WorldWideScience

Sample records for barrier development program

  1. Hanford Site Permanent Isolation Surface Barrier Development Program: Fiscal year 1992 and 1993 highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadwell, L.L.; Link, S.O.; Gee, G.W. [eds.

    1993-09-01

    The Hanford Site Permanent Isolation Surface Barrier Development Program was jointly developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory and Westinghouse Hanford Company to design and test an earthen cover system that can be used to inhibit water infiltration; plant, animal, and human intrusion; and wind and water erosion. Kaiser Engineers Hanford Company provided engineering design support for the program. Work on barrier design has been under way at Hanford for nearly 10 years. The comprehensive development of a long-term barrier, formerly the Hanford Site Protective Barrier Development Program, was initiated in FY 1986, and a general field-tested design is expected to be completed by FY 1998. Highlights of efforts in FY 1992 and FY 1993 included the resumption of field testing, the completion of the prototype barrier design, and the convening of an external peer review panel, which met twice with the barrier development team. The review panel provided helpful guidance on current and future barrier development activities, while commending the program for its significant technical contributions to innovative barrier technology development.

  2. Hanford Permanent Isolation Barrier Program: Asphalt technology development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, H.D.; Romine, R.A.

    1994-11-01

    An important component of the Hanford Permanent Isolation Barrier is the use of a two-layer composite asphalt system, which provides backup water diversion capabilities if the primary capillary barrier fails to meet infiltration goals. Because of asphalt`s potential to perform to specification over the 1000-year design life criterion, a composite asphalt barrier (HMAC/fluid-applied polymer-modified asphalt) is being considered as an alternative to the bentonite clay/high density poly(ethylene) barriers for the low-permeability component of the Hanford Permanent Isolation Barrier. The feasibility of using asphalt as a long-term barrier is currently being studied. Information that must be known is the ability of asphalt to retain desirable physical properties over a period of 1000 years. This paper presents the approach for performing accelerated aging tests and evaluating the performance of samples under accelerated conditions. The results of these tests will be compared with asphalt artifact analogs and the results of modeling the degradation of the selected asphalt composite to make life-cycle predictions.

  3. Barriers and Promising Approaches to Workforce and Youth Development for Young Offenders. Program Profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, David; Maxwell, Sarah; DeJesus, Edward; Schiraldi, Vincent

    This publication is part of a toolkit that examines systemic barriers to achieving economic self-sufficiency for court-involved youth. It highlights 15 exemplary programs in the world of criminal justice for young people. The programs are all based on youth development principles and are guided by a comprehensive set of core principles that view…

  4. Addressing the Barriers to Agile Development in the Department of Defense: Program Structure, Requirements, and Contracting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-30

    barriers within the DoD acquisition system (Broadus, 2013). MITRE performed initial research to examine the leading Agile methodologies and commercial...that suit each organization’s IT environment. Various Agile methods (e.g., Scrum , Extreme Programming (XP), Kanban, Test Driven Development) have... methodology . Traditional waterfall programs usually have discrete acquisition phases driven by milestone events to deliver a large capability. Agile is more

  5. Long-term climate change assessment study plan for the Hanford Site Permanent Isolation Barrier Development Program. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, K.L. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Chatters, J.C. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Waugh, W.J. [Chem-Nuclear Geotech, Inc., Grand Junction, CO (United States)

    1993-05-01

    The Hanford Site Permanent Isolation Barrier Development Program (Barrier Development Program) was organized to develop the technology needed to provide an in-place disposal capability for low-level nuclear waste for the US Department of Energy at the Hanford Site in south-central Washington. The goal of the Barrier Development Program is to provide defensible evidence that final barrier design(s) will adequately control water infiltration, plant and animal intrusion, and wind and water erosion for a minimum of 1,000 yr; to isolate wastes from the accessible environment; and to use markers to warn inadvertent human intruders. Evidence for barrier performance will be obtained by conducting laboratory experiments, field tests, computer modeling, and other studies that establish confidence in the barrier`s ability to meet its 1,000-yr design life.

  6. Long-Term Climate Change Assessment Task for the Hanford Site Permanent Isolation Barrier Development Program: Status through FY 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, K.L. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (US); Chatters, J.C. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (US)

    1993-07-01

    The Hanford Site Permanent Isolation Barrier Development Program (Barrier Development Program) was organized (Adams and Wing 1986) to develop the technology needed to provide an in-place disposal capability for the US Department of Energy at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington. The goals of the Barrier Development Program are to provide defensible evidence that final barrier design(s) will adequately control water infiltration, plant and animal intrusion, and wind and water erosion for a minimum of 1,000 years; to isolate wastes from the accessible environment; and to use markers to warn inadvertent human intruders. Evidence for barrier performance will be obtained by conducting laboratory experiments, field tests, computer modeling, and other studies that establish confidence in the barrier`s ability to meet its 1,000-year design life. The performance and stability of natural barrier analogs that have existed for several millennia and the reconstruction of climate changes during the past 10,000 to 125,000 years also will provide insight into bounding conditions of possible future changes and increase confidence in the barriers design. In the following discussion the term {open_quotes}long-term{close_quotes} references periods of time up to 1000`s of years, distinguishing it from {open_quotes}short-term{close_quotes} weather patterns covering a decade or less. Specific activities focus on planning and conducting a series of studies and tests required to confirm key aspects of the barrier design. The effort is a collaborative one between scientists and engineers from Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford) and Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to design barriers to limit movement of radionuclides and other contaminants to the accessible environment for at least 1,000 years. These activities have been divided into 14 groups of tasks that aid in the complete development of protective barrier and warning marker system.

  7. Westinghouse thermal barrier coatings development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goedjen, J.G.; Wagner, G. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Orlando, FL (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Westinghouse, in conjunction with the Department of Energy and Oak Ridge National Laboratory, has embarked upon a program for the development of advanced thermal barrier coatings for industrial gas turbines. Development of thermal barrier coatings (TBC`s) for industrial gas turbines has relied heavily on the transfer of technology from the aerospace industry. Significant differences in the time/temperature/stress duty cycles exist between these two coating applications. Coating systems which perform well in aerospace applications may not been optimized to meet power generation performance requirements. This program will focus on development of TBC`s to meet the specific needs of power generation applications. The program is directed at developing a state-of-the-art coating system with a minimum coating life of 25,000 hours at service temperatures required to meet increasing operating efficiency goals. Westinghouse has assembled a team of university and industry leaders to accomplish this goal. Westinghouse will coordinate the efforts of all program participants. Chromalloy Turbine Technologies, Inc. and Sermatech International, Inc. will be responsible for bond coat and TBC deposition technology. Praxair Specialty Powders, Inc. will be responsible for the fabrication of all bond coat and ceramic powders for the program. Southwest Research Institute will head the life prediction modelling effort; they will also be involved in coordinating nondestructive evaluation (NDE) efforts. Process modelling will be provided by the University of Arizona.

  8. Development of engineered barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, Kwan Sik; Cho, Won Jin; Lee, Jae Owan; Kim, Seung Soo; Kang, Mu Ja

    1999-03-01

    Engineered barrier development was carried out into the three research fields : waste form, disposal container, and buffer. The waste form field dealt with long-term leaching tests with borosilicate waste glasses surrounded by compacted bentonite. The leach rate decreased with increasing time, and was higher for the waste specimen rich in U and Na. In the container field, preliminary concepts of disposal containers were recommended by conducting structural analysis, thermal analysis, and shielding analysis, and major properties of stainless steel, copper, and titanium as a container material were surveyed. The sensitization degrees of SUS 316 and316L were lower than those of SUS 304 and 304L, respectively. The crevice corrosion of sensitized stainless steel was sensitive to the content of salt. Researches into the buffer included establishment of its performance criteria followed by investigating major properties of buffer using potential material in Korea. Experiments were made for measuring hydraulic conductivities, swelling properties, mechanical properties, thermal conductivities, pore-water chemistry properties, and adsorption properties was also investigated. (author)

  9. Decontamination systems information and research program -- Literature review in support of development of standard test protocols and barrier design models for in situ formed barriers project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-01

    The US Department of Energy is responsible for approximately 3,000 sites in which contaminants such as carbon tetrachloride, trichlorethylene, perchlorethylene, non-volatile and soluble organic and insoluble organics (PCBs and pesticides) are encountered. In specific areas of these sites radioactive contaminants are stored in underground storage tanks which were originally designed and constructed with a 30-year projected life. Many of these tanks are now 10 years beyond the design life and failures have occurred allowing the basic liquids (ph of 8 to 9) to leak into the unconsolidated soils below. Nearly one half of the storage tanks located at the Hanford Washington Reservation are suspected of leaking and contaminating the soils beneath them. The Hanford site is located in a semi-arid climate region with rainfall of less than 6 inches annually, and studies have indicated that very little of this water finds its way to the groundwater to move the water down gradient toward the Columbia River. This provides the government with time to develop a barrier system to prevent further contamination of the groundwater, and to develop and test remediation systems to stabilize or remove the contaminant materials. In parallel to remediation efforts, confinement and containment technologies are needed to retard or prevent the advancement of contamination plumes through the environment until the implementation of remediation technology efforts are completed. This project examines the various confinement and containment technologies and protocols for testing the materials in relation to their function in-situ.

  10. Permanent isolation surface barrier development plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wing, N.R.

    1994-01-01

    The exhumation and treatment of wastes may not always be the preferred alternative in the remediation of a waste site. In-place disposal alternatives, under certain circumstances, may be the most desirable alternatives to use in the protection of human health and the environment. The implementation of an in-place disposal alternative will likely require some type of protective covering that will provide long-term isolation of the wastes from the accessible environment. Even if the wastes are exhumed and treated, a long-term barrier may still be needed to adequately dispose of the treated wastes or any remaining waste residuals. Currently, no {open_quotes}proven{close_quotes} long-term barrier is available. The Hanford Site Permanent Isolation Surface Barrier Development Program (BDP) was organized to develop the technology needed to provide a long-term surface barrier capability for the Hanford Site. The permanent isolation barrier technology also could be used at other sites. Permanent isolation barriers use engineered layers of natural materials to create an integrated structure with redundant protective features. Drawings of conceptual permanent isolation surface barriers are shown. The natural construction materials (e.g., fine soil, sand, gravel, riprap, asphalt) have been selected to optimize barrier performance and longevity. The objective of current designs is to use natural materials to develop a maintenance-free permanent isolation surface barrier that isolates wastes for a minimum of 1,000 years by limiting water drainage to near-zero amounts; reducing the likelihood of plant, animal, and human intrusion; controlling the exhalation of noxious gases; and minimizing erosion-related problems.

  11. Program MAMLAC : a mathematical model for impacts against crash barriers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giavotto, V.

    1972-01-01

    The digital simulation system that has been developed for impact test against safety barriers has proved to be a valuable tool; it may reduce the cost of a program, or better increase largely the extent of a program without increasing the cost. In fact it may permit to reduce considerably the number

  12. Identification of Key Barriers in Workforce Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2008-03-31

    This report documents the identification of key barriers in the development of an adequate national security workforce as part of the National Security Preparedness Project, being performed under a Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration grant. Many barriers exist that prevent the development of an adequate number of propertly trained national security personnel. Some barriers can be eliminated in a short-term manner, whereas others will involve a long-term strategy that takes into account public policy.

  13. Pediatric obesity community programs: barriers & facilitators toward sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Po'e, Eli K; Gesell, Sabina B; Lynne Caples, T; Escarfuller, Juan; Barkin, Shari L

    2010-08-01

    Our current generation of young people could become the first generation to live shorter lives than their parents. Families need resources in their community to address this issue. Identifying barriers and facilitators of community organizations to offer obesity-related services is a first step in understanding sustainable community programs. The objective of this study is to identify common barriers and facilitators in community organizational programs designed to prevent or reduce pediatric obesity. We conducted an exploratory qualitative research study based on grounded theory. Thirty-six community organizations were identified based on self-descriptions of goals involving pediatric obesity. Semi-structured, systematic, face-to-face interviews among program directors (n = 24) were recorded, transcribed, and coded for recurrent themes. Relevant themes were abstracted from interviews by a standardized iterative process by two independent reviewers between December 2007 and November 2008. Theme discordance was reconciled by a third reviewer. Seventy percent of organizations indicated that obesity prevention/treatment was their explicit goal with remaining groups indicating healthy lifestyles as a more general goal. Facilitators to provision of these programs included: programmatic enhancements such as improved curriculums (73%), community involvement such as volunteers (62.5%), and partnerships with other programs (54.2%). Barriers that threatened sustainability included lack of consistent funding (43.8%), lack of consistent participation from the target population (41.7%) and lack of support staff (20.8%). New approaches in fostering partnerships between organizations need to be developed. Building coalitions and engaging community members in developing community based programs may be a helpful strategy to strengthen community-based programs to address the pediatric obesity epidemic.

  14. Barrier Mechanisms in the Developing Brain

    OpenAIRE

    Saunders, Norman R.; Liddelow, Shane A.; Dziegielewska, Katarzyna M.

    2012-01-01

    The adult brain functions within a well-controlled stable environment, the properties of which are determined by cellular exchange mechanisms superimposed on the diffusion restraint provided by tight junctions at interfaces between blood, brain and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). These interfaces are referred to as “the” blood–brain barrier. It is widely believed that in embryos and newborns, this barrier is immature or “leaky,” rendering the developing brain more vulnerable to drugs or toxins ent...

  15. Overcoming barriers to Clean Development Mechanism projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, J. [OECD, Paris (France); Kamel, S. [UNEP Risoe Centre on Energy, Climate and Sustainable Development URC, Roskilde (Denmark)

    2007-05-15

    The market for Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects is continuing to grow rapidly, with the current portfolio expecting to deliver 2 billion tons of CO2-eq greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reductions by 2012, equivalent to 17% of Annex I Parties' base year GHG emissions. In total, governments and companies have earmarked over USD11 billion for CDM funding to 2012. This study analyses the various barriers to CDM market expansion in developing countries, and makes recommendations on how some of them can be removed or reduced. It also examines the distribution of CDM projects amongst regions and sectors. Different types of barriers can impede the development of CDM projects. These include: National-level barriers not related specifically to the CDM such as the policy or legislative framework within which a CDM project operates, e.g. electricity-related regulations that constrain generation by independent power producers; National-level CDM-related barriers such as institutional capability/effectiveness or lack of awareness about CDM potential. For example, delays in host country approval of CDM projects can dampen interest in CDM project development; Project-related issues including availability (or not) of underlying project finance, or other country or project-related risks that render the performance of the project uncertain; International-level barriers such as constraints on project eligibility (e.g. on land use and forestry projects), available guidance and decisions (e.g. with respect to the inclusion of carbon capture and storage projects), etc. Thus, barriers to CDM development can arise at different parts of the CDM project cycle. The relative importance of particular barriers varies between countries as well as over time. A combination of factors is needed to drive growth in a country's CDM activity. This includes the presence of attractive CDM opportunities, a positive investment climate, and an enabling policy and legislative framework (in

  16. Barriers towards integrated product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Anita Friis; Dukovska-Popovska, Iskra; Steger-Jensen, Kenn

    2014-01-01

    The basis for product development in many large industrial companies is a traditional project management method positing non-overlapping phases, independent activities, and a dedicated project team. Research findings indicate that integrated product development methods increase performance compared...... to traditional methods, when it is a matter of complex problem solving where product development is a disruptive and non-linear process. Even though integrated product development has been the focus of a large number of research studies, most focus on identifying success criteria and improving performance while...... requirements for implementation of integrated product development remains under-researched. This study takes on a holistic project management perspective and identifies challenges and requirements through an in-depth case study. It is found that implementation requires both awareness and skills of integrated...

  17. Addressing the Barriers to Agile Development in DoD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    pmodigliani@mitre.org May 2015 Addressing the Barriers to Agile Development in DoD MITRE Defense Agile Acquisition Guide Naval Postgraduate School’s...COVERED 00-00-2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Addressing the Barriers to Agile Development in DoD 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT...NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS

  18. Identify and Rank Barriers to Tourism Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parchekani Choozaki Parvaneh

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This is a survey study and is practical and in nature is analytical descriptive. This is an analytical study because samples were used to collect data and it is descriptive because its variables are studied and reported as there are in the real world. In this study we study the barriers to tourism development and will rank the barriers for the use planners. In this study, to determine the validity the content validity was determined and to determine reliability the Cronbach's alpha method has been used. Also to check the normality of questions’ answers the Kolmogorov - Smirnov test is used. The sample population has also been determined by computational methods. In conclusion, according to the results of questionnaires and fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy process method, results were presented in two parts: result analysis for ranking the barriers to the development of tourism and suggestions.

  19. Environmental Barrier Coatings for the Energy Efficient Heat Engines Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katherine Faber

    2004-10-31

    This program aimed to develop a fundamental understanding of the microstructural, mechanical, and chemical properties of Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}-based coatings for Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} (AS800) substrates and optimize such coatings for environmental barriers. The program consisted of three tasks: processing of Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} coatings, phase and microstructural development, and life-limiting phenomena. Northwestern University formed a cross-functional team with Lehigh University, Honeywell Inc., and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The major accomplishments are: (1) Conditions for the plasma spray of Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} and its alloys were optimized to provide maximum density and thickness. (2) Adherent small particle plasma spray coatings of Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} can be routinely prepared. (3) Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} can be stabilized against its disruptive phase transformation to 1400 C by the addition of one or more oxides of Al, La, and/or Nb. (4) Residual stresses in the Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} coatings were measured using X-rays and changed with thermal exposure. (5) Properly doped coatings are more resistant against thermal cycling than undoped coatings, and can be cycled many thousand times without spallation. (6) Water vapor testing in the ORNL Keiser Rig of adherent coatings showed that undoped Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} is not an effective barrier at preventing chemical changes to the AS800. (7) Limited water vapor testing of doped and adherent coatings, which had successfully survived many thermal cycles, showed that in the water vapor environment, de-cohesion may occur.

  20. Understanding barriers to implementation of an adaptive land management program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, S.K.; Morris, J.K.; Sanders, J.S.; Wiley, E.N.; Brooks, M.; Bennetts, R.E.; Percival, H.F.; Marynowski, S.

    2006-01-01

    The Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission manages over 650,000 ha, including 26 wildlife management and environmental areas. To improve management, they developed an objective-based vegetation management (OBVM) process that focuses on desired conditions of plant communities through an adaptive management framework. Our goals were to understand potential barriers to implementing OBVM and to recommend strategies to overcome barriers. A literature review identified 47 potential barriers in six categories to implementation of adaptive and ecosystem management: logistical, communication, attitudinal, institutional, conceptual, and educational. We explored these barriers through a bureau-wide survey of 90 staff involved in OBVM and personal interviews with area managers, scientists, and administrators. The survey incorporated an organizational culture assessment instrument to gauge how institutional factors might influence OBVM implementation. The survey response rate was 69%. Logistics and communications were the greatest barriers to implementing OBVM. Respondents perceived that the agency had inadequate resources for implementing OBVM and provided inadequate information. About one-third of the respondents believed OBVM would decrease their job flexibility and perceived greater institutional barriers to the approach. The 43% of respondents who believed they would have more responsibility under OBVM also had greater attitudinal barriers. A similar percentage of respondents reported OBVM would not give enough priority to wildlife. Staff believed that current agency culture was hierarchical but preferred a culture that would provide more flexibility for adaptive management and would foster learning from land management activities. In light of the barriers to OBVM, we recommend the following: (1) mitigation of logistical barriers by addressing real and perceived constraints of staff, funds, and other resources in a participatory manner; (2) mitigation of

  1. Barriers to participation in a worksite wellness program

    OpenAIRE

    Person, Ashley Lynne; Colby, Sarah Elizabeth; Bulova, Jessica Ann; Eubanks, Janie Whitehurst

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine barriers that prevent participation in an employee wellness program, Wellness Wednesdays: "Eat & Meet" About Healthy Living, conducted at East Carolina University (ECU) in Greenville, North Carolina. All ECU ARAMARK employees (n = 481) over the age of 18 were eligible to participate in the wellness program. Weekly 30 minute classes, taught by a Registered Dietitian, on various nutrition- and health-related topics were conducted for 10-weeks. Five ...

  2. Overcoming Barriers to Wind Development in Appalachian Coal Country

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brent Bailey; Evan Hansen

    2012-10-09

    This research project synthesizes existing data and communication from experts to assess barriers to wind development in Pennsylvania, Maryland, West Virginia, Virginia, and Kentucky, and makes recommendations where feasible to reduce or eliminate those barriers.

  3. Development of dual-band barrier detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plis, Elena; Myers, Stephen A.; Ramirez, David A.; Krishna, Sanjay

    2016-05-01

    We report on the development of dual-band InAs/GaSb type-II strained layer superlattices (T2SL) detectors with barrier designs at SK Infrared. Over the past five years, we demonstrated mid-wave/long-wave (MW/LWIR, cut-off wavelengths are 5 μm and 10.0 μm), and LW/LWIR (cut-off wavelengths are 9 μm and 11.0 μm) detectors with nBn and pBp designs. Recent results include a high performance bias-selectable long/long-wavelength infrared photodetector based on T2SL with a pBp barrier architecture. The two channels 50% cut-off wavelengths were ~ 9.2 μm and ~ 12 μm at 77 K. The "blue" and "red" LWIR absorbers demonstrated saturated QE values of 34 % and 28 %, respectively, measured in a backside illuminated configuration with a ~ 35 μm thick layer of residual GaSb substrate. Bulk-limited dark current levels were ~ 2.6 x 10-7 A/cm2 at + 100 mV and ~ 8.3 x 10-4 A/cm2 at - 200 mV for the "blue" and "red" channels, respectively.

  4. Development of Advanced Low Conductivity Thermal Barrier Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dong-Ming; Miller, Robert A.

    2004-01-01

    Advanced multi-component, low conductivity oxide thermal barrier coatings have been developed using an approach that emphasizes real-time monitoring of thermal conductivity under conditions that are engine-like in terms of temperatures and heat fluxes. This is in contrast to the traditional approach where coatings are initially optimized in terms of furnace and burner rig durability with subsequent measurement in the as-processed or furnace-sintered condition. The present work establishes a laser high-heat-flux test as the basis for evaluating advanced plasma-sprayed and electron beam-physical vapor deposited (EB-PVD) thermal barrier coatings under the NASA Ultra-Efficient Engine Technology (UEET) Program. The candidate coating materials for this program are novel thermal barrier coatings that are found to have significantly reduced thermal conductivities and improved thermal stability due to an oxide-defect-cluster design. Critical issues for designing advanced low conductivity coatings with improved coating durability are also discussed.

  5. Hanford Permanent Isolation Barrier Program: Asphalt technology test plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, H.D.; Romine, R.A.

    1994-05-01

    The Hanford Permanent Isolation Barriers use engineered layers of natural materials to create an integrated structure with backup protective features. The objective of current designs is to develop a maintenance-free permanent barrier that isolates wastes for a minimum of 1000 years by limiting water drainage to near-zero amounts. Asphalt is being used as an impermeable water diversion layer to provide a redundant layer within the overall barrier design. Data on asphalt barrier properties in a buried environment are not available for the required 100-year time frame. The purpose of this test plan is to outline the activities planned to obtain data with which to estimate performance of the asphalt layers.

  6. Developing Parallel Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjan Sen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Parallel programming is an extension of sequential programming; today, it is becoming the mainstream paradigm in day-to-day information processing. Its aim is to build the fastest programs on parallel computers. The methodologies for developing a parallelprogram can be put into integrated frameworks. Development focuses on algorithm, languages, and how the program is deployed on the parallel computer.

  7. Breaking the Barriers in Chinese Female Career Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Wei

    2013-01-01

    Career development is an important part of modern human resource management. Women are an important and integral part in human resources. Paying at ention to women's career development can’t be ignored both for women own career development and the economic development of society. But compared to men, the Chinese women encounter more barriers in the process of career development, the purpose of this paper is to analyze these barriers and put forward corresponding countermeasures to break the barriers.

  8. Barriers to the Development of the Kepler Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borucki, William J.; Batalha, N. M.; Dunham, E. W.; Jenkins, J. M.; Kepler Science Team

    2014-01-01

    No one had ever proposed nor flown a spacecraft mission that could do automated photometry of many thousands of stars simultaneously with the 10 ppm photometric precision necessary to detect the transits of Earth-size planets. Consequently, several barriers needed to be overcome before the Kepler Mission concept was accepted by the Discovery Program review panel. To overcome these barriers it was necessary to; 1) demonstrate that an appropriate combination of detectors and data analysis techniques was available that had the precision necessary to detect transits of Earth-size planets, 2) prove that the variability of solar-like stars was likely to be sufficiently low that SNR of transits from Earth-size planets could be detected with high reliability, 3) demonstrate the automated observations of thousands of stars simultaneously and the automated analysis of the observations, 4) develop a lab test facility to demonstrate the 10ppm photometric precision necessary to find Earth-sized planets orbiting solar-like stars and do it in the presence of the noise expected from on-orbit operation including thermal variations, the presence of nearby stars, and the impact of energetic particles, 5) form a team of experienced, technically qualified people who agreed that the technique would work and that they would support the mission development, operation, and the analysis of the results. The approaches used to overcome these barriers will be presented.

  9. Barriers in green lean six sigma product development process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Sanjay; Luthra, Sunil; Govindan, Kannan

    2016-01-01

    are identified as driver barriers, nine as dependent, five barriers as linkage and no barrier as autonomous. An analysis of interdependence and interactions among these barriers may help supply chain managers reach a better understanding of barriers. Thus, managers may be helped in prioritising and managing......In today’s competitive globalised business environment, production cost cutting is a primary issue before operation managers. As a research area, green lean six sigma (GLS) is proposed to have strategic importance in product development towards cutting costs, contributing to optimisation......, which shows ‘Competition and Uncertainty’ as the topmost output of the model and ‘Lack of Total Top Management Commitment’ as the bottom-level input to other barriers of the model. Further, MICMAC analysis has been also done to classify these barriers for better understanding; seven barriers...

  10. Breaking the Communication Barrier: Guidelines to Aid Communication within Pair Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarb, Mark; Hughes, Janet

    2015-01-01

    Pair programming is a software development technique with many cited benefits in learning and teaching. However, it is reported that novice programmers find several barriers to pairing up, typically due to the added communication that is required of this approach. This paper will present a literature review discussing the issue of communication,…

  11. An analysis of key stakeholders' attitudes and beliefs about barriers and facilitating factors in the development of a cervical cancer prevention program in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Shelley A; Leser, Kendall A; Esmont, Emma E; Griffith, Fareeda M

    2013-03-01

    Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer related deaths among women. Each year there are approximately 250,000 deaths; most of which occurred in Sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia, and Latin America. The purpose of this report is to examine key stakeholders experience and knowledge of HPV and cervical cancer, examine their experiences with the current cervical cancer screening and treatment policy, and identify barriers and facilitating factors to vaccine implementation and uptake. Fifteen indepth interviews were conducted with key stakeholders in Cape Town and Johannesburg, South Africa. The interviews revealed several key findings including: 1) knowledge about HPV and cervical cancer varied across participants, 2) knowledge about cervical cancer was also mixed while knowledge about the relationship between HPV and cervical cancer was low among participants. Our findings indicate that key stakeholders are concerned about women's health and wellbeing. In addition, they believe that the government, families, and the media need to play a prominent role in prevention efforts.

  12. Perceived Barriers to Weight loss Programs for Overweight or Obese Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Sharifi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: In order to develop appropriate obesity control and treat¬ment strategies, the key point is to understand the barriers perceived by overweight or obese people in trying to follow weight-loss programs. This study examined perceived barriers to weight-loss programs among over¬weight or obese women.Methods: In this descriptive-analytical study, 204 overweight or obese women aged 31.97± 10.62 yr, were selected randomly from the nutritional counseling centers in 2008 in Tabriz, Iran. The mean BMI was 33.83 ±5.75 kg/ m2. A structured questionnaire including questions on barriers to weight-loss diet and physical activity was filled out for each participant by face-to-face interview. Height and weight measured objectively and demo¬graphic details were obtained. Data analysis carried out using mul¬tiple re¬gression and factor analysis.Results: The most important perceived barriers to weight-loss diets were 'situational barriers', stress, depression, and food craving. High educational level was independent determinant of situational barriers (β=0.329, P=0.048. Employee women had a higher mean score on stress and de¬pres¬sion than students and housewives. Lack of time and exercising lonely were the most important items of "External barriers" and Lack of motiva¬tion was the most important item of "internal barriers" to physical activity. Employ¬ment and being student were highly associated with external bar¬riers (β=1.018, P<0.001 and β=0.541, P= 0.002. Moreover, older women who had low educational level, perceived more internal barriers. Conclusion: Weight reducing strategies should take into account the spe¬cific perceived barriers to weight-loss diets faced by overweight or obese women, particularly situational barriers, stress and depression and food craving; and lack of time and lack of motivation as barriers to physical ac¬tivity.

  13. SMEs and Barriers to Skill Development: A Scottish Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Thomas; Ottens, Melanie; Taylor, Andrea

    2000-01-01

    Analysis of Scottish small and medium-sized enterprises reveals that small business culture is a significant barrier to skill development. Other barriers include awareness, finance, and access to training. A welter of recent policy initiatives has added to a state of confusion about the role of training. (SK)

  14. Energy management action plan: Developing a strategy for overcoming institutional barriers to municipal energy conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-31

    Energy offices working to improve efficiency of local government facilities face not only technical tasks, but institutional barriers, such as budget structures that do not reward efficiency, a low awareness of energy issues, and purchasing procedures based only on minimizing initial cost. The bureau, in working to remove such barriers in San Francisco, has identified 37 institutional barriers in areas such as operations & maintenance, purchasing, and facility design; these barriers were then reorganized into three groupings-- policy & attitudes, budget & incentives, and awareness & information-- and mapped. This map shows that the barriers mutually reinforce each other, and that a holistic approach is required for permanent change. The city`s recreation & parks department was used as a model department, and information about facility energy use was compiled into a departmental energy review. Staff interviews showed how barriers affect conservation. The bureau then generated ideas for projects to remove specific barriers and rated them according to potential impact and the resources required to implement them. Four of the six projects selected focused on maintenance staff: a cost- sharing lighting retrofit program, a boiler efficiency program, a departmental energy tracking system, and a budgetary incentive program for conservation. The other two projects are city-wide: promotion of a new term contract supplying energy-efficient light materials, and publication/distribution of ENERGY NEWS newsletter. A general methodology, the EMAP Strategy Guide, has been created to assist other energy offices in developing EMAPs.

  15. The Nuer Nutrition Education Program: breaking down cultural barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laverentz, M L; Cox, C C; Jordan, M

    1999-01-01

    Very little is known about the Nuer culture, partly because of its widely misunderstood language and because of the mixture of its people with the other tribes in Africa, according to Evans-Pritchard). However, it is known that the Nuer women's roles in the family seem to be centered around cooking duties. In the Nuer culture, no work is considered degrading, and the women know and accept their domestic duties. During the summer of 1996, a pilot project was conducted as an attempt to help Nuer refugee women of Des Moines, Iowa, incorporate nutritional concepts and American food preparation techniques into their existing methods of food preparation. The barriers faced involved the Nuer women's unfamiliarity with American foods and household items and their inability to read and understand English. Cultural issues and barriers were overcome when the health educator was willing to take the time to gain the trust and respect of the Nuer people. Structured interviews indicated an increase in knowledge of American foods and cooking skills. This education program in no way meant to replace traditional Nuer cooking methods; rather, it acted as a way to adjust to life in the United States.

  16. Automatic Program Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    by members of the IFIP Working Group 2.1 of which Bob was an active member. All papers are related to some of the research interests of Bob and, in particular, to the transformational development of programs and their algorithmic derivation from formal specifications. Automatic Program Development offers......Automatic Program Development is a tribute to Robert Paige (1947-1999), our accomplished and respected colleague, and moreover our good friend, whose untimely passing was a loss to our academic and research community. We have collected the revised, updated versions of the papers published in his...... honor in the Higher-Order and Symbolic Computation Journal in the years 2003 and 2005. Among them there are two papers by Bob: (i) a retrospective view of his research lines, and (ii) a proposal for future studies in the area of the automatic program derivation. The book also includes some papers...

  17. Hanford Permanent Isolation Barrier Program: Asphalt technology data and status report - FY 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, H.D.; Romine, R.A.; Zacher, A.H.

    1994-09-01

    The asphalt layer within the Hanford Permanent Isolation Barrier (HPIB) is an important component of the overall design. This layer provides a RCRA equivalent backup to the overlying earthen layers in the unlikely event that these layers are not able to reduce the infiltration rate to less than 0.05 cm/yr. There is only limited amount of information on using asphalt for a moisture infiltration barrier over the long times required by the HPIB. Therefore, a number of activities are under way, as part of the Barrier Development Program, to obtain data on the performance of asphalt as a moisture barrier in a buried environment over a 1000-year period. These activities include (1) determining RCRA equivalency, (2) measurement of physical properties, (3) measurement of aging characteristics, and (4) relationship to ancient asphalt analogs. During FY 1994 progress was made on all of these activities. Studies were conducted both in the laboratory and on the prototype barrier constructed over the 216-B-57 crib in the 200 East Area on the Hanford Site. This report presents results obtained from the asphalt technology tasks during FY 1994. Also included are updates to planned activities for asphalt analogs and monitoring the asphalt test pad near the prototype barrier. Measurements of hydraulic conductivity on the HMAC portion of the prototype barrier show that the asphalt layers easily meet the RCRA standard of 1 {times} 10{sup -7} cm/s. In-place measurements using a new field falling head technique show an average of 3.66 {times} 10{sup -8} cm/s, while cores taken from the north end of the prototype and measured in a laboratory setup averaged 1.29 {times} 10{sup -9} cm/s. Measurements made on the fluid applied asphalt membrane (polymer-modified asphalt) show an extremely low permeability of less than 1 {times} 10{sup -11} cm/s.

  18. Louisiana Barrier Island Comprehensive Monitoring (BICM) Program Summary Report: Data and Analyses 2006 through 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindinger, Jack G.; Buster, Noreen A.; Flocks, James G.; Bernier, Julie C.; Kulp, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    The Barrier Island Comprehensive Monitoring (BICM) program was implemented under the Louisiana Coastal Area Science and Technology (LCA S&T) office as a component of the System Wide Assessment and Monitoring (SWAMP) program. The BICM project was developed by the State of Louisiana (Coastal Protection Restoration Authority [CPRA], formerly Department of Natural Resources [DNR]) to complement other Louisiana coastal monitoring programs such as the Coastwide Reference Monitoring System-Wetlands (CRMS-Wetlands) and was a collaborative research effort by CPRA, University of New Orleans (UNO), and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The goal of the BICM program was to provide long-term data on the barrier islands of Louisiana that could be used to plan, design, evaluate, and maintain current and future barrier-island restoration projects. The BICM program used both historical and newly acquired (2006 to 2010) data to assess and monitor changes in the aerial and subaqueous extent of islands, habitat types, sediment texture and geotechnical properties, environmental processes, and vegetation composition. BICM datasets included aerial still and video photography (multiple time series) for shoreline positions, habitat mapping, and land loss; light detection and ranging (lidar) surveys for topographic elevations; single-beam and swath bathymetry; and sediment grab samples. Products produced using BICM data and analyses included (but were not limited to) storm-impact assessments, rate of shoreline and bathymetric change, shoreline-erosion and accretion maps, high-resolution elevation maps, coastal-shoreline and barrier-island habitat-classification maps, and coastal surficial-sediment characterization maps. Discussions in this report summarize the extensive data-collection efforts and present brief interpretive analyses for four coastal Louisiana geographic regions. In addition, several coastal-wide and topical themes were selected that integrate the data and analyses within a

  19. Developing hazardous waste programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    Developing a fully operational hazardous waste regulatory system requires at least 10 to 15 years—even in countries with strong legal and bureaucratic institutions, according to a report on "The Evolution of Hazardous Waste Programs," which was funded by Resources for the Future (RFF) and the World Bank's South Asia Environment Group, and issued on June 4.The report, which compares the experiences of how four developed and four developing countries have created hazardous waste programs, indicates that hazardous waste issues usually do not become a pressing environmental issue until after countries have dealt with more direct threats to public health, such as contaminated drinking water and air pollution. The countries examined include Indonesia, Thailand, Germany, and the United States.

  20. Developing an Online Certification Program for Nutrition Education Assistants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christofferson, Debra; Christensen, Nedra; LeBlanc, Heidi; Bunch, Megan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To develop an online certification program for nutrition education paraprofessionals to increase knowledge and confidence and to overcome training barriers of programming time and travel expenses. Design: An online interactive certification course based on Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-Education and Expanded Food and…

  1. Driving forces and barriers for environmental technology development; Drivkrefter og barrierer for utvikling av miljoeteknologi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    Driving forces and barriers behind development and usage of environmental technology is discussed, and also whether there are certain characteristics related to environmental innovations compared to other innovations in general. The development of environmental technology is in principle dominated by the same drivers and barriers as any other technology, but the order and strength of the various factors may be different. This examination as well as other empirical studies shows that regulations play a greater part for environmental technology than 'pure market forces'. To many participants it is important to be one step ahead of the regulations, i.e. the expected regulations are equally important as the factual ones in driving the technology development. Players in the business community express that it is important that the authorities cooperate with them when introducing new regulations. This will increase acceptance for the regulations and facilitate the necessary adjustments. The most important barrier in the development and use of the technologies studied is probably the lack of demand.

  2. Advanced Environmental Barrier Coatings Development for Si-Based Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dong-Ming; Choi, R. Sung; Robinson, Raymond C.; Lee, Kang N.; Bhatt, Ramakrishna T.; Miller, Robert A.

    2005-01-01

    Advanced environmental barrier coating concepts based on multi-component HfO2 (ZrO2) and modified mullite systems are developed for monolithic Si3N4 and SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composite (CMC) applications. Comprehensive testing approaches were established using the water vapor cyclic furnace, high pressure burner rig and laser heat flux steam rig to evaluate the coating water vapor stability, cyclic durability, radiation and erosion resistance under simulated engine environments. Test results demonstrated the feasibility and durability of the environmental barrier coating systems for 2700 to 3000 F monolithic Si3N4 and SiC/SiC CMC component applications. The high-temperature-capable environmental barrier coating systems are being further developed and optimized in collaboration with engine companies for advanced turbine engine applications.

  3. Perceived need and barriers to continuing professional development among doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikenwilo, Divine; Skåtun, Diane

    2014-08-01

    There is growing need for continuing professional development (CPD) among doctors, especially following the recent introduction of compulsory revalidation for all doctors in the United Kingdom (UK). We use unique datasets from two national surveys of non-training grade doctors working in the National Health Service in Scotland to evaluate doctors' perceptions of need and barriers to CPD. We test for differences over time and also examine differences between doctor grades and for other characteristics such as gender, age, contract type and specialty. Doctors expressed the greatest need for CPD in clinical training, management, and information technology. In terms of perceived barriers to CPD, lack of time was expressed as a barrier by the largest proportion of doctors, as was insufficient clinical cover, lack of funding, and remoteness from main education centres. The strength of perceived need for particular CPD activities and the perceived barriers to CPD varied significantly by doctors' job and personal characteristics. An understanding of the perceived needs and barriers to CPD among doctors is an important precursor to developing effective educational and training programmes that cover their professional practice and also in supporting doctors towards successful revalidation.

  4. ABC Technology Development Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-10-14

    The Accelerator-Based Conversion (ABC) facility will be designed to accomplish the following mission: `Provide a weapon`s grade plutonium disposition capability in a safe, economical, and environmentally sound manner on a prudent schedule for [50] tons of weapon`s grade plutonium to be disposed on in [20] years.` This mission is supported by four major objectives: provide a reliable plutonium disposition capability within the next [15] years; provide a level of safety and of safety assurance that meets or exceeds that afforded to the public by modern commercial nuclear power plants; meet or exceed all applicable federal, state, and local regulations or standards for environmental compliance; manage the program in a cost effective manner. The ABC Technology Development Program defines the technology development activities that are required to accomplish this mission. The technology development tasks are related to the following topics: blanket system; vessel systems; reactivity control systems; heat transport system components; energy conversion systems; shutdown heat transport systems components; auxiliary systems; technology demonstrations - large scale experiments.

  5. Advanced Environmental Barrier Coating Development for SiC/SiC Ceramic Matrix Composites: NASA's Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming

    2016-01-01

    This presentation reviews NASA environmental barrier coating (EBC) system development programs and the coating materials evolutions for protecting the SiC/SiC Ceramic Matrix Composites in order to meet the next generation engine performance requirements. The presentation focuses on several generations of NASA EBC systems, EBC-CMC component system technologies for SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composite combustors and turbine airfoils, highlighting the temperature capability and durability improvements in simulated engine high heat flux, high pressure, high velocity, and with mechanical creep and fatigue loading conditions. The current EBC development emphasis is placed on advanced NASA 2700F candidate environmental barrier coating systems for SiC/SiC CMCs, their performance benefits and design limitations in long-term operation and combustion environments. Major technical barriers in developing environmental barrier coating systems, the coating integrations with next generation CMCs having the improved environmental stability, erosion-impact resistance, and long-term fatigue-environment system durability performance are described. The research and development opportunities for advanced turbine airfoil environmental barrier coating systems by utilizing improved compositions, state-of-the-art processing methods, and simulated environment testing and durability modeling are discussed.

  6. ADVANCED SORBENT DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    1998-06-16

    The overall objective of this program was to develop regenerable sorbents for use in the temperature range of 343 to 538 C (650 to 1000 F) to remove hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) from coal-derived fuel gases in a fluidized-bed reactor. The goal was to develop sorbents that are capable of reducing the H{sub 2}S level in the fuel gas to less than 20 ppmv in the specified temperature range and pressures in the range of 1 to 20 atmospheres, with chemical characteristics that permit cyclic regeneration over many cycles without a drastic loss of activity, as well as physical characteristics that are compatible with the fluidized bed application.

  7. Sustaining Teen Pregnancy Prevention Programs in Schools: Needs and Barriers Identified by School Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craft, Lesley R.; Brandt, Heather M.; Prince, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Background: To reduce teen pregnancy rates, prevention programs must be consistently available to large numbers of youth. However, prevention efforts have been historically conducted with little emphasis on ensuring program sustainability. This study examined the needs and barriers to sustaining teen pregnancy prevention (TPP) programming in…

  8. Program Development Plan and Team up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solar Electric Power Association

    2001-12-01

    The final summary report is a comprehensive view of TEAM-UP, with documented data, information, and experiences that SEPA has collected throughout the program, including lessons learned by participating ventures, and sections covering costs and other information on both large and small systems. This report also covers the barriers that TEAM-UP faced to PV commercialization at the beginning of the program, barriers the project was able to remove or reduce, and what barriers remain on the road ahead.

  9. BARRIERS TO THE IMPLEMENTATION OF INSTRUMENTS ASSISTING SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard KATA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides identification and assessment of barriers to the implementation of the instruments of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP that support sustainable development of agriculture. This issue has been studied on the example of individual farms of south-eastern Poland, which benefited from programs to support sustainable agriculture in 2004-2013. The introduction of agriculture on the path of sustainable development depends on institutional factors (including political, which can induce farmers to take into account the environment and future generations in their microeconomic decisions. It has been shown that the most important barriers to the efficient and effective implementation of programs in support of sustainable agriculture are financial and information and education constraints.

  10. Developing effective rockfall protection barriers for low energy impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentani, Alessio; Giacomini, Anna; Buzzi, Olivier; Govoni, Laura; Gottardi, Guido; Fityus, Stephen

    2016-04-01

    Recently, important progresses have been made towards the development of high capacity rockfall barriers (100 kJ - 8000 kJ). The interest of researchers and practitioners is now turning to the development of fences of minor capacity, whose use becomes essential in areas where rockfall events generally have low intensity and the use of high capacity barriers would be accompanied by excessive costs and high environmental impact. Low energy barriers can also provide a cost-effective solution even in areas where high energies events are expected. Results of full-scale tests are vital to any investigation on the behaviour of these structures. An experimental set-up has been developed at The University of Newcastle (AUS), to investigate the response of low energy rockfall barrier prototypes to low energy impacts. The Australian territory, and in particular New South Wales, is in fact characterised by rockfall events of low-to-medium intensity (50 kJ - 500 kJ) and the need of protection structures working within such energy range, is particularly felt [1]. The experiments involved the impact of a test block onto three spans, low energy barrier prototypes, made of steel structural posts, fully fixed at the base, side cables and a steel meshwork constituted by a double twist hexagonal wire net [2]. Test data enabled the development, calibration and assessment of FE models [3], on which non-linear and dynamic analyses have been performed addressing the effect of the block size. Results have shown that the response of the structure is strongly governed by the net. Data from tests conducted on the sole net and on the entire barrier showed in fact a similar trend, different to what typically observed for high capacity barriers, whose behaviour is also led by the presence of uphill cables and brakes. In particular, the numerical analyses have demonstrated a dependence of the net performance on the block size. In particular, a loss of capacity in the order of 50% occurred as the

  11. Identifying real and perceived barriers to therapeutic education programs for individuals with inflammatory arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Lorna; Sangrar, Ruheena; Bornstein, Carolyn; Lukmanji, Sara; Hapuhennedige, Sandani; Thorne, Carter; Beattie, Karen A

    2016-09-01

    Therapeutic Education Programs (TEPs) grounded in self-management principles have been shown to improve quality of life of patients with chronic conditions and reduce patient-related healthcare costs. Though these programs are becoming more readily available, patients often experience barriers in participating. This study sought to identify barriers faced by inflammatory arthritis (IA) patients in attending a TEP and understand how patients overcame perceived barriers. A mixed-method study design was used. Questionnaires were distributed to individuals with IA who were invited to attend a TEP between 2010 and 2013. Respondents were those that chose not to attend (group A), individuals who attended ≤4 of 10 sessions (group B), individuals who attended ≥5 of 10 sessions prior to May 2013 (group C), and individuals who attended ≥5 of 10 sessions from June 2013 to November 2013 (group D). Individuals in group D were also invited to participate in focus groups to discuss how they had overcome perceived barriers. Real barriers identified by individuals in groups A and B included time, distance, and cost associated with attendance. Individuals who overcame perceived barriers (groups C and D) discussed strategies they used to do so. Aspects of the overall program experience and access to clinic and program also contributed to patients being able to overcome barriers. Time, distance, and cost are external barriers that prevented individuals from utilizing self-management education opportunities. These barriers were overcome if and when individuals had resources available to them. Readiness for behavior change also influenced commitment to participate in the program.

  12. Networking between community health programs: a case study outlining the effectiveness, barriers and enablers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grills Nathan J

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In India, since the 1990s, there has been a burgeoning of NGOs involved in providing primary health care. This has resulted in a complex NGO-Government interface which is difficult for lone NGOs to navigate. The Uttarakhand Cluster, India, links such small community health programs together to build NGO capacity, increase visibility and better link to the government schemes and the formal healthcare system. This research, undertaken between 1998 and 2011, aims to examine barriers and facilitators to such linking, or clustering, and the effectiveness of this clustering approach. Methods Interviews, indicator surveys and participant observation were used to document the process and explore the enablers, the barriers and the effectiveness of networks improving community health. Results The analysis revealed that when activating, framing, mobilising and synthesizing the Uttarakhand Cluster, key brokers and network players were important in bridging between organisations. The ties (or relationships that held the cluster together included homophily around common faith, common friendships and geographical location and common mission. Self interest whereby members sought funds, visibility, credibility, increased capacity and access to trainings was also a commonly identified motivating factor for networking. Barriers to network synthesizing included lack of funding, poor communication, limited time and lack of human resources. Risk aversion and mistrust remained significant barriers to overcome for such a network. Conclusions In conclusion, specific enabling factors allowed the clustering approach to be effective at increasing access to resources, creating collaborative opportunities and increasing visibility, credibility and confidence of the cluster members. These findings add to knowledge regarding social network formation and collaboration, and such knowledge will assist in the conceptualisation, formation and success of

  13. Teachers' Readiness to Implement Nutrition Education Programs: Beliefs, Attitudes, and Barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perikkou, Anastasia; Kokkinou, Eleni; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B.; Yannakoulia, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Teachers' attitudes about school food environments and their readiness to implement school-based nutrition programs were investigated. A total of 1,436 primary-school teachers filled out a questionnaire on their demographic and professional characteristics and their attitudes, beliefs, and barriers for implementing health educational programs. The…

  14. Confronting Physical Activity Programming Barriers for People with Disabilities: The Empowerment Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Thomas Eugene; Taliaferro, Andrea R.; Pate, Joshua R.

    2014-01-01

    Community-based physical activity programs for people with disabilities have barriers that are unique to their program leader qualifications and the population they serve. Moran and Block (2010) argued that there is a need for practical strategies that are easy for communities to implement, maximize resources, and minimize the impact of barriers…

  15. Target developments program to prepare LMJ campaigns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collier, R; Bachelet, F; Botrel, R; Breton, O; Chicanne, C; Dauteuil, C H; Durut, F; Fleury, E; Guillot, L; Hermerel, C; Jeannot, L; Legaie, O; Legay, G; Martin, M; Reneaume, B; Theobald, M; Vincent-Viry, O, E-mail: remy.collier@cea.f [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Direction des Applications Militaires, Valduc, F-21120 Is-sur-Tille (France)

    2010-08-01

    To carry out laser plasma experiments on CEA laser facilities, a R and D program was set up and is still under way to deliver complex targets. For a decade, specific developments are also dedicated to 'Ligne d'Integration Laser' (LIL) in France and Omega facilities (USA). To prepare the targets intended for the first experiments on the Laser 'Megajoule' (LMJ) facility, new developments are required, such as cocktail hohlraum fabrication, gas barrier coating and foam shells developments. For fusion experiments on LMJ, an important program is also under way to elaborate the Cryogenic Target Assembly (CTA), to fill and transport the CTA and to study the conformation process of the DT layer.

  16. Duplex tube steam reformer development program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewe, C K; Nieto, J M; Papadopoulos, A

    1978-09-01

    Work done in partial fulfillment of Task 7 of the Duplex Steam Reformer Development Program is described. The DSR concept acts as a double barrier between a process heat high temperature reactor plant (PNP) and a closed loop chemical heat pipe (CHP) for the long distance transport of chemical energy to a remote industrial user. The current state of the DSR design is described as well as related systems and equipment. The PNP concept presented is based upon work currently underway in the Federal Republic of Germany.

  17. ICTs for rural development: potential applications and barriers involved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Stratigea

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Rural policy nowadays is at the heart of the policy discussion in many countries all over the world, in the effort to address and effectively support the specific needs and opportunities of rural places and their population in the new era. Along these lines, the focus of the present paper is twofold: on the one hand it attempts to shed light on the role of ICTs and their applications as enabling tools empowering rural development; while on the other hand it explores the barriers appearing towards the adoption and use of ICTs in rural regions. In such a context, it firstly places emphasis on the evolving new rural development paradigm. Then, the range and potential of ICTs applications is explored, that can serve the implementation of the new policy paradigm in rural regions. It follows a discussion on the steps that are needed in order to develop value-added ICTs applications in rural regions and the barriers appearing in the adoption and use of ICTs in these regions. Finally, are presented some issues of policy concern in respect to the adoption and use of ICTs in a rural development perspective.

  18. Processes, barriers and facilitators to implementation of a participatory ergonomics program among eldercare workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Charlotte Diana Nørregaard; Lindberg, Naja Klærke; Ravn, Marie Højbjerg; Jørgensen, Marie Birk; Søgaard, Karen; Holtermann, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the processes of a participatory ergonomics program among 594 eldercare workers with emphasis on identified risk factors for low back pain and solutions, and reveal barriers and facilitators for implementation. Sixty-nine per cent of the identified risk factors were physical ergonomic, 24% were organisational and 7% were psychosocial risk factors. Most solutions were organisational (55%), followed by physical (43%) and psychosocial solutions (2%). Internal factors (e.g. team or management) constituted 47% of the barriers and 75% of the facilitators. External factors (e.g. time, financial resources, collaboration with resident or relatives) constituted 53% of the barriers and 25% of the facilitators. This study revealed the processes and implementation of a participatory ergonomics program among eldercare workers. The findings can be transferred to workers, workplaces, health and safety professionals, and researchers to improve future participatory ergonomics programs.

  19. WHAT ARE THE BARRIERS TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF ORGANIC FARMING?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afagh VEISI

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to investigate the main barriers to development of organic farming system in Kermanshah Province, Iran. Statistical population in this study consisted of all farmers in Kermanshah province, Iran. Applying stratified random sampling method, 137 farmers were selected as a sample. The main instrument in this study was questionnaire which its validity was confirmed by the panel of experts and its reliability was established by Cronbach's Alpha coefficient. Data was analyzed by SPSSWin16 software. Principal component analysis was used as main statistical technique to analyze the data. The results of factor analysis revealed that 4 factors including “Infrastructural”, “technical-managerial”, “economic-financial” and “educational” explained 42.36 percent of the variance. Results of this study have applications for agriculture development policy- makers for development of organic farming in Iran.

  20. Processes, barriers and facilitators to implementation of a participatory ergonomics program among eldercare workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Charlotte Diana Nørregaard; Lindberg, Naja Klærke; Ravn, Marie Højbjerg

    2017-01-01

    (e.g. time, financial resources, collaboration with resident or relatives) constituted 53% of the barriers and 25% of the facilitators. This study revealed the processes and implementation of a participatory ergonomics program among eldercare workers. The findings can be transferred to workers......This study aimed to investigate the processes of a participatory ergonomics program among 594 eldercare workers with emphasis on identified risk factors for low back pain and solutions, and reveal barriers and facilitators for implementation. Sixty-nine per cent of the identified risk factors were...

