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Sample records for barrel resistive plate

  1. Performance Study of the CMS Barrel Resistive Plate Chambers with Cosmic Rays

    CERN Document Server

    Chatrchyan, S; Sirunyan, A M; Adam, W; Arnold, B; Bergauer, H; Bergauer, T; Dragicevic, M; Eichberger, M; Erö, J; Friedl, M; Frühwirth, R; Ghete, V M; Hammer, J; Hänsel, S; Hoch, M; Hörmann, N; Hrubec, J; Jeitler, M; Kasieczka, G; Kastner, K; Krammer, M; Liko, D; Magrans de Abril, I; Mikulec, I; Mittermayr, F; Neuherz, B; Oberegger, M; Padrta, M; Pernicka, M; Rohringer, H; Schmid, S; Schöfbeck, R; Schreiner, T; Stark, R; Steininger, H; Strauss, J; Taurok, A; Teischinger, F; Themel, T; Uhl, D; Wagner, P; Waltenberger, W; Walzel, G; Widl, E; Wulz, C E; Chekhovsky, V; Dvornikov, O; Emeliantchik, I; Litomin, A; Makarenko, V; Marfin, I; Mossolov, V; Shumeiko, N; Solin, A; Stefanovitch, R; Suarez Gonzalez, J; Tikhonov, A; Fedorov, A; Karneyeu, A; Korzhik, M; Panov, V; Zuyeuski, R; Kuchinsky, P; Beaumont, W; Benucci, L; Cardaci, M; De Wolf, E A; Delmeire, E; Druzhkin, D; Hashemi, M; Janssen, X; Maes, T; Mucibello, L; Ochesanu, S; Rougny, R; Selvaggi, M; Van Haevermaet, H; Van Mechelen, P; Van Remortel, N; Adler, V; Beauceron, S; Blyweert, S; D'Hondt, J; De Weirdt, S; Devroede, O; Heyninck, J; Kalogeropoulos, A; Maes, J; Maes, M; Mozer, M U; Tavernier, S; Van Doninck, W; Van Mulders, P; Villella, I; Bouhali, O; Chabert, E C; Charaf, O; Clerbaux, B; De Lentdecker, G; Dero, V; Elgammal, S; Gay, A P R; Hammad, G H; Marage, P E; Rugovac, S; Vander Velde, C; Vanlaer, P; Wickens, J; Grunewald, M; Klein, B; Marinov, A; Ryckbosch, D; Thyssen, F; Tytgat, M; Vanelderen, L; Verwilligen, P; Basegmez, S; Bruno, G; Caudron, J; Delaere, C; Demin, P; Favart, D; Giammanco, A; Grégoire, G; Lemaitre, V; Militaru, O; Ovyn, S; Piotrzkowski, K; Quertenmont, L; Schul, N; Beliy, N; Daubie, E; Alves, G A; Pol, M E; Souza, M H G; Carvalho, W; De Jesus Damiao, D; De Oliveira Martins, C; Fonseca De Souza, S; Mundim, L; Oguri, V; Santoro, A; Silva Do Amaral, S M; Sznajder, A; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T R; Ferreira Dias, M A; Gregores, E M; Novaes, S F; Abadjiev, K; Anguelov, T; Damgov, J; Darmenov, N; Dimitrov, L; Genchev, V; Iaydjiev, P; Piperov, S; Stoykova, S; Sultanov, G; Trayanov, R; Vankov, I; Dimitrov, A; Dyulendarova, M; Kozhuharov, V; Litov, L; Marinova, E; Mateev, M; Pavlov, B; Petkov, P; Toteva, Z; Chen, G M; Chen, H S; Guan, W; Jiang, C H; Liang, D; Liu, B; Meng, X; Tao, J; Wang, J; Wang, Z; Xue, Z; Zhang, Z; Ban, Y; Cai, J; Ge, Y; Guo, S; Hu, Z; Mao, Y; Qian, S J; Teng, H; Zhu, B; Avila, C; Baquero Ruiz, M; Carrillo Montoya, C A; Gomez, A; Gomez Moreno, B; Ocampo Rios, A A; Osorio Oliveros, A F; Reyes Romero, D; Sanabria, J C; Godinovic, N; Lelas, K; Plestina, R; Polic, D; Puljak, I; Antunovic, Z; Dzelalija, M; Brigljevic, V; Duric, S; Kadija, K; Morovic, S; Fereos, R; Galanti, M; Mousa, J; Papadakis, A; Ptochos, F; Razis, P A; Tsiakkouri, D; Zinonos, Z; Hektor, A; Kadastik, M; Kannike, K; Müntel, M; Raidal, M; Rebane, L; Anttila, E; Czellar, S; Härkönen, J; Heikkinen, A; Karimäki, V; Kinnunen, R; Klem, J; Kortelainen, M J; Lampén, T; Lassila-Perini, K; Lehti, S; Lindén, T; Luukka, P; Mäenpää, T; Nysten, J; Tuominen, E; Tuominiemi, J; Ungaro, D; Wendland, L; Banzuzi, K; Korpela, A; Tuuva, T; Nedelec, P; Sillou, D; Besancon, M; Chipaux, R; Dejardin, M; Denegri, D; Descamps, J; Fabbro, B; Faure, J L; Ferri, F; Ganjour, S; Gentit, F X; Givernaud, A; Gras, P; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Jarry, P; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Malcles, J; Marionneau, M; Millischer, L; Rander, J; Rosowsky, A; Rousseau, D; Titov, M; Verrecchia, P; Baffioni, S; Bianchini, L; Bluj, M; Busson, P; Charlot, C; Dobrzynski, L; Granier de Cassagnac, R; Haguenauer, M; Miné, P; Paganini, P; Sirois, Y; Thiebaux, C; Zabi, A; Agram, J L; Besson, A; Bloch, D; Bodin, D; Brom, J M; Conte, E; Drouhin, F; Fontaine, J C; Gelé, D; Goerlach, U; Gross, L; Juillot, P; Le Bihan, A C; Patois, Y; Speck, J; Van Hove, P; Baty, C; Bedjidian, M; Blaha, J; Boudoul, G; Brun, H; Chanon, N; Chierici, R; Contardo, D; Depasse, P; Dupasquier, T; El Mamouni, H; Fassi, F; Fay, J; Gascon, S; Ille, B; Kurca, T; Le Grand, T; Lethuillier, M; Lumb, N; Mirabito, L; Perries, S; Vander Donckt, M; Verdier, P; Djaoshvili, N; Roinishvili, N; Roinishvili, V; Amaglobeli, N; Adolphi, R; Anagnostou, G; Brauer, R; Braunschweig, W; Edelhoff, M; Esser, H; Feld, L; Karpinski, W; Khomich, A; Klein, K; Mohr, N; Ostaptchouk, A; Pandoulas, D; Pierschel, G; Raupach, F; Schael, S; Schultz von Dratzig, A; Schwering, G; Sprenger, D; Thomas, M; Weber, M; Wittmer, B; Wlochal, M; Actis, O; Altenhöfer, G; Bender, W; Biallass, P; Erdmann, M; Fetchenhauer, G; Frangenheim, J; Hebbeker, T; Hilgers, G; Hinzmann, A; Hoepfner, K; Hof, C; Kirsch, M; Klimkovich, T; Kreuzer, P; Lanske, D; Merschmeyer, M; Meyer, A; Philipps, B; Pieta, H; Reithler, H; Schmitz, S A; Sonnenschein, L; Sowa, M; Steggemann, J; Szczesny, H; Teyssier, D; Zeidler, C; Bontenackels, M; Davids, M; Duda, M; Flügge, G; Geenen, H; Giffels, M; Haj Ahmad, W; Hermanns, T; Heydhausen, D; Kalinin, S; Kress, T; Linn, A; Nowack, A; Perchalla, L; Poettgens, M; Pooth, O; Sauerland, P; Stahl, A; Tornier, D; Zoeller, M H; Aldaya Martin, M; Behrens, U; Borras, K; Campbell, A; Castro, E; Dammann, D; Eckerlin, G; Flossdorf, A; Flucke, G; Geiser, A; Hatton, D; Hauk, J; Jung, H; Kasemann, M; Katkov, I; Kleinwort, C; Kluge, H; Knutsson, A; Kuznetsova, E; Lange, W; Lohmann, W; Mankel, R; Marienfeld, M; Meyer, A B; Miglioranzi, S; Mnich, J; Ohlerich, M; Olzem, J; Parenti, A; Rosemann, C; Schmidt, R; Schoerner-Sadenius, T; Volyanskyy, D; Wissing, C; Zeuner, W D; Autermann, C; Bechtel, F; Draeger, J; Eckstein, D; Gebbert, U; Kaschube, K; Kaussen, G; Klanner, R; Mura, B; Naumann-Emme, S; Nowak, F; Pein, U; Sander, C; Schleper, P; Schum, T; Stadie, H; Steinbrück, G; Thomsen, J; Wolf, R; Bauer, J; Blüm, P; Buege, V; Cakir, A; Chwalek, T; De Boer, W; Dierlamm, A; Dirkes, G; Feindt, M; Felzmann, U; Frey, M; Furgeri, A; Gruschke, J; Hackstein, C; Hartmann, F; Heier, S; Heinrich, M; Held, H; Hirschbuehl, D; Hoffmann, K H; Honc, S; Jung, C; Kuhr, T; Liamsuwan, T; Martschei, D; Mueller, S; Müller, Th; Neuland, M B; Niegel, M; Oberst, O; Oehler, A; Ott, J; Peiffer, T; Piparo, D; Quast, G; Rabbertz, K; Ratnikov, F; Ratnikova, N; Renz, M; Saout, C; Sartisohn, G; Scheurer, A; Schieferdecker, P; Schilling, F P; Schott, G; Simonis, H J; Stober, F M; Sturm, P; Troendle, D; Trunov, A; Wagner, W; Wagner-Kuhr, J; Zeise, M; Zhukov, V; Ziebarth, E B; Daskalakis, G; Geralis, T; Karafasoulis, K; Kyriakis, A; Loukas, D; Markou, A; Markou, C; Mavrommatis, C; Petrakou, E; Zachariadou, A; Gouskos, L; Katsas, P; Panagiotou, A; Evangelou, I; Kokkas, P; Manthos, N; Papadopoulos, I; Patras, V; Triantis, F A; Bencze, G; Boldizsar, L; Debreczeni, G; Hajdu, C; Hernath, S; Hidas, P; Horvath, D; Krajczar, K; Laszlo, A; Patay, G; Sikler, F; Toth, N; Vesztergombi, G; Beni, N; Christian, G; Imrek, J; Molnar, J; Novak, D; Palinkas, J; Szekely, G; Szillasi, Z; Tokesi, K; Veszpremi, V; Kapusi, A; Marian, G; Raics, P; Szabo, Z; Trocsanyi, Z L; Ujvari, B; Zilizi, G; Bansal, S; Bawa, H S; Beri, S B; Bhatnagar, V; Jindal, M; Kaur, M; Kaur, R; Kohli, J M; Mehta, M Z; Nishu, N; Saini, L K; Sharma, A; Singh, A; Singh, J B; Singh, S P; Ahuja, S; Arora, S; Bhattacharya, S; Chauhan, S; Choudhary, B C; Gupta, P; Jain, S; Jain, S; Jha, M; Kumar, A; Ranjan, K; Shivpuri, R K; Srivastava, A K; Choudhury, R K; Dutta, D; Kailas, S; Kataria, S K; Mohanty, A K; Pant, L M; Shukla, P; Topkar, A; Aziz, T; Guchait, M; Gurtu, A; Maity, M; Majumder, D; Majumder, G; Mazumdar, K; Nayak, A; Saha, A; Sudhakar, K; Banerjee, S; Dugad, S; Mondal, N K; Arfaei, H; Bakhshiansohi, H; Fahim, A; Jafari, A; Mohammadi Najafabadi, M; Moshaii, A; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, S; Rouhani, S; Safarzadeh, B; Zeinali, M; Felcini, M; Abbrescia, M; Barbone, L; Chiumarulo, F; Clemente, A; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; Cuscela, G; De Filippis, N; De Palma, M; De Robertis, G; Donvito, G; Fedele, F; Fiore, L; Franco, M; Iaselli, G; Lacalamita, N; Loddo, F; Lusito, L; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Manna, N; Marangelli, B; My, S; Natali, S; Nuzzo, S; Papagni, G; Piccolomo, S; Pierro, G A; Pinto, C; Pompili, A; Pugliese, G; Rajan, R; Ranieri, A; Romano, F; Roselli, G; Selvaggi, G; Shinde, Y; Silvestris, L; Tupputi, S; Zito, G; Abbiendi, G; Bacchi, W; Benvenuti, A C; Boldini, M; Bonacorsi, D; Braibant-Giacomelli, S; Cafaro, V D; Caiazza, S S; Capiluppi, P; Castro, A; Cavallo, F R; Codispoti, G; Cuffiani, M; D'Antone, I; Dallavalle, G M; Fabbri, F; Fanfani, A; Fasanella, D; Giacomelli, P; Giordano, V; Giunta, M; Grandi, C; Guerzoni, M; Marcellini, S; Masetti, G; Montanari, A; Navarria, F L; Odorici, F; Pellegrini, G; Perrotta, A; Rossi, A M; Rovelli, T; Siroli, G; Torromeo, G; Travaglini, R; Albergo, S; Costa, S; Potenza, R; Tricomi, A; Tuve, C; Barbagli, G; Broccolo, G; Ciulli, V; Civinini, C; D'Alessandro, R; Focardi, E; Frosali, S; Gallo, E; Genta, C; Landi, G; Lenzi, P; Meschini, M; Paoletti, S; Sguazzoni, G; Tropiano, A; Benussi, L; Bertani, M; Bianco, S; Colafranceschi, S; Colonna, D; Fabbri, F; Giardoni, M; Passamonti, L; Piccolo, D; Pierluigi, D; Ponzio, B; Russo, A; Fabbricatore, P; Musenich, R; Benaglia, A; Calloni, M; Cerati, G B; D'Angelo, P; De Guio, F; Farina, F M; Ghezzi, A; Govoni, P; Malberti, M; Malvezzi, S; Martelli, A; Menasce, D; Miccio, V; Moroni, L; Negri, P; Paganoni, M; Pedrini, D; Pullia, A; Ragazzi, S; Redaelli, N; Sala, S; Salerno, R; Tabarelli de Fatis, T; Tancini, V; Taroni, S; Buontempo, S; Cavallo, N; Cimmino, A; De Gruttola, M; Fabozzi, F; Iorio, A O M; Lista, L; Lomidze, D; Noli, P; Paolucci, P; Sciacca, C; Azzi, P; Bacchetta, N; Barcellan, L; Bellan, P; Bellato, M; Benettoni, M; Biasotto, M; Bisello, D; Borsato, E; Branca, A; Carlin, R; Castellani, L; Checchia, P; Conti, E; Dal Corso, F; De Mattia, M; Dorigo, T; Dosselli, U; Fanzago, F; Gasparini, F; Gasparini, U; Giubilato, P; Gonella, F; Gresele, A; Gulmini, M; Kaminskiy, A; Lacaprara, S; Lazzizzera, I; Margoni, M; Maron, G; Mattiazzo, S; Mazzucato, M; Meneghelli, M; Meneguzzo, A T; Michelotto, M; Montecassiano, F; Nespolo, M; Passaseo, M; Pegoraro, M; Perrozzi, L; Pozzobon, N; Ronchese, P; Simonetto, F; Toniolo, N; Torassa, E; Tosi, M; Triossi, A; Vanini, S; Ventura, S; Zotto, P; Zumerle, G; Baesso, P; Berzano, U; Bricola, S; Necchi, M M; Pagano, D; Ratti, S P; Riccardi, C; Torre, P; Vicini, A; Vitulo, P; Viviani, C; Aisa, D; Aisa, S; Babucci, E; Biasini, M; Bilei, G M; Caponeri, B; Checcucci, B; Dinu, N; Fanò, L; Farnesini, L; Lariccia, P; Lucaroni, A; Mantovani, G; Nappi, A; Piluso, A; Postolache, V; Santocchia, A; Servoli, L; Tonoiu, D; Vedaee, A; Volpe, R; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Bernardini, J; Berretta, L; Boccali, T; Bocci, A; Borrello, L; Bosi, F; Calzolari, F; Castaldi, R; Dell'Orso, R; Fiori, F; Foà, L; Gennai, S; Giassi, A; Kraan, A; Ligabue, F; Lomtadze, T; Mariani, F; Martini, L; Massa, M; Messineo, A; Moggi, A; Palla, F; Palmonari, F; Petragnani, G; Petrucciani, G; Raffaelli, F; Sarkar, S; Segneri, G; Serban, A T; Spagnolo, P; Tenchini, R; Tolaini, S; Tonelli, G; Venturi, A; Verdini, P G; Baccaro, S; Barone, L; Bartoloni, A; Cavallari, F; Dafinei, I; Del Re, D; Di Marco, E; Diemoz, M; Franci, D; Longo, E; Organtini, G; Palma, A; Pandolfi, F; Paramatti, R; Pellegrino, F; Rahatlou, S; Rovelli, C; Alampi, G; Amapane, N; Arcidiacono, R; Argiro, S; Arneodo, M; Biino, C; Borgia, M A; Botta, C; Cartiglia, N; Castello, R; Cerminara, G; Costa, M; Dattola, D; Dellacasa, G; Demaria, N; Dughera, G; Dumitrache, F; Graziano, A; Mariotti, C; Marone, M; Maselli, S; Migliore, E; Mila, G; Monaco, V; Musich, M; Nervo, M; Obertino, M M; Oggero, S; Panero, R; Pastrone, N; Pelliccioni, M; Romero, A; Ruspa, M; Sacchi, R; Solano, A; Staiano, A; Trapani, P P; Trocino, D; Vilela Pereira, A; Visca, L; Zampieri, A; Ambroglini, F; Belforte, S; Cossutti, F; Della Ricca, G; Gobbo, B; Penzo, A; Chang, S; Chung, J; Kim, D H; Kim, G N; Kong, D J; Park, H; Son, D C; Bahk, S Y; Song, S; Jung, S Y; Hong, B; Kim, H; Kim, J H; Lee, K S; Moon, D H; Park, S K; Rhee, H B; Sim, K S; Kim, J; Choi, M; Hahn, G; Park, I C; Choi, S; Choi, Y; Goh, J; Jeong, H; Kim, T J; Lee, J; Lee, S; Janulis, M; Martisiute, D; Petrov, P; Sabonis, T; Castilla Valdez, H; Sánchez Hernández, A; Carrillo Moreno, S; Morelos Pineda, A; Allfrey, P; Gray, R N C; Krofcheck, D; Bernardino Rodrigues, N; Butler, P H; Signal, T; Williams, J C; Ahmad, M; Ahmed, I; Ahmed, W; Asghar, M I; Awan, M I M; Hoorani, H R; Hussain, I; Khan, W A; Khurshid, T; Muhammad, S; Qazi, S; Shahzad, H; Cwiok, M; Dabrowski, R; Dominik, W; Doroba, K; Konecki, M; Krolikowski, J; Pozniak, K; Romaniuk, Ryszard; Zabolotny, W; Zych, P; Frueboes, T; Gokieli, R; Goscilo, L; Górski, M; Kazana, M; Nawrocki, K; Szleper, M; Wrochna, G; Zalewski, P; Almeida, N; Antunes Pedro, L; Bargassa, P; David, A; Faccioli, P; Ferreira Parracho, P G; Freitas Ferreira, M; Gallinaro, M; Guerra Jordao, M; Martins, P; Mini, G; Musella, P; Pela, J; Raposo, L; Ribeiro, P Q; Sampaio, S; Seixas, J; Silva, J; Silva, P; Soares, D; Sousa, M; Varela, J; Wöhri, H K; Altsybeev, I; Belotelov, I; Bunin, P; Ershov, Y; Filozova, I; Finger, M; Finger, M Jr; Golunov, A; Golutvin, I; Gorbounov, N; Kalagin, V; Kamenev, A; Karjavin, V; Konoplyanikov, V; Korenkov, V; Kozlov, G; Kurenkov, A; Lanev, A; Makankin, A; Mitsyn, V V; Moisenz, P; Nikonov, E; Oleynik, D; Palichik, V; Perelygin, V; Petrosyan, A; Semenov, R; Shmatov, S; Smirnov, V; Smolin, D; Tikhonenko, E; Vasil'ev, S; Vishnevskiy, A; Volodko, A; Zarubin, A; Zhiltsov, V; Bondar, N; Chtchipounov, L; Denisov, A; Gavrikov, Y; Gavrilov, G; Golovtsov, V; Ivanov, Y; Kim, V; Kozlov, V; Levchenko, P; Obrant, G; Orishchin, E; Petrunin, A; Shcheglov, Y; Shchetkovskiy, A; Sknar, V; Smirnov, I; Sulimov, V; Tarakanov, V; Uvarov, L; Vavilov, S; Velichko, G; Volkov, S; Vorobyev, A; Andreev, Yu; Anisimov, A; Antipov, P; Dermenev, A; Gninenko, S; Golubev, N; Kirsanov, M; Krasnikov, N; Matveev, V; Pashenkov, A; Postoev, V E; Solovey, A; Solovey, A; Toropin, A; Troitsky, S; Baud, A; Epshteyn, V; Gavrilov, V; Ilina, N; Kaftanov, V; Kolosov, V; Kossov, M; Krokhotin, A; Kuleshov, S; Oulianov, A; Safronov, G; Semenov, S; Shreyber, I; Stolin, V; Vlasov, E; Zhokin, A; Boos, E; Dubinin, M; Dudko, L; Ershov, A; Gribushin, A; Klyukhin, V; Kodolova, O; Lokhtin, I; Petrushanko, S; Sarycheva, L; Savrin, V; Snigirev, A; Vardanyan, I; Dremin, I; Kirakosyan, M; Konovalova, N; Rusakov, S V; Vinogradov, A; Akimenko, S; Artamonov, A; Azhgirey, I; Bitioukov, S; Burtovoy, V; Grishin, V; Kachanov, V; Konstantinov, D; Krychkine, V; Levine, A; Lobov, I; Lukanin, V; Mel'nik, Y; Petrov, V; Ryutin, R; Slabospitsky, S; Sobol, A; Sytine, A; Tourtchanovitch, L; Troshin, S; Tyurin, N; Uzunian, A; Volkov, A; Adzic, P; Djordjevic, M; Jovanovic, D; Krpic, D; Maletic, D; Puzovic, J; Smiljkovic, N; Aguilar-Benitez, M; Alberdi, J; Alcaraz Maestre, J; Arce, P; Barcala, J M; Battilana, C; Burgos Lazaro, C; Caballero Bejar, J; Calvo, E; Cardenas Montes, M; Cepeda, M; Cerrada, M; Chamizo Llatas, M; Clemente, F; Colino, N; Daniel, M; De La Cruz, B; Delgado Peris, A; Diez Pardos, C; Fernandez Bedoya, C; Fernández Ramos, J P; Ferrando, A; Flix, J; 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Benelli, G; Bernet, C; Bloch, P; Bolognesi, S; Bona, M; Bos, J; Bourgeois, N; Bourrel, T; Breuker, H; Bunkowski, K; Campi, D; Camporesi, T; Cano, E; Cattai, A; Chatelain, J P; Chauvey, M; Christiansen, T; Coarasa Perez, J A; Conde Garcia, A; Covarelli, R; Curé, B; De Roeck, A; Delachenal, V; Deyrail, D; Di Vincenzo, S; Dos Santos, S; Dupont, T; Edera, L M; Elliott-Peisert, A; Eppard, M; Favre, M; Frank, N; Funk, W; Gaddi, A; Gastal, M; Gateau, M; Gerwig, H; Gigi, D; Gill, K; Giordano, D; Girod, J P; Glege, F; Gomez-Reino Garrido, R; Goudard, R; Gowdy, S; Guida, R; Guiducci, L; Gutleber, J; Hansen, M; Hartl, C; Harvey, J; Hegner, B; Hoffmann, H F; Holzner, A; Honma, A; Huhtinen, M; Innocente, V; Janot, P; Le Godec, G; Lecoq, P; Leonidopoulos, C; Loos, R; Lourenço, C; Lyonnet, A; Macpherson, A; Magini, N; Maillefaud, J D; Maire, G; Mäki, T; Malgeri, L; Mannelli, M; Masetti, L; Meijers, F; Meridiani, P; Mersi, S; Meschi, E; Meynet Cordonnier, A; Moser, R; Mulders, M; Mulon, J; Noy, M; Oh, A; 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Wigmans, R; Yazgan, E; Engh, D; Florez, C; Johns, W; Pathak, S; Sheldon, P; Andelin, D; Arenton, M W; Balazs, M; Boutle, S; Buehler, M; Conetti, S; Cox, B; Hirosky, R; Ledovskoy, A; Neu, C; Phillips II, D; Ronquest, M; Yohay, R; Gollapinni, S; Gunthoti, K; Harr, R; Karchin, P E; Mattson, M; Sakharov, A; Anderson, M; Bachtis, M; Bellinger, J N; Carlsmith, D; Crotty, I; Dasu, S; Dutta, S; Efron, J; Feyzi, F; Flood, K; Gray, L; Grogg, K S; Grothe, M; Hall-Wilton, R; Jaworski, M; Klabbers, P; Klukas, J; Lanaro, A; Lazaridis, C; Leonard, J; Loveless, R; Magrans de Abril, M; Mohapatra, A; Ott, G; Polese, G; Reeder, D; Savin, A; Smith, W H; Sourkov, A; Swanson, J; Weinberg, M; Wenman, D; Wensveen, M; White, A

    2010-01-01

    In October and November 2008, the CMS collaboration conducted a programme of cosmic ray data taking, which has recorded about 270 million events. The Resistive Plate Chamber system, which is part of the CMS muon detection system, was successfully operated in the full barrel. More than 98% of the channels were operational during the exercise with typical detection efficiency of 90%. In this paper, the performance of the detector during these dedicated runs is reported.

  2. Assembly and tests of Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC) for the CMS barrel detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Gabriella Pugliese, Bari

    2006-01-01

    The pictures 1-3 show some assembly steps of Resistive Plate Chambers in Bari and their tests with cosmic rays (4-6: moving RPC to the test towers; 7-8 cosmic tests). Pictures 9-10 show assembly and tests in Sofia, 11 shows RPC coupling with drift tubes at ISR and 12-13 tests at the CMS site at CERN.

  3. RESISTANCE OF FIRE-HOSE BARRELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Kachanov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Values of hydraulic resistance of main fire-hose barrels are determined in the paper. Such approach has made it possible to obtain analytical dependencies between main parameters of fire jets with due account of hydraulic losses in fire-hose barrels.

  4. CMS Resistive plate Champers

    CERN Document Server

    Zainab, Karam

    2013-01-01

    There are many types of gas detectors which are used in CERN in LHC project, There is a main parts for the gas detectors which must be in all gas detectors types like Multiwire proportional chambers, such as the micromesh gaseous structure chamber (the MicroMegas), Gas-electron multiplier (GEM) detector, Resistive Plate Champers... Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment detecting muons which are powerful tool for recognizing signatures of interesting physics processes. The CMS detector uses: drift tube (DT), cathode strip chamber (CSC) and resistive plate chamber (RPC). Building RPC’s was my project in summer student program (hardware). RPC’s have advantages which are triggering detector and Excellent time resolution which reinforce the measurement of the correct beam crossing time. RPC’s Organized in stations :  RPC barrel (RB) there are 4 stations, namely RB1, RB2, RB3, and RB4  While in the RPC endcap (RE) the 3 stations are RE1, RE2, and RE3. In the endcaps a new starion will be added and this...

  5. Mechanical assisted electroless barrel-plating Ni-P coatings on magnesium alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhaoxia PING; Juntao YUAN; Yedong HE; Xiaogang LI

    2009-01-01

    A mechanically assisted electroless barrel-plating Ni-P was carried out in a rolling drum containing Mg alloy specimens and ceramic balls, which was submerged in a bath containing electroless plating solution. It is demonstrated that the Ni-P coatings deposited by this novel technique have a crystallized Ni-P solid solution structure,showing fine-grains, higher hardness, and higher corrosion resistance compared with the conventional electroless plated amorphous Ni-P coatings. After heat treatment at 400 ~C for 1 h, the structure of such Ni-P coatings were transformed to a structure with Ni-Ni3P double phases, and cracks in these coatings could not-be observed,whereas cracks appeared seriously in the conventional electroless plated Ni-P coating after same heat treatment. Therefore, both hardness and corrosion resistance of these Ni-P coatings can be improved further by heat treatment. All of these beneficial effects can be attributed to the role of mechanical attrition during the mechanically assisted electroless barrel-plating process.

  6. Background neutron in the endcap and barrel regions of resistive plate chamber for compact muon solenoid/large hadron collider using GEANT4

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J T Rhee; M Jamil; Christopher Joen; Bingzhu Yin; Y J Jeon

    2007-09-01

    In this study the performance of double gap RPC has been tested by GEANT4 Monte Carlo simulation code. The detector response calculations taken as a function of the neutron energy in the range of 0.01 eV–1 GeV have been simulated through RPC set-up. In order to evaluate the response of detector in the LHC background environment, the neutron spectrum expected in the CMS muon endcap and barrel region were taken into account. A hit rate of about 165.5 Hz cm-2, 34 Hz cm-2, 33.6 Hz cm-2, and 27.0 Hz cm-2 due to an isotropic neutron source is calculated using GEANT4 standard electromagnetic package for a 20 × 20 cm2 RPC in the ME1, ME2, ME3 and ME4, respectively. While for the same neutron source and using GEANT4 package a hit rate of about 0.42 Hz cm-2, 0.7182 Hz cm-2 was measured for the MB1 and MB4 stations respectively. Similar characteristics of hit rates have been observed for GEANT4 low electromagnetic package.

  7. Fabrication of a glucose biosensor based on inserted barrel plating gold electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Cheng-Teng; Chung, Hsieh-Hsun; Tsai, Dong-Mung; Fang, Mei-Yen; Hsiao, Hung-Chan; Zen, Jyh-Myng

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate here the application of barrel plating gold electrodes for fabricating a new type of disposable amperometric glucose biosensor. It is prepared by inserting two barrel plating gold electrodes onto an injection molding plastic base followed by immobilizing with a bioreagent layer and membrane on the electrode surface. The primary function of barrel plating is to provide an economical way to electroplate manufactured parts. The manufacture procedure is simple and can increase the fabrication precision for automation in mass production. At the two-electrode system, the detection of glucose is linear up to 800 mg/dL (i.e., 44.5 mM, r(2) > 0.99) in pH 7.4 PBS with a sensitivity of 0.71 microA/mM. Excellent sensor-to-sensor reproducibility shows coefficients of variation of only 0.8-1.4% for the detection of 56.5-561.0 mg/dL glucose. In laboratory trials 176 capillary blood samples with a range of 30-572 mg/dL glucose are used to evaluate the clinical application of the biosensor. A good linear correlation is observed between the measured values of the proposed biosensor and laboratory reference. Error grid analysis verifies that the proposed technique is promising in fabricating biosensor strips on a mass scale. As successfully demonstrated by using whole blood glucose as a model analyte, the fabrication technique can extend into other barrel plating noble metal electrodes for various applications.

  8. Superior long-term stability of a glucose biosensor based on inserted barrel plating gold electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Cheng-Teng; Hsiao, Hung-Chan; Fang, Mei-Yen; Zen, Jyh-Myng

    2009-10-15

    Disposable one shot usage blood glucose strips are routinely used in the diagnosis and management of diabetes mellitus and their performance can vary greatly. In this paper we critically evaluated the long-term stability of glucose strips made of barrel plating gold electrodes. Compared to other glucose biosensing platforms of vapor deposited palladium and screen printed carbon electrodes, the proposed glucose biosensor was found to show the best stability among the three biosensing platforms in thermal acceleration experiments at 40 degrees C for 6 months with an average bias of 3.4% at glucose concentrations of 5-20 mM. The precision test of this barrel plating gold glucose biosensor also showed the best performance (coefficients of variation in the range of 1.4-2.4%) in thermal acceleration experiments at 40 degrees C, 50 degrees C and 70 degrees C for 27 days. Error grid analysis revealed that all measurements fell in zone A and zone B. Regression analysis showed no significant difference between the proposed biosensor and the reference method at 99% confidence level. The amperometric glucose biosensor fabricated by inserting two barrel plating gold electrodes onto an injection-molding plastic base followed by immobilizing with a bio-reagent layer and membrane was very impressive with a long-term stability up to 2.5 years at 25 degrees C. Overall, these results indicated that the glucose oxidase/barrel plating gold biosensing platform is ideal for long-term accurate glycemic control.

  9. A new technique for insertion of barrel plate over dynamic hip/compression lag screw:a case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sameer Naranje; Vivek Trikha

    2012-01-01

    Dynamic hip/compression screw (DHS/DCS) is one of the most commonly performed surgeries in orthopaedic practice.Sliding barrel plate over the DHS/DCS lag screw is one of the very crucial and at times uncomfortable and time consuming steps of DHS/DCS surgery especially when it comes to inexperienced surgeons and residents.Also in developing countries where not all standard instrumentation is always available,this crucial step becomes more time consuming.Here we present a case report of 58-year-old male patient with intertrochanteric fracture,in which we used a new device for insertion of barrel plate over DHS/DCS lag screw and found that a small DHS/DCS lag screw extension (sliding jig of barrel plate)can be very helpful to slide barrel plate over the DHS/DCS lag screw.

  10. Design and Calculation of the Resistance Circles for Wooden Barrels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana FOTIN

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present a design methodology for the circles of wooden barrels, usingappropriate strength calculations, so as to provide tightness while maintaining the integrity of the woodenmaterial embedded in the barrel structure, in the jacket and bottom staves, respectively.Based on these calculations, the circle dimensions (length, width and thickness can be defined,depending on the barrel type (for transport or storage and their relation to the barrel bottoms.Defining the dimensional characteristics of the circles is mandatory, as these are safety elements in thebarrel operation.

  11. Barrel organ of plate tectonics - a new tool for outreach and education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broz, Petr; Machek, Matěj; Šorm, Zdar

    2016-04-01

    Plate tectonics is the major geological concept to explain dynamics and structure of Earth's outer shell, the lithosphere. In the plate tectonic theory processes in the Earth lithosphere and its dynamics is driven by the relative motion and interaction of lithospheric plates. Geologically most active regions on Earth often correlate with the lithospheric plate boundaries. Thus for explaining the earth surface evolution, mountain building, volcanism and earthquake origin it is important to understand processes at the plate boundaries. However these processes associated with plate tectonics usually require significant period of time to take effects, therefore, their entire cycles cannot be directly observed in the nature by humans. This makes a challenge for scientists studying these processes, but also for teachers and popularizers trying to explain them to students and to the general public. Therefore, to overcome this problem, we developed a mechanical model of plate tectonics enabling demonstration of most important processes associated with plate tectonics in real time. The mechanical model is a wooden box, more specifically a special type of barrel organ, with hand painted backdrops in the front side. These backdrops are divided into several components representing geodynamic processes associated with plate tectonics, specifically convective currents occurring in the mantle, sea-floor spreading, a subduction of the oceanic crust under the continental crust, partial melting and volcanism associated with subduction, a formation of magmatic stripes, an ascent of mantle plume throughout the mantle, a volcanic activity associated with hot spots, and a formation and degradation of volcanic islands on moving lithospheric plate. All components are set in motion by a handle controlled by a human operator, and the scene is illuminated with colored lights controlled automatically by an electric device embedded in the box. Operation of the model may be seen on www

  12. The multigap resistive plate chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeballos, E. Cerron [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); World Lab., Lausanne (Switzerland); Crotty, I. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Hatzifotiadou, D. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); World Lab., Lausanne (Switzerland); Valverde, J. Lamas [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); World Lab., Lausanne (Switzerland); Univ. Louis Pasteur, Strasbourg (France); Neupane, S. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); World Lab., Lausanne (Switzerland); Williams, M. C. S. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Zichichi, A. [Univ. of Bologna, Bologna (Italy)

    2015-02-03

    The paper describes the multigap resistive plate chamber (RPC). This is a variant of the wide gap RPC. However it has much improved time resolution, while keeping all the other advantages of the wide gap RPC design.

  13. Detector Physics of Resistive Plate Chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Lippmann, Christian; Riegler, W

    2003-01-01

    Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) are gaseous parallel plate avalanche detectors that implement electrodes made from a material with a high volume resistivity between 10^7 and 10^12 Ohm cm. Large area RPCs with 2mm single gaps operated in avalanche mode provide above 98% efficiency and a time resolution of around 1ns up to a flux of several kHz/cm2. These Trigger RPCs will, as an example, equip the muon detector system of the ATLAS experiment at CERN on an area of 3650m2 and with 355.000 independent read out channels. Timing RPCs with a gas gap of 0.2 to 0.3mm are widely used in multi gap configurations and provide 99% efficiency and time resolution down to 50ps. While their performance is comparable to existing scintillator-based Time-Of-Flight (TOF) technology, Timing RPCs feature a significantly, up to an order of magnitude, lower price per channel. They will for example equip the 176m2 TOF barrel of the ALICE experiment at CERN with 160.000 independent read out cells. RPCs were originally operated in stream...

  14. Resistive Plate Chambers performance with Cosmic Rays in the CMS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Piccolo, D; Genchev, V; Iaydjiev, P; Stoykova, S; Sultanov, G; Trayanov, R; Dimitrov, A; Litov, L; Pavlov, B; Petkov, P; Marinov, A; Thyssen, F; Tytgat, M; Verwilligen, P; Zaganidis, N; Akimenko, S; Ball, A; Crotty, I; Guida, R; Sharma, A; Van Doninck, W; Abbrescia, M; Iaselli, G; Marangelli, B; Nuzzo, S; Pugliese, G; Romano, F; Roselli, G; Trentadue, R; Tupputi, S; Colaleo, A; Loddo, F; Ranieri, A; Cimmino, A; Sciacca, C; Buontempo, S; Cavallo, N; Fabozzi, F; Lomidze, D; Paolucci, P; Benussi, L; Bertani, M; Bianco, S; Colafranceschi, S; Fabbri, F L; Baesso, P; Pagano, D; Ratti, S P; Vitulo, P; Viviani, C; Avila, C; Carrillo, C; Gomez, B; Ocampo, A; Osorio, A; Sanabria, J C; Polese, G; Tuuva, T; Bunkowski, K; Cwiok, M; Doroba, K; Kalinowski, A; Konecki, M; Krolikowski, J; Kierzkowski, K; Kudla, I M; Oklinski, W; Pietrusinski, M; Bluj, M; Fruboes, T; Gorski, M; Kazana, M; Szleper, M; Wrochna, G; Zalewski, P; Poznik, K T; Zabolotny, W; Ban, Y; Qian, S J; Ye, Y L; Ahmad, M; Ahmed, I; Ahmed, W; Asghar, M I; Butt, J B; Hoorani, H R; Hussain, I; Khan, W A; Khurshid, T; Malik, I A; Muhammad, S; Qazi, S F; Shahzad, H; Cho, S W; Jo, M; Hong, B; Kim, C; Kim, H C; Kim, J H; Lee, H S; Lee, K S; Moon, D H; Park, S; Rhee, H B; Seo, E S; Shin, S S; Sim, K S; Lee, J S; Lee, S E

    2010-01-01

    The Resistive Plate Chambers are used in the CMS experiment as a dedicated muon trigger both in barrel and endcap system. About 4000 square meter of double gap RPCs have been produced and have been installed in the experiment since more than one year and half. The full barrel system and a fraction of the endcaps have been monitored to study dark current behaviour and system stability, and have been extensively commissioned with Cosmic Rays collected by the full CMS experiment.

  15. Corrosion resistant metallic bipolar plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Michael P.; Schneibel, Joachim H.; Pint, Bruce A.; Maziasz, Philip J.

    2007-05-01

    A corrosion resistant, electrically conductive component such as a bipolar plate for a PEM fuel cell includes 20 55% Cr, balance base metal such as Ni, Fe, or Co, the component having thereon a substantially external, continuous layer of chromium nitride.

  16. 无氰滚镀铜工艺应用及故障解决%Application and troubleshooting of cyanide-free barrel copper plating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐金来; 周杰

    2013-01-01

    The process conditions and bath maintenance of cyanide-free barrel copper plating on iron substrate were introduced. It is proposed that the bath can be controlled and maintained based on the proportion of total effective complexing agent vs. copper ions content (n), which is optimal at 1.1~ 1.4. Some common malfunctions and their corresponding solutions for cyanide-free barrel copper plating were empathetically stated.%介绍了铁基无氰滚镀铜工艺条件和镀液的维护,提出以总有效配位剂和铜离子含量的比值(n)作为控制和维护镀液的依据,n保持在1.1~1.4为宜。重点阐述了无氰滚镀铜工艺中的常见故障和解决措施。

  17. Induced signals in resistive plate chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Riegler, W

    2002-01-01

    We derive theorems for induced signals on electrodes embedded in a medium with a position and frequency dependent permittivity $\\vep(\\vx,s)$ and conductivity $\\sigma(\\vx,s)$ that are connected with arbitrary discrete elements. The problem is treated using the quasi-static approximation of Maxwell's equations for weakly conducting media \\cite{melcher}\\cite{quasi}. The induced signals can be derived by time dependent weighting fields and potentials and the result is the same as the one given in \\cite{gatti}. We also show how these time dependent weighting fields can be derived from electrostatic solutions. Finally we will apply the results to Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) where we discuss the effects of the resistive plates and thin resistive layers on the signals induced on plane electrodes and strips.

  18. Development and progress in resistive plate chamber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Hong-Fang; WU Jian

    2004-01-01

    Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC) is a robust and low cost gas detector, which is extensively used in high-energy physics, cosmic and astroparticle physics experiments. Over the past twenty years, as a particle detector,RPC has made remarkable progress. The main achievements, features and results of experiemantal tests including R&D and production of the RPCs by several Chinese groups in recent years are reported in this article.

  19. Angular resolution of stacked resistive plate chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Samuel, Deepak; Murgod, Lakshmi P

    2016-01-01

    We present here detailed derivations of mathematical expressions for the angular resolution of a set of stacked resistive plate chambers (RPCs). The expressions are validated against experimental results using data collected from the prototype detectors (without magnet) of the upcoming India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO). In principle, these expressions can be used for any other detector with an architecture similar to that of RPCs.

  20. Measurements of the Rate Capability of Various Resistive Plate Chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Affatigato, M; Bilki, B; Corriveau, F; Freund, B; Johnson, N; Neubueser, C; Onel, Y; Repond, J; Xia, L

    2015-01-01

    Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) exhibit a significant loss of efficiency for the detection of particles, when subjected to high particle fluxes. This rate limitation is related to the usually high resistivity of the resistive plates used in their construction. This paper reports on measurements of the performance of three different glass RPC designs featuring a different total resistance of the resistive plates. The measurements were performed with 120 GeV protons at varying beam intensities

  1. Simulation of the CMS Resistive Plate Chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Hadjiiska, R; Pavlov, B; Petkov, P; Dimitrov, A; Beernaert, K; Cimmino, A; Costantini, S; Garcia, G; Lellouch, J; Marinov, A; Ocampo, A; Strobbe, N; Thyssen, F; Tytgat, M; Verwilligen, P; Yazgan, E; Zaganidis, N; Aleksandrov, A; Genchev, V; Iaydjiev, P; Rodozov, M; Shopova, M; Sultanov, G; Ban, Y; Cai, J; Xue, Z; Ge, Y; Li, Q; Qian, S; Avila, C; Chaparro, L F; Gomez, J P; Moreno, B Gomez; Oliveros, A F Osorio; Sanabria, J C; Assran, Y; Sharma, A; Abbrescia, M; Colaleo, A; Pugliese, G; Loddo, F; Calabria, C; Maggi, M; Benussi, L; Bianco, S; Colafranceschi, S; Piccolo, D; Carrillo, C; Iorio, O; Buontempo, S; Paolucci, P; Vitulo, P; Berzano, U; Gabusi, M; Kang, M; Lee, K S; Park, S K; Shin, S; Kim, M S; Seo, H; Goh, J; Choi, Y; Shoaib, M

    2013-01-01

    The Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC) muon subsystem contributes significantly to the formation of the trigger decision and reconstruction of the muon trajectory parameters. Simulation of the RPC response is a crucial part of the entire CMS Monte Carlo software and directly influences the final physical results. An algorithm based on the parametrization of RPC efficiency, noise, cluster size and timing for every strip has been developed. Experimental data obtained from cosmic and proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=7$ TeV have been used for determination of the parameters. A dedicated validation procedure has been developed. A good agreement between the simulated and experimental data has been achieved.

  2. Improving the Resistance of a Eukaryotic β-Barrel Protein to Thermal and Chemical Perturbation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessmann, Dennis; Mager, Frauke; Naveed, Hammad; Arnold, Thomas; Weirich, Sara; Linke, Dirk; Liang, Jie; Nussberger, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    Beta-barrel membrane proteins have regular structures with extensive hydrogen bonding networks between their transmembrane (TM) β-strands, which stabilize their protein fold. Nevertheless, weakly stable TM regions exist, which are important for the protein function and interaction with other proteins. Here, we report on the apparent stability of human Tom40A, a member of the ‘mitochondrial porin family’ and main constituent of the mitochondrial protein-conducting channel TOM. Using a physical interaction model TmSIP for β-barrel membrane proteins, we have identified three β-strands unfavorable in the TM domain of the protein. Substitution of key residues inside these strands with hydrophobic amino acids results in a decreased sensitivity of the protein to chemical and/or thermal denaturation. The apparent melting temperature observed when denatured at a rate of one degree per minute, is shifted from 73 to 84 °C. Moreover, the sensitivity of the protein to denaturant agents is significantly lowered. Further, we find a reduced tendency for the mutated protein to form dimers. We propose that the identified weakly stable β-strands 1, 2 and 9 of human Tom40A play an important role in quaternary protein-protein interactions within the mammalian TOM machinery. Our results show that the use of empirical energy functions to model the apparent stability of β-barrel membrane proteins may be a useful tool in the field of nanopore bioengineering. PMID:21835183

  3. Improving the resistance of a eukaryotic β-barrel protein to thermal and chemical perturbations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessmann, Dennis; Mager, Frauke; Naveed, Hammad; Arnold, Thomas; Weirich, Sara; Linke, Dirk; Liang, Jie; Nussberger, Stephan

    2011-10-14

    β-Barrel membrane proteins have regular structures with extensive hydrogen-bond networks between their transmembrane (TM) β-strands, which stabilize their protein fold. Nevertheless, weakly stable TM regions, which are important for the protein function and interaction with other proteins, exist. Here, we report on the apparent stability of human Tom40A, a member of the "mitochondrial porin family" and main constituent of the mitochondrial protein-conducting channel TOM (translocase of the outer membrane). Using a physical interaction model, TmSIP, for β-barrel membrane proteins, we have identified three unfavorable β-strands in the TM domain of the protein. Substitution of key residues inside these strands with hydrophobic amino acids results in a decreased sensitivity of the protein to chemical and/or thermal denaturation. The apparent melting temperature observed when denatured at a rate of 1 °C per minute is shifted from 73 to 84 °C. Moreover, the sensitivity of the protein to denaturant agents is significantly lowered. Further, we find a reduced tendency for the mutated protein to form dimers. We propose that the identified weakly stable β-strands 1, 2 and 9 of human Tom40A play an important role in quaternary protein-protein interactions within the mammalian TOM machinery. Our results show that the use of empirical energy functions to model the apparent stability of β-barrel membrane proteins may be a useful tool in the field of nanopore bioengineering.

  4. 氰化滚镀铜工艺实践与探讨%Practice and Exploration of Technology for Barrel Copper Plating from a Cyanide Bath

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭崇武; 李健强

    2009-01-01

    氰化滚镀铜溶液中碳酸钠含量和主盐浓度不当,都会影响产品的质量.影响碳酸钠含量的因素较多,如溶液的pH值及NaOH浓度,槽电压等.对其具体影响进行了研究,提出措施:NaOH浓度在5.0~7.5 g/L可以将碳酸钠浓度控制在工艺范围内;降低镀槽电压和增加阳极面积有利于降低碳酸钠的浓度;较高的主盐浓度可以提高镀液的电流效率和均镀能力,有利于降低电镀成本.%The concentrations of sodium hydroxide and sodium carbonate in a barrel cyanide copper-plating bath were determined by chemical analysis, ai-ming at revealing the effect of sodium hydroxide on the formation and concentration of sodium carbonate and hence the quality of the final coating. Results show that the concentration of sodium carbonate in the bath for barrel cyanide copper- plating of zinc work pieces can be effectively controlled within the required range of technology by introducing 5.0 ~ 7. 5 g/L sodium hydroxide. Moreover, reducing the voltage of the plating bath and increasing the anodic area are favorable to decreasing the concentration of sodium carbonate. And raising the concentration of cuprous cya-nide as the main salt is helpful to increasing the current efficiency and throwing power and reducing the electroplating cost as well.

  5. Tests of a Novel Design of Resistive Plate Chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Bilki, B; Freund, B; Neubüser, C; Onel, Y; Repond, J; Schlereth, J; Xia, L

    2015-01-01

    A novel design of Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs), using only a single resistive plate, is being proposed. Based on this design, two large size prototype chambers were constructed and were tested with cosmic rays and in particle beams. The tests confirmed the viability of this new approach. In addition to showing an improved single-particle response compared to the traditional 2-plate design, the novel chambers also prove to be suitable for calorimetric applications.

  6. Weapons barrel life cycle determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nebojša Pene Hristov

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the dynamic processes within the gun barrel during the firing process in exploitation. It generally defines the basic principles of constructing tube elements, and shows the distortion of the basic geometry of the tube interior due to wear as well as the impact it causes during exploitation. The article also defines basic empirical models as well as a model based on fracture mechanics for the calculation of a use-life of the barrel, and other elements essential for the safe use of the barrel as the basic weapon element. Erosion causes are analysed in order to control and reduce wear and prolong the lifetime of the gun barrel. It gives directions for the reparation of barrels with wasted resources. In conclusion, the most influential elements of tube wear are given as well as possible modifications of existing systems, primarily propellant charges, with a purpose of prolonging lifetime of gun barrels. The guidelines for a proper determination of the lifetime based on the barrel condition assessment are given as well. INTRODUCTION The barrel as the basic element of each weapon is described as well as the processes occurring during the firing that have impulsive character and are accompanied by large amounts of energy. The basic elements of barrel and itheir constructive characteristics are descibed. The relation between Internal ballistics, ie calculation of the propellant gas pressure in the firing process, and structural elements defined by the barrel material resistance is shown. In general, this part of the study explains the methodology of the gun barrel structural elements calculation, ie. barrel geometry, taking into account the degrees of safety in accordance with Military Standards.   TUBE WEAR AND DEFORMATIONS The weapon barrel gradually wears out during exploitation due to which it no longer satisfies the set requirements. It is considered that the barrel has experienced a lifetime when it fails to fulfill the

  7. Improved Corrosion Resistance of Pulse Plated Nickel through Crystallisation Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Peter Torben; Watanabe, Tohru; Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov

    1995-01-01

    When electrodeposition of nickel is used for corrosion protection of steel two aspects are important. The porosity of the coating and the resistance against corrosion provided by the coating itself. Using simple pulsed current (PC) plating, the size of the deposited crystals can be significantly...... smaller, thereby reducing porosity correspondingly. This usually also leads to improved hardness of the coating. Introducing pulse reversal (PR) plating, the most active crystals are continuously dissolved during the anodic pulse, providing a coating with improved subsequent corrosion resistance in almost...... any corrosive environment. This correlation between film texture and corrosion resistance will be discussed....

  8. First studies with the Resistive-Plate WELL gaseous multiplier

    CERN Document Server

    Rubin, A; Bressler, S; Moleri, L; Pitt, M; Breskin, A

    2013-01-01

    We present the results of first studies of the Resistive Plate WELL (RPWELL): a single-faced THGEM coupled to a copper anode via a resistive layer of high bulk resistivity. We explored various materials of different bulk resistivity (10^9 - 10^12 Ohm cm) and thickness (0.4 - 4 mm). Our most successful prototype, with a 0.6 mm resistive plate of ~10^9 Ohm cm, achieved gains of up to 10^5 with 8 keV x-ray in Ne/5%CH4; a minor 30% gain drop occurred with a rate increase from 10 to 10^4 Hz/mm^2. The detector displayed a full "discharge-free" operation--even when exposed to high primary ionization events. We present the RPWELL detector concept and compare its performance to that of other previously explored THGEM configurations--in terms of gain, its curves, dependence on rate, and the response to high ionization. The robust Resistive Plate WELL concept is a step forward in the Micro-Pattern Gas-Detector family, with numerous potential applications.

  9. ALICE EXPERIMENT Time of Flight Multigap Resistive Plate Chambers

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Charged particules are identified in ALICE by Time-Of-Flight (TOF); heavier particles are slower and it takes for them longer to reach the outer layers of the detector. For TOF system ALICE uses detectors called Multigap Resistive Plate Chambers (MRPC), like the prototype shown here.

  10. Bending Resistance of Steel Plate-Reinforced Concrete Beam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Zhimin; CHEN Jie

    2006-01-01

    The formulas for calculating bending-resistant capacity of a steel plate-reinforced concrete composite beam are derived.To validate the formulas,experiments of the composite beam under three-point bending are carried out.Calculated results based on the formulas are in good agreement with experimental results.

  11. Mechanical Self-shrinkage of Artillery Barrels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Ciorba

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective of this paper is to define what self-shrink artillery barrel is. She is considered to be a compound barrel like as a thick-walled tube (k>2, in his wall being introduced a state of stress and strain using specific technological proceeds. This type of treatment is aimed to increase the artillery barrel load capacity and wear resistance in operation. The experimental part was realized using an industrial plant at Mechanical Factory of Resita. This part presents a comparative study between mechanical self-shrinkage on artillery head barrel, first using a mandrel and seconds a ball.

  12. Simulation of space charge effects in resistive plate chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Lippmann, Christian

    2003-01-01

    Multigap resistive plate chambers with 0.3-mm gas gaps operated in avalanche mode at atmospheric pressure have reached timing accuracies below 50 ps (standard deviation) with efficiencies above 99% . The avalanches in high homogeneous electric fields of 100 kV/cm are strongly influenced by space charge effects which are the main topic of this paper. We extend a previously discussed Monte Carlo simulation model of avalanches in resistive plate chambers by the dynamic calculation of the electric field in the avalanches. We complete the previously presented results on time resolution and efficiency data with simulated charge spectra. The simulated data shows good agreement with measurements. The detailed simulation of the avalanche saturation due to the space charge fields explains the small observed charges, the shape of the spectra, and the linear increase of average charges with high voltage. (22 refs).

  13. Resistive plate chambers for time-of-flight measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco, A.; Fonte, P. E-mail: fonte@lipc.fis.uc.pt; Lopes, L.; Mangiarotti, A.; Ferreira-Marques, R.; Policarpo, A

    2003-11-01

    The applications of Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) have recently been extended by the development of counters with time resolution below 100 ps {sigma} for minimum ionising particles. Applications to HEP experiments have already taken place and many further applications are under study. In this work, we address the operating principles of such counters along with some present challenges, with emphasis on counter ageing. Possible applications to radioisotope imaging will be outlined.

  14. Detailed models for timing and efficiency in resistive plate chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Riegler, Werner

    2003-01-01

    We discuss detailed models for detector physics processes in Resistive Plate Chambers, in particular including the effect of attachment on the avalanche statistics. In addition, we present analytic formulas for average charges and intrinsic RPC time resolution. Using a Monte Carlo simulation including all the steps from primary ionization to the front-end electronics we discuss the dependence of efficiency and time resolution on parameters like primary ionization, avalanche statistics and threshold.

  15. Resistive plate chambers for muon detection at LHC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶沿林; 应军; 班勇; 刘洪涛; 蔡建新; 朱子美; 马经国; 陈陶; 钱思进

    2002-01-01

    One resistive plate chamber made of Chinese materials and one Italian resistive platechamber have been tested in the Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF) at CERN on a high intensitymuon beam together with a 137Cs source to give a uniform photon background, and simulatingconditions close to those expected for an LHC muon detector. The results are analyzed. Goodspace and time resolutions are obtained which satisfy the future CMS experiment requirements.The detection efficiency is different between two RPCs against a high irradiation background. Thereason is discussed.

  16. Process for bright nickel barrel plating on zinc and aluminum alloys in a neutral bath%锌合金、铝合金光亮中性滚镀镍工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁均强

    2012-01-01

    介绍了一种近中性(pH=5.5 ~ 6.0)滚镀镍工艺,其镀液由硫酸镍、氯化镍、硼酸、开缸剂、柔软剂、主光剂和润湿剂组成.用于锌合金滚镀时,工艺流程主要包括机械或化学除油、活化酸盐活化、预镀碱铜、硫酸活化、镀中性镍和离心机烘干;用于铝合金时,工艺流程主要包括热浸除油、酸活化、一次浸锌、硝酸退锌、二次浸锌、镀中性镍和烘干.给出了各工序的工艺条件及日常维护、故障处理的方法,对比了该中性镀镍液与普通光亮镀镍液对锌杂质的容忍度.采用该中性镀镍工艺可在锌、铝合金工件上获得有亮丽金属光泽的镀镍层,既提高了成品率和生产效率,又节省了生产成本.%A near neutral (pH 5.5-6.0) nickel barrel plating process was introduced. The bath is composed of NiSO4, NiCl2, H3BO3, makeup agent, softening agent, primary brightening agent, and wetting agent. The process flow mainly consists of mechanical or chemical degreasing, activating with active acid salt, alkaline copper pre-plating, sulfuric acid activating, neutraV nickel plating, and centrifugal drying for barrel plating of zinc alloys, and of hot-dip degreasing, acid activating, first zinc immersion, zinc stripping with nitric acid, secondary zinc immersion, neutral nickel plating, and dry for aluminum alloys. The operation conditions of individual procedure and the methods of routine maintenance and troubleshooting were presented. The tolerance of the neutral nickel plating bath and a conventional bright nickel plating bath to zinc impurity was compared. The neutral nickel plating process produces bright nickel coatings on zinc and aluminum alloys, improving the rate of eligible products as well as production efficiency and saving cost.

  17. Analysis on a malfunction caused by zinc remover during barrel bright nickel plating and countermeasures%由除锌剂引起的滚镀光亮镍故障分析及处理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭崇武

    2011-01-01

    A bright nickel-plating malfunction caused by zinc remover was analyzed and the treatment methods were summarized. Productive practice indicated that the excess amount of zinc remover will slow down the electro-deposition rate of zinc during barrel bright nickel plating, resulting in the accumulation of zinc impurities in plating bath. The zinc remover can be destroyed by adding sodium persulfate to nickel plating bath followed by adsorption with 1-2 g/L activated carbon. The zinc impurities in nickel plating bath can be eliminated by further electrolysis.%对一次由除锌剂引起的滚镀光亮镍故障进行了分析,并总结了处理方法.生产实践表明,在滚镀光亮镍的过程中,过量使用除锌剂会导致锌杂质的电沉积速率变慢,造成镀液中锌杂质的积累.向镀镍槽中加过硫酸钠破坏除锌剂,并加1~2g/L活性炭吸附,最后用电解法去除镀镍溶液中的锌杂质,可消除除锌剂的不良影响.

  18. Rain Barrels in Utah

    OpenAIRE

    Greene, Brian; Mesner, Nancy; Brain, Roslynn

    2015-01-01

    Rain barrels are an easy way to conserve rain water and help protect our environment. This fact sheet tells how to find out about the current regulations in Utah and how to build a rain barrel for your own home.

  19. The CMS Barrel Muon Trigger Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Triossi, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The increase of luminosity expected by LHC during Phase 1 will impose several constrains for rate reduction while maintaining high efficiency in the CMS Level 1 trigger system. The TwinMux system is the early layer of the muon barrel region that concentrates the information from different subdetectors DT, RPC and HO. It arranges and fan-out the slow optical trigger links from the detector chambers into faster links (10 Gbps) that are sent to the track finders. Results, from collision runs, that confirm the satisfactory operation of the trigger system up to the output of the barrel track finder, will be shown. SUMMARY: In view of the increase of luminosity during phase 1 upgrade of LHC, the muon trigger chain of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment underwent considerable improvements. The muon detector was designed for preserving the complementarity and redundancy of three separate muon detection systems, Cathode Strip Chambers (CSC), Drift Tubes (DT) and Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC), until ...

  20. The ATLAS Barrel Level-1 Muon Trigger Processor Performances

    CERN Document Server

    Bocci, V; Ciapetti, G; De Pedis, D; Di Girolamo, A; Di Mattia, A; Gennari, E; Luci, C; Nisati, A; Pasqualucci, E; Pastore, F; Petrolo, E; Spila, F; Vari,, R; Veneziano, S; Zanelli, L; Aielli, G; Cardarelli, R; Di Ciaccio, A; Di Simone, A; Di Stante, L; Salamon, A; Santonico, R; Aloisio, A; Alviggi, M G; Canale, V; Carlino, G; Conventi, F; De Asmundis, R; Della Pietra, M; Delle Volpe, D; Iengo, P; Izzo, V; Migliaccio, A; Patricelli, S; Sekhniaidze, G; Brambilla, Elena; Cataldi, G; Gorini, E; Grancagnolo, F; Perrino, R; Primavera, M; Spagnolo, S; Aprodo, V; Bartos, D; Buda, S; Constantin, S; Dogaru, M; Magureanu, C; Pectu, M; Prodan, L; Rusu, A; Uroseviteanu, C

    2005-01-01

    The ATLAS level-1 muon trigger will select events with high transverse momentum and tag them to the correct machine bunch-crossing number with high efficiency. Three stations of dedicated fast detectors provide a coarse pT measurement, with tracking capability on bending and non-bending pro jections. In the Barrel region, hits from doublets of Resistive Plate Chambers are processed by custom ASIC, the Coincidence Matrices, which performs almost all the functionalities required by the trigger algorithm and the readout. In this paper we present the performance of the level-1 trigger system studied on a cosmic test stand at CERN, concerning studies on expected trigger rates and efficiencies.

  1. Corrosion-resistant, electrically-conductive plate for use in a fuel cell stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, J. David; Mawdsley, Jennifer R.; Niyogi, Suhas; Wang, Xiaoping; Cruse, Terry; Santos, Lilia

    2010-04-20

    A corrosion resistant, electrically-conductive, durable plate at least partially coated with an anchor coating and a corrosion resistant coating. The corrosion resistant coating made of at least a polymer and a plurality of corrosion resistant particles each having a surface area between about 1-20 m.sup.2/g and a diameter less than about 10 microns. Preferably, the plate is used as a bipolar plate in a proton exchange membrane (PEMFC) fuel cell stack.

  2. A high time resolution multi-gap resistive plate chamber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Research on a single cell Multi-gap Resistive Plate Chamber (MR PC)was carried out for the Time Of Flight detector (TOF) R and D of the STAR experi-ment. The property of the single chamber was tested with the test beam facility T10at CERN in Geneva. The MRPC was scanned with the test beam to get the efficiencyand time resolution at different position of the active area. The HV plateau was alsomeasured. The time resolution is 65 ps which satisfies the requirement of STAR. Theworking mechanism of the MRPC is also explained.

  3. Cosmic ray tests of large area Multigap Resistive Plate Chambers

    CERN Document Server

    An, S; Kim, J; Williams, M C S; Zichichi, A; Zuyeuski, R

    2007-01-01

    We have built Multigap Resistive Plate Chambers (MRPC) with six gas gaps and an active area of . The signals are generated on 2.5 cm wide copper pickup strips; these are read out at each end thus allowing the position of the hit along the strip to be obtained from the time difference. Using three of these chambers we have set up a cosmic tracking system in a similar manner as planned for the Extreme Energy Events (EEE) project. The details of the set-up are presented in this paper. In addition we discuss the time and position resolution of these MRPCs measured using cosmic rays.

  4. The Detector Control Systems for the CMS Resistive Plate Chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Paolucci, P; Gómez-Reino, R; Viviani, C; Shahzad, R; Khurshid, T

    2010-01-01

    The Resistive Plate Chamber system is composed by 912 double-gap chambers equipped with about $10^4$ front-end boards. The correct and safe operation of the RPC system requires a sophisticated and complex online Detector Control System, able to monitor and control 2$\\cdot10^4$ hardware devices distributed on an area of about 5000 m$^2$. The RPC DCS acquires, monitors and stores about $10^5$ parameters coming from the detector, the electronics, the power system, the gas, and cooling systems. The DCS system and the first results, obtained during the 2007 and 2008 CMS cosmic runs, will be described in this paper.

  5. HF production in CMS-Resistive Plate Chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbrescia, M. [Dipartimento interateneo di Fisica and sezione INFN, Bari (Italy); Colaleo, A. [Dipartimento interateneo di Fisica and sezione INFN, Bari (Italy); Guida, R. [Dipartimento interateneo di Fisica and sezione INFN, Bari (Italy)]. E-mail: Roberto.Guida@ba.infn.it; Iaselli, G. [Dipartimento interateneo di Fisica and sezione INFN, Bari (Italy); Loddo, F. [Dipartimento interateneo di Fisica and sezione INFN, Bari (Italy); Maggi, M. [Dipartimento interateneo di Fisica and sezione INFN, Bari (Italy); Marangelli, B. [Dipartimento interateneo di Fisica and sezione INFN, Bari (Italy); Natali, S. [Dipartimento interateneo di Fisica and sezione INFN, Bari (Italy); Nuzzo, S. [Dipartimento interateneo di Fisica and sezione INFN, Bari (Italy); Pugliese, G. [Dipartimento interateneo di Fisica and sezione INFN, Bari (Italy); Ranieri, A. [Dipartimento interateneo di Fisica and sezione INFN, Bari (Italy); Romano, F. [Dipartimento interateneo di Fisica and sezione INFN, Bari (Italy); Trentadue, R. [Dipartimento interateneo di Fisica and sezione INFN, Bari (Italy); Cavallo, N. [Universita degli studi della Basilicata and Sezione INFN, Naples (Italy); Fabozzi, F. [Universita degli studi della Basilicata and Sezione INFN, Naples (Italy); Paolucci, P. [Dipartimento di Fisica and Sezione INFN, Naples (Italy); Piccolo, D.; Polese, G.; Sciacca, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica and Sezione INFN, Naples (Italy); Belli, G.; Necchi, M.; Ratti, S.; Riccardi, C.; Torre, P.; Vitulo, P. [Dipartimento di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica and Sezione INFN, Pavia (Italy); Anguelov, T.; Genchev, V.; Panev, B.; Piperov, S.; Sultanov, G.; Vankov, P. [INRNE, BAS, Soa (Bulgaria); Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P. [University of Soa St. Kliment Ohridski (Bulgaria)

    2006-08-15

    The formation of highly reactive compounds in the gas mixture during Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) operation at the CERN Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF) is studied. Results from two different types of chambers are discussed: 50 x 50 cm{sup 2} RPC prototypes and two final CMS-RB1 chambers. The RB1 detectors were also connected to a closed loop gas system. Gas composition, possible additional impurities as well as fluoride ions have been monitored in different gamma irradiation conditions both in open and closed loop mode. The chemical composition of the RPC electrode surface has also been analyzed using an electron microscope equipped with an EDS/X-ray.

  6. Resistive Plate Chambers for Imaging Calorimetry - the DHCAL

    CERN Document Server

    Repond, Jose

    2014-01-01

    The DHCAL, the Digital Hadron Calorimeter, is a prototype calorimeter based on Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs). The design emphasizes the imaging capabilities of the detector in an effort to optimize the calorimeter for the application of Particle Flow Algorithms (PFAs) to the reconstruction of hadronic jet energies in a colliding beam environment. The readout of the chambers is segmented into 1 x 1 cm2 pads, each read out with a 1-bit (single threshold) resolution. The prototype with approximately 500,000 readout channels underwent extensive testing in both the Fermilab and CERN test beams. This talk presents preliminary findings from the analysis of data collected at the test beams.

  7. Study of Performance of Bakelite Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC)

    CERN Document Server

    Ganai, R; Roy, A; Muduli, B; Chattopadhyay, S; Ahammed, Z; Das, G; Ramnarayan, S

    2016-01-01

    Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC) is a type of gaseous detector having excellent time and position resolutions. VECC is involved in the R\\&D of indigenously developed bakelite RPCs. The largest size of bakelite RPC developed in India is 100 cm $\\times$ 100 cm. We present here the test results of a bakelite sample along with the cosmic ray test results of a bakelite RPC (30 cm $\\times$ 30 cm $\\times$ 0.2cm) fabricated at VECC. The steps taken towards the development of a large size (240 cm $\\times$ 120 cm $\\times$ 0.2 cm) bakelite RPC have also been discussed.

  8. Ceramic resistive plate chambers for high rate environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laso Garcia, Alejandro; Kaempfer, Burkhard; Kaspar, Markus; Kotte, Roland; Peschke, Richard; Stach, Daniel; Wendisch, Christian; Wuestenfeld, Joern [Helmholtz Zentrum, Dresden-Rossendorf (Germany); Collaboration: CBM-Collaboration

    2012-07-01

    Multi-gap resistive plate chambers will be used to build the time of flight wall of the compressed baryonic matter experiment (CBM) at FAIR with a time resolution better than 80 ps. The high fluxes expected at the innermost part of the detector, 20 x 10{sup 3} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} have made necessary the development of new materials capable of withstanding such fluxes. At Helmholtz Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, several RPC prototypes of 10 x 10 cm{sup 2} and 20 x 20 cm{sup 2} have been built with ceramic plates with bulk resistivities in the range of 10{sup 9}-10{sup 10} Ohm cm. They have been tested at the superconducting electron accelerator facility ELBE with 30 MeV electrons and at COSY, Juelich, with 2.7 Gev/c protons. We present characteristics of the ceramic electrodes and the latest results concerning the performance of these prototypes in electron and proton beams up to fluxes of 10{sup 6} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}.

  9. Resistive Plate Chambers commissioning and performance results for 2015

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC) detector system at the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment at the LHC confers robustness and redundancy to the muon trigger. During the first long shutdown of the LHC (2013-2014) the CMS muon RPC system has been upgraded with 144 double-gap chambers on the forth forward stations. A total of 1056 double-gap chambers cover the pseudo-rapidity region up to 1.6. The main detector parameters are constantly and closely monitored to achieve operational stability and high quality data in the harsh conditions of the second run period of the LHC (13 TeV and 25 ns bunch spacing). Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC) performance results for 2015 with pp collisions at 13 TeV are presented. These results include the occupancy, efficiency of newly installed detectors after applying new working point, history plots for the RPC relevant variables such as: Cluster Size, Efficiency, percentage of inactive detector during operation and Rates and overall system noise. RPC variables are studied as funct...

  10. Effect of weld on design of steel moment-resisting connection reinforced with steel plates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Peng; LI Yong

    2005-01-01

    The foreign experimental and FEM research of steel moment-resisting connection reinforced with steel plates are introduced. The effect of weld on the connection design is studied in two ways including weld detail and geometrical detail of steel plates contrast to the reference drawing of connection design in China. The research shows that the weld plays an important role in the design of connections. The welds connecting reinforced plates and beam/ column flange and the plate geometry have direct influence on the performance of the connections reinforced with plates. The study is helpful to the application of design of steel moment-resisting connection with steel plates.

