WorldWideScience

Sample records for barometros del cis

  1. Perception of the Environment and its Position among the Concerns of Spanish People: Analysis of CIS Opinion Surveys; La Percepcion del Medio Ambiente y su Posicionamiento entre las Preocupaciones de los Espanoles: Analisis de los Barometros del CIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz van den Eynde, A.; Sola Farre, R.

    2007-09-27

    Starting from the hypothesis that environmental concern is socially built, dynamic and permeable to current situation and the news, this work is two aimed: a) To study potential differences in environmental concern due to socio demographic variables, in order to define an environmentally concerned profile; b) To analyze the evolution of this concern in Spanish society for the last seven years. To archive this purposes, data originating in Spanish sociological research centre (CIS) opinion surveys has been used. No significant relation among socio demographic variables and environmental concern has been found. Percentage of people concerned about environment is quite low (about 2%), above all in relation to other issues as economic situation, terrorism or immigration. However, this percentage has increased remarkably when some environmentally threatening event has been present (as forest fi res, or Prestige oil spill). It has also been detected that this concern is gradually increasing, possibly due to growing knowledge of economic and technical development and environmental damage relation. Environmental concern is different according to which territorial level people has in mind when reporting their opinion (world, country or region). (Author) 31 refs.

  2. CIS 321 Tutorials / cis321dotcom

    OpenAIRE

    tiger

    2015-01-01

    CIS 321 Entire Course (Devry) For more course tutorials visit www.cis321.com CIS 321 Week 1 iLab 1 Milestone 1 CIS 321 Week 2 iLab Milestone 2 CIS 321 Week 3 iLab Milestone 3 CIS 321 Week 4 iLab Milestone 4 CIS321 Week 5 iLab 5 Milestone CIS 321 Week 6 iLab 6 Milestone 5 CIS 321 Week 7 iLab 7 Milestone  

  3. CIS 321 DEVRY Course Tutorial / cis321dotcom

    OpenAIRE

    vasanthi05

    2015-01-01

    CIS 321 Entire Course (Devry) For more course tutorials visit www.cis321.com CIS 321 Week 1 iLab 1 Milestone 1 CIS 321 Week 2 iLab Milestone 2 CIS 321 Week 3 iLab Milestone 3 CIS 321 Week 4 iLab Milestone 4 CIS321 Week 5 iLab 5 Milestone CIS 321 Week 6 iLab 6 Milestone 5 CIS 321 Week 7 iLab 7 Milestone

  4. CIS overtakes poly; CIS ueberholt Poly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarzburger, Heiko

    2013-10-01

    The price competition of polycrystalline solar modules makes life difficult for the manufacturers. But with innovations they are able to compete in the market. In Germany especially CIS plays a role. [German] Die Preiskonkurrenz der polykristallinen Solarmodule macht den Herstellern das Leben schwer. Doch mit Innovationen schaffen sie es, sich am Markt zu behaupten. In Deutschland spielt vor allem CIS eine Rolle.

  5. CIS 321 COURSE TUTORIAL/ snaptutorial

    OpenAIRE

    sandy

    2015-01-01

    For more classes visit www.snaptutorial.com CIS 321 Week 1 iLab 1 Milestone 1 CIS 321 Week 2 iLab Milestone 2 CIS 321 Week 3 iLab Milestone 3 CIS 321 Week 4 iLab Milestone 4 CIS321 Week 5 iLab 5 Milestone CIS 321 Week 6 iLab 6 Milestone 5 CIS 321 Week 7 iLab 7 Milestone

  6. CIS 105 UOP Course Tutorial/ Tutorialrank

    OpenAIRE

    SINCENK

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.tutorialrank.com Tutorial Purchased: 5 Times, Rating: A   CIS 105 Capstone Discussion Question CIS 105 Assignment: Technology of the Future CIS 105 Assignment: Security Systems CIS 105 CheckPoint: Internet Scavenger Hunt CIS 105 CheckPoint: Computer Comparison CIS 105 CheckPoint: Data Versus Information CIS 105 CheckPoint: Microsoft® Word CIS 105 CheckPoint: Types of Networks CIS 105 CheckPoint: Cyber...

  7. CIS 105 UOP COURSES TUTORIAL/UOPHELP

    OpenAIRE

    hubli

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.uophelp.com   CIS 105 Capstone Discussion Question   CIS 105 Assignment: Technology of the Future   CIS 105 Assignment: Security Systems   CIS 105 CheckPoint: Internet Scavenger Hunt   CIS 105 CheckPoint: Computer Comparison   CIS 105 CheckPoint: Data Versus Information   CIS 105 CheckPoint: Microsoft® Word   CIS 105 CheckPoint: Types of Networks ...

  8. CIS 321 UOP COURSE TUTORIAL/UOPHELP

    OpenAIRE

    MADHU

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit   www.uophelp.com     CIS 321 Week 1 iLab 1 Milestone 1 CIS 321 Week 2 iLab Milestone 2 CIS 321 Week 3 iLab Milestone 3 CIS 321 Week 4 iLab Milestone 4 CIS321 Week 5 iLab 5 Milestone CIS 321 Week 6 iLab 6 Milestone 5 CIS 321 Week 7 iLab 7 Milestone  

  9. CIS 321 Devry course tutorial / uophelp

    OpenAIRE

    uophelp

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.uophelp.com   CIS 321 Week 1 iLab 1 Milestone 1 CIS 321 Week 2 iLab Milestone 2 CIS 321 Week 3 iLab Milestone 3 CIS 321 Week 4 iLab Milestone 4 CIS321 Week 5 iLab 5 Milestone CIS 321 Week 6 iLab 6 Milestone 5 CIS 321 Week 7 iLab 7 Milestone  

  10. Oil in the cis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1975, the USSR was the world's largest producer with 490 Mt of oil, rising to 624 Mt in 1988. Between 1991 and 1995, production collapsed, from 515 to 355 Mt. The rate of decline is however slowing down. The situation in the different states is detailed: Russia, Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan, Turkmenia and Uzbekistan. Proved reserves of oil in the CIS are still significant (7.8 Gt) with 85% in Russia. Exploration dropped from 6.5 Mt in 1988 to 1 Mt in 1995. Joint ventures and production sharing contracts with foreign companies are helping to remedy this decline in exploration and production activities. Refining capacity in Russia and Ukraine is discussed and major projects are presented. Consumption has strongly decreased; however a sustained growth in export volumes is observed

  11. CIS 339 Devry course tutorial / uophelp

    OpenAIRE

    uophelp

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit   www.uophelp.com       CIS 339 iLab 1 System Requirements CIS/339 iLab 2 of 7 CIS 339 iLab 3 - Structural Modeling - Class Diagram and CRCs CIS 339 iLab 4 - Sequence, Communication, and State Diagrams CIS 339 iLab 5 - Package Diagrams CIS 339 iLab 6 - CRCs, Contracts, and Method Specifications CIS 339 iLab 7 - Object-Oriented Application Coding    

  12. Exploración estocástica de las superficies de energía potencial de dímeros cis-trans y trans-trans del ácido fórmico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said F. Figueredo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Potential energy surface (PES of cis-trans and trans-trans formic acid dimers were sampled using a stochastic method, and the geometries, energies, and vibrational frequencies were computed at B3LYP/6-311++G(3df,2p level of theory. The results show that molar free energy of dimerization deviated up to 108.4% when basis set superposition error (BSSE and zero-point energy (ZPE were not considered. For cis-trans dimers, C=O and O - H bond weakened, whereas C - O bonds strengthened due to dimerization. Also, trans-trans FA dimers did not show a trend regarding strengthening or weakening of the C=O, O - H and C - O bonds.

  13. Higher-order CIS codes

    OpenAIRE

    Carlet, Claude; Freibert, Finley; Guilley, Sylvain; Kiermaier, Michael; Kim, Jon-Lark; Solé, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    We introduce {\\bf complementary information set codes} of higher-order. A binary linear code of length $tk$ and dimension $k$ is called a complementary information set code of order $t$ ($t$-CIS code for short) if it has $t$ pairwise disjoint information sets. The duals of such codes permit to reduce the cost of masking cryptographic algorithms against side-channel attacks. As in the case of codes for error correction, given the length and the dimension of a $t$-CIS code, we look for the high...

  14. Up front in the CIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A picture is drawn of the current supply side of the front-end fuel cycle production capacities in the CIS. Uranium production has been steadily declining, as in the West. Market realities have been reflected in local costs of production since the break-up of the former Soviet Union and some uneconomic mines have been closed. In terms of actual production, Kazakhstan, Russia and Uzbekistan, remain among the top five uranium producers in the world. Western government action has been taken to restrict the market access for natural uranium from the CIS. Reactors in the CIS continue to be supplied with fabricated fuel solely by Russian, though Western fuel fabricators have reduced Russian supplies to Eastern Europe. Russia's current dominance in conversion and enrichment services in both the CIS and Eastern Europe is likely to continue as long as the present surplus low enriched uranium stocks last and surplus production capacity exists. Market penetration in the West has been limited by government action but Russia in 1993 still held about 20% of the world's conversion market and nearly 19% of the enrichment market. (6 figures, 2 tables, 4 references) (UK)

  15. 3-Carboxy-cis,cis-muconate lactonizing enzyme from Neurospora crassa: an alternate cycloisomerase motif.

    OpenAIRE

    Mazur, P; Henzel, W J; Mattoo, S; Kozarich, J W

    1994-01-01

    3-Carboxy-cis,cis-muconate lactonizing enzyme (CMLE; EC 5.5.1.5) from Neurospora crassa catalyzes the reversible gamma-lactonization of 3-carboxy-cis,cis-muconate by a syn-1,2 addition-elimination reaction. The stereochemical and regiochemical course of the reaction is (i) opposite that of CMLE from Pseudomonas putida (EC 5.5.1.2) and (ii) identical to that of cis,cis-muconate lactonizing enzyme (MLE; EC 5.5.1.1) from P. putida. In order to determine the mechanistic and evolutionary relations...

  16. Communications and Information Sharing (CIS) Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — TheCommunications and Information Sharing (CIS) Laboratory is a Public Safety interoperable communications technology laboratory with analog and digital radios, and...

  17. Bathorhodopsin intermediates from 11-cis-rhodopsin and 9-cis-rhodopsin.

    OpenAIRE

    Spalink, J D; Reynolds, A H; Rentzepis, P M; Sperling, W.; Applebury, M L

    1983-01-01

    Bathorhodopsin-rhodopsin difference spectra of native 11-cis-rhodopsin and regenerated 9-cis-rhodopsin were measured at room temperature with a double-beam laser spectrophotometer after excitation at 532 nm. A detailed analysis of data obtained at 85 psec after excitation suggests that the bathorhodopsins generated from 11-cis- and 9-cis-rhodopsin differ in their extinction coefficients and that their absorption maxima are shifted in wavelength by about 10 nm from one another. The ratio of qu...

  18. Integration of CIS modules in buildings; Gebaeudeintegration von CIS Modulen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, S.; Stellbogen, D.; Springer, J.; Geyer, D. [Zentrum fuer Sonnenenergie- und Wasserstoff-Forschung Baden-Wuerttemberg (ZSW), Stuttgart (Germany); Schaeffler, R. [Wuerth Solar, Marbach (Germany); Schmidt, C. [Glaswerke Arnold, Merkendorf (Germany); Szacsvay, T. [Swiss Sustainable Systems AG, Bern (Switzerland)

    2004-07-01

    Thin-film solar modules based on CIGS are an emerging technology in Europe. In order to accelerate the acceptance of the product on the market, aesthetically convincing solutions for building integration, combined with high technical quality, are required. As a part of the European Project 'High-Performance Photovoltaics in Buildings (Hiperpb)', we have developed new concepts for facade and roof integration of Cu(In, Ga)Se{sub 2} modules. With the newly developed roof integration system (Mega Slates {sup trademark}, 3S AG), an entire tile roof, or just a part thereof, can be replaced by solar modules. Standard-sized CIGS modules were mounted on a system-specified substructure and fixed with hooks. The system offers simple mounting, water-tightness, and walk-ability. In order to obtain a homogenous appearance for the facade, the mounting structure was fixed on the back side of the solar modules. Glaswerke Arnold provided a fixing system called WBS (welded bond system), which is an alternative to the glueing technology in structural glazing. The CIGS modules with the WBS system were mounted on a standard substructure. The irradiation at, the module-temperature of, and the DC and AC currents from the outdoor roof and facade demonstrators are logged minute-by-minute. Both PV demonstrators develop similar temperatures under similar irradiation. The operation analysis shows that the performance ratio of the PV demonstrators with CIS thin-film solar modules are comparable with conventional crystalline silicon technology. (orig.)

  19. Community information service (CIS) through public libraries : a realistic approach

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar Satpathy, Sunil

    2006-01-01

    Defines the concept and need of Community Information Service(CIS).Critically analyses how CIS can be best served by the public Libraries.Concludes with suggestions for the effectiveness of the CIS through Public Libraries.

  20. cis sequence effects on gene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobs Kevin

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sequence and transcriptional variability within and between individuals are typically studied independently. The joint analysis of sequence and gene expression variation (genetical genomics provides insight into the role of linked sequence variation in the regulation of gene expression. We investigated the role of sequence variation in cis on gene expression (cis sequence effects in a group of genes commonly studied in cancer research in lymphoblastoid cell lines. We estimated the proportion of genes exhibiting cis sequence effects and the proportion of gene expression variation explained by cis sequence effects using three different analytical approaches, and compared our results to the literature. Results We generated gene expression profiling data at N = 697 candidate genes from N = 30 lymphoblastoid cell lines for this study and used available candidate gene resequencing data at N = 552 candidate genes to identify N = 30 candidate genes with sufficient variance in both datasets for the investigation of cis sequence effects. We used two additive models and the haplotype phylogeny scanning approach of Templeton (Tree Scanning to evaluate association between individual SNPs, all SNPs at a gene, and diplotypes, with log-transformed gene expression. SNPs and diplotypes at eight candidate genes exhibited statistically significant (p cis sequence effects in our study, respectively. Conclusion Based on analysis of our results and the extant literature, one in four genes exhibits significant cis sequence effects, and for these genes, about 30% of gene expression variation is accounted for by cis sequence variation. Despite diverse experimental approaches, the presence or absence of significant cis sequence effects is largely supported by previously published studies.

  1. The CIS Common Electric Power Market

    OpenAIRE

    Vinokurov, Evgeny

    2009-01-01

    Trade in electric power and mutual investments are at a low level and do not correspond with the sector’s potential. The CIS is a net exporter of electric power, but the actual volumes of import and export are small. CIS countries are capable of more, having large coal and gas reserves with huge potential for energy production, vast hydropower potential, and competitive advantage in power engineering. In spite of the considerable revival during recent years, mutual investments remain a...

  2. RAMI analysis of the ITER CIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We performed the functional analysis of the ITER CIS. • We performed a failure mode analysis of the ITER CIS. • We estimated the reliability and availability of the ITER CIS. • The ITER RAMI approach was applied to the ITER CIS for technical risk control in the design phase. - Abstract: ITER is the first worldwide international project aiming to design a device that proves the physics and technological basis for fusion power plants to produce nuclear fusion energy. In the project, the RAMI approach (reliability, availability, maintainability and inspectability) has been adopted for technical risk control to guide the design of components in preparation for operation and maintenance. RAMI analysis of the ITER central interlock system (CIS), which shall provide investment protection for the ITER systems was performed on the conceptual design. A functional breakdown was prepared in a bottom-up approach, resulting in the system being divided into 5 main functions and 7 sub-functions which are described using the IDEFØ method. Reliability block diagrams (RBDs) were prepared to estimate the reliability and availability of each function under stipulated operating conditions. Initial and expected scenarios were analyzed to define risk-mitigation actions. The inherent availability of the ITER CIS expected after implementation of mitigating actions was calculated to be 99.86% over 2 years, which is the typical interval of the scheduled maintenance cycles. A failure modes, effects and criticality analysis (FMECA) was performed to initiate risk mitigation action. Criticality matrices highlight the risks of the different failure modes with regard to the probability of their occurrence and impact on operations. It was assessed that the availability of the ITER CIS, with appropriate mitigating actions applied, meets the project availability requirement for the system

  3. Decommissioning: from COMECON to CIS and RUSSIA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NPP decommissioning experience in the USSR and the Commonwealth Independent States (CIS) members was actively accumulated over ten years since 1982, by Russian experts in particular. Nevertheless, it is not well renowned throughout the scientists and engineers from both Russia and other near' (the CIS) and 'distant' foreign countries. A general review on NPP decommissioning in the CIS has been published just now. An unshown before NPP decommissioning issues are presented in the report. The first program on NPP decommissioning was developed under the aegis of COMECOM with the leadership of Russian experts. The most considerable results are the feasibility studies of Armenia NPP, the Novovoronezh NPP first construction stage (two units) and Bohunice V - 1 unit. (J.P.N.)

  4. Précis de grammaire

    CERN Document Server

    Chollet, Isabelle

    2009-01-01

    Le Précis de grammaire est tout particulièrement destiné aux apprenants de français langue étrangère, quel que soit leur niveau. Cet ouvrage propose de fournir une réponse claire à tous les problèmes grammaticaux que rencontrent les étudiants étrangers. Axées sur la communication, les explications sont accompagnées d'exemples simples et de mises en situation. La forme et le sens sont donc privilégiés pour faire de ce précis une véritable grammaire de référence. Le précis de grammaire est composé de cinq parties comprenant chacune plusieurs chapitres : La phrase ; Les phrases complexes ; Les parties du discours ; Les relations logiques ; Le système verbal. Les chapitres comportent de nombreux renvois à d'autres chapitres. En début d'ouvrage, un sommaire détaillé présente l'ensemble du précis et donne une indication de niveau (selon le classement du Cadre européen de référence pour les langues) : de A l à C l. En fin d'ouvrage, un index permet de trouver très facilement un mot (...

  5. Investment in the CEE/CIS region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The energy investments in the Central and Eastern European region and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) region are discussed in this Keynote Address. The message is addressed to regulators and governments. The restructuring of old industries to save energy is highlighted. The regulatory system must undergo a substantial reform. Another message is placed for investors in the energy field. (R.P.)

  6. Cis-cis and trans-perp HOONO: Action spectroscopy and isomerization kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The weakly bound HOONO product of the OH+NO2+M reaction is studied using the vibrational predissociation that follows excitation of the first OH overtone (2ν1). We observe formation of both cis-cis and trans-perp conformers of HOONO. The trans-perp HOONO 2ν1 band is observed under thermal (223-238 K) conditions at 6971 cm-1. We assign the previously published (warmer temperature) HOONO spectrum to the 2ν1 band at 6365 cm-1 and 2ν1-containing combination bands of the cis-cis conformer of HOONO. The band shape of the trans-perp HOONO spectrum is in excellent agreement with the predicted rotational contour based on previous experimental and theoretical results, but the apparent origin of the cis-cis HOONO spectrum at 6365 cm-1 is featureless and significantly broader, suggesting more rapid intramolecular vibrational redistribution or predissociation in the latter isomer. The thermally less stable trans-perp HOONO isomerizes rapidly to cis-cis HOONO with an experimentally determined lifetime of 39 ms at 233 K at 13 hPa (in a buffer gas of predominantly Ar). The temperature dependence of the trans-perp HOONO lifetime in the range 223-238 K yields an isomerization barrier of 33±12 kJ/mol. New ab initio calculations of the structure and vibrational mode frequencies of the transition state perp-perp HOONO are performed using the coupled cluster singles and doubles with perturbative triples [CCSD(T)] model, using a correlation consistent polarized triple ζ basis set (cc-pVTZ). The energetics of cis-cis, trans-perp, and perp-perp HOONO are also calculated at this level [CCSD(T)/cc-pVTZ] and with a quadruple ζ basis set using the structure determined at the triple ζ basis set [CCSD(T)/cc-pVQZ//CCSD(T)/cc-pVTZ]. These calculations predict that the anti form of perp-perp HOONO has an energy of ΔE0=42.4 kJ/mol above trans-perp HOONO, corresponding to an activation enthalpy of ΔH298†0=41.1 kJ/mol. These results are in good agreement with statistical simulations based

  7. C.I.S. natural gas-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that in the countries that make up the Commonwealth of Independent States (C.I.S.), with their vast resources and a considerable existing production base, prospects are good for further growth of the region's exportable gas surplus. Investment fundamentals are stronger for gas than for any other energy resources in the area. But the pipeline infrastructure to move large amounts of gas will need extensive refurbishment to ensure export reliability and growth. Given the potential in terms of production and markets, significant amounts of outside investment in oil, natural gas, and NGL infrastructure will likely increase dramatically in these countries in the near future. These are some of the major conclusions of Enron Corp.'s recent investigations in the C.I.S. and other former Soviet republics

  8. Investing in CIS: obstacles and strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CIS (Community of Independent States) needs the help of foreign investments to develop its huge hydrocarbon potentialities. Because of the uncertainties concerning the legal and fiscal context of their activities, the role of the international oil companies has remained limited so far. These problems were discussed in May 1996 during an important ''General Session'' of the OTC 96 congress. Proven and explored onshore oil reserves in Russia are enormous, in particular in Western and Eastern Siberia. However, the economically most interesting resources are located in the offshore zones of the Barents, Pechora and Kara seas and of Eastern Siberia and Okhotsk. This paper describes the last years decay of oil production in CIS and its causes, in particular the obstacles to foreign investments (exportation and transport taxes), the recent contracts and joint-ventures with American major companies (Exxon, Amoco..), and the situation of the Russian industry in petroleum engineering and field exploitation materials. (J.S.)

  9. PDSS/IMC CIS user's guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    The Spacelab Payload Development Support System PDSS Image Motion Compensator (IMC) computer interface simulation (CIS) user's manual is given. The software provides a real time interface simulation for the following IMC subsystems: the Dry Rotor Reference Unit, the Advanced Star/Target Reference Optical sensor, the Ultra Violet imaging telescope, the Wisconson Ultraviolet Photopolarimetry Experiment, the Cruciform Power distributor, and the Spacelab Experiment Computer Operating System.

  10. Combinatorial Cis-regulation in Saccharomyces Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron T. Spivak

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Transcriptional control of gene expression requires interactions between the cis-regulatory elements (CREs controlling gene promoters. We developed a sensitive computational method to identify CRE combinations with conserved spacing that does not require genome alignments. When applied to seven sensu stricto and sensu lato Saccharomyces species, 80% of the predicted interactions displayed some evidence of combinatorial transcriptional behavior in several existing datasets including: (1 chromatin immunoprecipitation data for colocalization of transcription factors, (2 gene expression data for coexpression of predicted regulatory targets, and (3 gene ontology databases for common pathway membership of predicted regulatory targets. We tested several predicted CRE interactions with chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments in a wild-type strain and strains in which a predicted cofactor was deleted. Our experiments confirmed that transcription factor (TF occupancy at the promoters of the CRE combination target genes depends on the predicted cofactor while occupancy of other promoters is independent of the predicted cofactor. Our method has the additional advantage of identifying regulatory differences between species. By analyzing the S. cerevisiae and S. bayanus genomes, we identified differences in combinatorial cis-regulation between the species and showed that the predicted changes in gene regulation explain several of the species-specific differences seen in gene expression datasets. In some instances, the same CRE combinations appear to regulate genes involved in distinct biological processes in the two different species. The results of this research demonstrate that (1 combinatorial cis-regulation can be inferred by multi-genome analysis and (2 combinatorial cis-regulation can explain differences in gene expression between species.

  11. Combinatorial Cis-regulation in Saccharomyces Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivak, Aaron T; Stormo, Gary D

    2016-01-01

    Transcriptional control of gene expression requires interactions between the cis-regulatory elements (CREs) controlling gene promoters. We developed a sensitive computational method to identify CRE combinations with conserved spacing that does not require genome alignments. When applied to seven sensu stricto and sensu lato Saccharomyces species, 80% of the predicted interactions displayed some evidence of combinatorial transcriptional behavior in several existing datasets including: (1) chromatin immunoprecipitation data for colocalization of transcription factors, (2) gene expression data for coexpression of predicted regulatory targets, and (3) gene ontology databases for common pathway membership of predicted regulatory targets. We tested several predicted CRE interactions with chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments in a wild-type strain and strains in which a predicted cofactor was deleted. Our experiments confirmed that transcription factor (TF) occupancy at the promoters of the CRE combination target genes depends on the predicted cofactor while occupancy of other promoters is independent of the predicted cofactor. Our method has the additional advantage of identifying regulatory differences between species. By analyzing the S. cerevisiae and S. bayanus genomes, we identified differences in combinatorial cis-regulation between the species and showed that the predicted changes in gene regulation explain several of the species-specific differences seen in gene expression datasets. In some instances, the same CRE combinations appear to regulate genes involved in distinct biological processes in the two different species. The results of this research demonstrate that (1) combinatorial cis-regulation can be inferred by multi-genome analysis and (2) combinatorial cis-regulation can explain differences in gene expression between species. PMID:26772747

  12. Environmental testing of CIS based modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willett, D.

    1995-11-01

    This report describes environmental testing of Siemen`s CIS modules. Charts and diagrams are presented on data concerning: temporary power loss of laminated mini-modules; the 50 thermal cycle test; the 10 humidity freeze cycle test; results after 1000 hours of exposure to damp heat; and interconnect test structures in damp heat testing. It is concluded that moisture ingress causes permanent increases in the series resistance of modules, and that improved packaging is needed for better high humidity reliability. Also, dry dark heat caused temporary power losses which were recovered in sunlight.

