Sample records for barricades

  1. Development and Evaluation of a Prototype Barricade Lighting System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Donovan Bullough


    Full Text Available Presently in work zones, standard barricade warning lights are used to provide channelizing and warning functions. These yellow flashing lights are presently used for different work zone activities. Concepts for a non-standard barricade lighting system were developed and evaluated: flashing red lights when traffic is stopped or very slow within a work zone, flashing green lights when a work zone is inactive and traffic should proceed normally, expanding yellow lights when drivers should slow down and exercise enhanced caution, and sweeping yellow lights when lane closures require drivers to move to the right or left. Prototype units were designed and fabricated. A survey of driver understanding of these functions indicated that drivers would probably understand all of the functions but that the flashing red and green functions could result in conflicts with other roadway traffic control devices. A field evaluation of the expanding and sweeping functions in mock-up work zones demonstrated that driver comprehension of the lights could be translated to a driving situation. Drivers changed lanes sooner (providing a 40% longer lane change margin in response to the sweeping function than to conventional flashing barricade lights, and subjective ratings about the intended meaning of the tested functions were also positive.

  2. Mixer-settler counter-current chromatography with a barricaded spiral disk assembly with glass beads. (United States)

    Ito, Yoichiro; Qi, Lin; Powell, Jimmie; Sharpnack, Frank; Metger, Howard; Yost, James; Cao, Xue-Li; Dong, Yin-Mao; Huo, Liang-Sheng; Zhu, Xiao-Ping; Li, Ting


    A novel spiral disk is designed by placing barricades at 6 mm intervals in the middle of the spiral channel to divide the channel into multiple sections. Glass beads are placed in every other section so that the planetary motion produces repetitive mixing and settling of polymer phase systems. Performance of this mixer-settler spiral disk assembly was examined for separation of lysozyme and myoglobin with a polymer phase system. The best results were obtained with a spiral disk equipped with barricades with openings ranging from 1.2 to 0.4 mm on each side at a high revolution speed up to 1200 rpm.

  3. Incident, Action, Recovery, and Recommissioning for the 4.5-MJ Pulsed Power Supply Located at the Electromagnetic Gun Facility, Barricade C, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD (United States)


    modified and, in 2001, was placed back in operation at barricade C to operate with an electromagnetic (EM) railgun load. On 9 February 2006, a capacitor ...MJ. 15. SUBJECT TERMS pulsed power, capacitor , railgun , armature, incident 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON...back in operation at barricade C to operate with an electromagnetic railgun load. The PPS consists of 18 250-kJ independently triggered modules

  4. Reinforcing the Barricades

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    @@ No danger yet, but the economy is on the defensive Newspaper reports world-wide will tell you one of two things about the Chinese economy. It's either strong enough to withstand the financial crisis, possibly emerging from it as a major financial player with the means to buoy the world economy on the back of a Chinese house-hold spending splurge.

  5. Desing of Intelligent Controllable Campus Safety Barricade System%智能可控式校园安全路障系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵海峰; 郭燕


    In recent years, with the popularity of vehicles, campus traffic accidents are increasing day by day. They result in significant loss of life and property and affect the normal teaching order and security . This article does the corresponding research and designs a set of obstacle detection and management system based on the radio frequency technology and GPRS technology. In school teaching and living lot, the obstacle detection and control system is placed and the barricade hardware device is insta lied to ensure campus safety through reasonable control, time-sharing, subsection management and release.%随着车辆的普及,校园行车伤亡事故日益增多,造成生命财产损失,影响校园正常教学和安全秩序.针对这类问题做了相应研究,设计了一套基于无线射频技术和GPRS技术结合的路障检测与管理系统.在学校教学和生活集中地段安放路障检测与控制系统,配合设计的路障硬件装置,通过合理调控,分时、分段进行管理和放行,避免校园事故的发生,保障校园安全.

  6. The exosome complex establishes a barricade to erythroid maturation (United States)

    McIver, Skye C.; Kang, Yoon-A; DeVilbiss, Andrew W.; O’Driscoll, Chelsea A.; Ouellette, Jonathan N.; Pope, Nathaniel J.; Camprecios, Genis; Chang, Chan-Jung; Yang, David; Bouhassira, Eric E.; Ghaffari, Saghi


    Complex genetic networks control hematopoietic stem cell differentiation into progenitors that give rise to billions of erythrocytes daily. Previously, we described a role for the master regulator of erythropoiesis, GATA-1, in inducing genes encoding components of the autophagy machinery. In this context, the Forkhead transcription factor, Foxo3, amplified GATA-1–mediated transcriptional activation. To determine the scope of the GATA-1/Foxo3 cooperativity, and to develop functional insights, we analyzed the GATA-1/Foxo3-dependent transcriptome in erythroid cells. GATA-1/Foxo3 repressed expression of Exosc8, a pivotal component of the exosome complex, which mediates RNA surveillance and epigenetic regulation. Strikingly, downregulating Exosc8, or additional exosome complex components, in primary erythroid precursor cells induced erythroid cell maturation. Our results demonstrate a new mode of controlling erythropoiesis in which multiple components of the exosome complex are endogenous suppressors of the erythroid developmental program. PMID:25115889

  7. Blast Loading on above Ground Barricaded Munition Storage Magazines. (United States)


    2073 227 0.490 0.49 p2. * . -- .4’ -ID fi1~~< .*. di * ~22 -o, ..i w7I-.7-, .* , . -. -. • . ’... .7 7 9 .. . TEST: QUICKLOAD AMMO 309 SHOT: 3 488...S5 5%5. * .-....-. ’.... -%...- - -.- .- - TEST: QUICKLOAD AMMO 3r SHOT. 3 480 256STATION: 3 1 - 388 ~ISM 296 * V) . 8 0.5 t 1.5 2 TID, HSEC TEST...STATION: 2 los - a 8.5 I 1.5 2 TII( MSEC TEST: QUICKLOAD AMMO 3880 SHOT: 4 2 480 3STATION- 2 388 28W lo wO oo " . 9 _5_ 8 8 .51 . TME, MSEC TEST

  8. Reading Fanon for todays struggles:On Peter Hudi's book : Frantz Fanon: Philosopher of the Barricades


    Nadi, Selim


    Communation about Peter Hudis' book on Frantz Fanon's philosophical and psychological thought, and political activism, the themes it raises in regards to Fanon's life and works, and their significance for political thought and contemporary social justice struggles

  9. The bitter barricading of prostaglandin biosynthesis pathway: understanding the molecular mechanism of selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibition by amarogentin, a secoiridoid glycoside from Swertia chirayita.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shantanu Shukla

    Full Text Available Swertia chirayita, a medicinal herb inhabiting the challenging terrains and high altitudes of the Himalayas, is a rich source of essential phytochemical isolates. Amarogentin, a bitter secoiridoid glycoside from S. chirayita, shows varied activity in several patho-physiological conditions, predominantly in leishmaniasis and carcinogenesis. Experimental analysis has revealed that amarogentin downregulates the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 activity and helps to curtail skin carcinogenesis in mouse models; however, there exists no account on selective inhibition of the inducible cyclooxygenase (COX isoform by amarogentin. Hence the computer-aided drug discovery methods were used to unravel the COX-2 inhibitory mechanism of amarogentin and to check its selectivity for the inducible isoform over the constitutive one. The generated theoretical models of both isoforms were subjected to molecular docking analysis with amarogentin and twenty-one other Food and Drug Authority (FDA approved lead molecules. The post-docking binding energy profile of amarogentin was comparable to the binding energy profiles of the FDA approved selective COX-2 inhibitors. Subsequent molecular dynamics simulation analysis delineated the difference in the stability of both complexes, with amarogentin-COX-2 complex being more stable after 40ns simulation. The total binding free energy calculated by MMGBSA for the amarogentin-COX-2 complex was -52.35 KCal/mol against a binding free energy of -8.57 KCal/mol for amarogentin-COX-1 complex, suggesting a possible selective inhibition of the COX-2 protein by the natural inhibitor. Amarogentin achieves this potential selectivity by small, yet significant, structural differences inherent to the binding cavities of the two isoforms. Hypothetically, it might block the entry of the natural substrates in the hydrophobic binding channel of the COX-2, inhibiting the cyclooxygenation step. To sum up briefly, this work highlights the mechanism of the possible selective COX-2 inhibition by amarogentin and endorses the possibility of obtaining efficient, futuristic and targeted therapeutic agents for relieving inflammation and malignancy from this phytochemical source.

  10. An Operational Prediction for Far Field Airblast Effects: Practical Experience at Caepe (United States)


    distance equal to the height of the barricade multiplied by a factor of 4 (see reference 2). Beyond this distance, the use of barricades is useless in...ERROR SOURCES 3 - Wuther account krge uncuuinliu Wuther vadions luge unmuimiu but cm be ptnned with a good mewno- 6.6) ~PERATIONAL APPLICATION

  11. 76 FR 26336 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on the Proposed Klingle Valley Trail in Washington, DC (United States)


    ... CONTACT: Federal Highway Administration, District of Columbia Division: Mr. Michael Hicks, Environmental... trail facility within the 0.7 mile barricaded portion of Klingle Road between Porter Street, NW.,...

  12. 40 CFR 247.13 - Transportation products. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transportation products. 247.13 Section 247.13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... Transportation products. (a) Traffic barricades and traffic cones used in controlling or restricting...

  13. Origin and Subsequent Modifications of Explosive Safety Quantity- Distance (ESQD) Standards for Mass Detonating Explosives with Special Reference to Naval Vessels. Volume 2. Appendices (United States)


    builditng diztnrazo for protootica L:= inzrtc-flcc for sall quntites " of unbarroaczmd o--plootvea. a. Inhabitad buildiag distanco for above. ’ b. Agend-_ item Zb "Anomalies With Respect to In€term Quntit - Distance Standards." 2. Agenda item Zb recommended revised tables to be

  14. Construction safety in DOE. Part 1, Students guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Handwerk, E C


    This report is the first part of a compilation of safety standards for construction activities on DOE facilities. This report covers the following areas: general safety and health provisions; occupational health and environmental control/haz mat; personal protective equipment; fire protection and prevention; signs, signals, and barricades; materials handling, storage, use, and disposal; hand and power tools; welding and cutting; electrical; and scaffolding.

  15. 27 CFR 555.220 - Table of separation distances of ammonium nitrate and blasting agents from explosives or blasting... (United States)


    ... distances of ammonium nitrate and blasting agents from explosives or blasting agents. 555.220 Section 555... ammonium nitrate and blasting agents from explosives or blasting agents. Table: Department of Defense... Blasting agent Minimum thickness of artificial barricades (in.) 100 3 11 12 100 300 4 14 12 300 600 5 18...

  16. Education Exclusion in a Social-Class Framework: An Inquiry into the Major Sub-Sectors of the Professional Self-Financing Sector in Kerala (United States)

    Rajasenan, D.; Bijith, G. A.; Rajeev, B.