  11. Malfunction analysis and treatment caused by zinc impurity during barrel cyanide copper plating%由锌杂质引起的氰化滚镀铜故障分析及处理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭崇武; 吴杰

    2012-01-01

    The barrel cyanide copper plating bath is often contaminated by zinc impurities during electroplating, resulting in anode passivation and roughened coatings. The chemical reaction process of anode passivation was analyzed, and the mechanism for treatment of zinc impurities using ammonic water was described. The codeposition of zinc and copper accelerates after adding 1 Ml/L of 25% ammonia solution to the plating bath, thereby reducing the concentration of zinc impurities, and the plating bath recovers to its usual level 2 days later. The ammonia treatment method is simple, convenient in operation, has no effect on regular production, and markedly superior to sulfide precipitation method.%锌合金压铸件氰化滚镀钢液常受锌杂质污染,导致阳极钝化和镀层粗糙.分析了阳极钝化的化学反应过程,阐述了用氨水处理锌杂质的机理和方法.向镀液中加1 mL/L 25%的氨水,可促进锌和铜的共沉积,使锌杂质的浓度降低,2d后镀液恢复正常.氨水处理法简单,便于操作,不影响正常生产,明显优于硫化物沉淀法.

  12. ATLAS TRT Photos - 50 cm TRT Barrel Module Prototype

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Photo 1 - View down the Assembly Tooling Photo 2 - Gluing detail Photo 3 - 50 cm module used in Test Beam Photo 4 - Detail of Signal Circuitry Photo 5 - Tooling with Central Partition Photo 6 - Tooling with Central Partition Photo 7 - View of Radiators on Storage Plate Photo 8 - Assembled Barrel in Tooling Photo 9 - Gluing Detail Photo 10 - View down the Shell during Assembly Photo 11 - Finished Barrel after Testing Photo 12 - Finished Barrel after Testing

  13. A Computational Model of Soil Adhesion and Resistance for a Non-smooth Bulldozing Plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi Wei-ping; Ren Lu-quan; Tian Li-mei

    2005-01-01

    Adhesive forces exist between soil and the surfaces of soil-engaging components; they increase working resistance and energy consumption. This paper tries to find an approach to reduce the adhesion and resistance of bulldozing plate. A simplified mechanical model of adhesion and resistance between soil and a non-smooth bulldozing plate is proposed. The interaction force between moist soil and a non-smooth bulldozing plate is analyzed. The pressure and friction distribution on the bulldozing plate are computed, and the anti-adhesive effect of a corrugated bulldozing plate is simulated numerically.Numerical results show that the wavy bulldozing plate achieves an effective drag reduction in moist soil. The optimal wavy shape of the corrugated bulldozing plate with the minimal resistance is designed. The basic principle of reducing soil adhesion of the non-smooth surface is discovered.

  14. Development of Glass Resistive Plate Chambers for INO

    CERN Document Server

    Bheesette, Satyanarayana

    2008-01-01

    The India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) collaboration is planning to build a massive 50kton magnetised Iron Calorimeter (ICAL) detector, to study atmospheric neutrinos and to make precision measurements of the parameters related to neutrino oscillations. Glass Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) of about 2m X 2m in size are going to be used as active elements for the ICAL detector. We have fabricated a large number of glass RPC prototypes of 1m X 1m in size and have studied their performance and long term stability. In the process, we have developed and produced a number of materials and components required for fabrication of RPCs. We have also designed and optimised a number of fabrication and quality control procedures for assembling the gas gaps. In this paper we will review our activities towards development of glass RPCs for the INO ICAL detector and will present results of the characterisation studies of the RPCs.

  15. Resistive Plate Chamber Digitization in a Hadronic Shower Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Deng, Z; Wang, Y; Yue, Q; Yang, Z; Apostolakis, J; Folger, G; Grefe, C; Ivantchenko, V; Ribon, A; Uzhinskiy, V; Boumediene, D; Carloganu, C; Français, V; Cho, G; Kim, D-W; Lee, S C; Park, W; Vallecorsa, S; Cauwenbergh, S; Tytgat, M; Pingault, A; Zaganidis, N; Brianne, E; Ebrahimi, A; Gadow, K; Göttlicher, P; Günter, C; Hartbrich, O; Hermberg, B; Irles, A; Krivan, F; Krüger, K; Kvasnicka, J; Lu, S; Lutz, B; Morgunov, V; Neubüser, C; Provenza, A; Reinecke, M; Sefkow, F; Schuwalow, S; Tran, H L; Garutti, E; Laurien, S; Matysek, M; Ramilli, M; Schroeder, S; Bilki, B; Norbeck, E; Northacker, D; Onel, Y; Chang, S; Khan, A; Kim, D H; Kong, D.J; Oh, Y D; Kawagoe, K; Hirai, H; Sudo, Y; Suehara, T; Sumida, H; Yoshioka, T; Gil, E Cortina; Mannai, S; Buridon, V; Combaret, C; Caponetto, L; Eté, R; Garillot, G; Grenier, G; Han, R; Ianigro, J C; Kieffer, R; Laktineh, I; Lumb, N; Mathez, H; Mirabito, L; Petrukhin, A; Steen, A; Antequera, J Berenguer; Alamillo, E Calvo; Fouz, M-C; Marin, J; Puerta-Pelayo, J; Verdugo, A; Chadeeva, M; Danilov, M; Gabriel, M; Goecke, P; Kiesling, C; vanderKolk, N; Simon, F; Szalay, M; Bilokin, S; Bonis, J; Cornebise, P; Richard, F; Pöschl, R; Rouëné, J; Thiebault, A; Zerwas, D; Anduze, M; Balagura, V; Belkadhi, K; Boudry, V; Brient, J-C; Cornat, R; Frotin, M; Gastaldi, F; Haddad, Y; Magniette, F; Ruan, M; Rubio-Roy, M; Shpak, K; Videau, H; Yu, D; Callier, S; di Lorenzo, S Conforti; Dulucq, F; Martin-Chassard, G; de la Taille, Ch; Raux, L; Seguin-Moreau, N; Kotera, K; Ono, H; Takeshita, T; Corriveau, F

    2016-01-01

    The CALICE Semi-Digital Hadron Calorimeter (SDHCAL) technological prototype is a sampling calorimeter using Glass Resistive Plate Chamber detectors with a three-threshold readout as the active medium. This technology is one of the two options proposed for the hadron calorimeter of the International Large Detector for the International Linear Collider. The prototype was exposed to beams of muons, electrons and pions of different energies at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron. To be able to study the performance of such a calorimeter in future experiments it is important to ensure reliable simulation of its response. In this paper we present our prototype simulation performed with GEANT4 and the digitization procedure achieved with an algorithm called SimDigital. A detailed description of this algorithm is given and the methods to determinate its parameters using muon tracks and electromagnetic showers are explained. The comparison with hadronic shower data shows a good agreement up to 50 GeV. Discrepancies are ...

  16. Gas mixture studies for streamer operated Resistive Plate Chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoloni, A.; Longhin, A.; Mengucci, A.; Pupilli, F.; Ventura, M.

    2016-06-01

    Resistive Plate Chambers operated in streamer mode are interesting detectors in neutrino and astro-particle physics applications (like OPERA and ARGO experiments). Such experiments are typically characterized by large area apparatuses with no stringent requirements on detector aging and rate capabilities. In this paper, results of cosmic ray tests performed on a RPC prototype using different gas mixtures are presented, the principal aim being the optimization of the TetraFluoroPropene concentration in Argon-based mixtures. The introduction of TetraFluoroPropene, besides its low Global Warming Power, is helpful because it simplifies safety requirements allowing to remove also isobutane from the mixture. Results obtained with mixtures containing SF6, CF4, CO2, N2 and He are also shown, presented both in terms of detectors properties (efficiency, multiple-streamer probability and time resolution) and in terms of streamer characteristics.

  17. Results from the ATLAS Barrel Level-1 Muon Trigger Timing Studies Using Combined Trigger and Offline Tracking

    CERN Document Server

    Salamanna, G; The ATLAS collaboration

    2009-01-01

    The ATLAS Level-1 Muon Barrel Trigger is one of the main elements of the first stage of event selection of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider. The challenge of the Level-1 system is a reduction of the event rate from a collision rate of 40 MHz by a factor $10^{3}$, using simple algorithms that can be executed with a latency of the order of 1 $mu$s. The input stage of the Level- 1 Muon consists of an array of processors receiving the full granularity of data from a dedicated detector (Resistive Plate Chambers in the Barrel). \

  18. Completion of the TRT Barrel

    CERN Document Server

    Gagnon, P

    On February 3, the US-TRT team proudly completed the installation of the 96th barrel TRT module on its support structure in the SR building at CERN. This happy event came after many years of R&D initiated in the nineties by the TA1 team at CERN, followed by the construction of the modules in three American institutes (Duke, Hampton and Indiana Universities) from 1996 to 2003. In total, the 96 barrel modules contain 52544 kapton straws, each 4 mm in diameter and strung with a 30 micron gold-plated tungsten wire. Each wire was manually inserted, a feat in itself! The inner layer modules contain 329 straws, the middle layer modules have 520 straws and the outer layer, 793 straws. Thirty- two modules of each type form a full layer. Their special geometry was designed such as to leave no dead region. On average, a particle will cross 36 straws. Kirill Egorov, Chuck Mahlon and John Callahan inserted the last module in the Barrel Support Structure. After completion in the US, all modules were transferred...

  19. Triggering and measuring bent cosmic muon tracks with the Muon Spectrometer barrel for the first time

    CERN Multimedia

    Fabio Cerutti

    During the ATLAS barrel toroid stability test, bent cosmic muon tracks were seen for the first time in the ATLAS cavern by means of the ATLAS muon spectrometer. The barrel toroid has been powered at its nominal current (20.5 thousand Amperes) and kept in steady state for more than one day during the weekend of 18-19 November (see a report on this test in the Magnet section). During this test one large sector and part of a small sector of the barrel muon spectrometer were readout and used to detect the cosmic muons tracks bent by the toroidal magnetic field. Thirteen muon stations in the feet sectors (sectors 13 and 14) have been used in this test. The muon stations are formed of Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC) that were providing the muon trigger, and Monitored Drift Tubes that were used to measure with high accuracy the muon curvature hence their momentum. The Level-1 Barrel trigger chain was based on the Barrel Middle Large chambers equipped with final production modules on both the on-detector and the o...

  20. Barrel Weight Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-05-01

    Process 16 Prototype Hardware Testing and Results 17 Barrel Weight 17 Functional Testing 17 Barrel Deflection 18 Drop Test 19 Thermal Test 20 References 23...measurements were compliant. 19 Thermal Test As discussed in the Transient Analysis Model Verification section of this report, the analytical results from the

  1. A corrosion resistant cerium oxide based coating on aluminum alloy 2024 prepared by brush plating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang Junlei; Han Zhongzhi [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Zuo Yu, E-mail: zuoy@mail.buct.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Tang Yuming [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China)

    2011-01-15

    Cerium oxide based coatings were prepared on AA2024 Al alloy by brush plating. The characteristic of this technology is that hydrogen peroxide, which usually causes the plating solution to be unstable, is not necessary in the plating electrolyte. The coating showed laminated structures and good adhesive strength with the substrate. X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis showed that the coatings were composed of Ce(III) and Ce(IV) oxides. The brush plated coatings on Al alloys improved corrosion resistance. The influence of plating parameters on structure and corrosion resistance of the cerium oxide based coating was studied.

  2. Single-Cylinder Engine Tests of Porous Chrome-Plated Cylinder Barrels with Special Bore Coatings for Radial Air-Cooled Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    1946-01-01

    sulphamate solution at room temperature having a hydrogen-ion concentration of 1.5. The cylinder was plated for 2 minutes with a current density of 40...for any metal combination (reference 3), engine friction may be reduced somewhat by the use of a silver overplate as a bearing material on the...Cooled Engines. NACA ARR No. E5L18, 1945. 3. Hoyt, Samuel L.: Metals and Alloys Data Book. Reinhold Pub. Corp., 1943, p. 281. 4. Downing, B. F

  3. Computer vision barrel inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, William J.; Gunderson, James; Walworth, Matthew E.

    1994-02-01

    One of the Department of Energy's (DOE) ongoing tasks is the storage and inspection of a large number of waste barrels containing a variety of hazardous substances. Martin Marietta is currently contracted to develop a robotic system -- the Intelligent Mobile Sensor System (IMSS) -- for the automatic monitoring and inspection of these barrels. The IMSS is a mobile robot with multiple sensors: video cameras, illuminators, laser ranging and barcode reader. We assisted Martin Marietta in this task, specifically in the development of image processing algorithms that recognize and classify the barrel labels. Our subsystem uses video images to detect and locate the barcode, so that the barcode reader can be pointed at the barcode.

  4. Development of glass resistive plate chambers for INO experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Datar, V.M. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India); Jena, Satyajit [Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai (India); Kalmani, S.D. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai (India); Mondal, N.K. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai (India)], E-mail: nkm@tifr.res.in; Nagaraj, P.; Reddy, L.V.; Saraf, M.; Satyanarayana, B.; Shinde, R.R.; Verma, P. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai (India)

    2009-05-01

    The India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) collaboration is planning to build a massive 50 kton magnetised Iron Calorimeter (ICAL) detector, to study atmospheric neutrinos and to make precision measurements of the parameters related to neutrino oscillations. Glass Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) of about 2 mx2 m in size are going to be used as active elements for the ICAL detector. We have fabricated a large number of glass RPC prototypes of 1 mx1 m in size and have studied their performance and long term stability. In the process, we have developed and produced a number of materials and components required for fabrication of RPCs. We have also designed and optimised a number of fabrication and quality control procedures for assembling the gas gaps. In this paper we will review our various activities towards development of glass RPCs for the INO ICAL detector. We will present results of the characterisation studies of the RPCs and discuss our plans to prototype 2 mx2 m sized RPCs.

  5. Ceramic resistive plate chambers for high rate environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laso Garcia, Alejandro; Kaspar, Marcus; Kaempfer, Burkhard; Kotte, Roland; Naumann, Lothar; Stach, Daniel; Wendisch, Christian; Wuestenfeld, Joern [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden, Sachsen (Germany); Collaboration: CBM-Collaboration

    2013-07-01

    The future Compressed Baryonic Matter Experiment to be built at FAIR is foreseen to use Resistive Plate Chambers as Time of Flight detectors. However, for the most central part of the ToF Wall high particle fluxes are expected, the simulations predict fluxes in the order of 2.10{sup 4} particles/cm{sup 2} s and even higher the closer the wall approaches the beampipe. This high fluxes show the need to develop new materials. At Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden Rossendorf, new semiconductor ceramic composites have been developed, several prototypes of RPCs with ceramic electrodes up to 20 x 20 cm{sup 2} have been developed and tested. In this talk, the performance of this detectors in electron (ELBE) and proton (COSY) beams is presented, as well as, the performance of this detectors under irradiation in Ni+Pb collisions at 1.9 AGeV (SIS18, GSI). This performance can be quantified as an efficiency close to 100% and a time resolution better than 100 ps.

  6. Nuclear reactor alignment plate configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altman, David A; Forsyth, David R; Smith, Richard E; Singleton, Norman R

    2014-01-28

    An alignment plate that is attached to a core barrel of a pressurized water reactor and fits within slots within a top plate of a lower core shroud and upper core plate to maintain lateral alignment of the reactor internals. The alignment plate is connected to the core barrel through two vertically-spaced dowel pins that extend from the outside surface of the core barrel through a reinforcement pad and into corresponding holes in the alignment plate. Additionally, threaded fasteners are inserted around the perimeter of the reinforcement pad and into the alignment plate to further secure the alignment plate to the core barrel. A fillet weld also is deposited around the perimeter of the reinforcement pad. To accomodate thermal growth between the alignment plate and the core barrel, a gap is left above, below and at both sides of one of the dowel pins in the alignment plate holes through with the dowel pins pass.

  7. SCT Barrel Assembly Complete

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Batchelor

    As reported in the April 2005 issue of the ATLAS eNews, the first of the four Semiconductor Tracker (SCT) barrels, complete with modules and services, arrived safely at CERN in January of 2005. In the months since January, the other three completed barrels arrived as well, and integration of the four barrels into the entire barrel assembly commenced at CERN, in the SR1 building on the ATLAS experimental site, in July. Assembly was completed on schedule in September, with the addition of the innermost layer to the 4-barrel assembly. Work is now underway to seal the barrel thermal enclosure. This is necessary in order to enclose the silicon tracker in a nitrogen atmosphere and provide it with faraday-cage protection, and is a delicate and complicated task: 352 silicon module powertapes, 352 readout-fibre bundles, and over 400 Detector Control System sensors must be carefully sealed into the thermal enclosure bulkhead. The team is currently verifying the integrity of the low mass cooling system, which must be d...

  8. Evaluation of Petrifilm™ Select E. coli Count Plate medium to discriminate antimicrobial resistant Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jensen Lars

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Screening and enumeration of antimicrobial resistant Escherichia coli directly from samples is needed to identify emerging resistant clones and obtain quantitative data for risk assessment. Aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of 3M™ Petrifilm™ Select E. coli Count Plate (SEC plate supplemented with antimicrobials to discriminate antimicrobial-resistant and non-resistant E. coli. Method A range of E. coli isolates were tested by agar dilution method comparing the Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC for eight antimicrobials obtained by Mueller-Hinton II agar, MacConkey agar and SEC plates. Kappa statistics was used to assess the levels of agreement when classifying strains as resistant, intermediate or susceptible. Results SEC plate showed that 74% of all strains agreed within ± 1 log2 dilution when comparing MICs with Mueller-Hinton II media. High agreement levels were found for gentamicin, ampicillin, chloramphenicol and cefotaxime, resulting in a kappa value of 0.9 and 100% agreement within ± 1 log2 dilution. Significant variances were observed for oxytetracycline and sulphamethoxazole. Further tests showed that the observed discrepancy in classification of susceptibility to oxytetracycline by the two media could be overcome when a plate-dependent breakpoint of 64 mg/L was used for SEC plates. For sulphamethoxazole, SEC plates provided unacceptably high MICs. Conclusion SEC plates showed good agreement with Mueller-Hinton II agar in MIC studies and can be used to screen and discriminate resistant E. coli for ampicillin, cephalothin, streptomycin, chloramphenicol, cefotaxime and gentamicin using CLSI standardized breakpoints, but not for sulphamethoxazole. SEC plates can also be used to discriminate oxytetracycline-resistant E. coli if a plate-dependent breakpoint value of 64 mg/L is used.

  9. TRT Barrel milestones passed

    CERN Multimedia

    Ogren, H

    2004-01-01

    The barrel TRT detector passed three significant milestones this spring. The Barrel Support Structure (BSS) was completed and moved to the SR-1 building on February 24th. On March 12th the first module passed the quality assurance testing in Building 154 and was transported to the assembly site in the SR-1 building for barrel assembly. Then on April 21st the final production module that had been scanned at Hampton University was shipped to CERN. TRT Barrel Module Production The production of the full complement of barrel modules (96 plus 9 total spares) is now complete. This has been a five-year effort by Duke University, Hampton University, and Indiana University. Actual construction of the modules in the United States was completed in the first part of 2004. The production crews at each of the sites in the United States have now completed their missions. They are shown in the following pictures. Duke University: Production crew with the final completed module. Indiana University: Module producti...

  10. Prototyping the PANDA Barrel DIRC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarz, C., E-mail: C.Schwarz@gsi.de [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Kalicy, G.; Dzhygadlo, R.; Gerhardt, A.; Götzen, K.; Hohler, R.; Kumawat, H.; Lehmann, D.; Lewandowski, B.; Patsyuk, M.; Peters, K.; Schepers, G.; Schmitt, L.; Schwiening, J.; Traxler, M.; Zühlsdorf, M. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Dodokhov, V.Kh. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Britting, A.; Eyrich, W.; Lehmann, A. [Friedrich Alexander-University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen (Germany); and others

    2014-12-01

    The design of the Barrel DIRC detector for the future PANDA experiment at FAIR contains several important improvements compared to the successful BABAR DIRC, such as focusing and fast timing. To test those improvements as well as other design options a prototype was build and successfully tested in 2012 with particle beams at CERN. The prototype comprises a radiator bar, focusing lens, mirror, and a prism shaped expansion volume made of synthetic fused silica. An array of micro-channel plate photomultiplier tubes measures the location and arrival time of the Cherenkov photons with sub-nanosecond resolution. The development of a fast reconstruction algorithm allowed to tune construction details of the detector setup with test beam data and Monte-Carlo simulations.

  11. Barrelled locally convex spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Pérez Carreras, P

    1987-01-01

    This book is a systematic treatment of barrelled spaces, and of structures in which barrelledness conditions are significant. It is a fairly self-contained study of the structural theory of those spaces, concentrating on the basic phenomena in the theory, and presenting a variety of functional-analytic techniques.Beginning with some basic and important results in different branches of Analysis, the volume deals with Baire spaces, presents a variety of techniques, and gives the necessary definitions, exploring conditions on discs to ensure that they are absorbed by the barrels of the sp

  12. The interfacial structure of plated copper alloy resistance spot welded joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jingwei; Zhai, Guofu; Chen, Qing; Wang, Jianqi; Ren, Gang

    2008-09-01

    Plated copper alloys are widely used in electron industry. The plating lay caused the farther decreasing of the welding property of copper alloys, whose intrinsic weldability was poor. In this paper, the bronze and brass specimens with nickel-tin double plating layer were joined by resistance spot welding method. The microstructure and peel strength of the joints were investigated. The experiment results show that a sandwich-like structure was obtained in the faying surface after welding, and the nickel plating layer thickness had severe effect on the reliability of the joints.

  13. The interfacial structure of plated copper alloy resistance spot welded joint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Jingwei [Xiamen Hongfa Electroacoustic Co., Ltd, 361021 Xiamen (China); Harbin Institute of Technology, 150001 Harbin (China)], E-mail: jingweiwu.hit@gmail.com; Zhai Guofu [Harbin Institute of Technology, 150001 Harbin (China); Chen Qing; Wang Jianqi; Ren Gang [Xiamen Hongfa Electroacoustic Co., Ltd, 361021 Xiamen (China)

    2008-09-15

    Plated copper alloys are widely used in electron industry. The plating lay caused the farther decreasing of the welding property of copper alloys, whose intrinsic weldability was poor. In this paper, the bronze and brass specimens with nickel-tin double plating layer were joined by resistance spot welding method. The microstructure and peel strength of the joints were investigated. The experiment results show that a sandwich-like structure was obtained in the faying surface after welding, and the nickel plating layer thickness had severe effect on the reliability of the joints.

  14. Magnetic performance and corrosion resistance of electroless plating CoWP film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The CoWP film with good magnetic performance and corrosion resistance was electrolessly plated from alkaline solution. The technical parameters of the electroless plating system were optimized. When the pH value of electroless plating solution was 11.0 and the reducing agent (NaH2PO2) content was 0.4 mol L 1, the target chemical reactions proceeded in the electroless plating solution smoothly with negligible interference and side effects. CoWP film prepared under optimal deposition condition contained more ...

  15. Test Beam results and integration of the ATLAS Level-1 Muon Barrel Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Bianco, M; Cataldi, G; Chiodini, G; Fiore, G; Gorini, E; Grancagnolo, F; Miccoli, A; Perrino, R; Primavera, M; Spagnolo, S; Tassielli, G F; Ventura, A; Aloisio, A; Alviggi, M G; Canale, V; Caprio, M A; Carlino, G; Conventi, F; De Asmundis, R; Della Pietra, M; Della Volpe, D; Iengo, P; Izzo, V; Migliaccio, A; Patricelli, S; Sekhniaidze, G; Bocci, V; Chiodi, G; Gennari, E; Nisati, A; Pasqualucci, E; Pastore, F; Petrolo, E; Vari, R; Veneziano, Stefano; Aielli, G; Camarri, P; Cardarelli, R; Delle Fratte, C; Di Ciaccio, A; Di Simone, A; Di Stante, L; Liberti, B; Salamon, A; Santonico, R; Solfaroli, E; Aprodu, V; Petcu, M; 2004 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium And Medical Imaging Conference

    2005-01-01

    The ATLAS Level-1 Muon Trigger will be crucial for the online selection of events with high transverse momentum muons and for its correct association to the bunch-crossing corresponding to the detected events. This system uses dedicated coarse granularity and fast detectors capable of providing measurements in two orthogonal projections. The Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) are used in the barrel region. The associated trigger electronics is based on a custom chip, the Coincidence Matrix, that performs space coincidences within programmable roads and time gates. The system is highly redundant and communicates with the ATLAS Level-1 trigger Processor with the MUCTPI Interface. The trigger electronics provides also the Readout of the RPCs. Preliminary results achieved with a full trigger tower with production detectors in the H8 test beam at CERN will be shown. In particular preliminary results on the integration of the barrel muon trigger electronics with the MUCTPI interface and with the ATLAS DAQ system will ...

  16. CMD-2 barrel calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aulchenko, V.M. (Budker Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)); Baibusinov, B.O. (Budker Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)); Bondar, A.E. (Budker Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)); Kuzmin, A.S. (Budker Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)); Leontiev, L.A. (Budker Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)); Okhapkin, V.S. (Budker Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)); Pestsov, L.V. (Budker Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)); Smakhtin, V.P. (Budker Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)); Sukhanov, A.I. (Budker Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)); Shwartz, B.A. (Budker Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation))

    1993-11-15

    The barrel calorimeter of the CMD-2 detector for the VEPP-2M collider is described. The calorimeter contains 892 CsI crystals read by PM tubes. Operation with it during the last year demonstrated good performance as well as energy and spatial resolution which are close to the corresponding project values. (orig.)

  17. A crystal barrel

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The production of crystals for the barrel of the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter has been completed. This is an important milestone for the experiment, which received the last of its 62,960 crystals on 9 March. The members of the team responsible for the crystal acceptance testing at CERN display the last crystal for the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter barrel. From left to right: Igor Tarasov, Etiennette Auffray and Hervé Cornet.One of the six machines specially developed to measure 67 different parameters on each crystal. Igor Tarasov is seen inserting the last batch of crystals into the machine. The last of the 62,960 CMS barrel crystals arrived at CERN on 9 March. Once removed from its polystyrene protection, this delicate crystal, like thousands of its predecessors, will be inserted into the last of the 36 supermodules of the barrel electromagnetic calorimeter in a few days' time. This marks the end of an important chapter in an almost 15-year-long journey by the CMS crystals team, some of whose member...

  18. The maximum bending moment resistance of plate girders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abspoel, R.

    2014-01-01

    In many steel structures like buildings, industrial halls and bridges, standard hot-rolled sections like IPE, HEA, HEB, HEM, HED and UNP in Europe and similar profiles in other regions of the world are used. The range of hot-rolled sections is limited and therefore fabricated plate girders are used

  19. ATLAS TRT barrel

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Video Productions

    2005-01-01

    On 3 February 2005, members of the US-TRT team proceeded to the installation of the last TRT barrel module for the Transition Radiation Tracker, which will be used for tracking in the Atlas detector. The TRT barrel is made of 96 modules containing around 52 000 4-mm straws, each of them equipped with a 20 microns sense wire. The modules were first designed at CERN, then built in the USA between 1996 and 2003. Duke, Hampton and Indiana Universities, tested in details at CERN between 2003 and 2005 by members of the US-TRT group, and mounted on the support structure in the SR-1 building where this video was taken. During assembly of the last module, one can see Kirill Egorov (PNPI, Gatchina, Russia), Chuck Mahlong (Hampton) as well as John Callahan and Pauline Gagnon (Indiana). (Written by Pauline Gagnon)

  20. Paying by the Barrel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Francis L.Sackitey; Ghana

    2012-01-01

    CHINA'S UNIPEC Asia Co. Ltd. will buy up the entire oil share from Ghana's Jubilee field for the next 15 years in a commercial agreement entered into by the government of Ghana. Under the agreement, the West African nation will be supplying China with 13,000 barrels of crude oil daily to pay for a $3 billion loan granted to Ghana by China under a Master Facility Agreement with the China Development Bank.

  1. Design and Analysis of Single Plate Blast Resistant Door

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilesh S. Aitavade

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Blast Resistant Doors are used to withstand high intensity impulsive blast loads. They are designed to prevent the impact of the blast from travelling from one side to the other side of the door. Taking into account the limitations and the growing need of efficient blast resistant doors, a design was developed using ASTM A36 as the material of construction instead of concrete. Analytical calculations for the actual pressure-impulse loading condition were done as per the UFC 3-340-02, and the results of analytical calculations were compared with results of the simulation of the numerical model for the given boundary conditions.

  2. Latest results on the performance of the multigap resistive plate chamber used for the ALICE TOF

    CERN Document Server

    Akindinov, A; Anselmo, F; Antonioli, P; Basile, M; Cara Romeo, G; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, F; Cosenza, F; D'Antone, I; De Caro, A; De Pasquale, S; Di Bartolomeo, A; Fusco-Girard, M; Golovine, V; Guerzoni, M; Guida, M; Hatzifotiadou, D; Kaidalov, A B; Kim, D H; Kim, D W; Kisselev, S M; Laurenti, G; Lioublev, E; Lee, K; Lee, S C; Luvisetto, M L; Margotti, A; Martemyanov, A N; Massera, F; Meneghini, S; Michinelli, R; Nania, R; Otiougova, P; Pancaldi, G; Pesci, A; Pilastrini, R; Pinazza, O; Polozov, P A; Rizzi, M; Scapparone, E; Scioli, G; Sellitto, S B; Semeria, F; Serra, S; Smirnitsky, A V; Tchoumakov, M M; Ugolini, E; Usenko, E; Valenti, G; Voloshin, K G; Williams, M C S; Zagreev, B V; Zampolli, C; Zichichi, A; Zucchini, A; Zuffa, M

    2004-01-01

    For the identification of particles in the momentum range 0.5-2.5 GeV /c, the ALICE experiment uses a Time Of Flight array consisting of Multigap Resistive Plate Chambers (MRPC) in the form of long strips. The design of the detector elements is as follows: double stack MRPCs with glass resistive plates and 5 gas gaps of 250 mum per stack. The latest results on the performance of these MRPCs are presented. Typical values of time resolution sigma are better than 50 ps, with an efficiency of 99.9% and a long, more than 1.5kV, streamer-free plateau.

  3. Development of a Resistive Plate Chamber with heat strengthened glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumder, G.; Datar, V. M.; Kalmani, S. D.; Mondal, N. K.; Mondal, S.; Satyanarayana, B.; Shinde, R. R.

    2016-09-01

    The INO-ICAL is a proposed neutrino physics experiment, in which RPCs will be used as active detectors. The Iron Calorimeter (ICAL) detector will be made of 50 kTon of low carbon magnetized steel layers, tiled with 4 m × 2 m × 56 mm thick plates, alternating with layers of RPCs. The total number of 2 × 2 m2 RPCs required will be about 29000. However, during the assembly of RPCs, handling the 2 × 2 m2 normal float glass of thickness 3 mm is both difficult and risky. This prompted us to make RPCs with toughened glass and to characterize them. Toughened and tempered glass have higher mechanical strength compared to normal float glass and their processing involves controlled thermal or chemical treatment during the industrial production. This paper presents a comparison of the characteristics, such as noise rate, dark current, particle detection efficiency and time resolution, of normal and hardened glass RPCs.

  4. Radiation-hard ceramic Resistive Plate Chambers for forward TOF and T0 systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akindinov, A.; Dreyer, J.; Fan, X.; Kämpfer, B.; Kiselev, S.; Kotte, R.; Garcia, A. Laso; Malkevich, D.; Naumann, L.; Nedosekin, A.; Plotnikov, V.; Stach, D.; Sultanov, R.; Voloshin, K.

    2017-02-01

    Resistive Plate Chambers with ceramic electrodes are the main candidates for a use in precise multi-channel timing systems operating in high-radiation conditions. We report the latest R&D results on these detectors aimed to meet the requirements of the forward T0 counter at the CBM experiment. RPC design, gas mixture, limits on the bulk resistivity of ceramic electrodes, efficiency, time resolution, counting rate capabilities and ageing test results are presented.

  5. Corrosion resistance of Mg-Mn-Ce magnesium alloy modified by polymer plating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Polymeric nano-film on the surface of Mg-Mn-Ce magnesium alloy was fabricated by polymer plating of 6-dihexylamino-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-dithiol monosodium(DHN)to improve its corrosion resistance.The electrochemical reaction process was analyzed by cyclic voltammetry and two obvious peaks of oxidation reaction were observed.The static contact angle of distilled water on polymer-plated surface can be up to 106.3°while on the blank surface it is 45.8°.Potentiodynamic polarization results show that the polymeric film Can increase the corrosion potential from-1.594 V VS SCE for blank to-0.382 V VS SCE.The results of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy indicate that the charge transfer resistances of blank and polymer-plated fabricating hydrophobic film on Mg-Mn-Ce alloy surface and improving its anti-corrosion property.

  6. The Muon Spectrometer Barrel Level-1 Trigger of the ATLAS Experiment at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Aloisio, A; Conventi, F; De Asmundis, R; Izzo, V; Migliaccio, A; Ciapetti, G; Di Mattia, A; Luci, C; Luminari, L; Nisati, A; Pastore, F; Petrolo, E; Vari, R; Veneziano, Stefano; Salamon, A

    2006-01-01

    The proton-proton beam crossing at the LHC accelerator at CERN will have a rate of 40 MHz at the project luminosity. The ATLAS Trigger System has been designed in three levels in order to select only interesting physics events reducing from that rate of 40 MHz to the foreseen storage rate of about 200 Hz. The First Level reduces the output rate to about 100 kHz. The ATLAS Muon Spectrometer has been designed to perform stand-alone triggering and measurement of muon transverse momentum up to 1 TeV/c with good resolution (from 3% at 10 GeV/c up to 10% at 1 TeV/c). In the Barrel region of the Muon Spectrometer the Level-1 trigger is given by means of three layers of Resistive Plate Chamber detectors (RPC): a gaseous detector working in avalanche mode composed by two plates of high-resistivity bakelite and two orthogonal planes of read-out strips. The logic of the Level-1 barrel muon trigger is based on the search of patterns of RPC hits in the three layers consistent with a high transverse momentum muon track ori...

  7. Upgrade of the CMS muon trigger system in the barrel region

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2080489; Flouris, Gianis; Fulcher, Jonathan; Loukas, Nikitas; Paradas, Evangelos; Reis,Thomas; Sakulin, Hannes; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    To maintain the excellent performance shown during the LHCs Run-1 the Level-1 Trigger of the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment underwent a significant upgrade. One part of this upgrade is the re-organization of the muon trigger path from a subsystem-centric view in which hits in the drift tubes (DT), the cathode strip chambers (CSC), and the resistive plate chambers (RPC) were treated separately in dedicated track-finding systems to one in which complementary detector systems for a given region (barrel, overlap, and endcap) are merged at the track-finding level. This fundamental restructuring of the muon trigger system required the development of a system to receive track candidates from the track-finding layer, remove potential duplicate tracks, and forward the best candidates to the global decision layer.An overview will be given of the new track-finder system for the barrel region, the Barrel Muon Track Finder (BMTF) as well as the cancel-out and sorting layer, the upgraded Global Muon Trigger ($\\mu$GMT). B...

  8. Upgrade of the CMS muon trigger system in the barrel region

    CERN Document Server

    Battilana, Carlo; Codispoti, Giuseppe; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Ero, Janos; Flouris, Giannis; Fountas, Konstantinos; Fulcher, Jonathan Richard; Guiducci, Luigi; Loukas, Nikitas; Mallios, Stavros; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Paradas, Evangelos; Rabady, Dinyar Sebastian; Reis, Thomas; Sakulin, Hannes; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Triossi, Andrea; Venturi, Andrea; Wulz, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    To maintain the excellent performance of the LHC during its Run-1 also in Run-2, the Level-1 Trigger of the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment underwent a significant upgrade. One part of this upgrade was the re-organisation of the muon trigger path from a subsystem-centric view in which hits in the drift tubes, the cathode strip chambers, and the resistive plate chambers were treated separately in dedicated track-finding systems, to one in which complementary detector systems for a given region (barrel, overlap, and endcap) are merged already at the track-finding level. This also required the development of a new system to sort as well as cancel-out the muon tracks found by each system. An overview will be given of the new track-finder system for the barrel region, the Barrel Muon Track Finder (BMTF) as well as the cancel-out and sorting layer, the upgraded Global Muon Trigger ($\\mu$GMT). While the BMTF improves on the proven and well-tested algorithms used in the Drift Tube Track Finder during Run-1, the $\\m...

  9. Variant M4 Barrel Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    in the button broached barrels. 6. Acknowledgments The authors are pleased to acknowledge the sample preparation provided by Mrs. A. Welty , RDAR...Rickard, C., & Welty , A. (2007). Comparison of electroplated chromium coatings applied to M4 and M16 barrels. US Army-ARDEC. 3) Smith, S. B., & Rickard

  10. PLATE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kling, Joyce; Hjulmand, Lise-Lotte

    2008-01-01

    Copenhagen Business School (CBS) finds itself needing to address the issue of English-medium instruction for its increasing number of foreign exchange and full degree students. With internationalisation as a main pillar of the institution’s agenda, there are concerns whether the teaching faculty......’s level of English is sufficient for the increasing number of courses offered in English each semester. This paper addresses these concerns and describes a pilot project initiated in 2003 at CBS to gauge the overall English language proficiency of those teaching content courses in English. Through...... the Project in Language Assessment for Teaching in English (PLATE) language professionals from CBS’s Language Center observe teachers and provide feedback using evaluation criteria from the Common European Framework for Reference (CEFR) supplemented by some additional criteria which take the LSP nature...

  11. Cavitation-erosion resistance of arc ion-plated (Ti, Cr) N coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The cavitation-erosion behavior of (Ti,Cr)N multi-component coatings produced by arcion-plating on grey cast iron was studied by using an ultrasonic cavitation -erosion testing appara-tus and scanning electron microscopy. The test results indicated that surface roughness of thesubstrate, surface morphology of the coating, substrate bias voltage and the thickness of the coat-ing had certain influence on the erosion rate. Arc ion-plated (Ti,Cr)N multi-component coatingsshowed better cavitation -erosion resistance than single component coatings because of highermicrohardness and good adhesion.

  12. On Free Vibrations of Orthotropic Plates in the Presence of Viscous Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aghalovyan L.A.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The three-dimensional problem of elasticity theory of the free vibrations of orthotropic plates in the presence of viscous resistance, on the facial plane of which mixed-boundary conditions of elasticity theory are given is considered. By the asymptotic method it is shown that 3 groups of free vibrations, 2 groups of shearing and 1 group of longitudinal free vibrations are appeared. The stress-deformed states, principal values of frequencies and the forms of natural vibrations of plates relevant to 3 groups of free vibrations are determined.

  13. Effects of gold plating on the resistance to high temperature discoloration of the cavity for ceramic packages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhanhua Wang; Zhuoshen Shen; Daobin Mu

    2004-01-01

    The effects of thickness and types of gold plating on the resistance to high temperature discoloration of gold plating on cavity surface of ceramic package were investigated. It was found that the thicker gold plating, the less discoloration degree for ceramic packages. Non-cyanide gold plating performed better resistance to high-temperature aging than cyanide gold plating. The relationship between the gold plating thickness and the amount of diffused Ni to the gold plating of ceramic packages with Au/Ni and Au/Ni-Co platings after heating at 420℃ for 15 min was also studied. When the gold plating thickness reach 2.0 μm and 1.6 μm for Au/Ni and Au/Ni-Co plating systems, respectively, no discoloration was observed on the gold plating surface of cavity, and the corresponding diffused Ni amounts (mass fraction) are 1.0% and 0.4%, while the diffused Co to the gold plating is 0.04%.

  14. Selection of antibiotic-resistant standard plate count bacteria during water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, J L; Calomiris, J J; Seidler, R J

    1982-08-01

    Standard plate count (SPC) bacteria were isolated from a drinking-water treatment facility and from the river supplying the facility. All isolates were identified and tested for their resistance to six antibiotics to determine if drug-resistant bacteria were selected for as a consequence of water treatment. Among the isolates surviving our test procedures, there was a significant selection (P less than 0.05) of gram-negative SPC organisms resistant to two or more of the test antibiotics. These bacteria were isolated from the flash mix tank, where chlorine, alum, and lime are added to the water. Streptomycin resistance in particular was more frequent in this population as compared with bacteria in the untreated river water (P less than 0.01). SPC bacteria from the clear well, which is a tank holding the finished drinking water at the treatment facility, were also more frequently antibiotic resistant than were the respective river water populations. When 15.8 and 18.2% of the river water bacteria were multiply antibiotic resistant, 57.1 and 43.5%, respectively, of the SPC bacteria in the clear well were multiply antibiotic resistant. Selection for bacteria exhibiting resistance to streptomycin was achieved by chlorinating river water in the laboratory. We concluded that the selective factors operating in the aquatic environment of a water treatment facility can act to increase the proportion of antibiotic-resistant members of the SPC bacterial population in treated drinking water.

  15. Enhanced microwave absorbing properties and heat resistance of carbonyl iron by electroless plating Co

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hongyu, E-mail: wanghongyu07010310@163.com; Zhu, Dongmei; Zhou, Wancheng; Luo, Fa

    2015-11-01

    Co coated carbonyl iron particles (Co (CI)) are fabricated through electroless plating method, and the electromagnetic microwave absorbing properties are investigated in the frequencies during 8.2–12.4 GHz. The complex permittivity of CI particles after electroless plating Co is higher than that of raw CI particles due to improvment of the polarization process. Furthermore, according to the XRD and TG results, the Co layer can enhance the heat resistance of CI particles. The bandwidth below −10 dB can reach 3.9 GHz for the Co(CI) absorbent. The results indicate that the electroless plating Co not only enhances the absorbing properties but also improves the heat resistance of CI. - Highlights: • The Co-coated carbonyl iron Co(CI) particles were prepared by electroless plating. • The electromagnetic wave absorbing properties of Co(CI) particles were studied. • The heat treatment on the absorbing property of Co(CI) particles was studied. • The Co(CI) particles have good absorbing property when compared with CI.

  16. FLOW RESISTANCE AND HEAT TRANSFER CHARACTERISTICS OF A NEW-TYPE PLATE HEAT EXCHANGER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUAN Zhi-jian; ZHANG Guan-min; TIAN Mao-cheng; FAN Ming-xiu

    2008-01-01

    A new-type corrugation Plate Heat Exchanger (PHE) was designed. Results from both numerical simulations and experiments showed that the flow resistance of the working fluid in this new corrugation PHE, compared with the traditional chevron-type one, was decreased by more than 50%, and corresponding heat transfer performance was decreased by about 25%. The flow field of the working fluid in the corrugation PHE was transformed and hence performance difference in both flow resistance and heat transfer was generated. Such a novel plate, consisting of longitudinal and transverse corrugations, can effectively avoid the problem of flow path blockage, which will help to extend the application of PHEs to the situation with unclean working fluids.

  17. Electroless Plating of Ni-Fe-P Alloy and Corrosion Resistance of the Deposit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Senlin WANG

    2005-01-01

    Electroless Ni-Fe-P alloys in an alkaline bath were plated. Theeffects of deposition parameters on the plating rate and the coating composition were examined. The weight loss test and the anodic polarization measurement of the deposits in 3.5 wt pct NaCl solution (pH7.0) showed that the deposits with the mole ratio of NiSO4/FeSO4 being 0.07:0.03, pH8.0 and 7.5 possess better corrosion resistance than that of the other deposits and the Ni-Fe-P deposits did not form passive films in this environment. In 5.0 wt pct NaOH solution, the Ni-Fe-P deposits have better corrosion resistance and formed passive films.

  18. In-beam evaluation of a medium-size Resistive-Plate WELL gaseous particle detector

    CERN Document Server

    Moleri, L

    2016-01-01

    In-beam evaluation of a fully-equipped medium-size 30$\\times$30 cm$^2$ Resistive Plate WELL (RPWELL) detector is presented. It consists here of a single element gas-avalanche multiplier with Semitron ESD225 resistive plate, 1 cm$^2$ readout pads and APV25/SRS electronics. Similarly to previous results with small detector prototypes, stable operation at high detection efficiency (>98%) and low average pad multiplicity (~1.2) were recorded with 150 GeV muon and high-rate pion beams, in Ne/(5%CH$_4$), Ar/(5%CH$_4$) and Ar/(7%CO$_2$). This is an important step towards the realization of robust detectors suitable for applications requiring large-area coverage; among them Digital Hadron Calorimetry.

  19. In-beam evaluation of a medium-size Resistive-Plate WELL gaseous particle detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moleri, L.; Amaro, F. D.; Arazi, L.; Azevedo, C. D. R.; Breskin, A.; Coimbra, A. E. C.; Oliveri, E.; Pereira, F. A.; Shaked Renous, D.; Schaarschmidt, J.; dos Santos, J. M. F.; Veloso, J. F. C. A.; Bressler, S.

    2016-09-01

    In-beam evaluation of a fully-equipped medium-size 30 × 30 cm2 Resistive Plate WELL (RPWELL) detector is presented. It consists here of a single element gas-avalanche multiplier with Semitron ESD225 resistive plate, 1 cm2 readout pads and APV25/SRS electronics. Similarly to previous results with small detector prototypes, stable operation at high detection efficiency (> 98%) and low average pad multiplicity (~ 1.2) were recorded with 150 GeV muon and high-rate pion beams, in Ne/(5%CH4), Ar/(5%CH4) and Ar/(7%CO2). This is an important step towards the realization of robust detectors suitable for applications requiring large-area coverage; among them Digital Hadron Calorimetry.

  20. Effects of variation of environmental parameters on the performance of Resistive Plate Chamber detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meghna, K.K. [INO Graduate Training Programme and Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata 700064 (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Mumbai 400085 (India); Biswas, S. [School of Physical Sciences, National Institute of Science Education and Research, Bhubaneswar 751005 (India); Jash, A. [INO Graduate Training Programme and Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata 700064 (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Mumbai 400085 (India); Chattopadhyay, S. [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Kolkata 700064 (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Mumbai 400085 (India); Saha, S., E-mail: satyajit.saha@saha.ac.in [Applied Nuclear Physics Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata 700064 (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2016-04-21

    Performance of single gap Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC) detectors is investigated under variation of environmental parameters, such as temperature and relative humidity. Operational characteristics of the RPCs depend on both the environmental temperature and the relative humidity. Sensitivity to such dependence is found to be more on temperature rather than the relative humidity. Qualitative interpretation of some of the results obtained is given based on the known properties of the electrode materials and gases used in the detectors. - Highlights: • Performance of single gap bakelite Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC) detectors is investigated under independent variation of environmental temperature and relative humidity. • Parameters such as leakage currents, noise rates, efficiency and timing characteristics of RPCs are investigated. • Operational characteristics of the RPCs depend on both the environmental temperature and the relative humidity. • Sensitivity of the operational parameters to variation of environmental parameters is found to be more on temperature rather than the relative humidity.

  1. Recent experimental results and developments on the resistive plate chambers for the CMS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Altieri, S; Bruno, G; Guida, R; Merlo, M; Ratti, S P; Riccardi, C; Torre, P; Vitulo, P; Abbrescia, M; Colaleo, A; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Loddo, F; Maggi, M; Marangelli, B; Natali, S; Nuzzo, S; Pugliese, G; Ranieri, A; Romano, F

    2001-01-01

    Resistive plate chambers (RPC) have been chosen as dedicated trigger detectors for the CMS experiment at the LHC. The expected severe operating conditions have required an intense research and development activity on these detectors over the past years. Experimental results on overall performance of large chambers, rate capability, ageing and photon sensitivity are reviewed. In all of these tests the detector has proven to achieve good enough performance for successful use at the LHC. (6 refs).

  2. Studies on fast timing and high precision tracking performance of Resistive Plate Chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Han, L; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    Resistive plate chambers (RPC), produced in large scales, are widely used as trigger detectors with O(ns) time resolution in high energy and high intensity experiments. To confront the future high experimental frontiers, such as the super-LHC, RPCs equipped with fine-pitch readout strips were tested with 180GeV/c muon at CERN SPS H8 beam line, to assess the viability of using RPCs for both fast timing and high precision tracking trigger.

  3. Operation of the multigap resistive plate chamber using a gas mixture free of flammable components

    CERN Document Server

    Akindinov, A; Antonioli, P; Arcelli, S; Basile, M; Cara Romeo, G; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, F; De Caro, A; De Pasquale, S; Di Bartolomeo, A; Fusco-Girard, M; Golovine, V; Guida, M; Hatzifotiadou, D; Kaidalov, A B; Kim, D H; Kim, D W; Kisselev, S M; Laurenti, G; Lee, K; Lee, S C; Lioublev, E; Luvisetto, M L; Margotti, A; Martemyanov, A N; Nania, R; Noferini, F; Otiougova, P; Pesci, A; Pinazza, O; Polozov, P A; Scapparone, E; Scioli, G; Sellitto, S B; Semeria, F; Smirnitsky, A V; Tchoumakov, M M; Usenko, E; Valenti, G; Voloshin, K G; Williams, M C S; Zagreev, B V; Zampolli, C; Zichichi, A

    2004-01-01

    We have investigated the operation of the multigap resistive plate chamber (MRPC) for the ALICE-TOF system with a gas mixture free of flammable components. Two different gas mixtures, with and without iso-C//4H//1//0 have been used to measure the performance of the MRPC. The efficiency, time resolution, total charge, and the fast to total charge ratio have been found to be comparable.

  4. The multigap resistive plate chamber as a time-of-flight detector

    CERN Document Server

    Akindinov, A; Basile, M; Cerron-Zeballos, E; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, F; Choi, J; Cozzoni, B; De Caro, A; De Pasquale, S; Kim, D W; Kim, N Y; Klempt, W; Kluge, A; Laurenti, G; Lee, S C; Golovine, V; Hatzifotiadou, D; Martemyanov, A N; Martinengo, P; Pesci, A; Platner, E D; Roberts, J; Seganti, A; Semak, A A; Smirnitsky, A V; Spegel, M; Szymanski, P; Valenti, G; Vicinanza, D; Williams, M C S; Zichichi, A

    2000-01-01

    The goal of this R&D has been to reach the time resolution needed for time-of-flight detectors using the Multigap Resistive Plate Chamber (MRPC). We present here a MRPC with a time resolution of 70 ps. This prototype has been studied within the R&D program for the very large area TOF array of the ALICE experiment at the CERN LHC. (5 refs).

  5. The PANDA Barrel DIRC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhygadlo, R.; Schwarz, C.; Belias, A.; Gerhardt, A.; Götzen, K.; Kalicy, G.; Krebs, M.; Lehmann, D.; Nerling, F.; Patsyuk, M.; Peters, K.; Schepers, G.; Schmitt, L.; Schwiening, J.; Traxler, M.; Zühlsdorf, M.; Britting, A.; Eyrich, W.; Lehmann, A.; Pfaffinger, M.; Uhlig, F.; Düren, M.; Etzelmüller, E.; Föhl, K.; Hayrapetyan, A.; Kröck, B.; Merle, O.; Rieke, J.; Schmidt, M.; Cowie, E.; Keri, T.; Achenbach, P.; Cardinali, M.; Hoek, M.; Lauth, W.; Schlimme, S.; Sfienti, C.; Thiel, M.

    2016-05-01

    The PANDA detector at the international accelerator Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research in Europe (FAIR) addresses fundamental questions of hadron physics. Experiments concerning charmonium spectroscopy, the search for hybrids and glueballs and the interaction of hidden and open charm particles with nucleons and nuclei will be performed with antiproton beams impinging on hydrogen or nuclear targets. Cooled beams allow the precision scan of resonances in formation experiments. The momentum range of the antiproton beam between 1.5 GeV/c and 15 GeV/c tests predictions by perturbation theory and will reveal deviations originating from strong QCD . An excellent hadronic particle identification will be accomplished by DIRC (Detection of Internally Reflected Cherenkov light) counters. The design for the barrel region is based on the successful BaBar DIRC with several key improvements, such as fast photon timing and a compact imaging region. DIRC designs based on different radiator geometries with several focusing options were studied in simulation. The performance of each design was characterized in terms of photon yield and single photon Cherenkov angle resolution. Selected design options were implemented in prototypes and tested with hadronic particle beams at GSI and CERN.

  6. Surface treatment to improve corrosion resistance of A1 plate heat exchangers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jong-Soon KIM; Tae-Ho KANG; In-Kwan KIM

    2009-01-01

    The correlations between thermal and physical properties were studied through thermal conductivity measurements, hardness tests, salt spray tests (AASS) among the surface treatment samples named K20, K40 with thickness of 20, 40 μm respectively and raw sample named K00. In thermal conductivity measurements, there are little differences among the samples as K00, K20 and K40, they exhibit 153.39, 150.69 and 149.76 W/(m·K), respectively. According to hardness tests, K00, K20 and K40 exhibit 87.9, 259.7 and 344.8 in Vickers values. In the result of salt spray tests to examine the effects on corrosion resistance, K00, K20 and K40 exhibit the grade of 3-5, 2.0-9.8 and 10, respectively. The mutual relation of the above results was analyzed. It is found that the surface treatments do not affect the thermal conductivity of aluminum and result in the improvement of physical properties. As a result of the technology, the surface improvement of aluminum alloy specimen is achieved without thermal degradation. It validates the ability of the aluminum plate heat exchangers with surface treatment to enhance the corrosion resistance. Present work is performed as the first fundamental threshold in the process of aluminum plate heat exchangers development to check out its possibility, therefore the next step-experimental and numerical study of practical aluminum plate heat exchangers will be made.

  7. Fabrication and Characterisation of Oil-Free Large Bakelite Resistive Plate Chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Ganai, Rajesh; Agarwal, Kshitij; Ahammed, Zubayer; Choudhury, Subikash; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis

    2015-01-01

    A large (240 cm $\\times$ 120 cm $\\times$ 0.2 cm) oil-free bakelite Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC) has been developed at VECC-Kolkata using locally available P-301 OLTC grade bakelite paper laminates. The chamber has been operated in streamer mode using Argon, Freon(R134a) and Iso-butane in a ratio of 34:57:9 by volume. The electrodes and glue samples were characterised by measuring their electrical parameters like bulk resistivity and surface resistivity. The performance of the chamber was studied by measuring the efficiency, time resolution and uniformity in detection of cosmic muons. The chamber showed an efficiency $>$95$\\%$ and time resolution ($\\sigma$) of $\\sim$0.83 ns. Details of the material characterisation, fabrication procedure and performance studies have been discussed.

  8. First joint test beam of CMS Drift Tubes (DT) and Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC)

    CERN Multimedia

    Paolo Giacomelli

    2001-01-01

    The first full size muon drift tube chamber ever built for the CMS barrel with the final cell design (constructed at CIEMAT, Madrid) was succesfully tested with a muon beam in September 2001 at the Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF) at CERN. For the first time also both muon detectors for the CMS barrel (DT + RPC) were coupled together. The results of this test were fully succesful and confirmed the excellent performance of both detectors together in a radiation environment.

  9. Optimizing the position resolution of a Z-stack microchannel plate resistive anode detector for low intensity signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, B. B.; Richardson, E.; Siwal, D.; Hudan, S.; deSouza, R. T.

    2015-08-01

    A method for achieving good position resolution of low-intensity electron signals using a microchannel plate resistive anode detector is demonstrated. Electron events at a rate of 7 counts s-1 are detected using a Z-stack microchannel plate. The dependence of position resolution on both the distance and the potential difference between the microchannel plate and resistive anode is investigated. Using standard commercial electronics, a measured position resolution of 170 μm (FWHM) is obtained, which corresponds to an intrinsic resolution of 157 μm (FWHM).

  10. Optimizing the position resolution of a Z-stack microchannel plate resistive anode detector for low intensity signals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiggins, B. B.; Richardson, E.; Siwal, D.; Hudan, S.; Souza, R. T. de, E-mail: desouza@indiana.edu [Department of Chemistry and Center for Exploration of Energy and Matter, Indiana University, 2401 N. Milo B. Sampson Ln., Bloomington, Indiana 47408 (United States)

    2015-08-15

    A method for achieving good position resolution of low-intensity electron signals using a microchannel plate resistive anode detector is demonstrated. Electron events at a rate of 7 counts s{sup −1} are detected using a Z-stack microchannel plate. The dependence of position resolution on both the distance and the potential difference between the microchannel plate and resistive anode is investigated. Using standard commercial electronics, a measured position resolution of 170 μm (FWHM) is obtained, which corresponds to an intrinsic resolution of 157 μm (FWHM)

  11. Optimizing the position resolution of a Z-stack microchannel plate resistive anode detector for low intensity signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, B B; Richardson, E; Siwal, D; Hudan, S; deSouza, R T

    2015-08-01

    A method for achieving good position resolution of low-intensity electron signals using a microchannel plate resistive anode detector is demonstrated. Electron events at a rate of 7 counts s(-1) are detected using a Z-stack microchannel plate. The dependence of position resolution on both the distance and the potential difference between the microchannel plate and resistive anode is investigated. Using standard commercial electronics, a measured position resolution of 170 μm (FWHM) is obtained, which corresponds to an intrinsic resolution of 157 μm (FWHM).

  12. OSIRIS camera barrel optomechanical design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farah, Alejandro; Tejada, Carlos; Gonzalez, Jesus; Cobos, Francisco J.; Sanchez, Beatriz; Fuentes, Javier; Ruiz, Elfego

    2004-09-01

    A Camera Barrel, located in the OSIRIS imager/spectrograph for the Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC), is described in this article. The barrel design has been developed by the Institute for Astronomy of the University of Mexico (IA-UNAM), in collaboration with the Institute for Astrophysics of Canarias (IAC), Spain. The barrel is being manufactured by the Engineering Center for Industrial Development (CIDESI) at Queretaro, Mexico. The Camera Barrel includes a set of eight lenses (three doublets and two singlets), with their respective supports and cells, as well as two subsystems: the Focusing Unit, which is a mechanism that modifies the first doublet relative position; and the Passive Displacement Unit (PDU), which uses the third doublet as thermal compensator to maintain the camera focal length and image quality when the ambient temperature changes. This article includes a brief description of the scientific instrument; describes the design criteria related with performance justification; and summarizes the specifications related with misalignment errors and generated stresses. The Camera Barrel components are described and analytical calculations, FEA simulations and error budgets are also included.

  13. A multigap resistive plate chamber array for the Extreme Energy Events project

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Gruttola, D.; Abbrescia, M.; Agocs, A.; Aiola, S.; Antolini, R.; Avanzini, C.; Baldini Ferroli, R.; Bencivenni, G.; Bossini, E.; Bressan, E.; Chiavassa, A.; Cicalò, C.; Cifarelli, L.; Coccia, E.; De Pasquale, S.; Di Giovanni, A.; D'Incecco, M.; Dreucci, M.; Fabbri, F. L.; Frolov, V.; Garbini, M.; Gemme, G.; Gnesi, I.; Gustavino, C.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; La Rocca, P.; Li, S.; Librizzi, F.; Maggiora, A.; Massai, M.; Miozzi, S.; Panareo, M.; Paoletti, R.; Perasso, L.; Pilo, F.; Piragino, G.; Regano, A.; Riggi, F.; Righini, G. C.; Sartorelli, G.; Scapparone, E.; Scribano, A.; Selvi, M.; Serci, S.; Siddi, E.; Spandre, G.; Squarcia, S.; Taiuti, M.; Tosello, F.; Votano, L.; Williams, M. C. S.; Yanez, G.; Zichichi, A.; Zouyevski, R.

    2014-10-01

    The Extreme Energy Events (EEE) Project is a Centro Fermi - CERN - INFN - MIUR Collaboration Project for the study of extremely high energy cosmic rays, which exploits the Multigap Resistive Plate Chamber (MRPC) technology. The excellent time resolution and good tracking capability of this kind of detector allows us to study Extensive Air Showers (EAS) with an array of MRPC telescopes distributed across the Italian territory. Each telescope is installed in a high school, with the further goal to introduce students to particle and astroparticle Physics. The status of the experiment and the results obtained are reported.

  14. Test and characterization of multigap resistive plate chambers for the EEE project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossini, E.; EEE Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    The Extreme Energy Events project is based on the deployment of cosmic-ray telescopes in Italian high schools with the active contribution of students and teachers. Each telescope is made by three Multigap Resistive Plate Chambers readout by strips. With around 50 telescopes already built and others under construction, specific systems to test and characterize the chambers are needed. In this article I will present a flexible and software-configurable solution to perform chamber efficiency studies with a set of scintillators and hardware to automatically scan detector strips to identify electrical issues. Both systems can provide accurate information but at the same time they can be easily operated by students.

  15. GEANT4 simulation of gamma ray in a double-gap resistive plate chamber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J. T. Rhee; M. Jamil; Steve Hall; Y. J. Jeon

    2006-01-01

    For more than 20 years nuclear physicists have used the GEANT code to simulate particle-matter interaction. In most recent version, GEANT4 is a toolkit for simulating the passage of particles though matter, which contains a complete range of functionality including tracking, geometry, physics models, and hits. In this article, an attempt to use GEANT4 to model a double-gap resistive plate chamber (RFC) with its improved efficiency is presented. The efficiencies of the double-gap RFC have been evaluated as a function of gamma energy range 0.005-1OOOMeV. A comparison to available previous simulation package GEANT3 data is also performed.

  16. The EEE Project: Cosmic rays, multigap resistive plate chambers and high school students

    CERN Document Server

    Abbrescia, M.; Antolini, R; Avanzini, C; Baldini Ferroli, R; Bencivenni, G; Bossini, E; Bressan, E; Chiavassa, A; Cicalo, C; Cifarelli, L; Coccia, E; De Gruttula, D; De Pasquale, S; Di Giovanni, A; D'Incecco, M; Doroud, K; Dreucci, M; Fabbri, FL; Frolov, V; Garbini, M; Gemme, G; Gnesi, I; Gustavino, C; Hatzifotiadu, D; La Rocca, P; Li, S; Moro, R; Miozzi, S; Massai, M; Maggiora, A; Librizzi, F; Piragino, G; Pilo, F; Perasso, L; Paoletti, R; Righini, GC; Scapparone, E; Sartorelli, G; Romano, F; Serci, S; Selvi, M; Scribano, A; Riggi, F; Regano, A; Squarcia, S; Spandre, G; Toselli, F; Taiuti, M; Zichichi, A; Zouyevski, R; Williams, MCS; Votano, L; Siddi, E; Panareo, M

    2012-01-01

    The Gas Gain Monitoring (GGM) system of the Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC) muon detector in the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment provides fast and accurate determination of the stability in the working point conditions due to gas mixture changes in the closed loop recirculation system. In 2011 the GGM began to operate using a feedback algorithm to control the applied voltage, in order to keep the GGM response insensitive to environmental temperature and atmospheric pressure variations. Recent results are presented on the feedback method used and on alternative algorithms.

  17. Comparison of CMS Resistive Plate Chambers performance during LHC RUN-1 and RUN-2

    CERN Document Server

    Shah, Mehar Ali

    2016-01-01

    The Resistive Plate Chambers detector system at the CMS experiment at the LHC provides robustness and redundancy to the muon trigger. A total of 1056 double-gap chambers cover the pseudo-rapidity region < 1.6. The main detector parameters and environmental conditions are constantly and closely monitored to achieve operational stability and high quality data in the harsh conditions of the second run period of the LHC with center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV. First results of overall detector stability with 2015 data and comparisons with data from the LHC RUN-1 period at 8 TeV are presented.

  18. Comparison of CMS Resistive Plate Chambers performance during LHC RUN-1 and RUN-2

    CERN Document Server

    Shah, Mehar Ali

    2016-01-01

    The Resistive Plate Chambers detector system at the CMS experiment at the LHC provides robustness and redundancy to the muon trigger. A total of 1056 double-gap chambers cover the pseudo-rapidity region lt 1.6. The main detector parameters and environmental conditions are constantly and closely monitored to achieve operational stability and high quality data in the harsh conditions of the second run period of the LHC with center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV. First results of overall detector stability with 2015 data and comparisons with data from the LHC RUN-1 period at 8 TeV are presented.

  19. Study of the effect of water vapor on a resistive plate chamber with glass electrodes

    CERN Document Server

    Sakai, H H; Teramoto, Y; Nakano, E E; Takahashi, T T

    2002-01-01

    We studied the effects of water vapor on the efficiencies of resistive plate chambers with glass electrodes, operated in the streamer mode. With moisture in the chamber gas that has freon as a component (water vapor approx 1000 ppm), a decrease in the efficiency (approx 20%) has been observed after operating for a period of several weeks to a few months. From our study, the cause of the efficiency decrease was identified as a change on the cathode surface. In addition, a recovery method was found: flushing for 1 day with argon bubbled through water containing >=3% ammonia, followed by a few weeks of training with dry gas.

  20. Microchannel plate fabrication using glass capillary arrays with Atomic Layer Deposition films for resistance and gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popecki, M. A.; Adams, B.; Craven, C. A.; Cremer, T.; Foley, M. R.; Lyashenko, A.; O'Mahony, A.; Minot, M. J.; Aviles, M.; Bond, J. L.; Stochaj, M. E.; Worstell, W.; Elam, J. W.; Mane, A. U.; Siegmund, O. H. W.; Ertley, C.; Kistler, L. M.; Granoff, M. S.

    2016-08-01

    Microchannel plates (MCPs) have been used for many years in space flight instrumentation as fast, lightweight electron multipliers. A new MCP fabrication method combines a glass substrate composed of hollow glass capillary arrays with thin film coatings to provide the resistive and secondary electron emissive properties. Using this technique, the gain, resistance, and glass properties may be chosen independently. Large-area MCPs are available at moderate cost. Secondary emission films of Al2O3 and MgO provide sustained high gain as charge is extracted from the MCP. Long lifetimes are possible, and a total extracted charge of 7 C/cm2 has been demonstrated. Background rates are low because the glass substrate has little radioactive potassium 40. Curved MCPs are easily fabricated with this technique to suit instrument symmetries, simplifying secondary electron steering and smoothing azimuthal efficiency.

  1. The microstructural dependence of wear resistance in austenite containing plate steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfram, Preston Charles

    The purpose of this project was to examine the microstructural dependence of wear resistance of various plate steels, with interests in exploring the influence of retained austenite (RA). Materials resistant to abrasive wear are desirable in the industrial areas of agriculture, earth moving, excavation, mining, mineral processing, and transportation. Abrasive wear contributes to significant financial cost associated with wear to the industry. The motivation for the current study was to determine whether it would be beneficial from a wear resistance perspective to produce plate steels with increased amounts of retained austenite. This thesis investigates this motivation through a material matrix containing AR400F, Abrasive (0.21 wt pct C, 1.26 wt pct Mn, 0.21 wt pct Si, 0.15 wt pct Ni, 0.18 wt pct Mo), Armor (0.46 wt pct C, 0.54 wt pct Mn, 0.36 wt pct Si, 1.74 wt pct Ni, 0.31 wt pct Mo), 9260, 301SS, Hadfield, and SAE 4325 steels. The Abrasive, Armor and 9260 steels were heat treated using different methods such as quench and temper, isothermal bainitic hold, and quench and partitioning (Q&P). These heat treatments yielded various microstructures and the test matrix allowed for investigation of steels with similar hardness and varying levels of RA. The wear test methods used consisted of dry sand rubber wheel (DSRW), impeller-tumbler impact-abrasion (impeller), and Bond abrasion wear testing. DSRW and impeller wear resistance was found to increase with hardness and retained austenite levels at certain hardness levels. Some Q&P samples exhibited similar or less wear than the Hadfield steels in DSRW and impeller tests. Scanning electron microscopy investigation of wear surfaces revealed different wear mechanisms for the different wear test methods ranging from micro-plowing, to micro-cutting and to fragmentation.

  2. The Resistive-Plate WELL with Argon mixtures - a robust gaseous radiation detector

    CERN Document Server

    Moleri, L; Arazi, L; Rocha Azevedo, Carlos Davide; Oliveri, E; Pitt, M; Schaarschmidt, J; Shaked-Renous, D; Marques Ferreira dos Santos, J; Veloso, Joao Filipe Calapez de Albuquerque; Breskin, A; Bressler, S

    2016-01-01

    A thin single-element THGEM-based, Resistive-Plate WELL (RPWELL) detector was operated with 150 GeV/c muon and pion beams in Ne/(5%CH$_4$), Ar/(5%CH$_4$) and Ar/(7%CO$_2$); signals were recorded with 1 cm$^2$ square pads and SRS/APV25 electronics. Detection efficiency values greater than 98% were reached in all the gas mixtures, at average pad multiplicity of 1.2. The use of the 10$^9${\\Omega}cm resistive plate resulted in a completely discharge-free operation also in intense pion beams. The efficiency remained essentially constant at 98-99% up to fluxes of $\\sim$10$^4$Hz/cm$^2$, dropping by a few % when approaching 10$^5$ Hz/cm$^2$. These results pave the way towards cost-effective, robust, efficient, large-scale detectors for a variety of applications in future particle, astro-particle and applied fields. A potential target application is digital hadron calorimetry.

  3. Barrel wear reduction in rail guns: the effects of known and controlled rail spacing on low voltage electrical contact and the hard chrome plating of copper-tungsten rail and pure copper rails

    OpenAIRE

    McNeal, Cedric J.

    2003-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited 100 m/s). Low voltage electrical contact was not maintained for some experimental shots and non-parallel rails were the suspected cause. In this thesis, we used a non-contact capacitive sensor to determine rail spacing to within 2/kAcm10mael, so that the rails will be parallel within small tolerances. Several rails were used in these experiments: 75-25 copper-tungsten, chromium-plated 75-25 Cu-W, and chromium-plated pure copper rails. ...

  4. ID Barrel installed in cryostat

    CERN Multimedia

    Apsimon, R.; Romaniouk, A.

    Wednesday 23rd August was a memorable day for the Inner Detector community as they witnessed the transport and installation of the central part of the inner detector (ID-barrel) into the ATLAS detector. Many members of the collaboration gathered to witness this moment at Point 1. After years of design, construction and commissioning, the outer two detectors (TRT and SCT) of the ID barrel were moved from the SR1 cleanroom to the ATLAS cavern. The barrel was moved across the car park from building 2175 to SX1. Although only a journey of about 100 metres, this required weeks of planning and some degree of luck as far as the weather was concerned. Accelerometers were fitted to the barrel to provide real-time monitoring and no values greater than 0.1 g were recorded, fully satisfying the transport specification for this extremely precise and fragile detector. Muriel, despite her fear of heights, bravely volunteered to keep a close eye on the detector. Swapping cranes to cross the entire parking lot, while Mur...

  5. Work on a ATLAS tile calorimeter Barrel

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    2000-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter is designed as one barrel and two extended barrel hadron parts. The calorimeter consists of a cylindrical structure with inner and outer radius of 2280 and 4230 mm respectively. The barrel part is 5640 mm in length along the beam axis, while each of the extended barrel cylinders is 2910 mm long. Each detector cylinder is built of 64 independent wedges along the azimuthal direction. Between the barrel and the extended barrels there is a gap of about 600 mm, which is needed for the Inner Detector and the Liquid Argon cables, electronics and services. The barrel covers the region -1.0barrels cover the region 0.8<|h|<1.7.

  6. Upgrade of the CMS muon trigger system in the barrel region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabady, Dinyar; Ero, Janos; Flouris, Giannis; Fulcher, Jonathan; Loukas, Nikitas; Paradas, Evangelos; Reis, Thomas; Sakulin, Hannes; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth

    2017-02-01

    To maintain the excellent performance shown during the LHC's Run-1 the Level-1 Trigger of the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment underwent a significant upgrade. One part of this upgrade is the re-organization of the muon trigger path from a subsystem-centric view in which hits in the drift tubes (DT), the cathode strip chambers (CSC), and the resistive plate chambers (RPC) were treated separately in dedicated track-finding systems to one in which complementary detector systems for a given region (barrel, overlap, and endcap) are merged at the track-finding level. This fundamental restructuring of the muon trigger system required the development of a system to receive track candidates from the track-finding layer, remove potential duplicate tracks, and forward the best candidates to the global decision layer. An overview will be given of the new track-finder system for the barrel region, the Barrel Muon Track Finder (BMTF), as well as the cancel-out and sorting layer: the upgraded Global Muon Trigger (μGMT). Both the BMTF and μGMT have been implemented in a Xilinx Virtex-7 card utilizing the microTCA architecture. While the BMTF improves on the proven and well-tested algorithms used in the Drift Tube Track Finder during Run-1, the μGMT is an almost complete re-development due to the re-organization of the underlying systems from track-finders for a specific detector to regional track finders covering a given area of the whole detector. Additionally the μGMT calculates a muon's isolation using energy information received from the calorimeter trigger. This information is added to the muon objects forwarded to the global decision layer, the so-called Global Trigger.