  13. cis-Cinnamic acid selective suppressors distinct from auxin inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, Katsuhiro; Nishikawa, Keisuke; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Fujii, Yoshiharu; Shindo, Mitsuru

    2014-01-01

    The activity of cis-cinnamic acid (cis-CA), one of the allelochemicals, in plants is very similar to that of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), a natural auxin, and thus cis-CA has long been believed to be an analog of auxin. We have reported some structure-activity relationships studies by synthesizing over 250 cis-CA derivatives and estimating their inhibitory activities on root growth inhibition in lettuce. In this study, the compounds that showed low- or no-activity on root growth inhibition were recruited as candidates suppressors against cis-CA and/or auxin and tested for their activity. In the presence of cis-CA, lettuce root growth was inhibited; however, the addition of some cis-CA derivatives restored control-level root growth. Four compounds, (Z)-3-(4-isopropylphenyl)acrylic acid, (Z)-3-(3-butoxyphenyl)acrylic acid, (Z)-3-[3-(pentyloxy)phenyl]acrylic acid, and (Z)-3-(naphthalen-1-yl)acrylic acid were selected as candidates for a cis-CA selective suppressor they allowed the recovery of root growth from inhibition by cis-CA treatment without any effects on the IAA-induced effect or elongating activity by themselves. Three candidates significantly ameliorated the root shortening by the potent inhibitor derived from cis-CA. In brief, we have found some cis-CA selective suppressors which have never been reported from inactive cis-CA derivatives for root growth inhibition. cis-CA selective suppressors will play an important role in elucidating the mechanism of plant growth regulation. PMID:24881667

  14. Bioinformatic identification of novel putative photoreceptor specific cis-elements

    OpenAIRE

    Knox Barry E; Qin Maochun; McIlvain Vera A; Danko Charles G; Pertsov Arkady M

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Cell specific gene expression is largely regulated by different combinations of transcription factors that bind cis-elements in the upstream promoter sequence. However, experimental detection of cis-elements is difficult, expensive, and time-consuming. This provides a motivation for developing bioinformatic methods to identify cis-elements that could prioritize future experimental studies. Here, we use motif discovery algorithms to predict transcription factor binding site...

  15. Prepare dispersed CIS nano-scale particles and spray coating CIS absorber layers using nano-scale precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the Mo-electrode thin films were deposited by a two-stepped process, and the high-purity copper indium selenide-based powder (CuInSe2, CIS) was fabricated by hydrothermal process by Nanowin Technology Co. Ltd. From the X-ray pattern of the CIS precursor, the mainly crystalline phase was CIS, and the almost undetectable CuSe phase was observed. Because the CIS powder was aggregated into micro-scale particles and the average particle sizes were approximately 3 to 8 μm, the CIS power was ground into nano-scale particles, then the 6 wt.% CIS particles were dispersed into isopropyl alcohol to get the solution for spray coating method. Then, 0.1 ml CIS solution was sprayed on the 20 mm × 10 mm Mo/glass substrates, and the heat treatment for the nano-scale CIS solution under various parameters was carried out in a selenization furnace. The annealing temperature was set at 550°C, and the annealing time was changed from 5 to 30 min, without extra Se content was added in the furnace. The influences of annealing time on the densification, crystallization, resistivity (ρ), hall mobility (μ), and carrier concentration of the CIS absorber layers were well investigated in this study. PMID:24380376

  16. U.S./CIS eye joint nuclear rocket venture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, John S.; Mcilwain, Melvin C.; Smetanikov, Vladimir; D'Yakov, Evgenij K.; Pavshuk, Vladimir A.

    1993-01-01

    An account is given of the significance for U.S. spacecraft development of a nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) reactor concept that has been developed in the (formerly Soviet) Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). The CIS NTR reactor employs a hydrogen-cooled zirconium hydride moderator and ternary carbide fuels; the comparatively cool operating temperatures associated with this design promise overall robustness.

  17. U.S./CIS eye joint nuclear rocket venture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An account is given of the significance for U.S. spacecraft development of a nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) reactor concept that has been developed in the (formerly Soviet) Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). The CIS NTR reactor employs a hydrogen-cooled zirconium hydride moderator and ternary carbide fuels; the comparatively cool operating temperatures associated with this design promise overall robustness

  18. Relative Stability of cis- and trans-Hydrindanones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motoo Tori

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The relative stabilities of several cis- and trans-hydrindanones were compared using both isomerization experiments and MM2 calculations. The generally believed rule that cis-hydrindanones are more stable than trans-isomers is applicable, but is not always true. This review introduces examples, mainly from studies in our laboratory, to explain these facts.

  19. PH-stat fed-batch process to enhance the production of cis, cis-muconate from benzoate by Pseudomonas putida KT2440-JD1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duuren, J.B.J.H. van; Wijte, D.; Karge, B.; Martins dos Santos, V.A.; Yang, Y.; Mars, A.E.; Eggink, G.

    2012-01-01

    Pseudomonas putida KT2440-JD1 is able to cometabolize benzoate to cis, cis-muconate in the presence of glucose as growth substrate. P. putida KT2440-JD1 was unable to grow in the presence of concentrations above 50 mM benzoate or 600 mM cis, cis-muconate. The inhibitory effects of both compounds wer

  20. EU-CIS joint study project 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long-term protective measures taken in the CIS following the Chernobyl accident included relocating people from the most contaminated areas as well as continuing the restrictions on using foodstuffs contaminated with 137Cs. The levels at which these countermeasures were introduced or still are being introduced for dose-saving purposes have been used to estimate avertable doses based on population distributions on both dose rate and surface contamination density of 137Cs in space and time. The averted and avertable doses have been quantified by parameters of these distributions and intervention levels for relocation and foodstuff restrictions. The countermeasure efficiencies in agricultural production and various protection strategies in the agrosphere in Russia have been investigated. In addition, methods for estimating avertable radiation risks as well as residual risk from continuing exposures in terms of age-dependent radiation risk factors have been suggested. The sensitivity of changing intervention levels expressed in terms of changes in costs and avertable collective doses have been explored. The application of the present methodology in the decision-making process following a nuclear accident is discussed. Suggestions are made for including the methodology in simple models to be used for aiding decision-making on introducing protective measures. (au) (12 tabs., 8 ills., 22 refs.)

  1. Germinating the 2050 Cis-Lunar Econosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, David W.; Curreri, Peter A.; Ferguson, Cynthia K.; Nall, Mark E.; Tinker, Michael L.; Wright, Gregory M.

    2015-01-01

    In early 2013, Marshall Space Flight Center's upper management chartered a diverse team for a six-week 'sprint' to speculate (in a disciplined manner) and paint (with broad brush strokes) a picture of how earth, space, and public/private entities might be operating and relating to each other... in the year 2100. Two 12-person groups of civil servants, one with members having 15 years or less of NASA experience and the other with more senior members, worked independently and then compared and integrated their conclusions. In 2014, the 'Space 2100' team, with some new team members and different group boundaries, ran a longer sprint to a) develop more detailed estimates of the operations and economics of space activities in the vicinity of the Earth and Moon in the 2050 time frame, b) identify evolutionary paths, barriers, and opportunities, and c) suggest actions and philosophies to enable and invigorate progress towards the vision. This paper explores Space 2100's first two sprints and their projections of NASA's role in what will likely be a highly networked, international space industry and cis-lunar infrastructure.

  2. 10 points about buying C.I.S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On October 16, 1992, the U.S. Department of Commerce (DOC) settled the antidumping case against the CIS republics by imposing price and volume quotas on CIS uranium imported into the United States. Bound by a suspension agreement, each of the six uranium-producing CIS republics is responsible for restricting the flow of imports to the US-either directly or indirectly. (As the NUKEM Market Report went to press, the Ukraine government notified the DOC of its intent not to terminate the suspension agreement.) This action is to prevent undercutting price levels in the US domestic uranium markets. What follows are ten points about everything you should know about importing uranium from the uranium-producing CIS republics- Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russian Federation, Tajikistan, Ukraine and Uzbekistan. Newcomers to the CIS scene should follow this simple roadmap and be aware of the issues they face as importers in terms of Commerce/Customs requirements and documentation and where to get them, when to buy the material and how to transport it, how to deal effectively with CIS exporters, and how to avoid unnecessary complications when buying CIS

  3. Crystal structure of cis-anti-cis-dicyclohexane-18-crown-6 acetonitrile disolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Nazarenko

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The title compound (systematic name: cis-anti-cis-2,5,8,15,18,21-hexaoxatricyclo[20.4.0.09,14]hexacosane acetonitrile disolvate, C20H36O6·2CH3CN, crystallizes from an acetonitrile solution of dicyclohexane-18-crown-6 on evaporation. The molecule is arranged around a center of symmetry with half the crown ether molecule and one molecule of acetonitrile symmetry independent. All O—C—C—O torsion angles are gauche while all C—O—C—C angles are trans. The sequence of torsion angles is [(tg+t(tg−t]3; the geometry of oxygen atoms is close to pseudo-D3d with three atoms below and three atoms above the mean plane, with an average deviation of ±0.16 (1 Å from the mean plane. This geometry is identical to that observed in metal ion complexes of dicyclohexane-18-crown-6 but differs significantly from the conformation of a free unsolvated molecule. Each acetonitrile molecule connects to a crown ether molecule via two of its methyl group H atoms (C—H...O. Weaker interactions exist between the third H atom of the acetonitrile methyl group and an O atom of a neighbouring crown ether molecule (C—H...O; and between the N atom of the acetonitrile molecule and a H atom of another neighbouring crown ether molecule. All these intermolecular interactions create a three-dimensional network stabilizing the disolvate.

  4. Bioinformatic Identification of Conserved Cis-Sequences in Coregulated Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bülow, Lorenz; Hehl, Reinhard

    2016-01-01

    Bioinformatics tools can be employed to identify conserved cis-sequences in sets of coregulated plant genes because more and more gene expression and genomic sequence data become available. Knowledge on the specific cis-sequences, their enrichment and arrangement within promoters, facilitates the design of functional synthetic plant promoters that are responsive to specific stresses. The present chapter illustrates an example for the bioinformatic identification of conserved Arabidopsis thaliana cis-sequences enriched in drought stress-responsive genes. This workflow can be applied for the identification of cis-sequences in any sets of coregulated genes. The workflow includes detailed protocols to determine sets of coregulated genes, to extract the corresponding promoter sequences, and how to install and run a software package to identify overrepresented motifs. Further bioinformatic analyses that can be performed with the results are discussed. PMID:27557771

  5. Abundant raw material for cis-regulatory evolution in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockman, Matthew V.; Wray, Gregory A.

    2002-01-01

    Changes in gene expression and regulation--due in particular to the evolution of cis-regulatory DNA sequences--may underlie many evolutionary changes in phenotypes, yet little is known about the distribution of such variation in populations. We present in this study the first survey of experimentally validated functional cis-regulatory polymorphism. These data are derived from more than 140 polymorphisms involved in the regulation of 107 genes in Homo sapiens, the eukaryote species with the most available data. We find that functional cis-regulatory variation is widespread in the human genome and that the consequent variation in gene expression is twofold or greater for 63% of the genes surveyed. Transcription factor-DNA interactions are highly polymorphic, and regulatory interactions have been gained and lost within human populations. On average, humans are heterozygous at more functional cis-regulatory sites (>16,000) than at amino acid positions (human phenotypic variation.

  6. Hunting for Cis-Regulatory Elements in Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Toby J; Kumar, Manjeet

    2016-02-24

    A new bioinformatics tool predicts natively disordered protein control elements that function in cis, opening the door to more systematic studies of this biomedically important class of protein modules. PMID:27135160

  7. CisMiner: genome-wide in-silico cis-regulatory module prediction by fuzzy itemset mining.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Navarro

    Full Text Available Eukaryotic gene control regions are known to be spread throughout non-coding DNA sequences which may appear distant from the gene promoter. Transcription factors are proteins that coordinately bind to these regions at transcription factor binding sites to regulate gene expression. Several tools allow to detect significant co-occurrences of closely located binding sites (cis-regulatory modules, CRMs. However, these tools present at least one of the following limitations: 1 scope limited to promoter or conserved regions of the genome; 2 do not allow to identify combinations involving more than two motifs; 3 require prior information about target motifs. In this work we present CisMiner, a novel methodology to detect putative CRMs by means of a fuzzy itemset mining approach able to operate at genome-wide scale. CisMiner allows to perform a blind search of CRMs without any prior information about target CRMs nor limitation in the number of motifs. CisMiner tackles the combinatorial complexity of genome-wide cis-regulatory module extraction using a natural representation of motif combinations as itemsets and applying the Top-Down Fuzzy Frequent- Pattern Tree algorithm to identify significant itemsets. Fuzzy technology allows CisMiner to better handle the imprecision and noise inherent to regulatory processes. Results obtained for a set of well-known binding sites in the S. cerevisiae genome show that our method yields highly reliable predictions. Furthermore, CisMiner was also applied to putative in-silico predicted transcription factor binding sites to identify significant combinations in S. cerevisiae and D. melanogaster, proving that our approach can be further applied genome-wide to more complex genomes. CisMiner is freely accesible at: http://genome2.ugr.es/cisminer. CisMiner can be queried for the results presented in this work and can also perform a customized cis-regulatory module prediction on a query set of transcription factor binding

  8. Russia and the CIS: Relations of Foreign or Domestic Policy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesáreo R. Aguilera de Prat

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available What role does the Community of Independent States (CIS currently have in the area that was once called the Soviet Union, in particular in Russia’s so-called “near abroad”? The CIS was, to start with, little more than a liquidating committee of Soviet inheritance.This hybrid entity may be defined as a specific type of union among officially sovereign States that have few decision making mechanisms. For Russia its policy towards the “near abroad” is a priority given this country’s geostrategic interests in this area. The paperanalyzes some of the economic imperatives and the military’s participation in peacekeeping missions that have favored, up to a point, a “russification” of the CIS.

  9. CIS Countries, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Georgia: Comparative Analysis of Logistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poleshchuk Irina Ivanovna

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the logistics services market of the CIS countries, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Georgia on the basis of the LPI for 2011 and the LPI for 2013. The countries under analysis were divided into 3 groups depending on the logistics services market development. Due to the experts’ survey the strengths and weaknesses of the CIS countries, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Georgia logistics systems were revealed, the influence of the external environment factors was analyzed, as a result the matrix of the transport-logistics sphere condition of the countries under analysis was built. The authors analyzed the groups of the countries depending on the logistics sphere development.

  10. Cis-retinol dehydrogenase: 9-cis-retinol metabolism and its effect on proliferation of human MCF7 breast cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    9-Cis-retinoic acid (RA) suppresses cancer cell proliferation via binding and activation of nuclear receptors, retinoid X receptors (RXRs). In vivo, 9-cis-RA is formed through oxidation of 9-cis-retinol by cis-retinol dehydrogenase (cRDH), an enzyme that we characterized previously. Since 9-cis-RA is a potent inhibitor of breast cancer cell proliferation, we hypothesized that overexpression of cRDH in breast cancer cells would result in increased production of 9-cis-RA, which in turn would suppress cell proliferation. To investigate this hypothesis, MCF7 human breast carcinoma cells were transduced with cRDH cDNA (LRDHSN/MCF7), and the growth kinetics and retinoid profiles of cells were examined following treatment with 9-cis-retinol. LRDHSN/MCF7 cells showed a marked reduction in cell numbers (60-80%) upon treatment with 9-cis-retinol compared to vehicle alone. Within 24 h of treatment, approximately 75% of the 9-cis-retinol was taken up and metabolized by LRDHSN/MCF7 cells. Despite the rapid uptake and oxidation of 9-cis-retinol to 9-cis-retinal, 9-cis-RA was not formed in these cells. We detect at least one novel metabolite formed from both 9-cis-retinol and 9-cis-retinal that may play a role in inhibition of MCF7 cell proliferation. Our studies demonstrate that 9-cis-retinol in combination with cRDH inhibits breast cancer cell proliferation by production of retinol metabolites other than RA

  11. EU-CIS joint study project 2. Radiological conditions and risk quantifications in CIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiological conditions after the Chernobyl accident in the CIS republics Ukraine, Belarus and Russia have been evaluated for the period following 1991. Differential population distributions on dose rate or surface contamination density and differential mass distributions for milk on activity concentration of 137Cs in milk have been used to calculate individual avertable and residual doses. The residual lifetime doses in the three republics with reference to the year 1991 have been calculated to be of the order of 30 mSv on average. The potential avertable individual lifetime doses are therefore less than the lifetime doses from the natural background radiation in Europe. The corresponding residual individual lifetime risks have been calculated from the European ASQRAD model to be of the order of 0.06-0.14%, depending on age at start of exposure, and assuming an effective half-life of the annual exposure of 10 years and a dose and dose rate effectiveness factor (DDREF) of 2. A risk model is being developed in Russia for the assessment of risks to the exposed populations from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests in the Semipalatinsk region (Altai region) in the forties and fifties. Calculated age-dependent risks from an acute exposure of the Altai population have been compared with results from similar calculations with the ASQRAD model and reasonable agreement has been found between the two models. (au) (11 tabs., 23 ills., 17 refs.)

  12. Efficient direct ZnO/CIS solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Larry C.; William Addis, F.; Lei, Wenhua; Li, Jun

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes investigations of CIS solar cells with ZnO window layers deposited by MOCVD. These studies have been conducted with graded absorber CIS substrates obtained from Siemens Solar. Cell fabrication involves surface preparation of the Siemens substrate, growth of 200 to 400 Å of undoped ZnO by MOCVD, deposition of a highly conducting ZnO top contact layer and deposition of a Ni/Ag collector grid. MOCVD growth of ZnO is accomplished in a SPIRE 500XT reactor by reacting a zinc adduct and tetrahydrofuran. Processing development has been conducted by forming test cells on ZnO/CIS structures by depositing thin, transparent Al contacts 2.8 mm in diameter on top of the ZnO window layer to serve as contacts. Several cells have been completed with a total area efficiency ≥11.0%, with the best result being 11.3%. The best active area efficiency is approximately 12%. Other topics discussed include current-voltage characteristics of direct ZnO/CIS cells.

  13. CIS and Information Technology Certifications: Education Program Trends and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, David; Reimers, Karl

    2009-01-01

    The fields of Computer Information Systems (CIS) and Information Technology (IT) are experiencing rapid change. In 2003, an analysis of IT degree programs and those of competing disciplines at 10 post-secondary institutions concluded that an information technology program is perceived differently from information systems and computer science. In…

  14. cis Determinants of Promoter Threshold and Activation Timescale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders S. Hansen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Although the relationship between DNA cis-regulatory sequences and gene expression has been extensively studied at steady state, how cis-regulatory sequences affect the dynamics of gene induction is not known. The dynamics of gene induction can be described by the promoter activation timescale (AcTime and amplitude threshold (AmpThr. Combining high-throughput microfluidics with quantitative time-lapse microscopy, we control the activation dynamics of the budding yeast transcription factor, Msn2, and reveal how cis-regulatory motifs in 20 promoter variants of the Msn2-target-gene SIP18 affect AcTime and AmpThr. By modulating Msn2 binding sites, we can decouple AmpThr from AcTime and switch the SIP18 promoter class from high AmpThr and slow AcTime to low AmpThr and either fast or slow AcTime. We present a model that quantitatively explains gene-induction dynamics on the basis of the Msn2-binding-site number, TATA box location, and promoter nucleosome organization. Overall, we elucidate the cis-regulatory logic underlying promoter decoding of TF dynamics.

  15. The CIS Database: Occupational Health and Safety Information Online.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Herbert; Scurr, Erica

    1985-01-01

    Describes document acquisition, selection, indexing, and abstracting and discusses online searching of the CIS database, an online system produced by the International Occupational Safety and Health Information Centre. This database comprehensively covers information in the field of occupational health and safety. Sample searches and search…

  16. Structural Brain Network Characteristics Can Differentiate CIS from Early RRMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthuraman, Muthuraman; Fleischer, Vinzenz; Kolber, Pierre; Luessi, Felix; Zipp, Frauke; Groppa, Sergiu

    2016-01-01

    Focal demyelinated lesions, diffuse white matter (WM) damage, and gray matter (GM) atrophy influence directly the disease progression in patients with multiple sclerosis. The aim of this study was to identify specific characteristics of GM and WM structural networks in subjects with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) in comparison to patients with early relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). Twenty patients with CIS, 33 with RRMS, and 40 healthy subjects were investigated using 3 T-MRI. Diffusion tensor imaging was applied, together with probabilistic tractography and fractional anisotropy (FA) maps for WM and cortical thickness correlation analysis for GM, to determine the structural connectivity patterns. A network topology analysis with the aid of graph theoretical approaches was used to characterize the network at different community levels (modularity, clustering coefficient, global, and local efficiencies). Finally, we applied support vector machines (SVM) to automatically discriminate the two groups. In comparison to CIS subjects, patients with RRMS were found to have increased modular connectivity and higher local clustering, highlighting increased local processing in both GM and WM. Both groups presented increased modularity and clustering coefficients in comparison to healthy controls. SVM algorithms achieved 97% accuracy using the clustering coefficient as classifier derived from GM and 65% using WM from probabilistic tractography and 67% from modularity of FA maps to differentiate between CIS and RRMS patients. We demonstrate a clear increase of modular and local connectivity in patients with early RRMS in comparison to CIS and healthy subjects. Based only on a single anatomic scan and without a priori information, we developed an automated and investigator-independent paradigm that can accurately discriminate between patients with these clinically similar disease entities, and could thus complement the current dissemination-in-time criteria for

  17. DNA interaction with cis- and trans- isomers of photosensitive surfactant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unksov, I. N.; Kasyanenko, N. A.

    2014-12-01

    Interaction between DNA and photosensitive cationic surfactant in a solution is studied. Studies were conducted to examine the impact of the surfactant in its cis- conformation on the size of DNA molecule and also to investigate the phase behavior of the system depending on DNA and surfactant concentration. We conclude that trans- isomer of surfactant requires its smaller concentration to reach the DNA compaction compared with cis- isomer received by UV radiation of solutions. Studies of DNA-surfactant systems were performed by means of spectrophotometry and viscometry. Variation of surfactant concentration enables us to determine the precipitation zone on phase diagram. From the viscosity study it can be indicated that precipitation zone is narrower for UV-radiated surfactant and it shifts to higher surfactant concentration. Also we examine the reversibility of DNA compaction in systems with the surfactant in its trans- form.

  18. DNA interaction with cis- and trans- isomers of photosensitive surfactant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interaction between DNA and photosensitive cationic surfactant in a solution is studied. Studies were conducted to examine the impact of the surfactant in its cis- conformation on the size of DNA molecule and also to investigate the phase behavior of the system depending on DNA and surfactant concentration. We conclude that trans- isomer of surfactant requires its smaller concentration to reach the DNA compaction compared with cis- isomer received by UV radiation of solutions. Studies of DNA-surfactant systems were performed by means of spectrophotometry and viscometry. Variation of surfactant concentration enables us to determine the precipitation zone on phase diagram. From the viscosity study it can be indicated that precipitation zone is narrower for UV-radiated surfactant and it shifts to higher surfactant concentration. Also we examine the reversibility of DNA compaction in systems with the surfactant in its trans- form

  19. Isomerismo cis-trans: de Werner aos nossos dias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Queiroz Salete Linhares

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available In coordination chemistry the study of geometrical isomerization and reactivity of specific isomers is a topic of major importance. The preparation of specific isomers often requires considerable complexity, and it is important to acquire a sense of what is involved in studying isomerism in laboratory. If it is difficult sometimes to prepare pure isomers, it is not easier to understand the mechanisms of isomerization reactions since studies on this subject have shown conflicting results and diferent interpretations on the same system have been reported in the literature. Although cis-trans isomerism in octahedral metal complexes is a common occurrence, there are relatively few studies reporting how these isomerizations occur. This paper gives an overview on cis-trans isomerization processes and identification of these species.

  20. Viscometric study of high-cis polybutadiene in toluene solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viscometric measurements, in toluene solution at 30 deg C, were performed with high-cis polybutadiene synthesized by neodymium based catalyst. Six different equations were used to calculate intrinsic viscosities and viscosimetric constant values: Huggins, Kraemer, Martin and Schulz-Blaschke by graphic extrapolation, and Solomon-Ciuta, Deb-Chanterjee and again Schulz- Blaschke, through a single point determination. The molecular weight of the polymers was also determined applying Mark-Houwink-Sakurada equation using the values of intrinsic viscosity obtained by the six equations. The values of intrinsic viscosity and viscosity-average molecular weight obtained by the two methods were compared in order to verify the validity of the single point determination for high-cis polybutadiene. (author)

  1. Oil industry perspective on investment: in the CIS/Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite the existance of abundant petroleum reserves in the CIS, oil production is decreasing through lack of sophisticated equipment, advanced technology and capital to fully exploit existing and now depleting oil fields and to open up new ones. The oil industry is in need of restructuring and substantial investment if it is to meet increasing domestic demand. Positive moves are being made within the CIS to create an attractive investment climate and encourage the setting up of joint ventures with foreign companies. The types of joint venture agreements that could be used are examined and the challenges and opportunities provided by such ventures are discussed. Notwithstanding serious problems, particularly those relating to political stability and the creation of a suitable legal framework, it is concluded that significant and promising opportunities exist for joint ventures in the oil and gas sectors. (UK)

  2. Bacteriophage P22 gene 23 product acts preferentially in cis.

    OpenAIRE

    Riggs, P D; Botstein, D

    1987-01-01

    The expression of the P22 late operon was measured while the activator of the late operon, the product of gene 23, was provided in cis or in trans. It was found that expression of the late operon, assayed from a late-gene-lacZ gene fusion, was reduced by more than twofold when the only functional copy of gene 23 was present in trans.

