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Sample records for barrel resistive plate

  1. Performance Study of the CMS Barrel Resistive Plate Chambers with Cosmic Rays

    CERN Document Server

    Chatrchyan, S; Sirunyan, A M; Adam, W; Arnold, B; Bergauer, H; Bergauer, T; Dragicevic, M; Eichberger, M; Erö, J; Friedl, M; Frühwirth, R; Ghete, V M; Hammer, J; Hänsel, S; Hoch, M; Hörmann, N; Hrubec, J; Jeitler, M; Kasieczka, G; Kastner, K; Krammer, M; Liko, D; Magrans de Abril, I; Mikulec, I; Mittermayr, F; Neuherz, B; Oberegger, M; Padrta, M; Pernicka, M; Rohringer, H; Schmid, S; Schöfbeck, R; Schreiner, T; Stark, R; Steininger, H; Strauss, J; Taurok, A; Teischinger, F; Themel, T; Uhl, D; Wagner, P; Waltenberger, W; Walzel, G; Widl, E; Wulz, C E; Chekhovsky, V; Dvornikov, O; Emeliantchik, I; Litomin, A; Makarenko, V; Marfin, I; Mossolov, V; Shumeiko, N; Solin, A; Stefanovitch, R; Suarez Gonzalez, J; Tikhonov, A; Fedorov, A; Karneyeu, A; Korzhik, M; Panov, V; Zuyeuski, R; Kuchinsky, P; Beaumont, W; Benucci, L; Cardaci, M; De Wolf, E A; Delmeire, E; Druzhkin, D; Hashemi, M; Janssen, X; Maes, T; Mucibello, L; Ochesanu, S; Rougny, R; Selvaggi, M; Van Haevermaet, H; Van Mechelen, P; Van Remortel, N; Adler, V; Beauceron, S; Blyweert, S; D'Hondt, J; De Weirdt, S; Devroede, O; Heyninck, J; Kalogeropoulos, A; Maes, J; Maes, M; Mozer, M U; Tavernier, S; Van Doninck, W; Van Mulders, P; Villella, I; Bouhali, O; Chabert, E C; Charaf, O; Clerbaux, B; De Lentdecker, G; Dero, V; Elgammal, S; Gay, A P R; Hammad, G H; Marage, P E; Rugovac, S; Vander Velde, C; Vanlaer, P; Wickens, J; Grunewald, M; Klein, B; Marinov, A; Ryckbosch, D; Thyssen, F; Tytgat, M; Vanelderen, L; Verwilligen, P; Basegmez, S; Bruno, G; Caudron, J; Delaere, C; Demin, P; Favart, D; Giammanco, A; Grégoire, G; Lemaitre, V; Militaru, O; Ovyn, S; Piotrzkowski, K; Quertenmont, L; Schul, N; Beliy, N; Daubie, E; Alves, G A; Pol, M E; Souza, M H G; Carvalho, W; De Jesus Damiao, D; De Oliveira Martins, C; Fonseca De Souza, S; Mundim, L; Oguri, V; Santoro, A; Silva Do Amaral, S M; Sznajder, A; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T R; Ferreira Dias, M A; Gregores, E M; Novaes, S F; Abadjiev, K; Anguelov, T; Damgov, J; Darmenov, N; Dimitrov, L; Genchev, V; Iaydjiev, P; Piperov, S; Stoykova, S; Sultanov, G; Trayanov, R; Vankov, I; Dimitrov, A; Dyulendarova, M; Kozhuharov, V; Litov, L; Marinova, E; Mateev, M; Pavlov, B; Petkov, P; Toteva, Z; Chen, G M; Chen, H S; Guan, W; Jiang, C H; Liang, D; Liu, B; Meng, X; Tao, J; Wang, J; Wang, Z; Xue, Z; Zhang, Z; Ban, Y; Cai, J; Ge, Y; Guo, S; Hu, Z; Mao, Y; Qian, S J; Teng, H; Zhu, B; Avila, C; Baquero Ruiz, M; Carrillo Montoya, C A; Gomez, A; Gomez Moreno, B; Ocampo Rios, A A; Osorio Oliveros, A F; Reyes Romero, D; Sanabria, J C; Godinovic, N; Lelas, K; Plestina, R; Polic, D; Puljak, I; Antunovic, Z; Dzelalija, M; Brigljevic, V; Duric, S; Kadija, K; Morovic, S; Fereos, R; Galanti, M; Mousa, J; Papadakis, A; Ptochos, F; Razis, P A; Tsiakkouri, D; Zinonos, Z; Hektor, A; Kadastik, M; Kannike, K; Müntel, M; Raidal, M; Rebane, L; Anttila, E; Czellar, S; Härkönen, J; Heikkinen, A; Karimäki, V; Kinnunen, R; Klem, J; Kortelainen, M J; Lampén, T; Lassila-Perini, K; Lehti, S; Lindén, T; Luukka, P; Mäenpää, T; Nysten, J; Tuominen, E; Tuominiemi, J; Ungaro, D; Wendland, L; Banzuzi, K; Korpela, A; Tuuva, T; Nedelec, P; Sillou, D; Besancon, M; Chipaux, R; Dejardin, M; Denegri, D; Descamps, J; Fabbro, B; Faure, J L; Ferri, F; Ganjour, S; Gentit, F X; Givernaud, A; Gras, P; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Jarry, P; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Malcles, J; Marionneau, M; Millischer, L; Rander, J; Rosowsky, A; Rousseau, D; Titov, M; Verrecchia, P; Baffioni, S; Bianchini, L; Bluj, M; Busson, P; Charlot, C; Dobrzynski, L; Granier de Cassagnac, R; Haguenauer, M; Miné, P; Paganini, P; Sirois, Y; Thiebaux, C; Zabi, A; Agram, J L; Besson, A; Bloch, D; Bodin, D; Brom, J M; Conte, E; Drouhin, F; Fontaine, J C; Gelé, D; Goerlach, U; Gross, L; Juillot, P; Le Bihan, A C; Patois, Y; Speck, J; Van Hove, P; Baty, C; Bedjidian, M; Blaha, J; Boudoul, G; Brun, H; Chanon, N; Chierici, R; Contardo, D; Depasse, P; Dupasquier, T; El Mamouni, H; Fassi, F; Fay, J; Gascon, S; Ille, B; Kurca, T; Le Grand, T; Lethuillier, M; Lumb, N; Mirabito, L; Perries, S; Vander Donckt, M; Verdier, P; Djaoshvili, N; Roinishvili, N; Roinishvili, V; Amaglobeli, N; Adolphi, R; Anagnostou, G; Brauer, R; Braunschweig, W; Edelhoff, M; Esser, H; Feld, L; Karpinski, W; Khomich, A; Klein, K; Mohr, N; Ostaptchouk, A; Pandoulas, D; Pierschel, G; Raupach, F; Schael, S; Schultz von Dratzig, A; Schwering, G; Sprenger, D; Thomas, M; Weber, M; Wittmer, B; Wlochal, M; Actis, O; Altenhöfer, G; Bender, W; Biallass, P; Erdmann, M; Fetchenhauer, G; Frangenheim, J; Hebbeker, T; Hilgers, G; Hinzmann, A; Hoepfner, K; Hof, C; Kirsch, M; Klimkovich, T; Kreuzer, P; Lanske, D; Merschmeyer, M; Meyer, A; Philipps, B; Pieta, H; Reithler, H; Schmitz, S A; Sonnenschein, L; Sowa, M; Steggemann, J; Szczesny, H; Teyssier, D; Zeidler, C; Bontenackels, M; Davids, M; Duda, M; Flügge, G; Geenen, H; Giffels, M; Haj Ahmad, W; Hermanns, T; Heydhausen, D; Kalinin, S; Kress, T; Linn, A; Nowack, A; Perchalla, L; Poettgens, M; Pooth, O; Sauerland, P; Stahl, A; Tornier, D; Zoeller, M H; Aldaya Martin, M; Behrens, U; Borras, K; Campbell, A; Castro, E; Dammann, D; Eckerlin, G; Flossdorf, A; Flucke, G; Geiser, A; Hatton, D; Hauk, J; Jung, H; Kasemann, M; Katkov, I; Kleinwort, C; Kluge, H; Knutsson, A; Kuznetsova, E; Lange, W; Lohmann, W; Mankel, R; Marienfeld, M; Meyer, A B; Miglioranzi, S; Mnich, J; Ohlerich, M; Olzem, J; Parenti, A; Rosemann, C; Schmidt, R; Schoerner-Sadenius, T; Volyanskyy, D; Wissing, C; Zeuner, W D; Autermann, C; Bechtel, F; Draeger, J; Eckstein, D; Gebbert, U; Kaschube, K; Kaussen, G; Klanner, R; Mura, B; Naumann-Emme, S; Nowak, F; Pein, U; Sander, C; Schleper, P; Schum, T; Stadie, H; Steinbrück, G; Thomsen, J; Wolf, R; Bauer, J; Blüm, P; Buege, V; Cakir, A; Chwalek, T; De Boer, W; Dierlamm, A; Dirkes, G; Feindt, M; Felzmann, U; Frey, M; Furgeri, A; Gruschke, J; Hackstein, C; Hartmann, F; Heier, S; Heinrich, M; Held, H; Hirschbuehl, D; Hoffmann, K H; Honc, S; Jung, C; Kuhr, T; Liamsuwan, T; Martschei, D; Mueller, S; Müller, Th; Neuland, M B; Niegel, M; Oberst, O; Oehler, A; Ott, J; Peiffer, T; Piparo, D; Quast, G; Rabbertz, K; Ratnikov, F; Ratnikova, N; Renz, M; Saout, C; Sartisohn, G; Scheurer, A; Schieferdecker, P; Schilling, F P; Schott, G; Simonis, H J; Stober, F M; Sturm, P; Troendle, D; Trunov, A; Wagner, W; Wagner-Kuhr, J; Zeise, M; Zhukov, V; Ziebarth, E B; Daskalakis, G; Geralis, T; Karafasoulis, K; Kyriakis, A; Loukas, D; Markou, A; Markou, C; Mavrommatis, C; Petrakou, E; Zachariadou, A; Gouskos, L; Katsas, P; Panagiotou, A; Evangelou, I; Kokkas, P; Manthos, N; Papadopoulos, I; Patras, V; Triantis, F A; Bencze, G; Boldizsar, L; Debreczeni, G; Hajdu, C; Hernath, S; Hidas, P; Horvath, D; Krajczar, K; Laszlo, A; Patay, G; Sikler, F; Toth, N; Vesztergombi, G; Beni, N; Christian, G; Imrek, J; Molnar, J; Novak, D; Palinkas, J; Szekely, G; Szillasi, Z; Tokesi, K; Veszpremi, V; Kapusi, A; Marian, G; Raics, P; Szabo, Z; Trocsanyi, Z L; Ujvari, B; Zilizi, G; Bansal, S; Bawa, H S; Beri, S B; Bhatnagar, V; Jindal, M; Kaur, M; Kaur, R; Kohli, J M; Mehta, M Z; Nishu, N; Saini, L K; Sharma, A; Singh, A; Singh, J B; Singh, S P; Ahuja, S; Arora, S; Bhattacharya, S; Chauhan, S; Choudhary, B C; Gupta, P; Jain, S; Jain, S; Jha, M; Kumar, A; Ranjan, K; Shivpuri, R K; Srivastava, A K; Choudhury, R K; Dutta, D; Kailas, S; Kataria, S K; Mohanty, A K; Pant, L M; Shukla, P; Topkar, A; Aziz, T; Guchait, M; Gurtu, A; Maity, M; Majumder, D; Majumder, G; Mazumdar, K; Nayak, A; Saha, A; Sudhakar, K; Banerjee, S; Dugad, S; Mondal, N K; Arfaei, H; Bakhshiansohi, H; Fahim, A; Jafari, A; Mohammadi Najafabadi, M; Moshaii, A; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, S; Rouhani, S; Safarzadeh, B; Zeinali, M; Felcini, M; Abbrescia, M; Barbone, L; Chiumarulo, F; Clemente, A; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; Cuscela, G; De Filippis, N; De Palma, M; De Robertis, G; Donvito, G; Fedele, F; Fiore, L; Franco, M; Iaselli, G; Lacalamita, N; Loddo, F; Lusito, L; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Manna, N; Marangelli, B; My, S; Natali, S; Nuzzo, S; Papagni, G; Piccolomo, S; Pierro, G A; Pinto, C; Pompili, A; Pugliese, G; Rajan, R; Ranieri, A; Romano, F; Roselli, G; Selvaggi, G; Shinde, Y; Silvestris, L; Tupputi, S; Zito, G; Abbiendi, G; Bacchi, W; Benvenuti, A C; Boldini, M; Bonacorsi, D; Braibant-Giacomelli, S; Cafaro, V D; Caiazza, S S; Capiluppi, P; Castro, A; Cavallo, F R; Codispoti, G; Cuffiani, M; D'Antone, I; Dallavalle, G M; Fabbri, F; Fanfani, A; Fasanella, D; Giacomelli, P; Giordano, V; Giunta, M; Grandi, C; Guerzoni, M; Marcellini, S; Masetti, G; Montanari, A; Navarria, F L; Odorici, F; Pellegrini, G; Perrotta, A; Rossi, A M; Rovelli, T; Siroli, G; Torromeo, G; Travaglini, R; Albergo, S; Costa, S; Potenza, R; Tricomi, A; Tuve, C; Barbagli, G; Broccolo, G; Ciulli, V; Civinini, C; D'Alessandro, R; Focardi, E; Frosali, S; Gallo, E; Genta, C; Landi, G; Lenzi, P; Meschini, M; Paoletti, S; Sguazzoni, G; Tropiano, A; Benussi, L; Bertani, M; Bianco, S; Colafranceschi, S; Colonna, D; Fabbri, F; Giardoni, M; Passamonti, L; Piccolo, D; Pierluigi, D; Ponzio, B; Russo, A; Fabbricatore, P; Musenich, R; Benaglia, A; Calloni, M; Cerati, G B; D'Angelo, P; De Guio, F; Farina, F M; Ghezzi, A; Govoni, P; Malberti, M; Malvezzi, S; Martelli, A; Menasce, D; Miccio, V; Moroni, L; Negri, P; Paganoni, M; Pedrini, D; Pullia, A; Ragazzi, S; Redaelli, N; Sala, S; Salerno, R; Tabarelli de Fatis, T; Tancini, V; Taroni, S; Buontempo, S; Cavallo, N; Cimmino, A; De Gruttola, M; Fabozzi, F; Iorio, A O M; Lista, L; Lomidze, D; Noli, P; Paolucci, P; Sciacca, C; Azzi, P; Bacchetta, N; Barcellan, L; Bellan, P; Bellato, M; Benettoni, M; Biasotto, M; Bisello, D; Borsato, E; Branca, A; Carlin, R; Castellani, L; Checchia, P; Conti, E; Dal Corso, F; De Mattia, M; Dorigo, T; Dosselli, U; Fanzago, F; Gasparini, F; Gasparini, U; Giubilato, P; Gonella, F; Gresele, A; Gulmini, M; Kaminskiy, A; Lacaprara, S; Lazzizzera, I; Margoni, M; Maron, G; Mattiazzo, S; Mazzucato, M; Meneghelli, M; Meneguzzo, A T; Michelotto, M; Montecassiano, F; Nespolo, M; Passaseo, M; Pegoraro, M; Perrozzi, L; Pozzobon, N; Ronchese, P; Simonetto, F; Toniolo, N; Torassa, E; Tosi, M; Triossi, A; Vanini, S; Ventura, S; Zotto, P; Zumerle, G; Baesso, P; Berzano, U; Bricola, S; Necchi, M M; Pagano, D; Ratti, S P; Riccardi, C; Torre, P; Vicini, A; Vitulo, P; Viviani, C; Aisa, D; Aisa, S; Babucci, E; Biasini, M; Bilei, G M; Caponeri, B; Checcucci, B; Dinu, N; Fanò, L; Farnesini, L; Lariccia, P; Lucaroni, A; Mantovani, G; Nappi, A; Piluso, A; Postolache, V; Santocchia, A; Servoli, L; Tonoiu, D; Vedaee, A; Volpe, R; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Bernardini, J; Berretta, L; Boccali, T; Bocci, A; Borrello, L; Bosi, F; Calzolari, F; Castaldi, R; Dell'Orso, R; Fiori, F; Foà, L; Gennai, S; Giassi, A; Kraan, A; Ligabue, F; Lomtadze, T; Mariani, F; Martini, L; Massa, M; Messineo, A; Moggi, A; Palla, F; Palmonari, F; Petragnani, G; Petrucciani, G; Raffaelli, F; Sarkar, S; Segneri, G; Serban, A T; Spagnolo, P; Tenchini, R; Tolaini, S; Tonelli, G; Venturi, A; Verdini, P G; Baccaro, S; Barone, L; Bartoloni, A; Cavallari, F; Dafinei, I; Del Re, D; Di Marco, E; Diemoz, M; Franci, D; Longo, E; Organtini, G; Palma, A; Pandolfi, F; Paramatti, R; Pellegrino, F; Rahatlou, S; Rovelli, C; Alampi, G; Amapane, N; Arcidiacono, R; Argiro, S; Arneodo, M; Biino, C; Borgia, M A; Botta, C; Cartiglia, N; Castello, R; Cerminara, G; Costa, M; Dattola, D; Dellacasa, G; Demaria, N; Dughera, G; Dumitrache, F; Graziano, A; Mariotti, C; Marone, M; Maselli, S; Migliore, E; Mila, G; Monaco, V; Musich, M; Nervo, M; Obertino, M M; Oggero, S; Panero, R; Pastrone, N; Pelliccioni, M; Romero, A; Ruspa, M; Sacchi, R; Solano, A; Staiano, A; Trapani, P P; Trocino, D; Vilela Pereira, A; Visca, L; Zampieri, A; Ambroglini, F; Belforte, S; Cossutti, F; Della Ricca, G; Gobbo, B; Penzo, A; Chang, S; Chung, J; Kim, D H; Kim, G N; Kong, D J; Park, H; Son, D C; Bahk, S Y; Song, S; Jung, S Y; Hong, B; Kim, H; Kim, J H; Lee, K S; Moon, D H; Park, S K; Rhee, H B; Sim, K S; Kim, J; Choi, M; Hahn, G; Park, I C; Choi, S; Choi, Y; Goh, J; Jeong, H; Kim, T J; Lee, J; Lee, S; Janulis, M; Martisiute, D; Petrov, P; Sabonis, T; Castilla Valdez, H; Sánchez Hernández, A; Carrillo Moreno, S; Morelos Pineda, A; Allfrey, P; Gray, R N C; Krofcheck, D; Bernardino Rodrigues, N; Butler, P H; Signal, T; Williams, J C; Ahmad, M; Ahmed, I; Ahmed, W; Asghar, M I; Awan, M I M; Hoorani, H R; Hussain, I; Khan, W A; Khurshid, T; Muhammad, S; Qazi, S; Shahzad, H; Cwiok, M; Dabrowski, R; Dominik, W; Doroba, K; Konecki, M; Krolikowski, J; Pozniak, K; Romaniuk, Ryszard; Zabolotny, W; Zych, P; Frueboes, T; Gokieli, R; Goscilo, L; Górski, M; Kazana, M; Nawrocki, K; Szleper, M; Wrochna, G; Zalewski, P; Almeida, N; Antunes Pedro, L; Bargassa, P; David, A; Faccioli, P; Ferreira Parracho, P G; Freitas Ferreira, M; Gallinaro, M; Guerra Jordao, M; Martins, P; Mini, G; Musella, P; Pela, J; Raposo, L; Ribeiro, P Q; Sampaio, S; Seixas, J; Silva, J; Silva, P; Soares, D; Sousa, M; Varela, J; Wöhri, H K; Altsybeev, I; Belotelov, I; Bunin, P; Ershov, Y; Filozova, I; Finger, M; Finger, M Jr; Golunov, A; Golutvin, I; Gorbounov, N; Kalagin, V; Kamenev, A; Karjavin, V; Konoplyanikov, V; Korenkov, V; Kozlov, G; Kurenkov, A; Lanev, A; Makankin, A; Mitsyn, V V; Moisenz, P; Nikonov, E; Oleynik, D; Palichik, V; Perelygin, V; Petrosyan, A; Semenov, R; Shmatov, S; Smirnov, V; Smolin, D; Tikhonenko, E; Vasil'ev, S; Vishnevskiy, A; Volodko, A; Zarubin, A; Zhiltsov, V; Bondar, N; Chtchipounov, L; Denisov, A; Gavrikov, Y; Gavrilov, G; Golovtsov, V; Ivanov, Y; Kim, V; Kozlov, V; Levchenko, P; Obrant, G; Orishchin, E; Petrunin, A; Shcheglov, Y; Shchetkovskiy, A; Sknar, V; Smirnov, I; Sulimov, V; Tarakanov, V; Uvarov, L; Vavilov, S; Velichko, G; Volkov, S; Vorobyev, A; Andreev, Yu; Anisimov, A; Antipov, P; Dermenev, A; Gninenko, S; Golubev, N; Kirsanov, M; Krasnikov, N; Matveev, V; Pashenkov, A; Postoev, V E; Solovey, A; Solovey, A; Toropin, A; Troitsky, S; Baud, A; Epshteyn, V; Gavrilov, V; Ilina, N; Kaftanov, V; Kolosov, V; Kossov, M; Krokhotin, A; Kuleshov, S; Oulianov, A; Safronov, G; Semenov, S; Shreyber, I; Stolin, V; Vlasov, E; Zhokin, A; Boos, E; Dubinin, M; Dudko, L; Ershov, A; Gribushin, A; Klyukhin, V; Kodolova, O; Lokhtin, I; Petrushanko, S; Sarycheva, L; Savrin, V; Snigirev, A; Vardanyan, I; Dremin, I; Kirakosyan, M; Konovalova, N; Rusakov, S V; Vinogradov, A; Akimenko, S; Artamonov, A; Azhgirey, I; Bitioukov, S; Burtovoy, V; Grishin, V; Kachanov, V; Konstantinov, D; Krychkine, V; Levine, A; Lobov, I; Lukanin, V; Mel'nik, Y; Petrov, V; Ryutin, R; Slabospitsky, S; Sobol, A; Sytine, A; Tourtchanovitch, L; Troshin, S; Tyurin, N; Uzunian, A; Volkov, A; Adzic, P; Djordjevic, M; Jovanovic, D; Krpic, D; Maletic, D; Puzovic, J; Smiljkovic, N; Aguilar-Benitez, M; Alberdi, J; Alcaraz Maestre, J; Arce, P; Barcala, J M; Battilana, C; Burgos Lazaro, C; Caballero Bejar, J; Calvo, E; Cardenas Montes, M; Cepeda, M; Cerrada, M; Chamizo Llatas, M; Clemente, F; Colino, N; Daniel, M; De La Cruz, B; Delgado Peris, A; Diez Pardos, C; Fernandez Bedoya, C; Fernández Ramos, J P; Ferrando, A; Flix, J; 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Benelli, G; Bernet, C; Bloch, P; Bolognesi, S; Bona, M; Bos, J; Bourgeois, N; Bourrel, T; Breuker, H; Bunkowski, K; Campi, D; Camporesi, T; Cano, E; Cattai, A; Chatelain, J P; Chauvey, M; Christiansen, T; Coarasa Perez, J A; Conde Garcia, A; Covarelli, R; Curé, B; De Roeck, A; Delachenal, V; Deyrail, D; Di Vincenzo, S; Dos Santos, S; Dupont, T; Edera, L M; Elliott-Peisert, A; Eppard, M; Favre, M; Frank, N; Funk, W; Gaddi, A; Gastal, M; Gateau, M; Gerwig, H; Gigi, D; Gill, K; Giordano, D; Girod, J P; Glege, F; Gomez-Reino Garrido, R; Goudard, R; Gowdy, S; Guida, R; Guiducci, L; Gutleber, J; Hansen, M; Hartl, C; Harvey, J; Hegner, B; Hoffmann, H F; Holzner, A; Honma, A; Huhtinen, M; Innocente, V; Janot, P; Le Godec, G; Lecoq, P; Leonidopoulos, C; Loos, R; Lourenço, C; Lyonnet, A; Macpherson, A; Magini, N; Maillefaud, J D; Maire, G; Mäki, T; Malgeri, L; Mannelli, M; Masetti, L; Meijers, F; Meridiani, P; Mersi, S; Meschi, E; Meynet Cordonnier, A; Moser, R; Mulders, M; Mulon, J; Noy, M; Oh, A; 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    2010-01-01

    In October and November 2008, the CMS collaboration conducted a programme of cosmic ray data taking, which has recorded about 270 million events. The Resistive Plate Chamber system, which is part of the CMS muon detection system, was successfully operated in the full barrel. More than 98% of the channels were operational during the exercise with typical detection efficiency of 90%. In this paper, the performance of the detector during these dedicated runs is reported.

  2. ATLAS barrel hadron tile calorimeter: spacers plates mass production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this article we expose the main problems of the mass production of the so-called 'spacer plates' for the ATLAS Barrel Hadron Tile Calorimeter. We describe all practical solutions of these problems. Particularly we present the measurement procedures and calculation schemes we used for the spacers dimensions determination. The results of the calculations are presented

  3. CMS Resistive plate Champers

    CERN Document Server

    Zainab, Karam

    2013-01-01

    There are many types of gas detectors which are used in CERN in LHC project, There is a main parts for the gas detectors which must be in all gas detectors types like Multiwire proportional chambers, such as the micromesh gaseous structure chamber (the MicroMegas), Gas-electron multiplier (GEM) detector, Resistive Plate Champers... Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment detecting muons which are powerful tool for recognizing signatures of interesting physics processes. The CMS detector uses: drift tube (DT), cathode strip chamber (CSC) and resistive plate chamber (RPC). Building RPC’s was my project in summer student program (hardware). RPC’s have advantages which are triggering detector and Excellent time resolution which reinforce the measurement of the correct beam crossing time. RPC’s Organized in stations :  RPC barrel (RB) there are 4 stations, namely RB1, RB2, RB3, and RB4  While in the RPC endcap (RE) the 3 stations are RE1, RE2, and RE3. In the endcaps a new starion will be added and this...

  4. Mechanical assisted electroless barrel-plating Ni-P coatings on magnesium alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhaoxia PING; Juntao YUAN; Yedong HE; Xiaogang LI

    2009-01-01

    A mechanically assisted electroless barrel-plating Ni-P was carried out in a rolling drum containing Mg alloy specimens and ceramic balls, which was submerged in a bath containing electroless plating solution. It is demonstrated that the Ni-P coatings deposited by this novel technique have a crystallized Ni-P solid solution structure,showing fine-grains, higher hardness, and higher corrosion resistance compared with the conventional electroless plated amorphous Ni-P coatings. After heat treatment at 400 ~C for 1 h, the structure of such Ni-P coatings were transformed to a structure with Ni-Ni3P double phases, and cracks in these coatings could not-be observed,whereas cracks appeared seriously in the conventional electroless plated Ni-P coating after same heat treatment. Therefore, both hardness and corrosion resistance of these Ni-P coatings can be improved further by heat treatment. All of these beneficial effects can be attributed to the role of mechanical attrition during the mechanically assisted electroless barrel-plating process.

  5. Background neutron in the endcap and barrel regions of resistive plate chamber for compact muon solenoid/large hadron collider using GEANT4

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J T Rhee; M Jamil; Christopher Joen; Bingzhu Yin; Y J Jeon

    2007-09-01

    In this study the performance of double gap RPC has been tested by GEANT4 Monte Carlo simulation code. The detector response calculations taken as a function of the neutron energy in the range of 0.01 eV–1 GeV have been simulated through RPC set-up. In order to evaluate the response of detector in the LHC background environment, the neutron spectrum expected in the CMS muon endcap and barrel region were taken into account. A hit rate of about 165.5 Hz cm-2, 34 Hz cm-2, 33.6 Hz cm-2, and 27.0 Hz cm-2 due to an isotropic neutron source is calculated using GEANT4 standard electromagnetic package for a 20 × 20 cm2 RPC in the ME1, ME2, ME3 and ME4, respectively. While for the same neutron source and using GEANT4 package a hit rate of about 0.42 Hz cm-2, 0.7182 Hz cm-2 was measured for the MB1 and MB4 stations respectively. Similar characteristics of hit rates have been observed for GEANT4 low electromagnetic package.

  6. Design and Calculation of the Resistance Circles for Wooden Barrels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana FOTIN

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present a design methodology for the circles of wooden barrels, usingappropriate strength calculations, so as to provide tightness while maintaining the integrity of the woodenmaterial embedded in the barrel structure, in the jacket and bottom staves, respectively.Based on these calculations, the circle dimensions (length, width and thickness can be defined,depending on the barrel type (for transport or storage and their relation to the barrel bottoms.Defining the dimensional characteristics of the circles is mandatory, as these are safety elements in thebarrel operation.

  7. The multigap resistive plate chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeballos, E. Cerron [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); World Lab., Lausanne (Switzerland); Crotty, I. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Hatzifotiadou, D. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); World Lab., Lausanne (Switzerland); Valverde, J. Lamas [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); World Lab., Lausanne (Switzerland); Univ. Louis Pasteur, Strasbourg (France); Neupane, S. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); World Lab., Lausanne (Switzerland); Williams, M. C. S. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Zichichi, A. [Univ. of Bologna, Bologna (Italy)

    2015-02-03

    The paper describes the multigap resistive plate chamber (RPC). This is a variant of the wide gap RPC. However it has much improved time resolution, while keeping all the other advantages of the wide gap RPC design.

  8. Detector Physics of Resistive Plate Chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Lippmann, Christian; Riegler, W

    2003-01-01

    Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) are gaseous parallel plate avalanche detectors that implement electrodes made from a material with a high volume resistivity between 10^7 and 10^12 Ohm cm. Large area RPCs with 2mm single gaps operated in avalanche mode provide above 98% efficiency and a time resolution of around 1ns up to a flux of several kHz/cm2. These Trigger RPCs will, as an example, equip the muon detector system of the ATLAS experiment at CERN on an area of 3650m2 and with 355.000 independent read out channels. Timing RPCs with a gas gap of 0.2 to 0.3mm are widely used in multi gap configurations and provide 99% efficiency and time resolution down to 50ps. While their performance is comparable to existing scintillator-based Time-Of-Flight (TOF) technology, Timing RPCs feature a significantly, up to an order of magnitude, lower price per channel. They will for example equip the 176m2 TOF barrel of the ALICE experiment at CERN with 160.000 independent read out cells. RPCs were originally operated in stream...

  9. Barrel organ of plate tectonics - a new tool for outreach and education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broz, Petr; Machek, Matěj; Šorm, Zdar

    2016-04-01

    Plate tectonics is the major geological concept to explain dynamics and structure of Earth's outer shell, the lithosphere. In the plate tectonic theory processes in the Earth lithosphere and its dynamics is driven by the relative motion and interaction of lithospheric plates. Geologically most active regions on Earth often correlate with the lithospheric plate boundaries. Thus for explaining the earth surface evolution, mountain building, volcanism and earthquake origin it is important to understand processes at the plate boundaries. However these processes associated with plate tectonics usually require significant period of time to take effects, therefore, their entire cycles cannot be directly observed in the nature by humans. This makes a challenge for scientists studying these processes, but also for teachers and popularizers trying to explain them to students and to the general public. Therefore, to overcome this problem, we developed a mechanical model of plate tectonics enabling demonstration of most important processes associated with plate tectonics in real time. The mechanical model is a wooden box, more specifically a special type of barrel organ, with hand painted backdrops in the front side. These backdrops are divided into several components representing geodynamic processes associated with plate tectonics, specifically convective currents occurring in the mantle, sea-floor spreading, a subduction of the oceanic crust under the continental crust, partial melting and volcanism associated with subduction, a formation of magmatic stripes, an ascent of mantle plume throughout the mantle, a volcanic activity associated with hot spots, and a formation and degradation of volcanic islands on moving lithospheric plate. All components are set in motion by a handle controlled by a human operator, and the scene is illuminated with colored lights controlled automatically by an electric device embedded in the box. Operation of the model may be seen on www

  10. ATLAS Barrel Hadron Calorimeter: general manufacturing concepts for 300000 absorber plates mass production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We summarize a 4-year (1994-1997) experience of design and research efforts which led us to the solution of 2 important tasks of a principal significance for precision assembly of one of major elements of ATLAS, - its Hadron Barrel Tile Calorimeter. These tasks were: - to develop the high tolerances (50-100 microns) technology for about 300000 units of calorimeter nuclear absorber plates mass production, - to choose the best manufacturer(s) able to satisfy shop drawings demands in a reasonable balance with some other significant criteria: production period, price acceptable geography location (transport expenses), available storage area and access ways, reliable quality control etc. For the best absorbers producers our final choice was the TATRA PLANT (Czech Republic) for 1.6 m long plates stamping (40800 units) with Argonne punching die and the MINSK TRACTOR PLANT (Belarus Republic) for smaller size plates stamping (about 240000 units). We exclude noticeable (more than 1% of the day production) tolerances violations by the specially developed QUALITY CONTROL Program

  11. Corrosion resistant metallic bipolar plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Michael P.; Schneibel, Joachim H.; Pint, Bruce A.; Maziasz, Philip J.

    2007-05-01

    A corrosion resistant, electrically conductive component such as a bipolar plate for a PEM fuel cell includes 20 55% Cr, balance base metal such as Ni, Fe, or Co, the component having thereon a substantially external, continuous layer of chromium nitride.

  12. Maintenance of Acidic Zinc Barrel Plating Process%酸性滚镀锌工艺的维护

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭崇武

    2012-01-01

    研究了铁杂质对酸性滚镀锌镀液的影响和处理方法.向镀液中加入双氧水0.05 mL/L,pH值在4.5~5.3范围内,铁杂质的质量浓度降低10.2~17.3 mg/L,且在pH值较低的条件下,处理铁杂质的效果较好.制定了宽温酸性滚镀锌工艺:氯化锌45~55 g/L,氯化钾200~230 g/L,硼酸30~35 g/L,401主光荆1 mL/L,401辅光荆30 mL/L,pH值4.5~5.5,5.5~6.5 V,15~45℃,40~120min.%The effects of iron impurity on acidic zinc barrel plating bath and methods for treating iron impurity were studied. When 0. 05 mL/L hydrogen peroxide was added to the plating bath, the mass concentration of the iron impurity decreased 10. 2 ~17. 3 mg/L in pH range from 4. 5 to 5. 3, and the treatment result was better when pH was lower. A wide temperature range acidic barrel zinc plating process was made: zinc chloride 45~55 g/L, potassium chloride 200~230 g/L, boric acid 30 ~ 35 g/L, 401 main brightener 1 mL/L, 401 accessorial brightener 30 mL/L, pH value 4. 5~5. 5, voltage 5. 5~6. 5 V, temperature 15~45 ℃, processing time 40~120 min.

  13. Progress in timing Resistive Plate Chambers

    OpenAIRE

    Blanco, A.; Carolino, N.; Correia, C. M. B. A.; Ferreira-Marques, R.; P. Fonte(LIP-Laboratório de Instrumentação e Física Experimental de Partículas, Portugal); Gobbi, A.; González-Díaz, D.; Lopes, M.I.; Lopes, L.; Macedo, M. P.; Mangiarotti, A.; V. Peskov; Policarpo, A.

    2004-01-01

    Timing RPCs are Resistive Plate Chambers made with glass and metal electrodes separated by precision spacers. Typical gas gaps are a few hundred micrometers wide. Such counters were introduced in 1999 and have since reached timing accuracies below 50 ps [sigma] with efficiencies above 99% for MIPs. Applications in high-energy physics have already taken place with several more under study.

  14. Development and progress in resistive plate chamber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Hong-Fang; WU Jian

    2004-01-01

    Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC) is a robust and low cost gas detector, which is extensively used in high-energy physics, cosmic and astroparticle physics experiments. Over the past twenty years, as a particle detector,RPC has made remarkable progress. The main achievements, features and results of experiemantal tests including R&D and production of the RPCs by several Chinese groups in recent years are reported in this article.

  15. Angular resolution of stacked resistive plate chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Samuel, Deepak; Murgod, Lakshmi P

    2016-01-01

    We present here detailed derivations of mathematical expressions for the angular resolution of a set of stacked resistive plate chambers (RPCs). The expressions are validated against experimental results using data collected from the prototype detectors (without magnet) of the upcoming India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO). In principle, these expressions can be used for any other detector with an architecture similar to that of RPCs.

  16. A very large multigap resistive plate chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Cerron-Zeballos, E; Hatzifotiadou, D; Kim, D W; Lamas-Valverde, J; Lee, S C; Platner, E D; Roberts, J; Williams, M C S; Zichichi, A

    1999-01-01

    We have built and tested a very large multigap resistive plate chamber (MRPC). We discuss the suitability of the multigap RPC for the construction of large area modules. We give details of the construction technique and results from a scan across the surface of the chamber. We also report on the implementation of `half-strip resolution', where we improve the spatial resolution by a factor 2 without increasing the number of read-out channels. (9 refs).

  17. Timing Resistive Plate Chambers with Ceramic Electrodes

    OpenAIRE

    Laso Garcia, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    The focus of this thesis is the development of Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) with ceramic electrodes. The use of ceramic composites, Si3N4/SiC, opens the way for the application of RPCs in harsh radiation environments. Future Experiments like the Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) at the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) in Darmstadt will need new RPCs with high rate capabilities and high radiation tolerance. Ceramic composites are specially suited for this purpose due to th...

  18. 无氰滚镀低锡铜-锡合金工艺%Cyanide-free barrel plating of low-tin copper-tin alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯冰; 曾振欧; 张琪; 谢金平; 范晓玲; 高燕; 雷晓云

    2012-01-01

    Based on the previous works, the effects of mass concentration of potassium pyrophosphate, current, temperature, and dosage of JZ-1 additive on thickness and tin content of the cyanide-free barrel plated Cu-Sn alloy coating on low carbon steel substrate were studied by orthogonal test under the following conditions: Cu2P2O7-4H2O 20 g/L, Sn2P2O71 g/L, K2HPO4-3H2O 60 g/L, pH 8.5, barrel rotation speed 15 r/min, plating time 1 h, and cycle filtration required. The optimal process conditions were determined, and the effects of plating current, temperature, and time on the composition and deposition rate of Cu-Sn coating were discussed. It is proved that a Cu-Sn alloy coating with at least 5 |im thickness and 9%-11 % tin can be obtained with K4P2O7 300-350 g/L and JZ-1 additive 0.5 mL/L at temperature 30-35 °C and current density 0.38-0.48 A/dm2. The low-tin Cu-Sn alloy coating features a bright and golden appearance, good adhesion to the substrate, and favorable hardness and corrosion resistance, which is an alternative to nickel pre-plating and cyanide copper pre-plating on iron and steel substrates.%在前期研究的基础上,在Cu2P2O7·4H2O 20 g/L、Sn2P2O71g/L、K2HPO4·3H2O 60g/L、pH=8.5、滚筒转速15 r/min、滚镀时间1h、采用循环过滤的工艺条件下,通过正交试验研究了焦磷酸钾质量浓度、电流、温度和添加剂JZ-1的用量对低碳钢上无氰滚镀铜锡合金(低锡)镀层厚度和含锡量的影响,确定了最优的工艺条件,并探讨了滚镀电流、温度和时间对铜锡合金镀层的组成与镀速的影响.试验证明,当K4P2O7为300 ~ 350g/L、添加剂JZ-1为0.5mL/L、镀液温度为30~35℃、电流密度为0.38 ~ 0.48 A/dm2时,可获得厚度5 μm以上、锡含量为9%~ 11%的铜锡合金镀层,其外观光亮、金黄,与钢铁基体的结合力良好,具有一定的硬度与耐腐蚀性能,可以替代钢铁基材预镀镍和氰化预镀铜工艺.

  19. The physics of Resistive Plate Chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Riegler, Werner

    2004-01-01

    Over the last 3 years we investigated theoretical aspects of Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC) in order to clarify some of the outstanding questions on space charge effects, high efficiency of small gap RPCs, charge spectra, signal shape and time resolution. In a series of reports we analyzed RPC performance including all detector aspects covering primary ionization, avalanche multiplication, space charge effects, signal induction in presence of resistive materials, crosstalk along detectors with long strips and front-end electronics. Using detector gas parameters entirely based on theoretical predictions and physical models for avalanche development and space charge effects we are able to reproduce measurements for 2 and 0.3 mm RPCs to very high accuracy without any additional assumptions. This fact gives a profound insight into the workings of RPCs and also underlines the striking difference in operation regime when compared to wire chambers. A summary of this work as well as recent results on three-dimensiona...

  20. Resistive Plate Chambers: electron transport and modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the electron transport in gas mixtures used by Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) in high energy physics experiments at CERN. Calculations are performed using a multi term theory for solving the Boltzmann equation. We identify the effects induced by non-conservative nature of electron attachment, including attachment heating of electrons and negative differential conductivity (NDC). NDC was observed only in the bulk component of drift velocity. Using our Monte Carlo technique, we calculate the spatially resolved transport properties in order to investigate the origin of these effects. We also present our microscopic approach to modeling of RPCs which is based on Monte Carlo method. Calculated results for a timing RPC show good agreement with an analytical model and experimental data. Different cross section sets for electron scattering in C2H2F4 are used for comparison and analysis

  1. OPERA Resistive Plate Chambers underground test results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergnoli, A. [Padova University and INFN, Padova (Italy); Brugnera, R. [Padova University and INFN, Padova (Italy); Candela, A. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Assergi (Italy); Carrara, E. [Padova University and INFN, Padova (Italy); Ciesielski, R. [Padova University and INFN, Padova (Italy); Dal Corso, F. [Padova University and INFN, Padova (Italy); Degli Esposti, L. [Bologna University and INFN, Bologna (Italy); Di Giovanni, A. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Assergi (Italy); D' Incecco, M. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Assergi (Italy); Di Troia, C. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Frascati (Italy); Dusini, S. [Padova University and INFN, Padova (Italy); Fanin, C. [Padova University and INFN, Padova (Italy); Felici, G. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Frascati (Italy); Gambarara, A. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Frascati (Italy); Garfagnini, A. [Padova University and INFN, Padova (Italy); Gatta, M.; Grianti, F. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Frascati (Italy); Gustavino, C.; Lindozzi, M. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Assergi (Italy); Longhin, A. [Padova University and INFN, Padova (Italy)]. E-mail: longhin@pd.infn.it; Mengucci, A. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Frascati (Italy); Monacelli, P. [L' Aquila University and INFN, l' Aquila (Italy)]|[INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Assergi (Italy); Paoloni, A. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Frascati (Italy); Stanco, L. [Padova University and INFN, Padova (Italy); Tatananni, E. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Assergi (Italy); Terranova, F.; Spinetti, M. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Frascati (Italy); Stipcevic, M.; Sugonyaev, V. [Rudjer Boskovic Institute (IRB), Zagreb (Croatia); Terminiello, L.; Ventura, M.; Votano, L. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Frascati (Italy)

    2006-08-15

    The OPERA experiment [M. Guler et al., CERN/SPSC 2000-028, SPSC/P318, LNGS P25/2000, July 10, 2000; M. Guler et al., CERN/SPSC 2001-025, SPSC/M668, LNGS-EXP 30/2001 Add. 1/01, August 21, 2001] will study {nu}{sub {mu}}->{nu}{sub {tau}} oscillations through {tau} appearance on the 732 Km long CERN to Gran Sasso baseline. The magnet yokes of the two muon spectrometers are instrumented with 44 layers of high resistivity bakelite Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) operated in streamer mode. Each layer covers about 70 m{sup 2}. Four RPC planes were instrumented and the first tests were performed confirming a good behaviour of the installed RPCs in terms of intrinsic noise and operating currents. The measured noise maps agree with those obtained in the extensive quality tests performed at surface. Counting rates are below 20 Hz/m{sup 2}. Single an multiple cosmic muon tracks were also reconstructed. The estimated efficiency is close to the geometrical limit and the very first measurements of the absolute and differential muon flux are in agreement with expectations.

  2. OPERA Resistive Plate Chambers underground test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The OPERA experiment [M. Guler et al., CERN/SPSC 2000-028, SPSC/P318, LNGS P25/2000, July 10, 2000; M. Guler et al., CERN/SPSC 2001-025, SPSC/M668, LNGS-EXP 30/2001 Add. 1/01, August 21, 2001] will study νμ->ντ oscillations through τ appearance on the 732 Km long CERN to Gran Sasso baseline. The magnet yokes of the two muon spectrometers are instrumented with 44 layers of high resistivity bakelite Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) operated in streamer mode. Each layer covers about 70 m2. Four RPC planes were instrumented and the first tests were performed confirming a good behaviour of the installed RPCs in terms of intrinsic noise and operating currents. The measured noise maps agree with those obtained in the extensive quality tests performed at surface. Counting rates are below 20 Hz/m2. Single an multiple cosmic muon tracks were also reconstructed. The estimated efficiency is close to the geometrical limit and the very first measurements of the absolute and differential muon flux are in agreement with expectations

  3. Tests of a novel design of Resistive Plate Chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel design of Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs), using only a single resistive plate, is being proposed. Based on this design, two large size prototype chambers were constructed and were tested with cosmic rays and in particle beams. The tests confirmed the viability of this new approach. In addition to showing an improved single-particle response compared to the traditional 2-plate design, the novel chambers also prove to be suitable for calorimetric applications

  4. Resistive plate chambers in positron emission tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo, Paulo; Blanco, Alberto; Couceiro, Miguel; Ferreira, Nuno C.; Lopes, Luís; Martins, Paulo; Ferreira Marques, Rui; Fonte, Paulo

    2013-07-01

    Resistive plate chambers (RPC) were originally deployed for high energy physics. Realizing how their properties match the needs of nuclear medicine, a LIP team proposed applying RPCs to both preclinical and clinical positron emission tomography (RPC-PET). We show a large-area RPC-PET simulated scanner covering an axial length of 2.4m —slightly superior to the height of the human body— allowing for whole-body, single-bed RPC-PET acquisitions. Simulations following NEMA (National Electrical Manufacturers Association, USA) protocols yield a system sensitivity at least one order of magnitude larger than present-day, commercial PET systems. Reconstruction of whole-body simulated data is feasible by using a dedicated, direct time-of-flight-based algorithm implemented onto an ordered subsets estimation maximization parallelized strategy. Whole-body RPC-PET patient images following the injection of only 2mCi of 18-fluorodesoxyglucose (FDG) are expected to be ready 7 minutes after the 6 minutes necessary for data acquisition. This compares to the 10-20mCi FDG presently injected for a PET scan, and to the uncomfortable 20-30minutes necessary for its data acquisition. In the preclinical field, two fully instrumented detector heads have been assembled aiming at a four-head-based, small-animal RPC-PET system. Images of a disk-shaped and a needle-like 22Na source show unprecedented sub-millimeter spatial resolution.

  5. Impact resistance of composite laminated sandwich plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chun-Gon; Jun, Eui-Jin

    1992-01-01

    Investigated are the effects of face layup sequence and core density of a sandwich plate on the impact delamination area of the laminated facesheet. The sandwich plate is made of graphite/epoxy faces and Nomex honeycomb core. The size and shape of delamination due to impact at each interply location have been measured by the room temperature deply technique. The shape of the interply delamination under impact is, in general, found to be two-lobed. The shape exhibits very peculiar regularity under various experimental conditions. The quantitative measurement of delamination size has shown that the face layup with small relative orientation between adjacent plies and high density core are desirable in sandwich plates to reduce the impact delamination.

  6. Performance of the ATLAS Resistive Plate Chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Cattani, G; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    The ATLAS detector is now installed at CERN's LHC and fully operational. RPCs provide the first-level muon trigger and the measurement of the non bending coordinate in the barrel region. To achieve these goals, a system of about 4000 gas gaps operating in avalanche mode was built (resulting in a total of $sim$ 350000 readout strips). Such a large-scale system allows the study of the performance of RPCs with unprecedented sensitivity to rare effects. On the other hand, a prerequisite for this kind of studies is the exact knowledge of the working point of the detector, and its uniformity along the whole muon spectrometer. This means fine-tuning thousands of parameters (involving both front end electronics and gap voltages), as well as constantly monitoring performance and environmental quantities such as gap/panel efficiencies, average cluster size, temperature, gas flow, gap currents, counting rates. We will present here an overview of this effort and some example results, addressing in particular three aspect...

  7. Improved Corrosion Resistance of Pulse Plated Nickel through Crystallisation Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Peter Torben; Watanabe, Tohru; Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov; Bech-Nielsen, Gregers

    1995-01-01

    When electrodeposition of nickel is used for corrosion protection of steel two aspects are important. The porosity of the coating and the resistance against corrosion provided by the coating itself. Using simple pulsed current (PC) plating, the size of the deposited crystals can be significantly...... smaller, thereby reducing porosity correspondingly. This usually also leads to improved hardness of the coating. Introducing pulse reversal (PR) plating, the most active crystals are continuously dissolved during the anodic pulse, providing a coating with improved subsequent corrosion resistance in almost...... any corrosive environment. This correlation between film texture and corrosion resistance will be discussed....

  8. Observation of light from resistive plate chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrically induced signals and light emissions from restrictive plate chamber (RPC) are simultaneously measured using a glass RPC with transparent high-voltage planes, operating in the streamer mode. With one exception, good correspondence is seen in between the electrical and optical signals in every aspect: signal shapes, pulse heights, timing and afterpulses. The one exception is a possible limiting effect observed on the optical signal pulse height for a given pulse height of electrically induced signal. Shapes of the signal visually observed by eye are also described. (orig.)

  9. Impact and Blast Resistance of Sandwich Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorak, George J.; Bahei-El-Din, Yehia A.; Suvorov, Alexander P.

    Response of conventional and modified sandwich plate designs is examined under static load, impact by a rigid cylindrical or flat indenter, and during and after an exponential pressure impulse lasting for 0.05 ms, at peak pressure of 100 MPa, simulating a nearby explosion. The conventional sandwich design consists of thin outer (loaded side) and inner facesheets made of carbon/epoxy fibrous laminates, separated by a thick layer of structural foam core. In the three modified designs, one or two thin ductile interlayers are inserted between the outer facesheet and the foam core. Materials selected for the interlayers are a hyperelas-tic rate-independent polyurethane;a compression strain and strain rate dependent, elastic-plastic polyurea;and an elastomeric foam. ABAQUS and LS-Dyna software were used in various response simulations. Performance comparisons between the enhanced and conventional designs show that the modified designs provide much better protection against different damage modes under both load regimes. After impact, local facesheet deflection, core compression, and energy release rate of delamination cracks, which may extend on hidden interfaces between facesheet and core, are all reduced. Under blast or impulse loads, reductions have been observed in the extent of core crushing, facesheet delaminations and vibration amplitudes, and in overall deflections. Similar reductions were found in the kinetic energy and in the stored and dissipated strain energy. Although strain rates as high as 10-4/s1 are produced by the blast pressure, peak strains in the interlayers were too low to raise the flow stress in the polyurea to that in the polyurethane, where a possible rate-dependent response was neglected. Therefore, stiff polyurethane or hard rubber interlayers materials should be used for protection of sandwich plate foam cores against both impact and blast-induced damage.

  10. Role of valgus osteotomy and fixation with dynamic hip screw and 120° double angle barrel plate in the management of neglected and ununited femoral neck fracture in young patients

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Abdul Qayyum; Khan, Mohammad Shahnawaz; Sherwani, Mohammed Khalid Anwar; Agarwal, Rahul

    2009-01-01

    Background Head preservation is the mainstay of management in younger patients with neglected or ununited intracapsular fracture neck of femur. Very few reports have dealt with the results of valgus intertrochanteric osteotomy and fixation with dynamic hip screw in such cases. In this prospective study, we have tried to evaluate the role of valgus osteotomy and fixation with dynamic hip screw and 120° double angle barrel plate in neglected or ununited intracapsular fracture neck of femur in p...

  11. Weapons barrel life cycle determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nebojša Pene Hristov

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the dynamic processes within the gun barrel during the firing process in exploitation. It generally defines the basic principles of constructing tube elements, and shows the distortion of the basic geometry of the tube interior due to wear as well as the impact it causes during exploitation. The article also defines basic empirical models as well as a model based on fracture mechanics for the calculation of a use-life of the barrel, and other elements essential for the safe use of the barrel as the basic weapon element. Erosion causes are analysed in order to control and reduce wear and prolong the lifetime of the gun barrel. It gives directions for the reparation of barrels with wasted resources. In conclusion, the most influential elements of tube wear are given as well as possible modifications of existing systems, primarily propellant charges, with a purpose of prolonging lifetime of gun barrels. The guidelines for a proper determination of the lifetime based on the barrel condition assessment are given as well. INTRODUCTION The barrel as the basic element of each weapon is described as well as the processes occurring during the firing that have impulsive character and are accompanied by large amounts of energy. The basic elements of barrel and itheir constructive characteristics are descibed. The relation between Internal ballistics, ie calculation of the propellant gas pressure in the firing process, and structural elements defined by the barrel material resistance is shown. In general, this part of the study explains the methodology of the gun barrel structural elements calculation, ie. barrel geometry, taking into account the degrees of safety in accordance with Military Standards.   TUBE WEAR AND DEFORMATIONS The weapon barrel gradually wears out during exploitation due to which it no longer satisfies the set requirements. It is considered that the barrel has experienced a lifetime when it fails to fulfill the

  12. Resistive plate chambers for time-of-flight measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The applications of Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) have recently been extended by the development of counters with time resolution below 100 ps σ for minimum ionising particles. Applications to HEP experiments have already taken place and many further applications are under study. In this work, we address the operating principles of such counters along with some present challenges, with emphasis on counter ageing. Possible applications to radioisotope imaging will be outlined

  13. Data Quality Monitoring for the CMS Resistive Plate Chamber Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimmino, A.; CMS Collaboration

    2011-06-01

    Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs), with their excellent time resolution (˜ 2 ns), were chosen as dedicated muon trigger detectors for the CMS experiment. RPCs fulfill the job of muon identification, estimate the momentum and unambiguously assign bunch crossing. The critical tasks of monitoring detector performances, debugging hardware, and certifying recorded data are carried out by the RPC Data Quality Monitoring (DQM) system. We here describe the structure, functionalities, and performances of the DQM applications for the CMS RPC detector.

  14. Resistive plate chambers for muon detection at LHC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶沿林; 应军; 班勇; 刘洪涛; 蔡建新; 朱子美; 马经国; 陈陶; 钱思进

    2002-01-01

    One resistive plate chamber made of Chinese materials and one Italian resistive platechamber have been tested in the Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF) at CERN on a high intensitymuon beam together with a 137Cs source to give a uniform photon background, and simulatingconditions close to those expected for an LHC muon detector. The results are analyzed. Goodspace and time resolutions are obtained which satisfy the future CMS experiment requirements.The detection efficiency is different between two RPCs against a high irradiation background. Thereason is discussed.

  15. Temperature and humidity dependence of bulk resistivity of bakelite for resistive plate chambers in CMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents data obtained in a systematic study on the bulk resistivity of Korean bakelite as a function of temperature in the range 20-30 deg. C and relative humidity in the range 35-65%. Strong dependence of resistivity on both temperature and humidity was observed. Measurements were carried out in the framework of R and D work on Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) which will be used in the CMS detector

  16. Temperature and humidity dependence of bulk resistivity of bakelite for resistive plate chambers in CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Ahn, S H; Bahk, S Y; Gapienko, V A; Hong, B; Hong, S J; Jung, S Y; Kim, J Y; Kim, Y J; Kim, Y U; Koo, D G; Lee, K S; Lee, S J; Lee, Y L; Lim, I T; Nam, S K; Pac, M Y; Park, S K; Ra, Y S; Rhee, J T; Seo, S W; Sim, K S

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents data obtained in a systematic study on the bulk resistivity of Korean bakelike as a function of temperature in the range 20-30 degrees C and relative humidity in the range 35-65%. Strong dependence of resistivity on both temperature and humidity was observed. Measurements were carried out in the framework of R&D work on resistive plate chambers which will be used in the CMS detector. (4 refs).

  17. A resistive plate chamber muon detector for the CMS experiment at LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN will use Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) as a system for muon detection. RPCs will be also a relevant part of the dedicated muon trigger. The CMS barrel region will be equipped with 480 double gap RPCs operated in avalanche mode using a Freon based gas mixture. A great effort is being done to customize a detector able to satisfy the stringent requirements needed to operate in a hostile background environment during normal operation. Excellent muon efficiency, high rate capability, good time resolution, low cluster size and low neutron and gamma sensitivity will characterise the system. Such features have been carefully evaluated during the detector design and measured during the following R and D program. As the mass production started an intensive commitment period for monitoring the quality of the RPCs followed and involved researchers from Bari, Napoli, Pavia and Sofia Institutes. Production and assembling of the detectors was managed in Bari, Napoli, Sofia and at General Tecnica factory; cosmic rays tests in Pavia, Bari and Sofia assured the chambers final quality certification. Further tests at the CERN ISR site completed the process before the final installation on the experimental site. The detector performance will be analyzed in detail; the quality control procedures of the main RPC components will be reviewed as well as the cosmic test results for the mass production accomplished so far. Problems encountered and the adopted strategies for their solutions will be also discussed

  18. Performance and operation of the ATLAS Resistive Plate Chamber system in LHC Run-1

    CERN Document Server

    Boscherini, D; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The barrel region of the ATLAS muon spectrometer is instrumented with a Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC) system covering the pseudo-rapidity range |η|<1.05 with a detector surface of almost 4000 m2. The RPCs, providing the first level trigger signal and the track coordinate in the non-bending plane for the candidate muons, have played a fundamental role in the physics studies carried out by ATLAS, culminated with the discovery of the Higgs boson. During the LHC Run-1 the RPC have shown excellent performances up to the maximum instantaneous luminosity of 0.7 × 1034 cm−2 s−1, corresponding approximately to 70% of the design value. The detector operation in the challenging background and pileup conditions of the LHC environment will be presented together with the problems encountered and their corresponding solutions. The plans for the maintenance and consolidation of the ATLAS RPC system during the current LHC shutdown, in view of the increased luminosity expected in Run-2, will be also presented.

  19. Cyanide-free barrel plating process for continuous thickening of low-tin copper-tin alloy coating%无氰滚镀铜锡合金持续增厚工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯冰; 曾振欧; 范小玲; 雷晓云; 梁韵锐

    2013-01-01

    Low-tin Cu-Sn alloy coatings with a thickness of 20 μm above were prepared on low-carbon steel wafers by barrel plating from a cyanide-free bath. The effects of mass concentrations of Sn2P2O7 and K4P2O7, dosage of additive JZ-1, cathodic current density, and bath temperature on the composition and properties of Cu-Sn alloy coating were studied. The results showed that all factors studied have certain influence on composition, properties, and continuous thickening of the coating. The bath composition and process conditions for continuous thickening of Cu-Sn alloy coating are as follows: K4P2O7 350-400 g/L, Cu2P2O7·-4H2O 20-25 g/L, Sn2P2O7 1.5-2.0 g/L, K2HPO4·3H2O 60 g/L, additive JZ-1 0-0.5 ml/L, temperature 30-35 ℃, pH 8.5, cathodic current density 0.34-0.46 A/dm2, and rotation rate 15 r/min. The Cu-Sn alloy coating obtained by barrel plating under the optimal conditions for 4 h features a thickness of not less than 20 μm, 12-26wt% Sn, strong adhesion to steel substrate, excellent corrosion resistance, and good mechanical and physical properties.%以低碳钢圆饼为基体,在焦磷酸盐溶液体系中滚镀制备厚度为20 μm以上的低锡铜锡合金.研究了Sn2P2O7的质量浓度、K4P2O7的质量浓度、添加剂JZ-1的用量、阴极电流密度及镀液温度对铜锡合金镀层组成和性能的影响.结果表明,这些因素对镀层的组成、性能和持续增厚都有一定的影响.低锡铜锡合金镀层可持续增厚的镀液组成与工艺条件为:K4P2O7 350~400 g/L,Cu2P2O7·4H2O 20~25 g/L,Sn2P2O7 1.5~2.0 g/L,K2HPO4·3H2O 60 g/L,添加剂JZ-1 0 ~ 0.5 mL/L,pH 8.5,阴极电流密度0.34~0.46 A/dm2,镀液温度25~35℃,滚筒转速15 r/min,循环过滤.在上述条件下对钢铁基体滚镀4h可获得平均厚度为20 μm以上、锡的质量分数为12%~ 16%的铜锡合金镀层,该镀层与钢铁基体之间的结合力良好、耐蚀性能好,具有较好的机械性能与物理性能.