  7. Safety Analysis of the Patch Load Resistance of Plate Girders: Influence of Model Error and Variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzad Shahabian

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to undertake a statistical study to evaluate the accuracy of nine models that have been previously proposed for estimating the ultimate resistance of plate girders subjected to patch loading. For each model, mean errors and standard errors, as well as the probability of underestimating or overestimating patch load resistance, are estimated and the resultant values are compared one to another. Prior to that, the models are initially calibrated in order to improve interaction formulae using an experimental data set collected from the literature. The models are then analyzed by computing design factors associated with a target risk level (probability of exceedance. These models are compared one to another considering uncertainties existed in material and geometrical properties. The Monte Carlo simulation method is used to generate random variables. The statistical parameters of the calibrated models are calculated for various coefficients of variations regardless of their correlation with the random resistance variables. These probabilistic results are very useful for evaluating the stochastic sensitivity of the calibrated models.

  8. First in-beam studies of a Resistive-Plate WELL gaseous multiplier

    CERN Document Server

    Bressler, S; Pitt, M; Kudella, S; Azevedo, C D R; Amaro, F D; Jorge, M R; dos Santos, J M F; Veloso, J F C A; Natal da Luz, H; Arazi, L; Olivieri, E; Breskin, A

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of the first in-beam studies of a medium size (10$\\times$10 cm$^2$) Resistive-Plate WELL (RPWELL): a single-sided THGEM coupled to a pad anode through a resistive layer of high bulk resistivity ($\\sim$10$^9 \\Omega$cm). The 6.2~mm thick (excluding readout electronics) single-stage detector was studied with 150~GeV muons and pions. Signals were recorded from 1$\\times$1 cm$^2$ square copper pads with APV25-SRS readout electronics. The single-element detector was operated in Ne\\(5% $\\mathrm{CH_{4}}$) at a gas gain of a few times 10$^4$, reaching 99$\\%$ detection efficiency at average pad multiplicity of $\\sim$1.2. Operation at particle fluxes up to $\\sim$10$^4$ Hz/cm$^2$ resulted in $\\sim$23$\\%$ gain drop leading to $\\sim$5$\\%$ efficiency loss. The striking feature was the discharge-free operation, also in intense pion beams. These results pave the way towards robust, efficient large-scale detectors for applications requiring economic solutions at moderate spatial and energy resolutions.

  9. Anchorage of mature conifers: resistive turning moment, root-soil plate geometry and root growth orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundström, Tor; Jonas, Tobias; Stöckli, Veronika; Ammann, Walter

    2007-09-01

    Eighty-four mature Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst), silver fir (Abies alba Mill) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) trees were winched over to determine the maximum resistive turning moment (M(a)) of the root-soil system, the root-soil plate geometry, the azimuthal orientation of root growth, and the occurrence of root rot. The calculation of M(a), based on digital image tracking of stem deflection, accounted not only for the force application and its changing geometry, but also for the weight of the overhanging tree, representing up to 42% of M(a). Root rot reduced M(a) significantly and was detected in 25% of the Norway spruce and 5% of the silver fir trees. Excluding trees with root rot, differences in M(a) between species were small and insignificant. About 75% of the variance in M(a) could be explained by one of the four variables--tree mass, stem mass, stem diameter at breast height squared times tree height, and stem diameter at breast height squared. Among the seven allometric variables assessed above ground, stem diameter at breast height best described the root-soil plate dimensions, but the correlations were weak and the differences between species were insignificant. The shape of the root-soil plate was well described by a depth-dependent taper model with an elliptical cross section. Roots displayed a preferred azimuthal orientation of growth in the axis of prevailing winds, and the direction of frequent weak winds matched the orientation of growth better than that of rare strong winds. The lack of difference in anchorage parameters among species probably reflects the similar belowground growth conditions of the mature trees.

  10. Using pulse shape analysis to improve the position resolution of a resistive anode microchannel plate detector

    CERN Document Server

    Siwal, Davinder; deSouza, R T

    2015-01-01

    Digital signal processing techniques were employed to investigate the joint use of charge division and risetime analyses for the resistive anode (RA) coupled to a microchannel plate detector (MCP). In contrast to the typical approach of using the relative charge at each corner of the RA, this joint approach results in a significantly improved position resolution. A conventional charge division analysis utilizing analog signal processing provides a position measured resolution of 170 $\\mu$m (FWHM). By using the correlation between risetime and position we were able to obtain a measured resolution of 92 $\\mu$m (FWHM), corresponding to an intrinsic resolution of 64 $\\mu$m (FMHM) for a single Z-stack MCP detector.

  11. Wear-resistance and anti-scuffing of multi-arc ion plating molybdenum films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hai-dou; XU Bin-shi; LIU Jia-jun; ZHUANG Da-ming

    2004-01-01

    The multi-arc ion plating technology was employed to prepare the molybdenum films with thickness of 3 μm on the AISI 1045 steel. The wear and scuffing tests were carried out on the ball-on-disc tester. AFM and SEM equipped with EDS were adopted to observe and analyze the morphologies and element compositions of surface,cross-section and worn scar of the Mo film. The phase structure was studied by XRD and the bonding strength between Mo film and substrate was measured by scratching tester. The tribological experiments show that the Mo film possesses a good wear-resistance and an excellent anti-scuffing property. The failure mechanism of Mo film under extreme condition is flaking off.

  12. Multigap resistive plate chambers for EAS study in the EEE Project

    CERN Document Server

    An, S; Badalà, A; Zichichi, A

    2007-01-01

    The EEE (Extreme Energy Events) Project, conceived by its leader Antonino Zichichi, is an experiment to study very high-energetic air showers (EAS) through the detection of the shower's muon component using a network of tracking detectors, installed in Italian high schools. The single tracking telescope is composed of three large area () Multi-gap Resistive Plate Chambers (MRPCs). The data collected by the telescopes will be used for studies of air showers and also for the search of time correlations between sites which are far apart. The first telescope, recently installed in the Liceo B. Touschek in Grottaferrata (Rome), is successfully running, and other telescopes are going to be installed in a short time in other towns, opening up the way for the first search of long-distance coincidences over a total area of .

  13. The Time Response of Glass Resistive Plate Chambers to Heavily Ionizing Particles

    CERN Document Server

    Artamonov, A; Bogomilov, M; Booth, C; Borghi, S; Catanesi, M G; Chimenti, P; Gastaldi, Ugo; Giani, S; Graulich, J S; Grégoire, G; Grossheim, A; Guglielmi, A; Ivantchenko, V; Kolev, D; Meurer, C; Mezzetto, M; Panman, J; Popov, B; Radicioni, E; Schroeter, R; Temnikov, P; Chernyaev, E; Tsenov, R; Tsukerman, I; Wiebusch, C

    2007-01-01

    The HARP system of resistive plate chambers (RPCs) was designed to perform particle identification by the measurement of the difference in the time-of-flight of different particles. In previous papers an apparent discrepancy was shown between the response of the RPCs to minimum ionizing pions and heavily ionizing protons. Using the kinematics of elastic scattering off a hydrogen target a controlled beam of low momentum recoil protons was directed onto the chambers. With this method the trajectory and momentum, and hence the time-of-flight of the protons can be precisely predicted without need for a measurement of momentum of the protons. It is demonstrated that the measurement of the time-of-arrival of particles by the thin gas-gap glass RPC system of the HARP experiment depends on the primary ionization deposited by the particle in the detector.

  14. Development of TOF-PET detectors based on the Multi-Gap Resistive Plate Chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaldi, U.; Borghi, G.; Bucciantonio, M.; Kieffer, R.; Samarati, J.; Sauli, F.; Watts, D.

    2015-04-01

    We describe the development, construction and preliminary results obtained with medium-size Multi-Gap Resistive Plate Chambers prototypes designed to detect and localize 511 keV photons for Positron Emission Tomography imaging applications. The devices are intended for in-beam monitoring of the treatment plans throughout deep tumor therapy with hadron beams; emphasis is put on achieving coincidence time resolutions of few hundred ps, in order to exploit optimized reconstruction algorithm and reduce the heavy non-correlated background contributions distinctive of this operation. Using technologies developed for high energy physics experiments, the detectors can be built for covering large areas, thus leading the way to the conception of full-body PET systems at low cost.

  15. A large-area glass-resistive plate chamber with multistrip readout

    CERN Document Server

    Petrovici, M; Hildenbrand, K D; Augustinski, G; Ciobanu, M; Cruceru, I; Duma, M; Hartmann, O; Koczón, P; Kress, T; Marquardt, M; Moisa, D; Petris, M; Schröder, C; Simion, V; Stoicea, G; Weinert, J

    2002-01-01

    A completely new configuration of a glass resistive-plate chamber (GRPC) was built and tested. It consists of a double two-gap structure of electrodes with an active area of about 400 cm sup 2 and is read out via a central multistrip printed circuit board. In measurements with a sup 6 sup 0 Co source and p, d particles of 1.5 A GeV time resolutions better than 80 ps, position resolution along the strips of 5-6 mm and efficiencies larger than 95% were obtained using available fast standard electronics. These results open the possibility of constructing compact TOF detectors of high resolution and high granularity.

  16. Performance of Resistive Plate Chambers installed during the first long shutdown of the CMS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Shopova, M; Hadjiiska, R; Iaydjiev, P; Sultanov, G; Rodozov, M; Stoykova, S; Assran, Y; Sayed, A; Radi, A; Aly, S; Singh, G; Abbrescia, M; Iaselli, G; Maggi, M; Pugliese, G; Verwilligen, P; Van Doninck, W; Colafranceschi, S; Sharma, A; Benussi, L; Bianco, S; Piccolo, D; Primavera, F; Cimmino, A; Crucy, S; Rios, A A O; Tytgat, M; Zaganidis, N; Gul, M; Fagot, A; Bhatnagar, V; Singh, J; Kumari, R; Mehta, A; Ahmad, A; Awan, I M; Shahzad, H; Hoorani, H; Asghar, M I; Muhammad, S; Ahmed, W; Shah, M A; Cho, S W; Choi, S Y; Hong, B; Kang, M H; Lee, K S; Lim, J H; Park, S K; Kim, M S; Laktineh, I B; Lagarde, F; Gouzevitch, M; Grenier, G; Pedraza, I; Bernardino, S Carpinteyro; Estrada, C Uribe; Moreno, S Carrillo; Valencia, F Vazquez; Pant, L M; Buontempo, S; Cavallo, N; Fabozzi, F; Orso, I; Lista, L; Meola, S; Merola, M; Paolucci, P; Thyssen, F; Lanza, G; Esposito, M; Braghieri, A; Magnani, A; Riccardi, C; Salvini, P; Vai, I; Vitulo, P; Montagna, P; Ban, Y; Qian, S J; Choi, M; Choi, Y; Goh, J; Kim, D; Dimitrov, A; Litov, L; Petkov, P; Pavlov, B; Bagaturia, I; Lomidze, D; Avila, C; Cabrera, A; Sanabria, J C; Crotty, I; Vaitkus, J

    2016-01-01

    The CMS experiment, located at the CERN Large Hadron Collider, has a redundant muon system composed by three different detector technologies: Cathode Strip Chambers (in the forward regions), Drift Tubes (in the central region) and Resistive Plate Chambers (both its central and forward regions). All three are used for muon reconstruction and triggering. During the first long shutdown (LS1) of the LHC (2013-2014) the CMS muon system has been upgraded with 144 newly installed RPCs on the forth forward stations. The new chambers ensure and enhance the muon trigger efficiency in the high luminosity conditions of the LHC Run2. The chambers have been successfully installed and commissioned. The system has been run successfully and experimental data has been collected and analyzed. The performance results of the newly installed RPCs will be presented.

  17. Plastic scintillator-based hodoscope for the characterization of large-area resistive plate chambers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V K S KASHYAP; C YADAV; S T SEHGAL; R SEHGAL; R G THOMAS; L M PANT; A K MOHANTY

    2016-12-01

    A scintillator-based hodoscope is fully operational at Nuclear Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (NPD-BARC). It was used for characterizing the resistive plate chambers (RPCs) assembled for the RE4 upgrade for the compact muon solenoid (CMS) experiment, installed during the long shut-down (LS1) using cosmic muons. It has now been employed for R & D related to gas mixtures and glass RPCs for the Indiabased neutrino observatory (INO) and muon tomography studies. The hodoscope is equipped with gas flow lines,LV, HV and VME-based DAQ with multihit TDCs. CERN-based software was adapted, implemented and along with the cosmic trigger, was used to evaluate the functional parameters for the RPCs, such as efficiency, clustersize etc.

  18. Resistive Plate Chambers commissioning and performance results for 2011-2013.

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2014-01-01

    Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC) performance results for the period between 2011-2013 are presented. These results include history plots for the RPC relevant variables such as: Cluster Size, Efficiency, percentage of inactive detector during operation, Rates, and Currents. RPC variables are studied as function of relevant parameters such as the averaged instantaneous luminosity of the LHC, time, and CMS cavern pressure. Results obtained with the monitoring tools used by CMS such as the Web Based Monitoring tool (WBM) are also shown. RPC Background rates measured during 2010, 2011, and 2012 are presented and compared. Preparations for the 2015 Run include the installation of a new couple of disks of RPCs in the endcap regions, results obtained during quality control campaigns for the new RPCs are also presented, these results include High voltage scans that probe the quality and standards of the RPC construction procedures, as well as tests on chamber gas leaks and current behavior for the new chambers. Basic p...

  19. Eco-friendly gas mixtures for Resistive Plate Chambers based on Tetrafluoropropene and Helium

    CERN Document Server

    Abbrescia, M; Bianco, S; Ferrini, M; Muhammad, S; Passamonti, L; Pierluigi, D; Piccolo, D; Primavera, F; Russo, A; Saviano, G

    2016-01-01

    Due to the recent restrictions deriving from the application of the Kyoto protocol, the main components of the gas mixtures presently used in the Resistive Plate Chambers systems of the LHC experiments will be most probably phased out of production in the coming years. Identifying possible replacements with the adequate characteristics requires an intense R&D, which was recently started, also in collaborations across the various experiments. Possible candidates have been proposed and are thoroughly investigated. Some tests on one of the most promising candidate - HFO-1234ze, an allotropic form of tetrafluoropropane- have already been reported. Here an innovative approach, based on the use of Helium, to solve the problems related to the too elevate operating voltage of HFO-1234ze based gas mixtures, is discussed and the relative first results are shown.

  20. Eco-friendly gas mixtures for Resistive Plate Chambers based on tetrafluoropropene and Helium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbrescia, M.; Benussi, L.; Piccolo, D.; Bianco, S.; Ferrini, M.; Muhammad, S.; Passamonti, L.; Pierluigi, D.; Piccolo, D.; Primavera, F.; Russo, A.; Saviano, G.

    2016-08-01

    Due to the recent restrictions deriving from the application of the Kyoto protocol, the main components of the gas mixtures presently used in the Resistive Plate Chambers systems of the LHC experiments will be most probably phased out of production in the coming years. Identifying possible replacements with the adequate characteristics requires an intense R&D activity, which was recently started, in collaborations with various experiments. Possible new gases have been proposed and are thoroughly investigated. Some tests on one of the most promising candidate—HFO-1234ze, an allotropic form of tetrafluoropropane—have already been reported. Here an innovative approach, based on the use of Helium, to solve the problem related to the high operating voltage needed to operate the chambers with HFO-1234ze based gas mixtures, is discussed and the first results are shown.

  1. A new type of detector time of flight - multi-gap resistive plate chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, H; Eppley, G; Geurts, F J M; Huang, S; Li, C; Liu, H; Llope, W J; Ruan, L; Shao, M; Wang, X L; Wang, Z; Wu, J; Xu, Z; Zhang, Z

    2004-01-01

    Multi-gap resistive plate chamber is a new detector technology. It was first developed by the LHC-ALICE group at CERN in the late 1990s. The MRPC is a ideal detector for time-of-flight measurement due to its small gaps and works in the proportional (avalanche) mode. The beam test of single module result shows that MRPC tuning resolution is better than 70ps and the detection efficiency is higher than 95%. It is also radiation hard. A time-of-flight tray with 28 on MRPC modules. was tested at AGS. The average timing resolution is about 75ps (including the 4cm of beam spread) and detection efficiency is better than 95%. This tray has been installed on STAR detector system in October 2002 and used on the 200GeV d+Au experiment.

  2. A 200 cm x 50 cm large multigap resistive plate chamber based neutron detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yakorev, Dmitry; Elekes, Zoltan; Bemmerer, Daniel; Kempe, Mathias; Sobiella, Manfred; Stach, Daniel; Wagner, Andreas [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Dresden (Germany); Roeder, Marko; Zuber, Kai [TU Dresden (Germany); Cowan, Thomas [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Dresden (Germany); TU Dresden (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    A prototype for a multigap resistive plate chamber (MRPC) based detector of 200 cm x 50 cm size for 1 GeV neutrons has been developed, built and tested. The principle of operation is the conversion of the high-energy neutron to a charged particle in an iron converter, and the detection of the charged particle in the MRPC. Experiments using the single-electron mode of operation of the ELBE 40 MeV electron accelerator showed that a time resolution of {sigma}{sub t}<100 ps was reached for minimum-ionizing particles, at nearly full efficiency. Extensive simulations show that it is feasible to construct a time-of-flight detector for GeV neutrons based on such a principle.

  3. Signal coupling and signal integrity in multi-strip Resistive Plate Chambers used for timing applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez-Diaz, Diego; Wang, Yi

    2011-01-01

    We have systematically studied the transmission of electrical signals along several 2-strip Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) in the frequency range $f=0.1-3.5$GHz. Such a range was chosen to fully cover the bandwidth associated to the very short rise-times of signals originated in RPCs used for sub-100ps timing applications. This work conveys experimental evidence of the dominant role of modal dispersion in counters built at the 1 meter scale, a fact that results in large cross-talk levels and strong signal shaping. It is shown that modal dispersion appears in RPCs due to the intrinsic unbalance between the capacitive and the inductive coupling $C_m/C_o \

  4. The PANDA Barrel DIRC detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoek, M., E-mail: matthias.hoek@uni-mainz.de [Institut für Kernphysik, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Mainz (Germany); Dzhygadlo, R.; Gerhardt, A.; Götzen, K.; Hohler, R.; Kalicy, G.; Kumawat, H.; Lehmann, D.; Lewandowski, B.; Patsyuk, M.; Peters, K.; Schepers, G.; Schmitt, L.; Schwarz, C.; Schwiening, J.; Traxler, M.; Zühlsdorf, M. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Dodokhov, V. Kh. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Britting, A.; Eyrich, W. [Friedrich Alexander-University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen (Germany); and others

    2014-12-01

    The PANDA experiment at the new Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research in Europe (FAIR) at GSI, Darmstadt, will study fundamental questions of hadron physics and QCD using high-intensity cooled antiproton beams with momenta between 1.5 and 15 GeV/c. Efficient Particle Identification for a wide momentum range and the full solid angle is required for reconstructing the various physics channels of the PANDA program. Hadronic Particle Identification in the barrel region of the detector will be provided by a DIRC counter. The design is based on the successful BABAR DIRC with important improvements, such as focusing optics and fast photon timing. Several of these improvements, including different radiator geometries and optics, were tested in particle beams at GSI and at CERN. The evolution of the conceptual design of the PANDA Barrel DIRC and the performance of complex prototypes in test beam campaigns will be discussed.

  5. Final results of the tests on the resistive plate chambers for the ALICE muon arm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnaldi, R. [INFN, Sezione di Torino (Italy); Baldit, A.; Barret, V.; Bastid, N.; Blanc, A.; Blanchard, G. [LPC Clermont Ferrand, IN2P3/CNRS, Universite Blaise Pascal (France); Chiavassa, E. [INFN, Sezione di Torino (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica Sperimentale dell' Universita di Torino (Italy); Cortese, P. [INFN, Sezione di Torino (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie, Avanzate dell' Universita del Piemonte Orientale (Italy); Crochet, P. [LPC Clermont Ferrand, IN2P3/CNRS, Universite Blaise Pascal (France); Dellacasa, G. [INFN, Sezione di Torino (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie, Avanzate dell' Universita del Piemonte Orientale (Italy); De Marco, N. [INFN, Sezione di Torino (Italy); Devaux, A.; Dupieux, P. [LPC Clermont Ferrand, IN2P3/CNRS, Universite Blaise Pascal (France); Ferretti, A.; Gallio, M. [INFN, Sezione di Torino (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica Sperimentale dell' Universita di Torino (Italy); Gemme, R. [INFN, Sezione di Torino (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie, Avanzate dell' Universita del Piemonte Orientale (Italy); Grygorian, S.; Insa, C.; Jouve, F.; Lopez, X. [LPC Clermont Ferrand, IN2P3/CNRS, Universite Blaise Pascal (France)] (and others)

    2009-05-01

    The trigger for the ALICE muon spectrometer will be issued by single-gap, low resistivity bakelite resistive plate chambers (RPCs). The trigger system consists of four 5.5x6.5m{sup 2} RPC planes arranged in two stations, for a total of 72 detectors. One hundred and sixteen detectors have been assembled and tested in Torino. The tests have been performed with the streamer mixture developed for heavy ion data-taking. The tests include: the detection of gas leaks and parasitic currents; the measurement of the efficiency with cosmic rays, with particular regard to the uniformity of the efficiency throughout the whole active surface, with a granularity of about 2x2cm{sup 2}; the measurement of the dark current and of the mean and localised noise rate. All the RPCs produced have been characterised. Among them, the detectors to be finally installed in ALICE and some spare have been selected; 17% of all the produced detectors have been discarded. A short description of the test set-up is given. The results of the tests are presented, with particular regard to the performance of the selected detectors.

  6. Numerical analysis on the shoot resistance of heat treated light weight B-grade bulletproof steel plates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Mingtu; Zhang Jingwen; Zhang Junping

    2014-01-01

    Bulletproof steel plates are widely used for the safety of special vehicles. This paper mainly resear-ches on the shoot resistance of heat treated light weight B-grade bulletproof steel plates through numerical analy-sis. Based on the flow behavior of bulletproof steel plates and bullet at various high strain rates,finite element (FE) model has been set up using ANSYS/LS-DYNA software. The simulation results are compared with the shooting results,which show a good consistency and a high reliability. Therefore,the simulation results are ef-ficient approaches and strategies to decide and select the mechanical property and thickness of bulletproof steel plates,saving a lot of work and the cost of experiments.

  7. 'Break-point Checkerboard Plate' for screening of appropriate antibiotic combinations against multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tateda, Kazuhiro; Ishii, Yoshikazu; Matsumoto, Tetsuya; Yamaguchi, Keizo

    2006-01-01

    Increase of multiple drug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MDRP) is becoming a serious problem in the clinical setting. Although the checkerboard method to determine FIC index and synergistic effects of antibiotic combinations is useful, it is not well adapted to a routine test, mainly because of its time-consuming and labor-intensive nature. Here we report 'Break-point Checkerboard Plate', in which breakpoint concentrations, such as 'S' (sensitive) and 'I' (intermediate), were combined in a microtiter plate with 8 antibiotics, including carbapenem, aminoglycoside and fluoroquinolone. The results obtained from 12 strains of MDRP demonstrated a strong synergistic effect of some antibiotic combinations at clinically relevant concentrations. Our data suggest a usefulness of 'Break-point Checkerboard Plate' to screen appropriate antibiotic combinations against drug resistant organisms, including MDRP.

  8. Study of gas mixtures and ageing of the multigap resistive plate chamber used for the ALICE TOF

    CERN Document Server

    Akindinov, A; Anselmo, F; Antonioli, P; Basile, M; Cara Romeo, G; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, F; Cosenza, F; D'Antone, I; De Caro, A; De Pasquale, S; Di Bartolomeo, A; Fusco-Girard, M; Golovine, V; Guerzoni, M; Guida, M; Hatzifotiadou, D; Kaidalov, A B; Kim, D H; Kim, D W; Kisselev, S M; Laurenti, G; Lioublev, E; Lee, K; Lee, S C; Luvisetto, M L; Margotti, A; Martemyanov, A N; Massera, F; Meneghini, S; Michinelli, R; Nania, R; Otiougova, P; Pancaldi, G; Pesci, A; Pilastrini, R; Pinazza, O; Polozov, P A; Rizzi, M; Scapparone, E; Scioli, G; Sellitto, S B; Semeria, F; Serra, S; Smirnitsky, A V; Tchoumakov, M M; Ugolini, E; Usenko, E; Valenti, G; Voloshin, K G; Williams, M C S; Zagreev, B V; Zampolli, C; Zichichi, A; Zucchini, A; Zuffa, M

    2004-01-01

    We present in this paper a study of the ALICE-TOF Multigap Resistive Plate Chamber (MRPC) performance by using several gas mixtures. We also present a search for possible ageing effects, by studying two MRPCs irradiated at the CERN Gamma Irradiation Facility.

  9. XPS study of the corrosion resisting composite alloying layer obtained by double glow plasma with the brush plating Ni interlayer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Xu; Xishan Xie; Zhong Xu; Wenjin Liu

    2004-01-01

    The Ni-Cr-Mo-Cu multi-element surface alloying with the electric brush plating Ni interlayer on the low carbon steel substrate has been investigated. By the electrochemical method in 3.5% (mass fraction) NaC1 solution, the corrosion resistance of the composite alloying layer and single alloying layer is determined. The experimental results show that the corrosion resistance of the composite alloying layer is obviously better than that of the single alloying layer. The structure and composition of passive films formed on the two kinds of alloyed layers after electrochemical tests in 3.5% NaC1 solution have been studied using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). It is concluded that the double glow plasma surface alloying of low carbon steel with the electric brush plating Ni interlayer is an appropriate technique to enhance the corrosion resistance compared with the single double glow surface alloying.

  10. Studies of gaseous multiplication coefficient in isobutane using a resistive plate chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Josemary A.C.; Botelho, Suzana; Tobias, Carmen C.B. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Pontificia Univ. Catolica de Sao Paulo (PUC/SP), SP (Brazil); Lima, Iara B.; Vivaldini, Tulio C. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Ridenti, Marco A.; Pascholati, Paulo R. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica. Lab. do Acelerador Linear; Fonte, Paulo; Mangiarotti, Alessio [Universidade de Coimbra (Portugal). Dept. de fisica. Lab. de Instrumentacao e Fisica Experimental de Particulas

    2009-07-01

    Full text: Due to the increasing demands concerning High Energy Physics, Nuclear Medicine and other Nuclear Applications about gaseous detectors operating in high electric fields, many efforts have been done about the choice of filling gases that fulfill these requirements. In this context, the electron transport parameters in gases, as the gaseous multiplication coefficient, play an important role not only for detector design but also for simulation and modeling of discharges, allowing the validation of electron impact cross-sections. In the present work the preliminary measurements of gaseous multiplication coefficient, as function of the reduced electric field (from 36V/cm.Torr until 93V/cm.Torr), for isobutane are presented. Among several filling gases, isobutane is widely used in resistive plate chambers RPCs, and other gaseous detectors, due to its timing properties. Although its characteristics, there is a lack of swarm parameters data in literature for this gas, mainly at high electric fields. The experimental method used is based on the Pulsed Townsend technique, which follows from Townsend equation solution for a uniform electric field. Considering the ratio between the current (I), measured in avalanche mode, and the primary ionization current (I{sub 0}), the effective multiplication coefficient can be determined, since alpha = d{sup -1}ln(I/I{sub 0}), where d is the gap between the electrodes. In our configuration, the experimental setup consists of two parallel plates enclosure in a stainless steel chamber at gas flow regime. The anode, is made of a high resistivity (2.10{sup 12}{omega}.cm) glass (3mm thick and 14mm diameter), while the cathode is of aluminium (40mm diameter). Primary electrons are produced by irradiating the cathode with a nitrogen laser (LTB MNL200-LD) and are accelerated toward the anode by means of a high voltage power supply (Bertan 225-30). In order to validate the technique and to analyze effects of non-uniformity, results for

  11. Geometry Design of Wooden Barrels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan CISMARU

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present a design methodology of the wooden barrel geometry, as an algorithm of successive calculations. Thus, starting from the required elements (volume, length, shape, maximum height of storage space the user will be able to define the geometry which must be obtained by processing. Based on these calculations, one can define the structure, size and shape of the staves in order to establish the processing technology of both components and subassemblies (jacket and bottoms which are to form the final product by their assembling using metal circles.

  12. DELPHI Barrel Muon Chamber Module

    CERN Multimedia

    1989-01-01

    The module was used as part of the muon identification system on the barrel of the DELPHI detector at LEP, and was in active use from 1989 to 2000. The module consists of 7 individual muons chambers arranged in 2 layers. Chambers in the upper layer are staggered by half a chamber width with respect to the lower layer. Each individual chamber is a drift chamber consisting of an anode wire, 47 microns in diameter, and a wrapped copper delay line. Each chamber provided 3 signal for each muon passing through the chamber, from which a 3D space-point could be reconstructed.

  13. Electrical resistivity and dielectric properties of helical microorganism cells coated with silver by electroless plating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Jun, E-mail: jun_cai@buaa.edu.cn [Bionic and Micro/Nano/Bio Manufacturing Technology Research Center, School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Lan, Mingming; Zhang, Deyuan; Zhang, Wenqiang [Bionic and Micro/Nano/Bio Manufacturing Technology Research Center, School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2012-09-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We use the microorganism cells as forming templates to fabricate the bio-based conductive particles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The microorganism cells selected as forming templates are Spirulina platens, which are of natural helical shape and high aspect ratio. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The sliver-coated Spirulina cells are a kind of lightweight conductive particles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The composites containing sliver-coated Spirulina cells exhibit a lower percolation value. - Abstract: In this paper, microorganism cells (Spirulina platens) were used as forming templates for the fabrication of the helical functional particles by electroless silver plating process. The morphologies and ingredients of the coated Spirulina cells were analyzed with scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectrometer. The crystal structures were characterized by employing the X-ray diffraction. The electrical resistivity and dielectric properties of samples containing different volume faction of sliver-coated Spirulina cells were measured and investigated by four-probe meter and vector network analyzer. The results showed that the Spirulina cells were successfully coated with a uniform silver coating and their initial helical shapes were perfectly kept. The electrical resistivity and dielectric properties of the samples had a strong dependence on the volume content of sliver-coated Spirulina cells and the samples could achieve a low percolation value owing to high aspect ratio and preferable helical shape of Spirulina cells. Furthermore, the conductive mechanism was analyzed with the classic percolation theory, and the values of {phi}{sub c} and t were obtained.

  14. Electrolessly Plated Ni-Zn(Fe)-P Alloy and Its Corrosion Resistance Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Sen-lin; WU Hui-huang

    2005-01-01

    The autocatalytic deposition of Ni-Zn(Fe)-P alloys has been carried out on substrate of carbon steel from a bath containing nickel sulfate, zinc sulfate, sodium hypophosphite, sodium citrate and boric acid. The effects of pH and the molar ratio of NiSO4/ZnSO4 on the deposition rate and the composition of deposits have been studied. It was found that the presence of zinc sulfate in the bath has an inhibitory effect on the alloy deposition. The structure and the surface morphology of Ni-Zn(Fe)-P coatings were characterized with XRD and SEM, respectively. The alloys plated under the experimental conditions consisted of an amorphous phase coexisting with a crystalline cubic Ni phase(poly-crystalline). The surface morphology of the coating is dependent on the deposition parameters. The corrosion resistance of the Ni-Zn(Fe)-P deposits was examined via mass loss tests and anodic polarization measurements, respectively. The results show that the surface morphologies of the deposits and the corrosion resistance of the deposits have been improved. The results of mass loss tests almost accord with those of anodic polarization measurements. The corrosion mechanisms of Ni-Zn(Fe)-P alloys in NaCl and NaOH solutions were investigated by means of EDX. The deposit immersed in an NaCl or an NaOH solution contains more content of oxygen and less contents of the metals(except Fe) than that placed in air, which shows that the NaCl or NaOH solution can accelerate the oxidation of the deposit.

  15. TRT and SCT barrels merge

    CERN Multimedia

    Wells, P S

    2006-01-01

    The SCT barrel was inserted in the TRT on 17 February, just missing Valentine's day. This was a change of emphasis for the two detectors. In the preceeding months there had been a lot of focus on testing their performance. The TRT had been observing cosmic rays through several sectors of the barrel, and all the modules on each of the four layers of the SCT had been characterised prior to integration. In parallel, the engineering teams, lead by Marco Olcese, Andrea Catinaccio, Eric Perrin, Neil Dixon, Iourii Gusakov, Gerard Barbier and Takashi Kohriki, had been preparing for this critical operation. Figure 1: Neil Dixon and Marco Olcese verifying the final alignment The two detectors had to be painstakingly aligned to be concentric to within a millimetre. The SCT was held on a temporary cantilever stand, and the TRT in the ID trolley had to inch over it. Finally the weight of the SCT was transferred to the rails on the inside of the TRT itself. The SCT services actually protruded a little outside the oute...

  16. CMS Resistive Plate Chambers performance at $\\sqrt{s}=$13 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Cabrera Mora, Andres Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    During 2015, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN has reached the record-breaking center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV for proton-proton collisions. The LHC restarted operations successfully after a two-year technical stop, known as Long Shutdown 1 (LS1), needed for servicing and consolidating the CERN accelerator complex. The Compact Muon Solenoid detector, a general-purpose detector at LHC, benefited from LS1 by performing crucial tasks necessary to operate the detector at higher energies. In particular, the Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC) system, one of the three muon detector technologies in CMS, was serviced, re-commissioned, and upgraded with 144 new chambers to enhance muon trigger efficiency. The CMS RPC system confers robustness and redundancy to the muon trigger. A total of 1056 double-gap chambers cover the pseudo-rapidity region $ \\lvert\\eta\\rvert \\leq$1.6. The CMS RPC collaboration has exploited early data samples at 13 TeV for detector performance studies. These data allowed for a first characte...

  17. The analog Resistive Plate Chamber detector of the ARGO-YBJ experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Bartoli, B; Bi, X J; Cao, Z; Catalanotti, S; Chen, S Z; Chen, T L; Cui, S W; Dai, B Z; D'Amone, A; Danzengluobu,; De Mitri, I; Piazzoli, B D'Ettorre; Di Girolamo, T; Di Sciascio, G; Feng, C F; Feng, Zhaoyang; Feng, Zhenyong; Gou, Q B; Guo, Y Q; He, H H; Hu, Haibing; Hu, Hongbo; Iacovacci, M; Iuppa, R; Jia, H Y; Labaciren,; Li, H J; Liu, C; Liu, J; Liu, M Y; Lu, H; Ma, L L; Ma, X H; Mancarella, G; Mari1, S M; Marsella, G; Mastroianni, S; Montini, P; Ning, C C; Perrone, L; Pistilli, P; Salvini1, P; Santonico, R; Shen, P R; Sheng, X D; Shi, F; Surdo, A; Tan, Y H; Vallania, P; Vernetto, S; Vigorito, C; Wang, H; Wu, C Y; Wu, H R; Xue, L; Yang, Q Y; Yang, X C; Yao, Z G; Yuan, A F; Zha, M; Zhang, H M; Zhang, L; Zhang, X Y; Zhang, Y; Zhao, J; Zhaxiciren,; Zhaxisangzhu,; Zhou, X X; Zhu, F R; Zhu, Q Q

    2015-01-01

    The ARGO-YBJ experiment has been in stable data taking from November 2007 till February 2013 at the YangBaJing Cosmic Ray Observatory (4300 m a.s.l.). The detector consists of a single layer of Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) ( about 6700 m^2}) operated in streamer mode. The signal pick-up is obtained by means of strips facing one side of the gas volume. The digital readout of the signals, while allows a high space-time resolution in the shower front reconstruction, limits the measurable energy to a few hundred TeV. In order to fully investigate the 1-10 PeV region, an analog readout has been implemented by instrumenting each RPC with two large size electrodes facing the other side of the gas volume. Since December 2009 the RPC charge readout has been in operation on the entire central carpet (about 5800 m^2). In this configuration the detector is able to measure the particle density at the core position where it ranges from tens to many thousands of particles per m^2. Thus ARGO-YBJ provides a highly detailed...

  18. A preliminary study on the perforation resistance of high-strength steel plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Børvik, T.; Dey, S.; Clausen, A. H.

    2006-08-01

    Thin plates of high-strength steel are frequently being used in ballistic protection systems. In this study, the perforation resistance of three different high-strength steel alloys impacted by 7.62 mm AP projectiles has been determined and compared against each other. The considered alloys are Weldox 500 E, Hardox 400 and Domex Protect 500. The yield stress in Domex Protect 500 is almost three times the yield stress in Weldox 500 E, while the opposite trend is found regarding strain to fracture in uniaxial tension. Perforation tests have been carried out using adjusted ammunition to determine the ballistic limit velocity of the steels using 6+6=12 mm thick targets. Moreover, a material test programme including high strain rate tests in a split-Hopkinson tension bar was carried out in order to be able to calibrate a proper constitutive equation and fracture criteria. Here, a simplified identification procedure was used together with a modified Johnson-Cook constitutive relation and the Cockcroft-Latham fracture criterion since it is considered important to limit the number of material tests in design. Finally, results from 2D axisymmetric numerical simulations using the non-linear FEM code LS-DYNA are included, and the different findings are compared.

  19. Front-End electronics development for the new Resistive Plate Chamber detector of HADES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, A.; Belver, D.; Cabanelas, P.; Díaz, J.; Garzón, J. A.; González-Díaz, D.; Koenig, W.; Lange, J. S.; Marín, J.; Montes, N.; Skott, P.; Traxler, M.

    2007-11-01

    In this paper we present the new RPC wall, which is being installed in the HADES detector at Darmstadt GSI. It consists of time-of-flight (TOF) detectors used for both particle identification and triggering. Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC) detectors are becoming widely used because of their excellent TOF capabilities and reduced cost. The wall will contain 1024 RPC modules, covering an active area of around 7 m2, replacing the old TOFino detector at the low polar angle region. The excellent TOF and good charge resolutions of the new detector will improve the time resolution to values better than 100 ps. The Front-End electronics for the readout of the RPC signals is implemented with two types of boards to satisfy the space constraints: the Daughterboards are small boards that amplify the low level signals from the detector and provide fast discriminators for time of flight measurements, as well as an integrator for charge measurements. The Motherboard provides stable DC voltages and a stable ground, threshold DACs for the discriminators, multiplicity trigger and impedance matched paths for transfer of time window signals that contain information about time and charge. These signals are sent to a custom TDC board that label each event and send data through Ethernet to be conveniently stored.

  20. Multigap Resistive Plate Chambers for EAS study in the EEE Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbrescia, M.; An, S.; Antolini, R.; Badala, A.; Baldini Ferroli, R.; Bencivenni, G.; Blanco, F.; Bressan, E.; Chiavassa, A.; Chiri, C.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Coccia, E.; de Pasquale, S.; di Giovanni, A.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Imponente, G.; Kim, J.; La Rocca, P.; Librizzi, F.; Maggiora, A.; Menghetti, H.; Miozzi, S.; Moro, R.; Panareo, M.; Pappalardo, G.S.; Piragino, G.; Riggi, F.; Romano, F.; Sartorelli, G.; Sbarra, C.; Selvi, M.; Serci, S.; Williams, C.; Zichichi, A.; Zuyenski, R.

    The EEE (Extreme Energy Event) Project is an extensive air shower experiment devoted to the study of very high energy events through the detection at ground of the muon component of the shower. The detectors are installed inside many Italian High Schools, involving students in the experiment. The detector used is a tracking telescope made of 3 planes of Multi-gap Resistive Plate Chambers (MRPCs), a simplified, large and cheap version of the detector designed for the time of flight measurements (TOF) of the ALICE experiment at LHC. Exploiting the concept of the multiple small gas gaps combined with the use of high gain and fast gas mixture (Freon and SF6 based), the MRPCs show an overall time resolution of 100 ps. The particle tracking is performed equipping MRPCs with 24 copper strips read at both ends by front end electronics based on NINO ASIC and using commercial multi-hit TDCs. The MRPCs for the EEE experiment are built at CERN by Italian High School students and teachers under the supervision of INFN and Centro “E. Fermi” experts. After construction they are shipped to Italy and after preliminary tests they are installed inside the schools. Here we present the status and first results of the already operating stations.

  1. Analysis and interpretation of the performance degradation of glass Resistive Plate Chambers operated in streamer mode

    CERN Document Server

    Calcaterra, A; Patteri, P; Piccolo, M; Della Mea, G; Restello, S; Ferri, F; Musella, P; Redaelli, N; Tabarelli de Fatis, T; Tinti, G; Mannocchi, G; Trinchero, G

    2007-01-01

    The long-term stability of Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) with glass electrodes was studied for one year with a dedicated test station hosting about 10 m2 of detectors. RPCs were operated in streamer mode with a ternary gas mixture containing argon (27%), isobutane (9%) and tetrafluoroethane (64%). Environmental conditions were kept under control and, in particular, the water pollution in the gas, deemed responsible for the degradation of glass RPC performance, was monitored never to exceed 30 ppm in the exhaust line. Evidence for a substantial aging of the detectors was observed, resulting in a loss of efficiency correlated to an increased rate of spurious streamers. This can be ascribed to the chemical attack of the glass surface by hydrofluoric acid formed in the streamer process, as confirmed by detailed morphological and chemical analyses of the electrode surface. Our results strengthen the indication that the instability of glass RPCs in the long term is related to the use of fluorocarbons as quenching...

  2. Improvement of time resolution in large area single gap Resistive Plate Chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, A. D.; Majumder, G.; Mondal, N. K.; Pathaleswar; Satyanarayana, B.

    2017-02-01

    The intrinsic gain of a single gap Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC) is affected by several factors, e.g., variation in the thicknesses of glass electrode, button and side spacer, different composition of gas due to improper flow, leaks in the detector volume, etc. The position dependent gain is one of the dominant components of the time resolution of a large area single gap RPC. Besides, strip multiplicity as well as lateral position of the trajectory of the charged particle in RPC strip also result in variation of timing information. The observation of large signals produced by the charged particles passing close to the button spacers also has some repercussion on the overall timing resolution of an RPC. A new offline correction technique to achieve time resolution below 1 ns is reported in this paper. This technique is validated using an RPC cosmic ray telescope (1 × 1m2) at TIFR. We also suggest a few alternative solutions to improve the time resolution during the operational phase of the INO-ICAL experiment. The techniques presented here are useful not only for ICAL, but also for any detector deploying RPCs in large scale.

  3. Studies of purification of the Resistive Plate Chamber gas mixture for the Large Hadron Collider experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Capeans, M; Guida, R; Hahn, F; Haider, S

    2009-01-01

    The Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) installed as part of the large muon detectors at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) experiments use a gas mixture of 94.7% C2H2F4, 5% iC(4)H(10) and 0.3% SF6. Based on economical grounds, the design philosophy of the gas systems for the ATLAS and CMS RPC's foresees to recirculate the gas mixture in 90-95% closed loop circulation. At the LHC, RPC chambers are operated in a high radiation environment, conditions for which large amount of impurities in the return gas have been observed in earlier studies. They are potentially dangerous for the stable operation of the detectors, the materials in the detector and the gas system. While several purification stages have been foreseen in the present gas systems, chemical reactions between the absorber and the impurities are yet not well understood. Furthermore, the effects on the gas mixture of the foreseen factor 10 increase of luminosity for the LHC upgraded phase should be studied. We present the results of systematic studies of the...

  4. Response of Multi-strip Multi-gap Resistive Plate Chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Datta, Ushasi; Rahaman, A; Basu, P; Basu, J; Bemmerer, D; Boretzky, K; Elekes, Z; Kempe, M; Munzenberg, G; Simon, H; Sobiella, M; Stach, D; Wagner, A; Yakorev, D

    2015-01-01

    A prototype of Multi-strip Multi-gap Resistive Plate chamber (MMRPC) with active area 40 cm $\\times$ 20 cm has been developed at SINP, Kolkata. Detailed response of the developed detector was studied with the pulsed electron beam from ELBE at Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf. In this report the response of SINP developed MMRPC with different controlling parameters is described in details. The obtained time resolution ($\\sigma_t$) of the detector after slew correction was 91.5$ \\pm $3 ps. Position resolution measured along ($\\sigma_x$) and across ($\\sigma_y$) the strip was 2.8$\\pm$0.6 cm and 0.58 cm, respectively. The measured absolute efficiency of the detector for minimum ionizing particle like electron was 95.8$\\pm$1.3 $\\%$. Better timing resolution of the detector can be achieved by restricting the events to a single strip. The response of the detector was mainly in avalanche mode but a few percentage of streamer mode response was also observed. A comparison of the response of these two modes with trig...

  5. Renovating a Fusee Ceramique Barrel Vault

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamerling, M.W.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a proposal to renovate a Fusee Ceramique Barrel Vault with steel diagonals In 1956 two workshops, varying in height and span, were built in Wormerveer, The Netherlands. Both workshops were roofed with a concrete barrel vault with a thickness of 110 mm. The cylindrical vaults w

  6. Recent results from Crystal Barrel

    CERN Document Server

    Doser, Michael

    2000-01-01

    The Crystal Barrel detector has collected data on antiproton annihilation on Hydrogen and Deuterium at rest and at momenta up to 1940 MeV/c, accumulating a total of 600 M events with the goal of studying meson spectroscopy and searching for non-qbarq states. This large amount of data has allowed high statistics studies of exclusive final states produced under various initial conditions. Comparisons between different initial and final states greatly constrain the interpretation of these data sets. In particular, the requirement of consistency between fits of 3-body final state Dalitz plots is a powerful tool in the search for non-standard model resonances [1]. More recently, the study of the same Dalitz plot produced from antiproton annihilation on liquid and gaseous hydrogen, on deuterium or on liquid hydrogen at different center-of-mass energies has extended this approach to higher mass resonances.

  7. Calculation of the charge spectrum generated by ionizing particles in Resistive Plate Chambers at low gas gain

    CERN Document Server

    Fonte, P

    2012-01-01

    The charge spectrum generated by ionizing particles in Resistive Plate Chambers under Townsend avalanche conditions, that is, for sufficiently small avalanches not affected by space-charge, has not been calculated from first principles. In this article it is shown that, just neglecting cluster statistics, it follows closely the statistical gamma distribution. Remarkably, this distribution seems to describe as well data measured beyond these assumptions, rising some interpretation issues.

  8. Long-term potentiation in the neonatal rat barrel cortex in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Shuming; Yang, Jenq-Wei; Sun, Haiyan; Kilb, Werner; Luhmann, Heiko J

    2012-07-11

    Long-term potentiation (LTP) is important for the activity-dependent formation of early cortical circuits. In the neonatal rodent barrel cortex, LTP has been studied only in vitro. We combined voltage-sensitive dye imaging with extracellular multielectrode recordings to study whisker stimulation-induced LTP in the whisker-to-barrel cortex pathway of the neonatal rat barrel cortex in vivo. Single whisker stimulation at 2 Hz for 10 min induced an age-dependent expression of LTP in postnatal day (P) 0 to P14 rats, with the strongest expression of LTP at P3-P5. The magnitude of LTP was largest in the activated barrel-related column, smaller in the surrounding septal region, and no LTP could be observed in the neighboring barrel. Current source density analyses revealed an LTP-associated increase of synaptic current sinks in layer IV/lower layer II/III at P3-P5 and in the cortical plate/upper layer V at P0-P1. Our study demonstrates for the first time an age-dependent and spatially confined LTP in the barrel cortex of the newborn rat in vivo.

  9. Ni/Cu/Ag plated contacts: A study of resistivity and contact adhesion for crystalline-Si solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    ur Rehman, Atteq; Lee, Sang Hee; Bhopal, Muhammad Fahad; Lee, Soo Hong

    2016-07-01

    Ni/Cu/Ag plated contacts were examined as an alternate to Ag screen printed contacts for silicon (Si) solar cell metallization. To realize a reliable contact for industrial applications, the contact resistance and its adhesion to Si substrates were evaluated. Si surface roughness by picosecond (ps) laser ablation of silicon-nitride (SiNx) antireflection coating (ARC) was done in order to prepare the patterns. The sintering process after Ni/Cu/Ag full metallization in the form of the post-annealing process was applied to investigate the contact resistivity and adhesion. A very low contact resistivity of approximately 0.5 mΩcm2 has been achieved with measurements made by the transfer length method (TLM). Thin finger lines of about 26 μm wide and a line resistance of 0.51 Ω/cm have been realized by plating technology. Improved contact adhesion by combining the ps-laser-ablation and post-annealing process has been achieved. We have shown the peel-off strengths >1 N/mm with a higher average adhesion of 1.9 N/mm. Our pull-tab adhesion tests demonstrate excellent strength well above the wafer breakage force. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  10. CALIFA Barrel prototype detector characterisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietras, B., E-mail: benjamin.pietras@usc.es [Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, E-15782 (Spain); Gascón, M. [Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, E-15782 (Spain); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Rd. Berkeley, CA 94701 (United States); Álvarez-Pol, H. [Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, E-15782 (Spain); Bendel, M. [Technische Universität München, 80333 (Germany); Bloch, T. [Technische Universität Darmstadt, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Casarejos, E. [Universidade de Vigo, E-36310 (Spain); Cortina-Gil, D.; Durán, I. [Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, E-15782 (Spain); Fiori, E. [Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung (GSI), D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Gernhäuser, R. [Technische Universität München, 80333 (Germany); González, D. [Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, E-15782 (Spain); Kröll, T. [Technische Universität Darmstadt, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Le Bleis, T. [Technische Universität München, 80333 (Germany); Montes, N. [Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, E-15782 (Spain); Nácher, E. [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CSIC, E-28006 Madrid (Spain); Robles, M. [Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, E-15782 (Spain); Perea, A. [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CSIC, E-28006 Madrid (Spain); Vilán, J.A. [Universidade de Vigo, E-36310 (Spain); Winkel, M. [Technische Universität München, 80333 (Germany)

    2013-11-21

    Well established in the field of scintillator detection, Caesium Iodide remains at the forefront of scintillators for use in modern calorimeters. Recent developments in photosensor technology have lead to the production of Large Area Avalanche Photo Diodes (LAAPDs), a huge advancement on traditional photosensors in terms of high internal gain, dynamic range, magnetic field insensitivity, high quantum efficiency and fast recovery time. The R{sup 3}B physics programme has a number of requirements for its calorimeter, one of the most challenging being the dual functionality as both a calorimeter and a spectrometer. This involves the simultaneous detection of ∼300MeV protons and gamma rays ranging from 0.1 to 20 MeV. This scintillator – photosensor coupling provides an excellent solution in this capacity, in part due to the near perfect match of the LAAPD quantum efficiency peak to the light output wavelength of CsI(Tl). Modern detector development is guided by use of Monte Carlo simulations to predict detector performance, nonetheless it is essential to benchmark these simulations against real data taken with prototype detector arrays. Here follows an account of the performance of two such prototypes representing different polar regions of the Barrel section of the forthcoming CALIFA calorimeter. Measurements were taken for gamma–ray energies up to 15.1 MeV (Maier-Leibnitz Laboratory, Garching, Germany) and for direct irradiation with a 180 MeV proton beam (The Svedberg Laboratoriet, Uppsala, Sweden). Results are discussed in light of complementary GEANT4 simulations. -- Highlights: •Prototypes corresponding to different sections of the forthcoming CALIFA Barrel calorimeter were tested. •The response to both high energy gamma rays and high energy protons was observed. •This response was reproduced by use of R3BROOT simulations, the geometry extrapolated to predict performance of the complete calorimeter. •Effects such as energy straggling of wrapping

  11. A Study on Criteria for Barrel Lifetime

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马吉胜; 郑坚; 邓辉咏

    2012-01-01

    Several criteria for barrel lifetime were summarized and discussed. Based on large amount of test data, the ad- vantages and disadvantages of the criteria were analyzed and the requirements for the easy and practical criterion were put forward. Then, a new criterion based on the radical wear at the start points of the barrel lands was proposed. The close in- terrelationship between the radical wear and interior ballistic characteristics was illuminated theoretically and experimental- ly. The research results show the great value of this criterion to solve the problem of barrel lifetime.

  12. The flat-plate plant-microbial fuel cell: the effect of a new design on internal resistances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helder Marjolein

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Due to a growing world population and increasing welfare, energy demand worldwide is increasing. To meet the increasing energy demand in a sustainable way, new technologies are needed. The Plant-Microbial Fuel Cell (P-MFC is a technology that could produce sustainable bio-electricity and help meeting the increasing energy demand. Power output of the P-MFC, however, needs to be increased to make it attractive as a renewable and sustainable energy source. To increase power output of the P-MFC internal resistances need to be reduced. With a flat-plate P-MFC design we tried to minimize internal resistances compared to the previously used tubular P-MFC design. With the flat-plate design current and power density per geometric planting area were increased (from 0.15 A/m2 to 1.6 A/m2 and from 0.22 W/m2 to and 0.44 W/m2as were current and power output per volume (from 7.5 A/m3 to 122 A/m3 and from 1.3 W/m3 to 5.8 W/m3. Internal resistances times volume were decreased, even though internal resistances times membrane surface area were not. Since the membrane in the flat-plate design is placed vertically, membrane surface area per geometric planting area is increased, which allows for lower internal resistances times volume while not decreasing internal resistances times membrane surface area. Anode was split into three different sections on different depths of the system, allowing to calculate internal resistances on different depths. Most electricity was produced where internal resistances were lowest and where most roots were present; in the top section of the system. By measuring electricity production on different depths in the system, electricity production could be linked to root growth. This link offers opportunities for material-reduction in new designs. Concurrent reduction in material use and increase in power output brings the P-MFC a step closer to usable energy density and economic feasibility.

  13. Deburring by centrifugal barrel tumbling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillespie, L.K.

    1976-08-01

    The reliability of small precision mechanisms greatly depends upon the production of burr-free, sharp-edged parts. Centrifugal barrel finishing (Harperizing) is one of the few processes capable of producing these conditions. Burrs less than 0.001-in. thick by 0.001-in. high (25.4 x 25.4 ..mu..m) can be removed from 303 Se stainless steel, 1018 steel, and 6061-T6 aluminum with dimensional changes in the order of 0.0001-in. (2.54 ..mu..m) and final edge radii of 0.003 in. (76.2 ..mu..m). These conditions can be produced in batch lots in 20 minutes or less. Surface finishes can be reduced from 45 to 25 or 35 microinches (1.15 to 0.68 or 0.89 ..mu..m), with 60-minute cycle times. Stock losses appear to be repeatable within +-0.00006 in. (1.524 ..mu..m). Very small parts receive less action than parts 0.5 in. (12.7 mm) in dia.

  14. Celebrating the Barrel Toroid commissioning

    CERN Multimedia

    Peter Jenni

    ATLAS invited Funding Agency representatives and Laboratory Heads directly related to the funding and construction of the Barrel Toroid for a small ceremony on 13th December 2006 at Point 1, in order to mark the successful first full excitation of the BT (see last eNews). On that date, which was during the December CERN Council week, several of the Funding Agency Heads or their representatives could be present, representing CEA France, INFN Italy, BMBF Germany, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Russia, JINR Dubna and CERN. Speeches were delivered by the ATLAS spokesperson Peter Jenni thanking the Funding Partners in the name of the Collaboration, by Magnet Project Leader Herman ten Kate tracing the BT construction history, and by the CERN Director-General Robert Aymar congratulating all those who have contributed to the successful project. Herman ten Kate addressing the delegates. The text of the introductory address by Peter Jenni is reproduced here. "It is a great pleasure for me to welcome you all here...

  15. Liquid Argon Barrel Cryostat Arrived

    CERN Multimedia

    Pailler, P

    Last week the first of three cryostats for the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeter arrived at CERN. It had travelled for 46 days over several thousand kilometers from Japan to CERN. During three years it has been fabricated by Kawasaki Heavy Industries Ltd. at Harima, close to Kobe, under contract from Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) of the U.S.. This cryostat consists of two concentric cylinders made of aluminium: the outer vacuum vessel with a diameter of 5.5 m and a length of 7 m, and the inner cold vessel which will contain the electromagnetic barrel calorimeter immersed in liquid argon. The total weight will be 270 tons including the detectors and the liquid argon. The cryostat is now located in building 180 where it will be equipped with 64 feed-throughs which serve for the passage of 122,880 electrical lines which will carry the signals of the calorimeter. After integration of the calorimeter, the solenoidal magnet of ATLAS will be integrated in the vacuum vessel. A final cold test of the cryostat inc...

  16. A study on the effect of flat plate friction resistance on speed performance prediction of full scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Dong-Woo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Flat plate friction lines hare been used in the process to estimate speed performance of full-scale ships in model tests. The results of the previous studies showed considerable differences in determining form factors depending on changes in plate friction lines and Reynolds numbers. These differences had a great influence on estimation of speed performance of full-scale ships. This study- was conducted in two parts. In the first part, the scale effect of the form factor depending on change in the Reynolds number was studied based on CFD, in connection with three kinds of friction resistance curves: the ITTC-1957, the curve proposed by Grigson (1993; 1996, and the curve developed by Katsui et al (2005. In the second part, change in the form factor by three kinds of

  17. Cobalt-Base Alloy Gun Barrel Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    are presented in Section 5. 2. Materials and methods The composition of the cobalt -base alloy (CBA) is presented in Table 1. The production of this... Cobalt -Base Alloy Gun Barrel Study by William S. de Rosset and Jonathan S. Montgomery ARL-RP-0491 July 2014 A reprint...21005-5069 ARL-RP-0491 July 2014 Cobalt -Base Alloy Gun Barrel Study William S. de Rosset and Jonathan S. Montgomery Weapons and Materials

  18. Work on the ATLAS semiconductor tracker barrel

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2005-01-01

    Precision work is performed on the semiconductor tracker barrel of the ATLAS experiment. All work on these delicate components must be performed in a clean room so that impurities in the air, such as dust, do not contaminate the detector. The semiconductor tracker will be mounted in the barrel close to the heart of the ATLAS experiment to detect the path of particles produced in proton-proton collisions.

  19. Understanding and Predicting Gun Barrel Erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-01

    spallation [52] driven by choked high pressure gas [34] (see Section 2.3). Underwood and coworkers have experimentally observed that deep, open cracks are the...Coating spallation and delamination. • Surface-projectile engagement. A complete, automated simulation, accurately covering all of these phenomena has yet...IWTCs in blind holes drilled into the exterior of a 120 mm barrel. Using ultrasound to determine the barrel thickness, the thermocouples were lo- cated

  20. The TileCal Barrel Test Assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Leitner, R

    On 30th October, the mechanics test assembly of the central barrel of the ATLAS tile hadronic calorimeter was completed in building 185. It started on 23rd June and is the second wheel for the Tilecal completely assembled this year. The ATLAS engineers and technicians are quick: instead of the 27 weeks initially foreseen for assembling the central barrel of the tile hadronic calorimeter (Tilecal) in building 185, they inserted the last of the 64 modules on 30th October after only 19 weeks. In part, this was due to the experience gained in the dry run assembly of the first extended barrel, produced in Spain, in spring this year (see Bulletin 23/2003); however, the central barrel is twice as long - and twice as heavy. With a length of 6.4 metres, an outer diameter of 8.5 metres and an inner diameter of 4.5 metres, the object weight is 1300 tonnes. The whole barrel cylinder is supported by the stainless steel support structure weighing only 27 tons. The barrel also has to have the right shape: over the whole 8...

  1. First SCT Barrel arrives at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Apsimon, R

    Mid-January saw the arrival at CERN of Barrel #3, the first of four SCT barrels. The barrels are formed as low-mass cylinders of carbon fibre skins on a honeycomb carbon core. They are manufactured in industry and then have all the final precision supports added and the final geometric metrology carried out at Geneva University. Barrel #3, complete with its 384 silicon detector modules, arrived by road from Oxford University in England where the modules were mounted using a purpose-built robot. The modules had been selected from the output of all four barrel module building clusters (in Japan, Scandinavia, USA and the UK). Since Barrel #3 will be exposed to high radiation levels within the tracker volume, these modules, representing over half a million readout channels, have been extensively tested at their operational temperature of around -25 degrees Celcius and at voltages of up to 500V. The dangers of shipping such a fragile component of ATLAS were apparent to all and considerable attention was focused...

  2. Performance testing of a long-strip two-end readout multi-gap resistive plate chamber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-Bin; WANG Yi; LUO Ming; LI Yuan-Jing; CHENG Jian-Ping

    2009-01-01

    Multi-gap Resistive Plate Chamber (MRPC) is a new generation of gas detector with good tim-ing and spacial resolution, whose technique is widely applied in some recent high energy (nuclear) physics experiments. In this letter, we report a long-strip two-end readout MRPC and its test beam performance. The measurements show that the long-strip performs a transmission line characteristic and the impedance is independent of the length of strip. The MRPC module we developed is presented to gain a timing resolution of~80 ps and a spacial resolution of ~6.4 mm. The possible application of the MRPC is also discussed.

  3. Synthesis of Corrosion-resistant Nanocrystalline Nickle-copper Alloy Coatings by Pulse-plating Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. Ghosh

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Bright and smooth nanocrystalline Monel-type Ni-Cu alloy gets deposited from complex citrate electrolyte by pulse electrolysis. Transmission electron microscopy studies have revealedthat the deposited Ni-Cu alloy was nanocrystalline in nature and it comprised a two-phase (fcc+Ll, mixture. The presence of twins could be seen in the nanocrystals. The Ni-Cu alloysprepared by pulse electrolysis were finer grained (- 2.5-28.5 nm than those deposited by direct current method. Nelson-Riley function has been used to calculate the lattice parameters for both the pulse current-plated and direct current-plated alloys from x-ray diffraction analysis. The microhardness values for pulse current-plated alloys were higher than for the direct currentplated alloys. The internal stresses of both the pulse current-deposited and the direct currentdeposited alloys have also been measured; the values were lower for pulse current-plated alloys. Potentiodynamic polarisation studies were carried out in aerated and deaerated neutral 3.0 Wt per cent NaCl solution and instantaneous corrosion current density of the plated alloy was determined and compared with the Monel-400 alloy. It was found that nanocrystalline pulse current-N,-35 8 Wt p;r cent copper alloy uxh~bitedlo wer instantaneous value of corros~onc urrent densirv than that of soeclrnens with direct current method and Monel-400 allov The d~ssolut~on ~ ~~~~-~ behaviour ofthe deposited nanocrystalline material was found to be more like general corrosion rather than localised corrosion as in the case of Monel-400 alloy.

  4. Assessment of the Resistance of a Polymethylmethacrylate (Pmma Dynamic Compression Plate (DCP Prototype Tested on Osteotomized Canine Femurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonel Cardona R.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Femur fractures are the most frequent long bone fractures in small animals. Due to the femur’s anatomical position, it is difficult to immobilize, and therefore internal fixations are very useful. Dynamic compression plates (DCP provide high stability, are durable, minimize fragment movement and promote primary healing of the bone. Advantages of this treatment include anatomical reconstruction, early mobility and carrying capacity of the affected limb. Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA is an acrylic resin that has proved very useful in bone tumor treatment, cranial deformation prosthesis, percutaneous vertebroplasty and testicular prosthesis in animals. The purpose of this study was to manufacture DCP-PMMA and test its resistance to the different forces present in a fracture. Forty-eight (48 3.5MM x 4-hole DCP were made from an alginate mold. Six (6 femurs were obtained from canine cadavers zeighing from 10 to 20 kg, which underwent osteotomy simulating an oblique fracture. The plates were subsequently positioned in the osteotomized bones to submit them to the various forces involved in a fracture. The DCP-PMMA resisted a torque force of 2.83 newton/metres and a compression and flexion force of 0.21 kilonewton. The obtained resistance of the DCP-PMMA was an average of 20 kg per force. The results of this study show that it is possible to make a DCP-PMMA 3.5 mm x 4-hole, the resistance of which is of 20 kg against the three applied forces, and that it can be used to stabilize long bone fractures subjected to a pressure of less than 20 kg.

  5. Effect of Operation Voltage and Gas Ratio on Time Resolution of Resistive Plate Chamber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>RPC is a gas detector made of high resistive material, which aims at detecting the track and time of high energy charged particles. The techniques for RPC are simple, which makes it easy for mass

  6. COMPARE THE BEHAVIOR FACTOR OF THE ULTIMATE RESISTANCE OF MOMENT FRAME, PLAIN AND PERFORATED STEEL PLATE SHEAR WALLS AND BUCKLING RESTRAINED BRACE AS YIELDING METAL DAMPER

    OpenAIRE

    Hamid Reza Ashrafi; Peyman Beiranvand; Kasra Shahbazian; Shaahin Bidmeshki; Somaye Yaghooti

    2016-01-01

    Steel moment frame systems, steel plate shear walls and also buckling restrained brace (BRB) are considered as the most widely used seismic resistant systems of the world. Firstly, in this research, in order to validate the finite element models, the tested sample of steel plate shear walls of 4 floors at the University of Alberta, Canada, and the tested sample of buckling restrained brace at the University of Berkeley California, with the software ABAQUS 6.10-1 were used. Then, the obtained ...

  7. Prototype tests with the 3D Barrel DIRC of PANDA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzhygadlo, Roman; Gerhardt, Andreas; Lehmann, Dorothe; Patsyuk, Maria; Schepers, Georg; Schwarz, Carsten; Schwiening, Jochen [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Kalicy, Grzegorz [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Goethe University, Frankfurt (Germany); Jefferson Lab, Newport News, Virginia (United States); Krebs, Marvin; Peters, Klaus; Zuehlsdorf, Marko [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Goethe University, Frankfurt (Germany); Kumawat, Harphool [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India); Collaboration: PANDA Cherenkov Group of the PANDA-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    The prototype tests of the Barrel DIRC counter, under development for the future PANDA experiment at FAIR, aim at the improvement of the original design, applied successfully by BABAR. Subjects of the R and D for this 3D Cherenkov counter include the focusing system and fast photon timing as well as the width of the radiators and the shape of the expansion volume. A modular prototype was built which allows an easy exchange of all key components under investigation. Prototype radiators from several optical companies, were tested in hadronic particle beams at CERN and at GSI. Data were recorded with narrow bars as well as with wide plates, coupled via an optional focusing lens system to a large solid fused silica prism, used as expansion volume. We present a study of the performance of the prototype in several configurations with a focus on the single photon Cherenkov angle resolution and photon yield.

  8. Effects of SF$_{6}$ on the avalanche mode operation of a real-sized double-gap resistive plate chamber for the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Ahn Sung Hwan; Hong, B; Hong, S J; Ito, M; Kim, B I; Kim, J H; Kim, Y J; Kim, Y U; Koo, D G; Lee, H W; Lee, K B; Lee, K S; Lee, S J; Lim, J K; Moon, D H; Nam, S K; Park, S; Park, W J; Rhee, J T; Ryu, M S; Shim, H H; Sim, K S; Kang, T I

    2005-01-01

    We present the design and the test, results for a real-sized prototype resistive plate chamber by using cosmic-ray muons for the forward region of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). In particular, we investigate the effects of adding SF/sub 6/ to the gas mixture for the avalanche mode operation of a resistive plate chamber. A small fraction of SF/sub 6/ is very effective in suppressing streamer signals in a resistive plate chamber. The shapes of the muon detection efficiency and the muon cluster size remain similar, but are shifted to higher operating voltage by SF/sub 6/. The noise cluster rate and size are not influenced by SF/sub 6/.

  9. Corrosion Mechanism of Corrosion-Resistant Steel Developed for Bottom Plate of Cargo Oil Tanks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feilong SUN; Xiaogang LI; Fan ZHANG; Xuequn CHENG; Cheng ZHOU; Nianchun WU; Yuqun YIN

    2013-01-01

    A new type of corrosion-resistant steel consisting of ferrite and bainite phases was developed for cargo oil tanks of crude oil tankers.The corrosion rate of this new steel was 0.22 mm/a,which was equivalent to ca.1/5 of the criterion (≤ 1 mm/a) for corrosion-resistant steels.The composition and element distribution of the corrosion products were investigated by micro-Raman spectrometry and energy dispersive spectrometer.The results demonstrated that the corrosion product was composed of α-FeOOH,Fe3O4 and a continuous Cu enrichment layer.This kind of corrosion product was protective to the steel matrix and accounted for the enhancement of the corrosion resistance of the new developed steel.

  10. Study of timing response and charge spectra of glass based Resistive Plate Chamber detectors for INO-ICAL experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaur, A.; Kumar, A.; Naimuddin, Md.

    2017-03-01

    Resistive Plate chambers (RPCs) are robust and affordable gaseous detectors that combine low cost with excellent timing, good spatial resolution and fast response to the incoming particles. The India Based Neutrino Observatory is an approved project aimed at building a magnetised Iron Calorimeter (ICAL) detector to study Neutrino physics and related issues. The ICAL experiment will utilize about 29000 RPC's as active detector elements, sandwiched between alternate plates of thick iron. The RPC detectors will be used to detect muons produced from the atmospheric neutrinos interaction with an iron target. The spatial information of the muons will be extracted from the two dimensional readout and the hit position in the respective layers. The up going and down going directionality will be obtained using the time stamp of hits in the active detectors. The charge induced by the particle and its behaviour with respect to the applied voltage play a significant role in designing the readout electronics for the detector. In this paper, we present the timing and charge measurement of single gap glass based RPC detectors. We will also report about studies on the dependence of the timing and charge response of these RPC detectors as a function of the gas composition.

  11. Preliminary results of Resistive Plate Chambers operated with eco-friendly gas mixtures for application in the CMS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Abbrescia, Marcello; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Cauwenbergh, Simon Marc D; Ferrini, Mauro; Muhammad, Saleh; Passamontic, L; Pierluigi, Daniele; Piccolo, Davide; Primavera, Federica; Russo, Alessandro; Savianoc, G; Tytgat, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The operations of Resistive Plate Chambers in LHC experiments require F-based gases for optimal performance. Recent regulations demand the use of environmentally unfriendly F-based gases to be limited or banned. In view of the CMS experiment upgrade several tests are ongoing to measure the performance of the detector in terms of efficiency, streamer probability, induced charge and time resolution. Prototype chambers with readout pads and with the standard cms electronic setup are under test. In this talk preliminary results on performance of RPCs operated with a potential eco-friendly gas candidate 1,3,3,3-Tetrafluoropropene, commercially known as HFO-1234ze and with CO2 based gas mixtures are presented and discussed for the possible application in the CMS experiment.

  12. Fluid modeling of resistive plate chambers: impact of transport data on development of streamers and induced signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bošnjaković, D.; Petrović, Z. Lj; Dujko, S.

    2016-10-01

    We discuss the implementation of transport data in modeling of resistive plate chambers (RPCs), which are used for timing and triggering purposes in many high energy physics experiments. Particularly, we stress the importance of making a distinction between flux and bulk transport data when non-conservative collisions, such as attachment and/or ionization, are present. A 1.5-dimensional fluid model with photoionization is employed to demonstrate how the duality of transport data affects the calculated signals of the ATLAS triggering RPC and ALICE timing RPC used at CERN, and also a timing RPC with high \\text{S}{{\\text{F}}6} content. It is shown that in the case of timing RPCs, the difference between the induced charges calculated using flux and bulk transport data can reach several hundred percent at lower operating electric fields. The effects of photoionization and space charge are also discussed.

