfer reaction from water to ketyl radical anion with a barrier height of 16.0 kJ/mol.

  10. Aeroelastic Design and LPV Modelling of an Experimental Wind Turbine Blade equipped with Free-floating Flaps (United States)

    Navalkar, S. T.; Bernhammer, L. O.; Sodja, J.; Slinkman, C. J.; van Wingerden, J. W.; van Kuik, G. A. M.


    Trailing edge flaps located outboard on wind turbine blades have recently shown considerable potential in the alleviation of turbine lifetime dynamic loads. The concept of the free-floating flap is specifically interesting for wind turbines, on account of its modularity and enhanced control authority. Such a flap is free to rotate about its axis; camberline control of the free-floating flap allows for aeroelastic control of blade loads. This paper describes the design of a scaled wind turbine blade instrumented with free-floating flaps, intended for use in wind tunnel experiments. The nature of the flap introduces a coupled form of flutter due to the aeroelastic coupling of flap rigid-body and blade out-of-plane modes; for maximal control authority it is desired to operate close to the flutter limit. Analytical and numerical methods are used to perform a flutter analysis of the turbine blade. It is shown that the potential flow aeroelastic model can be recast as a continuous-time Linear-Parameter-Varying (LPV) state space model of a low order, for which formal controller design methodologies are readily available.

  11. Free-air ionization chamber, FAC-IR-300, designed for medium energy X-ray dosimetry (United States)

    Mohammadi, S. M.; Tavakoli-Anbaran, H.; Zeinali, H. Z.


    The primary standard for X-ray photons is based on parallel-plate free-air ionization chamber (FAC). Therefore, the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran (AEOI) is tried to design and build the free-air ionization chamber, FAC-IR-300, for low and medium energy X-ray dosimetry. The main aim of the present work is to investigate specification of the FAC-IR-300 ionization chamber and design it. FAC-IR-300 dosimeter is composed of two parallel plates, a high voltage (HV) plate and a collector plate, along with a guard electrode that surrounds the collector plate. The guard plate and the collector were separated by an air gap. For obtaining uniformity in the electric field distribution, a group of guard strips was used around the ionization chamber. These characterizations involve determining the exact dimensions of the ionization chamber by using Monte Carlo simulation and introducing correction factors.

  12. Application of 2k Full Factorial Design in Optimization of Solvent-Free Microwave Extraction of Ginger Essential Oil


    Mumtaj Shah; S K Garg


    The solvent-free microwave extraction of essential oil from ginger was optimized using a 23 full factorial design in terms of oil yield to determine the optimum extraction conditions. Sixteen experiments were carried out with three varying parameters, extraction time, microwave power, and type of sample for two levels of each. A first order regression equation best fits the experimental data. The predicted values calculated by the regression model were in good agreement with the experimental ...

  13. Low-Impact Air-to-Ground Free-Space Optical Communication System Design and First Results

    CERN Document Server

    Carrasco-Casado, Alberto; Vergaz, Ricardo; Geday, Morten A; Sanchez-Pena, Jose M; Oton, Jose M


    An air-to-ground free-space optical communication system has been designed and partially developed. The design covers both the communications between the airborne and the ground station, and the acquisition, tracking and pointing. A strong effort has been made in order to achieve the minimum payload power, size and weight, for which a MEMS modulating retroreflector has been chosen. In the ground station, a new technique for fine pointing, based on a liquid crystal device, is proposed and will be demonstrated, as well as other improvements with the aim of optimizing the ground station performance.

  14. Credit Expansion, the Prisoner´s Dilemma, and Free Banking as Mechanism Design


    van den Hauwe, Ludwig


    Despite the distinctive character of the Austrian approach to “microfoundations for macroeconomics”, the literature on free banking contains a number of arguments which make use of game-theoretic concepts and models such as the well-known Prisoner´s Dilemma model. While there can be no general a priori presumption against the possible usefulness of game-theoretic concepts for Austrian theorizing, in the context of the debate on free banking such concepts and models have been used with varying...

  15. Design of a Mutual Exclusion and Deadlock Algorithm in PCBSD – FreeBSD


    Libertad Caicedo Acosta; Camilo Andrés Ospina Acosta; Nancy Yaneth Gelvez García; Oswaldo Alberto Romero Villalobos


    This paper shows the implementation of mutual exclusion in PCBSD-FreeBSD operating systems on SMPng environments, providing solutions to problems like investment priority, priority propagation, interlock, CPU downtime, deadlocks, between other. Mutex Control concept is introduced as a solution to these problems through the integration of the scheduling algorithm of multiple queues fed back and mutexes.

  16. Design of a Mutual Exclusion and Deadlock Algorithm in PCBSD – FreeBSD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libertad Caicedo Acosta


    Full Text Available This paper shows the implementation of mutual exclusion in PCBSD-FreeBSD operating systems on SMPng environments, providing solutions to problems like investment priority, priority propagation, interlock, CPU downtime, deadlocks, between other. Mutex Control concept is introduced as a solution to these problems through the integration of the scheduling algorithm of multiple queues fed back and mutexes.

  17. Decrease-radix design principle for carrying/borrowing free multi-valued and application in ternary optical computer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN JunYong; JIN Yi; ZUO KaiZhong


    In this paper a new theory referred to as the decrease-radix design (DRD) is proposed,which is found in the research of logic units of ternary (tri-valued) optical computer.Based on the theory proposed,the principles and the regulations of the DRD for making operation units of multi-valued operation with carrying/borrowing free are also presented.The research work has come to the following important conclusion:let D be a special state contained in n physical informative states,then one may figure out any multi-valued processors within n(n×n) carrying/borrowing free n-valued units by the composition some of n×n×(n-1) simplest basic operating units according to the regulations of DRD proposed in this paper.The detailed systematic way of our design regulations is highlighted step by step in the paper with an example of design of a tri-valued logic optical operating unit.The real architecture,the procedure,and the experimental results of our sample in tri-valued logic operating unit are given.Finally,a re-constructible model of ternary logical optical processor is introduced.The theory proposed in the paper has laid down a solid foundation for the design of re-constructible carrying/borrowing free operating units in ternary optical computers and can be widely used as the designing reference in a variety of multi-valued logic operating units.

  18. Reversibility of La and Lu sorption onto smectites: Implications for the design of engineered barriers in deep geological repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galunin, Evgeny [Departament de Quimica Analitica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1-11, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Alba, Maria D.; Aviles, Miguel A. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Sevilla, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas - Universidad de Sevilla, Av. Americo Vespucio 49, 41092 Sevilla (Spain); Santos, Maria J. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Londrina, PR, 86051-990 (Brazil); Vidal, Miquel, E-mail: [Departament de Quimica Analitica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1-11, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)


    The sorption reversibility of La and Lu (considered as actinide analogues) onto a set of smectites (bentonite FEBEX; hectorite, HEC; MX80; saponite, SAP; Otay montmorillonite, SCa-3; and Texas montmorillonite, STx-1) was studied to estimate actinide retention by smectites that are candidates for use as engineered barriers in deep geological repositories. The sorption distribution coefficients (K{sub d}) and the reversibility parameters (desorption distribution coefficients (K{sub d,des}), adjusted distribution coefficients (K{sub d,adj}), and desorption rates (R{sub des})) were determined from batch tests in two ionic media: deionized water and Ca 0.02 mol L{sup -1}. The latter simulates possible conditions due to the presence of concrete leachates. The results varied greatly depending on the ionic medium, the lanthanide concentration and the clay structure. The high values of K{sub d,des} obtained (up to 1.1 x 10{sup 5} and 9.2 x 10{sup 4} L kg{sup -1} for La and Lu in water, and 2.8 x 10{sup 4} and 4.1 x 10{sup 4} L kg{sup -1} for La and Lu in the Ca medium) indicate the suitability of the tested smectites for lanthanide (and therefore, actinide) retention. Based on all the data, SCa-3, HEC and FEBEX clays are considered the best choices for water environments, whereas in Ca environments the suitable clays depended on the lanthanide considered.

  19. Removing Capacitive Touch Screen Design Barriers%如何解决电容式触摸屏设计屏障

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    This article introduces the key barriers to the mobile phone touch screen design, such as charger and display noise, power consumption, control precision, cost and ease of use, and how Cypress’s Gen4 solution takes these challenges.%  本文介绍了手机电容式触摸屏设计过程中常见的难题,如充电器和显示器噪声、功耗、触控精度、成本、易用性以及采用赛普拉斯半导体有限公司的Gen4解决方案能够从容应对这些挑战的原理。

  20. Brain pericytes increase the lipopolysaccharide-enhanced transcytosis of HIV-1 free virus across the in vitro blood–brain barrier: evidence for cytokine-mediated pericyte-endothelial cell crosstalk (United States)


    Background Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) enters the brain by crossing the blood–brain barrier (BBB) as both free virus and within infected immune cells. Previous work showed that activation of the innate immune system with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) enhances free virus transport both in vivo and across monolayer monocultures of brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs) in vitro. Methods Here, we used monocultures and co-cultures of brain pericytes and brain endothelial cells to examine the crosstalk between these cell types in mediating the LPS-enhanced permeation of radioactively-labeled HIV-1 (I-HIV) across BMEC monolayers. Results We found that brain pericytes when co-cultured with BMEC monolayers magnified the LPS-enhanced transport of I-HIV without altering transendothelial electrical resistance, indicating that pericytes affected the transcytotic component of HIV-1 permeation. As LPS crosses the BBB poorly if at all, and since pericytes are on the abluminal side of the BBB, we postulated that luminal LPS acts indirectly on pericytes through abluminal secretions from BMECs. Consistent with this, we found that the pattern of secretion of cytokines by pericytes directly exposed to LPS was different than when the pericytes were exposed to the abluminal fluid from LPS-treated BMEC monolayers. Conclusion These results are evidence for a cellular crosstalk in which LPS acts at the luminal surface of the brain endothelial cell, inducing abluminal secretions that stimulate pericytes to release substances that enhance the permeability of the BMEC monolayer to HIV. PMID:23816186

  1. Free-Energy Barriers and Reaction Mechanisms for the Electrochemical Reduction of CO on the Cu(100) Surface, Including Multiple Layers of Explicit Solvent at pH 0. (United States)

    Cheng, Tao; Xiao, Hai; Goddard, William A


    The great interest in the photochemical reduction from CO2 to fuels and chemicals has focused attention on Cu because of its unique ability to catalyze formation of carbon-containing fuels and chemicals. A particular goal is to learn how to modify the Cu catalysts to enhance the production selectivity while reducing the energy requirements (overpotential). To enable such developments, we report here the free-energy reaction barriers and mechanistic pathways on the Cu(100) surface, which produces only CH4 (not C2H4 or CH3OH) in acid (pH 0). We predict a threshold potential for CH4 formation of -0.52 V, which compares well to experiments at low pH, -0.45 to -0.50 V. These quantum molecular dynamics simulations included ∼5 layers of explicit water at the water/electrode interface using enhanced sampling methodology to obtain the free energies. We find that that chemisorbed hydroxyl-methylene (CH-OH) is the key intermediate determining the selectivity for methane over methanol.

  2. Development of materials design tool and its application in Pb-free micro-solders in electronic package

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OHNUMA; Ikuo; KAINUMA; Ryosuke; ISHIDA; Kiyohito; CHANG; Austin; Y.


    A materials design tool for developing Pb-free soldering alloys in electronic package was developed based on comprehensive experimental data of phase equilibria and thermodynamic properties data accumulated with the CALPHAD (calculation of phase diagrams) method and contains 10 elements,namely,Ag,Au,Bi,Cu,In,Ni,Sb,Sn,Zn and Pb.It can handle the calculation of phase diagrams in all combinations of these elements and all composition ranges.In addition,based on this tool,the liquidus,solidus,phase fractions and constitutions,equilibrium and non-equilibrium solidification behavior,surface tension and viscosity of liquid,diffusion reactions and microstructural evolution,etc.can be predicted.Typical examples of the calculation and application of this tool are presented.The design tool is expected to be a powerful tool for the development of Pb-free solders,as well as for promoting the understanding of the interfacial phenomena between Cu substrate and Pb-free solders in electronic packaging technology.

  3. PGM-free Fe-N-C catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction: Catalyst layer design (United States)

    Stariha, Sarah; Artyushkova, Kateryna; Workman, Michael J.; Serov, Alexey; Mckinney, Sam; Halevi, Barr; Atanassov, Plamen


    This work studies the morphology of platinum group metal-free (PGM-free) iron-nitrogen-carbon (Fe-N-C) catalyst layers for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and compares catalytic performance via polarization curves. Three different nitrogen-rich organic precursors are used to prepare the catalysts. Using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and focused ion beam (FIB) tomography, the porosity, Euler number (pore connectivity), overall roughness, solid phase size and pore size are calculated for catalyst surfaces and volumes. Catalytic activity is determined using membrane electrode assembly (MEA) testing. It is found that the dominant factor in MEA performance is transport limitations. Through the 2D and 3D metrics it is concluded that pore connectivity has the biggest effect on transport performance.

  4. Automated simulation and evaluation of autostereoscopic multiview 3D display designs by time-sequential and wavelength-selective filter barrier (United States)

    Kuhlmey, Mathias; Jurk, Silvio; Duckstein, Bernd; de la Barré, René


    A novel simulation tool has been developed for spatial multiplexed 3D displays. Main purpose of our software is the 3D display design with optical image splitter in particular lenticular grids or wavelength-selective barriers. As a result of interaction of image splitter with ray emitting displays a spatial light-modulator generating the autostereoscopic image representation was modeled. Based on the simulation model the interaction of optoelectronic devices with the defined spatial planes is described. Time-sequential multiplexing enables increasing the resolution of such 3D displays. On that reason the program was extended with an intermediate data cumulating component. The simulation program represents a stepwise quasi-static functionality and control of the arrangement. It calculates and renders the whole display ray emission and luminance distribution on viewing distance. The degree of result complexity will increase by using wavelength-selective barriers. Visible images at the viewer's eye positon were determined by simulation after every switching operation of optical image splitter. The summation and evaluation of the resulting data is processed in correspondence to the equivalent time sequence. Hereby the simulation was expanded by a complex algorithm for automated search and validation of possible solutions in the multi-dimensional parameter space. For the multiview 3D display design a combination of ray-tracing and 3D rendering was used. Therefore the emitted light intensity distribution of each subpixel will be evaluated by researching in terms of color, luminance and visible area by using different content distribution on subpixel plane. The analysis of the accumulated data will deliver different solutions distinguished by standards of evaluation.

  5. Design Of Digital Configurable Error Free Frequency Detector Using Strobe Signal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayannika Banik,


    Full Text Available This paper presents a glitch free module using strobe signal which overcomes the limitation of delay mismatch in a wide range of applications. The proposed strobe signal logic can control the occurrence of glitch at both the rising edge and falling edge of the circuit. The theoretical demonstration of the glitch free operation of the proposed strobe signal module is also derived in the paper. The previously proposed digitally controlled delay lines (DCDL has been compared to this technology. Simulation results show the correctness of the module with no delay mismatch with respect to the previously proposed DCDL. As an example application, the strobe signal logic is used in configurable error free frequency detector (a frequency counter which can control the occurrence of glitch during the sudden modulation of the frequency. The employ of the proposed strobe signal can hold the operation of the gate for a specific time until the other gate completes its operation so that there is no delay mismatch.

  6. Conceptual design and cost analysis of hydraulic output unit for 15 kW free-piston Stirling engine (United States)

    White, M. A.


    A long-life hydraulic converter with unique features was conceptually designed to interface with a specified 15 kW(e) free-piston Stirling engine in a solar thermal dish application. Hydraulic fluid at 34.5 MPa (5000 psi) is produced to drive a conventional hydraulic motor and rotary alternator. Efficiency of the low-maintenance converter design was calculated at 93.5% for a counterbalanced version and 97.0% without the counterbalance feature. If the converter were coupled to a Stirling engine with design parameters more typcial of high-technology Stirling engines, counterbalanced converter efficiency could be increased to 99.6%. Dynamic computer simulation studies were conducted to evaluate performance and system sensitivities. Production costs of the complete Stirling hydraulic/electric power system were evaluated at $6506 which compared with $8746 for an alternative Stirling engine/linear alternator system.

  7. Challenges in Design of an Orientation free Micro Direct Methanol Fuel Cell (µDMFC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omidvarnia, Farzaneh; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Hales, Jan Harry


    the challenges in design and manufacturing of a micro direct methanol fuel cell (μDMFC) as the power generator in hearing aid devices is investigated. Among the different challenges in design for μDMFC, the CO2 bubble management and orientation independency of the cell are addressed by proposing a spring loaded...

  8. Is pitch system free play and friction important for rotor design?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Christian; Kragh, Knud Abildgaard


    components and actuators are often made to limit modeling complexity, and because the influence of these on the global behavior of the turbine is assumed to be small. However, as the turbine design complexity is increased, i.e. with more radical blade design, the influence of component characteristics might...

  9. Application of 2k Full Factorial Design in Optimization of Solvent-Free Microwave Extraction of Ginger Essential Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mumtaj Shah


    Full Text Available The solvent-free microwave extraction of essential oil from ginger was optimized using a 23 full factorial design in terms of oil yield to determine the optimum extraction conditions. Sixteen experiments were carried out with three varying parameters, extraction time, microwave power, and type of sample for two levels of each. A first order regression equation best fits the experimental data. The predicted values calculated by the regression model were in good agreement with the experimental values. The results showed that the extraction time is the most prominent factor followed by microwave power level and sample type for extraction process. An average of 0.25% of ginger oil can be extracted using current setup. The optimum conditions for the ginger oil extraction using SFME were the extraction time 30 minutes, microwave power level 640 watts, and sample type, crushed sample. Solvent-free microwave extraction proves a green and promising technique for essential oil extraction.

  10. Structural Design Principle of Small-Molecule Organic Semiconductors for Metal-Free, Visible-Light-Promoted Photocatalysis. (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Huang, Wei; Li, Run; Gehrig, Dominik; Blom, Paul W M; Landfester, Katharina; Zhang, Kai A I


    Herein, we report on the structural design principle of small-molecule organic semiconductors as metal-free, pure organic and visible light-active photocatalysts. Two series of electron-donor and acceptor-type organic semiconductor molecules were synthesized to meet crucial requirements, such as 1) absorption range in the visible region, 2) sufficient photoredox potential, and 3) long lifetime of photogenerated excitons. The photocatalytic activity was demonstrated in the intermolecular C-H functionalization of electron-rich heteroaromates with malonate derivatives. A mechanistic study of the light-induced electron transport between the organic photocatalyst, substrate, and the sacrificial agent are described. With their tunable absorption range and defined energy-band structure, the small-molecule organic semiconductors could offer a new class of metal-free and visible light-active photocatalysts for chemical reactions.

  11. Motion-free hybrid design laser beam propagation analyzer using a digital micromirror device and a variable focus liquid lens. (United States)

    Sheikh, Mumtaz; Riza, Nabeel A


    To the best of our knowledge, we propose the first motion-free laser beam propagation analyzer with a hybrid design using a digital micromirror device (DMD) and a liquid electronically controlled variable focus lens (ECVFL). Unlike prior analyzers that require profiling the beam at multiple locations along the light propagation axis, the proposed analyzer profiles the beam at the same plane for multiple values of the ECVFL focal length, thus eliminating beam profiler assembly motion. In addition to measuring standard Gaussian beam parameters, the analyzer can also be used to measure the M(2) beam propagation parameter of a multimode beam. Proof-of-concept beam parameter measurements with the proposed analyzer are successfully conducted for a 633 nm laser beam. Given the all-digital nature of the DMD-based profiling and all-analog motion-free nature of the ECVFL beam focus control, the proposed analyzer versus prior art promises better repeatability, speed, and reliability.

  12. Design of serum-free medium for suspension culture of CHO cells on the basis of general commercial media. (United States)

    Miki, Hideo; Takagi, Mutsumi


    The design of serum-free media for suspension culture of genetically engineered Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells using general commercial media as a basis was investigated. Subcultivation using a commercial serum-free medium containing insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 with or without FCS necessitated additives other than IGF-1 to compensate for the lack of FCS and improve cell growth. Suspension culture with media containing several combinations of growth factors suggested the effectiveness of addition of both IGF-1 and the lipid signaling molecule lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) for promoting cell growth. Subcultivation of CHO cells in suspension culture using the commercial serum-free medium EX-CELL™302, which contained an IGF-1 analog, supplemented with LPA resulted in gradually increasing specific growth rate comparable to the serum-containing medium and in almost the same high antibody production regardless of the number of generations. The culture with EX-CELL™302 supplemented with LPA in a jar fermentor with pH control at 6.9 showed an apparently higher cell growth rate than the cultures without pH control and with pH control at 6.8. The cell growth in the medium supplemented with aurintricarboxylic acid (ATA), which was much cheaper than IGF-1, in combination with LPA was synergistically promoted similarly to that in the medium supplemented with IGF-1 and LPA. In conclusion, the serum-free medium designed on the basis of general commercial media could support the growth of CHO cells and antibody production comparable to serum-containing medium in suspension culture. Moreover, the possibility of cost reduction by the substitution of IGF-1 with ATA was also shown.

  13. Visual design and verification tool for collision-free dexterous patient specific neurosurgical instruments (United States)

    Hess, Maggie; Eastwood, Kyle; Linder, Bence; Bodani, Vivek; Lasso, Andras; Looi, Thomas; Fichtinger, Gabor; Drake, James


    PURPOSE: In many minimally invasive neurosurgical procedures, the surgical workspace is a small tortuous cavity that is accessed using straight, rigid instruments with limited dexterity. Specifically considering neuroendoscopy, it is often challenging for surgeons, using standard instruments, to reach multiple surgical targets from a single incision. To address this problem, continuum tools are under development to create highly dexterous minimally invasive instruments. However, this design process is not trivial, and therefore, a user-friendly design platform capable of easily incorporating surgeon input is needed. METHODS: We propose a method that uses simulation and visual verification to design continuum tools that are patient and procedure specific. Our software module utilizes pre-operative scans and virtual threedimensional (3D) patient models to intuitively aid instrument design. The user specifies basic tool parameters and the parameterized tools and trocar are modeled within the virtual patient. By selecting and dragging the instrument models, the tools are instantly reshaped and repositioned. The tool geometry and surgical entry points are then returned as outputs to undergo optimization. We have completed an initial validation of the software by comparing a simulation of a physical instrument's reachability to the corresponding virtual design. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The software was assessed qualitatively by two neurosurgeons, who design tools for an intraventricular endoscopic procedure. Further, validation experiments comparing the design of a virtual instrument to a physical tool demonstrate that the software module functions correctly. Thus, our platform permits user-friendly, application specific design of continuum instruments. These instruments will give surgeons much more flexibility in developing future minimally invasive procedures.

  14. Barriers to cancer screening. (United States)

    Womeodu, R J; Bailey, J E


    Many barriers to cancer screening have been summarized and discussed. Barriers have been documented in all patient populations, but some groups such as ethnic minorities and the elderly face unique barriers. The barriers to cancer screening, are multifactorial, but much of the responsibility for change must lie with health care providers and the health care delivery industry. This is not to free the patient of all responsibility, but some significant barriers are beyond their direct control. Take, for example, socioeconomic status, disease knowledge, and culturally related perceptions and myths about cancer detection and treatment. The health care industry must do a better job identifying and overcoming these barriers. The significant effects of provider counseling and advice must not be underestimated. Patients must first be advised, and then further actions must be taken if they reject the screening advice. Did they refuse adherence to recommendations because they do not view themselves as susceptible, because of overwhelming personal barriers, or because of a fatalistic attitude toward cancer detection and treatment? If that is the case, physicians and health care institutions must attempt to change perceptions, educate, and personalize the message so that patients accept their disease susceptibility [table: see text]. Multiple patient and provider risk factors have been identified that can be used to target patients particularly at high risk for inadequate cancer screening and providers at high risk for performing inadequate screening. Research has clearly demonstrated the effectiveness of interventions to improve tracking of patient and physician compliance with screening recommendations. Further research is needed to show the impact of managed-care penetration and payer status on screening efforts, and incentive schemes need to be tested that reward institutions and third-party payers who develop uniform standards and procedures for cancer screening. The

  15. Design Low Crosstalk Ring-Slot Array Structure for Label-Free Multiplexed Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijun Huang


    Full Text Available We theoretically demonstrate a low crosstalk ring-slot array structure used for label-free multiplexed sensing. The proposed sensors array is based on an array of three ring-slot and input/output line defect coupling waveguides. Each ring-slot cavity has slightly different cavity spacing and different resonant frequency. Results obtained using two dimensional finite-difference time-domain (2D-FDTD simulation indicate that the resonant frequencies of each sensor unit in response to the refractive index variations are independent. The refractive index sensitivity is 134 ~ 145.5 nm/RIU (refractive index unit and the Q factors more than 104 can be achieved. The calculated detect limit lower than 1.13 × 10−4 RIU is obtained. In addition, an extremely small crosstalk lower than −25.8 dB is achieved among the array of three ring-slot cavities. The results demonstrate that this multiplexed sensor array is a promising platform for integrated optical devices and enables highly parallel label-free detection.

  16. Design and Application of Offset-Free Model Predictive Control Disturbance Observation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Wang


    Full Text Available Model predictive control (MPC with its lower request to the mathematical model, excellent control performance, and convenience online calculation has developed into a very important subdiscipline with rich theory foundation and practical application. However, unmeasurable disturbance is widespread in industrial processes, which is difficult to deal with directly at present. In most of the implemented MPC strategies, the method of incorporating a constant output disturbance into the process model is introduced to solve this problem, but it fails to achieve offset-free control once the unmeasured disturbances access the process. Based on the Kalman filter theory, the problem is solved by using a more general disturbance model which is superior to the constant output disturbance model. This paper presents the necessary conditions for offset-free model predictive control based on the model. By applying disturbance model, the unmeasurable disturbance vectors are augmented as the states of control system, and the Kalman filer is used to estimate unmeasurable disturbance and its effect on the output. Then, the dynamic matrix control (DMC algorithm is improved by utilizing the feed-forward compensation control strategy with the disturbance estimated.

  17. Design of FELiChEM, the first infrared free-electron laser user facility in China

    CERN Document Server

    Li, He-Ting; Zhang, Shan-Cai; Wang, Lin; Yang, Yong-Liang


    FELiChEM is a new experimental facility under construction at University of Science and Technology of China (USTC), whose core device is two free electron laser oscillators generating middle-infrared and far-infrared laser and covering the spectral range of 2.5-200 ?m. It will be a dedicated infrared light source aiming at energy chemistry research. We present the brief design of FEL oscillators with the emphasis put on the middle-infrared oscillator. Most of the basic parameters are determined and the anticipated performance of the output radiation is given. The first light of FELiChEM is targeted for the end of 2017.

  18. Design, manufacturing and tests of first cryogen-free MgB2 prototype coils for offshore wind generators (United States)

    Sarmiento, G.; Sanz, S.; Pujana, A.; Merino, J. M.; Iturbe, R.; Apiñaniz, S.; Nardelli, D.; Marino, I.


    Although renewable sector has started to take advantage of the offshore wind energy recently, the development is very intense. Turbines reliability, size, and cost are key aspects for the wind industry, especially in marine locations. A superconducting generator will allow a significant reduction in terms of weight and size, but cost and reliability are two aspects to deal with. MgB2 wire is presented as one promising option to be used in superconducting coils for wind generators. This work shows the experimental results in first cryogen-free MgB2 prototype coils, designed according to specific requirements of TECNALIA's wind generator concept.

  19. City urban design in a free market economy: The case of Ljubljana, Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrovska-Andrews Kaliopa


    Full Text Available A recent rapid political and economic changes in many eastern European countries demand corresponding changes in the town planning system, and especially in the development control and urban management process. For instance, at a present many historic city and town cores still remain relatively intact in their original form, but have become the target for development pressure. How should this pressure be channeled to achieve enhancement of the urban qualities of those areas (especially barracks and old factory sites, without jeopardising their competitiveness for attracting business and employment. This paper discusses the outcomes of research carried out at the Urban Planning Institute of the Republic of Slovenia from 1995 to 1998, on the development of appropriate methods for the appraisal and promotion of design quality in relation to economic viability in city development projects especially for an urban renewal. The elements for the assessment of urban design quality derive from the basic principles of good urban design such as identity, permeability, legibility visual appropriateness, robustness, visual and symbolic richness, amongst others. The simplified computerised model for assessing financial viability is based on building costs and market value of the investment, and shows the profitability of the development. It can be a useful tool in both assessing design viability, and for determining extra profit or ‘planning gain’ in the planning process negotiations such ‘surplus’ can be used for satisfying local needs (e.g. additional programs, design of public spaces. This method for appraisal and promotion of design quality in relation to economic viability has been examined through an assessment of the competition projects for the renewal of the Rog factory area in the city centre of Ljubljana. This case study has revealed the need for a clear strategy for future city development, with marketing guidance and policies for positive

  20. Free breakfasts in schools: design and conduct of a cluster randomised controlled trial of the Primary School Free Breakfast Initiative in Wales [ISRCTN18336527

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hale Janine


    Full Text Available Abstract Background School-based breakfast provision is increasingly being seen as a means of improving educational performance and dietary behaviour amongst children. Furthermore, recognition is growing that breakfast provision offers potential as a means of addressing social inequalities in these outcomes. At present however, the evidence base on the effectiveness of breakfast provision in bringing about these improvements is limited. Methods/Design This paper describes the research design of a large scale evaluation of the effectiveness of the Welsh Assembly Government's Primary School Free Breakfast Initiative. A cluster randomised trial, with school as the unit of randomisation was used for the outcome evaluation, with a nested qualitative process evaluation. Quantitative outcome measures included dietary habits, attitudes, cognitive function, classroom behaviour, and school attendance. The study recruited 111 primary schools in Wales, of which 56 were randomly assigned to control condition and 55 to intervention. Participants were Year 5 and 6 students (aged 9–11 years in these schools. Data were collected for all 111 schools at each of three time points: baseline, 4 month and 12 month follow-up. This was achieved through a repeated cross-sectional survey of approximately 4350 students on each of these occasions. Of those students in Year 5 at baseline, 1975 provided data at one or both of the follow-ups, forming a nested cohort. The evaluation also included a nested process evaluation, using questionnaires, semi-structured interviews and case studies with students, school staff, and local authority scheme coordinators as key informants. Discussion An overview of the methods used for the evaluation is presented, providing an example of the feasibility of conducting robust evaluations of policy initiatives using a randomised trial design with nested process evaluation. Details are provided of response rates and the flow of participants

  1. Inversion-free decentralised quantitative feedback design of large-scale systems (United States)

    Labibi, B.; Mahdi Alavi, S. M.


    In this paper, a new method for robust decentralised control of multi-input multi-output (MIMO) systems using quantitative feedback theory (QFT) is suggested. The proposed method does not need inversion of the plant transfer function matrix in the design process. For a given system, an equivalent descriptor system representation is defined. By using this representation, sufficient conditions for closed-loop diagonal dominance over the uncertainty space are obtained. These conditions transform the original MIMO system into a set of isolated multi-input single-output (MISO) subsystems. Then, the local controllers are designed by using the typical MISO QFT technique for each isolated subsystem to satisfy the predefined desired specifications and the closed-loop diagonal dominance sufficient conditions. The proposed technique is less conservative in comparison to the approaches using the over-bounding concept in the design procedure. The effectiveness of the proposed technique is finally assessed on a MIMO Scara robot.

  2. Molecular design of electron transport with orbital rule: toward conductance-decay free molecular junctions. (United States)

    Tada, Tomofumi; Yoshizawa, Kazunari


    In this study, we report our viewpoint of single molecular conductance in terms of frontier orbitals. The orbital rule derived from orbital phase and amplitude is a powerful guideline for the qualitative understanding of molecular conductance in both theoretical and experimental studies. The essence of the orbital rule is the phase-related quantum interference, and on the basis of this rule a constructive or destructive pathway for electron transport is easily predicted. We have worked on the construction of the orbital rule for more than ten years and recently found from its application that π-stacked molecular junctions fabricated experimentally are in line with the concept for conductance-decay free junctions. We explain the orbital rule using benzene molecular junctions with the para-, meta- and ortho-connections and discuss linear π-conjugated chains and π-stacked molecular junctions with respect to their small decay factors in this manuscript.