  20. Study of Performance of Bakelite Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC)

    CERN Document Server

    Ganai, R; Roy, A; Muduli, B; Chattopadhyay, S; Ahammed, Z; Das, G; Ramnarayan, S

    2016-01-01

    Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC) is a type of gaseous detector having excellent time and position resolutions. VECC is involved in the R\\&D of indigenously developed bakelite RPCs. The largest size of bakelite RPC developed in India is 100 cm $\\times$ 100 cm. We present here the test results of a bakelite sample along with the cosmic ray test results of a bakelite RPC (30 cm $\\times$ 30 cm $\\times$ 0.2cm) fabricated at VECC. The steps taken towards the development of a large size (240 cm $\\times$ 120 cm $\\times$ 0.2 cm) bakelite RPC have also been discussed.

  1. HF production in CMS-Resistive Plate Chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The formation of highly reactive compounds in the gas mixture during Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) operation at the CERN Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF) is studied. Results from two different types of chambers are discussed: 50 x 50 cm2 RPC prototypes and two final CMS-RB1 chambers. The RB1 detectors were also connected to a closed loop gas system. Gas composition, possible additional impurities as well as fluoride ions have been monitored in different gamma irradiation conditions both in open and closed loop mode. The chemical composition of the RPC electrode surface has also been analyzed using an electron microscope equipped with an EDS/X-ray

  2. Glass resistive plate chambers in the OPERA experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    OPERA is an underground neutrino oscillation experiment to search for ντ appearance from a pure νμ beam produced at CERN. To flag the events due to the neutrino interactions with the rock surrounding the OPERA detector, a large VETO system, based on the use of Glass Resistive Plate Chambers (GRPC) has been realized. We describe the detectors, the tests performed before the installation in the underground laboratories and the monitor system for the water pollution in the GRPC gas mixture

  3. Study of Performance of Bakelite Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC)

    OpenAIRE

    Ganai, R.; Agarwal, K.; Roy, A; Muduli, B.; Chattopadhyay, S; Ahammed, Z.; G Das; Ramnarayan, S.

    2016-01-01

    Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC) is a type of gaseous detector having excellent time and position resolutions. VECC is involved in the R\\&D of indigenously developed bakelite RPCs. The largest size of bakelite RPC developed in India is 100 cm $\\times$ 100 cm. We present here the test results of a bakelite sample along with the cosmic ray test results of a bakelite RPC (30 cm $\\times$ 30 cm $\\times$ 0.2cm) fabricated at VECC. The steps taken towards the development of a large size (240 cm $\\times...

  4. Corrosion-resistant, electrically-conductive plate for use in a fuel cell stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, J. David; Mawdsley, Jennifer R.; Niyogi, Suhas; Wang, Xiaoping; Cruse, Terry; Santos, Lilia

    2010-04-20

    A corrosion resistant, electrically-conductive, durable plate at least partially coated with an anchor coating and a corrosion resistant coating. The corrosion resistant coating made of at least a polymer and a plurality of corrosion resistant particles each having a surface area between about 1-20 m.sup.2/g and a diameter less than about 10 microns. Preferably, the plate is used as a bipolar plate in a proton exchange membrane (PEMFC) fuel cell stack.

  5. Resistive Plate Chambers commissioning and performance results for 2015

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC) detector system at the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment at the LHC confers robustness and redundancy to the muon trigger. During the first long shutdown of the LHC (2013-2014) the CMS muon RPC system has been upgraded with 144 double-gap chambers on the forth forward stations. A total of 1056 double-gap chambers cover the pseudo-rapidity region up to 1.6. The main detector parameters are constantly and closely monitored to achieve operational stability and high quality data in the harsh conditions of the second run period of the LHC (13 TeV and 25 ns bunch spacing). Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC) performance results for 2015 with pp collisions at 13 TeV are presented. These results include the occupancy, efficiency of newly installed detectors after applying new working point, history plots for the RPC relevant variables such as: Cluster Size, Efficiency, percentage of inactive detector during operation and Rates and overall system noise. RPC variables are studied as funct...

  6. Fire resistance of a steel plate reinforced concrete bearing wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kodaira, Akio; Kanchi, Masaki; Fujinaka, Hideo [Takenaka Corporation, Tokyo (Japan); Akita, Shodo [Japan Atomic Power Co., Tokyo (Japan); Ozaki, Masahiko [The Kansai Electric Power Co., Osaka (Japan)

    2003-06-01

    Samples from a steel plate reinforced concrete bearing wall composed of concrete slab sandwiched between studded steel plates, were subjected to loaded fire resistance tests. There were two types of specimens: some were 1800 mm high while the rest were 3000 mm high ; thickness and width were the same for all specimens, at 200 mm and 800 mm, respectively. Under constant load conditions, one side of each specimen was heated along the standard fire-temperature curve. The results enabled us to approximate the relationship between the ratio of working load to concrete strength N/(Ac x c {sigma} b) and the fire resistance time (t: minutes), as equation (1) for the 1800 mm - high specimen, and equation (2) for the 3000 mm - high specimen. N/(Ac x c {sigma} b) = 2.21 x (1/t){sup 0.323} (1), .N/(Ac x c {sigma} b) 2.30 x (1/t){sup 0.378} (2) In addition, the temperature of the unheated side of the specimens was 100degC at 240 minutes of continuous heating, clearly indicating that there was sufficient heat insulation. (author)

  7. Fire resistance of a steel plate reinforced concrete bearing wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samples from a steel plate reinforced concrete bearing wall composed of concrete slab sandwiched between studded steel plates, were subjected to loaded fire resistance tests. There were two types of specimens: some were 1800 mm high while the rest were 3000 mm high ; thickness and width were the same for all specimens, at 200 mm and 800 mm, respectively. Under constant load conditions, one side of each specimen was heated along the standard fire-temperature curve. The results enabled us to approximate the relationship between the ratio of working load to concrete strength N/(Ac x c σ b) and the fire resistance time (t: minutes), as equation (1) for the 1800 mm - high specimen, and equation (2) for the 3000 mm - high specimen. N/(Ac x c σ b) = 2.21 x (1/t)0.323 (1), .N/(Ac x c σ b) 2.30 x (1/t)0.378 (2) In addition, the temperature of the unheated side of the specimens was 100degC at 240 minutes of continuous heating, clearly indicating that there was sufficient heat insulation. (author)

  8. High-rate timing resistive plate chambers with ceramic electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laso Garcia, A.; Kotte, R.; Naumann, L.; Stach, D.; Wendisch, C.; Wüstenfeld, J.; Kämpfer, B.

    2016-05-01

    We describe recent advances in developing radiation-hard ceramic resistive plate chambers (CRPCs) with Si3N4/SiC composites. Bulk resistivity measurements for this material for different manufacturing processes are reported. The results show that the bulk resistivity ρ can vary between 107 and1013 Ω cm. The varistor type behaviour of the material is analysed. A comparison with other materials used in timing RPCs is given. We describe the assembly and tests of CRPC prototypes in electron and proton beams. For a prototype with ρ ~ 5 ×109 Ω cm, the efficiency of the detectors is 95% at a flux of 2 ×105cm-2s-1. The time resolution at the same flux is about 120 ps. A prototype with ρ ~ 2 ×1010 Ω cm shows an efficiency of about 85% up to fluxes of 5 ×104cm-2s-1 with a time resolution better than 80 ps. The results are compared with RPC models.

  9. Mechanical Self-shrinkage of Artillery Barrels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Ciorba

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective of this paper is to define what self-shrink artillery barrel is. She is considered to be a compound barrel like as a thick-walled tube (k>2, in his wall being introduced a state of stress and strain using specific technological proceeds. This type of treatment is aimed to increase the artillery barrel load capacity and wear resistance in operation. The experimental part was realized using an industrial plant at Mechanical Factory of Resita. This part presents a comparative study between mechanical self-shrinkage on artillery head barrel, first using a mandrel and seconds a ball.

  10. A Computational Model of Soil Adhesion and Resistance for a Non-smooth Bulldozing Plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi Wei-ping; Ren Lu-quan; Tian Li-mei

    2005-01-01

    Adhesive forces exist between soil and the surfaces of soil-engaging components; they increase working resistance and energy consumption. This paper tries to find an approach to reduce the adhesion and resistance of bulldozing plate. A simplified mechanical model of adhesion and resistance between soil and a non-smooth bulldozing plate is proposed. The interaction force between moist soil and a non-smooth bulldozing plate is analyzed. The pressure and friction distribution on the bulldozing plate are computed, and the anti-adhesive effect of a corrugated bulldozing plate is simulated numerically.Numerical results show that the wavy bulldozing plate achieves an effective drag reduction in moist soil. The optimal wavy shape of the corrugated bulldozing plate with the minimal resistance is designed. The basic principle of reducing soil adhesion of the non-smooth surface is discovered.

  11. Resistive Plate Chambers for 2013-2014 upgrade of CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Colafranceschi, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector operates at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. It was proposed to install the fourth endcap (+,- RE4) consisting of Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) for the CMS muon Endcap system, in order to improve its Level-1 trigger efficiency and thereby completing the full implementation of the TDR, after which LHC will run with its full designed luminosity. This station is currently being installed in the first Long Shutdown (LS-1) of LHC during 2013-2014. In this presentation, we will discuss about the entire procedure of standardization of leak and spacer tests for the gas-gaps, the new design for the Cu cooling system, assembly, testing and characterization of RPCs which is being executed in a synchronized way at the three assembly sites at CERN, BARC-Mumbai and University of Ghent, Belgium. In this talk the RPC chamber production and commissioning will be described in detail. Few preliminary results will be shown.

  12. Resistive Plate Chambers for the Pierre Auger array upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of the Pierre Auger Observatory upgrade, Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) have been proposed as a dedicated detector to better estimate the muonic component of Extensive Air Showers (EAS), further constraining the nature of the cosmic rays and hadronic interactions that take place in Extensive Air Showers development. RPCs are a very interesting option to fulfill the requirements: to cover large areas at low cost; particle counting from one to thousands of particles; few ns time resolution and outdoor standalone operation with very low maintenance. The present work refers to the latest advances and outcomes in order to ensure the capability of RPCs to fulfill the totality of the Auger upgrade requirements

  13. Resistive Plate Chamber Digitization in a Hadronic Shower Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Deng, Z; Wang, Y; Yue, Q; Yang, Z; Apostolakis, J; Folger, G; Grefe, C; Ivantchenko, V; Ribon, A; Uzhinskiy, V; Boumediene, D; Carloganu, C; Français, V; Cho, G; Kim, D-W; Lee, S C; Park, W; Vallecorsa, S; Cauwenbergh, S; Tytgat, M; Pingault, A; Zaganidis, N; Brianne, E; Ebrahimi, A; Gadow, K; Göttlicher, P; Günter, C; Hartbrich, O; Hermberg, B; Irles, A; Krivan, F; Krüger, K; Kvasnicka, J; Lu, S; Lutz, B; Morgunov, V; Neubüser, C; Provenza, A; Reinecke, M; Sefkow, F; Schuwalow, S; Tran, H L; Garutti, E; Laurien, S; Matysek, M; Ramilli, M; Schroeder, S; Bilki, B; Norbeck, E; Northacker, D; Onel, Y; Chang, S; Khan, A; Kim, D H; Kong, D.J; Oh, Y D; Kawagoe, K; Hirai, H; Sudo, Y; Suehara, T; Sumida, H; Yoshioka, T; Gil, E Cortina; Mannai, S; Buridon, V; Combaret, C; Caponetto, L; Eté, R; Garillot, G; Grenier, G; Han, R; Ianigro, J C; Kieffer, R; Laktineh, I; Lumb, N; Mathez, H; Mirabito, L; Petrukhin, A; Steen, A; Antequera, J Berenguer; Alamillo, E Calvo; Fouz, M-C; Marin, J; Puerta-Pelayo, J; Verdugo, A; Chadeeva, M; Danilov, M; Gabriel, M; Goecke, P; Kiesling, C; vanderKolk, N; Simon, F; Szalay, M; Bilokin, S; Bonis, J; Cornebise, P; Richard, F; Pöschl, R; Rouëné, J; Thiebault, A; Zerwas, D; Anduze, M; Balagura, V; Belkadhi, K; Boudry, V; Brient, J-C; Cornat, R; Frotin, M; Gastaldi, F; Haddad, Y; Magniette, F; Ruan, M; Rubio-Roy, M; Shpak, K; Videau, H; Yu, D; Callier, S; di Lorenzo, S Conforti; Dulucq, F; Martin-Chassard, G; de la Taille, Ch; Raux, L; Seguin-Moreau, N; Kotera, K; Ono, H; Takeshita, T; Corriveau, F

    2016-01-01

    The CALICE Semi-Digital Hadron Calorimeter (SDHCAL) technological prototype is a sampling calorimeter using Glass Resistive Plate Chamber detectors with a three-threshold readout as the active medium. This technology is one of the two options proposed for the hadron calorimeter of the International Large Detector for the International Linear Collider. The prototype was exposed to beams of muons, electrons and pions of different energies at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron. To be able to study the performance of such a calorimeter in future experiments it is important to ensure reliable simulation of its response. In this paper we present our prototype simulation performed with GEANT4 and the digitization procedure achieved with an algorithm called SimDigital. A detailed description of this algorithm is given and the methods to determinate its parameters using muon tracks and electromagnetic showers are explained. The comparison with hadronic shower data shows a good agreement up to 50 GeV. Discrepancies are ...

  14. Gas mixture studies for streamer operated Resistive Plate Chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoloni, A.; Longhin, A.; Mengucci, A.; Pupilli, F.; Ventura, M.

    2016-06-01

    Resistive Plate Chambers operated in streamer mode are interesting detectors in neutrino and astro-particle physics applications (like OPERA and ARGO experiments). Such experiments are typically characterized by large area apparatuses with no stringent requirements on detector aging and rate capabilities. In this paper, results of cosmic ray tests performed on a RPC prototype using different gas mixtures are presented, the principal aim being the optimization of the TetraFluoroPropene concentration in Argon-based mixtures. The introduction of TetraFluoroPropene, besides its low Global Warming Power, is helpful because it simplifies safety requirements allowing to remove also isobutane from the mixture. Results obtained with mixtures containing SF6, CF4, CO2, N2 and He are also shown, presented both in terms of detectors properties (efficiency, multiple-streamer probability and time resolution) and in terms of streamer characteristics.

  15. Production and quality control of the Barrel RPC chambers of the CMS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Piccolo, D; Cavallo, E; Colaleo, A; Iaselli, G; Loddo, F; Maggi, M; Marangelli, B; Natali, S; Nuzzo, S; Pulgliese, G; Ranieri, A; Romano, F; Trentadue, R; Cavallo, N; Comunale, G; Fabozzi, F; Paolucci, P; Sciacca, C; Belli, G; De Vecchi, C; Guida, R; Ratti, S P; Riccardi, G; Torre, P; Vitulo, P; Ban, Y; Hong Tao Liu; Si Jin Quian; Yan Lin Ye; Jun Ying; Anguelov, T; Guenchev, V; Panev, B; Piperov, S; Sultanov, G G; Vankov, P; Dimitrov, A; Glushkov, I; Litov, L; Nasteva, I; Pavlov, B; Petkov, P

    2006-01-01

    Resistive Plate Chambers, working in avalanche mode, have been chosen as dedicated muon detector both in barrel and endcap region of the CMS experiment for their fast response and for their capability to be produced as tracking devices on large areas. The production of the barrel RPC chambers will be reported here with special enphasis on the quality control and on the acceptation criteria carried out during the production. Results of the tests with cosmic rays both in production and testing sites will be summerized putting in evidence the problems and the critical issues characterizing the different phases of the construction.

  16. A corrosion resistant cerium oxide based coating on aluminum alloy 2024 prepared by brush plating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerium oxide based coatings were prepared on AA2024 Al alloy by brush plating. The characteristic of this technology is that hydrogen peroxide, which usually causes the plating solution to be unstable, is not necessary in the plating electrolyte. The coating showed laminated structures and good adhesive strength with the substrate. X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis showed that the coatings were composed of Ce(III) and Ce(IV) oxides. The brush plated coatings on Al alloys improved corrosion resistance. The influence of plating parameters on structure and corrosion resistance of the cerium oxide based coating was studied.

  17. A corrosion resistant cerium oxide based coating on aluminum alloy 2024 prepared by brush plating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang Junlei; Han Zhongzhi [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Zuo Yu, E-mail: zuoy@mail.buct.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Tang Yuming [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China)

    2011-01-15

    Cerium oxide based coatings were prepared on AA2024 Al alloy by brush plating. The characteristic of this technology is that hydrogen peroxide, which usually causes the plating solution to be unstable, is not necessary in the plating electrolyte. The coating showed laminated structures and good adhesive strength with the substrate. X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis showed that the coatings were composed of Ce(III) and Ce(IV) oxides. The brush plated coatings on Al alloys improved corrosion resistance. The influence of plating parameters on structure and corrosion resistance of the cerium oxide based coating was studied.

  18. The ATLAS Barrel Level-1 Muon Trigger Processor Performances

    CERN Document Server

    Bocci, V; Ciapetti, G; De Pedis, D; Di Girolamo, A; Di Mattia, A; Gennari, E; Luci, C; Nisati, A; Pasqualucci, E; Pastore, F; Petrolo, E; Spila, F; Vari,, R; Veneziano, S; Zanelli, L; Aielli, G; Cardarelli, R; Di Ciaccio, A; Di Simone, A; Di Stante, L; Salamon, A; Santonico, R; Aloisio, A; Alviggi, M G; Canale, V; Carlino, G; Conventi, F; De Asmundis, R; Della Pietra, M; Delle Volpe, D; Iengo, P; Izzo, V; Migliaccio, A; Patricelli, S; Sekhniaidze, G; Brambilla, Elena; Cataldi, G; Gorini, E; Grancagnolo, F; Perrino, R; Primavera, M; Spagnolo, S; Aprodo, V; Bartos, D; Buda, S; Constantin, S; Dogaru, M; Magureanu, C; Pectu, M; Prodan, L; Rusu, A; Uroseviteanu, C

    2005-01-01

    The ATLAS level-1 muon trigger will select events with high transverse momentum and tag them to the correct machine bunch-crossing number with high efficiency. Three stations of dedicated fast detectors provide a coarse pT measurement, with tracking capability on bending and non-bending pro jections. In the Barrel region, hits from doublets of Resistive Plate Chambers are processed by custom ASIC, the Coincidence Matrices, which performs almost all the functionalities required by the trigger algorithm and the readout. In this paper we present the performance of the level-1 trigger system studied on a cosmic test stand at CERN, concerning studies on expected trigger rates and efficiencies.

  19. Efficiency Studies of the PHENIX Resistive Plate Chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Aric

    2012-10-01

    At Brookhaven National Laboratory the PHENIX experiment on the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) studies polarized p+p collisions in an effort to better understand the contribution of sea quarks to the spin structure of the proton. To enable PHENIX to measure these contributions a trigger upgrade was needed to improve the ability of the data acquisition system to select single high transverse momentum muon events. A key component to the trigger upgrade was the addition of two stations of Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) in each muon arm. These chambers were installed and fully implemented prior to the last RHIC run. To ensure that the RPCs will continue to perform efficiently many tests have been done, both on the installed chambers and spare chambers on a cosmic test stand. An efficiency versus high voltage test was run with the cosmic stand as well as an efficiency versus threshold test to try and maximize efficiency without gaining noise. A noise versus threshold scan helped determine at what threshold the RPCs best perform. These tests help us to operate the RPCs at a high efficiency and low noise manner. The analysis and results of these tests will be presented.

  20. Development of linseed oil-free bakelite resistive plate chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Biswas, S; Bose, S; Chattopadhyay, S; Saha, S; Viyogi, Y P

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we would like to present a few characteristics of the Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC) made of a particular grade of bakelite paper laminates (P-120, NEMA LI-1989 Grade XXX), produced and commercially available in India. This particular grade is used for high voltage insulation in humid conditions. The chambers are tested with cosmic rays in the streamer mode using argon, tetrafluroethane and isobutane in 34:59:7 mixing ratio. In the first set of detectors made with such grade, a thin coating of silicone fluid on the inner surfaces of the bakelite was found to be necessary for operation of the detector. Those silicone coated RPCs were found to give satisfactory performance with stable efficiency of >90% continuously for a long period as reported earlier. Results of the crosstalk measurement of these silicone coated RPC will be presented in this paper. Very recently RPCs made with the same grade of bakelite but having better surface finish, are found to give equivalent performance even without any ...

  1. Resistive Plate Chamber digitization in a hadronic shower environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Z.; Li, Y.; Wang, Y.; Yue, Q.; Yang, Z.; Boumediene, D.; Carloganu, C.; Français, V.; Cho, G.; Kim, D.-W.; Lee, S. C.; Park, W.; Vallecorsa, S.; Apostolakis, J.; Folger, G.; Grefe, C.; Ivantchenko, V.; Ribon, A.; Uzhinskiy, V.; Cauwenbergh, S.; Tytgat, M.; Pingault, A.; Zaganidis, N.; Brianne, E.; Ebrahimi, A.; Gadow, K.; Göttlicher, P.; Günter, C.; Hartbrich, O.; Hermberg, B.; Irles, A.; Krivan, F.; Krüger, K.; Kvasnicka, J.; Lu, S.; Lutz, B.; Morgunov, V.; Neubüser, C.; Provenza, A.; Reinecke, M.; Sefkow, F.; Schuwalow, S.; Tran, H. L.; Garutti, E.; Laurien, S.; Matysek, M.; Ramilli, M.; Schroeder, S.; Bilki, B.; Norbeck, E.; Northacker, D.; Onel, Y.; Chang, S.; Khan, A.; Kim, D. H.; Kong, D. J.; Oh, Y. D.; Kawagoe, K.; Hirai, H.; Sudo, Y.; Suehara, T.; Sumida, H.; Yoshioka, T.; Cortina Gil, E.; Mannai, S.; Buridon, V.; Combaret, C.; Caponetto, L.; Eté, R.; Garillot, G.; Grenier, G.; Han, R.; Ianigro, J. C.; Kieffer, R.; Laktineh, I.; Lumb, N.; Mathez, H.; Mirabito, L.; Petrukhin, A.; Steen, A.; Berenguer Antequera, J.; Calvo Alamillo, E.; Fouz, M.-C.; Marin, J.; Puerta-Pelayo, J.; Verdugo, A.; Chadeeva, M.; Danilov, M.; Corriveau, F.; Gabriel, M.; Goecke, P.; Kiesling, C.; van der Kolk, N.; Simon, F.; Szalay, M.; Bilokin, S.; Bonis, J.; Cornebise, P.; Richard, F.; Pöschl, R.; Rouëné, J.; Thiebault, A.; Zerwas, D.; Anduze, M.; Balagura, V.; Belkadhi, K.; Boudry, V.; Brient, J.-C.; Cornat, R.; Frotin, M.; Gastaldi, F.; Haddad, Y.; Magniette, F.; Ruan, M.; Rubio-Roy, M.; Shpak, K.; Videau, H.; Yu, D.; Callier, S.; Conforti di Lorenzo, S.; Dulucq, F.; Martin-Chassard, G.; de la Taille, Ch.; Raux, L.; Seguin-Moreau, N.; Kotera, K.; Ono, H.; Takeshita, T.

    2016-06-01

    The CALICE Semi-Digital Hadronic Calorimeter technological prototype is a sampling calorimeter using Glass Resistive Plate Chamber detectors with a three-threshold readout as the active medium. This technology is one of the two options proposed for the hadronic calorimeter of the International Large Detector for the International Linear Collider. The prototype was exposed to beams of muons, electrons and pions of different energies at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron. To be able to study the performance of such a calorimeter in future experiments it is important to ensure reliable simulation of its response. This paper presents the SDHCAL prototype simulation performed with GEANT4 and the digitization procedure achieved with an algorithm called SimDigital. A detailed description of this algorithm is given and the methods to determinate its parameters using muon tracks and electromagnetic showers are explained. The comparison with hadronic shower data shows a good agreement up to 50 GeV. Discrepancies are observed at higher energies. The reasons for these differences are investigated.

  2. Evaluation of Petrifilm™ Select E. coli Count Plate medium to discriminate antimicrobial resistant Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jensen Lars

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Screening and enumeration of antimicrobial resistant Escherichia coli directly from samples is needed to identify emerging resistant clones and obtain quantitative data for risk assessment. Aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of 3M™ Petrifilm™ Select E. coli Count Plate (SEC plate supplemented with antimicrobials to discriminate antimicrobial-resistant and non-resistant E. coli. Method A range of E. coli isolates were tested by agar dilution method comparing the Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC for eight antimicrobials obtained by Mueller-Hinton II agar, MacConkey agar and SEC plates. Kappa statistics was used to assess the levels of agreement when classifying strains as resistant, intermediate or susceptible. Results SEC plate showed that 74% of all strains agreed within ± 1 log2 dilution when comparing MICs with Mueller-Hinton II media. High agreement levels were found for gentamicin, ampicillin, chloramphenicol and cefotaxime, resulting in a kappa value of 0.9 and 100% agreement within ± 1 log2 dilution. Significant variances were observed for oxytetracycline and sulphamethoxazole. Further tests showed that the observed discrepancy in classification of susceptibility to oxytetracycline by the two media could be overcome when a plate-dependent breakpoint of 64 mg/L was used for SEC plates. For sulphamethoxazole, SEC plates provided unacceptably high MICs. Conclusion SEC plates showed good agreement with Mueller-Hinton II agar in MIC studies and can be used to screen and discriminate resistant E. coli for ampicillin, cephalothin, streptomycin, chloramphenicol, cefotaxime and gentamicin using CLSI standardized breakpoints, but not for sulphamethoxazole. SEC plates can also be used to discriminate oxytetracycline-resistant E. coli if a plate-dependent breakpoint value of 64 mg/L is used.

  3. Completion of the TRT Barrel

    CERN Multimedia

    Gagnon, P

    On February 3, the US-TRT team proudly completed the installation of the 96th barrel TRT module on its support structure in the SR building at CERN. This happy event came after many years of R&D initiated in the nineties by the TA1 team at CERN, followed by the construction of the modules in three American institutes (Duke, Hampton and Indiana Universities) from 1996 to 2003. In total, the 96 barrel modules contain 52544 kapton straws, each 4 mm in diameter and strung with a 30 micron gold-plated tungsten wire. Each wire was manually inserted, a feat in itself! The inner layer modules contain 329 straws, the middle layer modules have 520 straws and the outer layer, 793 straws. Thirty- two modules of each type form a full layer. Their special geometry was designed such as to leave no dead region. On average, a particle will cross 36 straws. Kirill Egorov, Chuck Mahlon and John Callahan inserted the last module in the Barrel Support Structure. After completion in the US, all modules were transferred...

  4. Triggering and measuring bent cosmic muon tracks with the Muon Spectrometer barrel for the first time

    CERN Multimedia

    Fabio Cerutti

    During the ATLAS barrel toroid stability test, bent cosmic muon tracks were seen for the first time in the ATLAS cavern by means of the ATLAS muon spectrometer. The barrel toroid has been powered at its nominal current (20.5 thousand Amperes) and kept in steady state for more than one day during the weekend of 18-19 November (see a report on this test in the Magnet section). During this test one large sector and part of a small sector of the barrel muon spectrometer were readout and used to detect the cosmic muons tracks bent by the toroidal magnetic field. Thirteen muon stations in the feet sectors (sectors 13 and 14) have been used in this test. The muon stations are formed of Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC) that were providing the muon trigger, and Monitored Drift Tubes that were used to measure with high accuracy the muon curvature hence their momentum. The Level-1 Barrel trigger chain was based on the Barrel Middle Large chambers equipped with final production modules on both the on-detector and the o...

  5. Nuclear reactor alignment plate configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altman, David A; Forsyth, David R; Smith, Richard E; Singleton, Norman R

    2014-01-28

    An alignment plate that is attached to a core barrel of a pressurized water reactor and fits within slots within a top plate of a lower core shroud and upper core plate to maintain lateral alignment of the reactor internals. The alignment plate is connected to the core barrel through two vertically-spaced dowel pins that extend from the outside surface of the core barrel through a reinforcement pad and into corresponding holes in the alignment plate. Additionally, threaded fasteners are inserted around the perimeter of the reinforcement pad and into the alignment plate to further secure the alignment plate to the core barrel. A fillet weld also is deposited around the perimeter of the reinforcement pad. To accomodate thermal growth between the alignment plate and the core barrel, a gap is left above, below and at both sides of one of the dowel pins in the alignment plate holes through with the dowel pins pass.

  6. Antibiotic resistance in triclosan heterotrophic plate count bacteria from sewage water / Ilsé Coetzee

    OpenAIRE

    Coetzee, Ilsé

    2015-01-01

    The concentration of triclosan in antiseptics, disinfectants and preservatives in products exceeds the minimal lethal levels. Extensive use of triclosan and antibiotics results in bacterial resistance to their active ingredients. The precise relationship between use and resistance, however, has been challenging to define. The aim of the study was to identify and determine antibiotic resistance profiles of triclosan tolerant heterotrophic plate count bacteria isolates from sewag...

  7. SCT Barrel Assembly Complete

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Batchelor

    As reported in the April 2005 issue of the ATLAS eNews, the first of the four Semiconductor Tracker (SCT) barrels, complete with modules and services, arrived safely at CERN in January of 2005. In the months since January, the other three completed barrels arrived as well, and integration of the four barrels into the entire barrel assembly commenced at CERN, in the SR1 building on the ATLAS experimental site, in July. Assembly was completed on schedule in September, with the addition of the innermost layer to the 4-barrel assembly. Work is now underway to seal the barrel thermal enclosure. This is necessary in order to enclose the silicon tracker in a nitrogen atmosphere and provide it with faraday-cage protection, and is a delicate and complicated task: 352 silicon module powertapes, 352 readout-fibre bundles, and over 400 Detector Control System sensors must be carefully sealed into the thermal enclosure bulkhead. The team is currently verifying the integrity of the low mass cooling system, which must be d...

  8. An electroless plating film of palladium on 304 stainless steel and its excellent corrosion resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An uniform palladium film on 304 stainless steel was obtained by electroless plating. Scanning electronic microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, weight loss tests and electrochemical measurements were used to character the properties of the film. The palladium plated stainless steel samples showed excellent corrosion resistance in strong reductive corrosion mediums. In boiling dilute sulfuric acid solutions and boiling acetic/formic acids, corrosion rates of palladium plated 304 stainless steel samples were 3 or 4 orders of magnitude lower than the original 304 stainless steel samples. In solutions with NaCl concentration less that 0.1%, the palladium plated samples also showed better corrosion resistance. The function of palladium film on stainless steel is to raise the electrode potential and promote passivation of the steel in strong corrosive environments

  9. Solution of two-dimensional flow in partially blocked parallel plates using electrical resistive network method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two-dimensional flow in partially blocked parallel plates with partially intact fuel rods is treated using the electrical resistive network method. The dimensions of the plate are approximately equivalent to those at the Clinch River Breeder Reactor fuel subassembly. In the analysis, expansion and contraction losses are found to be negligible. The Burke-Plummer equation is used for both axial and across-the-plate flows for the blockage region. The results show that the penetrating flow through the blockage is substantially larger than that given by one-dimensional cylindrical geometry analysis. (orig.)

  10. Study of electrostatic potential in the GAMMA 10 end region with variation of end plate resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatematsu, Yoshinori; Saito, Teruo; Imaizumi, Yusuke; Nishida, Keiichi; Yokoyama, Eiji; Ishikawa, Masao; Katanuma, Isao; Tatsu, Kiyoshi [Tsukuba Univ., Plasma Research Center, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Kajiwara, Ken [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment

    2001-07-01

    An experiment of variation of an end plate resistance over several orders of magnitude is carried out in GAMMA 10. The axial potential distribution in the end region is measured for a wide range of an end plate net current. A potential model which calculates a potential distribution in front of a current carrying wall is developed. The potential depth from a mirror throat (B=3 T) to the end plate (B=0.01 T) is calculated with this model. The experimental results are well explained by this model. (author)

  11. Response of a resistive plate chamber to particles leaking laterally from a thick absorber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resistive plate chamber detectors, working in streamer mode, have been chosen to equip the ALICE/LHC dimuon trigger. In ALICE, the detector will be placed orthogonal to a thick beam shield. Tests of the detector have been performed in order to investigate its performances in such running conditions. These tests show that resistive plate chambers can be operated in streamer mode in these particular conditions without dramatic deterioration of the overall performances. FLUKA simulations reproduce the experimental results within a factor 1.5. Such a test is not only relevant for the ALICE dimuon trigger but for all collider experiments using the RPC detector

  12. TRT Barrel milestones passed

    CERN Multimedia

    Ogren, H

    2004-01-01

    The barrel TRT detector passed three significant milestones this spring. The Barrel Support Structure (BSS) was completed and moved to the SR-1 building on February 24th. On March 12th the first module passed the quality assurance testing in Building 154 and was transported to the assembly site in the SR-1 building for barrel assembly. Then on April 21st the final production module that had been scanned at Hampton University was shipped to CERN. TRT Barrel Module Production The production of the full complement of barrel modules (96 plus 9 total spares) is now complete. This has been a five-year effort by Duke University, Hampton University, and Indiana University. Actual construction of the modules in the United States was completed in the first part of 2004. The production crews at each of the sites in the United States have now completed their missions. They are shown in the following pictures. Duke University: Production crew with the final completed module. Indiana University: Module producti...

  13. Prototyping the PANDA Barrel DIRC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarz, C., E-mail: C.Schwarz@gsi.de [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Kalicy, G.; Dzhygadlo, R.; Gerhardt, A.; Götzen, K.; Hohler, R.; Kumawat, H.; Lehmann, D.; Lewandowski, B.; Patsyuk, M.; Peters, K.; Schepers, G.; Schmitt, L.; Schwiening, J.; Traxler, M.; Zühlsdorf, M. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Dodokhov, V.Kh. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Britting, A.; Eyrich, W.; Lehmann, A. [Friedrich Alexander-University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen (Germany); and others

    2014-12-01

    The design of the Barrel DIRC detector for the future PANDA experiment at FAIR contains several important improvements compared to the successful BABAR DIRC, such as focusing and fast timing. To test those improvements as well as other design options a prototype was build and successfully tested in 2012 with particle beams at CERN. The prototype comprises a radiator bar, focusing lens, mirror, and a prism shaped expansion volume made of synthetic fused silica. An array of micro-channel plate photomultiplier tubes measures the location and arrival time of the Cherenkov photons with sub-nanosecond resolution. The development of a fast reconstruction algorithm allowed to tune construction details of the detector setup with test beam data and Monte-Carlo simulations.

  14. The MDT Barrel Organ

    CERN Multimedia

    Claudia Marcelloni de Oliveira

    Have you ever looked for an interesting use for the spare detector parts once the construction phase was finished? Henk Tiecke, with the help of Oscar van Petten and Marco Kraan, all from NIKHEF, came up with a great idea for leftover MDT tubes. They simply built a pipe organ! See the MDT Barrel Organ in action, as recorded during a party thrown on the occasion of the first shipment of MDT chambers from NIKHEF to CERN. Want to know more about the organ? Please contact Henk Tiecke. Henk Tiecke playing the MDT Barrel Organ.

  15. Barrelled locally convex spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Pérez Carreras, P

    1987-01-01

    This book is a systematic treatment of barrelled spaces, and of structures in which barrelledness conditions are significant. It is a fairly self-contained study of the structural theory of those spaces, concentrating on the basic phenomena in the theory, and presenting a variety of functional-analytic techniques.Beginning with some basic and important results in different branches of Analysis, the volume deals with Baire spaces, presents a variety of techniques, and gives the necessary definitions, exploring conditions on discs to ensure that they are absorbed by the barrels of the sp

  16. Thin Concrete Barrel Vault

    OpenAIRE

    Kamerling, M.W.

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents the structural design of a thin barrel vault constructed with Fusée Ceramique infill elements. The load transfer is analyzed and validated. For the structure composed of Fusée Ceramique elements, steel and concrete the stresses are calculated and compared to the stresses given in the codes used from 1950 to the present. The advantages and disadvantages of these low rise barrel vaults are showed. Further the possibilities of a light infill to reduce, for structures of concre...

  17. Position information by signal analysis in real time from resistive anode microchannel plate detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, K.; Benmaimon, R.; Prabhakaran, A.; Rappaport, M. L.; Heber, O.; Schwalm, D.; Zajfman, D.

    2016-07-01

    Resistive anode multichannel plate detectors are extensively used for imaging photons, electrons and ions. We present a method to acquire position information from such detector systems by considering simple parameters of the signals produced from the resistive anode encoder. Our technique is easy to implement and computes position in real time during experiments. Position information can be obtained using our method without the need for dedicated position analyser units.

  18. Highly efficient resistive plate chambers for high rate environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The full scale prototype of an Inverted Double Gap RPC module for ME-1/1 station of the CMS detector was tested in the Gamma Irradiation Facility at the CERN SPS muon beam. The chamber made of medium resistivity bakelite and filled with 'green gas' mixture of C2H2F4/iso-butane/SF6 has wide efficiency plateau and good timing properties when operated in avalanche mode under continuous irradiation with strong 137Cs source for rates up to about 5 kHz/cm2/gap

  19. Enhanced microwave absorbing properties and heat resistance of carbonyl iron by electroless plating Co

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongyu; Zhu, Dongmei; Zhou, Wancheng; Luo, Fa

    2015-11-01

    Co coated carbonyl iron particles (Co (CI)) are fabricated through electroless plating method, and the electromagnetic microwave absorbing properties are investigated in the frequencies during 8.2-12.4 GHz. The complex permittivity of CI particles after electroless plating Co is higher than that of raw CI particles due to improvment of the polarization process. Furthermore, according to the XRD and TG results, the Co layer can enhance the heat resistance of CI particles. The bandwidth below -10 dB can reach 3.9 GHz for the Co(CI) absorbent. The results indicate that the electroless plating Co not only enhances the absorbing properties but also improves the heat resistance of CI.

  20. Corrosion resistance of Mg-Mn-Ce magnesium alloy modified by polymer plating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Polymeric nano-film on the surface of Mg-Mn-Ce magnesium alloy was fabricated by polymer plating of 6-dihexylamino-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-dithiol monosodium(DHN)to improve its corrosion resistance.The electrochemical reaction process was analyzed by cyclic voltammetry and two obvious peaks of oxidation reaction were observed.The static contact angle of distilled water on polymer-plated surface can be up to 106.3°while on the blank surface it is 45.8°.Potentiodynamic polarization results show that the polymeric film Can increase the corrosion potential from-1.594 V VS SCE for blank to-0.382 V VS SCE.The results of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy indicate that the charge transfer resistances of blank and polymer-plated fabricating hydrophobic film on Mg-Mn-Ce alloy surface and improving its anti-corrosion property.

  1. Properties of a six-gap timing resistive plate chamber with strip readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Six-gap glass timing resistive plate chamber with strip readout was tested using IHEP U-70 PS test beam. The time resolution of ∼ 45 ps at efficiency larger than 98% was achieved. Position resolution along strip was estimated to be ∼1 cm

  2. Thin Concrete Barrel Vault

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamerling, M.W.

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents the structural design of a thin barrel vault constructed with Fusée Ceramique infill elements. The load transfer is analyzed and validated. For the structure composed of Fusée Ceramique elements, steel and concrete the stresses are calculated and compared to the stresses given in

  3. A crystal barrel

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The production of crystals for the barrel of the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter has been completed. This is an important milestone for the experiment, which received the last of its 62,960 crystals on 9 March. The members of the team responsible for the crystal acceptance testing at CERN display the last crystal for the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter barrel. From left to right: Igor Tarasov, Etiennette Auffray and Hervé Cornet.One of the six machines specially developed to measure 67 different parameters on each crystal. Igor Tarasov is seen inserting the last batch of crystals into the machine. The last of the 62,960 CMS barrel crystals arrived at CERN on 9 March. Once removed from its polystyrene protection, this delicate crystal, like thousands of its predecessors, will be inserted into the last of the 36 supermodules of the barrel electromagnetic calorimeter in a few days' time. This marks the end of an important chapter in an almost 15-year-long journey by the CMS crystals team, some of whose member...

  4. The properties of glass resistive plate chambers made of different glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glass resistive plate chambers (GRPCs) have been proposed as the basic element for the JUNO top tracker detector. With good uniform performance and low cost, GRPCs are well suited for large area experiments. Glass RPCs used in underground experiments require specially designed cassette and gas flow systems, since the glass is fragile and easily corroded by acid generated by water entering the gas-filled chamber. High-strength and chemical-resistant glasses have been proposed for underground experiments. We present here the test results of four GRPC chambers made of different glasses: normal thin glass, two high-strength glasses, and a chemical-resistant glass. The chemical-resistant and high-strength glasses have good surface quality, but their volume resistivities are higher. Higher resistivities lead to a higher required voltage to reach plateau operation, meaning that these glasses can only work in a very low rate experiment

  5. Electron beam lithography of Fresnel zone plates using a rectilinear machine and trilayer resists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe the use of a commercial e-beam lithography system (JEOL JBX-6000FS) to fabricate Fresnel zone plates for x-ray microscopy. The machine is capable of controlling the pitch of optical gratings with sub-nanometer precision, so its beam placement properties are more than adequate for zone plate fabrication. The zone plate pattern is written into a thin top layer (PMMA or Calixarene) of a trilayer resist, and transferred into thick nickel zones using reactive ion etching (RIE) followed by electroplating. Zone plates with outermost zone widths of 30 nm have exhibited efficiencies up to 10.0% at a 390 eV photon energy and with diameters in the range 80 to 120 μm. Zone plates with outer zones of 18 to 20 nm were also fabricated in thinner Ni with correspondingly lower efficiencies of 2.6%. Zone plates with outermost zone widths of 45 nm have been fabricated with larger diameters up to 160 μm. All results reported were obtained with a 50 kV system with 80 μm field deflection size; future efforts will make use of a 100 kV, 500 μm field size system

  6. Cavitation-erosion resistance of arc ion-plated (Ti, Cr) N coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The cavitation-erosion behavior of (Ti,Cr)N multi-component coatings produced by arcion-plating on grey cast iron was studied by using an ultrasonic cavitation -erosion testing appara-tus and scanning electron microscopy. The test results indicated that surface roughness of thesubstrate, surface morphology of the coating, substrate bias voltage and the thickness of the coat-ing had certain influence on the erosion rate. Arc ion-plated (Ti,Cr)N multi-component coatingsshowed better cavitation -erosion resistance than single component coatings because of highermicrohardness and good adhesion.

  7. On Free Vibrations of Orthotropic Plates in the Presence of Viscous Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aghalovyan L.A.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The three-dimensional problem of elasticity theory of the free vibrations of orthotropic plates in the presence of viscous resistance, on the facial plane of which mixed-boundary conditions of elasticity theory are given is considered. By the asymptotic method it is shown that 3 groups of free vibrations, 2 groups of shearing and 1 group of longitudinal free vibrations are appeared. The stress-deformed states, principal values of frequencies and the forms of natural vibrations of plates relevant to 3 groups of free vibrations are determined.

  8. Study of RPC Barrel maximum efficiency in 2012 and 2015 calibration collision runs

    CERN Document Server

    Cassar, Samwel

    2015-01-01

    The maximum efficiency of each of the 1020 Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC) rolls in the barrel region of the CMS muon detector is calculated from the best sigmoid fit of efficiency against high voltage (HV). Data from the HV scans, collected during calibration runs in 2012 and 2015, were compared and the rolls exhibiting a change in maximum efficiency were identified. The chi-square value of the sigmoid fit for each roll was considered in determining the significance of the maximum efficiency for the respective roll.

  9. Fracture toughness and crack growth resistance of pressure vessel plate and weld metal steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compact tension specimens were used to measure the initiation fracture toughness and crack growth resistance of pressure vessel steel plates and submerged arc weld metal. Plate test specimens were manufactured from four different casts of steel comprising: aluminium killed C-Mn-Mo-Cu and C-Mn steel and two silicon killed C-Mn steels. Unionmelt No. 2 weld metal test specimens were extracted from welds of double V butt geometry having either the C-Mn-Mo-Cu steel (three weld joints) or one particular silicon killed C-Mn steel (two weld joints) as parent plate. A multiple specimen test technique was used to obtain crack growth data which were analysed by simple linear regression to determine the crack growth resistance lines and to derive the initiation fracture toughness values for each test temperature. These regression lines were highly scattered with respect to temperature and it was very difficult to determine precisely the temperature dependence of the initiation fracture toughness and crack growth resistance. The data were re-analysed, using a multiple linear regression method, to obtain a relationship between the materials' crack growth resistance and toughness, and the principal independent variables (temperature, crack growth, weld joint code and strain ageing). (author)

  10. PLATE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kling, Joyce; Hjulmand, Lise-Lotte

    2008-01-01

    Project in Language Assessment for Teaching in English (PLATE) language professionals from CBS’s Language Center observe teachers and provide feedback using evaluation criteria from the Common European Framework for Reference (CEFR) supplemented by some additional criteria which take the LSP nature of......Copenhagen Business School (CBS) finds itself needing to address the issue of English-medium instruction for its increasing number of foreign exchange and full degree students. With internationalisation as a main pillar of the institution’s agenda, there are concerns whether the teaching faculty......’s level of English is sufficient for the increasing number of courses offered in English each semester. This paper addresses these concerns and describes a pilot project initiated in 2003 at CBS to gauge the overall English language proficiency of those teaching content courses in English. Through the...

  11. Paying by the Barrel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Francis L.Sackitey; Ghana

    2012-01-01

    CHINA'S UNIPEC Asia Co. Ltd. will buy up the entire oil share from Ghana's Jubilee field for the next 15 years in a commercial agreement entered into by the government of Ghana. Under the agreement, the West African nation will be supplying China with 13,000 barrels of crude oil daily to pay for a $3 billion loan granted to Ghana by China under a Master Facility Agreement with the China Development Bank.

  12. Effects of gold plating on the resistance to high temperature discoloration of the cavity for ceramic packages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhanhua Wang; Zhuoshen Shen; Daobin Mu

    2004-01-01

    The effects of thickness and types of gold plating on the resistance to high temperature discoloration of gold plating on cavity surface of ceramic package were investigated. It was found that the thicker gold plating, the less discoloration degree for ceramic packages. Non-cyanide gold plating performed better resistance to high-temperature aging than cyanide gold plating. The relationship between the gold plating thickness and the amount of diffused Ni to the gold plating of ceramic packages with Au/Ni and Au/Ni-Co platings after heating at 420℃ for 15 min was also studied. When the gold plating thickness reach 2.0 μm and 1.6 μm for Au/Ni and Au/Ni-Co plating systems, respectively, no discoloration was observed on the gold plating surface of cavity, and the corresponding diffused Ni amounts (mass fraction) are 1.0% and 0.4%, while the diffused Co to the gold plating is 0.04%.

  13. Enhanced microwave absorbing properties and heat resistance of carbonyl iron by electroless plating Co

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Co coated carbonyl iron particles (Co (CI)) are fabricated through electroless plating method, and the electromagnetic microwave absorbing properties are investigated in the frequencies during 8.2–12.4 GHz. The complex permittivity of CI particles after electroless plating Co is higher than that of raw CI particles due to improvment of the polarization process. Furthermore, according to the XRD and TG results, the Co layer can enhance the heat resistance of CI particles. The bandwidth below −10 dB can reach 3.9 GHz for the Co(CI) absorbent. The results indicate that the electroless plating Co not only enhances the absorbing properties but also improves the heat resistance of CI. - Highlights: • The Co-coated carbonyl iron Co(CI) particles were prepared by electroless plating. • The electromagnetic wave absorbing properties of Co(CI) particles were studied. • The heat treatment on the absorbing property of Co(CI) particles was studied. • The Co(CI) particles have good absorbing property when compared with CI

  14. Enhanced microwave absorbing properties and heat resistance of carbonyl iron by electroless plating Co

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hongyu, E-mail: wanghongyu07010310@163.com; Zhu, Dongmei; Zhou, Wancheng; Luo, Fa

    2015-11-01

    Co coated carbonyl iron particles (Co (CI)) are fabricated through electroless plating method, and the electromagnetic microwave absorbing properties are investigated in the frequencies during 8.2–12.4 GHz. The complex permittivity of CI particles after electroless plating Co is higher than that of raw CI particles due to improvment of the polarization process. Furthermore, according to the XRD and TG results, the Co layer can enhance the heat resistance of CI particles. The bandwidth below −10 dB can reach 3.9 GHz for the Co(CI) absorbent. The results indicate that the electroless plating Co not only enhances the absorbing properties but also improves the heat resistance of CI. - Highlights: • The Co-coated carbonyl iron Co(CI) particles were prepared by electroless plating. • The electromagnetic wave absorbing properties of Co(CI) particles were studied. • The heat treatment on the absorbing property of Co(CI) particles was studied. • The Co(CI) particles have good absorbing property when compared with CI.

  15. FLOW RESISTANCE AND HEAT TRANSFER CHARACTERISTICS OF A NEW-TYPE PLATE HEAT EXCHANGER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUAN Zhi-jian; ZHANG Guan-min; TIAN Mao-cheng; FAN Ming-xiu

    2008-01-01

    A new-type corrugation Plate Heat Exchanger (PHE) was designed. Results from both numerical simulations and experiments showed that the flow resistance of the working fluid in this new corrugation PHE, compared with the traditional chevron-type one, was decreased by more than 50%, and corresponding heat transfer performance was decreased by about 25%. The flow field of the working fluid in the corrugation PHE was transformed and hence performance difference in both flow resistance and heat transfer was generated. Such a novel plate, consisting of longitudinal and transverse corrugations, can effectively avoid the problem of flow path blockage, which will help to extend the application of PHEs to the situation with unclean working fluids.

  16. In-beam evaluation of a medium-size Resistive-Plate WELL gaseous particle detector

    CERN Document Server

    Moleri, L; Arazi, L; Azevedo, C D R; Breskin, A; Coimbra, A E C; Oliveri, E; Pereira, F A; Renous, D Shaked; Schaarschmidt, J; Santos, J M F dos; Veloso, J F C A; Bressler, S

    2016-01-01

    In-beam evaluation of a fully-equipped medium-size 30$\\times$30 cm$^2$ Resistive Plate WELL (RPWELL) detector is presented. It consists here of a single element gas-avalanche multiplier with Semitron ESD225 resistive plate, 1 cm$^2$ readout pads and APV25/SRS electronics. Similarly to previous results with small detector prototypes, stable operation at high detection efficiency (>98%) and low average pad multiplicity (~1.2) were recorded with 150 GeV muon and high-rate pion beams, in Ne/(5%CH$_4$), Ar/(5%CH$_4$) and Ar/(7%CO$_2$). This is an important step towards the realization of robust detectors suitable for applications requiring large-area coverage; among them Digital Hadron Calorimetry.

  17. Electroless Plating of Ni-Fe-P Alloy and Corrosion Resistance of the Deposit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Senlin WANG

    2005-01-01

    Electroless Ni-Fe-P alloys in an alkaline bath were plated. Theeffects of deposition parameters on the plating rate and the coating composition were examined. The weight loss test and the anodic polarization measurement of the deposits in 3.5 wt pct NaCl solution (pH7.0) showed that the deposits with the mole ratio of NiSO4/FeSO4 being 0.07:0.03, pH8.0 and 7.5 possess better corrosion resistance than that of the other deposits and the Ni-Fe-P deposits did not form passive films in this environment. In 5.0 wt pct NaOH solution, the Ni-Fe-P deposits have better corrosion resistance and formed passive films.

  18. Thermal fatigue resistance of W-Cu divertor plates for fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of thermal cycling tests of W-Cu pseudo-alloy as a candidate material for fusion reactor divertor plates showed that the material resisted without any damages to radiation and thermal shock effects of cyclic electron beam of 6, 8 and 10 MW/m2 power density when a good thermal sink was provided. Practically ideal thermal contact between thermally loaded sample and cooled substrate was shown can be obtained using various spelters vacuum brazing. 2 refs.; 4 figs

  19. Efficiency determination of resistive plate chambers for fast quasi-monoenergetic neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roeder, M.; Cowan, T.E.; Kempe, M.; Yakorev, D. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Technische Universitaet Dresden, Dresden (Germany); Elekes, Z. [MTA ATOMKI, Debrecen (Hungary); Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Aumann, T.; Caesar, C. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Darmstadt (Germany); Bemmerer, D.; Sobiella, M.; Stach, D.; Wagner, A. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Boretzky, K.; Hehner, J.; Heil, M. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Maroussov, V. [Universitaet zu Koeln, Koeln (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Nusair, O. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Al-Balqa Applied University, Salt (Jordan); Prokofiev, A.V. [Uppsala University, The Svedberg Laboratory, Uppsala (Sweden); Reifarth, R. [Johann Wolfgang Goethe - Universitaet, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Zilges, A. [Universitaet zu Koeln, Koeln (Germany); Zuber, K. [Technische Universitaet Dresden, Dresden (Germany); Collaboration: R3B Collaboration

    2014-07-15

    Composite detectors made of stainless-steel converters and multigap resistive plate chambers have been irradiated with quasi-monoenergetic neutrons with a peak energy of 175 MeV. The neutron detection efficiency has been determined using two different methods. The data are in agreement with the output of Monte Carlo simulations. The simulations are then extended to study the response of a hypothetical array made of these detectors to energetic neutrons from a radioactive ion beam experiment. (orig.)

  20. Fabrication and Characterisation of Oil-Free Large Bakelite Resistive Plate Chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Ganai, Rajesh; Agarwal, Kshitij; Ahammed, Zubayer; Choudhury, Subikash; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis

    2015-01-01

    A large (240 cm $\\times$ 120 cm $\\times$ 0.2 cm) oil-free bakelite Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC) has been developed at VECC-Kolkata using locally available P-301 OLTC grade bakelite paper laminates. The chamber has been operated in streamer mode using Argon, Freon(R134a) and Iso-butane in a ratio of 34:57:9 by volume. The electrodes and glue samples were characterised by measuring their electrical parameters like bulk resistivity and surface resistivity. The performance of the chamber was studied by measuring the efficiency, time resolution and uniformity in detection of cosmic muons. The chamber showed an efficiency $>$95$\\%$ and time resolution ($\\sigma$) of $\\sim$0.83 ns. Details of the material characterisation, fabrication procedure and performance studies have been discussed.

  1. Irradiation-Induced Degradation Effects on Baffle-Former-Barrel Assembly of Reactor Vessel Internal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Components of RVI are consisted of austenitic stainless steel materials which are known to have good strength, ductility, toughness and corrosion resistance. However, when placed in a PWR environment, these properties undergo changes due to long-term exposure to neutron irradiation, high temperature, reactor water, and loading. Especially irradiation aging in the reactor vessel internal components is characterized by a decrease in ductility and fracture toughness, increase in yield and ultimate tensile strength, and potential volume changes due to void formation. It is very important to determine when and where irradiation susceptibility may occur for the continued operation. This paper introduces the aging management strategy for the pressurized water reactor internal and investigates the effects of the irradiation-induced degradation of the baffle-former-barrel (BFB) assembly of the pressurized water reactor operating in Korea. This paper provides the methodologies and results for the functionality analysis on the baffle-former-barrel assembly. The highest temperatures are yielded from EOC of high leakage loading. The most highly irradiated areas are also closed to the core such as internal corners of the baffle plates. Coincidentally, the largest distortion occurs between these baffle plates. The distortion is carried by the bolts holding these plates. Characteristic to void swelling is the exponential growth with time. Void swelling predictions are therefore highly sensitive to the assumed fuel cycle management

  2. The Muon Spectrometer Barrel Level-1 Trigger of the ATLAS Experiment at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Aloisio, A; Conventi, F; De Asmundis, R; Izzo, V; Migliaccio, A; Ciapetti, G; Di Mattia, A; Luci, C; Luminari, L; Nisati, A; Pastore, F; Petrolo, E; Vari, R; Veneziano, Stefano; Salamon, A

    2006-01-01

    The proton-proton beam crossing at the LHC accelerator at CERN will have a rate of 40 MHz at the project luminosity. The ATLAS Trigger System has been designed in three levels in order to select only interesting physics events reducing from that rate of 40 MHz to the foreseen storage rate of about 200 Hz. The First Level reduces the output rate to about 100 kHz. The ATLAS Muon Spectrometer has been designed to perform stand-alone triggering and measurement of muon transverse momentum up to 1 TeV/c with good resolution (from 3% at 10 GeV/c up to 10% at 1 TeV/c). In the Barrel region of the Muon Spectrometer the Level-1 trigger is given by means of three layers of Resistive Plate Chamber detectors (RPC): a gaseous detector working in avalanche mode composed by two plates of high-resistivity bakelite and two orthogonal planes of read-out strips. The logic of the Level-1 barrel muon trigger is based on the search of patterns of RPC hits in the three layers consistent with a high transverse momentum muon track ori...

  3. Performance test of the Multi-gap Resistive Plate Chamber (MRPC) with cosmic ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Michihiko; Akieda, Tomomi; Tomita, Shoko; Ninomiya, Aki

    2014-09-01

    MRPC is a gaseous ionization detector, which a good timing resolution has been used practically in the nuclear and particle physics experiment. A mixed gas of SF6 and Fleon 134a was flowed through the gaps between high resistive plates (500 μm thickness glass). A high electric field of ~2 ×106 [V/m] was applied between the plates. A charged particle passes through the MRPC and causes avalanche amplification. We constructed a relatively small MRPC with a readout pad (20 mm × 50 mm). The development is motivated by feasibility study of the MRPC as a photon tagger at the Research Center for Electron Photon Science (ELPH), Tohoku University. The photon tagger needs a good timing resolution (Tohoku University as an example of nuclear experimental detectors. We will measure the zenith angle and velocity distributions of cosmic ray.

  4. Large-scale performance studies of the Resistive Plate Chamber fast tracker for the ATLAS 1st-level muon trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Cattani, G; The ATLAS collaboration

    2009-01-01

    In the ATLAS experiment, Resistive Plate Chambers provide the first-level muon trigger and bunch crossing identification over large area of the barrel region, as well as being used as a very fast 2D tracker. To achieve these goals a system of about ~4000 gas gaps operating in avalanche mode was built (resulting in a total readout surface of about 16000 m2 segmented into 350000 strips) and is now fully operational in the ATLAS pit, where its functionality has been widely tested up to now using cosmic rays. Such a large scale system allows to study the performance of RPCs (both from the point of view of gas gaps and readout electronics) with unprecedented sensitivity to rare effects, as well as providing the means to correlate (in a statistically significant way) characteristics at production sites with performance during operation. Calibrating such a system means fine tuning thousands of parameters (involving both front-end electronics and gap voltage), as well as constantly monitoring performance and environm...