  1. Technical Leadership Development Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-30

    framework and SYS 350A focus areas were then used to identify key SYS 350A syllabus segments, and then to develop Storyboards to support design reviews...of the planned SYS 350A segments. The SYS 350A storyboards were reviewed during a DAU-SERC red team in August 2011 and this established the design

  2. Identifying Barriers in Implementing Outcomes-Based Assessment Program Review: A Grounded Theory Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresciani, Marilee J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this grounded theory study was to identify the typical barriers encountered by faculty and administrators when implementing outcomes-based assessment program review. An analysis of interviews with faculty and administrators at nine institutions revealed a theory that faculty and administrators' promotion, tenure (if applicable),…

  3. Barriers to the Use of Evidence-Supported Programs to Address School Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawood, Natalie Diane

    2010-01-01

    Researchers have argued that there is a research-practice gap in the delivery of prevention and mental health services in the school setting. This national survey addresses that gap by identifying the barriers confronted by school social workers in implementing evidence-supported programs to address interpersonal violence in the school context. A…

  4. Overview on the Development of Nanostructured Thermal Barrier Coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) have successfully been used in gas turbine engines for increasing operation temperature and improving engine efficiency. Over the past thirty years, a variety of TBC materials and TBC deposition techniques have been developed. Recently, nanostructured TBCs emerge with the potential of commercial applications in various industries. In this paper, TBC materials and TBC deposition techniques such as air plasma spray (APS), electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD), laser assisted chemical vapor deposition (LACVD) are briefly reviewed. Nanostructured 7-8 wt pct yttria stabilized zirconia (7-8YSZ)TBC by air plasma spraying of powder and new TBC with novel structure deposited by solution precursor plasma spray (SPPS) are compared. Plasma spray conditions, coating forming mechanisms, microstructures,phase compositions, thermal conductivities, and thermal cycling lives of the APS nanostructured TBC and the SPPS nanostructured TBC are discussed. Research opportunities and challenges of nanostructured TBCs deposited by air plasma spray are prospected.

  5. Functional Food Market Development in Serbia: Motivations and Barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žaklina Stojanović

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present main findings obtained from the empirical analysis of the functional food market in Serbia. The analysis is based on the in-depth interviews with relevant processors and retailers present on the market. The following set of topics are considered: (1 motivations (driving forces and barriers to offer products with nutrition and health (N&H claim and (2 perception of consumer demand toward N&H claimed products. Differences between Serbia and other Western Balkan Countries (WBC are explored by using nonparametric techniques based on the independent samples. Results support overall conclusion that this market segment in Serbia is underdeveloped and rather producer than consumer driven compared to more developed WBC markets.

  6. NCG turbocompressor development program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, K.E.

    1997-12-31

    Barber-Nichols, Pacific Gas and Electric and UNOCAL as an industry group applied for a DOE grant under the GTO to develop a new type of compressor that could be used to extract non-condensable gas (NCG) from the condensers of geothermal power plants. This grant (DE-FG07-951A13391) was awarded on September 20, 1995. The installation and startup of the turbocompressor at the PG&E Geysers Unit 11 is covered by this paper. The turbocompressor has operated several days at 17000rpm while the plant was producing 50 to 70 MW.

  7. Lunar exploration rover program developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klarer, P.R.

    1993-09-01

    The Robotic All Terrain Lunar Exploration Rover (RATLER) design concept began at Sandia National Laboratories in late 1991 with a series of small, proof-of-principle, working scale models. The models proved the viability of the concept for high mobility through mechanical simplicity, and eventually received internal funding at Sandia National Laboratories for full scale, proof-of-concept prototype development. Whereas the proof-of-principle models demonstrated the mechanical design`s capabilities for mobility, the full scale proof-of-concept design currently under development is intended to support field operations for experiments in telerobotics, autonomous robotic operations, telerobotic field geology, and advanced man-machine interface concepts. The development program`s current status is described, including an outline of the program`s work over the past year, recent accomplishments, and plans for follow-on development work.

  8. Visualization program development using Java

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, Akira; Suto, Keiko [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Kizu, Kyoto (Japan). Kansai Research Establishment; Yokota, Hisashi [Research Organization for Information Science and Technology, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2002-03-01

    Method of visualization programs using Java for the PC with the graphical user interface (GUI) is discussed, and applied to the visualization and analysis of 1D and 2D data from experiments and numerical simulations. Based on an investigation of programming techniques such as drawing graphics and event driven program, example codes are provided in which GUI is implemented using the Abstract Window Toolkit (AWT). The marked advantage of Java comes from the inclusion of library routines for graphics and networking as its language specification, which enables ordinary scientific programmers to make interactive visualization a part of their simulation codes. Moreover, the Java programs are machine independent at the source level. Object oriented programming (OOP) methods used in Java programming will be useful for developing large scientific codes which includes number of modules with better maintenance ability. (author)

  9. Developing a Hybrid Graduate Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronda Sturgill

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a continuing need for flexibility and adaptability in the dynamic world of program development in higher education. Students today have more responsibilities and obligations outside of the classroom. Therefore, educational programs that offer alternative class meeting times and other flexible options are attractive to the nontraditional student. The purpose of this paper is to describe and demonstrate a model for a graduate program delivered by a hybrid, or blended, format. The model will be a master's degree program in exercise and nutrition science where the program is delivered through blending both face to face classroom learning and e-learning teaching methodologies. Challenges of development, lessons learned, and future recommendations will also be presented. This hybrid model is interdisciplinary and can be adapted and utilized across a variety of disciplines.

  10. Identifying barriers that hinder onsite parental involvement in a school-based health promotion program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Dominic, Oralia; Wray, Linda A; Treviño, Roberto P; Hernandez, Arthur E; Yin, Zenong; Ulbrecht, Jan S

    2010-09-01

    We investigated whether barriers to onsite parental involvement in the Bienestar Health Program Parent Component could be identified and whether participation rates could be increased by addressing these barriers. All nonparticipating parents of fourth-grade students of San Antonio Independent School District from 4 schools, which were selected randomly from 20 intervention schools in Bienestar, were invited to take part in this study. A total of 47 of 223 (21%) parents engaged in one of four focus groups offered. Parents identified barriers to their involvement in Bienestar that fit into five descriptive categories: (a) low value, (b) high cost, (c) competing family demands, (d) concerns about the program design, and (e) social role norms. The Bienestar Parent Component was then modified according to the focus group findings, which resulted in a marked increase in parental involvement from 17% to 37% overall. These findings suggest that even when parents are involved in the initial design of parent-friendly and culturally sensitive programs, as was the case for Bienestar, maximizing parental involvement may require additional assessment, identification, and remediation of barriers.

  11. Understanding older adults' motivators and barriers to participating in organized programs supporting exercise behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedenweg, Kelly; Meischke, Hendrika; Bohl, Alex; Hammerback, Kristen; Williams, Barbara; Poe, Pamela; Phelan, Elizabeth A

    2014-02-01

    Little is known about older adults' perceptions of organized programs that support exercise behavior. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 39 older adults residing in King County, Washington, who either declined to join, joined and participated, or joined and then quit a physical activity-oriented program. We sought to explore motivators and barriers to physical activity program participation and to elicit suggestions for marketing strategies to optimize participation. Two programs supporting exercise behavior and targeting older persons were the source of study participants: Enhance(®)Fitness and Physical Activity for a Lifetime of Success. We analyzed interview data using standard qualitative methods. We examined variations in themes by category of program participant (joiner, decliner, quitter) as well as by program and by race. Interview participants were mostly females in their early 70s. Approximately half were non-White, and about half had graduated from college. The most frequently cited personal factors motivating program participation were enjoying being with others while exercising and desiring a routine that promoted accountability. The most frequent environmental motivators were marketing materials, encouragement from a trusted person, lack of program fees, and the location of the program. The most common barriers to participation were already getting enough exercise, not being motivated or ready, and having poor health. Marketing messages focused on both personal benefits (feeling better, social opportunity, enjoyability) and desirable program features (tailored to individual needs), and marketing mechanisms ranged from traditional written materials to highly personalized approaches. These results suggest that organized programs tend to appeal to those who are more socially inclined and seek accountability. Certain program features also influence participation. Thoughtful marketing that involves a variety of messages and mechanisms is

  12. Business Development Executive (BDE) Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rice, E.J. " Woody" ; Frederick, W. James

    2005-12-05

    The IPST BDE (Institute of Paper Science and Technology Business Development Executive) program was initiated in 1997 to make the paper industry better aware of the new manufacturing technologies being developed at IPST for the U.S. pulp and paper industry's use. In April 2000, the BDE program management and the 20 BDEs, all retired senior level industry manufacturing and research executives, were asked by Ms. Denise Swink of OIT at DOE to take the added responsibility of bringing DOE developed energy conservation technology to the paper industry. This project was funded by a DOE grant of $950,000.

  13. Commercial Crew Development Program Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Richard W.

    2011-01-01

    NASA's Commercial Crew Development Program is designed to stimulate efforts within the private sector that will aid in the development and demonstration of safe, reliable, and cost-effective space transportation capabilities. With the goal of delivery cargo and eventually crew to Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and the International Space Station (ISS) the program is designed to foster the development of new spacecraft and launch vehicles in the commercial sector. Through Space Act Agreements (SAAs) in 2011 NASA provided $50M of funding to four partners; Blue Origin, The Boeing Company, Sierra Nevada Corporation, and SpaceX. Additional, NASA has signed two unfunded SAAs with ATK and United Space Alliance. This paper will give a brief summary of these SAAs. Additionally, a brief overview will be provided of the released version of the Commercial Crew Development Program plans and requirements documents.

  14. Environmental Education and Development Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-01

    The Environmental Education and Development Program is a component on the effort to accomplish the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management`s (EM) goal of environmental compliance and cleanup of the 1989 inventory of inactive DOE sites and facilities by the year 2019. Education and Development programs were designed specifically to stimulate the knowledge and workforce capability necessary to achieve EM goals while contributing to DOE`s overall goal of increasing scientific and technical literacy and competency. The primary implementation criterion for E&D activities involved a focus on programs and projects that had both immediate and long-range leveraging effects on infrastructure. This focus included programs that yielded short term results (one to five years), as well as long-term results, to ensure a steady supply of appropriately trained and educated human resources, including women and minorities, to meet EM`s demands.

  15. The involvement of Spanish older people in nondegree educational programs: reasons for and barriers to participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villar, Feliciano; Celdrán, Montserrat

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the reasons older Spanish people participate in nondegree educational programs and the barriers they may face when they want to do so. Data were drawn from the 2007 Survey on Adults' Involvement in Learning Activities (Encuesta sobre la Participación de la Población Adulta en Actividades de Aprendizaje: EADA) and correspond to a nationally representative sample of Spanish people aged between 60 and 74 years old (n=4,559). Overall, only 8.7% of the sample participated in a nondegree educational program. Predictors of participation were being a woman, being younger, having a higher educational level, and being employed. The most frequent reason given for participation was of an intrinsic nature (e.g., interest in the topic), although instrumental motives (e.g., utility of the content for daily life) were more common than suggested by previous research. As for barriers to participation, the vast majority of older people (95.6% of those who did not participate) did not even express a desire to participate. The most frequent barriers were internal (e.g., age/health restrictions). This kind of barrier was ascribed a greater importance by older and less educated groups as well as by those who participate less in cultural activities. Policies to promote older people's participation in nonformal educational activities are discussed in light of the data.

  16. An examination of how women and underrepresented racial/ethnic minorities experience barriers in biomedical research and medical programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraverty, Devasmita

    Women in medicine and biomedical research often face challenges to their retention, promotion, and advancement to leadership positions (McPhillips et al., 2007); they take longer to advance their careers, tend to serve at less research-intensive institutions and have shorter tenures compared to their male colleagues (White, McDade, Yamagata, & Morahan, 2012). Additionally, Blacks and Hispanics are the two largest minority groups that are vastly underrepresented in medicine and biomedical research in the United States (AAMC, 2012; NSF, 2011). The purpose of this study is to examine specific barriers reported by students and post-degree professionals in the field through the following questions: 1. How do women who are either currently enrolled or graduated from biomedical research or medical programs define and make meaning of gender-roles as academic barriers? 2. How do underrepresented groups in medical schools and biomedical research institutions define and make meaning of the academic barriers they face and the challenges these barriers pose to their success as individuals in the program? These questions were qualitatively analyzed using 146 interviews from Project TrEMUR applying grounded theory. Reported gender-role barriers were explained using the "Condition-Process-Outcome" theoretical framework. About one-third of the females (across all three programs; majority White or Black between 25-35 years of age) reported gender-role barriers, mostly due to poor mentoring, time constraints, set expectations and institutional barriers. Certain barriers act as conditions, causing gender-role issues, and gender-role issues influence certain barriers that act as outcomes. Strategies to overcome barriers included interventions mostly at the institutional level (mentor support, proper specialty selection, selecting academia over medicine). Barrier analysis for the two largest URM groups indicated that, while Blacks most frequently reported racism, gender barriers

  17. Development and Remodeling of the Vertebrate Blood-Gas Barrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Makanya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available During vertebrate development, the lung inaugurates as an endodermal bud from the primitive foregut. Dichotomous subdivision of the bud results in arborizing airways that form the prospective gas exchanging chambers, where a thin blood-gas barrier (BGB is established. In the mammalian lung, this proceeds through conversion of type II cells to type I cells, thinning, and elongation of the cells as well as extrusion of the lamellar bodies. Subsequent diminution of interstitial tissue and apposition of capillaries to the alveolar epithelium establish a thin BGB. In the noncompliant avian lung, attenuation proceeds through cell-cutting processes that result in remarkable thinning of the epithelial layer. A host of morphoregulatory molecules, including transcription factors such as Nkx2.1, GATA, HNF-3, and WNT5a; signaling molecules including FGF, BMP-4, Shh, and TFG-β and extracellular proteins and their receptors have been implicated. During normal physiological function, the BGB may be remodeled in response to alterations in transmural pressures in both blood capillaries and airspaces. Such changes are mitigated through rapid expression of the relevant genes for extracellular matrix proteins and growth factors. While an appreciable amount of information regarding molecular control has been documented in the mammalian lung, very little is available on the avian lung.

  18. Disposal systems evaluations and tool development : Engineered Barrier System (EBS) evaluation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutqvist, Jonny (LBNL); Liu, Hui-Hai (LBNL); Steefel, Carl I. (LBNL); Serrano de Caro, M. A. (LLNL); Caporuscio, Florie Andre (LANL); Birkholzer, Jens T. (LBNL); Blink, James A. (LLNL); Sutton, Mark A. (LLNL); Xu, Hongwu (LANL); Buscheck, Thomas A. (LLNL); Levy, Schon S. (LANL); Tsang, Chin-Fu (LBNL); Sonnenthal, Eric (LBNL); Halsey, William G. (LLNL); Jove-Colon, Carlos F.; Wolery, Thomas J. (LLNL)

    2011-01-01

    Key components of the nuclear fuel cycle are short-term storage and long-term disposal of nuclear waste. The latter encompasses the immobilization of used nuclear fuel (UNF) and radioactive waste streams generated by various phases of the nuclear fuel cycle, and the safe and permanent disposition of these waste forms in geological repository environments. The engineered barrier system (EBS) plays a very important role in the long-term isolation of nuclear waste in geological repository environments. EBS concepts and their interactions with the natural barrier are inherently important to the long-term performance assessment of the safety case where nuclear waste disposition needs to be evaluated for time periods of up to one million years. Making the safety case needed in the decision-making process for the recommendation and the eventual embracement of a disposal system concept requires a multi-faceted integration of knowledge and evidence-gathering to demonstrate the required confidence level in a deep geological disposal site and to evaluate long-term repository performance. The focus of this report is the following: (1) Evaluation of EBS in long-term disposal systems in deep geologic environments with emphasis on the multi-barrier concept; (2) Evaluation of key parameters in the characterization of EBS performance; (3) Identification of key knowledge gaps and uncertainties; and (4) Evaluation of tools and modeling approaches for EBS processes and performance. The above topics will be evaluated through the analysis of the following: (1) Overview of EBS concepts for various NW disposal systems; (2) Natural and man-made analogs, room chemistry, hydrochemistry of deep subsurface environments, and EBS material stability in near-field environments; (3) Reactive Transport and Coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical-Chemical (THMC) processes in EBS; and (4) Thermal analysis toolkit, metallic barrier degradation mode survey, and development of a Disposal Systems

  19. Professorship: A Faculty Development Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Todd M.; Davis, Jane F.

    1987-01-01

    A faculty development program at a traditionally black college was designed to enhance the ability of graduate faculty to supervise research activities of graduate students. Focus was on interpersonal problem solving in advisement and professional issues; classroom techniques of discussion teaching, case methods, and psychodrama encouraged the…

  20. Hydropower Development Programming in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In the light of the speech delivered by Mr.Zhou Dabing,Deputy Manager General of China National Electric Power Corporation,on its hosted “Hydropower Developing Seminar”, during the national “10th Fivc-ynar Plan” and the “Farsight Program to 2015”, the installed capacity of hydropower shall be up to 75GW by 2000,

  1. Barriers and opportunities: A review of selected successful energy-efficiency programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worrell, Ernst; Price, Lynn

    2001-03-20

    In industry, barriers may exist at various points in the decision making process, and in the implementation and management of measures to improve energy efficiency. Barriers may take many forms, and are determined by the business environment and include decision-making processes, energy prices, lack of information, a lack of confidence in the information, or high transaction costs for obtaining reliable information, as well as limited capital availability. Other barriers are the ''invisibility'' of energy efficiency measures and the difficulty of quantifying the impacts, and slow diffusion of innovative technology into markets while firms typically under-invest in R and D, despite the high pay-backs. Various programs try to reduce the barriers to improve the uptake of innovative technologies. A wide array of policies has been used and tested in the industrial sector in industrialized countries, with varying success rates. We review some new approaches to industrial energy efficiency improvement in industrialized countries, focusing on voluntary agreements.

  2. Glucocorticoid programming of intrauterine development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowden, A L; Valenzuela, O A; Vaughan, O R; Jellyman, J K; Forhead, A J

    2016-07-01

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) are important environmental and maturational signals during intrauterine development. Toward term, the maturational rise in fetal glucocorticoid receptor concentrations decreases fetal growth and induces differentiation of key tissues essential for neonatal survival. When cortisol levels rise earlier in gestation as a result of suboptimal conditions for fetal growth, the switch from tissue accretion to differentiation is initiated prematurely, which alters the phenotype that develops from the genotype inherited at conception. Although this improves the chances of survival should delivery occur, it also has functional consequences for the offspring long after birth. Glucocorticoids are, therefore, also programming signals that permanently alter tissue structure and function during intrauterine development to optimize offspring fitness. However, if the postnatal environmental conditions differ from those signaled in utero, the phenotypical outcome of early-life glucocorticoid receptor overexposure may become maladaptive and lead to physiological dysfunction in the adult. This review focuses on the role of GCs in developmental programming, primarily in farm species. It examines the factors influencing GC bioavailability in utero and the effects that GCs have on the development of fetal tissues and organ systems, both at term and earlier in gestation. It also discusses the windows of susceptibility to GC overexposure in early life together with the molecular mechanisms and long-term consequences of GC programming with particular emphasis on the cardiovascular, metabolic, and endocrine phenotype of the offspring.

  3. Development of new thermal barrier coating materials for gas turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, X.

    2004-04-01

    New thermal barrier coating (TBC) materials for gas turbines were studied in this work. Two of the most important properties of the material for TBCs, thermal expansion coefficient and phase stability, and the powder preparation by spray-drying are investigated.

  4. Recruiting and Engaging Older Men in Evidence-Based Health Promotion Programs: Perspectives on Barriers and Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Chelsie; Seff, Laura R; Batra, Anamika; Bhatt, Chintan; Palmer, Richard C

    2016-01-01

    Evidence-based health promotion programs are effective at reducing health risks and healthcare costs among older adults, but few men participate in the programs. This mixed methods study aimed to gain insight into the barriers to recruiting and engaging older men in evidence-based health promotion programs offered by the Healthy Aging Regional Collaborative of South Florida (HARC). Fourteen program coordinators participated in a focus group to identify barriers and strategies to improve male participation, and 49 instructors participated in a survey to triangulate the findings. Themes among barriers to male participation included women outnumbering men in the implementation sites and programs, conflict between male gender roles and the programs, and preference for other activities. Themes among strategies included public support of programs by male community leaders, program advertisements featuring males, and adapting program content. Survey results supported themes identified in the focus group. Nearly 78% of the survey respondents agreed that the perception of exercise programs as feminine was a barrier and over 90% of the survey respondents believed program advertisements featuring men would increase male participation. Findings indicate that health promotion programs and recruiting strategies need to be tailored to the unique needs and preferences of older men to improve participation.

  5. Recruiting and Engaging Older Men in Evidence-Based Health Promotion Programs: Perspectives on Barriers and Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelsie Anderson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidence-based health promotion programs are effective at reducing health risks and healthcare costs among older adults, but few men participate in the programs. This mixed methods study aimed to gain insight into the barriers to recruiting and engaging older men in evidence-based health promotion programs offered by the Healthy Aging Regional Collaborative of South Florida (HARC. Fourteen program coordinators participated in a focus group to identify barriers and strategies to improve male participation, and 49 instructors participated in a survey to triangulate the findings. Themes among barriers to male participation included women outnumbering men in the implementation sites and programs, conflict between male gender roles and the programs, and preference for other activities. Themes among strategies included public support of programs by male community leaders, program advertisements featuring males, and adapting program content. Survey results supported themes identified in the focus group. Nearly 78% of the survey respondents agreed that the perception of exercise programs as feminine was a barrier and over 90% of the survey respondents believed program advertisements featuring men would increase male participation. Findings indicate that health promotion programs and recruiting strategies need to be tailored to the unique needs and preferences of older men to improve participation.

  6. Pre-Service Teachers' Uses of and Barriers from Adopting Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samani, Ebrahim; Baki, Roselan; Razali, Abu Bakar

    2014-01-01

    Success in implementation of computer-assisted language learning (CALL) programs depends on the teachers' understanding of the roles of CALL programs in education. Consequently, it is also important to understand the barriers teachers face in the use of computer-assisted language learning (CALL) programs. The current study was conducted on 14…

  7. An innovative program to address learning barriers in small schools: Washington State School Nurse Corps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fast, Gail Ann; Gray, Lorali; Miles-Koehler, Mona

    2013-01-01

    While all schools in Washington State have had to deal with shrinking financial resources, small, rural school districts, with fewer than 2,000 students, face unique circumstances that further challenge their ability to meet rising student health needs. This article will explore how small districts utilize the services of the Washington State School Nurse Corps (SNC), an innovative program that supports student health and safety while reducing barriers to learning. Through direct registered nursing services and regional nurse administrative consultation and technical assistance, the SNC strengthens rural school districts' capacity to provide a safe and healthy learning environment. In addition, we will examine current research that links health and learning to discover how the SNC model is successful in addressing health risks as barriers to learning. Lastly, as resources continue to dwindle, partnerships between schools, the SNC, and state and local health and education organizations will be critical in maintaining health services and learning support to small, rural schools.

  8. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.P.Evans; K.E. Redinger; M.J. Holmes

    1998-04-01

    The objective of the Advanced Emissions Control Development Program (AECDP) is to develop practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of air toxics from coal-fired boilers. Ideally, the project aim is to effectively control air toxic emissions through the use of conventional flue gas cleanup equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESPS), fabric filters (baghouse), and wet flue gas desulfurization. Development work to date has concentrated on the capture of mercury, other trace metals, fine particulate and hydrogen chloride. Following the construction and evaluation of a representative air toxics test facility in Phase I, Phase II focused on the evaluation of mercury and several other air toxics emissions. The AECDP is jointly funded by the United States Department of Energy's Federal Energy Technology Center (DOE), the Ohio Coal Development Office within the Ohio Department of Development (oCDO), and Babcock& Wilcox-a McDermott company (B&W).

  9. An O(√nL) Iteration Large-Step Logarithmic Barrier Function Algorithm for Linear Programming

    OpenAIRE

    TONE, Kaoru

    1989-01-01

    As a natural extension of Roos and Vial's "Long steps with logarithmic penalty barrier function in llnear programming" (1989) and Ye's "An O(n³L) potential reduction algorithm for linear programming" (1989), it will be shown that the classical logarithmic barrier function method can be adjusted so that it generates the optimal solution in O(√nL) iterations, where n is the number of variables and L is the data length.

  10. Engineered barrier development for a nuclear waste repository in basalt: an integration of current knowledge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, M.J.

    1980-05-01

    This document represents a compilation of data and interpretive studies conducted as part of the engineered barriers program of the Basalt Waste Isolation Project. The overall objective of these studies is to provide information on barrier system designs, emplacement and isolation techniques, and chemical reactions expected in a nuclear waste repository located in the basalts underlying the Hanford Site within the state of Washington. Backfills, waste-basalt interactions, sorption, borehole plugging, etc., are among the topics discussed.

  11. Wind Energy Career Development Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gwen Andersen

    2012-03-29

    Saint Francis University has developed curriculum in engineering and in business that is meeting the needs of students and employers (Task 1) as well as integrating wind energy throughout the curriculum. Through a variety of approaches, the University engaged in public outreach and education that reached over 2,000 people annually (Task 2). We have demonstrated, through the success of these programs, that students are eager to prepare for emerging jobs in alternative energy, that employers are willing to assist in developing employees who understand the broader business and policy context of the industry, and that people want to learn about wind energy.

  12. Development and psychometric testing of a barriers to HIV testing scale among individuals with HIV infection in Sweden; The Barriers to HIV testing scale-Karolinska version

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Wiklander et al. Background: Barriers to HIV testing experienced by individuals at risk for HIV can result in treatment delay and further transmission of the disease. Instruments to systematically measure barriers are scarce, but could contribute to improved strategies for HIV testing. Aims of this study were to develop and test a barriers to HIV testing scale in a Swedish context. Methods: An 18-item scale was developed, based on an existing scale with addition of six new it...

  13. Development of the Motivators of and Barriers to Health-Smart Behaviors Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Carolyn M.; Rice, Kenneth G.; Hou, Wei; Kaye, Lillian B.; Nolan, Sarah E. M.; Grandoit, Delphia J.; Gonzales, Lucia; Smith, Mary B.; Desmond, Frederic F.

    2011-01-01

    The Motivators of and Barriers to Health-Smart Behaviors Inventory (MB-HSBI) was developed for use in identifying self-reported motivators of and barriers to the following health-promoting behaviors (called "health-smart behaviors") that should occur daily to help promote health and overcome illnesses/diseases: eating a healthy…

  14. Development of Permeable Reactive Barriers (PRB) Using Edible Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    Remediation Technology Roundtable GC gas chromatograph GMO Glycerol Monooleate GRAS Generally Recognized As Safe H2O2 Hydrogen Peroxide HLB...Emulsions prepared from food -grade edible oils have been used in a variety of locations to stimulate anaerobic biodegradation of chlorinated solvents... food -grade edible oils and then injected into the contaminated aquifer in a barrier configuration using either conventional wells or Geoprobe

  15. Communication and community development: early child development programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, F; Reinhold, A J

    1993-01-01

    Community-based groups are organized around particular aspects of early childhood development (ECD), such as literacy, parent education, and early childhood activities. In the Colombian national program, community households call upon women to devote a portion of their home to organized child care for minimal material reward. The Indian Child Development Service subsidizes the payment of organizers; and Kenyan parents construct basic preschool facilities, provide school lunches, and subsidize a teacher. In such cases the government plays a subordinate role, while the burden of program maintenance is carried by the community. These programs share the characteristics that children and adults learn side by side; adult learning ranges from women's literacy, to health, organizational issues, or small-scale economic development; a strong cultural component emphasizes mother tongue language learning, indigenous child-rearing practices, and local working models; physical structures are in homes; capacity-building for the adults is central which will be transferred to other spheres of community life. In the remote coastal villages of Colombia, an organization called Promesa works with mothers on designing their preschool children's educational activities. Promesa began to confront other priority needs in the villages, especially in environmental health and malaria control. A 1990 assessment related that participants' pride, self-confidence, and ability to solve problems regarding the healthy development of their children increased; groups learned to make use of the physical, human, and institutional resources from their environments; and participants' children remained in school and performed better. Conclusions from a decade of loose experimentation suggest that through communication community women can be organized to provide basic early education and early childhood activities can help rural children over the cultural barrier of school.

  16. The GEOFAR Project - Geothermal Finance and Awareness in Europeans Regions - Development of new schemes to overcome non-technical barriers, focusing particularly on financial barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poux, Adeline; Wendel, Marco; Jaudin, Florence; Hiegl, Mathias

    2010-05-01

    Numerous advantages of geothermal energy like its widespread distribution, a base-load power and availability higher than 90%, a small footprint and low carbon emissions, and the growing concerns about climate changes strongly promote the development of geothermal projects. Geothermal energy as a local energy source implies needs on surface to be located close to the geothermal resource. Many European regions dispose of a good geothermal potential but it is mostly not sufficiently developed due to non-technical barriers occurring at the very early stages of the project. The GEOFAR Project carried out within the framework of EU's "Intelligent Energy Europe" (IEE) program, gathers a consortium of European partners from Germany, France, Greece, Spain and Portugal. Launched in September 2008, the aim of this research project is to analyze the mentioned non-technical barriers, focusing most particularly on economic and financial aspects. Based on this analysis GEOFAR aims at developing new financial and administrative schemes to overcome the main financial barriers for deep geothermal projects (for electricity and direct use, without heat pumps). The analysis of the current situation and the future development of geothermal energy in GEOFAR target countries (Germany, France, Greece, Spain, Portugal, Slovakia, Bulgaria and Hungary) was necessary to understand and expose the diverging status of the geothermal sector and the more and less complicated situation for geothermal projects in different Europeans Regions. A deeper analysis of 40 cases studies (operating, planned and failed projects) of deep geothermal projects also contributed to this detailed view. An exhaustive analysis and description of financial mechanisms already existing in different European countries and at European level to support investors completed the research on non-technical barriers. Based on this profound analysis, the GEOFAR project has made an overview of the difficulties met by project

  17. 23 CFR 660.109 - Program development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Program development. 660.109 Section 660.109 Highways... PROGRAMS (DIRECT FEDERAL) Forest Highways § 660.109 Program development. (a) The FHWA will arrange and... program will be selected considering the following criteria: (1) The development, utilization,...

  18. Program development fund: FY 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-03-01

    It is the objective of the Fund to encourage innovative research to maintain the Laboratory's position at the forefront of science. Funds are used to explore new ideas and concepts that may potentially develop into new directions of research for the Laboratory and that are consistent with the major needs, overall goals, and mission of the Laboratory and the DOE. The types of projects eligible for support from PDF include: work in forefront areas of science and technology for the primary purpose of enriching Laboratory research and development capabilities; advanced study of new hypotheses, new experimental concepts, or innovative approaches to energy problems; experiments directed toward ''proof of principle'' or early determination of the utility of a new concept; and conception, design analyses, and development of experimental devices, instruments, or components. This report is a review of these research programs.

  19. Breaking wheat yield barriers requires integrated efforts in developing countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Saeed Rauf; Maria Zaharieva; Marilyn L Warburton; ZHANG Ping-zhi; Abdullah M AL-Sadi; Farghama Khalil; Marcin Kozak; Sultan A Tariq

    2015-01-01

    Most yield progress obtained through the so cal ed“Green Revolution”, particularly in the irrigated areas of Asia, has reached a limit, and major resistance genes are quickly overcome by the appearance of new strains of disease causing organisms. New plant stresses due to a changing environment are dififcult to breed for as quickly as the changes occur. There is con-sequently a continual need for new research programs and breeding strategies aimed at improving yield potential, abiotic stress tolerance and resistance to new, major pests and diseases. Recent advances in plant breeding encompass novel methods of expanding genetic variability and selecting for recombinants, including the development of synthetic hexaploid, hybrid and transgenic wheats. In addition, the use of molecular approaches such as quantitative trait locus (QTL) and asso-ciation mapping may increase the possibility of directly selecting positive chromosomal regions linked with natural variation for grain yield and stress resistance. The present article reviews the potential contribution of these new approaches and tools to the improvement of wheat yield in farmer’s ifelds, with a special emphasis on the Asian countries, which are major wheat producers, and contain the highest concentration of resource-poor wheat farmers.

  20. Thermal Barriers Developed for Solid Rocket Motor Nozzle Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinetz, Bruce M.; Dunlap, Patrick H., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    Space shuttle solid rocket motor case assembly joints are sealed with conventional O-ring seals that are shielded from 5500 F combustion gases by thick layers of insulation and by special joint-fill compounds that fill assembly splitlines in the insulation. On a number of occasions, NASA has observed hot gas penetration through defects in the joint-fill compound of several of the rocket nozzle assembly joints. In the current nozzle-to-case joint, NASA has observed penetration of hot combustion gases through the joint-fill compound to the inboard wiper O-ring in one out of seven motors. Although this condition does not threaten motor safety, evidence of hot gas penetration to the wiper O-ring results in extensive reviews before resuming flight. The solid rocket motor manufacturer (Thiokol) approached the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field about the possibility of applying Glenn's braided fiber preform seal as a thermal barrier to protect the O-ring seals. Glenn and Thiokol are working to improve the nozzle-to-case joint design by implementing a more reliable J-leg design and by using a braided carbon fiber thermal barrier that would resist any hot gases that the J-leg does not block.

  1. Development of Thermal Barriers For Solid Rocket Motor Nozzle Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinetz, Bruce M.; Dunlap, Patrick H., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    Joints in the Space Shuttle solid rocket motors are sealed by O-rings to contain combustion gases inside the rocket that reach pressures of up to 900 psi and temperatures of up to 5500 F. To provide protection for the O-rings, the motors are insulated with either phenolic or rubber insulation. Gaps in the joints leading up to the O-rings are filled with polysulfide joint-fill compounds as an additional level of protection. The current RSRM nozzle-to-case joint design incorporating primary, secondary, and wiper O-rings experiences gas paths through the joint-fill compound to the innermost wiper O-ring in about one out of every seven motors. Although this does not pose a safety hazard to the motor, it is an undesirable condition that NASA and rocket manufacturer Thiokol want to eliminate. Each nozzle-to-case joint gas path results in extensive reviews and evaluation before flights can be resumed. Thiokol and NASA Marshall are currently working to improve the nozzle-to-case joint design by implementing a more reliable J-leg design that has been used successfully in the field and igniter joint. They are also planning to incorporate the NASA Glenn braided carbon fiber thermal barrier into the joint. The thermal barrier would act as an additional level of protection for the O-rings and allow the elimination of the joint-fill compound from the joint.

  2. Strategies for Overcoming Key Barriers to Development of a National Security Workforce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2008-06-30

    This report documents the strategies for overcoming identified key barriers to development of an adequate national security workforce as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP) being performed under a Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) grant. Many barriers currently exist that prevent the development of an adequate number of properly trained national security personnel. The identified strategies to address the barriers will focus on both short-term and long-term efforts, as well as strategies to capture legacy knowledge of retiring national security workforce personnel.

  3. The Development of Erosion and Impact Resistant Turbine Airfoil Thermal Barrier Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.

    2007-01-01

    Thermal barrier coatings are used in gas turbine engines to protect engine hot-section components in the harsh combustion environments and extend component lifetimes. For thermal barrier coatings designed for turbine airfoil applications, further improved erosion and impact resistance are crucial for engine performance and durability. Advanced erosion resistant thermal barrier coatings are being developed, with a current emphasis on the toughness improvements using a combined rare earth- and transition metal-oxide doping approach. The performance of the doped thermal barrier coatings has been evaluated in burner rig and laser heat-flux rig simulated engine erosion and thermal gradient environments. The results have shown that the coating composition optimizations can effectively improve the erosion and impact resistance of the coating systems, while maintaining low thermal conductivity and cyclic durability. The erosion and impact damage mechanisms of the thermal barrier coatings will also be discussed.

  4. PME Guidelines for Program Development/Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dock, Stephen

    In a Program Development and Evaluation model, guidelines are presented for program directors at Delaware County Community College. Based on the premise that the process of developing programs is essentially that of evaluating programs, the model includes the following steps for both processes: (1) involve the appropriate publics; (2) identify…

  5. Barriers to healthcare contribute to delays in follow-up among women with abnormal cancer screening: data from the Patient Navigation Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Ambili; Snyder, Frederick; Katz, Mira L.; Darnell, Julie; Dudley, Donald; Patierno, Steven R.; Sanders, Mechelle R; Valverde, Patricia A; Simon, Melissa A; Warren-Mears, Victoria; Battaglia, Tracy A.

    2015-01-01

    Background There is limited understanding of the association between barriers to care and clinical outcomes within patient navigation programs. Methods Secondary analyses of data from the intervention arms of the Patient Navigation Research Program (PNRP), including navigated participants with abnormal breast and cervical cancer screening tests from 2007 to 2010. Independent variables were (a) number of unique barriers to care (0, 1, 2, or 3+) documented during patient navigation encounters and (b) presence of socio-legal barriers originating from social policy (yes/no). Median time to diagnostic resolution of index screening abnormalities was estimated using Kaplan-Meier cumulative incidence curves. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression examined the impact of barriers on time to resolution, controlling for socio-demographics and stratifying by study center. Results Among 2600 breast participants, three-quarters had barriers to care (25% 1 barrier, 16% 2 barriers and 34% 3+ barriers). Among 1387 cervical participants, more than half had barriers (31% 1 barrier, 11% 2 barriers, and 13% 3+ barriers). Among breast participants, the presence of barriers was associated with less timely resolution for any number of barriers compared to no barriers. Among cervical participants, only the presence of 2 or more barriers was associated with less timely resolution. Both types of barriers, socio-legal and other barriers, were associated with delay among breast and cervical participants. Conclusions Navigated women with barriers resolve cancer screening abnormalities at a slower rate compared to navigated women with no barriers. Further innovations in navigation care are necessary to maximize the impact of patient navigation programs nationwide. PMID:26385420

  6. Sodium Heat Engine Development Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, J.P.; Kupperman, D.S.; Majumdar, S.; Dorris, S.; Gopalsami, N.; Dieckman, S.L.; Jaross, R.A.; Johnson, D.L.; Gregar, J.S.; Poeppel, R.B.; Raptis, A.C.; Valentin, R.A.

    1992-01-01

    The Sodium Heat Engine (SHE) is an efficient thermoelectric conversion device which directly generates electricity from a thermally regenerative electrochemical cell that relies on the unique conduction properties of {beta}{double prime}-alumina solid electrolyte (BASE). Laboratory models of a variety of SHE devices have demonstrated the feasibility and efficiency of the system, engineering development of large prototype devices has been slowed by a series of materials and fabrication problems. Failure of the electrolyte tubes has been a recurring problem and a number of possible causes have been postulated. To address these issues, a two-phase engineering development program was undertaken. This report summarizes the final results of the first phase of the program, which included extensive materials characterization activities, a study of applicable nondestructive evaluation methods, an investigation of possible stress states that would contribute to fracture, and certain operational issues associated with the electromagnetic pumps used in the SHE prototype. Mechanical and microstructural evaluation of commercially obtained BASE tubes revealed that they should be adequate for SHE applications and that sodium exposure produced no appreciable deleterious strength effects. Processing activities to produce a more uniform and smaller grain size for the BASE tubes were completed using isostatic pressing, extrusion, and slip casting. Green tubes were sintered by conventional and microwave plasma methods. Of particular interest is the residual stress state in the BASE tubes, and both analysis and nondestructive evaluation methods were employed to evaluate these stresses. X-ray and neutron diffraction experiments were performed to determine the bulk residual stresses in commercially fabricated BASE tubes; however, tube-to-tube variations and variations among the various methods employed did not allow formulation of a definitive definition of the as-fabricated stress state.

  7. Genetic mouse models to study blood–brain barrier development and function

    OpenAIRE

    Sohet, Fabien; Daneman, Richard

    2013-01-01

    The blood–brain barrier (BBB) is a complex physiological structure formed by the blood vessels of the central nervous system (CNS) that tightly regulates the movement of substances between the blood and the neural tissue. Recently, the generation and analysis of different genetic mouse models has allowed for greater understanding of BBB development, how the barrier is regulated during health, and its response to disease. Here we discuss: 1) Genetic mouse models that have been used to study th...

  8. Innovation Toilet and Barriers of Diffusion in Developing Country Case Study: TOTO Electronic Bidet Seat Toilet

    OpenAIRE

    Akbar Adhiutama; Michihiko Shinozaki; Seiichi Yoshikubo

    2012-01-01

    The innovation of electronic bidet seat toilet in Japan has diffused to more than sixty percent of Japanese household while it has low rate of diffusion in other countries especially in developing country. From this phenomenon, it is interesting to understand about the barrier of diffusion, which focuses on the adopter categories of diffusion, barrier factors and proposition of key success factors of the diffusion in Indonesia as one of emerging economic and the member of G 20. There have bee...

  9. Developing an Undergraduate Hospital Dentistry Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, G. B.; Swanson, A. E.

    1991-01-01

    The process used by the University of British Columbia to establish and improve an undergraduate hospital dentistry program is chronicled. The program's initial structure and objectives, use of student input for program improvement, and the success of the approach in developing an effective program are discussed. (MSE)

  10. Developing a nursing corporate compliance program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartis, Janice A; Sullivan, Trent

    2002-09-01

    This article presents the process that a large urban tertiary care hospital engaged in when developing a corporate compliance program for nursing. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate how nurse executives can successfully implement a comprehensive and practical nursing corporate compliance program. This article describes in detail the 5 steps the hospital took to develop its nursing corporate compliance program and provides examples of tools to guide you in developing a nursing corporate compliance program.

  11. Investigating Parental Beliefs Concerning Facilitators and Barriers to the Physical Activity in Down Syndrome and Typical Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna Alesi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Family is a crucial factor to determine the amount, the duration, and the complexity of children’s sport activities. This study aims at comparing the beliefs concerning the involvement in sport activities among parents of children with Down syndrome (DS and parents of typically developing children (TDC. A phenomenological theoretical framework was adopted to realize semistructured interviews with the parents. The participants were 35 parents: 19 with children and adolescents with DS and 16 with TDC. The main facilitation/barrier themes identified by the parents of children with DS were the family and the expert at Adapted Physical Activity (APA instructors. Conversely, the parents of TDC identified social factors related to family as the only barrier. One of the issues that emerge from this study is the lack of home-based physical activity (PA intervention programs aimed at involving families and children.

  12. Development of Advanced Thermal and Environmental Barrier Coatings Using a High-Heat-Flux Testing Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.

    2003-01-01

    The development of low conductivity, robust thermal and environmental barrier coatings requires advanced testing techniques that can accurately and effectively evaluate coating thermal conductivity and cyclic resistance at very high surface temperatures (up to 1700 C) under large thermal gradients. In this study, a laser high-heat-flux test approach is established for evaluating advanced low conductivity, high temperature capability thermal and environmental barrier coatings under the NASA Ultra Efficient Engine Technology (UEET) program. The test approach emphasizes the real-time monitoring and assessment of the coating thermal conductivity, which initially rises under the steady-state high temperature thermal gradient test due to coating sintering, and later drops under the cyclic thermal gradient test due to coating cracking/delamination. The coating system is then evaluated based on damage accumulation and failure after the combined steady-state and cyclic thermal gradient tests. The lattice and radiation thermal conductivity of advanced ceramic coatings can also be evaluated using laser heat-flux techniques. The external radiation resistance of the coating is assessed based on the measured specimen temperature response under a laser- heated intense radiation-flux source. The coating internal radiation contribution is investigated based on the measured apparent coating conductivity increases with the coating surface test temperature under large thermal gradient test conditions. Since an increased radiation contribution is observed at these very high surface test temperatures, by varying the laser heat-flux and coating average test temperature, the complex relation between the lattice and radiation conductivity as a function of surface and interface test temperature may be derived.

  13. Evaluating Youth Development Programs: Progress and Promise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Jodie L.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2016-01-01

    Advances in theories of adolescent development and positive youth development have greatly increased our understanding of how programs and practices with adolescents can impede or enhance their development. In this article the authors reflect on the progress in research on youth development programs in the last two decades, since possibly the…

  14. A Qualitative Study to Examine Perceptions and Barriers to Appropriate Gestational Weight Gain among Participants in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women Infants and Children Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loan Pham Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Women of reproductive age are particularly at risk of obesity because of excessive gestational weight gain (GWG and postpartum weight retention, resulting in poor health outcomes for both mothers and infants. The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine perceptions and barriers to GWG among low-income women in the WIC program to inform the development of an intervention study. Eleven focus groups were conducted and stratified by ethnicity, and each group included women of varying age, parity, and prepregnancy BMI ranges. Participants reported receiving pressure from spouse and family members to “eat for two” among multiple barriers to appropriate weight gain during pregnancy. Participants were concerned about gaining too much weight but had minimal knowledge of weight gain goals during pregnancy. Receiving regular weight monitoring was reported, but participants had inconsistent discussions about weight gain with healthcare providers. Most were not aware of the IOM guidelines nor the fact that gestational weight gain goals differed by prepregnancy weight status. Results of these focus groups analyses informed the design of a pregnancy weight tracker and accompanying educational handout for use in an intervention study. These findings suggest an important opportunity for GWG education in all settings where pregnant women are seen.

  15. Barriers and Solutions to Smart Water Grid Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, So-Min; Choi, Gye-Woon; Lee, Ho-Sun

    2016-03-01

    This limited review of smart water grid (SWG) development, challenges, and solutions provides an initial assessment of early attempts at operating SWGs. Though the cost and adoption issues are critical, potential benefits of SWGs such as efficient water conservation and distribution sustain the development of SWGs around the world. The review finds that the keys to success are the new regulations concerning data access and ownership to solve problems of security and privacy; consumer literacy to accept and use SWGs; active private sector involvement to coordinate SWG development; government-funded pilot projects and trial centers; and integration with sustainable water management.

  16. Barriers to Learning in Agile Software Development Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babb, Jeffry S.; Hoda, Rashina; Nørbjerg, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    The adoption of agile methods promises many advantages for individual, team, and organizational learning. However, environmental, structural, and organizational/cultural constraints often find teams adapting agile software development methods rather than engaging in full adoption. We present resu...

  17. Barriers and countermeasures in developing traditional Chinese medicine in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yunfang; Yang, Zhiping; Cheng, Jing; Fan, Daiming

    2016-09-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is one of the unique cultural treasures of Chinese; it represents a significant feature and prominent advantage of the healthcare cause in China. Data in this paper were fromWorld Health Organization, Chinese Bureau of Statistics, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and PubMed. In recent years, TCM has established a solid foundation in Europe, which made great strides in legislation, education, research, and international exchange, and has enjoyed a vast development space in the continent. Now, TCM is embracing unprecedented development opportunities in Europe. At the same time, the stiff international competition poses a grave threat to China's TCM industry. With multiple cultural, legal, and institutional challenges, as well as talent shortages in the way, TCM is now facing many difficulties in Europe. To fully prepare and enact active and vigorous steps to seize opportunities, we should have a clear picture about the serious challenges hampering TCM development in Europe. The TCM development at overseas markets has shifted from a spontaneous trade activity into a national strategy spearheaded by the government and participated in by multiple stakeholders. We should make a systematic, comprehensive, and sustainable push in fields such as TCM therapy, healthcare, education, research, culture, and industry development. The ultimate goal is to bring TCMs to the global market and allow them to play a role in safeguarding public health along with modern medicines.

  18. Barriers to the Uptake of Eye Care Services in Developing Countries: A Systematic Review of Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Khadija Nowaira; Al-Sharqi, Omar Zayan; Abdullah, Muhammad Tanweer

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This research identifies effective and ineffective interventions for reducing barriers to the uptake of eye care services in developing countries. Design: Systematic literature review. Setting: Only research studies done in developing countries were included. Method: The review is restricted to English-language articles published…

  19. Teachers' Perceptions of the Barriers to Technology Integration and Practices with Technology under Situated Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopcha, Theodore J.

    2012-01-01

    This case study examines 18 elementary school teachers' perceptions of the barriers to technology integration (access, vision, professional development, time, and beliefs) and instructional practices with technology after two years of situated professional development. Months after transitioning from mentoring to teacher-led communities of…

  20. Globalization of psychiatry - a barrier to mental health development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Suman

    2014-10-01

    The concept of globalization has been applied recently to ways in which mental health may be developed in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), sometimes referred to as the 'Third World' or developing countries. This paper (1) describes the roots of psychiatry in western culture and its current domination by pharmacological therapies; (2) considers the history of mental health in LMICs, focusing on many being essentially non-western in cultural background with a tradition of using a plurality of systems of care and help for mental health problems, including religious and indigenous systems of medicine; and (3) concludes that in a post-colonial world, mental health development in LMICs should not be left to market forces, which are inevitably manipulated by the interests of multinational corporations mostly located in ex-colonizing countries, especially the pharmaceutical companies.

  1. Methodological Barriers Precluding the Development of Comprehensive Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmot, William; King, Stephen

    The authors examine published research in speech communication and evaluate its potential for theory development. Two major suggestions are advanced that will facilitate the quest for viable theory of speech communication. First, research should begin to focus on relevant communication behaviors rather than merely using them as convenient contexts…

  2. A computer program for full-coverage film-cooled blading analysis including the effects of a thermal barrier coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The program input, coolant flow and heat transfer model, and the program output are discussed. As an example, sections of the suction and pressure sides of a high temperature, high pressure turbine vane are analyzed to show the effects of a thermal barrier coating. Compared to the uncoated design, the coating halves the required coolant flow, while simultaneously reducing metal outer temperatures by over 111 K.

  3. Agile software development and the barriers to transfer of knowledge: An interpretive case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heeager, Lise Tordrup; Nielsen, Peter Axel

    2013-01-01

    practices in an interpretive case study. The case company is a pharmaceutical firm where we studied how they develop software and how they transfer their own experience. Based on the literature we develop an initial framework of barriers to knowledge transfer and apply it to interpret the case study. From...... this case study we are able to discuss the initial framework and extend it to a framework of knowledge transfer of agile practices. The framework provides a better understanding of the barriers to knowledge transfer of agile practices. The paper contributes with (1) an application of the framework...

  4. App Reviews: Breaking the User and Developer Language Barrier

    KAUST Repository

    Hoon, Leonard

    2015-10-22

    Apple, Google and third party developers offer apps across over twenty categories for various smart mobile devices. Offered exclusively through the App Store and Google Play, each app allows users to review the app and their experience with it. Current literature offers a general statistical picture of these reviews, and a broad overview of the nature of discontent of apps. However, we do not yet have a good framework to classify user reviews against known software quality attributes like performance or usability. In order to close this gap, in this paper, we develop an ontology encompassing software attributes derived from software quality models. This decomposes into approximately five thousand words that users employ to review apps. By identifying a consistent set of vocabulary that users communicate with, we can sanitise large datasets to extract stakeholder actionable information from reviews. The findings offered in this paper assists future app review analysis by bridging end-user communication and software engineering vocabulary.

  5. Staff-Development Program. Maxi I Practicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutalo, Anthony J.

    Described are various aspects of a program to train school personnel to meet the special needs of mainstreamed children. The staff development program is discussed in terms of program responsibility, strategy, and steps taken by the principal in the implementation procedure. The four stages of Project RETAP, a special education in-service program…

  6. Innovative Technology Development Program. Final summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beller, J.

    1995-08-01

    Through the Office of Technology Development (OTD), the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has initiated a national applied research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation program, whose goal has been to resolve the major technical issues and rapidly advance technologies for environmental restoration and waste management. The Innovative Technology Development (ITD) Program was established as a part of the DOE, Research, Development, Demonstration, Testing, and Evaluation (RDDT&E) Program. The plan is part of the DOE`s program to restore sites impacted by weapons production and to upgrade future waste management operations. On July 10, 1990, DOE issued a Program Research and Development Announcement (PRDA) through the Idaho Operations Office to solicit private sector help in developing innovative technologies to support DOE`s clean-up goals. This report presents summaries of each of the seven projects, which developed and tested the technologies proposed by the seven private contractors selected through the PRDA process.

  7. Design &Development of an Interpreted Programming Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimul Chowdhury

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Programming Languages are playing one of the key roles in Computer Science, Software Development and other related fields. Learning Programming Language is essential for anyone who wants to be Programmer. But, to really understand the mechanics of how those Programming Languages work internally is difficult for various reasons. One simple solution to this roblem is to Design and Develop a new Programming Language or a subset of another Programming Language. In our project we wanted to Design and Develop a learner friendly Programming Language, which will be very easy to recreate. We will show steps of creating such toy language which will help to learn internal works of a Programming Language.

  8. A novel transgenic zebrafish model for blood-brain and blood-retinal barrier development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugimoto Masahiko

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Development and maintenance of the blood-brain and blood-retinal barrier is critical for the homeostasis of brain and retinal tissue. Despite decades of research our knowledge of the formation and maintenance of the blood-brain (BBB and blood-retinal (BRB barrier is very limited. We have established an in vivo model to study the development and maintenance of these barriers by generating a transgenic zebrafish line that expresses a vitamin D-binding protein fused with enhanced green fluorescent protein (DBP-EGFP in blood plasma, as an endogenous tracer. Results The temporal establishment of the BBB and BRB was examined using this transgenic line and the results were compared with that obtained by injection of fluorescent dyes into the sinus venosus of embryos at various stages of development. We also examined the expression of claudin-5, a component of tight junctions during the first 4 days of development. We observed that the BBB of zebrafish starts to develop by 3 dpf, with expression of claudin-5 in the central arteries preceding it at 2 dpf. The hyaloid vasculature in the zebrafish retina develops a barrier function at 3 dpf, which endows the zebrafish with unique advantages for studying the BRB. Conclusion Zebrafish embryos develop BBB and BRB function simultaneously by 3 dpf, which is regulated by tight junction proteins. The Tg(l-fabp:DBP-EGFP zebrafish will have great advantages in studying development and maintenance of the blood-neural barrier, which is a new application for the widely used vertebrate model.

  9. Evaluation and development of tools to quantify the impacts of roadside vegetation barriers on near-road air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regulatory and urban planning programs require an accurate evaluation of how traffic emissions transport and disperse from roads to fully determine exposures and health risks. Roadside vegetation barriers have shown the potential to reduce near-road air pollution concentrations; ...