    Education and education exclusion are two mammoth social and political challenges in a society characterized by diverse social groups. Although "self-financing regime" helped to barricade the outflow of money from the state, it also hampered the "social equity" in education and hence germinated the seed of education exclusion…

  17. The Effects of Low-level Repetitive Blasts on Neuropsychological Functioning (United States)


    4 2. Psychological Health Measures...create both immediate and lasting impairments on psychological health and neurocognitive function. Unfortunately, the ability to carefully study...order to gain access into enclosed and barricaded structures (e.g., rooms, buildings, gates). During training exercises, the Marine trainees stand in

  18. 30 CFR 57.8528 - Unventilated areas. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unventilated areas. 57.8528 Section 57.8528 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Underground Only § 57.8528 Unventilated areas. Unventilated areas shall be sealed, or barricaded and...

  19. 29 CFR 1926.651 - Specific excavation requirements. (United States)


    ... subparts D and E of this part (29 CFR 1926.50-1926.107) to prevent exposure to harmful levels of atmospheric contaminants and to assure acceptable atmospheric conditions, the following requirements shall... barricades, hand or mechanical signals, or stop logs. If possible, the grade should be away from...

  20. Sibling Comparison of Differential Parental Treatment in Adolescence: Gender, Self-Esteem, and Emotionality as Mediators of the Parenting-Adjustment Association. (United States)

    Feinberg, Mark E.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Simmens, Sam; Reiss, David; Hetherington, E. Mavis


    Compared adolescent siblings' evaluations of parental treatment. Found support for a moderating effect for self-esteem and emotionality but not gender. Evidence of the "sibling barricade" effect was limited and interpreted as reflecting a sibling comparison process. For older siblings, emotionality and self-esteem moderated the sibling barricade…

  1. Developmental Variation of Indian Thermophilic Variety of Scuttle Fly Megaselia (Megaselia) scalaris (Loew, 1866) (Diptera: Phoridae) on Different Substrates


    Abesh Chakraborty; Atanu Naskar; Panchanan Parui; Dhriti Banerjee


    The scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae) are important in forensic dipterology, because of their necrophagous habit. They are amongst the first wave of insects visiting human corpses in mechanically barricaded environments; hence their immature stages are generally used for estimation of PMI. The effect of different substrates commonly used for developmental studies was studied to analyze the variation of growth of the thermophilic variety of Megaselia (M.) scalaris prevalent in India on GDM, ED...

  2. Comparison of Data Development Tools for Populating Cognitive Models in Social Simulation (United States)


    barricades. They fused their secular expertise in social networks with a discipline culled from religious movements and combined the energy of soccer ...political parties, deemed a danger to the state. Even two members of the national soccer team were arrested, despite apologizing on television for...Advances in Social Computing, Lecture Notes in Computer Science (pp. 323–329). Heidelberg. Springer Berlin. Alt, J. K., & Lieberman, S. (2010

  3. Aerosol Beam Focused-Laser Induced Plasma Spectrometer (ABF-LIPS) Continuous Emissions Multi-Metals Analyzer (United States)


    The high end of the conveyor passes through the barricade wall and deposits the waste into containers. High Temperature Cast Ceramic Filter Bag... ceramic candles which are 10 ft by 5.75-in in diameter. This results in a total filter area of 2330 square ft with a filtration velocity of 4.97 ft per...building at NADEP. ........... 20 Figure 8. Kirksite furnace melting pot in hood at NADEP. ................................................. 21 Figure 9

  4. Joint Center for Operational Analysis Quarterly Bulletin. Volume 8, Issue 3, September 2006 (United States)


    in Iraq,” 16. 25 Urbano , Fighting in the Streets: A Manual of Urban Guerilla Warfare (New Jersey: Barricade Books, Inc. 1991), 10, 12. Robert Tabor...that they have fielded discrete units charged with “nonviolent action” (e.g., strikes in the transportation sector) to supplement “violent action...In Colombia , where the US is similarly involved in support of the counterinsurgency, the insurgents of FARC (Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de

  5. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia (United States)


    Ibshaway. Patrols police the region and put up barricades. In a cafe in Ibshaway, two policemen from the region talk with two peasants while they...Article by Orna Qadosh] [Text] Whenever stories are heard in the Knesset cafe - teria about the strange behavior of Minister Moda’i—his eccentric...the first meeting of this group in Malaysia in June this year. Mr Singh would be leading the Indian delegation. Mr Singh expressed the country’s

  6. Irregular Warfare Centric Foreign Internal Defense (United States)


    B Specials85) and in response to the marauding mobs , Catholics barricaded themselves into ―no-go‖ areas to keep the security forces out, allowing...ransacking homes, humiliating automobile occupants during searches and harassment of pedestrians on the streets.87 The Commission of Human Rights ruled...the surface often appears reactive and inconsistent, both Labour and Conservative governments have consistently adhered to a set of basic principles

  7. The Use of Military Force to Counter International Terrorism - A Policy Dilemma. (United States)


    constitute legitimate measures of self defense. 8 Brian Jenkins, the chief terrorist expect for ’ne Rand Corporation , disputed this in his 1’-U5 by the Rand Corporation examined 63 major kidnapping and barricade events staged by terrorists between 1968 arc late 1974. Conclusions summarized...Terrorism - An International Journal 8 (1986): 321. 43 Hogle: 7. " enkins, Cpmoatting Terrorism: 1. 4D As quotea oy John M. Osetn. ’ Comnatting i

  8. Efficacy of Entomopathogenic Nematodes and Sprayable Polymer Gel Against Crucifer Flea Beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) on Canola. (United States)

    Antwi, Frank B; Reddy, Gadi V P


    The crucifer flea beetle, Phyllotreta cruciferae (Goeze), is a key pest of canola (Brassica napus L.) in the northern Great Plains of North America. The efficacies of entomopathogenic nematodes (Steinernema spp. and Heterorhabditis spp.), a sprayable polymer gel, and a combination of both were assessed on canola for flea beetle management. Plots were treated soon after colonization by adult flea beetles, when canola was in the cotyledon to one-leaf stage. Ten plants along a 3.6-m section of row were selected and rated at pre-treatment and 7 and 14 d post treatment using the damage-rating scheme advanced by the European Plant Protection Organization, where 1 = 0%, 2 = 2%, 3 = 5%, 4 = 10%, and 5 = 25% leaf area injury. Under moderate flea beetle feeding pressure (1-3.3% leaf area damaged), seeds treated with Gaucho 600 (Bayer CropScience LP Raleigh, NC) (imidacloprid) produced the highest yield (843.2 kg/ha). Meanwhile, Barricade (Barricade International, Inc. Hobe Sound, FL) (polymer gel; 1%) + Scanmask (BioLogic Company Inc, Willow Hill, PA) (Steinernema feltiae) resulted in the highest yields: 1020.8 kg/ha under high (2.0-5.3% leaf area damaged), and 670.2 kg/ha at extremely high (4.3-8.6 % leaf area damaged) feeding pressure. Our results suggest that Barricade (1%) + Scanmask (S. feltiae) can serve as an alternative to the conventional chemical seed treatment. Moreover, Scanmask (S. feltiae) can be used to complement the effects of seed treatment after its protection has run out.

  9. Department of Energy Construction Safety Reference Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    DOE has adopted the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) regulations Title 29 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 1926 ``Safety and Health Regulations for Construction,`` and related parts of 29 CFR 1910, ``Occupational Safety and Health Standards.`` This nonmandatory reference guide is based on these OSHA regulations and, where appropriate, incorporates additional standards, codes, directives, and work practices that are recognized and accepted by DOE and the construction industry. It covers excavation, scaffolding, electricity, fire, signs/barricades, cranes/hoists/conveyors, hand and power tools, concrete/masonry, stairways/ladders, welding/cutting, motor vehicles/mechanical equipment, demolition, materials, blasting, steel erection, etc.

  10. Negative Influence of Confucianism on Chinese Mode of Thinking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    As the leading ideology of the ancient China, Confucianism has its deep influence on the spirit and behavior of the Chinese people. This paper suggests that among all the influences Confucianism has brought to the Chinese people, those negative ones on the Chinese mode of thinking are barricades of the Chinese social development and should be avoided. The article studies this issue by involving such theories as the Five Constant Virtues[1] of a human being and the Five Cardinal Hierarchical Relations[2] in the Confucian ideology as well as the group mind theory[3] in the psychology.

  11. Bonjour tristesse in Swedish suburbia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Jonas E


    At the end of May 2013, Swedish suburbs became breaking news around the world with nocturnal newsflashes displaying burning car wrecks and aggressive, dark figures nearby – les banlieues Suédoises étaient sur la barricade! During two intense weeks, the car burnings spread to other suburbs around...... that had gone dramatically wrong, but living conditions in suburbia were brought forward in the public debate. The role of the suburbs as a transition zone for people with an immigrant background was re-discovered, characterised by a high dependency on public financial support, a poor level of education...

  12. Modeling and analysis of sub-surface leakage current in nano-MOSFET under cutoff regime (United States)

    Swami, Yashu; Rai, Sanjeev


    The high leakage current in nano-meter regimes is becoming a significant portion of power dissipation in nano-MOSFET circuits as threshold voltage, channel length, and gate oxide thickness are scaled down to nano-meter range. Precise leakage current valuation and meticulous modeling of the same at nano-meter technology scale is an increasingly a critical work in designing the low power nano-MOSFET circuits. We present a specific compact model for sub-threshold regime leakage current in bulk driven nano-MOSFETs. The proposed logical model is instigated and executed into the latest updated PTM bulk nano-MOSFET model and is found to be in decent accord with technology-CAD simulation data. This paper also reviews various transistor intrinsic leakage mechanisms for nano-MOSFET exclusively in weak inversion, like drain-induced barricade lowering (DIBL), gate-induced drain leakage (GIDL), gate oxide tunneling (GOT) leakage etc. The root cause of the sub-surface leakage current is mainly due to the nano-scale short channel length causing source-drain coupling even in sub-threshold domain. Consequences leading to carriers triumphing the barricade between the source and drain. The enhanced model effectively considers the following parameter dependence in the account for better-quality value-added results like drain-to-source bias (VDS), gate-to-source bias (VGS), channel length (LG), source/drain junction depth (Xj), bulk doping concentration (NBULK), and operating temperature (Top).

  13. Cancer Vaccines: A Brief Overview. (United States)

    Thomas, Sunil; Prendergast, George C


    Vaccine approaches for cancer differ from traditional vaccine approaches for infectious disease in tending to focus on clearing active disease rather than preventing disease. In this review, we provide a brief overview of different types of vaccines and adjuvants that have been investigated for the purpose of controlling cancer burdens in patients, some of which are approved for clinical use or in late-stage clinical trials, such as the personalized dendritic cell vaccine sipuleucel-T (Provenge) and the recombinant viral prostate cancer vaccine PSA-TRICOM (Prostvac-VF). Vaccines against human viruses implicated in the development and progression of certain cancers, such as human papillomavirus in cervical cancer, are not considered here. Cancers express "altered self" antigens that tend to induce weaker responses than the "foreign" antigens expressed by infectious agents. Thus, immune stimulants and adjuvant approaches have been explored widely. Vaccine types considered include autologous patient-derived immune cell vaccines, tumor antigen-expressing recombinant virus vaccines, peptide vaccines, DNA vaccines, and heterologous whole-cell vaccines derived from established human tumor cell lines. Opportunities to develop effective cancer vaccines may benefit from seminal recent advances in understanding how immunosuppressive barricades are erected by tumors to mediate immune escape. In particular, targeted ablation of these barricades with novel agents, such as the immune checkpoint drug ipilimumab (anti-CTLA-4) approved recently for clinical use, may offer significant leverage to vaccinologists seeking to control and prevent malignancy.