  5. Optimizing the position resolution of a Z-stack microchannel plate resistive anode detector for low intensity signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for achieving good position resolution of low-intensity electron signals using a microchannel plate resistive anode detector is demonstrated. Electron events at a rate of 7 counts s−1 are detected using a Z-stack microchannel plate. The dependence of position resolution on both the distance and the potential difference between the microchannel plate and resistive anode is investigated. Using standard commercial electronics, a measured position resolution of 170 μm (FWHM) is obtained, which corresponds to an intrinsic resolution of 157 μm (FWHM)

  6. Effect of manufacturing process sequence on the corrosion resistance characteristics of coated metallic bipolar plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dur, Ender; Cora, Ömer Necati; Koç, Muammer

    2014-01-01

    Metallic bipolar plate (BPP) with high corrosion and low contact resistance, durability, strength, low cost, volume, and weight requirements is one of the critical parts of the PEMFC. This study is dedicated to understand the effect of the process sequence (manufacturing then coating vs. coating then manufacturing) on the corrosion resistance of coated metallic bipolar plates. To this goal, three different PVD coatings (titanium nitride (TiN), chromium nitride (CrN), zirconium nitride (ZrN)), with three thicknesses, (0.1, 0.5, 1 μm) were applied on BPPs made of 316L stainless steel alloy before and after two types of manufacturing (i.e., stamping or hydroforming). Corrosion test results indicated that ZrN coating exhibited the best corrosion protection while the performance of TiN coating was the lowest among the tested coatings and thicknesses. For most of the cases tested, in which coating was applied before manufacturing, occurrence of corrosion was found to be more profound than the case where coating was applied after manufacturing. Increasing the coating thickness was found to improve the corrosion resistance. It was also revealed that hydroformed BPPs performed slightly better than stamped BPPs in terms of the corrosion behavior.

  7. Experimental and Numerical Investigation on the Ballistic Resistance of Double-Layered Steel Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xinke; Zhang, Wei; Guo, Zitao; Wei, Gang

    2011-06-01

    The ballistic perforation resistance of double-layered steel plates impacted by flat-nosed projectiles was investigated both experimentally and numerically. In the tests, 10 mm thick (intact or spaced by 200 mm gap space) targets of Q235A steel were impacted using a gas-gun at sub-ordnance velocity, and the ballistic limit velocity of the different target configurations was obtained. The Johnson-Cook strength and fracture models were used in the finite element simulations, where the model constants were calibrated by preliminary material tests and taken from open literature. In general, good agreement was obtained between the numerical simulations and the experimental results. It was found that the ballistic resistance of spaced targets suffers from large divergence due to the projectile's different residual attitude after perforation of the front plate, and that it seems the initial-residual velocity data yield to two groups and therefore give birth to two ballistic limit velocities. However, the overall ballistic resistance of the spaced targets is less than that of the in contact ones.

  8. Upgrade of the CMS muon trigger system in the barrel region

    CERN Document Server

    Rabady, Dinyar Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    To maintain the excellent performance shown during the LHCs Run-1 the Level-1 Trigger of the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment underwent a significant upgrade. One part of this upgrade is the re-organization of the muon trigger path from a subsystem-centric view in which hits in the drift tubes (DT), the cathode strip chambers (CSC), and the resistive plate chambers (RPC) were treated separately in dedicated track-finding systems to one in which complementary detector systems for a given region (barrel, overlap, and endcap) are merged at the track-finding level. This fundamental restructuring of the muon trigger system required the development of a system to receive track candidates from the track-finding layer, remove potential duplicate tracks, and forward the best candidates to the global decision layer.An overview will be given of the new track-finder system for the barrel region, the Barrel Muon Track Finder (BMTF) as well as the cancel-out and sorting layer, the upgraded Global Muon Trigger ($\\mu$GMT). B...

  9. Comparison of CMS Resistive Plate Chambers performance during LHC RUN-1 and RUN-2

    CERN Document Server

    Shah, Mehar Ali

    2016-01-01

    The Resistive Plate Chambers detector system at the CMS experiment at the LHC provides robustness and redundancy to the muon trigger. A total of 1056 double-gap chambers cover the pseudo-rapidity region < 1.6. The main detector parameters and environmental conditions are constantly and closely monitored to achieve operational stability and high quality data in the harsh conditions of the second run period of the LHC with center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV. First results of overall detector stability with 2015 data and comparisons with data from the LHC RUN-1 period at 8 TeV are presented.

  10. Comparison of CMS Resistive Plate Chambers performance during LHC RUN-1 and RUN-2

    CERN Document Server

    Shah, Mehar Ali

    2016-01-01

    The Resistive Plate Chambers detector system at the CMS experiment at the LHC provides robustness and redundancy to the muon trigger. A total of 1056 double-gap chambers cover the pseudo-rapidity region lt 1.6. The main detector parameters and environmental conditions are constantly and closely monitored to achieve operational stability and high quality data in the harsh conditions of the second run period of the LHC with center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV. First results of overall detector stability with 2015 data and comparisons with data from the LHC RUN-1 period at 8 TeV are presented.

  11. GEANT4 simulation of gamma ray in a double-gap resistive plate chamber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J. T. Rhee; M. Jamil; Steve Hall; Y. J. Jeon

    2006-01-01

    For more than 20 years nuclear physicists have used the GEANT code to simulate particle-matter interaction. In most recent version, GEANT4 is a toolkit for simulating the passage of particles though matter, which contains a complete range of functionality including tracking, geometry, physics models, and hits. In this article, an attempt to use GEANT4 to model a double-gap resistive plate chamber (RFC) with its improved efficiency is presented. The efficiencies of the double-gap RFC have been evaluated as a function of gamma energy range 0.005-1OOOMeV. A comparison to available previous simulation package GEANT3 data is also performed.

  12. Study of the effect of water vapor on a resistive plate chamber with glass electrodes

    CERN Document Server

    Sakai, H H; Teramoto, Y; Nakano, E E; Takahashi, T T

    2002-01-01

    We studied the effects of water vapor on the efficiencies of resistive plate chambers with glass electrodes, operated in the streamer mode. With moisture in the chamber gas that has freon as a component (water vapor approx 1000 ppm), a decrease in the efficiency (approx 20%) has been observed after operating for a period of several weeks to a few months. From our study, the cause of the efficiency decrease was identified as a change on the cathode surface. In addition, a recovery method was found: flushing for 1 day with argon bubbled through water containing >=3% ammonia, followed by a few weeks of training with dry gas.

  13. Development of Multi-gap Resistive Plate Chamber (MRPC) for medical imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Banerjee, A; Biswas, S; Chattopadhyay, S; Das, G; Pal, S

    2014-01-01

    The low cost and high resolution Multi-gap Resistive Plate Chamber (MRPC) opens up a new possibility to find an efficient alternative detector for the Time of Flight (TOF) based Positron Emission Tomography, where the sensitivity of the system depends largely on the time resolution of the detector. In a layered structure, suitable converters can be used to increase the photon detection efficiency. In this paper results of the cosmic ray test of a four-gap bakelite-based prototype MRPC operated in streamer mode and six-gap glass-based MRPC operated in avalanche mode are discussed.

  14. A large-area glass-resistive plate chamber with multistrip readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A completely new configuration of a glass resistive-plate chamber (GRPC) was built and tested. It consists of a double two-gap structure of electrodes with an active area of about 400 cm2 and is read out via a central multistrip printed circuit board. In measurements with a 60Co source and p, d particles of 1.5 A GeV time resolutions better than 80 ps, position resolution along the strips of 5-6 mm and efficiencies larger than 95% were obtained using available fast standard electronics. These results open the possibility of constructing compact TOF detectors of high resolution and high granularity

  15. Wear and Corrosion Resistance of Electroless Plating Ni-P Coating on P110 Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Naiming; ZHOU Peng; ZOU Jiaojuan; XIE Faqin; TANG Bin

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve the surface performance and increase the lifetime of P110 oil casing tube steel during operation, electroless plating was conducted to form Ni-P coating onto its surface. The surface morphology/element distribution and phase constitution of the Ni-P coating were analyzed using scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Tribological and electrochemical measurement tests were applied to investigate the wear and corrosion resistance of P110 steel and the Ni-P coating. The results showed that a uniform and compact, high phosphorous Ni-P coating was formed. The obtained Ni-P coating indicated certain friction-reduction effect and lower mass loss during friction-wear tests. The Ni-P coating also exhibited higher corrosion resistance in comparison with bared P110 steel. The obtained Ni-P coating has signifi cantly improved the surface performance of P110 steel.

  16. Performance and simulation of a double-gap resistive plate chamber in the avalanche mode

    CERN Document Server

    Ahn Sung Hwan; Hong Byung Sik; Hong Seong Jong; Ito, M; Kang, T I; Kim, B I; Kim, J H; Kim, Y J; Kim, Y U; Koo, D G; Lee Hyup Woo; Lee, K B; Lee Kyong Sei; Lee Seok Jae; Lim, J K; Moon, D H; Nam, S K; Park, S; Park, W J; Rhee June Tak; Ryu, M S; Sim Kwang Souk

    2004-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the time and the charge signals of a prototype double-gap resistive plate chamber for the endcap region of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The chamber was built with relatively low-resistivity bakelite. The time and the charge results demonstrate that the high- voltage plateau, which satisfies various CMS requirements for the efficiency, the noise cluster rate, the fraction of the large signal, and the streamer probability, can be extended at least up to 400 V with the present design. In addition, a simple avalanche multiplication model is studied in detail. The model can reproduce the experimental charge spectra reasonably well. The charge information enables us to estimate the effective Townsend coefficient in avalanche-mode operation.

  17. Simulation of space charge effect on time resolution in resistive plate chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    India Based Neutrino Observatory (INO) will use 28,800 Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) in its 50 kton magnetized Iron Calorimeter (ICAL). RPCs are gaseous parallel-plate detectors that contain a small gas gap between two parallel plates which are kept under a high voltage of a few kVs. The main features of this detector are excellent spatial resolution and time resolution. These detectors have been successfully used in many particle physics experiments and are well suited for fast space-time particle tracking as required for the muon trigger at the LHC experiments. The RPC can be operated either in the streamer or in the avalanche mode. In order to study the signal generation from the RPC, space charge effect is an important phenomenon to be considered. We have compared the simulated time resolution with the measured time resolution in the avalanche mode for different gas mixtures in our previous work, without considering the space charge effect. If the number of charge carriers in the avalanche reaches large values they influence the electric field and the gas gain in the gap. This phenomenon is called space charge effect. In this paper, we take into account the space charge effect to calculate time resolution

  18. The Resistive-Plate WELL with Argon mixtures - a robust gaseous radiation detector

    CERN Document Server

    Moleri, L; Arazi, L; Azevedo, C D R; Oliveri, E; Pitt, M; Schaarschmidt, J; Shaked-Renous, D; Santos, J M F dos; Veloso, J F C A; Breskin, A; Bressler, S

    2016-01-01

    A thin single-element THGEM-based, Resistive-Plate WELL (RPWELL) detector was operated with 150 GeV/c muon and pion beams in Ne/(5%CH$_4$), Ar/(5%CH$_4$) and Ar/(7%CO$_2$); signals were recorded with 1 cm$^2$ square pads and SRS/APV25 electronics. Detection efficiency values greater than 98% were reached in all the gas mixtures, at average pad multiplicity of 1.2. The use of the 10$^9${\\Omega}cm resistive plate resulted in a completely discharge-free operation also in intense pion beams. The efficiency remained essentially constant at 98-99% up to fluxes of $\\sim$10$^4$Hz/cm$^2$, dropping by a few % when approaching 10$^5$ Hz/cm$^2$. These results pave the way towards cost-effective, robust, efficient, large-scale detectors for a variety of applications in future particle, astro-particle and applied fields. A potential target application is digital hadron calorimetry.

  19. The influence of heat treatment on microstructure and crack resistance of boron microalloyed steel plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Opiela

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available crack resistance of C-Mn constructional steels with microaddition of boron assigned to be used in production of high strength steel plates.Design/methodology/approach: Metallographic observations, heat treatment, hardness measurements, impact strength examinations, fractographic analyses of fracture surfaces of test pieces have been performed.Findings: Dispersive particles of interstitial phases formed on dislocations during the plastic deformation, limiting grain growth of austenite, create the possibility to obtain metallurgical products with fine-grained microstructure giving them high strength and guaranteed crack resistance, also at low temperature.Research limitations/implications: Further research of microstructure in transmission electron microscope as well as complementary impact resistance tests at the temperature lower than -60°C are foreseen to be performed.Practical implications: Obtained results of examinations, especially detailed fractographic analysis of fracture surfaces of test pieces together with chemical composition analysis of revealed non-metallic inclusions and precipitations of secondary phases will make contribution to better understanding of cracking mechanisms in the group of high-strength steels.Originality/value: Performed research revealed that investigated steels present high crack resistance also at low temperature. It can be achieved through proper selection of chemical composition and adequate conditions of heat treatment and plastic working. The presence of microadditions of transition metals deriving from IVb and Vb group of periodic classification of the elements with high chemical affinity to nitrogen and carbon allows producing rolled products with high exploitation properties.

  20. The PANDA Barrel DIRC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhygadlo, R.; Schwarz, C.; Belias, A.; Gerhardt, A.; Götzen, K.; Kalicy, G.; Krebs, M.; Lehmann, D.; Nerling, F.; Patsyuk, M.; Peters, K.; Schepers, G.; Schmitt, L.; Schwiening, J.; Traxler, M.; Zühlsdorf, M.; Britting, A.; Eyrich, W.; Lehmann, A.; Pfaffinger, M.; Uhlig, F.; Düren, M.; Etzelmüller, E.; Föhl, K.; Hayrapetyan, A.; Kröck, B.; Merle, O.; Rieke, J.; Schmidt, M.; Cowie, E.; Keri, T.; Achenbach, P.; Cardinali, M.; Hoek, M.; Lauth, W.; Schlimme, S.; Sfienti, C.; Thiel, M.

    2016-05-01

    The PANDA detector at the international accelerator Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research in Europe (FAIR) addresses fundamental questions of hadron physics. Experiments concerning charmonium spectroscopy, the search for hybrids and glueballs and the interaction of hidden and open charm particles with nucleons and nuclei will be performed with antiproton beams impinging on hydrogen or nuclear targets. Cooled beams allow the precision scan of resonances in formation experiments. The momentum range of the antiproton beam between 1.5 GeV/c and 15 GeV/c tests predictions by perturbation theory and will reveal deviations originating from strong QCD . An excellent hadronic particle identification will be accomplished by DIRC (Detection of Internally Reflected Cherenkov light) counters. The design for the barrel region is based on the successful BaBar DIRC with several key improvements, such as fast photon timing and a compact imaging region. DIRC designs based on different radiator geometries with several focusing options were studied in simulation. The performance of each design was characterized in terms of photon yield and single photon Cherenkov angle resolution. Selected design options were implemented in prototypes and tested with hadronic particle beams at GSI and CERN.

  1. Mechanisms affecting performance of the BaBar resistive plate chambers and searches for remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The BaBar experiment at PEPII relies on the instrumentation of the flux return (IFR) for both muon identification and KL detection. The active detector is composed of resistive plate chambers (RPCs) operated in streamer mode. Since the start of operation the RPCs have suffered persistent efficiency deterioration and dark current increase problems. The 'autopsy' of bad BaBar RPCs revealed that in many cases uncured linseed oil droplets had formed on the inner surface of the Bakelite plates, leading to current paths from oil 'stalagmites' bridging the 2 mm gap. In this paper, a possible model of this 'stalagmite' formation and its effect on the dark current and efficiency of RPC chambers is presented. Laboratory test results strongly support this model. Based upon this model we are searching for solutions to eliminate the unfavorable effect of the oil stalagmites. The lab tests show that the stalagmite resistivity increases dramatically if exposed to the air, an observation that points to a possible way to remedy the damage and increase the efficiency. We have seen that flowing an oxygen gas mixture into the chamber helps to polymerize the uncured linseed oil. Consequently, the resistivity of the bridged oil stalagmites increases, as does that of the oil coating on the frame edges and spacers, significantly reducing the RPC dark currents and low-efficiency regions. We have tested this idea on two chambers removed from BaBar because of their low efficiency and high dark current. These test results are reported in the paper, and two other remediation methods also mentioned. We continue to study this problem, and try to find new treatments with permanent improvement

  2. Barrel-shaped supernova remnants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors argue that the majority of radio supernova remnants have a three-dimensional distribution of emissivity which is barrel shaped, with little emission from the end-caps. They examine some mechanisms which could produce this distribution

  3. Study on corrosion resistance of palladium films on 316L stainless steel by electroplating and electroless plating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palladium films with good adhesive strength were deposited on 316L stainless steel by electroless plating and electroplating. Scanning electronic microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, weight loss tests and electrochemical methods were used to study the properties of the films. The electroless plated palladium film mainly consisted of palladium, phosphorus and nitrogen, and the electroplated palladium film was almost pure palladium. XPS analysis indicated that palladium was present in the films as metal state. The palladium plated stainless steel samples prepared by both methods showed excellent corrosion resistance in strong reductive corrosion mediums. In boiling 20% dilute sulfuric acid solution, the corrosion rates of the palladium plated 316L stainless steel samples were four orders of magnitude lower than that of the original 316L stainless steel samples. In the solution with 0.01 M NaCl, the palladium plated samples also showed better corrosion resistance. In comparison, the electroplated samples showed slightly better corrosion resistance than electroless plated samples, which may be attributed to less impurities and thereby higher corrosion potential for the former

  4. First in-beam studies of a Resistive-Plate WELL gaseous multiplier

    CERN Document Server

    Bressler, S; Pitt, M; Kudella, S; Azevedo, C D R; Amaro, F D; Jorge, M R; dos Santos, J M F; Veloso, J F C A; Natal da Luz, H; Arazi, L; Olivieri, E; Breskin, A

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of the first in-beam studies of a medium size (10$\\times$10 cm$^2$) Resistive-Plate WELL (RPWELL): a single-sided THGEM coupled to a pad anode through a resistive layer of high bulk resistivity ($\\sim$10$^9 \\Omega$cm). The 6.2~mm thick (excluding readout electronics) single-stage detector was studied with 150~GeV muons and pions. Signals were recorded from 1$\\times$1 cm$^2$ square copper pads with APV25-SRS readout electronics. The single-element detector was operated in Ne\\(5% $\\mathrm{CH_{4}}$) at a gas gain of a few times 10$^4$, reaching 99$\\%$ detection efficiency at average pad multiplicity of $\\sim$1.2. Operation at particle fluxes up to $\\sim$10$^4$ Hz/cm$^2$ resulted in $\\sim$23$\\%$ gain drop leading to $\\sim$5$\\%$ efficiency loss. The striking feature was the discharge-free operation, also in intense pion beams. These results pave the way towards robust, efficient large-scale detectors for applications requiring economic solutions at moderate spatial and energy resolutions.

  5. First in-beam studies of a Resistive-Plate WELL gaseous multiplier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressler, S.; Moleri, L.; Pitt, M.; Kudella, S.; Azevedo, C. D. R.; Amaro, F. D.; Jorge, M. R.; dos Santos, J. M. F.; Veloso, J. F. C. A.; Natal da Luz, H.; Arazi, L.; Olivieri, E.; Breskin, A.

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of the first in-beam studies of a medium size (10 × 10 cm 2 ) Resistive-Plate WELL (RPWELL): a single-sided THGEM coupled to a pad anode through a resistive layer of high bulk resistivity (∼109 Ωcm). The 6.2 mm thick (excluding readout electronics) single-stage detector was studied with 150 GeV muons and pions. Signals were recorded from 1×1 cm 2 square copper pads with APV25-SRS readout electronics. The single-element detector was operated in Ne/(5%CH4) at a gas gain of a few times 104 , reaching 99% detection efficiency at average pad multiplicity of ∼1.2. Operation at particle fluxes up to ∼104 Hz/cm 2 resulted in ∼23% gain drop leading to ∼5% efficiency loss. The striking feature was the discharge-free operation, also in intense pion beams. These results pave the way towards robust, efficient large-scale detectors for applications requiring economic solutions at moderate spatial and energy resolutions.

  6. First in-beam studies of a Resistive-Plate WELL gaseous multiplier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the results of the first in-beam studies of a medium size (10 × 10 cm 2 ) Resistive-Plate WELL (RPWELL): a single-sided THGEM coupled to a pad anode through a resistive layer of high bulk resistivity (∼109 Ωcm). The 6.2 mm thick (excluding readout electronics) single-stage detector was studied with 150 GeV muons and pions. Signals were recorded from 1×1 cm 2 square copper pads with APV25-SRS readout electronics. The single-element detector was operated in Ne/(5%CH4) at a gas gain of a few times 104 , reaching 99% detection efficiency at average pad multiplicity of ∼1.2. Operation at particle fluxes up to ∼104 Hz/cm 2 resulted in ∼23% gain drop leading to ∼5% efficiency loss. The striking feature was the discharge-free operation, also in intense pion beams. These results pave the way towards robust, efficient large-scale detectors for applications requiring economic solutions at moderate spatial and energy resolutions

  7. Improved corrosion resistance and interfacial contact resistance of 316L stainless-steel for proton exchange membrane fuel cell bipolar plates by chromizing surface treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S. B.; Cho, K. H.; Lee, W. G.; Jang, H.

    The electrochemical performance and electrical contact resistance of chromized 316 stainless-steel (SS) are investigated under simulated operating condition in a proton-exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). The corrosion resistance of the chromized stainless steel is assessed by potentiodynamic and potentiostatic tests and the interfacial contact resistance (ICR) is examined by measuring the electrical contact resistance as a function of the compaction force. The results show that the chromizing surface treatment improves the corrosion resistance of the stainless steel due to the high-chromium concentration in the diffuse coating layer. On the other hand, the excess Chromium content on the surface increases the contact resistance of the steel plate to a level that is excessively high for commercial applications. This study examines the root cause of the high-contact resistance after chromizing and reports the optimum process to improve the corrosion resistance without sacrificing the ICR by obtaining a chrome carbide on the outer layer.

  8. A readout system for a cosmic ray telescope using Resistive Plate Chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) are widely used in high energy physics for both tracking and triggering purposes. They have good time resolution and with finely segmented readout can also give a spatial resolution of better than 1 mm. RPCs can be produced cost-effectively on large scales, are of rugged build, and have excellent detection efficiency for charged particles. Our group has successfully built a Muon Scattering Tomography (MST) prototype, using 12 RPCs to obtain tracking information of muons going through a target volume of ∼ 50 cm × 50 cm × 70 cm, reconstructing both the incoming and outgoing muon tracks. We describe a readout system for fine-pitch RPCs using MAROC3 readout chips capable of scaling to a large system.

  9. A front-end electronics module for multi-gap resistive plate chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: The output current signal of Multi-gap Resistive Plate Chambers (MRPCs) has low amplitude and fast speed. Purpose: Its amplitude and time information should be obtained in particle Time-of-Flight (TOF) detection. Methods: A simple electronics module for the presentation of the signals from MRPCs to standard existing digitization electronics is described. The circuit is based on 'off-the-shelf' discrete components. An optimization of the values of specific components is required to match the aspects of the MRPCs for the given application. The key electronic noise control plan is also discussed. Results: This electronics module has the excellent features including low prices, convenient making, easy assembling for testing system, etc. Conclusions: This electronics module is an attractive option for the front-end signal processing in MRPCs prototype and bench or beam-testing efforts, as well as in final implementations of small-area particle TOF system with existing data acquisition systems. (authors)

  10. An encoding readout method used for Multi-gap Resistive Plate Chambers (MRPCs) for muon tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A muon tomography facility has been built in Tsinghua University. Because of the low flux of cosmic muon, an encoding readout method, based on the fine-fine configuration, was implemented for the 2880 channels induced signals from the Multi-gap Resistive Plate Chamber (MRPC) detectors. With the encoding method, the number of the readout electronics was dramatically reduced and thus the complexity and the cost of the facility was reduced, too. In this paper, the details of the encoding method, and the overall readout system setup in the muon tomography facility are described. With the commissioning of the facility, the readout method works well. The spatial resolution of all MRPC detectors are measured with cosmic muon and the preliminary imaging result are also given

  11. Web-based monitoring tools for Resistive Plate Chambers in the CMS experiment at CERN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC) are used in the CMS experiment at the trigger level and also in the standard offline muon reconstruction. In order to guarantee the quality of the data collected and to monitor online the detector performance, a set of tools has been developed in CMS which is heavily used in the RPC system. The Web-based monitoring (WBM) is a set of java servlets that allows users to check the performance of the hardware during data taking, providing distributions and history plots of all the parameters. The functionalities of the RPC WBM monitoring tools are presented along with studies of the detector performance as a function of growing luminosity and environmental conditions that are tracked over time

  12. Performance of 2nd Generation BaBar Resistive Plate Chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anulli, F.; Baldini, R.; Calcaterra, A.; de Sangro, R.; Finocchiaro, G.; Patteri, P.; Piccolo, M.; Zallo, A.; /Frascati; Cheng, C.H.; Lange, D.J.; Wright, D.M.; /LLNL,; Messner, R.; Wisniewski, William J.; /SLAC; Pappagallo, M.; /Bari U. /INFN, Bari; Andreotti, M.; Bettoni, D.; Calabrese, R.; Cibinetto, G.; Luppi, E.; Negrini, M.; /Ferrara; Capra, R.; /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /Naples U. /INFN, Naples /Perugia U. /INFN, Perugia /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /Oregon U. /UC, Riverside

    2005-07-12

    The BaBar detector has operated nearly 200 Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs), constructed as part of an upgrade of the forward endcap muon detector, for the past two years. The RPCs experience widely different background and luminosity-driven singles rates (0.01-10 Hz/cm{sup 2}) depending on position within the endcap. Some regions have integrated over 0.3 C/cm{sup 2}. RPC efficiency measured with cosmic rays is high and stable. The average efficiency measured with beam is also high. However, a few of the highest rate RPCs have suffered efficiency losses of 5-15%. Although constructed with improved techniques and minimal use of linseed oil, many of the RPCs, which are operated in streamer mode, have shown increased dark currents and noise rates that are correlated with the direction of the gas flow and the integrated current. Studies of the above aging effects are presented and correlated with detector operating conditions.

  13. Performance of Resistive Plate Chambers installed during the first long shutdown of the CMS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Shopova, M; Hadjiiska, R; Iaydjiev, P; Sultanov, G; Rodozov, M; Stoykova, S; Assran, Y; Sayed, A; Radi, A; Aly, S; Singh, G; Abbrescia, M; Iaselli, G; Maggi, M; Pugliese, G; Verwilligen, P; Van Doninck, W; Colafranceschi, S; Sharma, A; Benussi, L; Bianco, S; Piccolo, D; Primavera, F; Cimmino, A; Crucy, S; Rios, A A O; Tytgat, M; Zaganidis, N; Gul, M; Fagot, A; Bhatnagar, V; Singh, J; Kumari, R; Mehta, A; Ahmad, A; Awan, I M; Shahzad, H; Hoorani, H; Asghar, M I; Muhammad, S; Ahmed, W; Shah, M A; Cho, S W; Choi, S Y; Hong, B; Kang, M H; Lee, K S; Lim, J H; Park, S K; Kim, M S; Laktineh, I B; Lagarde, F; Gouzevitch, M; Grenier, G; Pedraza, I; Bernardino, S Carpinteyro; Estrada, C Uribe; Moreno, S Carrillo; Valencia, F Vazquez; Pant, L M; Buontempo, S; Cavallo, N; Fabozzi, F; Orso, I; Lista, L; Meola, S; Merola, M; Paolucci, P; Thyssen, F; Lanza, G; Esposito, M; Braghieri, A; Magnani, A; Riccardi, C; Salvini, P; Vai, I; Vitulo, P; Montagna, P; Ban, Y; Qian, S J; Choi, M; Choi, Y; Goh, J; Kim, D; Dimitrov, A; Litov, L; Petkov, P; Pavlov, B; Bagaturia, I; Lomidze, D; Avila, C; Cabrera, A; Sanabria, J C; Crotty, I; Vaitkus, J

    2016-01-01

    The CMS experiment, located at the CERN Large Hadron Collider, has a redundant muon system composed by three different detector technologies: Cathode Strip Chambers (in the forward regions), Drift Tubes (in the central region) and Resistive Plate Chambers (both its central and forward regions). All three are used for muon reconstruction and triggering. During the first long shutdown (LS1) of the LHC (2013-2014) the CMS muon system has been upgraded with 144 newly installed RPCs on the forth forward stations. The new chambers ensure and enhance the muon trigger efficiency in the high luminosity conditions of the LHC Run2. The chambers have been successfully installed and commissioned. The system has been run successfully and experimental data has been collected and analyzed. The performance results of the newly installed RPCs will be presented.

  14. Eco-friendly gas mixtures for Resistive Plate Chambers based on Tetrafluoropropene and Helium

    CERN Document Server

    Abbrescia, M; Bianco, S; Ferrini, M; Muhammad, S; Passamonti, L; Pierluigi, D; Piccolo, D; Primavera, F; Russo, A; Saviano, G

    2016-01-01

    Due to the recent restrictions deriving from the application of the Kyoto protocol, the main components of the gas mixtures presently used in the Resistive Plate Chambers systems of the LHC experiments will be most probably phased out of production in the coming years. Identifying possible replacements with the adequate characteristics requires an intense R&D, which was recently started, also in collaborations across the various experiments. Possible candidates have been proposed and are thoroughly investigated. Some tests on one of the most promising candidate - HFO-1234ze, an allotropic form of tetrafluoropropane- have already been reported. Here an innovative approach, based on the use of Helium, to solve the problems related to the too elevate operating voltage of HFO-1234ze based gas mixtures, is discussed and the relative first results are shown.

  15. Wear-resistance and anti-scuffing of multi-arc ion plating molybdenum films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hai-dou; XU Bin-shi; LIU Jia-jun; ZHUANG Da-ming

    2004-01-01

    The multi-arc ion plating technology was employed to prepare the molybdenum films with thickness of 3 μm on the AISI 1045 steel. The wear and scuffing tests were carried out on the ball-on-disc tester. AFM and SEM equipped with EDS were adopted to observe and analyze the morphologies and element compositions of surface,cross-section and worn scar of the Mo film. The phase structure was studied by XRD and the bonding strength between Mo film and substrate was measured by scratching tester. The tribological experiments show that the Mo film possesses a good wear-resistance and an excellent anti-scuffing property. The failure mechanism of Mo film under extreme condition is flaking off.

  16. Multigap resistive plate chambers for EAS study in the EEE Project

    CERN Document Server

    An, S; Badalà, A; Zichichi, A

    2007-01-01

    The EEE (Extreme Energy Events) Project, conceived by its leader Antonino Zichichi, is an experiment to study very high-energetic air showers (EAS) through the detection of the shower's muon component using a network of tracking detectors, installed in Italian high schools. The single tracking telescope is composed of three large area () Multi-gap Resistive Plate Chambers (MRPCs). The data collected by the telescopes will be used for studies of air showers and also for the search of time correlations between sites which are far apart. The first telescope, recently installed in the Liceo B. Touschek in Grottaferrata (Rome), is successfully running, and other telescopes are going to be installed in a short time in other towns, opening up the way for the first search of long-distance coincidences over a total area of .

  17. A large-area glass-resistive plate chamber with multistrip readout

    CERN Document Server

    Petrovici, M; Hildenbrand, K D; Augustinski, G; Ciobanu, M; Cruceru, I; Duma, M; Hartmann, O; Koczón, P; Kress, T; Marquardt, M; Moisa, D; Petris, M; Schröder, C; Simion, V; Stoicea, G; Weinert, J

    2002-01-01

    A completely new configuration of a glass resistive-plate chamber (GRPC) was built and tested. It consists of a double two-gap structure of electrodes with an active area of about 400 cm sup 2 and is read out via a central multistrip printed circuit board. In measurements with a sup 6 sup 0 Co source and p, d particles of 1.5 A GeV time resolutions better than 80 ps, position resolution along the strips of 5-6 mm and efficiencies larger than 95% were obtained using available fast standard electronics. These results open the possibility of constructing compact TOF detectors of high resolution and high granularity.

  18. Web-based monitoring tools for Resistive Plate Chambers in the CMS experiment at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Min Suk

    2014-01-01

    The Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC) are used in the CMS experiment at the trigger level and also in the standard offline muon reconstruction. In order to guarantee the quality of the data collected and to monitor online the detector performance, a set of tools has been developed in CMS which is heavily used in the RPC system. The Web-based monitoring (WBM) is a set of java servlets that allows users to check the performance of the hardware during data taking, providing distributions and history plots of all the parameters. The functionalities of the RPC WBM monitoring tools are presented along with studies of the detector performance as a function of growing luminosity and environmental conditions that are tracked over time.

  19. A 200 cm x 50 cm large multigap resistive plate chamber based neutron detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yakorev, Dmitry; Elekes, Zoltan; Bemmerer, Daniel; Kempe, Mathias; Sobiella, Manfred; Stach, Daniel; Wagner, Andreas [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Dresden (Germany); Roeder, Marko; Zuber, Kai [TU Dresden (Germany); Cowan, Thomas [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Dresden (Germany); TU Dresden (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    A prototype for a multigap resistive plate chamber (MRPC) based detector of 200 cm x 50 cm size for 1 GeV neutrons has been developed, built and tested. The principle of operation is the conversion of the high-energy neutron to a charged particle in an iron converter, and the detection of the charged particle in the MRPC. Experiments using the single-electron mode of operation of the ELBE 40 MeV electron accelerator showed that a time resolution of {sigma}{sub t}<100 ps was reached for minimum-ionizing particles, at nearly full efficiency. Extensive simulations show that it is feasible to construct a time-of-flight detector for GeV neutrons based on such a principle.

  20. Enhanced corrosion resistance and fuel cell performance of Al1050 bipolar plate coated with TiN/Ti double layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Aluminum has attracted interest as a bipolar plate material for PEMFC. • We investigated the effect of TiN–Ti and TiO2–Ti double layer coatings onto the Al1050 substrate. • TiN/Ti double layer coating exhibited the best performance of 30 times lower corrosion current density in anodic condition. - Abstract: In this study, we investigated the effects of TiN/Ti and TiO2/Ti double layer coatings, with a metal buffer layer, on the corrosion resistance, and electrical properties of Al1050 substrates for using them as bipolar plates in PEMFCs. TiN/Ti and TiO2/Ti double layers were deposited using the electromagnetic-field-superpositioned DC and RF magnetron sputtering method. The surface resistivity and contact resistance of the specimens were measured using the van der Pauw method and a previously reported interfacial contact resistance (ICR) measurement method, respectively. Further, the corrosion resistance of the specimens was characterized using electrochemical tests such as potentiodynamic and potentiostatic polarization tests. The results obtained in this study indicated that coating of the Al1050 substrates significantly increased the corrosion resistance of bipolar plates in the operating environment of a fuel cell when compared to uncoated substrates. In particular, the substrate coated with a TiN/Ti double layer exhibited the best performance: its corrosion current density was 30 times lower than that of an uncoated substrate under anodic conditions. Further, the Al1050 bipolar plate coated with a TiN/Ti double layer showed performance enhancement over an uncoated bipolar plate in an actual fuel cell test

  1. Electrical resistivity and dielectric properties of helical microorganism cells coated with silver by electroless plating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► We use the microorganism cells as forming templates to fabricate the bio-based conductive particles. ► The microorganism cells selected as forming templates are Spirulina platens, which are of natural helical shape and high aspect ratio. ► The sliver-coated Spirulina cells are a kind of lightweight conductive particles. ► The composites containing sliver-coated Spirulina cells exhibit a lower percolation value. - Abstract: In this paper, microorganism cells (Spirulina platens) were used as forming templates for the fabrication of the helical functional particles by electroless silver plating process. The morphologies and ingredients of the coated Spirulina cells were analyzed with scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectrometer. The crystal structures were characterized by employing the X-ray diffraction. The electrical resistivity and dielectric properties of samples containing different volume faction of sliver-coated Spirulina cells were measured and investigated by four-probe meter and vector network analyzer. The results showed that the Spirulina cells were successfully coated with a uniform silver coating and their initial helical shapes were perfectly kept. The electrical resistivity and dielectric properties of the samples had a strong dependence on the volume content of sliver-coated Spirulina cells and the samples could achieve a low percolation value owing to high aspect ratio and preferable helical shape of Spirulina cells. Furthermore, the conductive mechanism was analyzed with the classic percolation theory, and the values of φc and t were obtained.

  2. Electrical resistivity and dielectric properties of helical microorganism cells coated with silver by electroless plating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jun; Lan, Mingming; Zhang, Deyuan; Zhang, Wenqiang

    2012-09-01

    In this paper, microorganism cells (Spirulina platens) were used as forming templates for the fabrication of the helical functional particles by electroless silver plating process. The morphologies and ingredients of the coated Spirulina cells were analyzed with scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectrometer. The crystal structures were characterized by employing the X-ray diffraction. The electrical resistivity and dielectric properties of samples containing different volume faction of sliver-coated Spirulina cells were measured and investigated by four-probe meter and vector network analyzer. The results showed that the Spirulina cells were successfully coated with a uniform silver coating and their initial helical shapes were perfectly kept. The electrical resistivity and dielectric properties of the samples had a strong dependence on the volume content of sliver-coated Spirulina cells and the samples could achieve a low percolation value owing to high aspect ratio and preferable helical shape of Spirulina cells. Furthermore, the conductive mechanism was analyzed with the classic percolation theory, and the values of ϕ and t were obtained.

  3. About the natural oscillations of orthotropic plate in the value problem of elasticity theory with viscous resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Zakaryan T.V.

    2013-01-01

    Natural spatial vibrations of orthotropic plates are considered, taking into account the internal viscous resistance, which is proportional to velocity of points of medium. First dynamic homogeneous boundary value problem of the elasticity theory is solved. The equations for frequencies are obtained by the asymptotic method. It’s shown that longitudinal and two types of shear natural vibrations are possible.

  4. About the natural oscillations of orthotropic plate in the value problem of elasticity theory with viscous resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakaryan T.V.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Natural spatial vibrations of orthotropic plates are considered, taking into account the internal viscous resistance, which is proportional to velocity of points of medium. First dynamic homogeneous boundary value problem of the elasticity theory is solved. The equations for frequencies are obtained by the asymptotic method. It’s shown that longitudinal and two types of shear natural vibrations are possible.

  5. Investigation on impact resistance of steel plate reinforced concrete barriers against aircraft impact. Pt.1: Test program and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steel plate reinforced concrete (SC) structures composed of concrete and steel plates with headed studs are considered to be more effective than RC structures against aircraft impact. This is due to the effects of the steel plates, especially the rear-face steel plates. Thus, their application to outer walls and roofs of risk-sensitive structures such as nuclear-related structures is expected to mitigate damage to critical components. However, few data have been available to understand and evaluate the complex behavior and damage process of SC panels against an aircraft impact. The objective of this study was to obtain valuable experimental and analytical data essential to investigate and establish a protection design method for SC structures against an aircraft impact. As a first step, impact tests using 1/7.5-scale models were carried out to clarify the damage phenomena caused by an aircraft crash into steel plate reinforced concrete (SC) panels. The results indicated that the steel plate, especially the rear-face plate, has a significant effect in preventing scattering of scabbed concrete debris. It was confirmed that SC panels have much better impact resistant performance than conventional reinforced concrete panels, enabling the thickness of protection panels to be reduced by approximately 30%. (authors)

  6. An electrochemical treatment to improve corrosion and contact resistance of stainless steel bipolar plates used in polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabreab, Ebrahim M.; Hinds, Gareth; Fearn, Sarah; Hodgson, David; Millichamp, Jason; Shearing, Paul R.; Brett, Daniel J. L.

    2014-01-01

    An electrochemical surface treatment is presented that improves the properties of stainless steel (316SS) used as bipolar plates for polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs). The process is an anodic treatment, whereby the material is polarised beyond the transpassive region. Potentiodynamic corrosion testing, chemical and morphological surface characterisation and interfacial contact resistance measurements indicate that the improved properties of 316SS are primarily a consequence of an enrichment of Cr at the near-surface of the material. The surface treatment increases the corrosion resistance and significantly reduces interfacial contact resistance.

  7. Studies of gaseous multiplication coefficient in isobutane using a resistive plate chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Due to the increasing demands concerning High Energy Physics, Nuclear Medicine and other Nuclear Applications about gaseous detectors operating in high electric fields, many efforts have been done about the choice of filling gases that fulfill these requirements. In this context, the electron transport parameters in gases, as the gaseous multiplication coefficient, play an important role not only for detector design but also for simulation and modeling of discharges, allowing the validation of electron impact cross-sections. In the present work the preliminary measurements of gaseous multiplication coefficient, as function of the reduced electric field (from 36V/cm.Torr until 93V/cm.Torr), for isobutane are presented. Among several filling gases, isobutane is widely used in resistive plate chambers RPCs, and other gaseous detectors, due to its timing properties. Although its characteristics, there is a lack of swarm parameters data in literature for this gas, mainly at high electric fields. The experimental method used is based on the Pulsed Townsend technique, which follows from Townsend equation solution for a uniform electric field. Considering the ratio between the current (I), measured in avalanche mode, and the primary ionization current (I0), the effective multiplication coefficient can be determined, since alpha = d-1ln(I/I0), where d is the gap between the electrodes. In our configuration, the experimental setup consists of two parallel plates enclosure in a stainless steel chamber at gas flow regime. The anode, is made of a high resistivity (2.1012Ω.cm) glass (3mm thick and 14mm diameter), while the cathode is of aluminium (40mm diameter). Primary electrons are produced by irradiating the cathode with a nitrogen laser (LTB MNL200-LD) and are accelerated toward the anode by means of a high voltage power supply (Bertan 225-30). In order to validate the technique and to analyze effects of non-uniformity, results for nitrogen, which has well

  8. Studies of gaseous multiplication coefficient in isobutane using a resistive plate chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Josemary A.C.; Botelho, Suzana; Tobias, Carmen C.B. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Pontificia Univ. Catolica de Sao Paulo (PUC/SP), SP (Brazil); Lima, Iara B.; Vivaldini, Tulio C. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Ridenti, Marco A.; Pascholati, Paulo R. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica. Lab. do Acelerador Linear; Fonte, Paulo; Mangiarotti, Alessio [Universidade de Coimbra (Portugal). Dept. de fisica. Lab. de Instrumentacao e Fisica Experimental de Particulas

    2009-07-01

    Full text: Due to the increasing demands concerning High Energy Physics, Nuclear Medicine and other Nuclear Applications about gaseous detectors operating in high electric fields, many efforts have been done about the choice of filling gases that fulfill these requirements. In this context, the electron transport parameters in gases, as the gaseous multiplication coefficient, play an important role not only for detector design but also for simulation and modeling of discharges, allowing the validation of electron impact cross-sections. In the present work the preliminary measurements of gaseous multiplication coefficient, as function of the reduced electric field (from 36V/cm.Torr until 93V/cm.Torr), for isobutane are presented. Among several filling gases, isobutane is widely used in resistive plate chambers RPCs, and other gaseous detectors, due to its timing properties. Although its characteristics, there is a lack of swarm parameters data in literature for this gas, mainly at high electric fields. The experimental method used is based on the Pulsed Townsend technique, which follows from Townsend equation solution for a uniform electric field. Considering the ratio between the current (I), measured in avalanche mode, and the primary ionization current (I{sub 0}), the effective multiplication coefficient can be determined, since alpha = d{sup -1}ln(I/I{sub 0}), where d is the gap between the electrodes. In our configuration, the experimental setup consists of two parallel plates enclosure in a stainless steel chamber at gas flow regime. The anode, is made of a high resistivity (2.10{sup 12}{omega}.cm) glass (3mm thick and 14mm diameter), while the cathode is of aluminium (40mm diameter). Primary electrons are produced by irradiating the cathode with a nitrogen laser (LTB MNL200-LD) and are accelerated toward the anode by means of a high voltage power supply (Bertan 225-30). In order to validate the technique and to analyze effects of non-uniformity, results for

  9. Electrical resistivity and dielectric properties of helical microorganism cells coated with silver by electroless plating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Jun, E-mail: jun_cai@buaa.edu.cn [Bionic and Micro/Nano/Bio Manufacturing Technology Research Center, School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Lan, Mingming; Zhang, Deyuan; Zhang, Wenqiang [Bionic and Micro/Nano/Bio Manufacturing Technology Research Center, School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2012-09-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We use the microorganism cells as forming templates to fabricate the bio-based conductive particles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The microorganism cells selected as forming templates are Spirulina platens, which are of natural helical shape and high aspect ratio. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The sliver-coated Spirulina cells are a kind of lightweight conductive particles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The composites containing sliver-coated Spirulina cells exhibit a lower percolation value. - Abstract: In this paper, microorganism cells (Spirulina platens) were used as forming templates for the fabrication of the helical functional particles by electroless silver plating process. The morphologies and ingredients of the coated Spirulina cells were analyzed with scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectrometer. The crystal structures were characterized by employing the X-ray diffraction. The electrical resistivity and dielectric properties of samples containing different volume faction of sliver-coated Spirulina cells were measured and investigated by four-probe meter and vector network analyzer. The results showed that the Spirulina cells were successfully coated with a uniform silver coating and their initial helical shapes were perfectly kept. The electrical resistivity and dielectric properties of the samples had a strong dependence on the volume content of sliver-coated Spirulina cells and the samples could achieve a low percolation value owing to high aspect ratio and preferable helical shape of Spirulina cells. Furthermore, the conductive mechanism was analyzed with the classic percolation theory, and the values of {phi}{sub c} and t were obtained.

  10. ID Barrel installed in cryostat

    CERN Multimedia

    Apsimon, R.; Romaniouk, A.

    Wednesday 23rd August was a memorable day for the Inner Detector community as they witnessed the transport and installation of the central part of the inner detector (ID-barrel) into the ATLAS detector. Many members of the collaboration gathered to witness this moment at Point 1. After years of design, construction and commissioning, the outer two detectors (TRT and SCT) of the ID barrel were moved from the SR1 cleanroom to the ATLAS cavern. The barrel was moved across the car park from building 2175 to SX1. Although only a journey of about 100 metres, this required weeks of planning and some degree of luck as far as the weather was concerned. Accelerometers were fitted to the barrel to provide real-time monitoring and no values greater than 0.1 g were recorded, fully satisfying the transport specification for this extremely precise and fragile detector. Muriel, despite her fear of heights, bravely volunteered to keep a close eye on the detector. Swapping cranes to cross the entire parking lot, while Mur...

  11. Performance of timing Resistive Plate Chambers with protons from 200 to 800 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A prototype composed of four resistive plate chamber layers has been exposed to quasi-monoenergetic protons produced from a deuteron beam of varying energy (200 to 800 AMeV) in experiment S406 at GSI, Darmstadt, Germany. The aim of the experiment is to characterize the response of the prototype to protons in this energy range, which deposit from 1.75 to 6 times more energy than minimum ionizing particles. Each layer, with an active area of about 2000 × 500 mm2, is made of modules containing the active gaps, all in multigap construction. Each gap is defined by 0.3 mm nylon mono-filaments positioned between 2.85 mm thick float glass electrodes. The modules are operated in avalanche mode with a non-flammable gas mixture composed of 90% C2H2F4 and 10% SF6. The signals are readout by a pick-up electrode formed by 15 copper strips (per layer), spaced at a pitch of 30 mm, connected at both sides to timing front end electronics. Results show an uniform efficiency close to 100% along with a timing resolution of around 60 ps on the entire 2000 × 500 mm2 area

  12. Response of multi-strip multi-gap resistive plate chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A prototype of Multi-strip Multi-gap Resistive Plate chamber (MMRPC) with active area 40 cm × 20 cm has been developed at SINP, Kolkata. Detailed response of the developed detector was studied with the pulsed electron beam from ELBE at Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf. In this report the response of SINP developed MMRPC with different controlling parameters is described in details. The obtained time resolution (σt) of the detector after slew correction was 91.5 ± 3 ps. Position resolution measured along (σx) and across (σy) the strip was 2.8±0.6 cm and 0.58 cm, respectively. The measured absolute efficiency of the detector for minimum ionizing particle like electron was 95.8±1.3 %. Better timing resolution of the detector can be achieved by restricting the events to a single strip. The response of the detector was mainly in avalanche mode but a few percentage of streamer mode response was also observed. A comparison of the response of these two modes with trigger rate was studied

  13. A new model for thermal contact resistance between fuel cell gas diffusion layers and bipolar plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghifar, Hamidreza; Djilali, Ned; Bahrami, Majid

    2014-11-01

    A new analytical model is developed to predict the thermal contact resistance (TCR) between fibrous porous media such as gas diffusion layers (GDLs) of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) and flat surfaces (bipolar plates). This robust model accounts for the salient geometrical parameters of GDLs, mechanical deformation, and thermophysical properties of the contacting bodies. The model is successfully validated against experimental data, and is used to perform in a comprehensive parametric study to investigate the effects of fiber parameters such as waviness and GDL properties on the TCR. Fiber waviness, diameter and surface curvature, as well as GDL porosity, are found to have a strong influence on TCR whereas fiber length does not affect the TCR when the porosity is kept constant. Such findings provide useful guidance for design and manufacturing of more effective GDLs for PEMFC heat management. The analytic model can be readily implemented in simulation and modeling of PEMFCs, and can be extended with minor modifications to other fibrous porous media such as fibrous catalysts, insulating media and sintered metals.

  14. Degradation in the efficiency of glass Resistive Plate Chambers operated without external gas supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resistive plate chambers (RPC) are particle detectors commonly used by the high energy physics community. Their normal operation requires a constant flow of gas mixture to prevent self-poisoning which reduces the chamber's capability to detect particles. We studied how quickly the efficiency of two RPCs drops when operated in sealed mode, i.e. without refreshing the gas mixture. The test aim is to determine how RPCs could be used as particle detectors in non-laboratory applications, such as those exploiting muon tomography for geological imaging or homeland security. The two sealed RPCs were operated in proportional mode for a period of more than three months, and their efficiencies were recorded continuously and analysed in 8-hours intervals. The results show that the efficiency drops on average by 0.79 ± 0.01 % every 24 hours of operation and returns close to the initial value after purging the old gas mixture and flushing the chambers with fresh gas

  15. The analog Resistive Plate Chamber detector of the ARGO-YBJ experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Bartoli, B; Bi, X J; Cao, Z; Catalanotti, S; Chen, S Z; Chen, T L; Cui, S W; Dai, B Z; D'Amone, A; Danzengluobu,; De Mitri, I; Piazzoli, B D'Ettorre; Di Girolamo, T; Di Sciascio, G; Feng, C F; Feng, Zhaoyang; Feng, Zhenyong; Gou, Q B; Guo, Y Q; He, H H; Hu, Haibing; Hu, Hongbo; Iacovacci, M; Iuppa, R; Jia, H Y; Labaciren,; Li, H J; Liu, C; Liu, J; Liu, M Y; Lu, H; Ma, L L; Ma, X H; Mancarella, G; Mari1, S M; Marsella, G; Mastroianni, S; Montini, P; Ning, C C; Perrone, L; Pistilli, P; Salvini1, P; Santonico, R; Shen, P R; Sheng, X D; Shi, F; Surdo, A; Tan, Y H; Vallania, P; Vernetto, S; Vigorito, C; Wang, H; Wu, C Y; Wu, H R; Xue, L; Yang, Q Y; Yang, X C; Yao, Z G; Yuan, A F; Zha, M; Zhang, H M; Zhang, L; Zhang, X Y; Zhang, Y; Zhao, J; Zhaxiciren,; Zhaxisangzhu,; Zhou, X X; Zhu, F R; Zhu, Q Q

    2015-01-01

    The ARGO-YBJ experiment has been in stable data taking from November 2007 till February 2013 at the YangBaJing Cosmic Ray Observatory (4300 m a.s.l.). The detector consists of a single layer of Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) ( about 6700 m^2}) operated in streamer mode. The signal pick-up is obtained by means of strips facing one side of the gas volume. The digital readout of the signals, while allows a high space-time resolution in the shower front reconstruction, limits the measurable energy to a few hundred TeV. In order to fully investigate the 1-10 PeV region, an analog readout has been implemented by instrumenting each RPC with two large size electrodes facing the other side of the gas volume. Since December 2009 the RPC charge readout has been in operation on the entire central carpet (about 5800 m^2). In this configuration the detector is able to measure the particle density at the core position where it ranges from tens to many thousands of particles per m^2. Thus ARGO-YBJ provides a highly detailed...

  16. Front-End electronics development for the new Resistive Plate Chamber detector of HADES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, A.; Belver, D.; Cabanelas, P.; Díaz, J.; Garzón, J. A.; González-Díaz, D.; Koenig, W.; Lange, J. S.; Marín, J.; Montes, N.; Skott, P.; Traxler, M.

    2007-11-01

    In this paper we present the new RPC wall, which is being installed in the HADES detector at Darmstadt GSI. It consists of time-of-flight (TOF) detectors used for both particle identification and triggering. Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC) detectors are becoming widely used because of their excellent TOF capabilities and reduced cost. The wall will contain 1024 RPC modules, covering an active area of around 7 m2, replacing the old TOFino detector at the low polar angle region. The excellent TOF and good charge resolutions of the new detector will improve the time resolution to values better than 100 ps. The Front-End electronics for the readout of the RPC signals is implemented with two types of boards to satisfy the space constraints: the Daughterboards are small boards that amplify the low level signals from the detector and provide fast discriminators for time of flight measurements, as well as an integrator for charge measurements. The Motherboard provides stable DC voltages and a stable ground, threshold DACs for the discriminators, multiplicity trigger and impedance matched paths for transfer of time window signals that contain information about time and charge. These signals are sent to a custom TDC board that label each event and send data through Ethernet to be conveniently stored.

  17. Studies of purification of the Resistive Plate Chamber gas mixture for the Large Hadron Collider experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Capeans, M; Guida, R; Hahn, F; Haider, S

    2009-01-01

    The Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) installed as part of the large muon detectors at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) experiments use a gas mixture of 94.7% C2H2F4, 5% iC(4)H(10) and 0.3% SF6. Based on economical grounds, the design philosophy of the gas systems for the ATLAS and CMS RPC's foresees to recirculate the gas mixture in 90-95% closed loop circulation. At the LHC, RPC chambers are operated in a high radiation environment, conditions for which large amount of impurities in the return gas have been observed in earlier studies. They are potentially dangerous for the stable operation of the detectors, the materials in the detector and the gas system. While several purification stages have been foreseen in the present gas systems, chemical reactions between the absorber and the impurities are yet not well understood. Furthermore, the effects on the gas mixture of the foreseen factor 10 increase of luminosity for the LHC upgraded phase should be studied. We present the results of systematic studies of the...

  18. Testing of multigap Resistive Plate Chambers for Electron Ion Collider Detector Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Hannah; Phenix Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    Despite decades of research on the subject, some details of the spin structure of the nucleon continues to be unknown. To improve our knowledge of the nucleon spin structure, the construction of a new collider is needed. This is one of the primary goals of the proposed Electron Ion Collider (EIC). Planned EIC spectrometers will require good particle identification. This can be provided by time of flight (TOF) detectors with excellent timing resolutions of 10 ps. A potential TOF detector that could meet this requirement is a glass multigap resistive plate chamber (mRPC). These mRPCs can provide excellent timing resolution at a low cost. The current glass mRPC prototypes have a total of twenty 0.1 mm thick gas gaps. In order to test the feasibility of this design, a cosmic test stand was assembled. This stand used the coincidence of scintillators as a trigger, and contains fast electronics. The construction, the method of testing, and the test results of the mRPCs will be presented.

  19. Analysis and interpretation of the performance degradation of glass Resistive Plate Chambers operated in streamer mode

    CERN Document Server

    Calcaterra, A; Patteri, P; Piccolo, M; Della Mea, G; Restello, S; Ferri, F; Musella, P; Redaelli, N; Tabarelli de Fatis, T; Tinti, G; Mannocchi, G; Trinchero, G

    2007-01-01

    The long-term stability of Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) with glass electrodes was studied for one year with a dedicated test station hosting about 10 m2 of detectors. RPCs were operated in streamer mode with a ternary gas mixture containing argon (27%), isobutane (9%) and tetrafluoroethane (64%). Environmental conditions were kept under control and, in particular, the water pollution in the gas, deemed responsible for the degradation of glass RPC performance, was monitored never to exceed 30 ppm in the exhaust line. Evidence for a substantial aging of the detectors was observed, resulting in a loss of efficiency correlated to an increased rate of spurious streamers. This can be ascribed to the chemical attack of the glass surface by hydrofluoric acid formed in the streamer process, as confirmed by detailed morphological and chemical analyses of the electrode surface. Our results strengthen the indication that the instability of glass RPCs in the long term is related to the use of fluorocarbons as quenching...

  20. Signal Efficiency of the Resistive Plate Chambers in the PHENIX Forward Trigger Upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coley, Mark

    2009-10-01

    PHENIX is an experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) that studies polarized proton-proton and heavy ion collisions. PHENIX is in the process of upgrading the forward muon trigger to improve its capabilities of studying W-bosons. By triggering on single, high transverse momentum muons, new observations on the spin structure of a proton will be obtained. The trigger upgrade will consist of four stations of Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) with two stations on each side of the interaction region. Inside an RPC, there are several copper strips which form a signal plane. When a charged particle travels through the adjacent gas gaps a signal is induced on these strips. This signal propagates from the copper strip to the readout electronics. In the readout electronics, the signal is amplified and sent to a discriminator. Care must be taken when setting the chamber high voltage and the readout electronics threshold to balance the detector efficiency and noise. Lowering the threshold increases the efficiency of detecting muons but also increases the background interference. These RPCs are tested on a cosmic ray test stand to determine the optimal operating conditions. This poster will describe the RPCs, how the signal propagates out of the chamber and how the high voltage and threshold affect performance.

  1. Development and Evaluation of the Muon Trigger Detector Using a Resistive Plate Chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The PHENIX Experiment is the largest of the four experiments that have taken data at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. PHENIX, the Pioneering High Energy Nuclear Interaction eXperiment, is designed specifically to measure direct probes of the collisions such as electrons, muons, and photons. The primary goal of PHENIX is to discover and study a new state of matter called the Quark-Gluon Plasma. Among many particles, muons coming from W-boson decay gives us key information to analyze the spin of proton. Resistive plate chambers are proposed as a suitable solution as a muon trigger because of their fast response and good time resolution, flexibility in signal readout, robustness and the relatively low cost of production. The RPC detectors for upgrade were assembled and their performances were evaluated. The procedure to make the detectors better was optimized and described in detail in this thesis. The code based on ROOT was written and by using this the performance of the detectors made was evaluated, and all of the modules for north muon arm met the criteria and installation at PHENIX completed in November 2009. As RPC detectors that we made showed fast response, capacity of covering wide area with a resonable price and good spatial resolution, this will give the opportunity for applications, such as diagnosis and customs inspection system

  2. Development and Evaluation of the Muon Trigger Detector Using a Resistive Plate Chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Byeong Hyeon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yong Kyun; Kang, Jeong Soo [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Jin; Choi, Ihn Jea [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Brookhaven (United States); Kim, Chong; Hong, Byung Sik [Korea University, Seol (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-03-15

    The PHENIX Experiment is the largest of the four experiments that have taken data at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. PHENIX, the Pioneering High Energy Nuclear Interaction eXperiment, is designed specifically to measure direct probes of the collisions such as electrons, muons, and photons. The primary goal of PHENIX is to discover and study a new state of matter called the Quark-Gluon Plasma. Among many particles, muons coming from W-boson decay gives us key information to analyze the spin of proton. Resistive plate chambers are proposed as a suitable solution as a muon trigger because of their fast response and good time resolution, flexibility in signal readout, robustness and the relatively low cost of production. The RPC detectors for upgrade were assembled and their performances were evaluated. The procedure to make the detectors better was optimized and described in detail in this thesis. The code based on ROOT was written and by using this the performance of the detectors made was evaluated, and all of the modules for north muon arm met the criteria and installation at PHENIX completed in November 2009. As RPC detectors that we made showed fast response, capacity of covering wide area with a resonable price and good spatial resolution, this will give the opportunity for applications, such as diagnosis and customs inspection system.