  10. A descriptive study of the barriers to study abroad in engineering undergraduate education and recommendations for program design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klahr, Sabine Christine

    This study analyzed and compared the program designs of international exchange and internship programs for engineering students in the United States and the European Union (E.U.) as well as the extent to which these programs have removed barriers to study abroad. The purpose of this study was to provide recommendations for the design of international programs in the U.S. that would increase the proportion of engineering students who choose to study or intern abroad. Coordinators of international programs in engineering were surveyed about their perceptions of program success and a number of variables related to program design. A Chi-Square Test of Independence of (A) program success and (B) European and U.S. programs (i.e. institution location) cross-tabulated with all other variables and each other indicated those variables that contribute to the success of programs and those variables that are associated with either U.S. or European programs. In addition, all programs were described and the answers to open-ended survey questions were analyzed quantitatively. The analyses indicated that European programs tend to be more successful in implementing study/intern abroad programs for engineering students than U.S. programs. The elements of program design contributing to the greater success of European programs and the success of specific U.S. programs were described. In addition, the characteristics of overall successful programs (U.S. and E.U. data combined) were explained. The results indicated that successful programs tend to: (1) be promoted by the college and/or departments of engineering, (2) offer study/intern abroad opportunities in English-speaking settings, (3) award full credit at the home institution for required engineering courses completed at the host institution, (4) offer scholarships and financial aid for participation in the program, (5) require participating students to have completed their second year of university course work prior to applying to

  11. The Cementitious Barriers Partnership Experimental Programs and Software Advancing DOE’s Waste Disposal/Tank Closure Efforts – 15436

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, Heather [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Flach, Greg [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Smith, Frank [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Langton, Christine [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Brown, Kevin [Vanderbilt Univ./CRESP, Nashville, TN (United States); Kosson, David [Vanderbilt Univ./CRESP, Nashville, TN (United States); Samson, Eric [SIMCO Technologies, Inc. (United States); Mallick, Pramod [US DOE, Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-01-27

    The U.S. Department of Energy Environmental Management (DOE-EM) Office of Tank Waste Management-sponsored Cementitious Barriers Partnership (CBP) is chartered with providing the technical basis for implementing cement-based waste forms and radioactive waste containment structures for long-term disposal. DOE needs in this area include the following to support progress in final treatment and disposal of legacy waste and closure of High-Level Waste (HLW) tanks in the DOE complex: long-term performance predictions, flow sheet development and flow sheet enhancements, and conceptual designs for new disposal facilities. The DOE-EM Cementitious Barriers Partnership is producing software and experimental programs resulting in new methods and data needed for end-users involved with environmental cleanup and waste disposal. Both the modeling tools and the experimental data have already benefited the DOE sites in the areas of performance assessments by increasing confidence backed up with modeling support, leaching methods, and transport properties developed for actual DOE materials. In 2014, the CBP Partnership released the CBP Software Toolbox –“Version 2.0” which provides concrete degradation models for 1) sulfate attack, 2) carbonation, and 3) chloride initiated rebar corrosion, and includes constituent leaching. These models are applicable and can be used by both DOE and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for service life and long-term performance evaluations and predictions of nuclear and radioactive waste containment structures across the DOE complex, including future SRS Saltstone and HLW tank performance assessments and special analyses, Hanford site HLW tank closure projects and other projects in which cementitious barriers are required, the Advanced Simulation Capability for Environmental Management (ASCEM) project which requires source terms from cementitious containment structures as input to their flow simulations, regulatory reviews of DOE performance

  12. Identifying barriers to mental health system improvements: an examination of community participation in assertive community treatment programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wakefield Patricia A

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Integrating the best available evidence into program standards is essential if system-wide improvements in the delivery of community-based mental health services are to be achieved. Since the beginning of the Assertive Community Treatment (ACT program movement, program standards have included a role for the community. In particular, ACT program standards have sought to ensure that members of the local community are involved in governance and that former clients participate in service delivery as "Peer Support Specialists". This paper reports on the extent to which ACT program standards related to community participation have been implemented and identifies barriers to full compliance. Methods Qualitative and quantitative data were collected through a telephone survey of ACT Program Coordinators in Ontario, Canada, using a census sample of the existing 66 ACT programs. A thematic approach to content analysis was used to analyze respondents' qualitative comments. Quantitative data were analyzed using SPSS 16.0 and included means, frequencies, independent t-tests and Pearson Correlations. Results An 85% response rate was achieved. Of the 33 program standards, the two that received the lowest perceived compliance ratings were the two standards directly concerning community participation. Specifically, the standard to have a functioning Community Advisory Body and the standard requiring the inclusion of a Peer Support Specialist. The three major themes that emerged from the survey data with respect to the barriers to fully implementing the Community Advisory Body were: external issues; standard related issues; and, organizational/structural related issues. The three major themes concerning barriers to implementing the Peer Support Specialist role were: human resource related issues; organizational/structural related issues; and, standard related issues. Conclusions The reasons for low compliance of ACT programs with community

  13. The DUPIC fuel development program in KAERI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, M. S.; Park, H. S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    This study describes the DUPIC fuel development program in KAERI as follows; Burning spent PWR fuel again in CANDU by DUPIC, Compatibility with existing CANDU system, Feasibility of DUPIC fuel fabrication, Waste reduction, Safeguard ability, Economics of DUPIC fuel cycle, The DUPIC fuel development program, and International prospective. 5 refs., 10 figs.

  14. Advanced Environmental Barrier Coating Development for SiC-SiC Ceramic Matrix Composite Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming; Harder, Bryan; Bhatt, Ramakrishna; Kiser, Doug; Wiesner, Valerie L.

    2016-01-01

    This presentation reviews the NASA advanced environmental barrier coating (EBC) system development for SiCSiC Ceramic Matrix Composite (CMC) components for next generation turbine engines. The emphasis has been placed on the current design challenges of the 2700F environmental barrier coatings; coating processing and integration with SiCSiC CMCs and component systems; and performance evaluation and demonstration of EBC-CMC systems. This presentation also highlights the EBC-CMC system temperature capability and durability improvements through advanced compositions and architecture designs, as shown in recent simulated engine high heat flux, combustion environment, in conjunction with mechanical creep and fatigue loading testing conditions.

  15. Barriers to Transit Oriented Developments in the Netherlands: A luxury problem? : 24th AESOP Annual Conference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, Wendy; Bertolini, Luca

    2010-01-01

    This paper seeks to identify and understand crucial barriers faced by transit oriented developments in the Netherlands through the use of deductive and inductive perceptions of stakeholders and experts involved gathered through literature analysis, open interviews and focus groups. The research aims

  16. Barriers to access to antiretroviral treatment in developing countries: a review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Posse, M.; Meheus, F.; Asten, H van; Ven, A van der; Baltussen, R.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To present a review of barriers impeding people living with HIV/AIDS in developing countries from accessing treatment, and to make recommendations for further studies. METHODS: Electronic databases, websites of main global agencies and international AIDS conferences were searched for rele

  17. Development of human skin equivalents to unravel the impaired skin barrier in atopic dermatitis skin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eweje, M.O.

    2016-01-01

    The studies in this thesis describes the barrier defects in Atopic Dermatitis (AD) skin and various techniques to develop AD Human Skin Equivalents (HSEs) which can be used to better understand the role of several factors in the pathogenesis of AD skin. The results described show that Inflammation p

  18. Employees' Perceptions of Barriers to Participation in Training and Development in Small Engineering Businesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susomrith, Pattanee; Coetzer, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to investigate barriers to employee participation in voluntary formal training and development opportunities from the perspective of employees in small engineering businesses. Design/methodology/approach: An exploratory qualitative methodology involving data collection via site visits and in-depth semi-structured…

  19. The declared barriers of the large developing countries waste management projects: The STAR model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bufoni, André Luiz; Oliveira, Luciano Basto; Rosa, Luiz Pinguelli

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate and describe the barriers system that precludes the feasibility, or limits the performance of the waste management projects through the analysis of which are the declared barriers at the 432 large waste management projects registered as CDM during the period 2004-2014. The final product is a waste management barriers conceptual model proposal (STAR), supported by literature and corroborated by projects design documents. This paper uses the computer assisted qualitative content analysis (CAQCA) methodology with the qualitative data analysis (QDA) software NVivo®, by 890 fragments, to investigate the motives to support our conclusions. Results suggest the main barriers classification in five types: sociopolitical, technological, regulatory, financial, and human resources constraints. Results also suggest that beyond the waste management industry, projects have disadvantages added related to the same barriers inherent to others renewable energies initiatives. The STAR model sheds some light over the interactivity and dynamics related to the main constraints of the industry, describing the mutual influences and relationships among each one. Future researches are needed to better and comprehensively understand these relationships and ease the development of tools to alleviate or eliminate them.

  20. The development of blood-retinal barrier during the interaction of astrocytes with vascular wall cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huanling Yao; Tianshi Wang; Jiexin Deng; Ding Liu; Xiaofei Li; Jinbo Deng

    2014-01-01

    Astrocytes are intimately involved in the formation and development of retinal vessels. Astrocyte dysfunction is a major cause of blood-retinal barrier injury and other retinal vascular diseases. In this study, the development of the retinal vascular system and the formation of the blood-ret-inal barrier in mice were investigated using immunolfuorescence staining, gelatin-ink perfusion, and transmission electron microscopy. The results showed that the retinal vascular system of mice develops from the optic disc after birth, and radiates out gradually to cover the entire retina, taking the papilla optica as the center. First, the superifcial vasculature is formed on the inner retinal layer;then, the vasculature extends into the inner and outer edges of the retinal inner nuclear layer, forming the deep vasculature that is parallel to the superifcial vasculature. The blood-retinal barrier is mainly composed of endothelium, basal lamina and the end-feet of astrocytes, which become mature during mouse development. Initially, the naive endothelial cells were immature with few organelles and many microvilli. The basal lamina was uniform in thickness, and the glial end-feet surrounded the outer basal lamina incompletely. In the end, the blood-retinal barrier matures with smooth endothelia connected through tight junctions, rela-tively thin and even basal lamina, and relatively thin glial cell end-feet. These ifndings indicate that the development of the vasculature in the retina follows the rules of“center to periphery”and“superifcial layer to deep layers”. Its development and maturation are spatially and tempo-rally consistent with the functional performance of retinal neurons and photosensitivity. The blood-retinal barrier gradually becomes mature via the process of interactions between astro-cytes and blood vessel cells.

  1. Development and Life Prediction of Erosion Resistant Turbine Low Conductivity Thermal Barrier Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.; Kuczmarski, Maria A.

    2010-01-01

    Future rotorcraft propulsion systems are required to operate under highly-loaded conditions and in harsh sand erosion environments, thereby imposing significant material design and durability issues. The incorporation of advanced thermal barrier coatings (TBC) in high pressure turbine systems enables engine designs with higher inlet temperatures, thus improving the engine efficiency, power density and reliability. The impact and erosion resistance of turbine thermal barrier coating systems are crucial to the turbine coating technology application, because a robust turbine blade TBC system is a prerequisite for fully utilizing the potential coating technology benefit in the rotorcraft propulsion. This paper describes the turbine blade TBC development in addressing the coating impact and erosion resistance. Advanced thermal barrier coating systems with improved performance have also been validated in laboratory simulated engine erosion and/or thermal gradient environments. A preliminary life prediction modeling approach to emphasize the turbine blade coating erosion is also presented.

  2. Bridges and Barriers to Developing and Conducting Interdisciplinary Graduate-Student Team Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Nielsen-Pincus

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Understanding complex socio-environmental problems requires specialists from multiple disciplines to integrate research efforts. Programs such as the National Science Foundation's Integrative Graduate Education and Research Traineeship facilitate integrated research efforts and change the way academic institutions train future leaders and scientists. The University of Idaho and the Tropical Agricultural Research and Higher Education Center in Costa Rica collaborate on a joint research program focusing on biodiversity conservation and sustainable production in fragmented landscapes. We first present a spectrum of integration ranging from disciplinary to transdisciplinary across seven aspects of the research process. We then describe our experiences and lessons learned conducting interdisciplinary graduate student team research. Using our program as a case study, we examine the individual, disciplinary, and programmatic bridges and barriers to conducting interdisciplinary research that emerged during our student team research projects. We conclude with a set of recommendations for exploiting the bridges and overcoming the barriers to conducting interdisciplinary research, especially as part of graduate education programs.

  3. Program Development Tools and Infrastructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, M

    2012-03-12

    Exascale class machines will exhibit a new level of complexity: they will feature an unprecedented number of cores and threads, will most likely be heterogeneous and deeply hierarchical, and offer a range of new hardware techniques (such as speculative threading, transactional memory, programmable prefetching, and programmable accelerators), which all have to be utilized for an application to realize the full potential of the machine. Additionally, users will be faced with less memory per core, fixed total power budgets, and sharply reduced MTBFs. At the same time, it is expected that the complexity of applications will rise sharply for exascale systems, both to implement new science possible at exascale and to exploit the new hardware features necessary to achieve exascale performance. This is particularly true for many of the NNSA codes, which are large and often highly complex integrated simulation codes that push the limits of everything in the system including language features. To overcome these limitations and to enable users to reach exascale performance, users will expect a new generation of tools that address the bottlenecks of exascale machines, that work seamlessly with the (set of) programming models on the target machines, that scale with the machine, that provide automatic analysis capabilities, and that are flexible and modular enough to overcome the complexities and changing demands of the exascale architectures. Further, any tool must be robust enough to handle the complexity of large integrated codes while keeping the user's learning curve low. With the ASC program, in particular the CSSE (Computational Systems and Software Engineering) and CCE (Common Compute Environment) projects, we are working towards a new generation of tools that fulfill these requirements and that provide our users as well as the larger HPC community with the necessary tools, techniques, and methodologies required to make exascale performance a reality.

  4. Perceived benefits and barriers and self-efficacy affecting the attendance of health education programs among uninsured primary care patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamimura, Akiko; Nourian, Maziar M; Jess, Allison; Chernenko, Alla; Assasnik, Nushean; Ashby, Jeanie

    2016-12-01

    Lifestyle interventions have shown to be effective in improving health status, health behaviors, and self-efficacy. However, recruiting participants to health education programs and ensuring the continuity of health education for underserved populations is often challenging. The goals of this study are: to describe the attendance of health education programs; to identify stages of change to a healthy lifestyle; to determine cues to action; and to specify factors affecting perceived benefits and barriers to healthy food choices and physical activity among uninsured primary care patients. Uninsured primary care patients utilizing a free clinic (N=621) completed a self-administered survey from September to December of 2015. US born English speakers, non-US born English speakers, and Spanish speakers reported different kinds of cues to action in attending health education programs. While self-efficacy increases perceived benefits and decreases perceived barriers for physical activity, it increases both perceived benefits and perceived barriers for healthy food choices. The participants who had attended health education programs did not believe that there were benefits for healthy food choices and physical activity. This study adds to the body of literature on health education for underserved populations.

  5. Innovation Toilet and Barriers of Diffusion in Developing Country Case Study: TOTO Electronic Bidet Seat Toilet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbar Adhiutama

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The innovation of electronic bidet seat toilet in Japan has diffused to more than sixty percent of Japanese household while it has low rate of diffusion in other countries especially in developing country. From this phenomenon, it is interesting to understand about the barrier of diffusion, which focuses on the adopter categories of diffusion, barrier factors and proposition of key success factors of the diffusion in Indonesia as one of emerging economic and the member of G 20. There have been few studies about diffusion of innovation toilet, and this paper especially examines the diffusion of new innovations on electronic bidet toilet due to its successful diffusion among Japanese household, and further became a standard fixture toilet in Japan. This paper also discusses the product life cycle of electronic bidet toilet in Japan, global diffusion, identifies adopter categories and barrier factors of diffusion in Indonesia. Finally, theoretical propositions are developed on the diffusion of innovation for electronic bidet toilet in Indonesia.Keywords: Innovation toilet, Barriers of diffusion, Indonesia, TOTO Electronic bidet seat toilet

  6. Alloy development for irradiation performance: program strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloom, E. E.; Stiegler, J. O.; Wiffen, F. W.; Dalder, E. N.C.; Reuther, T. C.; Gold, R. E.; Holmes, J. J.; Kummer, D. L.; Nolfi, F. V.

    1978-01-01

    The objective of the Alloy Development for Irradiation Performance Program is the development of structural materials for use in the first wall and blanket region of fusion reactors. The goal of the program is a material that will survive an exposure of 40 MWyr/m/sup 2/ at a temperature which will allow use of a liquid-H/sub 2/O heat transport system. Although the ultimate aim of the program is development of materials for commercial reactors by the end of this century, activities are organized to provide materials data for the relatively low performance interim machines that will precede commercial reactors.

  7. Facilitators and barriers to success among ethnic minority students enrolled in a predominately white baccalaureate nursing program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Charlene B; Williams-Jones, Pamela; Lewis-Trabeaux, Shirleen; Mitchell, Denise

    2012-07-01

    This study identified facilitators and barriers to academic success among ethnic minority students enrolled in a BSN program. The following research questions were asked: What factors (a) facilitate academic performance; (b) are barriers to academic performance; (c) influence the college experience and academic success; (d) within the nursing department, influence academic success; (e) What is the impact of socialization on academic performance; (f) What were facilitators of academic success identified among study participants; and, (g) Which facilitators, identified by subjects, were most common among those participants? A retrospective-descriptive study design consisted of a sample of all minority students who were enrolled in clinical at a baccalaureate nursing program between 2005 and the fall of 2010. Bandura's theory on self-efficacy was used. Loftus and Duty's Survey of Factors Influencing Student Retention and Academic Success was adapted. Data were analyzed using SPSS 19.0 with ANOVA to determine if a significant difference in responses existed.

  8. Career Development in Language Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawer, Saad Fathy; Alkahtani, Saad Ali

    2013-01-01

    This study assesses the influence of a two-year language program evaluation on program directors and faculty career development. The study makes use of mixed-paradigms (positivism and qualitative interpretive), mixed-strategies (survey research and qualitative evaluation), one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and a post-hoc test of multiple…

  9. 1996 power development program (1996-2005)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The Power Development Program sets out the Philippine`s total plan for meeting future requirements through the coordinated addition of required generation and transmission facilities for 1996 and 2005. Chapters cover: electric power industry; power demand projection; energy resource options; generation plan; island interconnections; transmission expansion; capital investment requirements; and long-term program (2006-2025).

  10. Interactive Programming Support for Secure Software Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jing

    2012-01-01

    Software vulnerabilities originating from insecure code are one of the leading causes of security problems people face today. Unfortunately, many software developers have not been adequately trained in writing secure programs that are resistant from attacks violating program confidentiality, integrity, and availability, a style of programming…

  11. Development, epigenetics and metabolic programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, Keith M; Costello, Paula; Lillycrop, Karen

    2016-01-01

    It is now widely recognised that the environment in early life can have important effects on human growth and development, including the “programming” of far reaching effects on the risk of developing common metabolic and other non-communicable diseases in later life. We have shown that greater childhood adiposity is associated with higher maternal adiposity, low maternal vitamin D status, excessive gestational weight gain, and short duration of breastfeeding; maternal dietary patterns in pregnancy and vitamin D status have been linked with childhood bone mineral content and muscle function. Human studies have identified fetal liver blood flow adaptations and epigenetic changes as potential mechanisms that could link maternal influences with offspring body composition. In experimental studies there is now substantial evidence that the environment during early life induces altered phenotypes through epigenetic mechanisms. Epigenetic processes such as DNA methylation, covalent modifications of histones and non-coding RNAs can induce changes in gene expression without a change in DNA base sequence. Such processes are involved in cell differentiation and genomic imprinting, as well as the phenomenon of developmental plasticity in response to environmental influences. Elucidation of such epigenetic processes may enable early intervention strategies to improve early development and growth. PMID:27088334

  12. Solar Concentrator Advanced Development Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knasel, Don; Ehresman, Derik

    1989-01-01

    The Solar Concentrator Advanced Development Project has successfully designed, fabricated, and tested a full scale prototypical solar dynamic concentrator for space station applications. A Truss Hexagonal Panel reflector was selected as a viable solar concentrator concept to be used for space station applications. This concentrator utilizes a modular design approach and is flexible in attainable flux profiles and assembly techniques. The detailed design of the concentrator, which included structural, thermal and optical analysis, identified the feasibility of the design and specific technologies that were required to fabricate it. The needed surface accuracy of the reflectors surface was found to be very tight, within 5 mrad RMS slope error, and results in very close tolerances for fabrication. To meet the design requirements, a modular structure composed of hexagonal panels was used. The panels, made up of graphite epoxy box beams provided the strength, stiffness and dimensional stability needed. All initial project requirements were met or exceeded by hardware demonstration. Initial testing of structural repeatability of a seven panel portion of the concentrator was followed by assembly and testing of the full nineteen panel structure. The testing, which consisted of theodolite and optical measurements over an assembly-disassembly-reassembly cycle, demonstrated that the concentrator maintained the as-built contour and optical characteristics. The facet development effort within the project, which included developing the vapor deposited reflective facet, produced a viable design with demonstrated optical characteristics that are within the project goals.

  13. Wetland Program Development Grants (WPDGs) Case Studies

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Wetland Grant Database (WGD) houses grant data for Wetland Program Development Grants (created by EPA in 1990 under the Clean Water Act Section 104(b)(3)...

  14. Mechanism of the development of a weakly alkaline barrier slurry without BTA and oxidizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaodong, Luan; Yuling, Liu; Xinhuan, Niu; Juan, Wang

    2015-07-01

    Controllable removal rate selectivity with various films (Cu, Ta, SiO2) is a challenging job in barrier CMP. H2O2 as an oxidizer and benzotriazole (BTA) as an inhibitor is considered to be an effective method in barrier CMP. Slurries that contain hydrogen peroxide have a very short shelf life because H2O2 is unstable and easily decomposed. BTA can cause post-CMP challenges, such as organic residue, toxicity and particle adhesion. We have been engaged in studying a weakly alkaline barrier slurry without oxidizer and benzotriazole. Based on these works, the objective of this paper is to discuss the mechanism of the development of the barrier slurry without oxidizer and benzotriazole by studying the effects of the different components (containing colloidal silica, FA/O complexing agent, pH of polishing solution and guanidine nitrate) on removal rate selectivity. The possible related polishing mechanism has also been proposed. Project supported by the Major National Science and Technology Special Projects (No. 2009ZX02308), the National Natural Science Foundation of Hebei Province, China (No. E2013202247), and the Department of Education-Funded Research Projects of Hebei Province, China (No. QN2014208).

  15. RECOMMENDED FOUNDATION BARRIER CONSTRUCTION STANDARD OF THE FLORIDA RADON RESEARCH PROGRAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report give results of a study to determine the causes of cracking in slab-on-grade construction, particularly for single-family residential structures in Florida, and to recommend a foundation barrier construction standard to minimize such cracking.

  16. Hydrogen engine development: Experimental program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Blarigan, P. [Sandia National Lab., Livermore, CA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    In the continuing development of a hydrogen fueled IC engine optimized for application to a generator set or hybrid vehicle, experiments were performed at Sandia National Laboratories on two engine configurations. The intent is to maximize thermal efficiency while complying with strict emissions standards. The initial investigation was conducted utilizing a spark ignited 0.491 liter single cylinder Onan engine and has progressed to a spark ignited 0.850 liter modified for single cylinder operation Perkins engine. Both combustion chamber geometries were {open_quotes}pancake{close_quotes} shaped and achieved a compression ratio of 14:1. The engines were operated under premixed conditions. The results demonstrate that both engines can comply with the California Air Resources Board`s proposed Equivalent Zero Emission Vehicle standards for NO{sub x} during operation at an equivalence ratio of 0.4. The Onan engine achieved an indicated thermal efficiency of 43% at 1800 RPM, as determined by integration of the pressure-volume relationships. Initial experiments with the larger displacement Perkins engine have realized a gain, relative to the Onan engine, in indicated thermal efficiency of 2% at 1800 RPM, and 15% at 1200 RPM.

  17. OpenCL parallel programming development cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Tay, Raymond

    2013-01-01

    OpenCL Parallel Programming Development Cookbook will provide a set of advanced recipes that can be utilized to optimize existing code. This book is therefore ideal for experienced developers with a working knowledge of C/C++ and OpenCL.This book is intended for software developers who have often wondered what to do with that newly bought CPU or GPU they bought other than using it for playing computer games; this book is also for developers who have a working knowledge of C/C++ and who want to learn how to write parallel programs in OpenCL so that life isn't too boring.

  18. Adherence to HAART: a systematic review of developed and developing nation patient-reported barriers and facilitators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward J Mills

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART medication is the greatest patient-enabled predictor of treatment success and mortality for those who have access to drugs. We systematically reviewed the literature to determine patient-reported barriers and facilitators to adhering to antiretroviral therapy. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We examined both developed and developing nations. We searched the following databases: AMED (inception to June 2005, Campbell Collaboration (inception to June 2005, CinAhl (inception to June 2005, Cochrane Library (inception to June 2005, Embase (inception to June 2005, ERIC (inception to June 2005, MedLine (inception to June 2005, and NHS EED (inception to June 2005. We retrieved studies conducted in both developed and developing nation settings that examined barriers and facilitators addressing adherence. Both qualitative and quantitative studies were included. We independently, in duplicate, extracted data reported in qualitative studies addressing adherence. We then examined all quantitative studies addressing barriers and facilitators noted from the qualitative studies. In order to place the findings of the qualitative studies in a generalizable context, we meta-analyzed the surveys to determine a best estimate of the overall prevalence of issues. We included 37 qualitative studies and 47 studies using a quantitative methodology (surveys. Seventy-two studies (35 qualitative were conducted in developed nations, while the remaining 12 (two qualitative were conducted in developing nations. Important barriers reported in both economic settings included fear of disclosure, concomitant substance abuse, forgetfulness, suspicions of treatment, regimens that are too complicated, number of pills required, decreased quality of life, work and family responsibilities, falling asleep, and access to medication. Important facilitators reported by patients in developed nation settings included having a sense of

  19. Identifying Needs to Develop a PBL Staff Development Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffin, Prarthana

    2013-01-01

    Staff development is a crucial element for educational intervention. Recognizing the importance of staff development, this study aims to pin-point suitable methodologies in developing a Problem-Based Learning (PBL) academic staff development program for a higher education institute where PBL has become an intervention alternative. The study aims…

  20. Assessing barriers and facilitators of implementing an integrated HIV prevention and property rights program in Western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Tiffany; Zwicker, Lindsey; Kwena, Zachary; Bukusi, Elizabeth; Mwaura-Muiru, Esther; Dworkin, Shari L

    2013-04-01

    Despite the recognized need for structural HIV prevention interventions, few scientific programs have integrated women's property and inheritance rights with HIV prevention and treatment. The current study focused on a community-led land and property rights intervention that was implemented in two rural areas of Western Kenya with high HIV prevalence rates (24-30%). The program was designed to respond to women's property rights violations in order to reduce HIV risk at the local level. Through in-depth interviews with twenty program leaders, we identified several facilitators to program implementation, including the leadership of home-based HIV caregivers and involvement of traditional leaders in mediating property rights disputes. We also identified the voluntary basis of the intervention and its lack of integration with the formal justice system as implementation barriers. Our findings can guide future research and design of structural HIV prevention strategies that integrate women's economic empowerment through property and inheritance rights.

  1. Efficacy of a barrier gel for reducing the development of plaque, calculus, and gingivitis in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellows, Jan; Carithers, Douglas S; Gross, Sheila J

    2012-01-01

    This study was performed to assess the field efficacy of a professional and home-care barrier gel against the development of plaque, calculus, gingival bleeding, and gingivitis in client-owned cats over a 56-day period compared with negative controls. In a randomized, negative-controlled, outcome evaluator-blinded, client-owned animal clinical field study, 31 cats were evaluated to assess if the barrier gel dental product was effective in cats. Following an enrollment-qualification assessment and enrollment of each cat, all cats received a professional dental cleaning, including polishing and irrigation. Following cleaning, a post-cleaning assessment was performed by the evaluator. Then, using a pre-developed randomization schedule, cats were assigned to the treated or control group. The professional version of the barrier gel was applied to the treated group on day 0. The negative-control group patients did not receive any applications of the barrier gel following dental cleaning. Treated-group cats were brought back to the clinic for subsequent applications of the home-care version of the barrier gel, applied by a non-blinded trained assistant. The home-care version product applications began on day 14 and then were applied weekly (days, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49 and 56) through day 56. All cats enrolled in the study underwent full oral examinations and assessments by the blinded evaluator on or about their respective days 28 and 56. At these evaluations, the evaluator performed standardized assessments for plaque, calculus, gingivitis, and gingival bleeding. Numeric scores were assigned for each assessment using predetermined target teeth to ensure consistency. Using these assessment scores, statistical analyses were performed to determine the efficacies against plaque and calculus deposition; additionally, measurements of gingivitis and gingival bleeding were assessed. Change in plaque score from baseline, for all teeth assessed (all 4 canine teeth, and all 4

  2. [Analysis on barriers of urban sustainable development based on DEMATEL: a case of Shenyang City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chun-Rong; Geng, Yong; Xue, Bing; Ren, Wan-Xia; Dong, Hui-Juan

    2012-10-01

    To scientifically identify the key barriers which the urban sustainable development is facing and to analyze the interrelationships among the barriers are of significance to promote urban sustainable development. Through literature review, site investigation and structural interview, 21 factors affecting the Shenyang City's sustainable development were recognized, and based on questionnaire survey and statistics analysis, 12 main factors were screened. Further, by employing decision-making and trial evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL) method, the interrelationships among these factors were analyzed. The key factors affecting the Shenyang's sustainable development included the lack of leaders' attention, the economy-oriented governmental performance evaluation system, the lower public awareness on sustainable development, and the lack of academic understanding on regional eco-carrying capacity and related key projects. It was suggested that the local government should pay more attention on sustainable development, increase propaganda activities, reform governmental performance evaluation system, establish a reward-punishment system for promoting sustainable development and an effective monitoring mechanism, and enhance the implementation of related regulations, the local enterprises should establish research and development funds to support the researches of key technologies and introduce key projects, and general publics should improve their awareness on sustainable development and actively participate in related activities.

  3. Effects of pain education program on pain intensity, pain treatment satisfaction, and barriers in Turkish cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Yasemin Kuzeyli; Cicek, Fadiloglu; Uyar, Meltem

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this randomized controlled study was to investigate the effect of a pain education program (PEP) on pain intensity, patients' satisfaction with pain treatment, and patient-related barriers to pain management among Turkish patients with cancer. The study was conducted in a sample of 40 patients who were hospitalized for cancer and experiencing pain. The patients were equally randomized to either a PEP or a control group. The data were collected by means of the McGill Pain Questionnaire, the Numeric Rating Scale, and the Barrier Questionnaire-Revised. After the completion of the questionnaires at the first interview, patients in the PEP group received pain education using a pain educational booklet and an explanatory slide program that discussed the booklet's content with the patients. Patients in the control group received routine clinical care. The questionnaires were reapplied to the patients in both groups after 2, 4, and 8 weeks. Participation in a PEP was associated with decreased pain intensity scores for "present" and "least pain" during weeks 2, 4, and 8 (p satisfaction with pain treatment (p satisfaction with treatment, and decreases barriers about cancer pain management in cancer patients. Incorparation of PEP into the standard of care for cancer patients with pain may improve the quality of pain management.

  4. Fred P. Ellison and Portuguese Program Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milleret, Margo

    2016-01-01

    The written record of Ellison's involvement in Portuguese program development begins in 1964 when he became chairman of the Portuguese Language Development Group that met at several Modern Language Association meetings before being accepted by the American Association of Teachers of Spanish and Portuguese (AATSP) in 1967. The record ends in the…

  5. Development of Barrier Layers for the Protection of Candidate Alloys in the VHTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levi, Carlos G. [Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Jones, J. Wayne [Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Pollock, Tresa M. [Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Was, Gary S. [Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-01-22

    The objective of this project was to develop concepts for barrier layers that enable leading candi- date Ni alloys to meet the longer term operating temperature and durability requirements of the VHTR. The concepts were based on alpha alumina as a primary surface barrier, underlay by one or more chemically distinct alloy layers that would promote and sustain the formation of the pro- tective scale. The surface layers must possess stable microstructures that provide resistance to oxidation, de-carburization and/or carburization, as well as durability against relevant forms of thermo-mechanical cycling. The system must also have a self-healing ability to allow endurance for long exposure times at temperatures up to 1000°C.

  6. Irish psychiatric nurses' self-reported barriers, facilitators and skills for developing evidence-based practice.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Yadav, B L

    2012-03-01

    Evidence-based practice places an emphasis on integration of clinical expertise with available best evidence, patient\\'s clinical information and preferences, and with local health resources. This paper reports the findings of a study that investigated the barriers, facilitators and skills in developing evidence-based practice among psychiatric nurses in Ireland. A postal survey was conducted among a random sample of Irish psychiatric nurses and survey data were collected using the Development of Evidence-Based Practice Questionnaire. Respondents reported that insufficient time to find and read research reports and insufficient resources to change practice were the greatest barriers to the development of evidence-based practice. Practice development coordinators were perceived as the most supportive resource for changing practice. Using the Internet to search for information was the highest-rated skill and using research evidence to change practice was the lowest-rated skill for developing evidence-based practice. Nurses\\' precursor skills for developing evidence-based practice, such as database searching and information retrieval, may be insufficient in themselves for promoting evidence-based practice if they cannot find evidence relating to their particular field of practice or if they do not have the time, resources and supports to develop their practice in response to evidence.

  7. Irish psychiatric nurses' self-reported barriers, facilitators and skills for developing evidence-based practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, B L; Fealy, G M

    2012-03-01

    Evidence-based practice places an emphasis on integration of clinical expertise with available best evidence, patient's clinical information and preferences, and with local health resources. This paper reports the findings of a study that investigated the barriers, facilitators and skills in developing evidence-based practice among psychiatric nurses in Ireland. A postal survey was conducted among a random sample of Irish psychiatric nurses and survey data were collected using the Development of Evidence-Based Practice Questionnaire. Respondents reported that insufficient time to find and read research reports and insufficient resources to change practice were the greatest barriers to the development of evidence-based practice. Practice development coordinators were perceived as the most supportive resource for changing practice. Using the Internet to search for information was the highest-rated skill and using research evidence to change practice was the lowest-rated skill for developing evidence-based practice. Nurses' precursor skills for developing evidence-based practice, such as database searching and information retrieval, may be insufficient in themselves for promoting evidence-based practice if they cannot find evidence relating to their particular field of practice or if they do not have the time, resources and supports to develop their practice in response to evidence.

  8. Developing a survey of barriers and facilitators to recruitment in randomized controlled trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaur Geetinder

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recruitment to randomized controlled trials is known to be challenging. It is important to understand and identify predictors of good or poor accrual to a clinical trial so that appropriate strategies can be put in place to overcome these problems and facilitate successful trial completion. We have developed a survey tool to establish the recruitment experience of clinical teams regarding facilitators and barriers to recruitment in a clinical trial and describe herein the method of developing the questionnaire. Methods A literature search was conducted to identify studies that have explored facilitators and barriers to recruitment, and a list of potential factors affecting recruitment to a clinical trial was generated. These factors were categorized in terms relating to the (i trial, (ii site, (iii patient, (iv clinical team, (v information and consent and (vi study team. A list was provided for responders to grade these factors as weak, intermediate or strong facilitators or barriers to recruitment. Results A web-based survey questionnaire was developed. This survey was designed to establish the recruitment experience of clinical teams with regard to the perceived facilitators and barriers to recruitment, to identify strategies applied to overcome these problems, and to obtain suggestions for change in the organization of future trials. The survey tool can be used to assess the recruitment experience of clinical teams in a single/multicenter trial in any clinical setting or speciality involving adults or children either in an ongoing trial or at trial completion. The questionnaire is short, easy to administer and to complete, with an estimated completion time of 11 minutes. Conclusions We have presented a robust methodology for developing this survey tool that provides an evidence-based list of potential factors that can affect recruitment to a clinical trial. We recommend that all clinical trialists should consider using

  9. Beliefs, Barriers, and Preferences of European Overweight Women to Adopt a Healthier Lifestyle in Pregnancy to Minimize Risk of Developing Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelsma, Judith G M; van Leeuwen, Karen M; Oostdam, Nicolette

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: We explored beliefs, perceived barriers, and preferences regarding lifestyle changes among overweight European pregnant women to help inform the development of future lifestyle interventions in the prevention of gestational diabetes mellitus. METHODS: An explorative mixed methods, two...... frequently reported by women with children. Abstaining from snacking was identified as a challenge for the majority of women, especially for those without children. Women preferred to obtain support from their partner, as well as health professionals and valued flexible lifestyle programs. CONCLUSIONS......: Healthcare professionals need to inform overweight pregnant women about their personal risk, discuss lifestyle modification, and assist in weight management. Lifestyle programs should be tailored to the individual, taking into account barriers experienced by overweight first-time mothers and multipara women....

  10. Beliefs, Barriers, and Preferences of European Overweight Women to Adopt a Healthier Lifestyle in Pregnancy to Minimize Risk of Developing Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: An Explorative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith G. M. Jelsma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. We explored beliefs, perceived barriers, and preferences regarding lifestyle changes among overweight European pregnant women to help inform the development of future lifestyle interventions in the prevention of gestational diabetes mellitus. Methods. An explorative mixed methods, two-staged study was conducted to gather information from pregnant European women (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2. In three European countries 21 interviews were conducted, followed by 71 questionnaires in six other European countries. Content analysis and descriptive and chi-square statistics were applied (p<0.05. Results. Women preferred to obtain detailed information about their personal risk. The health of their baby was a major motivating factor. Perceived barriers for physical activity included pregnancy-specific issues such as tiredness and experiencing physical complaints. Insufficient time was a barrier more frequently reported by women with children. Abstaining from snacking was identified as a challenge for the majority of women, especially for those without children. Women preferred to obtain support from their partner, as well as health professionals and valued flexible lifestyle programs. Conclusions. Healthcare professionals need to inform overweight pregnant women about their personal risk, discuss lifestyle modification, and assist in weight management. Lifestyle programs should be tailored to the individual, taking into account barriers experienced by overweight first-time mothers and multipara women.

  11. Robust Low Voltage Program-Erasable Cobalt-Nanocrystal Memory Capacitors with Multistacked Al2O3/HfO2/Al2O3 Tunnel Barrier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAO Zhong-Wei; GOU Hong-Yan; HUANG Yue; SUN Qing-Qing; DING Shi-Jin; ZHANG Wei; ZHANG Shi-Li

    2009-01-01

    An atomic-layer-deposited Al2O3/HfO2/Al2O3 (A/H/A) tunnel barrier is investigated for Co nanocrystal memory capacitors. Compared to a single Al2O3 tunnel barrier, the A/H/A barrier can significantly increase the hysteresis window, i.e., an increase by 9 V for ±12 V sweep range. This is attributed to a marked decrease in the energy barriers of charge injections for the A/H/A tunnel barrier. Further, the Co-nanocrystal memory capacitor with the A/H/A tunnel barrier exhibits a memory window as large as 4.1 V for 100 /us program/erase at a low voltage of ±7 V, which is due to fast charge injection rates, i.e., about 2.4 × 1016 cm-2s-1 for electrons and 1.9×1016 cm-2s-1 for holes.

  12. Development of human skin equivalents to unravel the impaired skin barrier in atopic dermatitis skin

    OpenAIRE

    Eweje, M.O.

    2016-01-01

    The studies in this thesis describes the barrier defects in Atopic Dermatitis (AD) skin and various techniques to develop AD Human Skin Equivalents (HSEs) which can be used to better understand the role of several factors in the pathogenesis of AD skin. The results described show that Inflammation plays a pivotal role in the development of epidermal and SC features of AD skin and that AD epidermal features can be maintained in vitro when AD skin biopsies are used to generate explant-HSEs. The...

  13. Analysis of the barriers to renewable energy development on tribal lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Thomas Elisha

    Native American lands have significant renewable energy resource potential that could serve to ensure energy security and a low carbon energy future for the benefit of tribes as well as the United States. Economic and energy development needs in Native American communities match the energy potential. A disproportionate amount of Native American households have no access to electricity, which is correlated with high poverty and unemployment rates. Despite the vast resources and need for energy, the potential for renewable energy development has not fully materialized. This research explores this subject through three separate articles: 1) a case study of the Navajo Nation that suggests economic viability is not the only significant factor for low adoption of renewable energy on Navajo lands; 2) an expert elicitation of tribal renewable energy experts of what they view as barriers to renewable energy development on tribal lands; and 3) a reevaluation of Native Nation Building Theory to include external forces and the role that inter-tribal collaboration plays with renewable energy development by Native nations. Major findings from this research suggests that 1) many Native nations lack the technical and legal capacity to develop renewable energy; 2) inter-tribal collaboration can provide opportunities for sharing resources and building technical, legal, and political capacity; and 3) financing and funding remains a considerable barrier to renewable energy development on tribal lands.

  14. Breaking Barriers: Women-Centered Physical Education Programming in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Elaine; Appleby, Karen M.

    2015-01-01

    In general, physical activity subsides for females after high school. Researchers have found that women experience unique barriers to remaining physically active during their college years. Obstacles such as social anxiety, lack of social support, and life balance have been cited as challenges for women in relation to maintaining consistent…

  15. HUMID AIR TURBINE CYCLE TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard Tuthill

    2002-07-18

    The Humid Air Turbine (HAT) Cycle Technology Development Program focused on obtaining HAT cycle combustor technology that will be the foundation of future products. The work carried out under the auspices of the HAT Program built on the extensive low emissions stationary gas turbine work performed in the past by Pratt & Whitney (P&W). This Program is an integral part of technology base development within the Advanced Turbine Systems Program at the Department of Energy (DOE) and its experiments stretched over 5 years. The goal of the project was to fill in technological data gaps in the development of the HAT cycle and identify a combustor configuration that would efficiently burn high moisture, high-pressure gaseous fuels with low emissions. The major emphasis will be on the development of kinetic data, computer modeling, and evaluations of combustor configurations. The Program commenced during the 4th Quarter of 1996 and closed in the 4th Quarter of 2001. It teamed the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) with P&W, the United Technologies Research Center (UTRC), and a subcontractor on-site at UTRC, kraftWork Systems Inc. The execution of the program started with bench-top experiments that were conducted at UTRC for extending kinetic mechanisms to HAT cycle temperature, pressure, and moisture conditions. The fundamental data generated in the bench-top experiments was incorporated into the analytical tools available at P&W to design the fuel injectors and combustors. The NETL then used the hardware to conduct combustion rig experiments to evaluate the performance of the combustion systems at elevated pressure and temperature conditions representative of the HAT cycle. The results were integrated into systems analysis done by kraftWork to verify that sufficient understanding of the technology had been achieved and that large-scale technological application and demonstration could be undertaken as follow-on activity. An optional program extended the

  16. Development and Evaluation of a Hematology-Oriented Clinical Research Training Program in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Lillian; Rego, Eduardo; Riva, Eloisa; Elwood, Jessica; Basso, Joe; Clayton, Charles P; Mikhael, Joseph

    2016-03-15

    The objectives of the study were to describe the development of a patient-oriented clinical research training program in a low- or middle-income country (LMIC) setting, to describe perceived benefits of the program and barriers to application, and to make recommendations for future training programs. The program was developed by the American Society of Hematology in collaboration with Latin American stakeholders and clinical researchers. Session types were didactic, small group, and one-on-one faculty/participant dyad formats. Outcomes were assessed by quantitative surveys of trainees and qualitative feedback from both trainees and faculty members. The program is an annual 2-day course specifically for Latin American hematologists. Through course evaluations, all trainees described that the didactic sessions were relevant. All session types were useful for gaining knowledge and skills, particularly one-on-one meetings. The potential for networking was highly valued. Barriers to trainee applications were the concerns that skill level, proposed research program, and knowledge of English were not sufficiently strong to warrant acceptance into the course, and financial costs of attendance. We have described the development and initial evaluation of a clinical research training program in a LMIC setting. We learned several valuable lessons that are applicable to other research training programs.

  17. Professional Development Programs for Teachers of English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singgih Widodo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Well-planned programs based on the needs for professional development of teachers are strongly needed to enhance the teaching-staff improvement.The impact of teacher improvement will effect the students learning and school achievement. This paper aims at raising awareness of English teachers to upgrade themselves as autonomous learners as well as researchers and broaden their horizon for stepping the ladder-career of their profession. For that purpose, a survey as reported here aimed to identify the needs of individual English teachers and the preferred programs for professional development. The findings indicated that the 36 teachers involved needed teacher training, teacher association, teacher materials, continuing education, and interschool visit and that teacher training was the most well known program among teachers.

  18. Programming language concepts for software developers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sestoft, Peter

    2008-01-01

    This note describes and motivates our current plans for an undergraduate course on programming language concepts for software development students. We describe the competences we expect students to acquire as well as the topics covered by the course. We plan to use C# and Scheme as instruction...

  19. Barriers to the Development of Creative Industries in Culturally Diverse Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Klimczuk

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to describe the general conditions for the development of creative industries in Podlaskie Voivodship from Poland. This region on the background of the country is characterized by the highest level of cultural diversity and multiculturalism policy. However, there are a number of barriers for the creative industries. First article discusses the regional characteristics and then the basic theoretical approaches and conclusions of the author’s own research. The following sections discuss the conclusions and recommendations for regional policy and management of cultural sector entities that may be relevant also for other culturally diverse regions.

  20. Polyploidization of glia in neural development links tissue growth to blood-brain barrier integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unhavaithaya, Yingdee; Orr-Weaver, Terry L

    2012-01-01

    Proper development requires coordination in growth of the cell types composing an organ. Many plant and animal cells are polyploid, but how these polyploid tissues contribute to organ growth is not well understood. We found the Drosophila melanogaster subperineurial glia (SPG) to be polyploid, and ploidy is coordinated with brain mass. Inhibition of SPG polyploidy caused rupture of the septate junctions necessary for the blood-brain barrier. Thus, the increased SPG cell size resulting from polyploidization is required to maintain the SPG envelope surrounding the growing brain. Polyploidization likely is a conserved strategy to coordinate tissue growth during organogenesis, with potential vertebrate examples.

  1. The Development of Environmental Barrier Coatings for SiCSiC Ceramic Matrix Composites: Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming

    2014-01-01

    Environmental barrier coatings (EBCs) and SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) systems will play a crucial role in future turbine engines for hot-section component applications because of their ability to significantly increase engine operating temperatures, reduce engine weight and cooling requirements. The development of prime-reliant environmental barrier coatings is a key to enable the applications of the envisioned CMC components to help achieve next generation engine performance and durability goals. This paper will primarily address the performance requirements and design considerations of environmental barrier coatings for turbine engine applications. The emphasis is placed on current candidate environmental barrier coating systems for SiCSiC CMCs, their performance benefits and design limitations in long-term operation and combustion environments. Major technical barriers in developing advanced environmental barrier coating systems, the coating integrations with next generation CMC turbine components having improved environmental stability, cyclic durability and system performance will be described. The development trends for turbine environmental barrier coating systems by utilizing improved compositions, state-of-the-art processing methods, and simulated environment testing and durability modeling will be discussed.

  2. Coastal Inlets Research Program. Barrier Island Migration Over a Consolidating Substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    Roberts et al. 1994, Kulp et al. 2002). Because of the antecedent geology and a combination of other factors, the Louisiana coastline has been retreating...Sanchez-Arcilla et al. 1998); Nile River, Egypt (Stanley and Warne 1998), the Ganges-Brahmaputra Rivers, Bangladesh , India (Allison 1998); and the...Interrelationship between barrier islands, bays, regional geology , sediment supply, and redistribution of sediment to nearshore/inlet reservoirs/bays. NOTE

  3. Implementation of a Theory-based, Non-clinical Patient Navigator Program to Address Barriers in an Urban Cancer Center Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleisher, Linda; Miller, Suzanne M; Crookes, Danielle; Kandadai, Venk; Wen, Kuang Yi; Slamon, Rachel E; Chaivous, Jeanne

    2012-06-01

    Cancer patients face a myriad of psychosocial and practical issues. Especially challenging is the time from an initial diagnosis to the onset of treatment and patient navigation services are important to guide patients, especially underserved populations, through this maze of uncertainty. Here we report on the Pennsylvania Patient Navigator Demonstration Project (PaPND) designed to evaluate the acceptability, feasibility, and impact of a culturally and linguistically appropriate non-clinical navigator program. The development of the project, based on behavioral theory and community-based participatory research principles, is described. Forty-four cancer patients from diverse backgrounds participated, which included a baseline assessment, navigation services, and a four week and twelve week follow-up assessment. On average, participants experienced 1.8 barriers with transportation and insurance issues the most common barriers. The majority (56%) of the barriers required more than an hour of the navigator's time to address, with insurance, transportation and caregiver/support issues requiring the most time. Overall patients were fairly satisfied with the navigation services. The findings showed improvement patient's stress-related thoughts, cognition (understanding of their disease), expectancies and beliefs or values/goals, as well as self-efficacy of managing cancer related issues from the baseline to follow-up assessments. The evaluation results suggest that providing and connecting cancer patients to appropriate information to improve their understanding of their diagnosis and recommended treatments needs to be addressed, and where the integration of non-clinical and clinical navigation is essential. In addition, more attention to the assessment of psychosocial issues, such as the patients' emotional worries, and more comprehensive training in these areas would enhance navigation programs.

  4. BARRIERS AND OPPORTUNITIES IN DEVELOPING 'DO-IT-YOURSELF' (DIY PRODUCTS FOR LOW-INCOME HOUSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla Lepre

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Direct involvement of the user in the assembling process of his/her own products or even entire house is a reality among low-income populations in developing countries. Nevertheless, there are a limited number of products that have actually been designed from a do-it-yourself (DIY perspective, which results in several problems, such as poor user safety while the product is being assembled or inadequate results from an improvised assembling. Hence, the main goal of this paper is to analyse barriers to and opportunities for developing DIY products for low-income housing in developing countries. The research method utilises a case study of a DIY product consisting of a hybrid solution that acted as both a partition wall and a wardrobe. The identified opportunities included more systematic use of existing craft competencies among low-income families and the possibility of cost reduction through DIY concepts. Major barriers included the perception of the DIY product as inferior and the difficulty of communicating the DIY assembly process to users who quite often are illiterate.

  5. Identifying needs to develop a PBL staff development program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prarthana Coffin

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Staff development is a crucial element for educational intervention. Recognizing the importance of staff development, this study aims to pin-point suitable methodologies in developing a Problem-Based Learning (PBL academic staff development program for a higher education institute where PBL has become an intervention alternative. The study aims to answer the following research questions 1 how can university academic staff be assisted to acquire pedagogical competences for an initiative of the implementation of PBL curriculum? 2 What kinds of support do university academic staff need in order to maintain PBL implementation? Through a combination of a literature review, interviews with 6 PBL experts which emphasize the importance of PBL facilitators, and document analysis of reflection notes from 18 trainees of a PBL workshop, this study will produce a guideline in developing a PBL Academic Staff Development Program for an institute wishes to implement and retain PBL as the education strategy.

  6. Bioenergy Feedstock Development Program Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kszos, L.A.

    2001-02-09

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Bioenergy Feedstock Development Program (BFDP) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is a mission-oriented program of research and analysis whose goal is to develop and demonstrate cropping systems for producing large quantities of low-cost, high-quality biomass feedstocks for use as liquid biofuels, biomass electric power, and/or bioproducts. The program specifically supports the missions and goals of DOE's Office of Fuels Development and DOE's Office of Power Technologies. ORNL has provided technical leadership and field management for the BFDP since DOE began energy crop research in 1978. The major components of the BFDP include energy crop selection and breeding; crop management research; environmental assessment and monitoring; crop production and supply logistics operational research; integrated resource analysis and assessment; and communications and outreach. Research into feedstock supply logistics has recently been added and will become an integral component of the program.

  7. DOE EM industry programs robotics development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staubly, R.; Kothari, V. [Dept. of Energy, Morgantown, WV (United States)

    1997-12-01

    The Office of Science and Technology (OST) manages an aggressive program for RD&D, as well as testing and evaluation for the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) organization. The goal is to develop new and improved environmental restoration and waste management technologies to clean up the inventory of the DOE weapons complex faster, safer, and cheaper than is possible with currently available technologies. OST has organized technology management activities along focus teams for each major problem area. There are currently five focus areas: decontamination and decommissioning, tanks, subsurface contaminants, mixed waste, and plutonium. In addition, OST is pursuing research and development (R&D) that cuts across these focus areas by having applications in two or more focus areas. Currently, there are three cross-cutting programs: the robotics technology development; characterization, monitoring, and sensor technologies; and efficient separations and processing.

  8. Robotics Technology Development Program. Technology summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    The Robotics Technology Development Program (RTDP) is a ``needs-driven`` effort. A lengthy series of presentations and discussions at DOE sites considered critical to DOE`s Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) Programs resulted in a clear understanding of needed robotics applications toward resolving definitive problems at the sites. A detailed analysis of the Tank Waste Retrieval (TWR), Contaminant Analysis Automation (CAA), Mixed Waste Operations (MWO), and Decontamination & Dismantlement (D&D). The RTDP Group realized that much of the technology development was common (Cross Cutting-CC) to each of these robotics application areas, for example, computer control and sensor interface protocols. Further, the OTD approach to the Research, Development, Demonstration, Testing, and Evaluation (RDDT&E) process urged an additional organizational break-out between short-term (1--3 years) and long-term (3--5 years) efforts (Advanced Technology-AT). The RDTP is thus organized around these application areas -- TWR, CAA, MWO, D&D and CC&AT -- with the first four developing short-term applied robotics. An RTDP Five-Year Plan was developed for organizing the Program to meet the needs in these application areas.