  3. Parallel Evolution of Chordate Cis-Regulatory Code for Development

    OpenAIRE

    Doglio, Laura; Goode, Debbie K.; Maria C. Pelleri; Pauls, Stefan; Frabetti, Flavia; Shimeld, Sebastian M; Vavouri, Tanya; Elgar, Greg

    2013-01-01

    Urochordates are the closest relatives of vertebrates and at the larval stage, possess a characteristic bilateral chordate body plan. In vertebrates, the genes that orchestrate embryonic patterning are in part regulated by highly conserved non-coding elements (CNEs), yet these elements have not been identified in urochordate genomes. Consequently the evolution of the cis-regulatory code for urochordate development remains largely uncharacterised. Here, we use genome-wide comparisons between C...

  4. Thermodynamic state ensemble models of cis-regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc S Sherman

    Full Text Available A major goal in computational biology is to develop models that accurately predict a gene's expression from its surrounding regulatory DNA. Here we present one class of such models, thermodynamic state ensemble models. We describe the biochemical derivation of the thermodynamic framework in simple terms, and lay out the mathematical components that comprise each model. These components include (1 the possible states of a promoter, where a state is defined as a particular arrangement of transcription factors bound to a DNA promoter, (2 the binding constants that describe the affinity of the protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions that occur in each state, and (3 whether each state is capable of transcribing. Using these components, we demonstrate how to compute a cis-regulatory function that encodes the probability of a promoter being active. Our intention is to provide enough detail so that readers with little background in thermodynamics can compose their own cis-regulatory functions. To facilitate this goal, we also describe a matrix form of the model that can be easily coded in any programming language. This formalism has great flexibility, which we show by illustrating how phenomena such as competition between transcription factors and cooperativity are readily incorporated into these models. Using this framework, we also demonstrate that Michaelis-like functions, another class of cis-regulatory models, are a subset of the thermodynamic framework with specific assumptions. By recasting Michaelis-like functions as thermodynamic functions, we emphasize the relationship between these models and delineate the specific circumstances representable by each approach. Application of thermodynamic state ensemble models is likely to be an important tool in unraveling the physical basis of combinatorial cis-regulation and in generating formalisms that accurately predict gene expression from DNA sequence.

  5. Cis- and trans-zeatin differentially modulate plant immunity

    OpenAIRE

    Großkinsky, Dominik; Edelsbrunner, Kerstin; Pfeifhofer, Hartwig; van der Graaff, Eric; Roitsch, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Phytohormones are essential regulators of various processes in plant growth and development. Several phytohormones are also known to regulate plant responses to environmental stress and pathogens. Only recently, cytokinins have been demonstrated to play an important role in plant immunity. Increased levels of cytokinins such as trans-zeatin, which are considered highly active, induced resistance against mainly (hemi)biotrophic pathogens in different plant species. In contrast, cis-zeatin is c...

  6. Viscometric study of high-cis polybutadiene in toluene solution

    OpenAIRE

    Mello Ivana L.; Delpech Marcia C.; Coutinho Fernanda M. B.; Albino Fernanda F. M.

    2006-01-01

    Viscometric measurements, in toluene solution at 30 ºC, were performed with high-cis polybutadiene synthesized by neodymium based catalyst. Six different equations were used to calculate intrinsic viscosities and viscosimetric constant values: Huggins, Kraemer, Martin and Schulz-Blaschke by graphic extrapolation, and Solomon-Ciuta, Deb-Chanterjee and again Schulz-Blaschke, through a single point determination. The molecular weight of the polymers was also determined applying Mark-Houwink-Saku...

  7. History and Status of the CIS Customs Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report explores the history of the CIS Customs Union and the major obstacles the Union faces in its implementation. Investigation of the Customs Union is necessary as its implementation could effect the Second Line of Defense (SLD) Program. Russian Customs contends that radiation detectors should not be installed along the Customs Union members borders of as the borders will be dissolved when the Union is implemented

  8. Twine: display and analysis of cis-regulatory modules

    OpenAIRE

    Pearson, Joseph C.; Crews, Stephen T.

    2013-01-01

    Summary: Many algorithms analyze enhancers for overrepresentation of known and novel motifs, with the goal of identifying binding sites for direct regulators of gene expression. Twine is a Java GUI with multiple graphical representations (‘Views’) of enhancer alignments that displays motifs, as IUPAC consensus sequences or position frequency matrices, in the context of phylogenetic conservation to facilitate cis-regulatory element discovery. Thresholds of phylogenetic conservation and motif s...

  9. cis-Dichloridobis(1,10-phenanthrolinechromium(III chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoli Gao

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In the title complex, [CrCl2(C12H8N22]Cl, the CrIII ion is situated on a twofold rotation axis and displays a slightly distorted octahedral CrCl2N4 coordination geometry. The Cr environment is composed of a cis arrangement of two 1,10-phenanthroline and two chloride ligands. The chloride counter-anion exhibits half-occupation and is equally disordered over two positions.

  10. History and Status of the CIS Customs Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawson, T.M.; Erickson, S.A.

    1999-08-31

    This report explores the history of the CIS Customs Union and the major obstacles the Union faces in its implementation. Investigation of the Customs Union is necessary as its implementation could effect the Second Line of Defense (SLD) Program. Russian Customs contends that radiation detectors should not be installed along the Customs Union members borders of as the borders will be dissolved when the Union is implemented.

  11. Molecular characterization of the cis-prenyltransferase of Giardia lamblia

    OpenAIRE

    Grabińska, Kariona A.; Cui, Jike; Chatterjee, Aparajita; Guan, Ziqiang; Raetz, Christian R. H.; Robbins, Phillips W.; Samuelson, John

    2010-01-01

    Giardia lamblia, the protist that causes diarrhea, makes an Asn-linked-glycan (N-glycan) precursor that contains just two sugars (GlcNAc2) attached by a pyrophosphate linkage to a polyprenol lipid. Because the candidate cis-prenyltransferase of Giardia appears to be more similar to bacterial enzymes than to those of most eukaryotes and because Giardia is missing a candidate dolichol kinase (ortholog to Saccharomyces cerevisiae SEC59 gene product), we wondered how Giardia synthesizes dolichol ...

  12. Proton irradiation of the CIS115 for the JUICE mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soman, M. R.; Allanwood, E. A. H.; Holland, A. D.; Winstone, G. P.; Gow, J. P. D.; Stefanov, K.; Leese, M.

    2015-09-01

    The CIS115 is one of the latest CMOS Imaging Sensors designed by e2v technologies, with 1504x2000 pixels on a 7 μm pitch. Each pixel in the array is a pinned photodiode with a 4T architecture, achieving an average dark current of 22 electrons pixel-1 s-1 at 21°C measured in a front-faced device. The sensor aims for high optical sensitivity by utilising e2v's back-thinning and processing capabilities, providing a sensitive silicon thickness approximately 9 μm to 12 μm thick with a tuned anti-reflective coating. The sensor operates in a rolling shutter mode incorporating reset level subtraction resulting in a mean pixel readout noise of 4.25 electrons rms. The full well has been measured to be 34000 electrons in a previous study, resulting in a dynamic range of up to 8000. These performance characteristics have led to the CIS115 being chosen for JANUS, the high-resolution and wide-angle optical camera on the JUpiter ICy moon Explorer (JUICE). The three year science phase of JUICE is in the harsh radiation environment of the Jovian magnetosphere, primarily studying Jupiter and its icy moons. Analysis of the expected radiation environment and shielding levels from the spacecraft and instrument design predict the End Of Life (EOL) displacement and ionising damage for the CIS115 to be equivalent to 1010 10 MeV protons cm-2 and 100 krad(Si) respectively. Dark current and image lag characterisation results following initial proton irradiations are presented, detailing the initial phase of space qualification of the CIS115. Results are compared to the pre-irradiation performance and the instrument specifications and further qualification plans are outlined.

  13. CREME: Cis-Regulatory Module Explorer for the Human Genome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loots, G G; Sharan, R; Ovcharenko, I; Ben-Hur, A

    2004-02-11

    The binding of transcription factors to specific regulatory sequence elements is a primary mechanism for controlling gene transcription. Eukaryotic genes are often regulated by several transcription factors, whose binding sites are tightly clustered and form cis-regulatory modules. In this paper we present a web-server, CREME, for identifying and visualizing cis-regulatory modules in the promoter regions of a given set of potentially co-regulated genes. CREME relies on a database of putative transcription factor binding sites that have been annotated across the human genome using a library of position weight matrices and evolutionary conservation with the mouse and rat genomes. A search algorithm is applied to this dataset to identify combinations of transcription factors whose binding sites tend to co-occur in close proximity in the promoter regions of the input gene set. The identified cis-regulatory modules are statistically scored and significant combinations are reported and graphically visualized. Our web-server is available at http://creme.dcode.org/.

  14. GRASP65 controls the cis Golgi integrity in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tineke Veenendaal

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available GRASP65 and GRASP55 are peripheral Golgi proteins localized to cis and medial/trans cisternae, respectively. They are implicated in diverse aspects of protein transport and structure related to the Golgi complex, including the stacking of the Golgi stack and/or the linking of mammalian Golgi stacks into the Golgi ribbon. Using a mouse model, we interfered with GRASP65 by homologous recombination and confirmed its absence of expression. Surprisingly, the mice were healthy and fertile with no apparent defects in tissue, cellular or subcellular organization. Immortalized MEFs derived from the mice did not show any growth or morphological defects. However, despite the normal appearance of the Golgi ribbon, a fluorescence recovery after photobleaching assay revealed functional discontinuities specific to the cis cisternal membrane network. This leads to a strong change in the plasma membrane GSII lectin staining that was also observed in certain mutant tissues. These findings substantiate the role of GRASP65 in continuity of the cis Golgi network required for proper glycosylation, while showing that neither this continuity nor GRASP65 itself are essential for the viability of a complex organism.

  15. Ready access to functionally embellished cis-hydrindanes and cis-decalins: protecting group-free total syntheses of (±)-Nootkatone and (±)-Noreremophilane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handore, Kishor L; Seetharamsingh, B; Reddy, D Srinivasa

    2013-08-16

    A simple and efficient synthesis of functionalized cis-hydrindanes and cis-decalins was achieved using a sequential Diels-Alder/aldol approach in a highly diastereoselective manner. The scope of this method was tested with a variety of substrates and was successfully applied to the synthesis of two natural products in racemic form. The highlights of the present work provide ready access to 13 new cis-hydrindanes/cis-decalins, a protecting group-free total synthesis of an insect repellent Nootkatone, and the first synthesis of a Noreremophilane using the shortest sequence. PMID:23855542

  16. Radiation chemistry of cis-syn-cis dicyclohexano-18-crown-6 (DCH18C6): Acidity and uranyl nitrate dependence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Draye, Micheline [Laboratoire de Chimie Moleculaire et Environnement (EA1651), Universite de Savoie-Polytech' Savoie, Campus Scientifique, 73376 Le Bourget du Lac Cedex (France)], E-mail: micheline.draye@univ-savoie.fr; Favre-Reguillon, Alain [Laboratoire de Chimie Organique (UMR7084), Conservatoire National des Arts et Metiers, 2 rue conte, 75003 Paris (France); Faure, Rene [Laboratoire des sciences analytiques, UMR CNRS 5180, Universite Claude Bernard, Lyon 1, 43 boulevard du 11 Novembre 1918, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Lemaire, Marc [Laboratoire de Catalyse et Synthese Organique, UMR CNRS 5246, Institut de Chimie et Biochimie Moleculaires et Supramoleculaires, Universite Lyon 1 CPE, 43 boulevard du 11 novembre 1918, Villeurbanne 69622 (France)

    2008-05-15

    The cis-syn-cis isomer of dicyclohexano-18-crown-6 (DCH18C6) has been shown to be an efficient extractant able to perform the separation of Pu(IV) and U(VI) from fission products and then the separation of Pu(IV) from U(VI) without valence exchange as required in the PUREX process. This macrocycle was irradiated in nitric acid with a {sup 137}Cs {gamma} source to study its radiation chemical stability. Radiation chemical yields (G) were determined by gas chromatography. The results show that the presence of uranyl nitrate has a strong influence on DCH18C6 radiation chemical stability. Indeed, the presence of this template ion increases the macrocycle stability by promoting fragments recombination.

  17. Radiation chemistry of cis-syn-cis dicyclohexano-18-crown-6 (DCH18C6): Acidity and uranyl nitrate dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cis-syn-cis isomer of dicyclohexano-18-crown-6 (DCH18C6) has been shown to be an efficient extractant able to perform the separation of Pu(IV) and U(VI) from fission products and then the separation of Pu(IV) from U(VI) without valence exchange as required in the PUREX process. This macrocycle was irradiated in nitric acid with a 137Cs γ source to study its radiation chemical stability. Radiation chemical yields (G) were determined by gas chromatography. The results show that the presence of uranyl nitrate has a strong influence on DCH18C6 radiation chemical stability. Indeed, the presence of this template ion increases the macrocycle stability by promoting fragments recombination

  18. Retinol dehydrogenases in retinoid metabolism : studies on a 9-cis/11-cis-retinol dehydrogenase in adult and embryonic tissues

    OpenAIRE

    Romert, Anna

    2000-01-01

    Retinoids (vitamin A derivatives) are necessary for normal embryonic development and in the adult, for vision, differentiation of various epithelia, reproduction and in the immune system. The physiological effects of retinoids are mediated by binding to the retinoic acid receptors (RARs) and the retinoid X receptors (RXRs). In the eye, the active retinoid molecule is 11-cis-retinal, which is the common chromophore of all visual pigments. The present study focused on the ...

  19. Effects of cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers on immune function in healthy men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albers, R.; Wielen, R.P.J. van der; Brink, E.J.; Hendriks, H.F.J.; Dorovska-Taran, V.N.; Mohede, I.C.M.

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To study the effects of two different mixtures of the main conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers cis-9, trans-11 CLA and trans-10, cis-12 CLA on human immune function. Design: Double-blind, randomized, parallel, reference-controlled intervention study. Subjects and intervention: Seventy

  20. Graphene oxide catalyzed cis-trans isomerization of azobenzene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongha Shin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We report the fast cis-trans isomerization of an amine-substituted azobenzene catalyzed by graphene oxide (GO, where the amine functionality facilitates the charge transfer from azobenzene to graphene oxide in contrast to non-substituted azobenzene. This catalytic effect was not observed in stilbene analogues, which strongly supports the existence of different isomerization pathways between azobenzene and stilbene. The graphene oxide catalyzed isomerization is expected to be useful as a new photoisomerization based sensing platform complementary to GO-based fluorescence quenching methods.

  1. A graph theoretical approach to cis/trans isomerism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furtula Boris

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple graph-theory-based model is put forward, by means of which it is possible to express the energy difference between geometrically non-equivalent forms of a conjugated polyene. This is achieved by modifying the adjacency matrix of the molecular graph, and including into it information on cis/trans constellations. The total π-electron energy thus calculated is in excellent agreement with the enthalpies of the underlying isomers and conformers. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 174033

  2. Continued slide seen for C.I.S. oil production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that oil production in the Commonwealth of Independent States may dip to 7.7 million b/d next year. Robert Ebel of the Center for strategic and International Studies, Washington, D.C., made that prediction before a meeting of the National Association of Petroleum Investment Analysts. Oil and Gas Journal's latest worldwide oil production figures peg the C.I.S. volume at 8.689 million b/d last August. Ebel said a September decree will allow oil prices to move in line with the market and with costs of production. That in turn will lead to development of a deregulated domestic oil market

  3. Bioinformatic identification of novel putative photoreceptor specific cis-elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knox Barry E

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cell specific gene expression is largely regulated by different combinations of transcription factors that bind cis-elements in the upstream promoter sequence. However, experimental detection of cis-elements is difficult, expensive, and time-consuming. This provides a motivation for developing bioinformatic methods to identify cis-elements that could prioritize future experimental studies. Here, we use motif discovery algorithms to predict transcription factor binding sites involved in regulating the differences between murine rod and cone photoreceptor populations. Results To identify highly conserved motifs enriched in promoters that drive expression in either rod or cone photoreceptors, we assembled a set of murine rod-specific, cone-specific, and non-photoreceptor background promoter sequences. These sets were used as input to a newly devised motif discovery algorithm called Iterative Alignment/Modular Motif Selection (IAMMS. Using IAMMS, we predicted 34 motifs that may contribute to rod-specific (19 motifs or cone-specific (15 motifs expression patterns. Of these, 16 rod- and 12 cone-specific motifs were found in clusters near the transcription start site. New findings include the observation that cone promoters tend to contain TATA boxes, while rod promoters tend to be TATA-less (exempting Rho and Cnga1. Additionally, we identify putative sites for IL-6 effectors (in rods and RXR family members (in cones that can explain experimental data showing changes to cell-fate by activating these signaling pathways during rod/cone development. Two of the predicted motifs (NRE and ROP2 have been confirmed experimentally to be involved in cell-specific expression patterns. We provide a full database of predictions as additional data that may contain further valuable information. IAMMS predictions are compared with existing motif discovery algorithms, DME and BioProspector. We find that over 60% of IAMMS predictions are confirmed by

  4. Development of cooperation of the CIS member states in the peaceful use of atomic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Cooperation platform: Attraction of potential investors; Promotion of national goods and services; Pursuit of national and commercial interests. The Commission of the CIS Member States for the Peaceful Use of Atomic Energy is a nuclear cooperation body and the CIS intergovernmental coordinating and advisory authority. The Commission of the CIS Member States for the Peaceful Use of Atomic Energy coordinates and expands the spheres of cooperation. Members of the Commission- state-appointed heads of the authorized CIS member state bodies in the peaceful use of atomic energy; Secretariat is the working body of the Commission. Expert work groups formed within the CIS members States Commission: On the status of the draft Agreement on Coordination of Interstate Relations in the Peaceful Use of Atomic Energy in the CIS Territory; On the establishment of the CIS regional center for advanced training of medical physicists; Formation of an integrated system for the maintenance of safety of the nuclear research facilities. Issues of establishing the Coalition of the CIS Nuclear Research reactors; Formation of mechanisms for the convergence of the CIS member states legal and technical regulations in the peaceful use of atomic energy; Adaptation and introduction in the CIS members states of international standards in the field of using industrial radiation technologies and ensuring radiation safety; Basic forms of the CIS cooperation in ensuring economic security of projects for the peaceful use of atomic energy; Establishment of a system for the management of intellectual assets of the CIS members states; On the use of tele medical technologies of Ros atom State Cooperation- FMBA-MEPHI in diagnosis of oncologic diseases; Development of the major components of the Concept of Ensuring Nuclear, radiation and Radio ecological; Policy of the CIS Member States in the Peaceful Use of Atomic Energy; Joint implementation of the project to establish and implement a program of

  5. Recycling strategies to enhance the commercial viability of CIS photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recycling of photovoltaic (PV) modules at the end of their useful life is important for the success of commercializing PV technologies. There are economic, regulatory and technical issues related to recycling; these are addressed here in a case study of recycling CuInSe2 (CIS) PV modules, which is focused on: economics of the use and re-use of materials; regulations on environmental disposal and waste handling; logistics and economics of recycling and disposing of products by industries faced with comparable environmental issues; and a workable program of the PV industry of the future. The main conclusions are that there are potential regulatory hurdles but these can be overcome by paying attention to module design elements. In the case of large installations, collection of decommissioned PV modules is feasible with current infrastructure, whereas collection from small remote installations is problematic. Collecting and consolidating used PV modules will be simplified if modules are returned to the manufacturer or to a contracted recycling center as 'products' destined for refurbishment and/or re-use. The projected cost of recycling CIS PV modules ranges from 0 to 0.08 US per W, depending on the specific methods, participants and regulations of recycling. (Author)

  6. VOLT-AMPERE CHARACTERISTICS OF CIS-POLY (PHENYL ACETYLENE)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HONG Haiping; ZHOU Shuqin; JIN Xiangfeng; QIAN Renyuan; Anita FURLANI

    1991-01-01

    The volt-ampere (I-V) characteristics of the cis-poly (phenyl acetylene) (PPA) of cis-transoidal structure has been studied in the temperature range of 253-288K. An ITO/ PPA/ Au sandwich configuration was used for the measurements. Under an applied field of less than 105V/ cm it showed ohmic behavior, while the space charge.limited current (SCLC) was observed at applied fields above 5 × 105V/ cm. In the ohmic region a conductivity of 1.37× 10-16S/ cm was obtained at room temperature with an activation energy of 0.5 eV. These data indicate that the conduction is not intrinsic one but is the result of thermal release of trapped carriers. In fact the data in the SCLC region treated according to the theory for a single Gaussian distribution of traps gave a mean trap energy of 0.48 eV with a half-width of 0.4 eV and a total density of trapping states of 5× 1016/ cm3 .

  7. Cis-Selective Ring-Opening Metathesis Polymerization with Ruthenium Catalysts

    OpenAIRE

    Keitz, Benjamin K.; Alexey FEDOROV; Grubbs, Robert H.

    2012-01-01

    Cis-selective ring-opening metathesis polymerization of several monocyclic alkenes as well as norbornene and oxanorbornene-type monomers using a C–H activated, ruthenium-based metathesis catalyst is reported. The cis content of the isolated polymers depended heavily on the monomer structure and temperature. A cis content as high as 96% could be obtained by lowering the temperature of the polymerization.

  8. Cis-regulatory Evolution of Chalcone-Synthase Expression in the Genus Arabidopsis

    OpenAIRE

    de Meaux, J. (Juliette); Pop, A.(National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest, Romania); Mitchell-Olds, T.

    2006-01-01

    The contribution of cis-regulation to adaptive evolutionary change is believed to be essential, yet little is known about the evolutionary rules that govern regulatory sequences. Here, we characterize the short-term evolutionary dynamics of a cis-regulatory region within and among two closely related species, A. lyrata and A. halleri, and compare our findings to A. thaliana. We focused on the cis-regulatory region of chalcone synthase (CHS), a key enzyme involved in the synthesis of plant sec...

  9. MOLDOVA’S CHANCE TO INNOVATION: CAN THE CIS SURVEY HELP A DEVELOPING COUNTRYSUCCEED?

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela DUCA

    2013-01-01

    The Republic of Moldova is one of the few remaining countries in Europe that has not yet taken the Community Innovation Survey (CIS). Can this survey help Moldova identify the drawbacks and advantages of its national innovation system? This article establishes that CIS is indeed a useful tool for an initial diagnostic study. However, in a transitional economy, where little is known about innovation, CIS results must be complemented with open-ended questionnaires. It is found that, even though...

  10. WebCIS: large scale deployment of a Web-based clinical information system.

    OpenAIRE

    Hripcsak, G.; Cimino, J. J.; Sengupta, S.

    1999-01-01

    WebCIS is a Web-based clinical information system. It sits atop the existing Columbia University clinical information system architecture, which includes a clinical repository, the Medical Entities Dictionary, an HL7 interface engine, and an Arden Syntax based clinical event monitor. WebCIS security features include authentication with secure tokens, authorization maintained in an LDAP server, SSL encryption, permanent audit logs, and application time outs. WebCIS is currently used by 810 phy...

  11. Formation of cis-coniferin in cell-free extracts of Fagus grandifolia Ehrh bark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, E.; Inciong, E. J.; Davin, L. B.; Lewis, N. G.

    1990-01-01

    American beech (Fagus grandifolia Ehrh) bark exclusively accumulates cis-monolignols and their glucosidic conjugates; no evidence for the accumulation of trans-monolignols has been found. The glucosyltransferase from this source exhibits a very unusual substrate specificity for cis, and not trans, monolignols. This is further evidence that cis monolignols are involved in lignin formation in these plant tissues. Preliminary evidence for the existence of a novel trans-cis monolignol isomerase was obtained, in agreement with our contention that this isomerization is not photochemically mediated.

  12. First start toward nuclear disarmament: CIS openness and compliance. Research report, August 1991-April 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casteel, B.

    1992-04-01

    In the last six months we have seen significant changes in the Soviet Union which have radically altered that way we have conducted business. Now, it is no longer the Soviet Union, but the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). We are now making wholesale unilateral cuts in our defense structure as the CIS is viewed as our friend and no longer the Evil Empire. We are supplying the CIS with food, loan credits, and even offering assistance to help them destroy nuclear weapons. Even though the world has changed, the CIS remains the only country on the face of the earth capable of destroying the United States in a nuclear holocaust.