  13. Preliminary results of Resistive Plate Chambers operated with eco-friendly gas mixtures for application in the CMS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Abbrescia, M

    2016-01-01

    The operations of Resistive Plate Chambers in LHC experiments require Fluorine based (F-based) gases for optimal performance. Recent European regulations demand the use of environmentally unfriendly F-based gases to be limited or banned. In view of the CMS experiment upgrade, several tests are ongoing to measure the performance of the detector with these new ecological gas mixtures, in terms of efficiency, streamer probability, induced charge and time resolution. Prototype chambers with readout pads and with the standard CMS electronic setup are under test. In this paper preliminary results on performance of RPCs operated with a potential eco-friendly gas candidate 1,3,3,3-Tetrafluoropropene, commercially known as HFO-1234ze, with CO2 and CF3I based gas mixtures are presented and discussed for the possible application in the CMS experiment.

  14. Iron Blocks of CMS Magnet Barrel Yoke.

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    On the occasion of presenting the CMS Award 2000 to Deggendorfer Werft und Eisenbau GmbH the delivered blocks were inspected at CERN Point 5. From left to right: H. Gerwig (CERN, CMS Magnet Barrel Yoke Coordinator), G. Waurick (CERN), F. Leher (DWE, Project Engineer) and W. Schuster (DWE, Project Manager).

  15. The barrel electromagnetic calorimeter on OPAL

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loiez

    1993-01-01

    The two particle beams collide at the centre of this barrel and eject a large number of different particles. The energy of some of these particles will be measured by this electromagnetic calorimeter by absorbing all of the particle's energy. The OPAL detector was used on the LEP accelerator, which ran from 1989 to 2000.

  16. Last Few Metres for the Barrel Calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    Nyman, T.

    On Friday 4th November, the ATLAS Barrel Calorimeter was moved from its assembly point at the side of the ATLAS cavern to the centre of the toroidal magnet system. The detector was finally aligned, to the precision of within a millimetre, on Wednesday 9th November. The ATLAS installation team, led by Tommi Nyman, after having positioned the Barrel Calorimeter in its final location in the ATLAS experimental cavern UX15. The Barrel Calorimeter which will absorb and measure the energy of photons, electrons and hadrons at the core of the ATLAS detector is 8.6 meters in diameter, 6.8 meters long, and weighs over 1600 Tonnes. It consists of two concentric cylindrical detector elements. The innermost comprises aluminium pressure vessels containing the liquid argon electromagnetic calorimeter and the solenoid magnet. The outermost is an assembly of 64 hadron tile calorimeter sectors. Assembled 18 meters away from its final position, the Barrel Calorimeter was relocated with the help of a railway, which allows ...

  17. ATLAS Barrel Toroid magnet reached nominal field

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

     On 9 November the barrel toroid magnet reached its nominal field of 4 teslas, with an electrical current of 21 000 amperes (21 kA) passing through the eight superconducting coils as shown on this graph

  18. Celebration for the ATLAS Barrel Toroid magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    Representatives from Funding Agencies and Barrel Toroid Magnet Laboratories during the ceremony. From left to right: Jean Zinn-Justin (Head of DAPNIA/CEA/Saclay), CERN Director-General Robert Aymar, and Roberto Petronzio (President INFN).Allan Clark (DPNC University Geneva) and Enrique Fernandez (IFAE Barcelona) were among the guests visiting the ATLAS cavern. The barrel toroid is visible in the background. A celebration took place at Point 1 on 13 December to toast the recent powering-up of the ATLAS barrel toroid magnet to full field (Bulletin No. 47-48/06). About 70 guests were invited to attend, mainly composed of representatives from funding partners and key members of the laboratory management teams of the barrel toroid magnet, representing CEA France, INFN Italy, BMBF Germany, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Russia, JINR Dubna and CERN. An introductory speech by ATLAS spokesperson Peter Jenni the scene for evening. This was followed by the ATLAS magnet system project leader Herman Ten Kate's account of the...

  19. ATLAS semiconductor tracker installed into its barrel

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2005-01-01

    The ATLAS silicon tracker is installed in the silicon tracker barrel. Absolute precision was required in this operation to ensure that the tracker was inserted without damage through minimal clearance. The installation was performed in a clean room on the CERN site so that no impurities in the air would contaminate the tracker's systems.

  20. ALEPH end-cap and barrel

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loiez

    1993-01-01

    The end-cap is pulled away from the barrel on the ALEPH detector so that the hadronic calorimeter and muon chambers are revealed. The end-cap maximises the data available from particles produced along the direction of the beam. The workers on the inner part of the detector give a sense of scale.

  1. Telemetry system for the transmission of data from projectiles during the acceleration phase in the gun barrel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner, V.

    1984-05-01

    A ballistic telemetry system reliable for accelerations up 100,00 g was developed. It consist of industrially produced thick layer 10 mm x 10 mm components which can be assembled to a telemetry system according to the unit box principle depending on user requirements. The electronic circuits are fixed in the gun barrel with epoxy resin. The short time phenomena and the limited space require analog data transmission. The 30 mm barrels used for interior ballistics tests and the block diagram of the measuring system are described. The results of the axial acceleration measurements show very clearly the effect of the injection resistance at the beginning of the projectile motion, and by integration provide the temporal evolution of the projectile velocity in the barrel. The measurements of the transverse acceleration clearly show the effect of the barrel curvature and the gravitational force. A wire and an optoelectronic transmission system were developed.

  2. Monobactam and aminoglycoside combination therapy against metallo-beta-lactamase-producing multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa screened using a 'break-point checkerboard plate'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araoka, Hideki; Baba, Masaru; Takagi, Shinsuke; Matsuno, Naofumi; Ishiwata, Kazuya; Nakano, Nobuaki; Tsuji, Masanori; Yamamoto, Hisashi; Seo, Sachiko; Asano-Mori, Yuki; Uchida, Naoyuki; Masuoka, Kazuhiro; Wake, Atsushi; Taniguchi, Shuichi; Yoneyama, Akiko

    2010-03-01

    Metallo-beta-lactamase-producing multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MDR P. aeruginosa) is a cause of life-threatening infections. With parenteral colistin not available in Japan, we treated MDR P. aeruginosa sepsis with monobactam and aminoglycoside combination therapy, with screening using a 'break-point checkerboard plate'.

  3. Performance of a large forward resistive plate chamber for the CMS /LHC under high radiation environment

    CERN Document Server

    Ahn, S H; Bahk, S Y; Hong, B; Hong, S J; Kim, K H; Kim, Y J; Kim, Y U; Koo, D G; Lee, K S; Lee, S J; Nam, S K; Park, S; Rhee, J T; Seo, S W; Sim, K S

    2001-01-01

    We present the first beam test results of a real size prototype RPC for the endcap region of the CMS, one of large detectors at CERN LHC. The chamber was built with relatively low resistivity bakelite made in Korea and was operated successfully at the Gamma Irradiation Facility at CERN under the highest photon flux available, which corresponds to an effective cluster rate up to about 800 Hz/cm/sup 2 /. The cross-talk effects between strips and sectors have been studied extensively. The high voltage plateau, which satisfies the CMS requirements for efficiency and the number of strips fired per cluster, extends to at least 300 V. The time resolution has been measured to be better than 1.3 ns in this HV plateau region. These results demonstrate that the current design of the device can be used as a muon trigger detector for the CMS forward region. (13 refs).

  4. Barrel calorimeter of the CMD-3 detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shebalin, V. E., E-mail: V.E.Shebalin@inp.nsk.su; Anisenkov, A. V.; Aulchenko, V. M.; Bashtovoy, N. S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation); Epifanov, D. A. [University of Tokyo, Department of Physics (Japan); Epshteyn, L. B.; Grebenuk, A. A.; Ignatov, F. V.; Erofeev, A. L.; Kovalenko, O. A.; Kozyrev, A. N.; Kuzmin, A. S.; Logashenko, I. B.; Mikhailov, K. Yu.; Razuvaev, G. P.; Ruban, A. A.; Shwartz, B. A.; Talyshev, A. A.; Titov, V. M.; Yudin, Yu. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    The structure of the barrel calorimeter of the CMD-3 detector is presented in this work. The procedure of energy calibration of the calorimeter and the method of photon energy restoration are described. The distinctive feature of this barrel calorimeter is its combined structure; it is composed of two coaxial subsystems: a liquid xenon calorimeter and a crystalline CsI calorimeter. The calorimeter spatial resolution of the photon conversion point is about 2 mm, which corresponds to an angular resolution of ∼6 mrad. The energy resolution of the calorimeter is about 8% for photons with energy of 200 MeV and 4% for photons with energy of 1 GeV.

  5. Effectiveness of antibiotic combination therapy as evaluated by the Break-point Checkerboard Plate method for multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa in clinical use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Itaru; Yamaguchi, Tetsuo; Tsukimori, Ayaka; Sato, Akihiro; Fukushima, Shinji; Mizuno, Yasutaka; Matsumoto, Tetsuya

    2014-04-01

    Multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MDRP) strains are defined as having resistance to the following 3 groups of antibiotics: carbapenems, aminoglycosides, and fluoroquinolones. Antibiotic combinations have demonstrated increased activity in vitro compared with a single agent. As an in vitro method of determining the combination activity of antibiotics, the Break-point Checkerboard Plate (BC-plate) can be used routinely in clinical microbiology laboratories. We evaluated the effectiveness of the BC-plate for MDRP infections in clinical settings. We retrospectively selected cases of MDRP infection treated with combination therapy of antibiotics in Tokyo Medical University Hospital (1015 beds), Tokyo, Japan, from November 2010 to October 2012. A total of 28 MDRP strains were clinically isolated from 28 patients during the study period. This study design is a case series of MDRP infection. Six infections among the 28 patients were treated based on the results of the BC-plate assay, and the 6 strains tested positive for MBL. One patient had pneumonia, 3 had urinary tract infections, 1 had vertebral osteomyelitis, and 1 had nasal abscess. The combination of aztreonam with amikacin demonstrated the most frequently recognized in vitro effect (5 patients). Next, aztreonam with ciprofloxacin and piperacillin with amikacin revealed equivalent in vitro effects (3 patients, respectively). The clinical cure rate was 83.3% (5/6 patients). Antibiotic combination therapy based on the results of the BC-plate assay might indicate the effective therapy against MDRP infection in clinical settings.

  6. Long Term Performance Studies of Large Oil-Free Bakelite Resistive Plate Chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Ganai, Rajesh; Shiroya, Mehul Kumar; Agarwal, Kshitij; Ahammed, Zubayer; Choudhury, Subikash; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis

    2016-01-01

    Several high energy physics and neutrino physics experiments worldwide require large-size RPCs to cover wide acceptances. The muon tracking systems in the Iron calorimeter (ICAL) in the INO experiment, India and the near detector in DUNE at Fermilab are two such examples. A (240 cm $\\times$ 120 cm $\\times$ 0.2 cm) bakelite RPC has been built and tested at Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Kolkata, using indigenous materials procured from the local market. No additional lubricant, like oil has been used on the electrode surfaces for smoothening. The chamber is in operation for $>$ 365 days. We have tested the chamber for its long term operation. The leakage current, bulk resistivity, efficiency, noise rate and time resolution of the chamber have been found to be quite stable during the testing peroid. It showed an efficiency $>$ 95$\\%$ with an average time resolution of $\\sim$0.83 ns at the point of measurement at 9000 V throughout the testing period. Details of the long term performance of the chamber have be...

  7. Recent results and performance of the multi-gap resistive plate chambers network for the EEE Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbrescia, M.; Avanzini, C.; Baldini, L.; Baldini Ferroli, R.; Batignani, G.; Bencivenni, G.; Bossini, E.; Chiavassa, A.; Cicalò, C.; Cifarelli, L.; Coccia, E.; Corvaglia, A.; De Gruttola, D.; De Pasquale, S.; Di Giovanni, A.; D`Incecco, M.; Dreucci, M.; Fabbri, F. L.; Fattibene, E.; Ferraro, A.; Frolov, V.; Galeotti, P.; Garbini, M.; Gemme, G.; Gnesi, I.; Grazzi, S.; Gustavino, C.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; La Rocca, P.; Licciulli, F.; Maggiora, A.; Maragoto Rodriguez, O.; Maron, G.; Martelli, B.; Mazziotta, M. N.; Miozzi, S.; Nania, R.; Noferini, F.; Nozzoli, F.; Panareo, M.; Panetta, M. P.; Paoletti, R.; Park, W.; Perasso, L.; Pilo, F.; Piragino, G.; Riggi, F.; Righini, G. C.; Sartorelli, G.; Scapparone, E.; Schioppa, M.; Scribano, A.; Selvi, M.; Serci, S.; Siddi, E.; Squarcia, S.; Stori, L.; Taiuti, M.; Terreni, G.; Visnyei, O. B.; Vistoli, M. C.; Votano, L.; Williams, M. C. S.; Zani, S.; Zichichi, A.; Zuyeusky, R.

    2016-11-01

    The Extreme Energy Events (EEE) Project is devoted to the study of Extensive Atmospheric Showers through a network of muon telescopes, installed in High Schools, with the further aim of introducing young students to particle and astroparticle physics. Each telescope is a tracking detector composed of three Multi-gap Resistive Plate Chambers (MRPC) with an active area of 1.60 × 0.80 m2. Their characteristics are similar to the ones built for the Time Of Flight array of the ALICE Experimentat LHC . The EEE Project started with a few pilot towns, where the telescopes have been taking data since 2008, and it has been constantly extended, reaching at present more than 50 MRPCs telescopes. They are spread across Italy with two additional stations at CERN, covering an area of around 3 × 105 km2, with a total surface area for all the MRPCs of 190 m2. A comprehensive description of the MRPCs network is reported here: efficiency, time and spatial resolution measured using cosmic rays hitting the telescopes. The most recent results on the detector and physics performance from a series of coordinated data acquisition periods are also presented.

  8. Performance of a resistive plate chamber equipped with a new prototype of amplified front-end electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Marchisone, Massimiliano

    2016-01-01

    ALICE is the LHC experiment dedicated to the study of heavy-ion collisions. At forward rapidity a muon spectrometer detects muons from low mass mesons, quarkonia, open heavy-flavor hadrons as well as weak bosons. A muon selection based on transverse momentum is made by a trigger system composed of 72 resistive plate chambers (RPCs). For the LHC Run 1 and the ongoing Run 2 the RPCs have been equipped with a non-amplified FEE called ADULT. However, in view of an increase in luminosity expected for Run 3 (2021-2023) the possibility to use an amplified FEE has been explored in order to improve the counting rate limitation and to prevent the aging of the detector, by reducing the charge per hit. A prototype of this new electronics (FEERIC) has been developed and tested first with cosmic rays before equipping one RPC in the ALICE cavern with it. In this talk the most important performance indicators - efficiency, dark current, dark rate, cluster size and total charge - of an RPC equipped with this new FEE will be r...

  9. COMPARE THE BEHAVIOR FACTOR OF THE ULTIMATE RESISTANCE OF MOMENT FRAME, PLAIN AND PERFORATED STEEL PLATE SHEAR WALLS AND BUCKLING RESTRAINED BRACE AS YIELDING METAL DAMPER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Ashrafi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Steel moment frame systems, steel plate shear walls and also buckling restrained brace (BRB are considered as the most widely used seismic resistant systems of the world. Firstly, in this research, in order to validate the finite element models, the tested sample of steel plate shear walls of 4 floors at the University of Alberta, Canada, and the tested sample of buckling restrained brace at the University of Berkeley California, with the software ABAQUS 6.10-1 were used. Then, the obtained results of the test and analysis have been compared. The confirmed models have been used for the analysis of two-dimensional frame of plain and perforated steel plate shear walls with a regular pattern of positing holes in the screen, buckling restrained brace and moment frame of 4 floors.

  10. 3D Printing the ATLAS' barrel toroid

    CERN Document Server

    Goncalves, Tiago Barreiro

    2016-01-01

    The present report summarizes my work as part of the Summer Student Programme 2016 in the CERN IR-ECO-TSP department (International Relations – Education, Communication & Outreach – Teacher and Student Programmes). Particularly, I worked closely with the S’Cool LAB team on a science education project. This project included the 3D designing, 3D printing, and assembling of a model of the ATLAS’ barrel toroid. A detailed description of the project' development is presented and a short manual on how to use 3D printing software and hardware is attached.

  11. Comparison of a quantitative microtiter method, a quantitative automated method, and the plate-count method for determining microbial complement resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, M D; Wooley, R E; Brown, J; Spears, K R; Nolan, L K; Shotts, E B

    1991-01-01

    A quantitative microtiter method for determining the degree of complement resistance or sensitivity of microorganisms is described. The microtiter method is compared with a quantitative automated system and the standard plate-count technique. Data were accumulated from 30 avian Escherichia coli isolates incubated at 35 C with either chicken plasma or heat-inactivated chicken plasma. Analysis of data generated by the automated system and plate-count techniques resulted in a classification of the microorganisms into three groups: those sensitive to the action of complement; those of intermediate sensitivity to the action of complement; and those resistant to the action of complement. Although the three methods studied did not agree absolutely, there were statistically significant correlations among them.

  12. The Test and Study of RPC Capping Plate Bearing Capacity and Crack Resistance%RPC盖板承载力与抗裂性试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄旭毅; 吴伟

    2013-01-01

      以京沪高速铁路三标段曲阜 RPC 混凝土盖板厂为依托,介绍 WDW -10型微机监测高强道板抗弯承载力试验机的开发和设计情况,并对 RPC 盖板承载力与抗裂性进行试验研究。%  The paper briefs the development and the design of the type WDW – 10 microcomputer - moni-tored high strength side walk slab bending resistant bearing capacity tester by relying on Qufu RPC Cap -ping Plate Precast Factory for the Bid 3 section of the Beijing - Shanghai High Speed Railway .Both test and study of RPC capping plate bearing capacity and crack resistance have been performed .

  13. The ATLAS barrel level-1 Muon Trigger Sector-Logic/RX off-detector trigger and acquisition board

    CERN Document Server

    Chiodi, G; Petrolo, E; Pastore, F; Salamon, A; Vari, R; Veneziano, S

    2007-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment uses a system of three concentric layers of Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC) detector for the Level-1 Muon Trigger in the air-core barrel toroid region. The trigger algorithm looks for hit coincidences within different detector layers inside the programmable geometrical road which defines the transverse momentum cut. The on-detector electronics that provides the trigger and detector readout functionalities collects input signals coming from the RPC front-end. Trigger and readout data are then sent via optical fibres to the off-detector electronics. Six or seven optical fibres from one of the 64 trigger sectors go to one Sector-Logic/RX module, that later elaborates the collected trigger and readout data, and sends data respectively to the Read-Out Driver modules and to the Central Level-1 Trigger. We present the functionality and the implementation of the VME Sector-Logic/RX module, and the configuration of the system for the first cosmic ray data collected using this module.

  14. Selective electroless nickel plating on oxygen-plasma-activated gold seed-layers for the fabrication of low contact resistance vias and microstructures

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer A.C.; Lapisa M.; Roxhed N.; Stemme G; Niklaus F.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a novel technique to selectively deposit nickel by electroless plating on gold seed layers using an oxygen-plasma-activation step. No prior wet surface pre- treatments or metal oxide etches are required. This enables the manufacturing of low-resistance vias for heterogeneous three-dimensional (3D) integration of MEMS but it is also a suitable technique for the fabrication of arbitrary shaped nickel-microstructures using chemically stable and cost-effective electroless nick...

  15. Low resistivity Ga-doped ZnO thin films of less than 100 nm thickness prepared by ion plating with direct current arc discharge

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Low resistivity Ga-doped ZnO films were prepared on a glass substrate by ion plating with direct current arc discharge. Thickness dependent changes in the electrical properties of the films are reported, focusing on the thin films of less than 100 nm thickness. Structural analyses showed that the thinnest film of 30 nm thickness consists of well-oriented columnar grains normal to the substrate, and the resistivity was as low as 4.4×10−4 Ω cm. The changes in lattice strain and c-axis fluctuati...

  16. The use of multi-gap resistive plate chambers for in-beam PET in proton and carbon ion therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, David; Borghi, Giacomo; Sauli, Fabio; Amaldi, Ugo

    2013-07-01

    On-line verification of the delivered dose during proton and carbon ion radiotherapy is currently a very desirable goal for quality assurance of hadron therapy treatment plans. In-beam positron emission tomography (ibPET), which can provide an image of the β+ activity induced in the patient during irradiation, which in turn is correlated to the range of the ion beam, is one of the modalities for achieving this goal. Application to hadron therapy requires that the scanner geometry be modified from that which is used in nuclear medicine. In particular, PET detectors that allow a sub-nanosecond time-of-flight (TOF) registration of the collinear photons have been proposed. Inclusion of the TOF information in PET data leads to more effective PET sensitivity. Considering the challenges inherent in the ibPET technique, namely limited β+ activity and the effect of biological washout due to blood flow, TOF-PET technologies are very attractive. In this context, the TERA Foundation is investigating the use of resistive plate chambers (RPC) for an ibPET application because of their excellent timing properties and low cost. In this paper we present a novel compact multi-gap RPC (MRPC) module design and construction method, which considering the large number of modules that would be needed to practically implement a high-sensitivity RPC-PET scanner, could be advantageous. Moreover, we give an overview of the efficiency and timing measurements that have been obtained in the laboratory using such single-gap and multi-gap RPC modules.

  17. Evaluation of resistive-plate-chamber-based TOF-PET applied to in-beam particle therapy monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Espallardo, I.; Diblen, F.; Rohling, H.; Solevi, P.; Gillam, J.; Watts, D.; España, S.; Vandenberghe, S.; Fiedler, F.; Rafecas, M.

    2015-05-01

    Particle therapy is a highly conformal radiotherapy technique which reduces the dose deposited to the surrounding normal tissues. In order to fully exploit its advantages, treatment monitoring is necessary to minimize uncertainties related to the dose delivery. Up to now, the only clinically feasible technique for the monitoring of therapeutic irradiation with particle beams is Positron Emission Tomography (PET). In this work we have compared a Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC)-based PET scanner with a scintillation-crystal-based PET scanner for this application. In general, the main advantages of the RPC-PET system are its excellent timing resolution, low cost, and the possibility of building large area systems. We simulated a partial-ring scanner based on an RPC prototype under construction within the Fondazione per Adroterapia Oncologica (TERA). For comparison with the crystal-based PET scanner we have chosen the geometry of a commercially available PET scanner, the Philips Gemini TF. The coincidence time resolution used in the simulations takes into account the current achievable values as well as expected improvements of both technologies. Several scenarios (including patient data) have been simulated to evaluate the performance of different scanners. Initial results have shown that the low sensitivity of the RPC hampers its application to hadron-beam monitoring, which has an intrinsically low positron yield compared to diagnostic PET. In addition, for in-beam PET there is a further data loss due to the partial ring configuration. In order to improve the performance of the RPC-based scanner, an improved version of the RPC detector (modifying the thickness of the gas and glass layers), providing a larger sensitivity, has been simulated and compared with an axially extended version of the crystal-based device. The improved version of the RPC shows better performance than the prototype, but the extended version of the crystal-based PET outperforms all other options.

  18. The use of multi-gap resistive plate chambers for in-beam PET in proton and carbon ion therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, David; Borghi, Giacomo; Sauli, Fabio; Amaldi, Ugo

    2013-01-01

    On-line verification of the delivered dose during proton and carbon ion radiotherapy is currently a very desirable goal for quality assurance of hadron therapy treatment plans. In-beam positron emission tomography (ibPET), which can provide an image of the β+ activity induced in the patient during irradiation, which in turn is correlated to the range of the ion beam, is one of the modalities for achieving this goal. Application to hadron therapy requires that the scanner geometry be modified from that which is used in nuclear medicine. In particular, PET detectors that allow a sub-nanosecond time-of-flight (TOF) registration of the collinear photons have been proposed. Inclusion of the TOF information in PET data leads to more effective PET sensitivity. Considering the challenges inherent in the ibPET technique, namely limited β+ activity and the effect of biological washout due to blood flow, TOF-PET technologies are very attractive. In this context, the TERA Foundation is investigating the use of resistive plate chambers (RPC) for an ibPET application because of their excellent timing properties and low cost. In this paper we present a novel compact multi-gap RPC (MRPC) module design and construction method, which considering the large number of modules that would be needed to practically implement a high-sensitivity RPC-PET scanner, could be advantageous. Moreover, we give an overview of the efficiency and timing measurements that have been obtained in the laboratory using such single-gap and multi-gap RPC modules. PMID:23824118

  19. Progress of the EM Barrel Presampler Assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Hostachy, J.Y.

    The liquid argon barrel presampler is a separate detector which will be placed in front of the electromagnetic barrel calorimeter, in the same cryostat. It is made of 32×2 sectors, each of them being 3.1 m long, about 28 cm large and a few cm thick. Three countries are involved in its construction: France (ISN-Grenoble), Sweden (KTH-Stockholm) and Morocco (Universities: Hassan II Ain Chock-Casablanca and Mohamed V-Rabat, and CNESTEN-Rabat). The design of the presampler started ten years ago and the series production began at the end of the year 2000. Today two-thirds of the sectors are produced and validated. In November 2002, half the detector (i.e. 32 sectors), was inserted on the internal face of the first EM calorimeter wheel (see pictures). Despite the fact that only 0.4 mm was available between sectors, it was possible to insert them all without meeting major difficulties. This operation was led by a team of four people, the sectors being systematically tested after insertion in the wheel. The inserti...

  20. Cosmic Ray Data in TRT Barrel

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Hance

    "I had a great day in August when I went into SR1," said Daniel Froidevaux, former project leader of the ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker, "not only had all SCT barrels arrived at CERN, but there were cosmic ray tracks seen in the TRT!" Daniel's excitement was mirrored by the rest of the TRT collaboration when, on July 29, the first cosmic ray tracks were seen in the barrel. Along with many others in the community, Daniel was quick to point out that this is the cumulative result of years of R&D, test beam work, and an intense installation and integration schedule. Indeed, the cosmic ray readout is only possible through the coordination of many efforts, from detector mechanics to module assembly, power and high voltage control, cooling, gas systems, electronics and cabling, data acquisition, and monitoring. "Many people have worked very hard on the the TRT, some of them for more than 10 years," said Brig Williams, the leader of the UPenn group responsible for much of the TRT front end electronics. He ...

  1. ATLAS TRT Barrel in Test Beam

    CERN Multimedia

    Luehring, F

    In July, the TRT group made a highly successful test of 6 Barrel TRT modules in the ATLAS H8 testbeam. Over 3000 TRT straw tubes (4 mm diameter gas drift tubes) were instrumented and found to operate well. The prototype represents 1/16 of the ATLAS TRT barrel and was assembled from TRT modules produced as spares. This was the largest scale test of the TRT to this date and the measured detector performance was as good as or better than what was expected in all cases. The 2004 TRT testbeam setup before final cabling was attached. The readout chain and central DAQ system used in the TRT testbeam is a final prototype for the ATLAS experiment. The TRT electronics used to read out the data were: The Amplifier/Shaper/Discriminator with Baseline Restoration (ASDBLR) chip is the front-end analog chip that shapes and discriminates the electronic pulses generated by the TRT straws. The Digital Time Measurement Read Out Chip (DTMROC) measures the time of the pulse relative to the beam crossing time. The TRT-ROD ...

  2. Construction, assembly and tests of the ATLAS electromagnetic barrel calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Aubert, B; Colas, Jacques; Delebecque, P; Di Ciaccio, L; El-Kacimi, M; Ghez, P; Girard, C; Gouanère, M; Goujdami, D; Jérémie, A; Jézéquel, S; Lafaye, R; Massol, N; Perrodo, P; Przysiezniak, H; Sauvage, G; Thion, J; Wingerter-Seez, I; Zitoun, R; Zolnierowski, Y; Alforque, R; Chen, H; Farrell, J; Gordon, H; Grandinetti, R; Hackenburg, R W; Hoffmann, A; Kierstead, J A; Köhler, J; Lanni, F; Lissauer, D; Ma, H; Makowiecki, D S; Müller, T; Norton, S; Radeka, V; Rahm, David Charles; Rehak, M; Rajagopalan, S; Rescia, S; Sexton, K; Sondericker, J; Stumer, I; Takai, H; Belymam, A; Benchekroun, D; Driouichi, C; Hoummada, A; Hakimi, M; Knee, Michael; Stroynowski, R; Wakeland, B; Datskov, V I; Drobin, V; Aleksa, Martin; Bremer, J; Carli, T; Chalifour, M; Chevalley, J L; Djama, F; Ema, L; Fabre, C; Fassnacht, P; Gianotti, F; Gonidec, A; Hansen, J B; Hervás, L; Hott, T; Lacaste, C; Marin, C P; Pailler, P; Pleskatch, A; Sauvagey, D; Vandoni, Giovanna; Vuillemin, V; Wilkens, H; Albrand, S; Belhorma, B; Collot, J; de Saintignon, P; Dzahini, D; Ferrari, A; Fulachier, J; Gallin-Martel, M L; Hostachy, J Y; Laborie, G; Ledroit-Guillon, F; Martin, P; Muraz, J F; Ohlsson-Malek, F; Saboumazrag, S; Viret, S; Othegraven, R; Zeitnitz, C; Banfi, D; Carminati, L; Cavalli, D; Citterio, M; Costa, G; Delmastro, M; Fanti, M; Mandelli, L; Mazzanti, M; Tartarelli, F; Augé, E; Baffioni, S; Bonis, J; Bonivento, W; Bourdarios, C; de La Taille, C; Fayard, L; Fournier, D; Guilhem, G; Imbert, P; Iconomidou-Fayard, L; Le Meur, G; Mencik, M; Noppe, J M; Parrour, G; Puzo, P; Rousseau, D; Schaffer, A C; Seguin-Moreau, N; Serin, L; Unal, G; Veillet, J J; Wicek, F; Zerwas, D; Astesan, F; Bertoli, W; Canton, B; Fleuret, F; Imbault, D; Lacour, D; Laforge, B; Schwemling, P; Abouelouafa, M; Ben-Mansour, A; Cherkaoui, R; El-Mouahhidi, Y; Ghazlane, H; Idrissi, A; Bazizi, K; England, D; Glebov, V; Haelen, T; Lobkowicz, F; Slattery, P F; Belorgey, J; Besson, N; Boonekamp, M; Durand, D; Ernwein, J; Mansoulié, B; Molinie, F; Meyer, J P; Perrin, P; Schwindling, J; Taguet, J P; Zaccone, Henri; Lund-Jensen, B; Rydström, S; Tayalati, Y; Botchev, B; Finocchiaro, G; Hoffman, J; McCarthy, R L; Rijssenbeek, M; Steffens, J; Zdrazil, M; Braun, H M

    2006-01-01

    The construction and assembly of the two half barrels of the ATLAS central electromagnetic calorimeter and their insertion into the barrel cryostat are described. The results of the qualification tests of the calorimeter before installation in the LHC ATLAS pit are given.

  3. A Finite Element Solution for Barrel Dynamic Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Zhi-yin; NING Bian-fang; WANG Zai-sen

    2007-01-01

    With the APDL language of ANSYS finite element analysis software, the solution program for barrel dynamic stress is developed. The paper describes the pivotal problems of dynamic strength design and provides a foundation for realizing the engineering and programming of barrel dynamic strength design.

  4. Quantitative Testing of Defect for Gun Barrels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Chang-long; JI Feng-zhu; WANG Jin; CHEN Zheng-ge

    2007-01-01

    The magnetic flux leakage (MFL) method is commonly used in the nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of gun barrels. The key point of MFL testing is to estimate the crack geometry parameters based on the measured signal. The analysis of magnetic leakage fields can be obtained by solving Maxwell's equations using finite element method (FEM).The radial component of magnetic flux density is measured in MFL testing. The peak-peak value, the separation distance between positive and negative peaks of signal and the lift-off value of Hall-sensor are used as the main features of every sample. This paper establishes the multi-regression equations related to the width (the depth) of crack and the main characteristic values. The regression model is tested by use of the magnetic leakage data. The experimental results indicate that the regression equations can accurately predict the 2-D defect geometry parameters and the MFL quantitative testing can be achieved.

  5. Analysis of Heat Transfer in Actively Cooled Compound Gun Barrel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Bin; XIA Wei

    2005-01-01

    when a gun fires, a large amount of heat is brought in the barrel. Erosion/wear and security problems(self ignition of the propellant) associated with this high thermal energy have to be solved owing to the use of higher combustion gas temperature for improved cannon performance and firing at the sustained high rates. Barrel cooling technologies are the effective measures for addressing this issue. In view of the importance of having knowledge of the heat flux, an approach to calculate heat flux based on measurements was presented and validated. The calculated heat flux is used as the inner boundary condition for modeling heat transfer in a 155 mm mid-wall cooled compound gun barrel. Theoretical analysis and simulated results show that natural air cooling is dramatically slower than the forced liquid mid-wall cooling, accordingly wear life of actively cooled barrel is increased and barrel overheating is prevented.

  6. Improving the problem of heavy gold plate resistance welding of half jack oil%沉金板阻焊半塞孔冒油问题改良

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常盼; 邢玉伟

    2015-01-01

    为了降低沉金板阻焊半塞孔冒油比例,设计试验验证总结影响沉金板阻焊半塞孔冒油的影响因素:阻焊塞孔油墨更换、重氮片更换、显影参数调整及后烘参数优化等。通过试验逐一验证后输出控制措施从而达到改善沉金板阻焊半塞孔冒油问题。%In order to reduce the heavy gold plate resistance welding of half jack oil ratio, we made design test, summarized the influence factors of oil in plug hole: plug hole solder resist ink change, diazo replacement, imaging parameters adjustment and drying parameter optimization, etc. One by one through the test output control measures so as to achieve improved after heavy gold pl-ate resistance welding half jack take the purpose of the oil problem.

  7. The GlueX Barrel Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papandreou, Zisis; Lolos, George; Semenov, Andrei; GlueX Collaboration

    2011-04-01

    The goal of the GLUEX experiment at Jefferson Lab is to search for exotic hybrid mesons as evidence of gluonic excitations, in an effort to understand confinement in QCD. A key subsystem of the GLUEX detector is the electromagnetic barrel calorimeter (BCAL) located inside a 2-Tesla superconducting solenoid. BCAL is a ``spaghetti calorimeter,'' consisting of layers of corrugated lead sheets, interleaved with planes of 1-mm-diameter, double-clad, Kuraray SCSF-78MJ scintillating fibres, bonded in the lead grooves using optical epoxy. The detector will consist of 48 modules and will be readout using nearly 4,000 large-area (1.26 cm2 each) silicon photomultiplier arrays. BCAL construction is well under way at the University of Regina and test results will be shown. Supported by NSERC grant SAPJ-326516, DOE grant DE-FG02-0SER41374 and Jefferson Science Associates, LLC. under U.S. DOE Contract No. DE-AC05-06OR23177.

  8. Staining in firearm barrels after experimental contact shots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schyma, C; Bauer, K; Brünig, J; Courts, C; Madea, B

    2017-02-10

    After contact shots to the head biological traces inside firearm barrels can be found. This study was conducted to simulate and to evaluate such staining. Five current handguns of four inch barrel length in the calibre .22 long rifle, 7.65mm Browning, 9mm Luger and .38 special were used to perform 24 contact shots on silicone coated, gelatine filled box models using the triple contrast method. The staining was documented by endoscopy and swabs gathered from both ends of the barrel were analysed by quantitative PCR. With the exception of the .22 revolver, all firearms showed distinct staining which decreased from the muzzle to the rear end of the barrel. The pattern was varied, showing droplets, elongated forms or stripes. In 14 of 24 shots, staining reached the chamber. The staining results were comparable to real suicide cases.

  9. The Effects of CO2 Injection and Barrel Temperatures on the Physiochemical and Antioxidant Properties of Extruded Cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thin, Thazin; Myat, Lin; Ryu, Gi-Hyung

    2016-09-01

    The effects of CO2 injection and barrel temperatures on the physiochemical and antioxidant properties of extruded cereals (sorghum, barley, oats, and millet) were studied. Extrusion was carried out using a twin-screw extruder at different barrel temperatures (80, 110, and 140°C), CO2 injection (0 and 500 mL/min), screw speed of 200 rpm, and moisture content of 25%. Extrusion significantly increased the total flavonoid content (TFC) of extruded oats, and β-glucan and protein digestibility (PD) of extruded barley and oats. In contrast, there were significant reductions in 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, PD of extruded sorghum and millet, as well as resistant starch (RS) of extruded sorghum and barley, and total phenolic content (TPC) of all extrudates, except extruded millet. At a barrel temperature of 140°C, TPC in extruded barley was significantly increased, and there was also an increase in DPPH and PD in extruded millet with or without CO2 injection. In contrast, at a barrel temperature of 140°C, the TPC of extruded sorghum decreased, TFC of extruded oats decreased, and at a barrel temperature of 110°C, PD of extruded sorghum without CO2 decreased. Some physical properties [expansion ratio (ER), specific length, piece density, color, and water absorption index] of the extrudates were significantly affected by the increase in barrel temperature. The CO2 injection significantly affected some physical properties (ER, specific length, piece density, water solubility index, and water absorption index), TPC, DPPH, β-glucan, and PD. In conclusion, extruded barley and millet had higher potential for making value added cereal-based foods than the other cereals.

  10. The Effects of CO2 Injection and Barrel Temperatures on the Physiochemical and Antioxidant Properties of Extruded Cereals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thin, Thazin; Myat, Lin; Ryu, Gi-Hyung

    2016-01-01

    The effects of CO2 injection and barrel temperatures on the physiochemical and antioxidant properties of extruded cereals (sorghum, barley, oats, and millet) were studied. Extrusion was carried out using a twin-screw extruder at different barrel temperatures (80, 110, and 140°C), CO2 injection (0 and 500 mL/min), screw speed of 200 rpm, and moisture content of 25%. Extrusion significantly increased the total flavonoid content (TFC) of extruded oats, and β-glucan and protein digestibility (PD) of extruded barley and oats. In contrast, there were significant reductions in 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, PD of extruded sorghum and millet, as well as resistant starch (RS) of extruded sorghum and barley, and total phenolic content (TPC) of all extrudates, except extruded millet. At a barrel temperature of 140°C, TPC in extruded barley was significantly increased, and there was also an increase in DPPH and PD in extruded millet with or without CO2 injection. In contrast, at a barrel temperature of 140°C, the TPC of extruded sorghum decreased, TFC of extruded oats decreased, and at a barrel temperature of 110°C, PD of extruded sorghum without CO2 decreased. Some physical properties [expansion ratio (ER), specific length, piece density, color, and water absorption index] of the extrudates were significantly affected by the increase in barrel temperature. The CO2 injection significantly affected some physical properties (ER, specific length, piece density, water solubility index, and water absorption index), TPC, DPPH, β-glucan, and PD. In conclusion, extruded barley and millet had higher potential for making value added cereal-based foods than the other cereals. PMID:27752504

  11. Corrosion resistance of siloxane–poly(methyl methacrylate) hybrid films modified with acetic acid on tin plate substrates: Influence of tetraethoxysilane addition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunst, S.R.; Cardoso, H.R.P. [LAPEC, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul – UFRGS, Avenida Bento Gonçalves, 9500 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Oliveira, C.T. [ICET, University Feevale, RS-239, 2755 Novo Hamburgo, RS (Brazil); Santana, J.A.; Sarmento, V.H.V. [Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Sergipe – UFS, Av. Vereador Olímpio Grande s/n, Centro, Itabaiana, SE (Brazil); Muller, I.L. [LAPEC, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul – UFRGS, Avenida Bento Gonçalves, 9500 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Malfatti, C.F., E-mail: celia.malfatti@ufrgs.br [LAPEC, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul – UFRGS, Avenida Bento Gonçalves, 9500 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • Siloxane–PMMA film was produced by dip-coating on tin plate substrate. • It was evaluated the influence of (TEOS) addition on siloxane–PMMA hybrid films. • Siloxane–PMMA films without TEOS presented a regular coverage and lowest roughness. • The TEOS addition decrease the corrosion resistance of siloxane–PMMA films. • Siloxane–PMMA without TEOS presented is higher durability in the film wear test. - Abstract: The aim of this paper is to study the corrosion resistance of hybrid films. Tin plate was coated with a siloxane–poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) hybrid film prepared by sol–gel route with covalent bonds between the organic (PMMA) and inorganic (siloxane) phases obtained by hydrolysis and polycondensation of 3-(trimethoxysilylpropyl) methacrylate (TMSM) and polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) using benzoyl peroxide (BPO) as a thermic initiator. Hydrolysis reactions were catalyzed by acetic acid solution avoiding the use of chlorine or stronger acids in the film preparation. The effect of the addition of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) on the protective properties of the film was evaluated. The hydrophobicity of the film was determined by contact angle measurements, and the morphology was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and profilometry. The local nanostructure was investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The electrochemical behavior of the films was assessed by open circuit potential monitoring, potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements in a 0.05 M NaCl solution. The mechanical behavior was evaluated by tribology. The results highlighted that the siloxane–PMMA hybrid films modified with acetic acid are promising anti-corrosive coatings that acts as an efficient diffusion barrier, protecting tin plates against corrosion. However, the coating properties were affected by the TEOS addition, which contributed for the thickness increase

  12. Influence of diffusion annealing on residual resistivity of Nb3Sn-based chromium-plated strands obtained by a bronze process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novosilova, D. S.; Abdyukhanov, I. M.; Vorob'eva, A. E.; Dergunova, E. A.; Polikarpova, M. V.; Mareev, K. A.; Traktirnikova, N. V.; Popova, E. N.; Deryagina, I. L.; Sudareva, S. V.

    2012-10-01

    The residual resistivity ratio, R273/R20, is an important parameter for multifilament superconductors (strands) based on Nb3Sn that are used to manufature cables of magnetic systems. High values of RRR impart stability to the cable with regard to thermal excitations. Nb3Sn strands for magnetic system of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor are manufactured from high purity oxygen-free copper with RRR > 250 units; however, after extended diffusion annealing intended to form superconducting phase Nb3Sn, the residual resistivity ratio values of the strands decrease. This work investigates the influence of diffusion annealing for 55-200 h during the final stage at 650°C on the residual resistivity ratio of chromium-plated Nb3Sn strands. The contents of chromium and oxygen have been analyzed using X-ray spectral microanalysis of the strand surface and peripheral copper layers. Mass spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma (ICP mass spectrometry) has been used to determine the total chromium content in the copper shell. The influence of chromium and oxygen diffusion from coating during annealing at 650°C on the residual resistivity ratio has been demonstrated. Based on the data of ICP mass spectrometry, the depth of the penetration of chromium in a copper shell has been assessed.

  13. Studies on the ecology of aquatic bacteria of the lower Niger Delta: multiple antibiotic resistance among the standard plate count organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogan, M T; Nwiika, D E

    1993-05-01

    The ecology of multiple antibiotic resistant (MAR) bacteria in the fresh-waters of the lower Niger Delta was studied in the Port Harcourt area, Rivers State. On the basis of decreasing pollution levels three zones, A, B, C, were recognized. Cell recovery by two viable count media, casein-peptone-starch (CPS) and plate count (PC) agar containing chloramphenicol, tetracycline, penicillin, streptomycin or ampicillin were compared in an initial study. Higher numbers of antibiotic resistant (AR) bacteria were recovered on CPS containing tetracycline, penicillin, streptomycin and ampicillin from the faecally-polluted New Calabar River (zone A) than on SPC agar containing similar antibiotics but the reverse was observed for forest stream (zone B) samples. Differences between the two media were also observed at individual sample sites. The proportions of strains of AR bacteria resistant to their primary isolation antibiotic varied from 55% (zone B) to 72% in the least polluted Isiokpo and Elele-Alimini streams (zone C), for ampicillin, and mostly count media without antibiotics included mainly species of Bacillus (12) and enterobacteria (18). Between five and 10 strains were resistant to > or = three antibiotics; seven were resistant to all five. The antibiograms of most strains were variable and depended on the method of drug application (discs or incorporation into agar), media and temperature of incubation (25 degrees, 37 degrees or 44.5 degrees C). Twenty-one strains were consistently resistant to ampicillin by the two methods; 10 to 19 were consistent for chloramphenicol, tetracycline and penicillin.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Installation of CMS EB (ECAL Barrel) Supermodules 5 and 13 inside HB+ (HCAL Barrel) on 26/27 April 2006

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The first two barrel "supermodules" of the CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter (ECAL) have been inserted into the barrel hadron calorimeter (HCAL) in the CMS experimental hall (called SX5) in Cessy in preparation for the forthcoming magnet test and cosmic challenge (MTCC). Each of the two supermodules contains 1700 lead tungstate crystals in glass-fibre alveolar support structures, with associated avalanche photodiodes (APDs, for scintillation light detection), electronics and cooling system.

  15. High-throughput and automated diagnosis of antimicrobial resistance using a cost-effective cellphone-based micro-plate reader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Steve; Tseng, Derek; di Carlo, Dino; Garner, Omai B.; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2016-12-01

    Routine antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) can prevent deaths due to bacteria and reduce the spread of multi-drug-resistance, but cannot be regularly performed in resource-limited-settings due to technological challenges, high-costs, and lack of trained professionals. We demonstrate an automated and cost-effective cellphone-based 96-well microtiter-plate (MTP) reader, capable of performing AST without the need for trained diagnosticians. Our system includes a 3D-printed smartphone attachment that holds and illuminates the MTP using a light-emitting-diode array. An inexpensive optical fiber-array enables the capture of the transmitted light of each well through the smartphone camera. A custom-designed application sends the captured image to a server to automatically determine well-turbidity, with results returned to the smartphone in ~1 minute. We tested this mobile-reader using MTPs prepared with 17 antibiotics targeting Gram-negative bacteria on clinical isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae, containing highly-resistant antimicrobial profiles. Using 78 patient isolate test-plates, we demonstrated that our mobile-reader meets the FDA-defined AST criteria, with a well-turbidity detection accuracy of 98.21%, minimum-inhibitory-concentration accuracy of 95.12%, and a drug-susceptibility interpretation accuracy of 99.23%, with no very major errors. This mobile-reader could eliminate the need for trained diagnosticians to perform AST, reduce the cost-barrier for routine testing, and assist in spatio-temporal tracking of bacterial resistance.

  16. Design studies for the Phase II upgrade of the CMS Barrel Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornheim, A.

    2017-03-01

    The High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) aims to reach the unprecedented integrated luminosity of 3 ab‑1 with an instantaneous luminosity up to 5 × 1034 cm‑2 s‑1. This poses stringent requirements on the radiation resistance of detector components and on the latency of the trigger system. The barrel region of the CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter will be able to retain the current lead tungstate crystals and avalanche photo diode detectors which will meet the performance requirements throughout the operational lifetime of the HL-LHC. The new front-end electronics and very front-end system required at high luminosities will be described.

  17. 陶瓷涂层三明治板的抗热震性%THERMAL SHOCK RESISTANCE OF THE CERAMIC COATED SANDWICH PLATE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艳征; 赵军; 艾兴

    2008-01-01

    采用解析法研究了第3类边界条件下双面陶瓷涂层三明治板的瞬态温度场及瞬态热应力场.对不同Biot模数的热冲击过程中,Al2O3涂层/硬质合金(WC-8%Co,质量分数)基体/Al2O3涂层三明治板的瞬态热应力进行了数值计算.分析了涂层/基体厚度比、涂层与基体热-物理性能匹配对陶瓷涂层三明治板表面热应力峰值的影响.结果表明:陶瓷涂层三明治板的基体的热导率、线膨胀系数和弹性模量应高于涂层,这样可以降低其表面热应力,获得高抗热震性陶瓷涂层三明治板.此外,涂层厚度应尽可能小,以利于改善涂层的抗热震性.%The transient temperature field and transient thermal stress field of a sandwich plate with double-sided ceramic coatings under the convective boundary condition were investigated by an analytical solution approach. Numerical calculations of transient thermal stresses for a plate of Al2O3 coating/ cemented carbide (WC-8%Co, mass fraction) substrate/Al2O3 coating system under different Biot numbers in thermal shock were performed. The effects of the coating-to-substrate thickness ratio and the thermo-physical properties matching of coating with substrate on the peak surface thermal stress of the ceramic coated sandwich plate were analyzed. The results reveal that the thermal conductivity, thermal expansion coefficient and Young's modulus of the substrate must be higher than that of the coating in the coated sandwich plate in order to reduce its surface thermal stress and obtain high thermal shock resistance. Furthermore, the coating must be as thin as possible in order to improve the thermal shock resistance of the coating on the surface of the coated cutting tools.

  18. Modeling the hydrodynamics of Phloem sieve plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kaare Hartvig; Mullendore, Daniel Leroy; Holbrook, Noel Michele;

    2012-01-01

    Sieve plates have an enormous impact on the efficiency of the phloem vascular system of plants, responsible for the distribution of photosynthetic products. These thin plates, which separate neighboring phloem cells, are perforated by a large number of tiny sieve pores and are believed to play...... are investigated. We find that the sieve plate resistance is correlated to the cell lumen resistance, and that the sieve plate and the lumen contribute almost equally to the total hydraulic resistance of the phloem translocation pathway....

  19. Influence of Dimensions of UHMW-PE Protuberances on Sliding Resistance and Normal Adhesion of Bangkok Clay Soil to Biomimetic Plates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P. Soni; V. M. Salokhe

    2006-01-01

    A number of investigations into application of polymers for macro-morphological modification of tool surface have been carried out. These researches, with extensive stress on convex or domed protuberations as one of the widely used construction units, have tried to harness benefits from using polymers in agriculture. Ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMW-PE)has proved an emerging polymer in its application to reduce soil adhesion. This research was conducted to study the effect of shape (flat, semi-spherical, semi-oblate, semi short-prolate and semi long-prolate) and dimensions (base diameter and dome height) on sliding resistance and normal adhesion of biomimetic plates. To incorporate both shape and size, a dimensionless ratio of height to diameter (HDR) was introduced to characterize the effect of construction unit's physique. Experiments were conducted in Bangkok clay soil with dry (19.8% d.b.), sticky (36.9% d.b.) and flooded (60.1% d.b.) soil conditions respectively. Soil at sticky limit exhibited the highest sliding resistance (77.8 N) and normal adhesion (3 kPa to 7 kPa), whereas these values were 61.7 N and <0.2 kPa in dry, and 53.7 N and 0.5 kPa to 1.5 kPa in flooded soil conditions. Protuberances with HDR ≤ 0.5 lowered sliding resistance by 10% - 30% and the same reduced normal adhesion by 10% - 60%. The amount of reduction in both sliding resistance and normal adhesion was higher in flooded soil. Lighter normal loads obviously produced lesser resistance and adhesion.

  20. Assembly of β-barrel proteins into bacterial outer membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selkrig, Joel; Leyton, Denisse L; Webb, Chaille T; Lithgow, Trevor

    2014-08-01

    Membrane proteins with a β-barrel topology are found in the outer membranes of Gram-negative bacteria and in the plastids and mitochondria of eukaryotic cells. The assembly of these membrane proteins depends on a protein folding reaction (to create the barrel) and an insertion reaction (to integrate the barrel within the outer membrane). Experimental approaches using biophysics and biochemistry are detailing the steps in the assembly pathway, while genetics and bioinformatics have revealed a sophisticated production line of cellular components that catalyze the assembly pathway in vivo. This includes the modular BAM complex, several molecular chaperones and the translocation and assembly module (the TAM). Recent screens also suggest that further components of the pathway might remain to be discovered. We review what is known about the process of β-barrel protein assembly into membranes, and the components of the β-barrel assembly machinery. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Protein trafficking and secretion in bacteria. Guest Editors: Anastassios Economou and Ross Dalbey.

  1. Corrosion resistance of siloxane-poly(methyl methacrylate) hybrid films modified with acetic acid on tin plate substrates: Influence of tetraethoxysilane addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunst, S. R.; Cardoso, H. R. P.; Oliveira, C. T.; Santana, J. A.; Sarmento, V. H. V.; Muller, I. L.; Malfatti, C. F.

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to study the corrosion resistance of hybrid films. Tin plate was coated with a siloxane-poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) hybrid film prepared by sol-gel route with covalent bonds between the organic (PMMA) and inorganic (siloxane) phases obtained by hydrolysis and polycondensation of 3-(trimethoxysilylpropyl) methacrylate (TMSM) and polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) using benzoyl peroxide (BPO) as a thermic initiator. Hydrolysis reactions were catalyzed by acetic acid solution avoiding the use of chlorine or stronger acids in the film preparation. The effect of the addition of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) on the protective properties of the film was evaluated. The hydrophobicity of the film was determined by contact angle measurements, and the morphology was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and profilometry. The local nanostructure was investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The electrochemical behavior of the films was assessed by open circuit potential monitoring, potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements in a 0.05 M NaCl solution. The mechanical behavior was evaluated by tribology. The results highlighted that the siloxane-PMMA hybrid films modified with acetic acid are promising anti-corrosive coatings that acts as an efficient diffusion barrier, protecting tin plates against corrosion. However, the coating properties were affected by the TEOS addition, which contributed for the thickness increase and irregular surface coverage.

  2. Electroless plating of low-resistivity Cu–Mn alloy thin films with self-forming capacity and enhanced thermal stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Sung-Te, E-mail: stchen@mail.hust.edu.tw [Department of Electronic Engineering, Hsiuping University of Science and Technology, Dali 412, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Chen, Giin-Shan [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Feng Chia University, Seatwen 407, Taichung, Taiwan (China)

    2015-11-05

    Previous studies have typically used sputter deposition to fabricate Cu–Mn alloy thin films with concentrated solute additions which have exceeded several atomic percentages, and the electrical resistivity values of the resultant films from previous studies are relatively high, ranging from 2.5 to 3.5 μΩ-cm. Herein, we proposed a different approach by using electroless process to plate dilute Cu–Mn (0.1 at.%) alloy thin films on dielectric layers (SiO{sub 2}). Upon forming-gas annealing, the Mn incorporated into Cu–Mn films was segregated toward the SiO{sub 2} side, eventually converting itself into a few atomic layer thickness at the Cu/SiO{sub 2} interface, and forming films with a low level of resistivity the same as that of pure Cu films (2.0 μΩ-cm). The interfacial layer served as not only a diffusion barrier, but also an adhesion promoter that prevented the film’s agglomeration during annealing at elevated temperatures. The mechanism for the dual-function performance by the Mn addition was elucidated by interfacial bonding analysis, as well as dynamic (adhesive strength) and thermodynamic (surface-tension) measurements. - Highlights: • Electroless plating is proposed to grow dilute (0.1%) Cu–Mn films on SiO{sub 2} layers. • Adequate annealing results in a self-forming of MnO{sub x} at the Cu/SiO{sub 2} interface. • The role of interfacial MnO{sub x} as a barrier and adhesion promoter is demonstrated. • The treated dilute film has a low ρ level of pure Cu, in contrast to concentrated films. • Its potential as a single entity replacement of Cu interconnect is presented.

  3. Correcting the Chromatic Aberration in Barrel Distortion of Endoscopic Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. M. Harry Ng

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Modern endoscopes offer physicians a wide-angle field of view (FOV for minimally invasive therapies. However, the high level of barrel distortion may prevent accurate perception of image. Fortunately, this kind of distortion may be corrected by digital image processing. In this paper we investigate the chromatic aberrations in the barrel distortion of endoscopic images. In the past, chromatic aberration in endoscopes is corrected by achromatic lenses or active lens control. In contrast, we take a computational approach by modifying the concept of image warping and the existing barrel distortion correction algorithm to tackle the chromatic aberration problem. In addition, an error function for the determination of the level of centroid coincidence is proposed. Simulation and experimental results confirm the effectiveness of our method.

  4. Cholinergic signals in mouse barrel cortex during active whisker sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggermann, Emmanuel; Kremer, Yves; Crochet, Sylvain; Petersen, Carl C H

    2014-12-11

    Internal brain states affect sensory perception, cognition, and learning. Many neocortical areas exhibit changes in the pattern and synchrony of neuronal activity during quiet versus active behaviors. Active behaviors are typically associated with desynchronized cortical dynamics. Increased thalamic firing contributes importantly to desynchronize mouse barrel cortex during active whisker sensing. However, a whisking-related cortical state change persists after thalamic inactivation, which is mediated at least in part by acetylcholine, as we show here by using whole-cell recordings, local pharmacology, axonal calcium imaging, and optogenetic stimulation. During whisking, we find prominent cholinergic signals in the barrel cortex, which suppress spontaneous cortical activity. The desynchronized state of barrel cortex during whisking is therefore driven by at least two distinct signals with opposing functions: increased thalamic activity driving glutamatergic excitation of the cortex and increased cholinergic input suppressing spontaneous cortical activity.

  5. Cholinergic Signals in Mouse Barrel Cortex during Active Whisker Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Eggermann

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Internal brain states affect sensory perception, cognition, and learning. Many neocortical areas exhibit changes in the pattern and synchrony of neuronal activity during quiet versus active behaviors. Active behaviors are typically associated with desynchronized cortical dynamics. Increased thalamic firing contributes importantly to desynchronize mouse barrel cortex during active whisker sensing. However, a whisking-related cortical state change persists after thalamic inactivation, which is mediated at least in part by acetylcholine, as we show here by using whole-cell recordings, local pharmacology, axonal calcium imaging, and optogenetic stimulation. During whisking, we find prominent cholinergic signals in the barrel cortex, which suppress spontaneous cortical activity. The desynchronized state of barrel cortex during whisking is therefore driven by at least two distinct signals with opposing functions: increased thalamic activity driving glutamatergic excitation of the cortex and increased cholinergic input suppressing spontaneous cortical activity.

  6. First two barrel ECAL supermodules inserted in CMS HCAL

    CERN Multimedia

    K.Bell

    2006-01-01

    The first two barrel "supermodules" for the CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter (ECAL) have been inserted into the barrel hadron calorimeter (HCAL) in the experimental hall (called SX5) in Cessy in preparation for the forthcoming magnet test and cosmic challenge (MTCC). Each of the two supermodules contains 1700 lead tungstate crystals in glass-fibre alveolar support structures, with associated avalanche photodiodes (APDs, for scintillation light detection), electronics and cooling system. The barrel ECAL will consist of 36 supermodules, many of which have already been produced (see CERN Bulletin 17-18, 2006). Team from CMS ECAL, CMS Integration and CEA-DAPNIA were involved in the insertion, with the production/integration of the supermodules themselves involving many technicians, engineers and physicists from many institutes. From left to right: Olivier Teller, Maf Alidra and Lucien Veillet.

  7. Simulation and reconstruction of the PANDA Barrel DIRC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzhygadlo, R., E-mail: r.dzhygadlo@gsi.de [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Gerhardt, A.; Götzen, K.; Hohler, R.; Kalicy, G.; Kumawat, H.; Lehmann, D.; Lewandowski, B.; Patsyuk, M.; Peters, K.; Schepers, G.; Schmitt, L.; Schwarz, C.; Schwiening, J.; Traxler, M.; Zühlsdorf, M. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Dodokhov, V.Kh. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Britting, A.; Eyrich, W.; Lehmann, A. [Friedrich Alexander-University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen (Germany); and others

    2014-12-01

    Hadronic particle identification (PID) in the barrel region of the PANDA experiment at the new Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research in Europe (FAIR) at GSI, Darmstadt will be provided by a DIRC (Detection of Internally Reflected Cherenkov light) counter. To optimize the performance and reduce the detector cost, detailed simulations of different design elements, such as the width of the radiators, the shape of the expansion volume, and the type of focusing system, were performed using Geant. Custom reconstruction algorithms were developed to match the detector geometry. We will discuss the single photon resolution and photon yield as well as the PID performance for the Barrel DIRC baseline design and several detector design options. - Highlights: • Simulation of the PANDA Barrel DIRC with different design options has been performed. • A design with narrow bars and focusing system meets the PANDA PID goals. • Two reconstruction approaches were developed. • A time-based imaging reconstruction method shows promising results.

  8. Tile Calorimete Pre-Assembly Summary and Barrel Assembly Plan

    CERN Document Server

    Proudfoot, J; Liablin, M V; Topilin, N D

    2004-01-01

    The barrel survey results from the pre-assembly in Building 185 are reviewed. From these and the models developed to calculate the cylinder geometry we propose a minimal modification to the shimming plan for the barrel calorimeter assembly in the Atlas cavern. At the precision of this calculation, we expect the tile calorimeter to be almost entirely within it design envelope. The focus of this note is the radial envelope. Based on the pre-assembly experience the tile calorimeter will fit comfortably within its envelope along the beam line.

  9. A Methodology for Characterizing Gun Barrel Flexure due to Vehicle Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Bundy

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Barrel centerline curvature is known to influence the location of projectile shot impacts. Superimposed on the unique manufactured barrel centerline is the flexed barrel shape that can occur prior to firing while the vehicle is on the move. In order to understand and quantify the effects of barrel flexure on gun accuracy, it is necessary to determine what combination of fundamental mode shapes is most likely to occur. A method to accomplish this task is described in this paper. The method is demonstrated by enumerating the 10 most likely flexed barrel shapes that were found to occur in a tank-mounted gun barrel while it traversed a bump course.

  10. Influence of CrN-coating thickness on the corrosion resistance behaviour of aluminium-based bipolar plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barranco, José; Barreras, Félix; Lozano, Antonio; Maza, Mario

    The electrical and corrosion properties of CrN-coated aluminium alloy Magnal-45 (Al-5083) probes have been evaluated, in order to assess their viability to be used as bipolar plates in polymer electrolyte fuel cells. To this end, ceramic micro-layers of chromium nitride (CrN) with different thicknesses (3, 4, and 5 μm) have been deposited on the surface of the Al alloy (Al-5083) using the physical vapour deposition (PVD) technique. A decrease in 2 orders of magnitude of I corr values for the coated Al has been observed compared to the as-received Al-alloy when the probes have been exposed to simulated anodic conditions in a micro-reactor. On the other hand, when subjected to a cathodic-simulated environment, the Al-CrN probes with 3 μm and 4 μm coatings have shown a decrease in I corr of one order of magnitude, while a variation of two orders of magnitude has also been obtained for the 5 μm coating.

  11. Microcracks repairing technique for gun barrel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Xu-dong; WU Bin; SU Bing; WANG Cheng-tao

    2004-01-01

    When a gun fires the diffusion of chemical species from the propellant gas, such as CO, CO2, H2, H2O and N2, into the hot surface through the microcracks forms reaction products and speeds up the erosion process.Therefore, crack repairing and healing can be a possible measure for protecting against erosion of gun bore. The present study develops a novel nanocomposite with the size of 30 - 150 nm to repair and heal the microcracks so that the propellant gas can be prevented from reacting with the steel. Sample of gun steel 40CrNiMoV plate (10 mm× 10 mm × 2 mm) is prepared and a fishtail crack is generated through a repeated plastic deformation process. The crackrepairing results show that the fishtail crack become shorter and narrower. A new phase is formed, which is found to have the elements, such as Ca, La, from the raw materials of nanocomposite by energy spectrum analysis.

  12. End of the EM Barrel Presampler Construction and Insertion

    CERN Multimedia

    Hostachy, J.Y.

    The liquid argon barrel presampler is a thin detector placed in front of the electromagnetic barrel calorimeter, made up of two half barrels also, but with 32 sectors per half barrel instead of 16. Each of these 64 sectors is 3.1 m long, 28 cm large and 2.9 cm thick. Three countries took part in its construction: France (LPSC-Grenoble), Sweden (KTH-Stockholm) and Morocco (Hassan II Ain Chock-Casablanca and Mohamed V-Rabat universities, and CNESTEN-Rabat). The design of the presampler started 11 years ago and the series production began at the end of 2000. Cabling, mechanical and electronic tests of the anodes were achieved in Morocco. Forty-one sectors were assembled and validated at the LPSC-Grenoble and 25 at the KTH-Stockholm. In November 2002, the first half was inserted on the inner face of the first EM calorimeter wheel. The insertion of the other 32 sectors in the second EM calorimeter wheel was achieved in July 2003 (see pictures). The production of two additional sectors will allow us to study the p...

  13. Measurement Technology on 200 Liters Barrels of Radioactive Waste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI; Lei; SHAO; Jie-wen; LIU; Da-ming; LIU; Hong-bin; CHENG; Yi-mei; HE; Li-xia; ZHU; Li-qun

    2012-01-01

    <正>The measurement device on 200 liters barrel of radioactive waste is designed following the rule of orderly measurement automatically, by using the technology of non-destructive to measure the mass of radioactive waste produced from fuel cycle. Device objects as shown in Fig. 1, which consists of the

  14. New results in meson spectroscopy from the crystal barrel experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, C.A. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1994-04-01

    Recent observations by the Crystal Barrel experiment of two scalar resonances, f{sub o}(1365) and a{sub o}(1450) have allowed the authors to clarify the members of the scalar nonet. In addition, a third scalar, f{sub o}(1500), appears to be supernumerary, and is a candidate for the scalar glueball expected near 1500 MeV.

  15. Barrelettes without barrels in the American water shrew.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth C Catania

    Full Text Available Water shrews (Sorex palustris depend heavily on their elaborate whiskers to navigate their environment and locate prey. They have small eyes and ears with correspondingly small optic and auditory nerves. Previous investigations have shown that water shrew neocortex is dominated by large representations of the whiskers in primary and secondary somatosensory cortex (S1 and S2. Flattened sections of juvenile cortex processed for cytochrome oxidase revealed clear borders of the whisker pad representation in S1, but no cortical barrels. We were therefore surprised to discover prominent barrelettes in brainstem of juvenile water shrews in the present investigation. These distinctive modules were found in the principal trigeminal nucleus (PrV, and in two of the three spinal trigeminal subnuclei (interpolaris--SpVi and caudalis--SpVc. Analysis of the shrew's whisker pad revealed the likely relationship between whiskers and barrelettes. Barrelettes persisted in adult water shrew PrV, but barrels were also absent from adult cortex. Thus in contrast to mice and rats, which have obvious barrels in primary somatosensory cortex and less clear barrelettes in the principal nucleus, water shrews have clear barrelettes in the brainstem and no barrels in the neocortex. These results highlight the diverse ways that similar mechanoreceptors can be represented in the central nervous systems of different species.

  16. ATLAS-Lowering the first Barrel Toroid coil

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Audiovisual Unit

    2004-01-01

    Cranes lowered the first of ATLAS's eight Barrel Toroid coils into the cavern. The part is 25 meters long and the cranes had to hold the 100 tonne coil at a sharp angle while it passed through the 18-meter diameter vertical shaft into the cavern. Then they laid the magnet to a horizontal robust platform. Images from Camera 2

  17. ATLAS-Lowering the first Barrel Toroid coil

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Cranes lowered the first of ATLAS's eight Barrel Toroid coils into the cavern. The part is 25 metres long and the cranes had to hold the 100 tonne coil at a sharp angle while it passed through the 18-metre diameter vertical shaft into the cavern. Then they laid the magnet to a horisontal robust platform. Images from Camera 1

  18. Increasing the load bearing capacity of barrel vaults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamerling, M.W.

    2011-01-01

    Just after World War II many barrel vaults and domes were built with a structural system, known as Fusée Ceramique. This paper analyses the load bearing capacity of these vaults. Schemes, theories, idealizations and assumptions are analysed, validated and discussed. Methods to increase the load bear

  19. Design of Radioactive Reference Barrels and Simulation Verification of Linear Source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Shell source method was used to prepare radioactive reference barrel for the calibration of gamma scan device because filling method in normal ways produces "hot" points easily and decrease the safety in transportation of the barrel.

  20. Histologia da pele da carpa prateada (Hypophtalmichthys molitrix e testes de resistência do couro Histology of silver-plated carp skin (Hypophtalmichthys molitrix and leather resistance tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luiza Rodrigues de Souza

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi realizado com os objetivos de analisar a histologia da pele e avaliar a influência da técnica de curtimento e da posição da retirada do corpo-de-prova sobre a qualidade da pele de carpa prateada (Hypophtalmichthys molitrix. Vinte e três peixes foram insensibilizados para retirada das peles para curtimento. Amostras referentes a três peixes foram fixadas em formol 10%. Após a inclusão em parafina, foram cortadas com aproximadamente 5 mm de espessura e coradas pela técnica de hematoxilina-eosina (HE. Após o curtimento das peles, foram retirados os corpos-de-prova para os testes de resistência. Os testes foram realizados com dinamômetro EMIC, com velocidade de afastamento entre cargas de 100 ± 20 mm/mm, em ambiente climatizado a 23ºC e umidade relativa do ar de 50% por um período de 24 horas. As peles curtidas com sais de cromo apresentaram maior resistência à tração (16,96 N/mm², ao alongamento (51,49% e ao rasgamento progressivo (16,75 N/mm quando comparadas àquelas curtidas sem sais de cromo (tração = 9,12 N/mm², alongamento = 17,48% e rasgamento = 11,36 N/mm. O sentido da retirada dos corpos-de-prova não interferiu nas características de tração, elongação, carga de ruptura, rasgo, força máxima e carga de força. A técnica de curtimento (utilizando ou não sais de cromo influencia a resistência das peles de carpa prateada. A técnica empregando os sais de cromo proporciona maior resistência ao couro.The objectives of this trial were to analyze the skin histology and to evaluate the influence of tanning technique and the direction removal of samples on skin quality of silver-plated carp (Hypophtalmichthys molitrix. Twenty-three fishes were sacrificed and the skin was removed for tanning. Samples of three fishes were settled in formol 10% and, after inclusion in paraffin, the samples were cut with approximately 5 mm of thickness and colored by the hematoxylin-eosin technique (HE. After skin

  1. Characterization of Hierarchical α-MoOsub>3sub> Plates Toward Resistive Heating Synthesis: Electrochemical Activity of α-MoOsub>3sub>/Pt Modified Electrode Toward Methanol Oxidation in Neutral pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippo, Emanuela; Baldassarre, Francesca; Tepore, Marco; Guascito, Maria Rachele; Chirizzi, Daniela; Tepore, Antonio

    2017-03-20

    The growth of MoOsub>3sub> hierarchical plates was obtained by direct resistive heating of molybdenum foil at ambient pressure in absence of any catalysts and templates. Plates synthesized after 60 min resistive heating typically growth in an single-crystalline orthorhombic structure that develop preferentially in [001] direction, as characterized by HRTEM, SAD and Raman-scattering measurements. They are about 100-200nm in thickness and a few tens micrometers in length. As heating time proceeds to 80 min, plates of α-MoOsub>3sub> form a branched structure. A more attentive look shows that a primary plates formed at until 60 min could serve as substrates for the subsequent growth of secondary belts. Moreover, a full electrochemical characterization of α-MoOsub>3sub> plates on platinum electrodes was done by Cyclic Voltammetric experiments, at pH 7 in phosphate buffer, to probe the activity of the proposed composite material as anode to methanol electrooxidation. Reported results indicate that Pt MoOsub>3sub> modified electrodes are appropriate to develop new amperometric non-enzymatic sensor for methanol measurements and as anode in Direct Methanol Fuel Cells (DMFCs) making at neutral pH.