  9. Barriers and facilitators to the dissemination of DECISION+, a continuing medical education program for optimizing decisions about antibiotics for acute respiratory infections in primary care: A study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gagnon Marie-Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In North America, acute respiratory infections are the main reason for doctors' visits in primary care. Family physicians and their patients overuse antibiotics for treating acute respiratory infections. In a pilot clustered randomized trial, we showed that DECISION+, a continuing medical education program in shared decision making, has the potential to reduce the overuse of antibiotics for treating acute respiratory infections. DECISION+ learning activities consisted of three interactive sessions of three hours each, reminders at the point of care, and feedback to doctors on their agreement with patients about comfort with the decision whether to use antibiotics. The objective of this study is to identify the barriers and facilitators to physicians' participation in DECISION+ with the goal of disseminating DECISION+ on a larger scale. Methods/design This descriptive study will use mixed methods and retrospective and prospective components. All analyses will be based on an adapted version of the Ottawa Model of Research Use. First, we will use qualitative methods to analyze the following retrospective data from the pilot study: the logbooks of eight research assistants, the transcriptions of 15 training sessions, and 27 participant evaluations of the DECISION+ training sessions. Second, we will collect prospective data in semi-structured focus groups composed of family physicians to identify barriers and facilitators to the dissemination of a future training program similar to DECISION+. All 39 family physicians exposed to DECISION+ during the pilot project will be eligible to participate. We will use a self-administered questionnaire based on Azjen's Theory of Planned Behaviour to assess participants' intention to take part in future training programs similar to DECISION+. Discussion Barriers and facilitators identified in this project will guide modifications to DECISION+, a continuing medical education program in shared

  10. Barriers to Alzheimer disease drug discovery and development in the biotechnology industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altstiel, L D

    2002-01-01

    The major barrier to Alzheimer disease (AD) drug discovery and development in the biotechnology industry is scale. Most biotechnology companies do not have the personnel or expertise to carry a drug from the bench to the market. Much effort in the industry has been directed toward the elucidation of molecular mechanisms of AD and the identification of new targets. Advances in biotechnology have generated new insights into disease mechanisms, increased the number of lead compounds, and accelerated biologic screening. The majority of costs associated with drug development are in clinical testing and development activities, many of which are driven by regulatory issues. For most biotechnology companies, the costs of such trials and the infrastructure necessary to support them are prohibitive. Another significant barrier is the definition of therapeutic benefit for AD drugs; Food and Drug Administration (FDA) precedent has established that a drug must show superiority to placebo on a performance-based test of cognition and a measure of global clinical function. This restrictive definition is biased toward drugs that enhance performance on memory-based tests. Newer AD drugs are targeted toward slowing disease progression; however, there is currently no accepted definition of what constitutes efficacy in disease progression. Despite these obstacles, the biotechnology industry has much to offer AD drug discovery and development. Biotechnology firms have already developed essential technology for AD drug development and will continue to do so. Biotechnology companies can move more quickly; of course, the trick is to move quickly in the right direction. Speed may offset some of the problems associated with lack of scale. Additionally, biotechnology companies can afford to address markets that may be too restricted for larger pharmaceutical companies. This advantage will have increasing importance, as therapies are developed to address subtypes of AD.

  11. NP-MHTGR Fuel Development Program Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maki, John Thomas; Petti, David Andrew; Hobbins, Richard Redfield; McCardell, Richard K.; Shaber, Eric Lee; Southworth, Finis Hio

    2002-10-01

    In August 1988, the Secretary of Energy announced a strategy to acquire New Production Reactor capacity for producing tritium. The strategy involved construction of a New Production Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (NP-MHTGR) where the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) was selected as the Management and Operations contractor for the project. Immediately after the announcement in August 1988, tritium target particle development began with the INEEL selected as the lead laboratory. Fuel particle development was initially not considered to be on a critical path for the project, therefore, the fuel development program was to run concurrently with the design effort of the NP-MHTGR.

  12. Java programming for Android developers for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Burd , Barry

    2013-01-01

    Get started creating Android apps with Java in no time! The demand for Android apps is not slowing down but many mobile developers who want to create Android apps lack the necessary Java background. This beginner guide gets you up and running with using Java to create Android apps with no prior knowledge or experienced necessary! Shows you the basic Java development concepts and techniques that are necessary to develop Android appsExplores what goes into creating an Android app to give you a better understanding of the various elementsAddresses how to deal with standard programming challenges

  13. Exploring barriers and opportunities in adopting crowdsourcing based new product development in manufacturing SMEs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Shengfeng; Van der Velde, David; Chatzakis, Emmanouil; McStea, Terry; Smith, Neil

    2016-10-01

    Crowdsourcing is an innovative business practice of obtaining needed services, ideas, or content or even funds by soliciting contributions from a large group of people (the `Crowd'). The potential benefits of utilizing crowdsourcing in product design are well-documented, but little research exists on what are the barriers and opportunities in adopting crowdsourcing in new product development (NPD) of manufacturing SMEs. In order to answer the above questions, a Proof of Market study is carried out on crowdsourcing-based product design under an Innovate UK funded Smart project, which aims at identifying the needs, challenges and future development opportunities associated with adopting crowdsourcing strategies for NPD. The research findings from this study are reported here and can be used to guide future development of crowdsourcing-based collaborative design methods and tools and provide some practical references for industry to adopt this new and emerging collaborative design method in their business.

  14. A Focus Group Assessment to Determine Motivations, Barriers and Effectiveness of a University-Based Worksite Wellness Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia E. Hill-Mey

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study explores university employee perceptions and under-standing about its Worksite Health Promotion Program (WHPP. The WHPP included a Health Risk Appraisal (HRA, biometric screening, publicity for on-campus health programs and facilities, and health coaching. Methods: A qualitative design was used based on a grounded theory approach. Four 90 minutes focus groups with 6-8 participants in each were con-ducted within a two 2 week period among employees, representing faculty/participants, faculty/nonparticipants, staff/participants, and staff/nonparticipants. Responses to questions about motivations, barriers, and perceived health benefits that impacted participation in the WHPP were digitally recorded, transcribed and coded for themes. Results: Incentives effectively motivated participation. Biometric screening had the largest impact on behavior change, followed by the information learned from the HRA. However, despite two-thirds of the employees participating in the program, lack of a full understanding of WHPP benefits and services lowered participation in follow-up services and supplemental pro-grams. Conclusions: Biometric screening and HRAs effectively motivate program participation. Communication of benefits and services are important when providing WHPPs.

  15. SIMS analysis: Development and evaluation program summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groenewold, G.S.; Appelhans, A.D.; Ingram, J.C.; Delmore, J.E.; Dahl, D.A.

    1996-11-01

    This report provides an overview of the ``SIMS Analysis: Development and Evaluation Program``, which was executed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory from mid-FY-92 to the end of FY-96. It should be noted that prior to FY-1994 the name of the program was ``In-Situ SIMS Analysis``. This report will not go into exhaustive detail regarding program accomplishments, because this information is contained in annual reports which are referenced herein. In summary, the program resulted in the design and construction of an ion trap secondary ion mass spectrometer (IT-SIMS), which is capable of the rapid analysis of environmental samples for adsorbed surface contaminants. This instrument achieves efficient secondary ion desorption by use of a molecular, massive ReO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} primary ion particle. The instrument manages surface charge buildup using a self-discharging principle, which is compatible with the pulsed nature of the ion trap. The instrument can achieve high selectivity and sensitivity using its selective ion storage and MS/MS capability. The instrument was used for detection of tri-n-butyl phosphate, salt cake (tank cake) characterization, and toxic metal speciation studies (specifically mercury). Technology transfer was also an important component of this program. The approach that was taken toward technology transfer was that of component transfer. This resulted in transfer of data acquisition and instrument control software in FY-94, and ongoing efforts to transfer primary ion gun and detector technology to other manufacturers.

  16. Meteorological Development Laboratory Student Career Experience Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCalla, C., Sr.

    2007-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) National Weather Service (NWS) provides weather, hydrologic, and climate forecasts and warnings for the protection of life and property and the enhancement of the national economy. The NWS's Meteorological Development Laboratory (MDL) supports this mission by developing meteorological prediction methods. Given this mission, NOAA, NWS, and MDL all have a need to continually recruit talented scientists. One avenue for recruiting such talented scientist is the Student Career Experience Program (SCEP). Through SCEP, MDL offers undergraduate and graduate students majoring in meteorology, computer science, mathematics, oceanography, physics, and statistics the opportunity to alternate full-time paid employment with periods of full-time study. Using SCEP as a recruiting vehicle, MDL has employed students who possess some of the very latest technical skills and knowledge needed to make meaningful contributions to projects within the lab. MDL has recently expanded its use of SCEP and has increased the number of students (sometimes called co- ops) in its program. As a co-op, a student can expect to develop and implement computer based scientific techniques, participate in the development of statistical algorithms, assist in the analysis of meteorological data, and verify forecasts. This presentation will focus on describing recruitment, projects, and the application process related to MDL's SCEP. In addition, this presentation will also briefly explore the career paths of students who successfully completed the program.

  17. Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogeka, G.J.

    1991-12-01

    Today, new ideas and opportunities, fostering the advancement of technology, are occurring at an ever-increasing rate. It, therefore, seems appropriate that a vehicle be available which fosters the development of these new ideas and technologies, promotes the early exploration and exploitation of creative and innovative concepts, and which develops new fundable'' R D projects and programs. At Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), one such method is through its Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program. This discretionary research and development tool is critical in maintaining the scientific excellence and vitality of the Laboratory. Additionally, it is a means to stimulate the scientific community, fostering new science and technology ideas, which is the major factor achieving and maintaining staff excellence, and a means to address national needs, with the overall mission of the Department of Energy (DOE) and the Brookhaven National Laboratory. The Project Summaries with their accomplishments described in this report reflect the above. Aside from leading to new fundable or promising programs and producing especially noteworthy research, they have resulted in numerous publications in various professional and scientific journals, and presentations at meetings and forums.

  18. Veterinary surveillance laboratories: developing the training program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Staci L; McCline, Katasha T; Hanfelt, Margery M

    2010-01-01

    The increased need and demand for onsite, frequent, rapid, and portable food and bottled water testing for indicators of microbiological and chemical agents led to the deployment of 2 laboratory veterinary equipment sets. A Surveillance Food Laboratory Program (SFLP) was developed to allow Veterinary Corps commanders to establish targeted testing programs to enhance food safety and wholesomeness, along with faster responses to food defense, suspected foodborne illness, and food/water risk assessment missions. To support the deployment of the veterinary equipment sets and the SFLP, 2 new functional courses were developed by the Department of Veterinary Science. The Surveillance Food Laboratory Technician Course teaches essential technical skills that include sample processing, assay methodologies, results review, and interpretation of results produced by these laboratories. The Surveillance Food Laboratory Manager Course, developed for designated managers of the laboratories and laboratory programs, teaches the skills critical to ensuring proper surveillance laboratory oversight, testing, evaluation of results, risk communication, and response to presumptive positive results produced by the laboratories. Together, the courses allowed for the successful deployment of the unique veterinary equipment sets, resulting in development of fully operational surveillance laboratories in support of food protection missions in every major theater of operations.

  19. Clean Technology Evaluation & Workforce Development Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patricia Glaza

    2012-12-01

    The overall objective of the Clean Technology Evaluation portion of the award was to design a process to speed up the identification of new clean energy technologies and match organizations to testing and early adoption partners. The project was successful in identifying new technologies targeted to utilities and utility technology integrators, in developing a process to review and rank the new technologies, and in facilitating new partnerships for technology testing and adoption. The purpose of the Workforce Development portion of the award was to create an education outreach program for middle & high-school students focused on clean technology science and engineering. While originally targeting San Diego, California and Cambridge, Massachusetts, the scope of the program was expanded to include a major clean technology speaking series and expo as part of the USA Science & Engineering Festival on the National Mall in Washington, D.C.

  20. Game Programming Course - Creative Design and Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaak Henno

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Rapid developments of the Electronic Entertainment - computer and video games, virtual environments, the "Games 3.0" revolution - influences also courses about Games and Virtual Environments. In the following is discussed the course “Games and Virtual Environments” presented in the fall 2007 term in Tallinn University of Technology; the main emphasis of the course was not on programming technology, but on understanding games as a special form of communication and exploring specific features of this form.

  1. The Development of Individualized Education Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William H. Blackwell

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available There are more than 6.6 million students with disabilities in U.S. public schools who receive special education services, which means that there are 6.6 million Individualized Education Programs (IEPs that have been developed and are being implemented at any given time. Each IEP represents real cost in educational opportunity, relationship building between families and schools, time, and resource allocation. Given this information, it is important to examine what we have learned from research on the development of IEPs, and to begin charting a new direction for research and practice related to IEP development. This literature review examines published, peer-reviewed research studies that have examined IEP development since the 1997 reauthorization of the Individuals With Disabilities Education Act (IDEA. The review concludes with a discussion of how findings from previous research on IEP development can inform future research agendas, educator practice, and federal and state policies.

  2. Perceived barriers to completing an e-learning program on evidence-based medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Pierre Gagnon

    2007-06-01

    Conclusions This study offers a theoretical basis to understand physicians' beliefs towards completing an internet-based continuing medical education (CME program on EBM. Based upon respondents' insights, several modifications were carried out to enhance the uptake of the program by physicians and, therefore, its implementation.

  3. Women in Healthcare: Barriers and Enablers from a Developing Country Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayfaa A. Tlaiss

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: As the under-representation of women in management positions continues to persist globally, little is known about the experiences of women in the healthcare sector in the context of the developing Middle Eastern nations. In an attempt to address this knowledge gap, the current study explores some of the barriers that hinder and the enablers that foster women’s career advancement in the healthcare sector. To meet its objectives, the current study uses a relational approach that integrates the macro socio-cultural, meso-organisational, and micro-individual levels of analysis.Methods: Guided by institutional theory as a theoretical framework and social constructionism as a philosophical stance, the current study adopts a qualitative research methodology. It capitalizes on in-depth, semi-structured, face-to-face interviews with women managers in different occupational fields, across the managerial hierarchy in the healthcare sector in Lebanon. Snowballing and purposeful sampling procedures were used, and the interviews were analysed using thematic analysis, focusing on identifying new, emerging themes.Results: The results of the study confirm the salience of discriminatory cultural values, gendered social roles and expectations in Middle Eastern societies, and illustrate their role as barriers hindering women’s career advancement. The results also portray the spillover effect of societal expectations and cultural gender stereotypes into the organisational realm, resulting in widely experienced attitudinal and structural organisational barriers. This study also illustrates how the enablers that facilitate and promote women’s career progression unfold amidst the interplay between the macro and meso factors, lending credence to the role of women’s agency at the individual micro level. Amongst the toll of barriers, Middle Eastern women navigate the patriarchy of their cultures and the discrimination inherent in their organisations by

  4. Testing paradigm for prediction of development-limiting barriers and human drug toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasseville, V G; Lane, J H; Kadambi, V J; Bouchard, P; Lee, F W; Balani, S K; Miwa, G T; Smith, P F; Alden, C L

    2004-11-01

    The financial investment grows exponentially as a new chemical entity advances through each stage of discovery and development. The opportunity exists for the modern toxicologist to significantly impact expenditures by the early prediction of potential toxicity/side effect barriers to development by aggressive evaluation of development-limiting liabilities early in drug discovery. Improved efficiency in pharmaceutical research and development lies both in leveraging "best in class" technology and integration with pharmacologic activities during hit-to-lead and early lead optimization stages. To meet this challenge, a discovery assay by stage (DABS) paradigm should be adopted. The DABS clearly delineates to discovery project teams the timing and type of assay required for advancement of compounds to each subsequent level of discovery and development. An integrative core pathology function unifying Drug Safety Evaluation, Molecular Technologies and Clinical Research groups that effectively spans all phases of drug discovery and development is encouraged to drive the DABS. The ultimate goal of such improved efficiency being the accurate prediction of toxicity and side effects that would occur in development before commitment of the large prerequisite resource. Good justification of this approach is that every reduction of development attrition by 10% results in an estimated increase in net present value by $100 million.

  5. Technical Barriers and Development of Cu Wirebonding in Nanoelectronics Device Packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. Gan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bondpad cratering, Cu ball bond interface corrosion, IMD (intermetal dielectric cracking, and uncontrolled post-wirebond staging are the key technical barriers in Cu wire development. This paper discusses the UHAST (unbiased HAST reliability performance of Cu wire used in fine-pitch BGA package. In-depth failure analysis has been carried out to identify the failure mechanism under various assembly conditions. Obviously green mold compound, low-halogen substrate, optimized Cu bonding parameters, assembly staging time after wirebonding, and anneal baking after wirebonding are key success factors for Cu wire development in nanoelectronic packaging. Failure mechanisms of Cu ball bonds after UHAST test and CuAl IMC failure characteristics have been proposed and discussed in this paper.

  6. Study on Stress Development in the Phase Transition Layer of Thermal Barrier Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yijun Chai

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Stress development is one of the significant factors leading to the failure of thermal barrier coating (TBC systems. In this work, stress development in the two phase mixed zone named phase transition layer (PTL, which grows between the thermally grown oxide (TGO and the bond coat (BC, is investigated by using two different homogenization models. A constitutive equation of the PTL based on the Reuss model is proposed to study the stresses in the PTL. The stresses computed with the proposed constitutive equation are compared with those obtained with Voigt model-based equation in detail. The stresses based on the Voigt model are slightly higher than those based on the Reuss model. Finally, a further study is carried out to explore the influence of phase transition proportions on the stress difference caused by homogenization models. Results show that the stress difference becomes more evident with the increase of the PTL thickness ratio in the TGO.

  7. Opportunities, barriers, and strategies for forest bioenergy and bio-based product development in the Southern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayfield, Chyrel A.; Foster, C. Darwin; Gan, Jianbang [Department of Ecosystem Science and Management, Texas A and M University, MS 2138, College Station, TX 77842-2135 (United States); Smith, C. Tattersall [Faculty of Forestry, University of Toronto, 33 Willcocks Street, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Fox, Susan [USDA Forest Service, Southern Research Station, 200 WT Weaver Boulevard, Asheville, NC 28804 (United States)

    2007-09-15

    Focus groups were used to identify opportunities, barriers, and strategies for increased utilization of forest biomass in the Southern United States. The groups were based on the seven critical components in the bioenergy and bio-based products value chain, as identified by the International Energy Agency (IEA) Bioenergy Task 31 ''Biomass Production for Energy from Sustainable Forestry.'' These components include sustainable biomass production, sustainable forest operations, product delivery logistics, manufacturing and energy production, environmental sustainability, consumer demand, and rural economic development. Participants included handpicked experts from each of the seven component areas. Six common themes emerged from the focus groups. Market creation, infrastructure development, community engagement, incentives, collaboration, and education will all be critical to the successful development of the biomass industry. The forest industry, the energy industry, academia, extension personnel, and rural communities should collaborate together to support research, policy issues, and educational programs that enhance the efficiency of current forest biomass operations and promote the use of forest biomass for bioenergy. (author)

  8. NEUROBID--an EU-funded project to study the developing brain barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueter, Wolfgang; Saunders, Norman R; Mallard, Carina; Bauer, Hans-Christian; Stolp, Helen B; Kavelaars, Annemieke; Dammann, Olaf

    2010-08-01

    Brain diseases are one of the most prevalent groups of diseases in Europe with estimated annual costs amounting to euro386 billion. Data collected by the WHO suggest that brain diseases are responsible for 35% of Europe's total disease burden. In the treatment of neurological disease, the blood brain barrier (BBB) still represents an obstacle for the delivery of drugs to the brain and thus a major challenge for the development of therapeutic regimens. Understanding the molecular basis and functioning of the BBB in health and disease, including transport mechanisms across the BBB, therefore holds significant potential for future strategies to prevent and ameliorate neurological disease. Recent research indicates that some neurological disorders have a developmental etiologic component. The major goal of the NEUROBID project is thus to understand the molecular mechanisms and function of the BBB in health and disease both in the developing brain and the adult central nervous system. With an interdisciplinary consortium from the fields of developmental neurobiology and BBB research, NEUROBID aims to (i) understand the involvement of normal and disturbed BBB function in normal and abnormal brain development and (ii) to develop novel strategies for drug delivery to the brain. Unique transport mechanisms across the BBB will be used to target potential therapeutic macromolecular and cellular agents specifically to the brain barriers and transport them into the brain. The main target disorders of NEUROBID are non-inherited neurodevelopmental disorders arising from perinatal adverse exposure, such as cerebral palsy, and classic adult neurological disorders such as multiple sclerosis and stroke. In the long term, NEUROBID hopes to pave the way for new treatment strategies and thus reduce the economic and social burden of neurological disease.

  9. Identifying barriers from home to the appropriate hospital through near-miss audits in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippi, Véronique; Richard, Fabienne; Lange, Isabelle; Ouattara, Fatoumata

    2009-06-01

    Near-miss cases often arrive in critical condition in referral hospitals in developing countries. Understanding the reasons why women arrive at these hospitals in a moribund state is crucial to the reduction of the incidence and case fatality of severe obstetric complications. This paper discusses how near-miss audits can empower the hospital teams to document and help reduce barriers to obstetric care in the most useful way and makes practical suggestions on interviews, analytical framework, ethical issues and staff motivation. Review of the evidence shows that case reviews and confidential enquiries appear particularly suitable to the understanding of delays. Criterion-based audits can also achieve this by establishing criteria for referral. However, hospital staff have limited intervention tools at their disposal to address barriers to emergency care at the community level. It is therefore important to involve the district management team and representatives of the community in auditing the health care seeking and treatment of women with near-miss complications.

  10. UCLA Translational Biomarker Development Program (UTBD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czernin, Johannes [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2014-09-01

    The proposed UTBD program integrates the sciences of diagnostic nuclear medicine and (radio)chemistry with tumor biology and drug development. UTBD aims to translate new PET biomarkers for personalized medicine and to provide examples for the use of PET to determine pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) drug properties. The program builds on an existing partnership between the Ahmanson Translational Imaging Division (ATID) and the Crump Institute of Molecular Imaging (CIMI), the UCLA Department of Chemistry and the Division of Surgical Oncology. ATID provides the nuclear medicine training program, clinical and preclinical PET/CT scanners, biochemistry and biology labs for probe and drug development, radiochemistry labs, and two cyclotrons. CIMI provides DOE and NIH-funded training programs for radio-synthesis (START) and molecular imaging (SOMI). Other participating entities at UCLA are the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry and the Division of Surgical Oncology. The first UTBD project focuses on deoxycytidine kinase, a rate-limiting enzyme in nucleotide metabolism, which is expressed in many cancers. Deoxycytidine kinase (dCK) positive tumors can be targeted uniquely by two distinct therapies: 1) nucleoside analog prodrugs such as gemcitabine (GEM) are activated by dCK to cytotoxic antimetabolites; 2) recently developed small molecule dCK inhibitors kill tumor cells by starving them of nucleotides required for DNA replication and repair. Since dCK-specific PET probes are now available, PET imaging of tumor dCK activity could improve the use of two different classes of drugs in a wide variety of cancers.

  11. Development of an effective valve packing program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, K.A.

    1996-12-01

    Current data now shows that graphite valve packing installed within the guidance of a controlled program produces not only reliable stem sealing but predictable running loads. By utilizing recent technological developments in valve performance monitoring for both MOV`s and AOV`s, valve packing performance can be enhanced while reducing maintenance costs. Once known, values are established for acceptable valve packing loads, the measurement of actual valve running loads via the current MOV/AOV diagnostic techniques can provide indication of future valve stem sealing problems, improper valve packing installation or identify the opportunity for valve packing program improvements. At times the full benefit of these advances in material and predictive technology remain under utilized due to simple past misconceptions associated with valve packing. This paper will explore the basis for these misconceptions, provide general insight into the current understanding of valve packing and demonstrate how with this new understanding and current valve diagnostic equipment the key aspects required to develop an effective, quality valve packing program fit together. The cost and operational benefits provided by this approach can be significant impact by the: elimination of periodic valve repacking, reduction of maintenance costs, benefits of leak-free valve operation, justification for reduced Post Maintenance Test Requirements, reduced radiation exposure, improved plant appearance.

  12. Trench Safety-Using a Qualitative Approach to Understand Barriers and Develop Strategies to Improve Trenching Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Michael A; Sampson, Julie M

    2012-06-01

    Despite efforts to ensure workplace safety and health, injuries and fatalities related to trenching and excavation remain alarmingly high in the construction industry. Because properly installed trenching protective systems can potentially reduce the significant number of trenching fatalities, there is clearly a need to identify the barriers to the use of these systems and to develop strategies to ensure these systems are utilized consistently. The current study reports on the results of focus groups with construction workers and safety management personnel to better understand these barriers and to identify solutions. The results suggest several factors, from poor planning to pressures from experienced workers and supervisors, which present barriers to safe trenching practices. Based on the results, it is recommended that safety trainings incorporate unique messages for new workers, experienced workers and management in an effort to motivate each group to work safely as well as provide them with solutions to overcome the identified barriers.

  13. Ideological vs. Instrumental Barriers to Accessing Formal Mental Health care in the Developing World: Focus on South-eastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikwuka, Ugo; Galbraith, Niall; Manktelow, Ken; Chen-Wilson, Josephine; Oyebode, Femi; Muomah, Rosemary C; Igboaka, Anuli

    2016-01-01

    The striking gaps in formal mental health care in the developing world are largely traceable to Instrumental and Ideological Barriers. Focusing on south-eastern Nigeria, the study aimed to establish the relative weight, significance and determinants of these barriers for prioritised policy interventions. Multistage sampling method was used to select participants (n = 706) to whom questionnaires were administered. Ideological Barriers (cultural and mental health literacy constraints) were more significantly perceived (84.8%) than Instrumental Barriers (systemic and financial impediments) (56.6%). The study demonstrated the primacy of improved knowledge in plugging the gap in conventional mental health care in a region ironically defined more by systemic and material poverty. This is instructive for prioritised policy interventions with an indication that even if facilities and socio-economic status improve, services will likely be underused without greater improvement in people's conceptualisation of mental illness. It equally underscored the need for cultural competence in mental health service provision.

  14. Barriers influencing implementation of the National Science Education Standards by middle school teachers engaged in collaborative professional development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Carla Cunnagin

    This study focused on implementation of the National Science Education Standards by middle school science teachers. Science teachers from two suburban middle schools who engaged in structured collaborative professional development over a period of two years were participants in the study. A review of the current literature in this field indicated a need for further research on sustained, collaborative professional development (Loucks-Horsley, Hewson, Love & Stiles, 1998; Supovitz & Turner, 2000). Previous findings indicated teachers implementing curricular reform encounter barriers and/or dilemmas when implementing the new instructional strategies into their teaching practices (Anderson, 1996). This study sought to find out what technical, political and cultural barriers teachers encounter when implementing standards-based instruction and how those barriers impacted implementation. There were twelve participants in this mixed methods study. A stratified random sample of a high, medium and low implementer of standards-based instruction, based upon their self-reported use in a teacher questionnaire, were selected at each of the two middle schools. Detailed classroom observations were conducted using the Local Systemic Change Classroom Observation Protocol (Horizon Research, 2002) identifying their level of use of standards-based instruction. All twelve teachers were interviewed regarding their instructional practices and possible barriers they encountered to implementation. Findings in this study indicated that as the number of technical, political or cultural barriers increased, implementation of standards-based instruction decreased. Cultural dimension categories such as existing teacher beliefs about instruction and how students learn science, as well as the belief that standards-based instruction is not aligned with state assessments were barriers for teachers in this study. In addition, if a teacher had a high barrier in a cultural category, they also were one

  15. NASA's Robotic Lunar Lander Development Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Benjamin W.; Reed, Cheryl L. B.; Artis, David; Cole, Tim; Eng, Doug S.; Kubota, Sanae; Lafferty, Paul; McGee, Timothy; Morese, Brian J.; Chavers, Gregory; Moore, Joshua; Bassler, Julie A.; Cohen, D. Barbara; Farmer, Jeffrey; Freestone, Todd; Hammond, Monica S.; Hannan, Mike C.; Hill, Lawrence D.; Harris, Danny W.; Holloway, Todd A.; Lowery, John E.; Mulac, Brian D.; Stemple, Cindy

    2012-01-01

    NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory have developed several mission concepts to place scientific and exploration payloads ranging from 10 kg to more than 200 kg on the surface of the moon. The mission concepts all use a small versatile lander that is capable of precision landing. The results to date of the lunar lander development risk reduction activities including high pressure propulsion system testing, structure and mechanism development and testing, and long cycle time battery testing will be addressed. The most visible elements of the risk reduction program are two fully autonomous lander flight test vehicles. The first utilized a high pressure cold gas system (Cold Gas Test Article) with limited flight durations while the subsequent test vehicle, known as the Warm Gas Test Article, utilizes hydrogen peroxide propellant resulting in significantly longer flight times and the ability to more fully exercise flight sensors and algorithms. The development of the Warm Gas Test Article is a system demonstration and was designed with similarity to an actual lunar lander including energy absorbing landing legs, pulsing thrusters, and flight-like software implementation. A set of outdoor flight tests to demonstrate the initial objectives of the WGTA program was completed in Nov. 2011, and will be discussed.

  16. Lightweight composite fighting cover prototype development program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wrenn, G.E. Jr.; Frame, B.J.; Gwaltney, R.C.; Akerman, M.A.

    1996-07-01

    The U.S. Army Field Assistance Science and Technology Program requested Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to demonstrate the use of lightweight composite materials in construction of overhead covers for reinforced infantry fighting positions. In recent years, ORNL researchers have designed and tested several concepts for lightweight ballistic protection structures, and they have developed numerous prototype composite structures for military and civilian applications. In the current program, composite panel designs and materials are tested and optimized to meet anticipated static and dynamic load conditions for the overhead cover structure. Ten prototype composite covers were built at ORNL for use in Army field tests. Each composite cover has a nominal surface area of 12 ft[sup 2] and a nominal weight of 8 lb. Four of the prototypes are made with folding sections to improve their handling characteristics. The composite covers exhibit equivalent performance in Army field tests to covers made with conventional materials that weigh four times as much.

  17. Research and development program, fiscal year 1970

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1968-04-01

    The biomedical program of the Laboratory of Nuclear Medicine and Radiation Biology for FY 1970 is conducted within the scope of the following categories: Somatic Effects of Radiation; Combating Detrimental Effects of Radiation; Molecular and Cellular Level Studies; Environmental Radiation Studies; Radiological and Health Physics and Instrumentation; Cancer Research; and Selected Beneficial Applications. The overall objectives of the Laboratory within these areas of the Biology and Medicine Program may be summarized as follows: (1) investigation of the effects of ionizing radiation on systems of biological significance and on living organisms; (2) assessment and study of the immediate and long term consequences of the environmental radioactivity on flora, fauna, and man; (3) development of beneficial uses of ionizing radiation and radioactive substances in medicine and biology; and (4) the conduct of training and educational activities in fields related to the biological and medical aspects of radiation.

  18. Development of the blood-brain barrier within the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus: influence of fetal glucocorticoid excess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frahm, Krystle A; Tobet, Stuart A

    2015-07-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a critical contributor to brain function. To understand its development and potential function in different brain regions, the postnatal (P) BBB was investigated in the mouse cortex (CTX), lateral hypothalamus, and paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN). Brains were examined on postnatal days (P)12, P22 and P52 for BBB competency and for pericytes as key cellular components of the BBB demarcated by immunoreactive desmin. Glucocorticoid influences (excess dexamethasone; dex) during prenatal development were also assessed for their impact on the blood vessels within these regions postnatally. At P12, there was significantly more extravascular leakage of a low molecular weight dye (fluorescein isothiocyanate) in the CTX than within hypothalamic regions. For pericytes, there were low levels of desmin immunoreactivity at P12 that increased with age for all regions. There was more desmin immunoreactivity present in the PVN at each age examined. Fetal dex exposure resulted in decreased blood vessel density within the PVN at P20. In the CTX, dex exposure increased BBB competency, in contrast to the PVN where there was a decrease in BBB competency and increased pericyte presence. Overall, unique alterations in the functioning of the BBB within the PVN may provide a novel mechanism for fetal antecedent programming that may influence adult disorders.

  19. Quantitative assessment of barriers to the clinical development and adoption of cellular therapies: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin M Davies

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available There has been a large increase in basic science activity in cell therapy and a growing portfolio of cell therapy trials. However, the number of industry products available for widespread clinical use does not match this magnitude of activity. We hypothesize that the paucity of engagement with the clinical community is a key contributor to the lack of commercially successful cell therapy products. To investigate this, we launched a pilot study to survey clinicians from five specialities and to determine what they believe to be the most significant barriers to cellular therapy clinical development and adoption. Our study shows that the main concerns among this group are cost-effectiveness, efficacy, reimbursement, and regulation. Addressing these concerns can best be achieved by ensuring that future clinical trials are conducted to adequately answer the questions of both regulators and the broader clinical community.

  20. Development of microfluidic cell culture devices towards an in vitro human intestinal barrier model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Hsih-Yin

    to enable real-time detection of cell responses, adjustment of cellular stimulation etc. leading to establishment of conditional experiments. In this project, microfluidic systems engineering was leveraged to develop an eight chamber multi-layer microchip for intestinal barrier studies. Sandwiched between...... the layers was a modified Teflon porous membrane for cell culture. The novelty lies in modifying the surface of the porous Teflon support membrane using thiol-ene ‘click’ chemistry, thus allowing the modified Teflon membrane to be bonded between the chip layers to form an enclosed microchip. Successful...... application of the multi-layer microchip was demonstrated by integrating the microchip to an existing cell culture fluidic system to culture the human intestinal epithelial cells, Caco-2, for long term studies. Under the continuous low flow conditions, the cells differentiated into columnar cells displaying...

  1. Very Tough, Erosion-Resistant Turbine Airfoil Thermal Barrier Coatings Developed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dong-Ming; Miller, Robert A.

    2005-01-01

    Ceramic thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are receiving increased attention for advanced gas turbine engine applications. These coatings are considered to be technologically important because of their ability to further increase engine operating temperatures and reduce cooling requirements, thus achieving higher engine efficiency, lower emissions, and increased performance goals. To take full advantage of the capabilities of these coatings, researchers need to use an aggressive design approach whenever possible--one that allows greater temperature reductions through the coating systems and less cooling air to the components. Advanced TBCs that have significantly lower thermal conductivity and better thermal stability than current coatings have been developed for future ultra-efficient, low-emission engine systems. Multicomponent-doped, defect-clustered TBCs have been shown to offer the low conductivity and high stability required for future high-temperature engine applications.

  2. Barriers to establish e-business for developing tourism industry: A case study of Kish Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardeshir Tajzadeh Namin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present an empirical study for ranking different barriers on developing e-business in one of the free zones called Kish Island in. This Island is located in south part of Iran and it is one of the most beautiful free zones of this country with tremendous opportunities for tourism industry. The proposed study gathers important factors in five different groups of economical, social and cultural, political, technology and software packages. In each group, decision makers determine various influencing factors and after three rounds of brainstorming, analytical hierarchy process is used to rank these factors. Based on the results, the lack of a good infrastructure (0.206, the lack of good culture among ordinary people to use e-businesses (0.205, the lack of good knowledge on internet services among ordinary people (0.204 are some of the most important factors preventing e-business in this region.

  3. Barriers to the Preclinical Development of Therapeutics that Target Aging Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burd, Christin E.; Gill, Matthew S.; Niedernhofer, Laura J.; Robbins, Paul D.; Austad, Steven N.; Barzilai, Nir

    2016-01-01

    Through the progress of basic science research, fundamental mechanisms that contribute to age-related decline are being described with increasing depth and detail. Although these efforts have identified new drug targets and compounds that extend life span in model organisms, clinical trials of therapeutics that target aging processes remain scarce. Progress in aging research is hindered by barriers associated with the translation of basic science discoveries into the clinic. This report summarizes discussions held at a 2014 Geroscience Network retreat focused on identifying hurdles that currently impede the preclinical development of drugs targeting fundamental aging processes. From these discussions, it was evident that aging researchers have varied perceptions of the ideal preclinical pipeline. To forge a clear and cohesive path forward, several areas of controversy must first be resolved and new tools developed. Here, we focus on five key issues in preclinical drug development (drug discovery, lead compound development, translational preclinical biomarkers, funding, and integration between researchers and clinicians), expanding upon discussions held at the Geroscience Retreat and suggesting areas for further research. By bringing these findings to the attention of the aging research community, we hope to lay the foundation for a concerted preclinical drug development pipeline. PMID:27535964

  4. The barriers encountered by teachers implementing education for sustainable development: discipline bound differences and teaching traditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, Carola; Gericke, Niklas; Höglund, Hans-Olof; Bergman, Eva

    2012-07-01

    Background : According to the Swedish curriculum teachers in all subjects have a responsibility to integrate a holistic perspective of sustainable development (SD) and teach according to an education for sustainable development (ESD) approach. However previous research has shown that teachers from different subjects perceive SD differently. Purpose : The study aimed at investigating if and how teachers' subject area influences their ability to implement a holistic perspective of ESD; we investigated both the impact of teaching traditions and the barriers that teachers experienced. Sample : A stratified sample of 224 Swedish upper secondary schools participated. An online questionnaire was sent and answered by a total of 3229 teachers at these schools. In total, there were 669 science teachers, 373 social science teachers, 483 language teachers, 713 vocational and esthetical-practical teachers, and 739 teachers from other disciplines who participated in the survey. Design and methods : The questionnaire consisted of questions requiring Likert-scale responses and multiple-choice questions. The data from the questionnaire were analyzed using Pearson's Chi-square test and one-way ANOVA. The significance level accepted was p Teachers were influenced by their own subject traditions. Science teachers in our study were grounded in the fact-based tradition and lectures were the most common teaching method used. The teaching tradition of the social science teachers seemed to be most in line to an ESD approach. Many language teachers (41%) stated they did not include SD issues in their teaching at all. Among the barriers identified, the most common obstacles were that the teachers lacked inspiring examples of how to include SD in their teaching and that they lacked the necessary expertise about SD. Conclusion : This study highlights the need for the management within schools to create opportunities for teachers to work collaboratively when teaching ESD. It is also important

  5. Development of Diffusion barrier coatings and Deposition Technologies for Mitigating Fuel Cladding Chemical Interactions (FCCI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sridharan, Kumar; Allen, Todd; Cole, James

    2013-02-27

    The goal of this project is to develop diffusion barrier coatings on the inner cladding surface to mitigate fuel-cladding chemical interaction (FCCI). FCCI occurs due to thermal and radiation enhanced inter-diffusion between the cladding and fuel materials, and can have the detrimental effects of reducing the effective cladding wall thickness and lowering the melting points of the fuel and cladding. The research is aimed at the Advanced Burner Reactor (ABR), a sodium-cooled fast reactor, in which higher burn-ups will exacerbate the FCCI problem. This project will study both diffusion barrier coating materials and deposition technologies. Researchers will investigate pure vanadium, zirconium, and titanium metals, along with their respective oxides, on substrates of HT-9, T91, and oxide dispersion-strengthened (ODS) steels; these materials are leading candidates for ABR fuel cladding. To test the efficacy of the coating materials, the research team will perform high-temperature diffusion couple studies using both a prototypic metallic uranium fuel and a surrogate the rare-earth element lanthanum. Ion irradiation experiments will test the stability of the coating and the coating-cladding interface. A critical technological challenge is the ability to deposit uniform coatings on the inner surface of cladding. The team will develop a promising non-line-of-sight approach that uses nanofluids . Recent research has shown the feasibility of this simple yet novel approach to deposit coatings on test flats and inside small sections of claddings. Two approaches will be investigated: 1) modified electrophoretic deposition (MEPD) and 2) boiling nanofluids. The coatings will be evaluated in the as-deposited condition and after sintering.

  6. Research and development program, fiscal year 1966

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1964-04-01

    The biomedical program of the Laboratory of Nuclear Medicine and Radiation Biology for FY 1966 is conducted within the scope of the following categories: Somatic Effects of Radiation; Combating Detrimental Effects of Radiation; Molecular and Cellular Level Studies; Environmental Radiation Studies; Radiological and Health Physics and Instrumentation; Chemical Toxicity; Cancer Research; and Selected Beneficial Applications. The overall objectives of the Laboratory within these areas of the Biology and Medicine program may be summarized as follows: (1) investigation of the effects of ionizing radiation on living organisms and systems of biological significance; (2) investigation of the dynamic aspects of physiological and biochemical processes in man, animals and plants and how these processes are modified by radiation and related pathological states; (3) the assessment and study of the immediate and long term consequences of the operation or detonation of nuclear devices on the fauna, and flora in man's environment and on man; (4) the development of methods of minimizing or preventing the detrimental effects of ionizing radiation; (5) research in, and development of, beneficial uses of ionizing radiation and radioactive substances in medicine and biology; (6) research in the development of new and more efficient radiation detection devices; (7) research, including field studies, as mutually agreed upon by the Commission and the University, in connection with the conduct of weapon tests and biomedical and civil effects experiments at such tests conducted at continental and overseas test sites; and (8) the conduct of training and educational activities in the biological and medical aspects of radiation and related fields.

  7. Dynamic Electric Potential Redistribution And Its Influence On The Development Of A Dielectric Barrier Plasma Jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) devices. The dielectric barrier plasma jet represents a hybrid between streamer corona and conventional DBD sources...capillary tip and beyond indicating a transition away from a DBD to what was essentially a classical streamer corona discharge drawing current directly...plasma jet generated in a single-electrode dielectric barrier configuration at atmospheric pressure. The influence of dielectric boundary conditions

  8. Standard Review Plan Update and Development Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-05-01

    This implementing procedures document (IPD) was prepared for use in implementing tasks under the standard review plan update and development program (SRP-UDP). The IPD provides comprehensive guidance and detailed procedures for SRP-UDP tasks. The IPD is mandatory for contractors performing work for the SRP-UDP. It is guidance for the staff. At the completion of the SRP-UDP, the IPD will be revised (to remove the UDP aspects) and will replace NRR Office Letter No. 800 as long-term maintenance procedures.

  9. Building Technologies Program Multi-Year Program Plan Research and Development 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2008-01-01

    Building Technologies Program Multi-Year Program Plan 2008 for research and development, including residential and commercial integration, lighting, HVAC and water heating, envelope, windows, and analysis tools.

  10. Employability Skill Development in Work-Integrated Learning: Barriers and Best Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Denise

    2015-01-01

    Work-integrated learning (WIL) is widely considered instrumental in equipping new graduates with the required employability skills to function effectively in the work environment. Evaluation of WIL programs in enhancing skill development remains predominantly outcomes-focused with little attention to the process of what, how and from whom students…

  11. "School within a School": Examining Implementation Barriers in a Spanish/English Transitional Bilingual Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeNicolo, Christina Passos

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the ways that general education and bilingual teachers make sense of a Spanish/English transitional bilingual program housed at one elementary school in a Midwestern school district. An in-depth examination of perceptions and attitudes unmasks key factors regarding the implementation and interpretation of bilingual programs…

  12. Individualized Education Programs (IEPs) and Barriers for Parents from Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Adrian Woo

    2011-01-01

    In spite of theoretical validation and legal mandates in special education for parent participation, many studies have indicated that parents' roles in the Individualized Education Programs (IEP) process are still not noticeable and influential and that too often they are not being treated as an equal partner with school professionals. In…

  13. Plasticity of Myeloid Cells during Oral Barrier Wound Healing and the Development of Bisphosphonate-related Osteonecrosis of the Jaw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yujie; Kaur, Kawaljit; Kanayama, Keiichi; Morinaga, Kenzo; Park, Sil; Hokugo, Akishige; Kozlowska, Anna; McBride, William H; Li, Jun; Jewett, Anahid; Nishimura, Ichiro

    2016-09-23

    Injury to the barrier tissue initiates a rapid distribution of myeloid immune cells from bone marrow, which guide sound wound healing. Bisphosphonates, a widely used anti-bone resorptive drug with minimal systemic side effects, have been linked to an abnormal wound healing in the oral barrier tissue leading to, in some cases, osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ). Here we report that the development of ONJ may involve abnormal phenotypic plasticity of Ly6G+/Gr1+ myeloid cells in the oral barrier tissue undergoing tooth extraction wound healing. A bolus intravenous zoledronate (ZOL) injection to female C57Bl/6 mice followed by maxillary first molar extraction resulted in the development of ONJ-like lesion during the second week of wound healing. The multiplex assay of dissociated oral barrier cells exhibited the secretion of cytokines and chemokines, which was significantly modulated in ZOL mice. Tooth extraction-induced distribution of Ly6G+/Gr1+ cells in the oral barrier tissue increased in ZOL mice at week 2. ONJ-like lesion in ZOL mice contained Ly6G+/Gr1+ cells with abnormal size and morphology as well as different flow cytometric staining intensity. When anti-Ly6G (Gr1) antibody was intraperitoneally injected for 5 days during the second week of tooth extraction, CD11b+GR1(hi) cells in bone marrow and Ly6G+ cells in the oral barrier tissue were depleted, and the development of ONJ-like lesion was significantly attenuated. This study suggests that local modulation of myeloid cell plasticity in the oral barrier tissue may provide the basis for pathogenesis and thus therapeutic as well as preventive strategy of ONJ.

  14. Barriers to reducing climate enhanced disaster risks in Least Developed Country-Small Islands through anticipatory adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuruppu, N.; Willie, R.

    2015-12-01

    Small Island Developing States (SIDS) classified as Least Developed Countries (LDCs) are particularly vulnerable to the projected impacts of climate change. Given their particular vulnerabilities, climate adaptation investments are being made through both national and international efforts to build the capacity of various sectors and communities to reduce climate risks and associated disasters. Despite these efforts, reducing climate risks is not free of various challenges and barriers. This paper aims to synthesise a set of critical socio-economic barriers present at various spatial scales that are specific to Least Developed Country SIDS. It also aims to identify the processes that give rise to these barriers. Drawing on theories from natural hazards, a systematic literature review method was adopted to identify and organise the set of barriers by focussing both on academic papers and grey literature. The data revealed a notable lack of studies on adaptation within African and Caribbean LDC-SIDS. In general, there was a paucity of academic as well as grey literature being produced by authors from LDC-SIDS to challenge existing discourses related to adaptation barriers. The most common barriers identified included those related to governance, technical, cognitive and cultural. Three key findings can be drawn from this study in relation to formal adaptation initiatives. Firstly, the lack of focus on the adaptive capacity needs of Local Government or Island Councils and communities was a key barrier to ensuring success of adaptation interventions. Secondly, international adaptation funding modalities did little to address root causes of vulnerability or support system transformations. These funds were geared at supporting sectoral level adaptation initiatives for vulnerable natural resource sectors such as water, biodiversity and coastal zones. Thirdly, there is a need to recognise the significance of cultural knowledge and practices in shaping adaptive choices of

  15. Barriers to reducing climate enhanced disaster risks in Least Developed Country-Small Islands through anticipatory adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Kuruppu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Small Island Developing States (SIDS classified as Least Developed Countries (LDCs are particularly vulnerable to the projected impacts of climate change. Given their particular vulnerabilities, climate adaptation investments are being made through both national and international efforts to build the capacity of various sectors and communities to reduce climate risks and associated disasters. Despite these efforts, reducing climate risks is not free of various challenges and barriers. This paper aims to synthesise a set of critical socio-economic barriers present at various spatial scales that are specific to Least Developed Country SIDS. It also aims to identify the processes that give rise to these barriers. Drawing on theories from natural hazards, a systematic literature review method was adopted to identify and organise the set of barriers by focussing on both academic papers and grey literature. The data revealed a notable lack of studies on adaptation within African and Caribbean LDC-SIDS. In general, there was a paucity of academic as well as grey literature being produced by authors from LDC-SIDS to challenge existing discourses related to adaptation barriers. The most common barriers identified included those related to governance, technical, cognitive and cultural. Three key findings can be drawn from this study in relation to formal adaptation initiatives. Firstly, the lack of focus on the adaptive capacity needs of Local Government or Island Councils and communities was a key barrier to ensure success of adaptation interventions. Secondly, international adaptation funding modalities did little to address root causes of vulnerability or support system transformations. These funds were geared at supporting sectoral level adaptation initiatives for vulnerable natural resource sectors such as water, biodiversity and coastal zones. Thirdly, there is a need to recognise the significance of cultural knowledge and practices in shaping

  16. Eltrombopag, a thrombopoietin mimetic, crosses the blood-brain barrier and impairs iron-dependent hippocampal neuron dendrite development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastian, T W; Duck, K A; Michalopoulos, G C; Chen, M J; Liu, Z-J; Connor, J R; Lanier, L M; Sola-Visner, M C; Georgieff, M K

    2017-03-01

    Essentials Potential neurodevelopmental side effects of thrombopoietin mimetics need to be considered. The effects of eltrombopag (ELT) on neuronal iron status and dendrite development were assessed. ELT crosses the blood-brain barrier and causes iron deficiency in developing neurons. ELT blunts dendrite maturation, indicating a need for more safety studies before neonatal use.

  17. Deformable mirrors development program at ESO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroebele, Stefan; Vernet, Elise; Brinkmann, Martin; Jakob, Gerd; Lilley, Paul; Casali, Mark; Madec, Pierre-Yves; Kasper, Markus

    2016-07-01

    Over the last decade, adaptive optics has become essential in different fields of research including medicine and industrial applications. With this new need, the market of deformable mirrors has expanded a lot allowing new technologies and actuation principles to be developed. Several E-ELT instruments have identified the need for post focal deformable mirrors but with the increasing size of the telescopes the requirements on the deformable mirrors become more demanding. A simple scaling up of existing technologies from few hundred actuators to thousands of actuators will not be sufficient to satisfy the future needs of ESO. To bridge the gap between available deformable mirrors and the future needs for the E-ELT, ESO started a development program for deformable mirror technologies. The requirements and the path to get the deformable mirrors for post focal adaptive optics systems for the E-ELT is presented.

  18. An inner barrier to career development: Preconditions of the impostor phenomenon and consequences for career development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjam eNeureiter

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The impostor phenomenon is increasingly recognized as an important psychological construct for career development, yet empirical research on how it functions in this domain is sparse. We investigated in what way impostor feelings are related to the fear of failure, fear of success, self-esteem, and the career-development aspects career planning, career striving, and the motivation to lead. We conducted two studies with independent samples of university students (N = 212 in a laboratory study and working professionals (N = 110 in an online study. In both samples, impostor feelings were fostered by fear of failure, fear of success, and self-esteem and they decreased career planning, career striving, and motivation to lead. A path analysis showed that impostor feelings had the most negative effects on career planning and career striving in students and on the motivation to lead in working professionals. The results suggest that the impostor phenomenon is relevant to career development in different ways at different career stages. Practical implications and interventions to reduce the negative effects of impostor feelings on career development are discussed.

  19. Polymer OLED White Light Development Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homer Antoniadis; Vi-En Choong; Stelios Choulis; Brian Cumpston; Rahul Gupta; Mathew Mathai; Michael Moyer; Franky So

    2005-12-19

    OSRAM Opto Semiconductors (OSRAM) successfully completed development, fabrication and characterization of the large area, polymer based white light OLED prototype at their OLED Research and Development (R&D) facility in San Jose, CA. The program, funded by the Department of Energy (DOE), consisted of three key objectives: (1) Develop new polymer materials and device architectures--in order to improve the performance of organic light emitters. (2) Develop processing techniques--in order to demonstrate and enable the manufacturing of large area, white light and color tunable, solid state light sources. (3) Develop new electronics and driving schemes for organic light sources, including color-tunable light sources. The key performance goals are listed. A world record efficiency of 25 lm/W was established for the solution processed white organic device from the significant improvements made during the project. However, the challenges to transfer this technology from an R&D level to a large tile format such as, the robustness of the device and the coating uniformity of large area panels, remain. In this regard, the purity and the blend nature of the materials are two factors that need to be addressed in future work. During the first year, OSRAM's Materials and Device group (M&D) worked closely with the major polymer material suppliers to develop the polymer emissive technology. M&D was successful in demonstrating a 7-8 lm/W white light source which was based on fluorescent materials. However, it became apparent that the major gains in efficiency could only be made if phosphorescent materials were utilized. Thus, in order to improve the performance of the resulting devices, the focus of the project shifted towards development of solution-processable phosphorescent light emitting diodes (PHOLEDs) and device architectures. The result is a higher efficiency than the outlined project milestone.

  20. Analyzing Barriers to Energy Conservation in Residences and Offices: The Rewire Program at the University of Toronto

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Leah C.; Mildenberger, Matto; Savan, Beth; Kolenda, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Conducting a barriers analysis is an important first step when designing proenvironmental behavior change interventions. Yet, detailed information on common barriers to energy conservation campaigns remains unavailable. Using a pair of original surveys, we leverage the theory of planned behavior to report on the most important barriers for…

  1. Environmental Barrier Coating Development for SiC/SiC Ceramic Matrix Composites: Recent Advances and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming

    2016-01-01

    This presentation briefly reviews the SiC/SiC major environmental and environment-fatigue degradations encountered in simulated turbine combustion environments, and thus NASA environmental barrier coating system evolution for protecting the SiC/SiC Ceramic Matrix Composites for meeting the engine performance requirements. The presentation will review several generations of NASA EBC materials systems, EBC-CMC component system technologies for SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composite combustors and turbine airfoils, highlighting the temperature capability and durability improvements in simulated engine high heat flux, high pressure, high velocity, and with mechanical creep and fatigue loading conditions. This paper will also focus on the performance requirements and design considerations of environmental barrier coatings for next generation turbine engine applications. The current development emphasis is placed on advanced NASA candidate environmental barrier coating systems for SiC/SiC CMCs, their performance benefits and design limitations in long-term operation and combustion environments. The efforts have been also directed to developing prime-reliant, self-healing 2700F EBC bond coat; and high stability, lower thermal conductivity, and durable EBC top coats. Major technical barriers in developing environmental barrier coating systems, the coating integrations with next generation CMCs having the improved environmental stability, erosion-impact resistance, and long-term fatigue-environment system durability performance will be described. The research and development opportunities for turbine engine environmental barrier coating systems by utilizing improved compositions, state-of-the-art processing methods, and simulated environment testing and durability modeling will be briefly discussed.

  2. Developing a focused scald-prevention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagle, Kathleen M; Davis, James W; Dominic, William; Ebright, Steffanie; Gonzales, Wendy

    2006-01-01

    Scalds account for a high percentage of burn injuries in young children. The purpose of this project was to use a formative evaluation process to design a pilot scald-prevention program for a high-risk population. The burn registry and U.S. Census were used to define a high-risk population. A total of 53 children younger than age 6 were admitted to a local burn center with scalds during a 4-year period. Cooking or food accounted for 84% of these injuries. A total of 21% of the patients resided in one zip code, representing an incidence rate of 23 per 100,000, which was statistically significant. Focus group meetings were conducted with parents in this zip code. They were queried about scald injury knowledge, prevention practices, and attitudes toward interventions. A prevention program was designed based on the findings. Workshops are conducted with high-risk groups in the zip code. Attendees consent to a home visit where prevention practices are assessed and taught. A pre/post test and home risk assessment survey is used to measure change. The Burn Registry, U.S. Census, and focus groups were complimentary formative evaluation measures that assisted in developing a targeted scald prevention project.