  13. Regulation of molecular weight in synthesis of cis-polypentename

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents data which show that the catalytic system based on tetraallylsilane (or diallyldimethylsilane) differs very markedly from the other cis-polypentenamer (CPM) synthesis catalysts in that the polymers obtained with the tetraallylsilane system have low intrinsic viscosities. It is shown that replacement of the tetraallyl or diallyl derivative of silicon by monoallyltrimethylsilane leads to the formation of CPM with an intrinsic viscosity of about 15 dl/g; i.g., the behavior of the WC16-(C3H5) SiMe3 system is analogous to that of most of the systems listed here. The experimental results obtained provide an explanation for the formation of comparatively low-molecular weight CMP in systems containing WC16 in combination with tetrallysilane or a diallylsilane

  14. Outsourcing CIS to achieve a cost-effective competitive edge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ability to survive in a competitive electricity market is a function of the ability of a service provider to deliver superior levels of customer service and develop new and innovative products and services. More and more, the foundation of these new services and products is the customer information system which has the capability to provide vast amounts of usage data and billing information; access to this data enables service providers to introduce new and innovative services and implement targeted marketing initiatives. Recent trend by progressive electricity providers appears to be to outsource specific information technology functions such as customer information systems (CIS) as a way to minimize capital investment, take advantage of leading edge technologies and leverage the expertise of niche service providers. Advantages of outsourcing, and factors important in the selection of an outsourcing partner are discussed

  15. Patterns of cis regulatory variation in diverse human populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara E Stranger

    Full Text Available The genetic basis of gene expression variation has long been studied with the aim to understand the landscape of regulatory variants, but also more recently to assist in the interpretation and elucidation of disease signals. To date, many studies have looked in specific tissues and population-based samples, but there has been limited assessment of the degree of inter-population variability in regulatory variation. We analyzed genome-wide gene expression in lymphoblastoid cell lines from a total of 726 individuals from 8 global populations from the HapMap3 project and correlated gene expression levels with HapMap3 SNPs located in cis to the genes. We describe the influence of ancestry on gene expression levels within and between these diverse human populations and uncover a non-negligible impact on global patterns of gene expression. We further dissect the specific functional pathways differentiated between populations. We also identify 5,691 expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs after controlling for both non-genetic factors and population admixture and observe that half of the cis-eQTLs are replicated in one or more of the populations. We highlight patterns of eQTL-sharing between populations, which are partially determined by population genetic relatedness, and discover significant sharing of eQTL effects between Asians, European-admixed, and African subpopulations. Specifically, we observe that both the effect size and the direction of effect for eQTLs are highly conserved across populations. We observe an increasing proximity of eQTLs toward the transcription start site as sharing of eQTLs among populations increases, highlighting that variants close to TSS have stronger effects and therefore are more likely to be detected across a wider panel of populations. Together these results offer a unique picture and resource of the degree of differentiation among human populations in functional regulatory variation and provide an estimate for

  16. Options for Staging Orbits in Cis-Lunar Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Roland; Whitley, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    NASA has been studying options to conduct missions beyond Low Earth Orbit, but within the Earth-Moon system, in preparation for deep space exploration including human missions to Mars. Referred to as the Proving Ground, this arena of exploration activities will enable the development of human spaceflight systems and operations to satisfy future exploration objectives beyond the cis-lunar environment. One option being considered includes the deployment of a habitable element or elements, which could be used as a central location for aggregation of supplies and resources for human missions in cis-lunar space and beyond. Characterizing candidate orbit locations for this asset and the impacts on system design and mission operations is important in the overall assessment of the options being considered. The orbits described in this paper were initially selected by taking advantage of previous studies conducted by NASA and the work of other authors. In this paper orbits are assessed for their relative attractiveness based on various factors. A set of constraints related to the capability of the combined Orion and SLS system to deliver humans and cargo to and from the orbit are evaluated. Deployed assets intended to spend multiple years in the Proving Ground would ideally require minimal station keeping costs to reduce the mass budget allocated to this function. Additional mission design drivers include eclipse frequency, potential for uninterrupted communication with deployed assets, thermal, attitude control, communications, and other operational implications. Also the ability to support potential lunar surface activities and excursion missions beyond Earth-Moon space is considered. The results of the characterization and evaluation of the selected orbits indicate a Near Rectilinear Orbit (NRO) is an attractive candidate as an aggregation point or staging location for operations. In this paper, the NRO is further described in terms which balance a number of key

  17. Modeling an evolutionary conserved circadian cis-element.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric R Paquet

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Circadian oscillator networks rely on a transcriptional activator called CLOCK/CYCLE (CLK/CYC in insects and CLOCK/BMAL1 or NPAS2/BMAL1 in mammals. Identifying the targets of this heterodimeric basic-helix-loop-helix (bHLH transcription factor poses challenges and it has been difficult to decipher its specific sequence affinity beyond a canonical E-box motif, except perhaps for some flanking bases contributing weakly to the binding energy. Thus, no good computational model presently exists for predicting CLK/CYC, CLOCK/BMAL1, or NPAS2/BMAL1 targets. Here, we use a comparative genomics approach and first study the conservation properties of the best-known circadian enhancer: a 69-bp element upstream of the Drosophila melanogaster period gene. This fragment shows a signal involving the presence of two closely spaced E-box-like motifs, a configuration that we can also detect in the other four prominent CLK/CYC target genes in flies: timeless, vrille, Pdp1, and cwo. This allows for the training of a probabilistic sequence model that we test using functional genomics datasets. We find that the predicted sequences are overrepresented in promoters of genes induced in a recent study by a glucocorticoid receptor-CLK fusion protein. We then scanned the mouse genome with the fly model and found that many known CLOCK/BMAL1 targets harbor sequences matching our consensus. Moreover, the phase of predicted cyclers in liver agreed with known CLOCK/BMAL1 regulation. Taken together, we built a predictive model for CLK/CYC or CLOCK/BMAL1-bound cis-enhancers through the integration of comparative and functional genomics data. Finally, a deeper phylogenetic analysis reveals that the link between the CLOCK/BMAL1 complex and the circadian cis-element dates back to before insects and vertebrates diverged.

  18. Separation of cis/trans fatty acid isomers on gas chromatography compared to the Ag-TLC method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundaresan, A.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the separation of the cis/trans isomers of fatty acids on the 75 m SP2560 column under different gas chromatographic (GC conditions including an isothermal program and a time-temperature program. The time-temperature program showed improved separation of cis/trans isomers of C14:1, C16:1, C18:1, C18:2 and C18:3 fatty acids along with short chain fatty acids compared to the isothermal program. The separation of trans/trans isomers of C18:1 fatty acids including elaidic acid (C18:1 ∆9t and vaccenic acid (C18:1 ∆11t was difficult with the time-temperature program. The thin layer chromatography impregnated with silver nitrate (Ag- TLC method was performed to separate cis/trans fractions and GC analysis was carried out with the trans fraction. But GC analysis showed a co-elution of trans isomers of C18:1 fatty acid. Thus the study shows that a time-temperature programmed GC method with the highly polar cyanopropyl column is sufficient to resolve trans fatty acids along with short chain fatty acids when a large number of samples has to be analyzed.El presente estudio investiga la separación de isómeros cis/trans de ácidos grasos mediante cromatografía de gases (GC utilizando una columna de SP2560 de 75 m y diferentes condiciones que incluyen un programa isotérmico y una programación temperatura-tiempo. La programación temperatura- tiempo mostró una mejor separación de isómeros cis / trans de los ácidos grasos C14:1, C16:1, C18:1, C18:2 y C18:3 con los ácidos grasos de cadena corta en comparación con el programa isotermo. La separación de los isómeros trans/trans de los ácidos grasos C18:1 incluyendo ácido elaídico (C18:1 Δ9t y ácido vaccénico (C18:1Δ11t fué difícil mediante programación temperatura-tiempo. La cromatografía en capa fina impregnada con nitrato de plata (Ag-TLC se realizó para separar fracciones cis/trans y el análisis de la fracciones se llevó a cabo mediante GC. El an

  19. Del Piero

    OpenAIRE

    Umbaca, Enzo

    2015-01-01

    Rifacendosi al “Pinturicchio”, epiteto con cui Gianni Agnelli consacrava il calciatore Alessandro Del Piero un “artista del calcio”, Enzo Umbaca scrisse al popolare personaggio invitandolo a collaborare ad una performance durante la quale Pinturicchio-Del Piero avrebbe affrescato il muro di una galleria torinese calciando un pallone macchiato di grafite contro un muro sul quale è appesa la copia di un opera del Pinturicchio.

  20. Photoisomerization Mechanism of Rhodopsin and 9-cis-Rhodopsin Revealed by X-ray Crystallography

    OpenAIRE

    Nakamichi, Hitoshi; Buss, Volker; Okada, Tetsuji

    2007-01-01

    The primary photochemical process of the visual function has been investigated using the three crystallographic models, 11-cis-rhodopsin, all-trans-bathorhodopsin, and the artificial isomeric 9-cis-rhodopsin. Detailed examination of the atomic displacements and dihedral angle changes of the retinal chromophore involved in the interconversion among these isomers suggests the mechanism of isomerization efficiency.

  1. A CIS (Clinical Information System) Quality Evaluation Tool for Nursing Care Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seon Ah

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a tool to evaluate the quality of a clinical information system (CIS) conceived by nurses and conduct a pilot test with the developed tool as an initial assessment. CIS quality is required for successful implementation in information technology (IT) environments. The study started with the realization that…

  2. Planning "and" Sprinting: Use of a Hybrid Project Management Methodology within a CIS Capstone Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Aaron; Riggins, Frederick J.

    2012-01-01

    An increasing number of information systems projects in industry are managed using hybrid project management methodologies, but this shift in project management methods is not fully represented in our CIS curriculums. CIS capstone courses often include an applied project that is managed with traditional project management methods (plan first,…

  3. Bacterial degradation of 3-chloroacrylic acid and the characterization of cis- and trans-specific dehalogenases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hylckama Vlieg, Johan E.T. van; Janssen, Dick B.

    1992-01-01

    A coryneform bacterium that is able to utilize cis- and trans-3-chloroacrylic acid as sole carbon source for growth was isolated from freshwater sediment. The organism was found to produce two inducible dehalogenases, one specific for the cis- and the other for trans-3-chloroacrylic acid. Both dehal

  4. Stepwise encapsulation and controlled two-stage release system for cis-Diamminediiodoplatinum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Y

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Yun Chen,1,* Qian Li,1,2,* Qingsheng Wu1 1Department of Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Yangtze River Water Environment, Ministry of Education, Tongji University, Shanghai; 2Shanghai Institute of Quality Inspection and Technical Research, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: cis-Diamminediiodoplatinum (cis-DIDP is a cisplatin-like anticancer drug with higher anticancer activity, but lower stability and price than cisplatin. In this study, a cis-DIDP carrier system based on micro-sized stearic acid was prepared by an emulsion solvent evaporation method. The maximum drug loading capacity of cis-DIDP-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles was 22.03%, and their encapsulation efficiency was 97.24%. In vitro drug release in phosphate-buffered saline (pH =7.4 at 37.5°C exhibited a unique two-stage process, which could prove beneficial for patients with tumors and malignancies. MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay results showed that cis-DIDP released from cis-DIDP-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles had better inhibition activity than cis-DIDP that had not been loaded. Keywords: stearic acid, emulsion solvent evaporation method, drug delivery, cis-DIDP, in vitro

  5. 9-cis -carotene Inhibits Atherosclerosis Development in Female LDLR-/- Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noa Zolberg Relevy

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several epidemiological studies have shown that diets rich in carotenoids are associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. However, administration of synthetic all-trans -carotene was reported to have no effect on cardiovascular disease. We previously showed that the 9-cis -carotene-rich powder of the alga Dunaliella bardawil inhibits atherogenesis and reduces plasma non-HDL cholesterol levels in mice. Context and purpose of this study: We sought to study whether isolated 9-cis -carotene inhibits atherogenesis in a murine model of atherosclerosis. Results: Twelve-week-old female LDL receptor knockout mice (LDLR-/- were pretreated for 2 weeks with regular chow diet fortified with the alga Dunaliella powder, 9-cis β-carotene isomer, all-trans β-carotene isomer, or 9-cis retinoic acid, followed by 10 weeks of a high-fat diet with the same fortifications. In contrast to Dunaliella, 9-cis β-carotene did not inhibit the high fat dietinduced elevation of plasma cholesterol. In addition, diet fortification with Dunaliella powder, β-carotene isomers, or 9-cis retinoic acid did not change the plasma retinol or retinoic acid levels.Nevertheless, 9-cis β-carotene significantly inhibited atherogenesis compared to the control mice (39% reduction. Conclusions: The results suggest that 9-cis β-carotene should be considered as an antiatherogenic agent in the human diet

  6. Possible mechanism for differences in sensitivity to cis-platinum in human prostate tumor cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two human prostate tumor cell lines which exhibit a 2.4-fold difference in sensitivity to cis-platinum (cis-191Pt) were found to possess slightly different sulphydryl contents, and the presence of a metallothionein-like zinc-binding protein was demonstrated in the line exhibiting relative resistance to cis-191Pt. Although these factors have been postulated to play a role in the mechanism(s) of resistance to cis-191Pt in other cell types, preliminary data in this report suggest that differences found in drug uptake and subsequent binding to DNA are most likely responsible for variations in cis-191Pt sensitivity displayed by these prostate tumor cell lines

  7. 9-cis β-Carotene Increased Cholesterol Efflux to HDL in Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sapir Bechor

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cholesterol efflux from macrophages is a key process in reverse cholesterol transport and, therefore, might inhibit atherogenesis. 9-cis-β-carotene (9-cis-βc is a precursor for 9-cis-retinoic-acid (9-cis-RA, which regulates macrophage cholesterol efflux. Our objective was to assess whether 9-cis-βc increases macrophage cholesterol efflux and induces the expression of cholesterol transporters. Enrichment of a mouse diet with βc from the alga Dunaliella led to βc accumulation in peritoneal macrophages. 9-cis-βc increased the mRNA levels of CYP26B1, an enzyme that regulates RA cellular levels, indicating the formation of RA from βc in RAW264.7 macrophages. Furthermore, 9-cis-βc, as well as all-trans-βc, significantly increased cholesterol efflux to high-density lipoprotein (HDL by 50% in RAW264.7 macrophages. Likewise, food fortification with 9-cis-βc augmented cholesterol efflux from macrophages ex vivo. 9-cis-βc increased both the mRNA and protein levels of ABCA1 and apolipoprotein E (APOE and the mRNA level of ABCG1. Our study shows, for the first time, that 9-cis-βc from the diet accumulates in peritoneal macrophages and increases cholesterol efflux to HDL. These effects might be ascribed to transcriptional induction of ABCA1, ABCG1, and APOE. These results highlight the beneficial effect of βc in inhibition of atherosclerosis by improving cholesterol efflux from macrophages.

  8. Cooperation between cis and trans influences in cis-Pt(II)(PPh(3))(2) complexes: structural, spectroscopic, and computational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigamonti, Luca; Forni, Alessandra; Manassero, Mario; Manassero, Carlo; Pasini, Alessandro

    2010-01-01

    The relevance of cis and trans influences of some anionic ligands X and Y in cis-[PtX(2)(PPh(3))(2)] and cis-[PtXY(PPh(3))(2)] complexes have been studied by the X-ray crystal structures of several derivatives (X(2) = (AcO)(2) (3), (NO(3))(2) (5), Br(2) (7), I(2) (11); and XY = Cl(AcO) (2), Cl(NO(3)) (4), and Cl(NO(2)) (13)), density functional theory (DFT) calculations, and one bond Pt-P coupling constants, (1)J(PtP). The latter have allowed an evaluation of the relative magnitude of both influences. It is concluded that such influences act in a cooperative way and that the cis influence is not irrelevant when rationalizing the (1)J(PtP) values, as well as the experimental Pt-P bond distances. On the contrary, in the optimized geometries, evaluated through B3LYP/def2-SVP calculations, the cis influence was not observed, except for compounds ClPh (21), Ph(2) (22), and, to a lesser extent, Cl(NO(2)) (13) and (NO(2))(2) (14). A natural bond order analysis on the optimized structures, however, has shown how the cis influence can be related to the s-character of the Pt hybrid orbital involved in the Pt-P bonds and the net atomic charge on Pt. We have also found that in the X-ray structures of cis-[PtX(2)(PPh(3))(2)] complexes the two Pt-X and the two Pt-P bond lengths are different each other and are related to the conformation of the phosphine groups, rather than to the crystal packing, since this feature is observed also in the optimized geometries. PMID:19950913

  9. Radiation therapy and cis-diammine-dichloroplatinum (II) in transplantable and primary murine bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preoperative radiation improves survival in advanced bladder cancer but the high failure rate, primarily due to distant metastases, suggests a need for adjuvant chemotherapy. The optimal drug might exhibit an additive effect with radiotherapy. Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) induced in mice by FANFT closely resembles the human counterpart, and both primary and transplanted tumors were used to evaluate the possible additive effect of cis DDP and cyclophosphamide (CY), two drugs with activity in TCC, with radiation. One hundred C3H/He mice had 5 x 104 TCC cells placed in their right hind limbs and randomized into a control (20) and 8 treatment groups (10); 3600 rad, 3600 rad + CY, 3600 rad + cis DDP, 1500 rad + cis DDP, 1500 rad + CY, CY, and cis DDP. Chemotherapy was initiated on day 7 and continued every week x 3. Radiation, in 250 rad or 600 rad fractions, was given biweekly to the tumor bearing limb using a CO60 source. 3600 rad alone produced 60% cures with a significant reduction in average tumor diameter (p < 0.001). 3600 rad + cis DDP achieved 78% cures, the best regimen. Therapy of palpable tumors yielded similar results--ave. tumor diameter (D-38) for controls 16.5, 3000 rad--10.6 (p < 0.001), cis DDP--10.2, CY + 1600 rad--8.1, cis DDP + 300 rad--6.2. Cis DDP + 3000 rad was significantly better than cis DDP or 3000 rad alone. One hundred fifty mice ingesting FANFT for 11 months were randomized into 7 groups and subjected to the same regimens to evaluate the effect on primary tumors. The greatest reduction in tumor volume was in mice receiving 1500 rad + cis DDP (mean bladder weight, 29.68 vs. controls 53.57, p < 0.005). These results consistently suggest cooperation between irradiation and cis DDP. Adjuvant cis DDP for invasive bladder cancer might be maximized by initiation with preoperative radiotherapy. Our initial clinical data with cis DDP + irradiation in advanced TCC are encouraging

  10. Detailed map of a cis-regulatory input function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setty, Y.; Mayo, A. E.; Surette, M. G.; Alon, U.

    2003-06-01

    Most genes are regulated by multiple transcription factors that bind specific sites in DNA regulatory regions. These cis-regulatory regions perform a computation: the rate of transcription is a function of the active concentrations of each of the input transcription factors. Here, we used accurate gene expression measurements from living cell cultures, bearing GFP reporters, to map in detail the input function of the classic lacZYA operon of Escherichia coli, as a function of about a hundred combinations of its two inducers, cAMP and isopropyl -D-thiogalactoside (IPTG). We found an unexpectedly intricate function with four plateau levels and four thresholds. This result compares well with a mathematical model of the binding of the regulatory proteins cAMP receptor protein (CRP) and LacI to the lac regulatory region. The model is also used to demonstrate that with few mutations, the same region could encode much purer AND-like or even OR-like functions. This possibility means that the wild-type region is selected to perform an elaborate computation in setting the transcription rate. The present approach can be generally used to map the input functions of other genes.

  11. Polypurine/polypyrimidine sequences as cis-acting transcriptional regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahmachari, S K; Sarkar, P S; Raghavan, S; Narayan, M; Maiti, A K

    1997-04-29

    Genome sequence information has generated increasing evidence for the claim that repetitive DNA sequences present within and around genes could play a important role in the regulation of gene expression. Polypurine/polypyrimidine sequences [poly(Pu/Py)] have been observed in the vicinity of promoters and within the transcribed regions of many genes. To understand whether such sequences influence the level of gene expression, we constructed several prokaryotic and eukaryotic expression vectors incorporating poly(Pu/Py) repeats both within and upstream of a reporter gene, lacZ (encoding beta-galactosidase), and studied its expression in vivo. We find that, in contrast to the situation in Escherichia coli, the presence of poly(Pu/Py) sequences within the gene does not significantly inhibit gene expression in mammalian cells. On the other hand, the presence of such sequences upstream of lacZ leads to a several-fold reduction of gene expression in mammalian cells. Similar down-regulation was observed when a structural cassette containing poly(Pu/Py) sequences upstream of lacZ was integrated into yeast chromosome V. Sequence analysis of the nine totally sequenced yeast chromosomes shows that a large number of such sequences occur upstream of ORFs. On the basis of our experimental results and DNA sequence analysis, we propose that these sequences can function as cis-acting transcriptional regulators. PMID:9185844

  12. Changes in Cis-regulatory Elements during Morphological Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Lee Paul

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available How have animals evolved new body designs (morphological evolution? This requires explanations both for simple morphological changes, such as differences in pigmentation and hair patterns between different Drosophila populations and species, and also for more complex changes, such as differences in the forelimbs of mice and bats, and the necks of amphibians and reptiles. The genetic changes and pathways involved in these evolutionary steps require identification. Many, though not all, of these events occur by changes in cis-regulatory (enhancer elements within developmental genes. Enhancers are modular, each affecting expression in only one or a few tissues. Therefore it is possible to add, remove or alter an enhancer without producing changes in multiple tissues, and thereby avoid widespread (pleiotropic deleterious effects. Ideally, for a given step in morphological evolution it is necessary to identify (i the change in phenotype, (ii the changes in gene expression, (iii the DNA region, enhancer or otherwise, affected, (iv the mutation involved, (v the nature of the transcription or other factors that bind to this site. In practice these data are incomplete for most of the published studies upon morphological evolution. Here, the investigations are categorized according to how far these analyses have proceeded.

  13. Using hexamers to predict cis-regulatory motifs in Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kibler Dennis

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cis-regulatory modules (CRMs are short stretches of DNA that help regulate gene expression in higher eukaryotes. They have been found up to 1 megabase away from the genes they regulate and can be located upstream, downstream, and even within their target genes. Due to the difficulty of finding CRMs using biological and computational techniques, even well-studied regulatory systems may contain CRMs that have not yet been discovered. Results We present a simple, efficient method (HexDiff based only on hexamer frequencies of known CRMs and non-CRM sequence to predict novel CRMs in regulatory systems. On a data set of 16 gap and pair-rule genes containing 52 known CRMs, predictions made by HexDiff had a higher correlation with the known CRMs than several existing CRM prediction algorithms: Ahab, Cluster Buster, MSCAN, MCAST, and LWF. After combining the results of the different algorithms, 10 putative CRMs were identified and are strong candidates for future study. The hexamers used by HexDiff to distinguish between CRMs and non-CRM sequence were also analyzed and were shown to be enriched in regulatory elements. Conclusion HexDiff provides an efficient and effective means for finding new CRMs based on known CRMs, rather than known binding sites.

  14. Deciphering cis-regulatory control in inflammatory cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghisletti, Serena; Natoli, Gioacchino

    2013-01-01

    In innate immune system cells, such as macrophages and dendritic cells, deployment of inducible gene expression programmes in response to microbes and danger signals requires highly precise regulatory mechanisms. The inflammatory response has to be tailored based on both the triggering stimulus and its dose, and it has to be unfolded in a kinetically complex manner that suits the different phases of the inflammatory process. Genomic characterization of regulatory elements in this context indicated that transcriptional regulators involved in macrophage specification act as pioneer transcription factors (TFs) that generate regions of open chromatin that enable the recruitment of TFs activated in response to external inputs. Therefore, competence for responses to a specific stimulus is programmed at an early stage of differentiation by factors involved in lineage commitment and maintenance of cell identity, which are responsible for the organization of a cell-type-specific cis-regulatory repertoire. The basic functional and organizational principles that regulate inflammatory gene expression in professional cells of the innate immune system provide general paradigms on the interplay between differentiation and environmental responses. PMID:23650641

  15. Computational methods for the detection of cis-regulatory modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Loo, Peter; Marynen, Peter

    2009-09-01

    Metazoan transcription regulation occurs through the concerted action of multiple transcription factors that bind co-operatively to cis-regulatory modules (CRMs). The annotation of these key regulators of transcription is lagging far behind the annotation of the transcriptome itself. Here, we give an overview of existing computational methods to detect these CRMs in metazoan genomes. We subdivide these methods into three classes: CRM scanners screen sequences for CRMs based on predefined models that often consist of multiple position weight matrices (PWMs). CRM builders construct models of similar CRMs controlling a set of co-regulated or co-expressed genes. CRM genome screeners screen sequences or complete genomes for CRMs as homotypic or heterotypic clusters of binding sites for any combination of transcription factors. We believe that CRM scanners are currently the most advanced methods, although their applicability is limited. Finally, we argue that CRM builders that make use of PWM libraries will benefit greatly from future advances and will prove to be most instrumental for the annotation of regulatory regions in metazoan genomes. PMID:19498042

  16. cis,cis-Muconic Acid: Separation and Catalysis to Bio-Adipic Acid for Nylon-6,6 Polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vardon, Derek R.; Rorrer, Nicholas A.; Salvachua, Davinia; Settle, Amy E.; Johnson, Christopher W.; Menart, Martin J.; Cleveland, Nicholas S.; Ciesielski, Peter N.; Steirer, K. Xerxes; Dorgan, John R.; Beckham, Gregg T.