  3. The resistive plate WELL detector as a single stage thick gaseous multiplier detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bressler, Shikma; Breskin, Amos; Moleri, Luca; Kumar, Ashwini; Pitt, Michael [Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics, Weizmann Institute of Science (WIS) (Israel); Kudella, Simon [Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik (IEKP), KIT (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Gaseous Electron Multiplier (GEM) detector use high electric fields inside the h ole of a foil to achieve a high charge multiplication. As a thicker version of G EMs based on printed circuit board (PCB) structures, Thick Gaseous Electron Multiplier (THGEM) detectors combine the high gain of a GEM foil with the robustness, stability and low production costs of a PCB and allow a large quantity of applications that require the coverage of a large area at low cost and moderate spatial resolution. One application the Weizmann Institute of Science (WIS) develops as a member of the RD51 framework is the Resistive Plate WELL (RPWELL) detector. This single stage detector allows a very stable, discharge free operation at high gain (10{sup 5}). The single stage operation allows a low total height and make s the RPWELL a candidate for the Digital Hadronic Calorimeter (DHCAL) of the International Large Detector (ILD) at the International Linear Collider (ILC). The talk gives an insight into the way the RPWELL works and shows results from the last test beam.

  4. Simulation of efficiency and time resolution of resistive plate chambers and comparison with experimental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The India based Neutrino Observatory (INO) collaboration is planning to build a 50 kton magnetized Iron Calorimeter (ICAL) detector to study neutrino oscillations and measure their associated parameters. ICAL will use 28,800 glass Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) of 2 m×2 m in size as its active detector elements. These RPCs will be operated in the avalanche mode. As a part of the detector R and D to develop the RPCs required for this detector, we made a comparative study of the effect of Sulphur Hexafluoride (SF6) in the gas mixture on the induced charge using simulation and experimental data in our earlier paper [1]. In this paper, we extend our studies to efficiency and time resolution of the RPC using simulation and experimental data. Several software tools have been used to carry out the simulation. We have calculated the primary interaction parameters using HEED and Geant4. The electron transport parameters have been computed using MAGBOLTZ. We have used nearly exact Boundary Element Method (neBEM) and COMSOL Multiphysics, a Finite Element Method package for calculating the weighting field and the electric field

  5. Effect of surface treatment on the interfacial contact resistance and corrosion resistance of Fe–Ni–Cr alloy as a bipolar plate for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bipolar plate is an important component of the PEMFC (polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell) because it supplies the pathway of electron flow between each unit cell. Fe–Ni–Cr alloy is considered as a good candidate material for bipolar plate, but it is limited to use as a bipolar plate due to its high ICR (interfacial contact resistance) and corrosion problem. In order to explore a cost-effective method on surface modification, various chemical and electrochemical treatments are performed on Fe–Ni–Cr alloy to acquire the effect of the surface modification on the ICR and corrosion behavior. The ICR and corrosion resistance of Fe–Ni–Cr alloy can be effectively controlled by the chemical treatment of immersion in the mixed acid solution with 10 vol% HNO3, 2 vol% HCl and 1 vol% HF for 10 min at 65 °C and then was placed in 30 vol% HNO3 solution for 5 min. The chemical treatment is more effective on reducing ICR and improving corrosion resistance than that of electrochemical methods (be carried out in the 2 mol/L H2SO4 solution with the electrical potential from −0.4 V to 0.6 V) for Fe–Ni–Cr alloy as a bipolar plate for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells. - Highlights: • The procedure of the surface treatments on Fe–Ni–Cr alloy as bipolar plate was described in detail. • Effects of various surface treatments on the interfacial contact resistivity and corrosion behavior were discussed. • The mechanism of the surface modification was particularly analyzed

  6. Work on a ATLAS tile calorimeter Barrel

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    2000-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter is designed as one barrel and two extended barrel hadron parts. The calorimeter consists of a cylindrical structure with inner and outer radius of 2280 and 4230 mm respectively. The barrel part is 5640 mm in length along the beam axis, while each of the extended barrel cylinders is 2910 mm long. Each detector cylinder is built of 64 independent wedges along the azimuthal direction. Between the barrel and the extended barrels there is a gap of about 600 mm, which is needed for the Inner Detector and the Liquid Argon cables, electronics and services. The barrel covers the region -1.0barrels cover the region 0.8<|h|<1.7.

  7. The PANDA Barrel DIRC detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoek, M., E-mail: matthias.hoek@uni-mainz.de [Institut für Kernphysik, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Mainz (Germany); Dzhygadlo, R.; Gerhardt, A.; Götzen, K.; Hohler, R.; Kalicy, G.; Kumawat, H.; Lehmann, D.; Lewandowski, B.; Patsyuk, M.; Peters, K.; Schepers, G.; Schmitt, L.; Schwarz, C.; Schwiening, J.; Traxler, M.; Zühlsdorf, M. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Dodokhov, V. Kh. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Britting, A.; Eyrich, W. [Friedrich Alexander-University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen (Germany); and others

    2014-12-01

    The PANDA experiment at the new Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research in Europe (FAIR) at GSI, Darmstadt, will study fundamental questions of hadron physics and QCD using high-intensity cooled antiproton beams with momenta between 1.5 and 15 GeV/c. Efficient Particle Identification for a wide momentum range and the full solid angle is required for reconstructing the various physics channels of the PANDA program. Hadronic Particle Identification in the barrel region of the detector will be provided by a DIRC counter. The design is based on the successful BABAR DIRC with important improvements, such as focusing optics and fast photon timing. Several of these improvements, including different radiator geometries and optics, were tested in particle beams at GSI and at CERN. The evolution of the conceptual design of the PANDA Barrel DIRC and the performance of complex prototypes in test beam campaigns will be discussed.

  8. Increase of bending fatigue resistance for tungsten inert gas welded SS400 steel plates using friction stir processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The first time FSP modification of bending properties in the TIG-welded steel plates. • FSP produced about 40% increase in bending strength at RT. • FSP produced about 170% increase in the number of cycles to failure at 270 MPa at RT. • FSP produced a zigzag-shaped crack at the fatigue fracture start portion. • A fine-grained FSP region (grain sizes of about 1–2 μm in diameter) was observed. - Abstract: To improve the fatigue resistance of tungsten inert gas (TIG)-welded SS400 steel plates, friction stir processing (FSP) was performed on TIG weld beads. Although the tensile properties of the TIG-welded steel plates with FSP were similar to those without FSP, their bending strength exhibited about 1.4 GPa at room temperature, which was 40% higher than that without FSP (about 1 GPa). Similarly, FSP produced about 170% increase in the number of cycles to failure at an applied stress amplitude of 270 MPa during three-point bending fatigue at room temperature. A fine-grained FSP region (grain sizes of about 1–2 μm in diameter) enhanced grain-boundary strengthening, leading to the higher bending strength and bending fatigue resistance

  9. Development of multi-gap resistive plate chambers with low-resistive silicate glass electrodes for operation at high particle fluxes and large transported charges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using electrodes made of semi-conductive glass is an innovative way of improving the rate capability of resistive plate chambers. To address this issue, we developed 6- and 10-gap counters with low-resistive silicate glass electrodes (bulk resistivity ∼1010 Ω cm) suited for time-of-flight (TOF) applications at high rates and high transported charges. Measurements were performed at GSI-Darmstadt under uniform an irradiation by secondary particles stemming from proton reactions at 2.5 GeV/A. For the 10-gap MRPC, time resolutions below 90 ps and efficiencies larger than 90% were obtained at counting rates up to 25 kHz/cm2. When the particle flux increases every 5 kHz/cm2, the efficiency decreases by 1% and the time resolution deteriorates by 4 ps. A tolerable decrease of the material conductivity was also observed for a total transported charge of 1 C/cm2.

  10. The OPAL muon barrel detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akers, R.J. [Manchester Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Phys. and Astron.; Allison, J. [Manchester Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Phys. and Astron.; Ashton, P. [Manchester Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Phys. and Astron.; Bahan, G.A. [Manchester Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Phys. and Astron.; Baines, J.T.M. [Manchester Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Phys. and Astron.; Banks, J.N. [Manchester Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Phys. and Astron.; Barlow, R.J. [Manchester Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Phys. and Astron.; Barnett, S. [Manchester Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Phys. and Astron.; Beeston, C. [Manchester Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Phys. and Astron.; Chrin, J.T.M. [Manchester Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Phys. and Astron.; Clowes, S.G. [Manchester Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Phys. and Astron.; Davies, O.W. [Manchester Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Phys. and Astron.; Duerdoth, I.P. [Manchester Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Phys. and Astron.; Hinde, P.S. [Manchester Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Phys. and Astron.; Hughes-Jones, R.E. [Manchester Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Phys. and Astron.; Lafferty, G.D. [Manchester Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Phys. and Astron.; Loebinger, F.K. [Manchester Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Phys. and Astron.; Macbeth, A.A. [Manchester Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Phys. and Astron.; McGowan, R.F. [Manchester Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Phys. and Astron.; Moss, M.W. [Manchester Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Phys. and Astron.; Murphy, P.G. [Manchester Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Phys. and Astron.; Nijjhar, B. [Manchester Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Phys. and Astron.; O`Dowd, A.J.P. [Manchester Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Phys. and Astron.; Pawley, S.J. [Manchester Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Phys. and Astron.; Phillips, P.D. [Manchester Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Phys. and Astron.; Richards, G.E.

    1995-04-21

    The barrel part of the OPAL muon detector consists of 110 drift chambers forming four layers outside the hadron absorber. Each chamber covers an area of 1.2 m by up to 10.4 m and has two cells with wires parallel to the beam and a drift distance of 297 mm. A detailed description of the design, construction, operation and performance of the sub-detector is given. The system has been operating successfully since the start of LEP in 1989. ((orig.)).

  11. Geometry Design of Wooden Barrels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan CISMARU

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present a design methodology of the wooden barrel geometry, as an algorithm of successive calculations. Thus, starting from the required elements (volume, length, shape, maximum height of storage space the user will be able to define the geometry which must be obtained by processing. Based on these calculations, one can define the structure, size and shape of the staves in order to establish the processing technology of both components and subassemblies (jacket and bottoms which are to form the final product by their assembling using metal circles.

  12. Corrosion resistance of hybrid films applied on tin plate: Precursor solution acidified with nitric acid (pH=3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra R. Kunst

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Siloxane – poly (methylmethacrylate-based materials are system s formed by a silicon network, to which chains of poly (methylmethacrylate are linked by covalent bonds or by physica l interactions. Their stability and adherence allow their appli cation on substrates like tin plate in order to increase the corrosion re sistance. The aim of this work is to coat tin plate with a hybr id film obtained from a sol consisting of alkoxide precursors: 3 - (trimethoxysi lylpropyl methacrylate (TMSM and poly (methyl methacrylate P MMA. Effect of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS addition was evaluated. Morp hology was evaluated by SEM and contact angle. Electrochemical behavior was evaluated by open circuit potential (OCP, potenti odynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscop y (EIS. Results showed that siloxane-PMMA film obtained with a higher a ddition of TEOS had higher thickness. However, intense densific ation caused by TEOS addition promoted crack formation, thereby compr omising the corrosion resistance.

  13. A study on the effect of flat plate friction resistance on speed performance prediction of full scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Dong-Woo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Flat plate friction lines hare been used in the process to estimate speed performance of full-scale ships in model tests. The results of the previous studies showed considerable differences in determining form factors depending on changes in plate friction lines and Reynolds numbers. These differences had a great influence on estimation of speed performance of full-scale ships. This study- was conducted in two parts. In the first part, the scale effect of the form factor depending on change in the Reynolds number was studied based on CFD, in connection with three kinds of friction resistance curves: the ITTC-1957, the curve proposed by Grigson (1993; 1996, and the curve developed by Katsui et al (2005. In the second part, change in the form factor by three kinds of

  14. TRT and SCT barrels merge

    CERN Multimedia

    Wells, P S

    2006-01-01

    The SCT barrel was inserted in the TRT on 17 February, just missing Valentine's day. This was a change of emphasis for the two detectors. In the preceeding months there had been a lot of focus on testing their performance. The TRT had been observing cosmic rays through several sectors of the barrel, and all the modules on each of the four layers of the SCT had been characterised prior to integration. In parallel, the engineering teams, lead by Marco Olcese, Andrea Catinaccio, Eric Perrin, Neil Dixon, Iourii Gusakov, Gerard Barbier and Takashi Kohriki, had been preparing for this critical operation. Figure 1: Neil Dixon and Marco Olcese verifying the final alignment The two detectors had to be painstakingly aligned to be concentric to within a millimetre. The SCT was held on a temporary cantilever stand, and the TRT in the ID trolley had to inch over it. Finally the weight of the SCT was transferred to the rails on the inside of the TRT itself. The SCT services actually protruded a little outside the oute...

  15. Corrosion resistance of zinc-nickel plated U-O.75 Ti

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of a program for the US Army directed at improving the corrosion performance of U-0.75 Ti, specimens were coated with Zn-10 Ni alloy electroplate and then subjected to various corrosion tests. This work revealed that the Zn-Ni coatings provided good protection for U-0.75 Ti in salt fog and in non-sealed moist-nitrogen systems. In sealed, moist-nitrogen environments the Zn-Ni coatings deteriorated quickly and provided no protection. Some plating with Zn alone, using some of the new non-cyanide plating solutions, was also attempted, but the results were inconsistent

  16. Sensitivity and statistical analysis within the elaboration of steel plated girder resistance

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Melcher, J.; Škaloud, Miroslav; Kala, Z.; Karmazínová, M.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 2 (2009), s. 120-126. ISSN 1816-112X. [International conf. on steel and aluminium structures /6./. Oxford, 24.06.2007-27.06.2007] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20710524 Keywords : steel structures * fatigue * sensitivity * imperfection * plated girder Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering

  17. Synthesis of Corrosion-resistant Nanocrystalline Nickle-copper Alloy Coatings by Pulse-plating Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. Ghosh

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Bright and smooth nanocrystalline Monel-type Ni-Cu alloy gets deposited from complex citrate electrolyte by pulse electrolysis. Transmission electron microscopy studies have revealedthat the deposited Ni-Cu alloy was nanocrystalline in nature and it comprised a two-phase (fcc+Ll, mixture. The presence of twins could be seen in the nanocrystals. The Ni-Cu alloysprepared by pulse electrolysis were finer grained (- 2.5-28.5 nm than those deposited by direct current method. Nelson-Riley function has been used to calculate the lattice parameters for both the pulse current-plated and direct current-plated alloys from x-ray diffraction analysis. The microhardness values for pulse current-plated alloys were higher than for the direct currentplated alloys. The internal stresses of both the pulse current-deposited and the direct currentdeposited alloys have also been measured; the values were lower for pulse current-plated alloys. Potentiodynamic polarisation studies were carried out in aerated and deaerated neutral 3.0 Wt per cent NaCl solution and instantaneous corrosion current density of the plated alloy was determined and compared with the Monel-400 alloy. It was found that nanocrystalline pulse current-N,-35 8 Wt p;r cent copper alloy uxh~bitedlo wer instantaneous value of corros~onc urrent densirv than that of soeclrnens with direct current method and Monel-400 allov The d~ssolut~on ~ ~~~~-~ behaviour ofthe deposited nanocrystalline material was found to be more like general corrosion rather than localised corrosion as in the case of Monel-400 alloy.

  18. Assessment of the Resistance of a Polymethylmethacrylate (Pmma Dynamic Compression Plate (DCP Prototype Tested on Osteotomized Canine Femurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonel Cardona R.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Femur fractures are the most frequent long bone fractures in small animals. Due to the femur’s anatomical position, it is difficult to immobilize, and therefore internal fixations are very useful. Dynamic compression plates (DCP provide high stability, are durable, minimize fragment movement and promote primary healing of the bone. Advantages of this treatment include anatomical reconstruction, early mobility and carrying capacity of the affected limb. Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA is an acrylic resin that has proved very useful in bone tumor treatment, cranial deformation prosthesis, percutaneous vertebroplasty and testicular prosthesis in animals. The purpose of this study was to manufacture DCP-PMMA and test its resistance to the different forces present in a fracture. Forty-eight (48 3.5MM x 4-hole DCP were made from an alginate mold. Six (6 femurs were obtained from canine cadavers zeighing from 10 to 20 kg, which underwent osteotomy simulating an oblique fracture. The plates were subsequently positioned in the osteotomized bones to submit them to the various forces involved in a fracture. The DCP-PMMA resisted a torque force of 2.83 newton/metres and a compression and flexion force of 0.21 kilonewton. The obtained resistance of the DCP-PMMA was an average of 20 kg per force. The results of this study show that it is possible to make a DCP-PMMA 3.5 mm x 4-hole, the resistance of which is of 20 kg against the three applied forces, and that it can be used to stabilize long bone fractures subjected to a pressure of less than 20 kg.

  19. Recent results from Crystal Barrel

    CERN Document Server

    Doser, Michael

    2000-01-01

    The Crystal Barrel detector has collected data on antiproton annihilation on Hydrogen and Deuterium at rest and at momenta up to 1940 MeV/c, accumulating a total of 600 M events with the goal of studying meson spectroscopy and searching for non-qbarq states. This large amount of data has allowed high statistics studies of exclusive final states produced under various initial conditions. Comparisons between different initial and final states greatly constrain the interpretation of these data sets. In particular, the requirement of consistency between fits of 3-body final state Dalitz plots is a powerful tool in the search for non-standard model resonances [1]. More recently, the study of the same Dalitz plot produced from antiproton annihilation on liquid and gaseous hydrogen, on deuterium or on liquid hydrogen at different center-of-mass energies has extended this approach to higher mass resonances.

  20. Differential biofilm formation and chemical disinfection resistance of Escherichia coli on stainless steel and polystyrene tissue culture plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anas Muazu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Biofilms are aggregates of microbial cells enclosed in an extracellular polymeric substance and attached to surfaces. Biofilm formation and its resistance to antimicrobials is becoming a serious challenge in food industries and hospital settings. The aim of this work was to study the formation of biofilm by E. coli on Stainless steel (SS and Polystyrene Tissue Culture Plate (TCP at 10 and 27 and deg;C, and also to assess the action Hydrogen Peroxide (HP, Para Acetic Acid (PAA, Sodium Hypochlorite (SH and mixture of PAA + SH disinfectants against the biofilm. Methods: 200 and micro;L of 108 suspension of E. coli ATCC 29922 was inoculated on the SS and into the wells of TCP, incubated at 10 and 27 and deg;C for 24, 48 72 and 168 hours. Biofilm developed at each incubation hour above was quantified by bead-vortex method followed by agar plating. The action of disinfectants was tested on 168 hours biofilm. The surfaces were exposed to the disinfectants and incubated at 27 and deg;C for 10 minutes, followed by deactivation for 5 minutes. Cells that resisted disinfectants action were vortexed and enumerated by agar plating. Results: From the results E. coli developed higher biofilm on SS than TCP at 72 hours and 27 and deg;C. After disinfection, HP was the most effective with log reduction value of 1.11 followed by PAA (1.07, then PAA + SH (1.04 while SH was the least (0.92. Conclusions: The result of this work showed that HP and PAA can be good disinfectants against E. coli biofilm. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(11.000: 3300-3307

  1. PHYSICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION OF TANTALUM ON GUN BARREL STEEL (SYSTEMS ANLAYSIS BRANCH, SUSTAINABLE TECHNOLOGY DIVISION, NRMRL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This project entails the development of an alternative technology for plating gun barrel steel to replace the process electroplating of chrome (Cr-electroplate) with physical vapor deposition of tantalum (Ta-PVD). Developed by Benet Laboratory at Watervliet Arsenal, this project'...

  2. Effects of Mo content on microstructure and corrosion resistance of arc ion plated Ti-Mo-N films on 316L stainless steel as bipolar plates for polymer exchange membrane fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Kim, Kwang Ho; Shao, Zhigang; Wang, Feifei; Zhao, Shuang; Suo, Ni

    2014-05-01

    Bipolar plates are one of the most important components in PEMFC stack and have multiple functions, such as separators and current collectors, distributing reactions uniformly, and etc. Stainless steel is ideal candidate for bipolar plates owing to good thermal and electrical conductivity, good mechanical properties etc. However, stainless steel plate still cannot resist the corrosion of working condition. In this work, ternary Ti-Mo-N film was fabricated on 316L stainless steel (SS316L) as a surface modification layer to enhance the corrosion resistance. Effects of Mo content on the microstructure and corrosion resistance of Ti-Mo-N films are systematically investigated by altering sputtering current of the Mo target. XRD results reveal that the preferred orientation changes from [111] to [220] direction as Mo content in the film increases. The synthesized Ti-Mo-N films form a substitutional solid solution of (Ti, Mo)N where larger Mo atoms replace Ti in TiN crystal lattice. The TiN-coated SS316L sample shows the best corrosion resistance. While Mo content in the Ti-Mo-N films increases, the corrosion resistance gradually degrades. Compared with the uncoated samples, all the Ti-Mo-N film coated samples show enhanced corrosion resistance in simulated PEMFC working condition.

  3. Right and left support feet of the Central Barrel Yoke of the CMS Detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Franz Leher, DWE

    2000-01-01

    Fully loaded the Central Barrel will weigh 3000 tonnes. Those feet have tosupport this weight. Therefore they are made of 120 mm thick steel plates.To guarantee a maximum coverage for the muon detctor they will house a muon detector just benaeth the top plate. Weight of 1 foot is 35 tonnes.Its height is 3.5 m and it is 2.5 m large

  4. CALIFA Barrel prototype detector characterisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietras, B., E-mail: benjamin.pietras@usc.es [Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, E-15782 (Spain); Gascón, M. [Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, E-15782 (Spain); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Rd. Berkeley, CA 94701 (United States); Álvarez-Pol, H. [Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, E-15782 (Spain); Bendel, M. [Technische Universität München, 80333 (Germany); Bloch, T. [Technische Universität Darmstadt, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Casarejos, E. [Universidade de Vigo, E-36310 (Spain); Cortina-Gil, D.; Durán, I. [Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, E-15782 (Spain); Fiori, E. [Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung (GSI), D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Gernhäuser, R. [Technische Universität München, 80333 (Germany); González, D. [Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, E-15782 (Spain); Kröll, T. [Technische Universität Darmstadt, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Le Bleis, T. [Technische Universität München, 80333 (Germany); Montes, N. [Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, E-15782 (Spain); Nácher, E. [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CSIC, E-28006 Madrid (Spain); Robles, M. [Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, E-15782 (Spain); Perea, A. [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CSIC, E-28006 Madrid (Spain); Vilán, J.A. [Universidade de Vigo, E-36310 (Spain); Winkel, M. [Technische Universität München, 80333 (Germany)

    2013-11-21

    Well established in the field of scintillator detection, Caesium Iodide remains at the forefront of scintillators for use in modern calorimeters. Recent developments in photosensor technology have lead to the production of Large Area Avalanche Photo Diodes (LAAPDs), a huge advancement on traditional photosensors in terms of high internal gain, dynamic range, magnetic field insensitivity, high quantum efficiency and fast recovery time. The R{sup 3}B physics programme has a number of requirements for its calorimeter, one of the most challenging being the dual functionality as both a calorimeter and a spectrometer. This involves the simultaneous detection of ∼300MeV protons and gamma rays ranging from 0.1 to 20 MeV. This scintillator – photosensor coupling provides an excellent solution in this capacity, in part due to the near perfect match of the LAAPD quantum efficiency peak to the light output wavelength of CsI(Tl). Modern detector development is guided by use of Monte Carlo simulations to predict detector performance, nonetheless it is essential to benchmark these simulations against real data taken with prototype detector arrays. Here follows an account of the performance of two such prototypes representing different polar regions of the Barrel section of the forthcoming CALIFA calorimeter. Measurements were taken for gamma–ray energies up to 15.1 MeV (Maier-Leibnitz Laboratory, Garching, Germany) and for direct irradiation with a 180 MeV proton beam (The Svedberg Laboratoriet, Uppsala, Sweden). Results are discussed in light of complementary GEANT4 simulations. -- Highlights: •Prototypes corresponding to different sections of the forthcoming CALIFA Barrel calorimeter were tested. •The response to both high energy gamma rays and high energy protons was observed. •This response was reproduced by use of R3BROOT simulations, the geometry extrapolated to predict performance of the complete calorimeter. •Effects such as energy straggling of wrapping

  5. Effects of SF$_{6}$ on the avalanche mode operation of a real-sized double-gap resistive plate chamber for the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Ahn Sung Hwan; Hong, B; Hong, S J; Ito, M; Kim, B I; Kim, J H; Kim, Y J; Kim, Y U; Koo, D G; Lee, H W; Lee, K B; Lee, K S; Lee, S J; Lim, J K; Moon, D H; Nam, S K; Park, S; Park, W J; Rhee, J T; Ryu, M S; Shim, H H; Sim, K S; Kang, T I

    2005-01-01

    We present the design and the test, results for a real-sized prototype resistive plate chamber by using cosmic-ray muons for the forward region of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). In particular, we investigate the effects of adding SF/sub 6/ to the gas mixture for the avalanche mode operation of a resistive plate chamber. A small fraction of SF/sub 6/ is very effective in suppressing streamer signals in a resistive plate chamber. The shapes of the muon detection efficiency and the muon cluster size remain similar, but are shifted to higher operating voltage by SF/sub 6/. The noise cluster rate and size are not influenced by SF/sub 6/.

  6. Celebrating the Barrel Toroid commissioning

    CERN Multimedia

    Peter Jenni

    ATLAS invited Funding Agency representatives and Laboratory Heads directly related to the funding and construction of the Barrel Toroid for a small ceremony on 13th December 2006 at Point 1, in order to mark the successful first full excitation of the BT (see last eNews). On that date, which was during the December CERN Council week, several of the Funding Agency Heads or their representatives could be present, representing CEA France, INFN Italy, BMBF Germany, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Russia, JINR Dubna and CERN. Speeches were delivered by the ATLAS spokesperson Peter Jenni thanking the Funding Partners in the name of the Collaboration, by Magnet Project Leader Herman ten Kate tracing the BT construction history, and by the CERN Director-General Robert Aymar congratulating all those who have contributed to the successful project. Herman ten Kate addressing the delegates. The text of the introductory address by Peter Jenni is reproduced here. "It is a great pleasure for me to welcome you all here...

  7. Liquid Argon Barrel Cryostat Arrived

    CERN Multimedia

    Pailler, P

    Last week the first of three cryostats for the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeter arrived at CERN. It had travelled for 46 days over several thousand kilometers from Japan to CERN. During three years it has been fabricated by Kawasaki Heavy Industries Ltd. at Harima, close to Kobe, under contract from Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) of the U.S.. This cryostat consists of two concentric cylinders made of aluminium: the outer vacuum vessel with a diameter of 5.5 m and a length of 7 m, and the inner cold vessel which will contain the electromagnetic barrel calorimeter immersed in liquid argon. The total weight will be 270 tons including the detectors and the liquid argon. The cryostat is now located in building 180 where it will be equipped with 64 feed-throughs which serve for the passage of 122,880 electrical lines which will carry the signals of the calorimeter. After integration of the calorimeter, the solenoidal magnet of ATLAS will be integrated in the vacuum vessel. A final cold test of the cryostat inc...

  8. Preliminary results of Resistive Plate Chambers operated with eco-friendly gas mixtures for application in the CMS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Abbrescia, Marcello; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Cauwenbergh, Simon Marc D; Ferrini, Mauro; Muhammad, Saleh; Passamontic, L; Pierluigi, Daniele; Piccolo, Davide; Primavera, Federica; Russo, Alessandro; Savianoc, G; Tytgat, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The operations of Resistive Plate Chambers in LHC experiments require F-based gases for optimal performance. Recent regulations demand the use of environmentally unfriendly F-based gases to be limited or banned. In view of the CMS experiment upgrade several tests are ongoing to measure the performance of the detector in terms of efficiency, streamer probability, induced charge and time resolution. Prototype chambers with readout pads and with the standard cms electronic setup are under test. In this talk preliminary results on performance of RPCs operated with a potential eco-friendly gas candidate 1,3,3,3-Tetrafluoropropene, commercially known as HFO-1234ze and with CO2 based gas mixtures are presented and discussed for the possible application in the CMS experiment.

  9. Preliminary results of Resistive Plate Chambers operated with eco-friendly gas mixtures for application in the CMS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Abbrescia, M; Benussi, L.; Bianco, S.; Cauwenbergh, S.; Ferrini, M.; Muhammad, S.; Passamonti, L.; Pierluigi, D.; Piccolo, D.; Primavera, F.; Russo, A.; Saviano, G.; Tytgat, M.

    2016-01-01

    The operations of Resistive Plate Chambers in LHC experiments require Fluorine based (F-based) gases for optimal performance. Recent European regulations demand the use of environmentally unfriendly F-based gases to be limited or banned. In view of the CMS experiment upgrade, several tests are ongoing to measure the performance of the detector with these new ecological gas mixtures, in terms of efficiency, streamer probability, induced charge and time resolution. Prototype chambers with readout pads and with the standard CMS electronic setup are under test. In this paper preliminary results on performance of RPCs operated with a potential eco-friendly gas candidate 1,3,3,3-Tetrafluoropropene, commercially known as HFO-1234ze, with CO2 and CF3I based gas mixtures are presented and discussed for the possible application in the CMS experiment.

  10. Beam test results of the first full-scale prototype of CMS RE 1/2 Resistive Plate Chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Ying, Jun; Cai Jian Xin; Liu Hong Tao; Qian Si Jin; Wang Quan Jin; Ye Yan Lin

    2005-01-01

    We reported the muon beam test results of the first full-scale prototype of CMS RE 1/2 Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC). The bakelite surface is treated using a special technology without oil to make it smooth enough. The full scale RE 1/2 RPC with honeycomb supporting frame is strong and thin enough to be fitted to the limited space of CMS design for the inner Forward RPC. The muon beam test was performed at CERN Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF). The detection efficiency of this full scale RPC prototype is >95% even at very high irradiation background. The time resolution (less than 1.2 ns) and spatial resolution are satisfactory for the muon trigger device in future CMS experiments. The noise rate is also calculated and discussed.

  11. High performance railgun barrels for laboratory use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, David P.; Newman, Duane C.

    1993-01-01

    High performance low-cost, laboratory railgun barrels are now available, comprised of an inherently stiff containment structure which surrounds the bore components machined from 'off the-shelf' materials. The shape of the containment structure was selected to make the barrel inherently stiff. The structure consists of stainless steel laminations which do not compromise the electrical efficiency of the railgun. The modular design enhances the utility of the barrel, as it is easy to service between shots, and can be 're-cored' to produce different configurations and sizes using the same structure. We have produced barrels ranging from 15 mm to 90 mm square bore, a 30 mm round bore, and in lengths varying from 0.25 meters to 10 meters long. Successful tests with both plasma and solid metal armatures have demonstrated the versatility and performance of this design.

  12. Work on the ATLAS semiconductor tracker barrel

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2005-01-01

    Precision work is performed on the semiconductor tracker barrel of the ATLAS experiment. All work on these delicate components must be performed in a clean room so that impurities in the air, such as dust, do not contaminate the detector. The semiconductor tracker will be mounted in the barrel close to the heart of the ATLAS experiment to detect the path of particles produced in proton-proton collisions.

  13. First SCT Barrel arrives at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Apsimon, R

    Mid-January saw the arrival at CERN of Barrel #3, the first of four SCT barrels. The barrels are formed as low-mass cylinders of carbon fibre skins on a honeycomb carbon core. They are manufactured in industry and then have all the final precision supports added and the final geometric metrology carried out at Geneva University. Barrel #3, complete with its 384 silicon detector modules, arrived by road from Oxford University in England where the modules were mounted using a purpose-built robot. The modules had been selected from the output of all four barrel module building clusters (in Japan, Scandinavia, USA and the UK). Since Barrel #3 will be exposed to high radiation levels within the tracker volume, these modules, representing over half a million readout channels, have been extensively tested at their operational temperature of around -25 degrees Celcius and at voltages of up to 500V. The dangers of shipping such a fragile component of ATLAS were apparent to all and considerable attention was focused...

  14. The TileCal Barrel Test Assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Leitner, R

    On 30th October, the mechanics test assembly of the central barrel of the ATLAS tile hadronic calorimeter was completed in building 185. It started on 23rd June and is the second wheel for the Tilecal completely assembled this year. The ATLAS engineers and technicians are quick: instead of the 27 weeks initially foreseen for assembling the central barrel of the tile hadronic calorimeter (Tilecal) in building 185, they inserted the last of the 64 modules on 30th October after only 19 weeks. In part, this was due to the experience gained in the dry run assembly of the first extended barrel, produced in Spain, in spring this year (see Bulletin 23/2003); however, the central barrel is twice as long - and twice as heavy. With a length of 6.4 metres, an outer diameter of 8.5 metres and an inner diameter of 4.5 metres, the object weight is 1300 tonnes. The whole barrel cylinder is supported by the stainless steel support structure weighing only 27 tons. The barrel also has to have the right shape: over the whole 8...

  15. Sodium functionalized graphene oxide coated titanium plates for improved corrosion resistance and cell viability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surface functionalization is an important process that has been adopted to well explore the applications of nanomaterials. In this context, we demonstrate the sodium functionalized graphene oxide (NaGO) as an excellent candidate for increasing the life time of titanium (Ti) based ortho-implants. As-prepared aqueous dispersion of NaGO was used to assemble NaGO sheets on commercially pure Ti (CpTi) plates by heat controlled spin coating. The resulting wrinkled NaGO sheets play a dual role in implant material, i.e., passive layer against corrosion and biocompatible scaffold for cell viability. The preparation, physicochemical properties, and biocompatibility of NaGO coatings formed on CpTi were reported. The electrochemical polarization studies demonstrate the relative susceptibility of control GO and NaGO coatings to corrosion, which outline that the NaGO coating act as a geometric blocking layer and hence prevent the implant surface from contacting corrosive media. The immunofluorescence and cell proliferation studies performed using human dermal fibroblasts cells showed that NaGO coatings significantly (P < 0.05) enhanced the cellular viability for longer in vitro culture period (15 days) than control GO and pristine CpTi.

  16. Sodium functionalized graphene oxide coated titanium plates for improved corrosion resistance and cell viability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marimuthu, Mohana [Department of Bionanotechnology, Gachon University, Seongnam Si, Gyeonggi-Do 461 701 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Engineering Physics, École Polytechnique de Montréal, Montreal, Quebec H3T 1J4 (Canada); Veerapandian, Murugan [Department of Bionanotechnology, Gachon University, Seongnam Si, Gyeonggi-Do 461 701 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Chemistry, Université de Montréal, C.P. 6128, Succursale Centre-ville, Montréal, Quebec H3C 3J7 (Canada); Ramasundaram, Subramaniyan; Hong, Seok Won [Center for Water Resource Cycle Research, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Hwarangno 14 gil, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Sudhagar, P., E-mail: vedichi@gmail.com [Energy Materials Lab, WCU Program, Department of Energy Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133 791 (Korea, Republic of); Nagarajan, Srinivasan [Energy Materials Lab, WCU Program, Department of Energy Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133 791 (Korea, Republic of); Raman, V. [Department of Materials Science, Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 1-1, Asahidai, Nomi-shi, Ishikawa-ken 923-1292 (Japan); Ito, Eisuke [Flucto-Order Functions Research Team, RIKEN-ASI, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Kim, Sanghyo; Yun, Kyusik [Department of Bionanotechnology, Gachon University, Seongnam Si, Gyeonggi-Do 461 701 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Yong Soo, E-mail: kangys@hanyang.ac.kr [Energy Materials Lab, WCU Program, Department of Energy Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133 791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-28

    Surface functionalization is an important process that has been adopted to well explore the applications of nanomaterials. In this context, we demonstrate the sodium functionalized graphene oxide (NaGO) as an excellent candidate for increasing the life time of titanium (Ti) based ortho-implants. As-prepared aqueous dispersion of NaGO was used to assemble NaGO sheets on commercially pure Ti (CpTi) plates by heat controlled spin coating. The resulting wrinkled NaGO sheets play a dual role in implant material, i.e., passive layer against corrosion and biocompatible scaffold for cell viability. The preparation, physicochemical properties, and biocompatibility of NaGO coatings formed on CpTi were reported. The electrochemical polarization studies demonstrate the relative susceptibility of control GO and NaGO coatings to corrosion, which outline that the NaGO coating act as a geometric blocking layer and hence prevent the implant surface from contacting corrosive media. The immunofluorescence and cell proliferation studies performed using human dermal fibroblasts cells showed that NaGO coatings significantly (P < 0.05) enhanced the cellular viability for longer in vitro culture period (15 days) than control GO and pristine CpTi.

  17. Sodium functionalized graphene oxide coated titanium plates for improved corrosion resistance and cell viability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marimuthu, Mohana; Veerapandian, Murugan; Ramasundaram, Subramaniyan; Hong, Seok Won; Sudhagar, P.; Nagarajan, Srinivasan; Raman, V.; Ito, Eisuke; Kim, Sanghyo; Yun, Kyusik; Kang, Yong Soo

    2014-02-01

    Surface functionalization is an important process that has been adopted to well explore the applications of nanomaterials. In this context, we demonstrate the sodium functionalized graphene oxide (NaGO) as an excellent candidate for increasing the life time of titanium (Ti) based ortho-implants. As-prepared aqueous dispersion of NaGO was used to assemble NaGO sheets on commercially pure Ti (CpTi) plates by heat controlled spin coating. The resulting wrinkled NaGO sheets play a dual role in implant material, i.e., passive layer against corrosion and biocompatible scaffold for cell viability. The preparation, physicochemical properties, and biocompatibility of NaGO coatings formed on CpTi were reported. The electrochemical polarization studies demonstrate the relative susceptibility of control GO and NaGO coatings to corrosion, which outline that the NaGO coating act as a geometric blocking layer and hence prevent the implant surface from contacting corrosive media. The immunofluorescence and cell proliferation studies performed using human dermal fibroblasts cells showed that NaGO coatings significantly (P enhanced the cellular viability for longer in vitro culture period (15 days) than control GO and pristine CpTi.

  18. High-temperature oxidation resistant (Cr, Al)N films synthesized using pulsed bias arc ion plating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Lin, Guoqiang; Lu, Guoying; Dong, Chuang; Kim, Kwang Ho

    2008-09-01

    (Cr, Al)N films were deposited by pulsed bias arc ion plating on HSS and 316L stainless steel substrates. With pulsed substrate bias ranging from -100 V to -500 V, the effect of pulsed bias on film composition, phase structure, deposition rate and mechanical properties was investigated by EDX, XRD, SEM, nanoindentation and scratch measurements. The high-temperature (up to 900 °C) oxidation resistance of the films was also evaluated. The results show that Al contents and deposition rates decrease with increasing pulsed bias and the ratio of (Cr + Al)/N is almost constant at 0.95. The as-deposited (Cr, Al)N films crystallize in the pseudo-binary (Cr, Al)N and Al phases. The film hardness increases with increasing bias and reaches the maximum 21.5 GPa at -500 V. The films deposited at -500 V exhibit a high adhesion force, about 70 N, and more interestingly good oxidation resistance when annealed in air at 900 °C for 10 h.

  19. The coincidence matrix ASIC of the level-1 muon barrel trigger of the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Bocci, V; Salamon, A; Vari, R; Veneziano, Stefano

    2003-01-01

    The ATLAS barrel level-1 muon trigger processes hit information from the resistive plate chamber detector, identifying candidate muon tracks and assigning them to a programmable p/sub T/ range and to a unique bunch crossing number. The trigger system uses up to seven detector layers and seeks hit patterns compatible with muon tracks in the bending and nonbending projection. The basic principle of the algorithm is to demand a coincidence of hits in the different chamber layers within a path. The width of the road is related to the p/sub T / threshold to be applied. The system is split into an on-detector and an off-detector part. The on-detector electronics reduces the information from about 350 k channels to about 400 32-bit data words sent via optical fiber to the so-called sector logic (SL). The off- detector SL electronics collects muon candidates and associates them to detector regions-of-interest of Delta eta * Delta Phi of 0.1*0.1. The core of the on-detector electronics is the coincidence matrix ASIC (...

  20. Slice Test Results of the ATLAS Barrel Muon Level-1 Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Aielli, G; Alviggi, M G; Bocci, V; Brambilla, Elena; Canale, V; Caprio, M A; Cardarelli, R; Cataldi, G; De Asmundis, R; Della Volpe, D; Di Ciaccio, A; Di Simone, A; Distante, L; Gorini, E; Grancagnolo, F; Iengo, P; Nisati, A; Pastore, F; Patricelli, S; Perrino, R; Petrolo, E; Primavera, M; Salamon, A; Santonico, R; Sekhniaidze, G; Severi, M; Spagnolo, S; Vari, R; Veneziano, Stefano; 9th Workshop On Electronics For LHC Experiments - LECC 2003

    2003-01-01

    The muon spectrometer of the ATLAS experiment makes use of the Resistive Plate Chambers detectors for particle tracking in the barrel region. The level-1 muon trigger system has to measure and discriminate muon transverse momentum, perform a fast and coarse tracking of the muon candidates, associate them to the bunch crossing corresponding to the event of interest, measure the second coordinate in the non-bending projection. The on-detector electronics first collects front-end signals coming from the two inner RPC stations on the low-pT PAD boards, each one covering a region of DetaxDphi=0.2x0.2, and hosting four Coincidence Matrix ASICs. Each CMA performs the low-pT trigger algorithm and data readout on a region of DetaxDphi=0.2x0.1. Data coming from the four CMAs are assembled by the low-pT PAD logic. Each low-pT PAD board sends data to the corresponding high-pT PAD boards, located on the outer RPC station. Four CMA on each board make use of the low-pT trigger result and of the front-end signals coming from...

  1. Long Term Performance Studies of Large Oil-Free Bakelite Resistive Plate Chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Ganai, Rajesh; Shiroya, Mehul Kumar; Agarwal, Kshitij; Ahammed, Zubayer; Choudhury, Subikash; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis

    2016-01-01

    Several high energy physics and neutrino physics experiments worldwide require large-size RPCs to cover wide acceptances. The muon tracking systems in the Iron calorimeter (ICAL) in the INO experiment, India and the near detector in DUNE at Fermilab are two such examples. A (240 cm $\\times$ 120 cm $\\times$ 0.2 cm) bakelite RPC has been built and tested at Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Kolkata, using indigenous materials procured from the local market. No additional lubricant, like oil has been used on the electrode surfaces for smoothening. The chamber is in operation for $>$ 365 days. We have tested the chamber for its long term operation. The leakage current, bulk resistivity, efficiency, noise rate and time resolution of the chamber have been found to be quite stable during the testing peroid. It showed an efficiency $>$ 95$\\%$ with an average time resolution of $\\sim$0.83 ns at the point of measurement at 9000 V throughout the testing period. Details of the long term performance of the chamber have be...

  2. Accurate timing of gamma rays with high-rate Resistive Plate Chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, L. [Laboratorio de Instrumentacao e Fisica Experimental de Particulas, 3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal); Pereira, A. [Laboratorio de Instrumentacao e Fisica Experimental de Particulas, 3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal); Fonte, P. [Laboratorio de Instrumentacao e Fisica Experimental de Particulas, 3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal); Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Coimbra, 3030-199 Coimbra (Portugal); Ferreira Marques, R. [Laboratorio de Instrumentacao e Fisica Experimental de Particulas, 3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal) and Departamento de Fisica, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia da Universidade de Coimbra, 3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal)]. E-mail: rui@lipc.fis.uc.pt

    2007-04-01

    The counting rate capability of RPCs is strongly conditioned by the availability of suitable resistive materials for the electrodes. For time-of-flight measurements in heavy-ion high-energy physics, the extension of the counting rate capabilities achievable with glass electrodes, around 2 kHz/cm{sup 2}, to much higher values is of fundamental importance. To address this issue we developed single-gap tRPCs with electrodes made from metal and from a commercially available ceramic material free of charge-depletion effects. Tests performed with 511 keV photons yielded a time resolution around 90 ps {sigma}. Neither the time resolution nor the efficiency have been affected by background rates of up to 20 kHz/cm{sup 2} produced with photons from an X-ray generator. The present result establishes the practical feasibility of accurate timing measurements with RPCs at rates up to 20 kHz/cm{sup 2}, while keeping a time resolution below 100 ps {sigma}.

  3. Accurate timing of gamma rays with high-rate Resistive Plate Chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The counting rate capability of RPCs is strongly conditioned by the availability of suitable resistive materials for the electrodes. For time-of-flight measurements in heavy-ion high-energy physics, the extension of the counting rate capabilities achievable with glass electrodes, around 2 kHz/cm2, to much higher values is of fundamental importance. To address this issue we developed single-gap tRPCs with electrodes made from metal and from a commercially available ceramic material free of charge-depletion effects. Tests performed with 511 keV photons yielded a time resolution around 90 ps σ. Neither the time resolution nor the efficiency have been affected by background rates of up to 20 kHz/cm2 produced with photons from an X-ray generator. The present result establishes the practical feasibility of accurate timing measurements with RPCs at rates up to 20 kHz/cm2, while keeping a time resolution below 100 ps σ

  4. A Finite Element Analysis of Bearing Resistance of Timber Loaded through a Steel Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leijten A.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Decrease projected length of bolts due to bending deformation in timber joints compresses the steel washers onto timber member and increases lateral resistance of the joints. As this lateral strength increase primarily depend on bearing characteristics of timber beneath the steel washers, a finite element analysis was performed to predict their bearing-embedment behavior. A 3-D finite element model consisting of 8-node solid and contact pair elements was developed using ANSYS assuming an anisotropic plasticity model for timber and an elastic-perfectly plastic model for the washers. Material constants for both steel washer and timber member were obtained from previous test data. The results of the analysis were in good agreement with the experimental load-embedment curves as well as the analytical curves obtained in a previous study based on a rigid-body-spring-model. The same approach was also used to evaluate the effective bearing length (under uniform compression of a 50 mm depth timber block partially compressed.

  5. Performance of a resistive plate chamber equipped with a new prototype of amplified front-end electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Marchisone, Massimiliano

    2016-01-01

    ALICE is the LHC experiment dedicated to the study of heavy-ion collisions. At forward rapidity a muon spectrometer detects muons from low mass mesons, quarkonia, open heavy-flavor hadrons as well as weak bosons. A muon selection based on transverse momentum is made by a trigger system composed of 72 resistive plate chambers (RPCs). For the LHC Run 1 and the ongoing Run 2 the RPCs have been equipped with a non-amplified FEE called ADULT. However, in view of an increase in luminosity expected for Run 3 (2021-2023) the possibility to use an amplified FEE has been explored in order to improve the counting rate limitation and to prevent the aging of the detector, by reducing the charge per hit. A prototype of this new electronics (FEERIC) has been developed and tested first with cosmic rays before equipping one RPC in the ALICE cavern with it. In this talk the most important performance indicators - efficiency, dark current, dark rate, cluster size and total charge - of an RPC equipped with this new FEE will be r...

  6. Production of long-strip multi-gap resistive plate chamber module for the STAR-MTD system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new Long-strip Multi-gap Resistive Plate Chamber (LMRPC) prototype with 5 gas gaps has been developed for the Muon Telescope Detector (MTD) of the STAR experiment at RHIC in order to reduce the working High Voltage (HV) of previous design. Technical specifications related to the final infrastructure present in the experiment have motivated this effort. Its performance has been measured with cosmic rays. The efficiency of this prototype can reach 98% and the time resolution is around 95 ps. It shows a good uniformity among strips. The noise level is less than 0.2 Hz/cm2. The signal transmission and crosstalk of the modules was measured with a vector network analyzer, showing a good match with simulations within the amplifier bandwidth. A new cosmic-ray test system with long scintillators has been developed to accelerate the Quality Control (QC) process during the mass production of STAR-MTD. A selection of perpendicular cosmic-ray events for more accurate evaluation of the time resolution is achieved. The time resolution with this method is better, albeit with larger error, than the result obtained without any selection. A new spacer is used, resulting in a much reduced streamer ratio at comparable fields. Thirty-two modules have been built with the new spacer by the middle of April of 2012. They have been tested and they all have passed the QC.

  7. Neutron-detection efficiency of hybrid resistive plate chambers as estimated by using the MC50 cyclotron at KIRAMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the neutron-detection efficiencies of a Gd-coated single-gap resistive plate chamber (RPC) and a LiF-coated double-gap RPC. The experiments were performed by using indirect neutrons provided by the MC50 cyclotron at the Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Science. Both RPCs show a decrease in the efficiency with increasing beam current, especially the Gd-coated RPC at the highest beam current (50 nA) that we received. Such a decrease in the efficiency could be understood in terms of a decrease in the effective electric field in the gas gap under high-particlerate environment. The operational plateaus start at about 8 kV for the Gd-coated RPC and at about 6.7 kV for the LiF-coated RPC. The neutron-detection efficiencies of the Gd-coated and the LiF-coated RPCs are about 2.5 and 1.8 %, respectively, at the operational high-voltage-plateau region. These results are completely consistent with the previous efficiencies obtained by using an intense 252Cf source.

  8. First GEANT4-based simulation investigation of a Li-coated resistive plate chamber for low-energy neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simulation study of the performance of a single-gap resistive plate chamber coated with Li-layer for the detection of low energy neutrons was performed by means of GEANT4 Monte Carlo code. Low energy neutrons were detected via 7Li(n, α) 3He nuclear reaction. To make the detector sensitive to low energy neutrons, Li- coating was employed both on the forward and backward electrodes of the converter. Low energy neutrons were transported onto the Li-coating RPC by GEANT4 MC code. A detector with converter area of 5×5 cm2 was utilized for this work. The detection response was evaluated as a function of incident low energy neutrons in the range of 25 MeV–100 MeV. The evaluated results predicted higher detection response for the backward-coated converter detector than that of forward coated converter RPC setup. This type of detector can be useful for the detection of low energy neutrons

  9. First GEANT4-based simulation investigation of a Li-coated resistive plate chamber for low-energy neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, J. T.; Jamil, M.; Jeon, Y. J.

    2013-08-01

    A simulation study of the performance of a single-gap resistive plate chamber coated with Li-layer for the detection of low energy neutrons was performed by means of GEANT4 Monte Carlo code. Low energy neutrons were detected via 7Li(n, α) 3He nuclear reaction. To make the detector sensitive to low energy neutrons, Li- coating was employed both on the forward and backward electrodes of the converter. Low energy neutrons were transported onto the Li-coating RPC by GEANT4 MC code. A detector with converter area of 5×5 cm2 was utilized for this work. The detection response was evaluated as a function of incident low energy neutrons in the range of 25 MeV-100 MeV. The evaluated results predicted higher detection response for the backward-coated converter detector than that of forward coated converter RPC setup. This type of detector can be useful for the detection of low energy neutrons.

  10. Rain Barrels: A Catalyst for Change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakacs, Michele E.; Haberland, Mike; Mangiafico, Salvatore S.; Winquist, Aileen; Obropta, Christopher C.; Boyajian, Amy; Mellor, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Over the past 4 years, rain barrel programming for residents has been implemented in both Northern Virginia and New Jersey as a method for educating the public about stormwater management and water conservation. Program participants demonstrated a significant increase in knowledge of water resource issues. Follow-up surveys showed 58% of New…

  11. ATLAS Barrel Toroid magnet reached nominal field

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

     On 9 November the barrel toroid magnet reached its nominal field of 4 teslas, with an electrical current of 21 000 amperes (21 kA) passing through the eight superconducting coils as shown on this graph

  12. CMS : the first barrel ring completed !

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    2000-01-01

    On 14 November, the CMS collaboration and the German firm DWE celebrated the successful construction of the detector's first yoke barrel ring. To mark the occasion, those in charge of the construction at CERN and DWE posed for the camera in the middle of the giant component.

  13. ATLAS semiconductor tracker installed into its barrel

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2005-01-01

    The ATLAS silicon tracker is installed in the silicon tracker barrel. Absolute precision was required in this operation to ensure that the tracker was inserted without damage through minimal clearance. The installation was performed in a clean room on the CERN site so that no impurities in the air would contaminate the tracker's systems.

  14. Celebration for the ATLAS Barrel Toroid magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    Representatives from Funding Agencies and Barrel Toroid Magnet Laboratories during the ceremony. From left to right: Jean Zinn-Justin (Head of DAPNIA/CEA/Saclay), CERN Director-General Robert Aymar, and Roberto Petronzio (President INFN).Allan Clark (DPNC University Geneva) and Enrique Fernandez (IFAE Barcelona) were among the guests visiting the ATLAS cavern. The barrel toroid is visible in the background. A celebration took place at Point 1 on 13 December to toast the recent powering-up of the ATLAS barrel toroid magnet to full field (Bulletin No. 47-48/06). About 70 guests were invited to attend, mainly composed of representatives from funding partners and key members of the laboratory management teams of the barrel toroid magnet, representing CEA France, INFN Italy, BMBF Germany, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Russia, JINR Dubna and CERN. An introductory speech by ATLAS spokesperson Peter Jenni the scene for evening. This was followed by the ATLAS magnet system project leader Herman Ten Kate's account of the...

  15. Iron Blocks of CMS Magnet Barrel Yoke.

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    On the occasion of presenting the CMS Award 2000 to Deggendorfer Werft und Eisenbau GmbH the delivered blocks were inspected at CERN Point 5. From left to right: H. Gerwig (CERN, CMS Magnet Barrel Yoke Coordinator), G. Waurick (CERN), F. Leher (DWE, Project Engineer) and W. Schuster (DWE, Project Manager).

  16. Last Few Metres for the Barrel Calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    Nyman, T.

    On Friday 4th November, the ATLAS Barrel Calorimeter was moved from its assembly point at the side of the ATLAS cavern to the centre of the toroidal magnet system. The detector was finally aligned, to the precision of within a millimetre, on Wednesday 9th November. The ATLAS installation team, led by Tommi Nyman, after having positioned the Barrel Calorimeter in its final location in the ATLAS experimental cavern UX15. The Barrel Calorimeter which will absorb and measure the energy of photons, electrons and hadrons at the core of the ATLAS detector is 8.6 meters in diameter, 6.8 meters long, and weighs over 1600 Tonnes. It consists of two concentric cylindrical detector elements. The innermost comprises aluminium pressure vessels containing the liquid argon electromagnetic calorimeter and the solenoid magnet. The outermost is an assembly of 64 hadron tile calorimeter sectors. Assembled 18 meters away from its final position, the Barrel Calorimeter was relocated with the help of a railway, which allows ...

  17. ALEPH separated barrel and end-caps

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2001-01-01

    The end-caps can be seen at the left and right of the image with the barrel at the centre. Technicians inspect the end-cap before they begin to take it apart. ALEPH was an experiment on the LEP accelerator, which studied high-energy collisions between electrons and positrons from 1989 to 2000.

  18. Current density and catalyst-coated membrane resistance distribution of hydro-formed metallic bipolar plate fuel cell short stack with 250 cm2 active area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, S.; Moser, M.; Hirschfeld, J. A.; Jozwiak, K.

    2016-01-01

    An automotive fuel cell with an active area of 250 cm2 is investigated in a 4-cell short stack with a current and temperature distribution device next to the bipolar plate with 560 current and 140 temperature segments. The electrical conductivities of the bipolar plate and gas diffusion layer assembly are determined ex-situ with this current scan shunt module. The applied fuel cell consists of bipolar plates constructed of 75-μm-thick, welded stainless-steel foils and a graphitic coating. The electrical conductivities of the bipolar plate and gas diffusion layer assembly are determined ex-situ with this module with a 6% deviation in in-plane conductivity. The current density distribution is evaluated up to 2.4 A cm-2. The entire cell's investigated volumetric power density is 4.7 kW l-1, and its gravimetric power density is 4.3 kW kg-1 at an average cell voltage of 0.5 V. The current density distribution is determined without influencing the operating cell. In addition, the current density distribution in the catalyst-coated membrane and its effective resistivity distribution with a finite volume discretisation of Ohm's law are evaluated. The deviation between the current density distributions in the catalyst-coated membrane and the bipolar plate is determined.

  19. Microstructures Formation by Fluorocarbon Barrel Plasma Etching

    OpenAIRE

    A. El Amrani; Tadjine, R.; F. Y. Moussa

    2008-01-01

    The aim of our study is to generate microstructures in order to improve optical properties of monocrystalline silicon. By mean of fluorocarbon plasma barrel texturing and under certain process conditions, silicon turned black. As a result of silicon surface-plasma particles reactions, porous microstructures are formed, while a longer process time microspikes are developed. These microstructures are responsible of the high level of light trapping on almost the whole range of the usable portion...

  20. Alignment of the MSGC barrel support structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The MSGC barrel is a sub-part of the tracking system of the CMS experiment at the LHC. The mechanical support structure of the MSGC barrel consists of ladder-like support beams carrying the detector modules and of four disks supporting the ladders. The required alignment precision of the modules, a few tens of micrometers, is designed to be obtained by precise part manufacture and by careful measurement of the alignment during the assembly of the structure. In the paper the use of digital photogrammetry for the measurement of the alignment of the disks and for the structural verification is presented. Digital photogrammetry was chosen from a number of potential methods after a careful evaluation. The use of photogrammetry for the structural verification of a prototype is presented. The displacements were measured both of unloaded and loaded disk by using photogrammetry and linear displacement transducers for verification. The displacements obtained from the two measurement methods corresponded well, not only to each other, but also to the results given by finite element analysis. The structural verification will be done and the alignment procedure will be tested with a full-sized prototype of a half of the MSGC barrel. Preparations for the photogrammetry measurements are presented and the design of the required supplementary equipment is shown. (authors)

  1. Effect of grain refinement and electrochemical nitridation on corrosion resistance of the 316L stainless steel for bipolar plates in PEMFCs environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinlong, Lv; Tongxiang, Liang; Hongyun, Luo

    2015-10-01

    The stain-induced nanocrystalline α'-martensite was obtained by cryogenic cold rolling at liquid-nitrogen temperature for 316L stainless steel. The electrochemical results showed nanocrystalline 316L stainless steel deteriorated its corrosion resistance in a typical proton exchange membrane fuel cell environment compared with coarse grained one. However, comparing with electrochemically nitrided coarse grained stainless steel, electrochemically nitrided nanocrystalline stainless steel improved significantly corrosion resistance in the same environment, which was supported further by Mott-Shottky analysis. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis revealed that the nanocrystalline promoted the enrichment of nitrogen and chromium and inhibited form of NH3 on the surface, which could significantly improve the corrosion resistance of the 316L stainless steel. The present study showed that the electrochemically nitrided 316L stainless steel was more suitable for the bipolar plates in proton exchange membrane fuel cell environment than the untreated one, especially for nanocrystalline stainless steel.