  3. BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER DYSFUNCTION IN DISORDERS OF THE DEVELOPING BRAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaella eMoretti

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTDisorders of the developing brain represent a major health problem. The neurological manifestations of brain lesions can range from severe clinical deficits to more subtle neurological signs or behavioral problems and learning disabilities, which often become evident many years after the initial damage. These long-term sequelae are due at least in part to central nervous system immaturity at the time of the insult.The blood brain barrier (BBB protects the brain and maintains homeostasis. BBB alterations are observed during both acute and chronic brain insults. After an insult, excitatory amino acid neurotransmitters are released, causing reactive oxygen species (ROS-dependent changes in BBB permeability that allow immune cells to enter and stimulate an inflammatory response.The cytokines, chemokines and other molecules released as well as peripheral and local immune cells can activate an inflammatory cascade in the brain, leading to secondary neurodegeneration that can continue for months or even years and finally contribute to post-insult neuronal deficits. The role of the BBB in perinatal disorders is poorly understood. The inflammatory response, which can be either acute (e.g. perinatal stroke, traumatic brain injury or chronic (e.g. perinatal infectious diseases actively modulates the pathophysiological processes underlying brain injury. We present an overview of current knowledge about BBB dysfunction in the developing brain during acute and chronic insults, along with clinical and experimental data.

  4. Blood-brain barrier dysfunction in disorders of the developing brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, Raffaella; Pansiot, Julien; Bettati, Donatella; Strazielle, Nathalie; Ghersi-Egea, Jean-François; Damante, Giuseppe; Fleiss, Bobbi; Titomanlio, Luigi; Gressens, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Disorders of the developing brain represent a major health problem. The neurological manifestations of brain lesions can range from severe clinical deficits to more subtle neurological signs or behavioral problems and learning disabilities, which often become evident many years after the initial damage. These long-term sequelae are due at least in part to central nervous system immaturity at the time of the insult. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) protects the brain and maintains homeostasis. BBB alterations are observed during both acute and chronic brain insults. After an insult, excitatory amino acid neurotransmitters are released, causing reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent changes in BBB permeability that allow immune cells to enter and stimulate an inflammatory response. The cytokines, chemokines and other molecules released as well as peripheral and local immune cells can activate an inflammatory cascade in the brain, leading to secondary neurodegeneration that can continue for months or even years and finally contribute to post-insult neuronal deficits. The role of the BBB in perinatal disorders is poorly understood. The inflammatory response, which can be either acute (e.g., perinatal stroke, traumatic brain injury) or chronic (e.g., perinatal infectious diseases) actively modulates the pathophysiological processes underlying brain injury. We present an overview of current knowledge about BBB dysfunction in the developing brain during acute and chronic insults, along with clinical and experimental data. PMID:25741233

  5. Hafnia-Based Materials Developed for Advanced Thermal/Environmental Barrier Coating Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.

    2004-01-01

    Thermal and environmental barrier coatings (T/EBCs) will play a crucial role in advanced gas turbine engine systems because of their ability to significantly increase engine operating temperatures and reduce cooling requirements, and thus help achieve engine goals of low emissions and high efficiency. Under the NASA Ultra-Efficient Engine Technology (UEET) Project, advanced T/EBCs are being developed for low-emission SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composite (CMC) combustor applications by extending the CMC liner and vane temperature capability to 1650 C (3000 F) in oxidizing and water-vaporcontaining combustion environments. The coating system is required to have increased phase stability, lower lattice and radiation thermal conductivity, and improved sintering and thermal stress resistance under high-heat-flux and thermal-cycling engine conditions. Advanced heat-flux testing approaches (refs. 1 to 4) have been established at the NASA Glenn Research Center for 1650 C coating developments. The simulated combustion water-vapor environment is also being incorporated into the heat-flux test capabilities (ref. 3).

  6. Facile approach in the development of icephobic hierarchically textured coatings as corrosion barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Momen, G., E-mail: gmomen@uqac.ca; Farzaneh, M.

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • A superhydrophobic coating is developed via a simple environmental-friendly method. • This coating can be used on the surface of various metals such as copper, magnesium. • The superhydrophobic aluminum surface showed the excellent corrosion resistance. • The fabricated surface revealed a drastically reduction of ice adhesion strength. • Such surfaces can advantageously be used in cold climate regions. - Abstract: An anti-corrosion superhydrophobic film with water contact angle greater than 160° on aluminum alloy 6061 substrate was fabricated simply through the spin-coating method applied to Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles doped in silicone rubber solution. The as-obtained sample was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and water contact angle/surface energy measurement. The corrosion behaviour of such coating in the NaCl solutions was investigated using the potentiodynamic polarization. The results show that the corrosion resistance of the developed superhydrophobic surface is improved greatly due to the composite wetting states or interfaces with numerous air pockets between its surface and the NaCl solution. This superhydrophobic coating could serve as an effective barrier against aggressive medium. Ice adhesion strength of the as-prepared superhydrophobic coating was also evaluated by measuring its ice adhesion force which was found to have reduced by 4.8 times compared to that of aluminum substrate as reference test.

  7. The programmed death-1 immune-suppressive pathway: barrier to antitumor immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrand-Rosenberg, Suzanne; Horn, Lucas A; Haile, Samuel T

    2014-10-15

    Programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1, also known as B7 homolog 1 or CD274) is a major obstacle to antitumor immunity because it tolerizes/anergizes tumor-reactive T cells by binding to its receptor programmed death-1 (CD279), renders tumor cells resistant to CD8(+) T cell- and FasL-mediated lysis, and tolerizes T cells by reverse signaling through T cell-expressed CD80. PD-L1 is abundant in the tumor microenvironment, where it is expressed by many malignant cells, as well as by immune cells and vascular endothelial cells. The critical role of PD-L1 in obstructing antitumor immunity has been demonstrated in multiple animal models and in recent clinical trials. This article reviews the mechanisms by which PD-L1 impairs antitumor immunity and discusses established and experimental strategies for maintaining T cell activation in the presence of PD-L1-expressing cells in the tumor microenvironment.

  8. Barriers and facilitators to evidence based care of type 2 diabetes patients : experiences of general practitioners participating to a quality improvement program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goderis, G.; Borgermans, L.D.A.; Mathieu, C.; Broeke, C. Van Den; Hannes, K.; Heyrman, J.; Grol, R.P.T.M.

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the barriers and facilitators to high-quality diabetes care as experienced by general practitioners (GPs) who participated in an 18-month quality improvement program (QIP). This QIP was implemented to promote compliance with international guidelines. METHODS: Twenty

  9. A Program Evaluation of the Lincoln School District Teacher Collaboration Time (TCT) Staff Development Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitterman, Sheila

    2010-01-01

    Many investigators have documented the need for valid and credible program evaluation research of teacher professional development programs. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to conduct a comprehensive program evaluation of the Lincoln School District's Teacher Collaboration Time (TCT) staff development program. The study questions…

  10. DOE EM industry programs robotics development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staubly, R.; Kothari, V.

    1998-12-31

    The Office of Science and Technology (OST) manages an aggressive program for RD and D, as well as testing and evaluation for the Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Environmental Management (EM) organization. The goal is to develop new and improved environmental restoration and waste management technologies to clean up the inventory of the DOE weapons complex faster, safer, and cheaper than is possible with currently available technologies. Robotic systems reduce worker exposure to the absolute minimum, while providing proven, cost-effective, and, for some applications, the only acceptable technique for addressing challenging problems. Development of robotic systems for remote operations occurs in three main categories: tank waste characterization and retrieval; decontamination and dismantlement; and characterization, mapping, and inspection systems. In addition, the Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) has some other projects which fall under the heading of supporting R and D. The central objective of all FETC robotic projects is to make robotic systems more attractive by reducing costs and health risks associated with the deployment of robotic technologies in the cleanup of the nuclear weapons complex. This will be accomplished through development of robots that are cheaper, faster, safer, and more reliable, as well as more straightforward to modify/adapt and more intuitive to operate with autonomous capabilities and intelligent controls that prevent accidents and optimize task execution.

  11. 24 CFR 570.415 - Community Development Work Study Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Community Development Work Study... Grants § 570.415 Community Development Work Study Program. (a) Applicability and objectives. HUD makes... students who participate in a work study program while enrolled in full-time graduate programs in...

  12. 77 FR 62243 - Rural Health Network Development Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-12

    ... Administration Rural Health Network Development Program AGENCY: Health Resources and Services Administration...-competitive replacement award under the Rural Health Network Development Program to the Siloam Springs... through the Rural Health Network Development Grant Program are to improve the capacity of network...

  13. Developing Online Family Life Prevention and Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Robert, Jr.; Bowers, Jill R.; Mitchell, Elissa Thomann; Curtiss, Sarah; Ebata, Aaron T.

    2012-01-01

    Although numerous online family life education programs have been developed over the past few years, there has been little discussion about best practices in the development of these programs. This article presents a framework to assist family life educators in the development and improvement of online programs from the initial problem analysis…

  14. 高阻隔性PET瓶的研究进展%Progresses and Developments of High Barrier PET Bottles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡亮珍; 赵建青

    2001-01-01

    对近年来提高聚酯(PET)阻隔性的先进方法和技术以及相关研究进展状况作了概述。%This article reviewes the advanced methods and technology ofimproving the barrier property of PET bottles and the related progresses and developments.

  15. Communication Apprehension and Maths Anxiety as Barriers to Communication and Numeracy Skills Development in Accounting and Business Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, John; Hassall, Trevor; Montano, Jose Luis Arquero; Anes, Jose Antonio Donoso

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To establish the existence of barriers to communication and numeracy skills development and to establish the levels of these exhibited by accounting and business students at the commencement of their courses in higher education. Design/methodology/approach: Uses questionnaires to establish the levels of communication apprehension (CA) and…

  16. Gas permeability of bentonite barriers: development, construction and testing of a measurement system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heraldo Nunes Pitanga

    Full Text Available Abstract This article proposes a testing device to quickly and reliably estimate the gas permeability of bentonite-based clay barriers used in landfill cover systems. The testing methodology is based on a transient gas flow regime that passes through the barrier, therefore not requiring the use of sophisticated equipment that aim to maintain constant differential pressure and measure the gas flow, common requirements for testing methods under a permanent flow regime. To confirm the feasibility of the proposed technique, tests were performed on a pure hydrated bentonite layer, which subsequently encompassed samples of geosynthetic clay liner (GCL at different moisture contents. Geosynthetic clay liners are often selected as a part of the barrier layer for cover systems in solid waste landfills to prevent infiltration of rainfall and migration of biogas into the atmosphere. The results confirmed the equipment reliability and differentiate the different responses of the gas flow barriers studied, considering their different compositions and different moistures.

  17. Assessment of solid reactive mixtures for the development of biological permeable reactive barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagnanelli, Francesca; Viggi, Carolina Cruz; Mainelli, Sara; Toro, Luigi

    2009-10-30

    Solid reactive mixtures were tested as filling material for the development of biological permeable reactive barriers for the treatment of heavy metals contaminated waters. Mixture selection was performed by taking into account the different mechanisms operating in sulphate and cadmium removal with particular attention to bioprecipitation and sorption onto the organic matrices in the mixtures. Suspensions of eight reactive mixtures were tested for sulphate removal (initial concentration 3 g L(-1)). Each mixture was made up of four main functional components: a mix of organic sources for bacterial growth, a neutralizing agent, a porous medium and zero-valent iron. The best mixture among the tested ones (M8: 6% leaves, 9% compost, 3% zero-valent iron, 30% silica sand, 30% perlite, 22% limestone) presented optimal conditions for SRB growth (pH 7.8 +/- 0.1; E(h)= -410 +/- 5 mV) and 83% sulphate removal in 22 days (25% due to bioreduction, 32% due to sorption onto compost and 20% onto leaves). M8 mixture allowed the complete abatement of cadmium with a significant contribution of sorption over bioprecipitation (6% Cd removal due to SRB activity). Sorption properties, characterised by potentiometric titrations and related modelling, were mainly due to carboxylic sites of organic components used in reactive mixtures.

  18. Atomic oxygen characteristics in a dielectric barrier discharge developed for wound treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldus, Sabrina; Schroeder, Daniel; Schulz-von der Gathen, Volker; Bibinov, Nikita; Awakowicz, Peter

    2014-10-01

    Nowadays, infected chronic wounds are a major problem of society. Atmospheric pressure plasmas like dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs) have already shown their ability of improving the wound healing process of chronic wounds in clinical trials. Yet, the mechanism of action is poorly understood. A DBD comprising a single driven electrode is a beneficial configuration for wound treatment. The patient itself functions as the counter electrode. Hence, reactive oxygen species (ROS) like ozone or atomic oxygen produced in the plasma reach the wound directly. Some ROS, including superoxide or nitric oxide, are produced by skin cells to repulse invading bacteria. Nevertheless, a very high amount of ROS leads to oxidative stress and can cause cell damage or even cell death. Therefore it is crucial to have a well characterized plasma for effective wound treatment. Plasma parameters are determined using absolutely calibrated optical emission spectroscopy. Density of atomic oxygen is measured applying xenon-calibrated two photon absorption laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy. A simulation of the afterglow chemistry, developed to gain insight in the characteristics of the atomic oxygen and its flux towards the treated surface, is cross-checked with measurement results. Work supported by the German Research Foundation within PAK816.

  19. Programmed cell death during quinoa perisperm development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Fernández, María Paula; Maldonado, Sara

    2013-08-01

    At seed maturity, quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) perisperm consists of uniform, non-living, thin-walled cells full of starch grains. The objective of the present study was to study quinoa perisperm development and describe the programme of cell death that affects the entire tissue. A number of parameters typically measured during programmed cell death (PCD), such as cellular morphological changes in nuclei and cytoplasm, endoreduplication, DNA fragmentation, and the participation of nucleases and caspase-like proteases in nucleus dismantling, were evaluated; morphological changes in cytoplasm included subcellular aspects related to starch accumulation. This study proved that, following fertilization, the perisperm of quinoa simultaneously accumulates storage reserves and degenerates, both processes mediated by a programme of developmentally controlled cell death. The novel findings regarding perisperm development provide a starting point for further research in the Amaranthaceae genera, such as comparing seeds with and without perisperm, and specifying phylogeny and evolution within this taxon. Wherever possible and appropriate, differences between quinoa perisperm and grass starchy endosperm--a morphologically and functionally similar, although genetically different tissue--were highlighted and discussed.

  20. Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Energy Development Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, M.C.; Hendron, R.H.; Murphy, H.D.; Wilson, M.G.

    1989-12-01

    During Fiscal Year 1987, emphasis in the Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Energy Development Program was on preparations for a Long-Term Flow Test'' of the Phase II'' or Engineering'' hot dry rock energy system at Fenton Hill, New Mexico. A successful 30-day flow test of the system during FY86 indicated that such a system would produce heat at a temperature and rate that could support operation of a commercial electrical power plant. However, it did not answer certain questions basic to the economics of long-term operation, including the rate of depletion of the thermal reservoir, the rate of water loss from the system, and the possibility of operating problems during extended continuous operation. Preparations for a one-year flow test of the system to answer these and more fundamental questions concerning hot dry rock systems were made in FY87: design of the required surface facilities; procurement and installation of some of their components; development and testing of slimline logging tools for use through small-diameter production tubing; research on temperature-sensitive reactive chemical tracers to monitor thermal depletion of the reservoir; and computer simulations of the 30-day test, extended to modeling the planned Long-Term Flow Test. 45 refs., 34 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. Blood-brain barrier models and their relevance for a successful development of CNS drug delivery systems: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicker, Joana; Alves, Gilberto; Fortuna, Ana; Falcão, Amílcar

    2014-08-01

    During the research and development of new drugs directed at the central nervous system, there is a considerable attrition rate caused by their hampered access to the brain by the blood-brain barrier. Throughout the years, several in vitro models have been developed in an attempt to mimic critical functionalities of the blood-brain barrier and reliably predict the permeability of drug candidates. However, the current challenge lies in developing a model that retains fundamental blood-brain barrier characteristics and simultaneously remains compatible with the high throughput demands of pharmaceutical industries. This review firstly describes the roles of all elements of the neurovascular unit and their influence on drug brain penetration. In vitro models, including non-cell based and cell-based models, and in vivo models are herein presented, with a particular emphasis on their methodological aspects. Lastly, their contribution to the improvement of brain drug delivery strategies and drug transport across the blood-brain barrier is also discussed.

  2. Comparison of coating processes in the development of aluminum-based barriers for blanket applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wulf, Sven-Erik, E-mail: sven-erik.wulf@kit.edu; Krauss, Wolfgang; Konys, Jürgen

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: •Electrochemical processes ECA and ECX are suitable for Al deposition on RAFM steels. •ECA and ECX are able to produce thin Al layers with adjustable thicknesses. •All aluminization processes need a subsequent heat treatment. •Scales made by ECA or ECX exhibit reduced thicknesses compared to HDA. •ECX provides higher flexibility compared to ECA to produce scales on RAFM steels. -- Abstract: Reduced activation ferritic-martensitic steels (RAFM), e.g. Eurofer 97, are envisaged in future fusion technology as structural material, which will be in direct contact with a flowing liquid lead–lithium melt serving as breeder material. Aluminum-based barrier layers had proven their ability to protect the structural material from corrosion attack in flowing Pb–15.7Li and to reduce tritium permeation into the coolant. Coming from scales produced by hot dipping aluminization (HDA), the development of processes based on electrochemical methods to produce defined aluminum-based scales on RAFM steels gained attention in research during the last years. Two different electrochemical processes are proposed: The first one, referred to as ECA process, is based on the electrodeposition of aluminum from volatile, metal-organic electrolytes. The other process called ECX is based on ionic liquids. All three processes exhibit specific characteristics, for example in the field of processability, control of coating thicknesses (low activation criteria) and heat treatment behavior. The aim of this article is to compare these different coating processes critically, whereby the focus is on the comparison of ECA and ECX processes. New results for ECX-process will be presented and occurring development needs for the future will be discussed.

  3. Selective ablation of the androgen receptor in mouse sertoli cells affects sertoli cell maturation, barrier formation and cytoskeletal development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariane Willems

    Full Text Available The observation that mice with a selective ablation of the androgen receptor (AR in Sertoli cells (SC (SCARKO mice display a complete block in meiosis supports the contention that SC play a pivotal role in the control of germ cell development by androgens. To delineate the physiological and molecular mechanism responsible for this control, we compared tubular development in pubertal SCARKO mice and littermate controls. Particular attention was paid to differences in SC maturation, SC barrier formation and cytoskeletal organization and to the molecular mediators potentially involved. Functional analysis of SC barrier development by hypertonic perfusion and lanthanum permeation techniques and immunohistochemical analysis of junction formation showed that SCARKO mice still attempt to produce a barrier separating basal and adluminal compartment but that barrier formation is delayed and defective. Defective barrier formation was accompanied by disturbances in SC nuclear maturation (immature shape, absence of prominent, tripartite nucleoli and SC polarization (aberrant positioning of SC nuclei and cytoskeletal elements such as vimentin. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to study the transcript levels of genes potentially related to the described phenomena between day 8 and 35. Differences in the expression of SC genes known to play a role in junction formation could be shown from day 8 for Cldn11, from day 15 for Cldn3 and Espn, from day 20 for Cdh2 and Jam3 and from day 35 for ZO-1. Marked differences were also noted in the transcript levels of several genes that are also related to cell adhesion and cytoskeletal dynamics but that have not yet been studied in SC (Actn3, Ank3, Anxa9, Scin, Emb, Mpzl2. It is concluded that absence of a functional AR in SC impedes the remodeling of testicular tubules expected at the onset of spermatogenesis and interferes with the creation of the specific environment needed for germ cell development.

  4. Pro-inflammatory cytokine regulation of P-glycoprotein in the developing blood-brain barrier.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Iqbal

    Full Text Available Placental P-glycoprotein (P-gp acts to protect the developing fetus from exogenous compounds. This protection declines with advancing gestation leaving the fetus and fetal brain vulnerable to these compounds and potential teratogens in maternal circulation. This vulnerability may be more pronounced in pregnancies complicated by infection, which is common during pregnancy. Pro-inflammatory cytokines (released during infection have been shown to be potent inhibitors of P-gp, but nothing is known regarding their effects at the developing blood-brain barrier (BBB. We hypothesized that P-gp function and expression in endothelial cells of the developing BBB will be inhibited by pro-inflammatory cytokines. We have derived brain endothelial cell (BEC cultures from various stages of development of the guinea pig: gestational day (GD 50, 65 (term ~68 days and postnatal day (PND 14. Once these cultures reached confluence, BECs were treated with various doses (10(0-10(4 pg/mL of pro-inflammatory cytokines: interleukin-1β (IL-1β, interleukin-6 (IL-6 or tumor necrosis factor- α (TNF-α. P-gp function or abcb1 mRNA (encodes P-gp expression was assessed following treatment. Incubation of GD50 BECs with IL-1β, IL-6 or TNF-α resulted in no change in P-gp function. GD65 BECs displayed a dose-dependent decrease in function with all cytokines tested; maximal effects at 42%, 65% and 34% with IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α treatment, respectively (P<0.01. Inhibition of P-gp function by IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α was even greater in PND14 BECs; maximal effects at 36% (P<0.01, 84% (P<0.05 and 55% (P<0.01, respectively. Cytokine-induced reductions in P-gp function were associated with decreased abcb1 mRNA expression. These data suggest that BBB P-gp function is increasingly responsive to the inhibitory effects of pro-inflammatory cytokines, with increasing developmental age. Thus, women who experience infection and take prescription medication during pregnancy may expose the

  5. 78 FR 36520 - Rural Development Voucher Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-18

    ... origin, age, disability, sex, gender identity, religion, reprisal, and where applicable, political... require alternative means of communication for program information (e.g., Braille, large print,...

  6. Effects of a Rehabilitation Program on Perceived Environmental Barriers in Older Patients Recovering from Hip Fracture: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erja Portegijs

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To study effects of a one-year multicomponent intervention on perceived environmental barriers in hip fracture patients. Design. Randomized controlled trial of a 12-month home-based rehabilitation aiming to improve mobility and function (ISRCTN53680197; secondary analyses. Subjects. Community-dwelling hip fracture patients on average 70 days after trauma (n=81. Methods. Assessments at baseline, 3, 6, and 12 months later included perceived entrance-related barriers (e.g., indoor/outdoor stairs, lighting, floor surfaces, and storage for mobility devices and perceived barriers in the outdoor environment (poor street condition, hilly terrain, long-distances, and lack of resting places. Sum scores for entrance-related and outdoor barriers were analyzed using general estimating equation models. Results. At baseline, 48% and 37% of the patients perceived at least one entrance-related barrier, and 62% and 60% perceived at least one outdoor barrier in the intervention and control group, respectively. Over time, (P=0.003 the number of entrance-related barriers decreased in both groups (group P=0.395; interaction P=0.571. For outdoor barriers, time (P=0.199, group (P=0.911, and interaction effect (P=0.430 were not significant. Conclusion. Our intervention had no additional benefit over standard care in hip fracture patients. Further study is warranted to determine whether perceived environmental barriers can be reduced by interventions targeted at the older individual. This trial is registered with ISRCTN53680197.

  7. Hydrogen hybrid vehicle engine development: Experimental program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Blarigan, P. [Sandia National Lab., Livermore, CA (United States)

    1995-09-01

    A hydrogen fueled engine is being developed specifically for the auxiliary power unit (APU) in a series type hybrid vehicle. Hydrogen is different from other internal combustion (IC) engine fuels, and hybrid vehicle IC engine requirements are different from those of other IC vehicle engines. Together these differences will allow a new engine design based on first principles that will maximize thermal efficiency while minimizing principal emissions. The experimental program is proceeding in four steps: (1) Demonstration of the emissions and the indicated thermal efficiency capability of a standard CLR research engine modified for higher compression ratios and hydrogen fueled operation. (2) Design and test a new combustion chamber geometry for an existing single cylinder research engine, in an attempt to improve on the baseline indicated thermal efficiency of the CLR engine. (3) Design and build, in conjunction with an industrial collaborator, a new full scale research engine designed to maximize brake thermal efficiency. Include a full complement of combustion diagnostics. (4) Incorporate all of the knowledge thus obtained in the design and fabrication, by an industrial collaborator, of the hydrogen fueled engine for the hybrid vehicle power train illustrator. Results of the CLR baseline engine testing are presented, as well as preliminary data from the new combustion chamber engine. The CLR data confirm the low NOx produced by lean operation. The preliminary indicated thermal efficiency data from the new combustion chamber design engine show an improvement relative to the CLR engine. Comparison with previous high compression engine results shows reasonable agreement.

  8. Financing renewable energy in developing countries. Drivers and barriers for private finance in sub-Saharan Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-02-15

    The focus of this report is to identify and portray current barriers to the scaling up of private investment and finance for electricity generation from renewable energy sources in the sub-Saharan region. Best practice in tackling these barriers is identified, partly from a literature review but especially from the results of a survey conducted among 36 financial institutions that are UNEP Finance Initiative members and two non-member banks (all survey respondents have experience in the field of energy infrastructure finance). Promising avenues in the areas of local policy reform, incentive mechanisms and international de-risking instruments are highlighted. In particular, this report addresses the following questions: (a) Why are sub-Saharan Africa and developing countries elsewhere failing to expand electricity generation from renewable sources? What are the barriers to such expansion? What is keeping the risk-return profile of renewable energy investments in sub-Saharan Africa unattractive and projects commercially unviable?; (b) What have been the experiences of private sector lenders and investors in the area of renewable energy projects in developing countries? What barriers and drivers have they encountered, and how can these experiences be of use in sub-Saharan Africa?; (c) What can be learned from the modest but encouraging successes of a few sub-Saharan African countries? Can these results be replicated? What was done in these countries to improve the risk-return profile of renewable energy and unlock private finance?.

  9. Needs and gaps in the development of aluminum-based corrosion and T-permeation barriers for DEMO blankets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wulf, Sven-Erik, E-mail: sven-erik.wulf@kit.edu; Krauss, Wolfgang; Konys, Jürgen

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • New processes for barriers based on electroplating introduced in the last years. • New processes ECA and ECX able to overcome former fabrication problems. • Scales by ECA showed long-term compatibility in flowing Pb–Li (>12,000 h). • Further fusion relevant characterization and optimization of scales is required. • Qualification of T-permeation properties is urgently needed. - Abstract: Low-activation-ferritic–martensitic (RAFM) steels are candidates for structural materials in different blanket designs foreseen for DEMO and partly for TBM's tested in ITER. In all designs the liquid breeder Pb–15.7Li is in direct contact with the structural material, and thus two major topics – corrosion and T-permeation – influence the reliable, safe and economical application of such combination of breeder and structural material. As bare RAFM steels exhibit high corrosion rates of up to 400 μm/h in flowing Pb–15.7Li, Al-based coatings made by different coating processes were developed during the last 15 years and showed promising results in protecting RAFM steels from corrosion and T-permeation reduction. Especially barriers made by HDA, and electroplating (ECA, ECX), proved their ability to protect Eurofer against corrosion in flowing Pb–15.7Li. However, available T-permeation data for coated RAFM steels are rare and partly ambiguous for these coatings. This paper summarizes the state-of-the-art of aluminum-based barrier development and points out gaps and needs in future scale characterization and T-permeation barrier development. Additionally, necessary qualification steps on the path toward a reliable fabrication route are presented that is required to produce aluminum-based corrosion and T-permeation barriers on RAFM steels for blanket applications in future fusion reactors like DEMO.

  10. Wheelchair users’ perspectives on barriers in public spaces in Vienna: implications for the development of a barrier information system / Barrieren aus der Sicht von Rollstuhlnutzern/-innen im öffentlichen Raum in Wien: Implikationen für ein Barriere-Informationssystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Außermaier Hannes

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Wheelchair users often encounter barriers reducing community mobility and participation in societal life. Information on barrier-free routes may improve mobility and therefore societal participation. In addition to technical prerequisites, a routing system will only be effective and used by the target group, if the development process is based on their perceptions and needs. The aim of the study was therefore to collect data on barriers from the viewpoint of wheelchair users in Vienna.

  11. Design and Development of a Nonverbal Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiagarajan, S.

    1973-01-01

    Problems were encountered in designing an illustrated program on contraceptive techniques for India's rural population where illiteracy is high and hundreds of different languages are spoken. Field trials of a picture program indicated the ability to "read" a picture is an acquired skill. (Author)

  12. Eco-efficiency in contaminated land management in Finland: barriers and development needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorvari, Jaana; Antikainen, Riina; Kosola, Marja-Leena; Hokkanen, Pekka; Haavisto, Teija

    2009-04-01

    In Finland the number of potentially contaminated sites totals ca. 20 000. The annual costs of remediation are 60-70 million euros. Excavation combined with disposal or off-site treatment is the most common soil remediation method. To define which factors make contaminated land management (CLM) eco-efficient and to study whether eco-efficiency has been considered in CLM decisions we carried out a literature survey, two stakeholder seminars, thematic interviews and a questionnaire study on economic instruments. Generally speaking, eco-efficiency means gaining environmental benefits with fewer resources. To assess its realization in CLM, it is necessary to have a more specific definition. In our study, we arrived at a list of several qualifications for eco-efficiency. It was also shown that eco-efficiency has hardly been a real issue in the selection of remediation techniques or generally, in the decision-making concerning contaminated sites. The existing policy instruments seem to be insufficient to promote eco-efficiency in CLM. Several concrete barriers to eco-efficiency also came up, urgency and lack of money being the most important. The scarcity of the use of in situ remediation methods and the difficulties involved in recycling slightly contaminated or treated soil were considered to be major problems. Insufficient site studies, inadequate or unsuitable methods for risk assessment and cost evaluation, and deficient and mistimed risk communication can also hinder the realization of eco-efficiency. Hence, there is a need to promote the use of more eco-efficient remediation techniques and to develop CLM policy instruments, guidelines, and participatory processes and methods to assess the eco-efficiency of CLM options.

  13. Method and Process Development of Advanced Atmospheric Plasma Spraying for Thermal Barrier Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihm, Sebastian; Duda, Thomas; Gruner, Heiko; Thomas, Georg; Dzur, Birger

    2012-06-01

    Over the last few years, global economic growth has triggered a dramatic increase in the demand for resources, resulting in steady rise in prices for energy and raw materials. In the gas turbine manufacturing sector, process optimizations of cost-intensive production steps involve a heightened potential of savings and form the basis for securing future competitive advantages in the market. In this context, the atmospheric plasma spraying (APS) process for thermal barrier coatings (TBC) has been optimized. A constraint for the optimization of the APS coating process is the use of the existing coating equipment. Furthermore, the current coating quality and characteristics must not change so as to avoid new qualification and testing. Using experience in APS and empirically gained data, the process optimization plan included the variation of e.g. the plasma gas composition and flow-rate, the electrical power, the arrangement and angle of the powder injectors in relation to the plasma jet, the grain size distribution of the spray powder and the plasma torch movement procedures such as spray distance, offset and iteration. In particular, plasma properties (enthalpy, velocity and temperature), powder injection conditions (injection point, injection speed, grain size and distribution) and the coating lamination (coating pattern and spraying distance) are examined. The optimized process and resulting coating were compared to the current situation using several diagnostic methods. The improved process significantly reduces costs and achieves the requirement of comparable coating quality. Furthermore, a contribution was made towards better comprehension of the APS of ceramics and the definition of a better method for future process developments.

  14. Thermal and Environmental Barrier Coating Development for Advanced Propulsion Engine Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.; Fox, Dennis S.

    2008-01-01

    Ceramic thermal and environmental barrier coatings (TEBCs) are used in gas turbine engines to protect engine hot-section components in the harsh combustion environments, and extend component lifetimes. Advanced TEBCs that have significantly lower thermal conductivity, better thermal stability and higher toughness than current coatings will be beneficial for future low emission and high performance propulsion engine systems. In this paper, ceramic coating design and testing considerations will be described for turbine engine high temperature and high-heat-flux applications. Thermal barrier coatings for metallic turbine airfoils and thermal/environmental barrier coatings for SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composite (CMC) components for future supersonic aircraft propulsion engines will be emphasized. Further coating capability and durability improvements for the engine hot-section component applications can be expected by utilizing advanced modeling and design tools.

  15. United Nations Development Program solicits funds from corporations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karliner, J; Srivastava, A; Bruno, K

    1999-01-01

    The Global Sustainable Development Facility (GSDF) project, a collaboration between the U.N. Development Program and a variety of global corporate sponsors, some with poor human rights, labor, and environmental records, has come under criticism from prestigious nongovernmental organizations around the world. A letter to James Gustave Speth, Administrator of the U.N. Development Program, expresses concern about the threat posed by the GSDF project to the independence and credibility of the U.N. Development Program.

  16. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program: Phase III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G.T. Amrhein; R.T. Bailey; W. Downs; M.J. Holmes; G.A. Kudlac; D.A. Madden

    1999-07-01

    The primary objective of the Advanced Emissions Control Development Program (AECDP) is to develop practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of air toxics from coal-fired boilers. The project goal is to effectively control air toxic emissions through the use of conventional flue gas clean-up equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), fabric filters (baghouses - BH), and wet flue gas desulfurization systems (WFGD). Development work concentrated on the capture of trace metals, fine particulate, hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride, with an emphasis on the control of mercury. The AECDP project is jointly funded by the US Department of Energy's Federal Energy Technology Center (DOE), the Ohio Coal Development Office within the Ohio Department of Development (OCDO), and Babcock and Wilcox, a McDermott company (B and W). This report discusses results of all three phases of the AECDP project with an emphasis on Phase III activities. Following the construction and evaluation of a representative air toxics test facility in Phase I, Phase II focused on characterization of the emissions of mercury and other air toxics and the control of these emissions for typical operating conditions of conventional flue gas clean-up equipment. Some general comments that can be made about the control of air toxics while burning a high-sulfur bituminous coal are as follows: (1) particulate control devices such as ESP's and baghouses do a good job of removing non-volatile trace metals, (2) particulate control devices (ESPs and baghouses) effectively remove the particulate-phase mercury, but the particulate-phase mercury was only a small fraction of the total for the coals tested, (3) wet scrubbing can effectively remove hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride, and (4) wet scrubbers show good potential for the removal of mercury when operated under certain conditions, however, for certain applications, system enhancements can be required to achieve

  17. The Development of a Physician Vitality Program: A Brief Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Barbara Couden; Thomas, Tamara L

    2015-10-01

    We describe the development of an innovative program to support physician vitality. We provide the context and process of program delivery which includes a number of experimental support programs. We discuss a model for intervention and methods used to enhance physician resilience, support work-life balance, and change the culture to one that explicitly addresses the physician's biopsychosocial-spiritual needs. Recommendations are given for marriage and family therapists (MFTs) who wish to develop similar support programs for healthcare providers. Video Abstract.

  18. Baseline Gas Turbine Development Program. Fourteenth quarterly progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, F W; Wagner, C E

    1976-04-30

    Progress is reported for a Baseline Gas Turbine Development Program sponsored by the Heat Engine Systems Branch, Division of Transportation Energy Conservation (TEC) of the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA). Structurally, this program is made up of three parts: (1) documentation of the existing automotive gas turbine state-of-the-art; (2) conduction of an extensive component improvement program; and (3) utilization of the improvements in the design, and building of an Upgraded Engine capable of demonstrating program goals.

  19. Socio-cultural barriers to the development of a sustainable energy system - the case of hydrogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Kjerulf; Andersen, Anne Holst

    Any transition to a more sustainable energy system, radically reducing greenhouse gas emissions, is bound to run in to a host of different barriers - technological and economic, but also socio-cultural. This will also be the case for any large-scale application of hydrogen as energy carrier......, especially if the system is going to be based on renewable energy sources. The aim of these research notes is to review and discuss major socio-cultural barriers to new forms of energy supply in general and to hydrogen specifically. Reaching sufficient reductions in greenhouse gas emissions may require more...

  20. Computer Aided Design System for Developing Musical Fountain Programs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丹; 张乃尧; 朱汉城

    2003-01-01

    A computer aided design system for developing musical fountain programs was developed with multiple functions such as intelligent design, 3-D animation, manual modification and synchronized motion to make the development process more efficient. The system first analyzed the music form and sentiment using many basic features of the music to select a basic fountain program. Then, this program is simulated with 3-D animation and modified manually to achieve the desired results. Finally, the program is transformed to a computer control program to control the musical fountain in time with the music. A prototype system for the musical fountain was also developed. It was tested with many styles of music and users were quite satisfied with its performance. By integrating various functions, the proposed computer aided design system for developing musical fountain programs greatly simplified the design of the musical fountain programs.

  1. Barriers and enablers to the implementation of the 6-PACK falls prevention program: A pre-implementation study in hospitals participating in a cluster randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Caroline A.; Landgren, Fiona S.; Melhem, Mayer M.; Bian, Evelyn; Brauer, Sandra G.; Hill, Keith D.; Livingston, Patricia M.

    2017-01-01

    Evidence for effective falls prevention interventions in acute wards is limited. One reason for this may be suboptimal program implementation. This study aimed to identify perceived barriers and enablers of the implementation of the 6-PACK falls prevention program to inform the implementation in a randomised controlled trial. Strategies to optimise successful implementation of 6-PACK were also sought. A mixed-methods approach was applied in 24 acute wards from 6 Australian hospitals. Participants were nurses working on participating wards and senior hospital staff including Nurse Unit Managers; senior physicians; Directors of Nursing; and senior personnel involved in quality and safety or falls prevention. Information on barriers and enablers of 6-PACK implementation was obtained through surveys, focus groups and interviews. Questions reflected the COM-B framework that includes three behaviour change constructs of: capability, opportunity and motivation. Focus group and interview data were analysed thematically, and survey data descriptively. The survey response rate was 60% (420/702), and 12 focus groups (n = 96 nurses) and 24 interviews with senior staff were conducted. Capability barriers included beliefs that falls could not be prevented; and limited knowledge on falls prevention in patients with complex care needs (e.g. cognitive impairment). Capability enablers included education and training, particularly face to face case study based approaches. Lack of resources was identified as an opportunity barrier. Leadership, champions and using data to drive practice change were recognised as opportunity enablers. Motivation barriers included complacency and lack of ownership in falls prevention efforts. Motivation enablers included senior staff articulating clear goals and a commitment to falls prevention; and use of reminders, audits and feedback. The information gained from this study suggests that regular practical face-to-face education and training for nurses

  2. Improving Healthy Living Youth Development Program Outreach in Extension: Lessons Learned from the 4-H Health Rocks! Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumaran, Muthusami; Fogarty, Kate; Fung, Whitney M.; Terminello, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses a qualitative evaluation of the Florida 4-H Health Rocks! program aimed at youth alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use prevention. A questionnaire was distributed to Extension professionals across Florida to gain insight into the strengths and barriers they faced with programming. Programmatic strengths included targeting a…

  3. The Harvard Management for Lifelong Education Program: Creative Approaches to Designing a Professional Development Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baden, Clifford

    1999-01-01

    The Harvard Institute for the Management of Lifelong Education is a professional-development program for leaders in postsecondary lifelong education. It exemplifies creative design and delivery as ideas come from multiple sources and the program is continuously reinvented. (SK)

  4. Game-based programming towards developing algorithmic thinking skills in primary education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hariklia Tsalapatas

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents cMinds, a learning intervention that deploys game-based visual programming towards building analytical, computational, and critical thinking skills in primary education. The proposed learning method exploits the structured nature of programming, which is inherently logical and transcends cultural barriers, towards inclusive learning that exposes learners to algorithmic thinking. A visual programming environment, entitled ‘cMinds Learning Suite’, has been developed aimed for classroom use. Feedback from the deployment of the learning methods and tools in classrooms in several European countries demonstrates elevated learner motivation for engaging in logical learning activities, fostering of creativity and an entrepreneurial spirit, and promotion of problem-solving capacity

  5. Measuring Parent Time Scarcity and Fatigue as Barriers to Meal Planning and Preparation: Quantitative Scale Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storfer-Isser, Amy; Musher-Eizenman, Dara

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine the psychometric properties of 9 quantitative items that assess time scarcity and fatigue as parent barriers to planning and preparing meals for their children. Methods: A convenience sample of 342 parents of children aged 2-6 years completed a 20-minute online survey. Exploratory factor analysis was used to examine the…

  6. Perceived Barriers to Career Development in the Context of Social Cognitive Career Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindley, Lori D.

    2005-01-01

    Social cognitive career theory (SCCT) is a complex and extensively researched theory of career choice and performance. Relationships among several key variables of SCCT, including self-efficacy, outcome expectations, and perceived barriers, and their relationships to career choice were investigated. Contrary to prediction, outcome expectations for…

  7. Internal and External Barriers, Cognitive Style, and the Career Development Variables of Focus and Indecision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creed, Peter A.; Patton, Wendy; Bartrum, Dee

    2004-01-01

    One hundred and thirty final year high school students were administered scales tapping optimism/pessimism, self-esteem, external career barriers, career decision-making self-efficacy, career focus and career indecision. It was hypothesised, first, that cognitive style optimism/pessimism) would predict both internal (self-esteem) and external…

  8. An Assessment of Internet Uses, Practices, and Barriers for Professional Development by Agricultural Science Teachers in Lagos State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olatomide Waheed Olowa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports a study carried out on the utilisation of the Internet by agricultural science teachers in Lagos state focusing on uses, practices, and barriers. A questionnaire was developed based on literature and was administered to 300 agricultural science teachers in Lagos schools. 275 questionnaires properly completed were analyzed. Data reveal that 130 teachers are using the Internet for teaching agricultural science in classrooms as well as for various activities that enhance their professional development. Nevertheless, it was found that agricultural science teachers in Lagos State have not fully utilised the Internet because of barriers related to time factor, accessibility, and facilities. It is suggested that for the proliferation of Internet practices, there needs to be an increase in funding for technology, an introduction of computer/technology education, a provision of pedagogical training for teachers, and a provision of administrational support.

  9. Engaging people who use drugs in policy and program development: A review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ti Lianping

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Health policies and programs are increasingly being driven by people from the community to more effectively address their needs. While a large body of evidence supports peer engagement in the context of policy and program development for various populations, little is known about this form of engagement among people who use drugs (PWUD. Therefore, a narrative literature review was undertaken to provide an overview of this topic. Searches of PubMed and Academic Search Premier databases covering 1995–2010 were conducted to identify articles assessing peer engagement in policy and program development. In total, 19 articles were included for review. Our findings indicate that PWUD face many challenges that restrict their ability to engage with public health professionals and policy makers, including the high levels of stigma and discrimination that persist among this population. Although the literature shows that many international organizations are recommending the involvement of PWUD in policy and program development, our findings revealed a lack of published data on the implementation of these efforts. Gaps in the current evidence highlight the need for additional research to explore and document the engagement of PWUD in the areas of policy and program development. Further, efforts to minimize stigmatizing barriers associated with illicit drug use are urgently needed to improve the engagement of PWUD in decision making processes.

  10. Design of a positive youth development program in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T L; Ma, Hing Keung

    2006-01-01

    The design of a positive youth development program in Hong Kong is outlined. Based on adolescent developmental issues observed in Hong Kong and the conceptual framework on positive youth development, a 2-tier program was designed. For the Tier 1 Program, it is a universal positive youth development program for students in Secondary 1 to Secondary 3 with the curricula developed by a research team comprising scholars from different disciplines (e.g., social work, psychology, and education). For the Tier 2 Program, it is a selective program targeting adolescents with greater psychosocial needs, developed by school social workers providing school social work service in the schools. With particular reference to the Tier 1 program, several principles are maintained in the design of the program. These include comprehensive coverage of positive youth development constructs, theoretical and empirical grounding of the program, holistic emphasis, focus on both adolescent development assets and problems, developmentally appropriate content, culturally relevant content, multi-year intervention, provision of proper and adequate training to the workers, and use of effective teaching methods in the delivery of the program.

  11. Barriers and Potential Improvements for Needle and Syringe Exchange Programs (NSPs) in China: A Qualitative Study from Perspectives of Both Health and Public Security Sectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Fung Kuen; Chen, Xi; Chow, Eric P F; Jing, Jun; Zheng, Jun; Zhao, Junshi; Zhang, Lei

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the acceptability, the barriers to the implementation of needle and syringe exchange programs (NSPs) and the potential improvement strategies in China from the perspectives of governmental health and public security officials. Purposive sampling was used for recruitment of participants who had been involved in NSPs implementation. Semi-Structured individual interviews were conducted in Mandarin to address three aspects of NSPs: (1) participants' attitudes towards NSPs, (2) participants' opinions on the effectiveness and barriers of NSPs, and (3) suggestions for improving the program. Content analysis was used to analyse the translated interview data. A total of 68 participants from 12 Hunan counties were interviewed (34 from each of the Bureau of Health and the Narcotic Division). Both groups recognised the importance and effectiveness of NSPs in HIV prevention, but public security officials regarded NSPs as a temporary intervention in place of punitive measures. Most health officials (32/34) regarded the main barriers to its implementation as administrative and structural, whereas participants from Narcotics Division (n=24) questioned the legitimacy of NSPs and concerned about the poor management of drug users' risk behaviours. Close cooperation between the health and public security sectors, engagement of the drug user community and an enabling policy environment were reportedly to be critical for potential improvements of NSPs in China. Misconceptions about NSPs encourage drug users' addictive behaviour, and an unclear leadership and insufficient support de-motivate the participants from the Bureau of Health and the Narcotics Division to actively support the program implementation.

  12. Differences between African-American and Caucasian students on enrollment influences and barriers in kinesiology-based allied health education programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barfield, J P; Cobler, D C; Lam, Eddie T C; Zhang, James; Chitiyo, George

    2012-06-01

    Kinesiology departments have recently started to offer allied health education programs to attract additional students to teacher education units (9). Although allied health professions offer increased work opportunities, insufficient enrollment and training of minority students in these academic fields contribute to underrepresentation in the workforce (3). To improve workforce diversity, kinesiology departments must understand how enrollment influences and barriers differ by race among prospective students. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to identify differences in allied health education enrollment influences and enrollment barriers between minority and Caucasian students. Participants (n = 601) consisted of students enrolled in kinesiology-based allied health education programs. Multivariate ANOVA was used to compare group differences in enrollment decision making. "Personal influence," "career opportunity," and "physical self-efficacy" were all significantly stronger enrollment influences among African-American students than among Caucasian students, and "social influence," "experiential opportunity," "academic preparation," and "physical self-efficacy" were all perceived as significantly greater barriers compared with Caucasian students. Findings support the need to recruit African-American students through sport and physical education settings and to market program-based experiential opportunities.

  13. Biofuels Feedstock Development Program annual progress report for 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, L.L.; Cushman, J.H.; Ehrenshaft, A.R.; McLaughlin, S.B.; McNabb, W.A.; Ranney, J.W.; Tuskan, G.A.; Turhollow, A.F.

    1992-12-01

    This report provides an overview of the ongoing research funded in 1991 by the Department of Energy's Biofuels Feedstock Development Program (BFDP). The BFDP is managed by the Environmental Sciences Division of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and encompasses the work formerly funded by the Short Rotation Woody Crops Program and the Herbaceous Energy Crops Program. The combined program includes crop development research on both woody and herbaceous energy crop species, cross-cutting energy and environmental analysis and integration, and information management activities. Brief summaries of 26 different program activities are included in the report.

  14. Biofuels Feedstock Development Program annual progress report for 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, L.L.; Cushman, J.H.; Ehrenshaft, A.R.; McLaughlin, S.B.; McNabb, W.A.; Ranney, J.W.; Tuskan, G.A.; Turhollow, A.F.

    1992-12-01

    This report provides an overview of the ongoing research funded in 1991 by the Department of Energy`s Biofuels Feedstock Development Program (BFDP). The BFDP is managed by the Environmental Sciences Division of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and encompasses the work formerly funded by the Short Rotation Woody Crops Program and the Herbaceous Energy Crops Program. The combined program includes crop development research on both woody and herbaceous energy crop species, cross-cutting energy and environmental analysis and integration, and information management activities. Brief summaries of 26 different program activities are included in the report.

  15. Evaluation of Training Programs for Rural Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indira, A.

    2008-01-01

    An Evaluation of the "Impact Assessment of the Training Programs" of a National Level Training Institution in India was conducted using the Kirkpatrick Method (KP Method). The studied Institution takes up research, provides training, offers consultancy and initiates action in the rural sector of India. The evaluation study used a…

  16. Research and development program, fiscal year 1974

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1972-04-01

    The biomedical program of the Laboratory of Nuclear Medicine and Radiation Biology for Fiscal Year 1974 is conducted within the scope of the following categories: Effects of Radiation of Living Organisms; Molecular and Cellular Radiobiology; Land and Fresh Water Environmental Sciences; Radiological and Health Physics and Instrumentation; and Nuclear Medical Research. (ACR)

  17. Higher Education Leadership Graduate Program Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Sydney, Jr.; Chambers, Crystal Renée; Newton, Rochelle

    2016-01-01

    Graduate programs in higher education administration and leadership have sought to equip students with the knowledge, skills, and competencies for higher education leadership; that is, to prepare globally minded leaders who can navigate the internal and external demands of, and for, higher education. With the use of the Lattuca and Stark model of…

  18. El problema de la barrera linguistica en el desarrollo cientifico y tecnologico (The Problem of the Language Barrier in Scientific and Technological Development).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zierer, Ernesto

    This monograph discusses the problem of the language barrier in scientific and technological development in terms of several parameters describing the flow of scientific information from one language to another. The numerical values of the language barrier parameters of the model are calculated in the field of information on second language…

  19. WALK Community Grants Scheme: lessons learned in developing and administering a health promotion microgrants program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caperchione, Cristina; Mummery, W Kerry; Joyner, Kelly

    2010-09-01

    The Women's Active Living Kits (WALK) Community Grant Scheme was a key component of a federally funded Australian initiative aimed at increasing local capacity to promote and engage priority women's groups in health-related physical activity. Under the program, community groups and organizations were provided with the opportunity to apply and receive small grants to support the development of women's walking groups with the aim of increasing physical activity participation levels in women, supporting innovative community ideas for increasing women's physical activity by improving social structures and environments, or both. This article describes the development and administration of the WALK Community Grant Scheme, outlines challenges and barriers encountered throughout the grant program process, and provides practical insights for replicating this initiative.

  20. Advanced Environmental Barrier Coatings Developed for SiC/SiC Composite Vanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang N.; Fox, Dennis S.; Eldridge, Jeffrey I.; Zhu, Dongming; Bansal, Narottam P.; Miller, Robert A.

    2003-01-01

    Ceramic components exhibit superior high-temperature strength and durability over conventional component materials in use today, signifying the potential to revolutionize gas turbine engine component technology. Silicon-carbide fiber-reinforced silicon carbide ceramic matrix composites (SiC/SiC CMCs) are prime candidates for the ceramic hotsection components of next-generation gas turbine engines. A key barrier to the realization of SiC/SiC CMC hot-section components is the environmental degradation of SiC/SiC CMCs in combustion environments. This is in the form of surface recession due to the volatilization of silica scale by water vapor. An external environmental barrier coating (EBC) is a logical approach to achieve protection and long-term durability.

  1. Discharge analysis and electrical modeling for the development of efficient dielectric barrier discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, U. N.; Kumar, M.; Tyagi, M. S.; Meena, B. L.; Khatun, H.; Sharma, A. K.

    2010-02-01

    Dielectric-barrier discharges (DBDs) are characterized by the presence of at least one insulating layer in contact with the discharge between two planar or cylindrical electrodes connected to an AC/pulse power supply. The dielectric layers covering the electrodes act as current limiters and prevent the transition to an arc discharge. DBDs exist usually in filamentary mode, based on the streamer nature of the discharges. The main advantage of this type of electrical discharges is that nonequilibrium and non-thermal plasma conditions can be established at atmospheric pressure. VUV/UV sources based on DBDs are considered as promising alternatives of conventional mercury-based discharge plasmas, producing highly efficient VUV/UV radiation. The experiments have been performed using two coaxial quartz double barrier DBD tubes, which are filled with Xe/Ar at different pressures. A sinusoidal voltage up to 2.4 kV peak with frequencies from 20 to 100 kHz has been applied to the discharge electrodes for the generation of microdischarges. A stable and uniform discharge is produced in the gas gap between the dielectric barrier electrodes. By comparisons of visual images and electrical waveforms, the filamentary discharges for Ar tube while homogeneous discharge for Xe tube at the same conditions have been confirmed. The electrical modeling has been carried out to understand DBD phenomenon in variation of applied voltage waveforms. The simulated discharge characteristics have been validated by the experimental results.

  2. Development of a solvent-free analytical method for paracetamol quantitative determination in Blood Brain Barrier in vitro model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois, Marie-Hélène; Vekris, Antonios; Bousses, Christine; Mordelet, Elodie; Buhannic, Nathalie; Séguard, Céline; Couraud, Pierre-Olivier; Weksler, Babette B; Petry, Klaus G; Gaudin, Karen

    2015-04-15

    A Reversed Phase-High Performance Liquid Chromatography/Diode Array Detection method was developed and validated for paracetamol quantification in cell culture fluid from an in vitro Blood Brain Barrier model. The chromatographic method and sample preparation were developed using only aqueous solvents. The column was a XTerra RP18 150 × 4.6mm, 3.5 μm with a guard column XTerra RP18 20 × 4.6 mm, 3.5 μm at 35 °C and the mobile phase was composed by 100% formate buffer 20 mM at pH 4 and flow rate was set at 1 mL/min. The detection was at 242 nm. The sample was injected at 10 μL. Validation was performed using the accuracy profile approach. The analytical procedure was validated with the acceptance limits at ± 10% over a range of concentration from 1 to 58 mg L(-1). The procedure was then used in routine to determine paracetamol concentration in a brain blood barrier in vitro model. Application of the Unither paracetamol formulation in Blood Brain Barrier model allowed the determination and comparison of the transcellular passage of paracetamol at 37 °C and 4 °C, that excludes paracellular or non specific leakage.