  3. Metal-free organic dyes for dye-sensitized solar cells: from structure: property relationships to design rules. (United States)

    Mishra, Amaresh; Fischer, Markus K R; Bäuerle, Peter


    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) have attracted considerable attention in recent years as they offer the possibility of low-cost conversion of photovoltaic energy. This Review focuses on recent advances in molecular design and technological aspects of metal-free organic dyes for applications in dye-sensitized solar cells. Special attention has been paid to the design principles of these dyes and on the effect of various electrolyte systems. Cosensitization, an emerging technique to extend the absorption range, is also discussed as a way to improve the performance of the device. In addition, we report on inverted dyes for photocathodes, which constitutes a relatively new approach for the production of tandem cells. Special consideration has been paid to the correlation between the molecular structure and physical properties to their performance in DSSCs.

  4. Using Free Computational Resources to Illustrate the Drug Design Process in an Undergraduate Medicinal Chemistry Course (United States)

    Rodrigues, Ricardo P.; Andrade, Saulo F.; Mantoani, Susimaire P.; Eifler-Lima, Vera L.; Silva, Vinicius B.; Kawano, Daniel F.


    Advances in, and dissemination of, computer technologies in the field of drug research now enable the use of molecular modeling tools to teach important concepts of drug design to chemistry and pharmacy students. A series of computer laboratories is described to introduce undergraduate students to commonly adopted "in silico" drug design…

  5. Large Wind Turbine Rotor Design using an Aero-Elastic / Free-Wake Panel Coupling Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sessarego, Matias; Ramos García, Néstor; Shen, Wen Zhong;


    Despite the advances in computing resources in the recent years, the majority of large wind-turbine rotor design problems still rely on aero-elastic codes that use blade element momentum (BEM) approaches to model the rotor aerodynamics. The present work describes an approach to wind-turbine rotor...

  6. Deriving Function-failure Similarity Information for Failure-free Rotorcraft Component Design (United States)

    Roberts, Rory A.; Stone, Robert B.; Tumer, Irem Y.; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)


    Performance and safety are the top concerns of high-risk aerospace applications at NASA. Eliminating or reducing performance and safety problems can be achieved with a thorough understanding of potential failure modes in the design that lead to these problems. The majority of techniques use prior knowledge and experience as well as Failure Modes and Effects as methods to determine potential failure modes of aircraft. The aircraft design needs to be passed through a general technique to ensure that every potential failure mode is considered, while avoiding spending time on improbable failure modes. In this work, this is accomplished by mapping failure modes to certain components, which are described by their functionality. In turn, the failure modes are then linked to the basic functions that are carried within the components of the aircraft. Using the technique proposed in this paper, designers can examine the basic functions, and select appropriate analyses to eliminate or design out the potential failure modes. This method was previously applied to a simple rotating machine test rig with basic functions that are common to a rotorcraft. In this paper, this technique is applied to the engine and power train of a rotorcraft, using failures and functions obtained from accident reports and engineering drawings.

  7. Improved efficiency droop characteristics in an InGaN/GaN light-emitting diode with a novel designed last barrier structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Tian-Hu; Xu Jin-Liang


    In this study,the characteristics of nitride-based light-emitting diodes with different last barrier structures are analysed numerically.The energy band diagrams,electrostatic field near the last quantum barrier,carrier concentration in the quantum well,internal quantum efficiency,and light output power are systematically investigated.The simulation results show that the efficiency droop is inarkedly improved and the output power is greatly enhanced when the conventional GaN last barrier is replaced by an AIGaN barrier with Al composition graded linearly from 0 to 15% in the growth direction.These improvements are attributed to enhanced efficiencies of electron confinement and hole injection caused by the lower polarization effect at the last-barrier/electron blocking layer interface when the graded Al composition last barrier is used.

  8. Design and development of plasmonic nanostructured electrodes for ITO-free organic photovoltaic cells on rigid and highly flexible substrates (United States)

    Richardson, Beau J.; Zhu, Leize; Yu, Qiuming


    Indium tin oxide (ITO) is the most common transparent electrode used in organic photovoltaics (OPVs), yet limited indium reserves and poor mechanical properties make it non-ideal for large-scale OPV production. To replace ITO, we designed, fabricated, and deployed plasmonic nanostructured electrodes in inverted OPV devices. We found that active layer absorption is significantly impacted by ZnO thickness which affects the optical field distribution inside the resonant cavity formed between the plasmonic nanostructured electrode and top electrode. High quality Cr/Au nanostructured electrodes were fabricated by nanoimprint lithography and deployed in ITO-free inverted devices on glass. Devices with thinner ZnO showed a PCE as high as 5.70% and higher J SC’s than devices on thicker ZnO, in agreement with finite-difference time-domain simulations. In addition, as the active layer was made optically thin, ITO-based devices showed diminished J SC while the resonant cavity effect from plasmonic nanostructured electrodes retained J SC. Preliminary ITO-free, flexible devices on PET showed a PCE of 1.82% and those fabricated on ultrathin and conformable Parylene substrates yielded an initial PCE over 1%. The plasmonic electrodes and device designs in this work show promise for developing highly functioning conformable devices that can be applied to numerous needs for lightweight, ubiquitous power generation.

  9. Low Conductivity Thermal Barrier Coatings (United States)

    Zhu, Dong-Ming


    Thermal barrier coatings will be more aggressively designed to protect gas turbine engine hot-section components in order to meet future engine higher fuel efficiency and lower emission goals. In this presentation, thermal barrier coating development considerations and requirements will be discussed. An experimental approach is established to monitor in real time the thermal conductivity of the coating systems subjected to high-heat-flux, steady-state and cyclic temperature gradients. Advanced low conductivity thermal barrier coatings have also been developed using a multi-component defect clustering approach, and shown to have improved thermal stability. The durability and erosion resistance of low conductivity thermal barrier coatings have been improved utilizing advanced coating architecture design, composition optimization, in conjunction with more sophisticated modeling and design tools.

  10. Governance Structures of Free/Open Source Software Development: Examining the role of modular product design as a governance mechanism in the FreeBSD Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dafermos, G.


    My dissertation looks at the Governance Structures of Free/Open Source (FOSS) Development, based on a case study of FreeBSD, a large FOSS project. More specifically, it examines 3 well-known theories. The 1st theory [decreasing returns to scale] holds that increasing the number of persons working to

  11. Resilient backhaul network design using hybrid radio/free-space optical technology

    KAUST Repository

    Douik, Ahmed


    The radio-frequency (RF) technology is a scalable solution for the backhaul planning. However, its performance is limited in terms of data rate and latency. Free Space Optical (FSO) backhaul, on the other hand, offers a higher data rate but is sensitive to weather conditions. To combine the advantages of RF and FSO backhauls, this paper proposes a cost-efficient backhaul network using the hybrid RF/FSO technology. To ensure a resilient backhaul, the paper imposes a given degree of redundancy by connecting each node through K link-disjoint paths so as to cope with potential link failures. Hence, the network planning problem considered in this paper is the one of minimizing the total deployment cost by choosing the appropriate link type, i.e., either hybrid RF/FSO or optical fiber (OF), between each couple of base-stations while guaranteeing K link-disjoint connections, a data rate target, and a reliability threshold. The paper solves the problem using graph theory techniques. It reformulates the problem as a maximum weight clique problem in the planning graph, under a specified realistic assumption about the cost of OF and hybrid RF/FSO links. Simulation results show the cost of the different planning and suggest that the proposed heuristic solution has a close-to-optimal performance for a significant gain in computation complexity. © 2016 IEEE.

  12. Large Wind Turbine Rotor Design using an Aero-Elastic / Free-Wake Panel Coupling Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sessarego, Matias; Ramos García, Néstor; Shen, Wen Zhong;


    Despite the advances in computing resources in the recent years, the majority of large wind-turbine rotor design problems still rely on aero-elastic codes that use blade element momentum (BEM) approaches to model the rotor aerodynamics. The present work describes an approach to wind-turbine rotor...... the overall computational cost of the optimization. Improvements in cost of energy, annual energy production, maximum ap-wise root bending moment, and blade mass were obtained for the NREL 5MW baseline wind turbine....

  13. Design and application of coaxial wigglers in free-electron lasers (United States)

    Jackson, Robert H.; Blank, Monica; Freund, Henry P.; Pershing, Dean E.; Taccetti, J. M.


    The Naval Research Laboratory is investigating innovative magnetic wigglers to reduce beam energy requirements for millimeter wave FELs and to enhance the gain and efficiency. Recent work has focused on coaxial designs. The advantages of this are twofold. First, annular configurations are advantageous for propagating high current beams. The annular geometry permits use of the central structure to enhance the wiggler field, hence, allowing shorter wiggler periods. One such wiggler is referred to as the Coaxial Hybrid Iron (CHI) wiggler, and employs a solenoid enclosing periodic arrays of ferromagnetic and nonferromagnetic material arranged as an outer ring and an inner rod. A second wiggler uses both outer and inner bifilar helical current windings. Both wiggler designs result in substantial enhancements in the wiggler field experienced by the electron beam as compared with the fields in the absence of the central structure. A prototype CHI wiggler is discussed along with a 35 GHz amplifier experiment which is under construction. Preliminary performance calculations for a two helix wiggler system are discussed. This will include both orbit theory and a fully 3D nonlinear simulation of the interaction.

  14. Placebo-free designs for evaluating new mental health treatments: the use of adaptive treatment strategies. (United States)

    Dawson, Ree; Lavori, Philip W


    The dominant pre-marketing clinical trial in psychopharmacology is a non-equivalence design that randomizes patients to one of three treatments: an accepted standard, the innovation (new drug), or placebo, with the main efficacy comparison being innovation vs placebo. The reasons behind the choice of placebo control in new drug development include anticipated small effect size for active-controlled comparisons and the sufficiency of demonstrated treatment effect (new drug vs placebo) for regulatory approval. These reasons have led to great reliance on placebo control in drug evaluation studies, despite the ethical controversy over the use of placebo when there are known effective standard treatments. While the use of placebo controls has been widely debated, a less considered aspect of the usual placebo-controlled non-equivalence design is the disparity between the decisions that it supports and those that pervade clinical practice. We propose an alternative approach that randomizes one group of patients to an adaptive treatment strategy that exemplifies the adaptive nature of clinical decision-making in the treatment of ongoing mental health disorders. The basic idea is to compare the adaptive strategy, which uses a patient's outcomes to date to determine when to switch from an initial treatment (e.g. an accepted standard) to an alternative (e.g. the new) treatment, to fixed trials of either treatment option. We state the conditions under which the adaptive treatment RCT is attractive to implement and the requirements for doing so.

  15. Design of the blisk of an aircraft turbojet engine and verification of its resonance free operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chromek L.


    Full Text Available Integral turbine wheels belong to one of the most stressed parts of jet aircraft engines. In addition to high rotational speeds and temperatures, they are also subjected to dynamic forces from a non-uniform pressure field in the flow path. Dynamic forces even at a relatively small amplitude can cause failure by fatigue, which leads to fracture of blades and crash of the machine. These adverse conditions, called resonance, should be avoided already in the design stage when a suitable choice of stator vanes and the number of blades can move the critical speed of the blisk beyond the operating speed or at least reduce their influence. In the case of a small jet engine produced by the První brněnská strojírna (PBS Velká Bíteš, the operating speed is of nearly half of the entire speed range of the machine. This makes the design of a proposed turbine wheel very complicated. A higher harmonic order of aerodynamic excitation is almost always present, its influence was therefore tested experimentally by vibration tests in the test station PBS Velká Bíteš.

  16. 城市城区噪声治理中道路声屏障的设计与研究%Noise Control in City Design and Research of Road Noise Barrier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李军; 李涛


    With the development of urban and road traffic, urban traffic noise pollution problems are more serious, and can effectively control the sound barrier urban traffic noise pollution, therefore, an urgent need for environmental protection department's attention and build sound barrier. Sound barrier design is difficult, we need to do the design and pre-construction studies. It focuses on urban city noise control design and research road noise barriers.%随着城市的发展和道路交通的建设,城市交通噪声污染问题也越来越严重,而声屏障可以有效防治城市交通噪声污染,因此,急需环境保护部门对声屏障的重视与建设。声屏障设计难度较大,需要在建设前期做好设计与研究。主要探讨了城市城区噪声治理中道路声屏障的设计与研究。

  17. Feasibility of a novel design of high resolution parallax-free Compton enhanced PET scanner dedicated to brain research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braem, A [CERN, PH Department, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Llatas, M Chamizo [Department of Corpuscular and Nuclear Physics, Geneva University, Geneva (Switzerland); Chesi, E [CERN, PH Department, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Correia, J G [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Sacavem (Portugal); Garibaldi, F [Instituto Superiore di Sanita, Roma (Italy); Joram, C [CERN, PH Department, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Mathot, S [CERN, PH Department, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Nappi, E [INFN, Sezione di Bari, Bari (Italy); Silva, M Ribeiro da [Centro de FIsica Nuclear da Universidade de Lisboa, Lisbon (Portugal); Schoenahl, F [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Geneva University Hospital, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Seguinot, J [CERN, PH Department, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Weilhammer, P [CERN, PH Department, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Zaidi, H [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Geneva University Hospital, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland)


    A novel concept for a positron emission tomography (PET) camera module is proposed, which provides full 3D reconstruction with high resolution over the total detector volume, free of parallax errors. The key components are a matrix of long scintillator crystals and hybrid photon detectors (HPDs) with matched segmentation and integrated readout electronics. The HPDs read out the two ends of the scintillator package. Both excellent spatial (x, y, z) and energy resolution are obtained. The concept allows enhancing the detection efficiency by reconstructing a significant fraction of events which underwent Compton scattering in the crystals. The proof of concept will first be demonstrated with yttrium orthoaluminate perovskite (YAP):Ce crystals, but the final design will rely on other scintillators more adequate for PET applications (e.g. LSO:Ce or LaBr{sub 3}:Ce). A promising application of the proposed camera module, which is currently under development, is a high resolution 3D brain PET camera with an axial field-of-view of {approx}15 cm dedicated to brain research. The design philosophy and performance predictions based on analytical calculations and Monte Carlo simulations are presented. Image correction and reconstruction tools required to operate this transmissionless device in a research environment are also discussed. Better or similar performance parameters were obtained compared to other known designs at lower fabrication cost. The axial geometrical concept also seems to be promising for applications such as positron emission mammography.

  18. Feasibility of a novel design of high resolution parallax-free Compton enhanced PET scanner dedicated to brain research (United States)

    Braem, A.; Chamizo Llatas, M.; Chesi, E.; Correia, J. G.; Garibaldi, F.; Joram, C.; Mathot, S.; Nappi, E.; Ribeiro da Silva, M.; Schoenahl, F.; Séguinot, J.; Weilhammer, P.; Zaidi, H.


    A novel concept for a positron emission tomography (PET) camera module is proposed, which provides full 3D reconstruction with high resolution over the total detector volume, free of parallax errors. The key components are a matrix of long scintillator crystals and hybrid photon detectors (HPDs) with matched segmentation and integrated readout electronics. The HPDs read out the two ends of the scintillator package. Both excellent spatial (x, y, z) and energy resolution are obtained. The concept allows enhancing the detection efficiency by reconstructing a significant fraction of events which underwent Compton scattering in the crystals. The proof of concept will first be demonstrated with yttrium orthoaluminate perovskite (YAP):Ce crystals, but the final design will rely on other scintillators more adequate for PET applications (e.g. LSO:Ce or LaBr3:Ce). A promising application of the proposed camera module, which is currently under development, is a high resolution 3D brain PET camera with an axial field-of-view of ~15 cm dedicated to brain research. The design philosophy and performance predictions based on analytical calculations and Monte Carlo simulations are presented. Image correction and reconstruction tools required to operate this transmissionless device in a research environment are also discussed. Better or similar performance parameters were obtained compared to other known designs at lower fabrication cost. The axial geometrical concept also seems to be promising for applications such as positron emission mammography. All the authors are members of the CIMA Collaboration.

  19. Fabrication of novel electrolyte-layer free fuel cell with semi-ionic conductor (Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O3-δ- Sm0.2Ce0.8O1.9) and Schottky barrier (United States)

    Afzal, Muhammad; Saleemi, Mohsin; Wang, Baoyuan; Xia, Chen; Zhang, Wei; He, Yunjuan; Jayasuriya, Jeevan; Zhu, Bin


    Perovskite Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O3-δ (BSCF) is synthesized via a chemical co-precipitation technique for a low temperature solid oxide fuel cell (LTSOFC) (300-600 °C) and electrolyte-layer free fuel cell (EFFC) in a comprehensive study. The EFFC with a homogeneous mixture of samarium doped ceria (SDC): BSCF (60%:40% by weight) which is rather similar to the cathode (SDC: BSCF in 50%:50% by weight) used for a three layer SOFC demonstrates peak power densities up to 655 mW/cm2, while a three layer (anode/electrolyte/cathode) SOFC has reached only 425 mW/cm2 at 550 °C. Chemical phase, crystal structure and morphology of the as-prepared sample are characterized by X-ray diffraction and field emission scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy. The electrochemical performances of 3-layer SOFC and EFFC are studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). As-prepared BSCF has exhibited a maximum conductivity above 300 S/cm at 550 °C. High performance of the EFFC device corresponds to a balanced combination between ionic and electronic (holes) conduction characteristic. The Schottky barrier prevents the EFFC from the electronic short circuiting problem which also enhances power output. The results provide a new way to produce highly effective cathode materials for LTSOFC and semiconductor designs for EFFC functions using a semiconducting-ionic material.

  20. Analytical model for the design of in situ horizontal permeable reactive barriers (HPRBs) for the mitigation of chlorinated solvent vapors in the unsaturated zone (United States)

    Verginelli, Iason; Capobianco, Oriana; Hartog, Niels; Baciocchi, Renato


    In this work we introduce a 1-D analytical solution that can be used for the design of horizontal permeable reactive barriers (HPRBs) as a vapor mitigation system at sites contaminated by chlorinated solvents. The developed model incorporates a transient diffusion-dominated transport with a second-order reaction rate constant. Furthermore, the model accounts for the HPRB lifetime as a function of the oxidant consumption by reaction with upward vapors and its progressive dissolution and leaching by infiltrating water. Simulation results by this new model closely replicate previous lab-scale tests carried out on trichloroethylene (TCE) using a HPRB containing a mixture of potassium permanganate, water and sand. In view of field applications, design criteria, in terms of the minimum HPRB thickness required to attenuate vapors at acceptable risk-based levels and the expected HPRB lifetime, are determined from site-specific conditions such as vapor source concentration, water infiltration rate and HPRB mixture. The results clearly show the field-scale feasibility of this alternative vapor mitigation system for the treatment of chlorinated solvents. Depending on the oxidation kinetic of the target contaminant, a 1 m thick HPRB can ensure an attenuation of vapor concentrations of orders of magnitude up to 20 years, even for vapor source concentrations up to 10 g/m3. A demonstrative application for representative contaminated site conditions also shows the feasibility of this mitigation system from an economical point of view with capital costs potentially somewhat lower than those of other remediation options, such as soil vapor extraction systems. Overall, based on the experimental and theoretical evaluation thus far, field-scale tests are warranted to verify the potential and cost-effectiveness of HPRBs for vapor mitigation control under various conditions of application.

  1. Design of 340 GHz 2× and 4× Sub-Harmonic Mixers Using Schottky Barrier Diodes in Silicon-Based Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Liu


    Full Text Available This paper presents the design of terahertz 2× and 4× sub-harmonic down-mixers using Schottky Barrier Diodes fabricated in standard 0.13 μm SiGe BiCMOS technology. The 340 GHz sub-harmonic mixers (SHMs are designed based on anti-parallel-diode-pairs (APDPs. With the 2nd and 4th harmonic, local oscillator (LO frequencies of 170 GHz and 85 GHz are used to pump the two 340 GHz SHMs. With LO power of 7 dBm, the 2× SHM exhibits a conversion loss of 34.5–37 dB in the lower band (320–340 GHz and 35.5–41 dB in the upper band (340–360 GHz; with LO power of 9 dBm, the 4× SHM exhibits a conversion loss of 39–43 dB in the lower band (320–340 GHz and 40–48 dB in the upper band (340–360 GHz. The measured input 1-dB conversion gain compression point for the 2× and 4× SHMs are −8 dBm and −10 dBm at 325 GHz, respectively. The simulated LO-IF (intermediate frequency isolation of the 2× SHM is 21.5 dB, and the measured LO-IF isolation of the 4× SHM is 32 dB. The chip areas of the 2× and 4× SHMs are 330 μm × 580 μm and 550 μm × 610 μm, respectively, including the testing pads.

  2. The Design of a Drag-Free CubeSat and the Housing for its Gravitational Reference Sensor

    CERN Document Server

    Zanoni, Carlo; Aljadaan, Ahmad; Althubiti, Salman; Balakrishnan, Karthik; Buchman, Sasha; Byer, Robert L; Conklin, John W; Cutler, Grant D; DeBra, Dan; Hultgren, Eric; Lipa, John A; Saraf, Shailendhar; Zoellner, Andreas


    A Drag-Free CubeSat mission has been proposed to demonstrate the feasibility of a Gravitational Reference Sensor (GRS) with an optical readout for a 3 units (3U) spacecraft. A purely drag-free object is defined by the absence of all external forces other than gravity, which are shielded by the spacecraft. In a real case, the TM will still be affected by disturbances. Several of them are passively reduced by the design of the TM housing. This system is a thick-walled aluminium box that holds the shadow sensors and shields the TM. The housing has an effect on the mechanical, thermal and magnetic environment around the TM. All of them have been analysed. The mechanical vibrations have to fit the launch environment and the modes have to be outside of the measurement range (0.0001 - 1 Hz). The magnetic field has to be reduced by a 0.01 factor. The temperature difference between internal opposing surfaces, determining pressure on the TM, has to be below 10^-3(1 mHz/f)1/3 K Hz^-1/2. The housing, together with the TM...

  3. Free and Open-Source Software is not an Emerging Property but Rather the Result of Studied Design

    CERN Document Server

    Magrassi, Paolo


    Free and open source software (FOSS) is considered by many, along with Wikipedia, the proof of an ongoing paradigm shift from hierarchically-managed and market-driven production of knowledge to heterarchical, collaborative and commons-based production styles. In such perspective, it has become common place to refer to FOSS as a manifestation of collective intelligence where deliverables and artefacts emerge by virtue of mere cooperation, with no need for supervising leadership. The paper argues that this assumption is based on limited understanding of the software development process, and may lead to wrong conclusions as to the potential of peer production. The development of a less than trivial piece of software, irrespective of whether it be FOSS or proprietary, is a complex cooperative effort requiring the participation of many (often thousands of) individuals. A subset of the participants always play the role of leading system and subsystem designers, determining architecture and functionality; the rest o...

  4. Design of FELiChEM, the first infrared free-electron laser user facility in China (United States)

    Li, He-Ting; Jia, Qi-Ka; Zhang, Shan-Cai; Wang, Lin; Yang, Yong-Liang


    FELiChEM is a new experimental facility under construction at the University of Science and Technology of China (USTC). Its core device is two free electron laser oscillators generating middle-infrared and far-infrared laser and covering the spectral range of 2.5-200 μm. It will be a dedicated infrared light source aiming at energy chemistry research. We present the brief design of the FEL oscillators, with the emphasis put on the middle-infrared oscillator. Most of the basic parameters are determined and the anticipated performance of the output radiation is given. The first light of FELiChEM is targeted for the end of 2017. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (21327901)

  5. 2 MN自由锻造油压机的设计%Design of 2 MN Free Forging Press

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝兴安; 陈凯


    The functions and structural characteristics of the 2 MN free forging press were introduced. The working principle and design characteristics of the hydraulic system of the press were analyzed. After the device is put into use, shock and vibration of the system are small, the pressure regulating and pressure protection are easy to realize. The system is authorized by user.%分绍2 MN自由锻造油压机的功能和结构特点,分析该机液压系统的工作原理和设计特点.该设备投入使用后,系统的冲击和振动较小,易于实现压机的压力调节及压力保护,得到了使用单位的认可.

  6. Hydration Free Energy as a Molecular Descriptor in Drug Design: A Feasibility Study. (United States)

    Zafar, Ayesha; Reynisson, Jóhannes


    In this work the idea was investigated whether calculated hydration energy (ΔGhyd ) can be used as a molecular descriptor in defining promising regions of chemical space for drug design. Calculating ΔGhyd using the Density Solvation Model (SMD) in conjunction with the density functional theory (DFT) gave an excellent correlation with experimental values. Furthermore, calculated ΔGhyd correlates reasonably well with experimental water solubility (r(2) =0.545) and also log P (r(2) =0.530). Three compound collections were used: Known drugs (n=150), drug-like compounds (n=100) and simple organic compounds (n=140). As an approximation only molecules, which do not de/protonate at physiological pH were considered. A relatively broad distribution was seen for the known drugs with an average at -15.3 kcal/mol and a standard deviation of 7.5 kcal/mol. Interestingly, much lower averages were found for the drug-like compounds (-7.5 kcal/mol) and the simple organic compounds (-3.1 kcal/mol) with tighter distributions; 4.3 and 3.2 kcal/mol, respectively. This trend was not observed for these collections when calculated log P and log S values were used. The considerable greater exothermic ΔGhyd average for the known drugs clearly indicates in order to develop a successful drug candidate value of ΔGhyd <-5 kcal/mol or less is preferable.

  7. Design Intelligent Model-free Hybrid Guidance Controller for Three Dimension Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdol Majid Mirshekaran


    Full Text Available The minimum rule base Proportional Integral Derivative (PID Fuzzy hybrid guidance Controller for three dimensions spherical motor is presented in this research. A three dimensions spherical motor is well equipped with conventional control techniques and, in particular, various PID controllers which demonstrate a good performance and successfully solve different guidance problems. Guidance control in a three dimensions spherical motor is performed by the PID controllers producing the control signals which are applied to systems torque. The necessary reference inputs for a PID controller are usually supplied by the system's sensors based on different data. The popularity of PID Fuzzy hybrid guidance Controller can be attributed to their robust performance in a wide range of operating conditions and partly to their functional simplicity. PID methodology has three inputs and if any input is described with seven linguistic values, and any rule has three conditions we will need 343 rules. It is too much work to write 343 rules. In this research the PID-like fuzzy controller can be constructed as a parallel structure of a PD-like fuzzy controller and a conventional PI controller to have the minimum rule base. Linear type PID controller is used to modify PID fuzzy logic theory to design hybrid guidance methodology. This research is used to reduce or eliminate the fuzzy and conventional PID controller problem based on minimum rule base fuzzy logic theory and modified it by PID method to control of spherical motor system and testing of the quality of process control in the simulation environment of MATLAB/SIMULINK Simulator.

  8. Community design and policies for free-range children: creating environments that support routine physical activity. (United States)

    Fenton, Mark


    Growing concern over childhood obesity has prompted a focus on underlying epidemics of physical inactivity and poor nutrition. Regarding the former, there is increasing understanding that behavior change promotion alone has not increased population physical activity levels and that an ecological approach is necessary. Therefore, the public health profession has moved beyond traditional behavior change campaigns toward a growing focus on altering policies and the built environment to create settings that support increases in routine, not just exercise or leisure time, physical activity among children. A survey of the literature suggests four broad factors that define settings where routine physical activity, especially active transportation, is more likely to occur: • a compact variety of land uses, with a mix of destinations in close proximity; • a comprehensive network of bicycle, pedestrian, and transit facilities; • inviting and functional site designs for pedestrians, cyclists, and transit users; • safety and access for users of all ages, incomes, abilities and disabilities. Although these principles are increasingly accepted as beneficial, not just to health but to a community's economic, environmental, and social well-being, many contemporary ordinances and development practices undermine these outcomes. Therefore, five specific policy and intervention approaches are recommended to guide communities to these outcomes: 1. zoning and development policies to protect open space, contain sprawl, and focus investment toward thriving, mixed downtowns and village centers; 2. Complete Streets policies, which require roadways that are safe and functional for pedestrians, bicyclists, and transit users, as well as motor vehicles; 3. a transportation- (not just recreation-) oriented trail network; 4. creation of bicycle- and transit-friendly infrastructure and incentive policies; 5. development of policy-based Safe Routes to School interventions. This proposed

  9. Design and fabrication of highly heat-resistant Mo/Si multilayer soft X-ray mirrors with interleaved barrier layers. (United States)

    Takenaka, H; Ito, H; Haga, T; Kawamura, T


    Introducing interleaved carbon barrier layers improves the heat-resistance of Mo/Si multilayers. The soft X-ray reflectivities of the multilayers were calculated, and the effects of heating on both the reflectivities and layer structures of Mo/Si multilayers with and without barrier layers were investigated using X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The results show that, for applications using intense soft X-ray beams, Mo/Si multilayers with interleaved carbon barrier layers are better mirrors than Mo/Si multilayers because they have much better heat resistance and almost the same soft X-ray reflectivity as the Mo/Si multilayers.

  10. Diffraction of sound by nearly rigid barriers (United States)

    Hadden, W. J., Jr.; Pierce, A. D.


    The diffraction of sound by barriers with surfaces of large, but finite, acoustic impedance was analyzed. Idealized source-barrier-receiver configurations in which the barriers may be considered as semi-infinite wedges are discussed. Particular attention is given to situations in which the source and receiver are at large distances from the tip of the wedge. The expression for the acoustic pressure in this limiting case is compared with the results of Pierce's analysis of diffraction by a rigid wedge. An expression for the insertion loss of a finite impedance barrier is compared with insertion loss formulas which are used extensively in selecting or designing barriers for noise control.

  11. Mathematical modeling of complex noise barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayek, S.I.


    Mathematical modeling of the noise reduction efficiency of highway noise barriers depends on the shape and absorptivity of the barrier, the influence of the impedance of the ground under the receiver, the atmospheric conditions as well as traffic details. The mathematical model for a barrier's noise reduction requires the knowledge of point-to-point acoustic diffraction models. In many instances, the shape of the barrier is simple; such as thin wall (edge), sharp wedge, and cylindrically topped berms. However, new designs of more efficient barriers have been investigated recently.

  12. Solid-phase based on-chip DNA purification through a valve-free stepwise injection of multiple reagents employing centrifugal force combined with a hydrophobic capillary barrier pressure. (United States)

    Zhang, Hainan; Tran, Hong Hanh; Chung, Bong Hyun; Lee, Nae Yoon


    In this paper, we demonstrate a simple technique for sequentially introducing multiple sample liquids into microchannels driven by centrifugal force combined with a hydrophobic barrier pressure and apply the technique for performing solid-phase based on-chip DNA purification. Three microchannels with varying widths, all equipped with independent sample reservoirs at the inlets, were fabricated on a hydrophobic elastomer, poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS). First, glass beads were packed inside the reaction chamber, and a whole cell containing the DNA extract was introduced into the widest channel by applying centrifugal force for physical adsorption of the DNA onto the glass beads. Next, washing and elution solutions were sequentially introduced into the intermediate and narrowest microchannels, respectively, by gradually increasing the amount of centrifugal force. Through a precise manipulation of the centrifugal force, the DNA adsorbed onto the glass beads was successfully washed and eluted in a continuous manner without the need to introduce each solution manually. A stepwise injection of liquids was successfully demonstrated using multiple ink solutions, the results of which corresponded well with the theoretical analyses. As a practical application, the D1S80 locus of human genomic DNA, which is widely used for forensic purposes, was successfully purified using the microdevice introduced in this study, as demonstrated through successful target amplification. This will pave the way for the construction of a control-free valve system for realizing on-chip DNA purification, which is one of the most labor-intensive and hard-to-miniaturize components, on a greatly simplified and miniaturized platform employing hydrophobic PDMS.