  2. Technical Diagnostics of Tank Cannon Smooth Barrel Bore and Ramming Device

    OpenAIRE

    Jiri Balla; Stanislav Prochazka; Robert Jankovych; Stanislav Beer; Zbynek Krist; Michal Kovarik

    2015-01-01

    The technical diagnostics of 125 mm tank cannon 2A46 smooth barrel and ramming devices are discussed respectively. Focuses on barrel diagnostics and suggests new procedures based on reconstructed BG20 Gun Barrel Bore Gauge System, measuring internal diameter of the barrel bore. The new system measures throughout the whole barrel bore the inner diameter not only at the beginning of barrel bore as it was usually measured before. Different nature of barrel wear was revealed between barrels firin...

  3. Characteristics of a double gap resistive plate chamber for the endcap region of CMS/LHC Data vs simulation in avalanche mode

    CERN Document Server

    Ahn, S H; Hong, B; Hong, S J; Kang, D H; Kang, T I; Kim, K H; Kim, T J; Kim, Y J; Kim, Y U; Koo, D G; Lee, H W; Lee, K S; Lee, S J; Lim, J K; Moon, D H; Nam, S K; Oh, J K; Park, S; Rhee, J T; Ryu, M S; Sim, K S

    2004-01-01

    We present the detailed analysis of the time and charge signals of a prototype double gap resistive plate chamber for the endcap region of the compact muon solenoid detector at CERN LHC. We demonstrate that the operating high-voltage plateau can be extended at least up to 400 V with the present design. The simple avalanche multiplication model can reproduce the experimental charge spectra reasonably well at the beginning of the high-voltage plateau region. The effective Townsend coefficient is estimated in the avalanche mode operation.

  4. 3D Printing the ATLAS' barrel toroid

    CERN Document Server

    Goncalves, Tiago Barreiro

    2016-01-01

    The present report summarizes my work as part of the Summer Student Programme 2016 in the CERN IR-ECO-TSP department (International Relations – Education, Communication & Outreach – Teacher and Student Programmes). Particularly, I worked closely with the S’Cool LAB team on a science education project. This project included the 3D designing, 3D printing, and assembling of a model of the ATLAS’ barrel toroid. A detailed description of the project' development is presented and a short manual on how to use 3D printing software and hardware is attached.

  5. The crystal barrel spectrometer at LEAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Crystal Barrel spectrometer used at LEAR, CERN to study the products of anti pp and anti pd annihilations is described. A 1380 element array of CsI crystals measures photons from the decay of π0, η, η' and ω mesons. A segmented drift chamber in a 1.5 T magnetic field is used to identify and measure charged particles. A fast on-line trigger on charged and neutral multiplicities and on the invariant mass of secondary particles is available. The performance of the detector is discussed. (orig.)

  6. A Barrel IFR Instrumented With Limited Streamer Tubes for BABAR Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreotti, M.; /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara

    2006-11-15

    The new barrel Instrumented Flux Return (IFR) of BABAR detector will be reported here. Limited Streamer Tubes (LSTs) have been chosen to replace the existing RPCs as active elements of the barrel IFR. The layout of the new detector will be discussed: in particular, a cell bigger than the standard one has been used to improve efficiency and reliability. The extruded profile is coated with a resistive layer of graphite having a typical surface resistivity between 0.2 and 0.4 MOhm/square. The tubes are assembled in modules and installed in 12 active layers of each sextant of the IFR detector. R&D studies to choose the final design and Quality Control procedure adopted during the tube production will be briefly discussed. Finally the performances of installed LSTs into 2/3 of IFR after 8 months of operations will be reported.

  7. A Barrel IFR Instrumented With Limited Streamer Tubes for BABAR Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The new barrel Instrumented Flux Return (IFR) of BABAR detector will be reported here. Limited Streamer Tubes (LSTs) have been chosen to replace the existing RPCs as active elements of the barrel IFR. The layout of the new detector will be discussed: in particular, a cell bigger than the standard one has been used to improve efficiency and reliability. The extruded profile is coated with a resistive layer of graphite having a typical surface resistivity between 0.2 and 0.4 MOhm/square. The tubes are assembled in modules and installed in 12 active layers of each sextant of the IFR detector. R and D studies to choose the final design and Quality Control procedure adopted during the tube production will be briefly discussed. Finally the performances of installed LSTs into 2/3 of IFR after 8 months of operations will be reported

  8. ATLAS TRT Barrel in Test Beam

    CERN Multimedia

    Luehring, F

    In July, the TRT group made a highly successful test of 6 Barrel TRT modules in the ATLAS H8 testbeam. Over 3000 TRT straw tubes (4 mm diameter gas drift tubes) were instrumented and found to operate well. The prototype represents 1/16 of the ATLAS TRT barrel and was assembled from TRT modules produced as spares. This was the largest scale test of the TRT to this date and the measured detector performance was as good as or better than what was expected in all cases. The 2004 TRT testbeam setup before final cabling was attached. The readout chain and central DAQ system used in the TRT testbeam is a final prototype for the ATLAS experiment. The TRT electronics used to read out the data were: The Amplifier/Shaper/Discriminator with Baseline Restoration (ASDBLR) chip is the front-end analog chip that shapes and discriminates the electronic pulses generated by the TRT straws. The Digital Time Measurement Read Out Chip (DTMROC) measures the time of the pulse relative to the beam crossing time. The TRT-ROD ...

  9. Parametric modeling of zoom lens barrels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Charles W.

    2001-12-01

    Today's customer requires zoom lens designs that are compact, inexpensive, and at six-sigma quality levels. While incorporating these customer requirements, a design team must often work within compressed design cycles and minimal product development budgets. These customer and project constraints, coupled with the inherent complexity of a zoom lens module, force the design team to try new and innovative techniques to deliver their products. This paper presents the methods used to develop lens barrels for several zoom lens module projects at Eastman Kodak Company. The lens barrel, a critical interface between the mechanical and optical systems, presented a technical barrier from both an engineering analysis and manufacturing perspective. The method used to overcome these barriers consisted of identifying several key functional parameters, creating a parameter-driven 3-D solid model in a commercially available CAD system, and then using the model to make iterative, data-driven design decisions while leveraging the model to create engineering drawings and the necessary prototypes and production tooling. As a result, the designs were able to meet their size, cost, and design cycle time requirements while realizing a better than anticipated first pass yield and quality level.

  10. Barrel Bolt Cracking in a German PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilian, R.; Maussner, G. [AREVA GmbH (Germany); Koenig, G. [EnBW Kernkraft GmbH (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    In this paper, the results of failure analysis of cracked barrel bolts will be shown. The barrel bolts are made of German material number 1.4571 corresponding to 316 Ti. To ensure that the required mechanical properties are achieved, the material used was cold worked. At the end of the eighties, the bolts were installed to replace Inconel X- 750 bolts. The design used is a 'star bolt'. In 2005, cracking was first observed. In this report, the results of destructive examinations showing intergranular stress corrosion cracking will be presented. M16-Bolts exhibited cracking only in the area of cup, preventing unintentional loosening. All selected and examined M12-Bolts showed similar crack initiation in the head. Cracks may initiate on transition radii between the head and shank. The shank and thread of all bolts (M12 and M16) exhibited no indications of cracking. Bolts that experienced cracking could be clearly identified through visual inspection. The ultrasonic testing technique applied confirmed crack locations in the head. All cracks were attributed to Intergranular Stress Corrosion Cracking (IGSCC). Fracture surfaces exhibited relatively thin, dark layers and, in addition to corrosion products of the base metal, the debris on the shank and head also contained traces of Al, Si, Cu and Zn. (authors)

  11. Cosmic Ray Data in TRT Barrel

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Hance

    "I had a great day in August when I went into SR1," said Daniel Froidevaux, former project leader of the ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker, "not only had all SCT barrels arrived at CERN, but there were cosmic ray tracks seen in the TRT!" Daniel's excitement was mirrored by the rest of the TRT collaboration when, on July 29, the first cosmic ray tracks were seen in the barrel. Along with many others in the community, Daniel was quick to point out that this is the cumulative result of years of R&D, test beam work, and an intense installation and integration schedule. Indeed, the cosmic ray readout is only possible through the coordination of many efforts, from detector mechanics to module assembly, power and high voltage control, cooling, gas systems, electronics and cabling, data acquisition, and monitoring. "Many people have worked very hard on the the TRT, some of them for more than 10 years," said Brig Williams, the leader of the UPenn group responsible for much of the TRT front end electronics. He ...

  12. Barrel for the compression, transport and storage or low activity solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The barrel made of spherolitic cast iron has devices for fitting lifting equipment with a barrel jacket, barrel floor and a barrel lid set on a top flange of the barrel jacket, which is connected by fixing screws to the top flange. The solid waste can be compressed in the barrel by a compression press. The package of solid waste produced in this way can be tensioned against the barrel jacket. (orig./HP)

  13. Corrosion resistance of siloxane–poly(methyl methacrylate) hybrid films modified with acetic acid on tin plate substrates: Influence of tetraethoxysilane addition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Siloxane–PMMA film was produced by dip-coating on tin plate substrate. • It was evaluated the influence of (TEOS) addition on siloxane–PMMA hybrid films. • Siloxane–PMMA films without TEOS presented a regular coverage and lowest roughness. • The TEOS addition decrease the corrosion resistance of siloxane–PMMA films. • Siloxane–PMMA without TEOS presented is higher durability in the film wear test. - Abstract: The aim of this paper is to study the corrosion resistance of hybrid films. Tin plate was coated with a siloxane–poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) hybrid film prepared by sol–gel route with covalent bonds between the organic (PMMA) and inorganic (siloxane) phases obtained by hydrolysis and polycondensation of 3-(trimethoxysilylpropyl) methacrylate (TMSM) and polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) using benzoyl peroxide (BPO) as a thermic initiator. Hydrolysis reactions were catalyzed by acetic acid solution avoiding the use of chlorine or stronger acids in the film preparation. The effect of the addition of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) on the protective properties of the film was evaluated. The hydrophobicity of the film was determined by contact angle measurements, and the morphology was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and profilometry. The local nanostructure was investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The electrochemical behavior of the films was assessed by open circuit potential monitoring, potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements in a 0.05 M NaCl solution. The mechanical behavior was evaluated by tribology. The results highlighted that the siloxane–PMMA hybrid films modified with acetic acid are promising anti-corrosive coatings that acts as an efficient diffusion barrier, protecting tin plates against corrosion. However, the coating properties were affected by the TEOS addition, which contributed for the thickness increase

  14. Corrosion resistance of siloxane–poly(methyl methacrylate) hybrid films modified with acetic acid on tin plate substrates: Influence of tetraethoxysilane addition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunst, S.R.; Cardoso, H.R.P. [LAPEC, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul – UFRGS, Avenida Bento Gonçalves, 9500 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Oliveira, C.T. [ICET, University Feevale, RS-239, 2755 Novo Hamburgo, RS (Brazil); Santana, J.A.; Sarmento, V.H.V. [Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Sergipe – UFS, Av. Vereador Olímpio Grande s/n, Centro, Itabaiana, SE (Brazil); Muller, I.L. [LAPEC, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul – UFRGS, Avenida Bento Gonçalves, 9500 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Malfatti, C.F., E-mail: celia.malfatti@ufrgs.br [LAPEC, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul – UFRGS, Avenida Bento Gonçalves, 9500 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • Siloxane–PMMA film was produced by dip-coating on tin plate substrate. • It was evaluated the influence of (TEOS) addition on siloxane–PMMA hybrid films. • Siloxane–PMMA films without TEOS presented a regular coverage and lowest roughness. • The TEOS addition decrease the corrosion resistance of siloxane–PMMA films. • Siloxane–PMMA without TEOS presented is higher durability in the film wear test. - Abstract: The aim of this paper is to study the corrosion resistance of hybrid films. Tin plate was coated with a siloxane–poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) hybrid film prepared by sol–gel route with covalent bonds between the organic (PMMA) and inorganic (siloxane) phases obtained by hydrolysis and polycondensation of 3-(trimethoxysilylpropyl) methacrylate (TMSM) and polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) using benzoyl peroxide (BPO) as a thermic initiator. Hydrolysis reactions were catalyzed by acetic acid solution avoiding the use of chlorine or stronger acids in the film preparation. The effect of the addition of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) on the protective properties of the film was evaluated. The hydrophobicity of the film was determined by contact angle measurements, and the morphology was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and profilometry. The local nanostructure was investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The electrochemical behavior of the films was assessed by open circuit potential monitoring, potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements in a 0.05 M NaCl solution. The mechanical behavior was evaluated by tribology. The results highlighted that the siloxane–PMMA hybrid films modified with acetic acid are promising anti-corrosive coatings that acts as an efficient diffusion barrier, protecting tin plates against corrosion. However, the coating properties were affected by the TEOS addition, which contributed for the thickness increase

  15. Preparation of corrosion-resistant and conductive trivalent Cr-C coatings on 304 stainless steel for use as bipolar plates in proton exchange membrane fuel cells by electrodeposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hsiang-Cheng; Sheu, Hung-Hua; Lu, Chen-En; Hou, Kung-Hsu; Ger, Ming-Der

    2015-10-01

    In this study, Cr-C-coated bipolar plates are produced by electroplating on the SS304 plates with a machined flow channel. The resulting plates were tested using potentiodynamic and potentiostatic measurements in simulated PEMFC environments, which show that the bipolar plate coated with Cr-C exhibited good anticorrosion performance. The corrosive current density of the Cr-C coating formed for a plating time of 10 min for 10 h exhibits a low stable value of 1.51 × 10-10 A/cm2 during the potentiostatic test in a 0.5 M H2SO4 + 2 ppm HF solution at 70 °C with an air purge, indicating that the Cr-C coating plated for 10 min is stable in a cathode environment. The interfacial contact resistance (ICR) of the bipolar plate with the Cr-C coating clearly improved, presenting an ICR of 19.52 mΩ cm2 at a pressure of 138 N/cm2. The results from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and ICR before and after the corrosion tests indicate that the bipolar plate with the Cr-C coating is electrochemically stable. In this study, the maximum power density (212.41 mW/cm2) is obtained at a cell temperature of 80 °C and a gas flow rate of 300 standard cubic centimeters per minute (sccm) when Cr-C coated SS304 bipolar plates were used.

  16. Evaluation of using short barrel DHS in treatment of intertrochanteric fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahmasbi M

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Cut out or extrusion of the lag screw from the superior aspect of head and neck of the femur is one of the most common and devastating complications of the surgery of the intertrochanteric fractures with DHS. The exact cause of this complications is unknown, but it seems to be related to osteopenia, inappropriate position of lag screw inside head of the femur and inability of DHS to slide inside the barrel, which is the most ignored risk factor. We used short barrel Dynamic Hip Screw (DHS for fixation of the intertrochanteric fractures in Dimon and Hughston procedure in 16 patients with unstable fracture, from may to August 2000. The only patient suffered from cut out is the one with static position of DHS in the center of the head. The other complications were delayed union in one, disingagement of the lag screw and side plate despite using compression screw, and one case of significant limb length discrepancy 6 months after surgery, mild limbing was the rule and the average of harris scores was 76. We think that, it is possible to reduce the rate of cut out with choosing short barrel DHS instead of the standard one, while using short length lag screw.

  17. Research on the Corrosion Resistance of R60702 Tube Plate Angle Joint%R60702管板角接接头耐蚀性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张莹莹; 纪强; 王国嘉

    2014-01-01

    工业纯锆R60702是一种稀有金属,具有良好的焊接性和抗腐蚀性,其熔点、硬度和强度均很高。分析了 R60702在经过管板角接后,焊缝的元素成分和耐腐蚀性能,通过极化曲线和交流阻抗图分别表征了锆材焊缝在30℃和70℃的耐蚀性。%Industrial pure zirconium R60702 is a rare metal, has good weld ability and corrosion resistance, and its melting point, hardness and strength are very high. In this paper, element composition and corrosion resistance of zirconium R60702 weld seam after tube plate angle joint were analyzed. Through the polarization curve and AC impedance graph respectively characterize the corrosion resistance of the zirconium weld joint at 30℃and 70℃.

  18. The protection system of the superconducting coils in the Barrel Toroid of ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Acerbi, E; Volpini, G; Daël, A; Lesmond, C

    1999-01-01

    An analysis of the discharge of the Barrel Toroid under several operating conditions has been carried out. The main critical parameters of the discharge (i.e. the maximum temperature inside the coils, the maximum temperature $9 gradient, the maximum voltage at the coil ends and the maximum decentering forces acting on the BT and ECT magnets) have been calculated for several operating conditions (heaters on, heaters off, short circuit with heaters on or $9 off). The aim of this analysis is to provide a cross check of the protection design of the Barrel Toroid coils with an independent study. The results validate the choice to use a low value of dump resistance, and give some important $9 warning in the case of heater failure or presence of a short circuit. (5 refs).

  19. Investigation of the effects of process sequence on the contact resistance characteristics of coated metallic bipolar plates for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turan, Cabir; Cora, Ömer Necati; Koç, Muammer

    2013-12-01

    In this study, results of an investigation on the effects of manufacturing and coating process sequence on the contact resistance (ICR) of metallic bipolar plates (BPP) for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) are presented. Firstly, uncoated stainless steel 316L blanks were formed into BPP through hydroforming and stamping processes. Then, these formed BPP samples were coated with three different PVD coatings (CrN, TiN and ZrN) at three different thicknesses (0.1, 0.5 and 1 μm). Secondly, blanks of the same alloy were coated first with the same coatings, thickness and technique; then, they were formed into BPPs of the same shape and dimensions using the manufacturing methods as in the first group. Finally, these two groups of BPP samples were tested for their ICR to reveal the effect of process sequence. ICR tests were also conducted on the BPP plates both before and after exposure to corrosion to disclose the effect of corrosion on ICR. Coated-then-formed BPP samples exhibited similar or even better ICR performance than formed-then-coated BPP samples. Thus, manufacturing of coated blanks can be concluded to be more favorable and worth further investigation in quest of making cost effective BPPs for mass production of PEMFC.

  20. Effect of Initial Crack Location on Spatial Randomness of Fatigue Crack Growth Resistance in Friction Stir Welded AA7075-T651 Plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present paper, the effects of initial crack location on spatial randomness of fatigue crack growth resistance (FCGR) in friction stir welded (FSWed) AA7075-T651 plates were studied. The objective of this study is to characterize the statistical properties of FCGR for three different types of initial crack location (ICL) specimens. In this work, the FCGR coefficients were treated as a spatial random process. It was found that the FCGR coefficients for all initial crack location specimens closely followed a two parameter Weibull distribution. The shape parameter of the Weibull distribution for BM-ICL specimens showed the largest value of 7.50, and that for the WM-ICL specimens showed the smallest value of 2.61. In addition, the autocorrelation functions for all the ICL specimens followed the exponential function

  1. Measurement of drift velocity and amplification coefficient in C2H2F4-Isobutane mixtures for avalanche operated Resistive Plate Counters

    CERN Document Server

    Colucci, A; Grancagnolo, F; Primavera, M

    1998-01-01

    The knowledge of the transport and amplification parameters (drift velocity, first Townsend and attachment coefficients) of the gas mixtures used for avalanche operated Resistive Plate Counters gives the possibility ofbetter understanding the underlying physical processes of these detectors and of developping Montecarlo simulations of their behaviour.We present here a measurement of the drift velocity $v_{d}$and of the amplification coefficient $\\eta$ in $C_{2}H_{2}F_{4}$-Isobutanemixtures. The ionization in the gas, contained in a 6$\\times$22~cm$^2$, 2~mm gap RPC, is obtained by means of a pulsed $N_{2}$ laser,via double photon ionization. Results are presented for $v_{d}$ and $\\eta$ as a function of the applied electric field.

  2. Measurement of drift velocity and amplification coefficient in C sub 2 H sub 2 F sub 4 -isobutane mixtures for avalanche-operated resistive-plate counters

    CERN Document Server

    Colucci, A; Grancagnolo, F; Primavera, M

    1999-01-01

    The knowledge of the transport and amplification parameters (drift velocity, first Townsend and attachment coefficients) of the gas mixtures used for avalanche-operated resistive-plate counters gives the possibility of better understanding the underlying physical processes of these detectors and of developing Montecarlo simulations of their behaviour. We present here a measurement of the drift velocity v sub d and of the amplification coefficient eta in C sub 2 H sub 2 F sub 4 -isobutane mixtures. The ionization in the gas, contained in a 6x22 cm sup 2 , 2 mm gap RPC, is obtained by means of a pulsed N sub 2 laser, via double-photon ionization. Results are presented for v sub d and eta as a function of the applied electric field.

  3. Effect of Initial Crack Location on Spatial Randomness of Fatigue Crack Growth Resistance in Friction Stir Welded AA7075-T651 Plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seon Jin [Pukyong National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-15

    In the present paper, the effects of initial crack location on spatial randomness of fatigue crack growth resistance (FCGR) in friction stir welded (FSWed) AA7075-T651 plates were studied. The objective of this study is to characterize the statistical properties of FCGR for three different types of initial crack location (ICL) specimens. In this work, the FCGR coefficients were treated as a spatial random process. It was found that the FCGR coefficients for all initial crack location specimens closely followed a two parameter Weibull distribution. The shape parameter of the Weibull distribution for BM-ICL specimens showed the largest value of 7.50, and that for the WM-ICL specimens showed the smallest value of 2.61. In addition, the autocorrelation functions for all the ICL specimens followed the exponential function.

  4. Simulation and prototyping of 2 m long resistive plate chambers for detection of fast neutrons and multi-neutron event identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elekes, Z., E-mail: z.elekes@hzdr.de [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Aumann, T. [GSI Helmholtzzentrumfür Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Technische Universität Darmstadt, Darmstadt (Germany); Bemmerer, D. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Boretzky, K. [GSI Helmholtzzentrumfür Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Caesar, C. [GSI Helmholtzzentrumfür Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Technische Universität Darmstadt, Darmstadt (Germany); Cowan, T.C. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden (Germany); Hehner, J.; Heil, M. [GSI Helmholtzzentrumfür Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Kempe, M. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Rossi, D. [GSI Helmholtzzentrumfür Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Röder, M. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden (Germany); Simon, H. [GSI Helmholtzzentrumfür Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Sobiella, M.; Stach, D. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Reinhardt, T. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden (Germany); Wagner, A.; Yakorev, D. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Zilges, A. [Universität zu Köln, Köln (Germany); Zuber, K. [Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden (Germany)

    2013-02-11

    Resistive plate chamber (RPC) prototypes of 2 m length were simulated and built. The experimental tests using a 31 MeV electron beam, discussed in details, showed an efficiency higher than 90% and an excellent time resolution of around σ=100ps. Furthermore, comprehensive simulations were performed by GEANT4 toolkit in order to study the possible use of these RPCs for fast neutron (200 MeV–1 GeV) detection and multi-neutron event identification. The validation of simulation parameters was carried out via a comparison to experimental data. A possible setup for invariant mass spectroscopy of multi-neutron emission is presented and the characteristics are discussed. The results show that the setup has a high detection efficiency. Its capability of determining the momentum of the outgoing neutrons and reconstructing the relative energy between the fragments from nuclear reactions is demonstrated for different scenarios.

  5. Simulation and prototyping of 2 m long resistive plate chambers for detection of fast neutrons and multi-neutron event identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resistive plate chamber (RPC) prototypes of 2 m length were simulated and built. The experimental tests using a 31 MeV electron beam, discussed in details, showed an efficiency higher than 90% and an excellent time resolution of around σ=100ps. Furthermore, comprehensive simulations were performed by GEANT4 toolkit in order to study the possible use of these RPCs for fast neutron (200 MeV–1 GeV) detection and multi-neutron event identification. The validation of simulation parameters was carried out via a comparison to experimental data. A possible setup for invariant mass spectroscopy of multi-neutron emission is presented and the characteristics are discussed. The results show that the setup has a high detection efficiency. Its capability of determining the momentum of the outgoing neutrons and reconstructing the relative energy between the fragments from nuclear reactions is demonstrated for different scenarios.

  6. The NICE{sup 3}-Whyco technologies partnership. Saving energy, dollars, and the environment in the metal plating industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, G.P. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, MS K8-07 Richland, WA (United States); Hyner, R.; Masella, P. [Whyco Technologies, Inc., 670 Waterbury Road, Thomaston, CT (United States)

    2000-02-01

    In partnership with the US Department of Energy's Office of Industrial Technology, Whyco Technologies, Inc., has developed an innovative perforated plating barrel used in the plating of metal parts. This new technology employs a thin-walled construction, differing from the traditional thick-wall design required to provide adequate structural integrity. The thicker walls lowered the efficiency of transferring plating solution into and out of the barrel and diminished the electrical current pushed through the holes and onto the parts being plated. By machining pockets out of the traditional thick-walled perforated structure, Whyco produced a 'honeycomb' of staggered cells, allowing for the greatest number of holes per open area while maintaining structural integrity. Hydrodynamic pumping occurs during barrel rotation to create greater solution transfer than in traditional barrels. The Whyco barrel has higher current density plating, which leads to faster plating cycles, reduced bath concentration, and better plating of difficult chemistries such as in alloys. This new technology has helped the company reduce energy use by 16%, eliminate more than 480 tons/year of solid waste, and reduce wastewater by more than 17,000 gallons/day. The resulting cost savings total more than $500,000 annually. The company has manufactured and sold more than 275 of these barrels to other electroplating companies that are reporting up to a 40% increase in plating productivity and similar energy and environmental impacts.

  7. The NICE{sup 3}-Whyco technologies Partnership: Saving energy, dollars, and the environment in the metal plating industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, G.P.; Hyner, R.; Masella, P.

    1999-07-01

    In partnership with the US Department of Energy's Office of Industrial Technology, Whyco Technologies, Inc., has developed an innovative perforated plating barrel used in the plating of metal parts. This new technology employs a thin-walled construction, differing from the traditional thick-wall design required to provide adequate structural integrity. The thicker walls lowered the efficiency of transferring plating solution into and out of the barrel and diminished the electrical current pushed through the holes and onto the parts being plated. By machining pockets out of the traditional thick-walled perforated structure, Whyco produced a honeycomb of staggered cells, allowing for the greatest number of holes per open area while maintaining structural integrity. Hydrodynamic pumping occurs during barrel rotation to create greater solution transfer than in traditional barrels. The Whyco barrel has higher current density plating, which leads to faster plating cycles, reduced bath concentration, and better plating of difficult chemistries such as in alloys. This new technology has helped the company reduce energy use by 16%, eliminate more than 480 tons/year of solid waste, and reduce wastewater by more than 17,000 gallons/day. The resulting cost savings total more than $500,000 annually. The company has manufactured and sold more than 275 of these barrels to other electroplating companies that are reporting up to a 40% increase in plating productivity and similar energy and environmental impacts.

  8. The NICE3-Whyco technologies Partnership: Saving energy, dollars, and the environment in the metal plating industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In partnership with the US Department of Energy's Office of Industrial Technology, Whyco Technologies, Inc., has developed an innovative perforated plating barrel used in the plating of metal parts. This new technology employs a thin-walled construction, differing from the traditional thick-wall design required to provide adequate structural integrity. The thicker walls lowered the efficiency of transferring plating solution into and out of the barrel and diminished the electrical current pushed through the holes and onto the parts being plated. By machining pockets out of the traditional thick-walled perforated structure, Whyco produced a honeycomb of staggered cells, allowing for the greatest number of holes per open area while maintaining structural integrity. Hydrodynamic pumping occurs during barrel rotation to create greater solution transfer than in traditional barrels. The Whyco barrel has higher current density plating, which leads to faster plating cycles, reduced bath concentration, and better plating of difficult chemistries such as in alloys. This new technology has helped the company reduce energy use by 16%, eliminate more than 480 tons/year of solid waste, and reduce wastewater by more than 17,000 gallons/day. The resulting cost savings total more than $500,000 annually. The company has manufactured and sold more than 275 of these barrels to other electroplating companies that are reporting up to a 40% increase in plating productivity and similar energy and environmental impacts

  9. Electroless plating of low-resistivity Cu–Mn alloy thin films with self-forming capacity and enhanced thermal stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Sung-Te, E-mail: stchen@mail.hust.edu.tw [Department of Electronic Engineering, Hsiuping University of Science and Technology, Dali 412, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Chen, Giin-Shan [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Feng Chia University, Seatwen 407, Taichung, Taiwan (China)

    2015-11-05

    Previous studies have typically used sputter deposition to fabricate Cu–Mn alloy thin films with concentrated solute additions which have exceeded several atomic percentages, and the electrical resistivity values of the resultant films from previous studies are relatively high, ranging from 2.5 to 3.5 μΩ-cm. Herein, we proposed a different approach by using electroless process to plate dilute Cu–Mn (0.1 at.%) alloy thin films on dielectric layers (SiO{sub 2}). Upon forming-gas annealing, the Mn incorporated into Cu–Mn films was segregated toward the SiO{sub 2} side, eventually converting itself into a few atomic layer thickness at the Cu/SiO{sub 2} interface, and forming films with a low level of resistivity the same as that of pure Cu films (2.0 μΩ-cm). The interfacial layer served as not only a diffusion barrier, but also an adhesion promoter that prevented the film’s agglomeration during annealing at elevated temperatures. The mechanism for the dual-function performance by the Mn addition was elucidated by interfacial bonding analysis, as well as dynamic (adhesive strength) and thermodynamic (surface-tension) measurements. - Highlights: • Electroless plating is proposed to grow dilute (0.1%) Cu–Mn films on SiO{sub 2} layers. • Adequate annealing results in a self-forming of MnO{sub x} at the Cu/SiO{sub 2} interface. • The role of interfacial MnO{sub x} as a barrier and adhesion promoter is demonstrated. • The treated dilute film has a low ρ level of pure Cu, in contrast to concentrated films. • Its potential as a single entity replacement of Cu interconnect is presented.

  10. Development of high-pressure dry ice blasting method for decontamination. 4. Application test for barrel type dry ice blasting method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Ryuichirou; Ishijima, Noboru; Morishita, Yoshitsugu; Tanimoto, Ken-ichi [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center

    1997-07-01

    In order to decrease radioactivity of high-level radioactive wastes to low-level (lower than 500 {mu} Sv/h), the dry-ice blasting method has been developing. This method can decontaminate radioactive wastes up to 10{sup 2} in decontamination factor, and can minimize the secondary generated wastes. The barrel type method can decontaminate smaller solid wastes with preventing the scattering of the wastes due to blast pressure. In this work, application test was conducted to improve the decontamination capability of the barrel type method, with using the improved barrel device. Results are as follows. (1) Stirring ability of the barrel device was improved by installing plates in the barrel. Four plates with 10 mm in height were better for optimal stirring. (2) Reciprocating of the blasting nozzle stabilized decontamination capability of the barrel device. Forty per a minute in reciprocation rate of the nozzle was better. (3) Decontamination capability was examined with using test pieces coated with the cesium molybdate, which was simulating the typical contamination of radioactive waste. As a result, 80% of contamination was removed by the optimized barrel type method. (4) Dust collector was frozen within a few minutes, and exhaust flow rate was decreased by about 15%. However, by exhausting room temperature air, dust collector was unfrozen, and the flow rate could be recovered. (5) Decontamination capabilities of two types of dry ice pellets were compared. They were made by an oil hydraulic pressing or a roller pressing. Former pellet was three times as capable as latter one. (author)

  11. Microstructures Formation by Fluorocarbon Barrel Plasma Etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of our study is to generate microstructures in order to improve optical properties of monocrystalline silicon. By mean of fluorocarbon plasma barrel texturing and under certain process conditions, silicon turned black. As a result of silicon surface-plasma particles reactions, porous microstructures are formed, while a longer process time micro spikes are developed. These microstructures are responsible of the high level of light trapping on almost the whole range of the usable portion of the solar spectrum. In the wavelength range of 400-1100 nm, the AM 1.5 G weighted reflection has been reduced to 6.20%. In addition to good trapping, this surface morphology leads to superior absorption, which is about 95% in the 600-1000 nm range and decreases to 36% at 1200 nm. This material is thus less transparent and absorbs near infrared light far more than the untreated silicon. Secondary ion mass spectrometry shows that elements from the ambient gas are deposited or superficially introduced into the silicon. In addition to surface texturing, these impurities are probably the reason of absorptance enhancement. Moreover, a pore formation mechanism is proposed.

  12. IASCC evaluation of core barrel weld line in PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a concern of IASCC (Irradiation Assisted Stress Corrosion Cracking) in Core barrel weld line in long term operation because it is located near the core region and exposed to high neutron flux and there is weld-induced residual stress. In this report, weld-induced residual stress analysis method for EBW (Electron Beam Welding) is validated by comparing calculated residual stress with measured stress in a mock-up. Using this analysis method, stress of Core barrel EBW weld line in operating condition is calculated and it is confirmed that the probability of IASCC initiation in weld line of Core barrel is considered to be low. (authors)

  13. Cyclotriphosphazene and TiO2 reinforced nanocomposite coated on mild steel plates for antibacterial and corrosion resistance applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnadevi, Krishnamoorthy; Selvaraj, Vaithilingam

    2016-03-01

    The mild steel surface has been modified to impart anticorrosion and antibacterial properties through a dip coating method followed by thermal curing of a mixture containing amine terminated cyclotriphosphazene and functionalized titanium dioxide nanoparticles reinforced benzoxazine based cyanate ester composite (ATCP/FTiO2/Bz-CE). The corrosion resistance behavior of coating material has been investigated by electrochemical and antibacterial studies by disc diffusion method. The nanocomposites coated mild steels have displayed a good chemical stability over long immersion in a corrosive environment. The protection efficiency has found to be high for ATCP/FTiO2/Bz-CE composites, which can be used in microelectronics and marine applications.

  14. Comparison between two possible CMS Barrel Muon Readout Architectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comparison between two possible readout arquitectures for the CMS muon barrel readout electronics is presented, including various aspects like costs, reliability, installation, staging and maintenance. A review of the present baseline architecture is given in the appendix. (Author)

  15. Performance of a Rain Barrel Sharing Network under Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    Seong Jin Noh; Eun-Sung Chung; Yongwon Seo

    2015-01-01

    Rain barrels can be technically shared through social practices or mutual agreement between individual households. This study proposes the evaluation system for a rain barrel sharing network (RBSN) considering three performance criteria of reliability, resiliency, and vulnerability, under plausible climate change scenarios. First, this study shows how the system can be improved in terms of the performance criteria using historical daily rainfall data based on the storage-reliability-yield rel...

  16. Histologia da pele da carpa prateada (Hypophtalmichthys molitrix e testes de resistência do couro Histology of silver-plated carp skin (Hypophtalmichthys molitrix and leather resistance tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luiza Rodrigues de Souza

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi realizado com os objetivos de analisar a histologia da pele e avaliar a influência da técnica de curtimento e da posição da retirada do corpo-de-prova sobre a qualidade da pele de carpa prateada (Hypophtalmichthys molitrix. Vinte e três peixes foram insensibilizados para retirada das peles para curtimento. Amostras referentes a três peixes foram fixadas em formol 10%. Após a inclusão em parafina, foram cortadas com aproximadamente 5 mm de espessura e coradas pela técnica de hematoxilina-eosina (HE. Após o curtimento das peles, foram retirados os corpos-de-prova para os testes de resistência. Os testes foram realizados com dinamômetro EMIC, com velocidade de afastamento entre cargas de 100 ± 20 mm/mm, em ambiente climatizado a 23ºC e umidade relativa do ar de 50% por um período de 24 horas. As peles curtidas com sais de cromo apresentaram maior resistência à tração (16,96 N/mm², ao alongamento (51,49% e ao rasgamento progressivo (16,75 N/mm quando comparadas àquelas curtidas sem sais de cromo (tração = 9,12 N/mm², alongamento = 17,48% e rasgamento = 11,36 N/mm. O sentido da retirada dos corpos-de-prova não interferiu nas características de tração, elongação, carga de ruptura, rasgo, força máxima e carga de força. A técnica de curtimento (utilizando ou não sais de cromo influencia a resistência das peles de carpa prateada. A técnica empregando os sais de cromo proporciona maior resistência ao couro.The objectives of this trial were to analyze the skin histology and to evaluate the influence of tanning technique and the direction removal of samples on skin quality of silver-plated carp (Hypophtalmichthys molitrix. Twenty-three fishes were sacrificed and the skin was removed for tanning. Samples of three fishes were settled in formol 10% and, after inclusion in paraffin, the samples were cut with approximately 5 mm of thickness and colored by the hematoxylin-eosin technique (HE. After skin

  17. 机械镀锌镀层钝化与耐蚀性能研究%PASSIVATION AND CORROSION RESISTANCE OF MECHANICALLY PLATED ZINC COATING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵增典; 黄保雷; 陈磊; 李德刚

    2009-01-01

    对机械镀锌层分别用三价铬、稀土和六价铬进行了钝化处理,利用盐雾试验和电化学测试对不同钝化膜的耐蚀性与电化学行为进行了比较研究.盐雾试验结果表明,稀土与三价铬钝化处理的效果均已超过传统的六价铬钝化,比六价铬钝化膜的耐蚀性提高了一倍以上;稀土钝化膜的耐蚀性最好,三价铬钝化膜的耐蚀性仅次于稀土钝化膜的.电化学测试表明,三价铬、稀土和六价铬钝化膜都能够不同程度地抑制腐蚀的阴极电极反应,抑制阴极反应程度最大的是稀土钝化膜,其次是三价铬钝化膜,最小的是六价铬钝化膜.三价铬与稀土钝化工艺的环保和良好的防腐效果使其具有良好的应用前景.%The mechanically plated zinc coating was passivated with chemicals containing trivalent chromi-um,rare earth metal and hexavalent chromium respectively.Then the corrosion resistance and electrochemi-cal behavior of the passivated coatings were compared by salt spay test and electrochemical test.The result of salt spay test showed that the coatings passivated with trivalent chromium and rare earth metal are superi-or to that with hexavalent chromium by one fold in corrosion resistance.The coating passivated with rare earth metal Was the best in corrosion resistance and that with trivalent chromium was the next.The electro-chemical test showed that all the passivation treatments with trivalent chromium,rare earth metal and hexa-valent chromium could suppress the cathode reactions to some extent.The effectiveness of passivation chem-icals in suppression of the cathodic reaction might be ranking as follows:rare earth metal,trivalent chromi-um.and hexavalent chromiam.Therefore,chemicals containing trivalent chromiam and rare earth metal had good application foreground for their good corrosion resistance and environmental-friendly.

  18. Installation of CMS EB (ECAL Barrel) Supermodules 5 and 13 inside HB+ (HCAL Barrel) on 26/27 April 2006

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The first two barrel "supermodules" of the CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter (ECAL) have been inserted into the barrel hadron calorimeter (HCAL) in the CMS experimental hall (called SX5) in Cessy in preparation for the forthcoming magnet test and cosmic challenge (MTCC). Each of the two supermodules contains 1700 lead tungstate crystals in glass-fibre alveolar support structures, with associated avalanche photodiodes (APDs, for scintillation light detection), electronics and cooling system.

  19. A barrel-related interneuron in layer 4 of rat somatosensory cortex with a high intra-barrel connectivity

    OpenAIRE

    Koelbl, C.; Helmstaedter, Moritz; Lübke, Joachim; Feldmeyer, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Synaptic connections between identified fast-spiking (FS), parvalbumin (PV)-positive interneurons, and excitatory spiny neurons in layer 4 (L4) of the barrel cortex were investigated using patch-clamp recordings and simultaneous biocytin fillings. Three distinct clusters of FS L4 interneurons were identified based on their axonal morphology relative to the barrel column suggesting that these neurons do not constitute a homogeneous interneuron population. One L4 FS interneuron type had an axon...

  20. Maximization of the acceptance and momentum resolution of the ATLAS muon spectrometer with novel drift-tube and resistive plate chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Schwegler, Philipp; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The ATLAS muon spectrometer provides high momentum resolution up to transverse muon momenta in the TeV range in almost the full pseudo-rapidity interval of −2.7 < η < 2.7. The acceptance of the muon spectrometer is currently limited by uninstrumented regions in the vicinity of η = 0 to provide space for cables and services of the inner detector and the calorimeters and in the feet region due to space limitations. A large fraction of these acceptance gaps will successively be closed by installing novel small monitored drift tube (sMDT) chambers with tubes of half the diameter of the present MDT chambers and novel resistive plate chambers (RPC) with smaller gas gaps and higher spatial resolution. The reduced size of the chambers without loss of measurement points does not only make it possible to equip the originally uninstrumented regions with tracking and trigger chambers, but also to operate the new chambers under the highly increased background radiation levels expected for the operation of the mu...

  1. Role of air and other gases in flyer-plate initiation of explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harlan, J. G.; Rice, J. K.; Rogers, J. W.

    1981-01-01

    Previous experiments using flying-plate devices for measuring the shock sensitivity of explosives showed that with vacuum conditions in the barrel of the device the detonation initiation threshold was 5 to 10% lower in terms of flyer-plate velocity and impact pressure than with air in the barrel. Therefore, a study was undertaken to measure the effects of air and other gases in these devices. The procedures and equipment are described. It was determined that the primary effect of gases in these devices is to change the initiation sensitivity through compression of the acceptor prior to impact of the flying plate. (LCL)

  2. The impact of acceleration on barrel/launch package design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the impact of launch acceleration on the design of electromagnetic launcher barrels and on the design of associated launch packages. This is of particular interest because launch package size and mass directly affect the overall armament system size and mass. A common design approach is to use as the peak launch acceleration, the maximum acceleration which the projectile can be designed to withstand. While this approach will minimize barrel length, it may also yield an excessively large overall system size and mass, especially for the long, slender projectile configurations which are desired for high aero-thermal and terminal ballistics performance. An alternate design approach is described which balances the goals of reducing barrel length with reducing launch package mass. Results illustrate the benefits of this balanced design approach on overall armament system size and mass

  3. Electron accelerator based system for assay of transuranic waste barrels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A complete assay system for 208-liter barrels contianing transuranic wastes has been developed. The system consists of an 8-MeV commercial electron accelerator, neutron moderating cavity housing the waste barrel and containing neutron detectors, high resolution germanium gamma spectrometer, and x-ray radiography camera (both film and real time). The electron linac is used to produce bremsstrahlung and high-intensity pulsed neutron flux, both of which are used to interrogate the fissionable materials. The Differential Dieaway Technique is used to assay the amounts of fissile and fertile materials. The neutron flux is also used in the Prompt Gamma Activation Assay to determine and to quantify the matrix elements present in the barrels. This information is then used to correct the assay of fissionable material. The bremsstrahlung too, is also used by x-ray radiography system to further identify the matrix

  4. Correcting the Chromatic Aberration in Barrel Distortion of Endoscopic Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. M. Harry Ng

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Modern endoscopes offer physicians a wide-angle field of view (FOV for minimally invasive therapies. However, the high level of barrel distortion may prevent accurate perception of image. Fortunately, this kind of distortion may be corrected by digital image processing. In this paper we investigate the chromatic aberrations in the barrel distortion of endoscopic images. In the past, chromatic aberration in endoscopes is corrected by achromatic lenses or active lens control. In contrast, we take a computational approach by modifying the concept of image warping and the existing barrel distortion correction algorithm to tackle the chromatic aberration problem. In addition, an error function for the determination of the level of centroid coincidence is proposed. Simulation and experimental results confirm the effectiveness of our method.

  5. Treatment Method for Fermi Barrel Sodium Metal Residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fermi barrels are 55-gallon drums that once contained bulk sodium metal from the shutdown Fermi 1 breeder reactor facility, and now contain residual sodium metal and other sodium/air reaction products. This report provides a residual sodium treatment method and proposed quality assurance steps that will ensure that all residual sodium is deactivated and removed from the Fermi barrels before disposal. The treatment method is the application of humidified carbon dioxide to the residual sodium followed by a water wash. The experimental application of the treatment method to six Fermi barrels is discussed, and recommendations are provided for further testing and evaluation of the method. Though more testing would allow for a greater refinement of the treatment technique, enough data has been gathered from the tests already performed to prove that 100% compliance with stated waste criteria can be achieved

  6. First two barrel ECAL supermodules inserted in CMS HCAL

    CERN Multimedia

    K.Bell

    2006-01-01

    The first two barrel "supermodules" for the CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter (ECAL) have been inserted into the barrel hadron calorimeter (HCAL) in the experimental hall (called SX5) in Cessy in preparation for the forthcoming magnet test and cosmic challenge (MTCC). Each of the two supermodules contains 1700 lead tungstate crystals in glass-fibre alveolar support structures, with associated avalanche photodiodes (APDs, for scintillation light detection), electronics and cooling system. The barrel ECAL will consist of 36 supermodules, many of which have already been produced (see CERN Bulletin 17-18, 2006). Team from CMS ECAL, CMS Integration and CEA-DAPNIA were involved in the insertion, with the production/integration of the supermodules themselves involving many technicians, engineers and physicists from many institutes. From left to right: Olivier Teller, Maf Alidra and Lucien Veillet.

  7. The baffle-barrel-bolting analysis program: evolution and technical accomplishments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwirian, R.E.; Forsyth, D.R.; Snyder, M.D.; Bhandari, D.R.; Barsic, J.A.; Rabenstein, W.D. [Westinghouse Electric Company, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2001-07-01

    In Westinghouse pressurized water reactors (PWR) the reactor core is surrounded by baffle plates, which provide lateral restraint for the fuel assemblies at the core boundary. Baffle plates are attached to horizontal supports called former plates by baffle-former bolts. The formers are attached to the core barrel which also provides vertical support for the core. The B3 analysis program addresses the possibility of reduced baffle-former bolting in Westinghouse U.S. domestic plant designs with respect to the relevant design criteria. Since safety is the overriding motivation for the program, faulted events have received the most in-depth attention. This focus has been reinforced by the fact that the loads produced by the loss-of-coolant-accident (LOCA) have usually been the most limiting of all those considered. Consequently, much of the presentation below deals with the development of analysis techniques and acceptance criteria to demonstrate that LOCA-induced loads on the bolts and the fuel assemblies will be acceptable with significantly reduced baffle-former bolting. A discussion of the other faulted, normal, and upset analyses performed as part of the program will also be presented. (author)

  8. Thermal conductivity of a graphite bipolar plate (BPP) and its thermal contact resistance with fuel cell gas diffusion layers: Effect of compression, PTFE, micro porous layer (MPL), BPP out-of-flatness and cyclic load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghifar, Hamidreza; Djilali, Ned; Bahrami, Majid

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on measurements of thermal conductivity of a graphite bipolar plate (BPP) as a function of temperature and its thermal contact resistance (TCR) with treated and untreated gas diffusion layers (GDLs). The thermal conductivity of the BPP decreases with temperature and its thermal contact resistance with GDLs, which has been overlooked in the literature, is found to be dominant over a relatively wide range of compression. The effects of PTFE loading, micro porous layer (MPL), compression, and BPP out-of-flatness are also investigated experimentally. It is found that high PTFE loadings, MPL and even small BPP out-of-flatness increase the BPP-GDL thermal contact resistance dramatically. The paper also presents the effect of cyclic load on the total resistance of a GDL-BPP assembly, which sheds light on the behavior of these materials under operating conditions in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells.

  9. Optimization of a closed-loop gas system for the operation of Resistive Plate Chambers at the Large Hadron Collider experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capeans, M.; Glushkov, I.; Guida, R.; Hahn, F.; Haider, S.

    2012-01-01

    Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs), thanks to their fast time resolution (˜1 ns), suitable space resolution (˜1 cm) and low production cost (˜50 €/m2), are widely employed for the muon trigger systems at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Their large detector volume (they cover a surface of about 4000 m2 equivalent to 16 m3 of gas volume both in ATLAS and CMS) and the use of a relatively expensive Freon-based gas mixture make a closed-loop gas circulation unavoidable. It has been observed that the return gas of RPCs operated in conditions similar to the difficult experimental background foreseen at LHC contains a large amount of impurities potentially dangerous for long-term operation. Several gas-cleaning agents are currently in use in order to avoid accumulation of impurities in the closed-loop circuits. We present the results of a systematic study characterizing each of these cleaning agents. During the test, several RPCs were operated at the CERN Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF) in a high radiation environment in order to observe the production of typical impurities: mainly fluoride ions, molecules of the Freon group and hydrocarbons. The polluted return gas was sent to several cartridges, each containing a different cleaning agent. The effectiveness of each material was studied using gas chromatography and mass-spectrometry techniques. Results of this test have revealed an optimized configuration of filters that is now under long-term validation.Gas optimization studies are complemented with a finite element simulation of gas flow distribution in the RPCs, aiming at its eventual optimization in terms of distribution and flow rate.

  10. Optimization of a closed-loop gas system for the operation of Resistive Plate Chambers at the Large Hadron Collider experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs), thanks to their fast time resolution (∼1 ns), suitable space resolution (∼1 cm) and low production cost (∼50 €/m2), are widely employed for the muon trigger systems at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Their large detector volume (they cover a surface of about 4000 m2 equivalent to 16 m3 of gas volume both in ATLAS and CMS) and the use of a relatively expensive Freon-based gas mixture make a closed-loop gas circulation unavoidable. It has been observed that the return gas of RPCs operated in conditions similar to the difficult experimental background foreseen at LHC contains a large amount of impurities potentially dangerous for long-term operation. Several gas-cleaning agents are currently in use in order to avoid accumulation of impurities in the closed-loop circuits. We present the results of a systematic study characterizing each of these cleaning agents. During the test, several RPCs were operated at the CERN Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF) in a high radiation environment in order to observe the production of typical impurities: mainly fluoride ions, molecules of the Freon group and hydrocarbons. The polluted return gas was sent to several cartridges, each containing a different cleaning agent. The effectiveness of each material was studied using gas chromatography and mass-spectrometry techniques. Results of this test have revealed an optimized configuration of filters that is now under long-term validation. Gas optimization studies are complemented with a finite element simulation of gas flow distribution in the RPCs, aiming at its eventual optimization in terms of distribution and flow rate.

  11. Joint measurement of the atmospheric muon flux through the Puy de Dôme volcano with plastic scintillators and Resistive Plate Chambers detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosino, F.; Anastasio, A.; Bross, A.; Béné, S.; Boivin, P.; Bonechi, L.; Cârloganu, C.; Ciaranfi, R.; Cimmino, L.; Combaret, Ch.; D'Alessandro, R.; Durand, S.; Fehr, F.; Français, V.; Garufi, F.; Gailler, L.; Labazuy, Ph.; Laktineh, I.; Lénat, J.-F.; Masone, V.; Miallier, D.; Mirabito, L.; Morel, L.; Mori, N.; Niess, V.; Noli, P.; Pla-Dalmau, A.; Portal, A.; Rubinov, P.; Saracino, G.; Scarlini, E.; Strolin, P.; Vulpescu, B.

    2015-11-01

    The muographic imaging of volcanoes relies on the measured transmittance of the atmospheric muon flux through the target. An important bias affecting the result comes from background contamination mimicking a higher transmittance. The MU-RAY and TOMUVOL collaborations measured independently in 2013 the atmospheric muon flux transmitted through the Puy de Dôme volcano using their early prototype detectors, based on plastic scintillators and on Glass Resistive Plate Chambers, respectively. These detectors had three (MU-RAY) or four (TOMUVOL) detection layers of 1 m2 each, tens (MU-RAY) or hundreds (TOMUVOL) of nanosecond time resolution, a few millimeter position resolution, an energy threshold of few hundreds MeV, and no particle identification capabilities. The prototypes were deployed about 1.3 km away from the summit, where they measured, behind rock depths larger than 1000 m, remnant fluxes of 1.83±0.50(syst)±0.07(stat) m-2 d-1 deg-2 (MU-RAY) and 1.95±0.16(syst)±0.05(stat) m-2 d-1 deg-2 (TOMUVOL), that roughly correspond to the expected flux of high-energy atmospheric muons crossing 600 meters water equivalent (mwe) at 18° elevation. This implies that imaging depths larger than 500 mwe from 1 km away using such prototype detectors suffer from an overwhelming background. These measurements confirm that a new generation of detectors with higher momentum threshold, time-of-flight measurement, and/or particle identification is needed. The MU-RAY and TOMUVOL collaborations expect shortly to operate improved detectors, suitable for a robust muographic imaging of kilometer-scale volcanoes.

  12. Metallurgical examination of gun barrel screws

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, E.L.; Clift, T.L.

    1996-06-01

    The examination was conducted to determine the extent of degradation that had occurred after a series of firings; these screws prevent live rounds of ammunition from being loaded into the firing chamber. One concern is that if the screw tip fails and a live round is accidentally loaded into the chamber, a live round could be fired. Another concern is that if the blunt end of the screw begins to degrade by cracking, pieces could become small projectiles during firing. All screws used in firing 100 rounds or more exhibited some degree degradation, which progressively worsened as the number of rounds fired increased. (SEM, metallography, x-ray analysis, and microhardness were used.) Presence of cracks in these screws after 100 fired rounds is a serious concern that warrants the discontinued use of these screws. The screw could be improved by selecting an alloy more resistant to thermal and chemical degradation.

  13. Measurement Technology on 200 Liters Barrels of Radioactive Waste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI; Lei; SHAO; Jie-wen; LIU; Da-ming; LIU; Hong-bin; CHENG; Yi-mei; HE; Li-xia; ZHU; Li-qun

    2012-01-01

    <正>The measurement device on 200 liters barrel of radioactive waste is designed following the rule of orderly measurement automatically, by using the technology of non-destructive to measure the mass of radioactive waste produced from fuel cycle. Device objects as shown in Fig. 1, which consists of the

  14. ATLAS-Lowering the first Barrel Toroid coil

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Audiovisual Unit

    2004-01-01

    Cranes lowered the first of ATLAS's eight Barrel Toroid coils into the cavern. The part is 25 metres long and the cranes had to hold the 100 tonne coil at a sharp angle while it passed through the 18-metre diameter vertical shaft into the cavern. Then they laid the magnet to a horisontal robust platform. Images from Camera 1

  15. ATLAS-Lowering the first Barrel Toroid coil

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Audiovisual Unit

    2004-01-01

    Cranes lowered the first of ATLAS's eight Barrel Toroid coils into the cavern. The part is 25 meters long and the cranes had to hold the 100 tonne coil at a sharp angle while it passed through the 18-meter diameter vertical shaft into the cavern. Then they laid the magnet to a horizontal robust platform. Images from Camera 2

  16. Acquired double-barrel oesophagus in epidermolysis bullosa dystrophica.

    OpenAIRE

    Warren, R B; Warner, T F; Gilbert, E. F.; Pellet, J R

    1980-01-01

    An unusual case of epidermolysis bullosa dystrophica with extensive stenosis, high perforation, and dissection of the oesophagus forming a "double-barrel" structure is described. Gastric epithelium found in the upper oesophagus is thought to be of metaplastic origin and caused by repeated minor trauma with repair.

  17. New results in meson spectroscopy from the crystal barrel experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, C.A. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1994-04-01

    Recent observations by the Crystal Barrel experiment of two scalar resonances, f{sub o}(1365) and a{sub o}(1450) have allowed the authors to clarify the members of the scalar nonet. In addition, a third scalar, f{sub o}(1500), appears to be supernumerary, and is a candidate for the scalar glueball expected near 1500 MeV.

  18. 49 CFR 178.510 - Standards for wooden barrels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.510 Standards for wooden barrels. (a) The... the purpose intended. (2) The body and heads must be of a design appropriate to the capacity and... as follows: (1) The wood used must be of good quality, straight-grained, well-seasoned and free...

  19. Bipolar battery plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowlette, John J. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A liquid-impermeable plate (10) having through-plate conductivity with essentially zero resistance comprises an insulator sheet (12) having a series of spaced perforations (14) each of which contains a metal element (16) sealingly received into the perforation (14). A low-cost plate can readily be manufactured by punching a thermoplastic sheet (40) such as polypropylene with a punching tool (52), filling the apertures with led spheres (63) having a diameter smaller than the holes (50) but larger than the thickness of the sheet, sweeping excess spheres (62) off the sheet with a doctor blade (60) and then pressing a heated platen (74) onto the sheet to swage the spheres into a cylindrical shape and melt the surrounding resin to form a liquid-impermeable collar (4) sealing the metal into the sheet.

  20. Plate tectonics

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chaubey, A.K.

    and ocean floor lie. The plates are in continuous motion at a speed of few centimeters per year over the asthenosphere, which is highly viscous, easily deformable layer between upper and lower mantle. The relative motion between the plates produces new... the newly generated magma, the solidified part of the older magma moves away from the ridge axes. This process is known as seafloor spreading. At subduction zones the old oceanic lithosphere is consumed in the asthenosphere to accommodate the newly...

  1. Design of Radioactive Reference Barrels and Simulation Verification of Linear Source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Shell source method was used to prepare radioactive reference barrel for the calibration of gamma scan device because filling method in normal ways produces "hot" points easily and decrease the safety in transportation of the barrel.

  2. Mouse barrel cortex functionally compensates for deprivation produced by neonatal lesion of whisker follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melzer, P; Crane, A M; Smith, C B

    1993-12-01

    In the murine somatosensory pathway, the metabolic whisker map in barrel cortex derived with the autoradiographic deoxyglucose method is spatially in register with the morphological whisker map represented by the barrels. The barrel cortex of adult mice, in which we had removed three whisker follicles from the middle row of whiskers shortly after birth, contained a disorganized zone surrounded by enlarged barrels with partially disrupted borders. With the fully quantitative autoradiographic deoxyglucose method, we investigated in barrel cortex of such mice the magnitude and the pattern of metabolic responses evoked by the deflection of whiskers. Most remarkably, the simultaneous deflection of six whiskers neighbouring the lesion activated not only the territory of the corresponding barrels, but also the unspecifiable area intercalated between the clearly identified barrels. This metabolic whisker map, unpredictable from the morphological 'barrel' map, may reflect a functional compensation for the deficit in input. PMID:8124517

  3. Preparation of a photo-degradation- resistant quantum dot-polymer composite plate for use in the fabrication of a high-stability white-light-emitting diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Eun-Pyo; Song, Woo-Seuk; Lee, Ki-Heon; Yang, Heesun

    2013-02-01

    We report on the synthesis of highly fluorescent double-ZnS-shell-capped, yellow-emitting Cu-In-S quantum dots (QDs) with a surprisingly high quantum yield of 92%, the preparation of a free-standing QD-polymethylmethacrylate composite plate, and the application of the QD plate in the fabrication of QD-based white-light-emitting diodes (WLEDs). A free-standing QD plate with QDs embedded uniformly inside a polymeric matrix is used to fabricate a remote-type, resin-free WLED. The QD plate-based WLED displays a high luminous efficiency; however, it suffers from a significantly unstable device performance due to QD degradation upon prolonged photo-excitation. An exceptional operational stability of the QD plate-based WLED is realized by generating hybrid double layers of an organic adhesion layer and a gas barrier layer of sol-gel-derived silica, rendering the QD plate impermeable to oxygen. Our success in achieving a color converter robust against photo-degradation and applying it in the fabrication of a reliable QD-based LED is greatly encouraging as regards the development of next-generation QD-based LED lighting sources.