  3. Developing Metrics in Systems Integration (ISS Program COTS Integration Model)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lueders, Kathryn

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews some of the complications in developing metrics for systems integration. Specifically it reviews a case study of how two programs within NASA try to develop and measure performance while meeting the encompassing organizational goals.

  4. Using Self-Determination Theory in Correctional Education Program Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, Dani; Cotronea, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    As funding has become available through the Second Chance Act of 2007, many correctional facilities have developed new educational programs in an effort to ease the transition from prison to community. Many new programs are developed based on the belief that incarcerated individuals are a special and unique population of student. The present…

  5. Environmental Biotechnology Research and Development Program 1989-1992

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkman J; Rulkens WH; Visscher K

    1989-01-01

    This report is an English translation of the Dutch Research and Development Program on environmental biotechnology 1989-1992. In this program an overview is given of the recent developments in environmental biotechnology. Based on this overview, the possibilities of biotechnology for management

  6. Development of an Actuarial Science Program at Salisbury University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainwright, Barbara A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on the development of an actuarial science track for the mathematics major at Salisbury University (SU). A timeline from the initial investigation into such a program through the proposal and approval processes is shared for those who might be interested in developing a new actuarial program. It is wise to start small and take…

  7. College Discovery and Development Program; School Year, 1975-76.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergenn, Victor W.

    The primary objective of the College Discovery and Development Program (CDD), funded under the Elementary Secondary Education Act Title I, has been the discovery and development of the college potential of high school youth who are academically and financially disadvantaged. This program was designed to improve the reading and mathematics…

  8. Developing Higher Education Programs in Emergency Management: Ghana's Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakubu, Mariama Bisongu

    2013-01-01

    Ghana is highly vulnerable and threatened by several hazards and has sought ways of minimizing impacts of hazards events over time including demonstrating an interest in developing an emergency management training and an higher education degree program. Yet, as of 2013, the country has not developed a disaster management training program or a…

  9. Gender and Ethnicity as Barriers for Development: Indigenous Women, Access to Resources in Ecuador with a Latin American Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Radcliffe

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Placing original research undertaken in Ecuador with Kichwa and Tsáchila women, into the Latin American context, the paper addresses the barriers experienced by indigenous women to voice, rights and resources in the context of development programmes. The paper identifies racism, biased knowledges, and entrenched assumptions about women and indigenous people as the primary factors influencing indigenous women’s marginalization. The paper ends with a discussion of indigenous women’s critiques of development, and their recommendations for the future.

  10. Strategies for Planning Staff Development Programs: A Web of Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMesa - Spring Valley School District, CA.

    In 1977, 13 staff development projects were initiated in California under ESEA Title IV-C. The task of each project was to design and implement a unique system for developing a comprehensive staff development program. The materials in this book describe one of the 13 staff development projects: a "Service Center" for staff development that was…

  11. Depth-Penetrating Measurements Developed for Thermal Barrier Coatings Incorporating Thermographic Phosphors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldridge, Jeffrey I.; Bencic, Timothy J.

    2004-01-01

    The insulating properties of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) provide highly beneficial thermal protection to turbine engine components by reducing the temperature sustained by those components. Therefore, measuring the temperature beneath the TBC is critical for determining whether the TBC is performing its insulating function. Currently, noncontact temperature measurements are performed by infrared pyrometry, which unfortunately measures the TBC surface temperature rather than the temperature of the underlying component. To remedy this problem, the NASA Glenn Research Center, under the Information Rich Test Instrumentation Project, developed a technique to measure the temperature beneath the TBC by incorporating a thin phosphor layer beneath the TBC. By performing fluorescence decay-time measurements on light emission from this phosphor layer, Glenn successfully measured temperatures from the phosphor layer up to 1100 C. This is the first successful demonstration of temperature measurements that penetrate beneath the TBC. Thermographic phosphors have a history of providing noncontact surface temperature measurements. Conventionally, a thermographic phosphor is applied to the material surface and temperature measurements are performed by exciting the phosphor with ultraviolet light and then measuring the temperature-dependent decay time of the phosphor emission at a longer wavelength. The innovative feature of the new approach is to take advantage of the relative transparency of the TBC (composed of yttria-stabilized zirconia) in order to excite and measure the phosphor emission beneath the TBC. The primary obstacle to achieving depth-penetrating temperature measurements is that the TBCs are completely opaque to the ultraviolet light usually employed to excite the phosphor. The strategy that Glenn pursued was to select a thermographic phosphor that could be excited and emit at wavelengths that could be transmitted through the TBC. The phosphor that was selected was

  12. Internally-Developed Teen Smoking Cessation Programs: Characterizing the Unique Features of Programs Developed by Community-Based Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kymberle L. Sterling

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available We have compared the unique features of teen tobacco cessation programs developed internally by community-based organizations (N=75 to prepackaged programs disseminated nationally (N=234 to expand our knowledge of treatment options for teen smokers. Internally-developed programs were more likely offered in response to the sponsoring organization’s initiative (OR=2.16, p<0.05; had fewer trained cessation counselors (OR=0.31, p<0.01; and were more likely found in urban areas (OR=2.89, p=0.01. Internally-developed programs more often provided other substance-abuse treatment services than prepackaged programs and addressed other youth-specific problem behaviors (p≤0.05. Studies that examine the effectiveness of internally-developed programs in reducing smoking and maintaining cessation for teen smokers are warranted.

  13. Development and Implementation of a Program Management Maturity Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartwig, Laura; Smith, Matt

    2008-12-15

    In 2006, Honeywell Federal Manufacturing & Technologies (FM&T) announced an updatedvision statement for the organization. The vision is “To be the most admired team within the NNSA [National Nuclear Security Administration] for our relentless drive to convert ideas into the highest quality products and services for National Security by applying the right technology, outstanding program management and best commercial practices.” The challenge to provide outstanding program management was taken up by the Program Management division and the Program Integration Office (PIO) of the company. This article describes how Honeywell developed and deployed a program management maturity model to drive toward excellence.

  14. Center Independent Research & Developments: JPL IRAD Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Innovative projects are sought in the areas of basic research, fundamental research, applied research, development and systems and other concept formulation studies....

  15. Developing Extension Professionals to Develop Extension Programs: A Case Study for the Changing Face of Extension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott R. Cummings

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Development of Cooperative Extension programs depends upon the skills and abilities of competent Extension professionals. The most effective manner of building program development competencies in these Extension professionals is through professional development. A wide variety of competencies are necessary for Extension professionals to develop programs, including strong interpersonal skills. Differences exist between the professional development efforts of Extension institutions and are highlighted herein. Major challenges to delivery of professional development include time and budget, but these can be overcome through planning and innovation and use of online or hybrid methods. Professional development for program development is essential to furthering Extension’s mission, especially during times of rapid change.

  16. The ASM-NSF Biology Scholars Program: An Evidence-Based Model for Faculty Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Amy L; Pribbenow, Christine M

    2016-05-01

    The American Society for Microbiology (ASM) established its ASM-NSF (National Science Foundation) Biology Scholars Program (BSP) to promote undergraduate education reform by 1) supporting biologists to implement evidence-based teaching practices, 2) engaging life science professional societies to facilitate biologists' leadership in scholarly teaching within the discipline, and 3) participating in a teaching community that fosters disciplinary-level science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) reform. Since 2005, the program has utilized year-long residency training to provide a continuum of learning and practice centered on principles from the scholarship of teaching and learning (SoTL) to more than 270 participants ("scholars") from biology and multiple other disciplines. Additionally, the program has recruited 11 life science professional societies to support faculty development in SoTL and discipline-based education research (DBER). To identify the BSP's long-term outcomes and impacts, ASM engaged an external evaluator to conduct a study of the program's 2010-2014 scholars (n = 127) and society partners. The study methods included online surveys, focus groups, participant observation, and analysis of various documents. Study participants indicate that the program achieved its proposed goals relative to scholarship, professional society impact, leadership, community, and faculty professional development. Although participants also identified barriers that hindered elements of their BSP participation, findings suggest that the program was essential to their development as faculty and provides evidence of the BSP as a model for other societies seeking to advance undergraduate science education reform. The BSP is the longest-standing faculty development program sponsored by a collective group of life science societies. This collaboration promotes success across a fragmented system of more than 80 societies representing the life sciences and helps

  17. Developing a longitudinal cancer nursing education program in Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Lisa Kennedy; Wise, Barbara; Carlson, Julie R; Dowds, Cynthia; Sarchet, Vanessa; Sanchez, Jose Angel

    2013-12-01

    The present paper is a longitudinal study which aims to develop and deliver cancer nursing education conferences in Honduras using volunteer nurse educators. This program intends to (1) perform site assessments of work environments and resources for cancer care in Honduras, (2) develop cancer nursing education programs, (3) survey conference participants continuing education needs, (4) deliver cancer nursing education conferences, and (5) share data with local and global partners for future cancer programs. The study draws on a longitudinal program development with site assessments, data collection, and educational conferences at two time points. Assessments and surveys were used for conference development and delivery by volunteer nurse educators. Site assessments and conferences were delivered twice. Data were collected regarding assessments and surveys to inform program development. Survey data revealed that 65 % had internet access. Participants desired more information about handling of chemotherapy, symptom management, and palliative care. Volunteer nurse educators perform site assessments and develop educational programming for cancer nurses. Local and global partners should explore internet-based programs between site visits to create sustainable education programs.

  18. Development and psychometric properties the Barriers to Access to Care Evaluation scale (BACE related to people with mental ill health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clement Sarah

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many people with mental illness do not seek or delay seeking care. This study aimed to develop, and provide an initial validation of, a comprehensive measure for assessing barriers to access to mental health care including a ‘treatment stigma’ subscale, and to present preliminary evidence about the prevalence of barriers experienced by adults currently or recently using secondary mental health services in the UK. Methods The Barriers to Access to Care Evaluation scale (BACE was developed from items in existing scales, systematic item reduction, and feedback from an expert group. It was completed in an online survey by 117 individuals aged 18 and over who had received care from secondary mental health services in the past 12 months. Internal consistency, test-retest reliability, convergent validity (correlation of treatment stigma subscale with the Stigma Scale for Receiving Psychological Help (SSRPH and with the Internalised Stigma of Mental Illness Scale (ISMI, respondent opinion and readability were assessed. Results The BACE items were found to have acceptable test-retest reliability as all but one of the items exceeded the criterion for moderate agreement. The treatment stigma subscale had acceptable test-retest-reliability and good internal consistency. As hypothesised the subscale was significantly positively correlated with the SSRPH and the ISMI demonstrating convergent validity. The developmental process ensured content validity. Respondents gave the BACE a median rating of 8 on the 10-point quality scale. Readability scores indicated the measure can be understood by the average 11 to 12 year-old. The most highly endorsed barrier was ‘concern that it might harm my chances when applying for jobs’. The scale was finalised into a 30-item measure with a 12-item treatment stigma subscale. Conclusions There is preliminary evidence demonstrating the reliability, validity and acceptability of the BACE. It can be used

  19. Process evaluation of "Girls on the Run": exploring implementation in a physical activity-based positive youth development program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iachini, Aidyn L; Beets, Michael W; Ball, Annahita; Lohman, Mary

    2014-10-01

    Many positive youth development programs rely on physical activity as a primary program component. Referred to as physical activity-based youth development programs, these program designs have great potential for promoting healthy youth development. This study examined how one such physical activity-based positive youth development program was implemented in order to identify design features critical to maximizing positive youth outcomes. This mixed method, multi-site process evaluation of Girls on the Run (GOTR) utilized focus groups, site visits, and self-report implementation checklists. Implementation scores were calculated to assess implementation fidelity across twenty-nine sites, and qualitative data were inductively analyzed to identify factors influential for implementation. Results reveal variability in how GOTR was implemented. Five themes emerged from the data that represented factors serving as facilitators or barriers to programmatic implementation. These included contextual/environmental factors (e.g., parental involvement, relationships with school personnel), organizational factors (e.g., implementation support and responsiveness of staff), program-specific factors (e.g., curriculum design), coach factors (e.g., existing relationships with participants, responsiveness to participant's needs), and youth factors (e.g., behavioral and discipline issues). Study findings have implications for improving the design of physical activity-based and other positive youth development programs, with relevance to evaluators, program planners, youth development leaders, and others working with children and youth.

  20. The Development of 2700-3000 F Environmental Barrier Coatings for SiC/SiC Ceramic Matrix Composites: Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming

    2015-01-01

    Environmental barrier coatings (EBCs) and SiCSiC ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) systems will play a crucial role in future turbine engines for hot-section component applications because of their ability to significantly increase engine operating temperatures, reduce engine weight and cooling requirements. The development of prime-reliant environmental barrier coatings is a key to enable the applications of the envisioned 2700-3000F EBC - CMC systems to help achieve next generation engine performance and durability goals. This paper will primarily address the performance requirements and design considerations of environmental barrier coatings for turbine engine applications. The emphasis is placed on current NASA candidate environmental barrier coating systems for SiCSiC CMCs, their performance benefits and design limitations in long-term operation and combustion environments. The efforts have been also directed to developing prime-reliant, self-healing 2700F EBC bond coat; and high stability, lower thermal conductivity, and durable EBC top coats. Major technical barriers in developing environmental barrier coating systems, the coating integrations with next generation CMCs having the improved environmental stability, cyclic durability, erosion-impact resistance, and long-term system performance will be described. The research and development opportunities for turbine engine environmental barrier coating systems by utilizing improved compositions, state-of-the-art processing methods, and simulated environment testing and durability modeling will be discussed.

  1. Air Force Space Systems Development Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1959-10-20

    34 Dead -ends’ development should be avoided. (iii) Large stage development should be based on maximum simpli- fication of design,. fabrication...desirable approach to filling high-thrust booster requirements in the 1962-63 time period. It is a dead -end development as far as follow-on requirements... owlet / of ItoImmo* loom This II. 11.5.C., fottioo 7,3 toot 794. w. itooseission or nwoloOloo of oble► In Goo moos.’ to so woostboriomi porton It ottibiltml br

  2. Barriers in developing and using simulation-based decision-support software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papamichael, Konstantinos; Pal, Vineeta

    2002-03-11

    The need for proper consideration of energy-related performance aspects during building design has been identified since the energy crises of the 1970s. However, energy performance is still considered in a very small fraction of building projects, mainly because proper consideration is very expensive. It requires the use of computational software tools, which are not easy to learn and are time-consuming to use. Several attempts have been made to facilitate the use of energy simulation tools, but none has brought a significant increase in the consideration of energy performance. Energy related performance criteria are still considered only in a small fraction of buildings and, in most cases, after most of the building design is complete. This paper is focused on the main barriers in properly considering energy-related performance aspects in building decisions, which range from sociopolitical, to technical. The paper includes consideration of issues related to the general interest of the building industry in energy performance and environmental impact, current practice trends, modeling capabilities and performance of tools, compatibility of computational models and availability of data. Finally, a strategy for government-industry collaboration towards removing the barriers is presented, along with the main issues that need to be resolved towards potential implementation.

  3. Socio-cultural barriers to the development of a sustainable energy system - the case of hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjerulf Petersen, L.; Holst Andersen, A.

    2009-02-15

    Any transition to a more sustainable energy system, radically reducing greenhouse gas emissions, is bound to run in to a host of different barriers - technological and economic, but also socio-cultural. This will also be the case for any large-scale application of hydrogen as energy carrier, especially if the system is going to be based on renewable energy sources. The aim of these research notes is to review and discuss major socio-cultural barriers to new forms of energy supply in general and to hydrogen specifically. Reaching sufficient reductions in greenhouse gas emissions may require more than large-scale dissemination of renewable energy sources. Also reductions or moderations in energy demand may be necessary. Hence, a central point in the research note is to consider not only socio-cultural obstacles for changing technologies in energy production, distribution and consumption but also obstacles for changing the scale of energy consumption, i.e. moderating the growth in how much energy is consumed or even reducing consumption volumes. (au)

  4. Breaking down the barriers to commercialization of fuel cells in transportation through Government - industry R&D programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chalk, S.G. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Venkateswaran, S.R. [Energetics, Inc., Columbia, MD (United States)

    1996-12-31

    PEM fuel cell technology is rapidly emerging as a viable propulsion alternative to the internal combustion engine. Fuel cells offer the advantages of low emissions, high efficiency, fuel flexibility, quiet and continuous operation, and modularity. Over the last decade, dramatic advances have been achieved in the performance and cost of PEM fuel cell technologies for automotive applications. However, significant technical barriers remain to making fuel cell propulsion systems viable alternatives to the internal combustion engine. This paper focuses on the progress achieved and remaining technical barriers while highlighting Government-industry R&D efforts that are accelerating fuel cell technology toward commercialization.

  5. Department of Energy: Nuclear S&T workforce development programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bingham, Michelle [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bala, Marsha [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Beierschmitt, Kelly [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Steele, Carolyn [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sattelberger, Alfred P. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Bruozas, Meridith A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratories use their expertise in nuclear science and technology (S&T) to support a robust national nuclear S&T enterprise from the ground up. Traditional academic programs do not provide all the elements necessary to develop this expertise, so the DOE has initiated a number of supplemental programs to develop and support the nuclear S&T workforce pipeline. This document catalogs existing workforce development programs that are supported by a number of DOE offices (such as the Offices of Nuclear Energy, Science, Energy Efficiency, and Environmental Management), and by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and the Naval Reactor Program. Workforce development programs in nuclear S&T administered through the Department of Homeland Security, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and the Department of Defense are also included. The information about these programs, which is cataloged below, is drawn from the program websites. Some programs, such as the Minority Serving Institutes Partnership Programs (MSIPPs) are available through more than one DOE office, so they appear in more than one section of this document.

  6. Center Independent Research & Developments: JSC IRAD Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — JSC provides and applies its preeminent capabilities in science and technology to develop, operate, and integrate human exploration missions.  The center...

  7. Program Development for Primary School Teachers' Critical Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonjeam, Waraporn; Tesaputa, Kowat; Sri-ampai, Anan

    2017-01-01

    The objectives of this research were: 1) to study the elements and indicators of primary school teachers' critical thinking, 2) to study current situation, desirable situation, development technique, and need for developing the primary school teachers' critical thinking, 3) to develop the program for developing the primary school teachers'…

  8. Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program FY 2006 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoreen, Terrence P [ORNL

    2007-04-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program reports its status to the US Departmental of Energy (DOE) in March of each year. The program operates under the authority of DOE Order 413.2B, 'Laboratory Directed Research and Development' (April 19, 2006), which establishes DOE's requirements for the program while providing the Laboratory Director broad flexibility for program implementation. LDRD funds are obtained through a charge to all Laboratory programs. This report includes summaries all ORNL LDRD research activities supported during FY 2006. The associated FY 2006 ORNL LDRD Self-Assessment (ORNL/PPA-2007/2) provides financial data about the FY 2006 projects and an internal evaluation of the program's management process.

  9. An Integrated Development Environment for Adiabatic Quantum Programming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humble, Travis S [ORNL; McCaskey, Alex [ORNL; Bennink, Ryan S [ORNL; Billings, Jay Jay [ORNL; D' Azevedo, Eduardo [ORNL; Sullivan, Blair D [ORNL; Klymko, Christine F [ORNL; Seddiqi, Hadayat [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Adiabatic quantum computing is a promising route to the computational power afforded by quantum information processing. The recent availability of adiabatic hardware raises the question of how well quantum programs perform. Benchmarking behavior is challenging since the multiple steps to synthesize an adiabatic quantum program are highly tunable. We present an adiabatic quantum programming environment called JADE that provides control over all the steps taken during program development. JADE captures the workflow needed to rigorously benchmark performance while also allowing a variety of problem types, programming techniques, and processor configurations. We have also integrated JADE with a quantum simulation engine that enables program profiling using numerical calculation. The computational engine supports plug-ins for simulation methodologies tailored to various metrics and computing resources. We present the design, integration, and deployment of JADE and discuss its use for benchmarking adiabatic quantum programs.

  10. (abstract) JPL Cryocooler Development and Test Program Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, R. G.

    1994-01-01

    Many near-term and future space-instrument programs within NASA and the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO) depend on the successful development of long-life, low-vibration space cryocoolers. The most demanding near-term programs include a number of science instruments selected for NASA's Earth Observing System (Eos) program, and a number of space reconnaissance instruments associated with the BMDO's Brilliant Eyes program; both of these programs require delivery of similar types of flight coolers in the next few years. To help ensure the success of these cooler commitments, JPL has implemented an extensive cryocooler program in support of the NASA/JPL AIRS project, the Air Force Phillips Laboratory (AFPL), and the Air Force Space and Missiles Systems Division (SMC). This program is directed at assisting industry in developing advanced cryocoolers that successfully address the broad array of complex performance requirements needed for NASA and BMDO long-life space instruments. The JPL cryocooler program includes extensive characterization and life testing of industry-developed cryocoolers, development and flight testing of advanced sorption cooler systems for detector cooling to 10 K , development of mechanical cryocooler enhancement technologies, and flight tests of advanced low-vibration Stirling-cooler systems.

  11. Offshore sand-shoal development and evolution of Petit Bois Pass, Mississippi-Alabama Barrier Islands, Mississippi, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flocks, James G.; Kelso, Kyle W.; Twichell, Gregory C.; Buster, Noreen A.; Baehr, John N.; Rosati, Julie D.; Wang, Ping; Roberts, Tiffany M.

    2011-01-01

    Assessment of recently collected geophysical and sediment-core data identifies an extensive shoal field located off Dauphin and Petit Bois Islands. The shoals are the product of Pleistocene fluvial deposition and Holocene marine-transgressive processes, and their position and orientation oblique to the modern shoreline has been stable over the past century. The underlying stratigraphy has also influenced the evolution of the barrier platform and inlets. Buried distributary channels bisect the platform, creating erosion hotspots that breach during intense and repeated storms. Inlet growth inhibits littoral transport, and over time, reduces the down-drift sand supply. These relations demonstrate the role of the antecedent geologic framework on morphologic evolution. This study is part of the USGS Northern Gulf of Mexico Ecosystem Change and Hazard Susceptibility Project and the USACE Mississippi Coastal Improvements Program. These projects produced a wealth of information regarding coastal geology, geomorphology, and physical resources; some of the initial results are presented here.

  12. Developing molecular dynamics simulation codes using mixed language programming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeBoni, T.; Feo, J.T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Caffey, H.; Hausheer, F. [BioNumerik Pharmaceuticals, Inc., San Antonio, TX (United States)

    1994-05-01

    We describe our experiences parallelizing a large-scale scientific application to model systems of discrete particles. We describe the approach and tasks undertaken to parallelize this application using two different programming paradigms: imperative and functional. The objectives of both exercises were to maximize performance, parallelism and portability, and to minimize program development costs. We believe this study reveals an important relationship between conventional and novel parallel programming paradigms, and identifies important attributes that novel paradigms must have to gain wide acceptance.

  13. The Development of Environmental Barrier Coating Systems for SiC-SiC Ceramic Matrix Composites: Environment Effects on the Creep and Fatigue Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming; Ghosn, Louis J.

    2014-01-01

    Topics covered include: Environmental barrier coating system development: needs, challenges and limitations; Advanced environmental barrier coating systems (EBCs) for CMC airfoils and combustors; NASA EBC systems and material system evolutions, Current turbine and combustor EBC coating emphases, Advanced development, processing, testing and modeling, EBC and EBC bond coats: recent advances; Design tool and life prediction of coated CMC components; Advanced CMC-EBC rig demonstrations; Summary and future directions.

  14. The impact of teaching development programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rump, Camilla Østerberg; Christiansen, Frederik V; Trigwell, Keith

    to the Information Transfer Teacher Focus of the ATI or the outcome expectancy beliefs of STEBI. The paper discusses which elements of our course design we think are conducive for the development of teacher self-efficacy beliefs and conceptual change student focus respectively, and presents a model for relating......), and the development of teachers’ self-efficacy beliefs with respect to teaching (as measured by a modified version of the Science Teaching Efficacy Belief Instrument). We find significant improvements with respect to both of these dimensions in several recent courses. No significant changes are found with respect...

  15. Regional Innovation System Strengthening Program (SIDa as an Exit Strategy National Community Development Program (PNPM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teguh Narutomo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the PNPM program and follow the program with SIDA Strengthening Program. The research method used is a qualitative method approach of this research through the evaluation research design that builds on the CIPP evaluation model (Context-Input-Process-Product. Since the failure of theories and models of development are too glorifies growth, makes many people turn to focus on people development, which includes requiring optimization of local resources, participation, and empowerment. Since then, "empowerment" which was introduced in Indonesia has been anesthetized and made many hopes among many parties. In 2007 started the National Program for Community Empowerment (PNPM which continue Kecamatan Development Program (KDP. PNPM 2014 which is part of the United Indonesia Cabinet Volume 2 is going to end. For that we need to look for an exit strategy program that can maintain sustainability of PNPM. Regional Innovation Systems Strengthening Program (SIDA is a program of the whole process in one system to foster innovation made between government institutions, local governments, research institutions, educational institutions, innovation support institutions, businesses, and communities in areas that have been implemented since the 2012 SIDA program is an empowerment program as well, both to the public and even empowering to all elements such as academia, private industry, government and society.

  16. CAMCRY: An Innovation in Collaborative Program Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiebert, Bryan; Bezanson, M. Lynne

    The CAMCRY (Creation and Mobilization of Counselling Resources for Youth) initiative was created in response to the large numbers of young people in need of career development assistance in Canada during the late 1980s. These groups included out-of-school youth, youth with special needs, underemployed youth, youth at risk of leaving school, and…

  17. Tools for Nanotechnology Education Development Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorothy Moore

    2010-09-27

    The overall focus of this project was the development of reusable, cost-effective educational modules for use with the table top scanning electron microscope (TTSEM). The goal of this project's outreach component was to increase students' exposure to the science and technology of nanoscience.

  18. Next Generation Drivetrain Development and Test Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, Jonathan; Erdman, Bill; Blodgett, Doug; Halse, Chris; Grider, Dave

    2015-11-03

    This presentation was given at the Wind Energy IQ conference in Bremen, Germany, November 30 through December 2, 2105. It focused on the next-generation drivetrain architecture and drivetrain technology development and testing (including gearbox and inverter software and medium-voltage inverter modules.

  19. Implementing sustainable development programs in Chicago

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, H.

    1994-12-31

    Achieving sustainable development requires a revision of the present view of the nature of the city as an environment, and its relation to a larger ecosystem of which it is an essential part. The environmental health of a wilderness area is inextricably related to the environmental, and economic, health of the great urban centers. The vitality of dense metropolitan areas, where population and economic activities are concentrated, is key to the preservation of productive farm lands, wildlife habitat, and open spaces. The social and economic crisis which grips many metropolitan centers, with attendant flight of industry and development to the so-called {open_quotes}greenfields,{close_quotes} fundamentally spreads a broader crisis to our common ecosystem. This crisis is marked by the obliteration of habitat necessary for biodiversity, loss of fertile farm land, and the contamination of air, water and land, as an unescapable effect of the sprawl created by flight from the urban centers. The removal of false conceptual distinctions between the city and nature, distinctions that are unfortunately at the heart of so much of American environmental philosophy, is key to the concept of `sustainable development.` This article sets forth how the City of Chicago is implementing this understanding of the nature of the urban environment, in pursuit of sustainable development within the city.

  20. Effective Software Engineering Leadership for Development Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagle West, Marsha

    2010-01-01

    Software is a critical component of systems ranging from simple consumer appliances to complex health, nuclear, and flight control systems. The development of quality, reliable, and effective software solutions requires the incorporation of effective software engineering processes and leadership. Processes, approaches, and methodologies for…

  1. Motor Development Programming in Trisomic-21 Babies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, Teresa; Menendez, Javier; Rosique, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    The present study contributes to the understanding of gross motor development in babies with Down's syndrome. Also, it facilitates the comprehension of the efficiency of the early motor stimulation as well as of beginning it as early as possible. We worked with two groups of babies with Down's syndrome, beginning the early motor training in each…

  2. 78 FR 49374 - Rural Development Voucher Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-14

    ...); (iii) A description of what actions will cause a breach of the contract and associated remedies; (iv... breached the RDAP contract. If the Agency chooses to terminate the RDAP contract due to a breach by the... compliance with the terms and conditions of the lease, Rural Development Housing Assistance Payments...

  3. Exploring the hidden shallows: extensive reef development and resilience within the turbid nearshore Great Barrier Reef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Kyle; Perry, Chris; Smithers, Scott; Johnson, Jamie; Daniell, James

    2016-04-01

    Mean coral cover on Australia's Great Barrier Reef (GBR) has reportedly declined by over 15% during the last 30 years. Climate change events and outbreaks of coral disease have been major drivers of degradation, often exacerbating the stresses caused by localised human activities (e.g. elevated sediment and nutrient inputs). Here, however, in the first assessment of nearshore reef occurrence and ecology across meaningful spatial scales (15.5 sq km), we show that areas of the GBR shelf have exhibited strong intra-regional variability in coral resilience to declining water quality. Specifically, within the highly-turbid "mesophotic" nearshore (water reefs may have similar potential as refugia from large-scale disturbance as their deep-water (>30 m) "mesophotic" equivalents, and also provide a basis from which to model future trajectories of reef growth within nearshore areas.

  4. Developing College English as a Second Language (ESL) Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlova, Irina A.; Kennedy, Jelane A.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines available literature on college English as a Second Language (ESL) programs. The literature available on college ESL programs falls into three categories: (1) research reports and articles, (2) recent theoretical discussions on ESL teaching, and (3) thought pieces discussing college ESL curriculum development and assessment…

  5. The Need for Motor Development Programs for Visually Impaired Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazesi, Margot A.

    1986-01-01

    The paper advocates the development of movement programs for preschool visually impaired children to compensate for their orientation deficits. The author asserts that skills necessary for acquisition of spatial concepts should be taught through movement programs at an early age in the normal developmental sequence instead of attempting to remedy…

  6. Health Occupations Education Program Development Guide No. 5: Dental Assisting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Div. of Occupational Education Instruction.

    The bulletin, which is part of the New York State "Health Occupations Education Program Development Guide Series," focuses on the dental assisting program. The curriculum is designed to provide training for dental assistants in their assistant role at chairside, in the dental operatory and laboratory, and in the dental office and reception area. A…

  7. Programming Embedded Systems With C and GNU Development Tools

    CERN Document Server

    Barr, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Whether you're writing your first embedded program, designing the latest generation of hand-held whatchamacalits, or managing the people who do, this book is for you. Programming Embedded Systems will help you develop the knowledge and skills you need to achieve proficiency with embedded software.

  8. Effects of a Program for Developing Creative Thinking Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabanos, Natalia Larraz; Torres, Pedro Allueva

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study is to present an intervention program for creative skills development applied to a group of students of lower Secondary Education. Method: This program was applied in a school in Zaragoza (Spain) during the 2008-09 academic year. The study used a repeated-measures, quasi-experimental design with non-equivalent…

  9. Designing and Managing Successful International Joint Development Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-30

    Analytics: Taking Cost -per-Dollar-Obligated (CPDO) Measures to the Next Level in Defense Contracting Timothy Reed, Principal Director, Beyond Optimal... cost -efficient output. International cooperation during development presents the opportunity to share costs of R&D over participants. From the outset...captures how the program distributes workshare. To achieve cost -efficient outcomes, international programs present greater opportunity for

  10. Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program Assessment for FY 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatton, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Each year, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is required to provide a program description and overview of its Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program (LDRD) to the Department of Energy in accordance with DOE Order 413.2B dated April 19, 2006. This report fulfills that requirement.

  11. Defense Nanotechnology Research and Development Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-05-17

    that can be dyed to match specific patterns and woven into uniforms. • An electrospun fiberized adhesive has been developed for fabric laminates...150 by 30 crossbars ). • High moment, magnetic nano-tags have been fabricated that allow DNA fingerprinting without DNA amplification (i.e., the... learned , and DoD guidance is critical to assure both the optimum direction of ongoing research efforts and the optimum leveraging of this knowledge to

  12. Program Leadership from a Nordic Perspective - Managing Education Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Högfeldt, Anna-Karin; Cornell, Ann; Cronhjort, Mikael;

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we focus on university educational development issues by investigating the program leadership at five Nordic technical universities. Specifically, the paper compares definitions, views and experiences of education leadership in the Nordic Five Tech (N5T) universities. The paper does...... this by, first, reviewing the definitions of roles and responsibilities for program directors at each university, and second, by presenting results from a survey carried out in March 2012 among program directors at the N5T universities. Based on this data, we analyze how program directors experience...

  13. A Learning Tool and Program Development for Mechatronics Design Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iribe, Masatsugu; Shirahata, Akihiro; Kita, Hiromasa; Sasashige, Yousuke; Dasai, Ryoichi

    In this paper we propose a new type educational program for Mechatronics design which contributes to develop the physical sense and problem solving ability of the students who study Mechatronics design. For this program we provide a new handicraft kit of 4-wheeled car which is composed of inexpensive and commonplace parts, and the performance of the assembled 4-wheeled car is sensitive to its assembly arrangement. And then we implemented this program with the handicraft kit to the university freshmen, and verified its effectiveness, and report the results of the program.

  14. Guidelines for Developing Educational Programs for Cooperating Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyton, Edith

    1989-01-01

    Guidelines are provided for developing educational programs for cooperating teachers, or other teachers who work with beginning teachers. The guidelines have eight essential components which can be categorized as procedural, substantive, or knowledge components. (IAH)

  15. Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogeka, G.J.; Romano, A.J.

    1992-12-01

    This report briefly discusses the following research: Advances in Geoexploration; Transvenous Coronary Angiography with Synchrotron X-Rays; Borehole Measurements of Global Warming; Molecular Ecology: Development of Field Methods for Microbial Growth Rate and Activity Measurements; A New Malaria Enzyme - A Potential Source for a New Diagnostic Test for Malaria and a Target for a New Antimalarial Drug; Basic Studies on Thoron and Thoron Precursors; Cloning of the cDNA for a Human Serine/Threonine Protein Kinase that is Activated Specifically by Double-Stranded DNA; Development of an Ultra-Fast Laser System for Accelerator Applications; Cluster Impact Fusion; Effect of a Bacterial Spore Protein on Mutagenesis; Structure and Function of Adenovirus Penton Base Protein; High Resolution Fast X-Ray Detector; Coherent Synchrotron Radiation Longitudinal Bunch Shape Monitor; High Grain Harmonic Generation Experiment; BNL Maglev Studies; Structural Investigations of Pt-Based Catalysts; Studies on the Cellular Toxicity of Cocaine and Cocaethylene; Human Melanocyte Transformation; Exploratory Applications of X-Ray Microscopy; Determination of the Higher Ordered Structure of Eukaryotic Chromosomes; Uranium Neutron Capture Therapy; Tunneling Microscopy Studies of Nanoscale Structures; Nuclear Techiques for Study of Biological Channels; RF Sources for Accelerator Physics; Induction and Repair of Double-Strand Breaks in the DNA of Human Lymphocytes; and An EBIS Source of High Charge State Ions up to Uranium.

  16. Development Status and Performance Comparisons of Environmental Barrier Coating Systems for SiCSiC Ceramic Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming; Harder, Bryan

    2016-01-01

    Environmental barrier coatings (EBC) and SiCSiC ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) will play a crucial role in future aircraft turbine engine systems, because of their ability to significantly increase engine operating temperatures, reduce engine weight and cooling requirements. This paper presents current NASA EBC-CMC development emphases including: the coating composition and processing improvements, laser high heat flux-thermal gradient thermo-mechanical fatigue - environmental testing methodology development, and property evaluations for next generation EBC-CMC systems. EBCs processed with various deposition techniques including Plasma Spray, Electron Beam - Physical Vapor Deposition, and Plasma Spray Physical Vapor Deposition (PS-PVD) will be particularly discussed. The testing results and demonstrations of advanced EBCs-CMCs in complex simulated engine thermal gradient cyclic fatigue, oxidizing-steam and CMAS environments will help provide insights into the coating development strategies to meet long-term engine component durability goals.

  17. Evaluating a physician leadership development program - a mixed methods approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Throgmorton, Cheryl; Mitchell, Trey; Morley, Tom; Snyder, Marijo

    2016-05-16

    Purpose - With the extent of change in healthcare today, organizations need strong physician leaders. To compensate for the lack of physician leadership education, many organizations are sending physicians to external leadership programs or developing in-house leadership programs targeted specifically to physicians. The purpose of this paper is to outline the evaluation strategy and outcomes of the inaugural year of a Physician Leadership Academy (PLA) developed and implemented at a Michigan-based regional healthcare system. Design/methodology/approach - The authors applied the theoretical framework of Kirkpatrick's four levels of evaluation and used surveys, observations, activity tracking, and interviews to evaluate the program outcomes. The authors applied grounded theory techniques to the interview data. Findings - The program met targeted outcomes across all four levels of evaluation. Interview themes focused on the significance of increasing self-awareness, building relationships, applying new skills, and building confidence. Research limitations/implications - While only one example, this study illustrates the importance of developing the evaluation strategy as part of the program design. Qualitative research methods, often lacking from learning evaluation design, uncover rich themes of impact. The study supports how a PLA program can enhance physician learning, engagement, and relationship building throughout and after the program. Physician leaders' partnership with organization development and learning professionals yield results with impact to individuals, groups, and the organization. Originality/value - Few studies provide an in-depth review of evaluation methods and outcomes of physician leadership development programs. Healthcare organizations seeking to develop similar in-house programs may benefit applying the evaluation strategy outlined in this study.

  18. Epidermal transglutaminase (TGase 3 is required for proper hair development, but not the formation of the epidermal barrier.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan John

    Full Text Available Transglutaminases (TGase, a family of cross-linking enzymes present in most cell types, are important in events as diverse as cell-signaling and matrix stabilization. Transglutaminase 1 is crucial in developing the epidermal barrier, however the skin also contains other family members, in particular TGase 3. This isoform is highly expressed in the cornified layer, where it is believed to stabilize the epidermis and its reduction is implicated in psoriasis. To understand the importance of TGase 3 in vivo we have generated and analyzed mice lacking this protein. Surprisingly, these animals display no obvious defect in skin development, no overt changes in barrier function or ability to heal wounds. In contrast, hair lacking TGase 3 is thinner, has major alterations in the cuticle cells and hair protein cross-linking is markedly decreased. Apparently, while TGase 3 is of unique functional importance in hair, in the epidermis loss of TGase 3 can be compensated for by other family members.

  19. A House Full of Trap Doors. Identifying barriers to resilient drylands in the toolbox of pastoral development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krätli, Saverio; Kaufmann, Brigitte; Roba, Hassan; Hiernaux, Pierre; Li, Wenjun; Easdale, Marcos H.; Huelsebusch, Christian

    2016-04-01

    The theoretical understanding of drylands and pastoral systems has long undergone a U-turn from the initial perspective rooted in classical ecology. The shift has hinged on the way to represent asymmetric variability, from a disturbance in an ecosystem that naturally tends towards uniformity and stability, to a constitutive part of a dynamic ecosystem. Operationalising the new reversed perspective, including the need to update the methodological infrastructure to plan around drylands and pastoral development, remains a challenge. Underlying assumptions about stability and uniformity, that are a legacy of equilibrium thinking, remain embedded in the toolbox of pastoral development, starting from the technical language to talk about the subject. This effectively gets in the way of operationalizing state of the art understanding of pastoral systems and the drylands. Unless these barriers are identified, unpacked and managed, even the present calls for increasing the rigour and intensity of data collection - for example as part of the ongoing global process to revise and improve agricultural data - cannot deliver a realistic representation of pastoral systems in statistics and policy making. This contribution presents the case for understanding variability as an asset, and provides a range of examples of methodological barriers, including classifications of livestock systems, scale of observation, key parameters in animal production, indicators in the measurement of ecological efficiency, concepts of ecological fragility, natural resources, and pastoral risk. The need to update this legacy is a pressing challenge for policy makers concerned with both modernisation and resilience in the drylands.

  20. Using online program development to foster curricular change and innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwozdek, Anne E; Springfield, Emily C; Peet, Melissa R; Kerschbaum, Wendy E

    2011-03-01

    Distance education offers an opportunity to catalyze sweeping curricular change. Faculty members of the University of Michigan Dental Hygiene Program spent eighteen months researching best practices, planning outcomes and courses, and implementing an e-learning (online) dental hygiene degree completion program. The result is a collaborative and portfolio-integrated program that focuses on the development of reflective practitioners and leaders in the profession. A team-based, systems-oriented model for production, implementation, and evaluation has been critical to the program's success. The models and best practices on which this program was founded are described. Also provided is a framework of strategies for development, including the utilization of backward course design, which can be used in many areas of professional education.

  1. Development of Effective Teacher Program: Teamwork Building Program for Thailand's Municipal Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantathai, Pimpka; Tesaputa, Kowat; Somprach, Kanokorn

    2015-01-01

    This research is aimed to formulate the effective teacher teamwork program in municipal schools in Thailand. Primary survey on current situation and problem was conducted to develop the plan to suggest potential programs. Samples were randomly selected from municipal schools by using multi-stage sampling method in order to investigate their…

  2. Drugs developed to treat diabetes, liraglutide and lixisenatide, cross the blood brain barrier and enhance neurogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hunter Kerry

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Type 2 diabetes is a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD, most likely linked to an impairment of insulin signalling in the brain. Therefore, drugs that enhance insulin signalling may have therapeutic potential for AD. Liraglutide (Victoza and exenatide (Byetta are novel long-lasting analogues of the GLP-1 incretin hormone and are currently available to treat diabetes. They facilitate insulin signalling via the GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R. Numerous in vitro and in vivo studies have shown that GLP-1 analogues have a range of neuroprotective properties. GLP-1Rs are expressed in the hippocampal area of the brain an important site of adult neurogenesis and maintenance of cognition and memory formation. Therefore, if GLP-1 analogues can cross the blood brain barrier, diffuse through the brain to reach the receptors and most importantly activate them, their neuroprotective effects may be realized. Results In the present study we profiled the GLP-1 receptor agonists liraglutide (Victoza and lixisenatide (Lyxumia. We measured the kinetics of crossing the blood brain barrier (BBB, activation of the GLP-1R by measuring cAMP levels, and physiological effects in the brain on neuronal stem cell proliferation and neurogenesis. Both drugs were able to cross the BBB. Lixisenatide crossed the BBB at all doses tested (2.5, 25, or 250 nmol/kg bw ip. when measured 30 min post-injection and at 2.5-25 nmol/kg bw ip. 3 h post-injection. Lixisenatide also enhanced neurogenesis in the brain. Liraglutide crossed the BBB at 25 and 250 nmol/kg ip. but no increase was detectable at 2.5 nmol/kg ip. 30 min post-injection, and at 250 nmol/kg ip. at 3 h post-injection. Liraglutide and lixisenatide enhanced cAMP levels in the brain, with lixisenatide being more effective. Conclusions Our results suggest that these novel incretin analogues cross the BBB and show physiological activity and neurogenesis in the brain, which may be of use as a treatment of

  3. Improving energy efficiency in industrial energy systems an interdisciplinary perspective on barriers, energy audits, energy management, policies, and programs

    CERN Document Server

    Thollander, Patrik

    2012-01-01

    Industrial energy efficiency is one of the most important means of reducing the threat of increased global warming. Research however states that despite the existence of numerous technical energy efficiency measures, its deployment is hindered by the existence of various barriers to energy efficiency. The complexity of increasing energy efficiency in manufacturing industry calls for an interdisciplinary approach to the issue. Improving energy efficiency in industrial energy systems applies an interdisciplinary perspective in examining energy efficiency in industrial energy systems, and discuss

  4. The role of the blood–brain barrier in the development and treatment of migraine and other pain disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    DosSantos, Marcos F.; Holanda-Afonso, Rosenilde C.; Lima, Rodrigo L.; DaSilva, Alexandre F.; Moura-Neto, Vivaldo

    2014-01-01

    The function of the blood–brain barrier (BBB) related to chronic pain has been explored for its classical role in regulating the transcellular and paracellular transport, thus controlling the flow of drugs that act at the central nervous system, such as opioid analgesics (e.g., morphine) and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Nonetheless, recent studies have raised the possibility that changes in the BBB permeability might be associated with chronic pain. For instance, changes in the relative amounts of occludin isoforms, resulting in significant increases in the BBB permeability, have been demonstrated after inflammatory hyperalgesia. Furthermore, inflammatory pain produces structural changes in the P-glycoprotein, the major efflux transporter at the BBB. One possible explanation for these findings is the action of substances typically released at the site of peripheral injuries that could lead to changes in the brain endothelial permeability, including substance P, calcitonin gene-related peptide, and interleukin-1 beta. Interestingly, inflammatory pain also results in microglial activation, which potentiates the BBB damage. In fact, astrocytes and microglia play a critical role in maintaining the BBB integrity and the activation of those cells is considered a key mechanism underlying chronic pain. Despite the recent advances in the understanding of BBB function in pain development as well as its interference in the efficacy of analgesic drugs, there remain unknowns regarding the molecular mechanisms involved in this process. In this review, we explore the connection between the BBB as well as the blood–spinal cord barrier and blood–nerve barrier, and pain, focusing on cellular and molecular mechanisms of BBB permeabilization induced by inflammatory or neuropathic pain and migraine. PMID:25339863

  5. Mainstreaming climate adaptation into development assistance: rationale, institutional barriers and opportunities in Mozambique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sietz, D.; Boschütz, M.; Klein, R.J.T.

    2011-01-01

    In Mozambique, weather extremes threaten development progress, while pronounced poverty aggravates the climate vulnerability of the population. With the country being a major recipient of official development assistance, Mozambique's development strongly depends on donor investments. Against this ba

  6. Field study of gravel admix, vegetation, and soil water interactions: Protective Barrier Program Status Reprt - FY 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waugh, W.J.; Thiede, M.E.; Kemp, C.J.; Cadwell, L.L. Link, S.O.

    1990-08-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford) are collaborating on a field study of the effects of gravel admixtures on plant growth and soil water storage in protective barriers. Protective barriers are engineered earthern covers designed to prevent water, plants, and animals from contacting buried waste and transporting contaminants to groundwater or the land surface. Some of the proposed designs include gravel admixtures or gravel mulches on the barrier surface to control soil loss by wind and runoff. The purpose of this study is to measure, in a field setting, the influence of surface gravel additions on soil water storage and plant cover. The study plots are located northwest of the Yakima Gate in the McGee Ranch old field. Here we report the status of work completed in FY 1989 on the creation of a data management system, a test of water application uniformity, field calibration of neutron moisture gages, and an analysis of the response of plants to various combinations of gravel admixtures and increased rainfall. 23 refs., 11 figs., 6 tabs.

  7. Development of Floating Wave Barriers for Cost Effective Protection of Irrigation and Catfish Pond Levees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozeren, Y.; Wren, D. G.; Alonso, C. V.

    2007-12-01

    Earth levees for catfish ponds and irrigation water storage experience significant embankment erosion due to wind generated waves. Large seasonal fluctuations in water level make vegetative bank protection impractical, and other stabilization methods such as the use of old tires or riprap are not acceptable due to ecological and economic concerns. The goal of the present work is to define configurations and construction techniques for inexpensive floating breakwaters made of polyethylene irrigation tubing. Based on wave characteristics measured in an irrigation pond near Lonoke, Arkansas, a laboratory scale wave generating flume was designed, constructed, and used to test multiple wave barrier configurations for regular waves in deep and transitional water depths. Wave transmission characteristics were investigated for the following breakwater arrangements: (1) fully restrained, (2) vertically restrained with a single mooring line, (3) horizontally restrained with a rigid arm hinged at one end, and (4) horizontally restrained with piles at both sides of the breakwater. The test results show that cylindrical pipes can be used effectively as floating breakwaters and that wave transmission characteristics strongly depend on the draft of the breakwater and the mooring configuration. The use of multiple small cylinders instead of a single large one can reduce cost while maintaining the same level of wave attenuation. The wave characteristics measured in the field and the results of laboratory testing resulted in a final design that is to be tested at the prototype scale in an irrigation pond.

  8. Low-Thermal-Conductivity Pyrochlore Oxide Materials Developed for Advanced Thermal Barrier Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Narottam P.; Zhu, Dong-Ming

    2005-01-01

    When turbine engines operate at higher temperatures, they consume less fuel, have higher efficiencies, and have lower emissions. The upper-use temperatures of the base materials (superalloys, silicon-based ceramics, etc.) used for the hot-section components of turbine engines are limited by the physical, mechanical, and corrosion characteristics of these materials. Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are applied as thin layers on the surfaces of these materials to further increase the operating temperatures. The current state-of-the-art TBC material in commercial use is partially yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ), which is applied on engine components by plasma spraying or by electron-beam physical vapor deposition. At temperatures higher than 1000 C, YSZ layers are prone to sintering, which increases thermal conductivity and makes them less effective. The sintered and densified coatings can also reduce thermal stress and strain tolerance, which can reduce the coating s durability significantly. Alternate TBC materials with lower thermal conductivity and better sintering resistance are needed to further increase the operating temperature of turbine engines.

  9. Barriers to developing a valid rodent model of Alzheimer's disease: from behavioural analysis to etiologicalmechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darryl Christopher Gidyk

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Sporadic Alzheimer's disease is the most prevalent form of age-related dementia. As such, great effort has been put forth to investigate the etiology, progression, and underlying mechanisms of the disease. Countless studies have been conducted however the details of this disease remain largely unknown. Rodent models provide opportunities to investigate certain aspects of AD that cannot be ethically studied in humans. These animal models vary from study to study and have provided some insight, but no real advancements in the prevention or treatment of the disease. In this Hypothesis and Theory paper, we discuss what we perceive as barriers to impactful discovery in rodent AD research and we offer solutions for moving forward. Although no single model of AD is capable of providing the solution to the growing epidemic of the disease, we encourage a comprehensive approach that acknowledges the complex etiology of AD with the goal of enhancing the bidirectional translatability from bench to bedside and vice versa.

  10. Parent engagement in youth drug prevention in Chinese families: advancement in program development and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Sandra K M

    2011-01-01

    The escalating youth drug abuse problem in Hong Kong has attracted intense attention from the government, schools, and youth service professionals. Most preventive efforts have focused directly on positive youth development, very often through school programs delivered to secondary school students. There have been limited efforts to engage parents even though it is obvious that the family is actually the primary context of children and youth development. This paper will assert the importance of parental engagement in youth drug-prevention work, discuss some barriers in such parental involvement, present some promising local attempts and their strengths and limitations, and propose that sustained efforts are needed to build up theory-driven and evidence-based resources for Chinese communities on the subject.

  11. Parent Engagement in Youth Drug Prevention in Chinese Families: Advancement in Program Development and Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra K. M. Tsang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The escalating youth drug abuse problem in Hong Kong has attracted intense attention from the government, schools, and youth service professionals. Most preventive efforts have focused directly on positive youth development, very often through school programs delivered to secondary school students. There have been limited efforts to engage parents even though it is obvious that the family is actually the primary context of children and youth development. This paper will assert the importance of parental engagement in youth drug-prevention work, discuss some barriers in such parental involvement, present some promising local attempts and their strengths and limitations, and propose that sustained efforts are needed to build up theory-driven and evidence-based resources for Chinese communities on the subject.

  12. Systems study on engineered barriers: barrier performance analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stula, R.T.; Albert, T.E.; Kirstein, B.E.; Lester, D.H.

    1980-09-01

    A performance assessment model for multiple barrier packages containing unreprocessed spent fuel has been modified and applied to several package designs. The objective of the study was to develop information to be used in programmatic decision making concerning engineered barrier package design and development. The assessment model, BARIER, was developed in previous tasks of the System Study on Engineered Barriers (SSEB). The new version discussed in this report contains a refined and expanded corrosion rate data base which includes pitting, crack growth, and graphitization as well as bulk corrosion. Corrosion rates for oxic and anoxic conditions at each of the two temperature ranges are supplied. Other improvements include a rigorous treatment of radionuclide release after package failure which includes resistance of damaged barriers and backfill, refined temperature calculations that account for convection and radiation, a subroutine to calculate nuclear gamma radiation field at each barrier surface, refined stress calculations with reduced conservatism and various coding improvements to improve running time and core usage. This report also contains discussion of alternative scenarios to the assumed flooded repository as well as the impact of water exclusion backfills. The model was used to assess post repository closure performance for several designs which were all variation of basic designs from the Spent Unreprocessed Fuel (SURF) program. Many designs were found to delay the onset of leaching by at least a few hundreds of years in all geologic media. Long delay times for radionuclide release were found for packages with a few inches of sorption backfill. Release of uranium, plutonium, and americium was assessed.

  13. Ten years of Developing International Volcanology Graduate Study Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, W. I.