  2. 机械镀锌镀层钝化与耐蚀性能研究%PASSIVATION AND CORROSION RESISTANCE OF MECHANICALLY PLATED ZINC COATING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵增典; 黄保雷; 陈磊; 李德刚

    2009-01-01

    对机械镀锌层分别用三价铬、稀土和六价铬进行了钝化处理,利用盐雾试验和电化学测试对不同钝化膜的耐蚀性与电化学行为进行了比较研究.盐雾试验结果表明,稀土与三价铬钝化处理的效果均已超过传统的六价铬钝化,比六价铬钝化膜的耐蚀性提高了一倍以上;稀土钝化膜的耐蚀性最好,三价铬钝化膜的耐蚀性仅次于稀土钝化膜的.电化学测试表明,三价铬、稀土和六价铬钝化膜都能够不同程度地抑制腐蚀的阴极电极反应,抑制阴极反应程度最大的是稀土钝化膜,其次是三价铬钝化膜,最小的是六价铬钝化膜.三价铬与稀土钝化工艺的环保和良好的防腐效果使其具有良好的应用前景.%The mechanically plated zinc coating was passivated with chemicals containing trivalent chromi-um,rare earth metal and hexavalent chromium respectively.Then the corrosion resistance and electrochemi-cal behavior of the passivated coatings were compared by salt spay test and electrochemical test.The result of salt spay test showed that the coatings passivated with trivalent chromium and rare earth metal are superi-or to that with hexavalent chromium by one fold in corrosion resistance.The coating passivated with rare earth metal Was the best in corrosion resistance and that with trivalent chromium was the next.The electro-chemical test showed that all the passivation treatments with trivalent chromium,rare earth metal and hexa-valent chromium could suppress the cathode reactions to some extent.The effectiveness of passivation chem-icals in suppression of the cathodic reaction might be ranking as follows:rare earth metal,trivalent chromi-um.and hexavalent chromiam.Therefore,chemicals containing trivalent chromiam and rare earth metal had good application foreground for their good corrosion resistance and environmental-friendly.

  3. Experiences developing socially acceptable interactions for a robotic trash barrel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Stephen; Mok, Brian Ka Jun; Sirkin, David

    2015-01-01

    Service robots in public places need to both understand environmental cues and move in ways that people can understand and predict. We developed and tested interactions with a trash barrel robot to better understand the implicit protocols for public interaction. In eight lunch-time sessions spread...... strategies that seemed to evoke clear engagement and responses, both positive and negative. Observations and interviews show that a) people most welcome the robot's presence when they need its services and it actively advertises its intent through movement; b) people create mental models of the trash barrel...... across two crowded campus dining destinations, we experimented with piloting our robot in Wizard of Oz fashion, initiating and responding to requests for impromptu interactions centered on collecting people's trash. Our studies progressed from open-ended experimentation to testing specific interaction...

  4. Timing and tracking for the Crystal Barrel detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beck Reinhard

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the project D.3 is the upgrade of several detector components used in the CBELSA/TAPS experiment at ELSA. The readout of the Crystal Barrel Calorimeter will be extended by a timing branch in order to gain trigger capability for the detector, which will allow to measure completely neutral final states in photoproduction reactions (see projects A.1 and C.5. Additionally, the readout of the inner crystals of the TAPS detector, which covers the forward opening of the Crystal Barrel Calorimeter, will be modified to be capable of high event rates due to the intensity upgrade of ELSA. Furthermore, a full-scale prototype Time Projection Chamber (TPC has been built to be used as a new central tracker for the CBELSA/TAPS experiment at ELSA and the FOPI experiment at GSI.

  5. ATLAS barrel toroid integration and test area in building 180

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    The ATLAS barrel toroid system consists of eight coils, each of axial length 25.3 m, assembled radially and symmetrically around the beam axis. The coils are of a flat racetrack type with two 'double-pancake' windings made of 20.5 kA aluminium-stabilized niobium-titanium superconductor. The barrel toroid is being assembled in building 180 on the Meyrin site. In the first phase of assembly, the coils are packed into their aluminium-alloy casing. These photos show the double-pancake coils from ANSALDO and the coil casings from ALSTOM. In the foreground is the tooling from COSMI used to turn over the coil casings during this first phase. In the right background is the yellow lifting gantry manufactured at JINR-Dubna, Russia which will transport the coil casings to a heating table for prestressing. Two test benches with magnetic mirror are also visible.

  6. Design of the LHC US ATLAS Barrel Cryostat

    CERN Document Server

    Rehak, M L; Farah, Y; Grandinetti, R; Müller, T; Norton, S; Sondericker, J

    2002-01-01

    One of the experiments of CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the ATLAS Liquid Argon detector. The Liquid Argon Barrel Cryostat is part of the United States contribution to the LHC project and its design is presented here. The device is made up of four concentric cylinders: the smallest and largest of which form a vacuum vessel enclosing a cold vessel cryostat filled with liquid argon. The Cryostat serves as the housing for an electromagnetic barrel calorimeter, supports and provides space in vacuum for a solenoid magnet while the toroidal opening furnishes room for a tracker detector. Design requirements are determined by its use in a collider experiment: the construction has to be compact, the material between the interaction region and the calorimeter has to be minimal and made of aluminum to reduce the amount of absorbing material. The design complies with code regulations while being optimized for its use in a physics environment. (2 refs).

  7. Technical Diagnostics of Tank Cannon Smooth Barrel Bore and Ramming Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri Balla

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The technical diagnostics of 125 mm tank cannon 2A46 smooth barrel and ramming devices are discussed respectively. Focuses on barrel diagnostics and suggests new procedures based on reconstructed BG20 Gun Barrel Bore Gauge System, measuring internal diameter of the barrel bore. The new system measures throughout the whole barrel bore the inner diameter not only at the beginning of barrel bore as it was usually measured before. Different nature of barrel wear was revealed between barrels firing sub-calibre and high explosive projectiles. A method for ramming device diagnostics is presented. An accurate method was proposed, determining projectile extraction force from barrel, as one of the main ramming device parameters for weapons that are used in all areas of armed forces. Results are based on experimental methods assessing the extraction forces from barrel after projectile loading. These tests were performed as a series of tests with consequent technical diagnostics according to the new Czech Defence Standards (derived from NATO standards. The results are presented as the new methodologies for diagnostics of 125 mm barrel 2A46 and ramming devices of tank T-72 for use by technical logistic units in the Czech Republic Armed Forces.

  8. Development and test of a prototype for the PANDA barrel DIRC detector at FAIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalicy, Grzegorz

    2014-07-01

    The PANDA experiment at FAIR will perform world class physics studies using high-intensity cooled antiproton beams with momenta between 1.5 and 15 GeV/c. A rich physics program requires very good particle identification (PID). Charged hadron PID for the barrel section of the target spectrometer has to cover the angular range of 22-140 and separate pions from kaons for momenta up to 3.5 GeV/c with a separation power of at least 3 standard deviations. The system that will provide it has to be thin and operate in a strong magnetic field. A ring imaging Cherenkov detector using the DIRC principle meets those requirements. The design of the PANDA Barrel DIRC is based on the successful BABAR DIRC counter with several important changes to improve the performance and optimize the costs. The design options are being studied in detailed Monte Carlo simulation, and implemented in increasingly complex system prototypes and tested in particle beams. Before building the full system prototypes the radiator bars and lenses are measured on the test benches. The performance of the DIRC prototype was quantified in terms of the single photon Cherenkov angle resolution and the photon yield. Results for two full system prototypes will be presented. The prototype in 2011 aimed at investigating the full size expansion volume. It was found that the resolution for this configuration is at the level of in good agreement with ray tracing simulation results. A more complex prototype, tested in 2012, provided the first experience with a compact fused silica prism expansion volume, a wide radiator plate, and several advanced lens options for the focusing system. The performance of the baseline configuration of the prototype with a standard lens and an air gap met the requirements for the PANDA PID for most of the polar angle range but failed at polar angles around 90 due to photon loss at the air gap. Measurements with a prototype high-refractive index compound lens without an air gap at a polar

  9. A projectile for a rectangular barreled rail gun

    OpenAIRE

    Juanche, Francisco M.

    1999-01-01

    The Physics Department at the Naval Postgraduate School is developing a concept to overcome the problems that keep present rail guns from being practical weapons. The rails must be replaced often if the rail gun operation is to be continuous. Replacing the rails in present rail gun configurations is time consuming. The Physics Department's design concept uses a rectangular barrel as part of the solution to the problem of replacing the rails. The projectile will require flat surfaces to mainta...

  10. Application of dry-ice blasting for barrels treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costantini Antonella

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this work was to test a dry-ice basting method to regenerate the barriques in order to prolong their life. In addition, this treatment for barrels can also represent an alternative to the use of sulfur dioxide for the barrique sanitization, in line with the guidelines of oenological practices for sustainable development proposed by the OIV (International Organization of Vine and Wine (sustainable development, food security: reduction the content of sulfites in wine. The effect of the blasting with dry ice for the treatment of barrique has been studied from a microbiological and sensory point of view. Microbiological analyses were carried out using wine contaminated with Brettanomyces and Lactobacillus; results showed a reduction of contaminant of 98–100%. Finally, it was evaluated the impact of this treatment on the sensory profile of wine. In this regard the wine aged in a barrique dry-ice blasted was compared with a wine aged in a barrique treated with sulfur dioxide. From the sensory analysis emerged that the dry-ice blasting treatment can regenerate the barriques, this confers to the wine increased notes of vanilla and boisé. The benefits that derive from the use of this method are: a good sanitization of the barrel, a positive impact on the organo- leptic characteristics of the wine and the ability to regenerate and reuse a barrel, with a positive effect on sustainability.

  11. 板式换热器强化传热数值研究及热阻分析%A Numerical Study and Thermal Resistance Analysis of Heat Transfer Enhancement in Plate Heat Exchangers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴晶; 夏梦; 叶莉; 韩东

    2012-01-01

    以工业广泛使用的板式换热器为研究对象,模拟了人字型波纹板片和凹坑型板片内的流动和换热,得到了平均努塞尔数Nu、阻力系数和综合传热性能因子随雷诺数Re的变化,分析了凹坑深度对换热性能的影响。相同工况下,人字比凹坑型板片的换热效果好但阻力大,故后者综合性能更优。相同来流速度下,凹坑深度越小,综合传热性能越优。同时,对凹坑板式换热器的热阻分析表明,换热温差给定时,热阻越小,换热量越大,因此热阻也可以评价板式换热器的性能。%The plate heat exchangers have been widely used in industry. This paper presents a numerical simulation of the fluid flow and heat transfer characteristics in cross-corrugated chevron-type plate heat exchangers and dimpled ones. The variations of the overall Nusselt number, resistance coefficient and integrated heat transfer performance factor with the Reynolds number and the dimple depth are obtained. The results show that under the same conditions, both the Nusselt number and the resistance coefficient of the cross-corrugated chevron-type plate are higher than that of the dimpled one. Thus, from the view of the integrated heat transfer performance, the dimpled plate is better. Furthermore, the integrated factor increases as the dimple depth decreases for the studied seven different dimple depths with the same inlet fluid velocity. It is found that the heat transfer processes in plate heat exchangers can be well described by the concept of generalized thermal resistance. Under prescribed temperature boundary conditions, the heat transfer increases with the decrease of the thermal resistance. Therefore, the generalized thermal resistance can be taken as an evaluation standard for the heat transfer performance of a plate heat exchanger.

  12. Energy metrics for driving competitiveness of countries: Energy weakness magnitude, GDP per barrel and barrels per capita

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coccia, Mario, E-mail: m.coccia@ceris.cnr.i [National Research Council of Italy, CERIS-CNR, Institute for Economic Research on Firm and Growth, Collegio Carlo Alberto-via Real Collegio, n. 30, 10024 Moncalieri (Torino) (Italy)

    2010-03-15

    Energy metrics is the development of a whole new theoretical framework for the conception and measurement of energy and economic system performances, energy efficiency and productivity improvements with important political economy implications consistent with the best use of all natural and economic resources. The purpose of this research is to present some vital energy indicators based on magnitude and scale of energy weakness, GDP per barrel of oil that is an indicator of energy productivity and barrels (of oil) per capita that is an indicator of energy efficiency. Energy metrics can support the monitoring of energy and economic system performances in order to design effective energy strategy and political economy interventions focused on the 'competitive advantage' increase of countries in modern economies.

  13. Energy metrics for driving competitiveness of countries. Energy weakness magnitude, GDP per barrel and barrels per capita

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coccia, Mario [National Research Council of Italy, CERIS-CNR, Institute for Economic Research on Firm and Growth, Collegio Carlo Alberto - via Real Collegio, n. 30, 10024 Moncalieri (Torino) (Italy)

    2010-03-15

    Energy metrics is the development of a whole new theoretical framework for the conception and measurement of energy and economic system performances, energy efficiency and productivity improvements with important political economy implications consistent with the best use of all natural and economic resources. The purpose of this research is to present some vital energy indicators based on magnitude and scale of energy weakness, GDP per barrel of oil that is an indicator of energy productivity and barrels (of oil) per capita that is an indicator of energy efficiency. Energy metrics can support the monitoring of energy and economic system performances in order to design effective energy strategy and political economy interventions focused on the 'competitive advantage' increase of countries in modern economies. (author)

  14. The barrel muon spectrometer of the ATLAS detector has acquired its first cosmic event in a magnetic field produced by the barrel toroid magnet.

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    A 3-D event display of a cosmic muon event, showing the path of a muon travelling through three layers of the barrel muon spectrometer. Three of the eight coils of the barrel toroid magnet can be seen in the top half of the drawing.

  15. Plate tectonics

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chaubey, A.K.

    Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 209 Plate Tectonics A. K. Chaubey National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa-403 004. chaubey@nio.org Introduction The theory of continental drift, which paved the way for discovery... of plate tectonics, was put forward by Alfred Lother Wegener - a meteorologist from Germany - in 1912. The theory states that continents are not fixed, but have been slowly wandering during the course of Earth’s geological history. Although Wegener...

  16. First measurements of the performance of the Barrel RPC system in CMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colaleo, A.; Loddo, F. [INFN Sezione di Bari (Italy); Maggi, M. [INFN Sezione di Bari (Italy)], E-mail: Marcello.Maggi@ba.infn.it; Ranieri, A. [INFN Sezione di Bari (Italy); Abbrescia, M.; Iaselli, G.; Marangelli, B.; Natali, S.; Nuzzo, S. [Dipartimento Interateneo di Fisica and Sezione INFN, Bari (Italy); Pugliese, G. [Dipartimento Interateneo di Fisica and Sezione INFN, Bari (Italy)], E-mail: Gabriella.Pugliese@ba.infn.it; Romano, F.; Roselli, G.; Trentadue, R.; Tupputi, S. [Dipartimento Interateneo di Fisica and Sezione INFN, Bari (Italy); Baesso, P.; Grelli, A.; Necchi, M.; Pagano, D.; Ratti, S.P.; Vitulo, P. [Dipartimento di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica and Sezione INFN, Pavia (Italy)] (and others)

    2009-10-11

    During the summer 2006, a first integrated test of a part of the CMS experiment was performed at CERN collecting a data sample of several millions of cosmic rays events. A fraction of the Resistive Plate Chambers system was successfully operated. Results on the RPC performance are reported.

  17. 连接片阻值对电动汽车用动力电池性能的影响%The Effects of Connecting Plate Resistance on the Performance of Power Battery for Electric Vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽梅; 程勇

    2015-01-01

    [ Abstract] In view of the effects of the resistance of connecting plates and the position of terminal post on the performance of a battery module, a model for battery cell is developed based on Matlab/Simscape, with which and connecting plates simulated as a resistance, a model for battery module is built and a simulation is conducted to analyze the effects of connecting plate resistance on the performance of battery module. The results indicate that con-necting plate make the battery cell connected directly to terminal post the first cell to reach discharge cut-off voltage set by battery management system, which influences the performance of battery. The battery cell connected to termi-nal post also ages first, leading to the over-discharge of its adjacent cell, and hence affecting the safety of battery module. Finally with the maximum SOC difference between cells set to 0. 05, battery modules with different num-bers of cells are simulated, and the reasonable ratio of connection plate resistance to battery ohmic resistance is ob-tained.%鉴于单体电池间连接片的阻值和极柱的位置影响单节电池的性能,基于Matlab/Simscape开发了单体电池模型,并利用此模型和以电阻模拟的连接片构建了单节电池模型,仿真分析了连接片阻值对单节电池性能的影响。结果表明,连接片的存在使与极柱相连的单体电池最先达到电池管理系统设定的放电截止电压,以致影响电池的性能;与极柱相连的单体电池的率先老化导致与其相邻的单体电池出现过放电的现象,影响单节电池的安全性。最后,设定各单体电池SOC间最大偏差为0.05,对不同并联电池数目的单节电池进行仿真,得出连接片与电池欧姆内阻阻值的合理比例。

  18. Refractory Metal Liner Processing for M242 Medium Caliber Barrels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    tapping a hole in the top end of the load rod. 6 3. Liner and Barrel Dimensions Several GLEEM experiments had previously been conducted with a...the load rod had been inserted with tapped end next to the elastomer, which extruded into the hole. During the next pass with the 20-in load rod, the...Load release occurred at a rate of 15 kip/min. The gun tube was then inverted and a fifth pass attempted. For this pass, straps were applied to the

  19. Theoretical Exploration of Barrel-Shaped Drops on Cactus Spines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Cheng

    2015-11-03

    To survive an arid environment, desert cacti are capable of harvesting water from fog by transporting condensed water drops using their spines. Cactus spines have a conical shape. In this work, on the basis of the difference of liquid pressure, a new theoretical model has been developed for a barrel-shaped liquid drop on a conical wire. This model is further simplified to interpret the effects of contact angles, conical angle, surface microgrooves, and gravity on the drop movement along a cactus spine.

  20. Current Statues of the Wear Resistance of Electroless Ni-P Based Alloy Plating%化学镀镍磷基合金镀层耐磨性的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宏; 卞建胜; 李莎; 张彪

    2012-01-01

    化学镀镍磷基合金镀层因硬度高、厚度均匀及耐磨性优异,在工业中得到了广泛应用.简述了化学镀镍磷基合金从二元、三元到复合镀层的发展历程,概述了化学镀镍磷基合金镀层耐磨性的影响因素——合金镀层的化学成分、镀层与基体间的结合力及镀层硬度,并从这三方面论述了改善耐磨性的方法,最后提出了在改善合金镀层耐磨性研究中存在的问题和未来的发展方向.%Electroless Ni-P based alloy platings have found extensive application in industry because of its high hardness, uniform thickness and excellent wear resistance. The development of the electroless Ni-P based alloy platings, from binary and tenary alloy coatings to composite coatings, was summarized, and the influence factors of the wear resistance were presented from the chemical composition of alloy coating, the combining power between coating and matrix and the hardness of coating, as well as current status of improving the wear resistance of electroless plated Ni-P based alloys. At last, the problem exiting in the research of improving the wear resistance of alloy coating and the future research orientation were raised.

  1. An analysis of increasing the size of the strategic petroleum reserve to one billion barrels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    The Department of Energy's Office of Energy Emergency Policy and Evaluation requested that the Energy Information Administration complete an analysis of the proposed expansion in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) from its currently planned size of 750 million barrels to 1000 million barrels. Because the SPR contains only 580 million barrels at this point in time, the benefits and costs of increasing the SPR from 600 to 750 million barrels were also estimated. This report documents the assumptions, methodology, and results of the analysis. 17 figs., 15 tabs.

  2. Performance of a Rain Barrel Sharing Network under Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong Jin Noh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Rain barrels can be technically shared through social practices or mutual agreement between individual households. This study proposes the evaluation system for a rain barrel sharing network (RBSN considering three performance criteria of reliability, resiliency, and vulnerability, under plausible climate change scenarios. First, this study shows how the system can be improved in terms of the performance criteria using historical daily rainfall data based on the storage-reliability-yield relationship. This study then examined how the benefits from RBSN are affected by climate change after 100 years. Three climate change scenarios (A1B, A2 and B2 and three global circulation models were used for this purpose. The results showed that the reliability and vulnerability are improved due to sharing and their improvements become larger under climate change conditions. In contrast, the resiliency reduces slightly due to sharing and its reduction is attenuated under climate change conditions. In particular, vulnerability will be reduced significantly under climate change. These results suggest that the sharing of various water resources systems can be an effective climate change adaptation strategy that reduces vulnerability and increases the reliability of the system.

  3. Interdigitated paralemniscal and lemniscal pathways in the mouse barrel cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Bureau

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Primary sensory cortical areas receive information through multiple thalamic channels. In the rodent whisker system, lemniscal and paralemniscal thalamocortical projections, from the ventral posteromedial nucleus (VPM and posterior medial nucleus (POm respectively, carry distinct types of sensory information to cortex. Little is known about how these separate streams of activity are parsed and integrated within the neocortical microcircuit. We used quantitative laser scanning photostimulation to probe the organization of functional thalamocortical and ascending intracortical projections in the mouse barrel cortex. To map the thalamocortical projections, we recorded from neocortical excitatory neurons while stimulating VPM or POm. Neurons in layers (L4, L5, and L6A received dense input from thalamus (L4, L5B, and L6A from VPM; and L5A from POm, whereas L2/3 neurons rarely received thalamic input. We further mapped the lemniscal and paralemniscal circuits from L4 and L5A to L2/3. Lemniscal L4 neurons targeted L3 within a column. Paralemniscal L5A neurons targeted a superficial band (thickness, 60 mum of neurons immediately below L1, defining a functionally distinct L2 in the mouse barrel cortex. L2 neurons received input from lemniscal L3 cells and paralemniscal L5A cells spread over multiple columns. Our data indicate that lemniscal and paralemniscal information is segregated into interdigitated cortical layers.

  4. EMIC Waves Observed in Conjunction with BARREL Electron Precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, C.; Engebretson, M. J.; Lessard, M.; Halford, A. J.; Millan, R. M.; Horne, R. B.; Singer, H. J.

    2013-05-01

    Electromagnetic ion-cyclotron (EMIC) waves have been detected at Halley, Antarctica coinciding with observations of electron precipitation on high altitude balloons from the Balloon Array for RBSP Relativistic Electron Losses (BARREL) campaign launched in early 2013 from SANAE IV and Halley Station. The balloons were launched such that both spatial and temporal properties of electron precipitation might be examined. With a magnetic foot point mapped to the radiation belts, Halley is an ideal location to capture ground based signatures that coincide with electron precipitation. EMIC waves have been shown, both theoretically and through statistical surveys, to pitch angle scatter energetic protons and relativistic electrons via cyclotron resonance and contribute to radiation belt dynamics. EMIC waves were detected at Halley Station 23 times from 12 Jan - 4 Feb with 17 of those waves occurring during times when at least one BARREL balloon observed precipitation in one or more energy channels. High resolution magnetometer data from GOES 13 (which has a magnetic foot point near WAIS Divide, Antarctica-located about 2.5 hours, in MLT, west of Halley) show similar EMIC wave structure and frequency to 9 waves observed at Halley, suggesting the source region extended to at least the longitude and L value of GOES 13 during some events. The ground observed waves appeared in all local times and during both quiet and disturbed intervals.

  5. Analysis of LFP phase predicts sensory response of barrel cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslinger, R; Ulbert, I; Moore, C I; Brown, E N; Devor, A

    2006-09-01

    Several previous studies have shown the existence of Up and Down states and have linked their magnitude (e.g., depolarization level) to the size of sensory-evoked responses. Here, we studied how the temporal dynamics of such states influence the sensory-evoked response to vibrissa deflection. Under alpha-chloralose anesthesia, barrel cortex exhibits strong quasi-periodic approximately 1-Hz local field potential (LFP) oscillations generated by the synchronized fluctuation of large populations of neurons between depolarized (Up) and hyperpolarized (Down) states. Using a linear depth electrode array, we recorded the LFP and multiunit activity (MUA) simultaneously across multiple layers of the barrel column and used the LFP to approximate the subthreshold Up-Down fluctuations. Our central finding is that the MUA response is a strong function of the LFP oscillation's phase. When only ongoing LFP magnitude was considered, the response was largest in the Down state, in agreement with previous studies. However, consideration of the LFP phase revealed that the MUA response varied smoothly as a function of LFP phase in a manner that was not monotonically dependent on LFP magnitude. The LFP phase is therefore a better predictor of the MUA response than the LFP magnitude is. Our results suggest that, in the presence of ongoing oscillations, there can be a continuum of response properties and that each phase may, at times, need to be considered a distinct cortical state.

  6. First physics pulses in the Barrel Electromagnetic Calorimeter with cosmics

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Serin

    2006-01-01

    The electromagnetic barrel calorimeter has been installed in its final position in October 2005. Since then, the calorimeter is being equipped with front-end electronics. Starting in April 2006, electronics calibration runs are taken a few times per week to debug the electronics and to study the performance in the pit (stability, noise). Today, 10 out of the 32 Front End crates are being read out, amounting to about 35000 channels. cool down, few little typos --> After a 6-week cool down, the barrel cryostat was filled with Liquid Argon in May. The presence of a few shorts (~1MΩ) at the edges of the modules was indicating the possibility of conducting dust having entered into the calorimeter with the flowing liquid. In order to try to improve this situation, the calorimeter was emptied and filled again, but this time by condensating the argon instead of flowing it in liquid phase. The new High Voltage tests are not showing any significant improvement but the situation is statisfactory for ATLAS runn...

  7. Mexican Bottom of Barrel Life Cycle environmental improvement proposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pulido, Ricardo [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas 152, Mexico, D.F., C.P. 07730 (Mexico); Fernandez, Georgina [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Facultad de Ingenieria, Ciudad Universitaria, Mexico, D.F., C.P. 04510 (Mexico)

    2007-04-15

    Growing economies have the dual challenge of economical and industrial growing, but in a sustainable way and with protection of Ecosystems, all prior requirements are a must that are either satisfied or Human Kind will suffer the irreparable loss of Earth Biosphere. Prospective studies show that for the period 1990-2010 the petroleum will be heavier and richer in sulphur. In order to make a more sustainable use of Mexican heavy petroleum the actual 'Life Cycle' of Mexican Bottom of Barrel crude oil can be modified through the proposal of producing an activated carbon (CAFOB) from Mexican petroleum vacuums residue and Mexican petroleum coke applied in the flue gases desulphuration, therefore, experimental activated carbon was made from Mexican petroleum vacuums residue and petroleum coke and desulphuration adsorption tests of a synthetic flue gas mixture similar in composition to flue gases produced from the burning of Mexican heavy fuel oil were made. Commercial activated carbons were used as reference materials. The CAFOB180M experimental activated carbon showed a good desulphuration capacity compared to commercial activated carbon, showing its potentiality in the process of evolving the actual 'Life Cycle' of Mexican Bottom of Barrel crude oil to a more sustainable one. (author)

  8. Plain carbon steel bipolar plates for PEMFC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jianli; SUN Juncai; TIAN Rujin; XU Jing

    2006-01-01

    Bipolar plates are a multifunctional component of PEMFC. Comparing with the machined graphite and stainless steels, the plain carbon steel is a very cheap commercial metal material. In this paper, the possibility of applying the plain carbon steels in the bipolar plate for PEMFC was exploited. In order to improve the corrosion resistance of the low carbon steel in the PEMFCs' environments,two surface modification processes was developed and then the electrochemical performances and interfacial contact resistance (ICR) of the surface modified plate of plain carbon steel were investigated. The results show that the surface modified steel plates have good corrosion resistance and relatively low contact resistance, and it may be a candidate material as bipolar plate of PEMFC.

  9. Installation of CMS EB (ECAL Barrel) Supermodules 5 and 13 inside HB+ (HCAL Barrel) on 26/27 April 2006

    CERN Multimedia

    Ken Bell, RAL

    2006-01-01

    The first two barrel "supermodules" of the CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter (ECAL) have been inserted into the barrel hadron calorimeter (HCAL) in the CMS experimental hall (called SX5) in Cessy in preparation for the forthcoming magnet test and cosmic challenge (MTCC). Each of the two supermodules contains 1700 lead tungstate crystals in glass-fibre alveolar support structures, with associated avalanche photodiodes (APDs, for scintillation light detection), electronics and cooling system. See also the document CMS-PHO-OREACH-2006-019. The first two pictures show the two supermodules in their final position. Fig. 3: the "enfourneur" in position on the HB Cradle. Fig. 4: supermodule n. 5 and extension rails being lifted to the enforneur. Figs. 5-6: supermodule approaching the enforneur. Fig. 7: rotating the Enfourneur to the correct phi direction Figs. 8-9: aligning the extension rails with the rails inside HB and view from inside HB, once the rails are aligned. Figs. 10-12: insertion of supermodule n. 5. Fig. ...

  10. 一种相控阵雷达用耐气压冷板的焊接工艺方法研究%Research on Welding Processes of A Pressure-resistant Cooling Plate for Phased Array Radar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志鹏; 冉振旺; 杨文静; 肖爱群; 许明珠

    2014-01-01

    某相控阵雷达冷板对焊缝提出了气密性要求,为实现装配,还要求焊接后平面度公差不超过0.1mm。使用真空钎焊、激光焊、电子束焊方法分别对耐气压冷板进行焊接试验,对焊接变形及密封性检测的情况进行了分析,确定了满足冷板使用要求的焊接工艺方法,通过对焊接方法的改进,使形位公差、气密性指标均得到很好的保证,解决了该冷板焊接的技术难题。%A new sort of cooling plate, pressure-resistant cooling plate, is proposed in the phased array radar. For its new filler in the plate, a higher requirement of air tightness is necessary. What’s more, its flatness tolerance after welding should be no more than 0.1mm so that a very thin PCB assembles onto the plate. In order to meet the requirement, three welding methods of vacuum brazing, laser welding and electron beam welding were carried out. By testing the welding deformation and air tightness, the advantages and disadvantages of the welding methods were compared. As a result, an optimized welding process was formed to solve the cooling plate welding technical problems.

  11. Preparation of Ce Film on Aluminum Alloy by Brush Plating and Its Corrosion Resistance%铝合金表面电刷镀制备稀土铈转化膜及其耐蚀性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付大海; 韩忠智; 唐鋆磊; 唐聿明; 左禹

    2011-01-01

    A rare earth Ce film was prepared on LY12 aluminum alloy by brush plating. The obtained Ce film showed layered structure, adhered well on the substrate and showed obviously increased corrosion resistance in NaCl solution. The influences of plating voltage and Ce concentration on the film properties were studied and the best corrosion resistance was obtained under the condition of 7 V and 20 g/L Ce salt concentration. After 480 h of salt fog testing, corrosion resistance of the brush plated surface was estimated to be above 8 grade. The corrosion current density decreased by one order of magnitude and the impedance at low frequency increased by about 30 times in contrast to the original LY12 alloy. Particularly, the strong oxidants are not included in the plating bath, hence the bath is more stable and may be easily recycled. The method may be used to increase corrosion resistance for aluminum alloy equipments with large areas at industrial cases.%利用电刷镀技术在铝合金表面制备了稀土铈转化膜,得到的稀土膜层厚度均匀,呈层状结构,与基体结合良好,在NaCl溶液中具有良好的耐蚀性.研究了刷镀电压和铈盐浓度对膜层耐蚀性的影响,得到在7 V电压和20 g/L铈盐浓度下制备的膜层具有良好耐蚀性能,经过480 h盐雾试验后,其表面耐蚀性评价达到8级以上,镀膜试样与原始LY12铝合金试样相比,腐蚀电流密度降低一个数量级,低频阻抗值则增大约30倍.该铝合金表面稀土转化膜电刷沉积溶液中不合强氧化剂,因此溶液长时间稳定且便于循环利用,可以对铝合金表面进行现场大面积常温刷镀,提高耐蚀性.

  12. 锌镍合金镀工艺优化及镀层耐腐蚀性的研究%Research on Process Optimization of Zn-Ni Alloy Plating and Coating Corrosion Resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈伟; 唐凌燕; 周英; 陈刚

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the corrosion resistance of Zn-Ni alloy coating. Methods By orthogonal test method, the Zn-Ni alloy electroplating technology was optimized, and the plating solution formula was obtained. The corrosion resistance of the opti-mized Zn-Ni alloy plating was evaluated by neutral salt spray test, and compared to those of the galvanized layer and cadmium plat-ing layer. The influence of the main salt, complexing agent, pH value, current density and temperature on the coating corrosion re-sistance was analyzed. Results The optimal formula was:zinc oxide 6~14 g/L, nickel sulfate 20~30 g/L, sodium hydroxide 100~140 g/L, brightener 4~6 g/L, and complexing agent 50~70 g/L. The Zn-Ni alloy coating obtained using this formula had a white rust occurrence time of more than 720 hours in the neutral salt spray test. Conclusion The Zn-Ni alloy coating had excellent corro-sion resistance, superior to those of zinc and cadmium plating layer.%目的:研究锌镍合金镀层的耐腐蚀性能。方法通过正交试验法,对锌镍合金电镀工艺进行优化,获得镀液配方。通过中性盐雾试验评判优化后的锌镍合金镀层的耐腐蚀性能,并与镀锌层和镀镉层进行对比。分析主盐、络合剂、pH值、电流密度、温度等对镀层耐腐蚀性的影响。结果最优配方为:氧化锌6~14 g/L,硫酸镍20~30 g/L,氢氧化钠100~140 g/L,光亮剂4~6 g/L,络合剂50~70 g/L。该配方获得的锌镍合金镀层在中性盐雾实验中,出白锈的时间可以达到720 h以上。结论锌镍合金镀层的耐腐蚀性优良,优于镀锌层和镀镉层。

  13. Double-layer chromium plating process to improve corrosion resistance of hard chromium coating%提高硬铬镀层耐蚀性的双层镀铬工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    巨根利

    2013-01-01

    A double-layer chromium coating was prepared on a water pump shaft of engine by milky white chromium plating and bright chromium plating successively in the same bath and tank.The process flow is as follows:pretreatment,hanging,taking into tank,milky white corrosion-resistant chromium plating,bright wear-resistant chromium plating,taking out of tank,washing,hydrogen removal,polishing,and testing.The plating bath is composed of CrO3 200-250 g/L,H2SO4 2.2-2.6 g/L,and Cr3+2.0-3.5 g/L.The milky white chromium coating was obtained after plating at 60-65 ℃ and 15-25 A/dm2 initially for 30 min,and the milky white-bright double-layer chromium coating was then obtained after continuous plating at 55-60 ℃ and 40-50 A/dm2 for 90 min.The double-layer chromium coating has lower porosity as well as similar microhardness and wear resistance as compared with the single bright chromium coating.The practical production indicated that double-layer chromium coating has better corrosion resistance than single bright chromium coating.%以某型发动机的水泵轴为基体,在同一镀液和镀槽中电沉积制备乳白/光亮双层铬镀层.工艺流程为:前处理—装挂—入槽—镀乳白耐蚀铬—镀光亮耐磨铬—出槽—清洗—除氢—抛光—检验.镀液组成为:CrO3 200~250 g/L,H2SO4 2.2~2.6 g/L,Cr3+离子2.0~3.5 g/L.先在60 ~ 65℃、15 ~ 25 A/dm2下施镀30 min得到乳白铬镀层,随后在55~60℃、40~50 A/dm2下施镀90 min,即得乳白/光亮双层铬镀层.双层铬镀层的孔隙率比单层光亮铬镀层小,二者显微硬度相近,耐磨性优越.实际生产应用表明,双层铬镀层的耐蚀性优于单层光亮铬镀层.

  14. The CMS Level-1 Trigger Barrel Track Finder

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2069737; Evangelou, Ioannis; Flouris, G; Foudas, Costas; Guiducci, Luigi; Loukas, Nikitas; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Paradas, Evangelos; Sotiropoulos, S; Sphicas, D; Triossi, Andrea; Wulz, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    The design and performance of the upgraded CMS Level-1 Trigger Barrel Muon Track Finder (BMTF) is presented. Monte Carlo simulation data as well as cosmic ray and pp data from a CMS muon detector slice test have been used to study in detail the performance of the new track finder. The design architecture is based on twelve MP7 cards which use a Xilinx Virtex-7 FPGA and can receive and transmit data at 10 Gbps from 72 input and 72 output fibers. According to the CMS Trigger Upgrade TDR the BMTF receives trigger primitive data which are computed using both RPC and DT data and transmits data from a number of muon candidates to the upgraded Global Muon Trigger. Results from detailed studies of comparisons between the BMTF algorithm results and the results of a C++ emulator are also presented. The new BMTF will be commissioned for data taking in 2016.

  15. The CMS Level-1 Trigger Barrel Track Finder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ero, J.; Evangelou, I.; Flouris, G.; Foudas, C.; Guiducci, L.; Loukas, N.; Manthos, N.; Papadopoulos, I.; Paradas, E.; Sotiropoulos, S.; Sphicas, P.; Triossi, A.; Wulz, C.

    2016-03-01

    The design and performance of the upgraded CMS Level-1 Trigger Barrel Muon Track Finder (BMTF) is presented. Monte Carlo simulation data as well as cosmic ray data from a CMS muon detector slice test have been used to study in detail the performance of the new track finder. The design architecture is based on twelve MP7 cards each of which uses a Xilinx Virtex-7 FPGA and can receive and transmit data at 10 Gbps from 72 input and 72 output fibers. According to the CMS Trigger Upgrade TDR the BMTF receives trigger primitive data which are computed using both RPC and DT data and transmits data from a number of muon candidates to the upgraded Global Muon Trigger. Results from detailed studies of comparisons between the BMTF algorithm results and the results of a C++ emulator are also presented. The new BMTF will be commissioned for data taking in 2016.

  16. Performance of the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter barrel module 0

    CERN Document Server

    Aubert, Bernard; Alexa, C; Astesan, F; Augé, E; Aulchenko, V M; Ballansat, J; Barreiro, F; Barrillon, P; Battistoni, G; Bazan, A; Beaugiraud, B; Beck-Hansen, J; Belhorma, B; Belorgey, J; Belymam, A; Ben-Mansour, A; Benchekroun, D; Benchouk, C; Bernard, R; Bertoli, W; Boniface, J; Bonivento, W; Bourdarios, C; Bremer, J; Breton, D; Bán, J; Camard, A; Canton, B; Carminati, L; Cartiglia, N; Cavalli, D; Chalifour, M; Chekhtman, A; Chen, H; Cherkaoui, R; Chevalley, J L; Chollet, F; Citterio, M; Clark, A; Cleland, W; Clément, C; Colas, Jacques; Collot, J; Costa, G; Cros, P; Cunitz, H; de Saintignon, P; Del Peso, J; Delebecque, P; Delmastro, M; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Dinkespiler, B; Djama, F; Dodd, J; Driouichi, C; Dumont-Dayot, N; Duval, P Y; Dzahini, D; Efthymiopoulos, I; Egdemir, J; El-Kacimi, M; El-Mouahhidi, Y; Engelmann, R; Ernwein, J; Falleau, I; Fanti, M; Farrell, J; Fassnacht, P; Ferrari, A; Fichet, S; Fournier, D; Gallin-Martel, M L; Gara, A; García, G; Gaumer, O; Ghazlane, H; Ghez, P; Gianotti, F; Girard, C; Gordon, H; Gouanère, M; Guilhem, G; Hackenburg, B; Hakimi, M; Hassani, S; Henry-Coüannier, F; Hervás, L; Hinz, L; Hoffman, A; Hoffman, J; Hostachy, J Y; Hoummada, A; Hubaut, F; Idrissi, A; Imbault, D; Jacquier, Y; Jérémie, A; Jevaud, M; Jézéquel, S; Kambara, H; Karst, P; Kazanin, V; Kierstead, J A; Kolachev, G M; Kordas, K; de La Taille, C; Labarga, L; Lacour, D; Lafaye, R; Laforge, B; Lanni, F; Le Coroller, A; Le Dortz, O; Le Maner, C; Le Van-Suu, A; Le Flour, T; Leite, M; Leltchouk, M; Lesueur, J; Lissauer, D; Lund-Jensen, B; Lundqvist, J M; Ma, H; Macé, G; Makowiecki, D S; Malychev, V; Mandelli, L; Mansoulié, B; Marin, C P; Martin, D; Martin, L; Martin, O; Martin, P; Maslennikov, A L; Massol, N; Mazzanti, M; McCarthy, R; McDonald, J; Megner, L; Merkel, B; Mirea, A; Moneta, L; Monnier, E; Moynot, M; Muraz, J F; Nagy, E; Negroni, S; Neukermans, L; Nicod, D; Nikolic-Audit, I; Noppe, J M; Ohlsson-Malek, F; Olivier, C; Orsini, F; Pailler, P; Parrour, G; Parsons, J A; Pearce, M; Perini, L; Perrodo, P; Perrot, G; Pétroff, P; Poggioli, Luc; Pospelov, G E; Pralavorio, Pascal; Prast, J; Przysiezniak, H; Puzo, P; Radeka, V; Rahm, David Charles; Rajagopalan, S; Raymond, M; Renardy, J F; Repetti, B; Rescia, S; Resconi, S; Riccadona, X; Richer, J P; Rijssenbeek, M; Rodier, S; Rossel, F; Rousseau, D; Rydström, S; Saboumazrag, S; Sauvage, D; Sauvage, G; Schilly, P; Schwemling, P; Schwindling, J; Seguin-Moreau, N; Seidl, W; Seman, M; Serin, L; Shousharo, A; Simion, S; Sippach, W; Snopkov, R; Steffens, J; Stroynowski, R; Stumer, I; Taguet, J P; Takai, H; Talyshev, A A; Tartarelli, F; Teiger, J; Thion, J; Tikhonov, Yu A; Tisserant, S; Tocut, V; Tóth, J; Veillet, J J; Vossebeld, Joost Herman; Vuillemin, V; Wielers, M; Willis, W J; Wingerter-Seez, I; Ye, J; Yip, K; Zerwas, D; Zitoun, R; Zolnierowski, Y

    2003-01-01

    The construction and performance of the barrel pre-series module 0 of the future ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter at the LHC is described. The signal reconstruction and performance of ATLAS-like electronics has been studied. The signal to noise ratio for muons has been found to be 7.11+-0.07. An energy resolution of better than 9.5% GeV^1/2/sqrt{E} (sampling term) has been obtained with electron beams of up to 245GeV. The uniformity of the response to electrons in an area of Delta_eta x Delta_phi = 1.2 x 0.075 has been measured to be better than 0.8%.

  17. Performance of the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter barrel module 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubert, B.; Ballansat, J.; Bazan, A.; Beaugiraud, B.; Boniface, J.; Chollet, F.; Colas, J.; Delebecque, P.; Di Ciaccio, L.; Dumont-Dayot, N.; El Kacimi, M.; Gaumer, O.; Ghez, P.; Girard, C.; Gouanere, M.; Kambara, H.; Jeremie, A.; Jezequel, S.; Lafaye, R.; Leflour, T.; Le Maner, C.; Lesueur, J.; Massol, N.; Moynot, M.; Neukermans, L.; Perrodo, P.; Perrot, G.; Poggioli, L.; Prast, J.; Przysiezniak, H.; Riccadona, X.; Sauvage, G.; Thion, J.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Zitoun, R.; Zolnierowski, Y.; Chen, H.; Citterio, M.; Farrell, J.; Gordon, H.; Hackenburg, B.; Hoffman, A.; Kierstead, J.; Lanni, F.; Leite, M.; Lissauer, D.; Ma, H.; Makowiecki, D.; Radeka, V.; Rahm, D.; Rajagopalan, S.; Rescia, S.; Stumer, I.; Takai, H.; Yip, K.; Benchekroun, D.; Driouichi, C.; Hoummada, A.; Hakimi, M.; Stroynowski, R.; Ye, J.; Beck Hansen, J.; Belymam, A.; Bremer, J.; Chevalley, J.L.; Fassnacht, P.; Gianotti, F.; Hervas, L.; Marin, C.P.; Pailler, P.; Schilly, P.; Seidl, W.; Vossebeld, J.; Vuillemin, V.; Clark, A.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Moneta, L.; Belhorma, B.; Collot, J.; Saintignon, P. de; Dzahini, D.; Ferrari, A.; Gallin-Martel, M.L.; Hostachy, J.Y.; Martin, P.; Muraz, J.F.; Ohlsson-Malek, F.; Saboumazrag, S.; Ban, J.; Cartiglia, N.; Cunitz, H.; Dodd, J.; Gara, A.; Leltchouk, M.; Negroni, S.; Parsons, J.A.; Seman, M.; Simion, S.; Sippach, W.; Willis, W.; Barreiro, F.; Garcia, G.; Labarga, L.; Rodier, S.; Peso, J. del; Alexa, C.; Barrillon, P.; Benchouk, C.; Chekhtman, A.; Dinkespiler, B.; Djama, F.; Duval, P.Y.; Henry-Couannier, F.; Hinz, L.; Jevaud, M.; Karst, P.; Le Van Suu, A.; Martin, L.; Martin, O.; Mirea, A.; Monnier, E.; Nagy, E.; Nicod, D.; Olivier, C.; Pralavorio, P.; Repetti, B.; Raymond, M.; Sauvage, D.; Tisserant, S.; Toth, J.; Wielers, M.; Battistoni, G.; Bonivento, W.; Carminati, L.; Cavalli, D.; Costa, G.; Delmastro, M.; Fanti, M.; Mandelli, L.; Mazzanti, M.; Perini, L.; Resconi, S.; Tartarelli, G.F.; Aulchenko, V.; Kazanin, V.; Kolachev, G.; Malyshev, V.J. [and others

    2003-03-11

    The construction and performance of the barrel pre-series module 0 of the future ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter at the LHC is described. The signal reconstruction and performance of ATLAS-like electronics has been studied. The signal to noise ratio for muons has been found to be 7.11{+-}0.07. An energy resolution of better than 9.5% GeV{sup 1/2}/{radical}E (sampling term) has been obtained with electron beams of up to 245 GeV. The uniformity of the response to electrons in an area of {delta}{eta}x{delta}phi=1.2x0.075 has been measured to be better than 0.8%.

  18. Performance of the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter barrel module 0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubert, B.; Ballansat, J.; Bazan, A.; Beaugiraud, B.; Boniface, J.; Chollet, F.; Colas, J.; Delebecque, P.; di Ciaccio, L.; Dumont-Dayot, N.; El Kacimi, M.; Gaumer, O.; Ghez, P.; Girard, C.; Gouanère, M.; Kambara, H.; Jérémie, A.; Jézéquel, S.; Lafaye, R.; Leflour, T.; Le Maner, C.; Lesueur, J.; Massol, N.; Moynot, M.; Neukermans, L.; Perrodo, P.; Perrot, G.; Poggioli, L.; Prast, J.; Przysiezniak, H.; Riccadona, X.; Sauvage, G.; Thion, J.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Zitoun, R.; Zolnierowski, Y.; Chen, H.; Citterio, M.; Farrell, J.; Gordon, H.; Hackenburg, B.; Hoffman, A.; Kierstead, J.; Lanni, F.; Leite, M.; Lissauer, D.; Ma, H.; Makowiecki, D.; Radeka, V.; Rahm, D.; Rajagopalan, S.; Rescia, S.; Stumer, I.; Takai, H.; Yip, K.; Benchekroun, D.; Driouichi, C.; Hoummada, A.; Hakimi, M.; Stroynowski, R.; Ye, J.; Beck Hansen, J.; Belymam, A.; Bremer, J.; Chevalley, J. L.; Fassnacht, P.; Gianotti, F.; Hervas, L.; Marin, C. P.; Pailler, P.; Schilly, P.; Seidl, W.; Vossebeld, J.; Vuillemin, V.; Clark, A.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Moneta, L.; Belhorma, B.; Collot, J.; de Saintignon, P.; Dzahini, D.; Ferrari, A.; Gallin-Martel, M. L.; Hostachy, J. Y.; Martin, P.; Muraz, J. F.; Ohlsson-Malek, F.; Saboumazrag, S.; Ban, J.; Cartiglia, N.; Cunitz, H.; Dodd, J.; Gara, A.; Leltchouk, M.; Negroni, S.; Parsons, J. A.; Seman, M.; Simion, S.; Sippach, W.; Willis, W.; Barreiro, F.; Garcia, G.; Labarga, L.; Rodier, S.; Del Peso, J.; Alexa, C.; Barrillon, P.; Benchouk, C.; Chekhtman, A.; Dinkespiler, B.; Djama, F.; Duval, P. Y.; Henry-Couannier, F.; Hinz, L.; Jevaud, M.; Karst, P.; Le van Suu, A.; Martin, L.; Martin, O.; Mirea, A.; Monnier, E.; Nagy, E.; Nicod, D.; Olivier, C.; Pralavorio, P.; Repetti, B.; Raymond, M.; Sauvage, D.; Tisserant, S.; Toth, J.; Wielers, M.; Battistoni, G.; Bonivento, W.; Carminati, L.; Cavalli, D.; Costa, G.; Delmastro, M.; Fanti, M.; Mandelli, L.; Mazzanti, M.; Perini, L.; Resconi, S.; Tartarelli, G. F.; Aulchenko, V.; Kazanin, V.; Kolachev, G.; Malyshev, V.; Maslennikov, A.; Pospelov, G.; Snopkov, R.; Shousharo, A.; Talyshev, A.; Tikhonov, Yu.; Augé, E.; Bourdarios, C.; Breton, D.; Cros, P.; de La Taille, C.; Falleau, I.; Fournier, D.; Guilhem, G.; Hassani, S.; Jacquier, Y.; Kordas, K.; Macé, G.; Merkel, B.; Noppe, J. M.; Parrour, G.; Pétroff, P.; Puzo, P.; Richer, J. P.; Rousseau, D.; Seguin-Moreau, N.; Serin, L.; Tocut, V.; Veillet, J. J.; Zerwas, D.; Astesan, F.; Bertoli, W.; Camard, A.; Canton, B.; Fichet, S.; Hubaut, F.; Imbault, D.; Lacour, D.; Laforge, B.; Le Dortz, O.; Martin, D.; Nikolic-Audit, I.; Orsini, F.; Rossel, F.; Schwemling, P.; Cleland, W.; McDonald, J.; Abouelouafa, E. M.; Ben Mansour, A.; Cherkaoui, R.; El Mouahhidi, Y.; Ghazlane, H.; Idrissi, A.; Belorgey, J.; Bernard, R.; Chalifour, M.; Le Coroller, A.; Ernwein, J.; Mansoulié, B.; Renardy, J. F.; Schwindling, J.; Taguet, J.-P.; Teiger, J.; Clément, C.; Lund-Jensen, B.; Lundqvist, J.; Megner, L.; Pearce, M.; Rydstrom, S.; Egdemir, J.; Engelmann, R.; Hoffman, J.; McCarthy, R.; Rijssenbeek, M.; Steffens, J.; Atlas Electromagnetic Liquid Argon Calorimeter Group

    2003-03-01

    The construction and performance of the barrel pre-series module 0 of the future ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter at the LHC is described. The signal reconstruction and performance of ATLAS-like electronics has been studied. The signal to noise ratio for muons has been found to be 7.11±0.07. An energy resolution of better than 9.5% GeV1/2/ E (sampling term) has been obtained with electron beams of up to 245 GeV. The uniformity of the response to electrons in an area of Δ η×Δ φ=1.2×0.075 has been measured to be better than 0.8%.

  19. A hybrid magnetostrictive-piezoelectric barrel-stave projector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHAI Yong; MO Xiping; LIU Yongping; CUI Zheng

    2006-01-01

    A hybrid magnetostrictive-piezoelectric barrel-stave projector is designed and developed. The new type transducer is driven by the union of rare-earth giant magnetostrictive material Terfenol-D and PZT piezoelectric ceramic. Combining the advantages of low frequency performance within a compact size, it proves that the hybrid projector has a much broader band and higher sound power than that with single magnetostrictive or piezoelectric driver by the simulated and measured results. The prototype of the hybrid projector has a size of 88 mm in outside diameter and 316 mm in length, with an underwater resonant frequency of 1.30 kHz,Q factor of 1.43 for -3 dB bandwidth, and transmitting voltage response level of 135.1 dB at the resonant frequency.

  20. Manufacturing aspects of the ATLAS barrel toroid double pancakes

    CERN Document Server

    Drago, G; Gagliardi, P; Laurenti, A; Marabotto, R; Penco, R

    2002-01-01

    In 1999 INFN (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare) ordered to ANSALDO the manufacturing of 16 double pancakes for the ATLAS BARREL TOROID. In July 2001 four Double Pancakes have already been completed and shipped to the integration site. In this paper the main aspects of the manufacturing of the largest superconducting coils ever built (5*25 m) are described. The main phases of the manufacturing procedure are reviewed starting from the conductor preparation to the VPI impregnation, including references to the materials used as well as to the relevant customer's requirements. In particular the special winding form and the winding technique are treated. For each phase the most critical aspects and the relevant solutions are pointed out. Particular details about the technical solutions adopted for the impregnation and curing of the Double Pancake, which could not be performed inside an autoclave due to the huge dimension of the coil itself, are reported. Finally the methods used for the dimensional and electri...

  1. Charged Pion Energy Reconstruction in the ATLAS Barrel Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Bosman, M; Nessi, Marzio

    2000-01-01

    The intrinsic performance of the ATLAS barrel and extended barrelcalorimeters for the measurement of charged pions is presented. Pion energyscans (E = 20, 50, 200, 400 and 1000 GeV) at two pseudo-rapidity points ($\\eta$= 0.3 and 1.3) and pseudorapidity scans ($-0.2 < \\eta < 1.8$) with pions ofconstant transverse energy ($E_T = 20$ and 50 GeV) are analysed. A simpleapproach, that accounts in first order for non-compensation and dead materialeffects, is used for the pion energy reconstruction. The intrinsic performancesof the calorimeter are studied: resolution, linearity, effect of dead material,tails in the energy distribution. The effect of electronic noise, cell energycuts and restricted cone size are investigated.

  2. Surround suppression and sparse coding in visual and barrel cortices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert N S Sachdev

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available During natural vision the entire retina is stimulated. Likewise, during natural tactile behaviors, spatially extensive regions of the somatosensory surface are co-activated. The large spatial extent of naturalistic stimulation means that surround suppression, a phenomenon whose neural mechanisms remain a matter of debate, must arise during natural behavior. To identify common neural motifs that might instantiate surround suppression across modalities, we review models of surround suppression and compare the evidence supporting the competing ideas that surround suppression has either cortical or sub-cortical origins in visual and barrel cortex. In the visual system there is general agreement lateral inhibitory mechanisms contribute to surround suppression, but little direct experimental evidence that intracortical inhibition plays a major role. Two intracellular recording studies of V1, one using naturalistic stimuli (Haider et al., 2010, the other sinusoidal gratings (Ozeki et al., 2009, sought to identify the causes of reduced activity in V1 with increasing stimulus size, a hallmark of surround suppression. The former attributed this effect to increased inhibition, the latter to largely balanced withdrawal of excitation and inhibition. In rodent primary somatosensory barrel cortex, multi-whisker responses are generally weaker than single whisker responses, suggesting multi-whisker stimulation engages similar surround suppressive mechanisms. The origins of suppression in S1 remain elusive: studies have implicated brainstem lateral/internuclear interactions and both thalamic and cortical inhibition. Although the anatomical organization and instantiation of surround suppression in the visual and somatosensory systems differ, we consider the idea that one common function of surround suppression, in both modalities, is to remove the statistical redundancies associated with natural stimuli by increasing the sparseness or selectivity of sensory

  3. Innovative design of composite structures: The use of curvilinear fiber format to improve buckling resistance of composite plates with central circular holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyer, M. W.; Lee, H. H.

    1990-01-01

    The gains in buckling performance are explored that can be achieved by deviating from the conventional straightline fiber format and considering the situation whereby the fiber orientation in a layer, or a group of layers, can vary from point to point. The particular situation studied is a simply supported square plate with a centrally located hole loaded in compression. By using both a sensitivity analysis and a gradient-search technique, fiber orientation in a number of regions of the plate are selected so as to increase the buckling load relative to baseline straightline designs. The sensitivity analysis is used to determine which regions of the plate have the most influence on buckling load, and the gradient search is used to find the design that is believed to represent the absolute maximum buckling load for the conditions prescribed. Convergence studies and sensitivity of the final design are discussed. By examining the stress resultant contours, it is shown how the curvilinear fibers move the load away from the unsupported hole region of the plate to the supported edges, thus increasing the buckling capacity. The tensile capacity of the improved buckling design is investigated, and it is shown that both tensile capacity and buckling capacity can be improved with the curvilinear fiber concept.

  4. Assembly of 5.5-Meter Diameter Developmental Barrel Segments for the Ares I Upper Stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Robert W.

    2011-01-01

    Full scale assembly welding of Ares I Upper Stage 5.5-Meter diameter cryogenic tank barrel segments has been performed at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). One full-scale developmental article produced under the Ares 1 Upper Stage project is the Manufacturing Demonstration Article (MDA) Barrel. This presentation will focus on the welded assembly of this barrel section, and associated lessons learned. Among the MDA articles planned on the Ares 1 Program, the Barrel was the first to be completed, primarily because the process of manufacture from piece parts (barrel panels) utilized the most mature friction stir process planned for use on the Ares US program: Conventional fixed pin Friction Stir Welding (FSW). This process is in use on other space launch systems, including the Shuttle s External Tank, the Delta IV common booster core, the Delta II, and the Atlas V rockets. The goals for the MDA Barrel development were several fold: 1) to prove out Marshall Space Flight Center s new Vertical Weld Tool for use in manufacture of cylindrical barrel sections, 2) to serve as a first run for weld qualification to a new weld specification, and 3) to provide a full size cylindrical section for downstream use in precision cleaning and Spray-on Foam Insulation development. The progression leading into the welding of the full size barrel included sub scale panel welding, subscale cylinder welding, a full length confidence weld, and finally, the 3 seamed MDA barrel processing. Lessons learned on this MDA program have been carried forward into the production tooling for the Ares 1 US Program, and in the use of the MSFC VWT in processing other large scale hardware, including two 8.4 meter diameter Shuttle External Tank barrel sections that are currently being used in structural analysis to validate shell buckling models.

  5. Modeling the hydrodynamics of Phloem sieve plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kaare Hartvig; Mullendore, Daniel Leroy; Holbrook, Noel Michele

    2012-01-01

    understood. We propose a theoretical model for quantifying the effect of sieve plates on the phloem in the plant, thus unifying and improving previous work in the field. Numerical simulations of the flow in real and idealized phloem channels verify our model, and anatomical data from 19 plant species...... are investigated. We find that the sieve plate resistance is correlated to the cell lumen resistance, and that the sieve plate and the lumen contribute almost equally to the total hydraulic resistance of the phloem translocation pathway....

  6. Growth Plate Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Growth Plate Injuries? Key Words Information Box The Salter-Harris Classification of Growth Plate Injuries What Is ... of Growth Plate Injuries? Since the 1960s, the Salter-Harris classification, which divides most growth plate fractures ...

  7. Dynamics of Tectonic Plates

    CERN Document Server

    Pechersky, E; Sadowski, G; Yambartsev, A

    2014-01-01

    We suggest a model that describes a mutual dynamic of tectonic plates. The dynamic is a sort of stick-slip one which is modeled by a Markov random process. The process defines a microlevel of the dynamic. A macrolevel is obtained by a scaling limit which leads to a system of integro-differential equations which determines a kind of mean field systems. Conditions when Gutenberg-Richter empirical law are presented on the mean field level. These conditions are rather universal and do not depend on features of resistant forces.

  8. 浅谈STP超薄高效保温板防火性能%A Brief Introduction of Fire Resistance Capability of STP Ultra-thin and High-efficiency Heat Retaining Plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓良; 芦金凤

    2012-01-01

    The heat preservation and fire resistance of exterior wall has become an attended issue by public and relevant notice has been promulgated by relevant sections of national government. This article has researched on basic condition, fire resistance principle, application scope and characteristics of the SIP ultra-thin and high-efficiency heat retaining plate which has relatively superior fire resistance capability based on its fire resistance capability combined with practical engineering experiences.%外墙保温防火成为近几年社会各界普遍关心的社会问题,国家相关部门为此也颁布了相应的通知,文章是就防火性能比较优越的STP超薄高效保温板的防火性能结合实际工程施工经验进行归纳总结,从STP超薄高效保温板的基本情况.防火原理、应用范围、自身特点等方面进行了研究.

  9. Structural insight into the biogenesis of β-barrel membrane proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noinaj, Nicholas; Kuszak, Adam J; Gumbart, James C; Lukacik, Petra; Chang, Hoshing; Easley, Nicole C; Lithgow, Trevor; Buchanan, Susan K

    2013-09-19

    β-barrel membrane proteins are essential for nutrient import, signalling, motility and survival. In Gram-negative bacteria, the β-barrel assembly machinery (BAM) complex is responsible for the biogenesis of β-barrel membrane proteins, with homologous complexes found in mitochondria and chloroplasts. Here we describe the structure of BamA, the central and essential component of the BAM complex, from two species of bacteria: Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Haemophilus ducreyi. BamA consists of a large periplasmic domain attached to a 16-strand transmembrane β-barrel domain. Three structural features shed light on the mechanism by which BamA catalyses β-barrel assembly. First, the interior cavity is accessible in one BamA structure and conformationally closed in the other. Second, an exterior rim of the β-barrel has a distinctly narrowed hydrophobic surface, locally destabilizing the outer membrane. And third, the β-barrel can undergo lateral opening, suggesting a route from the interior cavity in BamA into the outer membrane.

  10. The TIM Barrel Architecture Facilitated the Early Evolution of Protein-Mediated Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Aaron David; Beatty, Joshua T; Landweber, Laura F

    2016-01-01

    The triosephosphate isomerase (TIM) barrel protein fold is a structurally repetitive architecture that is present in approximately 10% of all enzymes. It is generally assumed that this ubiquity in modern proteomes reflects an essential historical role in early protein-mediated metabolism. Here, we provide quantitative and comparative analyses to support several hypotheses about the early importance of the TIM barrel architecture. An information theoretical analysis of protein structures supports the hypothesis that the TIM barrel architecture could arise more easily by duplication and recombination compared to other mixed α/β structures. We show that TIM barrel enzymes corresponding to the most taxonomically broad superfamilies also have the broadest range of functions, often aided by metal and nucleotide-derived cofactors that are thought to reflect an earlier stage of metabolic evolution. By comparison to other putatively ancient protein architectures, we find that the functional diversity of TIM barrel proteins cannot be explained simply by their antiquity. Instead, the breadth of TIM barrel functions can be explained, in part, by the incorporation of a broad range of cofactors, a trend that does not appear to be shared by proteins in general. These results support the hypothesis that the simple and functionally general TIM barrel architecture may have arisen early in the evolution of protein biosynthesis and provided an ideal scaffold to facilitate the metabolic transition from ribozymes, peptides, and geochemical catalysts to modern protein enzymes.

  11. Organization of myelin in the mouse somatosensory barrel cortex and the effects of sensory deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera, Kyrstle; Chu, Philip; Abramowitz, Jason; Steger, Robert; Ramos, Raddy L; Brumberg, Joshua C

    2013-04-01

    In rodents, the barrel cortex is a specialized area within the somatosensory cortex that processes signals from the mystacial whiskers. We investigated the normal development of myelination in the barrel cortex of mice, as well as the effects of sensory deprivation on this pattern. Deprivation was achieved by trimming the whiskers on one side of the face every other day from birth. In control mice, myelin was not present until postnatal day 14 and did not show prominence until postnatal day 30; adult levels of myelination were reached by the end of the second postnatal month. Unbiased stereology was used to estimate axon density in the interbarrel septal region and barrel walls as well as the barrel centers. Myelin was significantly more concentrated in the interbarrel septa/barrel walls than in the barrel centers in both control and sensory-deprived conditions. Sensory deprivation did not impact the onset of myelination but resulted in a significant decrease in myelinated axons in the barrel region and decreased the amount of myelin ensheathing each axon. Visualization of the oligodendrocyte nuclear marker Olig2 revealed a similar pattern of myelin as seen using histochemistry, but with no significant changes in Olig2+ nuclei following sensory deprivation. Consistent with the anatomical results showing less myelination, local field potentials revealed slower rise times following trimming. Our results suggest that myelination develops relatively late and can be influenced by sensory experience.

  12. The concept of locking plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronier, P; Pietu, G; Dujardin, C; Bigorre, N; Ducellier, F; Gerard, R

    2010-05-01

    After a short historical review of locking bone plates since their inception more than a century ago to the success of the concept less than 15 years ago with today's plates, the authors present the main locking mechanisms in use. In the two broad categories - plates with fixed angulation and those with variable angulation - the screw head is locked in the plate with a locknut by screwing in a threaded chamber on the plate or by screwing through an adapted ring. The authors then provide a concrete explanation, based on simple mechanical models, of the fundamental differences between conventional bone plates and locking plates and why a locking screw system presents greater resistance at disassembly, detailing the role played by the position and number of screws. The advantages of epiphyseal fixation are then discussed, including in cases of mediocre-quality bone. For teaching purposes, the authors also present assembly with an apple fixed with five locking screws withstanding a 47-kg axial load with no resulting disassembly. The principles of plate placement are detailed for both the epiphysis and diaphysis, including the number and position of screws and respect of the soft tissues, with the greatest success assured by the minimally invasive and even percutaneous techniques. The authors then present the advantages of locking plates in fixation of periprosthetic fractures where conventional osteosynthesis often encounters limited success. Based on simplified theoretical cases, the economic impact in France of this type of implant is discussed, showing that on average it accounts for less than 10% of the overall cost of this pathology to society. Finally, the possible problems of material ablation are discussed as well as the means to remediate these problems.

  13. Indonesian Landforms and Plate Tectonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Th. Verstappen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v5i3.103The horizontal configuration and vertical dimension of the landforms occurring in the tectonically unstable parts of Indonesia were resulted in the first place from plate tectonics. Most of them date from the Quaternary and endogenous forces are ongoing. Three major plates – the northward moving Indo-Australian Plate, the south-eastward moving SE-Asian Plate and the westward moving Pacific Plate - meet at a plate triple-junction situated in the south of New Guinea’s Bird’s Head. The narrow North-Moluccan plate is interposed between the Asia and Pacific. It tapers out northward in the Philippine Mobile Belt and is gradually disappearing. The greatest relief amplitudes occur near the plate boundaries: deep ocean trenches are associated with subduction zones and mountain ranges with collision belts. The landforms of the more stable areas of the plates date back to a more remote past and, where emerged, have a more subdued relief that is in the first place related to the resistance of the rocks to humid tropical weathering Rising mountain ranges and emerging island arcs are subjected to rapid humid-tropical river erosions and mass movements. The erosion products accumulate in adjacent sedimentary basins where their increasing weight causes subsidence by gravity and isostatic compensations. Living and raised coral reefs, volcanoes, and fault scarps are important geomorphic indicators of active plate tectonics. Compartmental faults may strongly affect island arcs stretching perpendicular to the plate movement. This is the case on Java. Transcurrent faults and related pull-apart basins are a leading factor where plates meet at an angle, such as on Sumatra. The most complicated situation exists near the triple-junction and in the Moluccas. Modern research methods, such as GPS measurements of plate movements and absolute dating of volcanic outbursts and raised coral reefs are important tools. The mega-landforms resulting

  14. Double Barreled Wet Colostomy: Initial Experience and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Salgado-Cruz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Pelvic exenteration and multivisceral resection in colorectal have been described as a curative and palliative intervention. Urinary tract reconstruction in a pelvic exenteration is achieved in most cases with an ileal conduit of Bricker, although different urinary reservoirs have been described. Methods. A retrospective and observational study of six patients who underwent a pelvic exenteration and urinary tract reconstruction with a double barreled wet colostomy (DBWC was done, describing the preoperative diagnosis, the indication for the pelvic exenteration, the complications associated with the procedure, and the followup in a period of 5 years. A literature review of the case series reported of the technique was performed. Results. Six patients had a urinary tract reconstruction with the DBWC technique, 5 male patients and one female patient. Age range was from 20 to 77 years, with a medium age 53.6 years. The most frequent complication presented was a pelvic abscess in 3 patients (42.85%; all complications could be resolved with a conservative treatment. Conclusion. In the group of our patients with pelvic exenteration and urinary tract reconstruction with a DBWC, it is a safe procedure and well tolerated by the patients, and most of the complications can be resolved with conservative treatment.

  15. Centrifugal barrel polishing of 1.3 GHz Nb cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamashevich, Yegor; Foster, Brian [DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Hamburg Univ. (Germany); Navitski, Aliaksandr; Steder, Lea; Elsen, Eckhard [DESY, Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    Superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) cavities are the key components of particle accelerators such as the European X-ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL, under construction) and the planned future International Linear Collider (ILC). Steady progress in surface treatment techniques of SRF cavities in both the achievable quality factor Q and the accelerating electric field Eacc makes new accelerators and ambitious projects feasible. One of the alternative surface preparation techniques which is actually being explored is centrifugal barrel polishing (CBP) pioneered at KEK in Japan in mid-nineties by T. Hiuchi et al. CBP is a mechanical polishing of cavities and results in around 10 x smaller surface roughness and mirror-like surface as compared to chemistry alone. Q and E{sub acc} are expected to be at least as high as for chemically treated cavities. CBP eliminates the bulk chemistry and has the potential to completely replace the chemistry. The University of Hamburg is installing a CBP machine to study it as a cavity preparation and repair technique for 9-cell 1.3 GHz SRF cavities at the Deutsche Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY). The setup and first commissioning tests will be presented and discussed.