  13. Design configurations affecting flow pattern and solids accumulation in horizontal free water and subsurface flow constructed wetlands. (United States)

    Pedescoll, A; Sidrach-Cardona, R; Sánchez, J C; Carretero, J; Garfi, M; Bécares, E


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different horizontal constructed wetland (CW) design parameters on solids distribution, loss of hydraulic conductivity over time and hydraulic behaviour, in order to assess clogging processes in wetlands. For this purpose, an experimental plant with eight CWs was built at mesocosm scale. Each CW presented a different design characteristic, and the most common CW configurations were all represented: free water surface flow (FWS) with different effluent pipe locations, FWS with floating macrophytes and subsurface flow (SSF), and the presence of plants and specific species (Typha angustifolia and Phragmites australis) was also considered. The loss of the hydraulic conductivity of gravel was greatly influenced by the presence of plants and organic load (representing a loss of 20% and c.a. 10% in planted wetlands and an overloaded system, respectively). Cattail seems to have a greater effect on the development of clogging since its below-ground biomass weighed twice as much as that of common reed. Hydraulic behaviour was greatly influenced by the presence of a gravel matrix and the outlet pipe position. In strict SSF CW, the water was forced to cross the gravel and tended to flow diagonally from the top inlet to the bottom outlet (where the inlet and outlet pipes were located). However, when FWS was considered, water preferentially flowed above the gravel, thus losing half the effective volume of the system. Only the presence of plants seemed to help the water flow partially within the gravel matrix.

  14. Design of the extraction arc for the 2{sup nd} beam line of the free-electron laser FLASH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholz, Matthias


    In this thesis, I deal with the design of the extraction arc for the second beam line of FLASH, an FEL (Free-Electron Laser) user facility at DESY Hamburg. Both beam lines will use the same linear accelerator and their separation will take place behind the last accelerating module. I present the constraints for the extraction arc given by the beam line layout of the existing machine, by the building environment of the new beam line and in particular, by coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR). The impact from CSR is presented, and I show how to mitigate these effects and what that means for the beam line design. The optimization of the extraction arc was done applying the downhill simplex algorithm which is presented, first in its basic form to explain the operation principle and then in a more advanced version as used in the applied program. I introduce in this thesis the final layout of the extraction arc including the following matching section. This layout fulfills all given constraints and can provide the required electron beam quality for FEL operation. In order to prove this, I present start-to-end simulations for different bunch charges and for two different wavelengths.

  15. Free electron lasers for 13nm EUV lithography: RF design strategies to minimise investment and operational costs (United States)

    Keens, Simon; Rossa, Bernhard; Frei, Marcel


    As the semiconductor industry proceeds to develop ever better sources of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) light for photolithography applications, two distinct technologies have come to prominence: Tin-plasma and free electron laser (FEL) sources. Tin plasma sources have been in development within the industry for many years, and have been widely reported. Meanwhile, FELs represent the most promising alternative to create high power EUV frequencies and, while tin-plasma source development has been ongoing, such lasers have been continuously developed by academic institutions for use in fundamental research programmes in conjunction with universities and national scientific institutions. This paper follows developments in the field of academic FELs, and presents information regarding novel technologies, specifically in the area of RF design strategy, that may be incorporated into future industrial FEL systems for EUV lithography in order to minimize the necessary investment and operational costs. It goes on to try to assess the cost-benefit of an alternate RF design strategy, based upon previous studies.

  16. Designing a location update strategy for free-moving and network-constrained objects with varying velocity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan-Ko HUANG; Lien-Fa LIN


    Spatio-temporal databases aim at appropriately managing moving objects so as to support various types of queries. While much research has been conducted on developing query processing techniques, less effort has been made to address the issue of when and how to update location information of moving objects. Previous work shifts the workload of processing updates to each object which usually has limited CPU and battery capacities. This results in a tremendous processing overhead for each moving object. In this paper, we focus on designing efficient update strategies for two important types of moving objects, free-moving objects (FMOs) and network-constrained objects (NCOs), which are classified based on object movement models. For FMOs, we develop a novel update strategy, namely the FMO update strategy (FMOUS), to explicitly indicate a time point at which the object needs to update location information. As each object knows in advance when to update (meaning that it does not have to continuously check), the processing overhead can be greatly reduced. In addition, the FMO update procedure (FMOUP) is designed to efficiently process the updates issued from moving objects. Similarly, for NCOs, we propose the NCO update strategy (NCOUS) and the NCO update procedure (NCOUP) to inform each object when and how to update location information. Exten-sive experiments are conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed update strategies.

  17. Student attitudes toward science and sciencerelated careers: A program designed to promote a stimulating gender-free learning environment (United States)

    Mason, Cheryl L.; Butler Kahle, Jane

    A project designed to foster the full and fair participation of girls in high-school science classes addressed obstacles, both perceived and actual, to equal participation. In order to modify existing classroom techniques and environments, a Teacher Intervention Program was designed. By means of a workshop and periodic personal communications, teachers were sensitized to the importance of a stimulating, gender-free learning environment. In addition, they were presented with a variety of methods and materials which had been shown to encourage girls in science. Twelve teachers, who were selected randomly, taught in diverse communities throughout one Midwestern state. The subjects tested were students in 24 general biology classes taught by the 12 teachers. Although both qualitative and quantitative measures were used during the research, only the quantitative results are discussed in this paper. Using ANOVA's, treatment group by student sex, a comparison of the mean scores was made for all students, as well as for all females and for all males. The results indicated that the experimental group, compared to the control group, had significantly higher mean scores on tests of attitudes toward science, perceptions of science, extracurricular science activities, and interest in a science-related career.

  18. Exploiting deterministic maintenance opportunity windows created by conservative engineering design rules that result in free time locked into large high-speed coupled production lines with finite buffers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durandt, Casper


    Full Text Available Conservative engineering design rules for large serial coupled production processes result in machines having locked-in free time (also called ‘critical downtime’ or ‘maintenance opportunity windows’, which cause idle time if not used. Operators are not able to assess a large production process holistically, and so may not be aware that they form the current bottleneck – or that they have free time available due to interruptions elsewhere. A real-time method is developed to accurately calculate and display free time in location and magnitude, and efficiency improvements are demonstrated in large-scale production runs.

  19. Design and characterization of the DC acceleration and transport system required for the FOM 1 MW free electron maser experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caplan, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Urbanus, W.H.; Geer, C. van der [FOM-Institut voor Plasma Fysica, Nieuwegein (Netherlands)] [and others


    A Free Electron Maser (FEM) has been constructed and is soon to be tested at the FOM Institute (Rijnhuizen) Netherlands with the goal of producing 1 MW long pulse to CW microwave output in the range 130 GHz to 250 GHz. The design uses a DC beam system in a depressed collector configuration in order to make the overall wall plug efficiency 50%. The high voltage ({approximately} 2 MeV) power supply provides only the body interception current ({approximately} 30 mA) while the 12 amp beam current is supplied by the 100-200 keV collector supplies. Some of the design features to ensure low interception current, which is critical to long pulse (CW) operation are: (1) DC beam in-line transport and acceleration system, (2) emittance conserving solenoid focusing system, (3) halo suppression techniques at cathode edge, and (4) very low beam fill factor (<20%). A relativistic version of the Herman Optical theory developed for microwave tubes is used to determine current distribution functions everywhere along the beam from the electron gun, through the DC accelerator and transport system to the wiggler. This theory takes into account thermals far out on the gaussian tail which translates into beam current far outside the ideal beam edge. This theory is applied to the FOM beam line design to predict a series of beam envelope contours containing various percentages of total beam current up to 99.9%. Predictions of body interception current due to finite emittance (effective temperature) are presented and compared with measured experimental results.

  20. Cylindrical air flow reversal barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woznica, C.; Rodziewicz, M.


    Describes an innovative design introduced in the ZMP mine in Zory for quick reversal of ventilation air flow. Geologic mining conditions at the 705 m deep horizon, where the barrier was built, are described. According to the design used until now, a reversal system consisted of safety barriers, ventilation air locks, a ventilation bridge and stopping needed in case of a fire when air flow direction must be reversed. Nine air locks and an expensive concrete ventilation bridge were needed and the air locks had to be operated at 8 points of the region to effect reversal. The new design consists of a 2-storey cylindrical barrier which also fulfills the function of a ventilation bridge. It can be manually or remotely operated by a mechanical or pneumatic system. Tests showed that the new barrier permits immediate air flow reversal while retaining 60% of the original air, which is important in the case of fire and methane hazards. It permits improved seam panelling and splitting of pillars and brings an economy of about 40 million zlotys in construction cost. Design and operation of the barrier is illustrated and ventilation air circulation is explained. 7 figs.

  1. Sensing of EGTA Mediated Barrier Tissue Disruption with an Organic Transistor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scherrine Tria


    Full Text Available Barrier tissue protects the body against external factors by restricting the passage of molecules. The gastrointestinal epithelium is an example of barrier tissue with the primary purpose of allowing the passage of ions and nutrients, while restricting the passage of pathogens and toxins. It is well known that the loss of barrier function can be instigated by a decrease in extracellular calcium levels, leading to changes in protein conformation and an increase in paracellular transport. In this study, ethylene glycol-bis(beta-aminoethyl ether-N,N,N',N'-tetra acetic acid (EGTA, a calcium chelator, was used to disrupt the gastrointestinal epithelial barrier. The effect of EGTA on barrier tissue was monitored by a novel label-free method based on an organic electrochemical transistor (OECT integrated with living cells and validated against conventional methods for measuring barrier tissue integrity. We demonstrate that the OECT can detect breaches in barrier tissue upon exposure to EGTA with the same sensitivity as existing methods but with increased temporal resolution. Due to the potential of low cost processing techniques and the flexibility in design associated with organic electronics, the OECT has great potential for high-throughput, disposable sensing and diagnostics.

  2. Coastal Barrier Resource Areas, Barrier Beaches; s44nbb94; Barrier beaches on the south coast of RI with levels of development as designated by the RI coastal resources management council. Beach zone desginations were hand drafted on photo enlarged source maps and manually digitized, Published in 1995, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations. (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Coastal Barrier Resource Areas dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 1995. It is...

  3. Multiple barriers in forced rupture of protein complexes

    CERN Document Server

    Hyeon, Changbong


    Curvatures in the most probable rupture force ($f^*$) versus log-loading rate ($\\log{r_f}$) observed in dynamic force spectroscopy (DFS) on biomolecular complexes are interpreted using a one-dimensional free energy profile with multiple barriers or a single barrier with force-dependent transition state. Here, we provide a criterion to select one scenario over another. If the rupture dynamics occurs by crossing a single barrier in a physical free energy profile describing unbinding, the exponent $\

  4. Feasibility of a novel design of high resolution parallax-free Compton enhanced PET scanner dedicated to brain research

    CERN Document Server

    Braem, André; Chesi, Enrico Guido; Correia, J G; Garibaldi, F; Joram, C; Mathot, S; Nappi, E; Ribeiro da Silva, M; Schoenahl, F; Séguinot, Jacques; Weilhammer, P; Zaidi, H


    A novel concept for a positron emission tomography (PET) camera module is proposed, which provides full 3D reconstruction with high resolution over the total detector volume, free of parallax errors. The key components are a matrix of long scintillator crystals and hybrid photon detectors (HPDs) with matched segmentation and integrated readout electronics. The HPDs read out the two ends of the scintillator package. Both excellent spatial (x, y, z) and energy resolution are obtained. The concept allows enhancing the detection efficiency by reconstructing a significant fraction of events which underwent Compton scattering in the crystals. The proof of concept will first be demonstrated with yttrium orthoaluminate perovskite (YAP):Ce crystals, but the final design will rely on other scintillators more adequate for PET applications (e.g. LSO:Ce or LaBr /sub 3/:Ce). A promising application of the proposed camera module, which is currently under development, is a high resolution 3D brain PET camera with an axial fi...

  5. Optimization of a surfactant free polyol method for the synthesis of platinum-cobalt electrocatalysts using Taguchi design of experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grolleau, C. [Laboratoire de Catalyse en Chimie Organique (LACCO), Universite de Poitiers, 40 av Recteur Pineau, F-86000 Poitiers (France); ST Microelectronics Tours, rue Pierre et Marie Curie, F-37100 Tours (France); Coutanceau, C.; Leger, J.-M. [Laboratoire de Catalyse en Chimie Organique (LACCO), Universite de Poitiers, 40 av Recteur Pineau, F-86000 Poitiers (France); Pierre, F. [ST Microelectronics Tours, rue Pierre et Marie Curie, F-37100 Tours (France)


    A design of experiments (derived from the Taguchi method) was implemented to optimize experimental conditions of a surfactant free polyol method for the synthesis of PtCo electrocatalysts. Considered responses were the active surface area and the catalytic activity toward oxygen reduction reaction. Metallic salt concentration, pH, temperature ramp, addition order of reactants and particle cleaning step were chosen as main parameters according to considerations coming from literature and previous experiments. Matrix models describing the behaviour of the synthesis system was elaborated taking into account the effects of each considered parameter and their interactions. From this model, an optimized PtCo/C catalyst, in terms of active surface area and activity towards the oxygen reduction reaction, was synthesized. Both the measured values of the active surface area and the electrocatalytic activity are in very good agreement with the calculated ones from the matrix model. Furthermore, actions of parameters and interactions between parameters can be better understood using this method. (author)

  6. 有效声源长度的公路声屏障优化设计%Optimization Design of Highway Sound Barrier Based on the Effective Length of Sound Source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵春来; 马心坦; 郭志军


    在声屏障声学设计和测量规范的基础上,分析公路交通线声源对受声点声级的影响,提出线声源有效长度的概念.综合考虑位置,高度,长度等因素对声屏障降噪性及经济性的影响,建立以经济性为目标函数,降噪要求为约束条件的数学模型,运用MATLAB软件进行优化设计.根据公路交通噪声1/3倍频程谱分析插入损失,使结果更精确.通过算例对比,验证考虑线声源有效长度的优化方案在经济性和降噪性方面的优越性.%Based on the specifications of survey and design of noise barriers, the effects of the linear acoustic source of highway traffic on the noise level at the barrier are analyzed.The concept of effective length of linear sound source is proposed.Considering the impact of its position, height and length on the cost and noise reduction effect of the sound barrier, a mathematical model is set up with the cost of the noise barrier as an objective function and noise reduction as acoustic constrains.The MATLAB software is used for optimal design.The third-octave band of a representative spectrum is used to calculate the insertion loss, which makes the result more accurate.This method of design, considering the effective length of linear sound source, is proved to be superior in the aspects of economy and noise reduction.

  7. Design of a machine for the universal non-contact measurement of large free-form optics with 30 nm uncertainty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henselmans, R.; Rosielle, P.C.J.N.; Steinbuch, M.; Saunders, I.; Bergmans, R.


    A new universal non-contact measurement machine design for measuring free-form optics with 30 nm expanded uncertainty is presented. In the cylindrical machine concept, an optical probe with 5 mm range is positioned over the surface by a motion system. Due to a 2nd order error effect when measuring s


    An overview of permeable reactive barrier (PRB) performance for field sites in the U.S. was evaluated over the last 10 years by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agencys Office of Research and Development (EPA-ORD) in collaboration with other U.S. federal agencies, consulting co...

  9. Design and effect analysis on noise reduction of ecological barrier%生态声屏障设计与效果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周方; 李雷; 傅大放; 李建平


    设计了一种将吸声降噪、景观绿化2种功能有机结合的生态声屏障,利用RAYNOISE声学软件对生态声屏障、普通直立型声屏障的降噪效果进行数字模拟比较,对生态声屏障的降噪插入损失进行了实验测量.声学软件RAYNOISE的仿真模拟结果表明:生态声屏障有较好的降噪效果,在声影区内高度4m以下的生态声屏障比直立声屏障插入损失大0~ 4.63 dB,在高于4m后生态声屏障的插入损失虽然大于直立型但不大于1 dB.实验结果表明:频率为63~500 Hz时,生态声屏障的插入损失为0~ 28 dB,并且随着频率的增加逐渐增大;当频率大于500 Hz时,插入损失不再增大,维持在20 dB左右.%A kind of ecological barrier with good effect on noise reduction and landscaping is introduced. Effect on noise reduction of ecological barrier and vertical sound barrier is compared by the Raynoise software. The noise insertion loss of ecological sound barrier is measured experimentally. Simulation of the acoustic software RAYNOISE shows that: in the acoustic shadow zone, noise reduction effect of ecological sound barrier is better than normal barrier for about 0 to 4. 63 dB especially below a height of 4 m; for higher than 4 m insertion loss of ecological sound barrier is greater than the vertical-type but not more than 1 dB. The experiment shows that in 63 to 500 Hz frequency insertion loss is about 0 to 28 dB, which gradually increases with increasing frequency; when frequency is greater than 500 Hz insertion loss increases no more, maintaining at 20 dB or so.

  10. Rational Design of Small-Molecule Stabilizers of Spermine Synthase Dimer by Virtual Screening and Free Energy-Based Approach (United States)

    Zhang, Zhe; Martiny, Virginie; Lagorce, David; Ikeguchi, Yoshihiko; Alexov, Emil; Miteva, Maria A.


    Snyder-Robinson Syndrome (SRS) is a rare mental retardation disorder which is caused by the malfunctioning of an enzyme, the spermine synthase (SMS), which functions as a homo-dimer. The malfunctioning of SMS in SRS patients is associated with several identified missense mutations that occur away from the active site. This investigation deals with a particular SRS-causing mutation, the G56S mutation, which was shown computationally and experimentally to destabilize the SMS homo-dimer and thus to abolish SMS enzymatic activity. As a proof-of-concept, we explore the possibility to restore the enzymatic activity of the malfunctioning SMS mutant G56S by stabilizing the dimer through small molecule binding at the mutant homo-dimer interface. For this purpose, we designed an in silico protocol that couples virtual screening and a free binding energy-based approach to identify potential small-molecule binders on the destabilized G56S dimer, with the goal to stabilize it and thus to increase SMS G56S mutant activity. The protocol resulted in extensive list of plausible stabilizers, among which we selected and tested 51 compounds experimentally for their capability to increase SMS G56S mutant enzymatic activity. In silico analysis of the experimentally identified stabilizers suggested five distinctive chemical scaffolds. This investigation suggests that druggable pockets exist in the vicinity of the mutation sites at protein-protein interfaces which can be used to alter the disease-causing effects by small molecule binding. The identified chemical scaffolds are drug-like and can serve as original starting points for development of lead molecules to further rescue the disease-causing effects of the Snyder-Robinson syndrome for which no efficient treatment exists up to now. PMID:25340632

  11. Rational design of small-molecule stabilizers of spermine synthase dimer by virtual screening and free energy-based approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Zhang

    Full Text Available Snyder-Robinson Syndrome (SRS is a rare mental retardation disorder which is caused by the malfunctioning of an enzyme, the spermine synthase (SMS, which functions as a homo-dimer. The malfunctioning of SMS in SRS patients is associated with several identified missense mutations that occur away from the active site. This investigation deals with a particular SRS-causing mutation, the G56S mutation, which was shown computationally and experimentally to destabilize the SMS homo-dimer and thus to abolish SMS enzymatic activity. As a proof-of-concept, we explore the possibility to restore the enzymatic activity of the malfunctioning SMS mutant G56S by stabilizing the dimer through small molecule binding at the mutant homo-dimer interface. For this purpose, we designed an in silico protocol that couples virtual screening and a free binding energy-based approach to identify potential small-molecule binders on the destabilized G56S dimer, with the goal to stabilize it and thus to increase SMS G56S mutant activity. The protocol resulted in extensive list of plausible stabilizers, among which we selected and tested 51 compounds experimentally for their capability to increase SMS G56S mutant enzymatic activity. In silico analysis of the experimentally identified stabilizers suggested five distinctive chemical scaffolds. This investigation suggests that druggable pockets exist in the vicinity of the mutation sites at protein-protein interfaces which can be used to alter the disease-causing effects by small molecule binding. The identified chemical scaffolds are drug-like and can serve as original starting points for development of lead molecules to further rescue the disease-causing effects of the Snyder-Robinson syndrome for which no efficient treatment exists up to now.

  12. Developement of serum-free media in CHO-DG44 cells using a central composite statistical design. (United States)

    Parampalli, Ananth; Eskridge, Kent; Smith, Leonard; Meagher, Michael M; Mowry, Mark C; Subramanian, Anuradha


    A serum free medium was developed for the production of recombinant antibody against Botulinum A (BoNTA) using dihydrofolate reductase deficient Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells (CHO-DG44) in suspension culture. An initial control basal medium was prepared, which was similar in composition to HAM's F12: IMDM (1:1) supplemented with insulin, transeferrin, selenium and a lipid mixture. The vitamin concentration of the basal medium was twice that of HAM's F12: IMDM (1:1). CHO-DG44 cells expressing S25 antibody grew from 2 x 10(5) cells to maximum cell density of 1.04 x 10(6) cells/ml after 5 days in this control medium. A central composite design was used to identify optimal levels and interaction among five groups of medium components. These five groups were glutamine, Essential Amino Acids (EAA), Non Essential Amino Acids (NEAA), Insulin, Transferrin, Selenium (ITS), and lipids. Fifty experiments were carried out in four batches, with two controls in each batch. There was little effect of ITS and Lipid concentrations over the range studied, and glutamine concentration showed a strong interaction with EAA. The optimal concentrations of the variables studied were 2.5 mM Glutamine, 7.4 mM (2x) EAA, 1.4 mM (0.5x) NEAA, 1x ITS supplement, 0.7x Lipids supplement. The maximum viable cell density attained in the optimized medium was 1.4 x 10(6) cells/ml, a 35% improvement over the control culture, while the final antibody titer attained was 22 +/- 3.4 mug/mL, a 50% improvement.

  13. Systems study on engineered barriers: barrier performance analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stula, R.T.; Albert, T.E.; Kirstein, B.E.; Lester, D.H.


    A performance assessment model for multiple barrier packages containing unreprocessed spent fuel has been modified and applied to several package designs. The objective of the study was to develop information to be used in programmatic decision making concerning engineered barrier package design and development. The assessment model, BARIER, was developed in previous tasks of the System Study on Engineered Barriers (SSEB). The new version discussed in this report contains a refined and expanded corrosion rate data base which includes pitting, crack growth, and graphitization as well as bulk corrosion. Corrosion rates for oxic and anoxic conditions at each of the two temperature ranges are supplied. Other improvements include a rigorous treatment of radionuclide release after package failure which includes resistance of damaged barriers and backfill, refined temperature calculations that account for convection and radiation, a subroutine to calculate nuclear gamma radiation field at each barrier surface, refined stress calculations with reduced conservatism and various coding improvements to improve running time and core usage. This report also contains discussion of alternative scenarios to the assumed flooded repository as well as the impact of water exclusion backfills. The model was used to assess post repository closure performance for several designs which were all variation of basic designs from the Spent Unreprocessed Fuel (SURF) program. Many designs were found to delay the onset of leaching by at least a few hundreds of years in all geologic media. Long delay times for radionuclide release were found for packages with a few inches of sorption backfill. Release of uranium, plutonium, and americium was assessed.

  14. Beam Line Design and Beam Physics Study of Energy Recovery Linac Free Electron Laser at Peking University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Guimei [Peking Univ., Beijing (China)


    Energy recovering linac (ERL) offers an attractive alternative for generating intense beams of charged particles by approaching the operational efficiency of a storage ring while maintaining the superior beam quality typical of a linear accelerator. In ERLs, the decelerated beam cancels the beam loading effects of the accelerated beam with high repetition rate. Therefore, ERLs can, in principle, accelerate very high average currents with only modest amounts of RF power. So the efficiency of RF power to beam is much higher. Furthermore, the energy of beam to dump is lower, so it will reduce dump radiation. With the successful experiments in large maximum-to-injection energy ratio up to 51:1 and high power FEL up to 14kW, the use of ERL, especially combining with superconducting RF technology, provides a potentially powerful new paradigm for generation of the charged particle beams used in MW FEL, synchrotron radiation sources, high-energy electron cooling devices and so on. The 3+1/2 DC-SC photo injector and two 9cell TESLA superconducting cavity for IR SASE FEL in PKU provides a good platform to achieve high average FEL with Energy Recovery. The work of this thesis is on Beam line design and Beam dynamics study of Energy Recovery Linac Free Electron Laser for Peking University. It is the upgrade of PKU facility, which is under construction. With ERL, this facility can work in CW mode, so it can operate high average beam current without RF power constraint in main linac and generate high average FEL power. Moreover, it provides a test facility to study the key technology in ERL. System parameters are optimized for PKU ERL-FEL. The oscillation FEL output power is studied with different bunch charge, transverse emittance, bunch length and energy spread. The theory of optimal RF power and Q{sub ext} with ERL and without ERL is analyzed and applied to PKU injector and linac including microphonic effect. pace charge effect in the injector and merger is studied for beam

  15. Design of Phosphor-Free Single-Chip White Light-Emitting Diodes Using InAlGaN Irregular Multiple Quantum Well Structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Hui-Min; CHEN Gen-Xiang; JIAN Shui-Sheng


    A novel approach for the design of phosphor-free single-chip white light-emitting diodes (LEDs) is proposed by employing InAlGaN irregular multiple quantum well (IMQW) structures.The electronic and optical properties of the designed InAlGaN IMQWs are analyzed in detail by fully considering the effects of strain,well-coupling,For comparison,three different types of InAlGaN IMQW structures with ultra-wide band spontaneous emission spectra are analyzed,and the results show that phosphor-free single-chip white light LEDs with more than 200 nm emission band can be obtained using properly designed InAlGaN IMQW structures.

  16. Crash barrier research in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flury, F.C. & Paar, H.G.


    Research by the SWOV has led to the development of a series of crash barriers of basically the same design but with varying degrees of resistance to lateral deflection. Requirements to which in general a crash barrier should fulfill are presented.

  17. Smart parking barrier

    KAUST Repository

    Alharbi, Abdulrazaq M.


    Various methods and systems are provided for smart parking barriers. In one example, among others, a smart parking barrier system includes a movable parking barrier located at one end of a parking space, a barrier drive configured to control positioning of the movable parking barrier, and a parking controller configured to initiate movement of the parking barrier, via the barrier drive. The movable parking barrier can be positioned between a first position that restricts access to the parking space and a second position that allows access to the parking space. The parking controller can initiate movement of the movable parking barrier in response to a positive identification of an individual allowed to use the parking space. The parking controller can identify the individual through, e.g., a RFID tag, a mobile device (e.g., a remote control, smartphone, tablet, etc.), an access card, biometric information, or other appropriate identifier.

  18. Experimental design and data-analysis in label-free quantitative LC/MS proteomics: A tutorial with MSqRob. (United States)

    Goeminne, Ludger J E; Gevaert, Kris; Clement, Lieven


    Label-free shotgun proteomics is routinely used to assess proteomes. However, extracting relevant information from the massive amounts of generated data remains difficult. This tutorial provides a strong foundation on analysis of quantitative proteomics data. We provide key statistical concepts that help researchers to design proteomics experiments and we showcase how to analyze quantitative proteomics data using our recent free and open-source R package MSqRob, which was developed to implement the peptide-level robust ridge regression method for relative protein quantification described by Goeminne et al. . MSqRob can handle virtually any experimental proteomics design and outputs proteins ordered by statistical significance. Moreover, its graphical user interface and interactive diagnostic plots provide easy inspection and also detection of anomalies in the data and flaws in the data analysis, allowing deeper assessment of the validity of results and a critical review of the experimental design. Our tutorial discusses interactive preprocessing, data analysis and visualization of label-free MS-based quantitative proteomics experiments with simple and more complex designs. We provide well-documented scripts to run analyses in bash mode on GitHub, enabling the integration of MSqRob in automated pipelines on cluster environments (

  19. On the design of experiments for determining ternary mixture free energies from static light scattering data using a nonlinear partial differential equation. (United States)

    Wahle, Chris W; Ross, David S; Thurston, George M


    We mathematically design sets of static light scattering experiments to provide for model-independent measurements of ternary liquid mixing free energies to a desired level of accuracy. A parabolic partial differential equation (PDE), linearized from the full nonlinear PDE [D. Ross, G. Thurston, and C. Lutzer, J. Chem. Phys. 129, 064106 (2008)], describes how data noise affects the free energies to be inferred. The linearized PDE creates a net of spacelike characteristic curves and orthogonal, timelike curves in the composition triangle, and this net governs diffusion of information coming from light scattering measurements to the free energy. Free energy perturbations induced by a light scattering perturbation diffuse along the characteristic curves and towards their concave sides, with a diffusivity that is proportional to the local characteristic curvature radius. Consequently, static light scattering can determine mixing free energies in regions with convex characteristic curve boundaries, given suitable boundary data. The dielectric coefficient is a Lyapunov function for the dynamical system whose trajectories are PDE characteristics. Information diffusion is heterogeneous and system-dependent in the composition triangle, since the characteristics depend on molecular interactions and are tangent to liquid-liquid phase separation coexistence loci at critical points. We find scaling relations that link free energy accuracy, total measurement time, the number of samples, and the interpolation method, and identify the key quantitative tradeoffs between devoting time to measuring more samples, or fewer samples more accurately. For each total measurement time there are optimal sample numbers beyond which more will not improve free energy accuracy. We estimate the degree to which many-point interpolation and optimized measurement concentrations can improve accuracy and save time. For a modest light scattering setup, a sample calculation shows that less than two

  20. Nanomedicine Faces Barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Debbage


    Full Text Available Targeted nanoparticles have the potential to improve drug delivery efficiencies by more than two orders of magnitude, from the ~ 0.1% which is common today. Most pharmacologically agents on the market today are small drug molecules, which diffuse across the body’s blood-tissue barriers and distribute not only into the lesion, but into almost all organs. Drug actions in the non-lesion organs are an inescapable part of the drug delivery principle, causing “side-effects” which limit the maximally tolerable doses and result in inadequate therapy of many lesions. Nanoparticles only cross barriers by design, so side-effects are not built into their mode of operation. Delivery rates of almost 90% have been reported. This review examines the significance of these statements and checks how far they need qualification. What type of targeting is required? Is a single targeting sufficient? What new types of clinical challenge, such as immunogenicity, might attend the use of targeted nanoparticles?

  1. [Barrier methods of contraception]. (United States)

    Goldsmith, A; Edelman, D A


    Vaginal methods of contraception were the earliest types used and some references to them date back to antiquity. Most of the vaginal contraceptive agents identified by the ancient Greeks, Indians, Japanese, and Chinese have been found in modern laboratory tests to have spermicidal properties, but it is doubtful that the methods were fully reliable or were used by many people. During the 19th century the condom, vaginal spermicides, and diaphragm became available. The development of nonoxynol-9 and other nonirritating but effective spermicidal agents improved vaginal contraceptives greatly by the 1950s, but starting in the 1960s newer methods began to replace the vaginal methods. Interest in barrier methods has been reawakened somewhat by concern about the health effects of hormonal methods. At present all barrier methods leave something to be desired. Failure rates of 3-30% for barrier methods in general have been estimated, but the higher rates are believed due to incorrect or inconsistent use. Theoretical failure rates of condoms and diaphragms have been estimated at 3/100 women-years, but in actual use failure rates may reach 15 for condoms and 13 for diaphragms used with spermicides. Use-effectiveness rates are greatly influenced by motivation. For a variety of reasons, the acceptability of barrier methods is low, especially in developing countries. New developments in spermicidal agents include sperm inhibitors, which impede the fertilizing capacity of sperm rather than attempting a spermicidal effect; a number of such agents have been studied and have proven more effective in animal tests than conventional spermicides. Neosampoon, a new spermicidal foam, has attracted an increasing number of users, especially in developing countries. A new condom, made of thin polymers and containing a standard dose of nonoxynol-9, has been designed to dissolve in the vaginal fluid. Further studies are needed of its acceptability, efficacy, and side effects before it becomes

  2. Design of Free Parameters of State-Dependent Coefficient Form Based on the Relation between State-Dependent Riccati Inequality and Hamilton Jacobi Inequality (United States)

    Sakayanagi, Yoshihiro; Nakaura, Shigeki; Sampei, Mitsuji

    The solvable condition of nonlinear H∞ control problems is given by the Hamilton Jacobi inequality (HJI). The state-dependent Riccati inequality (SDRI) is one of the approaches used to solve the HJI. The SDRI contains the state-dependent coefficient (SDC) form of a nonlinear system. The SDC form is not unique. If a poor SDC form is chosen, then there is no solution for the SDRI. In other words, there exist free parameters of the SDC form that affect the solvability of the SDRI. This study focuses on the free parameters of the SDC form. First, a representation of the free parameters of the SDC form is introduced. The solvability of an SDRI is a sufficient condition for that of the related HJI, and the free parameters affect the conservativeness of the SDRI approach. In addition, a new method for designing the free parameters that reduces the conservativeness of the SDRI approach is introduced. Finally, numerical examples to verify the effect of this method are presented.