  14. Çanakkale Savaşları'nda Lağım Muharebeleri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat KARATAŞ


    Full Text Available The mine battles (unground war which are an old turkish tradition, were an utilized method in Çanakkale land battles. The battles which are stopped due to stiff slopes from first days of land battles, put the front in a situation which are lived barricade campaigns. Therefore both side forces couldn’t step. The attacts caused big battle casualties but they didn’t show big success. It was very important to capture a front or a fortification. For this reason the mine exploding method- in its history was used in sieges of fortress- was used to capture front barricades by turkish troops. First mine at the front was exploded in Bombasrt on 28-29 of may of 1915. From this date both side forces had been frequently in mine activities too. The mine battles which constitute an interesting side of Gallipoli Campaign, gave us traces which are still shown today. In Gallipoli peninsula especially in Boyun Noktas, Krmzsrt, Kanlsrt, Merkeztepe, Cesarettepesi, Kayacka l, S ndere, Kerevizdere and Kitre Deresi finding these traces are possible.

  15. Geotechnical considerations in mine backfilling in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N. Sivakugan; R.M. Rankine; K.J. Rankine; K.S. Rankine [James Cook University, Townsville, Qld. (Australia). School of Engineering


    Mine backfilling can play a significant role in the overall operation of a mine operation. In the Australian mining industry, where safety is a prime consideration, hydraulic systems are the most common backfills deployed. Many accidents reported at hydraulic fill mines worldwide have mainly been attributed to a lack of understanding of their behaviour and barricade bricks. There are two basic types of backfilling strategies. The first, uncemented backfilling, does not make use of binding agents such as cement, and their characteristics can be studied using soil mechanics theories. A typical example of uncemented backfilling is the use of hydraulic fills that are placed in the form of slurry into the underground voids. The second category, cemented backfilling, makes use of a small percentage of binder such as Portland cement or a blend of Portland cement with another pozzolan such as fly ash, gypsum or blast furnace slag. This paper describes the findings from an extensive laboratory test programme carried out in Australia on more than 20 different hydraulic fills and several barricade bricks. A limited description of paste backfills is also provided, and the usefulness of numerical modelling as an investigative tool is highlighted. 21 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Use of the Location Inverse Solution to Reduce Ghost Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Yong-Zhong


    Full Text Available Through-the-wall imaging (TWI is a difficult but important task for both law enforcement and military missions. Acquiring information on both the internal features of a structure and the location of people inside plays an important role in many fields such as antiterrorism, hostage search and rescue, and barricade situations. Up to now, a number of promising experimental systems have been developed to validate and evaluate diverse imaging methods, most of which are based on a linear antenna array to obtain an image of the objects. However, these methods typically use the backward projection (BP algorithm based on ellipse curves, which usually generates additional ghost images. In this paper, the algorithm using the location inverse solution (LIS to reduce the ghost images is proposed and simulated. The results of simulation show that this approach is feasible.

  17. Mucin dynamics and enteric pathogens. (United States)

    McGuckin, Michael A; Lindén, Sara K; Sutton, Philip; Florin, Timothy H


    The extracellular secreted mucus and the cell surface glycocalyx prevent infection by the vast numbers of microorganisms that live in the healthy gut. Mucin glycoproteins are the major component of these barriers. In this Review, we describe the components of the secreted and cell surface mucosal barriers and the evidence that they form an effective barricade against potential pathogens. However, successful enteric pathogens have evolved strategies to circumvent these barriers. We discuss the interactions between enteric pathogens and mucins, and the mechanisms that these pathogens use to disrupt and avoid mucosal barriers. In addition, we describe dynamic alterations in the mucin barrier that are driven by host innate and adaptive immune responses to infection.

  18. Synthesis and Absorption Characteristics of Two Infrared Cyanine Dyes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Two infrared dyes, 1,3,3,1', 3', 3'-hexamethylindotricarbocyanine iodide (A) and 1,3,3,1',3',3'-hexamethyl-11-chloro-10,12-propylenetricarbocyanine iodide (B), were synthesized and characterized by melting point, elemental analysis, IR, and 1H-NMR. Their electron absorption spectra, laser absorption characteristics and solubility were investigated. The results showed that A and B have maximum absorption peaks at around 748 nm and 774 nm, respectivey, which match well with the wavelength output of the near infrared laser diode. The dyes were found to have photoinduced fading during irradiation with the infrared laser, especially in the presence of oxygen. However, this procession can be greatly slowed by using a layer of poly(vinyl alcohol) to barricade the dyes from oxygen. The experiments also showed that the dyes were thermally stable but decayed under strong sunlight. Furthermore, they are easily dissolved in some common solvents.

  19. Bio-Photonic Detection and Quantitative Evaluation Method for the Progression of Dental Caries Using Optical Frequency-Domain Imaging Method (United States)

    Wijesinghe, Ruchire Eranga; Cho, Nam Hyun; Park, Kibeom; Jeon, Mansik; Kim, Jeehyun


    The initial detection of dental caries is an essential biomedical requirement to barricade the progression of caries and tooth demineralization. The objective of this study is to introduce an optical frequency-domain imaging technique based quantitative evaluation method to calculate the volume and thickness of enamel residual, and a quantification method was developed to evaluate the total intensity fluctuation in depth direction owing to carious lesions, which can be favorable to identify the progression of dental caries in advance. The cross-sectional images of the ex vivo tooth samples were acquired using 1.3 μm spectral domain optical coherence tomography system (SD-OCT). Moreover, the advantages of the proposed method over the conventional dental inspection methods were compared to highlight the potential capability of OCT. As a consequence, the threshold parameters obtained through the developed method can be used as an efficient investigating technique for the initial detection of demineralization. PMID:27929440

  20. Driving into danger: Perception and communication of flash flood risk from a cultural perspective (United States)

    Coles, A.; Hirschboeck, K. K.; Fryberg, S.


    Flood risk managers educate the public on the dangers of driving through flooded roadways, yet losses to life and property continue to occur. This study integrates cultural psychology and risk perception theory to explore how culture, psychological processes, and behavior influence one another. Flood risk managers in Tucson, Arizona collaborated in the development of a questionnaire mailed to local residents. Questions regarding levels of trust, self-efficacy, social autonomy, social incorporation, time perspective, and situational factors were analyzed with respect to whether respondents stated that they have or have not driven through a flooded roadway. Respondents' decisions are influenced by the presence of signs and barricades, passengers, risk of personal injury or damage to the vehicle, and the availability of flood-related information. The most influential factor is the prior successful crossing of other vehicles. The results illuminate complex interrelations among the cultural factors and provide considerations for future risk perception research.

  1. Multimodal magnetic nano-carriers for cancer treatment: Challenges and advancements (United States)

    Aadinath, W.; Ghosh, Triroopa; Anandharamakrishnan, C.


    Iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) have been a propitious topic for cancer treatment in recent years because of its multifunctional theranostic applications under magnetic field. Two such widely used applications in cancer biology are gradient magnetic field guided targeting and alternative magnetic field (AMF) induced local hyperthermia. Gradient magnetic field guided targeting is a mode of active targeting of therapeutics conjugated with iron oxide nanoparticles. These particles also dissipate heat in presence of AMF which causes thermal injury to the cells of interest, for example tumour cells and subsequent death. Clinical trials divulge the feasibility of such magnetic nano-carrier as a promising candidate in cancer biology. However, these techniques need further investigations to curtail certain limitations manifested. Recent progresses in response have shrunken the barricade to certain extent. In this context, principles, challenges associated with these applications and recent efforts made in response will be discussed.

  2. Development and characterization of porous silver-incorporated hydroxyapatite ceramic for separation and elimination of microorganisms. (United States)

    Yang, Lei; Ning, Xiaoshan; Xiao, Qunfang; Chen, Kexin; Zhou, Heping


    A novel filter material for separating and eliminating microorganisms in water and gas was fabricated by incorporating silver ions into porous hydroxyapatite (HA) ceramics prepared by a starch additive technique. The porous ceramics reveal a microstructure of both large and small pores. Microorganism separating and eliminating properties of the porous silver-incorporated HA ceramics (PHA-Ag) were investigated by bacterial and viral filtration tests. The PHA-Ag demonstrated excellent separating and antibacterial effects on Escherichia coli and the mechanisms were studied. Adsorption of bacterial cells to the HA and the barricading effect of small pores contribute to the separating property of PHA-Ag, while the Ag+ ions equip the ceramics with antibacterial property. Furthermore, the PHA-Ag exhibited an observable virus-eliminating property and its probable mechanism was also discussed.

  3. Le thème de la révolution dans la pensée de Sartre

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    Cristina Diniz Mendonça Crema


    Full Text Available L'oeuvre de Sartre pourrait être lue comme Vincamation de l'esprit "pathétique" et "héroïque" de l'époque de la guerre et de la Résistance. Sous le coup de feu des barricades de 44, une philosophie de la révolution commence à éclore-elle fut forgée à chaud durant cette époque de "haute température historique". C'est de la généralisation théorique de cette expérience politique cruciale, c'est-à-dire de la cristallisation du "mythe" de la Résistance, que vient, à mon avis, l'idée satrienne de révolution.

  4. Use of the Location Inverse Solution to Reduce Ghost Images (United States)

    Hu, Yong-Zhong; Li, Ting-Jun; Zhou, Zheng-Ou


    Through-the-wall imaging (TWI) is a difficult but important task for both law enforcement and military missions. Acquiring information on both the internal features of a structure and the location of people inside plays an important role in many fields such as antiterrorism, hostage search and rescue, and barricade situations. Up to now, a number of promising experimental systems have been developed to validate and evaluate diverse imaging methods, most of which are based on a linear antenna array to obtain an image of the objects. However, these methods typically use the backward projection (BP) algorithm based on ellipse curves, which usually generates additional ghost images. In this paper, the algorithm using the location inverse solution (LIS) to reduce the ghost images is proposed and simulated. The results of simulation show that this approach is feasible.

  5. College English Listening Teaching Based on Affect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    With the continuous development of language teaching theories,the affective factors in language learning has got wide-spread attention.Research is carried out on the influence of learners'affective factors on the college English listening teaching,aiming to break the learning barricades caused by the affect.The theoretical background of affect and the current study situation abroad and domestically are introduced firstly,and together with the fact that learners'affect has widely been neglected in the teaching process.An interview and a questionnaire are used to test learners'affect in English listening class.In the end,how to solve the problems in college English listening teaching from the aspect of affect is discussed.