  16. Energy Resolution of the Barrel of the CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Adzic, Petar; Almeida, Carlos; Almeida, Nuno; Anagnostou, Georgios; Anfreville, Marc; Anicin, Ivan; Antunovic, Zeljko; Auffray, Etiennette; Baccaro, Stefania; Baffioni, Stephanie; Baillon, Paul; Barney, David; Barone, Luciano; Barrillon, Pierre; Bartoloni, Alessandro; Beauceron, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Bell, Ken W; Benetta, Robert; Bercher, Michel; Berthon, Ursula; Betev, Botjo; Beuselinck, Raymond; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Bialas, Wojciech; Biino, Cristina; Bimbot, Stephane; Blaha, Jan; Bloch, Philippe; Blyth, Simon; Bordalo, Paula; Bornheim, Adolf; Bourotte, Jean; Britton, David; Brown, Robert M; Brunelière, Renaud; Busson, Philippe; Camporesi, Tiziano; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Cavallari, Francesca; Cerutti, Muriel; Chamont, David; Chang, Paoti; Chang, You-Hao; Charlot, Claude; Chatterji, Sudeep; Chen, E Augustine; Chipaux, Rémi; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Cockerill, David J A; Collard, Caroline; Combaret, Christophe; Cossutti, Fabio; Da Silva, J C; Dafinei, Ioan; Daskalakis, Georgios; Davatz, Giovanna; Decotigny, David; De Min, Alberto; Deiters, Konrad; Dejardin, Marc; Del Re, Daniele; Della Negra, Rodolphe; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Depasse, Pierre; Descamp, J; Dewhirst, Guy; Dhawan, Satish; Diemoz, Marcella; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Djambazov, Lubomir; Dobrzynski, Ludwik; Drndarevic, Snezana; Dupanloup, Michel; Dzelalija, Mile; Ehlers, Jan; El-Mamouni, H; Peisert, Anna; Evangelou, Ioannis; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Fay, Jean; Ferri, Federico; Flower, Paul S; Franzoni, Giovanni; Funk, Wolfgang; Gaillac, Anne-Marie; Gargiulo, Corrado; Gascon-Shotkin, S; Geerebaert, Yannick; Gentit, François-Xavier; Ghezzi, Alessio; Gilly, Jean; Giolo-Nicollerat, Anne-Sylvie; Givernaud, Alain; Gninenko, Sergei; Go, Apollo; Godinovic, Nikola; Golubev, Nikolai; Golutvin, Igor; Gómez-Reino, Robert; Govoni, Pietro; Grahl, James; Gras, Philippe; Greenhalgh, Justin; Guillaud, Jean-Paul; Haguenauer, Maurice; Hamel De Montechenault, G; Hansen, Magnus; Heath, Helen F; Hill, Jack; Hobson, Peter R; Holmes, Daniel; Holzner, André; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Ille, Bernard; Ingram, Quentin; Jain, Adarsh; Jarry, Patrick; Jauffret, C; Jha, Manoj; Karar, M A; Kataria, Sushil Kumar; Katchanov, V A; Kennedy, Bruce W; Kloukinas, Kostas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Korjik, M; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Krpic, Dragomir; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Lebeau, Michel; Lecomte, Pierre; Lecoq, Paul; Lemaire, Marie-Claude; Lethuillier, Morgan; Lin, Willis; Lintern, A L; Lister, Alison; Litvin, V; Locci, Elizabeth; Lodge, Anthony B; Longo, Egidio; Loukas, Demetrios; Luckey, D; Lustermann, Werner; Lynch, Clare; MacKay, Catherine Kirsty; Malberti, Martina; Maletic, Dimitrije; Mandjavidze, Irakli; Manthos, Nikolaos; Markou, Athanasios; Mathez, Hervé; Mathieu, Antoine; Matveev, Viktor; Maurelli, Georges; Menichetti, Ezio; Meridiani, Paolo; Milenovic, Predrag; Milleret, Gérard; Miné, Philippe; Mur, Michel; Musienko, Yuri; Nardulli, Alessandro; Nash, Jordan; Neal, Homer; Nédélec, Patrick; Negri, Pietro; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Newman, Harvey B; Nikitenko, Alexander; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Ofierzynski, Radoslaw Adrian; Organtini, Giovanni; Paganini, Pascal; Paganoni, Marco; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Paramatti, Riccardo; Pastrone, Nadia; Pauss, Felicitas; Puljak, Ivica; Pullia, Antonino; Puzovic, Jovan; Ragazzi, Stefano; Ramos, Sergio; Rahatlou, Shahram; Rander, John; Ranjan, Kirti; Ravat, Olivier; Raymond, M; Razis, Panos A; Redaelli, Nicola; Renker, Dieter; Reucroft, Steve; Reymond, Jean-Marc; Reynaud, Michel; Reynaud, Serge; Romanteau, Thierry; Rondeaux, Françoise; Rosowsky, André; Rovelli, Chiara; Rumerio, Paolo; Rusack, Roger; Rusakov, Sergey V; Ryan, Matthew John; Rykaczewski, Hans; Sakhelashvili, Tariel; Salerno, Roberto; Santos, Marcelino; Seez, Christopher; Semeniouk, Igor; Sharif, Omar; Sharp, Peter; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Shevchenko, Sergey; Shivpuri, Ram Krishen; Sidiropoulos, Georgios; Sillou, Daniel; Singovsky, Alexander; Sirois, Y; Sirunyan, Albert M; Smith, Brian; Smith, Vincent J; Sproston, Martin; Suter, Henry; Swain, John; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Takahashi, Maiko; Tapper, Robert J; Tcheremoukhine, Alexandre; Teixeira, Isabel; Teixeira, Joao Paulo; Teller, Olivier; Timlin, Claire; Triantis, F A; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Ueno, Koji; Uzunian, Andrey; Varela, Joao; Vaz-Cardoso, N; Verrecchia, Patrice; Vichoudis, Paschalis; Vigano, S; Viertel, Gert; Virdee, Tejinder; Vlassov, E; Wang, Minzu; Weinstein, Alan; Williams, Jennifer C; Yaselli, Ignacio; Zabi, Alexandre; Zamiatin, Nikolai; Zelepoukine, Serguei; Zeller, Michael E; Zhang, Lin

    2007-01-01

    The energy resolution of the barrel part of the CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter has been studied using electrons of 20 to 250 GeV in a test beam. The incident electron's energy was reconstructed by summing the energy measured in arrays of 3x3 or 5x5 channels. There was no significant amount of correlated noise observed within these arrays. For electrons incident at the centre of the studied 3x3 arrays of crystals, the mean stochastic term was measured to be 2.8% and the mean constant term to be 0.3%. The amount of the incident electron's energy which is contained within the array depends on its position of incidence. The variation of the containment with position is corrected for using the distribution of the measured energy within the array. For uniform illumination of a crystal with 120 GeV electrons a resolution of 0.5% was achieved. The energy resolution meets the design goal for the detector.

  17. First ATLAS Barrel Toroid coil casing arrives at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The first of eight 25-metre long coil casings for the ATLAS experiment's barrel toroid magnet system arrived at CERN on Saturday 2 March by road from Heidelberg. This structure will be part of the largest superconducting toroid magnet ever made.   The first coil casing for the toroidal magnets of Atlas arrives at Building 180. This is the start of an enormous three-dimensional jigsaw puzzle. Each of the eight sets of double pancake coils will be housed inside aluminium coil casings, which in turn will be held inside a stainless steel vacuum vessel. A huge construction, the casing that arrived at CERN measures 25 metres in length and 5 metres in width. It weighs 20 tones. And this is just the beginning of the toroid jigsaw: by early April a batch of four double pancake coils, which altogether weighs 65 tones, will arrive from Ansaldo in Italy. The first vacuum vessel will also be arriving from Felguera in Spain this month. It will take about two years for all these 25 m long structures of casings, coils a...

  18. Cryogenic Characteristics of the ATLAS Barrel Toroid Superconducting Magnet

    CERN Document Server

    Pengo, R; Delruelle, N; Pezzetti, M; Pirotte, O; Passardi, Giorgio; Dudarev, A; ten Kate, H

    2008-01-01

    ATLAS, one of the experiments of the LHC accelerator under commissioning at CERN, is equipped with a large superconducting magnet the Barrel Toroid (BT) that has been tested at nominal current (20500 A). The BT is composed of eight race-track superconducting coils (each one weights about 45 tons) forming the biggest air core toroidal magnet ever built. By means of a large throughput centrifugal pump, a forced flow (about 10 liter/second at 4.5 K) provides the indirect cooling of the coils in parallel. The paper describes the results of the measurements carried out on the complete cryogenic system assembled in the ATLAS cavern situated 100 m below the ground level. The measurements include, among other ones, the static heat loads, i.e., with no or constant current in the magnet, and the dynamic ones, since additional heat losses are produced, during the current ramp-up or slow dump, by eddy currents induced on the coil casing.

  19. Performance of prototypes for the PANDA barrel EMC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremer, D. A.; Eissner, T.; Drexler, P.; Moritz, M.; Novotny, R. W.; PANDA Collaboration

    2015-02-01

    The PANDA experiment will be part of the future Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) and aims for the study of strong interaction within the charm sector via antiproton proton collisions up to antiproton momenta of 15 GeV/c. Reflecting the variety of the physics program the PANDA detector is designed as a multi-purpose detector able to perform tracking, calorimetry and particle identification with nearly complete coverage of the solid angle. The Electromagnetic Calorimeter (EMC) contained inside its Target Spectrometer is based on cooled PbWO4 scintillator crystals. In order to ensure an excellent performance throughout the large dynamic range of photon/electron energies ranging from a few MeV up to 15 GeV an extensive prototyping phase is mandatory. This contribution describes the measured response of the EMC barrel part prototype PROTO60 at the largest design energy to secondary beams provided by the SPS at CERN. In addition to PROTO60 a tracking station was deployed, providing precise position information of the 15 GeV/c positrons. For calibration purposes a 150 GeV/c muon beam and cosmic radiation, in combination with estimations from GEANT4 simulations were used. The obtained performance concerning energy, position and time information is presented.

  20. Barrel Toroid fully charged to nominal field, and it works!

    CERN Document Server

    Herman ten Kate

    After a few weeks of testing up to intermediate currents, finally, on Thursday evening November 9, the current in the Barrel Toroid was pushed up to its nominal value of 20500 A and even 500 A beyond this value to prove that we have some margin. It went surprisingly well. Of course, the 8 coils forming the toroid were already tested individually at the surface but still, some surprise may have come from those parts added to the toroid in the cavern for the first time like the 8 cryoring sections linking the coils as well as the valve box at the bottom in sector 13 regulating the helium flow or the current lead cryostat on the top in sector 5. No training quenches, nothing to worry about, and the test was concluded with a fast dump triggered at 00:40 in the very early morning of November 10. (left) The toroid current during the evening and night of November 9. (right) The test crew oscillated between fear and hope while looking at the control panels as the current approached 21kA. Big relief was in the...

  1. High Stimulus-Related Information in Barrel Cortex Inhibitory Interneurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Reyes-Puerta

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The manner in which populations of inhibitory (INH and excitatory (EXC neocortical neurons collectively encode stimulus-related information is a fundamental, yet still unresolved question. Here we address this question by simultaneously recording with large-scale multi-electrode arrays (of up to 128 channels the activity of cell ensembles (of up to 74 neurons distributed along all layers of 3-4 neighboring cortical columns in the anesthetized adult rat somatosensory barrel cortex in vivo. Using two different whisker stimulus modalities (location and frequency we show that individual INH neurons--classified as such according to their distinct extracellular spike waveforms--discriminate better between restricted sets of stimuli (≤6 stimulus classes than EXC neurons in granular and infra-granular layers. We also demonstrate that ensembles of INH cells jointly provide as much information about such stimuli as comparable ensembles containing the ~20% most informative EXC neurons, however presenting less information redundancy - a result which was consistent when applying both theoretical information measurements and linear discriminant analysis classifiers. These results suggest that a consortium of INH neurons dominates the information conveyed to the neocortical network, thereby efficiently processing incoming sensory activity. This conclusion extends our view on the role of the inhibitory system to orchestrate cortical activity.

  2. Structure of Rhodococcus equi virulence-associated protein B (VapB) reveals an eight-stranded antiparallel β-barrel consisting of two Greek-key motifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geerds, Christina [Bielefeld University, Universitaetsstrasse 25, 33615 Bielefeld (Germany); Wohlmann, Jens; Haas, Albert [University of Bonn, Ulrich-Haberland Strasse 61a, 53121 Bonn (Germany); Niemann, Hartmut H., E-mail: hartmut.niemann@uni-bielefeld.de [Bielefeld University, Universitaetsstrasse 25, 33615 Bielefeld (Germany)

    2014-06-18

    The structure of VapB, a member of the Vap protein family that is involved in virulence of the bacterial pathogen R. equi, was determined by SAD phasing and reveals an eight-stranded antiparallel β-barrel similar to avidin, suggestive of a binding function. Made up of two Greek-key motifs, the topology of VapB is unusual or even unique. Members of the virulence-associated protein (Vap) family from the pathogen Rhodococcus equi regulate virulence in an unknown manner. They do not share recognizable sequence homology with any protein of known structure. VapB and VapA are normally associated with isolates from pigs and horses, respectively. To contribute to a molecular understanding of Vap function, the crystal structure of a protease-resistant VapB fragment was determined at 1.4 Å resolution. The structure was solved by SAD phasing employing the anomalous signal of one endogenous S atom and two bound Co ions with low occupancy. VapB is an eight-stranded antiparallel β-barrel with a single helix. Structural similarity to avidins suggests a potential binding function. Unlike other eight- or ten-stranded β-barrels found in avidins, bacterial outer membrane proteins, fatty-acid-binding proteins and lysozyme inhibitors, Vaps do not have a next-neighbour arrangement but consist of two Greek-key motifs with strand order 41238567, suggesting an unusual or even unique topology.

  3. Data Acquisition and Management in the Calibration Processes of the CMS Barrel Muon Alignment System

    CERN Document Server

    Székely, Géza; Bencze, Gy L; Béni, N; Imrek, J; Molnár, J; Novák, D; Raics, P; Szabó, Z

    2007-01-01

    In order to be able to match correctly the track elements produced by a muon in the Tracker and the Muon System of the CMS experiment [1] the mutual alignment precision between the Tracker and the Barrel Muon System must be no worse than 100-400 micrometers depending on the radial distance of the muon chambers from the Tracker. To fulfill this requirement an alignment system had to be designed. This system contains subsystems for determining the positions of the barrel and endcap chambers while a third one connects these two to the Tracker. Since the Barrel muon chambers are embedded into the magnet yoke of the experiment a nonconventional alignment method had to be developed. In this paper we restrict ourselves to the Barrel Alignment System and the calibration methods of its components.

  4. Influence of the pulsed plasma treatment on the corrosion resistance of the low-alloy steel plated by Ni-based alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhumaev, P.; Yakushin, V.; Kalin, B.; Polsky, V.; Yurlova, M.

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents investigation results of the influence of high temperature pulsed plasma flows (HTPPF) treatment on the corrosion resistance of low-alloy steel 0.2C-Cr-Mn- Ni-Mo cladded by the rapidly quenched nickel-based alloy. A technique that allows obtaining a defect-free clad layer with a good adhesion to the substrate was developed. It is shown that the preliminary treatment of steel samples by nitrogen plasma flows significantly increases their corrosion resistance in the conditions of intergranular corrosion test in a water solution of sulfuric acid. A change of the corrosion mechanism of the clad layer from intergranular to uniform corrosion was observed as a result of sub-microcrystalline structure formation and homogeneous distribution of alloying elements in the plasma treated surface layer thus leading to the significant increase of the corrosion resistance.

  5. CNOOC to Boost Oil Output to 290 Million Barrels in 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ China National Offshore Oil Company Limited (CNOOC Limited)announced in early February that its targeted net production volume in 2010 is between 275 million and 290 million barrels ofoil equivalent(BOE).In its 2010 business strategy and development plan recently released to the public the offshore oil giant said the production goal was set given a West Texas Intermediate (WTI)oil price of US $75 per barrel in 2010.

  6. Fabrication and Tests of M240 Machine Gun Barrels Lined with Stellite 25

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    nozzle design is the subject of a patent disclosure . Another source of the poor material properties of the cold-sprayed Biodur tubes was the fact...Fabrication and Tests of M240 Machine Gun Barrels Lined with Stellite 25 by William S de Rosset and Sean Fudger Weapons and Materials Research...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Two M240B barrel blanks were processed with the Gun Liner Emplacement with an Elastomeric Material procedure

  7. Comparative Study on UNDEX Resistance of the Air-backed Stiffened Plate with Various Covering Layers%覆盖层加筋板结构水下抗爆性能对比试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖锋; 谌勇; 黄修长; 朱大巍; 华宏星

    2013-01-01

    为提高潜艇的隐身性能,潜艇壳体表面常敷设声学覆盖层结构。声学覆盖层常设有各类空腔等特殊结构形式,在受到水下爆炸冲击波时空腔产生变形并吸收能量,对潜艇的抗冲击性能产生影响。分别对不同覆盖层及无覆盖层的加筋平板试件开展水下抗爆炸性能对比性试验研究。通过试验获取各加筋平板试件典型部位的加速度、应变响应。比较不同覆盖层对加筋平板结构的实际抗冲效果,为今后声学覆盖层的抗冲设计和研究提供参考。%In order to improve stealthy capacity of a submarine, acoustic layers with special hollow structures are usually covered on hull surfaces of the submarine. The hollow structures can deform and absorb energy when they are subjected to underwater explosion (UNDEX), which can greatly raise the submarine’s anti-shock performance. In this paper, comparative study on UNDEX resistance of the air-backed stiffened plate with various covering layers was carried out. The acceleration and strain responses of the typical positions of the stiffened plate were obtained by the testing. And the anti-shock effects of the stiffened plate with various covering layers were compared. The results may provide a guideline for the design and study of the acoustic covering layers against UNDEX.

  8. Resistance evaluation of distillation tower welded metal plate linings to corrosion caused by heavy crude oil; Avaliacao da resistencia a corrosao causada por petroleo pesado em chapas soldadas utilizadas em 'linings' de torres de destilacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Cleiton Carvalho; Farias, Jesualdo Pereira [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Metalurgica e de Materiais], e-mail: cleitonufc@yahoo.com.br, e-mail: jpf@secrel.com.br; Sant' Ana, Hosilberto Batista de [' Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica], e-mail: hbs@ufc.br

    2008-04-15

    This study evaluated the microstructures and the resistance of AISI 316L, 410S and 444 stainless steel welded joints to heavy crude oil corrosion, using the AWS E309MoL-16 electrode. The above mentioned stainless steel plates were welded applying three energy levels (6; 9 and 12kJ/cm). Experimental sample forms were obtained from the welded plates, which were thermally treated at 200 and 300 deg C and immersed (annealed) in heavy crude oil. The techniques of optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) were employed to make the microstructure evaluation, in addition to the surface characterization and the corrosion product identification. It was concluded that the welding thermal cycle is sufficient to cause metallurgic alterations in the region of the heat-affected zone (HAZ), making the region more susceptible to corrosion. It was also observed that the rate of corrosion varied according to the welding parameters applied. (author)

  9. Comparison Between Malolactic Fermentation Container and Barrel Toasting Effects on Phenolic, Volatile and Sensory Profile of Red Wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Centeno, María Reyes; Chira, Kleopatra; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis

    2017-04-01

    Ellagitannin and anthocyanin profiles, woody volatile composition and sensory properties of wines in which malolactic fermentation (MLF) took place in barrels or stainless steel tanks, have been compared after 12 months of barrel ageing. Three different barrel toastings were evaluated. Barrel-fermented wines generally presented 1.2-fold higher total phenolics, whereas tank-fermented wines exhibited 1.1 and 1.2-fold greater total proanthocyanidin and anthocyanin contents, respectively. Concerning ellagitannin composition, barrel toasting effect seemed to be more important than differences due to MLF-container. Certain woody and fruity volatiles varied significantly (p < 0.05) depending on whether MLF occurred in barrels or tanks. Barrel-fermented wines were preferred in mouth, while olfactory preference depended on barrel toasting. This is the first study that evaluates the impact of oak wood during MLF on ellagitannin composition of wine, as well as the barrel toasting effect on wine attributes during ageing when MLF occurred whether in barrels or tanks.

  10. Composition and corrosion resistance of palladium film on 316L stainless steel by brush plating%316L不锈钢上电刷镀钯膜的组成与耐蚀性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐鋆磊; 左禹; 唐聿明; 熊金平

    2012-01-01

    利用电刷镀工艺在316L不锈钢上制备了结合力良好的钯膜.使用扫描电子显微镜、X射线能谱、X射线光电子能谱(XPS)、质量损失实验和电化学测试研究了膜层的性能.结果表明,电刷镀钯膜主要是由钯元素构成的;XPS分析表明,膜层中的钯为金属态.电刷镀钯后的不锈钢试样在沸腾的20%硫酸溶液和含0.005 mol/L溴离子的甲酸和乙酸混合溶液中均显示了非常好的耐蚀性能.镀钯试样的腐蚀速率比不锈钢试样的下降了2个数量级.%Palladium films with good adhesive strength were deposited on 316L stainless steel by brush plating.Scanning electronic microscopy,energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy,X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS),mass loss tests and electrochemical methods were used to study the properties of the films.The brush plated palladium film mainly consisted of palladium.XPS analysis indicated that palladium was present in the films as metal state.The palladium plated stainless steel samples showed excellent corrosion resistance in boiling 20% H2SO4 solution and boiling acetic/formic acids with 0.005 mol/L Br ions added.The corrosion rates of the palladium plated 316L stainless steel samples were about two orders of magnitude lower than those of the original 316L stainless steel samples.This method provides a possibility to prepare protective palladium films on stainless steel facilities with large areas in industrial sites.

  11. Fabrication and electrical resistivity of Mo-doped VO2 thin films coated on graphite conductive plates by a sol-gel method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, W.; Jung, H.M.; Um, S. [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). School of Mechanical Engineering

    2008-07-01

    Vanadium oxides (VO2) can be used in optical devices, thermochromic smart windows and sensors. This paper reported on a study in which vanadium pentoxide (V2O5) powder was prepared and mixed with Molybdenum Oxides (MoO3) to form Mo-doped and -undoped VO2 thin films by a sol-gel method on graphite conductive substrates. The micro-structure and chemical compositions of the Mo-doped and -undoped VO2 thin films was investigated using X-Ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Changes in electrical resistivity were measured as a function of the stoichiometric compositions between vanadium and molybdenum. In this study. Mo-doped and -undoped VO2 thin films showed the typical metal to insulator transition (MIT), where temperature range could be adjusted by modifying the dopant atomic ratio. The through-plane substrate structure of the Mo-doped layer influences the electrical resistivity of the graphite substrate. As the amount of the molybdenum increases, the electrical resistivity of the graphite conductive substrate decreases in the lower temperature range below the freezing point of water. The experimental results showed that if carefully controlled, thermal dissipation of VO2 thin films can be used as a self-heating source to melt frozen water with the electrical current flowing through the graphite substrate. 3 refs., 3 figs.

  12. 昆山市64所学校桶装纯净水卫生质量调查%Investigation on hygienic quality of barreled pure water in 64 schools in Kunshan City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈璐; 朱振华; 赵建翔

    2013-01-01

    目的 了解昆山市学校桶装纯净水的卫生质量,以便进一步规范学校饮用桶装水的管理,为卫生监督管理提供科学依据.方法 随机选择62所学校作为研究对象,从中随机抽检62批次桶装纯净水进行实验室检测.结果 抽检的62批次桶装纯净水中合格52批次,合格率83.9%;菌落总数、霉菌和酵母菌合格批次分别是55和60,合格率分别是88.7%和96.8%;电导率合格数是56批次,合格率90.3%.结论 桶装纯净水卫生质量良好,但然需进一步改善,特别是微生物超标是影响桶装饮用水卫生质量的主要问题,应加强桶装纯净水生产单位的卫生监管,确保桶装纯净水卫生安全.%[Objective] To understand hygienic quality of barreled pure water in schools of Kunshan City,so as to further standardize the management of barreled pure water in school,and provide scientific basis for health supervision and management.[Methods] A total of 62 school were randomly selected as study objects,62 batch samples of barreled pure water were randomly collected for laboratory detection.[Results] Of 62 batch samples,52 (83.9%) were qualified;55 (88.7%) and 60 (96.8%)were qualified for total plate count,molds and yeasts,respectively; 56 (90.3%) were electrical conductivity qualified.[Conclusion] The hygiene condition of barreled pure water is well,but still need to be further improved,especially for microbial over stand the major problem affecting the hygienic quality of barreled pure water.Surveillance on barreled pure water manufactures must be strengthened to ensure the hygienic quality of barreled pure water in schools.

  13. Plate Tearing by a Cone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Bo Cerup

    1997-01-01

    The present paper is concerned with steady-state plate tearing by a cone. This is a scenario where a cone is forced through a ductile metal plate with a constant lateral tip penetration in a motion in the plane of the plate. The considered process could be an idealisaton of the damage, which...... of internal energy dissipation in plasticity,fracture and friction is quantified accordingly by analytical expressions. The idealised mode has two free parameters which are determined from the postulate that they adjust to give the least rate of energy dissipation. The theory is compared to a series...... of measurements. The coefficient of friction was not measured, so the calculation are presented for different realistic values and it is shown that for a coefficient of friction of about 0,2, there is a reasonably good agreement between theory and measurements for the inplane resistance force as well...

  14. Long-term sensory deprivation selectively rearranges functional inhibitory circuits in mouse barrel cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peijun; Rudolph, Uwe; Huntsman, Molly M

    2009-07-21

    Long-term whisker removal alters the balance of excitation and inhibition in rodent barrel cortex, yet little is known about the contributions of individual cells and synapses in this process. We studied synaptic inhibition in four major types of neurons in live tangential slices that isolate layer 4 in the posteromedial barrel subfield. Voltage-clamp recordings of layer 4 neurons reveal that fast decay of synaptic inhibition requires alpha1-containing GABA(A) receptors. After 7 weeks of deprivation, we found that GABA(A)-receptor-mediated inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) in the inhibitory low-threshold-spiking (LTS) cell recorded in deprived barrels exhibited faster decay kinetics and larger amplitudes in whisker-deprived barrels than those in nondeprived barrels in age-matched controls. This was not observed in other cell types. Additionally, IPSCs recorded in LTS cells from deprived barrels show a marked increase in zolpidem sensitivity. To determine if the faster IPSC decay in LTS cells from deprived barrels indicates an increase in alpha1 subunit functionality, we deprived alpha1(H101R) mutant mice with zolpidem-insensitive alpha1-containing GABA(A) receptors. In these mice and matched wild-type controls, IPSC decay kinetics in LTS cells were faster after whisker removal; however, the deprivation-induced sensitivity to zolpidem was reduced in alpha1(H101R) mice. These data illustrate a change of synaptic inhibition in LTS cells via an increase in alpha1-subunit-mediated function. Because alpha1 subunits are commonly associated with circuit-specific plasticity in sensory cortex, this switch in LTS cell synaptic inhibition may signal necessary circuit changes required for plastic adjustments in sensory-deprived cortex.

  15. Nickel Alloy, Corrosion and Heat-Resistant, Sheet, Strip, and Plate 72Ni - 15.5Cr - 0.95 (Cb (Nb) + Ta) - 2.5Ti - 0.70Al - 7.0Fe Consumable Electrode, Remelted or Vacuum Induction Melted, Solution Heat Treated, Precipitation-Hardenable

    CERN Document Server

    SAE Aerospace Standards. London

    2012-01-01

    Nickel Alloy, Corrosion and Heat-Resistant, Sheet, Strip, and Plate 72Ni - 15.5Cr - 0.95 (Cb (Nb) + Ta) - 2.5Ti - 0.70Al - 7.0Fe Consumable Electrode, Remelted or Vacuum Induction Melted, Solution Heat Treated, Precipitation-Hardenable

  16. Modeling the hydrodynamics of phloem sieve plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaare Hartvig Jensen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Sieve plates have an enormous impact on the efficiency of the phloem vascular system of plants, responsible for the distribution of photosynthetic products. These thin plates, which separate neighboring phloem cells, are perforated by a large number of tiny sieve pores and are believed to play a crucial role in protecting the phloem sap from intruding animals by blocking flow when the phloem cell is damaged. The resistance to the flow of viscous sap in the phloem vascular system is strongly affected by the presence of the sieve plates, but the hydrodynamics of the flow through them remains poorly understood. We propose a theoretical model for quantifying the effect of sieve plates on the phloem in the plant, thus unifying and improving previous work in the field. Numerical simulations of the flow in real and idealized phloem channels verify our model, and anatomical data from 19 plant species are investigated. We find that the sieve plate resistance is correlated to the cell lumen resistance, and that the sieve plate and the lumen contribute almost equally to the total hydraulic resistance of the phloem translocation pathway.

  17. Thermo-Mechanical Analysis of Water-Cooled Gun Barrel During Burst Firing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Li-xia; HU Zhi-gang; ZHAO Jian-bo

    2006-01-01

    The thermo-mechanical stress and deformation of water-cooled gun barrel during burst firing are studied by finite element analysis (FEA). The problem is modeled in two steps: 1) A transient heat transfer analysis is first carried out in order to determine temperature evolution and to predict the residual temperatures during the burst firing event; 2) The thermo-mecha-nical stresses and deformation caused by both the residual temperature field and the gas pressure are then calculated. The results show that the residual temperature field tends to a steady state with the increasing of rounds. The residual temperature field has much effect on the gun barrel stress and deformation, especially on the assembly area between barrel and water jacket. The gage between the barrel and water jacket is the critical factor to the thermo-mechanical stress and deformation. The results of this analysis will be very useful to develop the new strength design theory of the liquid-cooled gun barrel.

  18. Processless offset printing plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Mahović Poljaček

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available With the implementation of platesetters in the offset printing plate making process, imaging of the printing plate became more stable and ensured increase of the printing plate quality. But as the chemical processing of the printing plates still highly influences the plate making process and the graphic reproduction workflow, development of printing plates that do not require chemical processing for offset printing technique has been one of the top interests in graphic technology in the last few years. The main reason for that came from the user experience, where majority of the problems with plate making process could be connected with the chemical processing of the printing plate. Furthermore, increased environmental standards lead to reducing of the chemicals used in the industrial processes. Considering these facts, different types of offset printing plates have been introduced to the market today. This paper presents some of the processless printing plates.

  19. Structural Integrity Analysis of a Battle Tank Gun Barrel during Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahnawaz Ahmad

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation, failure assessment diagram (FAD using R6 approach has been established for structural integrity analysis of a battle tank gun barrel. FEM based modelling was carried out to evaluate maximum stresses in the barrel section during firing. A detailed sensitivity analysis of various geometres, service and material parameters has been performed to assess their criticality on overall safety of the structures. The study has been carried out using actual material and firing data of a battle tank gun barrel and therefore it can give useful insight to a designer while selecting a material and designing a similar component.Defence Science Journal, Vol. 65, No. 1, January 2015, pp.83-89, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.65.7800

  20. Quench Induced Pressure Rise in the Cooling Pipes of the Atlas Barrel Toroid Model

    CERN Document Server

    Haug, F; Broggi, F; Junker, S

    2004-01-01

    The ATLAS superconducting magnet system consists of a Barrel Toroid, two End-Cap Toroids and a Solenoid. Eight individual racetrack coils will be assembled to form the Barrel Toroid with overall dimensions of 26 m length and 20 m diameter. In order to verify the design concept a 9 m long short version of a single Barrel Toroid coil was built. A test program was conducted at the CERN cryogenic test facility which included the evaluation of the pressure rise in the helium cooling channels during quenches of the coil. A specific experimental set-up with cold pressure transducers and capillaries was installed for online measurement of the pressure signals. In addition a computer model was used to simulate these events. The data obtained are presented.

  1. Barreled-beer cup vendor (FSCB-100); Tarunama cup benda (FSCB-100)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-01-10

    Development was made on an automatic vending machine to vend barreled beer in a cup with stabilized quality. Its major features are as follows: (1) a double cooling system using water cooling and air cooling simultaneously was adopted to make it possible to maintain the beer freshness and pour it stably; (2) a full-automatic gas pressure control system was adopted to detect beer temperature, and adjust the pressure to adequate level; (3) an automatic rinsing system was adopted that has made troublesome pipe rinsing possible with just pressing a button to simplify maintenance work; and (4) a new automatic two-barrel changeover mechanism was developed to achieve first-in-first-out of barrels, control the freshness, suppress bubble generation, and reduce beer loss quantity. (translated by NEDO)

  2. HHrep: de novo protein repeat detection and the origin of TIM barrels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söding, Johannes; Remmert, Michael; Biegert, Andreas

    2006-07-01

    HHrep is a web server for the de novo identification of repeats in protein sequences, which is based on the pairwise comparison of profile hidden Markov models (HMMs). Its main strength is its sensitivity, allowing it to detect highly divergent repeat units in protein sequences whose repeats could as yet only be detected from their structures. Examples include sequences with beta-propellor fold, ferredoxin-like fold, double psi barrels or (betaalpha)8 (TIM) barrels. We illustrate this with proteins from four superfamilies of TIM barrels by revealing a clear 4- and 8-fold symmetry, which we detect solely from their sequences. This symmetry might be the trace of an ancient origin through duplication of a betaalphabetaalpha or betaalpha unit. HHrep can be accessed at http://hhrep.tuebingen.mpg.de.

  3. CHANGES IN VOLATILE COMPOSITION AND SENSORY PROPERTIES OF VUGAVA WINES AGED IN CROATIA OAK BARRELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanka HERJAVEC

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Vugava musts were fermented in medium-toasted Croatian barrique barrels (225 L made from Quercus petrea and Q. robur oak wood. The oak species used in this research infl uenced the specifi c change of the aroma structure of Vugava wines. During the age period the increase in the concentration of cis and trans oaklactons, guaiacol, eugenol, furfural and 5-methylfurfural was noted. Wines fermented and aged in Q. petrea barrels have higher concentrations of most volatile phenols compared to wines from Q. robur oak wood. From the organoleptic point of view this study suggested that fermentation and on the lees ageing production method in Croatian oak barrels positively infl uenced the quality of Vugava wines where best results were achieved by use of Q. petrea oak wood.

  4. Assessing the Outer Membrane Insertion and Folding of Multimeric Transmembrane β-Barrel Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leo, Jack C; Oberhettinger, Philipp; Linke, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    In addition to the cytoplasmic membrane, Gram-negative bacteria have a second lipid bilayer, the outer membrane, which is the de facto barrier between the cell and the extracellular milieu. Virtually all integral proteins of the outer membrane form β-barrels, which are inserted into the outer membrane by the BAM complex. Some outer membrane proteins, like the porins and trimeric autotransporter adhesins, are multimeric. In the former case, the porin trimer consists of three individual β-barrels, whereas in the latter, the single autotransporter β-barrel domain is formed by three separate polypeptides. This chapter reviews methods to investigate the folding and membrane insertion of multimeric OMPs and further explains the use of a BamA depletion strain to study the effects of the BAM complex on multimeric OMPs in E. coli.

  5. Persistence of biological traces in gun barrels--an approach to an experimental model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courts, Cornelius; Madea, Burkhard; Schyma, Christian

    2012-05-01

    Traces of backspatter in gun barrels after homicidal or suicidal contact shots may be a valuable source of forensic evidence. Yet, a systematic investigation of the persistence and durability of DNA from biological traces in gun barrels is lacking. Our aim was to generate a realistic model to emulate blood and tissue spatters in gun barrels generated by contact gunshots at biological targets and to analyse the persistence and typability of DNA recovered from such stains. Herein, we devise and evaluate three different models for the emulation of backspatter from contact shots: a gelatine-based model with embedded blood bags, a model based on a spongious matrix soaked with blood and covered with a thin plastic membrane and a head model consisting of an acrylic half sphere filled with ballistic gelatine and with blood bags attached to the sphere under a 3-mm silicone layer. The sampling procedure for all three models: a first shot was fired with several types of guns at each model construction and subsequently a second shot was fired at a backstop. Blood samples were collected after each shot by probing the inner surface of the front and rear end of the respective gun barrel with a sterile swab. DNA was then extracted and quantified and up to 20 different short tandem repeat (STR) systems were amplified to generate DNA profiles. Although DNA quantity and STR typing results were heterogenous between the models, all models succeeded in delivering full STR profiles even after more than one shot. We conclude that biological traces in gun barrels are robust and accessible to forensic analysis and that systematic examination of the inside of gun barrels may be advisable for forensic casework.

  6. Construction and test results of the ATLAS EM barrel calorimeter and presampler

    CERN Document Server

    Hostachy, J Y

    2003-01-01

    The construction of the ATLAS liquid argon electromagnetic (EM) barrel calorimeter and presampler is well under way: modules and sectors for more than half a barrel have now been produced. Particular emphasis will be put on the qualification tests allowing this construction. The system: calorimeter module +2 presampler sectors has been exposed several times to muon, electron and photon beams at CERN. Results concerning muons and photons are shown. Energy resolution and the uniformity studies performed with electrons are presented in the same proceedings by Dr. M. Fanti.

  7. Observations of a solar storm from the stratosphere: The BARREL Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halford, Alexa

    2016-07-01

    During the Balloon Array for Radiation belt Relativistic Electron Losses (BARREL) second campaign, BARREL observed with a single primary instrument, a 3"x3" NaI spectrometer measuring 20 keV - 10 MeV X-rays [Woodger et al 2015 JGR], portions of an entire solar storm. This very small event, in terms of geomagnetic activity, or one of the largest of the current solar cycle, in terms of solar energetic particle events, has given us a very clear set of observations of the response of the day side magnetosphere to the arrival of an interplanetary coronal mass ejection shock. The BARREL mission of opportunity working in tandem with the Van Allen Probes was designed to study the loss of radiation belt electrons to the ionosphere and upper atmosphere. However BARREL is able to see X-rays from a multitude of sources. During the second campaign, the Sun produced, and BARREL observed, an X-class flare [McGregor et al in prep.]. This was followed by BARREL observations of X-rays, gamma-rays, and directly injected protons from the solar energetic particle (SEP) event associated with the eruption from the Sun while simultaneously the Van Allen Probes observed the SEP protons in the inner magnetosphere [Halford et al 2016 submitted JGR]. Two days later the shock generated by the interplanetary coronal mass ejection (ICME-shock) hit the Earth while BARREL was in conjunction with the Van Allen Probes and GOES [Halford et al 2015 JGR]. Although this was a Mars directed CME and the Earth only received a glancing blow [Möstl et al 2015 Nat. Commun., Mays et al 2015 ApJ], the modest compression led to the formation of ultra low frequency (ULF) waves, electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves, and very low frequency (VLF) whistler mode waves [Halford and Mann 2016 submitted to JGR]. The combination of these waves and the enhancement of the local particle population led to precipitation of electrons remotely observed by BARREL. This was not a Halloween, Bastille Day, or one of the now

  8. Effects of passive films on corrosion resistance of uncoated SS316L bipolar plates for proton exchange membrane fuel cell application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Ying, E-mail: yingyang@nwu.edu.cn [Shaanxi Provincial Key Laboratory of Electroanalytical Chemistry, Institute of Analytical Science, Northwest University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710069 (China); International Research Center for Renewable Energy, State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Ning, Xiaohui; Tang, Hongsheng [Shaanxi Provincial Key Laboratory of Electroanalytical Chemistry, Institute of Analytical Science, Northwest University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710069 (China); Guo, Liejin [International Research Center for Renewable Energy, State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Liu, Hongtan [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL 33124 (United States)

    2014-11-30

    Highlights: • The passive film formed at PEMFC anode side shows a single layer structure. • The passive film formed at PEMFC cathode side shows a bi-layer structure. • The Cr/Fe atomic ratios in passive films formed at different side are different. • The passive films behave as n-type semiconductor at both anode and cathode sides. • The anode/cathode potential is positive than the flatband potential of passive film. - Abstract: The effects of passive films on the corrosion behaviors of uncoated SS316L in anode and cathode environments of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) are studied. Potentiodynamic and potentiostatic polarizations are employed to study the corrosion behavior; Mott-Schottky measurements are used to characterize the semiconductor properties of passive films; X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses are used to identify the compositions and the depth profiles of passive films. The passive films formed in the PEMFC anode and cathode environments under corresponding conditions both behave as n-type semiconductor. The passive film formed in the anode environment has a single-layer structure, Cr is the major element (Cr/Fe atomic ratio > 1), and the Cr/Fe atomic ratio decreases from the surface to the bulk; while the passive film formed in the PEMFC cathode environment has a bi-layer structure, Fe is the major element (Cr/Fe atomic ratio < 0.5), and in the external layer of the bi-layer structure Fe content increases rapidly and gradually in the internal layer. SS316L shows better corrosion resistance owing to both the high content of Cr oxide in the passive film and low band bending in normal PEMFC anode environments.

  9. Plate Shape Control Theory and Experiment for 20-high Mill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng-wen YUAN; Hong XIAO

    2015-01-01

    Roll lfattening theory is an important part of plate shape control theories for 20-high mill. In order to improve the ac-curacy of roll lfattening calculation for 20-high mill, a new and more accurate roll lfattening model was proposed. In this model, the roll barrel was considered as a ifnite length semi-inifnite body. Based on the boundary integral equation method, the numerical solution of the ifnite length semi-inifnite body under the distributed force was obtained and an accurate roll lfattening model was established. Coupled with roll bending model and strip plastic deformation, a new and more accurate plate control model for 20-high mill was established. Moreover, the effects of the ifrst intermediate roll taper angle and taper length were analyzed. The ten-sion distribution calculated by analytical model was consistent with the experimental results.

  10. Start of Final Assembly of the CMS Barrel Yoke on schedule at P5 the 1st august, 2000. I

    CERN Multimedia

    Hubert Gerwig, CERN/ EP-CMI

    2000-01-01

    The Barrel Yoke and the vacuumtank weigh 6500 tonnes. The barrel Yoke consists of 5 rings eacu one weighing 1200 tonnes. The vacuum tank is a stainless steel structure weighing 270 tonnes (length = 13 m , outer diamter 7.6 m) The final assembly of these items will take approximately 1 year from now on.

  11. 27 CFR 25.160 - Tax adjustment for brewers who produce more than 2,000,000 barrels of beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... who produce more than 2,000,000 barrels of beer. 25.160 Section 25.160 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Tax on Beer Determination of Tax § 25.160 Tax adjustment for brewers who produce more than 2,000,000 barrels of beer....

  12. Effects of Welding Processes on Microstructure and Corrosion Resistance of Weld Metal of Corrosion Resistant Ship Plate Steel DH36%焊接工艺对 DH36耐蚀船板钢焊缝金属组织与耐蚀性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    隋志强; 齐彦昌; 王军丽; 马成勇

    2016-01-01

    Corrosion resistant ship plate steels DH36 were welded by using submerged-arc welding,flux cored wire CO 2 gas shielded welding and shielded metal arc welding processes,and then corrosion experiments were carried out in the simulated environment around bottom plates of cargo oil tanks,the effects of welding processes on microstructure and corrosion resistance of weld metals were studied.The results show that under three welding processes,microstructure of the weld metals consisted predominantly of acicular ferrite,ferrite side-plate and proeutectoid ferrite.Compared with shielded metal arc welding and gas shielded welding,the weld metal prepared by submerged-arc welding had the best corrosion resistance,this due to the decrease of proeutectoid ferrite caused by higher heat input.Under three welding processes,the size and distribution of inclusion in weld metal were similar,and there was no obvious difference in the effects of inclusion on corrosion property of weld metal.%分别采用埋弧焊、药芯焊丝 CO 2气体保护焊和焊条电弧焊工艺对 DH36耐蚀船板钢进行对接焊,然后在模拟油船货油舱下底板的腐蚀环境中进行腐蚀试验,研究了焊接工艺对焊缝金属组织和耐蚀性能的影响。结果表明:在3种焊接工艺下,焊缝金属的组织均主要由先共析铁素体、侧板条铁素体和针状铁素体组成;与焊条电弧焊和气体保护焊相比,采用埋弧焊得到的焊缝金属的耐蚀性能最优,这源于埋弧焊较高的热输入导致针状体素体数量减少;在三种焊接工艺下,焊缝金属中夹杂物的尺寸、分布均相似,它们对焊缝金属耐蚀性能的影响基本相同。

  13. Growth Plate Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the most widely used by doctors is the Salter-Harris system, described below. Type I Fractures These ... incidence of growth plate fractures peaks in adolescence. Salter-Harris classification of growth plate fractures. AAOS does ...

  14. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook ... Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook with Heart- ...

  15. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... steps to get started: Using your dinner plate, put a line down the middle of the plate. ... vegetables . Now in one of the small sections, put grains and starchy foods. See this list of ...

  16. Inevitability of Plate Tectonics on Super-Earths

    CERN Document Server

    Valencia, Diana; Sasselov, Dimitar D

    2007-01-01

    The recent discovery of super-Earths (masses less or equal to 10 earth-masses) has initiated a discussion about conditions for habitable worlds. Among these is the mode of convection, which influences a planet's thermal evolution and surface conditions. On Earth, plate tectonics has been proposed as a necessary condition for life. Here we show, that super-Earths will also have plate tectonics. We demonstrate that as planetary mass increases, the shear stress available to overcome resistance to plate motion increases while the plate thickness decreases, thereby enhancing plate weakness. These effects contribute favorably to the subduction of the lithosphere, an essential component of plate tectonics. Moreover, uncertainties in achieving plate tectonics in the one earth-mass regime disappear as mass increases: super-Earths, even if dry, will exhibit plate tectonic behaviour.

  17. Accelerated plate tectonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D L

    1975-03-21

    The concept of a stressed elastic lithospheric plate riding on a viscous asthenosphere is used to calculate the recurrence interval of great earthquakes at convergent plate boundaries, the separation of decoupling and lithospheric earthquakes, and the migration pattern of large earthquakes along an arc. It is proposed that plate motions accelerate after great decoupling earthquakes and that most of the observed plate motions occur during short periods of time, separated by periods of relative quiescence.

  18. Twenty years of barrel-stave flextensional transducer technology in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Dennis F.

    2005-04-01

    The barrel-stave flextensional transducer, a compact underwater sound source, was conceived at DRDC Atlantic in 1986 [G. W. McMahon and D. F. Jones, U.S. Patent No. 4,922,470 (1 May 1990); Canadian Patent No. 1,285,646 (2 July 1991)]. Over the years, five barrel-stave designs belonging to three flextensional classes were built and tested at DRDC Atlantic. Three Class I transducers with operating frequencies ranging from 800 to 1600 Hz were integrated into submarine communications buoys, low frequency active horizontal projector arrays, and a broadband sonar towbody. A high-power Class II and broadband (1-7 kHz) Class III transducer were deployed under the ice in the Lincoln Sea for research related to rapidly deployable surveillance systems. These barrel-stave flextensional transducers have also supported a variety of marine mammal studies including vocal mimicry in long-finned pilot whales, coda dialects in sperm whales, and the R&D of acoustic detection and tracking systems for endangered northern right whales. In August 2004 a barrel-stave transducer was used to lure a trapped juvenile humpback whale to the sluice gates of a tidal generating station on the Annapolis River in Nova Scotia by transmitting humpback whale calls underwater. The acoustic performance parameters for all 5 transducers will be presented.

  19. Late emergence of the vibrissa direction selectivity map in the rat barrel cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Yves; Léger, Jean-François; Goodman, Dan; Brette, Romain; Bourdieu, Laurent

    2011-07-20

    In the neocortex, neuronal selectivities for multiple sensorimotor modalities are often distributed in topographical maps thought to emerge during a restricted period in early postnatal development. Rodent barrel cortex contains a somatotopic map for vibrissa identity, but the existence of maps representing other tactile features has not been clearly demonstrated. We addressed the issue of the existence in the rat cortex of an intrabarrel map for vibrissa movement direction using in vivo two-photon imaging. We discovered that the emergence of a direction map in rat barrel cortex occurs long after all known critical periods in the somatosensory system. This map is remarkably specific, taking a pinwheel-like form centered near the barrel center and aligned to the barrel cortex somatotopy. We suggest that this map may arise from intracortical mechanisms and demonstrate by simulation that the combination of spike-timing-dependent plasticity at synapses between layer 4 and layer 2/3 and realistic pad stimulation is sufficient to produce such a map. Its late emergence long after other classical maps suggests that experience-dependent map formation and refinement continue throughout adult life.

  20. Determination of Heat Transfer Coefficient in a Gun Barrel from Experimental Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    Barrels, BRL-R- 1740, September 1974. AD #BOOO71L. Mark W. Zemansky , Heat and Thermodynamics, McGraw-Hill Book Company Inc., New York, 1957. 3 Max Jacob...September 1974. AD #BOO17lL. 2. Mark W. Zemansky , Heat and Thermodynamics, McGraw-Hill Book Company Inc., New York, 1957. 3. Max Jacob, Heat Transfer, Vol. 1

  1. Npas4 Expression in Two Experimental Models of the Barrel Cortex Plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Kaliszewska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Npas4 has recently been identified as an important factor in brain plasticity, particularly in mechanisms of inhibitory control. Little is known about Npas4 expression in terms of cortical plasticity. In the present study expressions of Npas4 and the archetypal immediate early gene (IEG c-Fos were investigated in the barrel cortex of mice after sensory deprivation (sparing one row of whiskers for 7 days or sensory conditioning (pairing stimulation of one row of whiskers with aversive stimulus. Laser microdissection of individual barrel rows allowed for analysis of IEGs expression precisely in deprived and nondeprived barrels (in deprivation study or stimulated and nonstimulated barrels (in conditioning study. Cortex activation by sensory conditioning was found to upregulate the expression of both Npas4 and c-Fos. Reorganization of cortical circuits triggered by removal of selected rows of whiskers strongly affected c-Fos but not Npas4 expression. We hypothesize that increased inhibitory synaptogenesis observed previously after conditioning may be mediated by Npas4 expression.

  2. Effect of Associative Learning on Memory Spine Formation in Mouse Barrel Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malgorzata Jasinska

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Associative fear learning, in which stimulation of whiskers is paired with mild electric shock to the tail, modifies the barrel cortex, the functional representation of sensory receptors involved in the conditioning, by inducing formation of new inhibitory synapses on single-synapse spines of the cognate barrel hollows and thus producing double-synapse spines. In the barrel cortex of conditioned, pseudoconditioned, and untreated mice, we analyzed the number and morphological features of dendritic spines at various maturation and stability levels: sER-free spines, spines containing smooth endoplasmic reticulum (sER, and spines containing spine apparatus. Using stereological analysis of serial sections examined by transmission electron microscopy, we found that the density of double-synapse spines containing spine apparatus was significantly increased in the conditioned mice. Learning also induced enhancement of the postsynaptic density area of inhibitory synapses as well as increase in the number of polyribosomes in such spines. In single-synapse spines, the effects of conditioning were less pronounced and included increase in the number of polyribosomes in sER-free spines. The results suggest that fear learning differentially affects single- and double-synapse spines in the barrel cortex: it promotes maturation and stabilization of double-synapse spines, which might possibly contribute to permanent memory formation, and upregulates protein synthesis in single-synapse spines.

  3. The beta-barrel outer membrane protein assembly complex of Neisseria meningitidis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volokhina, E.B.; Beckers, F.; Tommassen, J.; Bos, M.P.

    2009-01-01

    The evolutionarily conserved protein Omp85 is required for outer membrane protein (OMP) assembly in gram-negative bacteria and in mitochondria. Its Escherichia coli homolog, designated BamA, functions with four accessory lipoproteins, BamB, BamC, BamD, and BamE, together forming the beta-barrel asse

  4. Construction and test of the final CMS Barrel Drift Tube Muon Chamber prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar-Benitez, M.; Alberdi, J.; Arneodo, M.; Banicz, K.; Benettoni, M.; Benvenuti, A.; Bethke, S.; Cerrada, M. E-mail: cerrada@ciemat.es; Cirio, R.; Colino, N.; Conti, E.; Dallavalle, M.; Daniel, M.; Dattola, D.; Daudo, F.; De Giorgi, M.; Dosselli, U.; Fanfani, A.; Fanin, C.; Fouz, M.C.; Gasparini, F.; Gasparini, U.; Giacomelli, P.; Giordano, V.; Gonella, F.; Grandi, C.; Guaita, P.; Guerzoni, M.; Lacaprara, S.; Lippi, I.; Marcellini, S.; Marin, J.; Martinelli, R.; Maselli, S.; Meneguzzo, A.; Migliore, E.; Mocholi, J.; Monaco, V.; Montanari, A.; Montanari, C.; Odorici, F.; Oller, J.C.; Paoletti, S.; Passaseo, M.; Pegoraro, M.; Peroni, C.; Puerta, J.; Reithler, H.; Romero, A.; Romero, L.; Ronchese, P.; Rossi, A.M.; Rovelli, T.; Sacchi, R.; Salicio, J.M.; Staiano, A.; Steinbeck, T.; Torassa, E.; Travaglini, R.; Ventura, L.; Ventura, S.; Vitelli, A.; Voetee, F.; Wegner, M.; Willmott, C.; Zotto, P.; Zumerle, G

    2002-03-21

    A prototype of the CMS Barrel Muon Detector incorporating all the features of the final chambers was built using the mass production assembly procedures and tools. The performance of this prototype was studied in a muon test beam at CERN and the results obtained are presented in this paper.

  5. Construction and test of the final CMS barrel drift tube muon chamber prototype

    CERN Document Server

    Aguilar-Benítez, M; Arneodo, M; Banicz, K; Benettoni, M; Benvenuti, Alberto C; Bethke, Siegfried; Cerrada, M; Cirio, R; Colino, N; Conti, E; Dallavalle, G M; Daniel, M; Dattola, D; Daudo, F; De Giorgi, M; Dosselli, U; Fanfani, A; Fanin, C; Fouz-Iglesias, M C; Gasparini, F; Gasparini, U; Glacomelli, P; Giordano, V; Gonella, F; Grandi, C; Guaita, P; Guerzoni, M; Lacaprara, S; Lippi, I; Marcellini, S; Marin, J; Martinelli, R; Maselli, S; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Migliore, E; Mocholí-Mocholí, J; Monaco, V; Montanari, A; Montnari, C; Odorici, F; Oller, J C; Paoletti, S; Passaseo, M; Pegoraro, M; Peroni, C; Puerta, J; Reithler, H; Romero, A; Romero, L; Ronchese, P; Rossi, A M; Rovelli, T; Sacchi, R; Salicio, J M; Staiano, A; Steinbeck, T M; Torassa, E; Travaglini, R; Ventura, L; Ventura, Sandro; Vitelli, A; Voetee, F; Wegner, M; Willmott, C; Zotto, P L; Zumerle, G

    2002-01-01

    A prototype of the CMS Barrel Muon Detector incorporating all the features of the final chambers was built using the mass production assembly procedures and tools. The performance of this prototype was studied in a muon test beam at CERN and the results obtained are presented in this paper. (12 refs).

  6. Construction and Performance of the ATLAS SCT Barrels and Cosmic Tests

    CERN Document Server

    Demirkoz, Bilge Melahat

    2007-01-01

    ATLAS is a multi-purpose detector for the LHC and will detect proton-proton collisions with center of mass energy of $14$TeV. Part of the central inner detector, the Semi-Conductor Tracker (SCT) barrels, were assembled and tested at Oxford University and later integrated at CERN with the TRT (Transition Radiation Tracker) barrel. The barrel SCT is composed of 4 layers of silicon strip modules with two sensor layers with $80 \\mu$m channel width. The design of the modules and the barrels has been optimized for low radiation length while maintaining mechanical stability, bringing services to the detector, and ensuring a cold and dry environment. The high granularity, high detector efficiency and low noise occupancy ($ < 5 \\times 10^{-4}$) of the SCT will enable ATLAS to have an efficient pattern recognition capability. Due to the binary nature of the SCT read-out, a stable read-out system and the calibration system is of critical importance. SctRodDaq is the online software framework for the calibration and a...

  7. Computer Aided Design and Stress Analysis of Nose Landing Gear Barrel (NLGB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kumar Sardiwal

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available During the conceptual design phase of aircraft the integration of undercarriage system is very important and it is often difficult to achieve on the first time. The nose wheel landing gear preferred configurations for light naval trainer aircraft. The main objective of this project is to improve the static strength criteria and fatigue life of Nose Landing Gear Barrel considered. The investigations includes preliminary design layout for Nose Landing Gear Barrel and initial sizing has been done. It has been designed and evaluated for strength criteria. A method of analysis for the design of Nose Landing Gear Barrel made up of Al-Cu alloy (BS L 168 T6511 with static loads of axial, bending and normal loads are applied. The geometric modeling of the Nose Landing Gear Barrel was carried out using CAD package CATIA V5 R19 and pre and post processing was done through MSC/PATRAN. The stresses and displacements are obtained with the application of MSC/NASTRAN finite element software.

  8. Electrostatic design of the barrel CRID (Cherenkov Ring Imaging Detector) and associated measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, K.; Hasegawa, K.; Suekane, F.; Yuta, H. (Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Dept. of Physics); Antilogus, P.; Aston, D.; Bienz, T.; Bird, F.; Dunwoodie, W.; Hallewell, G.; Kawahara, H.; Kwon, Y.; Leith, D.W.G.S.; Muller, D.; Nagamine, T.; Pavel, T.; Ratcliff, B.; Rensing, P.; Schultz, D.; Shapiro, S.; Simopoulos, C.; Solodov, E.; Toge, N.; Va' Vra, J. Williams, H. (Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (US

    1990-04-01

    We report on the electrostatic design and related measurements of the barrel Cherenkov Ring Imaging Detector for the Stanford Large Detector experiment at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center Linear Collider. We include test results of photon feedback in TMAE-laden gas, distortion measurements in the drift boxes and corona measurements. 13 refs., 21 figs.

  9. Automatic brush-plating technology for component remanufacturing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Bin; XU Bin-shi; JING Xue-dong; LIU Cun-long; ZHANG Bin

    2005-01-01

    An automatic brush-plating system was developed for component remanufacturing. With this system, Ni/nano-alumina composite coatings from an electrolyte containing 20 g/L nano-alumina particles were prepared.Microstructure, surface morphology, microhardness and wear resistance of automatically plated coatings and manu ally plated coatings were investigated comparatively. The results show that the automatically plated coatings are relatively dense and uniform and have lower friction coefficient of 0. 089 under lubricant condition, when compared with manually plated coatings with friction coefficient of 0. 14.

  10. Obliquity along plate boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippon, Mélody; Corti, Giacomo

    2016-12-01

    Most of the plate boundaries are activated obliquely with respect to the direction of far field stresses, as roughly only 8% of the plate boundaries total length shows a very low obliquity (ranging from 0 to 10°, sub-orthogonal to the plate displacement). The obliquity along plate boundaries is controlled by (i) lateral rheological variations within the lithosphere and (ii) consistency with the global plate circuit. Indeed, plate tectonics and magmatism drive rheological changes within the lithosphere and consequently influence strain localization. Geodynamical evolution controls large-scale mantle convection and plate formation, consumption, and re-organization, thus triggering plate kinematics variations, and the adjustment and re-orientation of far field stresses. These geological processes may thus result in plate boundaries that are not perpendicular but oblique to the direction of far field stresses. This paper reviews the global patterns of obliquity along plate boundaries. Using GPlate, we provide a statistical analysis of present-day obliquity along plate boundaries. Within this framework, by comparing natural examples and geological models, we discuss deformation patterns and kinematics recorded along oblique plate boundaries.

  11. Reconstruction of large limb bone defects with a double-barrel free vascularized fibular graft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BI Zheng-gang; HAN Xing-guang; FU Chun-jiang; CAO Yang; YANG Cheng-lin

    2008-01-01

    Background The use of a free,vascularized fibular graft is an important technique for the reconstruction of large defects in long bones.The technique has many advantages in strong,tubular bones; a more reliable vascular anatomy with a large vascular diameter and long pedicle is used,minimizing donor-site morbidity.Due to limitations in both fibular anatomy and mechanics,they cannot effectively be used to treat large limb bone defects due to their volume and strength.Methods From 1990 to 2001,16 clinical cases of large bone defects were treated using vascularized double-barrel fibular grafts.Patients were evaluated for an average of 10 months after surgery.Results All the patients achieved bony union; the average bone union took 10 months post surgery,and no stress fractures occurred.Compared with single fibular grafts,the vascularized double-barrel fibular grafts greatly facilitate bony union and are associated with fewer complications,suggesting that the vascularized double-barrel fibular graft is a valuable procedure for the correction of large bone defects in large,long bones in addition to enhancing bone intensity.Conclusions The vascularized double-barrel fibular graft is superior to the single fibular graft in stimulating osteogenous activity and biological mechanics for the correction of very large bone defects in large,long bones.Free vascularized folded double-barrel fibular grafts can not only fill up large bone defects,but also improve the intensity margin.Therefore,this study also widens its application and enlarges the treatment targets.However,in the case of bone deformability,special attention should be paid to bone fixation and protection of donor and recipient sites.

  12. Performance analysis for the CALIFA Barrel calorimeter of the R{sup 3}B experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez-Pol, H., E-mail: hector.alvarez@usc.es [Dpt. de Física de Partículas, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, E-15782, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Ashwood, N. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Aumann, T. [Institut für Kernphysik, Technische Universität Darmstadt, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Bertini, D. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Cabanelas, P. [Dpt. de Física de Partículas, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, E-15782, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Casarejos, E. [Universidade de Vigo, E-36310 Vigo (Spain); Cederkall, J. [Department of Physics, Lund University, SE 221 00 Lund (Sweden); Cortina-Gil, D.; Díaz Fernández, P.; Duran, I. [Dpt. de Física de Partículas, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, E-15782, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Fiori, E. [ExtreMe Matter Institute EMMI and Research Division, GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Galaviz, D. [Centro de Fsica Nuclear da Universidade de Lisboa, 1649-003 Lisbon (Portugal); Labiche, M. [STFC Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Nacher, E. [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia CSIC, Madrid (Spain); Pietras, B. [Dpt. de Física de Partículas, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, E-15782, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); and others

    2014-12-11

    The CALIFA calorimeter is an advanced detector for gamma rays and light charged particles, accordingly optimized for the demanding requirements of the physics programme proposed for the R{sup 3}B facility at FAIR. The multipurpose character of CALIFA is required to fulfil challenging demands in energy resolution (5–6% at 1 MeV for gamma rays) and efficiency. Charged particles, e.g. protons of energies up to 320 MeV in the Barrel section, should also be identified with an energy resolution better to 1%. CALIFA is divided into two well-separated sections: a “Forward EndCap” and a cylindrical “Barrel” covering an angular range from 43.2° to 140.3°. The Barrel section, based on long CsI(Tl) pyramidal frustum crystals coupled to large area avalanche photodiodes (LAAPDs), attains the requested high efficiency for calorimetric purposes. The construction of the CALIFA Demonstrator, comprising 20% of the total detector, has already been initiated, and commissioning experiments are expected for 2014. The assessment of the capabilities and expected performance of the detector elements is a crucial step in their design, along with the prototypes evaluation. For this purpose, the Barrel geometry has been carefully implemented in the simulation package R3BRoot, including easily variable thicknesses of crystal wrapping and carbon fibre supports. A complete characterization of the calorimeter response (including efficiency, resolution, evaluation of energy and reconstruction losses) under different working conditions, with several physics cases selected to probe the detector performance over a wide range of applications, has been undertaken. Prototypes of different sections of the CALIFA Barrel have been modeled and their responses have been evaluated and compared with the experimental results. The present paper summarizes the outcome of the simulation campaign for the entire Barrel section and for the corresponding prototypes tested at different European installations.

  13. Corrosion test cell for bipolar plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisbrod, Kirk R.

    2002-01-01

    A corrosion test cell for evaluating corrosion resistance in fuel cell bipolar plates is described. The cell has a transparent or translucent cell body having a pair of identical cell body members that seal against opposite sides of a bipolar plate. The cell includes an anode chamber and an cathode chamber, each on opposite sides of the plate. Each chamber contains a pair of mesh platinum current collectors and a catalyst layer pressed between current collectors and the plate. Each chamber is filled with an electrolyte solution that is replenished with fluid from a much larger electrolyte reservoir. The cell includes gas inlets to each chamber for hydrogen gas and air. As the gases flow into a chamber, they pass along the platinum mesh, through the catalyst layer, and to the bipolar plate. The gas exits the chamber through passageways that provide fluid communication between the anode and cathode chambers and the reservoir, and exits the test cell through an exit port in the reservoir. The flow of gas into the cell produces a constant flow of fresh electrolyte into each chamber. Openings in each cell body is member allow electrodes to enter the cell body and contact the electrolyte in the reservoir therein. During operation, while hydrogen gas is passed into one chamber and air into the other chamber, the cell resistance is measured, which is used to evaluate the corrosion properties of the bipolar plate.

  14. Consumer demand for green stormwater management technology in an urban setting: The case of Chicago rain barrels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Amy W.; Freitas, Luiz P. C.

    2011-12-01

    Hydrological disruption and water pollution from urbanization can be reduced if households in urban areas adopt decentralized storm water controls. We study a citywide municipal subsidized rain-barrel program in the third biggest city in the United States, Chicago, to explore what factors influence whether households purchase this sort of green storm water management technology in an urban setting. Specifically, we regress census-tract level data on the number of rain barrels adopted in different parts of the city on socioeconomic variables, data on local flood frequency, and features of the housing stock. We find that rain-barrel purchases are not correlated with local levels of flooding, even though city residents were told by program managers that rain barrels could alleviate local flooding. Instead, rain barrels are heavily concentrated in places with high-income attitudinally green populations. We do find more rain barrels were adopted in places close to rain-barrel distribution points and near sites of hydrological information campaigns; thus, policy makers might increase green-technology adoption in areas where they can do the most good by reducing transaction costs and providing education programs to those areas. Finally, our results indicate that owner occupancy is positively correlated with green-technology adoption. Low-rise rental housing may have inefficiently low levels of adoption, such that city managers might want to develop programs to encourage storm water management investments by landlords who do not live in their own properties.

  15. 超高速撞击作用下 C/SiC 薄板抗冲击特性研究%Impact resistance characteristics of C/SiC plate under hypervelocity load

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨扬; 徐绯; 寇剑锋; 汤忠斌

    2014-01-01

    The impact resistance of thermal protective system is an important determinant for the safety service of space airplane in orbit.Based on impact experiments,a debris cloud structure model of plain-woven C/SiC composite under impact load was proposed and analysed qualitatively,in which the special axial columnar high energy zone of C/SiC debris cloud was emphasized.Based on the Autodyn orthotropic composite model,the material parameters were derived, whose rationality was verified by the comparison of numerical results with the experimental results.The residual velocity of projectile,the axial average velocity and the distributed angle of debris cloud were selected as the main characteristic parameters according to the debris cloud characteristics of C/SiC composite.Taking Al spherical projectile as the impacting object,the impact resistance of a C/SiC plate was analysed and assessed under various conditions.%针对空天飞行器热防护系统抗冲击性能,基于已得实验结果对冲击载荷作用的平纹编织C/SiC复合材料薄板碎片云团结构定性建模及分析,获得 C /SiC 碎片云中特殊轴向柱状高能区。基于 Autodyn 正交各向异性材料模型推导材料参数并与实验对比,验证模型及参数的合理性。据 C /SiC 碎片云团特点选取弹丸剩余速度、碎片云轴向平均速度及分散角作为主要特征参数,并以球形 Al 弹丸薄板撞击模型为对象,对超高速撞击多种工况 C /SiC 面板的抗冲击性能进行规律分析及评估。

  16. Cobalamin-Independent Methionine Synthase (MetE): A Face-to-Face Double Barrel that Evolved by Gene Duplication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pejcha, Robert; Ludwig, Martha L. (Michigan)

    2010-03-08

    Cobalamin-independent methionine synthase (MetE) catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from methyltetrahydrofolate to L-homocysteine (Hcy) without using an intermediate methyl carrier. Although MetE displays no detectable sequence homology with cobalamin-dependent methionine synthase (MetH), both enzymes require zinc for activation and binding of Hcy. Crystallographic analyses of MetE from T. maritima reveal an unusual dual-barrel structure in which the active site lies between the tops of the two ({beta}{alpha}){sub 8} barrels. The fold of the N-terminal barrel confirms that it has evolved from the C-terminal polypeptide by gene duplication; comparisons of the barrels provide an intriguing example of homologous domain evolution in which binding sites are obliterated. The C-terminal barrel incorporates the zinc ion that binds and activates Hcy. The zinc-binding site in MetE is distinguished from the (Cys){sub 3}Zn site in the related enzymes, MetH and betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase, by its position in the barrel and by the metal ligands, which are histidine, cysteine, glutamate, and cysteine in the resting form of MetE. Hcy associates at the face of the metal opposite glutamate, which moves away from the zinc in the binary E {center_dot} Hcy complex. The folate substrate is not intimately associated with the N-terminal barrel; instead, elements from both barrels contribute binding determinants in a binary complex in which the folate substrate is incorrectly oriented for methyl transfer. Atypical locations of the Hcy and folate sites in the C-terminal barrel presumably permit direct interaction of the substrates in a ternary complex. Structures of the binary substrate complexes imply that rearrangement of folate, perhaps accompanied by domain rearrangement, must occur before formation of a ternary complex that is competent for methyl transfer.

  17. Quantitative/Statistical Approach to Bullet-to-Firearm Identification with Consecutively Manufactured Barrels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Striupaitis; R.E. Gaensslen

    2005-01-30

    Efforts to use objective image comparison and bullet scanning technologies to distinguish bullets from consecutively manufactured handgun barrels from two manufacturers gave mixed results. The ability of a technology to reliably distinguish between matching and non-matching bullets, where the non-matching bullets were as close in pattern to the matching ones as is probably possible, would provide evidence that the distinctions could be made ''objectively'', and independently of human eyes. That evidence is identical or very close to what seems to be needed to satisfy Daubert standards. It is fair to say that the FTI IBIS image comparison technology correctly distinguished between all the Springfield barrel bullets, and between most but not all of the HiPoint barrel bullets. In the HiPoint cases that were not distinguished 100% of the time, they would he distinguished correctly at least 83% of the time. These results, although obviously limited to the materials used in the comparisons, provide strong evidence that barrel-to-bullet matching is objectively reliable. The results with SciClops were less compelling. The results do not mean that bullet-to-barrel matching is not objectively reliable--rather, they mean that this version of the particular technology could not quite distinguish between these extremely similar yet different bullets as well as the image comparison technology did. In a number of cases, the numerical results made the correct distinctions, although they were close to one another. It is hard to say from this data that this technology differs in its ability to make distinctions between the manufacturers, because the results are very similar with both. The human examiner results were as expected. We did not expect any misidentifications, and there were not any. It would have been preferable to have a higher return rate, and thus more comparisons in the overall sample. As noted, the ''consecutively manufactured barrel

  18. Titanium Carbide Bipolar Plate for Electrochemical Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaConti, Anthony B.; Griffith, Arthur E.; Cropley, Cecelia C.; Kosek, John A.

    1998-05-08

    Titanium carbide comprises a corrosion resistant, electrically conductive, non-porous bipolar plate for use in an electrochemical device. The process involves blending titanium carbide powder with a suitable binder material, and molding the mixture, at an elevated temperature and pressure.

  19. Resistivity Index Measurement without the Porous Plate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Springer, N.; Korsbech, Uffe C C; Aage, Helle Karina

    2003-01-01

    A Desaturation Technique Based on Evaporation Produces Uniform Water Saturation Profiles and More Reliable Results for Tight North Sea Chalk......A Desaturation Technique Based on Evaporation Produces Uniform Water Saturation Profiles and More Reliable Results for Tight North Sea Chalk...

  20. Experimental study on perforation resistance of composite targets composed by granite block masonry and reinforced concrete plates%有限厚块石砌体钢筋混凝土结构板抗贯穿性能的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴飚; 杨建超; 刘瑞朝

    2013-01-01

    Four kinds of finite thickness target plates were prepared, including granite (G) plates, steel wire-mesh reinforced concrete (RC) plates, composite GRC targets composed by granite (G) plates and steel wire-mesh reinforced concrete (RC) plates, and composite GBRC targets composed by granite block (GB)masonry and steel wire-mesh reinforced concrete (RC) plates. By using a 30-mm-caliber gun to accelerate two kinds of projectiles of the same shape which differ in material strength, penetration experiments were carried out for these prepared target plates, respectively. The damage effects of the target plates subjected to projectile penetration were compared. The results show that the well-designed GBRC targets have the best resistance to perforation. And the perforation resistance of the GBRC targets is closely related with the following factors: block stone size, strength, masonry way, and reinforced concrete structure.%用花岗岩和混凝土制备出了花岗岩板、钢丝网混凝土板、花岗岩与钢丝网混凝土组合板、花岗岩块石砌体钢筋混凝土结构板4种类型的有限厚靶板.采用口径为30 mm的火炮作为发射装置,利用形状相同、材料强度不同的2种弹体对上述靶板进行了侵彻贯穿实验,比较了各类靶板抗侵彻贯穿破坏现象.结果表明,设计良好的块石砌体钢筋混凝土结构板具有优良的抗贯穿性能,且其抗贯穿性能与块石粒径、块石强度、块石砌筑方式、粘结强度和钢筋混凝土结构形式密切相关.

  1. Electroless nickel plating on stainless steels and aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-01-01

    Procedures for applying an adherent electroless nickel plating on 303 SE, 304, and 17-7 PH stainless steels, and 7075 aluminum alloy was developed. When heat treated, the electroless nickel plating provides a hard surface coating on a high strength, corrosion resistant substrate.

  2. Generalized Fibonacci zone plates

    CERN Document Server

    Ke, Jie; Zhu, Jianqiang

    2015-01-01

    We propose a family of zone plates which are produced by the generalized Fibonacci sequences and their axial focusing properties are analyzed in detail. Compared with traditional Fresnel zone plates, the generalized Fibonacci zone plates present two axial foci with equal intensity. Besides, we propose an approach to adjust the axial locations of the two foci by means of different optical path difference, and further give the deterministic ratio of the two focal distances which attributes to their own generalized Fibonacci sequences. The generalized Fibonacci zone plates may allow for new applications in micro and nanophotonics.