    2010-12-01

    In 2000 I reported at this symposium about multi-institutional graduate field trips to IAVCEI events, such as the Bali meeting and its importance in building international collegiality and awareness among the volcanology doctoral students. NSF was an enthusiastic supporter of these field sessions and this support has continued through the highly successful Pucon and Reykjavik sessions. International volcanology graduate program development began with several exchange programs. EHaz was a highly successful program (McGill, Simon Fraser, Michigan Tech, Buffalo, UNAM and Universidad de Colima) funded by the Department of Education (FIPSE) that moved students across North America where dozens of graduate students spent semesters of their study abroad and shared annual field trips and online student led graduate seminar classes. Michigan Tech’s volcanology graduate program started a Masters International program that combined Peace Corps service with hazards mitigation graduate study and students were placed by Peace Corps in countries with prominent natural hazards. The new program funded 2 year residences in foreign environments, principally in Pacific Latin America. NSF strongly supported this program from its inception, and eventually it gained NSF PIRE support. Dozens of students have initiated the 3 year program (15 completed) to date. A similar PIRE developed at UAF with a link to volcanology in the Russian Far East. One gain is the development of many socially-conscious research selections. Beginning this year transatlantic dual degree masters programs in volcanology are being offered by a consortium of US and European volcanology programs (Michigan Tech, Buffalo, Clermont Ferrand and University of Milan Bicocca), again aided by FIPSE funding. Students have dual advisors on both sides of the Atlantic and spend about half of their two year programs in Europe and half in US. Faculty also travel in the program and the four campuses are increasingly linked by

  14. Development of a Comprehensive Computer Program for Predicting Farm Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Al-Hamed

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The agricultural industry is a major user of energy. Energy is used directly for operating agricultural machinery and equipment on the farm and indirectly in the manufacturing of fertilizers and pesticides and processing of agricultural products off the farm. In order to reduce the cost of agricultural production, energy uses on the farm must be identified and optimized using modern tools. Approach: A comprehensive and easy to use computer program was developed for the purpose of determining the farm energy requirements with the aim of reducing costs and maximizing profit. The program includes a main database composed of nine sub-databases: Tractors sub-database, agricultural machinery sub-database, pumps sub-database, stationary engines sub-database, planting dates sub-database, soil sub-database, operating variables of farm operations sub-database, draft and power equations sub-database and water requirement sub-database. The program was designed with visual C++ language. Results: The program was tested by comparing its results with the manually calculated results. The results showed that the program worked properly. The developed program was also illustrated using an example farm to show the different stages of determining the required farm energy. Conclusion: The program can be used: To determine the farm energy requirements, to assess the current status of farms in terms of energy use efficiency, for future planning of modern farms and as an educational tool. It has many advantages including: Ease of use when dealing with input through interactive windows, ease of addition or deletion or updating of sub-databases, ease of exploring the program windows and the potential for further future development of any part of the program. The program is unique as it includes all the information in a database and has a multi dimensional uses including: Evaluation of an existing system, selecting new machinery based on an optimum

  15. Development of Blood-Brain Barrier Permeable Nitrocatechol-Based Catechol O-Methyltransferase Inhibitors with Reduced Potential for Hepatotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Tiago; Mohamed, Tarek; Shakeri, Arash; Rao, Praveen P N; Martínez-González, Loreto; Pérez, Daniel I; Martínez, Ana; Valente, Maria João; Garrido, Jorge; Uriarte, Eugenio; Serrão, Paula; Soares-da-Silva, Patrício; Remião, Fernando; Borges, Fernanda

    2016-08-25

    Recent efforts have been focused on the development of centrally active COMT inhibitors, which can be valuable assets for neurological disorders such as Parkinson's disease, due to the severe hepatotoxicity risk associated with tolcapone. New nitrocatechol COMT inhibitors based on naturally occurring caffeic acid and caffeic acid phenethyl ester were developed. All nitrocatechol derivatives displayed potent inhibition of peripheral and cerebral COMT within the nanomolar range. Druglike derivatives 13, 15, and 16 were predicted to cross the blood-brain barrier in vitro and were significantly less toxic than tolcapone and entacapone when incubated at 50 μM with rat primary hepatocytes. Moreover, their unique acidity and electrochemical properties decreased the chances of formation of reactive quinone-imines and, as such, the potential for hepatotoxicity. The binding mode of 16 confirmed that the major interactions with COMT were established via the nitrocatechol ring, allowing derivatization of the side chain for future lead optimization efforts.

  16. {sup 26}Al incorporation into the brain of rat fetuses through the placental barrier and subsequent metabolism in postnatal development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yumoto, Sakae, E-mail: yumoto-s@viola.ocn.ne.j [Yumoto Institute of Neurology, Kawadacho 6-11, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-0054 (Japan); Nagai, Hisao [College of Humanities and Sciences, Nihon University, Tokyo (Japan); Kakimi, Shigeo [Faculty of Medicine, Nihon University, Tokyo (Japan); Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki [School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    2010-04-15

    Aluminium (Al) inhibits prenatal and postnatal development of the brain. We used {sup 26}Al as a tracer, and measured {sup 26}Al incorporation into rat fetuses through the placental barrier by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). From day 15 to day 18 of gestation, {sup 26}AlCl{sub 3} was subcutaneously injected into pregnant rats. Considerable amounts of {sup 26}Al were measured in the tissues of newborn rats immediately after birth. The amounts of {sup 26}Al in the liver and kidneys decreased rapidly during postnatal development. However, approximately 15% of {sup 26}Al incorporated into the brain of fetuses remained in the brain of adult rats 730 days after birth.

  17. 环境障碍涂层研究综述%Overview on the Development of Environment Barrier Coating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈旭; 洪智亮; 鲁琳静; 成来飞

    2011-01-01

    环境障碍涂层(Environment barrier coating,EBC)能够解决构件在燃气环境中长时间腐蚀的问题,从而成为航空发动机材料研究的热点.从材料体系、制备工艺、性能考核和表征方法4个方面综述了目前EBC的研究成果.通过对目前国内外研究成果的总结和分析,提出了EBC当前研究存在的问题,并展望了EBC进一步研究的方向.%Environment barrier coating (EBC) which can protect ceramic matrix composite components from corrosion for a long time in combustion environment, become the focus in the field of aviation engine materials. The research results of EBC are reviewed fully according to the following point as: materials, processes, tests and evaluation methods. Based on the summary and analysis on the achievement of EBC at home and abroad, some issues and the tendency on the development of EBC are proposed finally.

  18. Converse Barrier Certificate Theorems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafael; Sloth, Christoffer

    2016-01-01

    This paper shows that a barrier certificate exists for any safe dynamical system. Specifically, we prove converse barrier certificate theorems for a class of structurally stable dynamical systems. Other authors have developed a related result by assuming that the dynamical system has neither sing...

  19. Developing built environment programs in local health departments: lessons learned from a nationwide mentoring program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rube, Kate; Veatch, Maggie; Huang, Katy; Sacks, Rachel; Lent, Megan; Goldstein, Gail P; Lee, Karen K

    2014-05-01

    Local health departments (LHDs) have a key role to play in developing built environment policies and programs to encourage physical activity and combat obesity and related chronic diseases. However, information to guide LHDs' effective engagement in this arena is lacking. During 2011-2012, the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) facilitated a built environment peer mentoring program for 14 LHDs nationwide. Program objectives included supporting LHDs in their efforts to achieve built environment goals, offering examples from DOHMH's built environment work to guide LHDs, and building a healthy built environment learning network. We share lessons learned that can guide LHDs in developing successful healthy built environment agendas.

  20. Developing a comprehensive scale to assess college multicultural programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallinckrodt, Brent; Miles, Joseph R; Bhaskar, Tripti; Chery, Nicole; Choi, Gahee; Sung, Mi-Ra

    2014-01-01

    A barrier to assessing effectiveness of multicultural programming is lack of a relatively brief instrument to measure the wide range of intended outcomes. A frequent goal of programming is to increase cultural empathy, but this is rarely the only intended outcome. We conducted focus groups of campus administrators, student affairs staff, and undergraduate instructors who identified a full range of racial/ethnic multicultural competencies that undergraduates should possess. An 84-item pool generated from these focus groups was combined with the 31-item Scale of Ethnocultural Empathy (SEE; Wang et al., 2003). These 115 items, together with instruments used to gauge concurrent validity, were administered to White undergraduate students in introductory psychology courses at the midpoint (n = 602) and end (n = 676) of fall semester. Exploratory factor analysis suggested 6 subscales for the Everyday Multicultural Competencies/Revised SEE (EMC/RSEE): (a) Cultural Openness and Desire to Learn; (b) Resentment and Cultural Dominance; (c) Anxiety and Lack of Multicultural Self-Efficacy; (d) Empathic Perspective-Taking; (e) Awareness of Contemporary Racism and Privilege; and (f) Empathic Feeling and Acting as an Ally. Item response theory principles guided final selection of subscale items. Analyses suggested good factor stability, reliability, and discriminant validity of the 48-item EMC/RSEE in these undergraduate samples. EMC/RSEE subscales were not strongly correlated with a measure of impression management and were significantly associated with measures of Openness to Diversity Challenge, and Universal-Diverse Orientation.

  1. Faculty Development Effectiveness: Insights from a Program Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupma Wadhwa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Faculty development programs are often time and resource intensive. In order to accommodate time constrained clinicians a limited time commitment faculty development program was developed and was shown to be effective in improving participant’s scholarly productivity. Objectives. The objective of this study was to assess participants’ perceptions of why the faculty development program was effective in promoting scholarship in education. Methods. In-depth semistructured interviews of course participants were conducted a year after completing a faculty development program. The interviews were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. The transcriptions were coded independently by the investigators for dominant themes. The investigators held coding meetings to further refine the themes and discrepancies were handled by referring to the transcripts and reaching consensus. Results. The participants’ satisfaction with the course as described in the interviews correlated with the early satisfaction surveys. Reasons offered for this impact fell into four broad categories: course content, course format, social networking during the course, and the course facilitation coaching strategies to achieve goals. Conclusions. Course focusing on the process, experiential learning, and situating the course facilitator in the role of a functional mentor or coach to complete projects can be effective in facilitating behaviour change after faculty development programs.

  2. The development of a fear of falling interdisciplinary intervention program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Gomez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Fernando Gomez, Carmen-Lucia CurcioResearch Group on Gerontology and Geriatrics, Health Sciences Faculty, University of Caldas, Manizales, ColombiaObjective: To describe the development process of a protocol for a fear of falling interdisciplinary intervention program based on the main factors associated with fear of falling.Design/methods: The process of developing a protocol consisted of defining the target population, selecting the initial assessment components, adapting the intervention program based on findings about fear of falling and restriction of activities in this population.Settings: University-affiliated outpatient vertigo, dizziness and falls clinic in coffee-growers zone of Colombian Andes Mountains.Results: An intervention program was developed based on three main falling conceptual models. A medical intervention, based on a biomedical and pathophysiological model, a physiotherapeutic intervention based on a postural control model and a psychological intervention based on a biological-behavioral model.Conclusion: This interdisciplinary fear of falling intervention program developed is based on particular characteristics of target population, with differences in the inclusion criteria and the program intervention components; with emphasis on medical (recurrent falls and dizziness evaluation and management, psychological (cognitive-behavioral therapy and physiotherapeutic (balance and transfers training components.Keywords: fear of falling, elderly programs, Colombian, intervention

  3. RELAP5-3D Developer Guidelines and Programming Practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. George L Mesina

    2014-03-01

    Our ultimate goal is to create and maintain RELAP5-3D as the best software tool available to analyze nuclear power plants. This begins with writing excellent programming and requires thorough testing. This document covers development of RELAP5-3D software, the behavior of the RELAP5-3D program that must be maintained, and code testing. RELAP5-3D must perform in a manner consistent with previous code versions with backward compatibility for the sake of the users. Thus file operations, code termination, input and output must remain consistent in form and content while adding appropriate new files, input and output as new features are developed. As computer hardware, operating systems, and other software change, RELAP5-3D must adapt and maintain performance. The code must be thoroughly tested to ensure that it continues to perform robustly on the supported platforms. The coding must be written in a consistent manner that makes the program easy to read to reduce the time and cost of development, maintenance and error resolution. The programming guidelines presented her are intended to institutionalize a consistent way of writing FORTRAN code for the RELAP5-3D computer program that will minimize errors and rework. A common format and organization of program units creates a unifying look and feel to the code. This in turn increases readability and reduces time required for maintenance, development and debugging. It also aids new programmers in reading and understanding the program. Therefore, when undertaking development of the RELAP5-3D computer program, the programmer must write computer code that follows these guidelines. This set of programming guidelines creates a framework of good programming practices, such as initialization, structured programming, and vector-friendly coding. It sets out formatting rules for lines of code, such as indentation, capitalization, spacing, etc. It creates limits on program units, such as subprograms, functions, and modules. It

  4. [Development of a software program for nutrition studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defagó, María D; Perovic, Nilda R; Aguinaldo, Cristina A; Actis, Adriana B

    2009-04-01

    The Interfood v. 1.3 software program was developed to process nutrition information and generate data on dietary intakes--in terms of food, nutrients, and phytochemical substances--valid for conducting studies on nutrition and epidemiology. The program has three basic components: the dietary intake frequency questionnaire CFCA); a database of common foods and their composition of 131 possible substances (macro- and micronutrients and phytochemicals); and a relational database that links the CFCA data with the food database. In this manner, the Interfood software program calculates the amount of food, nutrients, and phytochemical substances consumed by an individual daily, weekly, and monthly. Interfood is an open-source program; as such, the database can be modified and updated according to study requirements. This program has already proven useful to various studies of nutrition and epidemiology.

  5. Integrated population-development program performance: the Malaysian Felda experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, C O

    1985-01-01

    Program performance of the Malaysian Felda program, an integrated population development program, is examined in this report. It also evaluates the relationship of the performance of this program with its organizational, integrational, and community support factors. Starting in 1956, Felda had, by the end of 1981, developed 308 land schemes covering an area of 1.4 million acres planted predominantly with oil palm (59.4%) and rubber (31.6%). The land schemes have settled a total of 70,600 families or over 400,000 people. The integrated programs existing in the Felda schmes are the focus of analysis for this study. Out of the universe of 308 Felda schemes, 26 schemes were randomly selected for the study. In each scheme, 2 surveys were conducted: first, the staff surveys to gather information on the organizational factors and extent of integration in existence in the scheme and then household surveys to gather information on the extent of community support for the integrated program and the performance of the program. In the case of the performance variables, the information gathered from the household survey was supplemented by the records from the Felda scheme office. In the sample of 26 schemes, a total of 1641 settler households were selected for the household survey and 363 staff were selected for the staff survey. The surveys were conducted in the 1st quarter of 1982. The results indicate that the Felda mode of delivering population and community development services has been very effective. Over 55.2% of the eligible women were found to be practicing family planning (compared to about 35.5% for the national rural average), while over 78.9% of the eligible women utilized postnatal health care facilities. About 1 in 3 of the eligible children in Felda schemes attend kindergarten classes, while over 46.9% of the Felda households are involved in some form of extramural income generating activities. The more integrated the program in a particular community, the more

  6. Development of regulatory technical rationale for risk monitoring program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Chang Hyun; Kim, Ju Youl; Kim, Yoon Ik; Yang, Hui Chang; Lee, Yong Suk; Ahn, Kwang Won; Kim, Se Hyung [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-03-15

    In Korea, the risk monitoring program will be developed and applied to each plants till 2003 by the severe accident management plan to enhance the safety functions of the nuclear power plants. Through this plan, the risk monitoring for the full power and low power and shutdown operation will be performed. Therefore the development of consistent risk monitoring system and overall regulatory guides for the risk monitoring program are necessary. The objective of this study is the development of regulatory technical rationales for the nuclear power plant risk monitoring program and the derivation of the requirements need for the development of risk monitoring system. Through this the improvement of regulatory effectiveness to assure the safe operation of nuclear power plant, is expected.

  7. "Sustainable Development" and CIDA's China Program: A Saskatchewan Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Paul; Blachford, Dongyan; Pickard, Garth

    2015-01-01

    Through funding from the Canadian International Development Agency's (CIDA) China Program, the University of Regina (UofR), Canada, implemented two major development projects with the Educational Institute of Jilin province (EIJP) from 1990 to 2001. This paper re-examines this historic cooperation. The paper argues that prevailing theories of…

  8. Developing a Comprehensive Learning Community Program: Providing a Historical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, Jamie L.; Redington, Lyn

    2015-01-01

    This is the first of a three-part series which will share information about how a mid-size, comprehensive university developed a learning community program, including a residential curriculum. Through intentional collaboration and partnerships, the team, comprised of faculty and staff throughout the university, developed a "multi-year plan…

  9. The Arctic Climate Modeling Program: Professional Development for Rural Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertram, Kathryn Berry

    2010-01-01

    The Arctic Climate Modeling Program (ACMP) offered yearlong science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) professional development to teachers in rural Alaska. Teacher training focused on introducing youth to workforce technologies used in Arctic research. Due to challenges in making professional development accessible to rural teachers, ACMP…

  10. Professional Growth, Development Programs: Essential for Music Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, David E.

    1992-01-01

    Although mandated continuing education hours may provide the strongest incentive for teachers, they rarely represent the best reasons for pursuing additional education. Development areas important to music educators are musical growth, music teaching and learning, curriculum and program development, and psychology of learning. Various professional…

  11. Development of a chronic care ostomy self-management program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Marcia; McCorkle, Ruth; Hornbrook, Mark C; Wendel, Christopher S; Krouse, Robert

    2013-03-01

    Each year a percentage of the 1.2 million men and women in the United States with a new diagnosis of colorectal cancer join the 700,000 people who have an ostomy. Education targeting the long-term, chronic care of this population is lacking. This report describes the development of a Chronic Care Ostomy Self-Management Program, which was informed by (1) evidence on published quality-of-life changes for cancer patients with ostomies, (2) educational suggestions from patients with ostomies, and (3) examination of the usual care of new ostomates to illustrate areas for continued educational emphases and areas for needed education and support. Using these materials, the Chronic Care Ostomy Self-Management Program was developed by a team of multi-disciplinary researchers accompanied by experienced ostomy nurses. Testing of the program is in process. Pilot study participants reported high satisfaction with the program syllabus, ostomy nurse leaders, and ostomate peer buddies.

  12. Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program: FY 2015 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SLAC,

    2016-04-04

    The Department of Energy (DOE) and the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (SLAC) encourage innovation, creativity, originality and quality to maintain the Laboratory’s research activities and staff at the forefront of science and technology. To further advance its scientific research capabilities, the Laboratory allocates a portion of its funds for the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program. With DOE guidance, the LDRD program enables SLAC scientists to make rapid and significant contributions that seed new strategies for solving important national science and technology problems. The LDRD program is conducted using existing research facilities.

  13. Development of massively parallel quantum chemistry program SMASH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishimura, Kazuya [Department of Theoretical and Computational Molecular Science, Institute for Molecular Science 38 Nishigo-Naka, Myodaiji, Okazaki, Aichi 444-8585 (Japan)

    2015-12-31

    A massively parallel program for quantum chemistry calculations SMASH was released under the Apache License 2.0 in September 2014. The SMASH program is written in the Fortran90/95 language with MPI and OpenMP standards for parallelization. Frequently used routines, such as one- and two-electron integral calculations, are modularized to make program developments simple. The speed-up of the B3LYP energy calculation for (C{sub 150}H{sub 30}){sub 2} with the cc-pVDZ basis set (4500 basis functions) was 50,499 on 98,304 cores of the K computer.

  14. NNSA Program Develops the Next Generation of Nuclear Security Experts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brim, Cornelia P.; Disney, Maren V.

    2015-09-02

    NNSA is fostering the next generation of nuclear security experts is through its successful NNSA Graduate Fellowship Program (NGFP). NGFP offers its Fellows an exceptional career development opportunity through hands-on experience supporting NNSA mission areas across policy and technology disciplines. The one-year assignments give tomorrow’s leaders in global nuclear security and nonproliferation unparalleled exposure through assignments to Program Offices across NNSA.

  15. Developing a dancer wellness program employing developmental evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Terry eClark; Arun eGupta; Chester eHo

    2014-01-01

    Wellness programs are being increasingly employed with performing artists. Given their aim of reducing injuries, injury tracking is commonly employed as an outcome measure. Evaluating the development and process of a wellness program can also enhance its effectiveness. Developmental evaluation offers one methodological framework within which to conduct such investigations. This paper reports on a two year process involving feedback from professional ballet dancers, management and artistic sta...

  16. Developing a dancer wellness program employing developmental evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry eClark

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Wellness programs are being increasingly employed with performing artists. Given their aim of reducing injuries, injury tracking is commonly employed as an outcome measure. Evaluating the development and process of a wellness program can also enhance its effectiveness. Developmental evaluation offers one methodological framework within which to conduct such investigations. This paper reports on a two year process involving feedback from professional ballet dancers, management and artistic staff, and healthcare providers at a ballet company in order to develop a dancer screening and wellness program. Following a consultation phase, an initial program comprised of an expanded medical team and annual injury prevention screen was proposed. Alongside implementation with 30 professional ballet dancers, formal and informal feedback was sought from stakeholders and members across all levels of the ballet company to facilitate ongoing development, evaluation, and revision of the wellness program. The use of a process informed by developmental evaluation helped identify strengths and limitations within the screening process. The collective expertise of the assessors was used to modify the components and process of the screen to strive for ecological appropriateness. The process also fostered buy-in from all involved. Participant feedback helped refine the medical team available to the dancers and influenced the treatment and referral pathways via which dancers are able to access each member of the medical team. Furthermore, reflective discussions with artistic and management staff brought to light potential interactions between repertoire programming, fitness, and injury patterns. This prompted a reconsideration of how artists are trained and supported. Evaluation methods that focus on experiences and insight gained during program development stand to result in more efficient screening programs and health promotion models and, ultimately, healthier

  17. T700 Blisk and Impeller Manufacturing Process Development Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-11-01

    programs for the impeller was made by Mr. Lee B. Stripling who is President of Intratec , Inc., Neptune Beach, Florida. He is the developer of HECTRAN, which... Intratec , Inc., specifically for NC programming of impellers. It was designed for use with a Prime computer. A Prime computer was conveniently... Intratec to provide the capability of machining with a constant width of cut equidistant from t he hub (Figure 39, pq 72). The results of this tryout

  18. Barriers and opportunities for robust decision making approaches to support climate change adaptation in the developing world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Gajanan Bhave

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change adaptation is unavoidable, particularly in developing countries where the adaptation deficit is often larger than in developed countries. Robust Decision Making (RDM approaches are considered useful for supporting adaptation decision making, yet case study applications in developing countries are rare. This review paper examines the potential to expand the geographical and sectoral foci of RDM as part of the repertoire of approaches to support adaptation. We review adaptation decision problems hitherto relatively unexplored, for which RDM approaches may have value. We discuss the strengths and weaknesses of different approaches, suggest potential sectors for application and comment on future directions. We identify that data requirements, lack of examples of RDM in actual decision-making, limited applicability for surprise events, and resource constraints are likely to constrain successful application of RDM approaches in developing countries. We discuss opportunities for RDM approaches to address decision problems associated with urban socio-environmental and water-energy-food nexus issues, forest resources management, disaster risk management and conservation management issues. We examine potential entry points for RDM approaches through Environmental Impact Assessments and Strategic Environmental Assessments, which are relatively well established in decision making processes in many developing countries. We conclude that despite some barriers, and with modification, RDM approaches show potential for wider application in developing country contexts.

  19. HIV Programs for Sex Workers: Lessons and Challenges for Developing and Delivering Programs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Wilson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available There is evidence that HIV prevention programs for sex workers, especially female sex workers, are cost-effective in several contexts, including many western countries, Thailand, India, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Kenya, and Zimbabwe. The evidence that sex worker HIV prevention programs work must not inspire complacency but rather a renewed effort to expand, intensify, and maximize their impact. The PLOS Collection "Focus on Delivery and Scale: Achieving HIV Impact with Sex Workers" highlights major challenges to scaling-up sex worker HIV prevention programs, noting the following: sex worker HIV prevention programs are insufficiently guided by understanding of epidemic transmission dynamics, situation analyses, and programmatic mapping; sex worker HIV and sexually transmitted infection services receive limited domestic financing in many countries; many sex worker HIV prevention programs are inadequately codified to ensure consistency and quality; and many sex worker HIV prevention programs have not evolved adequately to address informal sex workers, male and transgender sex workers, and mobile- and internet-based sex workers. Based on the wider collection of papers, this article presents three major clusters of recommendations: (i HIV programs focused on sex workers should be prioritized, developed, and implemented based on robust evidence; (ii national political will and increased funding are needed to increase coverage of effective sex worker HIV prevention programs in low and middle income countries; and (iii comprehensive, integrated, and rapidly evolving HIV programs are needed to ensure equitable access to health services for individuals involved in all forms of sex work.

  20. Developing a Web-Based Weight Management Program for Childhood Cancer Survivors: Rationale and Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meagher, Susan; Scheurer, Michael; Folta, Sara; Finnan, Emily; Criss, Kerry; Economos, Christina; Dreyer, ZoAnn; Kelly, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Background Due to advances in the field of oncology, survival rates for children with cancer have improved significantly. However, these childhood cancer survivors are at a higher risk for obesity and cardiovascular diseases and for developing these conditions at an earlier age. Objective In this paper, we describe the rationale, conceptual framework, development process, novel components, and delivery plan of a behavioral intervention program for preventing unhealthy weight gain in survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Methods A Web-based program, the Healthy Eating and Active Living (HEAL) program, was designed by a multidisciplinary team of researchers who first identified behaviors that are appropriate targets for weight management in childhood ALL survivors and subsequently developed the intervention components, following core behavioral change strategies grounded in social cognitive and self-determination theories. Results The Web-based HEAL curriculum has 12 weekly self-guided sessions to increase parents’ awareness of the potential impact of cancer treatment on weight and lifestyle habits and the importance of weight management in survivors’ long-term health. It empowers parents with knowledge and skills on parenting, nutrition, and physical activity to help them facilitate healthy eating and active living soon after the child completes intensive cancer treatment. Based on social cognitive theory, the program is designed to increase behavioral skills (goal-setting, self-monitoring, and problem-solving) and self-efficacy and to provide positive reinforcement to sustain behavioral change. Conclusions Lifestyle interventions are a priority for preventing the early onset of obesity and cardiovascular risk factors in childhood cancer survivors. Intervention programs need to meet survivors’ targeted behavioral needs, address specific barriers, and capture a sensitive window for behavioral change. In addition, they should be convenient

  1. Impact of Communication Barriers on Urban Development of Nowogród Bobrzański

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laskowski Janusz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Network communication links is an indispensable element of development shaping. Any change in the way of using area should be preceded by an analysis of future impact taking into account the transport capacity. The development of buildings without adequate communication links leads to restrictions on object access, consequently it may lead to dangerous mishaps. Avoiding this type of situation is possible by carrying out sustainable development.

  2. Bonneville Power Administration and the Industrial Technologies Program Leverage Support to Overcome Energy Efficiency Barriers in the Northwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-06-18

    Through its Energy Smart Industrial program, BPA is informing and assisting utilities and industries to have a better understanding of the benefits that come from participating in energy-savings programs. Read about how BPA is encouraging energy efficiency projects through its utilities.

  3. Perceptions, Knowledge, Incentives, and Barriers of Brain Donation among African American Elders Enrolled in an Alzheimer's Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambe, Susan; Cantwell, Nicole; Islam, Fareesa; Horvath, Kathy; Jefferson, Angela L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To learn about African American older adults' knowledge and perceptions of brain donation, factors that relate to participating or not participating in a brain donation research program, and methods to increase African American brain donation commitment rates in the context of an Alzheimer's disease (AD) research program. Design and…

  4. The barriers to govern long-term care innovations:: The paradoxical role of subsidies in a transition program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cramer, Hendrik; Dewulf, Geert; Voordijk, Hans

    2014-01-01

    This study deals with the governance of a transition program (2007–2011) that tried to radically change a fragmented, supply-driven long-term care system into an integrated, demand-driven system to deal with an aging population. The transition program was subsidized by the healthcare ministry and en

  5. Protective immune barrier against hepatitis B is needed in individuals born before infant HBV vaccination program in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shigui; Yu, Chengbo; Chen, Ping; Deng, Min; Cao, Qing; Li, Yiping; Ren, Jingjing; Xu, Kaijin; Yao, Jun; Xie, Tiansheng; Wang, Chencheng; Cui, Yuanxia; Ding, Cheng; Tian, Guo; Wang, Bing; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Ruan, Bing; Li, Lanjuan

    2015-12-14

    The hepatitis B prevalence rate in adults is still at a high to intermediate level in China. Our purpose was to explore the incidence rate and protective immune barrier against hepatitis B in adults in China. A sample of 317961 participants was multi-screened for hepatitis B surface antigens (HBsAg) in a large-scale cohort of the National Hepatitis B Demonstration Project. A total of 5401 persons were newly-infected, representing an incidence rate of 0.81 (95% CI: 0.77-0.85) per 100 person-years after adjusted by gender and age. History of acquired immune deficiency syndrome, birth prior to 1992, coastal residence, family history of HBV, and migrant worker status were significantly associated with higher incidence, while HBV vaccination and greater exercise with lower incidence. The hepatitis B surface antibody (HBsAb) positive rate was negatively correlated with the incidence rate of hepatitis B (r = -0.826). Linear fitting yielded an incidence rate of 1.23 plus 0.02 multiplied by HBsAb positive rate. The study firstly identified the HBsAg incidence rate, which was reduced to 0.1 per 100 person-years after vaccination coverage of about 64%. The protective immune barrier against hepatitis B needs to be established in individuals born prior to the advent of infant HBV vaccination.

  6. Program Management Approach to the Territorial Development of Small Business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Aleksandrovna Knysh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of the research of the application on a state level of the program management approach to the territorial development of small business. Studying the main mechanism of the state policy implementation in the sphere of small business on a regional level, the authors have revealed the necessity to take into account the territorial specificity while the government programs of small business development are being formed. The analysis of the national practice of utilizing the program management mechanism in the regional system of the government support of small entrepreneurship was conducted on the example of Omsk region. The results of the analysis have shown the inefficiency of the current support system for small business and have determined the need to create an integrated model of territorial programming, which would not only contribute to the qualitative development of small business, but also provide the functioning efficiency of program management mechanism. As a result, the authors have created the two-level model of the programming of the territorial development of small business, which allows to satisfy purposefully the needs of entrepreneurship taking into account the specificity of the internal and external environment of the region. The first level of the model is methodological one and it is based on the marketing approach (the concepts of place marketing and relationship marketing to the operation of the program management mechanism. The second level of the model is methodical one. It offers the combination of the flexible methods of management of programming procedure (benchmarking, foresight, crowdsourcing and outsourcing. The given model raises the efficiency of the management decisions of the state structures in the sphere of small business. Therefore, it is interesting for the government authorities, which are responsible for the regional and municipal support programs of small business, as well

  7. Linkage of Mineral Precipitation to the Development of Heterogeneity in Permeable Reactive Barrier: a Field Column Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamolpornwijit, W.; Liang, L.; Liang, L.; Moline, G. R.; Sullivan, A. B.; West, O. R.

    2001-12-01

    A column study was conducted on site at Y-12, Oak Ridge, TN, to investigate the rate of mineral accumulation in relation to the hydraulic change as a result of heterogeneity development in a Fe(0) permeable reactive barrier (PRB). To better simulate the fluctuation in groundwater characteristics and the least disturbance to gas-water equilibrium, two columns filled with zero valent iron (mesh size 8-50 obtained from Peerless Industries) were set up with direct connections to a groundwater well. Water samples were taken periodically to observe iron deterioration, ionic species removal, mineral precipitation, and hydrological properties under both accelerated- and normal-groundwater flow conditions. According to the ionic species analysis and the hydraulic tracer tests, the initially established plug flow behavior in the accelerated-flow column was maintained after 150 pore volumes (PVs); the porosity loss due to mineral precipitation was estimated to be 6.2-8.7%. The precipitate volumes were calculated from mass balance with assumed precipitate species and densities of precipitates as pure compounds. As a result, this calculation represents the upper bound on precipitate amounts and porosity loss. Using literature published corrosion rate at 0.7 mM/Kg.day, the estimated lower bound for porosity loss is 2.3%. With time, the deviation from plug flow behavior was observed as the columns underwent complex heterogeneity development, which was reflected in both ionic species removals and hydrological performance. The development of preferential flow paths was caused by mineral precipitation and gas production. After 490 PVs, 4900 liters of groundwater, 215 days of column study, with an estimate of 16.7-24.7% porosity loss, the breakthrough time was shortened from 270 to 50 minutes. According to the resident time obtained from hydraulic tracer tests, the 215 days of column operation is equivalent to 9.5 years operation at a field site, based on 0.3m/d flow of 1-meter thick

  8. Developing Accounting Students' Listening Skills: Barriers, Opportunities and an Integrated Stakeholder Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Gerard; Lightbody, Margaret; Whait, Rob

    2013-01-01

    Accountants and employers of accounting graduates consider listening to be among the most important communication skills that graduates possess. However, accounting education practices that develop students' listening skills are uncommon. Further, in the case of listening development, the current approach of prescribing that educators do more to…

  9. CFD-Guided Development of Test Rigs for Studying Erosion and Large-Particle Damage of Thermal Barrier Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A. Kuczmarski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Burner rigs are routinely used to qualify materials for gas turbine applications. The most useful rig tests are those that can replicate, often in an accelerated manner, the degradation that materials experience in the engine. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD can be used to accelerate the successful development and continuous improvement of combustion burner rigs for meaningful materials testing. Rig development is typically an iterative process of making incremental modifications to improve the rig performance for testing requirements. Application of CFD allows many of these iterations to be done computationally before hardware is built or modified, reducing overall testing costs and time, and it can provide an improved understanding of how these rigs operate. This paper describes the use of CFD to develop burner test rigs for studying erosion and large-particle damage of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs used to protect turbine blades from high heat fluxes in combustion engines. The steps used in this study—determining the questions that need to be answered regarding the test rig performance, developing and validating the model, and using it to predict rig performance—can be applied to the efficient development of other test rigs.

  10. Inclusive Leadership Development: Drawing From Pedagogies of Women's and General Leadership Development Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Keimei; Cavanagh, Kevin V.; van Esch, Chantal; Bilimoria, Diana; Brown, Cara

    2016-01-01

    Trends in extant literature suggest that more relational and identity-based leadership approaches are necessary for leadership that can harness the benefits of the diverse and globalized workforces of today and the future. In this study, we compared general leadership development programs (GLDPs) and women's leadership development programs (WLDPs)…

  11. Developing Memory Clinics in Primary Care: An Evidence-Based Interprofessional Program of Continuing Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Linda; Weston, W. Wayne; Hillier, Loretta M.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Primary care is challenged to meet the needs of patients with dementia. A training program was developed to increase capacity for dementia care through the development of Family Health Team (FHT)-based interprofessional memory clinics. The interprofessional training program consisted of a 2-day workshop, 1-day observership, and 2-day…

  12. The Impact of the Developmental Training Model on Staff Development in Air Force Child Development Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Candace Maria Edmonds

    2010-01-01

    In an effort to standardize training delivery and to individualize staff development based on observation and reflective practice, the Air Force implemented the Developmental Training Model (DTM) in its Child Development Programs. The goal of the Developmental Training Model is to enhance high quality programs through improvements in the training…

  13. LMFBR steam generator systems development program progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    The intent of this program is to investigate methods of producing 2-1/4 Cr-1Mo duplex tubing to meet the structural, thermal/hydraulic and leak detection design requirements of the duplex tube leak detection concept for application on the Demonstration Plant and/or prototype steam generator. The leak detection concept as envisioned for LMFBR steam generator application will be analyzed regarding response to credible leak situations. The results of testing will be used for this analysis. The third fluid system will be conceptually designed including the two plena design adaptations being considered and the advantages and disadvantages of each will be assessed. The test program for the single-tube steam generator model will be developed in accordance with the technical and schedular objectives of the LMFBR duplex tube steam generator development program. A conceptual steam generator configuration will be established for use as a reference in the on-going feasibility studies and Demo Plant system development.

  14. Course development for web-based nursing education programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnetter, Vicki A; Lacy, Darlene; Jones, Melinda Mitchell; Bakrim, Khadija; Allen, Patricia E; O'Neal, Cynthia

    2014-11-01

    Developing and launching online programs requires nurse educators to reframe content and rethink traditional teaching methodologies. Creating a framework for course design and standardization of templates can result in online learning that is student centered while allowing the institution to scale up enrollment with quality education at the core. This article explores the considerations needed for effective, interactive online course delivery in nursing education. Working in conjunction with other university technology stakeholders, nurse educators can select the learning management system with the features that will work best for the program, develop the course structure and organization through adherence to template rules for both syllabi and course modules, and develop appropriate learning activities to assure student exposure to content identified in the course objectives. With these structure pieces in place process becomes the second focus for nurse educators in online programs. Process activities for active engagement are discussed.

  15. Invention Development Program Helps Nurture NCI at Frederick Technologies | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Invention Development Fund (IDF) was piloted by the Technology Transfer Center (TTC) in 2014 to facilitate the commercial development of NCI technologies. The IDF received a second round of funding from the NCI Office of the Director and the Office of Budget and Management to establish the Invention Development Program (IDP) for fiscal year 2016. The IDP is using these funds to help advance a second set of inventions.

  16. Laboratory directed research and development program, FY 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    The Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program FY 1996 report is compiled from annual reports submitted by principal investigators following the close of the fiscal year. This report describes the projects supported and summarizes their accomplishments. It constitutes a part of the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program planning and documentation process that includes an annual planning cycle, projection selection, implementation, and review. The Berkeley Lab LDRD program is a critical tool for directing the Laboratory`s forefront scientific research capabilities toward vital, excellent, and emerging scientific challenges. The program provides the resources for Berkeley Lab scientists to make rapid and significant contributions to critical national science and technology problems. The LDRD program also advances the Laboratory`s core competencies, foundations, and scientific capability, and permits exploration of exciting new opportunities. Areas eligible for support include: (1) Work in forefront areas of science and technology that enrich Laboratory research and development capability; (2) Advanced study of new hypotheses, new experiments, and innovative approaches to develop new concepts or knowledge; (3) Experiments directed toward proof of principle for initial hypothesis testing or verification; and (4) Conception and preliminary technical analysis to explore possible instrumentation, experimental facilities, or new devices.

  17. A Unified Approach for Developing Efficient Algorithmic Programs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛锦云

    1997-01-01

    A unified approach called partition-and-recur for developing efficient and correct algorithmic programs is presented.An algorithm(represented by recurrence and initiation)is separated from program,and special attention is paid to algorithm manipulation rather than proram calculus.An algorithm is exactly a set of mathematical formulae.It is easier for formal erivation and proof.After getting efficient and correct algorithm,a trivial transformation is used to get a final rogram,The approach covers several known algorithm design techniques,e.g.dynamic programming,greedy,divide-and-conquer and enumeration,etc.The techniques of partition and recurrence are not new.Partition is a general approach for dealing with complicated objects and is typically used in divide-and-conquer approach.Recurrence is used in algorithm analysis,in developing loop invariants and dynamic programming approach.The main contribution is combining two techniques used in typical algorithm development into a unified and systematic approach to develop general efficient algorithmic programs and presenting a new representation of algorithm that is easier for understanding and demonstrating the correctness and ingenuity of algorithmicprograms.

  18. Building technological capability within satellite programs in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Danielle; Weigel, Annalisa

    2011-12-01

    This paper explores the process of building technological capability in government-led satellite programs within developing countries. The key message is that these satellite programs can learn useful lessons from literature in the international development community. These lessons are relevant to emerging satellite programs that leverage international partnerships in order to establish local capability to design, build and operate satellites. Countries with such programs include Algeria, Nigeria, Turkey, Malaysia and the United Arab Emirates. The paper first provides background knowledge about space activity in developing countries, and then explores the nuances of the lessons coming from the international development literature. Developing countries are concerned with satellite technology because satellites provide useful services in the areas of earth observation, communication, navigation and science. Most developing countries access satellite services through indirect means such as sharing data with foreign organizations. More countries, however, are seeking opportunities to develop satellite technology locally. There are objective, technically driven motivations for developing countries to invest in satellite technology, despite rich debate on this topic. The paper provides a framework to understand technical motivations for investment in satellite services, hardware, expertise and infrastructure in both short and long term. If a country decides to pursue such investments they face a common set of strategic decisions at the levels of their satellite program, their national context and their international relationships. Analysis of past projects shows that countries have chosen diverse strategies to address these strategic decisions and grow in technological capability. What is similar about the historical examples is that many countries choose to leverage international partnerships as part of their growth process. There are also historical examples from

  19. Impact of Communication Barriers on Urban Development of Nowogród Bobrzański

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskowski, Janusz; Juszczyk, Artur

    2016-09-01

    Network communication links is an indispensable element of development shaping. Any change in the way of using area should be preceded by an analysis of future impact taking into account the transport capacity. The development of buildings without adequate communication links leads to restrictions on object access, consequently it may lead to dangerous mishaps. Avoiding this type of situation is possible by carrying out sustainable development. The paper describes the relationship between the road system and urban layout on the example of Nowogród Bobrzański part of the city. One presented existing changes in the transportation system and its impact on local residents.

  20. Energy policy in Nova Scotia: Eliminating the barrier to wind energy development

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Wind power has environmental and social benefits relative to conventional electricity sources, but electricity market distortions hamper development. Nova Scotia's Energy Strategy in 2002 sought to address these distortions without success. To determine why some jurisdictions' energy policies are more successful than others, I map the relationship over time between the energy policies of the most successful jurisdictions to their impact on wind power development. These case studies reveal suc...

  1. Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program Assessment for FY 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Looney, J P; Fox, K J

    2008-03-31

    Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is a multidisciplinary Laboratory that carries out basic and applied research in the physical, biomedical, and environmental sciences, and in selected energy technologies. It is managed by Brookhaven Science Associates, LLC, (BSA) under contract with the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE). BNL's Fiscal Year 2008 spending was $531.6 million. There are approximately 2,800 employees, and another 4,300 guest scientists and students who come each year to use the Laboratory's facilities and work with the staff. The BNL Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program reports its status to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) annually in March, as required by DOE Order 413.2B, 'Laboratory Directed Research and Development,' April 19, 2006, and the Roles, Responsibilities, and Guidelines for Laboratory Directed Research and Development at the Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration Laboratories dated June 13, 2006. The goals and objectives of BNL's LDRD Program can be inferred from the Program's stated purposes. These are to (1) encourage and support the development of new ideas and technology, (2) promote the early exploration and exploitation of creative and innovative concepts, and (3) develop new 'fundable' R&D projects and programs. The emphasis is clearly articulated by BNL to be on supporting exploratory research 'which could lead to new programs, projects, and directions' for the Laboratory. To be a premier scientific Laboratory, BNL must continuously foster groundbreaking scientific research and renew its research agenda. The competition for LDRD funds stimulates Laboratory scientists to think in new and creative ways, which becomes a major factor in achieving and maintaining research excellence and a means to address National needs within the overall mission of the DOE and BNL. By fostering high-risk, exploratory research, the LDRD program helps

  2. DTRA's Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Research and Development Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, J.; Dainty, A.; Phillips, J.

    2001-05-01

    The Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) has a Program in Basic Research and Development for Nuclear Explosion Technology within the Nuclear Treaties Branch of the Arms Control Technology Division. While the funding justification is Arms Control Treaties (i.e., Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, CTBT), the results are made available for any user. Funding for the Program has averaged around \\10m per year recently. By Congressional mandate, the program has disbursed money through competitive, peer-reviewed, Program Research and Development Announcements (PRDAs); there is usually (but not always) a PRDA each year. Typical awards have been for about three years at ~\\100,000 per year, currently there are over 60 contracts in place. In addition to the "typical" awards, there was an initiative 2000 to fund seismic location calibration of the International Monitoring System (IMS) of the CTBT; there are three three-year contracts of ~\\$1,000,000 per year to perform such calibration for Eurasia, and North Africa and the Middle East. Scientifically, four technological areas have been funded, corresponding to the four technologies in the IMS: seismic, infrasound, hydroacoustic, and radionuclide, with the lion's share of the funding going to the seismic area. The scientific focus of the Program for all four technologies is detection of signals, locating their origin, and trying to determine of they are unambiguously natural in origin ("event screening"). Location has been a particular and continuing focus within the Program.

  3. Phosphorylation of Grainy head by ERK is essential for wound-dependent regeneration but not for development of an epidermal barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myungjin; McGinnis, William

    2011-01-11

    Grainy head (GRH) is a key transcription factor responsible for epidermal barrier formation and repair, whose function is highly conserved across diverse animal species. However, it is not known how GRH function is reactivated to repair differentiated epidermal barriers after wounding. Here, we show that GRH is directly regulated by extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation, which is required for wound-dependent expression of GRH target genes in epidermal cells. Serine 91 is the principal residue in GRH that is phosphorylated by ERK. Although mutations of the ERK phosphorylation sites in GRH do not impair its DNA binding function, the ERK sites in GRH are required to activate Dopa decarboxylase (Ddc) and misshapen (msn) epidermal wound enhancers as well as functional regeneration of an epidermal barrier upon wounding. This result indicates that the phosphorylation sites are essential for damaged epidermal barrier repair. However, GRH with mutant ERK phosphorylation sites can still promote barrier formation during embryonic epidermal development, suggesting that ERK sites are dispensable for the GRH function in establishing epidermal barrier integrity. These results provide mechanistic insight into how tissue repair can be initiated by posttranslational modification of a key transcription factor that normally mediates the developmental generation of that tissue.

  4. Neutronic experiment planning for the Fuels Refabrication and Development Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gore, B.F.; NcNeese, J.P.; Zimmerman, M.G.; Konzek, G.J.

    1979-12-01

    A program of experiments using /sup 233/UO/sub 2/ - ThO/sub 2/ fuel was proposed to provide new and improved neutronic and criticality data for thorium based nuclear fuels, in order to support the licensing of /sup 233/UO/sub 2/ - ThO/sub 2/ fuels in LWR cores. This would support the goal to develop technology for proliferation resistant fuel cycles to a point where fuel cycle choice is not limited by refabrication technology. The proposed experimental program is described in this document, along with initial planning and fuel acquisition activities undertaken during FY 1979. The program was terminated following notification that the DOE-sponsored denatured LWR Fuel Program which the experiments supported was to be discontinued.

  5. Barriers to the implementation of programs for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV: A cross-sectional survey in rural and urban Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bajunirwe Francis

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Implementation of programs for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT of HIV faces a variety of barriers and challenges. The assessment of these challenges has generally been conducted in large urban health facilities. As programs expand into rural areas, the potential barriers that may be encountered there also need to be assessed. This study examines potential barriers that might affect the acceptability of interventions for PMTCT in rural and urban settings. Results Four hundred and four women at a large urban hospital and three rural clinics that had recently started implementing PMTCT were interviewed. Level of knowledge of MTCT and preference for rapid HIV testing were equally high in both areas, but rural women had a higher tendency to think that they should consult their husbands before testing, with borderline statistical significance (72% vs. 64% p = 0.09. Health facility-based deliveries were significantly lower among mothers in rural areas compared to those in the urban setting. Overall, significant predictors of willingness to test for HIV were post-primary education (OR = 3.1 95% CI 1.2, 7.7 and knowledge about rapid HIV tests (OR = 1.8, 95% CI 1.01, 3.4. The strongest predictor of willingness to accept an HIV test was the woman's perception that her husband would approve of her testing for HIV. Women who thought their husbands would approve were almost six times more likely to report a willingness to be tested compared to those who thought their husbands would not approve (OR = 5.6, 95% CI 2.8, 11.2. Conclusion Lessons learned in large urban hospitals can be generalized to rural facilities, but the lower proportion of facility-based deliveries in rural areas needs to be addressed. Same-day results are likely to ensure high uptake of HIV testing services but male spousal involvement should be considered, particularly for rural areas. Universal Primary Education will support the success of PMTCT

  6. Development of a Federally Funded Demonstration Colorectal Cancer Screening Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet Royalty, MS

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related mortality among U.S. adults. In 2004, treatment costs for colorectal cancer were $8.4 billion.There is substantial evidence that colorectal cancer incidence and mortality are reduced with regular screening. The natural history of this disease is also well described: most colorectal cancers develop slowly from preexisting polyps. This slow development provides an opportunity to intervene with screening tests, which can either prevent colorectal cancer through the removal of polyps or detect it at an early stage. However, much less is known about how best to implement an effective colorectal cancer screening program. Screening rates are low, and uninsured persons, low-income persons, and persons who have not visited a physician within a year are least likely to be screened.Although the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC has 15 years of experience supporting the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program for the underserved population, a similar national program for colorectal cancer is not in place. To explore the feasibility of implementing a national program for the underserved U.S. population and to learn which settings and which program models are most viable and cost-effective, CDC began a 3-year colorectal cancer screening demonstration program in 2005.This article describes briefly this demonstration program and the process CDC used to design it and to select program sites. The multiple-methods evaluation now under way to assess the program’s feasibility and describe key outcomes is also detailed. Evaluation results will be used to inform future activities related to organized screening for colorectal cancer.

  7. Sustainable Development of Sewage Sludge-to-Energy in China: Barriers Identification and Technologies Prioritization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Jingzheng; Liang, Hanwei; Dong, Liang;

    2017-01-01

    proposed. After the grey DEMATEL analysis, a grey Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) framework which allows multiple decision-makers/stakeholders to use linguistic terms to participate in the decision-making for prioritizing the alternative technologies for sludge-to-energy was developed......In order to promote the sustainable development of sludge-to-energy industry and help the decision-makers/stakeholders to select the most sustainable technology for achieving the sludge-to-energy target, this study aims at using grey Decision Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory (DEMATEL...... is feasible for group decision-making and sustainability assessment of the alternative technologies for sludge-to-energy....

  8. Drivers and barriers to the development of local food networks in rural Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Safania Normann; Sundbo, Jon

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the growing interest in local food by focusing on local food networks. The objective is to explore what factors drive or hinder the development of local food networks in rural Denmark. For this purpose, we have combined three bodies of theory: local food networks; entrepreneur....... The findings demonstrate that the main drivers of the development of local food networks are the pursuance of transparency and knowledge of origin, the existence of entrepreneurship potential, the coordination of networks by means of joint strategies, and the overcoming of conflict patterns. However...

  9. Opportunities to Develop Adaptive Expertise during Student Teaching Conferences: Identifying Barriers and Exploring Intersubjectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soslau, Elizabeth Gayle

    2010-01-01

    Pupils' classrooms are highly variable and teachers have a difficult time addressing the broad range of students' needs in diverse contexts. Additionally, teachers are often not taught how to learn from their own teaching and develop adaptive teaching expertise, a necessary ability for educators in a constantly changing social world. The…

  10. Analytical investigation of thermal barrier coatings on advanced power generation gas turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, D. J.

    1977-01-01

    An analytical investigation of present and advanced gas turbine power generation cycles incorporating thermal barrier turbine component coatings was performed. Approximately 50 parametric points considering simple, recuperated, and combined cycles (including gasification) with gas turbine inlet temperatures from current levels through 1644K (2500 F) were evaluated. The results indicated that thermal barriers would be an attractive means to improve performance and reduce cost of electricity for these cycles. A recommended thermal barrier development program has been defined.

  11. Transition from the Lactational Amenorrhea Method to other modern family planning methods in rural Bangladesh: barrier analysis and implications for behavior change communication program intervention design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouyaté, Robin Anthony; Ahmed, Salahuddin; Haver, Jaime; McKaig, Catharine; Akter, Nargis; Nash-Mercado, Angela; Baqui, Abdullah

    2015-06-01

    The timely transition from Lactational Amenorrhea Method (LAM)(2) to another modern family planning method contributes to healthy spacing of pregnancies by increasing the adoption of family planning during the first year postpartum. Yet, literature suggests challenges in completing a timely LAM transition. To guide program implementation in Bangladesh, this study identified factors influencing women's transition decisions. Eighty postpartum women, comprising 40 who transitioned from LAM(3) and 40 who did not,(4) participated. Half of each group participated in in-depth interviews to explore the decision-making process. All participants responded to a "Barrier Analysis" questionnaire to identify differences in eight behavioral determinants. More than half of transitioners switched to another modern method before or within the same month that LAM ended. Of the 18 transitioners who delayed,(5) 15 waited for menses to return. For non-transitioners, key barriers included waiting for menses to return, misconceptions on return to fertility, and perceived lack of familial support. The LAM transition can help women prevent unintended pregnancy during the first year postpartum. Increased emphasis on counseling women about the risk of pregnancy, and misconceptions about personal fertility patterns are critical for facilitating the transition. Strategies should also include interventions that train health workers and improve social support.

  12. LABORATORY DIRECTED RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM ASSESSMENT FOR FY 2006.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FOX,K.J.

    2006-01-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is a multidisciplinary laboratory that carries out basic and applied research in the physical, biomedical, and environmental sciences, and in selected energy technologies. It is managed by Brookhaven Science Associates, LLC, (BSA) under contract with the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE). BNL's total annual budget has averaged about $460 million. There are about 2,500 employees, and another 4,500 guest scientists and students who come each year to use the Laboratory's facilities and work with the staff. The BNL Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program reports its status to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) annually in March, as required by DOE Order 413.2B, ''Laboratory Directed Research and Development,'' April 19,2006, and the Roles, Responsibilities, and Guidelines for Laboratory Directed Research and Development at the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration Laboratories dated June 13,2006. The goals and' objectives of BNL's LDRD Program can be inferred from the Program's stated purposes. These are to (1) encourage and support the development of new ideas and technology, (2) promote the early exploration and exploitation of creative and innovative concepts, and (3) develop new ''fundable'' R&D projects and programs. The emphasis is clearly articulated by BNL to be on supporting exploratory research ''which could lead to new programs, projects, and directions'' for the Laboratory. As one of the premier scientific laboratories of the DOE, BNL must continuously foster groundbreaking scientific research. At Brookhaven National Laboratory one such method is through its LDRD Program. This discretionary research and development tool is critical in maintaining the scientific excellence and long-term vitality of the Laboratory. Additionally, it is a means to stimulate the scientific community and foster new

  13. Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program Assessment for FY 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newman,L.; Fox, K.J.

    2007-12-31

    Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is a multidisciplinary laboratory that carries out basic and applied research in the physical, biomedical, and environmental sciences, and in selected energy technologies. It is managed by Brookhaven Science Associates, LLC, (BSA) under contract with the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE). BNL's Fiscal Year 2007 spending was $515 million. There are approximately 2,600 employees, and another 4,500 guest scientists and students who come each year to use the Laboratory's facilities and work with the staff. The BNL Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program reports its status to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) annually in March, as required by DOE Order 413.2B, 'Laboratory Directed Research and Development', April 19, 2006, and the Roles, Responsibilities, and Guidelines for Laboratory Directed Research and Development at the Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration Laboratories dated June 13, 2006. The goals and objectives of BNL's LDRD Program can be inferred from the Program's stated purposes. These are to (1) encourage and support the development of new ideas and technology, (2) promote the early exploration and exploitation of creative and innovative concepts, and (3) develop new 'fundable' R&D projects and programs. The emphasis is clearly articulated by BNL to be on supporting exploratory research 'which could lead to new programs, projects, and directions' for the Laboratory. As one of the premier scientific laboratories of the DOE, BNL must continuously foster groundbreaking scientific research. At Brookhaven National Laboratory one such method is through its LDRD Program. This discretionary research and development tool is critical in maintaining the scientific excellence and long-term vitality of the Laboratory. Additionally, it is a means to stimulate the scientific community and foster new science and technology ideas, which

  14. Development of a Dynamic Barrier Island (Sylt, Eastern North Sea) Based on High-Resolution Aerial Photographs and GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolch, T.; Hass, H. C.