  6. „No i co z tego”. O dyskusji wokół "Kamieni na szaniec" Aleksandra Kamińskiego z Bożeną Keff, Magdą Szcześniak, Tomaszem Tomasikiem i Błażejem Warkockim rozmawia Anna Zawadzka

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    Anna Zawadzka


    Full Text Available “So what?” Bożena Keff, Magda Szcześniak, Tomasz Tomasik & Błażej Warkocki in a conversation with Anna ZawadzkaIn April 2013, the Polish Press Agency published an article in which Elżbieta Janicka proposed a new interpretations of Stones on the barricades. She claimed i.a.: ”Since we are deliberating, placed in a ho-mophobic culture, where questioning someone’s heterosexual orientation is not an observation but a de­lation, I would compare Zośka and Rudy to Achilles and Patroclus, a pair of legendary warriors. […] I think that this is one of the most beautiful texts about love knowing no limits, whereas all we know about the main characters’ relations testifies to the unheard power and depth of this feeling”. Those words caused an avalanche of reactions, starting from polemics with Janicka or libels on her to violence threats against the scholar. In this conversation, Bożena Keff, Magda Szcześniak, Tomasz Tomasik, Błażej Warkocki and Anna Zawadzka are discussing Janicka’s proposition (developed in her book Festung Warschau, published prior to the quoted text to interpret Stones on the barricades as a text also on a romantic relationship between two men. They analyse social and political causes of the “scandal”, induced by the Polish mainstream media together with a part of the Polish academic milieu. This conversation took place in May 2013. 

  7. Water ecological restoration technology's impact on south lake phytoplankton population change%水生态修复技术对南湖浮游植物种群变化的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦兰英; 陈宗永; 吴延志; 邓慧夫


    By barricading the implementation of the water ecological restoration in south lake, test barricading the phytoplankton species by test before six 22 kinds of door, chlorophyta dominant;After test, advantage of cyanophyta species reduced to five gate 12. Algae density dropped to 2.16×107个/L from0.0223×107个/L, dropped by 96.86 times. Transparency, up from 0.3 m to 1.8 m Show that water ecological restoration technology of eutrophication of water body has the very good effect, has a good application prospect.%通过对设在南湖的围隔实施水生态修复,试验围隔内的浮游植物的种类由试验前的6个门22种,绿藻门占优势;试验后蓝藻门占优势,种类减少至5个门12种。藻类密度由2.16×107个/L 下降至0.0223×107个/L,下降了96.86倍。透明度从0.3m上升到对于1.8m。表明水生态修复技术对水体富营养化具有很好的改善作用,有很好的应用前景。

  8. Hanford Site Wide Transportation Safety Document [SEC 1 Thru 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This safety evaluation report (SER) documents the basis for the US Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL) to approve the Hanford Sitewide Transportation Safety Document (TSD) for onsite Transportation and Packaging (T&P) at Hanford. Hanford contractors, on behalf of DOE-RL, prepared and submitted the Hanford Sitewide Transportation Safety Document, DOE/RL-2001-0036, Revision 0, (DOE/RL 2001), dated October 4, 2001, which is referred to throughout this report as the TSD. In the context of the TSD, Hanford onsite shipments are the activities of moving hazardous materials, substances, and wastes between DOE facilities and over roadways where public access is controlled or restricted and includes intra-area and inter-area movements. The TSD sets forth requirements and standards for onsite shipment of radioactive and hazardous materials and wastes within the confines of the Hanford Site on roadways where public access is restricted by signs, barricades, fences, or other means including road closures and moving convoys controlled by Hanford Site security forces.

  9. Developmental Variation of Indian Thermophilic Variety of Scuttle Fly Megaselia (Megaselia scalaris (Loew, 1866 (Diptera: Phoridae on Different Substrates

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    Abesh Chakraborty


    Full Text Available The scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae are important in forensic dipterology, because of their necrophagous habit. They are amongst the first wave of insects visiting human corpses in mechanically barricaded environments; hence their immature stages are generally used for estimation of PMI. The effect of different substrates commonly used for developmental studies was studied to analyze the variation of growth of the thermophilic variety of Megaselia (M. scalaris prevalent in India on GDM, EDM, and SMS (n=3. One approach of PMI estimation depends on larvae collected from the crime scene and comparing them with reference data derived from larval rearing to establish PMI. Results showed that there was a significant variation in avg. length (F(2,111=15.79873, p=0.000000917, width (F(2,111=14.60528, p=0.00000234, and biomass (F(2,111=37.01727, p=0.000000000000482 of the immature stages in the three media and the larvae grow maximally in the SMS medium. The results of the present study thus provide baseline data on the growth and developmental pattern of the Megaselia (M. scalaris, which can be utilized in conjunction with specific geoclimatic reference data, for forensic entomological studies and also for using the phorid as a biocontrol agent of pestiferous insects.

  10. Developmental Variation of Indian Thermophilic Variety of Scuttle Fly Megaselia (Megaselia) scalaris (Loew, 1866) (Diptera: Phoridae) on Different Substrates (United States)

    Chakraborty, Abesh; Naskar, Atanu; Parui, Panchanan; Banerjee, Dhriti


    The scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae) are important in forensic dipterology, because of their necrophagous habit. They are amongst the first wave of insects visiting human corpses in mechanically barricaded environments; hence their immature stages are generally used for estimation of PMI. The effect of different substrates commonly used for developmental studies was studied to analyze the variation of growth of the thermophilic variety of Megaselia (M.) scalaris prevalent in India on GDM, EDM, and SMS (n = 3). One approach of PMI estimation depends on larvae collected from the crime scene and comparing them with reference data derived from larval rearing to establish PMI. Results showed that there was a significant variation in avg. length (F(2,111) = 15.79873, p = 0.000000917), width (F(2,111) = 14.60528, p = 0.00000234), and biomass (F(2,111) = 37.01727, p = 0.000000000000482) of the immature stages in the three media and the larvae grow maximally in the SMS medium. The results of the present study thus provide baseline data on the growth and developmental pattern of the Megaselia (M.) scalaris, which can be utilized in conjunction with specific geoclimatic reference data, for forensic entomological studies and also for using the phorid as a biocontrol agent of pestiferous insects. PMID:27471604

  11. Cultural Resources Review for Closure of the nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill and Solid Waste Landfill in the 600 Area, Hanford Site, Benton County, Washington, HCRC# 2010-600-018R

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutzeit, Jennifer L.; Kennedy, Ellen P.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Sackschewsky, Michael R.; Sharpe, James J.; DeMaris, Ranae; Venno, M.; Christensen, James R.


    The U.S. Department of Energy Richland Operations Office is proposing to close the Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill (NRDWL) and Solid Waste Landfill (SWL) located in the 600 Area of the Hanford Site. The closure of the NRDWL/SWL entails the construction of an evapotranspiration cover over the landfill. This cover would consist of a 3-foot (1-meter) engineered layer of fine-grained soil, modified with 15 percent by weight pea gravel to form an erosion-resistant topsoil that will sustain native vegetation. The area targeted for silt-loam borrow soil sits in Area C, located in the northern central portion of the Fitzner/Eberhardt Arid Lands Ecology (ALE) Reserve Unit. The pea gravel used for the mixture will be obtained from both off-site commercial sources and an active gravel pit (Pit #6) located just west of the 300 Area of the Hanford Site. Materials for the cover will be transported along Army Loop Road, which runs from Beloit Avenue (near the Rattlesnake Barricade) east-northeast to the NRDWL/SWL, ending at State Route 4. Upgrades to Army Loop Road are necessary to facilitate safe bidirectional hauling traffic. This report documents a cultural resources review of the proposed activity, conducted according to Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966.

  12. Political issues in contemporary art of Ukraine

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    Natalia Usenko


    Full Text Available At the beginning of the XXI century Ukrainian art observed activization of the artist’s interest for the political life of the country. The starting point was 2004, marked by protests against unfair elections in the country, the birth of the first “Maidan” and “Orange revolution”. In a number of artistic actions organized by art groups we can see the reflection of the revolution events and, later, the frustrations of its ideals. The most striking manifestation of political issues in contemporary art in Ukraine was the great creativity following the second “Maidan” (2013. In this spontaneous Performance everyone plays a role: the participants are the protesters, official persons, fighters of “Berkut” and interior force troops, journalists and others. Protesters’ tents, barricades, a statue of Lenin and “Maidan” itself (or Independence Square as a place of free will and creativity became the Symbols of the “Maidan” and its own art objects.

  13. Design and Construction of Toll Gate Control System Based On Microcontroller

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    Yin Mon Aye


    Full Text Available Electronic Toll Gate Station is the system which is implemented to automatically a more convenient way of collecting the toll and traffic management. There are millions of drivers passing through the toll gate station every day. Most of the toll collection systems commonly used in Myanmar is manual transaction. This paper describes a new method for toll collection system according to the weight of the vehicles. This electronic toll gate collection system has been fabricated based on microcontroller. The purpose of this work is to collect toll according to the weight of vehicle. There are three portions in toll collection system. They are the weight scales sub-system, Graphic User Interface (GUI in the host computer and the motor driving circuit for barricade control system. The authorized person at the toll gate can check the ID numbers, vehicle numbers, type of vehicle and the amount of balance via GUI on PC. The PIC microcontroller is also used to control the DC motor and display the weight on the LCD. For software implementation, visual basic programming language is used.

  14. Drilling history core hole DC-8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Core hole DC-8 was completed in August, 1978 by Boyles Brothers Drilling Company, Spokane, Washington, under subcontract to Fenix and Scission, Inc. The hole was cored for the US Department of Energy and the Rockwell Hanford Operations' Basalt Waste Isolation Program. Fenix and Scisson, Inc. furnished the engineering, daily supervision of the core drilling activities, and geologic core logging for hole DC-8. Core hole DC-8 is located on the Hanford Site near the Wye Barricade and 50 feet northwest of rotary hole DC-7. The Hanford Site vation coordinates for DC-8 are North 14,955.94 feet and West 14,861.92 coordinates for DC-8 are North 14,955.94 feet and West 14,861.92 mean sea level. The purpose of core hole DC-8 was to core drill vertically through the basalt and interbed units for stratigraphic depth determination and core collection, and to provide a borehole for hydrologic testing and cross-hole seismic shear and pressure wave velocity studies with rotary hole DC-7. The total depth of core hole DC-8 was 4100.5 feet. Core recovery exceeded 97 percent of the total footage cored.

  15. Unconventional Political Participation in a Middle-Income Developing Country

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    Paul Andrew Bourne


    Full Text Available In many inner city communities in Jamaica, there is the perception that the dons (ad hoc communityleaders are able to provide security, financial assistance and a social safety network, which w as once the roleof the state. The failure of successive governments to provide those important services, in particular securitymeans that there is a high degree of mistrust of the state in rightfully carrying out its roles. The dons have filledthe void created by the state, and people have come to rely on them precisely because of the repeated failuresof successive governments. The mistrust has become so pervasive, that such a low level of trust for governmentleads to a rise in unorthodox political participation. This study examines the role that mistrust in governmentplays in unconventional political participation, and it revealed that Jamaicans who mistrust government are 2.4times more likely to become involved in unorthodox activities compared to those who do trust government.Those activities now include protests, demonstrations, barricading a community, firing at the security forces,blogging, and using the social commentaries on talk radio. While firing at the security forces extends beyondunconventional political participation - and this aspect is not covered in the present manuscript - it is clearlyan unorthodox method employed by some groups within a society.