  3. Design, Construction and Installation of the ATLAS Hadronic Barrel Scintillator-Tile Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Abdallah, J; Alexa, C; Alves, R; Amaral, P; Ananiev, A; Anderson, K; Andresen, X; Antonaki, A; Batusov, V; Bednar, P; Bergeaas, E; Biscarat, C; Blanch, O; Blanchot, G; Bohm, C; Boldea, V; Bosi, F; Bosman, M; Bromberg, C; Budagov, Yu A; Calvet, D; Cardeira, C; Carli, T; Carvalho, J; Cascella, M; Castillo, M V; Costello, J; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cavasinni, V; Cerqueira, A S; Clément, C; Cobal, M; Cogswell, F; Constantinescu, S; Costanzo, D; Da Silva, P; Davidek, M; David, T; Dawson, J; De, K; Del Prete, T; Di Girolamo, B; Dita, S; Dolejsi, J; Dolezal, Z; Dotti, A; Downing, R; Drake, G; Efthymiopoulos, I; Errede, D; Errede, S; Farbin, A; Fassouliotis, D; Feng, E; Fenyuk, A; Ferdi, C; Ferreira, B C; Ferrer, A; Flaminio, V; Flix, J; Francavilla, P; Fullana, E; Garde, V; Gellerstedt, K; Giakoumopoulou, V; Giangiobbe, V; Gildemeister, O; Gilewsky, V; Giokaris, N; Gollub, N; Gomes, A; González, V; Gouveia, J; Grenier, P; Gris, P; Guarino, V; Guicheney, C; Sen-Gupta, A; Hakobyan, H; Haney, M; Hellman, S; Henriques, A; Higón, E; Hill, N; Holmgren, S; Hruska, I; Hurwitz, M; Huston, J; Jen-La Plante, I; Jon-And, K; Junk, T; Karyukhin, A; Khubua, J; Klereborn, J; Kopikov, S; Korolkov, I; Krivkova, P; Kulchitsky, Y; Kurochkin, Yu; Kuzhir, P; Lapin, V; Le Compte, T; Lefèvre, R; Leitner, R; Li, J; Liablin, M; Lokajícek, M; Lomakin, Y; Lourtie, P; Lovas, L; Lupi, A; Maidantchik, C; Maio, A; Maliukov, S; Manousakis, A; Marques, C; Marroquim, F; Martin, F; Mazzoni, E; Merritt, F S; Myagkov, A; Miller, R; Minashvili, I; Miralles, L; Montarou, G; Némécek, S; Nessi, M; Nikitine, I; Nodulman, L; Norniella, O; Onofre, A; Oreglia, M; Palan, B; Pallin, D; Pantea, D; Pereira, A; Pilcher, J E; Pina, J; Pinhão, J; Pod, E; Podlyski, F; Portell, X; Poveda, J; Pribyl, L; Price, L E; Proudfoot, J; Ramalho, M; Ramstedt, M; Raposeiro, L; Reis, J; Richards, R; Roda, C; Romanov, V; Rosnet, P; Roy, P; Ruiz, A; Rumiantsau, V; Russakovich, N; Sada Costa, J; Salto, O; Salvachúa, B; Sanchis, E; Sanders, H; Santoni, C; Santos, J; Saraiva, J G; Sarri, F; Says, L P; Schlager, G; Schlereth, J L; Seixas, J M; Selldén, B; Shalanda, N; Shevtsov, P; Shochet, M; Simaitis, V; Simonyan, M; Sisakian, A; Sjölin, J; Solans, C; Solodkov, A; Solovianov, J; Silva, O; Sosebee, M; Spanó, F; Speckmeyer, P; Stanek, R; Starchenko, E; Starovoitov, P; Suk, M; Sykora, I; Tang, F; Tas, P; Teuscher, R; Tokar, S; Topilin, N; Torres, J; Underwood, D; Usai, G; Valero, A; Valkár, S; Valls, J A; Vartapetian, A; Vazeille, F; Vellidis, C; Ventura, F; Vichou, I; Vivarelli, I; Volpi, M; White, A; Zaitsev, A; Zenin, A; Zenis, T; Zenonos, Z; Zenz, S; Zilka, B

    2007-01-01

    The scintillator tile hadronic calorimeter is a sampling calorimeter using steel as the absorber structure and scintillator as the active medium. The scintillator is located in "pockets" in the steel structure and the wavelength-shifting fibers are contained in channels running radially within the absorber to photomultiplier tubes which are located in the outer support girders of the calorimeter structure. In addition, to its role as a detector for high energy particles, the tile calorimeter provides the direct support of the liquid argon electromagnetic calorimeter in the barrel region, and the liquid argon electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters in the endcap region. Through these, it indirectly supports the inner tracking system and beam pipe. The steel absorber, and in particular the support girders, provide the flux return for the solenoidal field from the central solenoid. Finally, the end surfaces of the barrel calorimeter are used to mount services, power supplies and readout crates for the inner tr...

  4. Current Status of the Pixel Phase I Upgrade in CMS: Barrel Module Production

    CERN Document Server

    Bartek, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    The silicon pixel detector is the innermost component of the CMS tracking system, providing high precision space point measurements of charged particle trajectories. Before 2018 the instantaneous luminosity of the LHC is expected to reach about 2~x~$10^{34}~\\rm{cm}^{-2}\\rm{s}^{-1}$, which will significantly increase the number of interactions per bunch crossing. To maintain a high tracking efficiency, CMS has planned to replace the current pixel system during phase I by a new lightweight detector, equipped with an additional 4th layer in the barrel, and one additional forward/backward disk. The present status of barrel modules production will be presented, including preliminary results from tests on the first production pixel modules of the new pixel tracker.

  5. Brain-wide map of efferent projections from rat barrel cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela M. Zakiewicz

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The somatotopically organized whisker barrel field of the rat primary somatosensory (S1 cortex is a commonly used model system for anatomical and physiological investigations of sensory processing. The neural connections of the barrel cortex have been extensively mapped. But most investigations have focused on connections to limited regions of the brain, and overviews in the literature of the connections across the brain thus build on a range of material from different laboratories, presented in numerous publications. Furthermore, given the limitations of the conventional journal article format, analyses and interpretations are hampered by lack of access to the underlying experimental data. New opportunities for analyses have emerged with the recent release of an online resource of experimental data consisting of collections of high-resolution images from 6 experiments in which anterograde tracers were injected in S1 whisker or forelimb representations. Building on this material, we have conducted a detailed analysis of the brain wide distribution of the efferent projections of the rat barrel cortex. We compare our findings with the available literature and reports accumulated in the Brain Architecture Management System (BAMS2 database. We report well-known and less known intracortical and subcortical projections of the barrel cortex, as well as distinct differences between S1 whisker and forelimb related projections. Our results correspond well with recently published overviews, but provide additional information about relative differences among S1 projection targets. Our approach demonstrates how collections of shared experimental image data are suitable for brain-wide analysis and interpretation of connectivity mapping data.

  6. A Study of Bernard Malamud’s The Magic Barrel from the Psychological Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田婧

    2014-01-01

    The Magic Barrel tells a story about Leo Finkle who is a rabbinical student and in want of a wife transacts with the marriage broker Pinye Salzman and finally marry his daughter Stella. By using Sigmund Freud’s Psychoanalytical Criti-cism, this paper aims to explore the Leo’s changes in thought and emotions towards love and marriage and his torment during his process of the pursuit of love and happiness.

  7. Role of thyroid hormones in the maturation and organisation of rat barrel cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berbel, P; Ausó, E; García-Velasco, J V; Molina, M L; Camacho, M

    2001-01-01

    The influence of thyroid hormones on cortical development was analysed in rat somatosensory cortex. Maternal and foetal hypothyroidism was induced and maintained by methimazole treatment from embryonic day 13 onwards. 5-Bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) labelling in hypothyroid rats showed that cell positioning during corticogenesis followed an inside-out pattern. The radial neurogenetic gradients were more diffuse at all ages with respect to normal rats due to the inappropriate location of many cells, including those of the subcortical white matter. Most (62%) of the cells in the subcortical white matter of hypothyroid rats were labelled at embryonic day 15. Nissl staining of the primary somatosensory cortex showed blurred cortical layer boundaries and an abnormal barrel cytoarchitecture. Cytochrome oxidase and peanut agglutinin staining showed that the tangential organisation of the posteromedial barrel subfield and its layer IV specificity was not lost in hypothyroid rats. However the temporal pattern of peanut agglutinin labelling was delayed 3-4 days with respect to normal rats. In hypothyroid rats, the total barrelfield tangential area was reduced by 27% with respect to normal. The total tangential barrel area, corresponding to peanut agglutinin-negative labelling, occupied 77% of the barrelfield area and only 66% in hypothyroid rats. This reduction was larger with cytochrome oxidase staining where the total barrel area occupied 69% of the barrelfield area in normal and 46% in hypothyroid rats. Our data stress the importance of maternal and foetal thyroid hormones during development, and demonstrate the irreversible effects that maternal and foetal hypothyroidism may have on the intrinsic organisation and maturation of the neocortex.

  8. Nitrobindin: An Ubiquitous Family of All β-Barrel Heme-proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Simone, Giovanna; Ascenzi, Paolo; Polticelli, Fabio

    2016-06-01

    Rhodnius prolixus nitrophorins (Rp-NPs), Arabidopsis thaliana nitrobindin (At-Nb), and Homo sapiens THAP4 (Hs-THAP4) are the unique known proteins that use a β-barrel fold to bind ferric heme, which is devoted to NO transport and/or catalysis. The eight-stranded antiparallel β-barrel Rp-NPs, which represent the only heme-binding lipocalins, are devoted to deliver NO into the blood vessel of the host and to scavenge histamine during blood sucking. Regarding Nbs, crystallographic data suggest the ability of At-Nb and Hs-THAP4 to bind ferric heme; however, no data are available with respect to these functions in the natural host. Here, a bioinformatics investigation based on the amino acid sequences and three-dimensional structures of At-Nb and Hs-THAP4 suggests a conservation of the 10-stranded antiparallel β-barrel Nb structural module in all life kingdoms of the evolutionary ladder. In particular, amino acid residues involved in the heme recognition and in the structure stabilization of the Nb structural module are highly conserved (identity > 29%; homology > 83%). Moreover, molecular models of putative Nbs from different organisms match very well with each other and known three-dimensional structures of Nbs. Furthermore, phylogenetic tree reconstruction indicates that NPs and Nbs group in distinct clades. These data indicate that 10-stranded β-barrel Nbs constitute a new ubiquitous heme protein family spanning from bacteria to Homo sapiens. © 2016 IUBMB Life, 68(6):423-428, 2016.

  9. Particle contamination from Martin Optical Black. [in design of barrel baffle of Infrared Astronomical Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, P. J.; Noll, R.; Andreozzi, L.; Hope, J.

    1981-01-01

    The design of the barrel baffle of the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) Optical Subsystem to minimize production of particulate contamination is described. The configuration of the 50-inch long, 28.5-inch diameter baffle required pop-rivet assembly after coating with Martin Optical Black for stray light suppression. An experiment to determine the contamination produced at assembly led to the modification of the baffle construction to preclude such damage to the coated surfaces.

  10. 电镀Zn-Ni合金镀层结构及耐蚀性能研究%Study on Microstructure and Corrosion Resistance of Alkaline Zn-Ni Alloy Plating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓东; 聂朝胤; 赵洋; 聂燕中

    2015-01-01

    在一种Zn‐Ni合金碱性电镀体系中,应用电化学沉积法在304不锈钢表面快速制备了Zn‐Ni合金镀层,采用扫描电子显微镜、X射线衍射仪和电化学工作站,对Zn‐Ni合金镀层及Zn镀层的微观结构及耐蚀性能进行了对比研究.结果表明:所获得的Zn‐Ni合金镀层晶型为γ晶型,镍和锌的质量分数分别为14.37%和85.63%;通过不同电介质溶液模拟不同环境考察Zn‐Ni合金镀层的耐蚀性,在质量分数为5%的NaCl溶液中Zn‐Ni合金镀层的自腐蚀电位相对于Zn镀层正移了245mV,腐蚀推动力比Zn镀层小,其腐蚀电流密度是Zn镀层的0.15倍;在1mol/L的NaOH溶液中,Zn‐Ni合金镀层的自腐蚀电位相对于Zn镀层正移了59mV,其腐蚀电流密度是Zn镀层的0.86倍,所获得的Zn‐Ni合金镀层在中性溶液和碱性溶液中都具有很强的耐蚀性.%A Zn‐Ni alloy coating was quickly prepared on 304 stainless steel surface in an alkaline Zn‐Ni al‐loy plating solution with the electrochemical deposition method .Its microstructure was testified with scan‐ning electron microscopy and X‐ray diffraction graph ,and the corrosion resistance of the Zn‐Ni alloy coat‐ing and the Zn coating was studied and compared with electrochemical workstation .The results showed that the crystal shape of the Zn‐Ni alloy coating obtained in this study was of the γ‐shape and that the con‐tent of nickel and zinc was 14.37% and 85.63% ,respectively .The corrosion resistance of the Zn‐Ni alloy coating was testified in environments with different dielectric solutions .The potential of the Zn‐Ni alloy coating was 245 mV higher than that of the Zn coating in a 5% NaCl solution ,which indicated the driving force on corrosion on the surface of the Zn‐Ni alloy was much less than that of Zn ,and the corrosion cur‐rent density was 0.15 times as much as that of Zn .The potential of the Zn‐Ni alloy coating was 59 m

  11. Design studies for the Phase II upgrade of the CMS Barrel Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Orimoto, Toyoko Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    The High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) will provide unprecedented instantaneous and integrated luminosity. The lead tungstate crystals forming the barrel part of the Electromagnetic Calorimeter (ECAL) of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) will still perform well, even after the expected integrated luminosity of 3000fb-1 at the end of HL-LHC. The avalanche photodiodes (APDs) used to detect the scintillation light will also continue to be operational, although there will be some increase in noise due to radiation-induced dark currents. This will be mitigated by reducing the barrel operating temperature during HL-LHC running.The front-end electronics of the ECAL barrel will be replaced, in order to remove existing constraints on trigger rate and latency and to provide additional capability to fully exploit the higher luminosity delivered by the HL-LHC. New developments in high-speed optical links will allow single-crystal readout at 40 MHz to upgraded off-detector processors, allowing maximum flexibility and enhanced tri...

  12. Functions of phenylalanine residues within the beta-barrel stem of the anthrax toxin pore.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A key step of anthrax toxin action involves the formation of a protein-translocating pore within the endosomal membrane by the Protective Antigen (PA moiety. Formation of this transmembrane pore by PA involves interaction of the seven 2beta2-2beta3 loops of the heptameric precursor to generate a 14-strand transmembrane beta barrel. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We examined the effects on pore formation, protein translocation, and cytotoxicity, of mutating two phenylalanines, F313 and F314, that lie at the tip the beta barrel, and a third one, F324, that lies part way up the barrel. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results show that the function of these phenylalanine residues is to mediate membrane insertion and formation of stable transmembrane channels. Unlike F427, a key luminal residue in the cap of the pore, F313, F314, and F324 do not directly affect protein translocation through the pore. Our findings add to our knowledge of structure-function relationships of a key virulence factor of the anthrax bacillus.

  13. Folding of β-barrel membrane proteins in lipid bilayers - Unassisted and assisted folding and insertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinschmidt, Jörg H

    2015-09-01

    In cells, β-barrel membrane proteins are transported in unfolded form to an outer membrane into which they fold and insert. Model systems have been established to investigate the mechanisms of insertion and folding of these versatile proteins into detergent micelles, lipid bilayers and even synthetic amphipathic polymers. In these experiments, insertion into lipid membranes is initiated from unfolded forms that do not display residual β-sheet secondary structure. These studies therefore have allowed the investigation of membrane protein folding and insertion in great detail. Folding of β-barrel membrane proteins into lipid bilayers has been monitored from unfolded forms by dilution of chaotropic denaturants that keep the protein unfolded as well as from unfolded forms present in complexes with molecular chaperones from cells. This review is aimed to provide an overview of the principles and mechanisms observed for the folding of β-barrel transmembrane proteins into lipid bilayers, the importance of lipid-protein interactions and the function of molecular chaperones and folding assistants. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Lipid-protein interactions.

  14. Performance of Prototypes for the Barrel Part of the ANDA Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Christoph; Diehl, S.; Dormenev, V.; Drexler, P.; Kavatsyuk, M.; Kuske, T.; Nazarenko, S.; Novotny, R.; Rosier, P.; Ryazantsev, A.; Wieczorek, P.; Wilms, A.; Zaunick, H.-G.; P¯ANDA Collaboration

    2016-08-01

    The performance of the most recent prototypes of the ANDA barrel electromagnetic calorimeter (EMC) will be compared. The first large scale prototype PROTO60 was designed to test the performance of the improved tapered lead tungstate crystals (PWO-II). The PROTO60 which consists of 6 × 10 crystals was tested at various accelerator facilities over the complete envisaged energy range fulfilling the requirements of the TDR of the ANDA EMC in terms of energy, position and time resolution. To realize the final barrel geometry and to test the final front end electronics, a second prototype PROTO120 has been constructed. It represents a larger section of a barrel slice, containing the most tapered crystals and the close to final components for the ANDA EMC. The performance of both prototypes will be compared with a focus on the analysis procedure including the signal extraction, noise rejection, calibration and the energy resolution. In addition, the influence of the non-uniformity of the crystal on the energy resolution will be discussed.

  15. CREB Regulates Experience-Dependent Spine Formation and Enlargement in Mouse Barrel Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annabella Pignataro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Experience modifies synaptic connectivity through processes that involve dendritic spine rearrangements in neuronal circuits. Although cAMP response element binding protein (CREB has a key function in spines changes, its role in activity-dependent rearrangements in brain regions of rodents interacting with the surrounding environment has received little attention so far. Here we studied the effects of vibrissae trimming, a widely used model of sensory deprivation-induced cortical plasticity, on processes associated with dendritic spine rearrangements in the barrel cortex of a transgenic mouse model of CREB downregulation (mCREB mice. We found that sensory deprivation through prolonged whisker trimming leads to an increased number of thin spines in the layer V of related barrel cortex (Contra in wild type but not mCREB mice. In the barrel field controlling spared whiskers (Ipsi, the same trimming protocol results in a CREB-dependent enlargement of dendritic spines. Last, we demonstrated that CREB regulates structural rearrangements of synapses that associate with dynamic changes of dendritic spines. Our findings suggest that CREB plays a key role in dendritic spine dynamics and synaptic circuits rearrangements that account for new brain connectivity in response to changes in the environment.

  16. Plasticity-Related Gene 1 Affects Mouse Barrel Cortex Function via Strengthening of Glutamatergic Thalamocortical Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unichenko, Petr; Kirischuk, Sergei; Yang, Jenq-Wei; Baumgart, Jan; Roskoden, Thomas; Schneider, Patrick; Sommer, Angela; Horta, Guilherme; Radyushkin, Konstantin; Nitsch, Robert; Vogt, Johannes; Luhmann, Heiko J

    2016-07-01

    Plasticity-related gene-1 (PRG-1) is a brain-specific protein that modulates glutamatergic synaptic transmission. Here we investigated the functional role of PRG-1 in adolescent and adult mouse barrel cortex both in vitro and in vivo. Compared with wild-type (WT) animals, PRG-1-deficient (KO) mice showed specific behavioral deficits in tests assessing sensorimotor integration and whisker-based sensory discrimination as shown in the beam balance/walking test and sandpaper tactile discrimination test, respectively. At P25-31, spontaneous network activity in the barrel cortex in vivo was higher in KO mice compared with WT littermates, but not at P16-19. At P16-19, sensory evoked cortical responses in vivo elicited by single whisker stimulation were comparable in KO and WT mice. In contrast, at P25-31 evoked responses were smaller in amplitude and longer in duration in WT animals, whereas KO mice revealed no such developmental changes. In thalamocortical slices from KO mice, spontaneous activity was increased already at P16-19, and glutamatergic thalamocortical inputs to Layer 4 spiny stellate neurons were potentiated. We conclude that genetic ablation of PRG-1 modulates already at P16-19 spontaneous and evoked excitability of the barrel cortex, including enhancement of thalamocortical glutamatergic inputs to Layer 4, which distorts sensory processing in adulthood.

  17. Resource Review Board Celebrates the Magnet and Liquid Argon Barrel Tests in Hall 180

    CERN Multimedia

    Jenni, P.

    2004-01-01

    Address by the Director-General, R. Aymar, in front of the barrel cryostat. On 25th October 2004 many RRB delegates and guests, ATLAS National Contact Physicists, and colleagues from far and from CERN working on the Liquid Argon calorimeter and the magnet system were gathering in Hall 180 to celebrate the major milestones reached during the past months in this hall: the successful cold tests of the first barrel toroid coil, of the solenoid, and of the barrel Liquid Argon calorimeter. About 250 people spent a relaxing evening after the speeches by the Director-General R. Aymar and by the spokesperson who gave the following address: 'It is a great pleasure for me to welcome you all here in Hall 180 in the name of the ATLAS Collaboration! With a few words I would like to recall why we are actually here today to share, what I hope, is a relaxed and joyful moment. To concentrate it all in one sentence I could say: To thank cordially all the main actors for the enormous work accomplished here over many years,...

  18. Effects of sensory deprivation on columnar organization of neuronal circuits in the rat barrel cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schierloh, Anja; Eder, Matthias; Zieglgänsberger, Walter; Dodt, Hans-Ulrich

    2004-08-01

    We examined whether sensory deprivation during formation of the cortical circuitry influences the pattern of intracortical single-cell connections in rat barrel cortex. Excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) from layer 2/3 (L2/3) pyramidal neurons were recorded in vitro using patch-clamp techniques. In order to evoke EPSPs, presynaptic neurons were stimulated by photolytically applied glutamate, thus generating action potentials. Synaptic connections between the stimulated and the recorded neuron were identified by the occurrence of PSPs following photostimulation. Sensory deprivation changed the pattern of projections from L4 and L2/3 neurons to L2/3 pyramidal cells. In slices of non-deprived rats 86% of the total presynaptic neurons were located in the first and only 10% in the second barrel column. Deprivation changed these values to 67% and 26%, respectively. Therefore, the probability of presynaptic cells projecting to L2/3 neurons was shifted from adjacent to more remote barrel columns. These results indicate that deprivation of sensory input influences the pattern of intracortical connections.

  19. Early bilateral sensory deprivation blocks the development of coincident discharge in rat barrel cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoshal, Ayan; Pouget, Pierre; Popescu, Maria; Ebner, Ford

    2009-02-25

    Several theories have proposed a functional role for synchronous neuronal firing in generating the neural code of a sensory perception. Synchronous neural activity develops during a critical postnatal period of cortical maturation, and severely reducing neural activity in a sensory pathway during this period could interfere with the development of coincident discharge among cortical neurons. Loss of such synchrony could provide a fundamental mechanism for the degradation of acuity shown in behavioral studies. We tested the hypothesis that synchronous discharge of barrel cortex neurons would fail to develop after sensory deprivation produced by bilateral whisker trimming from birth to postnatal day 60. By studying the correlated discharge of cortical neuron pairs, we found evidence for strong correlated firing in control animals, and this synchrony was almost absent among pairs of cortical barrel neurons in deprived animals. The degree of synchrony impairment was different in subregions of rat barrel cortex. The model that best fits the data is that cortical neurons receiving direct inputs from the primary sensory (lemniscal) pathway show the greatest decrement in synchrony following sensory deprivation, while neurons with diverse inputs from other areas of thalamus and cortex are relatively less affected in this dimension of cortical function.

  20. Shifts in developmental timing, and not increased levels of experience-dependent neuronal activity, promote barrel expansion in the primary somatosensory cortex of rats enucleated at birth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Fetter-Pruneda

    Full Text Available Birth-enucleated rodents display enlarged representations of whiskers (i.e., barrels of the posteromedial subfield in the primary somatosensory cortex. Although the historical view maintains that barrel expansion is due to incremental increases in neuronal activity along the trigeminal pathway during postnatal development, recent evidence obtained in experimental models of intramodal plasticity challenges this view. Here, we re-evaluate the role of experience-dependent neuronal activity on barrel expansion in birth-enucleated rats by combining various anatomical methods and sensory deprivation paradigms. We show that barrels in birth-enucleated rats were already enlarged by the end of the first week of life and had levels of metabolic activity comparable to those in control rats at different ages. Dewhiskering after the postnatal period of barrel formation did not prevent barrel expansion in adult, birth-enucleated rats. Further, dark rearing and enucleation after barrel formation did not lead to expanded barrels in adult brains. Because incremental increases of somatosensory experience did not promote barrel expansion in birth-enucleated rats, we explored whether shifts of the developmental timing could better explain barrel expansion during the first week of life. Accordingly, birth-enucleated rats show earlier formation of barrels, accelerated growth of somatosensory thalamocortical afferents, and an earlier H4 deacetylation. Interestingly, when H4 deacetylation was prevented with a histone deacetylases inhibitor (valproic acid, barrel specification timing returned to normal and barrel expansion did not occur. Thus, we provide evidence supporting that shifts in developmental timing modulated through epigenetic mechanisms, and not increased levels of experience dependent neuronal activity, promote barrel expansion in the primary somatosensory cortex of rats enucleated at birth.

  1. Shifts in Developmental Timing, and Not Increased Levels of Experience-Dependent Neuronal Activity, Promote Barrel Expansion in the Primary Somatosensory Cortex of Rats Enucleated at Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetter-Pruneda, Ingrid; Ibarrarán-Viniegra, Ana Sofía; Martínez-Martínez, Eduardo; Sandoval-Velasco, Marcela; Uribe-Figueroa, Laura; Padilla-Cortés, Patricia; Mercado-Célis, Gabriela; Gutiérrez-Ospina, Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    Birth-enucleated rodents display enlarged representations of whiskers (i.e., barrels of the posteromedial subfield) in the primary somatosensory cortex. Although the historical view maintains that barrel expansion is due to incremental increases in neuronal activity along the trigeminal pathway during postnatal development, recent evidence obtained in experimental models of intramodal plasticity challenges this view. Here, we re-evaluate the role of experience-dependent neuronal activity on barrel expansion in birth-enucleated rats by combining various anatomical methods and sensory deprivation paradigms. We show that barrels in birth-enucleated rats were already enlarged by the end of the first week of life and had levels of metabolic activity comparable to those in control rats at different ages. Dewhiskering after the postnatal period of barrel formation did not prevent barrel expansion in adult, birth-enucleated rats. Further, dark rearing and enucleation after barrel formation did not lead to expanded barrels in adult brains. Because incremental increases of somatosensory experience did not promote barrel expansion in birth-enucleated rats, we explored whether shifts of the developmental timing could better explain barrel expansion during the first week of life. Accordingly, birth-enucleated rats show earlier formation of barrels, accelerated growth of somatosensory thalamocortical afferents, and an earlier H4 deacetylation. Interestingly, when H4 deacetylation was prevented with a histone deacetylases inhibitor (valproic acid), barrel specification timing returned to normal and barrel expansion did not occur. Thus, we provide evidence supporting that shifts in developmental timing modulated through epigenetic mechanisms, and not increased levels of experience dependent neuronal activity, promote barrel expansion in the primary somatosensory cortex of rats enucleated at birth. PMID:23372796

  2. An outbreak of norovirus-associated acute gastroenteritis associated with contaminated barrelled water in many schools in Zhejiang, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Minyang; Song, Jianqiang; He, Fan; Qiu, Yinwei; Wu, Haocheng; Lu, Qinbao; Feng, Yan; Lin, Junfen; Chen, Enfu; Chai, Chengliang

    2017-01-01

    Objectives More than 900 students and teachers at many schools in Jiaxing city developed acute gastroenteritis in February 2014. An immediate epidemiological investigation was conducted to identify the pathogen, infection sources and route of transmission. Methods The probable cases and confirmed cases were defined as students or teachers with diarrhoea or vomiting present since the term began in February 2014. An active search was conducted for undiagnosed cases among students and teachers. Details such as demographic characteristics, gastrointestinal symptoms, and drinking water preference and frequency were collected via a uniform epidemiological questionnaire. A case-control study was implemented, and odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Rectal swabs from several patients, food handlers and barrelled water factory workers, as well as water and food samples, were collected to test for potential bacteria and viruses. Results A total of 924 cases fit the definition of the probable case, including 8 cases of laboratory-confirmed norovirus infection at 13 schools in Jiaxing city between February 12 and February 21, 2014. The case-control study demonstrated that barrelled water was a risk factor (OR: 20.15, 95% CI: 2.59–156.76) and that bottled water and boiled barrelled water were protective factors (OR: 0.31, 95% CI: 0.13–0.70, and OR: 0.36, 95% CI: 0.16–0.77). A total of 11 rectal samples and 8 barrelled water samples were detected as norovirus-positive, and the genotypes of viral strains were the same (GII). The norovirus that contaminated the barrelled water largely came from the asymptomatic workers. Conclusions This acute gastroenteritis outbreak was caused by barrelled water contaminated by norovirus. The outbreak was controlled after stopping the supply of barrelled water. The barrelled water supply in China represents a potential source of acute gastroenteritis outbreaks due to the lack of surveillance and supervision

  3. System Research Of Multi-Barrel Machine Guns Installed On Board Of The Helicopter Of Mi-17 Type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bęczkowski Grzegorz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article presents tests of a multi-barreled machine gun system built on board of a helicopter. The described weapon system consists of three 7.62 mm M-134G multi-barreled machine guns built on the designed frames of shooting positions located in the escape hatch window, the side doors and the rear doors of the transport cabin of the Mi-17-1V helicopter.

  4. Surface modification of a natural graphite/phenol formaldehyde composite plate with expanded graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Dongjie; Wang, Yuxin; Xu, Li; Lu, Jun; Wu, Qian [State Key Laboratory of Chemical Engineering, Chemical Engineering Research Center, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Weijin Road 92, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2008-09-01

    Natural graphite/phenol formaldehyde (NG/PF) resin composite plates modified with thin layers of expanded graphite (EG) are fabricated by mold compression to lower the contact resistance between the plates and gas diffusion layers (GDLs). The modification considerably reduces contact resistance versus bare NG/PF plates. The extent of the decrease in contact resistance is influenced by the expanded volume of EG used. A low contact resistance of 1.42 m{omega} cm{sup 2} persists for the EG (150 ml g{sup -1})-modified NG/PF plates despite the PF content, whereas that of bare plates increases from 3.62 to 17.01 m{omega} cm{sup 2} as PF content changes from 5 wt% to 30 wt%. With increasing EG thickness on the surface of NG/PF plates, contact resistance at first decreases and then approaches a constant value when the NG layer exceeds 40 {mu}m. More importantly, the total electrical resistance, as expressed by volume resistance, can be reduced by applying EG layers to NG/PF composite plates. The reduction of total resistance is more remarkable for the composite plates with high PF content because the bulk resistance of the EG layer can be well compensated by the decrease of contact resistance at a proper range of EG layer thickness. (author)

  5. Blue Willow Story Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontes, Kris

    2009-01-01

    In the December 1997 issue of "SchoolArts" is a lesson titled "Blue Willow Story Plates" by Susan Striker. In this article, the author shares how she used this lesson with her middle-school students many times over the years. Here, she describes a Blue Willow plate painting project that her students made.

  6. Volatile compounds in a spanish red wine aged in barrels made of Spanish, French, and American oak wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Simón, Brígida Fernández; Cadahía, Estrella; Jalocha, Jerzy

    2003-12-17

    A red Rioja wine was aged in barrels made of Spanish oak wood (Quercus robur, Quercus petraea,Quercus pyrenaica, and Quercus faginea) during 21 months. The concentrations of some volatile compounds [syringaldehyde, vanillin, eugenol, maltol, guaiacol, 4-ethylphenol, cis and trans isomers of beta-methyl-gamma-octalactone, 2-furfuraldehyde, 5-methyl-2-furfuraldehyde, 5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-furfuraldehyde, and furfuryl alcohol] were studied in these wines and compared with those of the same wine aged in barrels made from French oak of Q. robur (Limousin, France) and Q. petraea (Allier, France) and American oak of Quercus alba (Missouri). Similar concentrations of these compounds were found in wines aged in Spanish and French oak wood barrels, and significantly different concentrations were found with respect to wines aged in barrels made of American oak wood, indicating a different behavior. Thus, wines with different characteristics were obtained, depending on the kind of wood. Also, the kind of wood had an important influence on sensory characteristics of wine during the aging process. Spanish oak wood from Q. robur, Q. petraea, and Q. pyrenaica can be considered to be suitable for barrel production for quality wines, because a wine aged in barrels made of these Spanish oak woods showed similar and intermediate characteristics to those of the same wine aged in French and American oak woods usually used in cooperage.

  7. Estudo químico, macroscópico e da resistência à flexão de placas e parafusos de titânio usados na fixação interna rígida Chemical, macroscopical and bending resistance study of titanium plates and screws used in internal rigid fixation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Elias TRIVELLATO

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar quatro sistemas de placas e parafusos de titânio de 2,0 mm de diâmetro utilizados em fixação interna rígida, sendo duas marcas nacionais (Engimplan e Bucomax e duas importadas (Synthes e W. Lorenz. Foram realizadas as seguintes análises: composição química, através de espectrometria por dispersão de energia (EDS e espectrometria de emissão atômica (AES, macroscópica, por meio de medidas padronizadas e de resistência à flexão. Os resultados obtidos permitem concluir que as marcas nacionais apresentaram um comportamento inferior, em relação a padronização das dimensões das placas e parafusos avaliados, influenciando nos resultados dos testes de flexão, para os quais estas se comportaram da mesma maneira. Entretanto, a marca comercial W. Lorenz utiliza liga de titânio-6alumínio-4vanádio para a confecção dos parafusos, fato responsável pelo melhor resultado no teste de flexão que qualquer outra marca. Os demais parafusos e placas apresentaram-se constituídos de titânio comercialmente puro, de acordo com a EDS e posteriormente confirmados pela AES.The aim of this study was to compare four systems of titanium plates and screws (diameter of 2.0 mm used for internal rigid fixation. From them, two were made in Brazil (Engimplan and Bucomax, one in Switzerland (Synthes, and the other, in Germany (W. Lorenz. The following analyses were done: chemical analysis using Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS and Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (AES, measurement of dimensions and bending resistance test. The obtained results allow to conclude that both Brazilian systems showed inferior behavior regarding dimensional standards. The bending assay showed that the Brazilian systems are similar to each other. However, the W. Lorenz screws are made of titanium-6aluminum-4vanadium alloy, which can be the reason for their better performance in the bending assay, when compared with that of the other three

  8. ZM6镁合金化学镀镍预处理工艺及镀层耐蚀性%Pretreatment process and corrosion resistance of electroless nickel plating on ZM6 magnesium alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高艳蕊; 刘楚明; 傅圣利; 李慧中; 舒心; 高永浩

    2011-01-01

    Nickel coating was prepared on ZM6 magnesium alloy by electroless nickel plating in nickel carbonate bath with pretreatment of zinc immersion.The morphology and composition of zinc coating and electroless nickel coating were studied by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS).The structure of nickel coating was studied by X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD).Potentiodynamic polarization analysis was used to study the corrosion resistance of the coating.The results indicate that a compact, well-distributed zinc coating is obtained on the surface of ZM6 alloy in a new zinc immersion solution with addition of Sn2+.The subsequent amorphous electroless nickel coating is uniform and the thickness is 8.74 μm after 1 h deposition.Phosphorus mass fraction is 9.29%.The corrosion potential is -0.609 V, and the corrosion current density is about 1/10 of substrate in 3.5% NaCl solution.%采用浸锌预处理工艺,研究在碱式碳酸镍体系中ZM6镁合金表面化学镀镍层性能.用扫描电镜(SEM)、能谱仪(EDS)和X线衍射仪(XRD)研究浸锌层和镀镍层的形貌、成分及镀层结构,采用极化曲线测试镀层的耐蚀性.研究结果表明,浸锌溶液中加入Sn2+可在ZM6镁合金表面获得均匀致密的浸锌层,后续在碳酸镍体系中施镀1 h后所得非晶态Ni-P镀层均匀致密,无明显缺陷,厚度为8.74 μm,磷质量分数达9.29%;在3.5%NaCl溶液中,镀层的自腐蚀电位为-0.609 V,腐蚀电流密度约为基体的1/10,耐腐蚀性能良好.

  9. PEM fuel cell bipolar plate material requirements for transportation applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borup, R.L.; Stroh, K.R.; Vanderborgh, N.E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [and others

    1996-04-01

    Cost effective bipolar plates are currently under development to help make proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells commercially viable. Bipolar plates separate individual cells of the fuel cell stack, and thus must supply strength, be electrically conductive, provide for thermal control of the fuel stack, be a non-porous materials separating hydrogen and oxygen feed streams, be corrosion resistant, provide gas distribution for the feed streams and meet fuel stack cost targets. Candidate materials include conductive polymers and metal plates with corrosion resistant coatings. Possible metals include aluminium, titanium, iron/stainless steel and nickel.

  10. Rapid Prototyping Bipolar Plate of PEMFC by Gelcasting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Bing; CHEN Shang-wei; HUANG Ming-yu; WANG Lian-jun

    2006-01-01

    Bipolar plate is one key component of proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). According to this paper, mesocarbon microbeads were used as raw materials for forming the green bodies of bipolar plates with complex flow channels by gelcasting technique. Then, the final bipolar plates would be gained after the green parts were died, burned out and sintered. Meanwhile, its properties are researched and evaluated by the test of flexible strength and electric resistivity. The resultant flexural strength of sintered sample is 67 Mpa and the electric resistivity is 52 μΩ·m.

  11. Abrupt plate accelerations shape rifted continental margins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brune, Sascha; Williams, Simon E; Butterworth, Nathaniel P; Müller, R Dietmar

    2016-08-11

    Rifted margins are formed by persistent stretching of continental lithosphere until breakup is achieved. It is well known that strain-rate-dependent processes control rift evolution, yet quantified extension histories of Earth's major passive margins have become available only recently. Here we investigate rift kinematics globally by applying a new geotectonic analysis technique to revised global plate reconstructions. We find that rifted margins feature an initial, slow rift phase (less than ten millimetres per year, full rate) and that an abrupt increase of plate divergence introduces a fast rift phase. Plate acceleration takes place before continental rupture and considerable margin area is created during each phase. We reproduce the rapid transition from slow to fast extension using analytical and numerical modelling with constant force boundary conditions. The extension models suggest that the two-phase velocity behaviour is caused by a rift-intrinsic strength--velocity feedback, which can be robustly inferred for diverse lithosphere configurations and rheologies. Our results explain differences between proximal and distal margin areas and demonstrate that abrupt plate acceleration during continental rifting is controlled by the nonlinear decay of the resistive rift strength force. This mechanism provides an explanation for several previously unexplained rapid absolute plate motion changes, offering new insights into the balance of plate driving forces through time.

  12. Abrupt plate accelerations shape rifted continental margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brune, Sascha; Williams, Simon E.; Butterworth, Nathaniel P.; Müller, R. Dietmar

    2016-08-01

    Rifted margins are formed by persistent stretching of continental lithosphere until breakup is achieved. It is well known that strain-rate-dependent processes control rift evolution, yet quantified extension histories of Earth’s major passive margins have become available only recently. Here we investigate rift kinematics globally by applying a new geotectonic analysis technique to revised global plate reconstructions. We find that rifted margins feature an initial, slow rift phase (less than ten millimetres per year, full rate) and that an abrupt increase of plate divergence introduces a fast rift phase. Plate acceleration takes place before continental rupture and considerable margin area is created during each phase. We reproduce the rapid transition from slow to fast extension using analytical and numerical modelling with constant force boundary conditions. The extension models suggest that the two-phase velocity behaviour is caused by a rift-intrinsic strength-velocity feedback, which can be robustly inferred for diverse lithosphere configurations and rheologies. Our results explain differences between proximal and distal margin areas and demonstrate that abrupt plate acceleration during continental rifting is controlled by the nonlinear decay of the resistive rift strength force. This mechanism provides an explanation for several previously unexplained rapid absolute plate motion changes, offering new insights into the balance of plate driving forces through time.

  13. Pixelated neutron image plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlapp, M.; Conrad, H.; von Seggern, H.

    2004-09-01

    Neutron image plates (NIPs) have found widespread application as neutron detectors for single-crystal and powder diffraction, small-angle scattering and tomography. After neutron exposure, the image plate can be read out by scanning with a laser. Commercially available NIPs consist of a powder mixture of BaFBr : Eu2+ and Gd2O3 dispersed in a polymer matrix and supported by a flexible polymer sheet. Since BaFBr : Eu2+ is an excellent x-ray storage phosphor, these NIPs are particularly sensitive to ggr-radiation, which is always present as a background radiation in neutron experiments. In this work we present results on NIPs consisting of KCl : Eu2+ and LiF that were fabricated into ceramic image plates in which the alkali halides act as a self-supporting matrix without the necessity for using a polymeric binder. An advantage of this type of NIP is the significantly reduced ggr-sensitivity. However, the much lower neutron absorption cross section of LiF compared with Gd2O3 demands a thicker image plate for obtaining comparable neutron absorption. The greater thickness of the NIP inevitably leads to a loss in spatial resolution of the image plate. However, this reduction in resolution can be restricted by a novel image plate concept in which a ceramic structure with square cells (referred to as a 'honeycomb') is embedded in the NIP, resulting in a pixelated image plate. In such a NIP the read-out light is confined to the particular illuminated pixel, decoupling the spatial resolution from the optical properties of the image plate material and morphology. In this work, a comparison of experimentally determined and simulated spatial resolutions of pixelated and unstructured image plates for a fixed read-out laser intensity is presented, as well as simulations of the properties of these NIPs at higher laser powers.

  14. ChooseMyPlate.gov

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Topics Eating on a Budget Create a Grocery Game Plan Shop Smart to Fill Your Cart Prepare ... Eating on a Budget MyPlate Tip Sheets MyPlate Quiz Supertracker What's Cooking Tips Twitter What's New? MyPlate, ...

  15. Plate removal following orthognathic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Mhairi; Langford, Richard Julian; Bhanji, Adam; Farr, David

    2015-11-01

    The objectives of this study are to determine the removal rates of orthognathic plates used during orthognathic surgery at James Cook University Hospital and describe the reasons for plate removal. 202 consecutive orthognathic cases were identified between July 2004 and July 2012. Demographics and procedure details were collected for these patients. Patients from this group who returned to theatre for plate removal between July 2004 and November 2012 were identified and their notes were analysed for data including reason for plate removal, age, smoking status, sex and time to plate removal. 3.2% of plates were removed with proportionally more plates removed from the mandible than the maxilla. 10.4% of patients required removal of one or more plate. Most plates were removed within the first post-operative year. The commonest reasons for plate removal were plate exposure and infection. The plate removal rates in our study are comparable to those seen in the literature.

  16. Plating in Top Agar

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2014-01-01

    1. Warm plates to room temperature before use. Cold plates causes the top agar to solidify irregularly. DO not warm plates to 37° as the top agar will take forever to solidify. - Prepare top agar as the appropriate liquid medium with 0.7% agar. Keeping 100 mL bottles is convenient. For phages, use λ top agar, which is less rich and yields bigger plaques. - Melt top agar in the microwave completely. Allow the agar to boil after liquification; incompletely melted agar looks liquid, but is...

  17. Anisotropic elastic plates

    CERN Document Server

    Hwu, Chyanbin

    2010-01-01

    As structural elements, anisotropic elastic plates find wide applications in modern technology. The plates here are considered to be subjected to not only in plane load but also transverse load. In other words, both plane and plate bending problems as well as the stretching-bending coupling problems are all explained in this book. In addition to the introduction of the theory of anisotropic elasticity, several important subjects have are discussed in this book such as interfaces, cracks, holes, inclusions, contact problems, piezoelectric materials, thermoelastic problems and boundary element a

  18. Inversion for the driving forces of plate tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, R. M.

    1983-01-01

    Inverse modeling techniques have been applied to the problem of determining the roles of various forces that may drive and resist plate tectonic motions. Separate linear inverse problems have been solved to find the best fitting pole of rotation for finite element grid point velocities and to find the best combination of force models to fit the observed relative plate velocities for the earth's twelve major plates using the generalized inverse operator. Variance-covariance data on plate motion have also been included. Results emphasize the relative importance of ridge push forces in the driving mechanism. Convergent margin forces are smaller by at least a factor of two, and perhaps by as much as a factor of twenty. Slab pull, apparently, is poorly transmitted to the surface plate as a driving force. Drag forces at the base of the plate are smaller than ridge push forces, although the sign of the force remains in question.

  19. Effect of plate roughness on the field near RPC plates

    CERN Document Server

    Jash, Abhik; Mukhopadhyay, Supratik; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis

    2016-01-01

    The inner surfaces of the electrodes encompassing the gas volume of a Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC) have been found to exhibit asperities with three kind of features grossly. The desired uniform electric field within the gas volume of RPC is expected to be affected due to the presence of these asperities, which will eventually affect the final response from the detector. In this work, an attempt has been made to model the highly complex roughness of the electrode surfaces and compute its effect on the electrostatic field within RPC gas chamber. The calculations have been performed numerically using Finite Element Method (FEM) and Boundary Element Method (BEM) and the two methods have been compared in this context.

  20. Designing Assemblies Of Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, F. W.; Kennedy, D.; Butler, R.; Aston, G.; Anderson, M. S.

    1992-01-01

    VICONOPT calculates vibrations and instabilities of assemblies of prismatic plates. Designed for efficient, accurate analysis of buckling and vibration, and for optimum design of panels of composite materials. Written in FORTRAN 77.

  1. Tectonic Plate Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landalf, Helen

    1998-01-01

    Presents an activity that employs movement to enable students to understand concepts related to plate tectonics. Argues that movement brings topics to life in a concrete way and helps children retain knowledge. (DDR)

  2. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blood glucose levels and lose weight. With this method, you fill your plate with more non-starchy ... you have an easy portion control solution that works. Last Reviewed: October 8, 2015 Last Edited: September ...

  3. Fractal multifiber microchannel plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Lee M.; Feller, W. B.; Kenter, Almus T.; Chappell, Jon H.

    1992-01-01

    The construction and performance of microchannel plates (MCPs) made using fractal tiling mehtods are reviewed. MCPs with 40 mm active areas having near-perfect channel ordering were produced. These plates demonstrated electrical performance characteristics equivalent to conventionally constructed MCPs. These apparently are the first MCPs which have a sufficiently high degree of order to permit single channel addressability. Potential applications for these devices and the prospects for further development are discussed.

  4. Origami - Folded Plate Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Buri, Hans Ulrich

    2010-01-01

    This research investigates new methods of designing folded plate structures that can be built with cross-laminated timber panels. Folded plate structures are attractive to both architects and engineers for their structural, spatial, and plastic qualities. Thin surfaces can be stiffened by a series of folds, and thus not only cover space, but also act as load bearing elements. The variation of light and shadow along the folded faces emphasizes the plas...

  5. The design and performance of a twenty barrel hydrogen pellet injector for Alcator C-Mod

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbahn, John A. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1994-05-01

    A twenty barrel hydrogen pellet injector has been designed, built and tested both in the laboratory and on the Alcator C-Mod Tokamak at MIT. The injector functions by firing pellets of frozen hydrogen or deuterium deep into the plasma discharge for the purpose of fueling the plasma, modifying the density profile and increasing the global energy confinement time. The design goals of the injector are: (1) Operational flexibility, (2) High reliability, (3) Remote operation with minimal maintenance. These requirements have lead to a single stage, pipe gun design with twenty barrels. Pellets are formed by in- situ condensation of the fuel gas, thus avoiding moving parts at cryogenic temperatures. The injector is the first to dispense with the need for cryogenic fluids and instead uses a closed cycle refrigerator to cool the thermal system components. The twenty barrels of the injector produce pellets of four different size groups and allow for a high degree of flexibility in fueling experiments. Operation of the injector is under PLC control allowing for remote operation, interlocked safety features and automated pellet manufacturing. The injector has been extrusively tested and shown to produce pellets reliably with velocities up to 1400 m/sec. During the period from September to November of 1993, the injector was successfully used to fire pellets into over fifty plasma discharges. Experimental results include data on the pellet penetration into the plasma using an advanced pellet tracking diagnostic with improved time and spatial response. Data from the tracker indicates pellet penetrations were between 30 and 86 percent of the plasma minor radius.

  6. Quad-barrel multifunctional electrochemical and ion conductance probe for voltammetric analysis and imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadappuram, Binoy Paulose; McKelvey, Kim; Byers, Joshua C; Güell, Aleix G; Colburn, Alex W; Lazenby, Robert A; Unwin, Patrick R

    2015-04-07

    The fabrication and use of a multifunctional electrochemical probe incorporating two independent carbon working electrodes and two electrolyte-filled barrels, equipped with quasi-reference counter electrodes (QRCEs), in the end of a tapered micrometer-scale pipet is described. This "quad-probe" (4-channel probe) was fabricated by depositing carbon pyrolytically into two diagonally opposite barrels of a laser-pulled quartz quadruple-barrelled pipet. After filling the open channels with electrolyte solution, a meniscus forms at the end of the probe and covers the two working electrodes. The two carbon electrodes can be used to drive local electrochemical reactions within the meniscus while a bias between the QRCEs in the electrolyte channels provides an ion conductance signal that is used to control and position the meniscus on a surface of interest. When brought into contact with a surface, localized high resolution amperometric imaging can be achieved with the two carbon working electrodes with a spatial resolution defined by the meniscus contact area. The substrate can be an insulating material or (semi)conductor, but herein, we focus mainly on conducting substrates that can be connected as a third working electrode. Studies using both aqueous and ionic liquid electrolytes in the probe, together with gold and individual single walled carbon nanotube samples, demonstrate the utility of the technique. Substrate generation-dual tip collection measurements are shown to be characterized by high collection efficiencies (approaching 100%). This hybrid configuration of scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) and scanning electrochemical cell microscopy (SECCM) should be powerful for future applications in electrode mapping, as well as in studies of insulating materials as demonstrated by transient spot redox-titration measurements at an electrostatically charged Teflon surface and at a pristine calcite surface, where a functionalized probe is used to follow the

  7. Projects to get you off the grid rain barrels, chicken coops, and solar panels

    CERN Document Server

    Instructablescom

    2014-01-01

    Instructables is back with this compact book focused on a series of projects designed to get you thinking creatively about thinking green. Twenty Instructables illustrate just how simple it can be to make your own backyard chicken coop, or turn a wine barrel into a rainwater collector.Illustrated with dozens of full-color photographs per project accompanying easy-to-follow instructions, this Instructables collection utilizes the best that the online community has to offer, turning a far-reaching group of people into a mammoth database churning out ideas to make life better, easier, and in this

  8. The Crystal Barrel: Meson Spectroscopy at LEAR with a 4$\\pi$ Detector

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    % PS197 \\\\ \\\\The Crystal Barrel is a 4$\\pi$ spectrometer designed to provide complete and precise information on practically every final state produced in $\\bar{p} p $ and $\\bar{p}d $ annihilations at low energy and to collect high statistics data samples. Selective triggers can be applied when necessary. \\\\ \\\\The physics goal is to identify all light mesons in the mass range from 0.14 to 2.3~GeV/c$^{2}$, to determine their quantum numbers and decay properties and to study the annihilation dynamics. The main interest is to find the glueball and hybrid degrees of freedom predicted in the framework of Quantum Chromodynamics. \\\\ \\\\\

  9. Computer Simulation of the Cool Down of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Barrel Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Korperud, N; Fabre, C; Owren, G; Passardi, Giorgio

    2002-01-01

    The ATLAS electromagnetic barrel calorimeter consists of a liquid argon detector with a total mass of 120 tonnes. This highly complicated structure, fabricated from copper, lead, stainless steel and glass-fiber reinforced epoxy will be placed in an aluminum cryostat. The cool down process of the detector will be limited by the maximum temperature differences accepted by the composite structure so as to avoid critical mechanical stresses. A computer program simulating the cool down of the detector by calculating the local heat transfer throughout a simplified model has been developed. The program evaluates the cool down time as a function of different contact gasses filling the spaces within the detector.

  10. Design, performance, and calibration of CMS hadron-barrel calorimeter wedges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdullin, S. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States)]|[Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Abramov, V.; Goncharov, P.; Khmelnikov, A.; Korablev, A.; Korneev, Y.; Krinitsyn, A.; Kryshkin, V.; Lukanin, V.; Pikalov, V.; Ryazanov, A.; Talov, V.; Turchanovich, L.; Volkov, A. [IHEP, Protvino (Russian Federation); Acharya, B.; Banerjee, S.; Banerjee, S.; Chendvankar, S.; Dugad, S.; Kalmani, S.; Katta, S.; Mazumdar, K.; Mondal, N.; Nagaraj, P.; Patil, M.; Reddy, L.; Satyanarayana, B.; Sudhakar, K.; Verma, P. [Tata Inst. of Fundamental Research, Mumbai (India); Adams, M.; Burchesky, K.; Qian, W. [Univ. of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Akchurin, N.; Carrell, K.; Guemues, K.; Thomas, R. [Texas Tech Univ., Dept. of Physics, Lubbock, TX (United States); Akgun, U.; Ayan, S.; Duru, F.; Merlo, J.P.; Mestvirishvili, A.; Miller, M.; Norbeck, E.; Olson, J.; Onel, Y.; Schmidt, I. [Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States); Anderson, E.W.; Hauptman, J. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States); Antchev, G.; Hazen, E.; Lawlor, C.; Machado, E.; Posch, C.; Rohlf, J.; Wu, S.X. [Boston Univ., Boston, MA (United States); Aydin, S.; Dumanoglu, I.; Eskut, E.; Kayis-Topaksu, A.; Polatoz, A.; Onengut, G.; Ozdes-Koca, N. [Cukurova Univ., Adana (Turkey); Baarmand, M.; Ralich, R.; Vodopiyanov, I. [Florida Inst. of Technology, Melbourne, FL (United States); Baden, D.; Bard, R.; Eno, S.; Grassi, T.; Jarvis, C.; Kellogg, R.; Kunori, S.; Skuja, A. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Barnes, V.; Laasanen, A.; Pompos, A. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Bawa, H.; Beri, S.; Bhatnagar, V.; Kaur, M.; Kohli, J.; Kumar, A.; Singh, J. [Panjab Univ., Chandigarh (India); Baiatian, G.; Sirunyan, A. [Yerevan Physics Inst., Yerevan (Armenia); Bencze, G.; Vesztergombi, G.; Zalan, P. [KFKI-RMKI, Research Inst. for Particle and Nuclear Physics, Budapest (Hungary)] [and others

    2008-05-15

    Extensive measurements have been made with pions, electrons and muons on four production wedges of the compact muon solenoid (CMS) hadron barrel (HB) calorimeter in the H2 beam line at CERN with particle momenta varying from 20 to 300 GeV/c. The time structure of the events was measured with the full chain of preproduction front-end electronics running at 34 MHz. Moving-wire radioactive source data were also collected for all scintillator layers in the HB. The energy dependent time slewing effect was measured and tuned for optimal performance. (orig.)

  11. Field Developmental Test of the Dual Barrel Automatic Injector, MARK II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-04-01

    criteria OCCURRENCE - a detected event 2-PAM-CL BARREL - the larger black-tipped cylinder contained within the autoinjector housing SAFETY PIN - the...yellow plastic protrusion from the safety cap which prevents injector activation SAFETY SCREW - the metal screw which attaches the safety pin to the...2 0 0 (1.1) (1.0) loose safety pin 164 27 10 13 (11.0) (10.7) (18.8) (21.7) NO DEFECTS NOTED 1184 209 42 35 (76.5) (82.9) (70.0) (58.0) UNKNOWN

  12. "Person in the barrel" syndrome: Unusual heralding presentation of squamous cell carcinoma of the lung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Verma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Paraneoplastic neurological syndromes (PNS are rare and relatively unusual in day to day clinical practice. Occasionally, PNS may be the heralding manifestation of the malignancy. Paraneoplastic syndromes are most commonly associated with small cell lung carcinoma and are rarely seen with non small cell lung carcinoma. In this case, we report a non-smoker, middle aged lady, who presented with "person in the barrel" syndrome due to myelo radiculoplexopathy as the first clinical manifestation of squamous cell carcinoma of the lung.

  13. Synthesis of structurally controlled nano carbons - in particular the nano barrel carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob, M. [FOI, Swedish Defence Research Agency, Dept. of Protection and Materials, Tumba (Sweden); Palmqvist, U. [IM, Swedish Institute for Metals Research, Drottning Kristinas vag 48, Stockholm (Sweden); Alberius, P.C.A. [YKI, Institute for Surface Chemistry, Stockholm (Sweden); Ekstrom, T. [Materials Science, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Nygren, M.; Lidin, S. [Stockholm University, Inorganic Chemistry, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2003-01-01

    Nano-porous carbons have been prepared through a selective etching reaction, performed by halogenation of aluminum carbide. The structures obtained can be controlled by varying the chlorination temperature. The unique set of nano-carbons obtained include nano-porous amorphous structures, the nano-barrel structure and a nano-graphitic structure as chlorination temperatures were increased from 400 deg. C to 1000 deg. C. The synthesis process gives a pure product with high yield, and may be scaled up to produce bulk amounts. (authors)

  14. Barrel-Clamshell analog in the capillary bridges between two solid spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, James; Farmer, Timothy

    2014-11-01

    Sessile drops on a wire are known to adopt one of two topological configurations, referred to as a barrel or a clamshell, depending on the volume and contact angle. Here we report on an analogous topological transition for the capillary bridge between two contacting solid spheres. We characterize the transition by numerically computing the bridge shapes that minimize surface energy for a variety of contact angles and volumes. Finally, we are able to develop an exact solution to the non-axisymmetric bridge shapes by relying on symmetries of the geometry.

  15. High precision, low disturbance calibration of the High Voltage system of the CMS Barrel Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Fasanella, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    The CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter utilizes scintillating lead tungstate crystals, with avalanche photodiodes (APD) as photo-detectors in the barrel part. 1224 HV channels bias groups of 50 APD pairs, each at a voltage of about 380 V. The APD gain dependence on the voltage is 3pct/V. A stability of better than 60 mV is needed to have negligible impact on the calorimeter energy resolution. Until 2015 manual calibrations were performed yearly. A new calibration system was deployed recently, which satisfies the requirement of low disturbance and high precision. The system is discussed in detail and first operational experience is presented.

  16. High precision, low disturbance calibration system for the CMS Barrel Electromagnetic Calorimeter High Voltage apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasanella, G.

    2017-01-01

    The CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter utilizes scintillation lead tungstate crystals, with avalanche photodiodes (APD) as photo-detectors in the barrel part. 1224 HV channels bias groups of 50 APD pairs, each at a voltage of about 380 V. The APD gain dependence on the voltage is 3%/V. A stability of better than 60 mV is needed to have negligible impact on the calorimeter energy resolution. Until 2015 manual calibrations were performed yearly. A new calibration system was deployed recently, which satisfies the requirement of low disturbance and high precision. The system is discussed in detail and first operational experience is presented.

  17. Precise mapping of the magnetic field in the CMS barrel yoke using cosmic rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatrchyan, S. [Yerevan Physics Institute (Aremenia); et al.,

    2010-03-01

    The CMS detector is designed around a large 4 T superconducting solenoid, enclosed in a 12000-tonne steel return yoke. A detailed map of the magnetic field is required for the accurate simulation and reconstruction of physics events in the CMS detector, not only in the inner tracking region inside the solenoid but also in the large and complex structure of the steel yoke, which is instrumented with muon chambers. Using a large sample of cosmic muon events collected by CMS in 2008, the field in the steel of the barrel yoke has been determined with a precision of 3 to 8% depending on the location.

  18. Precise Mapping of the Magnetic Field in the CMS Barrel Yoke using Cosmic Rays

    CERN Document Server

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Govi, G; McCauley, T; Musienko, Y; Muzaffar, S; Osborne, I; Paul, T; Reucroft, S; Swain, J; Taylor, L; Tuura, L; Anastassov, A; Gobbi, B; Kubik, A; Ofierzynski, R A; Pozdnyakov, A; Schmitt, M; Stoynev, S; Velasco, M; Won, S; Antonelli, L; Berry, D; Hildreth, M; Jessop, C; Karmgard, D J; Kolberg, T; Lannon, K; Lynch, S; Marinelli, N; Morse, D M; Ruchti, R; Slaunwhite, J; Warchol, J; Wayne, M; Bylsma, B; Durkin, L S; Gilmore, J; Gu, J; Killewald, P; Ling, T Y; Williams, G; Adam, N; Berry, E; Elmer, P; Garmash, A; Gerbaudo, D; Halyo, V; Hunt, A; Jones, J; Laird, E; Marlow, D; Medvedeva, T; Mooney, M; Olsen, J; Piroué, P; Stickland, D; Tully, C; Werner, J S; Wildish, T; Xie, Z; Zuranski, A; Acosta, J G; Bonnett Del Alamo, M; Huang, X T; Lopez, A; Mendez, H; Oliveros, S; Ramirez Vargas, J E; Santacruz, N; Zatzerklyany, A; Alagoz, E; Antillon, E; Barnes, V E; Bolla, G; Bortoletto, D; Everett, A; Garfinkel, A F; Gecse, Z; Gutay, L; Ippolito, N; Jones, M; Koybasi, O; Laasanen, A T; Leonardo, N; Liu, C; Maroussov, V; Merkel, P; Miller, D H; Neumeister, N; Sedov, A; Shipsey, I; Yoo, H D; Zheng, Y; Jindal, P; Parashar, N; Cuplov, V; Ecklund, K M; Geurts, F J M; Liu, J H; Maronde, D; Matveev, M; Padley, B P; Redjimi, R; Roberts, J; Sabbatini, L; Tumanov, A; Betchart, B; Bodek, A; Budd, H; Chung, Y S; de Barbaro, P; Demina, R; Flacher, H; Gotra, Y; Harel, A; Korjenevski, S; Miner, D C; Orbaker, D; Petrillo, G; Vishnevskiy, D; Zielinski, M; Bhatti, A; Demortier, L; Goulianos, K; Hatakeyama, K; Lungu, G; Mesropian, C; Yan, M; Atramentov, O; Bartz, E; Gershtein, Y; Halkiadakis, E; Hits, D; Lath, A; Rose, K; Schnetzer, S; Somalwar, S; Stone, R; Thomas, S; Watts, T L; Cerizza, G; Hollingsworth, M; Spanier, S; Yang, Z C; York, A; Asaadi, J; Aurisano, A; Eusebi, R; Golyash, A; Gurrola, A; Kamon, T; Nguyen, C N; Pivarski, J; Safonov, A; Sengupta, S; Toback, D; Weinberger, M; Akchurin, N; Berntzon, L; Gumus, K; Jeong, C; Kim, H; Lee, S W; Popescu, S; Roh, Y; Sill, A; Volobouev, I; Washington, E; Wigmans, R; Yazgan, E; Engh, D; Florez, C; Johns, W; Pathak, S; Sheldon, P; Andelin, D; Arenton, M W; Balazs, M; Boutle, S; Buehler, M; Conetti, S; Cox, B; Hirosky, R; Ledovskoy, A; Neu, C; Phillips II, D; Ronquest, M; Yohay, R; Gollapinni, S; Gunthoti, K; Harr, R; Karchin, P E; Mattson, M; Sakharov, A; Anderson, M; Bachtis, M; Bellinger, J N; Carlsmith, D; Crotty, I; Dasu, S; Dutta, S; Efron, J; Feyzi, F; Flood, K; Gray, L; Grogg, K S; Grothe, M; Hall-Wilton, R; Jaworski, M; Klabbers, P; Klukas, J; Lanaro, A; Lazaridis, C; Leonard, J; Loveless, R; Magrans de Abril, M; Mohapatra, A; Ott, G; Polese, G; Reeder, D; Savin, A; Smith, W H; Sourkov, A; Swanson, J; Weinberg, M; Wenman, D; Wensveen, M; White, A

    2010-01-01

    The CMS detector is designed around a large 4 T superconducting solenoid, enclosed in a 12000-tonne steel return yoke. A detailed map of the magnetic field is required for the accurate simulation and reconstruction of physics events in the CMS detector, not only in the inner tracking region inside the solenoid but also in the large and complex structure of the steel yoke, which is instrumented with muon chambers. Using a large sample of cosmic muon events collected by CMS in 2008, the field in the steel of the barrel yoke has been determined with a precision of 3 to 8% depending on the location.

  19. Results and Consequences of Magnet Test and Cosmic Challenge of the CMS Barrel Muon Alignment System

    CERN Document Server

    Bencze, Gy L; Imrek, J; Molnàr, J; Novàk, D; Raics, P; Sass, V; Szabò, Zs; Svékely, G; Szillàsi, Z; PH-EP

    2007-01-01

    In the last year - as part of the first test of the CMS experiment at CERN [1] called Magnet Test and Cosmic Challenge (MTCC) - about 25% of the barrel muon position monitoring system was built and operated. The configuration enabled us to test all the elements of the system and its function in real conditions. The correct operation of the system has been demonstrated. About 500 full measurement cycles have been recorded. In the paper the setup –including the read-out and control - is described and the first preliminary results are presented.

  20. Map transfer from the thalamus to the neocortex: inputs from the barrel field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokmane, Ludmilla; Garel, Sonia

    2014-11-01

    Sensory perception relies on the formation of stereotyped maps inside the brain. This feature is particularly well illustrated in the mammalian neocortex, which is subdivided into distinct cortical sensory areas that comprise topological maps, such as the somatosensory homunculus in humans or the barrel field of the large whiskers in rodents. How somatosensory maps are formed and relayed into the neocortex remain essential questions in developmental neuroscience. Here, we will present our current knowledge on whisker map transfer in the mouse model, with the goal of linking embryonic and postnatal studies into a comprehensive framework.

  1. Correlations decrease with propagation of spiking activity in the mouse barrel cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayathri Nattar Ranganathan

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Propagation of suprathreshold spiking activity through neuronal populations is important for the function of the central nervous system. Neural correlations have an impact on cortical function particularly on the signaling of information and propagation of spiking activity. Therefore we measured the change in correlations as suprathreshold spiking activity propagated between recurrent neuronal networks of the mammalian cerebral cortex. Using optical methods we recorded spiking activity from large samples of neurons from two neural populations simultaneously. The results indicate that correlations decreased as spiking activity propagated from layer 4 to layer 2/3 in the rodent barrel cortex.

  2. Vibration and Buckling of Web Plate of the Plate Girder

    OpenAIRE

    高橋, 和雄; 呉, 明強; 中澤, 聡志; 筑紫, 宏之

    1998-01-01

    The vibration and buckling of the web of the plate girder are studied in this paper. The small deflection theory of the thin plate is used. The finite strip method is employed to solve vibration and buckling of the plate girder. Natural frequenies of buckling properties are shown for various plate girder bridges.

  3. Correlation between Wear Resistance and Lifetime of Electrical Contacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Song

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrical contacts are usually plated in order to prevent corrosion. Platings of detachable electrical contacts experience wear because of the motion between contacts. Once the protecting platings have been worn out, electrical contacts will fail rapidly due to corrosion or fretting corrosion. Therefore the wear resistance of the platings is a very important parameter for the long lifetime of electrical contacts. Many measures which improve the wear resistance can diminish the conductivity of the platings. Due to the fact that platings of electrical contacts must have both a high wear resistance and a high electrical conductivity, the manufacturing of high performance platings of electrical contacts poses a great challenge. Our study shows firstly the correlation between the wear resistance of platings and lifetime of electrical contacts and then the measures, which improve the wear resistance without impairing the electrical performance of the contacts.

  4. Penetration of disk fragments following impact on thin plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan-juan LI; Hai-jun XUAN; Lian-fang LIAO; Wei-rong HONG; Rong-ren WU

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the ballistic resistance and failure pattern of aeroengine casing following the impact of disk fragments,and to determine the optimum case structure,the phenomena of a 1/3rd disk fragment impact on single and double-layered thin plate targets were simulated using nonlinear dynamical analysis software MSC.Dytran.Strain rate effect was introduced in a Johnson-Cook (JC)material model for the disk fragment and the plate.Impact modeling was based on the Arbitrary Lagrange-Eulerian method,and simulated using explicit finite element method(FEM).Simulation results showed that the major failure pattern of the plate is shearing and tensile fracture with large plastic deformation.It Was also concluded that the ballistic limit velocity increases with the standoff distance when it iS beyond a certain value.and that greater resistance is obtained when the front plate has either a proportionately low or high thickness.The impact resistance of a double-layered plate may exceed that of a single plate if the thicknesses and standoff distance of the two plates are set appropriately.

  5. Testing Tools for Glyphosate Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are multiple tools available for testing for glyphosate resistance. Whole plant screens, whether in the field or greenhouse, should be used as an initial method to determine if a biotype is glyphosate resistant. Screening for resistance using seedling assays such as in Petri plates, sand cul...