    2004-12-01

    Wind and currents are the driving forces for the morphological development of coastlines and islands by giving them their shape, run and structure. This is especially true in highly dynamic areas such as the Wadden Sea in North-Western Europe. In this unique environment changes are continuous and distinct developments can be noticed within decades. The Island of Sylt, located in the Wadden Sea near the German-Danish border, is a sandy barrier island that protects the mainland against storm floods and waves. Thus, it experiences strong erosion (about 1 m coastal retreat per year). The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), that controls the atmospheric circulation over the North Sea, and northerly currents are the driving forces for the morphological development. Rising sea-level due to global change amplifies the erosion processes and forces people to protect the coastline (in this case beach nourishment). The Koenigshafen, a protected, semi-enclosed bay in the north of the Island of Sylt, can be regarded as representative for the study of many coastal processes that affect the island. In this case study, a long-term series of high resolution aerial photographs of the Koenigshafen (starting in 1936) shows the development of the survey area. Wind and currents affect not only the run of the coastline but also sediment composition and biodynamics in the bay. Looking at the hydrodynamics governing the bay, it should have mostly muddy sediments. Strong westerly winds, however, supply the bay with large amounts of sand from inland dunes and create sandy tidal flats. The long-term development of seagrass and mussel beds can also be retrieved from aerial photographs. In both cases a distinct decline in size can be noticed. Remote sensing and GIS techniques allow monitoring the conditions as well as to reconstruct the past development and to predict future developments.

  15. Environmental development plan for transportation programs: FY80 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saricks, C.L.; Singh, M.K.; Bernard, M.J. III; Bevilacqua, O.M.

    1980-09-01

    This is the second annual update of the environmental development plan (EDP) for transportation programs. It has been prepared as a cooperative effort of the Assistant Secretaries for Conservation and Solar Energy (ASCS) Office of Transportation Programs (CS/TP) and the Environment (ASEV) Office of Environmental Assessments. EDPs identify the ecosystem, resource, physical environment, health, safety, socioeconomic, and environmental control concerns associated with DOE programs. The programs include the research, development, demonstration, and assessment (RDD and A) of 14 transportation technologies and several strategy implementation projects. This EDP update presents a research and assessment plan for resolving any potentially adverse environmental concerns arising from these programs. The EDP process provides a framework for: incorporating environmental concerns into CS/TP planning and decision processes early to ensure they are assigned the same importance as technological, fiscal, and institutional concerns in decision making; resolving environmental concerns concurrently with energy technology and strategy development; and providing a research schedule that mitigates adverse environmental effects through sound technological design or policy analysis. This EDP also describes the status of each environmental concern and the plan for its resolution. Much of ongoing DOE reseirch and technology development is aimed at resolving concerns identified in this EDP. Each EDP is intended to be so comprehensive that no concerns escape notice. Care is taken to include any CS/TP action that may eventually require an Environmental Impact Statement. Because technology demonstration and commercialization tend to raise more environmental concerns than other portions of the transportation program, most of this EDP addresses these concerns.

  16. Addressing barriers to healthcare access for Roma: A community development approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirwan Gloria

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Roma community in Europe has experienced persistent marginalisation and disadvantage over many generations, with Roma regularly experiencing problems of access to healthcare, accommodation, education and employment within the European context. Ireland is a relatively new destination for Roma migration and, as yet, the experiences of Roma in Ireland are under-researched. However, problematic access to healthcare has emerged as an issue faced by the Roma community in Ireland. With reference to the work of the Tallaght Roma Integration Project (TRIP, this article aims to illuminate some of the challenges faced by Roma in this regard. The work of TRIP is informed by community development principles, including concepts of participation and social solidarity. This article explores how community development can offer a framework through which the Roma community can engage collaboratively with service providers in order to highlight need and mobilise change in service provision.

  17. The U.S. Magnet Development Program Plan

    CERN Document Server

    Gourlay, Stephen; Zlobin, Alexander; Cooley, Lance; Larbalestier, David

    2016-01-01

    The 2014 Particle Physics Project Prioritization Panel (P5) Report identified a critical need for transformational high field magnet R&D focused on substantially increasing performance and lowering the cost per T-m. This need was subsequently reiterated in the HEPAP* Accelerator R&D subpanel report. In response, the DOE Office of High Energy Physics has initiated an ambitious program, coordinated by LBNL (see Appendix A), to aggressively pursue the development of superconducting accelerator magnets that operate as closely as possible to the fundamental limits of superconducting materials and at the same time minimize or eliminate magnet training. The U.S. Magnet Development Program (MDP) is based on four goals that summarize the P5 and Subpanel recommendations. These goals will be achieved by focusing on high field dipole development along four elements. The first element aims at the establishment of a baseline design to demonstrate feasibility of 16 T magnets and the development of higher risk innova...

  18. Engagement and Skill Development through an Innovative Classroom Music Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, James; McLachlan, Neil M.; Ainley, Mary; Osborne, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    Rates of music participation are low in developed nations. This may be attributed in part to the failure of school music to engage children sufficiently to motivate them to continue learning and participating in music. We tested the "Harmonix" program of classroom music education, which is currently being designed to maximize engagement…

  19. Developing physician-leaders: key competencies and available programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoller, James K

    2008-01-01

    Because effective leadership is critical to organizational success, frontrunner organizations cultivate leaders for bench depth and pipeline development. The many challenges in healthcare today create a special need for great leadership. This paper reviews the leadership competencies needed by physician-leaders and current experience with developing physician-leaders in healthcare institution-sponsored programs. On the basis of this review, six key leadership competency domains are proposed: 1. technical skills and knowledge (regarding operational, financial, and information systems, human resources, and strategic planning), 2. industry knowledge (e.g., regarding clinical processes, regulation, and healthcare trends), 3. problem-solving skills, 4. emotional intelligence, 5. communication, and 6. a commitment to lifelong learning. Review of current experience indicates that, in addition to leadership training through degree and certificate-granting programs (e.g., by universities and/or official medical societies), healthcare institutions themselves are developing intramural programs to cultivate physician-leaders. Greater attention is needed to assessing the impact and effectiveness of such programs in developing leaders and benefiting organizational outcomes.

  20. Prenatal Foundations: Fetal Programming of Health and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Elysia Poggi; Thompson, Ross A.

    2014-01-01

    The fetal programming and developmental origins of disease models suggest that experiences that occur before birth can have consequences for physical and mental health that persist across the lifespan. Development is more rapid during the prenatal period as compared to any other stage of life. This introductory article considers evidence that…

  1. A Statewide Professional Development Program for California Foreign Language Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, Albert S.; Padilla, Amado M.; Sung, Hyekyung; Silva, Duarte M.

    2004-01-01

    The California Foreign Language Project (CFLP), established in 1988, is a voluntary professional development program designed to improve and expand elementary, secondary, and postsecondary foreign language teaching in California. CFLP consists of nine regional sites that work in conjunction with a central office to increase professional…

  2. Assessment of a Professional Development Program on Adult Learning Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Melinda

    2016-01-01

    Librarians at colleges and universities invested in graduate education must understand and incorporate adult learning theories in their reference and instruction interactions with graduate students to more effectively support the students' learning. After participating in a professional development program about adult learning theory, librarians…

  3. A Summer Leadership Development Program for Chemical Engineering Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Annie E.; Evans, Greg J.; Reeve, Doug

    2012-01-01

    The Engineering Leaders of Tomorrow Program (LOT) is a comprehensive curricular, co-curricular, extra-curricular leadership development initiative for engineering students. LOT envisions: "an engineering education that is a life-long foundation for transformational leaders and outstanding citizens." Academic courses, co-curricular certificate…

  4. Workshop on programming beta cell development, impairment and regeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, Scott; Nielsen, Jens Høiriis

    2012-01-01

    Helsingør, the city of Hamlet in Denmark, provided the site for the workshop "Programming Beta Cell Development, Impairment and Regeneration" on October 23-26th, 2011. The same location has held two EASD Islet study group meetings, while the previous three workshops were held in Helsinki, Finland...

  5. Kohlberg's Moral Development Program: Its Limitations and Ethical Exclusiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falikowski, Anthony

    1982-01-01

    By omitting the private and positive dimensions of morality and focusing on a single dimension of moral experience, interpersonal value conflict, Lawrence Kohlberg's Moral Development Program presents a one-sided interpretation of ethics--one which in educational practice is likely to produce morally imbalanced students. (Author/LC)

  6. Scuba Diving and Kinesiology: Development of an Academic Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, Christopher R.; Walter, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The use of scuba diving as a recreational activity within traditional university instructional programs has been well established. Departments focusing on kinesiology, physical education, or exercise science have often provided scuba diving lessons as part of their activity-based course offerings. However, few departments have developed an…

  7. Developing a GIS Program at a Tribal College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostelnick, John C.; Rowley, Rex J.; McDermott, David; Bowen, Carol

    2009-01-01

    Programs in geographic information systems (GIS) and related areas (e.g., GPS, remote sensing) have become important additions to the curriculum at colleges and universities of all sizes and types, including tribal colleges and universities (TCUs) such as Haskell Indian Nations University. This article discusses the recent development of a GIS…

  8. The Development of Catholic Studies Programs in American Catholic Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosen, Anthony J.

    2009-01-01

    This article, written by a student of curriculum history, has attempted to provide a framework for understanding the context of Catholic Studies within the framework of the education curriculum of higher education. In the articles that follow, Father James Heft outlines the development and debate surrounding Catholic Studies programs, the value of…

  9. Development of a Pediatric Fall Risk And Injury Reduction Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramlich, Debra L; Dende, Denise

    2016-01-01

    Fall prevention programs that include reliable, valid, and clinically tested screening tools have demonstrated more positive effects for adult and geriatric populations than those not including such assessment. In contrast, because falling is a natural part of growth and development for pediatric patients, progression toward effective prevention programs for this population has proven to be a challenge; a significant impediment is the lack of definition regarding what constitutes a reportable fall. This project explored pediatric health care providers' perceptions of patient falls in order to define a reportable pediatric fall and inform development of a prevention program. A concept analysis of defining attributes, antecedents, and consequences of pediatric falls from literature formed the basis for a set of questions; a convenience sample of 28 pediatric health care providers in an acute care hospital in New England participated in six moderated focus groups. Constant comparison method was used to code the qualitative data and develop themes. Participants unanimously agreed on several points; as expected, their years of experience in pediatric practice provided valuable insight. Three major themes emerged: patient characteristics, caregiver characteristics, and environmental characteristics. Based on factors identified by staff, a screening tool was adopted and integrated into the electronic medical record. Staff were actively engaged in developing definitions, selecting tools, and identifying next steps toward a comprehensive fall reduction program for their patients. As a result, they have embraced changes and advocated successfully for endorsement by the organization.

  10. Development of educational program for neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Yong Sam; Moon, Jong Hwa; Kim, Sun Ha; Ryel, Sung; Kang, Young Hwan; Lee, Kil Yong; Yeon, Yeon Yel; Cho, Seung Yeon

    2000-08-01

    This technical report is developed to apply an educational and training program for graduate student and analyst utilizing neutron activation analysis. The contents of guide book consists of five parts as follows; introduction, gamma-ray spectrometry and measurement statistics, its applications, to understand of comprehensive methodology and to utilize a relevant knowledge and information on neutron activation analysis.

  11. What Can Mixed Methods Designs Offer Professional Development Program Evaluators?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Victoria; Nevin, Ann

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the authors describe the benefits and pitfalls of mixed methods designs. They argue that mixed methods designs may be preferred when evaluating professional development programs for p-K-12 education given the new call for accountability in making data-driven decisions. They summarize and critique the studies in terms of limitations…

  12. Challenges of Engaging Local Stakeholders for Statewide Program Development Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Michael J.; Leuci, Mary; Stewart, Mark

    2014-01-01

    The University of Missouri Extension needed to develop an annual program review process that collaboratively engaged county-level stakeholders. The results from the first 2 years highlight the results, challenges, and implications of the design process. The annual review process needs to be adaptive, responsive, and reflective from year to year…

  13. Developing a Culturally Appropriate Depression Prevention Program: Opportunities and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardemil, Esteban V.; Kim, Saeromi; Davidson, Tatiana; Sarmiento, Ingrid A.; Ishikawa, Rachel Zack; Sanchez, Monica; Torres, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the experiences of the first author and his colleagues in the development and implementation of a depression prevention program that specifically targets Latina mothers. Building on the earlier papers that highlight the underutilization of mental health services by Latinos in general, this paper will make the case that the…

  14. Developing a Statewide Childhood Body Mass Index Surveillance Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, David R.; Scruggs, Philip W.; Goc Karp, Grace; Ransdell, Lynda B.; Robinson, Clay; Lester, Michael J.; Gao, Yong; Petranek, Laura J.; Brown, Helen; Shimon, Jane M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Several states have implemented childhood obesity surveillance programs supported by legislation. Representatives from Idaho wished to develop a model for childhood obesity surveillance without the support of state legislation, and subsequently report predictors of overweight and obesity in the state. Methods: A coalition comprised of…

  15. Developing Supply Chain Management Program: A Competency Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauber, Matthew H.; McSurely, Hugh B.; Tummala, V. M. Rao

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to show the process of designing and measuring learning competencies in program development. Design/methodology/approach: The paper includes cross-sectoral comparisons to draw on programmatic and pedagogical strategies, more commonly utilized in vocational education, and transfer the application of these strategies into…

  16. Understanding the Organizational Context of Academic Program Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dee, Jay R.; Heineman, William A.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter provides a conceptual model that academic leaders can use to navigate the complex, and often contentious, organizational terrain of academic program development. The model includes concepts related to the institution's external environment, as well as internal organizational structures, cultures, and politics. Drawing from the…

  17. Andragogical and Pedagogical Methods for Curriculum and Program Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Victor C. X., Ed.; Bryan, Valerie C., Ed.

    2014-01-01

    Today's ever-changing learning environment is characterized by the fast pace of technology that drives our society to move forward, and causes our knowledge to increase at an exponential rate. The need for in-depth research that is bound to generate new knowledge about curriculum and program development is becoming ever more relevant.…

  18. Intercultural competency development through a study abroad program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsu Chia Hsu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Recently, more and more universities are focusing on short-term study abroad programs. However, the actual advantages of such programs have not yet been empirically tested. The primary purpose of this study is to investigate whether such study abroad programs can influence participants and improve an individual’s intercultural competence. Using both reflections found in journals and follow-up interviews, the study aims to reflect the key factors that contribute to the intercultural development of the study participants. This paper elicits and examines the students’ study abroad experiences, particularly in the minimal impacts on the levels of intercultural competence and results of the 2011 summer study abroad program. It is hoped that future study abroad programs will find that this new approach can not only help college students learn better but that it will also shed light on the importance of intercultural competence through dialogue. Further studies are recommended with respect to the duration of the study abroad programs and the quantity/quality of the various activities involved in the enhancement of the students’ intercultural competence.

  19. Enhancement of programming speed on gate-all-around poly-silicon nanowire nonvolatile memory using self-aligned NiSi Schottky barrier source/drain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Ching-Yuan; Chang, Yaw-Jen; Chiou, Y. L.

    2013-08-01

    The programming characteristics of gate-all-around silicon-oxide-nitride-oxide silicon (SONOS) nonvolatile memories are presented using NiSi/poly-Si nanowires (SiNW) Schottky barrier (SB) heterojunctions. The non-uniform thermal stress distribution on SiNW channels due to joule heating affected the carrier transport behavior. Under a high drain voltage, impact ionization was found as a large lateral field enhances carrier velocity. As gate voltage (Vg) increased, the difference in the drain current within a range of various temperature conditions can be mitigated because a high gate field lowers the SB height of a NiSi source/SiNW/NiSi drain junction to ensure efficient hot-carrier generation. By applying the Fowler-Nordheim programming voltage to the SONOS nanowire memory, the SB height (Φn = 0.34 eV) could be reduced by image force; thus, hot electrons could be injected from SB source/drain electrodes into the SiN storage node. To compare both SiNW and Si nanocrystal SONOS devices, the SB SiNW SONOS device was characterized experimentally to propose a wider threshold-voltage window, exhibiting efficient programming characteristics.

  20. Infrastructure for Rapid Development of Java GUI Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jeremy; Hostetter, Carl F.; Wheeler, Philip

    2006-01-01

    The Java Application Shell (JAS) is a software framework that accelerates the development of Java graphical-user-interface (GUI) application programs by enabling the reuse of common, proven GUI elements, as distinguished from writing custom code for GUI elements. JAS is a software infrastructure upon which Java interactive application programs and graphical user interfaces (GUIs) for those programs can be built as sets of plug-ins. JAS provides an application- programming interface that is extensible by application-specific plugins that describe and encapsulate both specifications of a GUI and application-specific functionality tied to the specified GUI elements. The desired GUI elements are specified in Extensible Markup Language (XML) descriptions instead of in compiled code. JAS reads and interprets these descriptions, then creates and configures a corresponding GUI from a standard set of generic, reusable GUI elements. These elements are then attached (again, according to the XML descriptions) to application-specific compiled code and scripts. An application program constructed by use of JAS as its core can be extended by writing new plug-ins and replacing existing plug-ins. Thus, JAS solves many problems that Java programmers generally solve anew for each project, thereby reducing development and testing time.

  1. Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program FY98

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, T. [ed.; Chartock, M.

    1999-02-05

    The Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL or Berkeley Lab) Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program FY 1998 report is compiled from annual reports submitted by principal investigators following the close of the fiscal year. This report describes the supported projects and summarizes their accomplishments. It constitutes a part of the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program planning and documentation process that includes an annual planning cycle, projection selection, implementation, and review. The LBNL LDRD program is a critical tool for directing the Laboratory's forefront scientific research capabilities toward vital, excellent, and emerging scientific challenges. The program provides the resources for LBNL scientists to make rapid and significant contributions to critical national science and technology problems. The LDRD program also advances LBNL's core competencies, foundations, and scientific capability, and permits exploration of exciting new opportunities. All projects are work in forefront areas of science and technology. Areas eligible for support include the following: Advanced study of hypotheses, concepts, or innovative approaches to scientific or technical problems; Experiments and analyses directed toward ''proof of principle'' or early determination of the utility of new scientific ideas, technical concepts, or devices; and Conception and preliminary technical analyses of experimental facilities or devices.

  2. Perception of Export Barriers in a High-Tech Sector in a Less Developed Country: The Case of ICT SMEs in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Richardson

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates which export barriers are most pressing to small and medium sized enterprises (SME in a high-tech sector in a developing-country. It also examines whether exporters and non-exporters perceive different export barriers as being more pressing to their export development/initiation. The unit of analysis is SMEs in Malaysia’s information and communications technology (ICT sector. The findings suggest that the high cost of exporting is the most severe problem facing firms in the sample, with cultural differences posing the least important obstacle. Furthermore, with just two exceptions, there are no statistically significant differences in the perceptions of export barriers between exporting and non-exporting firms.

  3. Identifying and Prioritizing the Export Barriers and Proposing Initiatives to Developing Small to Medium Enterprises (SMEs Export Case Study: Feed Industry in West Azerbaijan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosein Rahmani Yushanlouie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study considers the difficulties of feed industry SMEs regarding export and testssome hypotheses to clarify the relevant barriers. The applied research method is descriptive.340 Questionnaires were distributed and 142 questionnaires were correctly answered. Thefindings show that regulations, bank and finance systems, and health permits, between the sixidentified factors, are the most important ones and have the highest regression coefficients onthe export development barriers construction. The next factors are the lack of marketing plan,specialized educations, and cultural level of society. While previous studies have focused onexport barriers, there are rare studies to investigate them in developing countries. So, thecurrent paper aims to help policy makers and managers to improve the performance of firmsand following the Iranian industry.

  4. Students' attitudes towards the introduction of a Personal and Professional Development portfolio: potential barriers and facilitators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleland Jennifer

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Portfolios, widely used in undergraduate and postgraduate medicine, have variable purposes, formats and success. A recent systematic review summarised factors necessary for successful portfolio introduction but there are no studies investigating the views of students inexperienced in portfolio use towards portfolio learning. This study's aim was to survey student views about a prospective Professional and Personal Development (PPD portfolio. Methods This was a qualitative, focus group study. All focus groups were taped and transcribed verbatim, and anonymised. The transcripts were analysed inductively, using framework analysis. Results Four focus groups were carried out with 32 undergraduate medical students naïve in portfolio use. Three themes relevant to portfolio introduction emerged. The first theme was the need for clear information and support for portfolio introduction, and anxieties about how this could be supported effectively. The second was that students had negative views about reflective learning and whether this could be taught and assessed, believing formal assessment could foster socially acceptable content. The third was that participants revealed little understanding of reflective learning and its potential benefits. Rather portfolios were seen as useful for concrete purposes (e.g., job applications not intrinsic benefits. Conclusion Undergraduate medical students without experience of portfolios are anxious about portfolio introduction. They require support in developing reflective learning skills. Care must be taken to ensure students do not see portfolios as merely yet another assessment hurdle.

  5. Design-with-nature for multifunctional landscapes: environmental benefits and social barriers in community development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bo; Li, Ming-Han; Li, Shujuan

    2013-10-28

    Since the early 1970s, Ian McHarg's design-with-nature concept has been inspiring landscape architects, community and regional planners, and liked-minded professionals to create designs that take advantage of ecosystem services and promote environmental and public health. This study bridges the gap in the literature that has resulted from a lack of empirical examinations on the multiple performance benefits derived through design-with-nature and the under-investigated social aspect emanated from McHarg's Ecological Determinism design approach. The Woodlands, TX, USA, an ecologically designed community development under McHarg's approach, is compared with two adjacent communities that follow the conventional design approach. Using national environmental databases and multiple-year residents' survey information, this study assesses three landscape performance metrics of McHarg's approach: stormwater runoff, urban heat island effect, and social acceptance. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) was used to assess the development extent and land surface temperature distribution. Results show that McHarg's approach demonstrates benefits in reducing runoff and urban heat island effect, whereas it confronts challenges with the general acceptance of manicured landscapes and thus results in a low safety perception level when residents interact with naturally designed landscapes. The authors argue that design-with-nature warrants multifunctionality because of its intrinsic interdisciplinary approach. Moreover, education and dissemination of successful examples can achieve a greater level of awareness among the public and further promote multifunctional design for landscape sustainability.

  6. 77 FR 6479 - Leased Commercial Access; Development of Competition and Diversity in Video Programming...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-08

    ... Programming Distribution and Carriage AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule... carriage of video programming vendors by multichannel video programming distributors (program carriage... and Order, Leased Commercial Access; Development of Competition and Diversity in Video...

  7. Overcoming Language and Literacy Barriers: Using Student Response System Technology to Collect Quality Program Evaluation Data from Immigrant Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Susan K.; Mao, Dung

    2016-01-01

    Student response system technology was employed for parenting education program evaluation data collection with Karen adults. The technology, with translation and use of an interpreter, provided an efficient and secure method that respected oral language and collective learning preferences and accommodated literacy needs. The method was popular…

  8. Northwest Energy Efficient Manufactured Housing Program Specification Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hewes, Tom [Northwest Energy Works of the Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Corvallis, OR (United States); Peeks, Brady [Northwest Energy Works of the Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Corvallis, OR (United States)

    2013-02-01

    The DOE research team Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), and Northwest Energy Works (NEW), the current Northwest Energy Efficient Manufactured Home Program (NEEM) program administrator, collaborated to research a new specification that would reduce the energy requirements of a NEEM home.This research identified and developed combinations of cost-effective high performance building assemblies and mechanical systems that can readily can be deployed in the manufacturing setting that reduce energy used for space conditioning, water heating and lighting by 50% over the present NEEM specifications.

  9. Faculty development program models to advance teaching and learning within health science programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, Jason W; Stein, Susan M; MacLean, Linda Garrelts; Van Amburgh, Jenny; Persky, Adam M

    2014-06-17

    Within health science programs there has been a call for more faculty development, particularly for teaching and learning. The primary objectives of this review were to describe the current landscape for faculty development programs for teaching and learning and make recommendations for the implementation of new faculty development programs. A thorough search of the pertinent health science databases was conducted, including the Education Resource Information Center (ERIC), MEDLINE, and EMBASE, and faculty development books and relevant information found were reviewed in order to provide recommendations for best practices. Faculty development for teaching and learning comes in a variety of forms, from individuals charged to initiate activities to committees and centers. Faculty development has been effective in improving faculty perceptions on the value of teaching, increasing motivation and enthusiasm for teaching, increasing knowledge and behaviors, and disseminating skills. Several models exist that can be implemented to support faculty teaching development. Institutions need to make informed decisions about which plan could be most successfully implemented in their college or school.

  10. Office of Technology Development Program for Research, Development, Demonstration, Testing, and Evaluation. FY 1993 Program Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    DOE has set a goal to clean up its complex and to bring all sites into compliance with applicable environmental regulations. This initiative is slated for completion by the year 2019. Four years ago there was no coordinated plan for identifying or cleaning these contaminated sites. Since 1989, DOE`s Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management has invested time, money, and manpower to establish a wide range of programs to meet this immense challenge. DOE is responsible for waste management and clean up of more than 100 contaminated installations in 36 states and territories. This includes 3,700 sites: over 26,000 acres, with hazardous or radioactive contaminated surface or groundwater, soil, or structures; over 26,000 acres requiring remediation, with the number growing as new sites are defined; 500 surplus facilities awaiting decontamination and decommissioning and approximately 5,000 peripheral properties (residences, businesses) that have soil contaminated with uranium tailings.

  11. The Influence of Creativity Level on Overcoming the Barriers of Teachers’ Professional Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. F. Zeer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper summarizes the research findings concerning the influence of creativity on overcoming the barriers of teachers’ professional development. The re- search subject includes defining the interrelations between the creativity and profes- sional burn-out. The aim of the studies is to find out the influencing factors of creativ- ity eliminating the destructive trends of professional pedagogic activity. The methodology is based on the E. E. Simanyuk’s concept describing the de- structive tendencies of teachers’ professional formation and the constructive overcom- ing strategies. The teachers’ refresher course at Sverdlovsk Regional Institute of Education De- velopment was taken as the experimental ground for the research. The diagnostics of the psychological constructs relating to the discussed phenomena was carried out by using tests of high validity and reliability. The modern methods of mathematical statis- tics were applied. The research outputs are of high practical importance both for designing the content of teachers’ professional development and upgrading their readiness for educa- tional innovations. 

  12. The influence of sea level and cyclones on Holocene reef flat development: Middle Island, central Great Barrier Reef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, E. J.; Smithers, S. G.; Lewis, S. E.; Clark, T. R.; Zhao, J. X.

    2016-09-01

    The geomorphology and chronostratigraphy of the reef flat (including microatoll ages and elevations) were investigated to better understand the long-term development of the reef at Middle Island, inshore central Great Barrier Reef. Eleven cores across the fringing reef captured reef initiation, framework accretion and matrix sediments, allowing a comprehensive appreciation of reef development. Precise uranium-thorium ages obtained from coral skeletons revealed that the reef initiated ~7873 ± 17 years before present (yBP), and most of the reef was emplaced in the following 1000 yr. Average rates of vertical reef accretion ranged between 3.5 and 7.6 mm yr-1. Reef framework was dominated by branching corals ( Acropora and Montipora). An age hiatus of ~5000 yr between 6439 ± 19 and 1617 ± 10 yBP was observed in the core data and attributed to stripping of the reef structure by intense cyclones during the mid- to late-Holocene. Large shingle ridges deposited onshore and basset edges preserved on the reef flat document the influence of cyclones at Middle Island and represent potential sinks for much of the stripped material. Stripping of the upper reef structure around the outer margin of the reef flat by cyclones created accommodation space for a thin (energy waves presumably generated by cyclones have significantly influenced both Holocene reef growth and contemporary reef flat geomorphology.

  13. Evaluating Programs Aimed at Promoting Positive Youth Development: A Relational Development Systems-Based View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Richard M.; Lerner, Jacqueline V.; Urban, Jennifer Brown; Zaff, Jon

    2016-01-01

    Whether discussing the process involved in positive youth development (PYD), articulating an approach (or philosophy) of youth programs associated with PYD, or enacting a program aimed at promoting PYD, ideas derived from relational developmental systems (RDS) metatheory are pertinent. Accordingly, we discuss the RDS metamodel and explain the…

  14. Bereavement photography for children: program development and health care professionals' response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelson, Kelly Nicole; Blehart, Kathleen; Hochberg, Todd; James, Kristin

    2013-07-01

    Reports of in-hospital bereavement photography focus largely on stillborns and neonates. Empiric data regarding the implementation of bereavement photography in pediatrics beyond the neonatal period and the impact of such programs on healthcare professionals (HCPs) is lacking. The authors describe the implementation of a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) bereavement photography program and use questionnaire data from HCPs to describe HCPs' reflections on the program and to identify program barriers. From July 2007 through April 2070, families of 59 (36%) of the 164 patients who died in the PICU participated in our bereavement photography program. Forty questionnaires from 29 HCPs caring for 39 participating patients/families indicated that families seemed grateful for the service (n = 34; 85%) and that the program helped HCPs feel better about their role (n = 30; 70%). Many HCPs disagreed that the program consumed too much of his/her time (n = 34; 85%) and that the photographer made his/her job difficult (n = 37; 92.5%). Qualitative analysis of responses to open-ended questions revealed 4 categories: the program's general value; positive aspects of the program; negative aspects of the program; and suggestions for improvements. Implementing bereavement photography in the PICU is feasible though some barriers exist. HCPs may benefit from such programs.

  15. 30 CFR 402.7 - Water-Resources Technology Development Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water-Resources Technology Development Program... RESEARCH PROGRAM AND THE WATER-RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM Description of Water-Resources Programs § 402.7 Water-Resources Technology Development Program. (a) Subject to the availability...

  16. 25 CFR 39.130 - Can ISEF funds be used for Language Development Programs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... implement Language Development programs that demonstrate the positive effects of Native language programs on... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can ISEF funds be used for Language Development Programs... INDIAN SCHOOL EQUALIZATION PROGRAM Indian School Equalization Formula Language Development Programs §...

  17. Development of a Training Program for Commercial Building Technicians

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinholm, Rod

    2013-05-31

    This project focused on developing and deploying a comprehensive program of 22 training modules, including certification requirements, and accreditation standards for commercial building technicians, to help achieve the full savings potential of energy efficient buildings, equipment, and systems. This curriculum extended the currently available commercial building technician programs -- training a labor force in a growing market area focused on energy efficiency. The program helps to remove a major market impediment to low energy/zero energy commercial building system acceptance, namely a lack of operating personnel capable of handling more complex high efficiency systems. The project developed a training curriculum for commercial building technicians, with particular focus on high-efficiency building technology, and systems. In Phase 1, the project team worked collaboratively in developing a draft training syllabus to address project objectives. The team identified energy efficiency knowledge gaps in existing programs and plans and plans to address the gaps with either modified or new curricula. In Phase 2, appropriate training materials were developed to meet project objectives. This material was developed for alternative modes of delivery, including classroom lecture materials, e-learning elements, video segments, exercises, and hands-on training elements. A Certification and Accreditation Plan and a Commercialization and Sustainability Plan were also investigated and developed. The Project Management Plan was updated quarterly and provided direction on the management approaches used to accomplish the expected project objectives. GTI project management practices tightly coordinate project activities using management controls to deliver optimal customer value. The project management practices include clear scope definition, schedule/budget tracking, risk/issue resolution and team coordination.

  18. Curriculum development for a national cardiotocography education program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thellesen, Line; Hedegaard, Morten; Bergholt, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To define learning objectives for a national cardiotocography (CTG) education program based on expert consensus. DESIGN: A three-round Delphi survey. POPULATION AND SETTING: One midwife and one obstetrician from each maternity unit in Denmark were appointed based on CTG teaching...... on CTG learning objectives was achieved using the Delphi methodology. This was an initial step in developing a valid CTG education program. A prioritized list of objectives will clarify which topics to emphasize in a CTG education program....... round, participants listed one to five learning objectives within the predefined topics. Responses were analyzed by a directed approach to content analysis. Phrasing was modified in accordance with Bloom's Taxonomy. In the second and third Delphi rounds, participants rated each objective on a five...

  19. Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program FY 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen (Ed.), Todd

    2007-03-08

    The Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab or LBNL) is a multi-program national research facility operated by the University of California for the Department of Energy (DOE). As an integral element of DOE's National Laboratory System, Berkeley Lab supports DOE's missions in fundamental science, energy resources, and environmental quality. Berkeley Lab programs advance four distinct goals for DOE and the nation: (1) To perform leading multidisciplinary research in the computing sciences, physical sciences, energy sciences, biosciences, and general sciences in a manner that ensures employee and public safety and protection of the environment. (2) To develop and operate unique national experimental facilities for qualified investigators. (3) To educate and train future generations of scientists and engineers to promote national science and education goals. (4) To transfer knowledge and technological innovations and to foster productive relationships among Berkeley Lab's research programs, universities, and industry in order to promote national economic competitiveness.

  20. Advanced gas cooled nuclear reactor materials evaluation and development program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    Results of work performed from January 1, 1977 through March 31, 1977 on the Advanced Gas Cooled Nuclear Reactor Materials Evaluation and Development Program are presented. The objectives of this program are to evaluate candidate alloys for Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Process Heat and Direct Cycle Helium Turbine (DCHT) applications, in terms of the effect of simulated reactor primary coolant (impure Helium), high temperatures, and long time exposures, on the mechanical properties and structural and surface stability of selected candidate alloys. A second objective is to select and recommend materials for future test facilities and more extensive qualification programs. Work covered in this report includes progress to date on alloy selection for VHTR Nuclear Process Heat (NPH) applications and for DCHT applications. The present status on the simulated reactor helium loop design and on designs for the testing and analysis facilities and equipment is discussed.

  1. Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program FY2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Todd C.

    2005-03-22

    The Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab or LBNL) is a multi-program national research facility operated by the University of California for the Department of Energy (DOE). As an integral element of DOE's National Laboratory System, Berkeley Lab supports DOE's missions in fundamental science, energy resources, and environmental quality. Berkeley Lab programs advance four distinct goals for DOE and the nation: (1) To perform leading multidisciplinary research in the computing sciences, physical sciences, energy sciences, biosciences, and general sciences in a manner that ensures employee and public safety and protection of the environment. (2) To develop and operate unique national experimental facilities for qualified investigators. (3) To educate and train future generations of scientists and engineers to promote national science and education goals. (4) To transfer knowledge and technological innovations and to foster productive relationships among Berkeley Lab's research programs, universities, and industry in order to promote national economic competitiveness. Berkeley Lab's research and the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program support DOE's Strategic Goals that are codified in DOE's September 2003 Strategic Plan, with a primary focus on Advancing Scientific Understanding. For that goal, the Fiscal Year (FY) 2004 LDRD projects support every one of the eight strategies described in the plan. In addition, LDRD efforts support the goals of Investing in America's Energy Future (six of the fourteen strategies), Resolving the Environmental Legacy (four of the eight strategies), and Meeting National Security Challenges (unclassified fundamental research that supports stockpile safety and nonproliferation programs). The LDRD supports Office of Science strategic plans, including the 20 year Scientific Facilities Plan and the draft Office of Science Strategic Plan. The research also

  2. Developments in amphibian captive breeding and reintroduction programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Gemma; Griffiths, Richard A; Pavajeau, Lissette

    2016-04-01

    Captive breeding and reintroduction remain high profile but controversial conservation interventions. It is important to understand how such programs develop and respond to strategic conservation initiatives. We analyzed the contribution to conservation made by amphibian captive breeding and reintroduction since the launch of the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Amphibian Conservation Action Plan (ACAP) in 2007. We assembled data on amphibian captive breeding and reintroduction from a variety of sources including the Amphibian Ark database and the IUCN Red List. We also carried out systematic searches of Web of Science, JSTOR, and Google Scholar for relevant literature. Relative to data collected from 1966 to 2006, the number of species involved in captive breeding and reintroduction projects increased by 57% in the 7 years since release of the ACAP. However, there have been relatively few new reintroductions over this period; most programs have focused on securing captive-assurance populations (i.e., species taken into captivity as a precaution against extinctions in the wild) and conservation-related research. There has been a shift to a broader representation of frogs, salamanders, and caecilians within programs and an increasing emphasis on threatened species. There has been a relative increase of species in programs from Central and South America and the Caribbean, where amphibian biodiversity is high. About half of the programs involve zoos and aquaria with a similar proportion represented in specialist facilities run by governmental or nongovernmental agencies. Despite successful reintroduction often being regarded as the ultimate milestone for such programs, the irreversibility of many current threats to amphibians may make this an impractical goal. Instead, research on captive assurance populations may be needed to develop imaginative solutions to enable amphibians to survive alongside current, emerging, and future threats.

  3. Advanced Materials Development Program: Ceramic Technology for Advanced Heat Engines program plan, 1983--1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-07-01

    The purpose of the Ceramic Technology for Advanced Heat Engines (CTAHE) Project is the development of an industrial technology base capable of providing reliable and cost-effective high temperature ceramic components for application in advanced heat engines. There is a deliberate emphasis on industrial'' in the purpose statement. The project is intended to support the US ceramic and engine industries by providing the needed ceramic materials technology. The heat engine programs have goals of component development and proof-of-concept. The CTAHE Project is aimed at developing generic basic ceramic technology and does not involve specific engine designs and components. The materials research and development efforts in the CTAHE Project are focused on the needs and general requirements of the advanced gas turbine and low heat rejection diesel engines. The CTAHE Project supports the DOE Office of Transportation Systems' heat engine programs, Advanced Turbine Technology Applications (ATTAP) and Heavy Duty Transport (HDT) by providing the basic technology required for development of reliable and cost-effective ceramic components. The heat engine programs provide the iterative component design, fabrication, and test development logic. 103 refs., 18 figs., 11 tabs.

  4. Epigenetic regulation of the placental HSD11B2 barrier and its role as a critical regulator of fetal development

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    “Fetal programming” is a term used to describe how early-life experience influences fetal development and later disease risk. In humans, prenatal stress-induced fetal programming is associated with increased risk of preterm birth, and a heightened risk of metabolic and neurological diseases later in life. A critical determinant of this is the regulation of fetal exposure to glucocorticoids by the placenta. Glucocorticoids are the mediators through which maternal stress influences fetal develo...

  5. The Relationships between Faculty Preparation Programs and Teaching Assistant Development Programs. Preparing Future Faculty. Occasional Paper No. 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tice, Stacey Lane

    This paper examines the relationship between teaching assistant (TA) development programs and faculty preparation programs, the commonalities between the two types of program, and the issues to be considered when making the transition from the former to the latter. It notes that many institutions adopted TA training programs in the 1980s in…

  6. Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program FY2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none, none

    2012-04-27

    Berkeley Lab's research and the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program support DOE's Strategic Themes that are codified in DOE's 2006 Strategic Plan (DOE/CF-0010), with a primary focus on Scientific Discovery and Innovation. For that strategic theme, the Fiscal Year (FY) 2011 LDRD projects support each one of the three goals through multiple strategies described in the plan. In addition, LDRD efforts support the four goals of Energy Security, the two goals of Environmental Responsibility, and Nuclear Security (unclassified fundamental research that supports stockpile safety and nonproliferation programs). Going forward in FY 2012, the LDRD program also supports the Goals codified in the new DOE Strategic Plan of May, 2011. The LDRD program also supports Office of Science strategic plans, including the 20-year Scientific Facilities Plan and the Office of Science Strategic Plan. The research also supports the strategic directions periodically under consideration and review by the Office of Science Program Offices, such as LDRD projects germane to new research facility concepts and new fundamental science directions. Brief summares of projects and accomplishments for the period for each division are included.

  7. Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program Activities for FY 2008.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Looney,J.P.; Fox, K.

    2009-04-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is a multidisciplinary laboratory that maintains a primary mission focus the physical sciences, energy sciences, and life sciences, with additional expertise in environmental sciences, energy technologies, and national security. It is managed by Brookhaven Science Associates, LLC, (BSA) under contract with the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE). BNL's Fiscal year 2008 budget was $531.6 million. There are about 2,800 employees, and another 4,300 guest scientists and students who come each year to use the Laboratory's facilities and work with the staff. The BNL Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program reports its status to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) annually in March, as required by DOE Order 413.2B, 'Laboratory Directed Research and Development,' April 19, 2006, and the Roles, Responsibilities, and Guidelines for Laboratory Directed Research and Developlnent at the Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration Laboratories dated June 13, 2006. Accordingly, this is our Annual Report in which we describe the Purpose, Approach, Technical Progress and Results, and Specific Accomplishments of all LDRD projects that received funding during Fiscal Year 2008. BNL expended $12 million during Fiscal Year 2008 in support of 69 projects. The program has two categories, the annual Open Call LDRDs and Strategic LDRDs, which combine to meet the overall objectives of the LDRD Program. Proposals are solicited annually for review and approval concurrent with the next fiscal year, October 1. For the open call for proposals, an LDRD Selection Committee, comprised of the Associate Laboratory Directors (ALDs) for the Scientific Directorates, an equal number of scientists recommended by the Brookhaven Council, plus the Assistant Laboratory Director for Policy and Strategic Planning, review the proposals submitted in response to the solicitation. The Open Can LDRD category emphasizes innovative research concepts

  8. Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program. Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogeka, G.J.

    1991-12-01

    Today, new ideas and opportunities, fostering the advancement of technology, are occurring at an ever-increasing rate. It, therefore, seems appropriate that a vehicle be available which fosters the development of these new ideas and technologies, promotes the early exploration and exploitation of creative and innovative concepts, and which develops new ``fundable`` R&D projects and programs. At Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), one such method is through its Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program. This discretionary research and development tool is critical in maintaining the scientific excellence and vitality of the Laboratory. Additionally, it is a means to stimulate the scientific community, fostering new science and technology ideas, which is the major factor achieving and maintaining staff excellence, and a means to address national needs, with the overall mission of the Department of Energy (DOE) and the Brookhaven National Laboratory. The Project Summaries with their accomplishments described in this report reflect the above. Aside from leading to new fundable or promising programs and producing especially noteworthy research, they have resulted in numerous publications in various professional and scientific journals, and presentations at meetings and forums.

  9. Perinatal Maternal Mental Health, Fetal Programming and Child Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J. Lewis

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Maternal mental disorders over pregnancy show a clear influence on child development. This review is focused on the possible mechanisms by which maternal mental disorders influence fetal development via programming effects. This field is complex since mental health symptoms during pregnancy vary in type, timing and severity and maternal psychological distress is often accompanied by higher rates of smoking, alcohol use, poor diet and lifestyle. Studies are now beginning to examine fetal programming mechanisms, originally identified within the DOHaD framework, to examine how maternal mental disorders impact fetal development. Such mechanisms include hormonal priming effects such as elevated maternal glucocorticoids, alteration of placental function and perfusion, and epigenetic mechanisms. To date, mostly high prevalence mental disorders such as depression and anxiety have been investigated, but few studies employ diagnostic measures, and there is very little research examining the impact of maternal mental disorders such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, eating disorders and personality disorders on fetal development. The next wave of longitudinal studies need to focus on specific hypotheses driven by plausible biological mechanisms for fetal programming and follow children for a sufficient period in order to examine the early manifestations of developmental vulnerability. Intervention studies can then be targeted to altering these mechanisms of intergenerational transmission once identified.

  10. Perinatal Maternal Mental Health, Fetal Programming and Child Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Andrew J; Austin, Emma; Knapp, Rebecca; Vaiano, Tina; Galbally, Megan

    2015-11-26

    Maternal mental disorders over pregnancy show a clear influence on child development. This review is focused on the possible mechanisms by which maternal mental disorders influence fetal development via programming effects. This field is complex since mental health symptoms during pregnancy vary in type, timing and severity and maternal psychological distress is often accompanied by higher rates of smoking, alcohol use, poor diet and lifestyle. Studies are now beginning to examine fetal programming mechanisms, originally identified within the DOHaD framework, to examine how maternal mental disorders impact fetal development. Such mechanisms include hormonal priming effects such as elevated maternal glucocorticoids, alteration of placental function and perfusion, and epigenetic mechanisms. To date, mostly high prevalence mental disorders such as depression and anxiety have been investigated, but few studies employ diagnostic measures, and there is very little research examining the impact of maternal mental disorders such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, eating disorders and personality disorders on fetal development. The next wave of longitudinal studies need to focus on specific hypotheses driven by plausible biological mechanisms for fetal programming and follow children for a sufficient period in order to examine the early manifestations of developmental vulnerability. Intervention studies can then be targeted to altering these mechanisms of intergenerational transmission once identified.

  11. Development of a stratum corneum substitute for in vitro percutaneous penetration studies : a skin barrier model comprising synthetic stratum corneum lipids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, Miranda Wilhelmina de

    2006-01-01

    The research outlined in this thesis was focused on the development of a skin barrier model, which can substitute for stratum corneum in diffusion studies. This so-called stratum corneum substitute (SCS) was prepared with reconstituted SC lipids (cholesterol, free fatty acids and ceramides) on a por

  12. Development of the First Language Is Not a Barrier to Second-Language Acquisition: Evidence from Vietnamese Immigrants to the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Anne; Shin, Fay; Krashen, Stephen

    2001-01-01

    Elementary and middle school children in California who speak Vietnamese as a first language reported high levels of oral competence in Vietnamese and a desire to maintain Vietnamese language and culture. There was no evidence that the development of the first language was a barrier to second language acquisition. (Author/VWL)

  13. The Utilisation of the Internet by Palestinian English Language Teachers Focusing on Uses, Practices and Barriers and Overall Contribution to Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabilan, Muhammad Kamarul; Rajab, Belal Mousa

    2010-01-01

    The paper describes a study designed to investigate the utilisation of the Internet by English Language teachers in Gaza focusing on uses, practices and barriers. A questionnaire was developed based on literature (Kabilan 2003; Kabilan & Mohamed Amin 2002) and was administered to 274 English language teachers in Gaza schools. Data reveal that…

  14. Vector control programs in Saint Johns County, Florida and Guayas, Ecuador: successes and barriers to integrated vector management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Vector-borne diseases (VBDs) and mosquito control programs (MCPs) diverge in settings and countries, and lead control specialists need to be aware of the most effective control strategies. Integrated Vector Management (IVM) strategies, once implemented in MCPs, aim to reduce cost and optimize protection of the populations against VBDs. This study presents a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) analysis to compare IVM strategies used by MCPs in Saint Johns County, Florida and Guayas, Ecuador. This research evaluates MCPs strategies to improve vector control activities. Methods Methods included descriptive findings of the MCP operations. Information was obtained from vector control specialists, directors, and residents through field trips, surveys, and questionnaires. Evaluations of the strategies and assets of the control programs where obtained through SWOT analysis and within an IVM approach. Results Organizationally, the Floridian MCP is a tax-based District able to make decisions independently from county government officials, with the oversight of an elected board of commissioners. The Guayas program is directed by the country government and assessed by non-governmental organizations like the World health Organization. Operationally, the Floridian MCP conducts entomological surveillance and the Ecuadorian MCP focuses on epidemiological monitoring of human disease cases. Strengths of both MCPs were their community participation and educational programs. Weaknesses for both MCPs included limitations in budgets and technical capabilities. Opportunities, for both MCPs, are additional funding and partnerships with private, non-governmental, and governmental organizations. Threats experienced by both MCPs included political constraints and changes in the social and ecological environment that affect mosquito densities and control efforts. IVM pillars for policy making were used to compare the information among the programs. Differences

  15. Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program FY 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Todd; Levy, Karin

    2002-03-15

    The Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab or LBNL) is a multi-program national research facility operated by the University of California for the Department of Energy (DOE). As an integral element of DOE's National Laboratory System, Berkeley Lab supports DOE's missions in fundamental science, energy resources, and environmental quality. Berkeley Lab programs advance four distinct goals for DOE and the nation: (1) To perform leading multidisciplinary research in the computing sciences, physical sciences, energy sciences, biosciences, and general sciences in a manner that ensures employee and public safety and protection of the environment. (2) To develop and operate unique national experimental facilities for qualified investigators. (3) To educate and train future generations of scientists and engineers to promote national science and education goals. (4) To transfer knowledge and technological innovations and to foster productive relationships among Berkeley Lab's research programs, universities, and industry in order to promote national economic competitiveness. This is the annual report on Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program for FY01.

  16. Lifelong Learning Competencies Development Program for Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Martinez-Mediano

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Lifelong learning (LLL is an intentional learning that people engage in throughout their lives for personal and professional fulfillment and to improve the quality of their lives. Develop the capability for lifelong learning in Higher Education is important to facilitate the incorporation of new graduates to work. To this end, we have designed a program on "Lifelong learning competencies for Higher Education students', which we have applied to students at University of San Diego, California, USA and to the University of Distance Education, Spain. Methodology. We have presented the program by means a workshop where the debate and the reflection played one important strategy. To check the program’s achievements we used mixed methodologies, according to the evaluative research. We applied one questionnaire, and together to a practice and the students' personal portfolio, they enabled us to assess the program effectiveness, satisfaction and impact. Results. The comparison of the answers in the questionnaire, before and after of the workshops sing that students improved in their knowledge and awareness about the importance of LLL and key competencies for their profession development plan. Discussion. The program contributes to improve key competencies and commitment to learning throughout the people’s lives.

  17. Architectures of small satellite programs in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Danielle; Weigel, Annalisa

    2014-04-01

    Global participation in space activity is growing as satellite technology matures and spreads. Countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America are creating or reinvigorating national satellite programs. These countries are building local capability in space through technological learning. This paper analyzes implementation approaches in small satellite programs within developing countries. The study addresses diverse examples of approaches used to master, adapt, diffuse and apply satellite technology in emerging countries. The work focuses on government programs that represent the nation and deliver services that provide public goods such as environmental monitoring. An original framework developed by the authors examines implementation approaches and contextual factors using the concept of Systems Architecture. The Systems Architecture analysis defines the satellite programs as systems within a context which execute functions via forms in order to achieve stakeholder objectives. These Systems Architecture definitions are applied to case studies of six satellite projects executed by countries in Africa and Asia. The architectural models used by these countries in various projects reveal patterns in the areas of training, technical specifications and partnership style. Based on these patterns, three Archetypal Project Architectures are defined which link the contextual factors to the implementation approaches. The three Archetypal Project Architectures lead to distinct opportunities for training, capability building and end user services.

  18. Nuclear Human Resources Development Program using Educational Core Simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yu Sun; Hong, Soon Kwan [KHNP-CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    KHNP-CRI(Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co.-Central Research Institute) has redesigned the existing Core Simulator(CoSi) used as a sort of training tools for reactor engineers in operating nuclear power plant to support Nuclear Human Resources Development (NHRD) Program focusing on the nuclear department of Dalat university in Vietnam. This program has been supported by MOTIE in Korea and cooperated with KNA(Korea Nuclear Association for International Cooperation) and HYU(Hanyang University) for enhancing the nuclear human resources of potential country in consideration with Korean Nuclear Power Plant as a next candidate energy sources. KHNP-CRI has provided Edu-CoSi to Dalat University in Vietnam in order to support Nuclear Human Resources Development Program in Vietnam. Job Qualification Certificates Program in KHNP is utilized to design a training course for Vietnamese faculty and student of Dalat University. Successfully, knowhow on lecturing the ZPPT performance, training and maintaining Edu-CoSi hardware are transferred by several training courses which KHNP-CRI provides.

  19. Laboratory directed research and development program FY 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Todd; Levy, Karin

    2000-03-08

    The Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab or LBNL) is a multi-program national research facility operated by the University of California for the Department of Energy (DOE). As an integral element of DOE's National Laboratory System, Berkeley Lab supports DOE's missions in fundamental science, energy resources, and environmental quality. Berkeley Lab programs advance four distinct goals for DOE and the nation: (1) To perform leading multidisciplinary research in the computing sciences, physical sciences, energy sciences, biosciences, and general sciences in a manner that ensures employee and public safety and protection of the environment. (2) To develop and operate unique national experimental facilities for qualified investigators. (3) To educate and train future generations of scientists and engineers to promote national science and education goals. (4) To transfer knowledge and technological innovations and to foster productive relationships among Berkeley Lab's research programs, universities, and industry in order to promote national economic competitiveness. This is the annual report on Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program for FY99.

  20. Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program FY 2008 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    editor, Todd C Hansen

    2009-02-23

    The Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab or LBNL) is a multi-program national research facility operated by the University of California for the Department of Energy (DOE). As an integral element of DOE's National Laboratory System, Berkeley Lab supports DOE's missions in fundamental science, energy resources, and environmental quality. Berkeley Lab programs advance four distinct goals for DOE and the nation: (1) To perform leading multidisciplinary research in the computing sciences, physical sciences, energy sciences, biosciences, and general sciences in a manner that ensures employee and public safety and protection of the environment. (2) To develop and operate unique national experimental facilities for qualified investigators. (3) To educate and train future generations of scientists and engineers to promote national science and education goals. (4) To transfer knowledge and technological innovations and to foster productive relationships among Berkeley Lab's research programs, universities, and industry in order to promote national economic competitiveness. Berkeley Lab's research and the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program support DOE's Strategic Themes that are codified in DOE's 2006 Strategic Plan (DOE/CF-0010), with a primary focus on Scientific Discovery and Innovation. For that strategic theme, the Fiscal Year (FY) 2008 LDRD projects support each one of the three goals through multiple strategies described in the plan. In addition, LDRD efforts support the four goals of Energy Security, the two goals of Environmental Responsibility, and Nuclear Security (unclassified fundamental research that supports stockpile safety and nonproliferation programs). The LDRD program supports Office of Science strategic plans, including the 20-year Scientific Facilities Plan and the Office of Science Strategic Plan. The research also supports the strategic directions periodically under