  16. How to Switch Off a Histidine Kinase: Crystal Structure of Geobacillus Stearothermophilus KinB with the Inhibitor Sda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bick, M.; Lamour, V; Rajashankar, K; Gordiyenko, Y; Robinson, C; Darst, S


    Entry to sporulation in bacilli is governed by a histidine kinase phosphorelay, a variation of the predominant signal transduction mechanism in prokaryotes. Sda directly inhibits sporulation histidine kinases in response to DNA damage and replication defects. We determined a 2.0-Angstroms-resolution X-ray crystal structure of the intact cytoplasmic catalytic core [comprising the dimerization and histidine phosphotransfer domain (DHp domain), connected to the ATP binding catalytic domain] of the Geobacillus stearothermophilus sporulation kinase KinB complexed with Sda. Structural and biochemical analyses reveal that Sda binds to the base of the DHp domain and prevents molecular transactions with the DHp domain to which it is bound by acting as a simple molecular barricade. Sda acts to sterically block communication between the catalytic domain and the DHp domain, which is required for autophosphorylation, as well as to sterically block communication between the response regulator Spo0F and the DHp domain, which is required for phosphotransfer and phosphatase activities.

  17. Elimination of Sulfate Reducing Bacteria by Fe(Ⅵ) in Oil Production Wastewater%采油废水中硫酸盐还原菌Fe(Ⅵ)杀灭试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阚连宝; 马玲


    An experiment was conducted to eliminate Sulfate Reducing Bacteria (SRB) by Fe( VI) in oil production wastewater, which can cause corrosion, scale and barricade to water injection system. Result shows that Fe( VI) has a strong ability to eliminate SRB. Hie optimal operating conditions were obtained as Fe( VI) dosage 10 mg/L, reaction time more than 10 min, and control index (Ct) over 100 mg · min · -1.%采油所产生的废水中产生的硫酸盐还原菌(SRB)可造成注水系统的腐蚀、结垢和阻塞,严重影响原油的开发与生产.以Fe(Ⅵ)作为氧化型杀菌剂杀灭SRB,试验结果表明:Fe(Ⅵ)对SRB具有很强的灭菌能力;Fe(Ⅵ)投加量C>10 mg/L时就能满足回注水的要求;适宜的接触反应时间为t>10min;相应地有Ct>100 mg·min·L-1.

  18. A Cascaded Fingerprint Quality Assessment Scheme for Improved System Accuracy

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    Zia Saquib


    Full Text Available Poor-quality images mostly result in spurious or missing features, which further degrade the overall performance of fingerprint recognition systems. This paper proposes a reconfigurable scheme of quality checks at two different levels: i at raw image level and ii at feature level. At first level, ellipse properties are calculated through analysis of statistical attributes of the captured raw image. At second level, the singularity points (core and delta are identified and extracted (if any. These information, as quality measures, are used in a cascaded manner to block/pass the image. This model is tested on both publicly available (Cross Match Verifier 300 sensor as well as proprietary (Lumidigm Venus V100 OEM Module sensor fingerprint databases scanned at 500 dpi. The experimental results show that this cascaded arrangement of quality barricades could correctly block poor quality images and hence elevated the overall system accuracy: with quality checks, both FNMR and FMR significantly dropped to 9.52% and 0.26% respectively for Cross Match Dataset and 2.17% and 2.16% respectively for Lumidigm Dataset.

  19. „Ósmy dzień tygodnia”

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    Anna Zawadzka


    Full Text Available “The Eighth Day of the Week” The Eighth Day of the Week is a short story by Marek Hłasko revolving around the topic of losing virginity. Literary scholars consider Hłasko as a representative of machismo; a masculine and male-centred narrator. This text analyses and deconstructs the short story defending it as a comprehensive record of misogynist culture written from the perspective of the main female protagonist and not the expression of misogyny of the author himself. The tools of discourse analysis and feminist philosophy applied to Hłasko’s text produce surprising results. Agnieszka – the main female protagonist of the short story – turns out to be a figure of non-conformity universalised by Hłasko, while the virginity and its loss become a part of female fate used by Hłasko as a motif to show the power of society over an individual. Meanwhile Agnieszka struggles for autonomy from domineering cultural patterns and gains it with the help of not so much barricades and spectacular gestures typical for male protagonists as wit, intelligence and trickery.

  20. Negara Kesejahteraan (Welfare State: Mengembalikan Peran Negara Dalam Pembangunan Kesejahteraan Sosial di Indonesia

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    Eddy Kiswanto


    Full Text Available This paper aims to study the system of social security in Indonesia. Social security represents the elementary rights of every citizen which is guaranteed by the state, like in section 27 article 2 UUD ' 45 and the laws of System of Social Security National (SJSN. Practically, the social security and social services prggram run by government framework not yet clearly with asocial policy which should be integral and continual Government has been trapped in current of liberalism and capitalism so that state role becomes progressively minimize. From 95 million labor force only 24,6 million obtain to get the social security, or newly 12% from resident amount. To overcome the weakness, resistance, and barricade in execution of social security Drstem in Indonesia, National Social Security needed to embrace the principle of government--bodies, deputizing stakeholders in this case competitor! worker, and government. Gathering and fee organizer require to be supported by openness, carefulness, accountability, and eficien. Entangling of various kind of stakeholders actor of vital importance as principal applying form of governance, the model executed by Indonesian government according should be to its society characteristic. Though financing system conducted by sharing across population, the government remain involved in the goodness in arrangement, observation, and also its financing.

  1. Air flow patterns and noise analysis inside high speed angular contact ball bearings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟强; 闫柯; 张优云; 朱永生; 王亚泰


    The vortex formed around the rolling ball and the high pressure region formed around the ball−raceway contact zone are the principle factors that barricades the lubricant entering the bearing cavity, and further causes improper lubrication. The investigation of the air phase flow inside the bearing cavity is essential for the optimization of the oil−air two-phase lubrication method. With the revolutionary reference frame describing the bearing motion, a highly precise air phase flow model inside the angular contact ball bearing cavity was build up. Comprehensive factors such as bearing revolution, ball rotation, and cage structure were considered to investigate the influences on the air phase flow and heat transfer efficiency. The aerodynamic noise was also analyzed. The result shows that the ball spinning leads to the pressure rise and uneven pressure distribution. The air phase velocity, pressure and cage heat transfer efficiency increase as the revolving speed increases. The operating noise is largely due to the impact of the high speed external flow on the bearing. When the center of the oil−air outlet fixes near the inner ring, the aerodynamic noise is reduced. The position near the inner ring on the bigger axial side is the ideal position to fix the lubricating device for the angular contact ball bearing.

  2. Religious Populism: The Coup de Grâce to Secularisation Theories

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    Full Text Available The present article argues that spectacularly proliferating forms of religious populism as a contemporary easily recognisable phenomenon worldwide, Europe included, have administered a deathblow not so much to the classic secularisation paradigm, which has been rather comatose since the early 1990s, as - especially and crucially so - to the updated, narrowed-down, “macro” version of secularisation behind which “neosecularists” within the sociology of religion comfortably barricaded themselves about two decades ago. In the development of this argument, I shall: firstly operationalise “religious populism” as a conceptual and phenomenological subset of populism; secondly I shall provide an overview of the two secularisation theoretical versions; finally I shall address religious populism worldwide in terms of secularisation and specifically isolate the sub-phenomenon of Islamophobic populism which has been increasingly manifesting itself at the societal level in contemporary Western Europe, i.e. the very (supposedly “heartland” of secularity, and which I consider to be the last, and this time decisive, confutation to secularisation theories.

  3. The skin microbiome: Is it affected by UV-induced immune suppression?

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    Vijaykumar Patra


    Full Text Available Human skin apart from functioning as a physical barricade to stop the entry of pathogens, also hosts innumerable commensal organisms. The skin cells and the immune system constantly interact with microbes, to maintain cutaneous homeostasis, despite the challenges offered by various environmental factors. A major environmental factor affecting the skin is ultraviolet radiation UV-R from sunlight. UV-R is well known to modulate the immune system, which can be both beneficial and deleterious. By targeting the cells and molecules within skin, UV-R can trigger the production and release of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs, affect the innate immune system and ultimately suppress the adaptive cellular immune response. This can contribute to skin carcinogenesis and the promotion of infectious agents such as herpes simplex virus and possibly others. On the other hand, a UV-established immunosuppressive environment may protect against the induction of immunologically mediated skin diseases including some of photodermatoses such as polymorphic light eruption. In this article, we share our perspective about the possibility that UV-induced immune suppression may alter the landscape of the skin's microbiome and its components. Alternatively, or in concert with this, direct UV-induced DNA and membrane damage to the microbiome may result in pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs that interfere with UV-induced immune suppression.

  4. Quand la foule devient peuple … avec Léon Gambetta When the Crowd Becomes People… with Léon Gambetta

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    Aude Dontenwille-Gerbaud


    Full Text Available De 1870 à 1882 en France, la foule se montre un acteur essentiel dans la construction de la Troisième République. Non plus la foule qui prend la Bastille ou celle des barricades, mais la foule qui ovationne les grands leaders républicains qui ne peuvent faire sans elle. Si l’on veut bien considérer les discours « fondateurs » de Léon Gambetta, non pas seulement dans leur dimension textuelle, mais également dans leur profonde théâtralité, il convient d’analyser les grands rassemblements comme la naissance d’une modernité politique. La mémoire des foules révolutionnaires hante les esprits. Tout à la fois source vive d’inspiration pour le tribun ou d’inquiétude pour les conservateurs, les foules républicaines sont l’objet de toutes les attentions. Dans ce moment clef de l’histoire de France, le projet républicain entend les instruire, transformer en quelque sorte l’énergie issue de la foule « aveugle » en celle d’un peuple éclairé. La philosophie politique permet à l’historien d’analyser autrement ce moment fondateur. Les éclairages de Jürgen Habermas, Claude Lefort et Paul Ricoeur amènent à dépasser l’analyse classique d’une idée républicaine, pour évoquer la construction d’une société démocratique.From 1870 to 1882 in France, the crowd becomes a central actor in the construction of the Third Republic. The image of the crowd assaulting the Bastille or controlling the barricades is replaced by a crowd cheering the great republican leaders who rely on its support. A sound assessment of Léon Gambetta’s “founding” speeches needs to consider not only their textual content but also their theatrical dimension in order to analyse these events as forerunners of modern politics. As the memory of the revolutionary crowds is persisting in the first years of the Third Republic, the republican crowds catch the attention of actors from all sides of the political spectrum. In this key

  5. High-temperature membranes for H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2} separations. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winnick, J.