  4. Preparation of a photo-degradation- resistant quantum dot-polymer composite plate for use in the fabrication of a high-stability white-light-emitting diode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Eun-Pyo; Song, Woo-Seuk; Lee, Ki-Heon; Yang, Heesun

    2013-02-01

    We report on the synthesis of highly fluorescent double-ZnS-shell-capped, yellow-emitting Cu-In-S quantum dots (QDs) with a surprisingly high quantum yield of 92%, the preparation of a free-standing QD-polymethylmethacrylate composite plate, and the application of the QD plate in the fabrication of QD-based white-light-emitting diodes (WLEDs). A free-standing QD plate with QDs embedded uniformly inside a polymeric matrix is used to fabricate a remote-type, resin-free WLED. The QD plate-based WLED displays a high luminous efficiency; however, it suffers from a significantly unstable device performance due to QD degradation upon prolonged photo-excitation. An exceptional operational stability of the QD plate-based WLED is realized by generating hybrid double layers of an organic adhesion layer and a gas barrier layer of sol-gel-derived silica, rendering the QD plate impermeable to oxygen. Our success in achieving a color converter robust against photo-degradation and applying it in the fabrication of a reliable QD-based LED is greatly encouraging as regards the development of next-generation QD-based LED lighting sources. PMID:23299514

  5. Simulation and reconstruction of the PANDA Barrel DIRC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhygadlo, R.; Gerhardt, A.; Go¨tzen, K.; Hohler, R.; Kalicy, G.; Kumawat, H.; Lehmann, D.; Lewandowski, B.; Patsyuk, M.; Peters, K.; Schepers, G.; Schmitt, L.; Schwarz, C.; Schwiening, J.; Traxler, M.; Zühlsdorf, M.; Dodokhov, V. Kh.; Britting, A.; Eyrich, W.; Lehmann, A.; Uhlig, F.; Düren, M.; Fo¨hl, K.; Hayrapetyan, A.; Kro¨ck, B.; Merle, O.; Rieke, J.; Cowie, E.; Keri, T.; Montgomery, R.; Rosner, G.; Achenbach, P.; Cardinali, M.; Hoek, M.; Lauth, W.; Sfienti, C.; Thiel, M.; Bühler, P.; Gruber, L.; Marton, J.; Suzuki, K.

    2014-12-01

    Hadronic particle identification (PID) in the barrel region of the PANDA experiment at the new Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research in Europe (FAIR) at GSI, Darmstadt will be provided by a DIRC (Detection of Internally Reflected Cherenkov light) counter. To optimize the performance and reduce the detector cost, detailed simulations of different design elements, such as the width of the radiators, the shape of the expansion volume, and the type of focusing system, were performed using Geant. Custom reconstruction algorithms were developed to match the detector geometry. We will discuss the single photon resolution and photon yield as well as the PID performance for the Barrel DIRC baseline design and several detector design options.

  6. ATLAS barrel toroid integration and test area in building 180

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    The ATLAS barrel toroid system consists of eight coils, each of axial length 25.3 m, assembled radially and symmetrically around the beam axis. The coils are of a flat racetrack type with two 'double-pancake' windings made of 20.5 kA aluminium-stabilized niobium-titanium superconductor. The barrel toroid is being assembled in building 180 on the Meyrin site. In the first phase of assembly, the coils are packed into their aluminium-alloy casing. These photos show the double-pancake coils from ANSALDO and the coil casings from ALSTOM. In the foreground is the tooling from COSMI used to turn over the coil casings during this first phase. In the right background is the yellow lifting gantry manufactured at JINR-Dubna, Russia which will transport the coil casings to a heating table for prestressing. Two test benches with magnetic mirror are also visible.

  7. Simulgeo and its application for the muon barrel position monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design process of the Muon Barrel Position Monitor of the CMS (compact muon solenoid) experiment for LHC is at the origin of the need of a software like Simulgeo. The software Silmugeo started to be developed in 1995 in order to allow the study of many systems. The idea of Simulgeo is to automatically make the modelling of a system and automatically construct the design matrix. This paper makes in part 2 an overview of the possibilities of Simulgeo, in part 3 it presents the standard objects. In part 4, it explains the mathematical basis and in part 5 the computing aspect. In part 6, it shows an application to the Muon Barrel Position Monitor Project and, in part 7, it mentions other projects where it has been used

  8. Experiences developing socially acceptable interactions for a robotic trash barrel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Stephen; Mok, Brian Ka Jun; Sirkin, David;

    2015-01-01

    Service robots in public places need to both understand environmental cues and move in ways that people can understand and predict. We developed and tested interactions with a trash barrel robot to better understand the implicit protocols for public interaction. In eight lunch-time sessions sprea...... as having intentions and desires; c) mistakes in navigation are indicators of autonomous control, rather than a remote operator; and d) repeated mistakes and struggling behavior polarized responses as either ignoring or endearing....... strategies that seemed to evoke clear engagement and responses, both positive and negative. Observations and interviews show that a) people most welcome the robot's presence when they need its services and it actively advertises its intent through movement; b) people create mental models of the trash barrel...

  9. Electron identification at STAR and the Barrel Preshower detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes, Matt

    2007-10-01

    The Barrel Electromagnetic Calorimeter (BEMC) in the STAR experiment at RHIC is a sampling lead scintillator consisting of 4800 towers. The data from the first 2 layers of each tower is read out separately and formally defines the Barrel Preshower (BPRS) detector. The BPRS distinguishes between electrons developing a shower early in the calorimeter tower as opposed to interactions that occur beyond these first 2 layers. We will report on the commissioning of the BPRS into the STAR detector and its implementation into an electron-based analysis. We present the standard method of particle identification currently used for electron selection and investigate the effect of using the BPRS detector. Comparison of such an analysis with and without the BPRS will be shown.

  10. Technical Diagnostics of Tank Cannon Smooth Barrel Bore and Ramming Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri Balla

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The technical diagnostics of 125 mm tank cannon 2A46 smooth barrel and ramming devices are discussed respectively. Focuses on barrel diagnostics and suggests new procedures based on reconstructed BG20 Gun Barrel Bore Gauge System, measuring internal diameter of the barrel bore. The new system measures throughout the whole barrel bore the inner diameter not only at the beginning of barrel bore as it was usually measured before. Different nature of barrel wear was revealed between barrels firing sub-calibre and high explosive projectiles. A method for ramming device diagnostics is presented. An accurate method was proposed, determining projectile extraction force from barrel, as one of the main ramming device parameters for weapons that are used in all areas of armed forces. Results are based on experimental methods assessing the extraction forces from barrel after projectile loading. These tests were performed as a series of tests with consequent technical diagnostics according to the new Czech Defence Standards (derived from NATO standards. The results are presented as the new methodologies for diagnostics of 125 mm barrel 2A46 and ramming devices of tank T-72 for use by technical logistic units in the Czech Republic Armed Forces.

  11. Energy metrics for driving competitiveness of countries: Energy weakness magnitude, GDP per barrel and barrels per capita

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy metrics is the development of a whole new theoretical framework for the conception and measurement of energy and economic system performances, energy efficiency and productivity improvements with important political economy implications consistent with the best use of all natural and economic resources. The purpose of this research is to present some vital energy indicators based on magnitude and scale of energy weakness, GDP per barrel of oil that is an indicator of energy productivity and barrels (of oil) per capita that is an indicator of energy efficiency. Energy metrics can support the monitoring of energy and economic system performances in order to design effective energy strategy and political economy interventions focused on the 'competitive advantage' increase of countries in modern economies.

  12. Plain carbon steel bipolar plates for PEMFC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jianli; SUN Juncai; TIAN Rujin; XU Jing

    2006-01-01

    Bipolar plates are a multifunctional component of PEMFC. Comparing with the machined graphite and stainless steels, the plain carbon steel is a very cheap commercial metal material. In this paper, the possibility of applying the plain carbon steels in the bipolar plate for PEMFC was exploited. In order to improve the corrosion resistance of the low carbon steel in the PEMFCs' environments,two surface modification processes was developed and then the electrochemical performances and interfacial contact resistance (ICR) of the surface modified plate of plain carbon steel were investigated. The results show that the surface modified steel plates have good corrosion resistance and relatively low contact resistance, and it may be a candidate material as bipolar plate of PEMFC.

  13. The barrel muon spectrometer of the ATLAS detector has acquired its first cosmic event in a magnetic field produced by the barrel toroid magnet.

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    A 3-D event display of a cosmic muon event, showing the path of a muon travelling through three layers of the barrel muon spectrometer. Three of the eight coils of the barrel toroid magnet can be seen in the top half of the drawing.

  14. Revolution from Diogenes’ barrel (2) [and] Green design dictionary

    OpenAIRE

    Kolakowski, Marcin Mateusz

    2005-01-01

    Diogenes' barrel Is low-tech timeless? How high is "high" and how low is "low"? Is low-tech the next, higher level in the development of high-tech? This article is an introduction to the world of low-tech. "High-tech seems to be a self-corroborating superlative which needs no justification. Isn't perfecting technology an obvious consequence of the development of mankind, and actually of its natural evolution? And then, isn't contradicting this thesis a dangerous heresy, a crime, or an a...

  15. Theoretical Exploration of Barrel-Shaped Drops on Cactus Spines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Cheng

    2015-11-01

    To survive an arid environment, desert cacti are capable of harvesting water from fog by transporting condensed water drops using their spines. Cactus spines have a conical shape. In this work, on the basis of the difference of liquid pressure, a new theoretical model has been developed for a barrel-shaped liquid drop on a conical wire. This model is further simplified to interpret the effects of contact angles, conical angle, surface microgrooves, and gravity on the drop movement along a cactus spine. PMID:26473466

  16. Final states with strangeness from Crystal Barrel and Asterix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We discuss φ production in anti pp annihilation at rest from the Asterix and Crystal Barrel experiments and compare the branching ratios to similar final states without strangeness. The ωπ0/φπ0 production ratio is unexpectedly low. In the search for new states, the φπ0 mass spectrum shows no evidence for a resonance in the 1450 MeV/c2 mass range but the K*K0π0 Dalitz plot shows interesting structure. (orig.)

  17. The Electromagentic Barrel Calorimeter for the GlueX Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Barbi, M

    2006-01-01

    The electromagnetic barrel calorimeter is one of the main components of the planned GlueX experiment. It will consist of 48 modules made of consecutive layers of 4 m long lead sheet and fast green scintillator fibers for an overall number of approximately 3000 readout channels with silicon photomultiplier-based photo-sensors for light collection. The calorimeter is expected to achieve energy and time resolution better than 5%/sqrt(E)+2% and 200 ps, respectively. In this contribution we presen...

  18. The Electromagnetic Barrel Calorimeter for the GlueX Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electromagnetic barrel calorimeter is one of the main components of the planned GlueX experiment. It will consist of 48 modules made of consecutive layers of 4 m long lead sheet and fast green scintillator fibers for an overall number of approximately 3000 readout channels with silicon-photomultiplier-based photo-sensors for light collection. The calorimeter is expected to achieve energy and time resolution better than 5% bigsl √(E)+ 2% and 200 ps, respectively. In this contribution we present an overview of the calorimeter design and some preliminary studies of its performance using Monte Carlo simulations and beam test measurements

  19. The Electromagentic Barrel Calorimeter for the GlueX Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Barbi, M

    2006-01-01

    The electromagnetic barrel calorimeter is one of the main components of the planned GlueX experiment. It will consist of 48 modules made of consecutive layers of 4 m long lead sheet and fast green scintillator fibers for an overall number of approximately 3000 readout channels with silicon photomultiplier-based photo-sensors for light collection. The calorimeter is expected to achieve energy and time resolution better than 5%/sqrt(E)+2% and 200 ps, respectively. In this contribution we present an overview of the calorimeter design and some preliminary studies of its performance using Monte Carlo simulations and beam test measurements.

  20. Silicon photomultiplier characterization for the GlueX barrel calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GlueX is a new detector being constructed at Jefferson Laboratory to study gluonic excitations and confinement via the detection of exotic meson states. The hermetic detector includes a barrel calorimeter where the photodetectors must operate in a high magnetic field exceeding 0.5 T. After extensive tests with a variety of sensors, the chosen photodetector will be a custom silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) array manufactured by Hamamatsu Corporation. This paper will focus on the characterization of the first 80 production samples of these SiPMs, including dark rate, photodetection efficiency (PDE), crosstalk, response uniformity and radiation tolerance.

  1. Dynamics of Tectonic Plates

    CERN Document Server

    Pechersky, E; Sadowski, G; Yambartsev, A

    2014-01-01

    We suggest a model that describes a mutual dynamic of tectonic plates. The dynamic is a sort of stick-slip one which is modeled by a Markov random process. The process defines a microlevel of the dynamic. A macrolevel is obtained by a scaling limit which leads to a system of integro-differential equations which determines a kind of mean field systems. Conditions when Gutenberg-Richter empirical law are presented on the mean field level. These conditions are rather universal and do not depend on features of resistant forces.

  2. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infected pseudo-arthrosis of the distal tibia treated with debridement, mesh cage, autologous grafting and locking plate fixation

    OpenAIRE

    Motsitsi, Silas N. S.

    2008-01-01

    Infected non-union of long bones is a challenge to manage. It has a high morbidity and mortality. Treatment is very demanding and has a significant complication rate. Methicillin-resistant infected non-union has a higher morbidity and mortality compared to Methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus infection. Approximately half of all Staphylococci isolated in infected orthopaedic operations are caused by Methicillin-resistant S. aureus. We present a 42-year-old patient who had Methicillin-r...

  3. First physics pulses in the Barrel Electromagnetic Calorimeter with cosmics

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Serin

    2006-01-01

    The electromagnetic barrel calorimeter has been installed in its final position in October 2005. Since then, the calorimeter is being equipped with front-end electronics. Starting in April 2006, electronics calibration runs are taken a few times per week to debug the electronics and to study the performance in the pit (stability, noise). Today, 10 out of the 32 Front End crates are being read out, amounting to about 35000 channels. cool down, few little typos --> After a 6-week cool down, the barrel cryostat was filled with Liquid Argon in May. The presence of a few shorts (~1MΩ) at the edges of the modules was indicating the possibility of conducting dust having entered into the calorimeter with the flowing liquid. In order to try to improve this situation, the calorimeter was emptied and filled again, but this time by condensating the argon instead of flowing it in liquid phase. The new High Voltage tests are not showing any significant improvement but the situation is statisfactory for ATLAS runn...

  4. Performance of a Rain Barrel Sharing Network under Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong Jin Noh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Rain barrels can be technically shared through social practices or mutual agreement between individual households. This study proposes the evaluation system for a rain barrel sharing network (RBSN considering three performance criteria of reliability, resiliency, and vulnerability, under plausible climate change scenarios. First, this study shows how the system can be improved in terms of the performance criteria using historical daily rainfall data based on the storage-reliability-yield relationship. This study then examined how the benefits from RBSN are affected by climate change after 100 years. Three climate change scenarios (A1B, A2 and B2 and three global circulation models were used for this purpose. The results showed that the reliability and vulnerability are improved due to sharing and their improvements become larger under climate change conditions. In contrast, the resiliency reduces slightly due to sharing and its reduction is attenuated under climate change conditions. In particular, vulnerability will be reduced significantly under climate change. These results suggest that the sharing of various water resources systems can be an effective climate change adaptation strategy that reduces vulnerability and increases the reliability of the system.

  5. SDC muon barrel toroid 1/9.197 scale test model at SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the scale model for the muon barrel toroid (MBT) is to discover any problems in the preliminary design associated with the fabrication, assembly and installation. The information obtained from the model fabrication, assembly, installation, and testing processes will be used to evaluate the MBT preliminary design and to verify the finite element (FE) analysis. The final design of the MBT will take advantage of the experience gained from the test model to improve the design and engineering, fabrication methods, and assembly methods. The goals that are considered relevant to the test model include the following: Verify the in-plane and out-of-plane stiffness of the test model as predicted by the FE analysis. Verify the corner joint stiffness of the test model as predicted by the FE analysis. Verify the fabrication and assembly methods for the blocks, pins and keys on a small scale. Demonstrate the plate flattening scheme on a small scale. Insure that the preliminary design of the MBT can be assembled into the correct shape on a small scale. A magnetic measurement will be performed to record the field density inside an air gap. The main goal is to find out the field distribution for the test model due to geometry variation. The field measurements will also provide the information to verify the magnetic property of the steel material as well as the impact on the field distribution due to material variation

  6. An analysis of increasing the size of the strategic petroleum reserve to one billion barrels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    The Department of Energy's Office of Energy Emergency Policy and Evaluation requested that the Energy Information Administration complete an analysis of the proposed expansion in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) from its currently planned size of 750 million barrels to 1000 million barrels. Because the SPR contains only 580 million barrels at this point in time, the benefits and costs of increasing the SPR from 600 to 750 million barrels were also estimated. This report documents the assumptions, methodology, and results of the analysis. 17 figs., 15 tabs.

  7. Influence of the pulsed plasma treatment on the corrosion resistance of the low-alloy steel plated by Ni-based alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhumaev, P.; Yakushin, V.; Kalin, B.; Polsky, V.; Yurlova, M.

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents investigation results of the influence of high temperature pulsed plasma flows (HTPPF) treatment on the corrosion resistance of low-alloy steel 0.2C-Cr-Mn- Ni-Mo cladded by the rapidly quenched nickel-based alloy. A technique that allows obtaining a defect-free clad layer with a good adhesion to the substrate was developed. It is shown that the preliminary treatment of steel samples by nitrogen plasma flows significantly increases their corrosion resistance in the conditions of intergranular corrosion test in a water solution of sulfuric acid. A change of the corrosion mechanism of the clad layer from intergranular to uniform corrosion was observed as a result of sub-microcrystalline structure formation and homogeneous distribution of alloying elements in the plasma treated surface layer thus leading to the significant increase of the corrosion resistance.

  8. Installation of CMS EB (ECAL Barrel) Supermodules 5 and 13 inside HB+ (HCAL Barrel) on 26/27 April 2006

    CERN Multimedia

    Ken Bell, RAL

    2006-01-01

    The first two barrel "supermodules" of the CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter (ECAL) have been inserted into the barrel hadron calorimeter (HCAL) in the CMS experimental hall (called SX5) in Cessy in preparation for the forthcoming magnet test and cosmic challenge (MTCC). Each of the two supermodules contains 1700 lead tungstate crystals in glass-fibre alveolar support structures, with associated avalanche photodiodes (APDs, for scintillation light detection), electronics and cooling system. See also the document CMS-PHO-OREACH-2006-019. The first two pictures show the two supermodules in their final position. Fig. 3: the "enfourneur" in position on the HB Cradle. Fig. 4: supermodule n. 5 and extension rails being lifted to the enforneur. Figs. 5-6: supermodule approaching the enforneur. Fig. 7: rotating the Enfourneur to the correct phi direction Figs. 8-9: aligning the extension rails with the rails inside HB and view from inside HB, once the rails are aligned. Figs. 10-12: insertion of supermodule n. 5. Fig. ...

  9. Indonesian Landforms and Plate Tectonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Th. Verstappen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v5i3.103The horizontal configuration and vertical dimension of the landforms occurring in the tectonically unstable parts of Indonesia were resulted in the first place from plate tectonics. Most of them date from the Quaternary and endogenous forces are ongoing. Three major plates – the northward moving Indo-Australian Plate, the south-eastward moving SE-Asian Plate and the westward moving Pacific Plate - meet at a plate triple-junction situated in the south of New Guinea’s Bird’s Head. The narrow North-Moluccan plate is interposed between the Asia and Pacific. It tapers out northward in the Philippine Mobile Belt and is gradually disappearing. The greatest relief amplitudes occur near the plate boundaries: deep ocean trenches are associated with subduction zones and mountain ranges with collision belts. The landforms of the more stable areas of the plates date back to a more remote past and, where emerged, have a more subdued relief that is in the first place related to the resistance of the rocks to humid tropical weathering Rising mountain ranges and emerging island arcs are subjected to rapid humid-tropical river erosions and mass movements. The erosion products accumulate in adjacent sedimentary basins where their increasing weight causes subsidence by gravity and isostatic compensations. Living and raised coral reefs, volcanoes, and fault scarps are important geomorphic indicators of active plate tectonics. Compartmental faults may strongly affect island arcs stretching perpendicular to the plate movement. This is the case on Java. Transcurrent faults and related pull-apart basins are a leading factor where plates meet at an angle, such as on Sumatra. The most complicated situation exists near the triple-junction and in the Moluccas. Modern research methods, such as GPS measurements of plate movements and absolute dating of volcanic outbursts and raised coral reefs are important tools. The mega-landforms resulting

  10. Comparative Study on UNDEX Resistance of the Air-backed Stiffened Plate with Various Covering Layers%覆盖层加筋板结构水下抗爆性能对比试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖锋; 谌勇; 黄修长; 朱大巍; 华宏星

    2013-01-01

    为提高潜艇的隐身性能,潜艇壳体表面常敷设声学覆盖层结构。声学覆盖层常设有各类空腔等特殊结构形式,在受到水下爆炸冲击波时空腔产生变形并吸收能量,对潜艇的抗冲击性能产生影响。分别对不同覆盖层及无覆盖层的加筋平板试件开展水下抗爆炸性能对比性试验研究。通过试验获取各加筋平板试件典型部位的加速度、应变响应。比较不同覆盖层对加筋平板结构的实际抗冲效果,为今后声学覆盖层的抗冲设计和研究提供参考。%In order to improve stealthy capacity of a submarine, acoustic layers with special hollow structures are usually covered on hull surfaces of the submarine. The hollow structures can deform and absorb energy when they are subjected to underwater explosion (UNDEX), which can greatly raise the submarine’s anti-shock performance. In this paper, comparative study on UNDEX resistance of the air-backed stiffened plate with various covering layers was carried out. The acceleration and strain responses of the typical positions of the stiffened plate were obtained by the testing. And the anti-shock effects of the stiffened plate with various covering layers were compared. The results may provide a guideline for the design and study of the acoustic covering layers against UNDEX.

  11. Performance of the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter barrel module 0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The construction and performance of the barrel pre-series module 0 of the future ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter at the LHC is described. The signal reconstruction and performance of ATLAS-like electronics has been studied. The signal to noise ratio for muons has been found to be 7.11±0.07. An energy resolution of better than 9.5% GeV1/2/√E (sampling term) has been obtained with electron beams of up to 245 GeV. The uniformity of the response to electrons in an area of ΔηxΔphi=1.2x0.075 has been measured to be better than 0.8%

  12. Functional diversity of supragranular GABAergic neurons in the barrel cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luc J Gentet

    2012-08-01

    However, recent technological advances in microscopy and mouse genetics have fostered a renewed interest in neocortical interneurons by putting them within “visible” reach of experimenters. The anatomically well-defined whisker-to-barrel pathway of the rodent is particularly amenable to studies attempting to link cortical circuit dynamics to behavior. To each whisker corresponds a discrete cortical unit equivalent to a single column, specialized in the encoding and processing of the sensory information it receives. In this review, we will focus on the functional role that each subtype of supragranular GABAergic neuron embedded within such a single neocortical unit may play in shaping the dynamics of the local circuit during somatosensory integration.

  13. Alcohol dehydrogenase polymorphism in barrel cactus populations of Drosophila mojavensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleland, S; Hocutt, G D; Breitmeyer, C M; Markow, T A; Pfeiler, E

    1996-07-01

    Starch gel electrophoresis revealed that the alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH-2) locus was polymorphic in two populations (from Agua Caliente, California and the Grand Canyon, Arizona) of cactophilic Drosophila mojavensis that utilize barrel cactus (Ferocactus acanthodes) as a host plant. Electromorphs representing products of a slow (S) and a fast (F) allele were found in adult flies. The frequency of the slow allele was 0.448 in flies from Agua Caliente and 0.659 in flies from the Grand Canyon. These frequencies were intermediate to those of the low (Baja California peninsula, Mexico) and high (Sonora, Mexico and southern Arizona) frequency Adh-2S populations of D. mojavensis that utilize different species of host cacti. PMID:8765684

  14. Charged Pion Energy Reconstruction in the ATLAS Barrel Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Bosman, M; Nessi, Marzio

    2000-01-01

    The intrinsic performance of the ATLAS barrel and extended barrelcalorimeters for the measurement of charged pions is presented. Pion energyscans (E = 20, 50, 200, 400 and 1000 GeV) at two pseudo-rapidity points ($\\eta$= 0.3 and 1.3) and pseudorapidity scans ($-0.2 < \\eta < 1.8$) with pions ofconstant transverse energy ($E_T = 20$ and 50 GeV) are analysed. A simpleapproach, that accounts in first order for non-compensation and dead materialeffects, is used for the pion energy reconstruction. The intrinsic performancesof the calorimeter are studied: resolution, linearity, effect of dead material,tails in the energy distribution. The effect of electronic noise, cell energycuts and restricted cone size are investigated.

  15. Modeling of gun barrel surface erosion: Historic perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckingham, A.C.

    1996-08-01

    Results and interpretations of numerical simulations of some dominant processes influencing gun barrel propellant combustion and flow-induced erosion are presented. Results include modeled influences of erosion reduction techniques such as solid additives, vapor phase chemical modifications, and alteration of surface solid composition through use of thin coatings. Precedents and historical perspective are provided with predictions from traditional interior ballistics compared to computer simulations. Accelerating reactive combustion flow, multiphase and multicomponent transport, flow-to-surface thermal/momentum/phase change/gas-surface chemical exchanges, surface and micro-depth subsurface heating/stress/composition evolution and their roles in inducing surface cracking, spall, ablation, melting, and vaporization are considered. Recognition is given to cyclic effects of previous firing history on material preconditioning. Current perspective and outlook for future are based on results of a US Army-LLNL erosion research program covering 7 y in late 1970s. This is supplemented by more recent research on hypervelocity electromagnetic projectile launchers.

  16. Performance of the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter barrel module 0

    CERN Document Server

    Aubert, Bernard; Alexa, C; Astesan, F; Augé, E; Aulchenko, V M; Ballansat, J; Barreiro, F; Barrillon, P; Battistoni, G; Bazan, A; Beaugiraud, B; Beck-Hansen, J; Belhorma, B; Belorgey, J; Belymam, A; Ben-Mansour, A; Benchekroun, D; Benchouk, C; Bernard, R; Bertoli, W; Boniface, J; Bonivento, W; Bourdarios, C; Bremer, J; Breton, D; Bán, J; Camard, A; Canton, B; Carminati, L; Cartiglia, N; Cavalli, D; Chalifour, M; Chekhtman, A; Chen, H; Cherkaoui, R; Chevalley, J L; Chollet, F; Citterio, M; Clark, A; Cleland, W; Clément, C; Colas, Jacques; Collot, J; Costa, G; Cros, P; Cunitz, H; de Saintignon, P; Del Peso, J; Delebecque, P; Delmastro, M; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Dinkespiler, B; Djama, F; Dodd, J; Driouichi, C; Dumont-Dayot, N; Duval, P Y; Dzahini, D; Efthymiopoulos, I; Egdemir, J; El-Kacimi, M; El-Mouahhidi, Y; Engelmann, R; Ernwein, J; Falleau, I; Fanti, M; Farrell, J; Fassnacht, P; Ferrari, A; Fichet, S; Fournier, D; Gallin-Martel, M L; Gara, A; García, G; Gaumer, O; Ghazlane, H; Ghez, P; Gianotti, F; Girard, C; Gordon, H; Gouanère, M; Guilhem, G; Hackenburg, B; Hakimi, M; Hassani, S; Henry-Coüannier, F; Hervás, L; Hinz, L; Hoffman, A; Hoffman, J; Hostachy, J Y; Hoummada, A; Hubaut, F; Idrissi, A; Imbault, D; Jacquier, Y; Jérémie, A; Jevaud, M; Jézéquel, S; Kambara, H; Karst, P; Kazanin, V; Kierstead, J A; Kolachev, G M; Kordas, K; de La Taille, C; Labarga, L; Lacour, D; Lafaye, R; Laforge, B; Lanni, F; Le Coroller, A; Le Dortz, O; Le Maner, C; Le Van-Suu, A; Le Flour, T; Leite, M; Leltchouk, M; Lesueur, J; Lissauer, D; Lund-Jensen, B; Lundqvist, J M; Ma, H; Macé, G; Makowiecki, D S; Malychev, V; Mandelli, L; Mansoulié, B; Marin, C P; Martin, D; Martin, L; Martin, O; Martin, P; Maslennikov, A L; Massol, N; Mazzanti, M; McCarthy, R; McDonald, J; Megner, L; Merkel, B; Mirea, A; Moneta, L; Monnier, E; Moynot, M; Muraz, J F; Nagy, E; Negroni, S; Neukermans, L; Nicod, D; Nikolic-Audit, I; Noppe, J M; Ohlsson-Malek, F; Olivier, C; Orsini, F; Pailler, P; Parrour, G; Parsons, J A; Pearce, M; Perini, L; Perrodo, P; Perrot, G; Pétroff, P; Poggioli, Luc; Pospelov, G E; Pralavorio, Pascal; Prast, J; Przysiezniak, H; Puzo, P; Radeka, V; Rahm, David Charles; Rajagopalan, S; Raymond, M; Renardy, J F; Repetti, B; Rescia, S; Resconi, S; Riccadona, X; Richer, J P; Rijssenbeek, M; Rodier, S; Rossel, F; Rousseau, D; Rydström, S; Saboumazrag, S; Sauvage, D; Sauvage, G; Schilly, P; Schwemling, P; Schwindling, J; Seguin-Moreau, N; Seidl, W; Seman, M; Serin, L; Shousharo, A; Simion, S; Sippach, W; Snopkov, R; Steffens, J; Stroynowski, R; Stumer, I; Taguet, J P; Takai, H; Talyshev, A A; Tartarelli, F; Teiger, J; Thion, J; Tikhonov, Yu A; Tisserant, S; Tocut, V; Tóth, J; Veillet, J J; Vossebeld, Joost Herman; Vuillemin, V; Wielers, M; Willis, W J; Wingerter-Seez, I; Ye, J; Yip, K; Zerwas, D; Zitoun, R; Zolnierowski, Y

    2003-01-01

    The construction and performance of the barrel pre-series module 0 of the future ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter at the LHC is described. The signal reconstruction and performance of ATLAS-like electronics has been studied. The signal to noise ratio for muons has been found to be 7.11+-0.07. An energy resolution of better than 9.5% GeV^1/2/sqrt{E} (sampling term) has been obtained with electron beams of up to 245GeV. The uniformity of the response to electrons in an area of Delta_eta x Delta_phi = 1.2 x 0.075 has been measured to be better than 0.8%.

  17. The CMS Level-1 Trigger Barrel Track Finder

    CERN Document Server

    Ero, Janos; Ioannis Flouris; Fountas, Konstantinos; Guiducci, Luigi; Loukas, Nikitas; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Paradas, Evangelos; Triossi, Andrea; Wulz, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    The design and performance of the upgraded CMS Level-1 Trigger Barrel Muon Track Finder (BMTF) is presented. Monte Carlo simulation data as well as cosmic ray and pp data from a CMS muon detector slice test have been used to study in detail the performance of the new track finder. The design architecture is based on twelve MP7 cards which use a Xilinx Virtex-7 FPGA and can receive and transmit data at 10 Gbps from 72 input and 72 output fibers. According to the CMS Trigger Upgrade TDR the BMTF receives trigger primitive data which are computed using both RPC and DT data and transmits data from a number of muon candidates to the upgraded Global Muon Trigger. Results from detailed studies of comparisons between the BMTF algorithm results and the results of a C++ emulator are also presented. The new BMTF will be commissioned for data taking in 2016.

  18. Clad plates for construction of apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Importance of clad plates on the field of the construction of apparatus for the chemistry and petrol chemistry. Description of a cladding process to bond permanently and integrally ferritic steels and corrosion resistant and heat resistant materials by rolling. Information on available combinations of materials and gauge as well as on indispensable requirements to be met by the quality of the material. Results of tests carried out on the bond. Distribution of the elements between the clad and the base material. Bond properties, corrosion behaviour, toughness values and tensile properties of clad plates, heat treatment, cutting and welding of clad plates. Demonstration of applications. (orig.)

  19. Design and development of a work robot to place ATLAS SCT modules onto barrel cylinders

    CERN Document Server

    Terada, S; Honma, F; Ikegami, Y; Iwata, Y; Kato, Y; Kobayashi, H; Kohriki, T; Kondo, T; Nakano, I; Sengoku, H; Takashima, R; Tanaka, R; Ujiie, N; Unno, Y; Yasuda, S

    2005-01-01

    More than 2000 silicon modules need to be placed and fastened on the ATLAS SCT barrel tracker. A semi-automatic pick-and-place work robot was designed and developed to cope with the module placement for the SCT barrel assembly. We found that this robot could place modules to a mechanical precision of better than 25 mum.

  20. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... deaths a year than breast cancer and AIDS combined. Your gift today will help us get closer ... Plate! Click on the plate sections below to add your food choices. Reset Plate Share Create Your ...

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  2. Analysis on the Standard Formulation of Steel Plate Resisting Dew-point Corrosion of Sulphuric Acid%耐硫酸露点腐蚀钢板的标准制定分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙根领

    2013-01-01

      介绍了耐硫酸露点腐蚀钢板的研发应用现状及标准化需求,并对产品标准制定的原则、范围以及产品的化学成分、机械性能、耐硫酸露点腐蚀性能、表面质量、内部质量等主要交付技术条件的制订情况进行了探讨。目前耐硫酸露点腐蚀用钢板标准已经通过了国家标准管理委员会审批,将于2013年5月1日正式实施。%This article introduced the development, application and standardization requirement of steel plate resisting dew-point corrosion of sulphuric acid and discussed the principle of standard formulation, the scope of the specification and technical delivery conditions, such as chemical composition, mechanical properties, sulphuric acid dew point corrosion resistance property, surface quality and internal quality. At present, the Standard has passed the national standard management committee for approval and will carry out formally on May 1, 2013.

  3. Wear Resistance of TiN Coating Prepared by Multi-arc Ion Plating on Aluminum Alloy Surface%铝合金表面多弧离子镀TiN涂层的耐磨性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭银元; 潘应君

    2009-01-01

    Wear resistance of TiN coating prepared by multi-arc ion plating on ZL109 aluminum alloy surface has been examined. The results show that wear resist-ance of the ZL109 aluminum alloy with multi-arc ion plating TiN coating can be significantly improved. With applying 1N and wearing for 90min, the abrasive width of the samples without TiN coating makes ap-proximately 2 times of that with TiN coating, and av-erage frictional coefficient of the samples with TiN coating makes approximately 50% of that without coating. With applying 2N, the morphology and abra-sive width are varied as time increases. The wear mor-phology of the ZL109 alloy samples with TiN coating is characterized by adhesive abrasion in early stage and by abrasive abrasion in last stage.%采用多弧离子镀在ZL109铝合金表面进行了TiN涂层处理,并对涂层的载荷耐磨性进行了分析和讨论.结果表明,ZL109铝合金表面多弧离子镀TiN涂层后,其耐磨性得到明显提高.在1 N的载荷下,连续磨损90 min时,未镀膜试样的磨痕宽度几乎是TiN试样的2倍,镀有TiN膜试样的平均摩擦因数几乎是未镀样的50%.在2 N的载荷下,由磨痕的形貌和宽度随时间的变化可见,镀有TiN涂层的试样在磨损前期,主要以粘着磨损为主,在磨损后期以磨粒磨损为主.

  4. An understanding of HSLA-65 plate steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampath, K.

    2006-02-01

    HSLA-65 plate steels can be produced using one of five plate manufacturing techniques: normalizing, controlled rolling (CR), controlled rolling followed by accelerated cooling (CR-AC), direct quenching and tempering (DQT), or conventional quenching and tempering (Q&T). The HSLA-65 steels are characterized by low carbon content and low alloy content, and they exhibit a low carbon equivalent that allows improved plate weldability. These characteristics in turn (a) provide the steel plate with a refined microstructure that ensures high strength and toughness; (b) eliminate or substantially reduce the need for preheating during welding; (c) resist susceptibility to hydrogen-assisted cracking (HAC) in the weld heat affected zone (HAZ) when fusion (arc) welded using low heat-input conditions; and (d) depending on section thickness, facilitate high heat-input welding (about 2 kJ/mm) without significant loss of strength or toughness in the HAZ. However, application of this plate manufacturing process and of these controls produces significant differences in the metallurgical structure and range of mechanical properties of the HSLA-65 plate steels both among themselves and versus conventional higher strength steel (HSS) plates. For example, among the HSLA-65 plate steels, those produced by Q&T exhibit minimal variability in mechanical properties, especially in thicker plates. Besides variability in mechanical properties depending on plate thickness, the CR and CR-AC plate steels exhibit a relatively higher yield strength to ultimate tensile strength (YS/UTS) ratio than do DQT and Q&T steels. Such differences in processing and properties of HSLA-65 plate steels could potentially affect the selection and control of various secondary fabrication practices, including arc welding. Consequently, fabricators must exercise extreme caution when transferring allowable limits of certified secondary fabrication practices from one type of HSLA-65 plate steel to another, even for the

  5. Nickel Alloy, Corrosion and Heat-Resistant, Sheet, Strip, and Plate 72Ni - 15.5Cr - 0.95 (Cb (Nb) + Ta) - 2.5Ti - 0.70Al - 7.0Fe Consumable Electrode, Remelted or Vacuum Induction Melted, Solution Heat Treated, Precipitation-Hardenable

    CERN Document Server

    SAE Aerospace Standards. London

    2012-01-01

    Nickel Alloy, Corrosion and Heat-Resistant, Sheet, Strip, and Plate 72Ni - 15.5Cr - 0.95 (Cb (Nb) + Ta) - 2.5Ti - 0.70Al - 7.0Fe Consumable Electrode, Remelted or Vacuum Induction Melted, Solution Heat Treated, Precipitation-Hardenable

  6. Voltage-current characteristics of a pin-plate system with different plate configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the voltage-current (V-I) characteristics of a pin-plate system with four types of collection plate configurations are studied experimentally. The collection plates consider a single metal plate, a metal plate with a fly ash cake layer, a metal plate with a clean filter media and a metal plate with a dirty filter media. The results show that the clean filter media has no obvious effect on the V-I characteristics. But the dirty filter media reduces the current density because of its high resistance. The thick fly ash cake layer increase current density because of the anti-corona effect but the increment is not very obvious.

  7. Dynamics of inner ear pressure release, measured with a double-barreled micropipette in the guinea pig

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, HP; Thalen, EO; Albers, FWJ

    1999-01-01

    The inner ear, fluid pressure was measured in scala media of the guinea pig through one barrel of a double-barreled micropipette after a sudden volume increase or decrease, caused by injection or withdrawal of artificial endolymph through the other barrel. During injection or withdrawal, the inner e

  8. Structural insight into the biogenesis of β-barrel membrane proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noinaj, Nicholas; Kuszak, Adam J; Gumbart, James C; Lukacik, Petra; Chang, Hoshing; Easley, Nicole C; Lithgow, Trevor; Buchanan, Susan K

    2013-09-19

    β-barrel membrane proteins are essential for nutrient import, signalling, motility and survival. In Gram-negative bacteria, the β-barrel assembly machinery (BAM) complex is responsible for the biogenesis of β-barrel membrane proteins, with homologous complexes found in mitochondria and chloroplasts. Here we describe the structure of BamA, the central and essential component of the BAM complex, from two species of bacteria: Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Haemophilus ducreyi. BamA consists of a large periplasmic domain attached to a 16-strand transmembrane β-barrel domain. Three structural features shed light on the mechanism by which BamA catalyses β-barrel assembly. First, the interior cavity is accessible in one BamA structure and conformationally closed in the other. Second, an exterior rim of the β-barrel has a distinctly narrowed hydrophobic surface, locally destabilizing the outer membrane. And third, the β-barrel can undergo lateral opening, suggesting a route from the interior cavity in BamA into the outer membrane. PMID:23995689

  9. Charged Pion Energy Reconstruction in the ATLAS Barrel Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Bosman, Martine; Nessi, Marzio

    1999-01-01

    Intrinsic performance of the ATLAS calorimeters in the barrel region with respect to charged pions was studied. For this the following simulated data were used: pion energy scans ($E = 20, 50, 200, 400$ and $1000$ GeV) at two pseudo-rapidity points ($eta = 0.3$ and $1.3$) and pseudo-rapidity scans ($-0.2 < eta < 1.8$) with pions of constant transverse energy ($E_T = 20$ and $50$ GeV). For pion energy reconstruction the benchmark approach was used. Performance was estimated for cases, when energy and rapidity dependent and independent calibration parameters were applied. The best results were obtained with energy and rapidity dependent parameters. Studies done for pions enabled optimization of the cone size and of the cut to obtain the best energy resolution. Energy dependence of the resolution can be parameterized as: $(50pm4)%/sqrt{E} oplus (3.4pm0.3)% oplus 1.0/E$ at $eta = 0.3$ and $(68pm8)%/sqrt{E} oplus (3.0pm0.7)% oplus 1.5/E$ at $eta = 1.3$. Larger constant term at $eta=0.3$ can be explained by l...

  10. Erosion measurement techniques for plasma-driven railgun barrels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamison, K.A.; Niiler, A.

    1987-04-01

    Plasma-driven railguns are now in operation at several locations throughout the world. All share common problems in barrel erosion arising from the fact that the bore surface must contain a high temperature plasma armature which transmits the acceleration force to a projectile. The plasma temperature at the core of the armature is estimated to be 30 000 K or higher. Such conditions are erosive to most materials even when the exposure time is 100 s or less. We have adapted two accelerator based techniques to aid in the study of this erosion. The first technique involves the collection and analysis of material ablated and left behind by the plasma. This analysis is baded on the unfolding of the Rutherford backscattered (RBS) spectra of 1 MeV deuterons incident on residue collected from a railgun bore. The second technique is an erosion measurement involving thin layer activation (TLA) of surfaces. In this process, the copper rail surface is activated by 2.4 MeV protons creating a relatively thin (3 m) layer sparsely seeded with a long lived zinc isotope. Monitoring the decay of the activated sample before and after a firing can detect surface wear of about 0.1 m. Results from the RBS and TLA experiments on the BRL plasma driven railgun are described.

  11. Erosion measurement techniques for plasma-driven railgun barrels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamison, K.A.; Niiler, A.

    1987-04-01

    Plasma-driven railguns are now in operation at several locations throughout the world. All share common problems in barrel erosion arising from the fact that the bore surface must contain a high temperature plasma armature which transmits the acceleration force to a projectile. The plasma temperature at the core of the armature is estimated to be 30 000 K or higher. Such conditions are erosive to most materials even when the exposure time is 100 ..mu..s or less. We have adapted two accelerator based techniques to aid in the study of this erosion. The first technique involves the collection and analysis of material ablated and left behind by the plasma. This analysis is baded on the unfolding of the Rutherford backscattered (RBS) spectra of 1 MeV deuterons incident on residue collected from a railgun bore. The second technique is an erosion measurement involving thin layer activation (TLA) of surfaces. In this process, the copper rail surface is activated by 2.4 MeV protons creating a relatively thin (3 ..mu..m) layer sparsely seeded with a long lived zinc isotope. Monitoring the decay of the activated sample before and after a firing can detect surface wear of about 0.1 ..mu..m. Results from the RBS and TLA experiments on the BRL plasma driven railgun are described.

  12. Performance of prototypes for the PANDA barrel EMC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremer, D. A.; Eissner, T.; Drexler, P.; Moritz, M.; Novotny, R. W.; PANDA Collaboration

    2015-02-01

    The PANDA experiment will be part of the future Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) and aims for the study of strong interaction within the charm sector via antiproton proton collisions up to antiproton momenta of 15 GeV/c. Reflecting the variety of the physics program the PANDA detector is designed as a multi-purpose detector able to perform tracking, calorimetry and particle identification with nearly complete coverage of the solid angle. The Electromagnetic Calorimeter (EMC) contained inside its Target Spectrometer is based on cooled PbWO4 scintillator crystals. In order to ensure an excellent performance throughout the large dynamic range of photon/electron energies ranging from a few MeV up to 15 GeV an extensive prototyping phase is mandatory. This contribution describes the measured response of the EMC barrel part prototype PROTO60 at the largest design energy to secondary beams provided by the SPS at CERN. In addition to PROTO60 a tracking station was deployed, providing precise position information of the 15 GeV/c positrons. For calibration purposes a 150 GeV/c muon beam and cosmic radiation, in combination with estimations from GEANT4 simulations were used. The obtained performance concerning energy, position and time information is presented.

  13. Supramolecular barrels from amphiphilic rigid-flexible macrocycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Won-Young; Ahn, Jong-Hyun; Yoo, Yong-Sik; Oh, Nam-Keun; Lee, Myongsoo

    2005-05-01

    Precise control of supramolecular objects requires the rational design of molecular components, because the information determining their specific assembly should be encoded in their molecular architecture. In this context, diverse self-assembling molecules including liquid crystals, dendrimers, block copolymers, hydrogen-bonded complexes and rigid macrocycles are being created as a means of manipulating supramolecular structure. Incorporation of a stiff rod-like building block into an amphiphilic molecular architecture leads to another class of self-assembling molecules. Aggregation of rod building blocks can generate various nanoscale objects including bundles, ribbons, tubules and vesicles, depending on the molecular structure and/or the presence of a selective solvent. We present here an unusual example of supramolecular barrels in the solid and in aqueous solution, based on the self-assembly of amphiphilic rigid-flexible macrocycles driven by non-covalent interactions. Preliminary experiments show that these amphiphilic macrocycles are membrane-active. The amphiphilic macrocycles might thus lead to an excellent model system for exploring biological processes in supramolecular materials.

  14. First ATLAS Barrel Toroid coil casing arrives at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    The first of eight 25-metre long coil casings for the ATLAS experiment's barrel toroid magnet system arrived at CERN on Saturday 2 March by road from Heidelberg. This structure will be part of the largest superconducting toroid magnet ever made.   The first coil casing for the toroidal magnets of Atlas arrives at Building 180. This is the start of an enormous three-dimensional jigsaw puzzle. Each of the eight sets of double pancake coils will be housed inside aluminium coil casings, which in turn will be held inside a stainless steel vacuum vessel. A huge construction, the casing that arrived at CERN measures 25 metres in length and 5 metres in width. It weighs 20 tones. And this is just the beginning of the toroid jigsaw: by early April a batch of four double pancake coils, which altogether weighs 65 tones, will arrive from Ansaldo in Italy. The first vacuum vessel will also be arriving from Felguera in Spain this month. It will take about two years for all these 25 m long structures of casings, coils a...

  15. Second Barrel Toroid Coil Installed in ATLAS Cavern

    CERN Multimedia

    Tappern, G.

    The second barrel toroid coil was lowered into the ATLAS Cavern on Friday, 26 November. The operation takes approximately five hours of precision crane and winch operations. Before lowering, several checks are made to ensure that no loose items have been left on the coil which would fall during the lowering down the shaft. This is a very difficult, but very important check, with the first coil in position, and partly below the shaft. After changing the winch tooling on Wednesday December 1st, the coil was lifted, rotated and placed into the feet. The girders which support the coil and the Z direction stops had all been pre-set before putting the coil in the feet. The angle is controlled by an inclinometer. When the final adjustments of position have been made, which will locate the coils at the plus/minus two mm level, the connection beams (voussoirs and struts) will be put in place; this requires a complex shimming procedure. This will lock together the two coils into the feet and forms the foundation for th...

  16. Study of the EM Barrel Module 0 with muons

    CERN Document Server

    Camard, A; Laforge, B; Schwemling, P

    2001-01-01

    Muons contaminating the high energy electron beam have been used to study the EM barrel module~0 response to ''minimum ionising'' particles. The ratio between the muon signal and the noise reaches 7.11$\\pm$0.07 when only the middle sampling information are used and reconstructed with an optimal filtering method. The latter increases this ratio by a factor 1.8 with respect to a raw conversion between ADC counts and GeV. From an absolute energy measurement, a $\\left( \\frac{\\mathrm{e}}{\\mathrm{\\mu}} \\right)$ ratio of $0.75\\pm0.02$ is derived. As muons deposit their energy in a smaller cluster than the electrons, they can provide cleaner or complementary information on the calorimeter. For example, the modulation of a cell response with~$\\Phi$ is larger than with electrons, the modulation in the latter case being smoothed out by the transverse size of the electromagnetic showers. Unlike electrons, muons provide also a mean to test the crosstalk measurements done with calibration runs. A good agreement is found. A...

  17. Centrifugal barrel polishing of 1.3 GHz Nb cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) cavities are the key components of particle accelerators such as the European X-ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL, under construction) and the planned future International Linear Collider (ILC). Steady progress in surface treatment techniques of SRF cavities in both the achievable quality factor Q and the accelerating electric field Eacc makes new accelerators and ambitious projects feasible. One of the alternative surface preparation techniques which is actually being explored is centrifugal barrel polishing (CBP) pioneered at KEK in Japan in mid-nineties by T. Hiuchi et al. CBP is a mechanical polishing of cavities and results in around 10 x smaller surface roughness and mirror-like surface as compared to chemistry alone. Q and Eacc are expected to be at least as high as for chemically treated cavities. CBP eliminates the bulk chemistry and has the potential to completely replace the chemistry. The University of Hamburg is installing a CBP machine to study it as a cavity preparation and repair technique for 9-cell 1.3 GHz SRF cavities at the Deutsche Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY). The setup and first commissioning tests will be presented and discussed.

  18. Barrel Toroid fully charged to nominal field, and it works!

    CERN Multimedia

    Herman ten Kate

    After a few weeks of testing up to intermediate currents, finally, on Thursday evening November 9, the current in the Barrel Toroid was pushed up to its nominal value of 20500 A and even 500 A beyond this value to prove that we have some margin. It went surprisingly well. Of course, the 8 coils forming the toroid were already tested individually at the surface but still, some surprise may have come from those parts added to the toroid in the cavern for the first time like the 8 cryoring sections linking the coils as well as the valve box at the bottom in sector 13 regulating the helium flow or the current lead cryostat on the top in sector 5. No training quenches, nothing to worry about, and the test was concluded with a fast dump triggered at 00:40 in the very early morning of November 10. (left) The toroid current during the evening and night of November 9. (right) The test crew oscillated between fear and hope while looking at the control panels as the current approached 21kA. Big relief was in the...

  19. Modal analysis of an ECC duct for APR+ reactor barrel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advanced Power Reactor Plus (APR+) provides four Direct Vessel Injection (DVI) ducts on the reactor barrel to enhance the performance of Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS). Several studies on safety analysis have verified the excellent performance of the DVI duct. In this study, from the viewpoint of mechanical integrity, modal analyses of two full-scaled DVI ducts have been presented; both numerical analysis and modal tests have been performed in air and water. It was found that the numerical simulation and modal test coincide with each other. The DVI duct is a thin shell of 5 mm thickness, so that harmonic responses to RCP blade passing frequencies should be checked. The dominant passing frequencies are known to be 20, 40, 60, 120 and 240 Hz. In addition, an interesting thing in this study is that added mass effect by coolant seems to be so significant that the natural frequency of the ducts under water could be considerably low as compared with those in air; the natural frequency under water is 60 % lower than that in air. (author)

  20. High Stimulus-Related Information in Barrel Cortex Inhibitory Interneurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Reyes-Puerta

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The manner in which populations of inhibitory (INH and excitatory (EXC neocortical neurons collectively encode stimulus-related information is a fundamental, yet still unresolved question. Here we address this question by simultaneously recording with large-scale multi-electrode arrays (of up to 128 channels the activity of cell ensembles (of up to 74 neurons distributed along all layers of 3-4 neighboring cortical columns in the anesthetized adult rat somatosensory barrel cortex in vivo. Using two different whisker stimulus modalities (location and frequency we show that individual INH neurons--classified as such according to their distinct extracellular spike waveforms--discriminate better between restricted sets of stimuli (≤6 stimulus classes than EXC neurons in granular and infra-granular layers. We also demonstrate that ensembles of INH cells jointly provide as much information about such stimuli as comparable ensembles containing the ~20% most informative EXC neurons, however presenting less information redundancy - a result which was consistent when applying both theoretical information measurements and linear discriminant analysis classifiers. These results suggest that a consortium of INH neurons dominates the information conveyed to the neocortical network, thereby efficiently processing incoming sensory activity. This conclusion extends our view on the role of the inhibitory system to orchestrate cortical activity.

  1. Cryogenic Characteristics of the ATLAS Barrel Toroid Superconducting Magnet

    CERN Document Server

    Pengo, R; Delruelle, N; Pezzetti, M; Pirotte, O; Passardi, Giorgio; Dudarev, A; ten Kate, H

    2008-01-01

    ATLAS, one of the experiments of the LHC accelerator under commissioning at CERN, is equipped with a large superconducting magnet the Barrel Toroid (BT) that has been tested at nominal current (20500 A). The BT is composed of eight race-track superconducting coils (each one weights about 45 tons) forming the biggest air core toroidal magnet ever built. By means of a large throughput centrifugal pump, a forced flow (about 10 liter/second at 4.5 K) provides the indirect cooling of the coils in parallel. The paper describes the results of the measurements carried out on the complete cryogenic system assembled in the ATLAS cavern situated 100 m below the ground level. The measurements include, among other ones, the static heat loads, i.e., with no or constant current in the magnet, and the dynamic ones, since additional heat losses are produced, during the current ramp-up or slow dump, by eddy currents induced on the coil casing.

  2. Modeling the hydrodynamics of phloem sieve plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaare Hartvig Jensen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Sieve plates have an enormous impact on the efficiency of the phloem vascular system of plants, responsible for the distribution of photosynthetic products. These thin plates, which separate neighboring phloem cells, are perforated by a large number of tiny sieve pores and are believed to play a crucial role in protecting the phloem sap from intruding animals by blocking flow when the phloem cell is damaged. The resistance to the flow of viscous sap in the phloem vascular system is strongly affected by the presence of the sieve plates, but the hydrodynamics of the flow through them remains poorly understood. We propose a theoretical model for quantifying the effect of sieve plates on the phloem in the plant, thus unifying and improving previous work in the field. Numerical simulations of the flow in real and idealized phloem channels verify our model, and anatomical data from 19 plant species are investigated. We find that the sieve plate resistance is correlated to the cell lumen resistance, and that the sieve plate and the lumen contribute almost equally to the total hydraulic resistance of the phloem translocation pathway.

  3. Vinten exposure measurements of the Salem Unit 1 lower core barrel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On November 6, 1987, the lower core barrel of Salem Unit I was removed from the reactor vessel and placed in the refueling pool as part of the unit's ten year inspection program. This paper deals with the supporting actions of the dosimetry group of PSE ampersand G. Prior to the move of the lower core barrel, Westinghouse predicted dose rates at one foot in water as a function of axial distance along the core barrel. This prediction was used in planning the health physics requirements associated with the move. It was agreed that a measurement of the axial dose rates would either lend confidence to the predictions or identify weaknesses in them

  4. Syria: a waited petroleum production of 600 000 barrels per day for the end of 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the reserves of petroleum deposits and gives statistical data on the production of the main oil fields in Syria. Petroleum production has grown from 160000 barrels per day in 1984 to 515000 barrels per day in 1992 and a production at a level of 600000 barrels per day is waited in 1993. Several petroleum companies, operating in Syria, have contributed to this rise, especially Al-Furat Petroleum Company (AFPC), joint venture between Syrian Petroleum Company (SPC) and Pecten/Shell/Deminex, followed by Deiz Ezzor Petroleum Company (DEZPC), association between the french company Elf Aquitaine and SPC. 2 tabs

  5. Analysis and control of welding deformation in nuclear reactor core barrel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Core barrel is an important part in React Vessel Internals(RVI) and the design of tolerance is quite strict. Firstly, the paper analyses the reasons of welding deformation in core barrel and with the reasons, the paper presents control measures to solve welding deformation. Then, combining the severe deformation in the welding of core barrel in Qinshan Nuclear Power Phase II extension Project Reactor no.3 unit, the paper supply control measures to the no.4 unit and the result of weld satisfy the requirements and the result satisfy design requirement. (authors)

  6. Effects of passive films on corrosion resistance of uncoated SS316L bipolar plates for proton exchange membrane fuel cell application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ying; Ning, Xiaohui; Tang, Hongsheng; Guo, Liejin; Liu, Hongtan

    2014-11-01

    The effects of passive films on the corrosion behaviors of uncoated SS316L in anode and cathode environments of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) are studied. Potentiodynamic and potentiostatic polarizations are employed to study the corrosion behavior; Mott-Schottky measurements are used to characterize the semiconductor properties of passive films; X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses are used to identify the compositions and the depth profiles of passive films. The passive films formed in the PEMFC anode and cathode environments under corresponding conditions both behave as n-type semiconductor. The passive film formed in the anode environment has a single-layer structure, Cr is the major element (Cr/Fe atomic ratio > 1), and the Cr/Fe atomic ratio decreases from the surface to the bulk; while the passive film formed in the PEMFC cathode environment has a bi-layer structure, Fe is the major element (Cr/Fe atomic ratio < 0.5), and in the external layer of the bi-layer structure Fe content increases rapidly and gradually in the internal layer. SS316L shows better corrosion resistance owing to both the high content of Cr oxide in the passive film and low band bending in normal PEMFC anode environments.

  7. Degradation of SS316L bipolar plates in simulated fuel cell environment: Corrosion rate, barrier film formation kinetics and contact resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadias, Dionissios D.; Ahluwalia, Rajesh K.; Thomson, Jeffery K.; Meyer, Harry M.; Brady, Michael P.; Wang, Heli; Turner, John A.; Mukundan, Rangachary; Borup, Rod

    2015-01-01

    A potentiostatic polarization method is used to evaluate the corrosion behavior of SS316L in simulated anode and cathode environments of polymer electrolyte fuel cells. A passive barrier oxide film is observed to form and reach steady state within ∼10 h of polarization, after which time the total ion release rates are low and nearly constant at ∼0.4 μg cm-2 h-1 for all potentials investigated. The equilibrium film thickness, however, is a function of the applied potential. The main ionic species dissolved in the liquid are predominately Fe followed by Ni, that account for >90% of the steady-state corrosion current. The dissolution rate of Cr is low but increases systematically at potentials higher than 0.8 V. The experimental ion release rates can be correlated with a point defect model using a single set of parameters over a broad range of potentials (0.2-1 V) on the cathode side. The interfacial contact resistance measured after 48 h of polarization is observed to increase with increase in applied potential and can be empirically correlated with applied load and oxide film thickness. The oxide film is substantially thicker at 1.5 V possibly because of alteration in film composition to Fe-rich as indicated by XPS data.

  8. Effects of passive films on corrosion resistance of uncoated SS316L bipolar plates for proton exchange membrane fuel cell application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The passive film formed at PEMFC anode side shows a single layer structure. • The passive film formed at PEMFC cathode side shows a bi-layer structure. • The Cr/Fe atomic ratios in passive films formed at different side are different. • The passive films behave as n-type semiconductor at both anode and cathode sides. • The anode/cathode potential is positive than the flatband potential of passive film. - Abstract: The effects of passive films on the corrosion behaviors of uncoated SS316L in anode and cathode environments of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) are studied. Potentiodynamic and potentiostatic polarizations are employed to study the corrosion behavior; Mott-Schottky measurements are used to characterize the semiconductor properties of passive films; X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses are used to identify the compositions and the depth profiles of passive films. The passive films formed in the PEMFC anode and cathode environments under corresponding conditions both behave as n-type semiconductor. The passive film formed in the anode environment has a single-layer structure, Cr is the major element (Cr/Fe atomic ratio > 1), and the Cr/Fe atomic ratio decreases from the surface to the bulk; while the passive film formed in the PEMFC cathode environment has a bi-layer structure, Fe is the major element (Cr/Fe atomic ratio < 0.5), and in the external layer of the bi-layer structure Fe content increases rapidly and gradually in the internal layer. SS316L shows better corrosion resistance owing to both the high content of Cr oxide in the passive film and low band bending in normal PEMFC anode environments

  9. 混凝土输送泵眼睛板耐磨堆焊焊条的研究%Research on Wear Resistant Surfacing Welding Electrode for Concrete Pump Eye Plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宇雷; 闵庆凯

    2013-01-01

    A wear resistant surfacing welding electrode for concrete pump eye plate and the processing property were studied. The results show that the wear resistant and hardness can greatly improve after adding a certain percentage of graphite into the electrode coating. The detachability of the slag on the electrode is easy and the slag inclusion is less, the welding seam has only less tiny slag. So the multi-weld layer and multi-weld seam does not need to remove the slag. Such not only ensure the efficiency of the parts, but also extend its useful life. The excellent economic benefits were obtained ,which can realize the expected effect.%主要阐述了应用于混凝土输送泵眼睛板耐磨堆焊焊条的研究.实验中通过对其堆焊焊条工艺性能的研究,得出了在堆焊焊条的药皮中,添加一定量的石墨元素后,堆焊金属的焊缝处所具有的耐磨性和硬度都能够大幅显著提升,夹渣少易脱渣,同时焊道处仅有少量微渣存在,多道多层堆焊时就不必清渣,这样既能保证零件的工作效率,又能延长其使用寿命,还能取得较好的经济效益,达到了预期效果.