    2016-06-07

    cis,cis-Muconic acid is a polyunsaturated dicarboxylic acid that can be produced renewably via the biological conversion of sugars and lignin-derived aromatic compounds. Subsequently, muconic acid can be catalytically converted to adipic acid -- the most commercially significant dicarboxylic acid manufactured from petroleum. Nylon-6,6 is the major industrial application for adipic acid, consuming 85% of market demand; however, high purity adipic acid (99.8%) is required for polymer synthesis. As such, process technologies are needed to effectively separate and catalytically transform biologically derived muconic acid to adipic acid in high purity over stable catalytic materials. To that end, this study: (1) demonstrates bioreactor production of muconate at 34.5 g L-1 in an engineered strain of Pseudomonas putida KT2440, (2) examines the staged recovery of muconic acid from culture media, (3) screens platinum group metals (e.g., Pd, Pt, Rh, Ru) for activity and leaching stability on activated carbon (AC) and silica supports, (4) evaluates the time-on-stream performance of Rh/AC in a trickle bed reactor, and (5) demonstrates the polymerization of bio-adipic acid to nylon-6,6. Separation experiments confirmed AC effectively removed broth color compounds, but subsequent pH/temperature shift crystallization resulted in significant levels of Na, P, K, S and N in the crystallized product. Ethanol dissolution of muconic acid precipitated bulk salts, achieving a purity of 99.8%. Batch catalysis screening reactions determined that Rh and Pd were both highly active compared to Pt and Ru, but Pd leached significantly (1-9%) from both AC and silica supports. Testing of Rh/AC in a continuous trickle bed reactor for 100 h confirmed stable performance after 24 h, although organic adsorption resulted in reduced steady-state activity. Lastly, polymerization of bio-adipic acid with hexamethyldiamine produced nylon-6,6 with comparable properties to its petrochemical counterpart

  17. Thermal processing differentially affects lycopene and other carotenoids in cis-lycopene containing, tangerine tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooperstone, Jessica L; Francis, David M; Schwartz, Steven J

    2016-11-01

    Tangerine tomatoes, unlike red tomatoes, accumulate cis-lycopenes instead of the all-trans isomer. cis-Lycopene is the predominating isomeric form of lycopene found in blood and tissues. Our objective was to understand how thermal processing and lipid concentration affect carotenoid isomerisation and degradation in tangerine tomatoes. We conducted duplicated factorial designed experiments producing tangerine tomato juice and sauce, varying both processing time and lipid concentration. Carotenoids were extracted and analysed using high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection. Phytoene, phytofluene, ζ-carotene, neurosporene, tetra-cis-lycopene, all-trans-lycopene and other-cis-lycopenes were quantified. Tetra-cis-lycopene decreased with increasing heating time and reached 80% of the original level in sauce after processing times of 180min. All-trans-lycopene and other-cis-lycopenes increased with longer processing times. Total carotenoids and total lycopene decreased with increased heating times while phytoene and phytofluene were unchanged. These data suggest limiting thermal processing of tangerine tomato products if delivery of tetra-cis-lycopene is desirable. PMID:27211672

  18. Questions on maintenance of ecological safety in space of the CIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disintegration of the USSR has led to disintegration uniform economic and legal space and it has led to occurrence of some problems in ecological sphere. In given article it is shown some directions of maintenance of ecological safety, agreements on this sphere and organizational mechanisms, forms of mutual relations of the CIS countries in this sphere. At the end it is shownthe basic directions on maintenance of ecological safety in framework of CIS and elements of development of mutual relations of the CIS countries

  19. Beta-2-microglobulin excretion: an indicator of long term nephrotoxicity during cis-platinum treatment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, P G; Nissen, Mogens Holst; Groth, S; Rørth, M

    1985-01-01

    To evaluate the value of beta-2-microglobulin as an indicator of acute and long-term cis-platinum-induced nephrotoxicity, 51Cr-EDTA clearance and serum concentration and urinary excretion of beta-2-microglobulin were measured in 18 patients treated with a regimen including cis-platinum. Before......-microglobulin remained unchanged. The decrease in 51Cr-EDTA clearance was not correlated to either the peak increase in the beta-2-microglobulin excretion or to the time of occurrence of the peak (R = 0.3). Thus, it is not possible to predict the long-term nephrotoxicity of cis-platinum by measuring the beta-2...

  20. Quasiperiodic orbit analysis of nonadiabatic cis-trans photoisomerization dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balzer, Birgit; Dilthey, Stefan; Hahn, Susanne; Thoss, Michael; Stock, Gerhard

    2003-08-01

    Adopting a multidimensional model of nonadiabatic cis-trans photoisomerization, quantum-mechanical and classical simulations of the ultrafast wave-packet dynamics associated with this photoreaction are presented. The quantum calculations demonstrate that nonadiabatic photoisomerization typically leads to a largely delocalized and diffuse wave function, which hampers an intuitive understanding of the dynamics in terms of specific nuclear motion. To facilitate a classical description, a recently proposed theoretical formulation is employed that affords an exact mapping of discrete electronic states onto continuous degrees of freedom and therefore provides a well-defined classical limit of a nonadiabatically coupled system. It is shown that a simple quasiclassical implementation of the mapping formulation is able to reproduce at least qualitatively the complex quantum dynamics of the system. In addition, the classical description allows us to characterize the nonadiabatic photoisomerization dynamics in terms of a few "quasiperiodic orbits." These orbits are close to a true unstable periodic orbit but are exactly periodic only with respect to the slow reaction coordinate of the system. Various types of quasiperiodic orbits of nonadiabatic photoisomerization are identified and analyzed. It is shown that the diffuse appearance of the quantum-mechanical wave function can be directly connected to irregular classical orbits propagating on vibronically coupled potential-energy surfaces. The chaotic behavior of the system is mainly caused by the relatively high energy corresponding to photoexcitation, the large anharmonicity of the isomerization potentials, and the reflection of the trajectory at surface crossings. The results demonstrate that quasiperiodic orbits represent a concept well suited to analyze the quantum dynamics of complex systems in terms of classical trajectories without the cumbersome search for periodic orbits.

  1. Comprehensive NASA Cis-Lunar Earth Moon Libration Orbit Reference and Web Application Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To finalize a comprehensive NASA Cis-Lunar / Earth-Moon Libration Orbit Reference and Web Application begun using FY13 IRAD funding approved in May 2013. This GSFC...

  2. Initial ontogenesis of rare Paeonia L. species introduced in Bashkir Cis-Urals

    OpenAIRE

    Antonina A. Reut; Mironova, Ludmila N

    2014-01-01

    The results of studies of the initial stages of ontogenesis of rare species of three Paeonia species (P. anomala, P. tenuifolia, P. hybrida) cultivated in Bashkir Cis-Urals conditions are represented.

  3. Identification of a Positive Cis-Element Upstream of Human NKX3.1 Gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    An-Li JIANG; Peng-Ju ZHANG; Xiao-Yan HU; Wei-Wen CHEN; Feng KONG; Zhi-Fang LIU; Hui-Qing YUAN; Jian-Ye ZHANG

    2005-01-01

    NKX3.1 is a prostate-specific homeobox gene related to prostate development and prostate cancer. In this work, we aimed to identify precisely the functional cis-element in the 197 bp region (from -1032 to -836 bp) of the NKX3.1 promoter (from -1032 to +8 bp), which was previously identified to present positive regulatory activity on NKX3.1 expression, by deletion mutagenesis analysis and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). A 16 bp positive cis-element located between -920 and -905 bp upstream of the NKX3.1 gene was identified by deletion mutation analysis and proved to be a functional positive cis-element by EMSA. It will be important to further study the functions and regulatory mechanisms of this positive cis-element in NKX3.1 gene expression.

  4. CisSERS: Customizable In Silico Sequence Evaluation for Restriction Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, Richard M.; Koepke, Tyson; Harper, Artemus; Grimes, John; Galli, Marco; Satoh-Cruz, Mio; Kalyanaraman, Ananth; Evans, Katherine; Kramer, David; Dhingra, Amit

    2016-01-01

    High-throughput sequencing continues to produce an immense volume of information that is processed and assembled into mature sequence data. Data analysis tools are urgently needed that leverage the embedded DNA sequence polymorphisms and consequent changes to restriction sites or sequence motifs in a high-throughput manner to enable biological experimentation. CisSERS was developed as a standalone open source tool to analyze sequence datasets and provide biologists with individual or comparative genome organization information in terms of presence and frequency of patterns or motifs such as restriction enzymes. Predicted agarose gel visualization of the custom analyses results was also integrated to enhance the usefulness of the software. CisSERS offers several novel functionalities, such as handling of large and multiple datasets in parallel, multiple restriction enzyme site detection and custom motif detection features, which are seamlessly integrated with real time agarose gel visualization. Using a simple fasta-formatted file as input, CisSERS utilizes the REBASE enzyme database. Results from CisSERS enable the user to make decisions for designing genotyping by sequencing experiments, reduced representation sequencing, 3’UTR sequencing, and cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) molecular markers for large sample sets. CisSERS is a java based graphical user interface built around a perl backbone. Several of the applications of CisSERS including CAPS molecular marker development were successfully validated using wet-lab experimentation. Here, we present the tool CisSERS and results from in-silico and corresponding wet-lab analyses demonstrating that CisSERS is a technology platform solution that facilitates efficient data utilization in genomics and genetics studies. PMID:27071032

  5. Small intestinal mucosal toxicity of cis-platinum--comparison of toxicity with platinum analogues and dexamethasone.

    OpenAIRE

    Allan, S G; Smyth, J. F.

    1986-01-01

    Cis-platinum causes profound gastrointestinal symptoms in patients and these may persist for many days after drug administration. Gut mucosal toxicity may be a factor in the pathogenesis of such prolonged nausea, vomiting and anorexia. The effects of cis-platinum on mouse ileal mucosal architecture, villus epithelial cell influx and disaccharidase activity are described in comparison with dhe effects of two platinum analogues, CBDCA and CHIP. In addition the effect of dexamethasone, a useful ...

  6. CisSERS: Customizable In Silico Sequence Evaluation for Restriction Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, Richard M; Koepke, Tyson; Harper, Artemus; Grimes, John; Galli, Marco; Satoh-Cruz, Mio; Kalyanaraman, Ananth; Evans, Katherine; Kramer, David; Dhingra, Amit

    2016-01-01

    High-throughput sequencing continues to produce an immense volume of information that is processed and assembled into mature sequence data. Data analysis tools are urgently needed that leverage the embedded DNA sequence polymorphisms and consequent changes to restriction sites or sequence motifs in a high-throughput manner to enable biological experimentation. CisSERS was developed as a standalone open source tool to analyze sequence datasets and provide biologists with individual or comparative genome organization information in terms of presence and frequency of patterns or motifs such as restriction enzymes. Predicted agarose gel visualization of the custom analyses results was also integrated to enhance the usefulness of the software. CisSERS offers several novel functionalities, such as handling of large and multiple datasets in parallel, multiple restriction enzyme site detection and custom motif detection features, which are seamlessly integrated with real time agarose gel visualization. Using a simple fasta-formatted file as input, CisSERS utilizes the REBASE enzyme database. Results from CisSERS enable the user to make decisions for designing genotyping by sequencing experiments, reduced representation sequencing, 3'UTR sequencing, and cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) molecular markers for large sample sets. CisSERS is a java based graphical user interface built around a perl backbone. Several of the applications of CisSERS including CAPS molecular marker development were successfully validated using wet-lab experimentation. Here, we present the tool CisSERS and results from in-silico and corresponding wet-lab analyses demonstrating that CisSERS is a technology platform solution that facilitates efficient data utilization in genomics and genetics studies. PMID:27071032

  7. Drivers of Exchange Rate Dynamics in Selected CIS Countries: Evidence from a FAVAR Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Dreger, Christian; Fidrmuc, Jarko

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the likely sources of exchange rate dynamics in selected CIS countries (Russia, Kazakhstan, Ukraine, Kyrgyzstan, Azerbaijan, and Moldova) over the last dec-ade (1999-2010). Evidence is based on country VARs augmented by a regional com-mon factor structure (FAVAR model). The models include nominal exchange rates, the common factor of exchange rates in the CIS countries, and international drivers such as global trade, share prices, and oil price. Global, regional and idiosyncrati...

  8. The search for cis-regulatory driver mutations in cancer genomes

    OpenAIRE

    Poulos, Rebecca C.; Sloane, Mathew A; Hesson, Luke B; Wong, Jason W. H.

    2015-01-01

    With the advent of high-throughput and relatively inexpensive whole-genome sequencing technology, the focus of cancer research has begun to shift toward analyses of somatic mutations in non-coding cis-regulatory elements of the cancer genome. Cis-regulatory elements play an important role in gene regulation, with mutations in these elements potentially resulting in changes to the expression of linked genes. The recent discoveries of recurrent TERT promoter mutations in melanoma, and recurrent...

  9. Conservation and Evolution of Cis-Regulatory Systems in Ascomycete Fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Gasch Audrey P; Moses Alan M; Chiang Derek Y; Fraser Hunter B; Berardini Mark; Eisen Michael B

    2004-01-01

    Relatively little is known about the mechanisms through which gene expression regulation evolves. To investigate this, we systematically explored the conservation of regulatory networks in fungi by examining the cis-regulatory elements that govern the expression of coregulated genes. We first identified groups of coregulated Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes enriched for genes with known upstream or downstream cis-regulatory sequences. Reasoning that many of these gene groups are coregulated in ...

  10. Annual report of the project CIS-03-95, `evaluation of actinide nuclear data`

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maslov, V.M. [Radiation Physics and Chemistry Problems Inst., Minsk-Sosny (Belarus)

    1997-03-01

    The evaluation of neutron data for {sup 243}Cm, {sup 245}Cm and {sup 246}Cm is made in the energy region from 10-5 eV up to 20 MeV. The results of the evaluation are compiled in the ENDF/B-VI format. This work is performed under the Project Agreement CIS-03-95 with the International Science and Technology Center (Moscow). This is the annual report of the project CIS-03-95. (author)

  11. Photosensitization of trans-Vitamin D3 to cis-Vitamin D3 in Heterogeneous System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong Bin HAN; Jin Ping CHEN; Yun Yan GAO; Bai Ning LIU; Guo Qiang YANG; Yi LI

    2005-01-01

    Two modes of heterogeneous photoisomerization of trans-vitamin D3 to cis-vitamin D3are described. The occurrence of isomerization on the substrate bounded to the polymeric support gives us the possibility in succession synthesis of 1α-hydroxyvitamin D3. The polymer-bound anthracene can sensitize isomerization of trans-vitamin D3 to cis-vitamin D3 efficiently and ease the separation process.

  12. Trans-cis photoisomerization of azobenzene by n→π* excitation:A semiclassical dynamics study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuai Yuan; Wei Feng Wu; Yusheng Dou; Jian She Zhao

    2008-01-01

    A realistic dynamics simulation study is reported for the trans-cis photoisomerization of azobenzene triggered by the n→π*excitation and the results show that the formation of cis isomer follows the rotational motion around the N=N bond.The simulation find that the CNN bond angle bending vibrations also play a significant role in the vibronic coupling between the HOMO and LUMO,which essentially leads a nonadiabatic transition of the molecule to the electronic ground state.

  13. Selective enrichment yields robust ethene-producing dechlorinating cultures from microcosms stalled at cis-dichloroethene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca G Delgado

    Full Text Available Dehalococcoides mccartyi strains are of particular importance for bioremediation due to their unique capability of transforming perchloroethene (PCE and trichloroethene (TCE to non-toxic ethene, through the intermediates cis-dichloroethene (cis-DCE and vinyl chloride (VC. Despite the widespread environmental distribution of Dehalococcoides, biostimulation sometimes fails to promote dechlorination beyond cis-DCE. In our study, microcosms established with garden soil and mangrove sediment also stalled at cis-DCE, albeit Dehalococcoides mccartyi containing the reductive dehalogenase genes tceA, vcrA and bvcA were detected in the soil/sediment inocula. Reductive dechlorination was not promoted beyond cis-DCE, even after multiple biostimulation events with fermentable substrates and a lengthy incubation. However, transfers from microcosms stalled at cis-DCE yielded dechlorination to ethene with subsequent enrichment cultures containing up to 10(9 Dehalococcoides mccartyi cells mL(-1. Proteobacterial classes which dominated the soil/sediment communities became undetectable in the enrichments, and methanogenic activity drastically decreased after the transfers. We hypothesized that biostimulation of Dehalococcoides in the cis-DCE-stalled microcosms was impeded by other microbes present at higher abundances than Dehalococcoides and utilizing terminal electron acceptors from the soil/sediment, hence, outcompeting Dehalococcoides for H2. In support of this hypothesis, we show that garden soil and mangrove sediment microcosms bioaugmented with their respective cultures containing Dehalococcoides in high abundance were able to compete for H2 for reductive dechlorination from one biostimulation event and produced ethene with no obvious stall. Overall, our results provide an alternate explanation to consolidate conflicting observations on the ubiquity of Dehalococcoides mccartyi and occasional stalling of dechlorination at cis-DCE; thus, bringing a new

  14. The CIS Mining Industry in a Transition Period with Special Reference to Finnish Mining Prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalo Oroza

    1994-01-01

    The structural changes of the CIS mining industry have far-reaching consequences not only for the national economies of the member states but for the entire international metal market. Political instability and absence of a detailed and modern mining legislation make difficult a coordinated strategy for the development of the mining sector. Over the next years up to the year 2000, an accelerated and widespread diffusion of western modern mining technology and big investment into the CIS minin...

  15. An in vivo comparison of cis- and trans-[18F]mefway in the nonhuman primate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: [18F]Mefway is a serotonin 5-HT1A PET radiotracer with high specificity and favorable in vivo imaging properties. The chemical structure of [18F]mefway permits 18F labeling in either the cis or trans positions at the 4-cyclohexyl site. We have previously reported on the in vivo kinetics of trans-[18F]mefway in the nonhuman primate. In this work, we compare the in vivo binding of cis-[18F]mefway and trans-[18F]mefway to evaluate the properties of cis-[18F]mefway for 5-HT1A PET imaging. Methods: The cis- and trans-[18F]mefway tracers were synthesized via nucleophilic substitution with their respective tosyl precursors. Two monkeys (one male, one female) were given bolus injections of both cis- and trans-labeled [18F]mefway in separate experiments. Dynamic scans were acquired for 90 min with a microPET P4 scanner. Time-activity curves were extracted in the areas of the mesial temporal cortex (MTC), anterior cingulate gyrus (aCG), insular cortex (IC), raphe nuclei (RN) and cerebellum (CB). The in vivo behavior of the radiotracers was compared based upon the nondisplaceable binding potential (BPND) using the CB as a reference region. Results: Averaged over the two subjects, BPND values were as follows: MTC: 7.7, 0.58; aCG: 4.95, 0.32; IC: 3.27, 0.2; and RN: 3.05, 0.13, for trans-[18F]mefway and cis-[18F]mefway, respectively. Conclusion: The cis-labeled [18F]mefway tracer has low specific binding throughout the 5-HT1A regions of the brain compared to trans-[18F]mefway, suggesting that the target-to-background binding of cis-[18F]mefway may limit its use for in vivo assessment of 5-HT1A binding.

  16. Conformational Preferences in Small Peptide Models: The Relevance of cis/trans-Conformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jangra, Harish; Haindl, Michael H; Achrainer, Florian; Hioe, Johnny; Gschwind, Ruth M; Zipse, Hendrik

    2016-09-01

    The accurate description of cis/trans peptide structures is of fundamental relevance for the field of protein modeling and protein structure determination. A comprehensive conformational analysis of dipeptide model Ace-Gly-NMe (1) has been carried out by using a combination of theoretical calculations and experimental ((1) H and (13) C NMR and NOESY) spectroscopic measurements to assess the relevance of cis-peptide conformers. NMR measurements in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solution and calculations employing a continuum solvation model both point to the extended trans,trans conformer C5_tt as the global minimum. The cis-peptide structures C5_ct and C5_tc, with the N- or C-terminal amide group in cis-conformation, are observed separately and located 13.0±2 kJ mol(-1) higher in energy. This is in close agreement with the theoretical prediction of around 12 kJ mol(-1) in DMSO. The ability of common protein force fields to reproduce the energies of the cis-amide conformers C5_ct and C5_tc in 1 is limited, making these methods unsuitable for the description of cis-peptide structures in protein simulations. PMID:27535479

  17. On the origin of cis-vaccenic acid photodegradation products in the marine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rontani, Jean-François; Koblízek, Michal; Beker, Béatriz; Bonin, Patricia; Kolber, Zbigniew S

    2003-10-01

    The origin of 11-hydroxyoctadec-trans-12-enoic and 12-hydroxyoctadec-trans-10-enoic acids (photodegradation products of cis-vaccenic acid) in the marine environment was investigated. cis-Vaccenic acid is commonly used as a bacterial biomarker; however, in heterotrophic bacteria the observed rates of cis-vaccenic acid photodegradation are negligible. Here, two hypotheses explaining the source of the photoproducts were tested. According to the first hypothesis, the photoproducts originate from aerobic anoxygenic bacteria, i.e., photoheterotrophic organisms using bacteriochlorophyll-containing reaction centers. Alternatively, the photoproducts come from a heterotrophic bacterial community closely associated with senescent phytoplanktonic cells. cis-Vaccenic acid photodegradation was detected in both experimental setups. However, a detailed comparison of the cis-vaccenic acid photodegradation patterns with those observed in particulate matter samples of the DYFAMED station (Mediterranean Sea) suggests that photodegradation of heterotrophic bacteria attached to senescent phytoplanktonic cells constitutes the more likely source of cis-vaccenic acid oxidation products detected in situ. PMID:14669974

  18. Cofinite Induced Subgraphs of Impartial Combinatorial Games: An Analysis of CIS-Nim

    CERN Document Server

    Garrabrant, Scott M; Landsberg, Adam Scott

    2012-01-01

    Given an impartial combinatorial game G, we create a class of related games (CIS-G) by specifying a finite set of positions in G and forbidding players from moving to those positions (leaving all other game rules unchanged). Such modifications amount to taking cofinite induced subgraphs (CIS) of the original game graph. Some recent numerical/heuristic work has suggested that the underlying structure and behavior of such "CIS-games" can shed new light on, and bears interesting relationships with, the original games from which they are derived. In this paper we present an analytical treatment of the cofinite induced subgraphs associated with the game of (three-heap) Nim. This constitutes one of the simplest nontrivial cases of a CIS game. Our main finding is that although the structure of the winning strategies in games of CIS-Nim can differ greatly from that of Nim, CIS-Nim games inherit a type of period-two scale invariance from the original game of Nim.

  19. Psychometric Properties of the Portuguese Version of the Checklist of Individual Strength (CIS20-P

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Marques

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The Checklist of Individual Strength (CIS20 is a well validated measure of fatigue severity, which has been adapted in several languages. As Portuguese is one of the most widely spoken languages in the world it is important to have a Portuguese adaptation of the CIS20. Method: Four hundred and thirty healthy Portuguese adults and 89 patients with chronic fatigue (CF filled out the Portuguese version of the CIS20 (CIS20-P. The CF patients and a subsample of the healthy adults also filled out the SF-12v2 assessing health-related quality of life. Results: The CIS20 four-factor structure was confirmed (subjective experience of fatigue, concentration, motivation and physical activity scales. In general, internal consistency estimates were satisfactory, with the exception of the motivation scale. Moreover, a higher degree of fatigue severity was significantly associated with lower vitality and physical and psychological health-related quality of life. Conclusion: Our results indicate that the CIS20-P is a reliable and valid measure of fatigue severity. Future studies should establish Portuguese cut-off points for (subclinical levels of fatigue.

  20. del Nim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Martínez Rodríguez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Dado su uso específico como fuente de insecticidas naturales de fácil biodegradación, entre otras ventajas, el cultivo del árbol Nim ha sido mundialmente extendido en muchas regiones de Asia, África, Australia y América Latina, incluyendo Cuba. La cosecha del fruto del Nim se hace engorrosa debido a la altura que adquieren estos árboles a los pocos años de sembrados, siendo la cosecha mecánica mediante sacudidores de ramas o del tronco, una posible vía de solución práctica de esta problemática. En el presente trabajo se efectúa, mediante la simulación con el empleo de herramientas CAD-3D y programas de análisis por elementos finitos, un análisis modal abarcador de un número importante de modos de vibración del sistema fruto-pedúnculo del Nim. Como resultado del estudio se pudieron recomendar entornos de frecuencias de las vibraciones a aplicar con mejores expectativas durante la cosecha mecanizada de este producto.