  3. Optimization of a serum-free culture medium for mouse embryonic stem cells using design of experiments (DoE) methodology


    Knöspel, Fanny; Schindler, Rudolf K.; Lübberstedt, Marc; Petzolt, Stephanie; Gerlach, Jörg C.; Zeilinger, Katrin


    The in vitro culture behaviour of embryonic stem cells (ESC) is strongly influenced by the culture conditions. Current culture media for expansion of ESC contain some undefined substances. Considering potential clinical translation work with such cells, the use of defined media is desirable. We have used Design of Experiments (DoE) methods to investigate the composition of a serum-free chemically defined culture medium for expansion of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESC). Factor screening analy...

  4. A conceptual design of the set-up for solid state spectroscopy with free electron laser and insertion device radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Makhov, V N


    The set-up for complex solid state spectroscopy with the use of enhanced properties of radiation from insertion devices and free electron lasers is proposed. Very high flux and pulsed properties of radiation from insertion devices and free electron lasers offer the possibility for the use of such powerful techniques as electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) for the studies of excited states of electronic excitations or defects in solids. The power density of radiation can become high enough for one more method of exited-state spectroscopy: transient optical absorption spectroscopy. The set-up is supposed to combine the EPR/ODMR spectrometer, i.e. cryostat supplied with superconducting magnet and microwave system, and the optical channels for excitation (by radiation from insertion devices or free electron laser) and detection of luminescence (i.e. primary and secondary monochromators). The set-up can be used both for 'conventional' spectroscopy of solids (reflec...

  5. Miniature free-piston homogeneous charge compression ignition engine-compressor concept - Part I: performance estimation and design considerations unique to small dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aichlmayr, H.T.; Kittelson, D.B.; Zachariah, M.R. [The University of Minnesota, Minneapolis (United States). Departments of Mechanical Engineering and Chemistry


    Research and development activities pertaining to the development of a 10 W, homogeneous charge compression ignition free-piston engine-compressor are presented. Emphasis is place upon the miniature engine concept and design rationale. Also, a crankcase-scavenged, two-stroke engine performance estimation method (slider-crank piston motion) is developed and used to explore the influence of engine operating conditions and geometric parameters on power density and establish plausible design conditions. The minimization of small-scale effects such as enhanced heat transfer, is also explored. (author)

  6. Transition from the Lactational Amenorrhea Method to other modern family planning methods in rural Bangladesh: barrier analysis and implications for behavior change communication program intervention design. (United States)

    Kouyaté, Robin Anthony; Ahmed, Salahuddin; Haver, Jaime; McKaig, Catharine; Akter, Nargis; Nash-Mercado, Angela; Baqui, Abdullah


    The timely transition from Lactational Amenorrhea Method (LAM)(2) to another modern family planning method contributes to healthy spacing of pregnancies by increasing the adoption of family planning during the first year postpartum. Yet, literature suggests challenges in completing a timely LAM transition. To guide program implementation in Bangladesh, this study identified factors influencing women's transition decisions. Eighty postpartum women, comprising 40 who transitioned from LAM(3) and 40 who did not,(4) participated. Half of each group participated in in-depth interviews to explore the decision-making process. All participants responded to a "Barrier Analysis" questionnaire to identify differences in eight behavioral determinants. More than half of transitioners switched to another modern method before or within the same month that LAM ended. Of the 18 transitioners who delayed,(5) 15 waited for menses to return. For non-transitioners, key barriers included waiting for menses to return, misconceptions on return to fertility, and perceived lack of familial support. The LAM transition can help women prevent unintended pregnancy during the first year postpartum. Increased emphasis on counseling women about the risk of pregnancy, and misconceptions about personal fertility patterns are critical for facilitating the transition. Strategies should also include interventions that train health workers and improve social support.

  7. Drug Delivery Through the Skin: Molecular Simulations of Barrier Lipids to Design more Effective Noninvasive Dermal and Transdermal Delivery Systems for Small Molecules Biologics and Cosmetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J Torin Huzil; S Sivaloganathan; M Kohandel; M Foldvari


    The delivery of drugs through the skin provides a convenient route of administration that is often preferable to injection because it is noninvasive and can typically be self-administered. These two factors alone result in a significant reduction of medical complications and improvement in patient compliance. Unfortunately, a significant obstacle to dermal and transdermal drug delivery alike is the resilient barrier that the epidermal layers of the skin, primarily the stratum corneum, presents for the diffusion of exogenous chemical agents. Further advancement of transdermal drug delivery requires the development of novel delivery systems that are suitable for modern, macromolecular protein and nucleotide therapeutic agents. Significant effort has already been devoted to obtain a functional understanding of the physical barrier properties imparted by the epidermis, specifically the membrane structures of the stratum corneum. However, structural observations of membrane systems are often hindered by low resolutions, making it difficult to resolve the molecular mechanisms related to interactions between lipids found within the stratum corneum. Several models describing the molecular diffusion of drug molecules through the stratum corneum have now been postulated, where chemical permeation enhancers are thought to disrupt the underlying lipid structure, resulting in enhanced permeability. Recent investigations using biphasic vesicles also suggested a possibility for novel mechanisms involving the formation of complex polymorphic lipid phases. In this review, we discuss the advantages and limitations of permeation-enhancing strategies and how computational simulations, at the atomic scale, coupled with physical observations can provide insight into the mechanisms of diffusion through the stratum corneum.

  8. A Transition Radiation Experiment to Measure the Electron Beam Modulation Induced by the Free Electron Laser: A Design Study. (United States)


    a detector of the phototube, TV camera, or reticon type. The characteristics of TR that will apply to the proposed experiment are: (1) The angular...January- February 1987. 4. Colson, W.B., and A.M. Sessler, "Free Electron Lasers," Annual Review of Nuclear Particle Science, v. 35, pp. 25-54, 1985

  9. A quencher-free molecular beacon design based on pyrene excimer fluorescence using pyrene-labeled UNA (unlocked nucleic acid)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, Kasper Kannegård; Okholm, Anders Hauge; Kjems, Jørgen


    A quencher-free molecular beacon capable of generating pyrene excimer fluorescence has been constructed using strategically positioned pyrene-UNA monomers. Hybridization of a fully complementary RNA target was accompanied by a pyrene excimer emission increase of more than 900%, and detection of RNA...

  10. Extremal surface barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelhardt, Netta; Wall, Aron C. [Department of Physics, University of California,Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States)


    We present a generic condition for Lorentzian manifolds to have a barrier that limits the reach of boundary-anchored extremal surfaces of arbitrary dimension. We show that any surface with nonpositive extrinsic curvature is a barrier, in the sense that extremal surfaces cannot be continuously deformed past it. Furthermore, the outermost barrier surface has nonnegative extrinsic curvature. Under certain conditions, we show that the existence of trapped surfaces implies a barrier, and conversely. In the context of AdS/CFT, these barriers imply that it is impossible to reconstruct the entire bulk using extremal surfaces. We comment on the implications for the firewall controversy.

  11. Safety-barrier diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duijm, Nijs Jan


    are discussed. A simple method for quantification of safety-barrier diagrams is proposed, including situations where safety barriers depend on shared common elements. It is concluded that safety-barrier diagrams provide a useful framework for an electronic data structure that integrates information from risk......Safety-barrier diagrams and the related so-called "bow-tie" diagrams have become popular methods in risk analysis. This paper describes the syntax and principles for constructing consistent and valid safety-barrier diagrams. The relation with other methods such as fault trees and Bayesian networks...... analysis with operational safety management....

  12. Synthetic Eelgrass Oil Barrier (United States)

    Curtis, T. G.


    Although surviving in situ micro-organisms eventually consume spilled oil, extensive inundation of shore biota by oil requires cleanup to enable ecological recovery within normal time scales. Although effective in calm seas and quiet waters, oil is advected over and under conventional curtain oil booms by wave actions and currents when seas are running. Most sorbent booms are not reusable, and are usually disposed of in landfills, creating excessive waste. A new concept is proposed for a floating oil barrier, to be positioned off vulnerable coasts, to interdict, contain, and sequester spilled oil, which can then be recovered and the barrier reused. While conventional oil boom designs rely principally on the immiscibility of oil in water and its relative buoyancy, the new concept barrier avoids the pitfalls of the former by taking advantage of the synergistic benefits of numerous fluid and material properties, including: density, buoyancy, elasticity, polarity, and surface area to volume ratio. Modeled after Zostera marina, commonly called eelgrass, the new barrier, referred to as synthetic eelgrass (SE), behaves analogously. Eelgrass has very long narrow, ribbon-like, leaves which support periphyton, a complex matrix of algae and heterotrophic microbes, which position themselves there to extract nutrients from the seawater flowing past them. In an analogous fashion, oil on, or in, seawater, which comes in contact with SE, is adsorbed on the surface and sequestered there. Secured to the bottom, in shoal waters, SE rises to the surface, and, if the tide is low enough, floats on the sea surface down wind, or down current to snare floating oil. The leaves of SE, called filaments, consist of intrinsically buoyant strips of ethylene methyl acrylate, aka EMA. EMA, made of long chain, saturated, hydrocarbon molecules with nearly homogeneous electron charge distributions, is a non-polar material which is oleophilic and hydrophobic. Oil must be in close proximity to the

  13. 基于老年人行为特征的OTC药品包装障碍性设计%OTC Drug Packaging Barrier Design Based on Behavior Characteristics of the Elderly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Improve the elderly patients with usability for the security of the OTC medicines packaging. Based on the OTC medicines packaging and analysis of the characteristics of the elderly group behavior and the combination of u-sing inverse thinking-barrier design is put forward, to improve the safety and convenience of OTC drug packaging mainly from visual sense, other senses and man-machine design three aspects, .%为提高老年患者对OTC药品包装的安全使用性,本文通过对OTC药品包装和老年群体行为特点的分析,提出运用逆思维——障碍设计的方法进行设计,主要分别从视觉感官、其他感官及人机设计三方面,来提高OTC药品包装的安全便捷性.

  14. Synthesizing High-Quality Graphene Membranes for Engineering Diffusion Barriers (United States)

    Singha Roy, Susmit

    We demonstrate significant advances in the fundamental understanding and engineering of scalable graphene diffusion barriers. Experimental studies have established that defect-free non-scalable graphene is an excellent barrier material, however its scalable counterparts are still well behind in terms of performance. The latter's ability to perform as a barrier membrane is compromised primarily by the presence of three major problems - high density of defects, self-degradation in ambient environment and induced electrochemical oxidation of the underlying material. First, we develop an in-depth understanding of how diffusion occurs through monolayer graphene grown via chemical vapor deposition. It is shown that the atomic membrane is impenetrable in the pristine regions, however it is easily penetrated by oxygen and water at grain boundaries and intrinsic pinholes. Second, we study in detail the self-deterioration of graphene in ambient and quantify the evolution, kinetics, and energetics of the degradation process both in the pristine and intrinsically defective regions of graphene. It is also found that the degradation process is accelerated in the presence of water vapor. Third, we find that the overall defect density of a graphene membrane is primarily determined by the density of its intrinsic pinholes and grain boundaries. We demonstrate that the density on intrinsic pinholes can be significantly reduced by reducing the surface roughness of the growth substrate which is achieved by regulating the pre-growth annealing time and temperature. The density of the grain boundaries can be altered by varying the internucleation distance during the growth of the membrane. Fourth, when graphene is used as a corrosion barrier for metals, we establish that the electrochemical corrosion of the metal can be drastically reduced by adding an ultra-thin electrically insulating layer between the graphene and the metal. In addition, the barrier performance is enhanced greatly by

  15. Working Inside for Smoking Elimination (Project W.I.S.E. study design and rationale to prevent return to smoking after release from a smoke free prison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mello Jennifer


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Incarcerated individuals suffer disproportionately from the health effects of tobacco smoking due to the high smoking prevalence in this population. In addition there is an over-representation of ethnic and racial minorities, impoverished individuals, and those with mental health and drug addictions in prisons. Increasingly, prisons across the U.S. are becoming smoke free. However, relapse to smoking is common upon release from prison, approaching 90% within a few weeks. No evidence based treatments currently exist to assist individuals to remain abstinent after a period of prolonged, forced abstinence. Methods/Design This paper describes the design and rationale of a randomized clinical trial to enhance smoking abstinence rates among individuals following release from a tobacco free prison. The intervention is six weekly sessions of motivational interviewing and cognitive behavioral therapy initiated approximately six weeks prior to release from prison. The control group views six time matched videos weekly starting about six weeks prior to release. Assessments take place in-person 3 weeks after release and then for non-smokers every 3 months up to 12 months. Smoking status is confirmed by urine cotinine. Discussion Effective interventions are greatly needed to assist these individuals to remain smoke free and reduce health disparities among this socially and economically challenged group. Trial Registration NCT01122589

  16. Rational Design of Dipolar Chromophore as an Efficient Dopant-Free Hole-Transporting Material for Perovskite Solar Cells. (United States)

    Li, Zhong'an; Zhu, Zonglong; Chueh, Chu-Chen; Jo, Sae Byeok; Luo, Jingdong; Jang, Sei-Hum; Jen, Alex K-Y


    In this paper, an electron donor-acceptor (D-A) substituted dipolar chromophore (BTPA-TCNE) is developed to serve as an efficient dopant-free hole-transporting material (HTM) for perovskite solar cells (PVSCs). BTPA-TCNE is synthesized via a simple reaction between a triphenylamine-based Michler's base and tetracyanoethylene. This chromophore possesses a zwitterionic resonance structure in the ground state, as evidenced by X-ray crystallography and transient absorption spectroscopies. Moreover, BTPA-TCNE shows an antiparallel molecular packing (i.e., centrosymmetric dimers) in its crystalline state, which cancels out its overall molecular dipole moment to facilitate charge transport. As a result, BTPA-TCNE can be employed as an effective dopant-free HTM to realize an efficient (PCE ≈ 17.0%) PVSC in the conventional n-i-p configuration, outperforming the control device with doped spiro-OMeTAD HTM.

  17. Advancements in subsurface barrier wall technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mutch, R.D. Jr.; Ash, R.E. IV; Caputi, J.R. [Eckenfelder Inc., Mahwah, NJ (United States)


    Subsurface barrier walls have been an important component of site remediation efforts for nearly thirty years. However, until the last decade, limited design options were available for barrier wall construction. Most barrier walls were constructed using traditional technologies such as soil-bentonite slurry trench and, in some instances, conventional compacted clay. While other technologies certainly existed, such as vibrating beam and sheet pile walls, they represented a minor share of the remediation market. Today the remediation engineer considering a subsurface barrier wall-based remediation is confronted with a baffling array, of new technologies and permutations of these technologies. Moreover, new technologies are entering the marketplace seemingly on a monthly basis. A partial listing of available barrier wall technologies is presented.

  18. Barriers to physical activity among working mothers. (United States)

    Dombrowski, Jill J


    Working mothers experience several barriers to physical activity. If these barriers can be identified by occupational health nurses and they can partner with working mothers to reduce these perceived barriers, the health of these workers can be improved and chronic disease risk prevented. The purpose of this study was to measure the effect of self-regulatory efficacy on physical activity among working mothers and to describe specific barriers to physical activity. The Barriers Specific Self-Efficacy Scale (BARSE) and the Kaiser Physical Activity Survey (KPAS) were used to measure the variables. Self-regulatory efficacy was found to be a strong predictor of physical activity in a diverse sample of working mothers who did not meet current recommendations for physical activity. Occupational health nurses can use these findings to design programs for groups and for counseling individuals.

  19. Planar doped barrier subharmonic mixers (United States)

    Lee, T. H.; East, J. R.; Haddad, G. I.


    The Planar Doped Barrier (PDB) diode is a device consisting of a p(+) doping spike between two intrinsic layers and n(+) ohmic contacts. This device has the advantages of controllable barrier height, diode capacitance and forward to reverse current ratio. A symmetrically designed PDB has an anti-symmetric current vs. voltage characteristic and is ideal for use as millimeter wave subharmonic mixers. We have fabricated such devices with barrier heights of 0.3, 0.5 and 0.7 volts from GaAs and InGaAs using a multijunction honeycomb structure with junction diameters between one and ten microns. Initial RF measurements are encouraging. The 0.7 volt barrier height 4 micron GaAs devices were tested as subharmonic mixers at 202 GHz with an IF frequency of 1 GHz and had 18 dB of conversion loss. The estimated mismatch loss was 7 dB and was due to higher diode capacitance. The LO frequency was 100.5 GHz and the pump power was 8 mW.

  20. Detour Behavior of Mice Trained with Transparent, Semitransparent and Opaque Barriers (United States)

    Juszczak, Grzegorz R.; Miller, Michal


    Detour tasks are commonly used to study problem solving skills and inhibitory control in canids and primates. However, there is no comparable detour test designed for rodents despite its significance for studying the development of executive skills. Furthermore, mice offer research opportunities that are not currently possible to achieve when primates are used. Therefore, the aim of the study was to translate the classic detour task to mice and to compare obtained data with key findings obtained previously in other mammals. The experiment was performed with V-shaped barriers and was based on the water escape paradigm. The study showed that an apparently simple task requiring mice to move around a small barrier constituted in fact a challenge that was strongly affected by the visibility of the target. The most difficult task involved a completely transparent barrier, which forced the mice to resolve a conflict between vision and tactile perception. The performance depended both on the inhibitory skills and on previous experiences. Additionally, all mice displayed a preference for one side of the barrier and most of them relied on the egocentric strategy. Obtained results show for the first time that the behavior of mice subjected to the detour task is comparable to the behavior of other mammals tested previously with free-standing barriers. This detailed characterization of the detour behavior of mice constitutes the first step toward the substitution of rodents for primates in laboratory experiments employing the detour task. PMID:27588753

  1. Barriers to screening mammography. (United States)

    Sarma, Elizabeth A


    Breast cancer (BRCA) is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer among women in the USA, and mammography is an effective means for the early detection of BRCA. Identifying the barriers to screening mammography can inform research, policy and practice aiming to increase mammography adherence. A literature review was conducted to determine common barriers to screening mammography adherence. PsycINFO and PubMed databases were searched to identify studies published between 2000 and 2012 that examined barriers associated with reduced mammography adherence. Three thematic groups of barriers, based on social ecology, were identified from the literature: healthcare system-level, social and individual-level barriers. Researchers must consider screening behaviour in context and, therefore, should simultaneously consider each level of barriers when attempting to understand screening behaviour and create interventions to increase mammography adherence.

  2. Delayad Mandibular Reconstruction with Free Fibular Flap Using Rapid Prototype Modeling and Virtual Surgery Designing: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Abadi


    Full Text Available At present, mandibular reconstruction using free fibular flap (FFF is the gold standard to restore esthetic and functional demands after ablative oncological surgery. Mandible complex anatomy creates a great challenge for surgeon to rehabilitate its form and function with a linear fibula bone. In recent year's innovation of 3Dprinter and rapid prototype modelling (RPM has increased these standards and resulted in patient specific reconstruction. Because of requiring delicate technical procedure and manufacturing technology , these methods are not widely used and review of literature shows this case report present the first application of RPM technology for delayed mandibular reconstruction in middle east countries .

  3. Optimal design of a new spatial 3-DOF parallel robot with respect to a frame-free index

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Optimal design is one of the most important issues in robots. Since the very beginning, the concepts of the Jacobian matrix, manipulability and condition number, which are used successfully in the field of serial robots, have been applied to parallel robots. Unlike serial robots, parallel robots are good for motion/force transmission. Their performance evaluation and design should be correspondingly dif- ferent. This paper is an attempt to optimally design a novel spatial three-degree-of-freedom (3-DOF) parallel robot by using the concept of motion/force transmission. Accordingly, three indices are defined. The suggested indices are independent of any coordinate frame and could be applied to the analysis and design of a parallel robot whose singularities can be identified wholly by using the relative angle between the output and adjacent links, and by using the relative angle between the input and adjacent links.

  4. Optimal design of a new spatial 3-DOF parallel robot with respect to a frame-free index

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG JinSong; LIU XinJun; WU Chao


    Optimal design is one of the most important issues in robots. Since the very beginning, the concepts of the Jacobian matrix, manipulability and condition number, which are used successfully in the field of serial robots, have been applied to parallel robots. Unlike serial robots, parallel robots are good for motion/force transmission. Their performance evaluation and design should be correspondingly different. This paper is an attempt to optimally design a novel spatial three-degree-of-freedom (3-DOF)parallel robot by using the concept of motion/force transmission. Accordingly, three indices are defined.The suggested indices are independent of any coordinate frame and could be applied to the analysis and design of a parallel robot whose singularities can be identified wholly by using the relative angle between the output and adjacent links, and by using the relative angle between the input and adjacent links.

  5. Controllable fabrication of large-area 2D colloidal crystal masks with large size defect-free domains based on statistical experimental design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Yajuan, E-mail:; Jönsson, Pär Göran; Zhao, Zhe, E-mail:


    Highlights: • 3000 μm{sup 2} defect-free HCP domain was successfully synthesized. • Relative humidity (RH) as well as the first rotational speed (v{sub a}) of the dual-speed procedure was identified as the quality-control parameters in spin coating. • 23% RH and v{sub a} = 1000 rpm were identified as the optimistic spin coating processing parameters for SiO{sub 2} HCP monolayer. • Statistical experimental design was demonstrated as one efficient strategy for multi-factor processing optimization. - Abstract: A large-area hexagonal packed monolayer of silica spheres with consistent defect-free domains of a size larger than 3000 μm{sup 2} was prepared by spin coating on glass substrates with the assistance of experimental design and statistical analysis. The ratio of the defect-free monolayer area to the square of sphere diameter is nearly two times of the previously reported maximum values. Several parameters involved in the spin coating systems were investigated. The results indicated that the relative humidity and the rotational speed of the first step of the spin coating had the most important impact on the ordering degree of the prepared monolayer. Furthermore, the ordering degree of the obtained monolayer increased with a decreased relative humidity. In addition, it reached an optimal value when the first rotational speed during spin coating reached a value of 1000 rpm. From this study, it can be concluded that statistical experimental design is an efficient strategy, especially for multi-factor phenomenon studies.

  6. Characterization of Promiscuous Binding of Phosphor Ligands to Breast-Cancer-Gene 1 (BRCA1) C-Terminal (BRCT): Molecular Dynamics, Free Energy, Entropy and Inhibitor Design. (United States)

    You, Wanli; Huang, Yu-Ming M; Kizhake, Smitha; Natarajan, Amarnath; Chang, Chia-En A


    Inhibition of the protein-protein interaction (PPI) mediated by breast-cancer-gene 1 C-terminal (BRCT) is an attractive strategy to sensitize breast and ovarian cancers to chemotherapeutic agents that induce DNA damage. Such inhibitors could also be used for studies to understand the role of this PPI in DNA damage response. However, design of BRCT inhibitors is challenging because of the inherent flexibility associated with this domain. Several studies identified short phosphopeptides as tight BRCT binders. Here we investigated the thermodynamic properties of 18 phosphopeptides or peptide with phosphate mimic and three compounds with phosphate groups binding to BRCT to understand promiscuous molecular recognition and guide inhibitor design. We performed molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to investigate the interactions between inhibitors and BRCT and their dynamic behavior in the free and bound states. MD simulations revealed the key role of loops in altering the shape and size of the binding site to fit various ligands. The mining minima (M2) method was used for calculating binding free energy to explore the driving forces and the fine balance between configuration entropy loss and enthalpy gain. We designed a rigidified ligand, which showed unfavorable experimental binding affinity due to weakened enthalpy. This was because it lacked the ability to rearrange itself upon binding. Investigation of another phosphate group containing compound, C1, suggested that the entropy loss can be reduced by preventing significant narrowing of the energy well and introducing multiple new compound conformations in the bound states. From our computations, we designed an analog of C1 that introduced new intermolecular interactions to strengthen attractions while maintaining small entropic penalty. This study shows that flexible compounds do not always encounter larger entropy penalty, compared with other more rigid binders, and highlights a new strategy for inhibitor design.

  7. Binding Free Energy Calculations for Lead Optimization: Assessment of Their Accuracy in an Industrial Drug Design Context. (United States)

    Homeyer, Nadine; Stoll, Friederike; Hillisch, Alexander; Gohlke, Holger


    Correctly ranking compounds according to their computed relative binding affinities will be of great value for decision making in the lead optimization phase of industrial drug discovery. However, the performance of existing computationally demanding binding free energy calculation methods in this context is largely unknown. We analyzed the performance of the molecular mechanics continuum solvent, the linear interaction energy (LIE), and the thermodynamic integration (TI) approach for three sets of compounds from industrial lead optimization projects. The data sets pose challenges typical for this early stage of drug discovery. None of the methods was sufficiently predictive when applied out of the box without considering these challenges. Detailed investigations of failures revealed critical points that are essential for good binding free energy predictions. When data set-specific features were considered accordingly, predictions valuable for lead optimization could be obtained for all approaches but LIE. Our findings lead to clear recommendations for when to use which of the above approaches. Our findings also stress the important role of expert knowledge in this process, not least for estimating the accuracy of prediction results by TI, using indicators such as the size and chemical structure of exchanged groups and the statistical error in the predictions. Such knowledge will be invaluable when it comes to the question which of the TI results can be trusted for decision making.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王庭佛; 冯苗锋; 徐剑


    为控制高架道路交通噪声的影响,南京市应天大街纬七路西延高架道路上安装了一条总长度764m的全封闭声屏障。该长度的全封闭声屏障在城市高架道路上实施在国内尚属首例。简要介绍该声屏障的工程概况,重点阐述了该声屏障的声学、建筑、结构的设计和施工情况,以供类似工程参考。%This article generally introduces the design and construction of a sealed sound barrier for the viaduct in Nanjing, whose length is 764 m. It also explains the acoustics design, architectural design, the structure design, construction and the main technical problems during the installation.

  9. Frozen soil barriers for hazardous waste confinement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dash, J.G.; Leger, R. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Fu, H.Y. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)


    Laboratory and full field measurements have demonstrated the effectiveness of artificial ground freezing for the containment of subsurface hazardous and radioactive wastes. Bench tests and a field demonstration have shown that cryogenic barriers are impenetrable to aqueous and non aqueous liquids. As a result of the successful tests the US Department of Energy has designated frozen ground barriers as one of its top ten remediation technologies.

  10. Design and operation of a rotating drum radio frequency plasma reactor for the modification of free nanoparticles. (United States)

    Shearer, Jeffrey C; Fisher, Ellen R


    A rotating drum rf plasma reactor was designed to functionalize the surface of nanoparticles and other unusually shaped substrates through plasma polymerization and surface modification. This proof-of-concept reactor design utilizes plasma polymerized allyl alcohol to add OH functionality to Fe2O3 nanoparticles. The reactor design is adaptable to current plasma hardware, eliminating the need for an independent reactor setup. Plasma polymerization performed on Si wafers, Fe2O3 nanoparticles supported on Si wafers, and freely rotating Fe2O3 nanoparticles demonstrated the utility of the reactor for a multitude of processes. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were used to characterize the surface of the substrates prior to and after plasma deposition, and scanning electron microscopy was used to verify that no extensive change in the size or shape of the nanoparticles occurred because of the rotating motion of the reactor. The reactor design was also extended to a non-depositing NH3 plasma modification system to demonstrate the reactor design is effective for multiple plasma processes.

  11. Nutritional and sensory characteristics of gluten-free quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd)-based cookies development using an experimental mixture design. (United States)

    Brito, Isabelle L; de Souza, Evandro Leite; Felex, Suênia Samara Santos; Madruga, Marta Suely; Yamashita, Fábio; Magnani, Marciane


    The aim of this study was to develop a gluten-free formulation of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)-based cookies using experimental design of mixture to optimize a ternary mixture of quinoa flour, quinoa flakes and corn starch for parameters of colour, specific volume and hardness. Nutritional and sensory aspects of the optimized formulation were also assessed. Corn starch had a positive effect on the lightness of the cookies, but increased amounts of quinoa flour and quinoa flakes in the mixture resulted in darker product. Quinoa flour showed a negative effect on the specific volume, producing less bulky cookies, and quinoa flour and quinoa flakes had a positive synergistic effect on the hardness of the cookies. According the results and considering the desirability profile for colour, hardness and specific volume in gluten-free cookies, the optimized formulation contains 30 % quinoa flour, 25 % quinoa flakes and 45 % corn starch. The quinoa-based cookie obtained was characterized as a product rich in dietary fibre, a good source of essential amino acids, linolenic acid and minerals, with good sensory acceptability. These findings reports for the first time the application of quinoa processed as flour and flakes in mixture with corn starch as an alternative ingredient for formulations of gluten-free cookies-type biscuits.

  12. Barriers and Facilitators to Being Physically Active on a Rural U.S. Northern Plains American Indian Reservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Jahns


    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to identify barriers to and facilitators of physical activity among American Indian adults living on a rural, U.S. Northern Plains reservation using the nominal group technique (NGT. NGT is a method of data generation and interpretation that combines aspects of qualitative (free generation of responses and quantitative (systematic ranking of responses methodologies. Adults participated in one of two NGT sessions asking about either barriers to (n = 6, or facilitators of (n = 5, being physically active. Participants nominated and ranked 21 barriers and 18 facilitators. Barriers indicated lack of knowledge of how to fit physical activity into a daily schedule, work, caring for family members, and prioritizing sedentary pursuits. Other responses included environmental barriers such as lack of access and transportation to a gym, unsafe walking conditions, and inclement weather. Facilitators to following recommendations included knowledge of health benefits of physical activity and the perception of physical activity as enjoyable, including feeling good when working out. Environmental facilitators included being outdoors walking and biking as well as parks and exercise facilities. Responses provided direction for locally designed community-based programs to promote facilitators and decrease barriers to individual’s engagement in physical activity.

  13. Significance of membrane bioreactor design on the biocatalytic performance of glucose oxidase and catalase: Free vs. immobilized enzyme systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morthensen, Sofie Thage; Meyer, Anne S.; Jørgensen, Henning;


    Membrane separation of xylose and glucose can be accomplished via oxidation of glucose to gluconic acid by enzymatic glucose oxidase catalysis. Oxygen for this reaction can be supplied via decomposition of hydrogen peroxide by enzymatic catalase catalysis. In order to maximize the biocatalytic...... productivity of glucose oxidase and catalase (gluconic acid yield per total amount of enzyme) the following system set-ups were compared: immobilization of glucose oxidase alone; co-immobilization of glucose oxidase and catalase; glucose oxidase and catalase free in the membrane bioreactor. Fouling......-induced enzyme immobilization in the porous support of an ultrafiltration membrane was used as strategy for entrapment of glucose oxidase and catalase. The biocatalytic productivity of the membrane reactor was found to be highly related to the oxygen availability, which in turn depended on the reactor...