  10. Structure of Rhodococcus equi virulence-associated protein B (VapB) reveals an eight-stranded antiparallel β-barrel consisting of two Greek-key motifs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structure of VapB, a member of the Vap protein family that is involved in virulence of the bacterial pathogen R. equi, was determined by SAD phasing and reveals an eight-stranded antiparallel β-barrel similar to avidin, suggestive of a binding function. Made up of two Greek-key motifs, the topology of VapB is unusual or even unique. Members of the virulence-associated protein (Vap) family from the pathogen Rhodococcus equi regulate virulence in an unknown manner. They do not share recognizable sequence homology with any protein of known structure. VapB and VapA are normally associated with isolates from pigs and horses, respectively. To contribute to a molecular understanding of Vap function, the crystal structure of a protease-resistant VapB fragment was determined at 1.4 Å resolution. The structure was solved by SAD phasing employing the anomalous signal of one endogenous S atom and two bound Co ions with low occupancy. VapB is an eight-stranded antiparallel β-barrel with a single helix. Structural similarity to avidins suggests a potential binding function. Unlike other eight- or ten-stranded β-barrels found in avidins, bacterial outer membrane proteins, fatty-acid-binding proteins and lysozyme inhibitors, Vaps do not have a next-neighbour arrangement but consist of two Greek-key motifs with strand order 41238567, suggesting an unusual or even unique topology

  11. Structure of Rhodococcus equi virulence-associated protein B (VapB) reveals an eight-stranded antiparallel β-barrel consisting of two Greek-key motifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geerds, Christina [Bielefeld University, Universitaetsstrasse 25, 33615 Bielefeld (Germany); Wohlmann, Jens; Haas, Albert [University of Bonn, Ulrich-Haberland Strasse 61a, 53121 Bonn (Germany); Niemann, Hartmut H., E-mail: hartmut.niemann@uni-bielefeld.de [Bielefeld University, Universitaetsstrasse 25, 33615 Bielefeld (Germany)

    2014-06-18

    The structure of VapB, a member of the Vap protein family that is involved in virulence of the bacterial pathogen R. equi, was determined by SAD phasing and reveals an eight-stranded antiparallel β-barrel similar to avidin, suggestive of a binding function. Made up of two Greek-key motifs, the topology of VapB is unusual or even unique. Members of the virulence-associated protein (Vap) family from the pathogen Rhodococcus equi regulate virulence in an unknown manner. They do not share recognizable sequence homology with any protein of known structure. VapB and VapA are normally associated with isolates from pigs and horses, respectively. To contribute to a molecular understanding of Vap function, the crystal structure of a protease-resistant VapB fragment was determined at 1.4 Å resolution. The structure was solved by SAD phasing employing the anomalous signal of one endogenous S atom and two bound Co ions with low occupancy. VapB is an eight-stranded antiparallel β-barrel with a single helix. Structural similarity to avidins suggests a potential binding function. Unlike other eight- or ten-stranded β-barrels found in avidins, bacterial outer membrane proteins, fatty-acid-binding proteins and lysozyme inhibitors, Vaps do not have a next-neighbour arrangement but consist of two Greek-key motifs with strand order 41238567, suggesting an unusual or even unique topology.

  12. Data Acquisition and Management in the Calibration Processes of the CMS Barrel Muon Alignment System

    CERN Document Server

    Székely, Géza; Bencze, Gy L; Béni, N; Imrek, J; Molnár, J; Novák, D; Raics, P; Szabó, Z

    2007-01-01

    In order to be able to match correctly the track elements produced by a muon in the Tracker and the Muon System of the CMS experiment [1] the mutual alignment precision between the Tracker and the Barrel Muon System must be no worse than 100-400 micrometers depending on the radial distance of the muon chambers from the Tracker. To fulfill this requirement an alignment system had to be designed. This system contains subsystems for determining the positions of the barrel and endcap chambers while a third one connects these two to the Tracker. Since the Barrel muon chambers are embedded into the magnet yoke of the experiment a nonconventional alignment method had to be developed. In this paper we restrict ourselves to the Barrel Alignment System and the calibration methods of its components.

  13. Effects of Dimethyl Sulfoxide on Neuronal Response Characteristics in Deep Layers of Rat Barrel Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani, Narjes; Mohammadi, Elham; Allahtavakoli, Mohammad; Shamsizadeh, Ali; Roohbakhsh, Ali; Haghparast, Abbas

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is a chemical often used as a solvent for water-insoluble drugs. In this study, we evaluated the effect of intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of DMSO on neural response characteristics (in 1200–1500 μm depth) of the rat barrel cortex. Methods: DMSO solution was prepared in 10% v/v concentration and injected into the lateral ventricle of rats. Neuronal spontaneous activity and neuronal responses to deflection of the principal whisker (PW) and adjacent whisker (AW) were recorded in barrel cortex. A condition test ratio (CTR) was used to measure inhibitory receptive fields in barrel cortex. Results: The results showed that both PW and AW evoked ON and OFF responses, neuronal spontaneous activity and inhibitory receptive fields did not change following ICV administration of DMSO. Conclusion: Results of this study suggest that acute ICV administration of 10% DMSO did not modulate the electrophysiological characteristics of neurons in the l deep ayers of rat barrel cortex.

  14. Insertion of the CMS coil into the barrel yoke on 14 September 2005

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2005-01-01

    Insertion of the CMS coil into the barrel yoke on 14 September 2005. The pictures have been taken in the CMS experimental hall SX5 in Cessy, neighbouring France. The second picture shows the insertion of the Inner Vacuum Tank.

  15. A Front-End Readout Architecture for the CMS Barrel Muon Detector: A Feasibility Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A feasibility study of a possible architecture for the CMS barrel muon detector readout electronics is presented. some aspects of system reliability are discussed. Values for the required FIFO's to store data during the first level trigger latency are given

  16. De novo design of a four-fold symmetric TIM-barrel protein with atomic-level accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmeggiani, Fabio; Velasco, D. Alejandro Fernandez; Höcker, Birte; Baker, David

    2015-01-01

    Despite efforts for over 25 years, de novo protein design has not succeeded in achieving the TIM-barrel fold. Here we describe the computational design of 4-fold symmetrical (β/α)8-barrels guided by geometrical and chemical principles. Experimental characterization of 33 designs revealed the importance of sidechain-backbone hydrogen bonding for defining the strand register between repeat units. The X-ray crystal structure of a designed thermostable 184-residue protein is nearly identical with the designed TIM-barrel model. PSI-BLAST searches do not identify sequence similarities to known TIM-barrel proteins, and sensitive profile-profile searches indicate that the design sequence is distant from other naturally occurring TIM-barrel superfamilies, suggesting that Nature has only sampled a subset of the sequence space available to the TIM-barrel fold. The ability to de novo design TIM-barrels opens new possibilities for custom-made enzymes. PMID:26595462

  17. Computer Aided Design and Stress Analysis of Nose Landing Gear Barrel (NLGB)

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjay Kumar Sardiwal; D. Harika Chowdary

    2015-01-01

    During the conceptual design phase of aircraft the integration of undercarriage system is very important and it is often difficult to achieve on the first time. The nose wheel landing gear preferred configurations for light naval trainer aircraft. The main objective of this project is to improve the static strength criteria and fatigue life of Nose Landing Gear Barrel considered. The investigations includes preliminary design layout for Nose Landing Gear Barrel and initial sizing ...

  18. The composite barrel of retail prices and its relationship to crude oil prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper challenges assumptions about the relationship between refinery gate prices, retail prices paid by consumers and crude oil prices. The analysis presented here considers their relationship within the context of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries' (OPEC's) composite barrel statistics, which includes taxes and other government policy effects on prices. Speed of adjustment and retail price response to taxes are analysed with respect to crude import prices. OPEC's composite barrel is explained and evaluated. Test results are summarized. (UK)

  19. On estimating the effect of control element relative vibrations during anomalous motions of the reactor barrel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the motivation by a theoretical paper, the fraction δ arising additionally in ex-core neutron flux fluctuations synchronously to the barrel motion due to the control element motion relative to the core is estimated from experimental data on anomalous core barrel motions at the WWER-440 type reactor. The experimental result of δ ∼ 0.25 confirms the numerical values obtained by theoretical estimation. (author)

  20. Ectopic anus with barrel gun perineum rare type of anorectal anomaly

    OpenAIRE

    Chamaria, Komal; Shetty, Roshan

    2013-01-01

    Perineal ectopic anus in female infants is not a very uncommon congenital anorectal anomaly with opening into the low vaginal or vulvar region. However, ectopic anus with barrel gun perineum is a less common variety. Patients generally present with frequent history of constipation, but may seek medical help for just aesthetic reasons. We present here one such case of an asymptomatic seven years old female with the rare form of anterior ectopic anus with barrel gun perineum without any fistulo...

  1. CNOOC to Boost Oil Output to 290 Million Barrels in 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ China National Offshore Oil Company Limited (CNOOC Limited)announced in early February that its targeted net production volume in 2010 is between 275 million and 290 million barrels ofoil equivalent(BOE).In its 2010 business strategy and development plan recently released to the public the offshore oil giant said the production goal was set given a West Texas Intermediate (WTI)oil price of US $75 per barrel in 2010.

  2. Modeling two-phase flow in barrels of weapons with combined charges

    OpenAIRE

    Nebojša P. Hristov; Slobodan R. Savić

    2011-01-01

    The processes occurring during the firing within barrels of weapons with combined charges are described aiming at the improvement of fire power of existing weapons and the design of new ones. The firing process simulation enables the optimization of gunpowders. The analysis of the obtained results helps in choosing the best combination of input-output parameters for the highest muzzle velocity possible while keeping powder gas maximum pressures inside the barrel at the lowest possible level.

  3. Modeling two-phase flow in barrels of weapons with combined charges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nebojša P. Hristov

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The processes occurring during the firing within barrels of weapons with combined charges are described aiming at the improvement of fire power of existing weapons and the design of new ones. The firing process simulation enables the optimization of gunpowders. The analysis of the obtained results helps in choosing the best combination of input-output parameters for the highest muzzle velocity possible while keeping powder gas maximum pressures inside the barrel at the lowest possible level.

  4. The serotonin reuptake inhibitor citalopram suppresses activity in the neonatal rat barrel cortex in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmetshina, Dinara; Zakharov, Andrei; Vinokurova, Daria; Nasretdinov, Azat; Valeeva, Guzel; Khazipov, Roustem

    2016-06-01

    Inhibition of serotonin uptake, which causes an increase in extracellular serotonin levels, disrupts the development of thalamocortical barrel maps in neonatal rodents. Previous in vitro studies have suggested that the disruptive effect of excessive serotonin on barrel map formation involves a depression at thalamocortical synapses. However, the effects of serotonin uptake inhibitors on the early thalamocortical activity patterns in the developing barrel cortex in vivo remain largely unknown. Here, using extracellular recordings of the local field potentials and multiple unit activity (MUA) we explored the effects of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) citalopram (10-20mg/kg, intraperitoneally) on sensory evoked activity in the barrel cortex of neonatal (postnatal days P2-5) rats in vivo. We show that administration of citalopram suppresses the amplitude and prolongs the delay of the sensory evoked potentials, reduces the power and frequency of the early gamma oscillations, and suppresses sensory evoked and spontaneous neuronal firing. In the adolescent P21-29 animals, citalopram affected neither sensory evoked nor spontaneous activity in barrel cortex. We suggest that suppression of the early thalamocortical activity patterns contributes to the disruption of the barrel map development caused by SSRIs and other conditions elevating extracellular serotonin levels. PMID:27016034

  5. Evolutions of volatile sulfur compounds of Cabernet Sauvignon wines during aging in different oak barrels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Dong-Qing; Zheng, Xiao-Tian; Xu, Xiao-Qing; Wang, Yun-He; Duan, Chang-Qing; Liu, Yan-Lin

    2016-07-01

    The evolution of volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) in Cabernet Sauvignon wines from seven regions of China during maturation in oak barrels was investigated. The barrels were made of different wood grains (fine and medium) and toasting levels (light and medium). Twelve VSCs were quantified by GC/FPD, with dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and methionol exceeding their sensory thresholds. Most VSCs tended to decline during the aging, while DMS was found to increase. After one year aging, the levels of DMS, 2-methyltetrahy-drothiophen-3-one and sulfur-containing esters were lower in the wines aged in oak barrels than in stainless steel tanks. The wood grain and toasting level of oak barrels significantly influenced the concentration of S-methyl thioacetate and 2-methyltetrahy-drothiophen-3-one. This study reported the evolution of VSCs in wines during oak barrel aging for the first time and evaluated the influence of barrel types, which would provide wine-makers with references in making proposals about wine aging. PMID:26920290

  6. 燃料电池用钛双极板表面Cr/TiN/Ti复合涂层的导电性及耐蚀性能%Electrical Conductivity and Corrosion Resistance of Cr/TiN/Ti Composite Films Coated on Titanium Bipolar Plate for Fuel Cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付广艳; 戴世鑫; 牛云松; 于志明

    2011-01-01

    应用空心阴极离子镀工艺在质子交换膜燃料电池用钛双极板试样表面上沉积了总厚度约3pm的Cr/TiN/Ti纳米晶复合镀膜.测定了纳米晶复合镀膜钛板和裸钛板的接触电阻,采用极化曲线评价其在分别通入O2和H2的60℃,0.05mol/LH2SO4+2mg/LNaF溶液中的耐蚀性能.结果表明,镀膜钛板的接触电阻明显低于裸钛板,在1000N/cm^2的压力下镀膜试样的接触电阻值约为12mΩ·cm^2;在通入H2的情况下,Cr/TiN/Ti纳米晶复合镀膜钛板的维钝电流密度与裸钛板相比降低了一个数量级,耐腐蚀性能得到明显%Cr/TiN/Ti nanocrystalline composite fihns of about 3 μm were deposited on titanium bipolar plates for proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) by hollow cathode deposition (HCD) ion plating. The electrical contact resistance of Ti plate with and without the nanocrystalline films was tested respectively, and their electrochemical corrosion performance was evaluated in 0.05 mol/L H2SO4+2 mg/L NaF solutions bubbled with H2 or O2 at 60℃ by means of po larization measurements. The results show that the contact resistance of the coated Ti plate was obviously lower than that of bare Ti plate, with about 12 mQ.cm2 under a compressive presure 1000 N/cm2. The passivation current density of the coated Ti plate was one order of magnitude smaller than that of the bare Ti plate under the condition of charging hydrogen, suggesting that the corrosion resistance of titanium bipolar plate is greatly improved by the deposition of Cr/TiN/Ti nanocrystalline composite films.

  7. Limb lengthening over plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruta Kulkarni

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Lengthening over a plate allows early removal of external fixator and eliminates the risk of creating deep intramedullary infection as with lengthening over nail. Lengthening over plate is also applicable to children with open physis.

  8. Create Your Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday Meal ... Healthy Diet Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook ...

  9. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Yourself Fundraising & Local Events Matching Gift Fundraising Events Donate Stocks Give by ... Create Your Plate Create Your Plate is a simple and effective way to manage your blood glucose levels and lose weight. With this method, ...

  10. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... plates! Snap a photo and share it to social media with #CreateYourPlate . See the full gallery of ... with a donation in their name. Give to support a cure. Give Today We Can Help - we- ...

  11. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... plates! Snap a photo and share it to social media with #CreateYourPlate . See the full gallery of ... Congress Research & Practice We Are Research Leaders We Support Your Doctor Student Resources Patient Access to Research ...

  12. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday Meal ... Healthy Diet Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook ...

  13. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... plates! Snap a photo and share it to social media with #CreateYourPlate . See the full gallery of ... you have an easy portion control solution that works. Last Reviewed: October 8, 2015 Last Edited: October ...

  14. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook ... Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook with Heart- ...

  15. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Plate It's simple and effective for both managing diabetes and losing weight. Creating your plate lets ... Blog Online Community Site Menu Are You at Risk? Diagnosis Lower Your Risk Risk Test Alert Day ...

  16. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... seven simple steps . We want to see your real-life healthy plates! Snap a photo and share ... filled with non-starchy vegetables and that your options are endless. Create Your Plate! Click on the ...

  17. Inevitability of Plate Tectonics on Super-Earths

    CERN Document Server

    Valencia, Diana; Sasselov, Dimitar D

    2007-01-01

    The recent discovery of super-Earths (masses less or equal to 10 earth-masses) has initiated a discussion about conditions for habitable worlds. Among these is the mode of convection, which influences a planet's thermal evolution and surface conditions. On Earth, plate tectonics has been proposed as a necessary condition for life. Here we show, that super-Earths will also have plate tectonics. We demonstrate that as planetary mass increases, the shear stress available to overcome resistance to plate motion increases while the plate thickness decreases, thereby enhancing plate weakness. These effects contribute favorably to the subduction of the lithosphere, an essential component of plate tectonics. Moreover, uncertainties in achieving plate tectonics in the one earth-mass regime disappear as mass increases: super-Earths, even if dry, will exhibit plate tectonic behaviour.

  18. Vibration of plates

    CERN Document Server

    Chakraverty, Snehashish

    2008-01-01

    Plates are integral parts of most engineering structures and their vibration analysis is required for safe design. This work provides a comprehensive introduction to vibration theory and analysis of two-dimensional plates. It offers information on vibration problems along with a discussion of various plate geometries and boundary conditions.

  19. MyPlate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... MyPlate What Is MyPlate? Fruits All About the Fruit Group Nutrients and Health Benefits Tips to Help You Eat Fruits Food ... lives. What Is MyPlate? Fruits All About the Fruit Group Nutrients and Health Benefits Tips to Help You Eat Fruits Food ...

  20. Silicon-micromachined microchannel plates

    CERN Document Server

    Beetz, C P; Steinbeck, J; Lemieux, B; Winn, D R

    2000-01-01

    Microchannel plates (MCP) fabricated from standard silicon wafer substrates using a novel silicon micromachining process, together with standard silicon photolithographic process steps, are described. The resulting SiMCP microchannels have dimensions of approx 0.5 to approx 25 mu m, with aspect ratios up to 300, and have the dimensional precision and absence of interstitial defects characteristic of photolithographic processing, compatible with positional matching to silicon electronics readouts. The open channel areal fraction and detection efficiency may exceed 90% on plates up to 300 mm in diameter. The resulting silicon substrates can be converted entirely to amorphous quartz (qMCP). The strip resistance and secondary emission are developed by controlled depositions of thin films, at temperatures up to 1200 deg. C, also compatible with high-temperature brazing, and can be essentially hydrogen, water and radionuclide-free. Novel secondary emitters and cesiated photocathodes can be high-temperature deposite...

  1. Ion beams replace chrome plating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metal ion implantation is the process of altering surface properties by bombarding with high-energy metal ions. Because the process does not produce a coating, dimensions and bulk properties of the part remain unchanged, and implanted surfaces have no problems with adhesion, residual stress, or poor microstructure. Implanted surfaces can provide wear and/or corrosion resistance comparable with, or superior to, chrome plating. Furthermore, it is a relatively low-temperature process, which enables treatment of materials such as plastics, aluminum, and low-alloy steel. Furthermore, the performance of coatings can be improved by bombarding with ions during or after the coating process. Specifically, high-energy ions applied during deposition have been shown to reduce the required temperature for physical vapor deposition (PVD) systems, overcoming one of the major obstacles to replacing chromium plating with PVD coatings. This article will review the latest advances in metal-ion implantation equipment, with particular reference to economics and applications

  2. Unusual mode of firearm injury from the recoiled rear end of a gun barrel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, A; Malla, G; Joshi, S; Kumar, A; Koirala, S

    2008-09-01

    Atypical gunshot wounds are caused by a diverse set of parameters relating to weapons and ammunition. We report a previously-unreported and atypical mode of gunshot wound produced by a detached rear end of the barrel of a gun following accidental gun fire, and discuss the difficulties in the management. A 36-year-old man presented to the emergency department with an alleged history of injury on the forehead with the rear end of a gun barrel following accidental gunfire while cleaning the nozzle. Since the time of injury, the patient was in an altered sensorium and had weakness on the right side of the body. There was minimal but continuous bleeding from the wound, with extrusion of brain matter. Skull radiograph showed that the rear end of the barrel had entered the left frontal bone, with associated depressed fracture of the frontal bone. The patient underwent a bicoronal, bifrontal craniotomy with a T-shaped extension towards the barrel to facilitate the reflection of the scalp flap and to avoid any movement of the barrel as it might further injure the brain. Necrotic brain, dura and bone pieces were removed. The patient was doing well at follow-up except for mild residual motor deficits. This case illustrates that while working with limited facilities, particularly in underdeveloped countries, a careful clinical assessment, interpretation of available images and a judicious operative approach can help to save the patient. PMID:18830529

  3. Conceptual design report for the SDC barrel and intermediate muon detectors based on a jet-type drift chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose a jet-type drift chamber for the barrel and intermediate muon detectors of SDC. The chamber system consists of large multiwire drift chambers having a simple box-type frame structure: 2. 5 x 0.4 m2 in cross section and maximum 9 m in length. A chamber module consists of double layers of small jet cells. The drift cell is composed of a wire plane, including 3 sense wires, and cathode plates parallel to the wire plane. The two layers in a chamber are staggered to each other by half a cell width. The jet cell is tilted such that its principle axis points to the interaction point. Such an arrangement, together with a constant drift velocity of the jet cell, allows us to design a simple and powerful trigger system for high momentum muons utilizing a drift time sum between a pair of staggered cells. The multi-hit capability will be helpful to distinguish high momentum muon tracks from associated electromagnetic debris as has been demonstrated by the Fermilab beam test T816. The maximum drift time fulfills the SDC requirement. A preliminary FEM analysis of the chamber module verified the excellent structural stiffness. It makes the support structure and the alignment system relatively simple. These features will reduce the total cost as well as ensure a good performance of the chamber system. (J.P.N.)

  4. Modeling the hydrodynamics of Phloem sieve plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kaare Hartvig; Mullendore, Daniel Leroy; Holbrook, Noel Michele;

    2012-01-01

    Sieve plates have an enormous impact on the efficiency of the phloem vascular system of plants, responsible for the distribution of photosynthetic products. These thin plates, which separate neighboring phloem cells, are perforated by a large number of tiny sieve pores and are believed to play a...... crucial role in protecting the phloem sap from intruding animals by blocking flow when the phloem cell is damaged. The resistance to the flow of viscous sap in the phloem vascular system is strongly affected by the presence of the sieve plates, but the hydrodynamics of the flow through them remains poorly...... understood. We propose a theoretical model for quantifying the effect of sieve plates on the phloem in the plant, thus unifying and improving previous work in the field. Numerical simulations of the flow in real and idealized phloem channels verify our model, and anatomical data from 19 plant species are...

  5. CHANGES IN VOLATILE COMPOSITION AND SENSORY PROPERTIES OF VUGAVA WINES AGED IN CROATIA OAK BARRELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanka HERJAVEC

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Vugava musts were fermented in medium-toasted Croatian barrique barrels (225 L made from Quercus petrea and Q. robur oak wood. The oak species used in this research infl uenced the specifi c change of the aroma structure of Vugava wines. During the age period the increase in the concentration of cis and trans oaklactons, guaiacol, eugenol, furfural and 5-methylfurfural was noted. Wines fermented and aged in Q. petrea barrels have higher concentrations of most volatile phenols compared to wines from Q. robur oak wood. From the organoleptic point of view this study suggested that fermentation and on the lees ageing production method in Croatian oak barrels positively infl uenced the quality of Vugava wines where best results were achieved by use of Q. petrea oak wood.

  6. Design and fabrication of an advanced, lightweight, high stiffness, railgun barrel concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An advanced lightweight and high stiffness railgun barrel design and incorporates several new design features and advanced materials is being developed by SPARTA, Inc. The program is sponsored by the U.S. Army Armament Research, Development, and Engineering Center ARDEC and by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). The railgun is 7 m long and has a 90 mm round bore. It is designed to accommodate both solid and plasma armatures. Muzzle energies are expected in the range of 9 to 15 MJ. Analysis and final design has been completed and the barrel and other railgun subassemblies are in the fabrication stage at SPARTA, Inc. in San Diego, California. Initial testing will be conducted at Maxwell Laboratories Green Farm facility in September 1990 and will subsequently be shipped to the ARDEC Railgun Laboratory in October 1990 for full power operation and testing. This paper discusses the design features and fabrication approaches for this high performance, lightweight railgun barrel system

  7. 电镀Zn-Ni合金镀层结构及耐蚀性能研究%Study on Microstructure and Corrosion Resistance of Alkaline Zn-Ni Alloy Plating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓东; 聂朝胤; 赵洋; 聂燕中

    2015-01-01

    在一种Zn‐Ni合金碱性电镀体系中,应用电化学沉积法在304不锈钢表面快速制备了Zn‐Ni合金镀层,采用扫描电子显微镜、X射线衍射仪和电化学工作站,对Zn‐Ni合金镀层及Zn镀层的微观结构及耐蚀性能进行了对比研究.结果表明:所获得的Zn‐Ni合金镀层晶型为γ晶型,镍和锌的质量分数分别为14.37%和85.63%;通过不同电介质溶液模拟不同环境考察Zn‐Ni合金镀层的耐蚀性,在质量分数为5%的NaCl溶液中Zn‐Ni合金镀层的自腐蚀电位相对于Zn镀层正移了245mV,腐蚀推动力比Zn镀层小,其腐蚀电流密度是Zn镀层的0.15倍;在1mol/L的NaOH溶液中,Zn‐Ni合金镀层的自腐蚀电位相对于Zn镀层正移了59mV,其腐蚀电流密度是Zn镀层的0.86倍,所获得的Zn‐Ni合金镀层在中性溶液和碱性溶液中都具有很强的耐蚀性.%A Zn‐Ni alloy coating was quickly prepared on 304 stainless steel surface in an alkaline Zn‐Ni al‐loy plating solution with the electrochemical deposition method .Its microstructure was testified with scan‐ning electron microscopy and X‐ray diffraction graph ,and the corrosion resistance of the Zn‐Ni alloy coat‐ing and the Zn coating was studied and compared with electrochemical workstation .The results showed that the crystal shape of the Zn‐Ni alloy coating obtained in this study was of the γ‐shape and that the con‐tent of nickel and zinc was 14.37% and 85.63% ,respectively .The corrosion resistance of the Zn‐Ni alloy coating was testified in environments with different dielectric solutions .The potential of the Zn‐Ni alloy coating was 245 mV higher than that of the Zn coating in a 5% NaCl solution ,which indicated the driving force on corrosion on the surface of the Zn‐Ni alloy was much less than that of Zn ,and the corrosion cur‐rent density was 0.15 times as much as that of Zn .The potential of the Zn‐Ni alloy coating was 59 m

  8. Performance analysis for the CALIFA Barrel calorimeter of the R3B experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Pol, H.; Ashwood, N.; Aumann, T.; Bertini, D.; Cabanelas, P.; Casarejos, E.; Cederkall, J.; Cortina-Gil, D.; Díaz Fernández, P.; Duran, I.; Fiori, E.; Galaviz, D.; Labiche, M.; Nacher, E.; Pietras, B.; Savran, D.; Tengblad, O.; Teubig, P.

    2014-12-01

    The CALIFA calorimeter is an advanced detector for gamma rays and light charged particles, accordingly optimized for the demanding requirements of the physics programme proposed for the R3B facility at FAIR. The multipurpose character of CALIFA is required to fulfil challenging demands in energy resolution (5-6% at 1 MeV for gamma rays) and efficiency. Charged particles, e.g. protons of energies up to 320 MeV in the Barrel section, should also be identified with an energy resolution better to 1%. CALIFA is divided into two well-separated sections: a "Forward EndCap" and a cylindrical "Barrel" covering an angular range from 43.2° to 140.3°. The Barrel section, based on long CsI(Tl) pyramidal frustum crystals coupled to large area avalanche photodiodes (LAAPDs), attains the requested high efficiency for calorimetric purposes. The construction of the CALIFA Demonstrator, comprising 20% of the total detector, has already been initiated, and commissioning experiments are expected for 2014. The assessment of the capabilities and expected performance of the detector elements is a crucial step in their design, along with the prototypes evaluation. For this purpose, the Barrel geometry has been carefully implemented in the simulation package R3BRoot, including easily variable thicknesses of crystal wrapping and carbon fibre supports. A complete characterization of the calorimeter response (including efficiency, resolution, evaluation of energy and reconstruction losses) under different working conditions, with several physics cases selected to probe the detector performance over a wide range of applications, has been undertaken. Prototypes of different sections of the CALIFA Barrel have been modeled and their responses have been evaluated and compared with the experimental results. The present paper summarizes the outcome of the simulation campaign for the entire Barrel section and for the corresponding prototypes tested at different European installations.

  9. ATLAS Level-1 Muon Barrel Trigger robustness study at X5 test facility

    CERN Document Server

    Di Mattia, A; Nisati, A; Pastore, F C; Vari, R; Veneziano, Stefano; Aielli, G; Camarri, P; Cardarelli, R; Di Ciaccio, A; Di Simone, A; Liberti, B; Santonico, R

    2004-01-01

    The present paper describes the Level-1 Barrel Muon Trigger performance as expected with the current configuration of the RPC detectors, as designed for the Barrel Muon Spectrometer of ATLAS. Results of a beam test performed at the X5-GIF facility at CERN are presented in order to show the trigger efficiency with different conditions of RPC detection efficiency and several background rates. Small RPC chambers with part of the final trigger electronics are used, while the trigger coincidence logic is applied off-line using a detailed simulation model. copy 2003 Published by Esevier B.V. 3 Refs.

  10. Observations of a solar storm from the stratosphere: The BARREL Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halford, Alexa

    2016-07-01

    During the Balloon Array for Radiation belt Relativistic Electron Losses (BARREL) second campaign, BARREL observed with a single primary instrument, a 3"x3" NaI spectrometer measuring 20 keV - 10 MeV X-rays [Woodger et al 2015 JGR], portions of an entire solar storm. This very small event, in terms of geomagnetic activity, or one of the largest of the current solar cycle, in terms of solar energetic particle events, has given us a very clear set of observations of the response of the day side magnetosphere to the arrival of an interplanetary coronal mass ejection shock. The BARREL mission of opportunity working in tandem with the Van Allen Probes was designed to study the loss of radiation belt electrons to the ionosphere and upper atmosphere. However BARREL is able to see X-rays from a multitude of sources. During the second campaign, the Sun produced, and BARREL observed, an X-class flare [McGregor et al in prep.]. This was followed by BARREL observations of X-rays, gamma-rays, and directly injected protons from the solar energetic particle (SEP) event associated with the eruption from the Sun while simultaneously the Van Allen Probes observed the SEP protons in the inner magnetosphere [Halford et al 2016 submitted JGR]. Two days later the shock generated by the interplanetary coronal mass ejection (ICME-shock) hit the Earth while BARREL was in conjunction with the Van Allen Probes and GOES [Halford et al 2015 JGR]. Although this was a Mars directed CME and the Earth only received a glancing blow [Möstl et al 2015 Nat. Commun., Mays et al 2015 ApJ], the modest compression led to the formation of ultra low frequency (ULF) waves, electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves, and very low frequency (VLF) whistler mode waves [Halford and Mann 2016 submitted to JGR]. The combination of these waves and the enhancement of the local particle population led to precipitation of electrons remotely observed by BARREL. This was not a Halloween, Bastille Day, or one of the now

  11. Evaluation of using short barrel DHS in treatment of intertrochanteric fractures

    OpenAIRE

    Tahmasbi M; Sajjadi Saravi M; Alami Harandi B

    2001-01-01

    Cut out or extrusion of the lag screw from the superior aspect of head and neck of the femur is one of the most common and devastating complications of the surgery of the intertrochanteric fractures with DHS. The exact cause of this complications is unknown, but it seems to be related to osteopenia, inappropriate position of lag screw inside head of the femur and inability of DHS to slide inside the barrel, which is the most ignored risk factor. We used short barrel Dynamic Hip Screw (DHS) fo...

  12. Automatic Licenses Plate Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Ronak P Patel; Narendra M Patel; Keyur Brahmbhatt

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the Smart Vehicle Screening System, which can be installed into a tollboothfor automated recognition of vehicle license plate information using a photograph of a vehicle. An automatedsystem could then be implemented to control the payment of fees, parking areas, highways, bridges ortunnels, etc. This paper contains new algorithm for recognition number plate using Morphological operation,Thresholding operation, Edge detection, Bounding box analysis for number plate extract...

  13. Fractal Plate Tectonics

    OpenAIRE

    Sornette, D.; V. F. Pisarenko

    2002-01-01

    We analyze in details the statistical significance of the claim by Bird [2002] of a power law distribution of plate areas covering the Earth and confirm that the power law with exponent 0.25 +- 0.05 is the most robust and parsimonious model for all plates, including the very largest plates, when taking into account the constraint that the plates areas must sum up to 4 pi steradians. We propose a general class of fragmentation models that rationalize this observation and discuss the implicatio...

  14. Generalized Fibonacci zone plates

    CERN Document Server

    Ke, Jie; Zhu, Jianqiang

    2015-01-01

    We propose a family of zone plates which are produced by the generalized Fibonacci sequences and their axial focusing properties are analyzed in detail. Compared with traditional Fresnel zone plates, the generalized Fibonacci zone plates present two axial foci with equal intensity. Besides, we propose an approach to adjust the axial locations of the two foci by means of different optical path difference, and further give the deterministic ratio of the two focal distances which attributes to their own generalized Fibonacci sequences. The generalized Fibonacci zone plates may allow for new applications in micro and nanophotonics.

  15. Chrome-plating of titanium alloys and their performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impact of technological parameters by electrochemical chrome-plating of titanium alloys on their mechanical properties, wear resistance, fatigue resistance, antifriction characteristics, hydridation and hydrogen distribution in the base and coating is studied. The evaluation of the alloys and coatings overgrowing with microorganisms is given. The rational compositions of solutions and regimes of titanium alloys treatment by their multiple (up to 6 times) chrome-plating are determined

  16. Pseudo-gunpowder stippling caused by fragmentation of a plated bullet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prahlow, Joseph A; Allen, Susan B; Spinder, Travis; Poole, Robert A

    2003-09-01

    In this report we present a case of pseudo-gunpowder stippling caused by fragmentation of a plated bullet. Investigation of the incident revealed absence of an interposed target, no evidence of ricochet, and a normally functioning, undamaged weapon. Electroplated ("plated" or "coated") bullets are relatively uncommon. They look similar to jacketed bullets in that the lead core is covered by a copper-colored jacketlike material. However, the copper-colored plating material is thinner than the typical jacket material. In certain instances, the plating may strip away from the lead core during transit through the barrel of the weapon and can produce injuries that mimic gunpowder stippling. Forensic pathologists are advised to be aware of this phenomenon. Misinterpretation of such wounds could result in improper classification of range of fire or improper conclusions about the presence or absence of an interposed target or ricochet. PMID:12960660

  17. Start of Final Assembly of the CMS Barrel Yoke on schedule at P5 the 1st august, 2000. I

    CERN Multimedia

    Hubert Gerwig, CERN/ EP-CMI

    2000-01-01

    The Barrel Yoke and the vacuumtank weigh 6500 tonnes. The barrel Yoke consists of 5 rings eacu one weighing 1200 tonnes. The vacuum tank is a stainless steel structure weighing 270 tonnes (length = 13 m , outer diamter 7.6 m) The final assembly of these items will take approximately 1 year from now on.

  18. 27 CFR 25.160 - Tax adjustment for brewers who produce more than 2,000,000 barrels of beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... who produce more than 2,000,000 barrels of beer. 25.160 Section 25.160 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Tax on Beer Determination of Tax § 25.160 Tax adjustment for brewers who produce more than 2,000,000 barrels of beer....

  19. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... In Memory In Honor Become a Member En Español Type 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community ... Page Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Create Your Plate Create Your Plate is a ...

  20. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday Meal Planning ... Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans and a Healthy Diet Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets ...

  1. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Islanders American Indian/Alaska Native Programs Older Adults Family Link Diabetes EXPO Upcoming Diabetes EXPOs EXPO Volunteer ... plates! Snap a photo and share it to social media with #CreateYourPlate . See the full gallery of ...

  2. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Type 2 Diabetes Know Your Rights Employment Discrimination Health Care Professionals Law Enforcement Driver's License For ... critical diabetes research and support vital diabetes education services that improve the lives of those with ... plates! Snap a photo and share it to social media with #CreateYourPlate . See the full gallery of ...

  3. Computer Aided Design and Stress Analysis of Nose Landing Gear Barrel (NLGB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kumar Sardiwal

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available During the conceptual design phase of aircraft the integration of undercarriage system is very important and it is often difficult to achieve on the first time. The nose wheel landing gear preferred configurations for light naval trainer aircraft. The main objective of this project is to improve the static strength criteria and fatigue life of Nose Landing Gear Barrel considered. The investigations includes preliminary design layout for Nose Landing Gear Barrel and initial sizing has been done. It has been designed and evaluated for strength criteria. A method of analysis for the design of Nose Landing Gear Barrel made up of Al-Cu alloy (BS L 168 T6511 with static loads of axial, bending and normal loads are applied. The geometric modeling of the Nose Landing Gear Barrel was carried out using CAD package CATIA V5 R19 and pre and post processing was done through MSC/PATRAN. The stresses and displacements are obtained with the application of MSC/NASTRAN finite element software.

  4. Performance of the SLD Barrel CRID during the 1992 physics data run

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The SLD Barrel Cherenkov Ring Imaging Detector was fully operational in the 1992 physics data run. The electron drift velocity and magnetic field deflection of electron trajectories have been measured. Cherenkov rings have been observed from both the liquid and gas radiators. The number and the resolution of the angle of Cherenkov photons have been measured to be approximately equal to design specifications

  5. Vibration testing and analysis of core barrel model in symmetrical/asymmetrical liquid flow conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the results of vibration tests of PWR core barrel model, which were performed in liquid flow of hydrodynamic testing circuit in symmetrical/asymmetrical flow conditions simulating 4 and 3 loop operations. The measurements of dynamic stresses and displacements were carried out, processed stochastically and analyzed by correlation techniques

  6. Electrostatic design of the barrel CRID [Cherenkov Ring Imaging Detector] and associated measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on the electrostatic design and related measurements of the barrel Cherenkov Ring Imaging Detector for the Stanford Large Detector experiment at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center Linear Collider. We include test results of photon feedback in TMAE-laden gas, distortion measurements in the drift boxes and corona measurements. 13 refs., 21 figs

  7. A summary of the BARREL campaigns: Technique for studying electron precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodger, L. A.; Halford, A. J.; Millan, R. M.; McCarthy, M. P.; Smith, D. M.; Bowers, G. S.; Sample, J. G.; Anderson, B. R.; Liang, X.

    2015-06-01

    The Balloon Array for Radiation belt Relativistic Electron Losses (BARREL) studies the loss of energetic electrons from Earth's radiation belts. BARREL's array of slowly drifting balloon payloads was designed to capitalize on magnetic conjunctions with NASA's Van Allen Probes. Two campaigns were conducted from Antarctica in 2013 and 2014. During the first campaign in January and February of 2013, there were three moderate geomagnetic storms with SYM-Hmin < -40 nT. Similarly, two minor geomagnetic storms occurred during the second campaign, starting in December of 2013 and continuing on into February of 2014. Throughout the two campaigns, BARREL observed electron precipitation over a wide range of energies and exhibiting temporal structure from hundreds of milliseconds to hours. Relativistic electron precipitation was observed in the dusk to midnight sector, and microburst precipitation was primarily observed near dawn. In this paper we review the two BARREL science campaigns and discuss the data products and analysis techniques as applied to relativistic electron precipitation observed on 19 January 2013.

  8. Learning-Dependent Plasticity of the Barrel Cortex Is Impaired by Restricting GABA-Ergic Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posluszny, Anna; Liguz-Lecznar, Monika; Turzynska, Danuta; Zakrzewska, Renata; Bielecki, Maksymilian; Kossut, Malgorzata

    2015-01-01

    Experience-induced plastic changes in the cerebral cortex are accompanied by alterations in excitatory and inhibitory transmission. Increased excitatory drive, necessary for plasticity, precedes the occurrence of plastic change, while decreased inhibitory signaling often facilitates plasticity. However, an increase of inhibitory interactions was noted in some instances of experience-dependent changes. We previously reported an increase in the number of inhibitory markers in the barrel cortex of mice after fear conditioning engaging vibrissae, observed concurrently with enlargement of the cortical representational area of the row of vibrissae receiving conditioned stimulus (CS). We also observed that an increase of GABA level accompanied the conditioning. Here, to find whether unaltered GABAergic signaling is necessary for learning-dependent rewiring in the murine barrel cortex, we locally decreased GABA production in the barrel cortex or reduced transmission through GABAA receptors (GABAARs) at the time of the conditioning. Injections of 3-mercaptopropionic acid (3-MPA), an inhibitor of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), into the barrel cortex prevented learning-induced enlargement of the conditioned vibrissae representation. A similar effect was observed after injection of gabazine, an antagonist of GABAARs. At the behavioral level, consistent conditioned response (cessation of head movements in response to CS) was impaired. These results show that appropriate functioning of the GABAergic system is required for both manifestation of functional cortical representation plasticity and for the development of a conditioned response. PMID:26641862

  9. Twenty years of barrel-stave flextensional transducer technology in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Dennis F.

    2005-04-01

    The barrel-stave flextensional transducer, a compact underwater sound source, was conceived at DRDC Atlantic in 1986 [G. W. McMahon and D. F. Jones, U.S. Patent No. 4,922,470 (1 May 1990); Canadian Patent No. 1,285,646 (2 July 1991)]. Over the years, five barrel-stave designs belonging to three flextensional classes were built and tested at DRDC Atlantic. Three Class I transducers with operating frequencies ranging from 800 to 1600 Hz were integrated into submarine communications buoys, low frequency active horizontal projector arrays, and a broadband sonar towbody. A high-power Class II and broadband (1-7 kHz) Class III transducer were deployed under the ice in the Lincoln Sea for research related to rapidly deployable surveillance systems. These barrel-stave flextensional transducers have also supported a variety of marine mammal studies including vocal mimicry in long-finned pilot whales, coda dialects in sperm whales, and the R&D of acoustic detection and tracking systems for endangered northern right whales. In August 2004 a barrel-stave transducer was used to lure a trapped juvenile humpback whale to the sluice gates of a tidal generating station on the Annapolis River in Nova Scotia by transmitting humpback whale calls underwater. The acoustic performance parameters for all 5 transducers will be presented.

  10. Effect of Associative Learning on Memory Spine Formation in Mouse Barrel Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malgorzata Jasinska

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Associative fear learning, in which stimulation of whiskers is paired with mild electric shock to the tail, modifies the barrel cortex, the functional representation of sensory receptors involved in the conditioning, by inducing formation of new inhibitory synapses on single-synapse spines of the cognate barrel hollows and thus producing double-synapse spines. In the barrel cortex of conditioned, pseudoconditioned, and untreated mice, we analyzed the number and morphological features of dendritic spines at various maturation and stability levels: sER-free spines, spines containing smooth endoplasmic reticulum (sER, and spines containing spine apparatus. Using stereological analysis of serial sections examined by transmission electron microscopy, we found that the density of double-synapse spines containing spine apparatus was significantly increased in the conditioned mice. Learning also induced enhancement of the postsynaptic density area of inhibitory synapses as well as increase in the number of polyribosomes in such spines. In single-synapse spines, the effects of conditioning were less pronounced and included increase in the number of polyribosomes in sER-free spines. The results suggest that fear learning differentially affects single- and double-synapse spines in the barrel cortex: it promotes maturation and stabilization of double-synapse spines, which might possibly contribute to permanent memory formation, and upregulates protein synthesis in single-synapse spines.

  11. Cosmic tests and performance of the ATLAS SemiConductor Tracker Barrels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirköz, Bilge M.

    2007-03-01

    ATLAS is a multi-purpose particle detector for the LHC and will detect proton collisions with center of mass energy of 14 TeV. Part of the central inner detector, the SemiConductor Tracker (SCT) barrel, is now fully integrated with the Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT) barrel. The SCT module performance has been measured after module production, after macro-assembly of modules onto barrels, after arrival at CERN and again partially after integration with the TRT. The module noise average per channel has been stable and is 4.5×10-5, well below the design specification of 5×10-4. There is no evidence for common mode noise problems and 99.8% of the 3.2 million channels of the SCT barrels are functional. The cosmics running of the SCT and TRT was the first large scale test of the physics mode of the SCT online software framework. A large sector, 468 SCT modules, has been timed in and read out during the cosmic tests. Tracks have been reconstructed through the SCT and the TRT sectors. Present residuals from tracks (without alignment) are better than the specified building tolerances of the SCT.

  12. Effect of Associative Learning on Memory Spine Formation in Mouse Barrel Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasinska, Malgorzata; Siucinska, Ewa; Jasek, Ewa; Litwin, Jan A; Pyza, Elzbieta; Kossut, Malgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Associative fear learning, in which stimulation of whiskers is paired with mild electric shock to the tail, modifies the barrel cortex, the functional representation of sensory receptors involved in the conditioning, by inducing formation of new inhibitory synapses on single-synapse spines of the cognate barrel hollows and thus producing double-synapse spines. In the barrel cortex of conditioned, pseudoconditioned, and untreated mice, we analyzed the number and morphological features of dendritic spines at various maturation and stability levels: sER-free spines, spines containing smooth endoplasmic reticulum (sER), and spines containing spine apparatus. Using stereological analysis of serial sections examined by transmission electron microscopy, we found that the density of double-synapse spines containing spine apparatus was significantly increased in the conditioned mice. Learning also induced enhancement of the postsynaptic density area of inhibitory synapses as well as increase in the number of polyribosomes in such spines. In single-synapse spines, the effects of conditioning were less pronounced and included increase in the number of polyribosomes in sER-free spines. The results suggest that fear learning differentially affects single- and double-synapse spines in the barrel cortex: it promotes maturation and stabilization of double-synapse spines, which might possibly contribute to permanent memory formation, and upregulates protein synthesis in single-synapse spines. PMID:26819780

  13. 7 CFR 58.425 - Conveyor for moving and draining block or barrel cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conveyor for moving and draining block or barrel cheese. 58.425 Section 58.425 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... cheese. The conveyor shall be constructed so that it will not contaminate the cheese and be...

  14. Computed tomography manifestation of a triple-barreled aortic dissection: the Mercedes-Benz mark sign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, M S; Zorn, G L; Ho, K J

    1988-04-01

    Computed tomographic (CT) findings of a rare case of triple-barreled aortic dissection was described. CT demonstrated the extent of dissection, a communication between two channels, and three lumens separated by the intimal flap and a thin undetached tunica media, resembling a Mercedes-Benz mark. PMID:3168525

  15. Rapid Prototyping Bipolar Plate of PEMFC by Gelcasting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Bing; CHEN Shang-wei; HUANG Ming-yu; WANG Lian-jun

    2006-01-01

    Bipolar plate is one key component of proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). According to this paper, mesocarbon microbeads were used as raw materials for forming the green bodies of bipolar plates with complex flow channels by gelcasting technique. Then, the final bipolar plates would be gained after the green parts were died, burned out and sintered. Meanwhile, its properties are researched and evaluated by the test of flexible strength and electric resistivity. The resultant flexural strength of sintered sample is 67 Mpa and the electric resistivity is 52 μΩ·m.

  16. PEM fuel cell bipolar plate material requirements for transportation applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borup, R.L.; Stroh, K.R.; Vanderborgh, N.E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [and others

    1996-04-01

    Cost effective bipolar plates are currently under development to help make proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells commercially viable. Bipolar plates separate individual cells of the fuel cell stack, and thus must supply strength, be electrically conductive, provide for thermal control of the fuel stack, be a non-porous materials separating hydrogen and oxygen feed streams, be corrosion resistant, provide gas distribution for the feed streams and meet fuel stack cost targets. Candidate materials include conductive polymers and metal plates with corrosion resistant coatings. Possible metals include aluminium, titanium, iron/stainless steel and nickel.

  17. Performance analysis for the CALIFA Barrel calorimeter of the R{sup 3}B experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez-Pol, H., E-mail: hector.alvarez@usc.es [Dpt. de Física de Partículas, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, E-15782, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Ashwood, N. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Aumann, T. [Institut für Kernphysik, Technische Universität Darmstadt, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Bertini, D. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Cabanelas, P. [Dpt. de Física de Partículas, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, E-15782, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Casarejos, E. [Universidade de Vigo, E-36310 Vigo (Spain); Cederkall, J. [Department of Physics, Lund University, SE 221 00 Lund (Sweden); Cortina-Gil, D.; Díaz Fernández, P.; Duran, I. [Dpt. de Física de Partículas, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, E-15782, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Fiori, E. [ExtreMe Matter Institute EMMI and Research Division, GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Galaviz, D. [Centro de Fsica Nuclear da Universidade de Lisboa, 1649-003 Lisbon (Portugal); Labiche, M. [STFC Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Nacher, E. [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia CSIC, Madrid (Spain); Pietras, B. [Dpt. de Física de Partículas, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, E-15782, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); and others

    2014-12-11

    The CALIFA calorimeter is an advanced detector for gamma rays and light charged particles, accordingly optimized for the demanding requirements of the physics programme proposed for the R{sup 3}B facility at FAIR. The multipurpose character of CALIFA is required to fulfil challenging demands in energy resolution (5–6% at 1 MeV for gamma rays) and efficiency. Charged particles, e.g. protons of energies up to 320 MeV in the Barrel section, should also be identified with an energy resolution better to 1%. CALIFA is divided into two well-separated sections: a “Forward EndCap” and a cylindrical “Barrel” covering an angular range from 43.2° to 140.3°. The Barrel section, based on long CsI(Tl) pyramidal frustum crystals coupled to large area avalanche photodiodes (LAAPDs), attains the requested high efficiency for calorimetric purposes. The construction of the CALIFA Demonstrator, comprising 20% of the total detector, has already been initiated, and commissioning experiments are expected for 2014. The assessment of the capabilities and expected performance of the detector elements is a crucial step in their design, along with the prototypes evaluation. For this purpose, the Barrel geometry has been carefully implemented in the simulation package R3BRoot, including easily variable thicknesses of crystal wrapping and carbon fibre supports. A complete characterization of the calorimeter response (including efficiency, resolution, evaluation of energy and reconstruction losses) under different working conditions, with several physics cases selected to probe the detector performance over a wide range of applications, has been undertaken. Prototypes of different sections of the CALIFA Barrel have been modeled and their responses have been evaluated and compared with the experimental results. The present paper summarizes the outcome of the simulation campaign for the entire Barrel section and for the corresponding prototypes tested at different European installations.

  18. Plate heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a plate heat exchanger required to handle corrosive, toxic or radioactive fluids, wherein each plate has a peripheral recess or like formation adapted for receiving an elastomeric gasket, the plates are welded together in pairs by the method comprising the steps of inserting into the gasket recess of a first plate of said pair a metal packing piece and welding the second place (e.g. by a laser or electron beam weld running along the base of the recess) superimposing a second plate on to the first in contact with the packing piece and welding the second plate to the packing piece (e.g. by a laser or electron beam weld). The packing piece may be of hollow or solid cross section and is preferably of the same material (e.g. titanium or stainless steel) as the plates. In use a service fluid in heat exchange with the said corrosive etc. fluid is confined by peripheral and normally elastomeric gaskets. (author)

  19. Anisotropic elastic plates

    CERN Document Server

    Hwu, Chyanbin

    2010-01-01

    As structural elements, anisotropic elastic plates find wide applications in modern technology. The plates here are considered to be subjected to not only in plane load but also transverse load. In other words, both plane and plate bending problems as well as the stretching-bending coupling problems are all explained in this book. In addition to the introduction of the theory of anisotropic elasticity, several important subjects have are discussed in this book such as interfaces, cracks, holes, inclusions, contact problems, piezoelectric materials, thermoelastic problems and boundary element a

  20. Research Status of Gun Barrel Erosion and Inhibitor Mitigation Mechanism%身管烧蚀及缓蚀剂作用机理研究现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林少森; 闫军; 俞卫博; 李洪广; 杜仕国

    2016-01-01

    身管烧蚀磨损严重限制了火炮性能的提高和服役年限的延长。为延长身管寿命、发展高威力火炮,需增强火炮身管的抗烧蚀磨损能力。从热冲击、化学侵蚀、机械磨损三方面综述国内外身管烧蚀机理的研究现状,分析认为烧蚀磨损的发生与加剧主要归结于热-化学-机械复合作用。在此基础上梳理缓蚀剂技术抑制身管烧蚀磨损的机理,指出纳米材料在缓蚀剂研制中的意义,无机氧化物和含氮有机材料在发射环境下可对身管内壁形成保护。对缓蚀剂的设计作出展望,为新型缓蚀剂设计提供有益思考。%Serious wear and erosion of barrel has limited the improvement of artillery performance and the extension of service life. In order to extend the life of barrel and increase gun performance,it is necessary to enhance anti-erosion endurance and resistance to attrition of artillery barrel. It summarized the domestic and international research status of wear and erosion mechanism of barrel in terms of ther-mal damage,chemical corrosion and mechanical wear. It was analyzed that the occurrence and aggra-vation of wear and erosion was primarily attributed to thermal-chemical-mechanical effects. Based on this,an analysis is made of the mitigation mechanism of the erosion inhibiting agent. The significance of nanometer materials in producing inhibitor is pointed out. And it is also pointed out that inorganic oxide and nitrogenous organic materials could protect gun bore under firing condition. Moreover,pros-pects in the future are envisioned in the design of inhibitor and provided thought-provoking ideas for the design of new type of inhibitor.

  1. Structure of Rhodococcus equi virulence-associated protein B (VapB) reveals an eight-stranded antiparallel β-barrel consisting of two Greek-key motifs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geerds, Christina; Wohlmann, Jens; Haas, Albert; Niemann, Hartmut H

    2014-07-01

    Members of the virulence-associated protein (Vap) family from the pathogen Rhodococcus equi regulate virulence in an unknown manner. They do not share recognizable sequence homology with any protein of known structure. VapB and VapA are normally associated with isolates from pigs and horses, respectively. To contribute to a molecular understanding of Vap function, the crystal structure of a protease-resistant VapB fragment was determined at 1.4 Å resolution. The structure was solved by SAD phasing employing the anomalous signal of one endogenous S atom and two bound Co ions with low occupancy. VapB is an eight-stranded antiparallel β-barrel with a single helix. Structural similarity to avidins suggests a potential binding function. Unlike other eight- or ten-stranded β-barrels found in avidins, bacterial outer membrane proteins, fatty-acid-binding proteins and lysozyme inhibitors, Vaps do not have a next-neighbour arrangement but consist of two Greek-key motifs with strand order 41238567, suggesting an unusual or even unique topology. PMID:25005079

  2. Inversion for the driving forces of plate tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, R. M.

    1983-01-01

    Inverse modeling techniques have been applied to the problem of determining the roles of various forces that may drive and resist plate tectonic motions. Separate linear inverse problems have been solved to find the best fitting pole of rotation for finite element grid point velocities and to find the best combination of force models to fit the observed relative plate velocities for the earth's twelve major plates using the generalized inverse operator. Variance-covariance data on plate motion have also been included. Results emphasize the relative importance of ridge push forces in the driving mechanism. Convergent margin forces are smaller by at least a factor of two, and perhaps by as much as a factor of twenty. Slab pull, apparently, is poorly transmitted to the surface plate as a driving force. Drag forces at the base of the plate are smaller than ridge push forces, although the sign of the force remains in question.

  3. Effect of plate roughness on the field near RPC plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jash, A.; Majumdar, N.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Chattopadhyay, S.

    2016-06-01

    The inner surfaces of the electrodes encompassing the gas volume of a Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC) have been found to exhibit asperities with, grossly, three kind of features. The desired uniform electric field within the gas volume of RPC is expected to be affected due to the presence of these asperities, which will eventually affect the final response from the detector. In this work, an attempt has been made to model the highly complex roughness of the electrode surfaces and compute its effect on the electrostatic field within RPC gas chamber. The calculations have been performed numerically using Finite Element Method (FEM) and Boundary Element Method (BEM) and the two methods have been compared in this context.

  4. Effect of plate roughness on the field near RPC plates

    CERN Document Server

    Jash, Abhik; Mukhopadhyay, Supratik; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis

    2016-01-01

    The inner surfaces of the electrodes encompassing the gas volume of a Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC) have been found to exhibit asperities with three kind of features grossly. The desired uniform electric field within the gas volume of RPC is expected to be affected due to the presence of these asperities, which will eventually affect the final response from the detector. In this work, an attempt has been made to model the highly complex roughness of the electrode surfaces and compute its effect on the electrostatic field within RPC gas chamber. The calculations have been performed numerically using Finite Element Method (FEM) and Boundary Element Method (BEM) and the two methods have been compared in this context.

  5. Correlation between Wear Resistance and Lifetime of Electrical Contacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Song

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrical contacts are usually plated in order to prevent corrosion. Platings of detachable electrical contacts experience wear because of the motion between contacts. Once the protecting platings have been worn out, electrical contacts will fail rapidly due to corrosion or fretting corrosion. Therefore the wear resistance of the platings is a very important parameter for the long lifetime of electrical contacts. Many measures which improve the wear resistance can diminish the conductivity of the platings. Due to the fact that platings of electrical contacts must have both a high wear resistance and a high electrical conductivity, the manufacturing of high performance platings of electrical contacts poses a great challenge. Our study shows firstly the correlation between the wear resistance of platings and lifetime of electrical contacts and then the measures, which improve the wear resistance without impairing the electrical performance of the contacts.

  6. Quantitative/Statistical Approach to Bullet-to-Firearm Identification with Consecutively Manufactured Barrels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Striupaitis; R.E. Gaensslen

    2005-01-30

    Efforts to use objective image comparison and bullet scanning technologies to distinguish bullets from consecutively manufactured handgun barrels from two manufacturers gave mixed results. The ability of a technology to reliably distinguish between matching and non-matching bullets, where the non-matching bullets were as close in pattern to the matching ones as is probably possible, would provide evidence that the distinctions could be made ''objectively'', and independently of human eyes. That evidence is identical or very close to what seems to be needed to satisfy Daubert standards. It is fair to say that the FTI IBIS image comparison technology correctly distinguished between all the Springfield barrel bullets, and between most but not all of the HiPoint barrel bullets. In the HiPoint cases that were not distinguished 100% of the time, they would he distinguished correctly at least 83% of the time. These results, although obviously limited to the materials used in the comparisons, provide strong evidence that barrel-to-bullet matching is objectively reliable. The results with SciClops were less compelling. The results do not mean that bullet-to-barrel matching is not objectively reliable--rather, they mean that this version of the particular technology could not quite distinguish between these extremely similar yet different bullets as well as the image comparison technology did. In a number of cases, the numerical results made the correct distinctions, although they were close to one another. It is hard to say from this data that this technology differs in its ability to make distinctions between the manufacturers, because the results are very similar with both. The human examiner results were as expected. We did not expect any misidentifications, and there were not any. It would have been preferable to have a higher return rate, and thus more comparisons in the overall sample. As noted, the ''consecutively manufactured barrel

  7. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... managing diabetes and losing weight. Creating your plate lets you still choose the foods you want, but ... unsweetened tea or coffee. Featured Product Precise Portions® Go Healthy Travel Pack (4/Box) Taking the guesswork ...