  1. The synthesis and preliminary pharmacological evaluation of the racemic cis and trans 3-alkylfentanyl analogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LJ. DOSEN-MICOVIC

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available A general, five step method for the synthesis of 3-alkylfentanyl analogues (i.e., cis and trans 3-alkyl-4-anilidopiperidines 6.1–6.6 has been developed. The starting N-phenethyl-4-piperidone 1 was first converted into the cyclohexylimine derivative 2, a-deprotonated with butyllithium and the resulting imine anion efficiently monoalkylated with primary and secondary alkyl halides. After mild acid hydrolysis, the obtained 3-alkyl-4-piperidones 3.1–3.6 were isolated in good yields (79–85 %, then condensed with aniline to form imines 4.1–4.6. Subsequent reduction of the imines (LiAlH4/THF yielded cis/trans mixtures of 3-alkyl-4-anilinopiperidines 5.1–5.6. Quantitative separation of the diastereoisomers by column chromatography of Al2O3 gave pure cis 5.1–5.6 (29–51 % yield and trans 5.1–5.6 (19–27 % yield, with the cis/trans ratio in the range 7/3–6/4. The synthesis was concluded by N-acylation of the purified 5.1–5.6, with propionyl chloride, to afford cis and trans 3-alkyl-4-anilidopiperidines 6.1–6.6 (~95 % yield, as monooxalate salts. No enatioseparation was attempted at any stage. The relative cis/trans stereochemistry was provisionally assigned from the 1H-NMR spectra. Of the twelve synthesized 3-alkylfentanyls, ten compounds (two known and eight novel derivatives, all as the monooxalate salts were preliminarily tested as analgesics in rats, comparing the potency to fentanyl. Except for the known (±-cis-3-Me fentanyl 6.1cis, (8 × fentanyl, and the novel (±-cis-3-Et fentanyl 6.2cis, (1.5 × fentanyl, all of the others were less active than fentanyl or inactive. Some tentative conclusions on the structure-activity relationship (SAR in this series of derivatives have been made.

  2. Molecular mechanism of 9-cis-retinoic acid inhibition of adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagara, Chiaki; Takahashi, Katsuhiko [Laboratory of Physiological Chemistry, Institute of Medicinal Chemistry, Hoshi University, Shinagawa, Tokyo 142-8501 (Japan); Kagechika, Hiroyuki [School of Biomedical Science, Institute of Biomaterials and Bioengineering, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Chiyoda, Tokyo 101-0062 (Japan); Takahashi, Noriko, E-mail: t-noriko@hoshi.ac.jp [Laboratory of Physiological Chemistry, Institute of Medicinal Chemistry, Hoshi University, Shinagawa, Tokyo 142-8501 (Japan)

    2013-03-29

    Highlights: ► We examined the effects of 9-cis-RA on adipogenesis in mouse preadipocyte 3T3-L1. ► 9-cis-RA inhibited lipid accumulation in adipogenetically-induced 3T3-L1 cells. ► A RXR pan-antagonist suppressed the inhibitory effects of 9-cis-RA on adipogenesis. ► This antagonist had no effects on RXRα and PPARγ levels in 9-cis-RA-treated cells. ► 9-cis-RA-induced decrease in both RXRα and PPARγ was independent of RXR activation. -- Abstract: Retinoic acid (RA) signaling is mediated by specific nuclear hormone receptors. Here we examined the effects of 9-cis-RA on adipogenesis in mouse preadipocyte 3T3-L1 cells. 9-cis-RA inhibits the lipid accumulation of adipogenetically induced 3T3-L1 cells. The complex of retinoid X receptor α (RXRα) with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is a major transcription factor in the process of adipogenesis, and the levels of these molecules were decreased by 9-cis-RA treatment. A RXR pan-antagonist suppressed 9-cis-RA’s inhibitory effects on adipogenesis, but not on the intracellular levels of both RXRα and PPARγ. These results suggest that 9-cis-RA could inhibit adipogenesis by activating RXR, and decrease both RXR and PPARγs levels in a RXR activation-independent manner.

  3. Ultraviolet irradiation produces cytotoxic synergy and increased DNA interstrand crosslinking with cis- and trans-diamminedichloroplatinum(II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The excision-repair mechanism responsible for the removal of UV-induced thymine dimers may also play a role in the repair of cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II) (cis-DDP)-induced DNA adducts in both bacteria and mammalian cells. It was hypothesized that UV dimers and cis-DDP adducts, when present simultaneously, might compete for a common repair system. Colony survival assays were performed in HT-29 human colon carcinoma cells exposed either to cis-DDP alone or to cis-DDP immediately followed by UV exposure. Progressively greater cytotoxic synergy with both increasing UV dose and cis-DDP dose was observed, to a point of saturation beyond which further toxicity was purely additive. An approximate doubling in DNA crosslink frequency, relative to cis-DDP alone, was found in cells exposed to cis-DDP plus UV. Since cis-DDP produces both inter- and intrastrand DNA crosslinks similar studies were performed with trans-DDP, which is incapable of producing intrastrand crosslinks, but does produce interstrand crosslinks. Cytotoxic synergy and increased interstrand crosslinking again resulted from the addition of UV exposure, but not to the same extent as seen with cis-DDP. (author)

  4. CIS-based registration of quality of life in a single source approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riek Markus

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Documenting quality of life (QoL in routine medical care and using it both for treatment and for clinical research is not common, although such information is absolutely valuable for physicians and patients alike. We therefore aimed at developing an efficient method to integrate quality of life information into the clinical information system (CIS and thus make it available for clinical care and secondary use. Methods We piloted our method in three different medical departments, using five different QoL questionnaires. In this setting we used structured interviews and onsite observations to perform workflow and form analyses. The forms and pertinent data reports were implemented using the integrated tools of the local CIS. A web-based application for mobile devices was developed based on XML schemata to facilitate data import into the CIS. Data exports of the CIS were analysed with statistical software to perform an analysis of data quality. Results The quality of life questionnaires are now regularly documented by patients and physicians. The resulting data is available in the Electronic Health Record (EHR and can be used for treatment purposes and communication as well as research functionalities. The completion of questionnaires by the patients themselves using a mobile device (iPad and the import of the respective data into the CIS forms were successfully tested in a pilot installation. The quality of data is rendered high by the use of automatic score calculations as well as the automatic creation of forms for follow-up documentation. The QoL data was exported to research databases for use in scientific analysis. Conclusion The CIS-based QoL is technically feasible, clinically accepted and provides an excellent quality of data for medical treatment and clinical research. Our approach with a commercial CIS and the web-based application is transferable to other sites.

  5. cis-4-[{sup 18}F]-Fluoro-L-proline fails to detect peripheral tumors in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoffels, Gabriele; Pauleit, Dirk [Institute of Neuroscience and Biophysics-Medicine, Research Centre Juelich, D-52425 Juelich, FRG (Germany); Haas, Rainer; Kobbe, Guido [Department of Oncology, Hematology, and Clinical Immunology, Heinrich-Heine-University Duesseldorf, FRG (Germany); Salber, Dagmar [C. and O. Vogt Institute of Brain Research, Heinrich-Heine-University Duesseldorf, FRG (Germany); Hamacher, Kurt; Coenen, Heinz H. [Institute of Neuroscience and Biophysics - Nuclear Chemistry, Research Centre Juelich, Juelich, FRG (Germany); Langen, Karl-Josef [Institute of Neuroscience and Biophysics-Medicine, Research Centre Juelich, D-52425 Juelich, FRG (Germany)], E-mail: k.j.langen@fz-juelich.de

    2008-11-15

    System A amino acid transport is increased in transformed and malignant cells. The amino acid 4-cis[{sup 18}F]fluoro-L-proline (cis-[{sup 18}F]FPro) has been shown to be a substrate of the System A amino acid carrier. In this pilot study, we investigated the diagnostic potential of cis-[{sup 18}F]FPro in patients with various tumors in comparison with [{sup 18}F]fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET). Methods: Eight patients (seven females, one male, age range 43-77 years) with large primary, recurrent or metastatic tumors of different histologies were included in this study. One patient had a recurrent non-Hodgkin lymphoma; two patients, metastatic colon or rectal cancer; one, a metastatic endometrial cancer; one, a multiple myeloma; one, an Ewing sarcoma; one, a metastatic breast cancer and one, a gastrointestinal stromal tumor. PET scans of the trunk were acquired at 1 h after intravenous injection of 400 MBq cis-[{sup 18}F]FPro and compared to PET scans with [{sup 18}F]FDG. Results: None of the tumors or metastatic lesions in this series of patients demonstrated relevant uptake of cis-[{sup 18}F]FPro. In contrast, all tumors with exception of the multiple myeloma showed an intensive uptake of [{sup 18}F]FDG. The mean standardized uptake value of cis-[{sup 18}F]FPro in the tumor or metastases was significantly lower than that of [{sup 18}F]FDG uptake (1.7{+-}0.6 vs. 5.7{+-}3.0; n=8; P<.01). Conclusion: Although other System A-specific tracers have shown relevant tumor uptake, cis-[{sup 18}F]FPro fails to detect most types of human tumors. Based on these results, we cannot recommend a further evaluation of this tracer as a tumor-seeking agent.

  6. Potencial del agua del suelo

    OpenAIRE

    Bustamante Heliodoro

    2012-01-01

    La energía potencial del agua presenta diferencias de un punto del suelo a otro; esas diferencias son las que originan el movimiento del agua de acuerdo a la tendencia universal de la materia en el sentido de moverse de donde la energía potencial es mayor a donde dicha energía es menor. En el suelo el agua en consecuencia se mueve hacia donde su energía decrece hasta lograr su estado de equilibrio. Se desprende entonces que la cantidad de energía potencial absoluta contenida en el agua, no es...

  7. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA. Cis 9, trans 11 and trans 10, cis 12 isomer detection in crude and refined corn oils by capillary GC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Tokuşoğlu

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs exhibit protective effects against various types of cancer and heart diseases. With the newly developed capillary gas chromatographic method (GC, cis9, trans11 and trans10, cis12 octadecadienoic acid isomers of CLA (C18:2 were determined in crude and refined corn oils as qualitative and quantitative measurements. Cis 9, trans11 C18:2 (c9, t11 CLA was the major CLA isomer in both oils. It was found that c9, t11 CLA was 0.62% of the total lipid in crude oil and 1.24% of the total lipid in refined oil. Using the refining process, the total CLA was 1.38% whereas that of crude corn oil was 0.62%. An approximate 2.2 fold increase in the total CLA was found in refined oil (n = 9 (p y = 2.782x + 0.046 (R2 = 0.9999] were performed (p El ácido linoleico conjugado (CLA parece exhibir efecto protector frente a enfermedades cardiovasculares y varios tipos de cáncer. En este trabajo, se establece un mátodo analítico mediante cromatografía de gases con columna capilar para la determinación cualitativa y cuantitativa de los isómeros cis 9,trans 11 y trans 10, cis 12 en aceites de maiz crudo y refinado. El isómero cis 9, trans11 C18:2 fue el mayoritario encontrándose en concentraciones de 0.62% en el aceite cru,do y de 1.24 % en el aceite refinado. La cantidad total de CLA encontrada en el aceite refinado (n = 9 (p 2 = 0.9999 y de recuperación [y = 2.782x+0.046 (R2 = 0.9999]. El método cromatográfico propuesto podría ser usado para el control de calidad de los aceites vegetales.

  8. The search for cis-regulatory driver mutations in cancer genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulos, Rebecca C; Sloane, Mathew A; Hesson, Luke B; Wong, Jason W H

    2015-10-20

    With the advent of high-throughput and relatively inexpensive whole-genome sequencing technology, the focus of cancer research has begun to shift toward analyses of somatic mutations in non-coding cis-regulatory elements of the cancer genome. Cis-regulatory elements play an important role in gene regulation, with mutations in these elements potentially resulting in changes to the expression of linked genes. The recent discoveries of recurrent TERT promoter mutations in melanoma, and recurrent mutations that create a super-enhancer regulating TAL1 expression in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (T-ALL), have sparked significant interest in the search for other somatic cis-regulatory mutations driving cancer development. In this review, we look more closely at the TERT promoter and TAL1 enhancer alterations and use these examples to ask whether other cis-regulatory mutations may play a role in cancer susceptibility. In doing so, we make observations from the data emerging from recent research in this field, and describe the experimental and analytical approaches which could be adopted in the hope of better uncovering the true functional significance of somatic cis-regulatory mutations in cancer. PMID:26356674

  9. Coevolution within a transcriptional network by compensatory trans and cis mutations

    KAUST Repository

    Kuo, D.

    2010-10-26

    Transcriptional networks have been shown to evolve very rapidly, prompting questions as to how such changes arise and are tolerated. Recent comparisons of transcriptional networks across species have implicated variations in the cis-acting DNA sequences near genes as the main cause of divergence. What is less clear is how these changes interact with trans-acting changes occurring elsewhere in the genetic circuit. Here, we report the discovery of a system of compensatory trans and cis mutations in the yeast AP-1 transcriptional network that allows for conserved transcriptional regulation despite continued genetic change. We pinpoint a single species, the fungal pathogen Candida glabrata, in which a trans mutation has occurred very recently in a single AP-1 family member, distinguishing it from its Saccharomyces ortholog. Comparison of chromatin immunoprecipitation profiles between Candida and Saccharomyces shows that, despite their different DNA-binding domains, the AP-1 orthologs regulate a conserved block of genes. This conservation is enabled by concomitant changes in the cis-regulatory motifs upstream of each gene. Thus, both trans and cis mutations have perturbed the yeast AP-1 regulatory system in such a way as to compensate for one another. This demonstrates an example of “coevolution” between a DNA-binding transcription factor and its cis-regulatory site, reminiscent of the coevolution of protein binding partners.

  10. Interaction of cis-[Ru(DMSO)4Cl2] with acetate-ion in solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solutions of cis-[Ru(DMSO)4Cl2] in water and alcohols in the presence of CH3COONa in dependence on concentration and relation of reagents are studied. It is shown that introduction of acetate-ion in solution of cis-[Ru(DMSO)4Cl2] in methanol directs to formation of fac-[Ru(DMSO)3Cl3]- which can be separated as sodium salt insoluble in methanol. It is necessary to mention that spectrum of solution of cis-[Ru(DMSO)4Cl2] in methanol varies in time but these changes are insignificant in comparison with changes taking place in the presence of CH3COONa. Compound Na[Ru(DMSO)3(CH3COO)2Cl] is prepared and characterized spectrally for the first time

  11. Investigation of the chromophore binding cavity in the 11-cis acceptable microbial rhodopsin MR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Arisa; Yagasaki, Jin; Homma, Michio; Reissig, Louisa; Sudo, Yuki

    2013-06-01

    Rhodopsins are photoactive molecules functioning as photo-energy or photo-signal converters with the chromophore retinal. Recently we characterized a unique microbial rhodopsin (middle rhodopsin, MR) which can also bind 11-cis retinal besides all-trans and 13-cis retinal at a particular ratio. In this study, we investigated the structural characteristics around the retinal binding cavity in MR. The results suggest that the space of the retinal binding site of MR is less restricted to the retinal chromophore and the presence of the 11-cis conformer is regulated by the residues located around the retinal. Furthermore, although the triple mutant of MR has identical residues with the well-studied microbial rhodopsin bacteriorhodopsin (BR) within 5 Å from the retinal, the absorption maximum and retinal composition of MR did not reach those of BR, indicating that some long-range effect(s) (>5 Å) is also important for the maintenance of the chemical properties of MR.

  12. Detection of trans–cis flips and peptide-plane flips in protein structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method is presented to detect peptide bonds that need either a trans–cis flip or a peptide-plane flip. A coordinate-based method is presented to detect peptide bonds that need correction either by a peptide-plane flip or by a trans–cis inversion of the peptide bond. When applied to the whole Protein Data Bank, the method predicts 4617 trans–cis flips and many thousands of hitherto unknown peptide-plane flips. A few examples are highlighted for which a correction of the peptide-plane geometry leads to a correction of the understanding of the structure–function relation. All data, including 1088 manually validated cases, are freely available and the method is available from a web server, a web-service interface and through WHAT-CHECK

  13. Siemens solar CIS photovoltaic module and system performance at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strand, T.; Kroposki, B.; Hansen, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Willett, D. [Siemens Solar Industries, Camarillo, CA (United States)

    1996-05-01

    This paper evaluates the individual module and array performance of Siemens Solar Industries copper indium diselenide (CIS) polycrystalline thin-film technology. This is accomplished by studying module and array performance over time. Preliminary temperature coefficients for maximum power, maximum-power voltage, maximum-power current, open-circuit voltage, short-circuit current, and fill factor are determined at both the module and array level. These coefficients are used to correct module/array performance to 25{degrees}C to evaluate stability. The authors show that CIS exhibits a strong inverse correlation between array power and back-of-module temperature. This is due mainly to the narrow bandgap of the CIS material, which results in a strong inverse correlation between voltage and temperature. They also show that the temperature-corrected module and array performance has been relatively stable over the evaluation interval ({approx}2 years).

  14. A saturation screen for cis-acting regulatory DNA in the Hox genes of Ciona intestinalis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keys, David N.; Lee, Byung-in; Di Gregorio, Anna; Harafuji, Naoe; Detter, Chris; Wang, Mei; Kahsai, Orsalem; Ahn, Sylvia; Arellano, Andre; Zhang, Quin; Trong, Stephan; Doyle, Sharon A.; Satoh, Noriyuki; Satou, Yutaka; Saiga, Hidetoshi; Christian, Allen; Rokhsar, Dan; Hawkins, Trevor L.; Levine, Mike; Richardson, Paul

    2005-01-05

    A screen for the systematic identification of cis-regulatory elements within large (>100 kb) genomic domains containing Hox genes was performed by using the basal chordate Ciona intestinalis. Randomly generated DNA fragments from bacterial artificial chromosomes containing two clusters of Hox genes were inserted into a vector upstream of a minimal promoter and lacZ reporter gene. A total of 222 resultant fusion genes were separately electroporated into fertilized eggs, and their regulatory activities were monitored in larvae. In sum, 21 separable cis-regulatory elements were found. These include eight Hox linked domains that drive expression in nested anterior-posterior domains of ectodermally derived tissues. In addition to vertebrate-like CNS regulation, the discovery of cis-regulatory domains that drive epidermal transcription suggests that C. intestinalis has arthropod-like Hox patterning in the epidermis.

  15. MOLDOVA’S CHANCE TO INNOVATION: CAN THE CIS SURVEY HELP A DEVELOPING COUNTRYSUCCEED?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela DUCA

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Republic of Moldova is one of the few remaining countries in Europe that has not yet taken the Community Innovation Survey (CIS. Can this survey help Moldova identify the drawbacks and advantages of its national innovation system? This article establishes that CIS is indeed a useful tool for an initial diagnostic study. However, in a transitional economy, where little is known about innovation, CIS results must be complemented with open-ended questionnaires. It is found that, even though the innovation output is relatively high compared to other developing countries, Moldova is stuck in Rothwell’s first generation model of innovation. Moreover, as resources are not readily available for purchasing new technologies, the government and private companies can work towards encouraging a knowledge infrastructure that promotes organizational and management innovations.

  16. Detection of trans–cis flips and peptide-plane flips in protein structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Touw, Wouter G., E-mail: wouter.touw@radboudumc.nl [Radboud University Medical Center, Geert Grooteplein-Zuid 26-28, 6525 GA Nijmegen (Netherlands); Joosten, Robbie P. [Netherlands Cancer Institute, Plesmanlaan 121, 1066 CX Amsterdam (Netherlands); Vriend, Gert, E-mail: wouter.touw@radboudumc.nl [Radboud University Medical Center, Geert Grooteplein-Zuid 26-28, 6525 GA Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2015-07-28

    A method is presented to detect peptide bonds that need either a trans–cis flip or a peptide-plane flip. A coordinate-based method is presented to detect peptide bonds that need correction either by a peptide-plane flip or by a trans–cis inversion of the peptide bond. When applied to the whole Protein Data Bank, the method predicts 4617 trans–cis flips and many thousands of hitherto unknown peptide-plane flips. A few examples are highlighted for which a correction of the peptide-plane geometry leads to a correction of the understanding of the structure–function relation. All data, including 1088 manually validated cases, are freely available and the method is available from a web server, a web-service interface and through WHAT-CHECK.

  17. Global analysis of cis-natural antisense transcripts and their heat-responsive nat-siRNAs in Brassica rapa

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Xiang; Yang, Jun; Li, Xiaorong; Liu, Xuxin; Sun, Chuanbao; Wu, Feijie; He, Yuke

    2013-01-01

    Background Brassica rapa includes several important leaf vegetable crops whose production is often damaged by high temperature. Cis-natural antisense transcripts (cis-NATs) and cis-NATs-derived small interfering RNAs (nat-siRNAs) play important roles in plant development and stress responses. However, genome-wide cis-NATs in B. rapa are not known. The NATs and nat-siRNAs that respond to heat stress have never been well studied in B. rapa. Here, we took advantage of RNA-seq and small RNA (sRNA...

  18. Personal air sampling and biological monitoring of occupational exposure to the soil fumigant cis-1,3-dichloropropene

    OpenAIRE

    Brouwer, E.J.; Verplanke, A.J.W.; Boogaard, P J; Bloemen, L.J.; Sittert, van, N.J.; Christian, F.E.; Stokkentreeff, M; Dijksterhuis, A.; Mulder, A.; Wolff, de, F.A.; K¿hler, A.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To assess exposure of commercial application workers to the nematocide cis-1,3-dichloropropene (cis-DCP).
METHODS—The study was conducted during the annual application season, August to 15 November, in the starch potato growing region in The Netherlands. 14 Application workers collected end of shift urine samples on each fumigation day (n=119). The mercapturic acid metabolite N-acetyl-S-(cis-3-chloro-2-propenyl)-L-cysteine (cis-DCP-MA) in urine was used for biological monitoring of...

  19. Cis- and trans-isomerization-induced transition of charge transport property in PPV oligomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: Cis→trans isomerization of 2,5-diphenyl-1,4-distyrylbenzene (DPDSB, model compound of PPV) induces significant changes in charge transport properties. Cis-DPDSB demonstrates hole-majority transport while trans-DPDSB exhibits balanced transport. Highlights: → 2,5-diphenyl-1,4-distyrylbenzene (DPDSB) is a model compound of PPV derivatives. → Cis→trans isomerization induces significant changes in charge transport property. → Cis-DPDSB displays hole-majority transport while trans-DPDSB shows balanced one. → This finding helps to understand structure/property relationship in PPV derivatives. - Abstract: Photoisomerization of vinylenes is well known to cause remarkable changes in the photophysical properties of poly (p-phenylene vinylene) (PPV) derivatives. Cis-/trans- isomerization is also expected to induce significant changes in their charge transport properties. In this study, the charge transport properties of cis- and trans-isomers of 2,5-diphenyl-1,4-distyrylbenzene (DPDSB, model compound of PPV) were investigated using a Marcus hopping model. As expected, this conformational transition from cis- to trans-isomer gives rise to a significant difference between hole and electron transport properties. Cis-DPDSB demonstrates an overwhelmingly superior hole transport (μh/μe = 51), which is even higher than that of trans-DPDSB. By contrast, trans-DPDSB exhibits approximately balanced carrier transport property (μh/μe = 1.79). These results are understood on a molecular level by considering the structure-transport relationship through two key parameters: transfer integral and reorganization energy. This finding may be helpful in understanding and extrapolating the structure-property relationship and charge transport property of the corresponding PPV polymers derivatives.

  20. Kinetics and mechanism of interaction of some bioactive ligands with cis-diaqua(cis-1,2-diaminocyclohexane)platinum(II) in aqueous medium

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Karmakar; S Ray; S Mallick; B K Bera; A Mandal; S Mondal; A K Ghosh

    2013-09-01

    The substitution reaction of cis-[Pt(cis-dach)(H2O)2]2+ (where `dach’ is cis-1,2-diaminocyclohexane) with 2-thiouracil (S, N), 1,2-cyclohexanedionedioxime (N, N) and acetylacetone (O, O) were studied in aqueous solution in 0.10 M NaClO4 under pseudo-first order conditions as a functions of concentration, pH and temperature using UV-Vis spectrophotometry. The substitution reaction proceeds via rapid outer sphere association complex formation, followed by two slow consecutive steps. The first of these involves ligand-assisted deaquation, while second involves chelation as the second aqua ligand is displaced. The association equilibrium constant (KE) for the outer sphere complex formation has been evaluated together with rate constants for the two subsequent steps. The rate constants increase with increasing ligand concentration and the evaluated activation parameters for all reactions suggest an associative substitution mechanism for both the aqua ligand substitution processes. The product of the reaction has been characterized by IR, NMR and ESI-MS spectral analysis; which throws more light on the mechanistic behaviour of platinum(II) antitumour complexes.