  14. 99mTc complex conjugated to insulin: CNS radio-pharmaceuticals design based on principles of blood-brain barrier transport vector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Fei; FAN Caiyun; ZHANG Jinming; WANG Wushang; LIU Boli


    Hydrophilic 99mTc-EC and nonlipophilic 99mTc- MAMA′-BA complexes, owing to the existing of intact blood-brain barrier (BBB) in vivo, cannot cross from blood to brain. Previous studies showed that insulin is selectively transported by receptor-mediated transcytosis through the brain capillary endothelial wall that makes up the BBB. In this paper, based on the characteristic of the insulin receptor enriched in brain capillary, the complexes of hydrophilic 99mTc-EC and nonlipophilic 99mTc-MAMA′-BA are conjugated to insulin respectively. After purification, the radiochemical purity of 99mTc-EC-insulin and 99mTc-MAMA′- BA-insulin was > 90% and the stability in vitro was good. Expectation for the special formulation can be internalized and endocytosed into the capillary membrane by the vector-mediated brain delivery system, and transported 99mTc-labeled conjugate through the BBB in vivo, thus enhancing brain uptake in mice. The biodistribution results of 99mTc-EC-insulin and 99mTc-MAMA′-BA-insulin in mice indicated that the brain uptake was higher than 99mTc-EC and 99mTc-MAMA′-BA to some extent. The ratios of brain uptake of 99mTc-EC-insulin to 99mTc-EC, 99mTc-MAMA′-BA-insulin to 99mTc-MAMA′-BA were 4―6 at 2 and 3 h post-injection respectively. In conclusion, the given results have illustrated a new way of brain uptake enhancing for nonlipophilic like complexes that have BBB delivery problems. It has a potential value for the ongoing development of 99mTc-labeled radiopharmaceuticals for CNS receptors imaging.

  15. Design challenges and guidelines for free-space optical communication links using orbital-angular-momentum multiplexing of multiple beams (United States)

    Willner, Alan E.; Xie, Guodong; Li, Long; Ren, Yongxiong; Yan, Yan; Ahmed, Nisar; Zhao, Zhe; Wang, Zhe; Liu, Cong; Willner, Asher J.; Ashrafi, Nima; Ashrafi, Solyman; Tur, Moshe; Molisch, Andreas F.


    In this paper, recent studies on the potential challenges for an orbital angular momentum (OAM) multiplexing system were reviewed. The design guideline for a practical OAM multiplexing system were investigated in term of (i) the power loss due to the beam divergence and limited-size receiver, and (ii) the channel crosstalk due to the misalignment between the transmitter and receiver.

  16. Benign by design: catalyst-free in-water, on-water green chemical methodologies in organic synthesis (United States)

    The development of organic synthesis under sustainable conditions is a primary goal of practicing green chemists who want to prevent pollution and design safer pathways. Although, it is challenging to avoid the use of catalysts, or solvents in all the organic reactions but progre...

  17. Converse Barrier Certificate Theorems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafael; Sloth, Christoffer


    This paper shows that a barrier certificate exists for any safe dynamical system. Specifically, we prove converse barrier certificate theorems for a class of structurally stable dynamical systems. Other authors have developed a related result by assuming that the dynamical system has neither sing...

  18. Skin barrier function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    Renowned experts present the latest knowledge Although a very fragile structure, the skin barrier is probably one of the most important organs of the body. Inward/out it is responsible for body integrity and outward/in for keeping microbes, chemicals, and allergens from penetrating the skin. Since...... the role of barrier integrity in atopic dermatitis and the relationship to filaggrin mutations was discovered a decade ago, research focus has been on the skin barrier, and numerous new publications have become available. This book is an interdisciplinary update offering a wide range of information...... on the subject. It covers new basic research on skin markers, including results on filaggrin and on methods for the assessment of the barrier function. Biological variation and aspects of skin barrier function restoration are discussed as well. Further sections are dedicated to clinical implications of skin...

  19. Design and development of plasmonic nanostructured electrodes for ITO-free organic photovoltaic cells on rigid and highly-flexible substrates. (United States)

    Richardson, Beau; Zhu, Leize; Yu, Qiuming


    Indium tin oxide (ITO) is the most common transparent electrode used in organic photovoltaics (OPVs), yet limited indium reserves and poor mechanical properties make it non-ideal for large-scale OPV production. To replace ITO, we designed, fabricated, and deployed plasmonic nanostructured electrodes in inverted OPV devices. We found that active layer absorption is significantly impacted by ZnO thickness which affects the optical field distribution inside the resonant cavity formed between the plasmonic nanostructured electrode and top electrode. High quality Cr/Au nanostructured electrodes were fabricated by nanoimprint lithography and deployed in ITO-free inverted devices on glass. Devices with thinner ZnO showed a PCE as high as 5.70% and higher JSC's than devices on thicker ZnO, in agreement with Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) simulations. In addition, as the active layer was made optically thin, ITO-based devices showed diminished JSC while the resonant cavity effect from plasmonic nanostructured electrodes retained JSC. Preliminary ITO-free, flexible devices on PET showed a PCE of 1.82% and those fabricated on ultrathin and conformable Parylene substrates yielded an initial PCE over 1%. The plasmonic electrodes and device designs in this work show promise for developing highly functioning conformable devices that can be applied to numerous needs for lightweight, ubiquitous power generation.

  20. 41 CFR 102-76.60 - To which facilities does the Architectural Barriers Act apply? (United States)


    ... PROPERTY 76-DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION Architectural Barriers Act § 102-76.60 To which facilities does the Architectural Barriers Act apply? (a) The Architectural Barriers Act applies to any facility that is intended... the Architectural Barriers Act apply? 102-76.60 Section 102-76.60 Public Contracts and...

  1. Optical system design of a speckle-free ultrafast Red-Green-Blue (RGB) source based on angularly multiplexed second harmonic generation from a TZDW source (United States)

    Yao, Yuhong; Knox, Wayne H.


    We report the optical system design of a novel speckle-free ultrafast Red-Green-Blue (RGB) source based on angularly multiplexed simultaneous second harmonic generation from the efficiently generated Stokes and anti-Stokes pulses from a commercially available photonic crystal fiber (PCF) with two zero dispersion wavelengths (TZDW). We describe the optimized configuration of the TZDW fiber source which supports excitations of dual narrow-band pulses with peak wavelengths at 850 nm, 1260 nm and spectral bandwidths of 23 nm, 26 nm, respectively within 12 cm of commercially available TZDW PCF. The conversion efficiencies are as high as 44% and 33% from the pump source (a custom-built Yb:fiber master-oscillator-power-amplifier). As a result of the nonlinear dynamics of propagation, the dual pulses preserve their ultrashort pulse width (with measured autocorrelation traces of 200 fs and 227 fs,) which eliminates the need for dispersion compensation before harmonic generation. With proper optical design of the free-space harmonic generation system, we achieve milli-Watt power level red, green and blue pulses at 630 nm, 517 nm and 425 nm. Having much broader spectral bandwidths compared to picosecond RGB laser sources, the source is inherently speckle-free due to the ultra-short coherence length (99.4% excitation purities of the three primaries, leading to the coverage of 192% NTSC color gamut (CIE 1976). The reported RGB source features a very simple system geometry, its potential for power scaling is discussed with currently available technologies.


    A 46 m long, 7.3 m deep, and 0.6 m wide permeable subsurface reactive wall was installed at the U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) Support Center, near Elizabeth City, North Carolina, in June 1996. The reactive wall was designed to remediate hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] contaminated ground ...

  3. Statistical design and analysis of label-free LC-MS proteomic experiments: a case study of coronary artery disease. (United States)

    Clough, Timothy; Braun, Siegmund; Fokin, Vladimir; Ott, Ilka; Ragg, Susanne; Schadow, Gunther; Vitek, Olga


    This chapter presents a case study, which applies statistical design and analysis to an LC-MS-based -investigation of subjects with coronary artery disease. First, we discuss the principles of statistical -experimental design, and the specification of an Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) model that describes the major sources of variation in the data. Second, we discuss procedures for detecting differentially abundant proteins, estimating protein abundance in individual samples, testing predefined groups of proteins for enrichment in differential abundance, and calculating sample size for a future experiment. The discussion is accompanied by examples of computer code implemented in the open-source statistical software R, which can be followed for an independent implementation of a similar investigation.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. K. D. Aranas


    Full Text Available The Philippines’s PHL-Microsat program aims to launch its first earth observation satellite, DIWATA, on the first quarter of 2016. DIWATA’s payload consists of a high-precision telescope (HPT, spaceborne multispectral imager (SMI with liquid crystal tunable filter (LCTF, and a wide field camera (WFC. Once launched, it will provide information about the Philippines, both for disaster and environmental applications. Depending on the need, different remote sensing products will be generated from the microsatellite sensors. This necessitates data processing capability on the ground control segment. Rather than rely on commercial turnkey solutions, the PHL-Microsat team, specifically Project 3:DPAD, opted to design its own ground receiving station data subsystems. This paper describes the design of the data subsystems of the ground receiving station (GRS for DIWATA. The data subsystems include: data processing subsystem for automatic calibration and georeferencing of raw images as well as the generation of higher level processed data products; data archiving subsystem for storage and backups of both raw and processed data products; and data distribution subsystem for providing a web-based interface and product download facility for the user community. The design covers the conceptual design of the abovementioned subsystems, the free and open source software (FOSS packages used to implement them, and the challenges encountered in adapting the existing FOSS packages to DIWATA GRS requirements.

  5. Design of a Free and Open Source Data Processing, Archiving, and Distribution Subsystem for the Ground Receiving Station of the Philippine Scientific Earth Observation Micro-Satellite (United States)

    Aranas, R. K. D.; Jiao, B. J. D.; Magallon, B. J. P.; Ramos, M. K. F.; Amado, J. A.; Tamondong, A. M.; Tupas, M. E. A.


    The Philippines's PHL-Microsat program aims to launch its first earth observation satellite, DIWATA, on the first quarter of 2016. DIWATA's payload consists of a high-precision telescope (HPT), spaceborne multispectral imager (SMI) with liquid crystal tunable filter (LCTF), and a wide field camera (WFC). Once launched, it will provide information about the Philippines, both for disaster and environmental applications. Depending on the need, different remote sensing products will be generated from the microsatellite sensors. This necessitates data processing capability on the ground control segment. Rather than rely on commercial turnkey solutions, the PHL-Microsat team, specifically Project 3:DPAD, opted to design its own ground receiving station data subsystems. This paper describes the design of the data subsystems of the ground receiving station (GRS) for DIWATA. The data subsystems include: data processing subsystem for automatic calibration and georeferencing of raw images as well as the generation of higher level processed data products; data archiving subsystem for storage and backups of both raw and processed data products; and data distribution subsystem for providing a web-based interface and product download facility for the user community. The design covers the conceptual design of the abovementioned subsystems, the free and open source software (FOSS) packages used to implement them, and the challenges encountered in adapting the existing FOSS packages to DIWATA GRS requirements.

  6. Cure Cycle Design Methodology for Fabricating Reactive Resin Matrix Fiber Reinforced Composites: A Protocol for Producing Void-free Quality Laminates (United States)

    Hou, Tan-Hung


    For the fabrication of resin matrix fiber reinforced composite laminates, a workable cure cycle (i.e., temperature and pressure profiles as a function of processing time) is needed and is critical for achieving void-free laminate consolidation. Design of such a cure cycle is not trivial, especially when dealing with reactive matrix resins. An empirical "trial and error" approach has been used as common practice in the composite industry. Such an approach is not only costly, but also ineffective at establishing the optimal processing conditions for a specific resin/fiber composite system. In this report, a rational "processing science" based approach is established, and a universal cure cycle design protocol is proposed. Following this protocol, a workable and optimal cure cycle can be readily and rationally designed for most reactive resin systems in a cost effective way. This design protocol has been validated through experimental studies of several reactive polyimide composites for a wide spectrum of usage that has been documented in the previous publications.

  7. Design and evaluation of lipoprotein resembling curcumin-encapsulated protein-free nanostructured lipid carrier for brain targeting. (United States)

    Meng, Fanfei; Asghar, Sajid; Xu, Yurui; Wang, Jianping; Jin, Xin; Wang, Zhilin; Wang, Jing; Ping, Qineng; Zhou, Jianping; Xiao, Yanyu


    Many nanoparticle matrixes have been demonstrated to be efficient in brain targeting, but there are still certain limitations for them. To overcome the shortcomings of the existing nanoparticulate systems for brain-targeted delivery, a lipoprotein resembling protein-free nanostructured lipid carrier (PS80-NLC) loaded with curcumin was constructed and assessed for in vitro and in vivo performance. Firstly, single factor at a time approach was employed to investigate the effects of various formulation factors. Mean particle sizes of ≤100nm, high entrapment efficiency (EE, about 95%) and drug loading (DL, >3%) were obtained for the optimized formulations. In vitro release studies in the presence of plasma indicated stability of the formulation under physiological condition. Compared with NLC, PS80-NLC showed noticeably higher affinity for bEnd.3 cells (1.56 folds greater than NLC) but with lower uptake in macrophages. The brain coronal sections showed strong and widely distributed fluorescence intensity of PS80-NLC than that of NLC in the cortex. Ex vivo imaging studies further confirmed that PS80-NLC could effectively permeate BBB and preferentially accumulate in the brain (2.38 times greater than NLC). The considerable in vitro and in vivo performance of the safe and biocompatible PS80-NLC makes it a suitable option for further investigations in brain targeted drug delivery.

  8. Design of a chatter-free terminal sliding mode controller for nonlinear fractional-order dynamical systems (United States)

    Pourmahmood Aghababa, Mohammad


    This paper investigates the problem of robust control of nonlinear fractional-order dynamical systems in the presence of uncertainties. First, a novel switching surface is proposed and its finite-time stability to the origin is proved. Subsequently, using the sliding mode theory, a robust fractional control law is proposed to ensure the existence of the sliding motion in finite time. We use a fractional Lyapunov stability theory to prove the stability of the system in a given finite time. In order to avoid the chattering, which is inherent in conventional sliding mode controllers, we transfer the sign function of the control input into the fractional derivative of the control signal. The proposed chattering-free sliding mode technique is then applied for stabilisation of a broad class of three-dimensional fractional-order chaotic systems via a single variable driving control input. Simulation results reveal that the proposed fractional sliding mode controller works well for chaos control of fractional-order hyperchaotic Chen, chaotic Lorenz and chaotic Arneodo systems with no-chatter control inputs.

  9. Numerical simulations of capillary barrier field tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, C.E. [Univ. of Wollongong (Australia); Stormont, J.C. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    Numerical simulations of two capillary barrier systems tested in the field were conducted to determine if an unsaturated flow model could accurately represent the observed results. The field data was collected from two 7-m long, 1.2-m thick capillary barriers built on a 10% grade that were being tested to investigate their ability to laterally divert water downslope. One system had a homogeneous fine layer, while the fine soil of the second barrier was layered to increase its ability to laterally divert infiltrating moisture. The barriers were subjected first to constant infiltration while minimizing evaporative losses and then were exposed to ambient conditions. The continuous infiltration period of the field tests for the two barrier systems was modelled to determine the ability of an existing code to accurately represent capillary barrier behavior embodied in these two designs. Differences between the field test and the model data were found, but in general the simulations appeared to adequately reproduce the response of the test systems. Accounting for moisture retention hysteresis in the layered system will potentially lead to more accurate modelling results and is likely to be important when developing reasonable predictions of capillary barrier behavior.

  10. HgCdTe barrier infrared detectors (United States)

    Kopytko, M.; Rogalski, A.


    In the last decade, new strategies to achieve high-operating temperature (HOT) detectors have been proposed, including barrier structures such as nBn devices, unipolar barrier photodiodes, and multistage (cascade) infrared detectors. The ability to tune the positions of the conduction and valence band edges independently in a broken-gap type-II superlattices is especially helpful in the design of unipolar barriers. This idea has been also implemented in HgCdTe ternary material system. However, the implementation of this detector structure in HgCdTe material system is not straightforward due to the existence of a valence band discontinuity (barrier) at the absorber-barrier interface. In this paper we present status of HgCdTe barrier detectors with emphasis on technological progress in fabrication of MOCVD-grown HgCdTe barrier detectors achieved recently at the Institute of Applied Physics, Military University of Technology. Their performance is comparable with state-of-the-art of HgCdTe photodiodes. From the perspective of device fabrication their important technological advantage results from less stringent surface passivation requirements and tolerance to threading dislocations.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-yang Ma; Xin-hua Wan; Xiao-fang Chen; Qi-feng Zhou


    Two new chiral ionic liquids, 1-((-)-menthoxycarbonylmethylene)-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate and l-((-)-menthoxycarbonylmethylene)-3-hexadecylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate, were designed and prepared. Their chemical structures were characterized by 1H-NMR. Reverse atom transfer radical polymerization of methyl methacrylate(MMA) in these two ionic liquids was carried out using AIBN/CuC12/bipy as the initiating system. The resultant well-defined polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) was employed as a macroinitiator to induce the atom transfer radical polymerization of menthyl methacrylate (MnMA) in chlorobenzene, which yielded a PMMA-b-PMnMA diblock copolymer with narrow polydispersity.

  12. Thermodynamic geometry of minimum-dissipation driven barrier crossing (United States)

    Sivak, David A.; Crooks, Gavin E.


    We explore the thermodynamic geometry of a simple system that models the bistable dynamics of nucleic acid hairpins in single molecule force-extension experiments. Near equilibrium, optimal (minimum-dissipation) driving protocols are governed by a generalized linear response friction coefficient. Our analysis demonstrates that the friction coefficient of the driving protocols is sharply peaked at the interface between metastable regions, which leads to minimum-dissipation protocols that drive rapidly within a metastable basin, but then linger longest at the interface, giving thermal fluctuations maximal time to kick the system over the barrier. Intuitively, the same principle applies generically in free energy estimation (both in steered molecular dynamics simulations and in single-molecule experiments), provides a design principle for the construction of thermodynamically efficient coupling between stochastic objects, and makes a prediction regarding the construction of evolved biomolecular motors.

  13. The Mammalian Brain in the Electromagnetic Fields Designed by Man with Special Reference to Blood-Brain Barrier Function, Neuronal Damage and Possible Physical Mechanisms (United States)

    Salford, L. G.; Nittby, H.; Brun, A.; Grafström, G.; Malmgren, L.; Sommarin, M.; Eberhardt, J.; Widegren, B.; Persson, B. R.

    Life on earth was formed during billions of years, exposed to,and shaped by the original physical forces such as gravitation, cosmic irradiation, atmospheric electric fields and the terrestrial magnetism. The Schumann resonances at 7.4 Hz are an example of oscillations possibly important for life. The existing organisms are created to function in harmony with these forces. However, in the late 19th century mankind introduced the use of electricity, in the early 20th century long-wave radio and in the 1940-ies short-wave radio. High frequency RF was introduced in the 50-ies as FM and television and during the very last decades, microwaves of the modern communication society spread around the world. Today, however, one third of the world's population is owner of the microwave-producing mobile phones and an even larger number is exposed to the cordless RF emitting systems. To what extent are all living organisms affected by these, almost everywhere present radio freque ncy fields? And what will be the effects of many years of continuing exposure? Since 1988 our group has studied the effects upon the mammalian blood-brain barrier (BBB) in rats by non-thermal radio frequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF). These have been shown to cause significantly increased leakage of the rats' own blood albumin through the BBB of exposed rats, at energy levels of 1W/kg and below, as compared to non-exposed animals in a total series of about two thousand animals.-6)} One remarkable observation is the fact that the lowest energy levels, with whole-body average power densities below 10mW/kg, give rise to the most pronounced albumin leakage. If mobile communication, even at extremely low energy levels, causes the users' own albumin to leak out through the BBB, also other unwanted and toxic molecules in the blood, may leak into the brain tissue and concentrate in and damage the neurons and glial cells of the brain. In later studies we have shown that a 2-h exposure to GSM 915 MHz, at

  14. Investigation of the Mechanical Performance of Compliant Thermal Barriers (United States)

    DeMange, Jeffrey J.; Bott, Robert J.; Dunlap, Patrick H.


    Compliant thermal barriers play a pivotal role in the thermal protection systems of advanced aerospace vehicles. Both the thermal properties and mechanical performance of these barriers are critical in determining their successful implementation. Due to the custom nature of many thermal barriers, designers of advanced spacecraft have little guidance as to the design, selection, and implementation of these elements. As part of an effort to develop a more fundamental understanding of the interrelationship between thermal barrier design and performance, mechanical testing of thermal barriers was conducted. Two different types of thermal barriers with several core insulation density levels ranging from 62 to 141 kg/cu m were investigated. Room-temperature compression tests were conducted on samples to determine load performance and assess thermal barrier resiliency. Results showed that the loading behavior of these thermal barriers was similar to other porous, low-density, compliant materials, such as elastomeric foams. Additionally, the insulation density level had a significant non-linear impact on the stiffness and peak loads of the thermal barriers. In contrast, neither the thermal barrier type nor the level of insulation density significantly influenced the room-temperature resiliency of the samples.

  15. Recycler barrier RF buckets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhat, C.M.; /Fermilab


    The Recycler Ring at Fermilab uses a barrier rf systems for all of its rf manipulations. In this paper, I will give an overview of historical perspective on barrier rf system, the longitudinal beam dynamics issues, aspects of rf linearization to produce long flat bunches and methods used for emittance measurements of the beam in the RR barrier rf buckets. Current rf manipulation schemes used for antiproton beam stacking and longitudinal momentum mining of the RR beam for the Tevatron collider operation are explained along with their importance in spectacular success of the Tevatron luminosity performance.

  16. Evaluation of Erosion Resistance of Advanced Turbine Thermal Barrier Coatings (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming; Kuczmarski, Maria A.; Miller, Robert A.; Cuy, Michael D.


    The erosion resistant turbine thermal barrier coating system is critical to aircraft engine performance and durability. By demonstrating advanced turbine material testing capabilities, we will be able to facilitate the critical turbine coating and subcomponent development and help establish advanced erosion-resistant turbine airfoil thermal barrier coatings design tools. The objective of this work is to determine erosion resistance of advanced thermal barrier coating systems under simulated engine erosion and/or thermal gradient environments, validating advanced turbine airfoil thermal barrier coating systems based on nano-tetragonal phase toughening design approaches.

  17. Design and realization of reflective current barrier for high-brightness LED chips%高亮度LED芯片的反射型电流阻挡层设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    基于光学传输理论矩阵,设计制作SiO2和Ti3O5交替生长的分布式布拉格反射(DBR)结构作为LED芯片的电流阻挡层,并采用电感耦合等离子体(ICP)刻蚀技术在电流阻挡层处形成沟槽结构,以解决困扰LED器件效率提高的电流扩散及金属电极降低出光效率的问题。实验结果表明,采用这种结构的LED芯片能将亮度提高5%以上,而LED芯片的正向电压基本维持不变。这种反射型电流阻挡层结构能够很好地改善大尺寸LED芯片的电流扩散,有效地提高LED芯片的出光效率。%Based on optical transfer matrix theory,a distributed Bragg reflector(DBR) consisting of SiO2 and Ti3O5 is designed as the current barrier layer for high-brightness LED chips,and a trench structure is etched by inductively coupled plasma(ICP) technique at the current barrier.The problems that the current spreading restricts the improvement of the LED efficiency and the metal electrodes reduce light-extraction efficiency are solved by this way.The experiment results indicate that the brightness of the LED chip with this structure can be increased by 5%,while the chip voltage is essentially unchanged,which shows that the new structure can greatly ameliorate the current spreading and increase the extraction efficiency of LED chip.

  18. Designing optically pumped InGaN quantum wells with long wavelength emission for a phosphor-free device with polarized white-light emission (United States)

    Kowsz, Stacy J.; Pynn, Christopher D.; Wu, Feng; Farrell, Robert M.; Speck, James S.; DenBaars, Steven P.; Nakamura, Shuji


    We report a semipolar III-nitride device in which an electrically injected blue light emitting diode optically pumps monolithic long wavelength emitting quantum wells (QWs) to create polarized white light. We have demonstrated an initial device with emission peaks at 440 nm and 560 nm from the electrically injected and optically pumped QWs, respectively. By tuning the ratio of blue to yellow, white light was measured with a polarization ratio of 0.40. High indium content InGaN is required for long wavelength emission but is difficult to achieve because it requires low growth temperatures and has a large lattice mismatch with GaN. This device design incorporates optically pumped QWs for long wavelength emission because they offer advantages over using electrically injected QWs. Optically pumped QWs do not have to be confined within a p-n junction, and carrier transport is not a concern. Thus, thick GaN barriers can be incorporated between multiple InGaN QWs to manage stress. Optically pumping long wavelength emitting QWs also eliminates high temperature steps that degrade high indium content InGaN but are required when growing p-GaN for an LED structure. Additionally, by eliminating electrical injection, the doping profile can instead be engineered to affect the emission wavelength. We discuss ongoing work focused on improving polarized white light emission by optimizing the optically pumped QWs. We consider the effects of growth conditions, including: trimethylindium (TMI) flow rate, InGaN growth rate, and growth temperature. We also examine the effects of epitaxial design, including: QW width, number of QWs, and doping.

  19. Designer lipid-like peptides: a class of detergents for studying functional olfactory receptors using commercial cell-free systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Corin

    Full Text Available A crucial bottleneck in membrane protein studies, particularly G-protein coupled receptors, is the notorious difficulty of finding an optimal detergent that can solubilize them and maintain their stability and function. Here we report rapid production of 12 unique mammalian olfactory receptors using short designer lipid-like peptides as detergents. The peptides were able to solubilize and stabilize each receptor. Circular dichroism showed that the purified olfactory receptors had alpha-helical secondary structures. Microscale thermophoresis suggested that the receptors were functional and bound their odorants. Blot intensity measurements indicated that milligram quantities of each olfactory receptor could be produced with at least one peptide detergent. The peptide detergents' capability was comparable to that of the detergent Brij-35. The ability of 10 peptide detergents to functionally solubilize 12 olfactory receptors demonstrates their usefulness as a new class of detergents for olfactory receptors, and possibly other G-protein coupled receptors and membrane proteins.

  20. Design of Hemispherical Radio Frequency (RF Capacitive-type Electrode Free of Edge Effects for Treatment of Intracavitary Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available A new hemispherical electrode to heat oral cavity cancer is proposed. The electrode does not produce a hot spot around its edge, a feature that usually arises when using radio frequency (RF capacitive-type heating. The hemispherical electrode was designed by computer simulation using a 3-D finite element method. To assess its practicality and effectiveness, we built a prototype hemispherical electrode and evaluated its heating characteristics by phantom experiments. The heating effects on the phantom were measured by thermography. The concave phantom surface in contact with the hemispherical electrode showed a uniform increase in temperature, with no obvious edge effect. The proposed electrode allows non-invasive RF capacitive-type heating for intracavity tumors that was not previously considered possible, and should contribute to the multidisciplinary treatment of intracavity tumors.

  1. Barriers to Effective Listening. (United States)

    Hulbert, Jack E.


    Discusses the following barriers which interfere with listening efficiency: content, speaker, medium, distractions, mindset, language, listening speed, and feedback. Suggests ways to combat these obstacles to accurate comprehension. (MM)

  2. [Vascular endothelial Barrier Function]. (United States)

    Ivanov, A N; Puchinyan, D M; Norkin, I A


    Endothelium is an important regulator of selective permeability of the vascular wall for different molecules and cells. This review summarizes current data on endothelial barrier function. Endothelial glycocalyx structure, its function and role in the molecular transport and leukocytes migration across the endothelial barrier are discussed. The mechanisms of transcellular transport of macromolecules and cell migration through endothelial cells are reviewed. Special section of this article addresses the structure and function of tight and adherens endothelial junction, as well as their importance for the regulation of paracellular transport across the endothelial barrier. Particular attention is paid to the signaling mechanism of endothelial barrier function regulation and the factors that influence on the vascular permeability.

  3. Composite multi-parameter ranking of real and virtual compounds for design of MC4R agonists: renaissance of the Free-Wilson methodology. (United States)

    Nilsson, Ingemar; Polla, Magnus O


    Drug design is a multi-parameter task present in the analysis of experimental data for synthesized compounds and in the prediction of new compounds with desired properties. This article describes the implementation of a binned scoring and composite ranking scheme for 11 experimental parameters that were identified as key drivers in the MC4R project. The composite ranking scheme was implemented in an AstraZeneca tool for analysis of project data, thereby providing an immediate re-ranking as new experimental data was added. The automated ranking also highlighted compounds overlooked by the project team. The successful implementation of a composite ranking on experimental data led to the development of an equivalent virtual score, which was based on Free-Wilson models of the parameters from the experimental ranking. The individual Free-Wilson models showed good to high predictive power with a correlation coefficient between 0.45 and 0.97 based on the external test set. The virtual ranking adds value to the selection of compounds for synthesis but error propagation must be controlled. The experimental ranking approach adds significant value, is parameter independent and can be tuned and applied to any drug discovery project.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-jiao Ji; Yi-ming Jiang; Bo-tian Li; Wei Deng; Cheng-you Kan


    Soap-free hydrophilic-hydrophobic core-shell latex particles with high carboxyl content in the core of the particles were synthesized via the seeded emulsion polymerization using methyl methacrylate (MMA),butyl acrylate (BA),methacrylic acid (MAA),styrene (St) and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as monomers,and the influences of MMA content used in the core preparation on polymerization,particle size and morphology were investigated by transmission electron microscopy,dynamic light scattering and conductometric titration.The results showed that the seeded emulsion polymerization could be carried out smoothly using "starved monomer feeding process" when MAA content in the core preparation was equal to or less than 24 wt%,and the encapsulating efficiency of the hydrophilic P(MMA-BA-MAA-EGDMA) core with the hydrophobic PSt shell decreased with the increase in MAA content.When an interlayer of P(MMA-MAA-St) with moderate polarity was inserted between the P(MMA-BA-MAA-EGDMA) core and the PSt shell,well designed soap-free hydrophilic-hydrophobic core-shell latex particles with 24 wt% MAA content in the core preparation were obtained.

  5. Design and synthesis of novel 3-substituted-indole derivatives as selective H3 receptor antagonists and potent free radical scavengers. (United States)

    Tang, Li; Zhao, Liying; Hong, Lingjuan; Yang, Fenyan; Sheng, Rong; Chen, Jianzhong; Shi, Ying; Zhou, Naimin; Hu, Yongzhou


    A series of novel 3-substituted-indole derivatives with a benzyl tertiary amino moiety were designed, synthesized and evaluated as H3 receptor antagonists and free radical scavengers for Alzheimer's disease therapy. Most of these synthesized compounds exhibited moderate to potent antagonistic activities in CREs driven luciferase assay. In particular, compound 2d demonstrated the most favorable H3 receptor antagonistic activity with the IC50 value of 0.049μM. Besides, it also displayed high binding affinity to H3 receptor (Ki=4.26±2.55nM) and high selectivity over other three histamine receptors. Moreover, 2d and other two 3-substituted indole derivatives 1d and 3d exerted potent ABTS radical cation scavenging capacities similar to melatonin. Above results illustrate that 2d is an interesting lead for extensive optimization to explore new drug candidate for AD therapy.

  6. Design Features of a Planar Hybrid/Permanent Magnet Strong Focusing Undulator for Free Electron Laser (FEL) And Synchrotron Radiation (SR) Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatchyn, Roman; /SLAC


    Insertion devices for Angstrom-wavelength Free Electron Laser (FEL) amplifiers driven by multi-GeV electron beams generally require distributed focusing substantially stronger than their own natural focusing fields. Over the last several years a wide variety of focusing schemes and configurations have been proposed for undulators of this class, ranging from conventional current-driven quadrupoles external to the undulator magnets to permanent magnet (PM) lattices inserted into the insertion device gap. In this paper we present design studies of a flexible high-field hybrid/PM undulator with strong superimposed planar PM focusing proposed for a 1.5 Angstrom Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) driven by an electron beam with a 1 mm-mr normalized emittance. Attainable field parameters, tuning modes, and potential applications of the proposed structure are discussed.