    Electrochemical cells which separate H{sub 2}S and S0{sub 2} from hot gas streams have two important materials issues that limit their successful industrial application: (1) membranes and (2) electrodes. These were the focus of the present study. For the H{sub 2}S work, experimental analysis incorporated several membrane and electrode materials; densified zirconia provided the best matrices for entrainment of electrolytic species, ionic mobility, and a process-gas barricade hindering the capabilities of gas cross-over, alternate reactions. Electrode materials of lithiated Ni converted to NiO in-situ were successful in polishing applications; however H{sub 2}S levels >100 ppM converted the NiO cathode to a molten nickel sulfide necessitating the use of Co. Lithiated NiO for the anode material remained morphologically stable and conductive in all experimentation. High temperature electrochemical removal of H{sub 2}S from coal gasification streams has been shown on the bench scale level at the Georgia Institute of Technology utilizing the aforementioned materials. Experimental removals from 1000 ppM to 100 ppM H{sub 2}S and 100 ppM to 10 ppM H{sub 2}S proved over 90% removal with applied current was economically feasible due to high current efficiencies ({approximately}100%) and low polarizations. For the S0{sub 2}work, an extensive search was conducted for a suitable membrane material for use in the S0{sub 2} removal system. The most favorable material found was Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}, proven to be more efficient than other possible materials. New lithiated NiO electrodes were also developed and characterized, proving more stable than previously used pervoskite electrodes. The combination of these new components led to 90% removal at near 100% current efficiency over a wide range of current densities.

  6. Remembrances of Empires Past

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    Robert Aldrich


    Full Text Available This paper argues that the colonial legacy is ever present in contemporary Europe. For a generation, most Europeans largely tried, publicly, to forget the colonial past, or remembered it only through the rose-coloured lenses of nostalgia; now the pendulum has swung to memory of that past – even perhaps, in the views of some, to a surfeit of memory, where each group agitates for its own version of history, its own recognition in laws and ceremonies, its own commemoration in museums and monuments, the valorization or repatriation of its own art and artefacts. Word such as ‘invasion,’ ‘racism’ and ‘genocide’ are emotional terms that provoke emotional reactions. Whether leaders should apologize for wrongs of the past – and which wrongs – remains a highly sensitive issue. The ‘return of the colonial’ thus has to do with ethics and politics as well as with history, and can link to statements of apology or recognition, legislation about certain views of history, monetary compensation, repatriation of objects, and—perhaps most importantly—redefinition of national identity and policy. The colonial flags may have been lowered, but many barricades seem to have been raised. Private memories—of loss of land, of unacknowledged service, of political, economic, social and cultural disenfranchisement, but also on the other side of defeat, national castigation and self-flagellation—have been increasingly public. Monuments and museums act not only as sites of history but as venues for political agitation and forums for academic debate – differences of opinion that have spread to the streets. Empire has a long after-life.

  7. Drilling history core hole DC-4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Core hole DC-4 was completed at a depth of 3998 feet in December, 1978 by Boyles Brothers Drilling Company, Spokane, Washington, under subcontract to Fenix and Scission, Inc. The hole was cored for the US Department of Energy and the Rockwell Hanford Operations' Basalt Waste Isolation Program. Fenix and Sicsson, Inc. furnished the engineering, daily supervision of the cable tool and core drilling activities, and geological core logging for DC-4. Core hole DC-4 is located on the Hanford Site about 3 miles east of the Yakima Barricade and approximately 103 feet southwest of rotary hole DC-5, which was completed to 3990 feet in February, 1978. Hanford Site coordinates reported for hole DC-4 are north 49,385.62 feet and west 85,207.63 feet, and Washington State coordinates are north 454,468.73 feet and east 2,209,990.87 feet. No elevation survey is available for hole DC-4, but it is approximately 745 feet above mean sea level based upon the survey of hole DC-5, which has a reported elevation of 745.16 feet on the top of the 3-inch flange. The purpose of core hole DC-4 was to core drill vertically through the basalt and interbed units for stratigraphic depth determination and core collection, and to provide a borehole for hydrologic testing, cross-hole seismic shear, and pressure wave velocity studies with rotary hole DC-5. Hole DC-4 was drilled through the overburden into basalt bedrock by cable tool methods (0-623 feet) and continuously cored through the final interval (623 to 3998 feet).Core recovery was 95.8 percent of the total footage cored.

  8. 让大学英语课堂“活”起来%On Activation of College English Class

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敏; 季寅修


    After a series of education reform,college English teaching has been greatly improved in methods and effect.However,some problems still exist in modern college English classes.For example,the class atmosphere is gloomy,the relationship between the teacher and students is indifferent and teaching methods are boring.All of these are not beneficial to cultivating the learners' interest in English.Even worse,they are becoming barricades in learners' English learning.The key to these problems is to improve the relationship between teacher and students,strengthen interaction between them,and create a harmonious atmosphere,which can make college English class more active,so as to raise the learners' English learning interest.%经过一系列的教改后,大学英语在教学手段、效果等方面都有了很大的改善,但仍然存在以下问题:课堂气氛死气沉沉、师生关系冷漠、教师教学手段单一。这些因素都不利于激发大学生的英语学习兴趣,阻碍了大学生英语水平的提高。本文认为解决这些问题的关键在于改善师生关系、营造轻松的课堂氛围、加强课堂互动,使大学英语课堂"活"起来,从而提高大学生的英语学习兴趣。

  9. Enslaved Constitution: Obstructing the Freedom to Travel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell F. Crusto


    Full Text Available Does the Constitution protect a citizen’s intra-state travel (within a state from unjustified state prohibition? To date, the Supreme Court has not ruled directly on the issue, and many federal courts believe that the right to intrastate travel is not constitutionally protected. This Article explores the constitutional right of intra-state travel that is free from wrongful state infringement along public roadways by law-abiding citizens. Using critical legal history, this Article poses that federal courts’ denial of the right to intrastate travel consciously or unconsciously reflects the antebellum, Southern legal doctrine of people as property, which regulated the travel of enslaved African descendants.The constitutionality of intra-state travel arose most recently during the Hurricane Katrina Crisis when the City of Greta, Louisiana police barricaded a federal highway, denying would-be evacuees the ability to flee from the flooding City of New Orleans. In an ensuing action for infringement of the would-be evacuees’ constitutional right to intra-state travel, Federal District Judge Mary Ann Vial Lemmon dismissed the matter in Dickerson v. City of Gretna, holding that “[w]hile there is no doubt that a fundamental right of interstate travel exists, the Supreme Court has not ruled on whether a right of intra[-]state travel exists. This Court declines to find that there is a fundamental right to intra[-]state travel.” The Fifth Circuit affirmed the ruling.This Article recommends that when federal courts assess whether there is a constitutional right to intra-state travel, they should embrace the American paradigm of liberty and abandon the antebellum, Southern paradigm of enslavement. Consistent with Professor Derrick Bell’s “interestconvergence” principle, all Americans benefit when the Constitution protects the human rights of the least powerful American.

  10. Controlling the degradation rate of AZ91 magnesium alloy via sol-gel derived nanostructured hydroxyapatite coating. (United States)

    Rojaee, Ramin; Fathi, Mohammadhossein; Raeissi, Keyvan


    Magnesium (Mg) alloys have been introduced as new generation of biodegradable orthopedic materials in recent years since it has been proved that Mg is one of the main minerals required for osseous tissue revival. The main goal of the present study was to establish a desired harmony between the necessities of orthopedic patient body to Mg(2+) ions and degradation rate of the Mg based implants as a new class of biodegradable/bioresorbable materials. This prospect was followed by providing a sol-gel derived nanostructured hydroxyapatite (n-HAp) coating on AZ91 alloy using dip coating technique. Phase structural analysis, morphology study, microstructure characterization, and functional group identification were performed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. The prepared samples were immersed in simulated body fluid in order to study the formation of apatite-like precipitations, barricade properties of the n-HAp coating, and to estimate the dosage of released Mg(2+) ions within a specified and limited time of implantation. Electrochemical polarization tests were carried out to evaluate and compare the corrosion behavior of the n-HAp coated and uncoated samples. The changes of the in vitro pH values were also evaluated. Results posed the noticeable capability of n-HAp coating on stabilizing alkalization behavior and improving the corrosion resistance of AZ91 alloy. It was concluded that n-HAp coated AZ91 alloy could be a good candidate as a type of biodegradable implant material for biomedical applications.

  11. Comparing nanostructured hydroxyapatite coating on AZ91 alloy samples via sol-gel and electrophoretic deposition for biomedical applications. (United States)

    Rojaee, Ramin; Fathi, Mohammadhossein; Raeissi, Keyvan


    Magnesium is one of the most critical elements in hard tissues regeneration and therefore causes speeding up the restoration of harmed bones, while high deterioration rate of magnesium in body fluid restricts it to be used as biodegradable implants. Alloying magnesium with some relatively nobler metals such as aluminium, zinc, rare earth elements, magnesium-bioceramics composites, and surface modification techniques are some of the routes to control magnesium corrosion rate. In this study AZ91 magnesium alloy had been coated by nanostructured hydroxyapatite via sol-gel dip coating and electrophoretical methods to survey the final barricade properties of the obtained coatings. In order to perform electrophoretic coating, powders were prepared by sol-gel method, and then the powders deposited on substrates utilizing direct current electricity. Zeta potentials of the electrophoresis suspensions were measured to determine a best mode for good quality coatings. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) were used to confirm nanoscale dimension, and the uniformity of the nanostructured hydroxyapatite coating, respectively. Fourier Transform-Infrared and X-ray diffraction analysis were utilized for functional group and phase structure evaluation of the prepared coatings, correspondingly. Electrochemical corrosion tests were performed in SBF at 37±1 (°)C which revealed considerable increase in corrosion protection resistivity and corrosion current density for electrophoretic coated specimens versus sol-gel coated specimens. Results showed that both sol-gel and electrophoretical techniques seem to be suitable to coat magnesium alloys for biomedical applications but electrophoretic coating technique is a better choice due to the more homogeneity and more crystalline structure of the coating.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batool Ahansazan


    Full Text Available The most significant source of environmental pollution derived from perilous wastes is the circumstantial and intentional emancipation of specific industrial wastes including resistant and/or toxic pollutants to natural environments. Although, biological treatment methods have been commonly found as most effective alternatives in the removal of persistent compounds in industrial wastewaters, they require some increase for obtaining acceptable removal efficiencies, due to the presence of refractory or toxic compounds in the wastewaters. In this study, the use of surfactant of nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPE in the removal of persistent organic pollutants by biological treatment processes was investigated as an enhancement technique. The application of surfactants can enhance soil and groundwater remediation by increasing contaminant locomotion and solubility to ameliorate the performance of practical conventional remediation technology and by barricading the departure of contaminants to speed the rate of biodegradation of contaminants in environment. The proven effectiveness of surfactants in soil and groundwater remediation has been considered reasonable to expect that surfactants can also enhance the removal of persistent organic pollutants in wastewaters. Different concentrations of nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPE (1000, 1500, 2000 ppm were tested to optimize biosurfactant-enhanced degradation of persistent pollutants in wastewaters. The results of this study demonstrate that the biodegradation of persistent organic pollutants in wastewaters is elevated by the use of biosurfactants. The principal mechanism that raises the biodegradation is the augment solvability of poorly soluble compounds in the wastewater. According to the results of this study, it can be anticipated that biosurfactant-enhanced degradation would result in faster and more complete degradation.