  6. The CMS Barrel Calorimeter Response to Particle Beams from 2 to 350 GeV/c

    CERN Document Server

    Abdullin, Salavat; Acharya, Bannaje Sripathi; Adam, Nadia; Adams, Mark Raymond; Adzic, Petar; Akchurin, Nural; Akgun, Ugur; Albayrak, Elif Asli; Alemany-Fernandez, Reyes; Almeida, Nuno; Anagnostou, Georgios; Andelin, Daniel; Anderson, E Walter; Anfreville, Marc; Anicin, Ivan; Antchev, Georgy; Antunovic, Zeljko; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Auffray, Etiennette; Argiro, Stefano; Askew, Andrew; Atramentov, Oleksiy; Ayan, S; Arcidy, M; Aydin, Sezgin; Aziz, Tariq; Baarmand, Marc M; Babich, Kanstantsin; Baccaro, Stefania; Baden, Drew; Baffioni, Stephanie; Bakirci, Mustafa Numan; Balazs, Michael; Banerjee, Sunanda; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Bard, Robert; Barge, Derek; Barnes, Virgil E; Barney, David; Barone, Luciano; Bartoloni, Alessandro; Baty, Clement; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Baiatian, G; Bandurin, Dmitry; Beauceron, Stephanie; Bell, Ken W; Bencze, Gyorgy; Benetta, Robert; Bercher, Michel; Beri, Suman Bala; Bernet, Colin; Berntzon, Lisa; Berthon, Ursula; Besançon, Marc; Betev, Botjo; Beuselinck, Raymond; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Bhatti, Anwar; Biino, Cristina; Blaha, Jan; Bloch, Philippe; Blyth, Simon; Bodek, Arie; Bornheim, Adolf; Bose, Suvadeep; Bose, Tulika; Bourotte, Jean; Brett, Angela Mary; Brown, Robert M; Britton, David; Budd, Howard; Bühler, M; Burchesky, Kyle; Busson, Philippe; Camanzi, Barbara; Camporesi, Tiziano; Cankocak, Kerem; Carrell, Kenneth Wayne; Carrera, E; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Cavallari, Francesca; Cerci, Salim; Cerutti, cM; Chang, Paoti; Chang, You-Hao; Charlot, Claude; Chen, E Augustine; Chen, Wan-Ting; Chen, Zheng-Yu; Chendvankar, Sanjay; Chipaux, Rémi; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Choudhury, Rajani Kant; Chung, Yeon Sei; Clarida, Warren; Cockerill, David J A; Combaret, Christophe; Conetti, Sergio; Cossutti, Fabio; Cox, Bradley; Cremaldi, Lucien Marcus; Cushman, Priscilla; Cussans, David; Dafinei, Ioan; Damgov, Jordan; Da Silva Di Calafiori, Diogo Raphael; Daskalakis, Georgios; Davatz, Giovanna; David, A; De Barbaro, Pawel; Debbins, Paul; Deiters, Konrad; Dejardin, Marc; Djordjevic, Milos; Deliomeroglu, Mehmet; Della Negra, Rodolphe; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Del Re, Daniele; Demianov, A; De Min, Alberto; Denegri, Daniel; Depasse, Pierre; de Visser, Theo; Descamps, Julien; Deshpande, Pandurang Vishnu; Díaz, Jonathan; Diemoz, Marcella; Di Marco, Emanuele; Dimitrov, Lubomir; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Djambazov, Lubomir; Dobrzynski, Ludwik; Drndarevic, Snezana; Duboscq, Jean Etienne; Dugad, Shashikant; Dumanoglu, Isa; Duru, Firdevs; Dutta, Dipanwita; Dzelalija, Mile; Efthymiopoulos, I; Elias, John E; Peisert, A; El-Mamouni, H; Elvira, D; Emeliantchik, Igor; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Ershov, Alexander; Erturk, Sefa; Esen, Selda; Eskut, Eda; Evangelou, Ioannis; Evans, David; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Fay, Jean; Fenyvesi, Andras; Ferri, Federico; Fisher, Wade Cameron; Flower, Paul S; Franci, Daniele; Franzoni, Giovanni; Freeman, Jim; Freudenreich, Klaus; Funk, Wolfgang; Ganjour, Serguei; Gargiulo, Corrado; Gascon, Susan; Gataullin, Marat; Gaultney, Vanessa; Gamsizkan, Halil; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Geerebaert, Yannick; Genchev, Vladimir; Gentit, François-Xavier; Gerbaudo, Davide; Gershtein, Yuri; Ghezzi, Alessio; Ghodgaonkar, Manohar; Gilly, Jean; Givernaud, Alain; Gleyzer, Sergei V; Gninenko, Sergei; Go, Apollo; Gobbo, Benigno; Godinovic, Nikola; Golubev, Nikolai; Golutvin, Igor; Goncharov, Petr; Gong, Datao; Govoni, Pietro; Grant, Nicholas; Gras, Philippe; Grassi, Tullio; Green, Dan; Greenhalgh, R J S; Gribushin, Andrey; Grinev, B; Guevara Riveros, Luz; Guillaud, Jean-Paul; Gurtu, Atul; Murat Guler, A; Gülmez, Erhan; Gümüs, K; Haelen, T; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Haguenauer, Maurice; Halyo, Valerie; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Hansen, Sten; Hashemi, Majid; Hauptman, John M; Hazen, Eric; Heath, Helen F; Heering, Arjan Hendrix; Heister, Arno; Heltsley, Brian; Hill, Jack; Hintz, Wieland; Hirosky, Robert; Hobson, Peter R; Honma, Alan; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Hsiung, Yee; Hunt, Adam; Husejko, Michal; Ille, Bernard; Ilyina, N; Imlay, Richard; Ingram, D; Ingram, Quentin; Isiksal, Engin; Jarry, Patrick; Jarvis, Chad; Jeong, Chiyoung; Jessop, Colin; Johnson, Kurtis F; Jones, John; Jovanovic, Dragoslav; Kaadze, Ketino; Kachanov, Vassili; Kaftanova, V; Kailas, Swaminathan; Kalagin, Vladimir; Kalinin, Alexey; Kalmani, Suresh Devendrappa; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kataria, Sushil Kumar; Kaur, Manjit; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Kayis-Topaksu, A; Kellogg, Richard G; Kennedy, Bruce W; Khmelnikov, Alexander; Kim, Heejong; Kisselevich, I; Kloukinas, Kostas; Kodolova, Olga; Kohli, Jatinder Mohan; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Kolberg, Ted; Kolossov, V; Korablev, Andrey; Korneev, Yury; Kosarev, Ivan; Kramer, Laird; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Krinitsyn, Alexander; Krokhotin, Andrey; Krpic, Dragomir; Kryshkin, V; Kubota, Yuichi; Kubrik, A; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kumar, Arun; Kumar, P; Kunori, Shuichi; Kuo, Chen-Cheng; Kurt, Pelin; Kyberd, Paul; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Laasanen, Alvin T; Ladygin, Vladimir; Laird, Edward; Landsberg, Greg; Laszlo, Andras; Lawlor, C; Lazic, Dragoslav; Lebeau, Michel; Lecomte, Pierre; Lecoq, Paul; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Lee, Sang Joon; Leshev, Georgi; Lethuillier, Morgan; Levchuk, Leonid; Lin, Sheng-Wen; Lin, Willis; Linn, Stephan; Lintern, A L; Litvine, Vladimir; Litvintsev, Dmitri; Litov, Leander; Lobolo, L; Locci, Elizabeth; Lodge, Anthony B; Longo, Egidio; Loukas, Demetrios; Los, Serguei; Lubinsky, V; Luckey, Paul David; Lukanin, Vladimir; Lustermann, Werner; Lynch, Clare; Ma, Yousi; Machado, Emanuel; Mahlke-Krüger, H; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Malberti, Martina; Malclès, Julie; Maletic, Dimitrije; Mandjavidze, Irakli; Mans, Jeremy; Manthos, Nikolaos; Maravin, Yurii; Marchica, Carmelo; Marinelli, Nancy; Markou, Athanasios; Markou, Christos; Marlow, Daniel; Markowitz, Pete; Marone, Matteo; Martínez, German; Mathez, Hervé; Matveev, Viktor; Mavrommatis, Charalampos; Maurelli, Georges; Mazumdar, Kajari; Meridiani, Paolo; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mescheryakov, G; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Mikhailin, V; Milenovic, Predrag; Miller, Michael; Milleret, Gérard; Miné, Philippe; Möller, A; Mohammadi-Najafabadi, M; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Moissenz, P; Mondal, Naba Kumar; Moortgat, Filip; Mossolov, Vladimir; Mur, Michel; Musella, Pasquale; Musienko, Yuri; Nagaraj, P; Nardulli, Alessandro; Nash, Jordan; Nédélec, Patrick; Negri, Pietro; Newman, Harvey B; Nikitenko, Alexander; Norbeck, Edwin; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Olson, Jonathan; Onel, Yasar; Onengüt, G; Organtini, Giovanni; Orimoto, Toyoko; Ozkan, Cigdem; Ozkurt, Halil; Ozkorucuklu, Suat; Ozok, Ferhat; Paganoni, Marco; Paganini, Pascal; Paktinat, S; Pal, Andras; Palma, Alessandro; Panev, Bozhidar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Papadakis, Antonakis; Papadakis, Ioannis; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Paramatti, Riccardo; Parracho, P; Pastrone, Nadia; Patil, Mandakini Ravindra; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Pauss, Felicitas; Penzo, Aldo; Petrakou, Eleni; Petrushanko, Sergey; Petrosian, A; Phillips II, David; Pikalov, Vladimir; Piperov, Stefan; Piroué, Pierre; Podrasky, V; Polatoz, A; Pompos, Arnold; Popescu, Sorina; Posch, C; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Ptochos, Fotios; Puljak, Ivica; Pullia, Antonino; Punz, Thomas; Puzovic, Jovan; Qian, Weiming; Ragazzi, Stefano; Rahatlou, Shahram; Ralich, Robert; Rande, J; Razis, Panos A; Redaelli, Nicola; Reddy, L; Reidy, Jim; Renker, Dieter; Reucroft, Steve; Reymond, Jean-Marc; Ribeiro, Pedro Quinaz; Röser, Ulf; Rogalev, Evgueni; Rogan, Christopher; Roh, Youn; Rohlf, James; Romanteau, Thierry; Rondeaux, Françoise; Ronquest, Michael; Ronzhin, Anatoly; Rosowsky, André; Rovelli, Chiara; Ruchti, Randy; Rumerio, Paolo; Rusack, Roger; Rusakov, Sergey V; Ryan, Matthew John; Ryazanov, Anton; Safronov, Grigory; Sala, Leonardo; Salerno, Roberto; Sanders, David A; Santanastasio, Francesco; Sanzeni, Christopher; Sarycheva, Ludmila; Satyanarayana, B; Schinzel, Dietrich; Schmidt, Ianos; Seez, Christopher; Sekmen, Sezen; Semenov, Sergey; Senchishin, V; Sergeyev, S; Serin, Meltem; Sever, Ramazan; Sharp, Peter; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Siamitros, Christos; Sillou, Daniel; Singh, Jas Bir; Singovsky, Alexander; Sirois, Yves; Sirunyan, Albert M; Silva, J; Silva, Pedro; Skuja, Andris; Sharma, Seema; Sherwood, Brian; Shiu, Jing-Ge; Shivpuri, Ram Krishen; Shukla, Prashant; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Smirnov, Vitaly; Smith, Brian; Smith, Vincent J; Sogut, Kenan; Sonmez, Nasuf; Sorokin, Pavel; Spezziga, Mario; Sproston, Martin; Stefanovich, R; Stockli, F; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Sudhakar, Katta; Sulak, Lawrence; Suter, Henry; Suzuki, Ichiro; Swain, John; Tabarellide Fatis, T; Talov, Vladimir; Takahashi, Maiko; Tcheremoukhine, Alexandre; Teller, Olivier; Teplov, Konstantin; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Thiebaux, Christophe; Thomas, Ray; Timciuc, Vladlen; Timlin, Claire; Titov, Maksym; Tobias, A; Tonwar, Suresh C; Topakli, Huseyin; Topkar, Anita; Triantis, Frixos A; Troshin, Sergey; Tully, Christopher; Turchanovich, L; Tyurin, Nikolay; Ueno, Koji; Ulyanov, A; Uzunian, Andrey; Vanini, A; Vankov, Ivan; Vardanyan, Irina; Varela, F; Varela, Joao; Vasil ev, A; Velasco, Mayda; Vergili, Mehmet; Verma, Piyush; Verrecchia, Patrice; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Veverka, Jan; Vichoudis, Paschalis; Vidal, Richard; Virdee, Tejinder; Vishnevskiy, Alexander; Vlassov, E; Vodopiyanov, Igor; Volobouev, Igor; Volkov, Alexey; Volodko, Anton; Von Gunten, Hans Peter; Wang, Lei; Wang, Minzu; Wardrope, David; Weber, Markus; Weng, Joanna; Werner, Jeremy Scott; Wetstein, Matthew; Winn, Dave; Wigmans, Richard; Williams, Jennifer C; Whitmore, Juliana; Won, Steven; Wu, Shouxiang; Yang, Yong; Yaselli, Ignacio; Yazgan, Efe; Yetkin, Taylan; Yohay, Rachel; Zabi, Alexandre; Zálán, Peter; Zamiatin, Nikolai; Zarubin, Anatoli; Zelepoukine, Serguei; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Zhang, Jia-Wen; Zhang, Lin; Zhu, Kejun; Zhu, Ren-Yuan

    2008-01-01

    The response of the CMS barrel calorimeter (electromagnetic plus hadronic) to hadrons, electrons and muons over a wide momentum range from 2 to 350 GeV/c has been measured. To our knowledge, this is the widest range of momenta in which any calorimeter system has been studied. These tests, carried out at the H2 beam-line at CERN, provide a wealth of information, especially at low energies. The analysis of the differences in calorimeter response to charged pions, kaons, protons and antiprotons and a detailed discussion of the underlying phenomena are presented. We also show techniques that apply corrections to the signals from the considerably different electromagnetic (EB) and hadronic (HB) barrel calorimeters in reconstructing the energies of hadrons. Above 5 GeV/c, these corrections improve the energy resolution of the combined system where the stochastic term equals 84.7$\\pm$1.6$\\%$ and the constant term is 7.4$\\pm$0.8$\\%$. The corrected mean response remains constant within 1.3$\\%$ rms.

  7. Installation of the Liquid Argon Calorimater Barrel in the ATLAS Experimental Cavern

    CERN Multimedia

    Vandoni, G.

    On the 27th of October, the Liquid Argon Barrel cryostat was transported from Building 180 to point 1. The next day, the Barrel was lowered into the cavern, and was placed on jacks close to its final position inside the completed lower half of the Tile calorimeter. After a day of precise adjustment, it was resting within a few millimetres of its nominal final position, waiting for the upper half of the Tile calorimeter to be installed. Tight requests had been issued by the Liquid Argon collaboration for the whole transport. It was foreseen that the cryostat should not see any acceleration larger than 0.15g along its axis, 0.08g transversally and 0.3g in the vertical direction. In addition, no acceleration higher than 0.03g (or even 0.003g for permanent oscillation) would be allowed at 20Hz, to avoid the risk of damaging the absorbers at this spontaneous vibration frequency. The difficulty would arise when coping these demands with the tortuous route, its slopes and curbs, vibration transmission from the engi...

  8. Insertion of the first half-barrel of the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter into its cryostat

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    The first cylinder of the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter barrel and the presampler have been inserted in the cryostat.The ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter is intended to detect electrons, positrons and photons by measuring the energy they deposit on being absorbed. The cylinder of the calorimeter is in two halves, that will be sunk in a liquid-argon bath cooled to 90 kelvin (-180°C). Each half-barrel is 3.2 metres long, 53 cm thick and formed by assembling 16 modules. Each module is made up of alternate lead absorbers and electrodes pressed into 64 layers folded accordion-fashion. The presampler, set up inside the cylinder, is an integral part of the calorimeter system: It measures the energy lost by a particle before it reaches the calorimeter. To ensure an ultra-clean environment, a tent (visible here) was erected round the calorimeter and entry point to the cryostat. The detector and presampler, fitted together, could then be slid gradually into the cryostat like a drawer. To do so, the insertion team...

  9. Insertion of the first half-barrel of the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter into its cryostat

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    The first cylinder of the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter barrel and the presampler have been inserted in the cryostat. The ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter is intended to detect electrons, positrons and photons by measuring the energy they deposit on being absorbed. The cylinder of the calorimeter is in two halves, that will be sunk in a liquid-argon bath cooled to 90 kelvin (-180°C). Each half-barrel is 3.2 metres long, 53 cm thick and formed by assembling 16 modules. Each module is made up of alternate lead absorbers and electrodes pressed into 64 layers folded accordion-fashion. The presampler, set up inside the cylinder, is an integral part of the calorimeter system: It measures the energy lost by a particle before it reaches the calorimeter. To ensure an ultra-clean environment, a tent was erected round the calorimeter and entry point to the cryostat. The detector and presampler, fitted together, could then be slid gradually into the cryostat like a drawer. To do so, the insertion team had to fine-t...

  10. The common cryogenic test facility for the ATLAS barrel and end-cap toroid magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Delruelle, N; Junker, S; Passardi, Giorgio; Pengo, R; Pirotte, O

    2004-01-01

    The large ATLAS toroidal superconducting magnet made of the Barrel and two End-Caps needs extensive testing at the surface of the individual components prior to their final assembly into the underground cavern of LHC. A cryogenic test facility specifically designed for cooling sequentially the eight coils making the Barrel Toroid (BT) has been fully commissioned and is now ready for final acceptance of these magnets. This facility, originally designed for testing individually the 46 tons BT coils, will be upgraded to allow the acceptance tests of the two End-Caps, each of them having 160 tons cold mass. The integrated system mainly comprises a 1.2 kW@4.5 K refrigerator, a 10 kW liquid-nitrogen precooler, two cryostats housing liquid helium centrifugal pumps of respectively 80 g/s and 600 g/s nominal flow and specific instrumentation to measure the thermal performances of the magnets. This paper describes the overall facility with particular emphasis to the cryogenic features adopted to match the specific requ...

  11. The Common Cryogenic Test Facility for the Atlas Barrel and End-Cap Toroid Magnet

    CERN Document Server

    Delruelle, N; Junker, S; Passardi, Giorgio; Pengo, R; Pirotte, O

    2004-01-01

    The large ATLAS toroidal superconducting magnet made of the Barrel and two End-Caps needs extensive testing at the surface of the individual components prior to their final assembly into the underground cavern of LHC. A cryogenic test facility specifically designed for cooling sequentially the eight coils making the Barrel Toroid (BT) has been fully commissioned and is now ready for final acceptance of these magnets. This facility, originally designed for testing individually the 46 tons BT coils, will be upgraded to allow the acceptance tests of the two End-Caps, each of them having a 160 tons cold mass. The integrated system mainly comprises a 1.2 kW@4.5 K refrigerator, a 10 kW liquid-nitrogen precooler, two cryostats housing liquid helium centrifugal pumps of respectively 80 g/s and 600 g/s nominal flow and specific instrumentation to measure the thermal performances of the magnets. This paper describes the overall facility with particular emphasis to the cryogenic features adopted to match the specific re...

  12. Shifts in coding properties and maintenance of information transmission during adaptation in barrel cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Maravall

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Neuronal responses to ongoing stimulation in many systems change over time, or "adapt." Despite the ubiquity of adaptation, its effects on the stimulus information carried by neurons are often unknown. Here we examine how adaptation affects sensory coding in barrel cortex. We used spike-triggered covariance analysis of single-neuron responses to continuous, rapidly varying vibrissa motion stimuli, recorded in anesthetized rats. Changes in stimulus statistics induced spike rate adaptation over hundreds of milliseconds. Vibrissa motion encoding changed with adaptation as follows. In every neuron that showed rate adaptation, the input-output tuning function scaled with the changes in stimulus distribution, allowing the neurons to maintain the quantity of information conveyed about stimulus features. A single neuron that did not show rate adaptation also lacked input-output rescaling and did not maintain information across changes in stimulus statistics. Therefore, in barrel cortex, rate adaptation occurs on a slow timescale relative to the features driving spikes and is associated with gain rescaling matched to the stimulus distribution. Our results suggest that adaptation enhances tactile representations in primary somatosensory cortex, where they could directly influence perceptual decisions.

  13. Translocation boost protein-folding efficiency of double-barreled chaperonins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coluzza, Ivan; van der Vies, Saskia M; Frenkel, Daan

    2006-05-15

    Incorrect folding of proteins in living cells may lead to malfunctioning of the cell machinery. To prevent such cellular disasters from happening, all cells contain molecular chaperones that assist nonnative proteins in folding into the correct native structure. One of the most studied chaperone complexes is the GroEL-GroES complex. The GroEL part has a "double-barrel" structure, which consists of two cylindrical chambers joined at the bottom in a symmetrical fashion. The hydrophobic rim of one of the GroEL chambers captures nonnative proteins. The GroES part acts as a lid that temporarily closes the filled chamber during the folding process. Several capture-folding-release cycles are required before the nonnative protein reaches its native state. Here we report molecular simulations that suggest that translocation of the nonnative protein through the equatorial plane of the complex boosts the efficiency of the chaperonin action. If the target protein is correctly folded after translocation, it is released. However, if it is still nonnative, it is likely to remain trapped in the second chamber, which then closes to start a reverse translocation process. This shuttling back and forth continues until the protein is correctly folded. Our model provides a natural explanation for the prevalence of double-barreled chaperonins. Moreover, we argue that internal folding is both more efficient and safer than a scenario where partially refolded proteins escape from the complex before being recaptured.

  14. First Test of the Performance of CMS Muon Chambers inside the Barrel Yoke

    CERN Document Server

    Jacobi, Emanuel

    2008-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is a multi purpose experimental particle detector at the Large Hardon Collider (LHC). The goal of this experiment is to do fundamental research in particle physics and in particular to prove the validity of the Higgs model. The CMS muon barrel system provides a precise measurement of the position and the momentum of high energy muons. It consists of 250 drift tube chambers, with rectangular drift cells filled with a gas mixture of 85% Ar and 15%CO$_{2}$. Each chamber is equipped with on-chamber readout and trigger electronics. The chambers for the innermost station have been produced at the Physics Institute IIIA at the RWTH University. After installing the chambers at their final position inside the barrel return yoke for the CMS solenoid magnet, cosmic muons have been recorded individually for all chambers and used to evaluate the detector performance, as this is the last chance to easily access the chambers for hardware interventions. These data also provide a good opportuni...

  15. The CMS barrel calorimeter response to particle beams from 2 to 350 GeV/c

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdullin, S.; Gavrilov, V.; Ilyina, N.; Kaftanov, V.; Kisselevich, I.; Kolossov, V.; Krokhotin, A.; Kuleshov, S.; Litvintsev, D.; Nikitenko, A.; Pozdnyakov, A.; Safronov, G.; Semenov, S.; Stolin, V.; Ulyanov, A. [ITEP, Moscow (Russian Federation); Abramov, V.; Goncharov, P.; Kachanov, V.; Kalinin, A.; Khmelnikov, A.; Korablev, A.; Korneev, Y.; Krinitsyn, A.; Kryshkin, V.; Lukanin, V.; Pikalov, V.; Ryazanov, A.; Talov, V.; Troshin, S.; Turchanovich, L.; Tyurin, N.; Uzunian, A.; Volkov, A.; Zelepoukine, S. [IHEP, Protvino (Russian Federation); Acharya, B.; Aziz, T.; Banerjee, Sud.; Banerjee, Sun.; Bose, S.; Chendvankar, S.; Deshpande, P.V.; Dugad, S.; Gurtu, A.; Kalmani, S.; Maity, M.; Majumder, G.; Mazumdar, K.; Mondal, N.; Nagaraj, P.; Patil, M.; Reddy, L.; Satyanarayana, B.; Sharma, S.; Sudhakar, K.; Tonwar, S.; Verma, P. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai (India); Adam, N.; Fisher, W.; Gerbaudo, D.; Halyo, V.; Hunt, A.; Jones, J.; Laird, E.; Mans, J.; Marlow, D.; Piroue, P.; Tully, C.; Werner, J. [Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States); Adams, M.; Bard, R.; Burchesky, K.; Qian, W. [University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Adzic, P.; Djordjevic, M.; Maletic, D.; Milenovic, P. [Vinca Inst. of Nuclear Sciences, Belgrade (RS); Akchurin, N.; Berntzon, L.; Carrell, K.; Guemues, K.; Jeong, C.; Kim, H.; Lee, S.W.; Popescu, S.; Roh, Y.; Spezziga, M.; Thomas, R.; Volobouev, I.; Wigmans, R.; Yazgan, E. [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States); Akgun, U.; Albayrak, E.; Ayan, S.; Clarida, W.; Debbins, P.; Duru, F.; Ingram, D.; Merlo, J.P.; Mestvirishvili, A.; Miller, M.; Moeller, A.; Norbeck, E.; Olson, J.; Onel, Y.; Ozok, F.; Schmidt, I.; Yetkin, T. [Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States); Alemany-Fernandez, R.; Almeida, N.; David, A.; Husejko, M.; Musella, P.; Parracho, P.; Ribeiro, P.; Silva, J.; Silva, P. [Lab. de Instrumentacao e Fisica Experimental de Particulas, Lisboa (Portugal)] [and others

    2009-04-15

    The response of the CMS barrel calorimeter (electromagnetic plus hadronic) to hadrons, electrons and muons over a wide momentum range from 2 to 350 GeV/c has been measured. To our knowledge, this is the widest range of momenta in which any calorimeter system has been studied. These tests, carried out at the H2 beam-line at CERN, provide a wealth of information, especially at low energies. The analysis of the differences in calorimeter response to charged pions, kaons, protons and antiprotons and a detailed discussion of the underlying phenomena are presented. We also show techniques that apply corrections to the signals from the considerably different electromagnetic (EB) and hadronic (HB) barrel calorimeters in reconstructing the energies of hadrons. Above 5 GeV/c, these corrections improve the energy resolution of the combined system where the stochastic term equals 84.7{+-}1.6% and the constant term is 7.4{+-}0.8%. The corrected mean response remains constant within 1.3% rms. (orig.)

  16. A case of adenocarcinoma occurred at site of radiated double-barrel sigmoid colostomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Hideaki; Kondo, Yukifumi; Takahashi, Masatoshi [Sapporo-Kosei General Hospital (Japan)] [and others

    1996-10-01

    A 60-year-old female developed an adenocarcinoma at the site of double-barrel sigmoid colostomy. She underwent a total hysterectomy and the subsequent radiation therapy due to carcinoma uteri when she was 34 years old. She had rectal stenosis one year later and underwent sigmoid colostomy. She had been healthy thereafter, however, when she was 58 years old, she noticed an elevated lesion at the site of colostomy. Biopsy revealed well-differentiated adenocarcinoma, so surgery was recommended but she refused it. Two years later, the entire stoma became a carcinoma, which directly invaded the abdominal wall on MRI images. A bow-shaped skin incision was made and en bloc resection of the tumor, colostomy and the surrounding tissues was performed. Finally, descending colostomy in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen was reconstructed. Primary adenocarcinoma occurring at a double-barrel colostomy is very rare, and such a case may never have been reported, although there were some reports of carcinoma occurring at an end colostomy. Since the site of the present carcinoma was radiated, the radiation may contribute to this carcinogenesis, suspecting its late effect. Our surgical procedure enabled simultaneously operation of combined resection and intraabdominal manipulation, and the reconstruction site of the stoma was easily selected. (author)

  17. Upgrade of the ATLAS Muon Barrel Trigger for HL-LHC.

    CERN Document Server

    Biondi, Silvia; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The present ATLAS muon trigger in the barrel region (|η | < 1.05) is based on three layers of RPC chambers. It was designed to run for 10 years at the LHC luminosity of 1034cm−2s−1 and operated successfully and with high selectivity during the first run of the LHC. In order to ensure a stable performance of the RPCs until 2035 at the higher rates and at luminosities of 5−7x1034cm−2s−1 provided by HL-LHC, the chambers will have to be operated with reduced gas gain to respect the original design limits on currents and integrated charge. The ATLAS muon collaboration proposes an upgrade of the system by installing an inner layer of new generation RPCs during the LHC shutdown expected for the year 2023. This new layer will increase the system redundancy and therefore allow operation with high efficiency and high selectivity during the HL-LHC phase. The insertion of this new layer will also increase the geometrical acceptance in the barrel region from 75% to 95%. Moreover, the additional measurements ...

  18. Qualification of Barrel Pixel Detector Modules for the Phase 1 Upgrade of the CMS Vertex Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Kudella, Simon

    2016-01-01

    To withstand the higher particle rates of LHC Runs 2 and 3, with expected luminosities of up to $2\\times 10^{34}\\,\\mathrm{cm^{-2}s^{-1}}$, the current CMS pixel detector at the LHC will be replaced as part of the CMS Phase I Upgrade during the extended winter shutdown in 2016/17. The new pixel detector features a new geometry with one additional detector layer in the barrel region~(BPIX) and one pair of additional disks in the forward region~(FPIX), new digital readout chips as well as a new CO$_{2}$-based cooling system for both the barrel and forward region. The BPIX detector module production is summarized, with special focus on the different stages of quality assurance. The quality tests as well as the calibrations which all produced modules undergo in a temperature and humidity controlled environment are described. Exemplarily, the KIT/Aachen production line and its subprocesses are presented together with its quality and yields.

  19. Revisiting the oligomerization mechanism of Vibrio cholerae cytolysin, a beta-barrel pore-forming toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Anand Kumar; Chattopadhyay, Kausik

    2016-06-03

    Vibrio cholerae cytolysin (VCC) is a membrane-damaging beta-barrel pore-forming toxin (beta-PFT). VCC causes permeabilization of the target membranes by forming transmembrane oligomeric beta-barrel pores. Oligomerization is a key step in the mode of action of any beta-PFT, including that of VCC. Earlier studies have identified some of the key residues in VCC that are directly involved in the generation of the inter-protomer contacts, thus playing critical roles in the oligomerization of the membrane-bound toxin. Analysis of the VCC oligomeric pore structure reveals a potential hydrogen-bond network that appears to connect the sidechain of an asparagine residue (Asn582; located within an inter-domain linker sequence) from one protomer to the backbone CO- and NH-groups of the neighbouring protomer, indirectly through water molecules at most of the inter-protomer interfaces. In the present study, we show that the mutation of Asn582Ala affects the oligomerization and the pore-forming activity of VCC in the membrane lipid bilayer of the synthetic lipid vesicles, while the replacement of Asn582Gln results into the restoration of the oligomeric pore-forming ability of the toxin. Using a number of truncated variants of VCC, having deletion in the C-terminal region of the toxin starting from the Asn582 residue or beyond, we also show that the presence of Asn582 is critically required for the oligomerization of the truncated form of the protein.

  20. A New Four-Barrel Pellet Injection System for the TJ-II Stellarator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Combs, Stephen Kirk [ORNL; Foust, Charles R [ORNL; McGill, James M [ORNL; Baylor, Larry R [ORNL; Caughman, John B [ORNL; Fehling, Dan T [ORNL; Harris, Jeffrey H [ORNL; Meitner, Steven J [ORNL; Rasmussen, David A [ORNL; McCarthy, K. J. [EURATOM-CIEMAT, Madrid, Spain; Chamorro, M. [Laboratory Nacional de Fusion, Madrid, Spain; Garcia, R. [Laboratory Nacional de Fusion, Madrid, Spain; Hildago, C. [Laboratory Nacional de Fusion, Madrid, Spain; Medrano, M. [Laboratory Nacional de Fusion, Madrid, Spain; Unamuno, R. [Laboratory Nacional de Fusion, Madrid, Spain

    2011-01-01

    A new pellet injection system for the TJ-II stellarator has been developed/constructed as part of a collaboration between the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the Centro de Investigaciones Energ ticas, Medioambientales y Tecnol gicas (CIEMAT). ORNL is providing most of the injector hardware and instrumentation, the pellet diagnostics, and the pellet transport tubes; CIEMAT is responsible for the injector stand/interface to the stellarator, cryogenic refrigerator, vacuum pumps/ballast volumes, gas manifolds, remote operations, plasma diagnostics, and data acquisition. The pellet injector design is an upgraded version of that used for the ORNL injector installed on the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST). It is a four-barrel system equipped with a cryogenic refrigerator for in situ hydrogen pellet formation and a combined mechanical punch/propellant valve system for pellet acceleration (speeds ~100 to 1000 m/s). On TJ-II, it will be used as an active diagnostic and for fueling. To accommodate the plasma experiments planned for TJ-II, pellet sizes significantly smaller than those typically used for the MST application are required. The system will initially be equipped with four different pellet sizes, with the gun barrel bores ranging between ~0.5 to 1.0 mm. The new system is almost complete and is described briefly here, highlighting the new features added since the original MST injector was constructed. Also, the future installation on TJ-II is reviewed.

  1. Design of Variable Width Barrel Shifter for High Speed Processor Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev Kumar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Microprocessor is the brain of the computer. It works as the Central Processing Unit of the computer. It contains Arithmetic Logical Unit (ALU that performs the arithmetic operations such as Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication and Division. It also performs the Logical operations such as AND, NAND, OR, NOR, EXOR, EXNOR and NOT. It also contains register file to store the operand in load/store instructions in RISC Processor Architecture. Control Unit genetares the control signals that synchronize the operation of the processor which tells the microarchitecture which operation is done at which time. Now during the multiplication partial product is shifted and added. So shifter is an important part of the processor architecture. Barrel Shifter is an important combinational logic block. It was incorporated in 386 processor and is also used in microcontroller design. Intel has since moved to software implemented shifters in the Pentium 4 Processor Architecture but AMD still uses it. Here the design of the variable width barrel shifter is presented in which we can shift 4bit, 8bit, 16bit, and 32bit and maximum 64bit partial product during multiplication. Functionality is check using Modelsim 6.4a.Now to generate the gate level netlist Xilinx ISE 9.2i is used.

  2. Changes in the sotolon content of dry white wines during barrel and bottle aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavigne, Valérie; Pons, Alexandre; Darriet, Philippe; Dubourdieu, Denis

    2008-04-23

    GC-MS in electron ionization mode (EI) was used as a simple, sensitive method for assaying sotolon [4,5-dimethyl-3-hydroxy-2(5) H-furanone] in various dry white wines. The impact of barrel-aging conditions, that is, whether yeast lees were present or not, on the formation of sotolon in dry white wines was then studied. The sotolon content was highest in dry white wines aged in new barrels without lees, often exceeding the perception threshold (8 microg/L). These results demonstrated that yeast lees were capable of minimizing the formation of sotolon in dry white wines during aging. The sotolon and oxygen contents of several bottle of the same white wine were also compared 7 years after bottling. At the range of dissolved oxygen concentrations generally measured, between 5 and 100 microg/L, the sotolon content remained below its perception threshold in wine. The perception threshold was exceeded only in wines with oxygen concentrations above 500 microg/L. The presence of dissolved oxygen in the wine samples analyzed also resulted in a decrease in their free sulfur dioxide content.

  3. Evolution of outer membrane beta-barrels from an ancestral beta beta hairpin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remmert, M; Biegert, A; Linke, D; Lupas, A N; Söding, J

    2010-06-01

    Outer membrane beta-barrels (OMBBs) are the major class of outer membrane proteins from Gram-negative bacteria, mitochondria, and plastids. Their transmembrane domains consist of 8-24 beta-strands forming a closed, barrel-shaped beta-sheet around a central pore. Despite their obvious structural regularity, evidence for an origin by duplication or for a common ancestry has not been found. We use three complementary approaches to show that all OMBBs from Gram-negative bacteria evolved from a single, ancestral beta beta hairpin. First, we link almost all families of known single-chain bacterial OMBBs with each other through transitive profile searches. Second, we identify a clear repeat signature in the sequences of many OMBBs in which the repeating sequence unit coincides with the structural beta beta hairpin repeat. Third, we show that the observed sequence similarity between OMBB hairpins cannot be explained by structural or membrane constraints on their sequences. The third approach addresses a longstanding problem in protein evolution: how to distinguish between a very remotely homologous relationship and the opposing scenario of "sequence convergence." The origin of a diverse group of proteins from a single hairpin module supports the hypothesis that, around the time of transition from the RNA to the protein world, proteins arose by amplification and recombination of short peptide modules that had previously evolved as cofactors of RNAs.

  4. Design and Test of the Off-Detector Electronics for the CMS Barrel Muon Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Guiducci, Luigi; Montanari, A; Odorici, F; Pellegrini, G; Torromeo, G; Travaglini, R

    2007-01-01

    Drift Tubes chambers are used in the CMS barrel for tagging the passage of high Pt muons generated in a LHC event and for triggering the CMS data read out. The Sector Collector (SC) system synchronizes the track segments built by trigger modules on the chambers and deliver them to reconstruction processors (Track Finder, TF) that assemble full muon tracks. Then, the Muon Sorter (MS) has to select the best four candidates in the barrel and to filter fake muons generated by the TF system redundancy. The hardware implementations of the Sector Collector and Muon Sorter systems satisfy radiation, I/O and fast timing constraints using several FPGA technologies. The hardware was tested with custom facilities, integrated with other trigger subsystems, and operated in a beam test. A test beam on a 40 MHz bunched beam validated the local trigger electronics and off-detector prototype cards and the synchronization tools. The CMS Magnet Test and Cosmic challenge in 2006 proved stable and reliable operation of the Drift T...

  5. Structural (betaalpha)8 TIM barrel model of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A lyase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casals, Núria; Gómez-Puertas, Paulino; Pié, Juan; Mir, Cecilia; Roca, Ramón; Puisac, Beatriz; Aledo, Rosa; Clotet, Josep; Menao, Sebastián; Serra, Dolors; Asins, Guillermina; Till, Jacqueline; Elias-Jones, Alun C; Cresto, Juan C; Chamoles, Nestor A; Abdenur, Jose E; Mayatepek, Ertan; Besley, Guy; Valencia, Alfonso; Hegardt, Fausto G

    2003-08-01

    This study describes three novel homozygous missense mutations (S75R, S201Y, and D204N) in the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) lyase gene, which caused 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaric aciduria in patients from Germany, England, and Argentina. Expression studies in Escherichia coli show that S75R and S201Y substitutions completely abolished the HMG-CoA lyase activity, whereas D204N reduced catalytic efficiency to 6.6% of the wild type. We also propose a three-dimensional model for human HMG-CoA lyase containing a (betaalpha)8 (TIM) barrel structure. The model is supported by the similarity with analogous TIM barrel structures of functionally related proteins, by the localization of catalytic amino acids at the active site, and by the coincidence between the shape of the substrate (HMG-CoA) and the predicted inner cavity. The three novel mutations explain the lack of HMG-CoA lyase activity on the basis of the proposed structure: in S75R and S201Y because the new amino acid residues occlude the substrate cavity, and in D204N because the mutation alters the electrochemical environment of the active site. We also report the localization of all missense mutations reported to date and show that these mutations are located in the beta-sheets around the substrate cavity.

  6. Morphology and physiology of excitatory neurons in layer 6b of the somatosensory rat barrel cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Manuel; Feldmeyer, Dirk

    2013-12-01

    Neocortical lamina 6B (L6B) is a largely unexplored layer with a very heterogeneous cellular composition. To date, only little is known about L6B neurons on a systematic and quantitative basis. We investigated the morphological and electrophysiological properties of excitatory L6B neurons in the rat somatosensory barrel cortex using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings and simultaneous biocytin fillings. Subsequent histological processing and computer-assisted 3D reconstructions provided the basis for a classification of excitatory L6B neurons according to their structural and functional characteristics. Three distinct clusters of excitatory L6B neurons were identified: (C1) pyramidal neurons with an apical dendrite pointing towards the pial surface, (C2) neurons with a prominent, "apical"-like dendrite not oriented towards the pia, and (C3) multipolar spiny neurons without any preferential dendritic orientation. The second group could be further subdivided into three categories termed inverted, "tangentially" oriented and "horizontally" oriented neurons. Furthermore, based on the axonal domain two subcategories of L6B pyramidal cells were identified that had either a more barrel-column confined or an extended axonal field. The classification of excitatory L6B neurons provided here may serve as a basis for future studies on the structure, function, and synaptic connectivity of L6B neurons.

  7. Thalamic network oscillations synchronize ontogenetic columns in the newborn rat barrel cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jenq-Wei; An, Shuming; Sun, Jyh-Jang; Reyes-Puerta, Vicente; Kindler, Jennifer; Berger, Thomas; Kilb, Werner; Luhmann, Heiko J

    2013-06-01

    Neocortical areas are organized in columns, which form the basic structural and functional modules of intracortical information processing. Using voltage-sensitive dye imaging and simultaneous multi-channel extracellular recordings in the barrel cortex of newborn rats in vivo, we found that spontaneously occurring and whisker stimulation-induced gamma bursts followed by longer lasting spindle bursts were topographically organized in functional cortical columns already at the day of birth. Gamma bursts synchronized a cortical network of 300-400 µm in diameter and were coherent with gamma activity recorded simultaneously in the thalamic ventral posterior medial (VPM) nucleus. Cortical gamma bursts could be elicited by focal electrical stimulation of the VPM. Whisker stimulation-induced spindle and gamma bursts and the majority of spontaneously occurring events were profoundly reduced by the local inactivation of the VPM, indicating that the thalamus is important to generate these activity patterns. Furthermore, inactivation of the barrel cortex with lidocaine reduced the gamma activity in the thalamus, suggesting that a cortico-thalamic feedback loop modulates this early thalamic network activity.

  8. Bending and stretching of plates

    CERN Document Server

    Mansfield, E H; Hemp, W S

    1964-01-01

    The Bending and Stretching of Plates deals with elastic plate theory, particularly on small- and large-deflexion theory. Small-deflexion theory concerns derivation of basic equations, rectangular plates, plates of various shapes, plates whose boundaries are amenable to conformal transformation, plates with variable rigidity, and approximate methods. Large-deflexion theory includes general equations and some exact solutions, approximate methods in large-deflexion theory, asymptotic large-deflexion theories for very thin plates. Asymptotic theories covers membrane theory, tension field theory, a

  9. Gold nanowires fabricated by immersion plating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chih-Chieh; Shen, Fang-Yee; Huang, Fon-Shan

    2008-05-14

    The growth mechanism of oriented Au nanowires fabricated by immersion plating was investigated. Both n-type crystal Si (c-Si) and amorphous Si (a-Si) with an electron-beam (E-beam) patterned resist nanotrench were immersed into the plating bath HAuCl(4)/HF. For the Au nanowires fabricated on c-Si, voids, nanograins, and clusters were observed at various plating conditions, time and temperature. The voids were often found in the center of the Au nanowires due to there being fewer nucleation sites on the c-Si surface. However, Au can easily nucleate on the surface of a-Si and form continuous Au nanowires with grain sizes about 10-50 nm. The resistivities of Au nanowires with width 105 nm fabricated on a-Si are about 4.4-6.5 µΩ cm. After annealing at 200 °C for 30 min in N(2) ambient, the resistivities are lowered to about 3.0-3.9 µΩ cm, measured in an atomic force microscope (AFM) in contact mode. The grain size of Au is in the range of ∼50-100 nm. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) examination and grazing incident x-ray diffraction (GIXRD) analysis were also carried out to study the morphology and crystalline structure of the Au nanowires.

  10. Anterior cervical plating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonugunta V

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Although anterior cervical instrumentation was initially used in cervical trauma, because of obvious benefits, indications for its use have been expanded over time to degenerative cases as well as tumor and infection of the cervical spine. Along with a threefold increase in incidence of cervical fusion surgery, implant designs have evolved over the last three decades. Observation of graft subsidence and phenomenon of stress shielding led to the development of the new generation dynamic anterior cervical plating systems. Anterior cervical plating does not conclusively improve clinical outcome of the patients, but certainly enhances the efficacy of autograft and allograft fusion and lessens the rate of pseudoarthrosis and kyphosis after multilevel discectomy and fusions. A review of biomechanics, surgical technique, indications, complications and results of various anterior cervical plating systems is presented here to enable clinicians to select the appropriate construct design.

  11. Comparative observation of protective effects of earplug and barrel on auditory organs of guinea pigs exposed to experimental blast underpressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Chao-jun; ZHU Pei-fang; LIU Zhao-hua; WANG Zheng-guo; YANG Cheng; CHEN Hai-bin; NING Xin; ZHOU Ji-hong; Chen Jian

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To explore the protective effects of earplug and barrel on auditory organs of guinea pigs exposed to experimental blast underpressure (BUP).Methods: The hearing thresholds of the guinea pigs were assessed with auditory brainstem responses (ABR).The traumatic levels of tympanic membrane and ossicular chain were observed under stereo-microscope. The rate of outer hair cells (OHCs) loss was analyzed using a light microscope. The changes of guinea pigs protected with barrel and earplug were compared with those of the control group without any protection.Results: An important ABR threshold shift of the guinea pigs without any protection was detected from 8h to 14d after being exposed to BUP with a peak ranging from -64.5kPa to -69.3kPa (P<0.01). The rate of perforation of tympanic membrane reached 87.5 % and that of total OHCs loss was 19.46% + 5.38% at 14d after exposure. The guinea pigs protected with barrel and earplug had lower ABR threshold and total OHCs loss rate compared with the animals without any protection (P < 0.01 ). All of the tympanic membrane and ossicular chain of the protected animals maintained their integrities.Meanwhile, the guinea pigs protected with the barrel had lower ABR threshold and total OHCs loss rate than those with earplug (P<0.01).Conclusions: The earplug and barrel have protective effects against BUP-induced trauma on auditory organs of the guinea pigs and the protective effects of barrel are better than those of earplug.

  12. Highly adhesive metal plating on Zylon fiber via iodine pretreatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fatema, Ummul Khair [Faculty of Textile Science and Technology, Shinshu University, 3-15-1 Tokida, Ueda, Nagano 386-8567 (Japan); Gotoh, Yasuo, E-mail: ygotohy@shinshu-u.ac.jp [Faculty of Textile Science and Technology, Shinshu University, 3-15-1 Tokida, Ueda, Nagano 386-8567 (Japan)

    2011-11-01

    Highly adhesive metal plating was performed on poly(p-phenylene-2,6-benzobisoxazole) fiber named Zylon via iodine pretreatment followed by electroless plating. First, iodine components were selectively doped into the inner part of the fiber near the surface through iodine vapor exposure. The doped iodine was converted to palladium iodide particles by treating with palladium chloride solution. After the reduction of the iodide to metal palladium particles, electroless copper plating was conducted on the fiber. A uniform copper layer was deposited on the fiber surface and exhibited high durability in durability tests such as ultrasonic exposure, tape peeling-off, and corrosion in NaCl solution. This durability was attributed to the palladium particles formed at the fiber surface that served as an anchor for the plated layer as well as an electroless plating catalyst. The plated fibers also possessed electrical conductivity. Although the tensile strength of the Zylon fiber decreased from 5.8 to 4.9 GPa after undergoing the pretreatment and plating processes, the light shielding effect improved the light resistance of the plated fibers in terms of tensile properties. After 18 days of xenon lamp exposure, the plated fibers retained 74% of its initial strength, whereas that of untreated fibers decreased to 43%.

  13. Corrosion-resistant uranium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovis, V.M. Jr.; Pullen, W.C.; Kollie, T.G.; Bell, R.T.

    1981-10-21

    The present invention is directed to the protecting of uranium and uranium alloy articles from corrosion by providing the surfaces of the articles with a layer of an ion-plated metal selected from aluminum and zinc to a thickness of at least 60 microinches and then converting at least the outer surface of the ion-plated layer of aluminum or zinc to aluminum chromate or zinc chromate. This conversion of the aluminum or zinc to the chromate form considerably enhances the corrosion resistance of the ion plating so as to effectively protect the coated article from corrosion.

  14. License plate detection algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broitman, Michael; Klopovsky, Yuri; Silinskis, Normunds

    2013-12-01

    A novel algorithm for vehicle license plates localization is proposed. The algorithm is based on pixel intensity transition gradient analysis. Near to 2500 natural-scene gray-level vehicle images of different backgrounds and ambient illumination was tested. The best set of algorithm's parameters produces detection rate up to 0.94. Taking into account abnormal camera location during our tests and therefore geometrical distortion and troubles from trees this result could be considered as passable. Correlation between source data, such as license Plate dimensions and texture, cameras location and others, and parameters of algorithm were also defined.

  15. Performance and Mechanical Tolerances Achieved with a Full Size Prototype of a CMS Barrel Muon Drift Tubes Chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Bethke, Siegfried; Benettoni, Massimo; Benvenuti, Alberto; Berdugo, Javier; Cerrada, Marcos; Colino, Nicanor; Conti, Enrico; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Daniel, Manuel; De Giorgi, Marco; De Min, Alberto; Dosselli, Umberto; Fanin, Claudio; Fouz-Iglesias, M C; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gasparini, Ugo; Giantin, R; Grandi, Claudio; Guaita, Paola; Guerzoni, Marco; Ladrón de Guevara, Pedro; Lippi, Ivano; Marcellini, Stefano; Martinelli, Roberto; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Mocholí-Mocholí, J; Montanari, Alessandro; Montanari, Christian; Navarria, Francesco; Odorici, Fabrizio; Reithler, Hans; Romero, Luciano; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Schwarthoff, Hubert; Sondermann, Volker; Tano, Valeria; Teykal, Helmut; Tutas, Joerg; Van den Hirtz, J; Wagner, H; Wegner, Martin; Willmott, Carlos

    1998-01-01

    The barrel muon chambers of the CMS experiment are made assembling 3 independent modules ( SuperLayers) which together measure the impact point and the angles theta and phi. Each SuperLayer consists of four layers of rectangular Drift Tubes. MB96 is a full size prototype of the smallest CMS Barrel Muon Chamber ( MB1) built in early 1997 at the Legnaro INFN laboratory and tested in summer 1997 at the CERN CMS test beam facility. The performance of the prototype and the mechanical tolerances achieved in the construction are presented.

  16. Casimir force between metal plate and dielectric plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘中柱; 邵成刚; 罗俊

    1999-01-01

    The Casimir effect between metal plate and dielectric plate is discussed with 1+1-dimensional potential model without using cut-off method. Calculation shows that the Casimir force between metal plate and dielectric plate is determined not only by the potential V0, the dielectric thickness and the distance α between the metal plate and dielectric plate, but also by the dimension of the vessel. When α is far less than the dimension of the vessel, the Casimir force Fc∝α(-1); conversely Fc∝α-2. This result is significant for Casimir force experiment.

  17. A Hidden Markov Model method, capable of predicting and discriminating β-barrel outer membrane proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamodrakas Stavros J

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Integral membrane proteins constitute about 20–30% of all proteins in the fully sequenced genomes. They come in two structural classes, the α-helical and the β-barrel membrane proteins, demonstrating different physicochemical characteristics, structure and localization. While transmembrane segment prediction for the α-helical integral membrane proteins appears to be an easy task nowadays, the same is much more difficult for the β-barrel membrane proteins. We developed a method, based on a Hidden Markov Model, capable of predicting the transmembrane β-strands of the outer membrane proteins of gram-negative bacteria, and discriminating those from water-soluble proteins in large datasets. The model is trained in a discriminative manner, aiming at maximizing the probability of correct predictions rather than the likelihood of the sequences. Results The training has been performed on a non-redundant database of 14 outer membrane proteins with structures known at atomic resolution; it has been tested with a jacknife procedure, yielding a per residue accuracy of 84.2% and a correlation coefficient of 0.72, whereas for the self-consistency test the per residue accuracy was 88.1% and the correlation coefficient 0.824. The total number of correctly predicted topologies is 10 out of 14 in the self-consistency test, and 9 out of 14 in the jacknife. Furthermore, the model is capable of discriminating outer membrane from water-soluble proteins in large-scale applications, with a success rate of 88.8% and 89.2% for the correct classification of outer membrane and water-soluble proteins respectively, the highest rates obtained in the literature. That test has been performed independently on a set of known outer membrane proteins with low sequence identity with each other and also with the proteins of the training set. Conclusion Based on the above, we developed a strategy, that enabled us to screen the entire proteome of E. coli for

  18. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community Meal Planning Sign In Search: Search More Sites Search ≡ Are ... Fitness Home Food MyFoodAdvisor Recipes Association Cookbook Recipes Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten ...

  19. The Plate Tectonics Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Annamae J.

    2011-01-01

    The Plate Tectonics Project is a multiday, inquiry-based unit that facilitates students as self-motivated learners. Reliable Web sites are offered to assist with lessons, and a summative rubric is used to facilitate the holistic nature of the project. After each topic (parts of the Earth, continental drift, etc.) is covered, the students will…

  20. INL HIP Plate Fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. H. Park; C. R. Clark; J. F. Jue

    2010-02-01

    This document outlines the process used to bond monolithic fuel plates by Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP). This method was developed at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) for the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) program. These foils have been used in a number of irradiation experiments in support of the United States Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) program.

  1. Thickness Evaluation of Aluminium Plate Using Pulsed Eddy Current Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gurpartap; Bapat, Harsh Madhukar; Singh, Bhanu Pratap; Bandyopadhyay, Manojit; Puri, Rakesh Kumar; Badodkar, Deepak Narayanrao

    2013-10-01

    This paper describes a pulsed eddy current (PEC) based non-destructive testing system used for detection of thickness variation in aluminium plate. A giant magneto-resistive sensor has been used instead of pick up coil for detecting resultant magnetic field. The PEC response signals obtained from 1 to 5 mm thickness change in aluminium plate were investigated. Two time domain features, namely peak value and time to peak, of PEC response were used for extracting information about thickness variation in aluminium plate. The variation of peak value and time to peak with thickness was compared. A program was developed to display the thickness variation of the tested sample.

  2. Design, Performance, and Calibration of CMS Hadron-Barrel Calorimeter Wedges

    CERN Document Server

    Baiatian, G; Emeliantchik, Igor; Massolov, V; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Stefanovich, R; Damgov, Jordan; Dimitrov, Lubomir; Genchev, Vladimir; Piperov, Stefan; Vankov, Ivan; Litov, Leander; Bencze, Gyorgy; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Zálán, Peter; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Kaur, Manjit; Kohli, Jatinder Mohan; Kumar, Arun; Singh, Jas Bir; Acharya, Bannaje Sripathi; Banerjee, Sunanda; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Chendvankar, Sanjay; Dugad, Shashikant; Kalmani, Suresh Devendrappa; Katta, S; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mondal, Naba Kumar; Nagaraj, P; Patil, Mandakini Ravindra; Reddy, L; Satyanarayana, B; Sudhakar, Katta; Verma, Piyush; Paktinat, S; Golutvin, Igor; Kalagin, Vladimir; Kosarev, Ivan; Mescheryakov, G; Sergeyev, S; Smirnov, Vitaly; Volodko, Anton; Zarubin, Anatoli; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Gershtein, Yuri; Kaftanov, Vitali; Kisselevich, I; Kolossov, V; Krokhotin, Andrey; Kuleshov, Sergey; Litvintsev, Dmitri; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Ulyanov, A; Demianov, A; Gribushin, Andrey; Kodolova, Olga; Petrushanko, Sergey; Sarycheva, Ludmila; Vardanyan, Irina; Yershov, A; Abramov, Victor; Goncharov, Petr; Khmelnikov, Alexander; Korablev, Andrey; Korneev, Yury; Krinitsyn, Alexander; Kryshkin, V; Lukanin, Vladimir; Pikalov, Vladimir; Ryazanov, Anton; Talov, Vladimir; Turchanovich, L; Volkov, Alexey; Camporesi, Tiziano; De Visser, Theo; Vlassov, E; Aydin, Sezgin; Dumanoglu, Isa; Eskut, Eda; Kayis-Topaksu, A; Kuzucu-Polatoz, A; Onengüt, G; Ozdes-Koca, N; Cankocak, Kerem; Ozok, Ferhat; Serin-Zeyrek, M; Sever, Ramazan; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Gülmez, Erhan; Isiksal, Engin; Kaya, Mithat; Ozkorucuklu, Suat; Levchuk, Leonid; Sorokin, Pavel; Grinev, B; Lubinsky, V; Senchishin, V; Anderson, E Walter; Hauptman, John M; Elias, John E; Elvira, D; Freeman, Jim; Green, Dan; Lazic, Dragoslav; Los, Serguei; O'Dell, Vivian; Ronzhin, Anatoly; Suzuki, Ichiro; Vidal, Richard; Whitmore, Juliana; Antchev, Georgy; Hazen, Eric; Lawlor, C; Machado, Emanuel; Posch, C; Rohlf, James; Wu, Shouxiang; Adams, Mark Raymond; Burchesky, Kyle; Qiang, W; Abdullin, Salavat; Baden, Drew; Bard, Robert; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Grassi, Tullio; Jarvis, Chad; Kellogg, Richard G; Kunori, Shuichi; Skuja, Andris; Podrasky, V; Sanzeni, Christopher; Winn, Dave; Akgun, Ugur; Ayan, S; Duru, Firdevs; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Miller, Michael; Norbeck, Edwin; Olson, Jonathan; Onel, Yasar; Schmidt, Ianos; Akchurin, Nural; Carrell, Kenneth Wayne; Gumu, K; Thomas, Ray; Baarmand, Marc M; Ralich, Robert; Vodopiyanov, Igor; Cushman, Priscilla; Heering, Arjan Hendrix; Sherwood, Brian; Cremaldi, Lucien Marcus; Reidy, Jim; Sanders, David A; Karmgard, Daniel John; Ruchti, Randy; Fisher, Wade Cameron; Mans, Jeremy; Tully, Christopher; De Barbaro, Pawel; Bodek, Arie; Budd, Howard; Chung, Yeon Sei; Haelen, T; Imboden, Matthias; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Johnson, Kurtis F; Barnes, Virgil E; Laasanen, Alvin T; Pompos, Arnold

    2007-01-01

    Extensive measurements have been made with pions, electrons and muons on four production wedges of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) hadron barrel (HB) calorimeter in the H2 beam line at CERN with particle momenta varying from 20 to 300 GeV/c. Data were taken both with and without a prototype electromagnetic lead tungstate crystal calorimeter (EB) in front of the hadron calorimeter. The time structure of the events was measured with the full chain of preproduction front-end electronics running at 34 MHz. Moving-wire radioactive source data were also collected for all scintillator layers in the HB. These measurements set the absolute calibration of the HB prior to first pp collisions to approximately 4%.

  3. Edge-mounting locking mechanics for barrel strip staves for the ATLAS phase II upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    This report describes the development of an edge-mounting mechanism for the interface between a stave and its support cylinder for the barrel strip staves of the phase II ATLAS upgrade. As a direct product of the prototyping programme undertaken, we have also developed the tooling required to precisely mount the components of the mechanism to their respective structures. The design has been conceived to be compatible with tilt angles as low as 10° for the nominal module envelope, and meet the positioning and stability requirements whilst having an acceptably small contribution to the total material in the tracker volume. In order to reach these goals, the tooling for stave insertion was designed to be completely removable and respects the clearances of pre-installed staves.

  4. Detailed Surface Analysis Of Incremental Centrifugal Barrel Polishing (CBP) Of Single-Crystal Niobium Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palczewski, Ari D.; Tian, Hui; Trofimova, Olga; Reece, Charles E.

    2011-07-01

    We performed Centrifugal Barrel Polishing (CBP) on single crystal niobium samples/coupons housed in a stainless steel sample holder following the polishing recipe developed at Fermi Lab (FNAL) in 2011 \\cite{C. A. Cooper 2011}. Post CBP, the sample coupons were analyzed for surface roughness, crystal composition and structure, and particle contamination. Following the initial analysis each coupon was high pressure rinsed (HRP) and analyzed for the effectiveness of contamination removal. We were able to obtain the mirror like surface finish after the final stage of tumbling, although some defects and embedded particles remained. In addition, standard HPR appears to have little effect on removing embedded particles which remain after each tumbling step, although final polishing media removal was partially affected by standard/extended HPR.

  5. Experimental investigation of a cook-off temperature in a hot barrel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amer HAMEED a; Mathew AZAVEDO b; Philip PITCHER b

    2014-01-01

    The experimental investigations of the effect of contact time/temperature on initiating the cook-off using 7.62 mm calibre cartridge cases (CC) were conducted previously. These cartridges were filled with commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) double based (DB) propellant (Bulls Eye) and were loaded in a hot chamber. The thermal explosion temperature is of great significance to both weapon designers and safety inspectors as it provides the operational limit and safe operating temperature. For CC under test, it was found that the cook-off temperatures of this propellant were encountered with the heat transfer profile of the simulated gun barrel between 151.4 ?C and 153.4 ?C, with a reaction occurring in less than 300 s after the round was chambered. Usefully, each experiment was found to be consistent and repeatable.

  6. 时尚怪人Iris Barrel Apfel登上着装名人榜

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Holly(编译)

    2008-01-01

    近日,《名利场》杂志评出了2008国际最佳着装名人榜,这个榜单里有我们耳熟能详的名流,却也隐藏着极品“异类”。位列第七的Iris Barrel Apfel就是最典型的一位,这位86岁的著名室内设计师用“超级圆形大眼镜+超级大项链+无数手镯+古董衣”的标志性形象,让时尚界牢牢铭记住她的形象,并佩服得五体投地。

  7. Repair of Erosion Defects in Gun Barrels by Direct Laser Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowotny, Steffen; Spatzier, Joerg; Kubisch, Frank; Scharek, Siegfried; Ortner, Jens; Beyer, Eckhard

    2012-12-01

    In recent years the development of functional carbide coatings follows the trend to use composite powders with fine grained hard particles. In addition to thermal spraying, laser cladding is a suitable surface technology in particular for dynamically loaded components, and it is widely used for the manufacturing of coatings as well as complex 3D structures. The paper presents an application addressing the repair of erosion defects in large gun barrels using a novel internal diameter laser cladding head. The most promising material systems are TiC- and VC-based metal-matrix composites. Samples were evaluated in a special erosion test that emulates realistic load conditions. In this test, the materials are exposed to extreme stresses by temperature and pressure shocks, a very reactive atmosphere and erosive particles. As result, TiC-based coatings showed the best performance, and they are applicable for both repair and surface protection of inner surfaces of components and tools.

  8. Applications of the double-barreled data in whole-genome shotgun sequence assembly and analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Yujun; WANG Jing; GU Xiaocheng; YU Jun; LI Songgang; NI Peixiang; L(U) Hong; YE Jia; HU Jianfei; CHEN Chen; HUANG Xiangang; CONG Lijuan; LI Guangyuan

    2005-01-01

    Double-barreled (DB) data have been widely used for the assembly of large genomes. Based on the experience of building the whole-genome working draft of Oryza sativa L.ssp. Indica, we present here the prevailing and improved uses of DB data in the assembly procedure and report on novel applications during the following data-mining processes such as acquiring precise insert fragment information of each clone across the genome, and a new kind of Iow-cost whole-genome microarray. With the increasing number of organisms being sequenced,we believe that DB data will play an important role both in other assembly procedures and infuture genomic studies.

  9. Understanding the ATLAS electromagnetic barrel pulse shapes and the absolute electronic calibration

    CERN Document Server

    Neukermans, L; Zitoun, R

    2001-01-01

    We present an original method to undestand the calibration and physics pulse shapes collected in the 2000 barrel test beam runs with the prototype module. It is based on an electrical description of the calorimeter and its electronics. It allows an understanding of the physics pulse shapes and its absolute calibration (in microA/ADC) to a very good level of accuracy with a small number of parameters (capacitances and inductances). The electrical parameters found by this method agree with the direct measurements independantly performed on the prototype module. Optimal filtering coefficients can then be derived from these physics pulse shape predictions, and more crucial, an absolute electronic calibration. These coefficients are released in the official test beam software EMTB.

  10. Experimental investigation of a cook-off temperature in a hot barrel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amer Hameed

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The experimental investigations of the effect of contact time/temperature on initiating the cook-off using 7.62 mm calibre cartridge cases (CC were conducted previously. These cartridges were filled with commercial off-the-shelf (COTS double based (DB propellant (Bulls Eye and were loaded in a hot chamber. The thermal explosion temperature is of great significance to both weapon designers and safety inspectors as it provides the operational limit and safe operating temperature. For CC under test, it was found that the cook-off temperatures of this propellant were encountered with the heat transfer profile of the simulated gun barrel between 151.4 °C and 153.4 °C, with a reaction occurring in less than 300 s after the round was chambered. Usefully, each experiment was found to be consistent and repeatable.

  11. Dosimetry assessments for the reactor pressure vessel and core barrel in UK PWR plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornton, D.A.; Allen, D.A.; Huggon, A.P.; Picton, D.J.; Robinson, A.T.; Steadman, R.J. [Serco, Rutherford House, Quedgeley, Gloucester, Gl2 4NF (United Kingdom); Seren, T.; Lipponen, M.; Kekki, T. [VTT, Technical Research Centre of Finland, Otakaari 3 K, P.O. BOX 1000, Espoo, FI-02044 (Finland)

    2011-07-01

    Specimens for the Sizewell B reactor pressure vessel (RPV) inservice steels surveillance program are irradiated inside eight capsules located within the reactor pressure vessel and loaded prior to commissioning. The periodic removal of these capsules and testing of their contents provides material properties data at intervals during the lifetime of the plant. Neutron activation measurements and radiation transport calculations play an essential role in assessing the neutron exposure of the specimens and RPV. Following the most recent withdrawal, seven capsules have now been removed covering nine cycles of reactor operation. This paper summarizes the dosimetry results of the Sizewell B surveillance program obtained to date. In addition to an overview of the calculational methodology it includes a review of the measurements. Finally, it describes an extension of the methodology to provide dosimetry recommendations for the core barrel and briefly discusses the results that were obtained. (authors)

  12. Comparison of data with Monte Carlo simulations at the ATLAS barrel combined testbeam 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speckmayer, P.

    2009-04-01

    The scheme adopted as baseline by ATLAS for the calibration of hadrons depends strongly on the quality of the description of the data by simulations. In 2004, the calorimeters of the ATLAS barrel region have been exposed to a testbeam in order to evaluate the energy response of pions for the energies ranging from 1 to 350 GeV. For the energy region from 3 to 9 GeV a data analysis with the full systematic uncertainty is available. The data has been compared extensively to GEANT4 simulations. Several combinations of physical models—the so called "physics lists"—are provided by the GEANT4 collaboration and have been evaluated. The best overall description of data is achieved with the physics list QGSP_BERT which describes the energy response of pions within a few percent. QGSP_BERT has been adopted by ATLAS for the simulation of the first data.

  13. Comparison of data with Monte Carlo simulations at the ATLAS barrel combined testbeam 2004

    CERN Document Server

    Speckmayer, P

    2009-01-01

    The scheme adopted as baseline by ATLAS for the calibration of hadrons depends strongly on the quality of the description of the data by simulations. In 2004, the calorimeters of the ATLAS barrel region have been exposed to a testbeam in order to evaluate the energy response of pions for the energies ranging from 1 to 350 GeV. For the energy region from 3 to 9 GeV a data analysis with the full systematic uncertainty is available. The data has been compared extensively to GEANT4 simulations. Several combinations of physical models—the so called "physics lists"—are provided by the GEANT4 collaboration and have been evaluated. The best overall description of data is achieved with the physics list QGSP_BERT which describes the energy response of pions within a few percent. QGSP_BERT has been adopted by ATLAS for the simulation of the first data.

  14. Effect of High Velocity Ballistic Impact on Pretensioned Carbon Fibre Reinforced Plastic (CFRP) Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhar KAMARUDIN, Kamarul; HAMID, Iskandar ABDUL

    2017-01-01

    This work describes an experimental investigation of the pretensioned thin plates made of Carbon Fibre Reinforced Plastic (CFRP) struck by hemispherical and blunt projectiles at various impact velocities. The experiments were done using a gas gun with combination of pretension equipment positioned at the end of gun barrel near the nozzle. Measurements of the initial and residual velocities were taken, and the ballistic limit velocity were calculated for each procedures. The pretension target results in reduction of ballistic limit compared to non-pretension target for both flat and hemispherical projectiles. Target impacted by hemispherical projectile experience split at earlier impact velocity compared to target by flat projectile. C-Scan images analysis technique was used to show target impact damaged by hemispherical and flat projectiles. The damage area was shown biggest at ballistic limit velocity and target splitting occurred most for pretention plate.

  15. Research status of electromagnetic rail gun barrel structure%电磁轨道炮身管结构的研究概况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕彦; 任泽宁; 钱学梅; 胡俊; 黄建文; 杨忠贤; 赵鸿雁

    2012-01-01

    电磁轨道炮身管工况特殊、结构复杂,开发轻质、高效的身管是电磁轨道炮走向实战应用的关键.从结构力学方面介绍电磁轨道炮管对材料和结构的要求,综述典型的轨道炮身管结构设计概况.归纳实战型轨道炮管结构设计的关键点.%Due to special working conditions and complex structure of electromagnetic rail gun barrel, the exploration of lightweight, efficient barrel becomes the key for actual cnmbal application of electromagnetic rail gun. Material and structural requirements of gun barrel are illustrated from the viewpoints of structural mechanics, typical barrel designs are reviewed, and the key points of actual combat barrel design are summarized.

  16. Material wear and failure mode analysis of breakfast cereal extruder barrels and screw elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastio, Michael Joseph, Jr.

    2005-11-01

    Nearly seventy-five years ago, the single screw extruder was introduced as a means to produce metal products. Shortly after that, the extruder found its way into the plastics industry. Today much of the world's polymer industry utilizes extruders to produce items such as soda bottles, PVC piping, and toy figurines. Given the significant economical advantages of extruders over conventional batch flow systems, extruders have also migrated into the food industry. Food applications include the meat, pet food, and cereal industries to name just a few. Cereal manufacturers utilize extruders to produce various forms of Ready-to-Eat (RTE) cereals. These cereals are made from grains such as rice, oats, wheat, and corn. The food industry has been incorrectly viewed as an extruder application requiring only minimal energy control and performance capability. This misconception has resulted in very little research in the area of material wear and failure mode analysis of breakfast cereal extruders. Breakfast cereal extruder barrels and individual screw elements are subjected to the extreme pressures and temperatures required to shear and cook the cereal ingredients, resulting in excessive material wear and catastrophic failure of these components. Therefore, this project focuses on the material wear and failure mode analysis of breakfast cereal extruder barrels and screw elements, modeled as a Discrete Time Markov Chain (DTMC) process in which historical data is used to predict future failures. Such predictive analysis will yield cost savings opportunities by providing insight into extruder maintenance scheduling and interchangeability of screw elements. In this DTMC wear analysis, four states of wear are defined and a probability transition matrix is determined based upon 24,041 hours of operational data. This probability transition matrix is used to predict when an extruder component will move to the next state of wear and/or failure. This information can be used to determine

  17. Developmental switch in neurovascular coupling in the immature rodent barrel cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph M Zehendner

    Full Text Available Neurovascular coupling (NVC in the adult central nervous system (CNS is a mechanism that provides regions of the brain with more oxygen and glucose upon increased levels of neural activation. Hemodynamic changes that go along with neural activation evoke a blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD signal in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI that can be used to study brain activity non-invasively. A correct correlation of the BOLD signal to neural activity is pivotal to understand this signal in neuronal development, health and disease. However, the function of NVC during development is largely unknown. The rodent whisker-to-barrel cortex is an experimentally well established model to study neurovascular interdependences. Using extracellular multi-electrode recordings and laser-Doppler-flowmetry (LDF we show in the murine barrel cortex of postnatal day 7 (P7 and P30 mice in vivo that NVC undergoes a physiological shift during the first month of life. In the mature CNS it is well accepted that cortical sensory processing results in a rise in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF. We show in P7 animals that rCBF decreases during prolonged multi-whisker stimulation and goes along with multi unit activity (MUA fatigue. In contrast at P30, MUA remains stable during repetitive stimulation and is associated with an increase in rCBF. Further we characterize in both age groups the responses in NVC to single sensory stimuli. We suggest that the observed shift in NVC is an important process in cortical development that may be of high relevance for the correct interpretation of brain activity e.g. in fMRI studies of the immature central nervous system (CNS.

  18. Photosensitive gas detectors for the ring-imaging Cherenkov (RICH) technique and the DELPHI barrel RICH prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, R.; Berst, J.D.; Christophel, E.; Guyonnet, J.L.; Baillon, P.; Bosteels, M.; Passardi, G.; Besch, H.J.; Seguinot, J.; Tocqueville, J.

    1986-12-01

    After a short introduction to the ring-imaging technique, the principal types of photosensitive gas detectors are discussed. In the second part, status and results of the DELPHI barrel RICH prototype are presented. A short description of a possible very fast RICH for future hadron colliders is given.

  19. TP0326, a Treponema pallidum β-barrel assembly machinery A (BamA) orthologue and rare outer membrane protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desrosiers, Daniel C; Anand, Arvind; Luthra, Amit; Dunham-Ems, Star M; LeDoyt, Morgan; Cummings, Michael A D; Eshghi, Azad; Cameron, Caroline E; Cruz, Adriana R; Salazar, Juan C; Caimano, Melissa J; Radolf, Justin D

    2011-06-01

    Definitive identification of Treponema pallidum rare outer membrane proteins (OMPs) has long eluded researchers. TP0326, the sole protein in T. pallidum with sequence homology to a Gram-negative OMP, belongs to the BamA family of proteins essential for OM biogenesis. Structural modelling predicted that five polypeptide transport-associated (POTRA) domains comprise the N-terminus of TP0326, while the C-terminus forms an 18-stranded amphipathic β-barrel. Circular dichroism, heat modifiability by SDS-PAGE, Triton X-114 phase partitioning and liposome incorporation supported these topological predictions and confirmed that the β-barrel is responsible for the native protein's amphiphilicity. Expression analyses revealed that native TP0326 is expressed at low abundance, while a protease-surface accessibility assay confirmed surface exposure. Size-exclusion chromatography and blue native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed a modular Bam complex in T. pallidum larger than that of Escherichia coli. Non-orthologous ancillary factors and self-association of TP0326 via its β-barrel may both contribute to the Bam complex. T. pallidum-infected rabbits mount a vigorous antibody response to both POTRA and β-barrel portions of TP0326, whereas humans with secondary syphilis respond predominantly to POTRA. The syphilis spirochaete appears to have devised a stratagem for harnessing the Bam pathway while satisfying its need to limit surface antigenicity.

  20. Performance Test of the First Prototype of 2 Ways Video Camera for the Muon Barrel Position Monitor

    CERN Document Server

    Brunel, Laurent; Bondar, Tamas; Bencze, Gyorgy; Raics, Peter; Szabó, Jozsef

    1998-01-01

    The CMS Barrel Position Monitor is based on 360 video cameras mounted on 36 very stable mechanical structures. One type of camera is used to observe optical sources mounted on the muon chambers. A first prototype was produced to test the main performances. This report gives the experimental results about stability, linearity and temperature effects.