  7. Surface Functionalization of g-C 3 N 4 : Molecular-Level Design of Noble-Metal-Free Hydrogen Evolution Photocatalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Yin


    A stable noble-metal-free hydrogen evolution photocatalyst based on graphite carbon nitride (g-C3N4) was developed by a molecular-level design strategy. Surface functionalization was successfully conducted to introduce a single nickel active site onto the surface of the semiconducting g-C3N4. This catalyst family (with less than 0.1 wt% of Ni) has been found to produce hydrogen with a rate near to the value obtained by using 3 wt% platinum as co-catalyst. This new catalyst also exhibits very good stability under hydrogen evolution conditions, without any evidence of deactivation after 24h. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Structure Design and Optimization for Carbon Free Car of New Type%新型"无碳小车"的结构设计与优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈波; 兰健; 曹伟龙; 于奎东; 孙玉恒


    通过对现有无碳小车的评价与分析,在小车结构上进行了优化,力求在满足命题要求基础上,达到结构最简、车体最轻、好加工、易操作等特点. 文章主要从车身、能量转换机构、传动机构、转向机构、驱动机构等几方面入手,详细介绍了小车结构重新设计进一步优化的具体方案及工作原理. 实践结果表明,改进后的新型无碳小车整体性能有了很大提高,无论是行走距离,还是绕障数量都有了明显的增加. 该设计优化对实训教学具有一定的指导意义.%By evaluation and analysis to existing carbon free car, the car structure is optimized in order to achieve characteristics, such as simplest structure、lightest body、good manufacturability and operability etc. on the condition that the proposition requirement is met. Starting from car body,energy transformation mechanism, transmission mechanism,steering mechanism and drive mechanism etc., this paper details the further optimized project and working principle for car structure re-design. Practice result shows that the overall performance of carbon free car was greatly improved after optimization, no matter in driving distance or bypassing obstacle. And this design optimization means guiding significance to practical training.

  9. Waterproofing with polymeric geo synthetic barriers (GBR-P) in the manual for the design, construction, management and maintenance of reservoirs; La impermeabilizacion con barreras geosinteticas polimericas (GBR-P) en el manual para el diseno, construccion, explotacion y mantenimiento de balsas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco, M.; Cea, J. C.; Garcia, F.; Sanchez, F. J.; Castillo, F.; Mora, J.; Crespo, M. A.


    This article presents a part of Manual for the Design, Construction, Management and Maintenance of Reservoirs relative to waterproofing with Polymeric Geo synthetic Barriers (GBR-P). the nature materials of geo membranes is studied also theirs characteristics and specifications. (Author) 26 refs.

  10. Epistemonikos: a free, relational, collaborative, multilingual database of health evidence. (United States)

    Rada, Gabriel; Pérez, Daniel; Capurro, Daniel


    Epistemonikos ( is a free, multilingual database of the best available health evidence. This paper describes the design, development and implementation of the Epistemonikos project. Using several web technologies to store systematic reviews, their included articles, overviews of reviews and structured summaries, Epistemonikos is able to provide a simple and powerful search tool to access health evidence for sound decision making. Currently, Epistemonikos stores more than 115,000 unique documents and more than 100,000 relationships between documents. In addition, since its database is translated into 9 different languages, Epistemonikos ensures that non-English speaking decision-makers can access the best available evidence without language barriers.

  11. Free Radicals and Matrix Metalloproteinases in Blood-Brain Barrier Disruption after Cerebral Ischemia%自由基和基质金属蛋白酶介导脑缺血血脑屏障损伤的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戚智锋; 罗玉敏; 刘克建


    血脑屏障的破坏是引起脑缺血损伤及继发水肿、出血、炎症的微观原因.缺血缺氧和再灌注过程产生的自由基,以及后续基质金属蛋白酶的激活,是破坏血脑屏障结构和功能的重要分子机制.因而,在脑缺血早期及时抑制自由基产生并清除自由基,抑制基质金属蛋白酶的活性,是降低脑缺血血脑屏障损伤及其并发症的关键环节.本文将从血脑屏障损伤的角度,概述自由基与基质金属蛋白酶在脑缺血损伤过程中的作用.%Cerebral ischemia results in the compromise of blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity, leading to neurovascular complications, including cerebral hemorrhage, edema, and inflammation. Free radicals and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are critically involved in the mechanism of BBB breakdown following cerebral ischemia and reperfusion. Scavenging free radicals and inhibiting activation of MMPs are potential strategies to protect BBB integrity and reduce ischemia complications. In this review, we will focus on the the role of free radicals and MMPs activation in BBB damages in cerebral ischemia.

  12. Hedging Double Barriers with Singles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sbuelz, A.


    Double barrier options provide risk managers with good-deal flexibility in tailoring portfolio returns.Their hedges offer full protection only if unwound along the barriers.This work provides non-dynamic hedges that project the risk of double barriers on to single barriers.Non-dynamic hedges overcom

  13. An Android mobile navigation approach based on barrier-f ree design%基于无障碍设计的 Android 手机导航方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪琴; 周国祥


    The wide use of smart phone brings great convenience to people’s daily life ,but the technol‐ogy based on barrier‐free requirements is few in the current smart phone market .These developments lead to new barriers and exclusion factors for people with disabilities .In this paper ,based on the anal‐ysis of use requirements of people with physical disabilities and limitations ,a new navigation method based on Android mobile interaction is proposed which allows the user to access the basic functions of mobile phone and ensures their privacy and independent life without additional assistant by utilizing a scanning system with synchronized voice feedback through a single touch or an external switch .%智能手机的普及给人们的生活带来了极大的便利,但现有的智能手机市场却少有针对无障碍需求的技术,使得障碍人群被排除在利用现代通信技术参与社会交往之外。文章通过对身体功能性障碍人群的使用需求分析,提出了一种新的基于Android手机的人机交互导航方法。采用自动扫描系统并配合同步语音输出等方式,结合单一点手势触发以及外接适配器的使用,满足残疾人用户在使用智能手机时的无障碍需求,并在无他人辅助的情况下保证了身体功能性障碍人群在社会生活的独立性和个人隐私。

  14. Model assessment of protective barriers: Part 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fayer, M.J.; Rockhold, M.L.; Holford, D.J.


    Radioactive waste exists at the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Hanford Site in a variety of locations, including subsurface grout and tank farms, solid waste burial grounds, and contaminated soil sites. Some of these waste sites may need to be isolated from percolating water to minimize the potential for transport of the waste to the ground water, which eventually discharges to the Columbia River. Multilayer protective barriers have been proposed as a means of limiting the flow of water through the waste sites (DOE 1987). A multiyear research program (managed jointly by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and Westinghouse Hanford Company for the DOE) is aimed at assessing the performance of these barriers. One aspect of this program involves the use of computer models to predict barrier performance. Three modeling studies have already been conducted and a test plan was produced. The simulation work reported here was conducted by PNL and extends the previous modeling work. The purpose of this report are to understand phenomena that have been observed in the field and to provide information that can be used to improve hydrologic modeling of the protective barrier. An improved modeling capability results in better estimates of barrier performance. Better estimates can be used to improve the design of barriers and the assessment of their long-term performance.

  15. Protection against malevolent use of vehicles at Nuclear Power Plants. Vehicle barrier system selection guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nebuda, D.T.


    This manual provides a simplified procedure for selecting land vehicle barriers that will stop the design basis vehicle threat adopted by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Proper selection and construction of vehicle barriers should prevent intrusion of the design basis vehicle. In addition, vital safety related equipment should survive a design basis vehicle bomb attack when vehicle barriers are properly selected, sited, and constructed. This manual addresses passive vehicle barriers, active vehicle barriers, and site design features that can be used to reduce vehicle impact velocity.

  16. Design and fabrication of ripple-free CMOS-compatible stacked membranes for airgap optical filters for UV-visible spectrum (United States)

    Ghaderi, Mohammadamir; de Graaf, Ger; Wolffenbuttel, Reinoud F.


    CMOS-compatible fabrication of thin dielectric membranes for the ultraviolet and visible spectrum is presented for use in airgap/SiO2-based interference filter design. A typical optical design consists of multiple membranes of 50-100 nm thickness. Maintaining flatness over a large area, as required by the optical application, is challenging. In such a free-standing membrane, the residual stress is the main force acting on the structure. Although an overall tensile residual stress can effectively stretch the membrane, too much stress would exceed the yield strength of the material and results in fracturing. Furthermore, the presence of a residual stress gradient causes the membrane to deform. In this work, the effect of a stress profile in the thin film has is investigated. Although PECVD SiO2 layers with an average tensile stress level of 178 MPa are used for the fabrication of the membranes, the presence of a stress gradient of about 0:67 MPa=nm results in a deformation in the membrane. A simple straining method is applied to reduce flatness. The preliminary results and discusses the challenges in the fabrication of stacked membranes for optical filters are presented.

  17. Composition optimizaton and electrochemical characteristics of Co-free Fe-containing AB5-type hydrogen storage alloys through uniform design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHAO Dongliang; CHEN Yungui; ZHU Changrong; WU Chaoling; ZHU Ding


    In order to reduce the cost of AB5-type hydrogen storage alloys,effects of substitution of Ce for La (A side) and Fe,Mn,A1 for Ni (B side) on structural and electrochemical propeaies of (LaCe)1(NiFeMnAl)5 alloys were studied systematically.To make component uniform and operation easy,uniform design (UD) method was introduced into the study of composition optimization of Co-free Fe-containing AB5-type alloys for the first time.X-ray diffraction (XRD) results showed that the designed alloys were of single CaCu5-type structure phase.The replacement of Fe had a severe effect on electrochemical capacity,and the substitution of Fe and Al had a synergetic action among the unit cell volume,cycling stability and high rate discharge property.Interestingly,it was found that the hydrogen storage alloys with excessively high plateau pressure showed a tilted line in Nyquist plot instead of the semicircle,and the current decayed rapidly to near zero at the beginning of the step in constant potential step (CPS),indicating that electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) and CPS cannot accurately measure the electrochemical kinetics process of the hydrogen storage alloys with excessively high plateau pressure.

  18. An insight into the performance of road barriers - redistribution of barrier-relevant crashes. (United States)

    Zou, Yaotian; Tarko, Andrew P


    Unlike most of traffic safety treatments that prevent crashes, road barriers reduce the severity of crash outcomes by replacing crashes with a high risk of severe injury and fatality (such as median crossover head-on collisions or collisions with high-hazard objects) with less risky events (such as collisions with barriers). This "crash conversion" is actually more complex than one-to-one replacement and it has not been studied yet. The published work estimated the reduction of selected types of crashes (typically, median crossover collisions) or the overall effect of barriers on crash severity. The objective of this study was to study the probabilities of various types of crash events possible under various road and barrier scenarios. The estimated probabilities are conditional given that at least one vehicle left the travelled way and the resulted crash had been recorded. The results are meant to deliver a useful insight onto the conversion of crashes by barriers from more to less risky to help better understand the mechanism of crash severity reduction. Such knowledge should allow engineers more accurate estimation of barriers' benefits and help researchers evaluate barriers' performance to improve the barrier's design. Seven barrier-relevant crash events possible after a vehicle departs the road could be identified based on the existing crash data and their probabilities estimated given the presence and location of three types of barriers: median concrete barriers, median and roadside W-beam steel guardrails, and high-tension median cable barriers. A multinomial logit model with variable outcomes was estimated based on 2049 barrier-relevant crashes occurred between 2003 and 2012 on 1258 unidirectional travelled ways in Indiana. The developed model allows calculating the changes in the probabilities of the barrier-relevant crash events. The results of this study indicated that road departures lead to less frequent crossings of unprotected (no barriers) medians

  19. Beyond the Sound Barrier. Booklet No. 2. (United States)

    George Washington Univ., Washignton, DC. Regional Rehabilitation Research Inst. on Attitudinal, Legal and Leisure Barriers.

    The second of five booklets designed to change the attitudes of the general public toward disabled people examines attitudes toward deaf and hearing impaired people. Six myths (including that deaf persons cannot appreciate the arts) are contradicted, and five situations demonstrating attitudinal barriers are described. Suggested actions when…

  20. Tacit Knowledge Barriers in Franchising: Practical Solutions (United States)

    Cumberland, Denise; Githens, Rod


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify barriers that hinder tacit knowledge transfer in a franchise environment and offer a compendium of solutions that encourage franchisees and franchisors to leverage tacit knowledge as a resource for competitive advantage. Design/methodology/approach: Drawing from the research on franchise…

  1. Thermal fission rates with temperature dependent fission barriers

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Yi


    \\item[Background] The fission processes of thermal excited nuclei are conventionally studied by statistical models which rely on inputs of phenomenological level densities and potential barriers. Therefore the microscopic descriptions of spontaneous fission and induced fission are very desirable for a unified understanding of various fission processes. \\item[Purpose] We propose to study the fission rates, at both low and high temperatures, with microscopically calculated temperature-dependent fission barriers and mass parameters. \\item[Methods] The fission barriers are calculated by the finite-temperature Skyrme-Hartree-Fock+BCS method. The mass parameters are calculated by the temperature-dependent cranking approximation. The thermal fission rates can be obtained by the imaginary free energy approach at all temperatures, in which fission barriers are naturally temperature dependent. The fission at low temperatures can be described mainly as a barrier-tunneling process. While the fission at high temperatures ...

  2. On causality, apparent 'superluminality' and reshaping in barrier penetration

    CERN Document Server

    Sokolovski, D


    We consider tunnelling of a non-relativistic particle across a potential barrier. It is shown that the barrier acts as an effective beam splitter which builds up the transmitted pulse from the copies of the initial envelope shifted in the coordinate space backwards relative to the free propagation. Although along each pathway causality is explicitly obeyed, in special cases reshaping can result an overall reduction of the initial envelope, accompanied by an arbitrary coordinate shift. In the case of a high barrier the delay amplitude distribution (DAD) mimics a Dirac $\\delta$-function, the transmission amplitude is superoscillatory for finite momenta and tunnelling leads to an accurate advancement of the (reduced) initial envelope by the barrier width. In the case of a wide barrier, initial envelope is accurately translated into the complex coordinate plane. The complex shift, given by the first moment of the DAD, accounts for both the displacement of the maximum of the transmitted probability density and the...

  3. Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volf, Mette

    This publication is unique in its demystification and operationalization of the complex and elusive nature of the design process. The publication portrays the designer’s daily work and the creative process, which the designer is a part of. Apart from displaying the designer’s work methods...... and design parameters, the publication shows examples from renowned Danish design firms. Through these examples the reader gets an insight into the designer’s reality....

  4. Hanford prototype-barrier status report: FY 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gee, G.W.; Ward, A.L.; Gilmore, B.G.; Ligotke, M.W.; Link, S.O.


    Surface barriers (or covers) have been proposed for use at the Hanford Site as a means to isolate certain waste sites that, for reasons of cost or worker safety or both, may not be exhumed. Surface barriers are intende to isolated the wastes from the accessible environment and to provide long-term protection to future populations that might use the Hanford Site. Currently, no ``proven`` long-term barrier system is available. For this reason, the Hanford Site Permanent Isolation Surface-Barrier Development Program (BDP) was organized to develop the technology needed to provide long-term surface barrier capability for the Hanford Site for the US Department of Energy (DOE). Designs have been proposed to meet the most stringent needs for long-term waste disposal. The objective of the current barrier design is to use natural materials to develop a protective barrier system that isolates wastes for at least 1000 years by limiting water, plant, animal, and human intrusion; and minimizing erosion. The design criteria for water drainage has been set at 0.5 mm/yr. While other design criteria are more qualitative, it is clear that waste isolation for an extended time is the prime objective of the design. Constructibility and performance. are issues that can be tested and dealt with by evaluating prototype designs prior to extensive construction and deployment of covers for waste sites at Hanford.

  5. 无模型自适应广域阻尼控制设计方法%Design of Model-Free Adaptive Wide Area Damping Controller

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建; 赵艺; 陆超; 庞晓艳


    电力系统的运行方式和结构的时变特性越来越突出,传统广域阻尼控制器(conventional wide-area power system stabilizer,CWAPSS)由于参数固定,无法保证系统在不同运行状态下的控制效果。为此,文章采用无模型自适应控制(model free adaptive control,MFAC)算法实现了具有自适应功能的广域阻尼控制器的设计。首先讨论了 MFAC 算法的基本原理;然后通过分析比较WAPSS和MFAC算法参数之间的关系,给出了 MFAC 算法的参数设置方法;最后,通过四机两区系统的仿真验证了 MFAC 算法的有效性。仿真结果表明在系统结构发生变化时,无模型自适应广域阻尼控制器能够在线调整控制器参数,控制效果优于CWAPSS。%The time-varying characteristics of power grid operating modes and structure become more and more conspicuous, and due to fixed parameters of traditional wide-area power system stabilizer (WAPSS) the control effect of power grid under various operating conditions could not be ensured. Utilizing model-free adaptive control (MFAC) algorithm the authors implement the design of adaptive wide-area damping controller. Firstly, basic principle of MFAC is discussed; then the relationship between parameters of WAPSS and those of MFAC are analyzed and compared and the method of parameter setting of MFAC algorithm is given; finally, through simulation of a 4-machine 2-area system the effectiveness of MFAC algorithm is validated. Simulation results show that during the change of power system structure the online adjustment of parameters of the model-free adaptive wide-area damping controller can be implemented, and its control effect is better than WAPSS.

  6. Overcoming Language Barriers (United States)

    De Buda, Yvonne


    Many family physicians in Canada experience language and cultural barriers between themselves and their patients. Several aspects of the ensuing problems are described and some practical suggestions for solutions are made. The importance of health education for new Canadians in the family physician's office as well as through the media and community projects is stressed. Imagesp68-ap68-bp70-a PMID:21308059

  7. Barrier mechanisms in the Drosophila blood-brain barrier


    Samantha Jane Hindle; Roland Jerome Bainton


    The invertebrate blood-brain barrier field is growing at a rapid pace and, in recent years, studies have shown a physiologic and molecular complexity that has begun to rival its vertebrate counterpart. Novel mechanisms of paracellular barrier maintenance through GPCR signaling were the first demonstrations of the complex adaptive mechanisms of barrier physiology. Building upon this work, the integrity of the invertebrate blood-brain barrier has recently been shown to require coordinated funct...

  8. Design Principles and Future Development of Metal-free Organic Dyes%非金属纯有机染料的设计规律和展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨秀云; 周杰; 王宇鹏; 高秀霞


    由于染料敏化太阳能电池(DSSC)由于成本低和光电转化效率高而引起诸多学者的兴趣.目前纯有机染料分子的合成已经受到特别的关注.本文主要针对染料敏化太阳能电池中染料分子设计方面展开论述,介绍了DSSC的组成、原理、设计理念以及对未来的展望.%Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) have attracted considerable attention in recent years as they offer the possibility of low-cost and light-to-electricity conversion efficiency. Special attention has been paid to the synthesis of these pure organic dyes. This Review focuses on recent advances in molecular design of metal-free organic dyes. The basic construction and the photovoltaic principles of DSSC are introduced. In addition, the prospects of the DSSC are also summarized.

  9. Structural manipulation and tailoring of dielectric properties in SrTi1-xFexTaxO3 perovskites: Design of new lead free relaxors (United States)

    Shukla, R.; Patwe, S. J.; Deshpande, S. K.; Achary, S. N.; Krishna, P. S. R.; Shinde, A. B.; Gopalakrishnan, J.; Tyagi, A. K.


    We report composition dependent structure evolution from SrTiO3 to SrFe0.5Ta0.5O3 by powder X-ray and neutron diffraction studies of SrTi1-2xFexTaxO3 (0.00 ≤ × ≤ 0.50) compositions. Structural studies reveal cubic (Pm3m) perovskite-type structure of the parent SrTiO3 for x up to 0.075 and cation disordered orthorhombic (Pbnm) perovskite-type structure for x ≥ 0.33. A biphasic region consisting of a mixture of cubic and orthorhombic structures is found in the range for 0.10 ≤ × ≤ 0.25. Dielectric studies reveal transformation from a normal dielectric to relaxor like properties with increasing Fe3+ and Ta5+ concentration. Dielectric response is maximum at x = 0.33 in the series. The results establish a protocol for designing new lead-free relaxor materials based on the co-substitution of Fe3+ and Ta5+ for Ti4+ in SrTiO3. A complex interplay of strain effects arising from distribution of cations at the octahedral sites of the perovskite structure controls the dielectric properties.

  10. Phonon tunneling through a double barrier system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villegas, Diosdado [Departamento de Física, Universidad Central “Marta Abreu” de Las Villas, CP 54830, Santa Clara, Villa Clara (Cuba); Instituto de Física, Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, 18 Sur y San Claudio, Edif. 110A, Ciudad Universitaria, 72570 Puebla (Mexico); León-Pérez, Fernando de [Centro Universitario de la Defensa de Zaragoza, Ctra. de Huesca s/n, E-50090 Zaragoza (Spain); Pérez-Álvarez, R. [Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos, Av. Universidad 1001, CP 62209 Cuernavaca (Mexico); Arriaga, J., E-mail: [Instituto de Física, Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, 18 Sur y San Claudio, Edif. 110A, Ciudad Universitaria, 72570 Puebla (Mexico)


    The tunneling of optical and acoustic phonons at normal incidence on a double-barrier is studied in this paper. Transmission coefficients and resonance conditions are derived theoretically under the assumption that the long-wavelength approximation is valid. It is shown that the behavior of the transmission coefficients for the symmetric double barrier has a Lorentzian form close to resonant frequencies and that Breit–Wigner's formula have a general validity in one-dimensional phonon tunneling. Authors also study the so-called generalized Hartman effect in the tunneling of long-wavelength phonons and show that this effect is a numerical artifact resulting from taking the opaque limit before exploring the variation with a finite barrier width. This study could be useful for the design of acoustic devices.

  11. Overcoming Barriers in Unhealthy Settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael K. Lemke


    Full Text Available We investigated the phenomenon of sustained health-supportive behaviors among long-haul commercial truck drivers, who belong to an occupational segment with extreme health disparities. With a focus on setting-level factors, this study sought to discover ways in which individuals exhibit resiliency while immersed in endemically obesogenic environments, as well as understand setting-level barriers to engaging in health-supportive behaviors. Using a transcendental phenomenological research design, 12 long-haul truck drivers who met screening criteria were selected using purposeful maximum sampling. Seven broad themes were identified: access to health resources, barriers to health behaviors, recommended alternative settings, constituents of health behavior, motivation for health behaviors, attitude toward health behaviors, and trucking culture. We suggest applying ecological theories of health behavior and settings approaches to improve driver health. We also propose the Integrative and Dynamic Healthy Commercial Driving (IDHCD paradigm, grounded in complexity science, as a new theoretical framework for improving driver health outcomes.

  12. Geophysical characterization of subsurface barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borns, D.J.


    An option for controlling contaminant migration from plumes and buried waste sites is to construct a subsurface barrier of a low-permeability material. The successful application of subsurface barriers requires processes to verify the emplacement and effectiveness of barrier and to monitor the performance of a barrier after emplacement. Non destructive and remote sensing techniques, such as geophysical methods, are possible technologies to address these needs. The changes in mechanical, hydrologic and chemical properties associated with the emplacement of an engineered barrier will affect geophysical properties such a seismic velocity, electrical conductivity, and dielectric constant. Also, the barrier, once emplaced and interacting with the in situ geologic system, may affect the paths along which electrical current flows in the subsurface. These changes in properties and processes facilitate the detection and monitoring of the barrier. The approaches to characterizing and monitoring engineered barriers can be divided between (1) methods that directly image the barrier using the contrasts in physical properties between the barrier and the host soil or rock and (2) methods that reflect flow processes around or through the barrier. For example, seismic methods that delineate the changes in density and stiffness associated with the barrier represents a direct imaging method. Electrical self potential methods and flow probes based on heat flow methods represent techniques that can delineate the flow path or flow processes around and through a barrier.


    Arctic Foundations, Inc. (AFI), of Anchorage, Alaska has developed a freeze barrier technology designed to prevent the migration of contaminants in groundwater by completely isolating contaminant source areas until appropriate remediation techniques can be applied. With this tech...


    Arctic Foundations, Inc. (AFI), of Anchorage, Alaska has developed a freeze barrier technology designed to prevent the migration of contaminants in groundwater by completely isolating contaminant source areas until appropriate remediation techniques can be applied. With this tec...

  15. John H. Chafee Coastal Barrier Resources System Approximate Polygons (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Coastal Barrier Resources System (CBRS) data set, produced by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), contains areas designated as undeveloped coastal...

  16. Barriers to implementing cardiovascular risk tables in routine general practice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenkiste, B.C. van; Weijden, T. van der; Stoffers, H.E.; Grol, R.P.T.M.


    DESIGN: Qualitative study. GPs were interviewed after analysing two audiotaped cardiovascular consultations. SETTING: Primary health care. SUBJECTS: A sample of 15 GPs who audiotaped 22 consultations. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Barriers hampering GPs from following the guideline. RESULTS: Data saturatio

  17. Extending Our Understanding of Compliant Thermal Barrier Performance (United States)

    Demange, Jeffrey J.; Finkbeiner, Joshua R.; Dunlap, Patrick H.


    Thermal barriers and seals are integral components in the thermal protection systems (TPS) of nearly all aerospace vehicles. They are used to minimize the flow of hot gases through interfaces and protect underlying temperature-sensitive components and systems. Although thermal barriers have been used extensively on many aerospace vehicles, the factors affecting their thermal and mechanical performance are not well-understood. Because of this, vehicle TPS designers are often left with little guidance on how to properly design and optimize these barriers. An ongoing effort to better understand thermal barrier performance and develop models and design tools is in progress at the NASA Glenn Research Center. Testing has been conducted to understand the degree to which insulation density influences structural performance and permeability. In addition, the development of both thermal and mechanical models is ongoing with the goal of providing an improved ability to design and implement these critical TPS components.

  18. Surface barrier research at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gee, G.W.; Ward, A.L.; Fayer, M.J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)


    At the DOE Hanford Site, a field-scale prototype surface barrier was constructed in 1994 over an existing waste site as a part of a CERCLA treatability test. The above-grade barrier consists of a fine-soil layer overlying coarse layers of sands, gravels, basalt rock (riprap), and a low permeability asphalt layer. Two sideslope configurations, clean-fill gravel on a 10:1 slope and basalt riprap on a 2:1 slope, were built and are being tested. Design considerations included: constructability; drainage and water balance monitoring, wind and water erosion control and monitoring; surface revegetation and biotic intrusion; subsidence and sideslope stability, and durability of the asphalt layer. The barrier is currently in the final year of a three-year test designed to answer specific questions related to stability and long-term performance. One half of the barrier is irrigated such that the total water applied, including precipitation, is 480 mm/yr (three times the long-term annual average). Each year for the past two years, an extreme precipitation event (71 mm in 8 hr) representing a 1,000-yr return storm was applied in late March, when soil water storage was at a maximum. While the protective sideslopes have drained significant amounts of water, the soil cover (2-m of silt-loam soil overlying coarse sand and rock) has never drained. During the past year there was no measurable surface runoff or wind erosion. This is attributed to extensive revegetation of the surface. In addition, the barrier elevation has shown a small increase of 2 to 3 cm that is attributed to a combination of root proliferation and freeze/thaw activity. Testing will continue through September 1997. Performance data from the prototype barrier will be used by DOE in site-closure decisions at Hanford.

  19. Vertical barriers with increased sorption capacities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradl, H.B. [Bilfinger + Berger Bauaktiengesellschaft, Mannheim (Germany)


    Vertical barriers are commonly used for the containment of contaminated areas. Due to the very small permeability of the barrier material which is usually in the order of magnitude of 10-10 m/s or less the advective contaminant transport can be more or less neglected. Nevertheless, there will always be a diffusive contaminant transport through the barrier which is caused by the concentration gradient. Investigations have been made to increase the sorption capacity of the barrier material by adding substances such as organoclays, zeolites, inorganic oxides and fly ashes. The contaminants taken into account where heavy metals (Pb) and for organic contaminants Toluole and Phenantrene. The paper presents results of model calculations and experiments. As a result, barrier materials can be designed {open_quotes}tailor-made{close_quotes} depending on the individual contaminant range of each site (e.g. landfills, gasworks etc.). The parameters relevant for construction such as rheological properties, compressive strength and permeability are not affected by the addition of the sorbents.

  20. Thermal barrier coating materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Clarke


    Full Text Available Improved thermal barrier coatings (TBCs will enable future gas turbines to operate at higher gas temperatures. Considerable effort is being invested, therefore, in identifying new materials with even better performance than the current industry standard, yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ. We review recent progress and suggest that an integrated strategy of experiment, intuitive arguments based on crystallography, and simulation may lead most rapidly to the development of new TBC materials.

  1. Improving efficiency of a global barrier operation in a parallel computer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Performing a global barrier operation in a parallel computer that includes compute nodes coupled for data communications, where each compute node executes tasks, with one task on each compute node designated as a master task, including: for each task on each compute node until all master tasks have joined a global barrier: determining whether the task is a master task; if the task is not a master task, joining a single local barrier; if the task is a master task, joining the global barrier and the single local barrier only after all other tasks on the compute node have joined the single local barrier.

  2. A New Type of Photoelectric Response in a Double Barrier Structure with a Wide Quantum Well

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Xia; ZHENG Hou-Zhi


    @@ We have calculated the photoelectric response in a specially designed double barrier structure. It has been verified that a transfer of the internal photovoltaic effect in the quantum well to the tunnelling transport through above-barrier quasibound states of the emitter barrier may give rise to a remarkable photocurrent.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Mwanaki Alinaitwe


    Full Text Available Engaging in lean construction efforts could prove to be highly rewarding for building firms in Uganda. However, lean construction is risky and can be disastrous if not properly managed. Lean production efforts in some other countries have not been successful due to the many barriers to its successful implementation. To enable sound lean construction efforts and to increase the chances of success in eliminating waste, a thorough investigation of the barriers is essential. This study presents 31 barriers and investigates their influence (strength on the success of lean construction initiatives. Structured interviews were carried out with technical managers of building firms to assess their perception of the barriers to lean production based on their experience at their firms. The strongest barrier is the provision of inputs exactly when required. Additionally, the barriers were ranked according to the ease of overcoming each. The easiest barrier to overcome is keeping the required items in the right place. Finally, a graphical aid is provided to enable decision makers to concentrate their efforts on the influential (strong, yet easy to overcome barriers. A lack of buildable designs and a participative management style for the workforce are the most important barriers to successful waste reduction in terms of strength and ease of overcoming. On the other hand, a lack of an organisational culture that supports teamwork, a lack of prefabrication and a lack of knowledgeable and skilled workers are regarded as low in strength, and at the same time difficult to overcome.

  4. Genomic variation in myeloma: design, content, and initial application of the Bank On A Cure SNP Panel to detect associations with progression-free survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Gang


    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have engaged in an international program designated the Bank On A Cure, which has established DNA banks from multiple cooperative and institutional clinical trials, and a platform for examining the association of genetic variations with disease risk and outcomes in multiple myeloma. We describe the development and content of a novel custom SNP panel that contains 3404 SNPs in 983 genes, representing cellular functions and pathways that may influence disease severity at diagnosis, toxicity, progression or other treatment outcomes. A systematic search of national databases was used to identify non-synonymous coding SNPs and SNPs within transcriptional regulatory regions. To explore SNP associations with PFS we compared SNP profiles of short term (less than 1 year, n = 70 versus long term progression-free survivors (greater than 3 years, n = 73 in two phase III clinical trials. Results Quality controls were established, demonstrating an accurate and robust screening panel for genetic variations, and some initial racial comparisons of allelic variation were done. A variety of analytical approaches, including machine learning tools for data mining and recursive partitioning analyses, demonstrated predictive value of the SNP panel in survival. While the entire SNP panel showed genotype predictive association with PFS, some SNP subsets were identified within drug response, cellular signaling and cell cycle genes. Conclusion A targeted gene approach was undertaken to develop an SNP panel that can test for associations with clinical outcomes in myeloma. The initial analysis provided some predictive power, demonstrating that genetic variations in the myeloma patient population may influence PFS.