  13. Exposure levels of environmental endocrine disruptors in mother-newborn pairs in China and their placental transfer characteristics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu-Xi Li

    Full Text Available There is a growing concern about the potential health effects of exposure to various environmental chemicals during pregnancy and infancy. The placenta is expected to be an effective barrier protecting the developing embryo against some endocrine disruptors (EDs circulating in maternal blood. The current study was designed to assess in utero exposure levels of non-persistent organic pollutants (non-POPs and persistent organic pollutants (POPs in Chinese newborns and potential role of placenta barrier against fetal exposure to these commonly-used environmental endocrine disruptors. A total of 230 newborn-mother pairs were enrolled during 2010-2011, 201 pairs of which were recruited from Shanghai, and the other 29 pairs came from Wenzhou. Maternal blood, cord blood, and meconium specimens were collected in the subject population from Shanghai and analyzed for non-POPs, including mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP, octylphenol (OP and 4-nonylphenol (4-NP. A total of 19 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs congeners, which belong to POPs, were detected in maternal and cord blood specimens from the other 29 pairs. Fetal-maternal ratios (F-M ratios and regression coefficients were presented to assess potential function of placenta on barricading the mother/fetal transfer of these EDs. Concentrations of the detected non-POPs in cord blood samples were approximately 20% lower than those in maternal blood, and regression coefficients of which were all over 0.80. In contrast, PBDEs levels in cord blood samples were significantly higher than those in maternal blood. MEHP levels in meconium were much higher than those in cord blood samples, and highly correlated. Therefore, observations demonstrated that the placental barrier slightly decreased the fetal exposure to most non-POPs, while PBDEs seemed to be totally transferred across the placenta and finally reached the fetus. For in utero exposure assessment of Di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP, MEHP level in

  14. The right to death. Fiction or reality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucan Maria Casandra


    Full Text Available The present article is part of a dense literature – result of a perennial debate – that has polarized societies for a long time and has evident reverberations in the present. It deals with “the right to death”, trying to offer some answers referring to its existence in fact and the way in which it is perceived by different states and diverse entities with juridical nature. In the first part of the paper, it is insisted upon the right to life, so that subsequently, to speak in detail about a “right to death” and the moral and juridical implications of using such phrases. There are analyzed different states of the world found on one part or the other of the barricade in what concerns the legality of euthanasia and assisted suicide – considered the two hypostasis of the right in question. It is offered, as well, an analysis of the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, mentioning that, paradoxically, while it cannot be modified so that it allows the appearance of some new rights, it can tacitly accept the creation by some states that have adhered to it of some rights antagonistic with those presented in its text. The conclusion, is that not any liberalization movement of a social action – quantified through the request of a right – has as a direct result a progress of the respective society, especially when the action creates something diametrically opposed to some fundamental functioning norms, such as, by excellence, the granting of the protection of life of all individuals.

  15. Controlling the degradation rate of AZ91 magnesium alloy via sol–gel derived nanostructured hydroxyapatite coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojaee, Ramin, E-mail: [Biomaterials Research Group, Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Fathi, Mohammadhossein [Biomaterials Research Group, Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Dental Materials Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Raeissi, Keyvan [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    Magnesium (Mg) alloys have been introduced as new generation of biodegradable orthopedic materials in recent years since it has been proved that Mg is one of the main minerals required for osseous tissue revival. The main goal of the present study was to establish a desired harmony between the necessities of orthopedic patient body to Mg{sup 2+} ions and degradation rate of the Mg based implants as a new class of biodegradable/bioresorbable materials. This prospect was followed by providing a sol–gel derived nanostructured hydroxyapatite (n-HAp) coating on AZ91 alloy using dip coating technique. Phase structural analysis, morphology study, microstructure characterization, and functional group identification were performed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. The prepared samples were immersed in simulated body fluid in order to study the formation of apatite-like precipitations, barricade properties of the n-HAp coating, and to estimate the dosage of released Mg{sup 2+} ions within a specified and limited time of implantation. Electrochemical polarization tests were carried out to evaluate and compare the corrosion behavior of the n-HAp coated and uncoated samples. The changes of the in vitro pH values were also evaluated. Results posed the noticeable capability of n-HAp coating on stabilizing alkalization behavior and improving the corrosion resistance of AZ91 alloy. It was concluded that n-HAp coated AZ91 alloy could be a good candidate as a type of biodegradable implant material for biomedical applications. - Highlights: • Nanostructured hydroxyapatite coatings were applied on Mg based alloy. • The whole corrosion process of Mg based alloy was controlled in body fluid. • This coating was able to act as a barrier against further release of Mg{sup 2+} ions. • The coating improved the stabilization of Mg alkalization behavior.

  16. Post-traumatic stress disorder in adolescents in Lebanon as wars gained in ferocity: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khuzama Hijal Shaar


    Full Text Available For decades, Lebanon was war-torn by civil strife, and occupation and invasion by neighboring countries. In time, these wars have escalated in intensity from sniping, barricading streets and random shelling of residential quarters to the use of rockets, aerial bombing, and heavy artillery. Adverse mental health effects are noted in times of war with post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD as a main outcome. The aim of this study was to carry out a systematic review of published studies documenting the prevalence of PTSD in the adolescent population of Lebanon, to investigate the increase in these rates with the escalation of war intensity, and to examine PTSD determinants. A search strategy was developed for online databases (PubMed and Google Scholar between inception to the first week of January 2013. Search terms used were PTSD, adolescents and Lebanon. Eleven studies reporting PTSD in adolescents met the inclusion criteria for a total number of 5965 adolescents. Prevalence rates of PTSD ranged from 8.5% to 14.7% for the civil war, 3.7% for adolescents with sensory disabilities, 21.6% for the Grapes of Wrath War, and 15.4% to 35.0% for the 2006 July War. Some increase in PTSD rates in time is noted. Type of trauma such as bereavement, injury, house destruction, and economic problems, low self efficacy and scholastic impairment were related to PTSD. These findings may help in the development of public health policies for PTSD prevention and treatment for the protection of adolescents from war atrocities and their consequences.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Ferreira Chagas


    Full Text Available Feuerbach clearly states that Christian theology relates negatively in face of nature.  Religious disregard or devaluation of nature lead to consequences for the judgement of human nature by theology, for the latter condemns also the natural-sensitive dimension of man’s nature, and, in the face of it, glorifies the spirit. Due to the very fact that nature gives expression to objectivity, necessity, corporality, sensibility, it is the negative, so to speak, a proof for the limits of interiority, religious feelings, that is, a true barricade against illusion of a supernatural existence.  From this Christian view point it should, therefore, be cleared, denied.  Feuerback argues that God (the almighty, the sublime essence that was created by religious folly is only a gostly representation by humankind, a subjective konstruktion by man, lacking all nature’s frontiers and restrictions, and the Christian religion assisting man as a tool by means of which he tries do get rid of nature.
    Feuerbach deixa claro que a teologia cristã se relaciona negativamente ante a natureza. A depreciação ou desvalorização religiosa pela natureza tem consequências para o julgamento da natureza humana por parte da teologia, pois esta condena também a dimensão natural-sensível da natureza do homem e, frente a esta, enaltece o espírito. Precisamente porque a natureza expressa objetividade, necessidade, corporeidade, sensibilidade, é ela o negativo, por assim dizer uma prova dos limites da interioridade, do sentimento religioso, isto é, a barreira concreta que se opõe à ilusão de uma existência sobrenatural. Deste ponto de vista cristão, ela deve, portanto, ser eliminada, negada. Feuerbach argumenta que Deus (o todo supremo, a essência sublime, o qual a fantasia religiosa criou, é apenas uma representação fantasmagórica do gênero humano, uma construção subjetiva do homem, abstraída de todas as

  18. Coastal Mapping for Baseline Geoscience Knowledge to Support Community Hazard Assessment and Sustainable Development, Eastern Baffin Island, Nunavut (United States)

    Forbes, D. L.; Bell, T.; Campbell, D. C.; Cowan, B.; Deering, R. L.; Hatcher, S. V.; Hughes Clarke, J. E.; Irvine, M.; Manson, G. K.; Smith, I. R.; Edinger, E.


    Since 2012 we have carried out extensive multibeam bathymetric and backscatter surveys in coastal waters of eastern Baffin Island, supplemented by sub-bottom imaging and coring. Shore-zone surveys have been undertaken in proximity to the communities of Iqaluit and Qikiqtarjuaq, following earlier work in Clyde River. These support benthic habitat mapping, geological exploration, analysis of past and present sea-level trends, and assessment of coastal hazards relating to climate change and seabed instability. Outputs include a seamless topographic-bathymetric digital elevation model (DEM) of extensive boulder-strewn tidal flats in the large tidal-range setting at Iqaluit, supporting analysis of coastal flooding, wave run-up, and sea-ice impacts on a rapidly developing urban waterfront in the context of climate change. Seabed mapping of inner Frobisher Bay seaward of Iqaluit reveals a potential local tsunami hazard in widespread submarine slope failures, the triggers, magnitudes, and ages of which are the subject of ongoing research. In fjords of the Cumberland Peninsula, this project has mapped numerous submerged delta terraces at 19 to 45 m present water depth. These attest to an early postglacial submerged shoreline, displaced by glacial-isostatic adjustment. It rises linearly over a distance of 100 km east to west, where a submerged boulder barricade on a -16 m shoreline was discovered at a proposed port site in Broughton Channel near Qikiqtarjuaq. Palaeotopographic mapping using the multibeam data revealed an enclosed estuarine environment quite different from the present-day open passage swept by tidal currents. At Clyde River, combined seabed and onshore DEMs with geohazard mapping provided foundation data for community assessment and planning under a local knowledge co-production initiative. The geohazard work identified portions of the town-site more vulnerable to both coastal flooding and potential thaw subsidence, while the shallow delta terrace suggested a


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubedul Islam


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA is a chronic inflammatory disease of unknown aetiology marked by a symmetric and peripheral polyarthritis, which often results in joint damage and physical disability. Rheumatoid arthritis is not just only a disease affecting joints, but it goes well beyond the barricade of arthritis into systemic inflammatory manifestations. Various factors play an important role in the morbidity and mortality of the disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical spectrum of rheumatoid arthritis with special reference to dyslipidaemia and cardiovascular manifestations. MATERIALS AND METHODS We conducted a hospital-based observational study comprising of 72 patients of rheumatoid arthritis who had been diagnosed, based on criteria laid down by 2010 ACR/EULAR classification criteria, admitted in Gauhati Medical College and Hospital, Guwahati, Assam (India and fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Statistical analysis was performed using GraphPad InStat version 3.00 for Windows 7, GraphPad Software, San Diego, California, USA ( P value <0.05 was taken as statistically significant. RESULTS In this study, out of 72 patients, 16 patients were male and 56 patients were female, 31.94% cases were in the 5th decade of life followed by the 4th decade (30.56% with a mean age of 43.63 years. Our study found that the most common derangement of lipid parameter was being attributed to low HDL level (31% followed by a high triglyceride level (20.83%. The prevalence of dyslipidaemia was 41.67%. Atherogenic index was high in 23.6% of the cases with a mean of 4.52 of borderline range. In this study, ECG abnormalities were present in 12.5% of study subjects, abnormal echocardiography findings were present in 11.11% of patients and abnormal carotid Doppler findings were present in 18%. The most common ECG abnormality was nonspecific ST-T changes, most common echocardiographic abnormality was pericardial