  8. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Healthy Diet Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook ... Blog Online Community Site Menu Are You at Risk? Diagnosis Lower Your Risk Risk Test Alert Day ...

  9. Tectonic Plate Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landalf, Helen

    1998-01-01

    Presents an activity that employs movement to enable students to understand concepts related to plate tectonics. Argues that movement brings topics to life in a concrete way and helps children retain knowledge. (DDR)

  10. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... seven simple steps . We want to see your real-life healthy plates! Snap a photo and share ... Complications Health Insurance For Parents & Kids Know Your Rights We Can Help Enroll in the Living WIth ...

  11. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High ... Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart- ...

  12. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Student Resources History of Diabetes Resources for School Projects How to Reference Our Site Diabetes Basics Myths ... simple steps . We want to see your real-life healthy plates! Snap a photo and share it ...

  13. Plate tectonics: Metamorphic myth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenaga, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Clear evidence for subduction-induced metamorphism, and thus the operation of plate tectonics on the ancient Earth has been lacking. Theoretical calculations indicate that we may have been looking for something that cannot exist.

  14. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Food MyFoodAdvisor Recipes Association Cookbook Recipes Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday Meal ...

  15. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... Us in the Fight for a Cure Your tax-deductible gift today can fund critical diabetes research ... Close www.diabetes.org > Food and Fitness > Food > Planning Meals > Create Your Plate Share: Print Page Text ...

  16. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... Food Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans and a Healthy Diet Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods donate en -- Diabetes Must Be Stopped - 2016- ...

  17. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... million battle diabetes and every 23 seconds someone new is diagnosed. Diabetes causes more deaths a year ... Month celebrations , the American Diabetes Association launched this new Create Your Plate interactive tool to help Latinos/ ...

  18. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... Student Resources History of Diabetes Resources for School Projects How to Reference Our Site Diabetes Basics Myths ... Close www.diabetes.org > Food and Fitness > Food > Planning Meals > Create Your Plate Share: Print Page Text ...

  19. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... Professional Books Patient Access to Research Student Resources History of Diabetes Resources for School Projects How to ... simple steps . We want to see your real-life healthy plates! Snap a photo and share it ...

  20. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... Diabetes causes more deaths a year than breast cancer and AIDS combined. Your gift today will help us get closer to curing diabetes and better treatments for those living with ... Meals > Create Your Plate ...

  1. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Student Resources History of Diabetes Resources for School Projects How to Reference Our Site Diabetes Basics Myths ... blood glucose levels and lose weight. With this method, you fill your plate with more non-starchy ...

  2. Cobalamin-Independent Methionine Synthase (MetE): A Face-to-Face Double Barrel that Evolved by Gene Duplication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pejcha, Robert; Ludwig, Martha L. (Michigan)

    2010-03-08

    Cobalamin-independent methionine synthase (MetE) catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from methyltetrahydrofolate to L-homocysteine (Hcy) without using an intermediate methyl carrier. Although MetE displays no detectable sequence homology with cobalamin-dependent methionine synthase (MetH), both enzymes require zinc for activation and binding of Hcy. Crystallographic analyses of MetE from T. maritima reveal an unusual dual-barrel structure in which the active site lies between the tops of the two ({beta}{alpha}){sub 8} barrels. The fold of the N-terminal barrel confirms that it has evolved from the C-terminal polypeptide by gene duplication; comparisons of the barrels provide an intriguing example of homologous domain evolution in which binding sites are obliterated. The C-terminal barrel incorporates the zinc ion that binds and activates Hcy. The zinc-binding site in MetE is distinguished from the (Cys){sub 3}Zn site in the related enzymes, MetH and betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase, by its position in the barrel and by the metal ligands, which are histidine, cysteine, glutamate, and cysteine in the resting form of MetE. Hcy associates at the face of the metal opposite glutamate, which moves away from the zinc in the binary E {center_dot} Hcy complex. The folate substrate is not intimately associated with the N-terminal barrel; instead, elements from both barrels contribute binding determinants in a binary complex in which the folate substrate is incorrectly oriented for methyl transfer. Atypical locations of the Hcy and folate sites in the C-terminal barrel presumably permit direct interaction of the substrates in a ternary complex. Structures of the binary substrate complexes imply that rearrangement of folate, perhaps accompanied by domain rearrangement, must occur before formation of a ternary complex that is competent for methyl transfer.

  3. Cobalamin-independent methionine synthase (MetE: a face-to-face double barrel that evolved by gene duplication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Pejchal

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Cobalamin-independent methionine synthase (MetE catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from methyltetrahydrofolate to L-homocysteine (Hcy without using an intermediate methyl carrier. Although MetE displays no detectable sequence homology with cobalamin-dependent methionine synthase (MetH, both enzymes require zinc for activation and binding of Hcy. Crystallographic analyses of MetE from T. maritima reveal an unusual dual-barrel structure in which the active site lies between the tops of the two (betaalpha(8 barrels. The fold of the N-terminal barrel confirms that it has evolved from the C-terminal polypeptide by gene duplication; comparisons of the barrels provide an intriguing example of homologous domain evolution in which binding sites are obliterated. The C-terminal barrel incorporates the zinc ion that binds and activates Hcy. The zinc-binding site in MetE is distinguished from the (Cys(3Zn site in the related enzymes, MetH and betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase, by its position in the barrel and by the metal ligands, which are histidine, cysteine, glutamate, and cysteine in the resting form of MetE. Hcy associates at the face of the metal opposite glutamate, which moves away from the zinc in the binary E.Hcy complex. The folate substrate is not intimately associated with the N-terminal barrel; instead, elements from both barrels contribute binding determinants in a binary complex in which the folate substrate is incorrectly oriented for methyl transfer. Atypical locations of the Hcy and folate sites in the C-terminal barrel presumably permit direct interaction of the substrates in a ternary complex. Structures of the binary substrate complexes imply that rearrangement of folate, perhaps accompanied by domain rearrangement, must occur before formation of a ternary complex that is competent for methyl transfer.

  4. Cobalamin-Independent Methionine Synthase (MetE): A Face-to-Face Double Barrel that Evolved by Gene Duplication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cobalamin-independent methionine synthase (MetE) catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from methyltetrahydrofolate to L-homocysteine (Hcy) without using an intermediate methyl carrier. Although MetE displays no detectable sequence homology with cobalamin-dependent methionine synthase (MetH), both enzymes require zinc for activation and binding of Hcy. Crystallographic analyses of MetE from T. maritima reveal an unusual dual-barrel structure in which the active site lies between the tops of the two (βα)8 barrels. The fold of the N-terminal barrel confirms that it has evolved from the C-terminal polypeptide by gene duplication; comparisons of the barrels provide an intriguing example of homologous domain evolution in which binding sites are obliterated. The C-terminal barrel incorporates the zinc ion that binds and activates Hcy. The zinc-binding site in MetE is distinguished from the (Cys)3Zn site in the related enzymes, MetH and betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase, by its position in the barrel and by the metal ligands, which are histidine, cysteine, glutamate, and cysteine in the resting form of MetE. Hcy associates at the face of the metal opposite glutamate, which moves away from the zinc in the binary E · Hcy complex. The folate substrate is not intimately associated with the N-terminal barrel; instead, elements from both barrels contribute binding determinants in a binary complex in which the folate substrate is incorrectly oriented for methyl transfer. Atypical locations of the Hcy and folate sites in the C-terminal barrel presumably permit direct interaction of the substrates in a ternary complex. Structures of the binary substrate complexes imply that rearrangement of folate, perhaps accompanied by domain rearrangement, must occur before formation of a ternary complex that is competent for methyl transfer.

  5. Formation of furfurylthiol exhibiting a strong coffee aroma during oak barrel fermentation from furfural released by toasted staves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, L; Tominaga, T; Dubourdieu, D

    2001-10-01

    Furfurylthiol (FFT) is formed in white wines during alcoholic fermentation in the barrel from the furfural released by toasted staves. The quantity of furfural released into the must has a decisive effect on the quantity of FFT in the finished wine. Wines fermented in new barrels thus contain larger quantities of FFT than those fermented in used barrels. Fermentation conditions favorable to an excess production of H(2)S (hydrogen sulfide) by the yeast promote the formation of this volatile thiol. The presence of this volatile thiol in white wines is, therefore, closely related to the yeast's sulfur metabolism. PMID:11600030

  6. Etablierung von enzymatischer Aktivität auf künstlich erzeugten (βα)8-Barrel Proteinen

    OpenAIRE

    Sperl, Josef

    2013-01-01

    Die Grundlage dieser Arbeit bildete das artifizielle (βα)8-Barrel-Protein Sym2. Sym2 ist ein thermostabiles Protein und entstand im Rahmen einer experimentellen Rekonstruktion der (βα)8-Barrel-Evolution im Labor. Dieser lag die Hypothese zugrunde, dass heutige (βα)8-Barrel Enzyme aus einem gemeinsamen Vorfahren halber Länge – dem (βα)4-Halbbarrel – durch Duplikation, Fusion und Diversifikation entstanden sind. Um diesen postulierten Evolutionsweg im Labor nachzustellen, wurde das C-terminale ...

  7. Intercalibration of the barrel electromagnetic calorimeter of the CMS experiment at start-up

    CERN Document Server

    Adzic, Petar; Almeida, Nuno; Anagnostou, Georgios; Andelin, Daniel; Anfreville, Marc; Anicin, Ivan; Antunovic, Zeljko; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Auffray, Etiennette; Argiro, Stefano; Askew, Andrew; Atramentov, Oleksiy; Baccaro, Stefania; Baffioni, Stephanie; Balazs, Michael; Barney, David; Barone, Luciano; Bartoloni, Alessandro; Baty, Clement; Bandurin, Dmitry; Beauceron, Stephanie; Bell, Ken W; Benetta, Robert; Bercher, Michel; Bernet, Colin; Berthon, Ursula; Besançon, Marc; Betev, Botjo; Beuselinck, Raymond; Biino, Cristina; Blaha, Jan; Bloch, Philippe; Blyth, Simon; Bornheim, Adolf; Bourotte, Jean; Brett, Angela Mary; Brown, Robert M; Britton, David; Bühler, M; Busson, Philippe; Camanzi, Barbara; Camporesi, Tiziano; Carrera, E; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Cavallari, Francesca; Cerutti, Muriel; Chang, Paoti; Chang, You-Hao; Charlot, Claude; Chen, E Augustine; Chen, Wan-Ting; Chen, Zheng-Yu; Chipaux, Rémi; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Choudhury, Rajani Kant; Cockerill, David J A; Combaret, Christophe; Conetti, Sergio; Cossutti, Fabio; Cox, Bradley; Cussans, David; Dafinei, Ioan; Da Silva Di Calafiori, Diogo Raphael; Daskalakis, Georgios; Davatz, Giovanna; David, A; Deiters, Konrad; Dejardin, Marc; Djordjevic, Milos; Della Negra, Rodolphe; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Del Re, Daniele; De Min, Alberto; Denegri, Daniel; Depasse, Pierre; Descamps, Julien; Diemoz, Marcella; Di Marco, Emanuele; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Djambazov, Lubomir; Dobrzynski, Ludwik; Drndarevic, Snezana; Duboscq, Jean Etienne; Dutta, Dipanwita; Dzelalija, Mile; Peisert, A; El-Mamouni, H; Evangelou, Ioannis; Evans, David; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Fay, Jean; Ferri, Federico; Flower, Paul S; Franci, Daniele; Franzoni, Giovanni; Freudenreich, Klaus; Funk, Wolfgang; Ganjour, Serguei; Gargiulo, Corrado; Gascon, Susan; Gataullin, Marat; Geerebaert, Yannick; Gentit, François-Xavier; Gershtein, Yuri; Ghezzi, Alessio; Ghodgaonkar, Manohar; Gilly, Jean; Givernaud, Alain; Gninenko, Sergei; Go, Apollo; Gobbo, Benigno; Godinovic, Nikola; Golubev, Nikolai; Gong, Datao; Govoni, Pietro; Grant, Nicholas; Gras, Philippe; Greenhalgh, R J S; Guevara Riveros, Luz; Guillaud, Jean-Paul; Haguenauer, Maurice; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Hansen, Magnus; Heath, Helen F; Heltsley, Brian; Hill, Jack; Hintz, Wieland; Hirosky, Robert; Hobson, Peter R; Honma, Alan; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Hsiung, Yee; Husejko, Michal; Ille, Bernard; Imlay, Richard; Ingram, Quentin; Jarry, Patrick; Jessop, Colin; Jovanovic, Dragoslav; Kaadze, Ketino; Kachanov, Vassili; Kailas, Swaminathan; Kataria, Sushil Kumar; Kennedy, Bruce W; Kloukinas, Kostas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Kolberg, Ted; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Krpic, Dragomir; Kubota, Yuichi; Kumar, P; Kuo, Chen-Cheng; Kyberd, Paul; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Lebeau, Michel; Lecomte, Pierre; Lecoq, Paul; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Leshev, Georgi; Lethuillier, Morgan; Lin, Sheng-Wen; Lin, Willis; Lintern, A L; Litvine, Vladimir; Locci, Elizabeth; Lodge, Anthony B; Longo, Egidio; Loukas, Demetrios; Luckey, Paul David; Lustermann, Werner; Lynch, Clare; Ma, Yousi; Mahlke-Krüger, H; Malberti, Martina; Malcles, Julie; Maletic, Dimitrije; Mandjavidze, Irakli; Manthos, Nikolaos; Maravin, Yurii; Marchica, Carmelo; Marinelli, Nancy; Markou, Athanasios; Markou, Christos; Marone, Matteo; Mathez, Hervé; Matveev, Viktor; Mavrommatis, Charalampos; Maurelli, Georges; Meridiani, Paolo; Milenovic, Predrag; Milleret, Gérard; Miné, Philippe; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Moortgat, Filip; Mur, Michel; Musella, Pasquale; Musienko, Yuri; Nardulli, Alessandro; Nash, Jordan; Nédélec, Patrick; Negri, Pietro; Newman, Harvey B; Nikitenko, Alexander; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Organtini, Giovanni; Orimoto, Toyoko; Paganoni, Marco; Paganini, Pascal; Palma, Alessandro; Panev, Bozhidar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Papadakis, Antonakis; Papadakis, Ioannis; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Paramatti, Riccardo; Parracho, P; Pastrone, Nadia; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Pauss, Felicitas; Petrakou, Eleni; Phillips, D G; Piroué, Pierre; Ptochos, Fotios; Puljak, Ivica; Pullia, Antonino; Punz, Thomas; Puzovic, Jovan; Ragazzi, Stefano; Rahatlou, Shahram; Rander, John; Razis, Panos A; Redaelli, Nicola; Renker, Dieter; Reucroft, Steve; Reymond, Jean-Marc; Ribeiro, Pedro Quinaz; Röser, Ulf; Rogan, Christopher; Romanteau, Thierry; Rondeaux, Françoise; Ronquest, Michael; Rosowsky, André; Rovelli, Chiara; Rumerio, Paolo; Rusack, Roger; Rusakov, Sergey V; Ryan, Matthew John; Sala, Leonardo; Salerno, Roberto; Santanastasio, Francesco; Schinzel, Dietrich; Seez, Christopher; Sharp, Peter; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Siamitros, Christos; Sillou, Daniel; Singovsky, Alexander; Sirois, Yves; Sirunyan, Albert M; Silva, J; Silva, Pedro; Shiu, Jing-Ge; Shivpuri, Ram Krishen; Shukla, Prashant; Smith, Brian; Smith, Vincent J; Sproston, Martin; Stöckli, Fabian; Suter, Henry; Swain, John; Tabarellide Fatis, T; Takahashi, Maiko; Tcheremoukhine, Alexandre; Teller, Olivier; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Thiebaux, Christophe; Timciuc, Vladlen; Timlin, Claire; Titov, Maksym; Tobias, A; Topkar, Anita; Triantis, Frixos A; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Ueno, Koji; Uzunian, Andrey; Varela, Joao; Verrecchia, Patrice; Veverka, Jan; Vichoudis, Paschalis; Virdee, Tejinder; Vlassov, E; Von Gunten, Hans Peter; Wang, Minzu; Wardrope, David; Weber, Markus; Weng, Joanna; Williams, Jennifer C; Yang, Yong; Yaselli, Ignacio; Yohay, Rachel; Zabi, Alexandre; Zamiatin, Nikolai; Zelepoukine, Serguei; Zhang, Jia-Wen; Zhang, Lin; Zhu, Kejun; Zhu, Ren-Yuan

    2008-01-01

    Calibration of the relative response of the individual channels of the barrel electromagnetic calorimeter of the CMS detector was accomplished before installation with cosmic ray muons and test beams. One fourth of the calorimeter was exposed to a beam of high energy electrons and the relative calibration of the channels, the intercalibration, was found to be reproducible to a precision of about 0.3\\%. Additionally, data were collected with cosmic rays for the entire ECAL barrel during the commissioning phase. By comparing the intercalibration constants obtained with the electron beam data with those from the cosmic ray data, it is demonstrated that the latter provide an intercalibration precision of 1.5\\% over most of the ECAL. The best intercalibration precision is expected to come from the analysis of events collected {\\it in situ} during the LHC operation. Using data collected with both electrons and pion beams, several aspects of the intercalibration procedures based on electrons or neutral pions were in...

  8. Synaptic molecular imaging in spared and deprived columns of mouse barrel cortex with array tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiler, Nicholas C; Collman, Forrest; Vogelstein, Joshua T; Burns, Randal; Smith, Stephen J

    2014-01-01

    A major question in neuroscience is how diverse subsets of synaptic connections in neural circuits are affected by experience dependent plasticity to form the basis for behavioral learning and memory. Differences in protein expression patterns at individual synapses could constitute a key to understanding both synaptic diversity and the effects of plasticity at different synapse populations. Our approach to this question leverages the immunohistochemical multiplexing capability of array tomography (ATomo) and the columnar organization of mouse barrel cortex to create a dataset comprising high resolution volumetric images of spared and deprived cortical whisker barrels stained for over a dozen synaptic molecules each. These dataset has been made available through the Open Connectome Project for interactive online viewing, and may also be downloaded for offline analysis using web, Matlab, and other interfaces. PMID:25977797

  9. A VME barrel shifter system for event reconstruction for up to 3 Gbps signal trains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A VME barrel shifter system for event reconstruction was developed for the SDC experiment. A special semicustom switch IC was also developed for it. This system takes in fragments of a physical event through its inputs, combines and reorganizes the fragments and produces a complete data set of the event from one of its outputs. The complete output data set for successive events will be delivered to waiting computers at its outputs. Up to 3 Gbps signal trains can be fed through the switch unit. This system is VME 6U compatible and the switching can be controlled by a commercially available VME module. Building blocks of this barrel shifter system are switch modules, optical to electrical and electrical to optical converter modules and a dedicated crate. The switch modules are a dual-4 x 4/quad-2 x 2 unit and an 8 x 8 unit, and they can be combined to deal with very large number of I/O channels

  10. Current Status of the Pixel Phase I Upgrade in CMS: Barrel Module Production

    CERN Document Server

    Bartek, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    The silicon pixel detector is the innermost component of the CMS tracking system, providing high precision space point measurements of charged particle trajectories. Before 2018 the instantaneous luminosity of the LHC is expected to reach about 2~x~$10^{34}~\\rm{cm}^{-2}\\rm{s}^{-1}$, which will significantly increase the number of interactions per bunch crossing. To maintain a high tracking efficiency, CMS has planned to replace the current pixel system during phase I by a new lightweight detector, equipped with an additional 4th layer in the barrel, and one additional forward/backward disk. The present status of barrel modules production will be presented, including preliminary results from tests on the first production pixel modules of the new pixel tracker.

  11. An investigation of coated aluminium bipolar plates for PEMFC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Coated aluminium bipolar plates demonstrate the hydrophobic property than the raw material. ► The corrosion behaviour of bipolar plate decreases the PEMFC performance severely. ► These PEMFCs are measured by current–voltage (I–V) curve test. ► The oxide film increases the interfacial contact resistance. -- Abstract: The performance of Al-alloy bipolar plates for the PEMFC (proton exchange membrane fuel cell) system is investigated in this paper. The metallic bipolar plates are modified with a Ni–P coating. The performance of the Al-alloy bipolar plates is evaluated by the coating structure, corrosion resistance, contact angle and single cell performance. The results indicate that the coated aluminium bipolar plates demonstrate hydrophobic and anti-corrosive properties. The hydrophobic property increases the contact angle on the surface from 46.08° to 80.51°. Meanwhile, the corrosion rate of the Ni–P coating can be over 1 order of magnitude lower than that of the substrate. Hence, the substrate with the coating maintains superior performance under the long term test. The present study proves that both the hydrophobicity and corrosion resistance significantly affect the metallic bipolar plate.

  12. The Dynamics of Plate Tectonics and Mantle Flow: From Local to Global Scales

    OpenAIRE

    Stadler, Georg; Gurnis, Michael; Burstedde, Carsten; Wilcox, Lucas C.; Alisic, Laura; Ghattas, Omar

    2010-01-01

    Plate tectonics is regulated by driving and resisting forces concentrated at plate boundaries, but observationally constrained high-resolution models of global mantle flow remain a computational challenge. We capitalized on advances in adaptive mesh refinement algorithms on parallel computers to simulate global mantle flow by incorporating plate motions, with individual plate margins resolved down to a scale of 1 kilometer. Back-arc extension and slab rollback are emergent consequences of sla...

  13. Barrel-stave model or toroidal model? A case study on melittin pores.

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, L; Harroun, T A; Weiss, T M; Ding, L; Huang, H W

    2001-01-01

    Transmembrane pores induced by amphiphilic peptides, including melittin, are often modeled with the barrel-stave model after the alamethicin pore. We examine this assumption on melittin by using two methods, oriented circular dichroism (OCD) for detecting the orientation of melittin helix and neutron scattering for detecting transmembrane pores. OCD spectra of melittin were systematically measured. Melittin can orient either perpendicularly or parallel to a lipid bilayer, depending on the phy...

  14. Adoption, Maintenance and Diffusion of Stormwater Best Management Practices: Rain Barrels

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffa, Cheyenne R; Prokopy, Linda S; Babin, Nicholas, Ph. D; Turner, Allison J

    2014-01-01

    Urbanization increases the volume of stormwater runoff from homes, businesses and other paved areas of the urbanized landscape. Unable to infiltrate into the ground, stormwater is directed to facilities that can easily become overloaded and cause a variety of water quality issues. This study aims to assess urban homeowners’ motivations to adopt and maintain rain barrels, a stormwater best management practice (BMP), and evaluate how this BMP diffuses throughout a community. This research took ...

  15. Morphology and Physiology of Excitatory Neurons in Layer 6b of the Somatosensory Rat Barrel Cortex

    OpenAIRE

    M. Marx; Feldmeyer, D.

    2012-01-01

    Neocortical lamina 6B (L6B) is a largely unexplored layer with a very heterogeneous cellular composition. To date, only little is known about L6B neurons on a systematic and quantitative basis. We investigated the morphological and electrophysiological properties of excitatory L6B neurons in the rat somatosensory barrel cortex using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings and simultaneous biocytin fillings. Subsequent histological processing and computer-assisted 3D reconstructions provided the bas...

  16. Brain-wide map of efferent projections from rat barrel cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trygve B. Leergaard

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The somatotopically organized whisker barrel field of the rat primary somatosensory (S1 cortex is a commonly used model system for anatomical and physiological investigations of sensory processing. The neural connections of the barrel cortex have been extensively mapped. But most investigations have focused on connections to limited regions of the brain, and overviews in the literature of the connections across the brain thus build on a range of material from different laboratories, presented in numerous publications. Furthermore, given the limitations of the conventional journal article format, analyses and interpretations are hampered by lack of access to the underlying experimental data. New opportunities for analyses have emerged with the recent release of an online resource of experimental data consisting of collections of high-resolution images from 6 experiments in which anterograde tracers were injected in S1 whisker or forelimb representations. Building on this material, we have conducted a detailed analysis of the brain wide distribution of the efferent projections of the rat barrel cortex. We compare our findings with the available literature and reports accumulated in the Brain Architecture Management System (BAMS2 database. We report well-known and less known intracortical and subcortical projections of the barrel cortex, as well as distinct differences between S1 whisker and forelimb related projections. Our results correspond well with recently published overviews, but provide additional information about relative differences among S1 projection targets. Our approach demonstrates how collections of shared experimental image data are suitable for brain-wide analysis and interpretation of connectivity mapping data.

  17. Study of a twisted ATLAS SCT Barrel deformation as revealed by a photogrammetric survey

    CERN Document Server

    Dobson, E; Heinemann, F; Karagoz-Unel, M

    2007-01-01

    A photogrammetry survey on the SCT barrels was performed as an engineering check on the structure of the ATLAS Semiconductor Tracker (SCT) shortly after construction. Analysis of the data obtained revealed small scale elliptical deformation as well as a twist of the structure. The results of the survey are presented as well as interpolation of the measured targets to the module positions and a comparison with track based alignment measurements.

  18. The Development of the Graphite Barrel of the Coaxial Magnetoplasma Accelerator

    OpenAIRE

    Shatrova Ksenia; Pak Alexander; Sokolova Elvira

    2015-01-01

    The plasma accelerators are widely used for some powder and bulk (coatings) materials synthesis. Some metastable or high temperatures polymorphs require some special conditions for crystallization, for example ultra-high cooling rate. One of the possible ways to obtain these materials is the synthesis in a high speed plasma jet generating by a high current pulsed power plasma accelerator. The paper presents the results of experimental research concerning the development of a graphite barrel d...

  19. Particle contamination from Martin Optical Black. [in design of barrel baffle of Infrared Astronomical Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, P. J.; Noll, R.; Andreozzi, L.; Hope, J.

    1981-01-01

    The design of the barrel baffle of the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) Optical Subsystem to minimize production of particulate contamination is described. The configuration of the 50-inch long, 28.5-inch diameter baffle required pop-rivet assembly after coating with Martin Optical Black for stray light suppression. An experiment to determine the contamination produced at assembly led to the modification of the baffle construction to preclude such damage to the coated surfaces.

  20. A Study of Bernard Malamud’s The Magic Barrel from the Psychological Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田婧

    2014-01-01

    The Magic Barrel tells a story about Leo Finkle who is a rabbinical student and in want of a wife transacts with the marriage broker Pinye Salzman and finally marry his daughter Stella. By using Sigmund Freud’s Psychoanalytical Criti-cism, this paper aims to explore the Leo’s changes in thought and emotions towards love and marriage and his torment during his process of the pursuit of love and happiness.

  1. Structural Plasticity within the Barrel Cortex during Initial Phases of Whisker-Dependent Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Kuhlman, Sandra J.; O'Connor, Daniel H.; Fox, Kevin; Svoboda, Karel

    2014-01-01

    We report learning-related structural plasticity in layer 1 branches of pyramidal neurons in the barrel cortex, a known site of sensorimotor integration. In mice learning an active, whisker-dependent object localization task, layer 2/3 neurons showed enhanced spine growth during initial skill acquisition that both preceded and predicted expert performance. Preexisting spines were stabilized and new persistent spines were formed. These findings suggest rapid changes in connectivity between mot...

  2. Test Beam Measurement of the Crosstalk in the EM Barrel Module 0

    CERN Document Server

    Hubaut, F; Lacour, D; Orsini, F

    2000-01-01

    Test beam measurements of the crosstalk in the barrel electromagnetic calorimeter Module 0 tested at CERN in August 99' are reported. The main sources of crosstalk coming either from electronics or from physical effects on the electrodes have been identified and quantified. This has been done for the crosstalks between the different parts of the module, namely middle-middle, middle-back, middle-front, back-back, back-middle, back-front, front-front and front-middle.

  3. Brain-wide map of efferent projections from rat barrel cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakiewicz, Izabela M; Bjaalie, Jan G; Leergaard, Trygve B

    2014-01-01

    The somatotopically organized whisker barrel field of the rat primary somatosensory (S1) cortex is a commonly used model system for anatomical and physiological investigations of sensory processing. The neural connections of the barrel cortex have been extensively mapped. But most investigations have focused on connections to limited regions of the brain, and overviews in the literature of the connections across the brain thus build on a range of material from different laboratories, presented in numerous publications. Furthermore, given the limitations of the conventional journal article format, analyses and interpretations are hampered by lack of access to the underlying experimental data. New opportunities for analyses have emerged with the recent release of an online resource of experimental data consisting of collections of high-resolution images from 6 experiments in which anterograde tracers were injected in S1 whisker or forelimb representations. Building on this material, we have conducted a detailed analysis of the brain wide distribution of the efferent projections of the rat barrel cortex. We compare our findings with the available literature and reports accumulated in the Brain Architecture Management System (BAMS2) database. We report well-known and less known intracortical and subcortical projections of the barrel cortex, as well as distinct differences between S1 whisker and forelimb related projections. Our results correspond well with recently published overviews, but provide additional information about relative differences among S1 projection targets. Our approach demonstrates how collections of shared experimental image data are suitable for brain-wide analysis and interpretation of connectivity mapping data. PMID:24550819

  4. Microcircuits of excitatory and inhibitory neurons in layer 2/3 of mouse barrel cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Avermann, Michael; Tomm, Christian; Mateo, Celine; Gerstner, Wulfram; Petersen, Carl C. H.

    2012-01-01

    Avermann M, Tomm C, Mateo C, Gerstner W, Petersen CC. Microcircuits of excitatory and inhibitory neurons in layer 2/3 of mouse barrel cortex. J Neurophysiol 107: 3116-3134, 2012. First published March 7, 2012; doi:10.1152/jn.00917.2011.-Synaptic interactions between nearby excitatory and inhibitory neurons in the neocortex are thought to play fundamental roles in sensory processing. Here, we have combined optogenetic stimulation, whole cell recordings, and computational modeling to define key...

  5. Nitrobindin: An Ubiquitous Family of All β-Barrel Heme-proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Simone, Giovanna; Ascenzi, Paolo; Polticelli, Fabio

    2016-06-01

    Rhodnius prolixus nitrophorins (Rp-NPs), Arabidopsis thaliana nitrobindin (At-Nb), and Homo sapiens THAP4 (Hs-THAP4) are the unique known proteins that use a β-barrel fold to bind ferric heme, which is devoted to NO transport and/or catalysis. The eight-stranded antiparallel β-barrel Rp-NPs, which represent the only heme-binding lipocalins, are devoted to deliver NO into the blood vessel of the host and to scavenge histamine during blood sucking. Regarding Nbs, crystallographic data suggest the ability of At-Nb and Hs-THAP4 to bind ferric heme; however, no data are available with respect to these functions in the natural host. Here, a bioinformatics investigation based on the amino acid sequences and three-dimensional structures of At-Nb and Hs-THAP4 suggests a conservation of the 10-stranded antiparallel β-barrel Nb structural module in all life kingdoms of the evolutionary ladder. In particular, amino acid residues involved in the heme recognition and in the structure stabilization of the Nb structural module are highly conserved (identity > 29%; homology > 83%). Moreover, molecular models of putative Nbs from different organisms match very well with each other and known three-dimensional structures of Nbs. Furthermore, phylogenetic tree reconstruction indicates that NPs and Nbs group in distinct clades. These data indicate that 10-stranded β-barrel Nbs constitute a new ubiquitous heme protein family spanning from bacteria to Homo sapiens. © 2016 IUBMB Life, 68(6):423-428, 2016. PMID:27080126

  6. Brazing with plated alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of braze alloy preforms on complex geometry components is at times a very difficult task requiring extensive handling of the parts or even tack welding of the preform to ensure that it is held in place. One method of overcoming these difficulties is the use of plated braze alloys (i.e., filler metals) applied directly to the braze region. Plating helps to avoid the potential for contamination resulting from handling and also ensures that the braze alloy is located properly. Examples are discussed in which an electroplated silver-copper alloy is used as an alternative to the BAg8 preforms and electroless nickel is used as a replacement for an amorphous Ni-P braze alloy foil. A toroidal cooling plate with helical flow channels was fabricated from oxygen-free high conductivity (OFHC) and brazed using the electroplated silver-copper alloy. The silver-copper braze alloy was applied to the copper substrate in a laminated fashion of alternating layers of silver and copper, which in combination approximated the eutectic composition (72% Ag-28% Cu by weight). Examination of the brazed assemblies indicated that in both cases the advantages of using plated braze alloys are numerous. These advantages include decreased labor, improved cleanliness and exactness of braze alloy placement. The primary disadvantage was an increased tendency for solidification defects presumably resulting from contaminants in the plating baths. This last observation is presently being examined in greater detail. The end results is that the assemblies brazed with the plated alloys were acceptable for the intended application and that the use of plating facilitated the successful assembly of these components

  7. Temperature field of steel plate cooling process after plate rolling

    OpenAIRE

    Huijun Feng, Lingen Chen, Fengrui Sun

    2015-01-01

    Based on numerical calculation with Matlab, the study on cooling process after plate rolling is carried out, and the temperature field distribution of the plate varying with the time is obtained. The effects of the plate thickness, final rolling temperature, cooling water temperature, average flow rate of the cooling water, carbon content of the plate and cooling method on the plate surface and central temperatures as well as final cooling temperature are discussed. For the same cooling time,...

  8. Resource Review Board Celebrates the Magnet and Liquid Argon Barrel Tests in Hall 180

    CERN Document Server

    Jenni, P.

    2004-01-01

    Address by the Director-General, R. Aymar, in front of the barrel cryostat. On 25th October 2004 many RRB delegates and guests, ATLAS National Contact Physicists, and colleagues from far and from CERN working on the Liquid Argon calorimeter and the magnet system were gathering in Hall 180 to celebrate the major milestones reached during the past months in this hall: the successful cold tests of the first barrel toroid coil, of the solenoid, and of the barrel Liquid Argon calorimeter. About 250 people spent a relaxing evening after the speeches by the Director-General R. Aymar and by the spokesperson who gave the following address: 'It is a great pleasure for me to welcome you all here in Hall 180 in the name of the ATLAS Collaboration! With a few words I would like to recall why we are actually here today to share, what I hope, is a relaxed and joyful moment. To concentrate it all in one sentence I could say: To thank cordially all the main actors for the enormous work accomplished here over many years,...

  9. Spatiotemporal distribution of proteoglycans in the developing rat's barrel field and the effects of early deafferentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahia, Carlomagno Pacheco; Houzel, Jean-Christophe; Picanço-Diniz, Cristovam Wanderley; Pereira, Antonio

    2008-09-10

    The isolectin Vicia villosa B(4) (VV) selectively recognizes N-acetyl-galactosamine-terminal glycoconjugates that form perineuronal nets (PNNs) around a subset of neurons in the cerebral cortex. PNNs are thought to participate in the guidance of incoming thalamic axons and in the posterior stabilization and maintenance of synaptic contacts. Here we examine the spatial and temporal distribution of biotinylated VV in tangential sections through layer IV of the posteromedial barrel subfield in the primary somatosensory cortex (PMBSF) of rats ranging from postnatal day (P)3 to P60, which underwent unilateral deafferentation of whiskers at birth. In the afferented hemisphere, labeling first appears at P5, with a diffuse distribution, probably associated with neuropil, inside PMBSF barrels. VV distribution remains diffuse during the following week, and declines around P17. From P24 onward, however, proteoglycans form PNNs around cell bodies preferentially localized in septal regions of the PMBSF. In the contralateral, deafferented PMBSF the diffuse labeling also appears on P5, but first develops into elongated, homogeneous stripes, which disappear after P24, leaving only scattered cell bodies along layer IV. Our results indicate that proteoglycans appear simultaneous to barrel formation in the developing rat while segregation of PNNs to septal cells might be driven by afferent activity. PMID:18615535

  10. Destiny of a drop on a fiber: from barrel to clamshell and back

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eral, Burak; de Ruiter, J.; de Ruiter, R.; Oh, J. M.; Semprebon, C.; Brinkman, M.; Mugele, F.

    2011-11-01

    Drops on cylindrical fibers are a familiar sight, for instance in the form of dew drops on spider webs. They can exist in two competing morphologies, a cylindrically symmetric barrel state completely engulfing the fiber and an asymmetric clamshell state, in which the drop sits on the side of the fiber. Despite their omnipresence and their practical relevance the physical mechanisms governing the stability of the two morphologies remained elusive. Using electrowetting-functionalized fibers we determined of the stability limits of both morphologies as a function of the two relevant control parameters, the contact angle and the liquid volume. While clamshells are found to prevail for large contact angles and small volumes, and barrels prevail for small angles and large volumes, there is also a wide range of intermediate parameter values, for which both morphologies are mechanically stable. Mapping out the energy landscape of the system by numerical minimization of the free energy we find that the barrel state is easily deformed by non-axisymmetric perturbations. From a general perspective, the demonstration of electrowetting-based reversible switching of liquid morphologies on fibers opens up opportunities for designing functional textiles and porous materials. We thank the Chemical Sciences division of the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO-CW) for financial support.

  11. CREB Regulates Experience-Dependent Spine Formation and Enlargement in Mouse Barrel Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annabella Pignataro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Experience modifies synaptic connectivity through processes that involve dendritic spine rearrangements in neuronal circuits. Although cAMP response element binding protein (CREB has a key function in spines changes, its role in activity-dependent rearrangements in brain regions of rodents interacting with the surrounding environment has received little attention so far. Here we studied the effects of vibrissae trimming, a widely used model of sensory deprivation-induced cortical plasticity, on processes associated with dendritic spine rearrangements in the barrel cortex of a transgenic mouse model of CREB downregulation (mCREB mice. We found that sensory deprivation through prolonged whisker trimming leads to an increased number of thin spines in the layer V of related barrel cortex (Contra in wild type but not mCREB mice. In the barrel field controlling spared whiskers (Ipsi, the same trimming protocol results in a CREB-dependent enlargement of dendritic spines. Last, we demonstrated that CREB regulates structural rearrangements of synapses that associate with dynamic changes of dendritic spines. Our findings suggest that CREB plays a key role in dendritic spine dynamics and synaptic circuits rearrangements that account for new brain connectivity in response to changes in the environment.

  12. Functions of phenylalanine residues within the beta-barrel stem of the anthrax toxin pore.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A key step of anthrax toxin action involves the formation of a protein-translocating pore within the endosomal membrane by the Protective Antigen (PA moiety. Formation of this transmembrane pore by PA involves interaction of the seven 2beta2-2beta3 loops of the heptameric precursor to generate a 14-strand transmembrane beta barrel. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We examined the effects on pore formation, protein translocation, and cytotoxicity, of mutating two phenylalanines, F313 and F314, that lie at the tip the beta barrel, and a third one, F324, that lies part way up the barrel. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results show that the function of these phenylalanine residues is to mediate membrane insertion and formation of stable transmembrane channels. Unlike F427, a key luminal residue in the cap of the pore, F313, F314, and F324 do not directly affect protein translocation through the pore. Our findings add to our knowledge of structure-function relationships of a key virulence factor of the anthrax bacillus.

  13. Folding of β-barrel membrane proteins in lipid bilayers - Unassisted and assisted folding and insertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinschmidt, Jörg H

    2015-09-01

    In cells, β-barrel membrane proteins are transported in unfolded form to an outer membrane into which they fold and insert. Model systems have been established to investigate the mechanisms of insertion and folding of these versatile proteins into detergent micelles, lipid bilayers and even synthetic amphipathic polymers. In these experiments, insertion into lipid membranes is initiated from unfolded forms that do not display residual β-sheet secondary structure. These studies therefore have allowed the investigation of membrane protein folding and insertion in great detail. Folding of β-barrel membrane proteins into lipid bilayers has been monitored from unfolded forms by dilution of chaotropic denaturants that keep the protein unfolded as well as from unfolded forms present in complexes with molecular chaperones from cells. This review is aimed to provide an overview of the principles and mechanisms observed for the folding of β-barrel transmembrane proteins into lipid bilayers, the importance of lipid-protein interactions and the function of molecular chaperones and folding assistants. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Lipid-protein interactions. PMID:25983306

  14. Bending and stretching of plates

    CERN Document Server

    Mansfield, E H; Hemp, W S

    2014-01-01

    The Bending and Stretching of Plates deals with elastic plate theory, particularly on small- and large-deflexion theory. Small-deflexion theory concerns derivation of basic equations, rectangular plates, plates of various shapes, plates whose boundaries are amenable to conformal transformation, plates with variable rigidity, and approximate methods. Large-deflexion theory includes general equations and some exact solutions, approximate methods in large-deflexion theory, asymptotic large-deflexion theories for very thin plates. Asymptotic theories covers membrane theory, tension field theory, a

  15. Automatic Number Plate Recognition System

    OpenAIRE

    Rajshree Dhruw; Dharmendra Roy

    2014-01-01

    Automatic Number Plate Recognition (ANPR) is a mass surveillance system that captures the image of vehicles and recognizes their license number. The objective is to design an efficient automatic authorized vehicle identification system by using the Indian vehicle number plate. In this paper we discus different methodology for number plate localization, character segmentation & recognition of the number plate. The system is mainly applicable for non standard Indian number plates by recognizing...

  16. Anterior cervical plating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonugunta V

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Although anterior cervical instrumentation was initially used in cervical trauma, because of obvious benefits, indications for its use have been expanded over time to degenerative cases as well as tumor and infection of the cervical spine. Along with a threefold increase in incidence of cervical fusion surgery, implant designs have evolved over the last three decades. Observation of graft subsidence and phenomenon of stress shielding led to the development of the new generation dynamic anterior cervical plating systems. Anterior cervical plating does not conclusively improve clinical outcome of the patients, but certainly enhances the efficacy of autograft and allograft fusion and lessens the rate of pseudoarthrosis and kyphosis after multilevel discectomy and fusions. A review of biomechanics, surgical technique, indications, complications and results of various anterior cervical plating systems is presented here to enable clinicians to select the appropriate construct design.

  17. De novo backbone and sequence design of an idealized alpha/beta-barrel protein: Evidence of stable tertiary structure

    OpenAIRE

    Offredi, Fabrice; Dubail, Fabien; Kischel, Philippe; Sarinski, K.; Stern, A S; Van de Weerdt, Cécile; Hoch, J. C.; Prosperi, Christelle; François, Jean-Marie; Mayo, S. L.; Martial, Joseph

    2003-01-01

    We have designed, synthesized, and characterized a 216 amino acid residue sequence encoding a putative idealized alpha/beta-barrel protein. The design was elaborated in two steps. First, the idealized backbone was defined with geometric parameters representing our target fold: a central eight parallel-stranded beta-sheet surrounded by eight parallel alpha-helices, connected together with short structural turns on both sides of the barrel. An automated sequence selection algorithm, based on th...

  18. System Research Of Multi-Barrel Machine Guns Installed On Board Of The Helicopter Of Mi-17 Type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bęczkowski Grzegorz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article presents tests of a multi-barreled machine gun system built on board of a helicopter. The described weapon system consists of three 7.62 mm M-134G multi-barreled machine guns built on the designed frames of shooting positions located in the escape hatch window, the side doors and the rear doors of the transport cabin of the Mi-17-1V helicopter.

  19. Divergent evolution of a beta/alpha-barrel subclass: detection of numerous phosphate-binding sites by motif search.

    OpenAIRE

    Bork, P.; Gellerich, J.; Groth, H.; Hooft, R.; Martin, F.

    1995-01-01

    Study of the most conserved region in many beta/alpha-barrels, the phosphate-binding site, revealed a sequence motif in a few beta/alpha-barrels with known tertiary structure, namely glycolate oxidase (GOX), cytochrome b2 (Cyb2), tryptophan synthase alpha subunit (TrpA), and the indoleglycerolphosphate synthase (TrpC). Database searches identified this motif in numerous other enzyme families: (1) IMP dehydrogenase (IMPDH) and GMP reductase (GuaC); (2) phosphoribosylformimino-5-aminoimidazol c...

  20. Shifts in developmental timing, and not increased levels of experience-dependent neuronal activity, promote barrel expansion in the primary somatosensory cortex of rats enucleated at birth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Fetter-Pruneda

    Full Text Available Birth-enucleated rodents display enlarged representations of whiskers (i.e., barrels of the posteromedial subfield in the primary somatosensory cortex. Although the historical view maintains that barrel expansion is due to incremental increases in neuronal activity along the trigeminal pathway during postnatal development, recent evidence obtained in experimental models of intramodal plasticity challenges this view. Here, we re-evaluate the role of experience-dependent neuronal activity on barrel expansion in birth-enucleated rats by combining various anatomical methods and sensory deprivation paradigms. We show that barrels in birth-enucleated rats were already enlarged by the end of the first week of life and had levels of metabolic activity comparable to those in control rats at different ages. Dewhiskering after the postnatal period of barrel formation did not prevent barrel expansion in adult, birth-enucleated rats. Further, dark rearing and enucleation after barrel formation did not lead to expanded barrels in adult brains. Because incremental increases of somatosensory experience did not promote barrel expansion in birth-enucleated rats, we explored whether shifts of the developmental timing could better explain barrel expansion during the first week of life. Accordingly, birth-enucleated rats show earlier formation of barrels, accelerated growth of somatosensory thalamocortical afferents, and an earlier H4 deacetylation. Interestingly, when H4 deacetylation was prevented with a histone deacetylases inhibitor (valproic acid, barrel specification timing returned to normal and barrel expansion did not occur. Thus, we provide evidence supporting that shifts in developmental timing modulated through epigenetic mechanisms, and not increased levels of experience dependent neuronal activity, promote barrel expansion in the primary somatosensory cortex of rats enucleated at birth.

  1. Shifts in Developmental Timing, and Not Increased Levels of Experience-Dependent Neuronal Activity, Promote Barrel Expansion in the Primary Somatosensory Cortex of Rats Enucleated at Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetter-Pruneda, Ingrid; Ibarrarán-Viniegra, Ana Sofía; Martínez-Martínez, Eduardo; Sandoval-Velasco, Marcela; Uribe-Figueroa, Laura; Padilla-Cortés, Patricia; Mercado-Célis, Gabriela; Gutiérrez-Ospina, Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    Birth-enucleated rodents display enlarged representations of whiskers (i.e., barrels of the posteromedial subfield) in the primary somatosensory cortex. Although the historical view maintains that barrel expansion is due to incremental increases in neuronal activity along the trigeminal pathway during postnatal development, recent evidence obtained in experimental models of intramodal plasticity challenges this view. Here, we re-evaluate the role of experience-dependent neuronal activity on barrel expansion in birth-enucleated rats by combining various anatomical methods and sensory deprivation paradigms. We show that barrels in birth-enucleated rats were already enlarged by the end of the first week of life and had levels of metabolic activity comparable to those in control rats at different ages. Dewhiskering after the postnatal period of barrel formation did not prevent barrel expansion in adult, birth-enucleated rats. Further, dark rearing and enucleation after barrel formation did not lead to expanded barrels in adult brains. Because incremental increases of somatosensory experience did not promote barrel expansion in birth-enucleated rats, we explored whether shifts of the developmental timing could better explain barrel expansion during the first week of life. Accordingly, birth-enucleated rats show earlier formation of barrels, accelerated growth of somatosensory thalamocortical afferents, and an earlier H4 deacetylation. Interestingly, when H4 deacetylation was prevented with a histone deacetylases inhibitor (valproic acid), barrel specification timing returned to normal and barrel expansion did not occur. Thus, we provide evidence supporting that shifts in developmental timing modulated through epigenetic mechanisms, and not increased levels of experience dependent neuronal activity, promote barrel expansion in the primary somatosensory cortex of rats enucleated at birth. PMID:23372796

  2. Plates with Incompatible Prestrain

    OpenAIRE

    Bhattacharya, Kaushik; Lewicka, Marta; Schäffner, Mathias

    2016-01-01

    We study effective elastic behavior of the incompatibly prestrained thin plates, where the prestrain is independent of thickness and uniform through the plate’s thickness h. We model such plates as three-dimensional elastic bodies with a prescribed pointwise stress-free state characterized by a Riemannian metric G, and seek the limiting behavior as h→0. We first establish that when the energy per volume scales as the second power of h, the resulting Γ-limit is a Kirchhoff-type bending theory....

  3. Plating on Zircaloy-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zircaloy-2 is a difficult alloy to coat with an adherent electroplate because it easily forms a tenacious oxide film in air and aqueous solutions. Procedures reported in the literature and those developed at SLL for surmounting this problem were investigated. The best results were obtained when specimens were first etched in either an ammonium bifluoride/sulfuric acid or an ammonium bifluoride solution, plated, and then heated at 7000C for 1 hour in a constrained condition. Machining threads in the Zircaloy-2 for the purpose of providing sites for mechanical interlocking of the plating also proved satisfactory

  4. A barrel-related interneuron in layer 4 of rat somatosensory cortex with a high intrabarrel connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelbl, Christian; Helmstaedter, Moritz; Lübke, Joachim; Feldmeyer, Dirk

    2015-03-01

    Synaptic connections between identified fast-spiking (FS), parvalbumin (PV)-positive interneurons, and excitatory spiny neurons in layer 4 (L4) of the barrel cortex were investigated using patch-clamp recordings and simultaneous biocytin fillings. Three distinct clusters of FS L4 interneurons were identified based on their axonal morphology relative to the barrel column suggesting that these neurons do not constitute a homogeneous interneuron population. One L4 FS interneuron type had an axonal domain strictly confined to a L4 barrel and was therefore named "barrel-confined inhibitory interneuron" (BIn). BIns established reliable inhibitory synaptic connections with L4 spiny neurons at a high connectivity rate of 67%, of which 69% were reciprocal. Unitary IPSPs at these connections had a mean amplitude of 0.9 ± 0.8 mV with little amplitude variation and weak short-term synaptic depression. We found on average 3.7 ± 1.3 putative inhibitory synaptic contacts that were not restricted to perisomatic areas. In conclusion, we characterized a novel type of barrel cortex interneuron in the major thalamo-recipient layer 4 forming dense synaptic networks with L4 spiny neurons. These networks constitute an efficient and powerful inhibitory feedback system, which may serve to rapidly reset the barrel microcircuitry following sensory activation. PMID:24076498

  5. Highly adhesive metal plating on Zylon fiber via iodine pretreatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fatema, Ummul Khair [Faculty of Textile Science and Technology, Shinshu University, 3-15-1 Tokida, Ueda, Nagano 386-8567 (Japan); Gotoh, Yasuo, E-mail: ygotohy@shinshu-u.ac.jp [Faculty of Textile Science and Technology, Shinshu University, 3-15-1 Tokida, Ueda, Nagano 386-8567 (Japan)

    2011-11-01

    Highly adhesive metal plating was performed on poly(p-phenylene-2,6-benzobisoxazole) fiber named Zylon via iodine pretreatment followed by electroless plating. First, iodine components were selectively doped into the inner part of the fiber near the surface through iodine vapor exposure. The doped iodine was converted to palladium iodide particles by treating with palladium chloride solution. After the reduction of the iodide to metal palladium particles, electroless copper plating was conducted on the fiber. A uniform copper layer was deposited on the fiber surface and exhibited high durability in durability tests such as ultrasonic exposure, tape peeling-off, and corrosion in NaCl solution. This durability was attributed to the palladium particles formed at the fiber surface that served as an anchor for the plated layer as well as an electroless plating catalyst. The plated fibers also possessed electrical conductivity. Although the tensile strength of the Zylon fiber decreased from 5.8 to 4.9 GPa after undergoing the pretreatment and plating processes, the light shielding effect improved the light resistance of the plated fibers in terms of tensile properties. After 18 days of xenon lamp exposure, the plated fibers retained 74% of its initial strength, whereas that of untreated fibers decreased to 43%.

  6. Highly adhesive metal plating on Zylon fiber via iodine pretreatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highly adhesive metal plating was performed on poly(p-phenylene-2,6-benzobisoxazole) fiber named Zylon via iodine pretreatment followed by electroless plating. First, iodine components were selectively doped into the inner part of the fiber near the surface through iodine vapor exposure. The doped iodine was converted to palladium iodide particles by treating with palladium chloride solution. After the reduction of the iodide to metal palladium particles, electroless copper plating was conducted on the fiber. A uniform copper layer was deposited on the fiber surface and exhibited high durability in durability tests such as ultrasonic exposure, tape peeling-off, and corrosion in NaCl solution. This durability was attributed to the palladium particles formed at the fiber surface that served as an anchor for the plated layer as well as an electroless plating catalyst. The plated fibers also possessed electrical conductivity. Although the tensile strength of the Zylon fiber decreased from 5.8 to 4.9 GPa after undergoing the pretreatment and plating processes, the light shielding effect improved the light resistance of the plated fibers in terms of tensile properties. After 18 days of xenon lamp exposure, the plated fibers retained 74% of its initial strength, whereas that of untreated fibers decreased to 43%.

  7. Inevitability of Plate Tectonics on Super-Earths

    OpenAIRE

    Valencia, Diana; O'Connell, Richard J.; Sasselov, Dimitar D.

    2007-01-01

    The recent discovery of super-Earths (masses less or equal to 10 earth-masses) has initiated a discussion about conditions for habitable worlds. Among these is the mode of convection, which influences a planet's thermal evolution and surface conditions. On Earth, plate tectonics has been proposed as a necessary condition for life. Here we show, that super-Earths will also have plate tectonics. We demonstrate that as planetary mass increases, the shear stress available to overcome resistance t...

  8. ELECTROLESS NICKEL PLATING ON CHITOSAN-MODIFIED WOOD VENEER

    OpenAIRE

    Lijuan Wang; Haibing Liu

    2011-01-01

    An activation process involving chitosan was conducted to prepare electroless nickel plated wood veneers for electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding. In this process Pd(Ⅱ) ions were chemically adsorbed on wood surface modified with chitosan. Then they were reduced and dipped into a plating bath in which Ni-P co-deposition was successfully initiated. The coatings were characterized by SEM-EDS and XRD. The metal deposition, surface resistivity, and electromagnetic shielding effectiveness w...

  9. Review on Electroless Plating Ni-P Coatings for Improving Surface Performance of Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongyan; Zou, Jiaojuan; Lin, Naiming; Tang, Bin

    2014-04-01

    Electroless plating has been considered as an effective approach to provide protection and enhancement for metallic materials with many excellent properties in engineering field. This paper begins with a brief introduction of the fundamental aspects underlying the technological principles and conventional process of electroless nickel-phosphorus (Ni-P) coatings. Then this paper discusses different electroless nickel plating, including binary plating, ternary composite plating and nickel plating with nanoparticles and rare earth, with the intention of improving the surface performance on steel substrate in recent years in detail. Based on different coating process, the varied features depending on the processing parameters are highlighted. Separately, diverse preparation techniques aiming at improvement of plating efficiency are summarized. Moreover, in view of the outstanding performance, such as corrosion resistance, abrasive resistance and fatigue resistance, this paper critically reviews the behaviors and features of various electroless coatings under different conditions.

  10. The Plate Tectonics Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Annamae J.

    2011-01-01

    The Plate Tectonics Project is a multiday, inquiry-based unit that facilitates students as self-motivated learners. Reliable Web sites are offered to assist with lessons, and a summative rubric is used to facilitate the holistic nature of the project. After each topic (parts of the Earth, continental drift, etc.) is covered, the students will…

  11. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community Meal Planning Sign In Search: Search More Sites Search ≡ Are ... Fitness Home Food MyFoodAdvisor Recipes Association Cookbook Recipes Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten ...

  12. Parallel plate detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 5x3cm2 (timing only) and a 15x5cm2 (timing and position) parallel plate avalanche counters (PPAC) are considered. The theory of operation and timing resolution is given. The measurement set-up and the curves of experimental results illustrate the possibilities of the two counters

  13. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... October 8, 2015 Last Edited: October 19, 2015 Articles from Diabetes Forecast® magazine: wcie-meal-planning, In this section Food Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans and a Healthy Diet Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian ...

  14. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday Meal Planning What Can I Eat? Making Healthy Food Choices Diabetes Superfoods Non-starchy Vegetables Grains and Starchy Vegetables Fats Alcohol What Can I Drink? Fruit Dairy Food Tips ...

  15. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Plate interactive tool to help Latinos/Hispanics balance the meals they love to better manage their ... your meal, add a low-calorie drink like water, unsweetened tea or coffee. Featured Product Precise Portions® ...

  16. Growth Plate Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or muscular imbalance are prone to growth plate fractures, especially at the ankle and knee. Children who are born with insensitivity to pain ... arm bone) near the elbow. Type V: Compression Fracture Through Growth ... to occur at the knee or ankle. Prognosis is poor, since premature stunting ...

  17. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... unsweetened tea or coffee. Featured Product Precise Portions® Go Healthy Travel Pack (4/Box) Taking the guesswork ... you are. Now, our best-selling, sectioned to-go plate with easy-sealing lid is offered in ...

  18. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... meal-planning, In this section Food Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans and a Healthy Diet Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods donate ... Donate Today Diabetes touches everyone, and finding a cure is personal ...

  19. Shear design recommendations for stainless steel plate girders

    OpenAIRE

    Saliba, Najib; Real, E.; Gardner, Leroy

    2014-01-01

    The behaviour and design of stainless steel plate girders loaded in shear is investigated in this paper. A review of existing methods for the design of stainless steel plate girders, including codified provisions, is first presented. A database of thirty-four experiments carried out on austenitic, duplex and lean duplex stainless steel plate girders is then reported, and used to assess the current shear resistance design equations from Eurocode 3: Part 1.4 and Eurocode 3: Part 1.5 and the rec...

  20. The design and performance of a twenty barrel hydrogen pellet injector for Alcator C-Mod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A twenty barrel hydrogen pellet injector has been designed, built and tested both in the laboratory and on the Alcator C-Mod Tokamak at MIT. The injector functions by firing pellets of frozen hydrogen or deuterium deep into the plasma discharge for the purpose of fueling the plasma, modifying the density profile and increasing the global energy confinement time. The design goals of the injector are: (1) Operational flexibility, (2) High reliability, (3) Remote operation with minimal maintenance. These requirements have lead to a single stage, pipe gun design with twenty barrels. Pellets are formed by in- situ condensation of the fuel gas, thus avoiding moving parts at cryogenic temperatures. The injector is the first to dispense with the need for cryogenic fluids and instead uses a closed cycle refrigerator to cool the thermal system components. The twenty barrels of the injector produce pellets of four different size groups and allow for a high degree of flexibility in fueling experiments. Operation of the injector is under PLC control allowing for remote operation, interlocked safety features and automated pellet manufacturing. The injector has been extrusively tested and shown to produce pellets reliably with velocities up to 1400 m/sec. During the period from September to November of 1993, the injector was successfully used to fire pellets into over fifty plasma discharges. Experimental results include data on the pellet penetration into the plasma using an advanced pellet tracking diagnostic with improved time and spatial response. Data from the tracker indicates pellet penetrations were between 30 and 86 percent of the plasma minor radius