  1. 9-Cis Retinoic Acid Promotes Lymphangiogenesis and Enhances Lymphatic Vessel Regeneration: Therapeutic Implications of 9-Cis Retinoic Acid for Secondary Lymphedema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Inho; Lee, Sunju; Chung, Hee Kyoung; Lee, Yong Suk; Kim, Kyu Eui; Choi, Dongwon; Park, Eun Kyung; Yang, Dongyun; Ecoiffier, Tatiana; Monahan, John; Chen, Wen; Aguilar, Berenice; Lee, Ha Neul; Yoo, Jaehyuk; Koh, Chester J.; Chen, Lu; Wong, Alex K.; Hong, Young-Kwon

    2012-01-01

    Background The lymphatic system plays a key role in tissue fluid homeostasis and lymphatic dysfunction due to genetic defects or lymphatic vessel obstruction can cause lymphedema, disfiguring tissue swellings often associated with fibrosis and recurrent infections without available cures to date. In this study, retinoic acids (RAs) were determined to be a potent therapeutic agent that is immediately applicable to reduce secondary lymphedema. Methods and Results We report that RAs promote proliferation, migration and tube formation of cultured lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) by activating FGF-receptor signaling. Moreover, RAs control the expression of cell-cycle checkpoint regulators such as p27Kip1, p57Kip2 and the aurora kinases through both an Akt-mediated non-genomic action and a transcription-dependent genomic action that is mediated by Prox1, a master regulator of lymphatic development. Moreover, 9-cisRA was found to activate in vivo lymphangiogenesis in animals based on mouse trachea, matrigel plug and cornea pocket assays. Finally, we demonstrate that 9-cisRA can provide a strong therapeutic efficacy in ameliorating the experimental mouse tail lymphedema by enhancing lymphatic vessel regeneration. Conclusions These in vitro and animal studies demonstrate that 9-cisRA potently activates lymphangiogenesis and promotes lymphatic regeneration in an experimental lymphedema model, presenting it as a promising novel therapeutic agent to treat human lymphedema patients. PMID:22275501

  2. Spatially separated polar samples of the cis and trans conformers of 3-fluorophenol

    CERN Document Server

    Kierspel, Thomas; Chang, Yuan-Pin; Küpper, Jochen

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate the spatial separation of the cis- and trans-conformers of 3-fluorophenol in the gas phase based on their distinct electric dipole moments. For both conformers we create very polar samples of their lowest-energy rotational quantum states. A >95 % pure beam of trans-3-fluorophenol and a >90 % pure beam of the lowest-energy rotational states of the less polar cis-3-fluorophenol were obtained for helium and neon supersonic expansions, respectively. This is the first demonstration of the spatial separation of the lowest-energy rotational states of the least polar conformer, which is necessary for strong alignment and orientation of all individual conformers.

  3. Large area low cost processing for CIS photovoltaics. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. Basol; G. Norsworthy; C. Leidholm; A. Halani; R. Roe; V. Kapur

    1999-07-22

    An ink coating method was developed for CIS absorber deposition. The technique involves four processing steps: (1) preparation of a Cu-In alloy powder, (2) preparation of an ink using this powder, (3) deposition of the ink on a substrate in the form of a precursor layer, and (4) selenization to convert the Cu-In precursor into a fused CIS film. Absorbers grown by this low-cost, large-area method were used in the fabrication of 10.5% efficient solar cells.

  4. Culturas del Mundo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benwell, Ann Fenger; Costa, Alberto; Waehle, Espen

    2006-01-01

    ’Culturas del mundo. Colecciones del Museo Nacional de Dinamarca’ with Ann Fenger Benwell in Culturas del Mundo. Colecciones del Museo Nacional de Dinamarca, ed. Silvia Sauquet, Fundación "la Caixa", Barcelona 2006, pp. 31-39......’Culturas del mundo. Colecciones del Museo Nacional de Dinamarca’ with Ann Fenger Benwell in Culturas del Mundo. Colecciones del Museo Nacional de Dinamarca, ed. Silvia Sauquet, Fundación "la Caixa", Barcelona 2006, pp. 31-39...

  5. Estudio de la interacción entre el ión Cu(II)y la fosfomicina (ácido L(cis) 1,2 epoxipropilfosfónico) en sus formas epóxido y glicol

    OpenAIRE

    Romá Sánchez, Eva

    1988-01-01

    RESUMEN La experiencia es limitada en cuanto a las interacciones del ácido L-(cis) 1,2 epoxipropilfosfónico (fosfomicina, antibiótico de amplio espectro) con iones metálicos, aunque se sabe que los ácidos fosfónicos pueden interaccionar con metales como el Cu(II). El objetivo del estudio ha sido obtener un complejo de este ácido y su derivado glicólico (H2F(OH)2, ácido L-(cis) 1,2 dihidroxipropilfosfónico) con el Cu(II) para determinar las propiedades y efectos sobre el antibiótico. En sol...

  6. An oil mixture with trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid increases markers of inflammation and in vivo lipid peroxidation compared with cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid in postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tholstrup, Tine; Raff, Marianne; Straarup, Ellen Marie;

    2008-01-01

    A mixture of trans-10, cis-12 (t10,c12) and cis-9, trans-11 (c9, t11) conjugated linoleic acid (CLA mixture) reduced atherosclerosis in animals, thus the effect of these isomers on endothelial dysfunctions leading to inflammation and atherosclerosis is of interest. We gave 75 healthy postmenopausal...

  7. Hybrid macrocycle formation and spiro annulation on cis-syn-cis-tricyclo[6.3.0.02,6]undeca-3,11-dione and its congeners via ring-closing metathesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sambasivarao Kotha

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a simple methodology to transform cis-syn-cis-triquinane derivative 2 into the diindole based macrocycle 6 involving Fischer indolization and ring-closing metathesis (RCM. Various spiro-polyquinane derivatives have been assembled via RCM as a key step.

  8. Hybrid CIS-DFT method to study electric field effects on electronic excited states of ethylene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Mei-Zhong; Zhu Zheng-He; Chen Xiao-Jun; Xu Guo-Liang; Zhang Yong-Bin; Mao Hua-Ping; Shen Xiao-Hong

    2005-01-01

    The present work is devoted to the study of the effects of external dipole electric field on the molecular structure of ethylene using a hybrid method which combines the single-excitation configuration interactions (CIS) with density functional theory (DFT), i.e. CIS-DFT(B3LYP). It is found that the effects of electric dipole field on the molecular geometry (D2h, D2d and C2v), dipole moment, transition dipole moment, polarizability and, particularly, excitation energy of ethylene are remarkable. The advantages of the hybrid CIS-DFT method are that it can determine the symmetry of molecule and the correct order of excitation as well as the Molecular Orbital (MO) electron configuration;thereby the electronic excitation states of ethylene are easily derived, and most of them are in agreement with those obtained in experiments or references. It may be the first time the effects of external electric field on ethylene molecule have been considered. Compared with other ab initio methods, the CIS-DFT method is relatively accurate and low cost in computation. We expect that it can be used to study other closed-shell molecules.

  9. Construction and use of recombinant Escherichia coli strains for the synthesis of toluene cis-glycol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahbi, L P; Gokhale, D; Minter, S; Stephens, G M

    1996-09-01

    The toluene dioxygenase genes derived from Pseudomonas putida NCIMB 11767 were subcloned from a previously constructed recombinant plasmid, pIG, using pUC18 as the cloning vector and E. coli TG2 as the host strain. The resulting strain, E. coli TG2 (p1/1), produced toluene cis-glycol when grown in LB broth or minimal medium in the presence of toluene. Restriction mapping and partial DNA sequencing provided evidence for the presence of ORFs with extensive homology to parts of the tod operon from P. putida F1. The clones exhibited some residual toluene cis-glycol dehydrogenase activity which resulted in the formation of small amounts of 3-methylcatechol. Expression of the dioxygenase was induced by toluene, but was not directed by the lac promoter within the cloning vector. The clones were assessed for toluene cis-glycol production in pH-controlled batch cultures, and the maximum product concentration obtained was 1.02 g l-1. Product formation was dependent upon the presence of glucose in the culture medium. Although the substrate was toxic, the biotransformation was apparently limited by the supply of toluene. The results suggest that it should be possible to improve toluene cis-glycol production by recombinants substantially by improving both the strain and fermentation process. PMID:8987488

  10. Biliary excretion of platinum in a patient treated with cis-dichlorodiammineplatinum (II).

    OpenAIRE

    Shelley, M. D.; Fish, R. G.; Adams, M.

    1985-01-01

    Biliary excretion of platinum was measured in a patient receiving an intravenous infusion of cis-dichlorodiammineplatinum (II). Over a 3-day period, less than 1% of the administered platinum was detected in the bile, and 47% appeared in the urine, indicating that biliary excretion is a minor route of elimination.

  11. Stable isotope fractionation during PCE halorespiration and aerobic cisDCE and VC biodegradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of our study were to identify the anaerobic/aerobic dechlorination mechanisms at two chloroethene-contaminated sites, to assess the isotopic enrichment factors in groundwater microcosms, and to evaluate microbial degradation in the field based on the isotopic signatures. In anaerobic microcosms, a transformation of PCE and TCE to cisDCE was observed. Halo respiration was accompanied by isotopic fractionation effects similar to previous publications. In aerobic microcosms, cisDCE and VC were degraded indicating a co-metabolic degradation of cisDCE in the course of VC degradation. In other experiments, only VC was degraded. Enrichment factors were determined during aerobic degradation of cisDCE and VC. These factors are significantly higher than factors published previously. This study demonstrates that isotope fractionation is suitable for assessing anaerobic/aerobic chloroethene degradation. However, the factors vary for different degradation pathways and micro organisms. Therefore, site-specific enrichment factors have to be determined in order to quantify natural attenuation processes in the field. (author)

  12. The Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cell Cistrome: GATA Factor-Dependent cis-Regulatory Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, K J; Johnson, K D; Gao, X; Keles, S; Bresnick, E H

    2016-01-01

    Transcriptional regulators mediate the genesis and function of the hematopoietic system by binding complex ensembles of cis-regulatory elements to establish genetic networks. While thousands to millions of any given cis-element resides in a genome, how transcriptional regulators select these sites and how site attributes dictate functional output is not well understood. An instructive system to address this problem involves the GATA family of transcription factors that control vital developmental and physiological processes and are linked to multiple human pathologies. Although GATA factors bind DNA motifs harboring the sequence GATA, only a very small subset of these abundant motifs are occupied in genomes. Mechanistic studies revealed a unique configuration of a GATA factor-regulated cis-element consisting of an E-box and a downstream GATA motif separated by a short DNA spacer. GATA-1- or GATA-2-containing multiprotein complexes at these composite elements control transcription of genes critical for hematopoietic stem cell emergence in the mammalian embryo, hematopoietic progenitor cell regulation, and erythroid cell maturation. Other constituents of the complex include the basic helix-loop-loop transcription factor Scl/TAL1, its heterodimeric partner E2A, and the Lim domain proteins LMO2 and LDB1. This chapter reviews the structure/function of E-box-GATA composite cis-elements, which collectively constitute an important sector of the hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell cistrome. PMID:27137654

  13. A previously undescribed jasmonate compound in flowering Arabidopsis thaliana - The identification of cis-(+)-OPDA-Ile

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Floková, K.; Feussner, K.; Herrfurth, C.; Miersch, O.; Mik, V.; Tarkowská, Danuše; Strnad, Miroslav; Feussner, I.; Wasternack, Claus; Novák, Ondřej

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 122, FEB (2016), s. 230-237. ISSN 0031-9422 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204; GA MŠk LK21306 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Arabidopsis thaliana (Brassicaceae) * Jasmonates * Cis-(+)-12-oxo-phytodienoyl-L-isoleucine Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.547, year: 2014

  14. SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF DVE-CO-MA DERIVATIVES OF CIS- PLATINUM COMPLEXES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhuting

    1989-01-01

    Copolymer of divinyl ether and maleic anhydride (DVE- co - MA) derivatives of cis- platinum complexes were synthesized and characterized by elementary analysis, IR and XPS ( X- ray photoelectron spectroscopy). The behavior of the products in biological environment was also studied. UV- visible and fluorescence spectra show that these polymer derivatives are able to exchange ligands with selected nucleophilic groups in biological environment.

  15. O-Glucosylation of cis-Zeatin in Maize. Characterization of Genes, Enzymes, and Endogenous Cytokinins

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Veach, Y. K.; Martin, R. C.; Mok, D. W. S.; Malbeck, Jiří; Vaňková, Radomíra; Mok, M. C.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 131, č. 3 (2003), s. 1374-1380. ISSN 0032-0889 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 406 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5038910 Keywords : Cis-cytokinin * O-glucosylation * Zea Mays Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.634, year: 2003

  16. Biodegradation of cis-1,2-Dichloroethene in Simulated Underground Thermal Energy Storage Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Zhuobiao; van Gaans, Pauline; Smit, Martijn; Rijnaarts, Huub; Grotenhuis, Tim

    2015-11-17

    Underground thermal energy storage (UTES) use has showed a sharp rise in numbers in the last decades, with aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) and borehole thermal energy storage (BTES) most widely used. In many urban areas with contaminated aquifers, there exists a desire for sustainable heating and cooling with UTES and a need for remediation. We investigated the potential synergy between UTES and bioremediation with batch experiments to simulate the effects of changing temperature and liquid exchange that occur in ATES systems, and of only temperature change occurring in BTES systems on cis-DCE reductive dechlorination. Compared to the natural situation (NS) at a constant temperature of 10 °C, both UTES systems with 25/5 °C for warm and cold well performed significantly better in cis-DCE (cis-1,2-dichloroethene) removal. The overall removal efficiency under mimicked ATES and BTES conditions were respectively 13 and 8.6 times higher than in NS. Inoculation with Dehalococcoides revealed that their initial presence is a determining factor for the dechlorination process. Temperature was the dominating factor when Dehalococcoides abundance was sufficient. Stimulated biodegradation was shown to be most effective in the mimicked ATES warm well because of the combined effect of suitable temperature, sustaining biomass growth, and regular cis-DCE supply. PMID:26503690

  17. Synthesis, structure and applications of [cis-dioxomolybdenum(VI)-(ONO)] type complexes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rajan Deepan Chakravarthy; Dillip Kumar Chand

    2011-03-01

    Oxo-molybdenum chemistry is of great interest since such units are found in the active sites of a majority of molybdo-enzymes. In order to mimic the biological systems, a number of oxo-molybdenum complexes have been synthesised and studied. This review describes synthesis, structure and applications of oxomolybdenum complexes particularly cis-MoO2(L)(D) where L stands for a dianionic tridentate ONO ligand and D for a donor solvent molecule/monodentate ligand. The ligand moieties are derived from Schiff base, hydrazide Schiff base and other related tridentate ligands L(H)2. The coordination geometry around the Mo center in these complexes can be best described as a distorted octahedron in which the ONO-tridentate ligand occupies meridional position with two anionic oxygen donors mutually trans and are cis to the oxygen centers of the cis-dioxo group. Mostly the applications of cis-MoO2-(ONO) type complexes seen in literature are oxo transfer reactions like epoxidation, sulfoxidation and phosphine oxidation reactions.

  18. A method for selecting cis-acting regulatory sequences that respond to small molecule effectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allas Ülar

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several cis-acting regulatory sequences functioning at the level of mRNA or nascent peptide and specifically influencing transcription or translation have been described. These regulatory elements often respond to specific chemicals. Results We have developed a method that allows us to select cis-acting regulatory sequences that respond to diverse chemicals. The method is based on the β-lactamase gene containing a random sequence inserted into the beginning of the ORF. Several rounds of selection are used to isolate sequences that suppress β-lactamase expression in response to the compound under study. We have isolated sequences that respond to erythromycin, troleandomycin, chloramphenicol, meta-toluate and homoserine lactone. By introducing synonymous and non-synonymous mutations we have shown that at least in the case of erythromycin the sequences act at the peptide level. We have also tested the cross-activities of the constructs and found that in most cases the sequences respond most strongly to the compound on which they were isolated. Conclusions Several selected peptides showed ligand-specific changes in amino acid frequencies, but no consensus motif could be identified. This is consistent with previous observations on natural cis-acting peptides, showing that it is often impossible to demonstrate a consensus. Applying the currently developed method on a larger scale, by selecting and comparing an extended set of sequences, might allow the sequence rules underlying the activity of cis-acting regulatory peptides to be identified.

  19. Flavylium based dual photochromism: addressing cis-trans isomerization and ring opening-closure by different light inputs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gago, Sandra; Basílio, Nuno; Moro, Artur J; Pina, Fernando

    2015-04-30

    The multistate system of 4',7-dihydroxy-3-methoxyflavylium is constituted by a multiequilibrium involving trans-chalcone, cis-chalcone, hemiketal, flavylium cation and quinoidal base. This system possesses two independently addressable inter-connected photochromic systems based on the cis-trans isomerization and ring opening-closure of the hemiketal. PMID:25820365

  20. 9-CIS-RETINOIC ACID REPRESSES ESTROGEN-INDUCED EXPRESSION OF THE VERY-LOW-DENSITY APOLIPOPROTEIN-II GENE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SCHIPPERS, IJ; KLOPPENBURG, M; SNIPPE, L; AB, G

    1994-01-01

    The chicken very low density apolipoprotein II (apoVLDLII) gene is estrogen-inducible and specifically expressed in liver. We examined the possible involvement of the retinoid X receptor (RXR) and its ligand 9-cis-retinoic acid (9-cis-RA) in the activation of the apoVLDLII promoter. We first concent

  1. Direct demonstration of NCAM cis-dimerization and inhibitory effect of palmitoylation using the BRET2 technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulahin, Nikolaj; Grunnet, Lars Groth; Lundh, Morten;

    2011-01-01

    , cis-dimerization in living cells has not been shown directly and the role of the cytoplasmic part in NCAM dimerization is poorly understood. Here, we used the bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET(2)) technique to directly demonstrate that full-length NCAM cis-homodimerizes in living cells...

  2. Determination of cis and trans Fe2+ populations in 2M1 muscovite by Moessbauer spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Specimens of muscovite from Siluro-Devonian Appalachian granites of the Gander zone in New Brunswick were studied by 57Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy, microprobe analysis and X-ray powder diffractometry. Chemical compositions, corresponding structural formulae and powder patterns indicate that they are dioctahedral true micas of 2M1 polytype. Moessbauer spectroscopy shows that these muscovites fall into two groups having distinct spectra, despite an absence of systematic differences in their chemical compositions, X-ray patterns, unit-cell parameters, and Fe3+/Fetotal ratios. In the first group, two distinct and well-resolved viFe2+ spectral contributions occur whereas, in the second group, a single but broader viFe2+ contribution occurs. All spectra from both groups have viFe3+ contributions. These observations are confirmed by quadrupole splitting distribution (QSD) analyses of the spectra. Spectra from the first group clearly show a bimodal distribution of quadrupole splittings for Fe2+, with a dominant contribution at ∼3.0 mm/s and a minor one at ∼2.1 mm/s. In the second group, the spectra show a broad unimodal distribution of QSDs for Fe2+. We attribute the 3.0 and 2.1 mm/s QSD components to Fe2+ in cis and trans octahedral sites, respectively. Muscovites from our second group may have Fe2+ in both cis and trans sites but these cannot be resolved, as is usually the case, for example, with trioctahedral micas. In group one, cis/trans populations provide measures of the degree of cation order and of the density of vacancies on the cis sites. Simple models based on average unit cell site dimensions are found not to hold. Local effects seem to dominate, with Fe2+ showing no systematic preference for cis or trans sites

  3. Efficient gene delivery system mediated by cis-aconitate-modified chitosan-g-stearic acid micelles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao JJ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Jing-Jing Yao, Yong-Zhong Du, Hong Yuan, Jian You, Fu-Qiang HuCollege of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, People’s Republic of ChinaAbstract: Cis-aconitate-modified chitosan-g-stearic acid (CA-CSO-SA micelles were ­synthesized in this study to improve the gene transfection efficiency of chitosan-g-stearic acid (CSO-SA. The CA-CSO-SA micelles had a similar size, critical micelle concentration, and ­morphology, but their zeta potential and cytotoxicity were reduced compared with CSO-SA micelles. After modification with cis-aconitate, the CA-CSO-SA micelles could also compact plasmid DNA (pDNA to form nanocomplexes. However, the DNA binding ability of CA-CSO-SA was slightly reduced compared with that of CSO-SA. The transfection efficiency mediated by CA-CSO-SA/pDNA against HEK-293 cells reached up to 37%, and was much higher than that of CSO-SA/pDNA (16%. Although the cis-aconitate modification reduced cellular uptake kinetics in the initial stages, the total amount of cellular uptake tended to be the same after 24 hours of incubation. An endocytosis inhibition experiment showed that the internalization mechanism of CA-CSO-SA/pDNA in HEK-293 cells was mainly via clathrin-mediated endocytosis, as well as caveolae-mediated endocytosis and macropinocytosis. Observation of intracellular trafficking indicated that the CSO-SA/pDNA complexes were trapped in endolysosomes, but CA-CSO-SA/pDNA was more widely distributed in the cytosol. This study suggests that modification with cis-aconitate improves the transfection efficiency of CSO-SA/pDNA.Keywords: chitosan-g-stearic acid, cis-aconitate, micelles, transfection efficiency, intracellular trafficking

  4. Determination of the valence-band offset of CdS/CIS solar cell devices by target factor analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niles, D.W.; Contreras, M.; Ramanathan, K.; Noufi, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-05-01

    X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) is used to determine and compare the valence-band offsets ({Delta}E{sub v}) for CdS grown by chemical bath deposition on single-crystal and thin-film CuInSe{sub 2} (CIS). The thin-film CIS device was suitable for photovoltaic energy production. By sputtering through the CdS/CIS interface and reducing the depth profile with target factor analysis, the magnitude of {Delta}E{sub v} was determined to be {Delta}E{sub v} = 1.06 {+-} 0.15 eV for both the single-crystal and thin-film interfaces. This determination of {Delta}E{sub v} is about 0.25 eV larger than many previously reported estimations CdS grown by physical vapor deposition on CIS and helps explain the record performance of CdS/CIS photovoltaic devices.

  5. Perfil del visitante del parque nacional Desierto del Carmen

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth López Carré

    2007-01-01

    El artículo presenta los resultados obtenidos del proyecto de investigación titulado "Evaluación del potencial de comercialización y caracterización del visitante del Santo Desierto de Tenancingo", específicamente los correspondientes al perfil del visitante a dicho Parque Nacional. La metodología utilizada se sustenta en la investigación de mercados propuesta por Kinnear y Taylor. El resultado de dicha investigación permitió integrar el perfil del segmento de mercado religioso...

  6. Action of cis-dichlorobis (cyclopentylamine) platinum (2) (cis-PAD) on L5178Y cells of two strains inversely cross-sensitive to X-rays and UV-light. Part 2. Platinum content of cis-PAD-treated cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two strains of L5178Y murine lymphoma inversely cross-sensitive to X-rays and UV-light, were previously shown to respond to cis-PAD-treatment in a similar manner as to UV-irradiation: UV-sensitive (x-ray resistant) L5178Y-R strain was more sensitive to cis-PAD - treatment than UV-resistant (X-ray sensitive) L5178Y-S strain. The difference in sensitivity to cis-PAD could be due to a different ability of both strains to bind intracellularly the platinum complex. It was shown that after cis-PAD treatment both cell strains bind similar quantities of platinum as determined either in the whole cells or in the fraction of chromatin nucleic acids. Thus, the difference in sensitivity to cis-PAD must depend on phenomena other than the platinum complex transport into the cell or its binding to chromatin. (author)

  7. Crystal and molecular structures of the 1:2 'host-guest' complex between cis-anti-cis isomer of dicyclohexano-18-crown-6 and 2-thiouracil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The molecular and crystal structures of the 1:2 'host-guest' complex between cis-anti cis isomer of dicyclohexano-18-crown-6 (host, H) and 2-thiouracil (guest, G; complex I) have been determined by X-ray diffraction analysis. The crystals are monoclinic; a=10.638(2), b=13.755(3), and c=11.283(2) A; β=105.83(3) deg.; space group P21/n; Z=4, and the final R factor is 0.064. A crown ether molecule and two 2-thiouracil molecules are joined together into a centrosymmetric associate via hydrogen bonds of two types: N-H···O [N···O=2.842(8) A] and C-H···O[C···O 3.217(11) A]. In turn, the guest molecules also form centrosymmetric dimers via the hydrogen bonds N-H···S=C[N···S 3.462(7) A]. The dimerization leads to the formation of linear chains in the crystal. The molecular skeleton of the crown ether is described by the D3d symmetry

  8. EU-CIS joint study project 2. Intervention criteria in CIS, risk assessments and non-radiological factors in decision-making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedemann Jensen, P. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Demin, V.F. [Russian Reserch Centre `Kurchatov Inst.`, Moscow (Russian Federation); Konstantinov, Y.O. [Research Inst. of Radiation Hygiene, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Likhtarev, I.A. [Ukrainian Scientific Centre for Radiation Medicine, Kiev (Ukraine); Rolevich, I.V. [Chernobyl State Commiettee, Minsk (Belarus); Schneider, T. [Centre d`etudes sur l`Evaluation de la Protection dans le domaine Nucleaire, CEPN, Paris (France)

    1996-05-01

    An extensive radiation risk estimation methodology has recently been developed in Russia and used for estimates of risk in exposed populations in the republics of Russia, Belarus and Ukraine. Results based on demographic data for the three republics are presented and compared with risk estimates from the EU risk model ASQRAD. The intervention criteria in the CIS republics have been evolving since the Chernobyl accident. The development of criteria in each of the three republics has been analysed and the CIS-Criteria have been compared to international guidance on intervention. After a nuclear or radiological emergency both radiological and non-radiological protection factors will influence the level of protective actions being introduced. The role of non-radiological protection factors in the overall optimization of health protection is addressed. It is argued that optimization of the overall health protection is not a question of developing radiation radiation protection philosophy to fully include socio-psychological factors. It is rather a question of including these factors - in parallel with the radiological protection factors - in cooperation between radiation protection experts and psychological specialists under the responsibility of the decision maker. (au) 19 tabs., 10 ills., 45 refs.