  5. Design, dynamics and control of an Adaptive Singularity-Free Control Moment Gyroscope actuator for microspacecraft Attitude Determination and Control System (United States)

    Viswanathan, Sasi Prabhakaran

    Design, dynamics, control and implementation of a novel spacecraft attitude control actuator called the "Adaptive Singularity-free Control Moment Gyroscope" (ASCMG) is presented in this dissertation. In order to construct a comprehensive attitude dynamics model of a spacecraft with internal actuators, the dynamics of a spacecraft with an ASCMG, is obtained in the framework of geometric mechanics using the principles of variational mechanics. The resulting dynamics is general and complete model, as it relaxes the simplifying assumptions made in prior literature on Control Moment Gyroscopes (CMGs) and it also addresses the adaptive parameters in the dynamics formulation. The simplifying assumptions include perfect axisymmetry of the rotor and gimbal structures, perfect alignment of the centers of mass of the gimbal and the rotor etc. These set of simplifying assumptions imposed on the design and dynamics of CMGs leads to adverse effects on their performance and results in high manufacturing cost. The dynamics so obtained shows the complex nonlinear coupling between the internal degrees of freedom associated with an ASCMG and the spacecraft bus's attitude motion. By default, the general ASCMG cluster can function as a Variable Speed Control Moment Gyroscope, and reduced to function in CMG mode by spinning the rotor at constant speed, and it is shown that even when operated in CMG mode, the cluster can be free from kinematic singularities. This dynamics model is then extended to include the effects of multiple ASCMGs placed in the spacecraft bus, and sufficient conditions for non-singular ASCMG cluster configurations are obtained to operate the cluster both in VSCMG and CMG modes. The general dynamics model of the ASCMG is then reduced to that of conventional VSCMGs and CMGs by imposing the standard set of simplifying assumptions used in prior literature. The adverse effects of the simplifying assumptions that lead to the complexities in conventional CMG design, and

  6. Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.; Pettiway, Keon


    by designers, planners, etc. (staging from above) and mobile subjects (staging from below). A research agenda for studying situated practices of mobility and mobilities design is outlined in three directions: foci of studies, methods and approaches, and epistemologies and frames of thinking. Jensen begins......In this chapter, Ole B. Jensen takes a situational approach to mobilities to examine how ordinary life activities are structured by technology and design. Using “staging mobilities” as a theoretical approach, Jensen considers mobilities as overlapping, actions, interactions and decisions...... with a brief description of how movement is studied within social sciences after the “mobilities turn” versus the idea of physical movement in transport geography and engineering. He then explains how “mobilities design” was derived from connections between traffic and architecture. Jensen concludes...

  7. Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volf, Mette

    Design - proces & metode iBog®  er enestående i sit fokus på afmystificering og operationalisering af designprocessens flygtige og komplekse karakter. Udgivelsen går bag om designerens daglige arbejde og giver et indblik i den kreative skabelsesproces, som designeren er en del af. Udover et bredt...... indblik i designerens arbejdsmetoder og designparametre giver Design - proces & metode en række eksempler fra anerkendte designvirksomheder, der gør det muligt at komme helt tæt på designerens virkelighed....

  8. Barrier mechanisms in the Drosophila blood-brain barrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Jane Hindle


    Full Text Available The invertebrate blood-brain barrier field is growing at a rapid pace and, in recent years, studies have shown a physiologic and molecular complexity that has begun to rival its vertebrate counterpart. Novel mechanisms of paracellular barrier maintenance through GPCR signaling were the first demonstrations of the complex adaptive mechanisms of barrier physiology. Building upon this work, the integrity of the invertebrate blood-brain barrier has recently been shown to require coordinated function of all layers of the compound barrier structure, analogous to signaling between the layers of the vertebrate neurovascular unit. These findings strengthen the notion that many blood-brain barrier mechanisms are conserved between vertebrates and invertebrates, and suggest that novel findings in invertebrate model organisms will have a significant impact on the understanding of vertebrate BBB functions. In this vein, important roles in coordinating localized and systemic signaling to dictate organism development and growth are beginning to show how the blood-brain barrier can govern whole animal physiologies. This includes novel functions of blood-brain barrier gap junctions in orchestrating synchronized neuroblast proliferation, and of blood-brain barrier secreted antagonists of insulin receptor signaling. These advancements and others are pushing the field forward in exciting new directions. In this review, we provide a synopsis of invertebrate blood-brain barrier anatomy and physiology, with a focus on insights from the past 5 years, and highlight important areas for future study.

  9. Design (United States)

    Buchanan, Richard; Cross, Nigel; Durling, David; Nelson, Harold; Owen, Charles; Valtonen, Anna; Boling, Elizabeth; Gibbons, Andrew; Visscher-Voerman, Irene


    Scholars representing the field of design were asked to identify what they considered to be the most exciting and imaginative work currently being done in their field, as well as how that work might change our understanding. The scholars included Richard Buchanan, Nigel Cross, David Durling, Harold Nelson, Charles Owen, and Anna Valtonen. Scholars…

  10. Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volf, Mette


    Design - proces og metode går bag om designerens arbejde og giver et indblik i den skabelsesproces, som designeren er involveret i. Bogen er enestående, fordi den fokuserer på processens flygtige og komplekse karakter, afmystificerer den og gør den operationel - uden at fjerne dens magi. Ud over...

  11. Modeling Safety Barriers and Defense in Depth with Mulitlevel Flow Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Morten


    The barrier concept plays a central role in designand operation of safety critical processes. In plant design barriers are provided as means of prevention to avoid critical process conditions which may be harmful to the environment. In plant operations barriers may beestablished and maintained...... through control actions in order to limit the consequences of critical plant events. The barrier concept has had a significant practical value for industry by guiding the design thinking of safety engineers. The provision of material barriers preventing the release of radioactive materials from...... the reactor core to the environment is accordingly a basic principle of nuclear safety design. The application of barriers is furthermore an integral part of the defence in depth principle applied by nuclear industry. Here several barriers are combined with reliability techniques such as redundancy...

  12. New Way to Break Down Barriers to Higher Education: Build "Financial Capabilities" (United States)

    Savage, Sarah; Graves, Erin M.


    Community colleges have traditionally responded to the financial needs of their students by removing or minimizing financial barriers to attending. Efforts to make community college tuition free fit with this philosophy, but where efforts to minimize or remove financial barriers to attending community college fall short is in empowering students…

  13. Technical barrier challenges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    according to a famouse report,the foreign Technical Barriers to Trade(TBT)have some effects on the exports of the People’s Republic of China.Major findings are as follows:(1)TBT makes it more difficult for China to export;(2)TBT increases the costs of Chinese export commodities;(3)TBT causes friction and confilicts in the international trade;(4)SOME developed countries have moved their phase-outs to China and other developing countries,which have become victims of TBT.

  14. Support or Barrier?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanden, Guro Refsum; Lønsmann, Dorte

    This study offers a critical look at how corporate-level language management influences front-line language practices among employees in three multinational corporations (MNCs) headquartered in Scandinavia. Based on interview and document data, we examine, firstly, what front-line practices...... employees use to cross language boundaries in their everyday work, and, secondly, how these practices relate to top-down language management in the case companies. Our findings show that employees are often dependent on ad hoc and informal solutions in cross- language situations, which leads us...... to a discussion of how a company’s language policy may be seen as both support and a barrier....

  15. Thermal fission rates with temperature dependent fission barriers (United States)

    Zhu, Yi; Pei, J. C.


    Background: The fission processes of thermal excited nuclei are conventionally studied by statistical models which rely on inputs of phenomenological level densities and potential barriers. Therefore the microscopic descriptions of spontaneous fission and induced fission are very desirable for a unified understanding of various fission processes. Purpose: We propose to study the fission rates, at both low and high temperatures, with microscopically calculated temperature-dependent fission barriers and collective mass parameters. Methods: The fission barriers are calculated by the finite-temperature Skyrme-Hartree-Fock+BCS method. The mass parameters are calculated by the temperature-dependent cranking approximation. The thermal fission rates can be obtained by the imaginary free energy approach at all temperatures, in which fission barriers are naturally temperature dependent. The fission at low temperatures can be described mainly as a barrier-tunneling process. While the fission at high temperatures has to incorporate the reflection above barriers. Results: Our results of spontaneous fission rates reasonably agree with other studies and experiments. The temperature dependencies of fission barrier heights and curvatures have been discussed. The temperature dependent behaviors of mass parameters have also been discussed. The thermal fission rates from low to high temperatures with a smooth connection have been given by different approaches. Conclusions: Since the temperature dependencies of fission barrier heights and curvatures, and the mass parameters can vary rapidly for different nuclei, the microscopic descriptions of thermal fission rates are very valuable. Our studies without free parameters provide a consistent picture to study various fissions such as that in fast-neutron reactors, astrophysical environments, and fusion reactions for superheavy nuclei.

  16. Analysis of interactions among the barriers to JIT production: interpretive structural modelling approach (United States)

    Jadhav, J. R.; Mantha, S. S.; Rane, S. B.


    `Survival of the fittest' is the reality in modern global competition. Organizations around the globe are adopting or willing to embrace just-in-time (JIT) production to reinforce the competitiveness. Even though JIT is the most powerful inventory management methodologies it is not free from barriers. Barriers derail the implementation of JIT production system. One of the most significant tasks of top management is to identify and understand the relationship between the barriers to JIT production for alleviating its bad effects. The aims of this paper are to study the barriers hampering the implementation of successful JIT production and analysing the interactions among the barriers using interpretive structural modelling technique. Twelve barriers have been identified after reviewing literature. This paper offers a roadmap for preparing an action plan to tackle the barriers in successful implementation of JIT production.

  17. Radioisotope battery using Schottky barrier devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manasse, F.K. (Drexel Univ., Philadelphia); Tse, A.N.


    Based on the well-known betavoltaic effect, a new nuclear battery, which uses a Schottky barrier, has been used in place of the more standard p-n junction diode, along with /sup 147/Pm metal film rather than Pm/sub 2/O/sub 3/ oxide, as in the commercially available Betacel. Measurement of absorption, conversion efficiency, thickness, etc., as functions of resistivity and other cell parameters, and assessment of performance are being researched to design a prototype battery.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yuesheng; WENG Zhixue; HUANG Zhiming; PAN Zuren


    The permeability coefficients of a series of copolymers of vinylidene chloride (VDC)with methyl acrylate (MA), butyl acrylate (BA) or vinyl chloride (VC) (as comonomer)to oxygen and carbon dioxide have been measured at 1.0 MPa and 30℃, while those to water vapor have been measured at 30℃ and 100% relative humidity. All the copolymers are semicrystalline. VDC/MA copolymers have lower melting temperature compared with VDC/BA copolymers, while that melting temperature of VDC/VC copolymer is higher than that of VDC/acrylate copolymers with the same VDC content. The barrier property of the copolymers is predominantly controlled by crystallite, free volume fraction, and cohesive energy. The permeability coefficients of VDC/MA copolymers to oxygen, carbon dioxide, and water vapor were successfully correlated with the ratio of free volume to cohesive energy.

  19. Improved terahertz quantum cascade laser with variable height barriers (United States)

    Matyas, Alpar; Chashmahcharagh, Reza; Kovacs, Istvan; Lugli, Paolo; Vijayraghavan, Karun; Belkin, Mikhail A.; Jirauschek, Christian


    Using an ensemble Monte-Carlo analysis, it is found that relaxing the constraint of identical barrier heights can result in an improved temperature performance. Exploiting this additional design degree of freedom, modified structures with non-uniform barrier heights are developed based on the current record temperature design. For an optimized structure with reduced diagonality, we predict an increase of 31 K for the maximum operating temperature. Furthermore, we develop improved designs with the same oscillator strength as for the reference design. Using a genetic algorithm for optimization, an improvement of the maximum operating temperature by 38 K is obtained. These results aim to show the potential of varying the barrier heigths for the design of high temperature performance terahertz quantum cascade lasers.

  20. Higgs vacua behind barriers

    CERN Document Server

    Tamarit, Carlos


    Scenarios in which the Higgs vacuum arises radiatively and separated from the origin by a potential barrier at zero temperature are known to be attainable in models with extra singlet scalars, which in the limit of zero barrier height give rise to Coleman-Weinberg realizations of electroweak symmetry breaking. However, this requires large values of Higgs-portal couplings or a large number N of singlets. This is quantified in detail by considering, for varying N, the full two-loop effective potential at zero temperature, as well as finite temperature effects including the dominant two-loop corrections due to the singlets. Despite the large couplings, two-loop effects near the electroweak scale are under control, and actually better behaved in models with larger couplings yet fewer singlets. Strong first-order phase transitions are guaranteed even in the Coleman-Weinberg scenarios. Cubic Higgs couplings and Higgs associated-production cross sections exhibit deviations from the Standard Model predictions which c...

  1. Deep inelastic scattering near the Coulomb barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gehring, J.; Back, B.; Chan, K. [and others


    Deep inelastic scattering was recently observed in heavy ion reactions at incident energies near and below the Coulomb barrier. Traditional models of this process are based on frictional forces and are designed to predict the features of deep inelastic processes at energies above the barrier. They cannot be applied at energies below the barrier where the nuclear overlap is small and friction is negligible. The presence of deep inelastic scattering at these energies requires a different explanation. The first observation of deep inelastic scattering near the barrier was in the systems {sup 124,112}Sn + {sup 58,64}Ni by Wolfs et al. We previously extended these measurements to the system {sup 136}Xe + {sup 64}Ni and currently measured the system {sup 124}Xe + {sup 58}Ni. We obtained better statistics, better mass and energy resolution, and more complete angular coverage in the Xe + Ni measurements. The cross sections and angular distributions are similar in all of the Sn + Ni and Xe + Ni systems. The data are currently being analyzed and compared with new theoretical calculations. They will be part of the thesis of J. Gehring.

  2. Study Design and Percent Recoveries of Anthropogenic Organic Compounds With and Without the Addition of Ascorbic Acid to Preserve Water Samples Containing Free Chlorine, 2004-06 (United States)

    Valder, Joshua F.; Delzer, Gregory C.; Price, Curtis V.; Sandstrom, Mark W.


    The National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began implementing Source Water-Quality Assessments (SWQAs) in 2002 that focus on characterizing the quality of source water and finished water of aquifers and major rivers used by some of the larger community water systems in the United States. As used for SWQA studies, source water is the raw (ambient) water collected at the supply well prior to water treatment (for ground water) or the raw (ambient) water collected from the river near the intake (for surface water). Finished water is the water that is treated, which typically involves, in part, the addition of chlorine or other disinfection chemicals to remove pathogens, and is ready to be delivered to consumers. Finished water is collected before the water enters the distribution system. This report describes the study design and percent recoveries of anthropogenic organic compounds (AOCs) with and without the addition of ascorbic acid to preserve water samples containing free chlorine. The percent recoveries were determined by using analytical results from a laboratory study conducted in 2004 by the USGS's National Water Quality Laboratory (NWQL) and from data collected during 2004-06 for a field study currently (2008) being conducted by the USGS's NAWQA Program. The laboratory study was designed to determine if preserving samples with ascorbic acid (quenching samples) adversely affects analytical performance under controlled conditions. During the laboratory study, eight samples of reagent water were spiked for each of five analytical schedules evaluated. Percent recoveries from these samples were then compared in two ways: (1) four quenched reagent spiked samples analyzed on day 0 were compared with four quenched reagent spiked samples analyzed on day 7 or 14, and (2) the combined eight quenched reagent spiked samples analyzed on day 0, 7, or 14 were compared with eight laboratory reagent spikes (LRSs). Percent

  3. The Fight Free Classroom. (United States)

    Whedon, Craig K.; Bakken, Jeffrey P.; Fletcher, Reginald


    Describes implementation of the Fight Free Classroom intervention (designed to decrease fighting and aggressiveness by helping students take ownership of their behavior) in an urban elementary school that included students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD). Overall, aggressive acts among students with and without EBD decreased…

  4. Advanced Low Conductivity Thermal Barrier Coatings: Performance and Future Directions (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.


    Thermal barrier coatings will be more aggressively designed to protect gas turbine engine hot-section components in order to meet future engine higher fuel efficiency and lower emission goals. In this presentation, thermal barrier coating development considerations and performance will be emphasized. Advanced thermal barrier coatings have been developed using a multi-component defect clustering approach, and shown to have improved thermal stability and lower conductivity. The coating systems have been demonstrated for high temperature combustor applications. For thermal barrier coatings designed for turbine airfoil applications, further improved erosion and impact resistance are crucial for engine performance and durability. Erosion resistant thermal barrier coatings are being developed, with a current emphasis on the toughness improvements using a combined rare earth- and transition metal-oxide doping approach. The performance of the toughened thermal barrier coatings has been evaluated in burner rig and laser heat-flux rig simulated engine erosion and thermal gradient environments. The results have shown that the coating composition optimizations can effectively improve the erosion and impact resistance of the coating systems, while maintaining low thermal conductivity and cyclic durability. The erosion, impact and high heat-flux damage mechanisms of the thermal barrier coatings will also be described.

  5. Barriers for recess physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine; Schipperijn, Jasper


    BACKGROUND: Many children, in particular girls, do not reach the recommended amount of daily physical activity. School recess provides an opportunity for both boys and girls to be physically active, but barriers to recess physical activity are not well understood. This study explores gender...... differences in children's perceptions of barriers to recess physical activity. Based on the socio-ecological model four types of environmental barriers were distinguished: natural, social, physical and organizational environment. METHODS: Data were collected through 17 focus groups (at 17 different schools...... this study, we recommend promoting recess physical activity through a combination of actions, addressing barriers within the natural, social, physical and organizational environment....

  6. Reconsolidated Salt as a Geotechnical Barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Francis D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gadbury, Casey [USDOE Carlsbad Field Office, NM (United States)


    Salt as a geologic medium has several attributes favorable to long-term isolation of waste placed in mined openings. Salt formations are largely impermeable and induced fractures heal as stress returns to equilibrium. Permanent isolation also depends upon the ability to construct geotechnical barriers that achieve nearly the same high-performance characteristics attributed to the native salt formation. Salt repository seal concepts often include elements of reconstituted granular salt. As a specific case in point, the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant recently received regulatory approval to change the disposal panel closure design from an engineered barrier constructed of a salt-based concrete to one that employs simple run-of-mine salt and temporary bulkheads for isolation from ventilation. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant is a radioactive waste disposal repository for defense-related transuranic elements mined from the Permian evaporite salt beds in southeast New Mexico. Its approved shaft seal design incorporates barrier components comprising salt-based concrete, bentonite, and substantial depths of crushed salt compacted to enhance reconsolidation. This paper will focus on crushed salt behavior when applied as drift closures to isolate disposal rooms during operations. Scientific aspects of salt reconsolidation have been studied extensively. The technical basis for geotechnical barrier performance has been strengthened by recent experimental findings and analogue comparisons. The panel closure change was accompanied by recognition that granular salt will return to a physical state similar to the halite surrounding it. Use of run-of-mine salt ensures physical and chemical compatibility with the repository environment and simplifies ongoing disposal operations. Our current knowledge and expected outcome of research can be assimilated with lessons learned to put forward designs and operational concepts for the next generation of salt repositories. Mined salt

  7. Linguistic Barriers and Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Frederik


    and intercultural communication, this article analyses interviews with 31 employees from two highly ethnically diverse Danish workplaces. The article shows how linguistic barriers such as different levels of majority language competence and their consequent misunderstandings breed mistrust and hostility, whilst......The influence of language on social capital in low-skill and ethnically diverse workplaces has thus far received very limited attention within the sociology of work. As the ethnically diverse workplace is an important social space for the construction of social relations bridging different social...... groups, the sociology of work needs to develop a better understanding of the way in which linguistic diversity influences the formation of social capital, i.e. resources such as the trust and reciprocity inherent in social relations in such workplaces. Drawing on theories about intergroup contact...

  8. Countermeasures and barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, Johannes [Oersted - DTU, Automation, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)


    In 1973 Haddon proposed ten strategies for reducing and avoiding damages based on a model of potential harmful energy transfer (Haddon, 1973). The strategies apply to a large variety of unwanted phenomena. Haddon's pioneering work on countermeasures has had a major influence on later thinking about safety. Considering its impact it is remarkable that the literature offers almost no discussions related to the theoretical foundations of Haddon's countermeasure strategies. The present report addresses a number of theoretical issues related to Haddon's countermeasure strategies, which are: 1) A reformulation and formalization of Haddon's countermeasure strategies. 2) An identification and description of some of the problems associated with the term 'barrier'. 3) Suggestions for a more precise terminology based on the causal structure of countermeasures. 4) Extending the scope of countermeasures to include sign-based countermeasures. (au)

  9. Design and fabrication of lanthanum-doped tin-silver-copper lead-free solder for the next generation of microelectronics applications in severe environment (United States)

    Sadiq, Muhammad

    Tin-Lead solder (Sn-Pb) has long been used in the Electronics industry. But, due to its toxic nature and environmental effects, certain restrictions are made on its use by the European Rehabilitation of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) directive, and therefore, many researchers are looking to replace it. The urgent need for removing lead from solder alloys led to the very fast introduction of lead-free solder alloys without a deep knowledge of their behavior. Therefore, an extensive knowledge and understanding of the mechanical behavior of the emerging generation of lead-free solders is required to satisfy the demands of structural reliability. Sn-Ag-Cu (SAC) solders are widely used as lead-free replacements but their coarse microstructure and formation of hard and brittle Inter-Metallic Compounds (IMCs) have limited their use in high temperature applications. Many additives are studied to refine the microstructure and improve the mechanical properties of SAC solders including iron (Fe), bismuth (Bi), antimony (Sb) and indium (In) etc. Whereas many researchers studied the impact of novel rare earth (RE) elements like lanthanum (La), cerium (Ce) and lutetium (Lu) on SAC solders. These RE elements are known as “vitamins of metals” because of their special surface active properties. They reduce the surface free energy, refine the grain size and improve the mechanical properties of many lead free solder alloys like Sn-Ag, Sn-Cu and SAC but still a systematic study is required to explore the special effects of “La” on the eutectic SAC alloys. The objective of this PhD thesis is to extend the current knowledge about lead free solders of SAC alloys towards lanthanum doping with varying environmental conditions implemented during service. This thesis is divided into six main parts.

  10. 自由锻造液压机的技术现状及设计分析%Technique status and design analysis of free forging hydraulic press

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢广玉; 李秀珠; 胡海燕


    阐述了自由锻造液压机的发展过程和我国锻造压机的技术现状,对自由锻造液压机的几种结构型式和传动方式进行了比较,说明了锻造油压机的技术特点.%The developing process of free forging hydraulic press and technique status in China has been described in the text. Several structural modes and transmission modes of free forging hydraulic press have been compared, and the technical characteristics of forging hydraulic press have been introduced.

  11. 自由版式与栅格系统在企业型录设计中的应用%Application of Free Layout and Grid Systems in Enterprise Catalogue Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦岁明; 周应敦


    Facing the status of information competition at home and abroad, in order to facilitate the development of more scientific, convenient and efficient layout design modes and contribute to the progress of visual communication design, it analyzed the dialectic relation, the reflected regularity and the development trend of free layout and grid systems in enterprise catalogue design from the viewpoint of the current competition in information faced by domestic and overseas enterprises, the application of free layout and grid systems to enterprise catalogue design and the needs for enterprise catalogue design.%面对国内外企业信息化竞争的现状,根据国内外企业型录设计中运用自由版式与栅格系统的实践,以及国内企业型录设计的需要,分析了自由版式与栅格系统在企业型录设计中的对立统一关系、体现的规律性及发展变革性创新趋势,以利于探寻更科学、便捷、有效的版式设计模式,服务于视觉传达设计事业。


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许晓云; 田静



  13. Design and experimental testing of air slab caps which convert commercial electron diodes into dual purpose, correction-free diodes for small field dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles, P. H., E-mail: [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Ipswich Road, Woolloongabba, Brisbane, Queensland 4102, Australia and School of Chemistry, Physics and Mechanical Engineering, Queensland University of Technology, GPO Box 2434, Brisbane, Queensland 4001 (Australia); Cranmer-Sargison, G. [Department of Medical Physics, Saskatchewan Cancer Agency, 20 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7L 3P6, Canada and College of Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, 107 Wiggins Road, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 5E5 (Canada); Thwaites, D. I. [Institute of Medical Physics, School of Physics, University of Sydney, New South Wales 2006 (Australia); Kairn, T. [School of Chemistry, Physics and Mechanical Engineering, Queensland University of Technology, GPO Box 2434, Brisbane, Queensland 4001, Australia and Genesis CancerCare Queensland, The Wesley Medical Centre, Suite 1, 40 Chasely Street, Auchenflower, Brisbane, Queensland 4066 (Australia); Crowe, S. B.; Langton, C. M.; Trapp, J. V. [School of Chemistry, Physics and Mechanical Engineering, Queensland University of Technology, GPO Box 2434, Brisbane, Queensland 4001 (Australia); Pedrazzini, G. [Genesis CancerCare Queensland, The Wesley Medical Centre, Suite 1, 40 Chasely Street, Auchenflower, Brisbane, Queensland 4066 (Australia); Aland, T.; Kenny, J. [Epworth Radiation Oncology, 89 Bridge Road, Richmond, Melbourne, Victoria 3121 (Australia)


    }}}}}}}}} values from the SFD to unknown diodes was tested by comparing the experimentally transferred k{sub Q{sub c{sub l{sub i{sub n,Q{sub m{sub s{sub r}{sup f{sub c}{sub l}{sub i}{sub n},f{sub m}{sub s}{sub r}}}}}}}}} values for unmodified PTWe and EDGEe diodes to Monte Carlo simulated values. Results: 1.0 mm of air was required to make the PTWe diode correction-free. This modified diode (PTWe{sub air}) produced output factors equivalent to those in water at all field sizes (5–50 mm). The optimal air thickness required for the EDGEe diode was found to be 0.6 mm. The modified diode (EDGEe{sub air}) produced output factors equivalent to those in water, except at field sizes of 8 and 10 mm where it measured approximately 2% greater than the relative dose to water. The experimentally calculated k{sub Q{sub c{sub l{sub i{sub n,Q{sub m{sub s{sub r}{sup f{sub c}{sub l}{sub i}{sub n},f{sub m}{sub s}{sub r}}}}}}}}} for both the PTWe and the EDGEe diodes (without air) matched Monte Carlo simulated results, thus proving that it is feasible to transfer k{sub Q{sub c{sub l{sub i{sub n,Q{sub m{sub s{sub r}{sup f{sub c}{sub l}{sub i}{sub n},f{sub m}{sub s}{sub r}}}}}}}}} from one commercially available detector to another using experimental methods and the recommended experimental setup. Conclusions: It is possible to create a diode which does not require corrections for small field output factor measurements. This has been performed and verified experimentally. The ability of a detector to be “correction-free” depends strongly on its design and composition. A nonwater-equivalent detector can only be “correction-free” if competing perturbations of the beam cancel out at all field sizes. This should not be confused with true water equivalency of a detector.

  14. Village Without Barriers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Beijing’s efforts to transform the Olympic Village for the Paralympicsare praised by athletes as well as officials when Sinisn Vidic wandered ina wheelchair along the busi-ness and culture avenue in thenorthwestern part of the BeijingParalympic Village, the sunset and gentlebreeze made the Serbian marksman feel as free and easy as at home in Belgrade, capi-tal city of Serbia.

  15. Effect of Procyanidin on Permeability of Blood - brain Barrier and Free Radical Content in Rats with Cerebral Ischemic Reperfusion Injury%原花青素对脑缺血再灌注损伤大鼠血脑屏障通透性和自由基含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴岚; 刘开祥; 俸军林; 李清华; 曾爱源


    目的 探讨原花青素(procyanidin,PC)对缺血再灌注损伤大鼠脑组织含水量、血脑屏障通透性和自由基含量的影响.方法 将大鼠随机分为假手术组、缺血再灌注组、PC低剂量治疗组和PC高剂量治疗组,线栓法建立局灶性脑缺血再灌注模型.观察缺血90 min再灌注24 h大鼠脑含水量和伊文斯蓝(EB)含量变化及超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、丙二醛(MDA)含量变化,并进行2,3,5-三苯基氯化四氮唑(TTC)染色.结果 与假手术组比较,缺血再灌注组脑含水量和EB含量明显升高;与缺血再灌注组比较,PC高、低剂量治疗组脑含水量和EB含量明显降低(P<0.05),高、低剂量组之间差异亦具有统计学意义(P<0.05).与缺血再灌注组比较,PC治疗组显著降低MDA含量,增加SOD活性,高、低剂量组之间差异亦有统计学意义(P<0.05).PC高、低剂量治疗组脑梗死体积较缺血再灌注组减小,高、低剂量组之间差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 PC对缺血再灌注脑损伤具有保护作用,可能与减轻再灌注损伤后血脑屏障通透性和氧化性损伤有关.%Objective To investigate the effect of procyanidin on the permeability of the blood - brain barrier and brain water con-tent and the contents of free radical in rats with cerebral ischemia reperfusion(I/R) injury. Methods Rats were randomly divided into four groups:Sham operated group,I/R gronp, procyanidin low dosage group and proeyanidin high dosage group. The focal middle cerebral artery occlusion(MCAO) model was made by suture- occluded method. After 90 rain MCAO following 24 hours of reperfusion,brain water content, the contents of Evens blue (EB), superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA) and triphenyltetrazolium chloride(TTC)staining were observed. Results Compared with sham operated group,brain water content and the contents of EB were in-creased in I/R group. Compared with I/R group, brain water content and the contents of EB were

  16. Alumina Paste Sublimation Suppression Barrier for Thermoelectric Device (United States)

    Paik, Jong-Ah (Inventor); Caillat, Thierry (Inventor)


    Alumina as a sublimation suppression barrier for a Zintl thermoelectric material in a thermoelectric power generation device operating at high temperature, e.g. at or above 1000K, is disclosed. The Zintl thermoelectric material may comprise Yb.sub.14MnSb.sub.11. The alumina may be applied as an adhesive paste dried and cured on a substantially oxide free surface of the Zintl thermoelectric material and polished to a final thickness. The sublimation suppression barrier may be finalized by baking out the alumina layer on the Zintl thermoelectric material until it becomes substantially clogged with ytterbia.

  17. Simulation of sub-barrier fusion process including dynamical deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hata, Kentaro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment


    Four reactions ({sup 40}Ca+{sup 40}Ca, {sup 58}Ni+{sup 58}Ni, {sup 64}Ni+{sup 64}Ni and {sup 74}Ge+{sup 74}Ge) were simulated as examples of spherical nuclei, {sup 40}Ca and {sup 58}Ni and dynamical deformation, {sup 64}Ni and {sup 74}Ge. The experimental excited functions of sub-barrier fusion reaction were reproduced with high accuracy without free parameters. The sub-barrier fusion process had supposed to pass one-dimensional fusion process estimated by the principle of least action on the potential surface with a freedom of nuclear deformation. (S.Y.)

  18. The design of cobalt-free, nickel-based alloy powder (Ni-3) used for sealing surfaces of nuclear power valves and its structure of laser cladding coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu Geyan, E-mail: [School of Mechanical and Electric Engineering, Soochow University, Suzhou 215021 (China); Liu Shuang [School of Mechanical and Electric Engineering, Soochow University, Suzhou 215021 (China); Fan Jiwei [School of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Zhongyuan University of Technology, Zhengzhou 450007 (China)


    Research highlights: The Ni-3 Co-free alloy coating prepared by laser welding. Ni-3 alloy has excellent combination with stainless steel base. Ni-3 alloy containing those strengthening phases could have excellent wear resistance and anti-oxidation ability at high temperature. - Abstract: To meet the demand of cobalt-free for the cladding coating materials used on sealing surface of nuclear power valves, a new Co-free, Ni-Cr based alloy powder (Ni-3) has been developed. It has been successfully coated on the surface of stainless steel as the strengthening layer. The XRD result reveals that the primary phase of cladding coating is Ni-based solid solution, and the carbides M{sub 7}C{sub 3} and M{sub 23}C{sub 6} as well as several A{sub 3}B types of {gamma}' strengthening phases. It indicates that the alloy possesses the high wear resistance, good corrosion resistance and high temperature tolerance. The test results suggest that the micro-hardness of Ni-3 corresponds to that of alloy Stellite 6 which containing cobalt and currently used as material for nuclear power valves. Hence, the developed Ni-3 alloy powder can be the hopeful candidate material for Co-free cladding material used on the surface of nuclear power valves; it can reduce the nuclear pollution and save the expensive metals.

  19. Structural Barriers: Redesigning Schools to Create Learning Organizations (United States)

    Randeree, Ebrahim


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to focus on schools and address the structural dimensions of the organization as well as the hierarchical design of information flows between stakeholders. The paper highlights current structural barriers to creating learning organizations. Design/methodology/approach: This paper utilizes a conceptual model.…

  20. Topology optimization of two-dimensional elastic wave barriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Hoorickx, C.; Sigmund, Ole; Schevenels, M.