  20. Functional DNA nanostructures for theranostic applications. (United States)

    Pei, Hao; Zuo, Xiaolei; Zhu, Dan; Huang, Qing; Fan, Chunhai


    There has been tremendous interest in constructing nanostructures by exploiting the unparalleled ability of DNA molecules in self-assembly. We have seen the appearance of many fantastic, "art-like" DNA nanostructures in one, two, or three dimensions during the last two decades. More recently, much attention has been directed to the use of these elegant nanoobjects for applications in a wide range of areas. Among them, diagnosis and therapy (i.e., theranostics) are of particular interest given the biological nature of DNA. One of the major barricades for the biosensor design lies in the restricted target accessibility at the solid-water interface. DNA nanotechnology provides a convenient approach to well control the biomolecule-confined surface to increase the ability of molecular recognition at the biosensing interface. For example, tetrahedral DNA nanostructures with thiol modifications can be self-assembled at the gold surface with high reproducibility. Since DNA tetrahedra are highly rigid and well-defined structures with atomic precision and versatile functionality, they provide scaffolds for anchoring of a variety of biomolecular probes (DNA, aptamers, peptides, and proteins) for biosensing. Significantly, this DNA nanostructure-based biosensing platform greatly increases target accessibility and improves the sensitivity for various types of molecular targets (DNA, RNA, proteins, and small molecules) by several orders of magnitude. In an alternative approach, DNA nanostructures provide a framework for the development of dynamic nanosensors that can function inside the cell. DNA tetrahedra are found to be facilely cell permeable and can sense and image specific molecules in cells. More importantly, these DNA nanostructures can be efficient drug delivery nanocarriers. Since they are DNA molecules by themselves, they have shown excellent cellular biocompatibility with minimal cytotoxicity. As an example, DNA tetrahedra tailored with CpG oligonucleotide drugs have

  1. Effect of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on small intestinal barrier function in rats%非甾体消炎药对大鼠小肠黏膜机械屏障功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张烁; 吕宾; 姒健敏; 陈方明; 孟立娜; 吴伟峰; 俞蕾敏


    Objective To approach the effect on mechanical barricade of the mucous membrane of small intestine caused by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs(NSAIDs).Methods Thirty-two male SD rats were randomly divided into control group and model group.The rats of the model group were given 7.5 mg/kg diclofenac by gavage,bid;the rats of the control group were given the same dose of saline.Then thev were further randomly divided into two subgroups(n=8)at the first day and the fifth day after making the models to observe the scores of anatomical lesion on stomach and small intestine and the scores of tissue damage of mucous membrane and to quantitatively analyze the height of villi,as well as the thickness and the section area of mucous membrane with Carl Zeiss Imaging Systems.Observation of the change of ultrastructural organization of mucous membrane was carried out with transmission electron microscope.Results The mucous membrane of stomach of the model groups was slightly edematous.There was no difference between the scores of the model groups and control groups.It was seen that the mucous membrane of small intestine of the first day model group presented with erythema,anabrosis and ulcer.The ulcer was distributed along mesentery.The mucous membrane of small intestine of the fifth day model group showed bleeding,perforation and sinus tract formation,and the scores of anatomical lesion was higher than that of the control group(P<0.05).The scroes of the lesions of the first and fifth day model groups were 3.5 and 5.0.The difference had statistical significance when compared with those of the control groups(the scores were O)(P<0.05).Cell degeneration and cellular necrosis of epithelial mueosa of small intestine wag also seen in the first day model group.The top of villi was ablated.The height of the pile on jejunum was (126.9±32.0)μm and that on ileum wag(118.6±22.9)μm They were lower than those of the control group(P<0.05).However there was no difference of the

  2. Ceftobiprole Medocaril: BAL5788, JNJ 30982081, JNJ30982081, RO 65-5788, RO 655788. (United States)


    Ceftobiprole medocaril [BAL 5788, RO 65-5788, JNJ 30982081] is a prodrug in phase III clinical development with Basilea Pharmaceutica and Cilag AG (Johnson & Johnson) for the potential treatment of serious bacterial infections, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Ceftobiprole medocaril is the water-soluble prodrug of the pyrrolidinone cephalosporin, ceftobiprole [BAL 9141, RO 63-9141]. Because of the low water solubility of ceftobiprole, its clinical application was limited and Basilea began its investigations into ceftobiprole medocaril for further development. Ceftobiprole medocaril is being developed for IV administration and is currently undergoing phase III trials for complicated skin and skin structure infections (including MRSA) and hospital-acquired (nosocomial) pneumonia. Ceftobiprole medocaril has a broad spectrum of activity against Gram-positive bacteria (including methicillin-resistant staphylococci, penicillin-resistant pneumococci and Enterococcus faecalis) and Gram-negative bacteria. Ceftobiprole medocaril inhibits all transpeptidases, including the penicillin-binding protein (PBP) 2a, by a unique combination of features. PBP 2a is the primary enzyme responsible for beta-lactam drug resistance in MRSA; PBP 2a also acts as a key defense mechanism by interacting with the bacterial cell wall to form a chemical barricade that is impervious to antibiotics. Ceftobiprole medocaril has been designed specifically to bind to this penicillin-resistant target. Ceftobiprole medocaril is bactericidal and has not shown resistance development in vitro or in stringent animal models. Studies conducted by Basilea have demonstrated that ceftobiprole medocaril is readily converted to ceftobiprole, and shows markedly improved water solubility. In February 2005, Basilea Pharmaceutica AG entered into an exclusive worldwide agreement with Cilag AG International (Johnson & Johnson) to develop, manufacture and market ceftobiprole medocaril. Ortho

  3. Gem-quality Turkish purple jade: Geological and mineralogical characteristics (United States)

    Hatipoğlu, Murat; Başevirgen, Yasemin; Chamberlain, Steven C.


    intensive and widest Raman band that peaked at 697 cm -1 can be interpreted as the ν2 doubly symmetric bending mode of (SiO 4/M) centers. The "M" includes the some cationic substitutions of Si by Fe, Cr, Mn, Be, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn, and also K and Na. The second most intensive and widest Raman band that peaked at 372 cm -1 can be interpreted as the ν2 single symmetric bending mode of (SiO 4/M) centers. The third most intensive and widest Raman band that peaked at 201 cm -1 can be interpreted as translational libration. Finally, the fourth distinctive Raman bands that peaked at 1038 and 984 cm -1 can be interpreted as the ν1 doubly symmetric stretching modes of (SiO 4/M) centers. In addition, both sides of these bands were also barricaded with relatively unimportant Raman bands produced by some structural imperfections. The measurements of these all analytical parameters are the most trustworthy method to distinguish the purple jade from the other well-known kinds of natural, synthetic, and/or color-enhanced jades. Finally, these parameters provide positive identification of the provenance (geographic origin) of the original Turkish purple jade. The data obtained in this study for dispersive confocal micro-Raman bands, specific gravity values, and trace element contents provide a unique fingerprint for this kind of jadeite-jade gem material.

  4. 燃料电池Pt基核壳结构电催化剂的最新研究进展%Recent Development of Pt-Based Core-Shell Structured Electrocatalysts in Fuel Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海艳; 曹春晖; 赵健; 林瑞; 马建新


    综述了用于燃料电池的Pt基核壳结构电催化剂的制备方法和表征方法的最新研究进展.首先,详细介绍了核壳结构催化剂的制备方法,主要包括胶体法、电化学法和化学还原法等.其中胶体法的应用最为广泛,制备过程简单易控;电化学法和化学还原法在最近几年得到了迅速发展,并有望用于核壳结构电催化剂的批量化生产.其次,简单阐述了核壳结构电催化剂特用的表征方法.其中高角度环形暗场-扫描透射电子显微镜是近年来发展的一种新技术,它利用暗场强度与原子序数的比例关系可以有效地表征核壳电催化剂的特殊结构.最后,总结了存在的问题并展望了可能的发展方向.%Cost, durability, and fuel supply infrastructure remain the key problems barricading the successful commercialization of fuel cells. As for the proton exchange membrane fuel cells, the cost and durability of key materials come from Pt catalysts used in the fuel cells. Due to the various cost and resource issues regarding Pt, it is important for researchers to develop low-Pt fuel cell catalysts. Recently, core-shell structured electrocatalysts have attracted increasing attention because of their unique structure in reducing the amount of Pt. The recent development of the preparation methods and characterization techniques for core-shell structured catalysts are reviewed. First, an introduction . To the preparation methods for the synthesis of core-shell structured electrocatalysts was presented, including the colloid method, electrochemical method, and chemical reduction method. Among these methods, the colloid method is the most facile and controllable and has already been widely employed in the synthesis. Electrochemical and chemical reduction methods are the most promising methods that have been developed in the past several years. Then, the characterization techniques were discussed in details. Among these techniques, the high

  5. Unfree Love: Claude McKay's Lyric Interruptus%不自由的爱:克劳德·麦凯的"抒情中断"样式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    particular, I make the case that the love poems in McKay's Harlem Shadows (1922), the most influential early book of black poetic modernism, cannot communicate without being heard as meta-lyrics of the "lyrical left," the political edge of Village bohemianism that aimed to break down the barriers between contemplation and action, sexual and economic liberation, the artist's studio and the revolutionary barricades. Returned to the talkative territory of Village bohemianism, these neglected love poems disclose the public value in questioning some of the private-to-public relays then assumed in bohemian wisdom. In this questioning,as much as in McKay's tribute to New Negro militancy, his verse can be said to have plotted Harlem's Renaissance.

  6. Europa frente a lo extraño

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Waldenfels


    modo conciso y resumido, pero recogida luego en su versión definitiva en el capítulo 6 de su libro Topographie des Fremden, volumen primero de los cuatro de que se compone su magna obra Studien zur Phanomenologie des Fremden, publicada por la editorial Suhrkamp de Frankfurt del Meno en 1997. Queremos agradecer al autor y a la editorial su cortesía al permitir que publiquemos la traducción castellana de ese ensayo. "Thinking Europe at its limits", as proposed in 1992 by a group of philosophers from the University of Strasbourg -Denis Guénoun, Philippe Lacoue-Labarthe, Jean-Luc Nancy, Daniel Payot-, means considering what the "geo-philosophy of Europe" is as an essential question that encompasses all truthful reflection surrounding the idea of Europe. The debate, to which a diverse group of colleagues and friends from different nations were invited, advanced the very possibility of an identification of Europe, together with the profoundness, in other words the very violence that this possibility (or impossibility implies, as confirmed time and again since then by recent and highly topical events. The proposal was everything but futile. Indeed, as is well known and was confirmed by the group itself some months later in July 1993, what is certain is that a storm of  terrible furores broke out and atrocious upheavals were expressed,  both intra- and extra-European, that, if nothing else, urge us to consider whether the project of what deserves to be known as a "world"may or may not be confused with the exclusive exportation of what Europe has invented, produced and identified. The future appears to be in the grip of two morbid figures, two symmetrical nightmares: the myth of a homogeneous planet, like a gigantic Europe spreading everywhere; and a confined Europe, imprisoned in its imprecise and uncertain boundaries, a kind of isolating barricade or trenches enabling it to reclusively consume the illusion of its supposed welfare. This deplorable alternative incites