    Topology optimization is a method that optimally distributes material in a given design domain. In this paper, topology optimization is used to design two-dimensional wave barriers embedded in an elastic halfspace. First, harmonic vibration sources are considered, and stiffened material is insert...

  1. Collective phenomena in volume and surface barrier discharges (United States)

    Kogelschatz, U.


    Barrier discharges are increasingly used as a cost-effective configuration to produce non-equilibrium plasmas at atmospheric pressure. This way, copious amounts of electrons, ions, free radicals and excited species can be generated without significant heating of the background gas. In most applications the barrier is made of dielectric material. Major applications utilizing mainly dielectric barriers include ozone generation, surface cleaning and modification, polymer and textile treatment, sterilization, pollution control, CO2 lasers, excimer lamps, plasma display panels (flat TV screens). More recent research efforts are devoted to biomedical applications and to plasma actuators for flow control. Sinusoidal feeding voltages at various frequencies as well as pulsed excitation schemes are used. Volume as well as surface barrier discharges can exist in the form of filamentary, regularly patterned or diffuse, laterally homogeneous discharges. The physical effects leading to collective phenomena in volume and surface barrier discharges are discussed in detail. Special attention is paid to self-organization of current filaments and pattern formation. Major similarities of the two types of barrier discharges are elaborated.

  2. Barriers to Women in Science (United States)

    Butler, Rosemary


    The Presiding Officer of the National Assembly for Wales, Rosemary Butler AM, has put the issue of barriers to women in public life at the top of the political agenda in Wales. She has held sessions with women across Wales to find out what those barriers are and how they can be tackled. On International Women's Day in February, she invited…

  3. Spanning trees crossing few barriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asano, T.; Berg, M. de; Cheong, O.; Guibas, L.J.; Snoeyink, J.; Tamaki, H.


    We consider the problem of finding low-cost spanning trees for sets of n points in the plane, where the cost of a spanning tree is defined as the total number of intersections of tree edges with a given set of m barriers. We obtain the following results: (i) if the barriers are possibly intersecting


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladislav M. Sannikov


    Full Text Available General barriers of organization of different types of strategic alliances have beenconsidered in the article. There are several recommendations for overcoming themin cases of international alliances, and in case of work in one state. The article also identified goals and tasks of single coordination center of alliance to overcome organization barriers.

  5. Informal export barriers and poverty


    Porto, Guido G.


    The author investigates the poverty impacts of informal export barriers like transport costs, cumbersome customs practices, costly regulations, and bribes. He models these informal barriers as export taxes that distort the efficient allocation of resources. In low-income agricultural economies, this distortion lowers wages and household agricultural income, thereby leading to higher pover...

  6. Delamination-Indicating Thermal Barrier Coatings (United States)

    Eldridge, Jeffrey I.


    The risk of premature failure of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs), typically composed of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ), compromises the reliability of TBCs used to provide thermal protection for turbine engine components. Unfortunately, TBC delamination proceeds well beneath the TBC surface and cannot be monitored by visible inspection. Nondestructive diagnostic tools that could reliably probe the subsurface damage state of TBCs would alleviate the risk of TBC premature failure by indicating when the TBC needs to be replaced before the level of TBC damage threatens engine performance or safety. To meet this need, a new coating design for thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) that are self-indicating for delamination has been successfully implemented by incorporating a europium-doped luminescent sublayer at the base of a TBC composed of YSZ. The luminescent sublayer has the same YSZ composition as the rest of the TBC except for the addition of low-level europium doping and therefore does not alter TBC performance.

  7. Ranking different barriers influencing on media privatization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roghiyeh Jame


    Full Text Available For years, there have been growing interests on cost reduction for products and services. Privatization is considered as one of the most important techniques to increase relative efficiencies of publically held firms. In this paper, we present an empirical investigation to rank important barriers on privatization of television (TV media industry in Iran. The proposed study of this paper designs and distributes a questionnaire using a sample of 234 out of 600 graduate students who were enrolled in media communication studies. The survey considers social, cultural, economic as well as rules and regulations factors influencing privatization of TV media industry. The survey uses the ranking method presented by Cook and Kress (1990 [Cook, W. D., & Kress, M. (1990. A data envelopment model for aggregating preference rankings. Management Science, 36(11, 1302-1310.]. The results of the investigation indicate rules and regulations are the most important barriers on privatization of Iranian TV followed by cultural, social and economic factors.

  8. Epistemological barriers to radical behaviorism. (United States)

    O'Donohue, W T; Callaghan, G M; Ruckstuhl, L E


    The historian and philosopher of science Gaston Bachelard proposed the concept of epistemological barriers to describe the intellectual challenges encountered by scientists in their work. In order to embrace novel ways of approaching a problem in science, scientists must overcome barriers or obstacles posed by their prior views. For example, Einsteinian physics presents scientists with claims that space is curved and that time and space are on the same continuum. We utilize Bachelard's concept of epistemological barriers to describe the differences between the intellectual journeys students pursuing advanced studies face when attempting to accept cognitive psychology or radical behaviorism. We contend that the folk psychological beliefs that students typically hold when entering these studies pose less challenge to cognitive psychology than to radical behaviorism. We also suggest that these barriers may also partly be involved in the problematic exegesis that has plagued radical behaviorism. In close, we offer some suggestions for dealing with these epistemological barriers.

  9. Epistemological barriers to radical behaviorism (United States)

    O'Donohue, William T.; Callaghan, Glenn M.; Ruckstuhl, L. E.


    The historian and philosopher of science Gaston Bachelard proposed the concept of epistemological barriers to describe the intellectual challenges encountered by scientists in their work. In order to embrace novel ways of approaching a problem in science, scientists must overcome barriers or obstacles posed by their prior views. For example, Einsteinian physics presents scientists with claims that space is curved and that time and space are on the same continuum. We utilize Bachelard's concept of epistemological barriers to describe the differences between the intellectual journeys students pursuing advanced studies face when attempting to accept cognitive psychology or radical behaviorism. We contend that the folk psychological beliefs that students typically hold when entering these studies pose less challenge to cognitive psychology than to radical behaviorism. We also suggest that these barriers may also partly be involved in the problematic exegesis that has plagued radical behaviorism. In close, we offer some suggestions for dealing with these epistemological barriers. PMID:22478314

  10. Development of engineered barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, Kwan Sik; Cho, Won Jin; Lee, Jae Owan; Kim, Seung Soo; Kang, Mu Ja


    Engineered barrier development was carried out into the three research fields : waste form, disposal container, and buffer. The waste form field dealt with long-term leaching tests with borosilicate waste glasses surrounded by compacted bentonite. The leach rate decreased with increasing time, and was higher for the waste specimen rich in U and Na. In the container field, preliminary concepts of disposal containers were recommended by conducting structural analysis, thermal analysis, and shielding analysis, and major properties of stainless steel, copper, and titanium as a container material were surveyed. The sensitization degrees of SUS 316 and316L were lower than those of SUS 304 and 304L, respectively. The crevice corrosion of sensitized stainless steel was sensitive to the content of salt. Researches into the buffer included establishment of its performance criteria followed by investigating major properties of buffer using potential material in Korea. Experiments were made for measuring hydraulic conductivities, swelling properties, mechanical properties, thermal conductivities, pore-water chemistry properties, and adsorption properties was also investigated. (author)


    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Twillert, Sacha; Stuive, Ilse; Geertzen, Jan H. B.; Postema, Klaas; Lettinga, Ant T.


    Objective: To examine functional performance, participation and autonomy after discharge from prosthetic rehabilitation and to identify the barriers and facilitators affecting these outcomes. Design: Concurrent mixed-methods design. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected at discharge from

  12. The role of plants on isolation barrier systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Link, S.O.; Downs, J.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Waugh, W.J. [UNC Chem-Nuclear Geotech, Grand Junction, CO (United States)


    Surface barriers are used to isolate buried wastes from the environment. Most have been built for short-term isolation. The need to isolate radioactive wastes from the environment requires that the functional integrity of a barrier be maintained for thousands of years. Barrier function strongly depends on vegetation. Plants reduce wind and water erosion and minimize drainage, but may transport contaminants if roots extend into buried wastes. Our review of the function of plants on surface barriers focuses on the role of plants across mesic to arid environments and gives special consideration to studies done at Hanford. The Hanford Barrier Development Program was created to design and test an earthen cover system to inhibit water infiltration, plant and animal intrusion, and wind and water erosion, while isolating buried wastes for at least 1000 years. Studies at the Hanford have shown that plants will significantly interact with the barrier. Plants transpire soil water back into the atmosphere. Deep-rooted perennials best recycle water; soil water may drain through the root zone of shallow-rooted annuals. Lysimeter studies indicate that a surface layer of fine soil with deep-rooted plants precludes drainage even with three times normal precipitation. The presence of vegetation greatly reduces water and wind erosion, but deep-rooted plants pose a threat of biointrusion and contaminant transport. The Hanford barrier includes a buried rock layer and asphalt layer to prevent biointrusion.

  13. Nested barriers to low-carbon infrastructure investment (United States)

    Granoff, Ilmi; Hogarth, J. Ryan; Miller, Alan


    Low-carbon, 'green' economic growth is necessary to simultaneously improve human welfare and avoid the worst impacts of climate change and environmental degradation. Infrastructure choices underpin both the growth and the carbon intensity of the economy. This Perspective explores the barriers to investing in low-carbon infrastructure and some of the policy levers available to overcome them. The barriers to decarbonizing infrastructure 'nest' within a set of barriers to infrastructure development more generally that cause spending on infrastructure--low-carbon or not--to fall more than 70% short of optimal levels. Developing countries face additional barriers such as currency and political risks that increase the investment gap. Low-carbon alternatives face further barriers, such as commercialization risk and financial and public institutions designed for different investment needs. While the broader barriers to infrastructure investment are discussed in other streams of literature, they are often disregarded in literature on renewable energy diffusion or climate finance, which tends to focus narrowly on the project costs of low- versus high-carbon options. We discuss how to overcome the barriers specific to low-carbon infrastructure within the context of the broader infrastructure gap.

  14. Free Software and Free Textbooks (United States)

    Takhteyev, Yuri


    Some of the world's best and most sophisticated software is distributed today under "free" or "open source" licenses, which allow the recipients of such software to use, modify, and share it without paying royalties or asking for permissions. If this works for software, could it also work for educational resources, such as books? The economics of…

  15. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP), Slick Rock, Colorado, Revision 1. Volume 2, Calculations, Final design for construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Volume two contains calculations for: embankment design--slope stability analysis; embankment design--excavation stability; embankment design--settlement and cover cracking analysis; radon barrier design--statistical analysis of ra-226 concentrations for North Continent and Union Carbide sites; radon barrier design--RAECOM input data; radon barrier design--design thickness; and cover design--frost penetration depth.

  16. T-TY Tank Farm Interim Surface Barrier Demonstration - Vadose Zone Monitoring FY10 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Z. F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Strickland, Christopher E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Field, Jim G. [Washington River Protection Solutions, Inc., Richland, WA (United States); Parker, Danny L. [Washington River Protection Solutions, Inc., Richland, WA (United States)


    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of River Protection has constructed interim surface barriers over a portion of the T and TY tank farms as part of the Interim Surface Barrier Demonstration Project. The interim surface barriers (hereafter referred to as the surface barriers or barriers) are designed to minimize the infiltration of precipitation into the soil zones containing radioactive contaminants and minimize the movement of the contaminants. As part of the demonstration effort, vadose zone moisture is being monitored to assess the effectiveness of the barriers at reducing soil moisture. Solar-powered systems were installed to continuously monitor soil water conditions at four locations in the T (i.e., instrument Nests TA, TB, TC, and TD) and the TY (i.e., instrument Nests TYA and TYB) Farms beneath the barriers and outside the barrier footprint as well as site meteorological conditions. Nests TA and TYA are placed in the area outside the barrier footprint and serve as controls, providing subsurface conditions outside the influence of the surface barriers. Nest TB provides subsurface measurements to assess surface-barrier edge effects. Nests TC, TD, and TYB are used to assess changes in soil-moisture conditions beneath the interim surface barriers.

  17. 疾病和污染的屏障或实验动物科学屏障的进展%Barriers to Disease and Contamination or Barriers to progress in Laboratory Animal Sciences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    As we enter a new era of laboratory sciences it is important not to loose sight of the important use of barriers.This presentation will offer a brief history of barrier design and re-affirm the importance of the barrier and monitoring of the effectiveness to the present generation of laboratory animal scientists.

  18. Modulation of spin transfer torque amplitude in double barrier magnetic tunnel junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clément, P.-Y.; Baraduc, C., E-mail:; Chshiev, M.; Diény, B. [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, INAC-SPINTEC, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CNRS, INAC-SPINTEC, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, INAC-SPINTEC, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Ducruet, C. [Crocus-Technology, 5, Place Robert Schuman, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Vila, L. [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, INAC-SP2M, F-38000 Grenoble, France and CEA, INAC-SP2M, F-38000 Grenoble (France)


    Magnetization switching induced by spin transfer torque is used to write magnetic memories (Magnetic Random Access Memory, MRAM) but can be detrimental to the reading process. It would be quite convenient therefore to modulate the efficiency of spin transfer torque. A solution is adding an extra degree of freedom by using double barrier magnetic tunnel junctions with two spin-polarizers, with controllable relative magnetic alignment. We demonstrate, for these structures, that the amplitude of in-plane spin transfer torque on the middle free layer can be efficiently tuned via the magnetic configuration of the electrodes. Using the proposed design could thus pave the way towards more reliable read/write schemes for MRAM. Moreover, our results suggest an intriguing effect associated with the out-of-plane (field-like) spin transfer torque, which has to be further investigated.

  19. Penetration through the Skin Barrier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Bo; Benfeldt, Eva; Holmgaard, Rikke


    The skin is a strong and flexible organ with barrier properties essential for maintaining homeostasis and thereby human life. Characterizing this barrier is the ability to prevent some chemicals from crossing the barrier while allowing others, including medicinal products, to pass at varying rates......-through diffusion cells) as well as in vivo methods (microdialysis and microperfusion). Then follows a discussion with examples of how different characteristics of the skin (age, site and integrity) and of the penetrants (size, solubility, ionization, logPow and vehicles) affect the kinetics of percutaneous...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen A. VRÂNCEANU


    Full Text Available Nowadays the global market allows each individual to work in foreign countries. This fact is a great opportunity for business development, but also puts into light the problem of cultural barriers. Ineffective cross-cultural communication and collaboration can harm employees, customers, and other stakeholders. A company with employees from different cultures must acknowledge and understand these barriers in order to overcome them and to obtain the desired performance. The present study aims to expose the cultural barriers encountered by foreigners in a multinational company from Romania.

  1. Design of Pb-free solders in electronic packaging by computational thermodynamics and kinetics%电子组装无铅焊料的热力学、动力学计算及合金设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘兴军; 王翠萍


    Computational thermodynamics and kinetics were used to design the Pb-free micro-solders for replacing the conventional Sn-Pb solders because of the health and environmental safety problem.On the basis of CALPHAD (Calculation of Phase Diagrams) method we can easily calculate properties such as the liquidus projection, isothermal and vertical sectional diagrams and phase fraction in multicomponent system including Ag, Bi, Cu, In, Sb, Sn, Zn and Pb elements. Inaddition, other related information such as the surface tension, viscosity of the liquid phase and solidification simulation can also be obtained. DICTRA (Diffusion Controlled Transformation) software was used to simulate the interfacial reactions between substrate and Pb-free solders, which can easily give the information on the growth of intermetallic compounds and moving speed of interface between substrate and solders etc.

  2. Resonance-like tunneling across a barrier with adjacent wells

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Mahadevan; P Prema; S K Agarwalla; B Sahu; C S Shastry


    We examine the behavior of transmission coefficient across the rectangular barrier when attractive potential well is present on one or both sides and also the same is studied for a smoother barrier with smooth adjacent wells having Woods–Saxon shape. We find that presence of well with suitable width and depth can substantially alter at energies below the barrier height leading to resonant-like structures. In a sense, this work is complementary to the resonant tunneling of particles across two rectangular barriers, which is being studied in detail in recent years with possible applications in mind. We interpret our results as due to resonant-like positive energy states generated by the adjacent wells. We describe in detail the possible potential application of these results in electronic devices using n-type oxygen-doped gallium arsenide and silicon dioxide. It is envisaged that these results will have applications in the design of tunneling devices.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Pavlovic


    Full Text Available Machine tools use physical barriers, made by flexible thermoplastic materials, to protect the environment and the operators against the projections of wood chips and parts of cutting tools. These barriers constitute a partial closure and allow the passage of the workpiece, being simultaneously able to contain sharp fragments projected at high speed. The present research was conducted with the aim to evaluate the real effectiveness of these barriers, to investigate their dynamic behaviour by numerical simulations. Results showed that these barriers, if properly considered, could retain heavier masses and higher speeds. The research also allowed, in fact, to investigate the influence of several factors in design, selection and use, as material, shape, position, assemblages and many others, highlighting weaknesses and identifying possible measures to increase its effectiveness.

  4. Thermal barrier coating on high temperature industrial gas turbine engines (United States)

    Carlson, N.; Stoner, B. L.


    The thermal barrier coating used was a yttria stabilized zirconia material with a NiCrAlY undercoat, and the base engine used to establish improvements was the P&WA FT50A-4 industrial gas turbine engine. The design benefits of thermal barrier coatings include simplified cooling schemes and the use of conventional alloys in the engine hot section. Cooling flow reductions and improved heating rates achieved with thermal barrier coating result in improved performance. Economic benefits include reduced power production costs and reduced fuel consumption. Over the 30,000 hour life of the thermal barrier coated parts, fuel savings equivalent to $5 million are projected and specific power (megawatts/mass of engine airflow) improvements on the order of 13% are estimated.

  5. Controlling the spin-torque efficiency with ferroelectric barriers

    KAUST Repository

    Useinov, A.


    Nonequilibrium spin-dependent transport in magnetic tunnel junctions comprising a ferroelectric barrier is theoretically investigated. The exact solutions of the free electron Schrödinger equation for electron tunneling in the presence of interfacial screening are obtained by combining Bessel and Airy functions. We demonstrate that the spin transfer torque efficiency, and more generally the bias dependence of tunneling magneto- and electroresistance, can be controlled by switching the ferroelectric polarization of the barrier. In particular, the critical voltage at which the in-plane torque changes sign can be strongly enhanced or reduced depending on the direction of the ferroelectric polarization of the barrier. This effect provides a supplementary way to electrically control the current-driven dynamic states of the magnetization and related magnetic noise in spin transfer devices.

  6. Analyzing Barriers to Energy Conservation in Residences and Offices: The Rewire Program at the University of Toronto (United States)

    Stokes, Leah C.; Mildenberger, Matto; Savan, Beth; Kolenda, Brian


    Conducting a barriers analysis is an important first step when designing proenvironmental behavior change interventions. Yet, detailed information on common barriers to energy conservation campaigns remains unavailable. Using a pair of original surveys, we leverage the theory of planned behavior to report on the most important barriers for…

  7. Barrier Coatings for Refractory Metals and Superalloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SM Sabol; BT Randall; JD Edington; CJ Larkin; BJ Close


    In the closed working fluid loop of the proposed Prometheus space nuclear power plant (SNPP), there is the potential for reaction of core and plant structural materials with gas phase impurities and gas phase transport of interstitial elements between superalloy and refractory metal alloy components during service. Primary concerns are surface oxidation, interstitial embrittlement of refractory metals and decarburization of superalloys. In parallel with kinetic investigations, this letter evaluates the ability of potential coatings to prevent or impede communication between reactor and plant components. Key coating requirements are identified and current technology coating materials are reviewed relative to these requirements. Candidate coatings are identified for future evaluation based on current knowledge of design parameters and anticipated environment. Coatings were identified for superalloys and refractory metals to provide diffusion barriers to interstitial transport and act as reactive barriers to potential oxidation. Due to their high stability at low oxygen potential, alumina formers are most promising for oxidation protection given the anticipated coolant gas chemistry. A sublayer of iridium is recommended to provide inherent diffusion resistance to interstitials. Based on specific base metal selection, a thin film substrate--coating interdiffusion barrier layer may be necessary to meet mission life.

  8. Evaluation of an expedient terrorist vehicle barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCallen, D; Lewis, P; Wattenburg, B; Mote, P


    The threat of terrorist vehicle bombs has become evident in the past few years. The explosive power that can be generated by a ''home made'' bomb carried by a standard van or moderate size truck can generate sufficient blast overpressures to cause major damage or catastrophic collapse to building structures. There are a number of means available to help prevent a successful terrorist attack on a facility. One measure consists of the gathering of intelligence that can be used to thwart an attack before it takes place. The design and retrofit of structures and structural systems which can resist blast loadings and protect occupants is another area which is currently receiving a great deal of attention by the security community. Another measure, which can be used to protect many existing facilities, is to restrict access to the facility. This option consists of keeping unauthorized vehicles as far as possible from the facility so that if a vehicle bomb does approach the facility, the distance at which the bomb is detonated will result in significant reduction in the overpressures by the time the blast wave reaches the protected structure. This paper describes a simple and efficient vehicle barrier concept that can be used to prevent unauthorized vehicle access. The feasibility study described herein consisted of a field experimental program to test the validity of the barrier concept, and demonstrated the ability of the simple barrier to effectively disable speeding vehicles.

  9. Oxynitride Thin Film Barriers for PV Packaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glick, S. H.; delCueto, J. A.; Terwilliger, K. M.; Jorgensen, G. J.; Pankow, J. W.; Keyes, B. M.; Gedvilas, L. M.; Pern, F. J.


    Dielectric thin-film barrier and adhesion-promoting layers consisting of silicon oxynitride materials (SiOxNy, with various stoichiometry) were investigated. For process development, films were applied to glass (TCO, conductive SnO2:F; or soda-lime), polymer (PET, polyethylene terephthalate), aluminized soda-lime glass, or PV cell (a-Si, CIGS) substrates. Design strategy employed de-minimus hazard criteria to facilitate industrial adoption and reduce implementation costs for PV manufacturers or suppliers. A restricted process window was explored using dilute compressed gases (3% silane, 14% nitrous oxide, 23% oxygen) in nitrogen (or former mixtures, and 11.45% oxygen mix in helium and/or 99.999% helium dilution) with a worst-case flammable and non-corrosive hazard classification. Method employed low radio frequency (RF) power, less than or equal to 3 milliwatts per cm2, and low substrate temperatures, less than or equal to 100 deg C, over deposition areas less than or equal to 1000 cm2. Select material properties for barrier film thickness (profilometer), composition (XPS/FTIR), optical (refractive index, %T and %R), mechanical peel strength and WVTR barrier performance are presented.

  10. Microfluidic Flame Barrier (United States)

    Mungas, Gregory S. (Inventor); Fisher, David J. (Inventor); Mungas, Christopher (Inventor)


    Propellants flow through specialized mechanical hardware that is designed for effective and safe ignition and sustained combustion of the propellants. By integrating a micro-fluidic porous media element between a propellant feed source and the combustion chamber, an effective and reliable propellant injector head may be implemented that is capable of withstanding transient combustion and detonation waves that commonly occur during an ignition event. The micro-fluidic porous media element is of specified porosity or porosity gradient selected to be appropriate for a given propellant. Additionally the propellant injector head design integrates a spark ignition mechanism that withstands extremely hot running conditions without noticeable spark mechanism degradation.

  11. Small-scale experimental tests of tandem mirror machines with thermal barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drake, R.P.


    A summary is given of current physical understanding of tandem mirrors with thermal barriers. Physicists who understand tandem mirrors can use this document as a preliminary guide to the physical issues and experimental problems involved. This report will focus upon the issues that can be tested experimentally, and on the areas needing experimental and theoretical inventions. The next section discusses the plasma potentials and plasma confinement which correspond to a tandem mirror with thermal barriers, assuming the barriers exist in steady-state. The creation of a barrier is discussed, i.e., the natural tendency of the barrier cell to fill with plasma must be countered by pumping ions out of the barrier. The design of a barrier-pumping experiment for TMX is described.

  12. 老年人居室中的无障碍厨卫空间设计%Design on obstacle-free kitchen and toilet in the aged sitting room

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟振亚; 申黎明


    根据当今社会发展趋势,分析了供老年人使用的厨房和卫生间引入无障碍设计原则的重要性以及人体工程学的介入方法。对无障碍厨卫空间设计的各个方面提出了造型尺度、辅助功能和安全保护的原则,为设计老年人厨卫空间和配套设施提供了依据。%According to current society development trend,the paper analyzes significance introduced obstacle-free design principle into kitchen and toilet used by the aged and the method intervened ergonomics,and puts forward shape size,auxiliary functions,and safe protection principle in the design of obstacle-free kitchen and toilet,which has provided certain basis for designing the aged kitchen and toilet and supporting facilities.

  13. Design of a Free-running, 1/30th Froude Scaled Model Destroyer for In-situ Hydrodynamic Flow Visualization (United States)


    52 4.1 Future Work and Lessons Learned ................................................................................. 52 Works Cited...the 1/30 th scale, free-running model will provide a suitable platform. 4 CONLCUSIONS 4.1 Future Work and Lessons Learned The 1/30 th scale...3.63 1.18 4.28 16.30 59.17 COMUNICATIONS & DATA Wireless Router-EnGenius 9850 0.44 0.00 0.00 Wireless Antenna 0.85 0.00 0.00

  14. Coastal Structures and Barriers 2012 (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This dataset is a compilation of the UCSC Sand Retention Structures, MC Barriers, and USACE Coastal Structures. UCSC Sand Retention Structures originate from a...

  15. Guided tissue regeneration. Absorbable barriers. (United States)

    Wang, H L; MacNeil, R L


    Over the past 15 years, techniques aimed at regeneration of lost periodontal tissue have become widely used and accepted in clinical practice. Among these techniques are those which use the principles of guided tissue regeneration (GTR), wherein barriers (i.e., membranes) are used to control cell and tissue repopulation of the periodontal wound. A variety of non-absorbable and absorbable barriers have been developed and used for this purpose, with a trend in recent years toward increased use of absorbable GTR materials. This article describes the evolution of absorbable barrier materials and overview materials available for clinical use today. In addition, advantages and disadvantages of these materials are discussed, as well as possible new developments in barrier-based GTR therapy.

  16. Permeation barrier for lightweight liquid hydrogen tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultheiss, D.


    For the future usage of hydrogen as an automotive fuel, its on-board storage is crucial. One approach is the storage of liquid hydrogen (LH2, 20 K) in double-walled, vacuum insulated tanks. The introduction of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) as structural material enables a high potential of reducing the weight in comparison to the state-of-the-art stainless steel tanks. The generally high permeability of hydrogen through plastics, however, can lead to long-term degradation of the insulating vacuum. The derived objective of this dissertation was to find and apply an adequate permeation barrier (liner) on CFRP. The investigated liners were either foils adhered on CFRP specimens or coatings deposited on CFRP specimens. The coatings were produced by means of thermal spraying, metal plating or physical vapor deposition (PVD). The materials of the liners included Al, Au, Cu, Ni and Sn as well as stainless steel and diamond-like carbon. The produced liners were tested for their permeation behavior, thermal shock resistance and adherence to the CFRP substrate. Additionally, SEM micrographs were used to characterize and qualify the liners. The foils, although being a good permeation barrier, adhered weakly to the substrate. Furthermore, leak-free joining of foil segments is a challenge still to be solved. The metal plating liners exhibited the best properties. For instance, no permeation could be detected through a 50 {mu}m thick Cu coating within the accuracy of the measuring apparatus. This corresponds to a reduction of the permeation gas flow by more than factor 7400 compared to uncoated CFRP. In addition, the metal platings revealed a high adherence and thermal shock resistance. The coatings produced by means of thermal spraying and PVD did not show a sufficient permeation barrier effect. After having investigated the specimens, a 170 liter CFRP tank was fully coated with 50 {mu}m Cu by means of metal plating. (orig.)

  17. Autostereoscopic display concept with time-sequential wavelength-selective filter-barrier (United States)

    Jurk, Silvio; Kuhlmey, Mathias; Bartmann, Roland; Duckstein, Bernd; de la Barré, René


    A spatially multiplexed autostereoscopic 3D display design with a strip barrier consisting of RGB-color filters is presented. The wavelength selective filter barrier emits the light from a display area larger than that of common autostereoscopic barrier displays. However, such construction is still used rather rarely. The time sequential operation mode is a supplemental option. Wavelength selective filter barrier arrangements exhibit characteristics different from common barrier displays with similar barrier pitch and ascent. In particular these constructions show strong angular luminance dependency under barrier inclination specified by correspondent slant angle. In time sequential implementation it is important to avoid that quick eye or eyelid movement lead to visible color artifacts. Those circumstances limit the possibility to find well working and usable display designs superior to usual barrier displays. The newly introduced design is usable as a multi user display as well as a single user system with user adaptive control. In case of tracked single user mode the adaption in x-z-direction is continuously. The design has been modelled with simulation software developed for that purpose. The modelling of wavelength-selective barriers was used to calculate the light ray distribution properties of that arrangement. For the experimental verification of the image separation and evaluation of image quality, commercially available display components were combined for a display demonstrator.

  18. Breaking Barriers in Polymer Additive Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Love, Lonnie J [ORNL; Duty, Chad E [ORNL; Post, Brian K [ORNL; Lind, Randall F [ORNL; Lloyd, Peter D [ORNL; Kunc, Vlastimil [ORNL; Peter, William H [ORNL; Blue, Craig A [ORNL


    Additive Manufacturing (AM) enables the creation of complex structures directly from a computer-aided design (CAD). There are limitations that prevent the technology from realizing its full potential. AM has been criticized for being slow and expensive with limited build size. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has developed a large scale AM system that improves upon each of these areas by more than an order of magnitude. The Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) system directly converts low cost pellets into a large, three-dimensional part at a rate exceeding 25 kg/h. By breaking these traditional barriers, it is possible for polymer AM to penetrate new manufacturing markets.

  19. Disruption of barrier function in dermatophytosis and pityriasis versicolor. (United States)

    Lee, Weon Ju; Kim, Jun Young; Song, Chang Hyun; Jung, Hong Dae; Lee, Su Hyun; Lee, Seok-Jong; Kim, Do Won


    Dermatophytes have the ability to form molecular attachments to keratin and use it as a source of nutrients, colonizing keratinized tissues, including the stratum corneum of the skin. Malassezia species also affect the stratum corneum of the skin. Therefore, dermatophytosis and pityriasis versicolor of the skin are thought to be important factors of profound changes in skin barrier structure and function. We aimed to describe the changes in transepidermal water loss (TEWL), stratum corneum hydration, and skin pH in the lesions of the dermatophytosis and pityriasis versicolor. Thirty-six patients with dermatophytosis (14 with tinea cruris, 13 with tinea corporis and nine with tinea pedis or tinea manus) and 11 patients with pityriasis versicolor were included in this study. TEWL, stratum corneum conductance and skin pH were determined by biophysical methods to examine whether our patients exhibited changes in barrier function. Dermatophytosis and pityriasis versicolor except tinea pedis and tinea manus showed highly significant increase in TEWL compared with adjacent infection-free skin. Hydration was significantly reduced in lesional skin compared with adjacent infection-free skin. From this study, infections with dermatophytes and Malassezia species on the body can alter biophysical properties of the skin, especially the function of stratum corneum as a barrier to water loss. On the contrary, infections with dermatophytes on the palms and soles little affect the barrier function of the skin.

  20. Nonlocal reflection by photonic barriers


    Vetter, R. -M.; A. Haibel; Nimtz, G.


    The time behaviour of microwaves undergoing partial reflection by photonic barriers was measured in the time and in the frequency domain. It was observed that unlike the duration of partial reflection by dielectric layers, the measured reflection duration of barriers is independent of their length. The experimental results point to a nonlocal behaviour of evanescent modes at least over a distance of some ten wavelengths. Evanescent modes correspond to photonic tunnelling in quantum mechanics.