  9. Optical Properties of Secondary Organic Aerosol from cis-3-Hexenol and cis-3-Hexenyl Acetate: Effect of Chemical Composition, Humidity, and Phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Rebecca M; Bateman, Adam P; Jain, Shashank; Li, Yong Jie; Martin, Scot; Petrucci, Giuseppe A

    2016-05-17

    Atmospheric aerosols play an important role in Earth's radiative balance directly, by scattering and absorbing radiation, and indirectly, by acting as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). Atmospheric aerosol is dominated by secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formed by the oxidation of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs). Green leaf volatiles (GLVs) are a class of BVOCs that contribute to SOA, yet their role in the Earth's radiative budget is poorly understood. In this work we measured the scattering efficiency (at 450, 525, and 635 nm), absorption efficiency (between 190 and 900 nm), particle phase, bulk chemical properties (O:C, H:C), and molecular-level composition of SOA formed from the ozonolysis of two GLVs: cis-3-hexenol (HXL) and cis-3-hexenyl acetate (CHA). Both HXL and CHA produced SOA that was weakly absorbing, yet CHA-SOA was a more efficient absorber than HXL-SOA. The scatter efficiency of SOA from both systems was wavelength-dependent, with the stronger dependence exhibited by HXL-SOA, likely due to differences in particle size. HXL-SOA formed under both dry (10% RH) and wet (70% RH) conditions had the same bulk chemical properties (O:C), yet significantly different optical properties, which was attributed to differences in molecular-level composition. We have found that SOA derived from green leaf volatiles has the potential to affect the Earth's radiative budget, and also that bulk chemical properties can be insufficient to predict SOA optical properties. PMID:27074496

  10. EU-CIS joint study project 2. Intervention criteria in CIS, risk assessments and non-radiological factors in decision-making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An extensive radiation risk estimation methodology has recently been developed in Russia and used for estimates of risk in exposed populations in the republics of Russia, Belarus and Ukraine. Results based on demographic data for the three republics are presented and compared with risk estimates from the EU risk model ASQRAD. The intervention criteria in the CIS republics have been evolving since the Chernobyl accident. The development of criteria in each of the three republics has been analysed and the CIS-Criteria have been compared to international guidance on intervention. After a nuclear or radiological emergency both radiological and non-radiological protection factors will influence the level of protective actions being introduced. The role of non-radiological protection factors in the overall optimization of health protection is addressed. It is argued that optimization of the overall health protection is not a question of developing radiation radiation protection philosophy to fully include socio-psychological factors. It is rather a question of including these factors - in parallel with the radiological protection factors - in cooperation between radiation protection experts and psychological specialists under the responsibility of the decision maker. (au) 19 tabs., 10 ills., 45 refs

  11. The low temperature radiolysis of cis-syn-cis-dicyclohexano-18-crown-6 complexes with alkaline earth metal nitrates: An evidence for energy transfer to the macrocyclic ligand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakurdaeva, O. A.; Nesterov, S. V.; Shmakova, N. A.; Sokolova, N. A.; Feldman, V. I.

    2015-10-01

    Formation of paramagnetic intermediates in macrocyclic complexes of cis-syn-cis-dicyclohexano-18-crown-6 (DCH18C6) with alkaline earth metal nitrates under X-rays irradiation was studied by EPR spectroscopy. NO32- dianions appear to be predominant intermediate species in the samples irradiated at 77 K at low doses (up to 40 kGy). This result was interpreted as an evidence for energy transfer within the complex from crown ether to nitrate anion. Increase in the absorbed dose from 40 kGy to 284 kGy results in built-up of a new EPR signal assigned to macrocyclic -CH2-ĊH-O- radicals produced from crown ether moieties. Thermal annealing of the irradiated macrocyclic complexes at 273 К led to fast decay of NO32- . This process was accompanied by a formation of -CH2-ĊH-O- radicals in secondary reactions. The nature of the metal cations coordinated in the macrocycle cavity had no appreciable effect on the composition of radical products and their post-radiation transformations.

  12. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). Cis 9, trans 11 and trans 10, cis 12 isomer detection in crude and refined corn oils by capillary GC

    OpenAIRE

    Özlem Tokuşoğlu

    2008-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) exhibit protective effects against various types of cancer and heart diseases. With the newly developed capillary gas chromatographic method (GC), cis9, trans11 and trans10, cis12 octadecadienoic acid isomers of CLA (C18:2) were determined in crude and refined corn oils as qualitative and quantitative measurements. Cis 9, trans11 C18:2 (c9, t11 CLA) was the major CLA isomer in both oils. It was found that c9, t11 CLA was 0.62% of the total lipid in crude oil a...

  13. Influence of cis-diamminedichloroplatinum (II) on mouse duodenal crypt stem cell survival after multifraction X ray treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mechanism of interaction of cis-platinum and X rays was investigated in mouse duodenal crypts using the microcolony assay. Mice were exposed to 1, 2, 5, 10, or 15 fractions of X rays, either alone or preceded by a single i.p. injection of cis-platinum, 8 mg/kg, one-half hour before the first fraction. In all fractionation regimens, cisplatinum caused a shift of the X ray survival curve for crypt cells towards lower doses. The vertical distances between the survival curves after X rays and those in combination with cis-platinum were about the same. After cis-platinum treatment alone, a crypt cell survival curve was established in the high dose range. The estimated cell kill by 8 mg/kg of cis-platinum, obtained by extrapolation of this curve, was 1 log10 cell number. These data imply independent cell killing mechanisms for cis-platinum and X rays. However, even after correction for cell kill by the drug, cis-platinum tended to inhibit slightly sublethal damage repair after X rays. This was supported by linear quadratic analyses, in which the alpha/beta value after combined treatment was found to be slightly higher than after X rays alone

  14. The ruthenium complex cis-(dichloro)tetrammineruthenium(III) chloride induces apoptosis and damages DNA in murine sarcoma 180 cells

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Aliny Pereira De Lima; Flávia De Castro Pereira; Cesar Augusto Sam Tiago Vilanova-Costa; Alessandra De Santana Braga Barbosa Ribeiro; Luiz Alfredo Pavanin; Wagner Batista Dos Santos; Elisângela De Paula Silveira-Lacerda

    2010-09-01

    Ruthenium(III) complexes are increasingly attracting the interest of researchers due to their promising pharmacological properties. Recently, we reported that the cis-(dichloro)tetrammineruthenium(III) chloride compound has cytotoxic effects on murine sarcoma 180 (S-180) cells. In an effort to understand the mechanism responsible for their cytotoxicity, study we investigated the genotoxicity, cell cycle distribution and induction of apoptosis caused by cis-(dichloro)tetrammineruthenium(III) chloride in S-180 tumour cells. cis-(dichloro)tetrammineruthenium(III) chloride treatment induced significant DNA damage in S-180 cells, as detected by the alkaline comet assay. In the cell cycle analysis, cis-(dichloro)tetrammineruthenium(III) chloride caused an increase in the number of cells in G1 phase, accompanied by a decrease in the S and G2 phases after 24 h of treatment. In contrast, the cell cycle distribution of S-180 cells treated with cis-(dichloro)tetrammineruthenium(III) chloride for 48 h showed a concentration-dependent increase in the sub-G1 phase (indicating apoptosis), with a corresponding decrease in cells in the G1, S and G2 phases. In addition, cis-(dichloro)tetrammineruthenium(III) chloride treatment induced apoptosis in a time-dependent manner, as observed by the increased numbers of annexin V-positive cells. Taken together, these findings strongly demonstrate that DNA damage, cell cycle changes and apoptosis may correlate with the cytotoxic effects of cis-(dichloro)tetrammineruthenium(III) chloride on S-180 cells.

  15. Untangling Risk of Maltreatment from Events of Maltreatment: An Analysis of the 2008 Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect (CIS-2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallon, Barbara; Trocme, Nico; MacLaurin, Bruce; Sinha, Vandna; Black, Tara

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the methodological changes that occurred across cycles of the Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect (CIS), specifically outlining the rationale for tracking investigations of families with children at risk of maltreatment in the CIS-2008 cycle. This paper also presents analysis of data from the CIS-2008…

  16. Efficient algorithm development of CIS speech processing strategy for cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Talha J; Ali, Hussnain; Ajaz, Muhammad Asim; Khan, Shoab A

    2009-01-01

    Continuous Interleaved Sampling (CIS) is one of the most useful and famous speech processing strategies used in Cochlear Implant speech processors. However, algorithm realization in hardware is a laborious task due to high computation cost of the algorithm. Real-time issues and low-power design demands an optimized realization of algorithm. This paper proposes two techniques to cut the computation cost of CIS by using polyphase filters and by implementing the complete algorithm in frequency domain. About 70% reduction in computation cost can be achieved by using multi-rate, multistage filters; whereas computation cost decreases by a factor of five when the whole algorithm is implemented in frequency domain. Evaluation of the algorithm is done by a laboratory designed algorithm development and evaluation platform. Algorithm flow diagrams and their computation details have been given for comparison. Utilizing the given techniques can remarkably reduce the processor load without any compromise on quality. PMID:19964752

  17. Triple Effect of Mimetic Peptides Interfering with Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule Homophilic Cis Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, S. Z.; Kolkova, Kateryna; Rudenko, Olga;

    2005-01-01

    and P2 acted as conventional antagonists, agonists, and reverse agonists of NCAM at low, intermediate, and high peptide concentrations, respectively. The demonstrated in vitro triple pharmacological effect of mimetic peptides interfering with the NCAM homophilic cis binding will be valuable for the......The neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) is pivotal in neural development, regeneration, and learning. Here we characterize two peptides, termed P1-B and P2, derived from the homophilic binding sites in the first two N-terminal immunoglobulin (Ig) modules of NCAM, with regard to their effects on...... neurite extension and adhesion. To evaluate how interference of these mimetic peptides with NCAM homophilic interactions in cis influences NCAM binding in trans, we employed a coculture system in which PC12-E2 cells were grown on monolayers of fibroblasts with or without NCAM expression and the rate of...

  18. Cis-encoded noncoding antisense RNAs in streptococci and other low GC Gram (+ bacterial pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyu Hong eCho

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to recent advances of bioinformatics and high throughput sequencing technology, discovery of regulatory noncoding RNAs in bacteria has been increased to a great extent. Based on this bandwagon, many studies searching for trans-acting small noncoding RNAs in streptococci have been performed intensively, especially in the important human pathogen, group A and B streptococci. However, studies for cis-encoded noncoding antisense RNAs in streptococci have been scarce. A recent study shows antisense RNAs are involved in virulence gene regulation in group B streptococcus, S. agalactiae. This suggests antisense RNAs could have important roles in the pathogenesis of streptococcal pathogens. In this review, we describe recent discoveries of chromosomal cis-encoded antisense RNAs in streptococcal pathogens and other low GC Gram (+ bacteria to provide a guide for future studies.

  19. Trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid decreases de novo lipid synthesis in human adipocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obsen, Thomas; Faergeman, Nils J; Chung, Soonkyu;

    2012-01-01

    ,12 CLA, but not 9,11 CLA, decreased total cellular lipids within 3 days and the ratio of monounsaturated FA (MUFA) to saturated FA, and increased C18:0 acyl-CoA levels within 24 h. Consistent with these data, stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD)-1 mRNA and protein levels were down-regulated by 10,12 CLA within......Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) reduces adiposity in vivo. However, mechanisms mediating these changes are unclear. Therefore, we treated cultures of human adipocytes with trans-10, cis-12 (10,12) CLA, cis-9, trans-11 (9,11) CLA or other trans fatty acids (FA), and measured indices of lipid...... is due, in part, to the rapid repression of lipogenic transcription factors that regulate MUFA synthesis, suggesting an anti-obesity mechanism unique to this trans FA....

  20. Aspects of the Capital Markets’ Development from the CIS Member States and Republic of Moldova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Hîncu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Evolution of capital markets is an important process for the all economies, irrespective their degree of development, while the trends emphasized during the last decades marked some common tendencies of evolution. Practically, most of the tendencies manifested on global capital market are also relevant for the securities market of the CIS member states, still, one of them possessing a more relevant character (capital concentration and centralization; regulation and deregulation of capital market; capital market informatization, while the other ones – a lower degree of relevance (ascension of institutional investors on capital market; implementation of financial innovations; capital market integration and international cooperation; compartmentalization of secondary capital market and development of alternative secondary market etc. This article emphasizes some of the tendencies specific for the development of the capital market from the CIS member states and the Republic of Moldova.

  1. Salicylic acid inhibits UV- and Cis-Pt-induced human immunodeficiency virus expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous studies have shown that exposure of HeLa cells stably transfected with a human immunodeficiency virus-long terminal repeat-chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (HIV-LTR-CAT) construct to UV light-induced expression from the HIV LTR. By culturing the cells with salicylic acid we demonstrated dose-dependent repression of this induced HIV expression. Repression was evident if salicylic acid was administered 2 h before, at the same time as, or up to 6 h after exposure to the DNA-damaging agent. The kinetics were similar for UV- and for cis-Pt-induced HIV expression, and induction was dependent on the UV dose or cis-Pt concentration added to the culture. These results suggest a role for the prostaglandins or the cyclooxygenase pathway or both in HIV induction mediated by DNA-damaging agents

  2. A DNA glycosylase from human lymphoblasts that releases cis-thymine glycol from oxidized DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An endonuclease (termed the UVX endonuclease) partially purified from cultured human leukemic lymphoblasts (CEM-CCRF line) was previously shown to act specifically on DNA irradiated by ionizing radiation, UV light, or treated with osmium tetroxide. This activity is tightly associated with an endonuclease specific for apurinic /apyrimidinic (AP) sites in DNA, suggesting that the initial attack on the radiation or oxidation induced lesions is by a DNA glycosylase that generates such AP sites. Thymine glycol has been shown to be a product common to γ-irradiated and oxidized DNA and in the present studies the authors have shown that the UVX endonuclease releases free cis-thymine glycol from osmium tetroxide treated DNA. HPLC analysis of the reaction products failed to detect any cis-thymidine glycol or nucleotide material indicating that the activity responsible is truly a DNA glycosylase. This enzyme thus resembles Endonuclease III of E. coli which contains both AP endonuclease and thymine glucol-DNA glycosylase activities

  3. Efecto del ácido linoleico conjugado sobre la proporción de sexos y calidad de embriones bovinos producidos in vitro Effect of conjugated linoleic acid on sex ratio and quality of in vitro produced bovine embryos

    OpenAIRE

    NA Gómez; AP López; LF Ortiz; ZT Ruiz; Olivera, M.; Tarazona, A.

    2013-01-01

    El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el efecto de la suplementación del medio de cultivo con ácido linoleico conjugado (CLA) sobre el clivaje, producción, proporción de sexos y calidad embrionaria en embriones bovinos producidos in vitro al día 7 de cultivo. Se fertilizaron 308 CCO suplementados en cultivo con 100 µM del isómero de CLA Cis-9 Trans-11 y Cis-10-Trans-12 y 257 CCO en el grupo control; la producción de embriones fue 25,32% vs 35,40% respectivamente con diferencia significativa...

  4. Interactions of radiation and adriamycin, bleomycin, mitomycin C or cis-diamminedichloroplatinum II in intestinal crypt cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von der Maase, H

    1984-01-01

    The interactions of radiation and adriamycin (ADM), bleomycin (BLM), mitomycin C (MM-C), or cis-diamminedichloroplatinum II (cis-DDP) in mouse jejunal crypt cells were studied using the microcolony survival assay. ADM administered from 24 h before to 48 h after irradiation resulted in an almost...... which interval the D0 surprisingly increased by a factor of 1.4. Administration of MM-C from 24 h before to 24 h after irradiation enhanced the radiation response. The effect peaked on administration 6 h before irradiation (DEF = 1.21) and diminished by application after irradiation. Cis-DDP enhanced...

  5. 9-cis-Retinoic Acid Promotes Cell Adhesion Through Integrin Dependent and Independent Mechanisms Across Immune Lineages

    OpenAIRE

    Whelan, Jarrett T.; Chen, Jianming; Miller, Jabin; Morrow, Rebekah L.; Lingo, Joshuah D.; Merrell, Kaitlin; Shaikh, Saame Raza; Bridges, Lance C.

    2012-01-01

    Retinoids are essential in the proper establishment and maintenance of immunity. Although retinoids are implicated in immune related processes, their role in immune cell adhesion has not been well established. In this study, the effect of 9-cis-retinoic acid (9-cis-RA) on human hematopoietic cell adhesion was investigated. 9-cis-RA treatment specifically induced cell adhesion of the human immune cell lines HuT-78, NB4, RPMI 8866, and U937. Due to the prominent role of integrin receptors in me...

  6. Cis-trans photoisomerization of the chromophore in the green fluorescent protein variant E2GFP: A molecular dynamics study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By force-field molecular dynamics simulations we investigate the dynamics of cis-trans photoisomerization of the chromophore in the GFP mutant E2GFP (F64L/S65T/T203Y), and the rearrangements that allow the protein structure to accommodate the trans form of the chromophore. We find that in this new configuration the chromophore is less well coordinated with the surrounding protein matrix. From this configuration the simulated trans-cis photoisomerization of the chromophore and the associated non-radiative decay are faster than in the cis-trans case

  7. The contribution of cis-regulatory elements to head-to-head gene pairs’ co-expression pattern

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Transcription regulation is one of the most critical pipelines in biological process,in which cis-elements play the role as gene expression regulators.We attempt to deduce the principles underlying the co-expression of "head-to-head" gene pairs by analyzing activities or behaviors of the shared cis-elements.A network component analysis was performed to estimate the impact of cis-elements on gene promoters and their activities under different conditions.Our discoveries reveal how biological system uses those regulatory elements to control the expression pattern of "head-to-head" gene pairs and the whole transcription regulation system.

  8. Solid Phase Biosensors for Arsenic or Cadmium Composed of A trans Factor and cis Element Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Shohel Rana Siddiki

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The presence of toxic metals in drinking water has hazardous effects on human health. This study was conducted to develop GFP-based-metal-binding biosensors for on-site assay of toxic metal ions. GFP-tagged ArsR and CadC proteins bound to a cis element, and lost the capability of binding to it in their As- and Cd-binding conformational states, respectively. Water samples containing toxic metals were incubated on a complex of GFP-tagged ArsR or CadC and cis element which was immobilized on a solid surface. Metal concentrations were quantified with fluorescence intensity of the metal-binding states released from the cis element. Fluorescence intensity obtained with the assay significantly increased with increasing concentrations of toxic metals. Detection limits of 1 μg/L for Cd(II and 5 μg/L for As(III in purified water and 10 µg/L for Cd(II and As(III in tap water and bottled mineral water were achieved by measurement with a battery-powered portable fluorometer after 15-min and 30-min incubation, respectively. A complex of freeze dried GFP-tagged ArsR or CadC binding to cis element was stable at 4 °C and responded to 5 μg/L As(III or Cd(II. The solid phase biosensors are sensitive, less time-consuming, portable, and could offer a protocol for on-site evaluation of the toxic metals in drinking water.

  9. Solid phase biosensors for arsenic or cadmium composed of A trans factor and cis element complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiki, Mohammad Shohel Rana; Kawakami, Yasunari; Ueda, Shunsaku; Maeda, Isamu

    2011-01-01

    The presence of toxic metals in drinking water has hazardous effects on human health. This study was conducted to develop GFP-based-metal-binding biosensors for on-site assay of toxic metal ions. GFP-tagged ArsR and CadC proteins bound to a cis element, and lost the capability of binding to it in their As- and Cd-binding conformational states, respectively. Water samples containing toxic metals were incubated on a complex of GFP-tagged ArsR or CadC and cis element which was immobilized on a solid surface. Metal concentrations were quantified with fluorescence intensity of the metal-binding states released from the cis element. Fluorescence intensity obtained with the assay significantly increased with increasing concentrations of toxic metals. Detection limits of 1 μg/L for Cd(II) and 5 μg/L for As(III) in purified water and 10 µg/L for Cd(II) and As(III) in tap water and bottled mineral water were achieved by measurement with a battery-powered portable fluorometer after 15-min and 30-min incubation, respectively. A complex of freeze dried GFP-tagged ArsR or CadC binding to cis element was stable at 4 °C and responded to 5 μg/L As(III) or Cd(II). The solid phase biosensors are sensitive, less time-consuming, portable, and could offer a protocol for on-site evaluation of the toxic metals in drinking water. PMID:22346629

  10. Síntesis estereoselectiva de cis-decahidroquinolinas: intermedios avanzados para el acceso a las lepadinas

    OpenAIRE

    Mena Cervigón, María Luisa

    2006-01-01

    [spa] Las lepadinas son alcaloides de origen marino de interesantes propiedades farmacológicas aislados entre 1991 y 2002 de los ascidios tunicados "Clavelina lepadiformis", "Didemnum" y "Aplidium Tabascum". Su estructura se caracteriza por contener un esqueleto cis-decahidroquinolínico trisustituido con un grupo metilo en C-2, un grupo hidroxilo libre o esterificado en C-3 y una cadena lateral en C-5. En la presente Tesis Doctoral se han estudiado tres estrategias sintéticas diferentes para...

  11. THE BIMODAL MOLECULAR WEIGHT DISTRIBUTION OF cis-POLYBUTADIENE POLYMERIZED WITH LANTHANIDE COMPLEX CATALYSTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Rongshi; HU Huizhen; JIANG Liansheng

    1987-01-01

    The variation of the molecular weight and molecular weight distribution of cis-polybutadiene in the course of polymerization catalyzed by lanthanide complex composed of triisobutyl aluminium or diisobutyl aluminium hydride was investigated by osmometry, viscometry and size exclusion chromatography. By analyzing the experimental data, the reasons of the appearance of bimodal molecular weight distribution were elucidated and the possible mechanisms of polymerization were discussed.

  12. Cluster Ion Spectrometry (CIS) data quality indexes as a support for analysing magnetospheric measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandouras, Iannis; Barthe, Alain; Brunato, Sylvain; Rème, Henri; Laakso, Harri

    2016-04-01

    The Cluster Science Archive (CSA) aims at preserving the complete set of the measurements collected by the four Cluster spacecraft, so that they are usable in the long-term by the world-wide scientific community as well as by the instrument teams. This implies that the instrument data, properly calibrated, are filed together with the descriptive and documentary elements making it possible to select and interpret them. The CIS (Cluster Ion Spectrometry) experiment is a comprehensive ionic plasma spectrometry package onboard the Cluster spacecraft, capable of obtaining full three-dimensional ion distributions (about 0 to 40 keV/e) with a time resolution of one spacecraft spin (4 sec) and with mass-per-charge composition determination. For the archival of the CIS data a multi-level approach has been adopted. The CSA archival includes processed raw data, moments of the ion distribution functions, and calibrated high-resolution data in a variety of physical units. The latter are 3-D ion distribution functions, 2-D pitch-angle distributions and 1-D omni-directional fluxes. The CIS data archive includes also experiment documentation, graphical products for browsing through the data, data caveats and data quality indexes. The later constitute a novel product, which has been prepared in order to help the user asses the quality of the data acquired in different magnetospheric regions and during various operational modes. It provides information on which are in each case the issues that can affect the data quality, which are the data products affected, and gives a simple quantitative measurement of the severity of these issues. The principle of the CIS data quality indexes will be described and the various issues, that can under some conditions affect the data quality and are thus taken into account in generating the data quality indexes, will be discussed.

  13. Dissection of the cis-2-decenoic acid signaling network in Pseudomonas aeruginosa using microarray technique

    OpenAIRE

    Rahmani-Badi, Azadeh; Sepehr, Shayesteh; Fallahi, Hossein; Heidari-Keshel, Saeed

    2015-01-01

    Many bacterial pathogens use quorum-sensing (QS) signaling to regulate the expression of factors contributing to virulence and persistence. Bacteria produce signals of different chemical classes. The signal molecule, known as diffusible signal factor (DSF), is a cis-unsaturated fatty acid that was first described in the plant pathogen Xanthomonas campestris. Previous works have shown that human pathogen, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, also synthesizes a structurally related molecule, characterized a...

  14. Physiological and Chemical Investigations into Microbial Degradation of Synthetic Poly(cis-1,4-isoprene)

    OpenAIRE

    Bode, Helge B; Zeeck, Axel; Plückhahn, Kirsten; Jendrossek, Dieter

    2000-01-01

    Streptomyces coelicolor 1A and Pseudomonas citronellolis were able to degrade synthetic high-molecular-weight poly(cis-1,4-isoprene) and vulcanized natural rubber. Growth on the polymers was poor but significantly greater than that of the nondegrading strain Streptomyces lividans 1326 (control). Measurement of the molecular weight distribution of the polymer before and after degradation showed a time-dependent increase in low-molecular-weight polymer molecules for S. coelicolor 1A and P. citr...

  15. cisRED: a database system for genome-scale computational discovery of regulatory elements

    OpenAIRE

    Robertson, G; Bilenky, M.; Lin, K.; He, A.; Yuen, W.; Dagpinar, M.; Varhol, R.; Teague, K.; Griffith, O L; Zhang, X; Pan, Y.; Hassel, M.; Sleumer, M. C.; Pan, W; Pleasance, E. D.

    2005-01-01

    We describe cisRED, a database for conserved regulatory elements that are identified and ranked by a genome-scale computational system (). The database and high-throughput predictive pipeline are designed to address diverse target genomes in the context of rapidly evolving data resources and tools. Motifs are predicted in promoter regions using multiple discovery methods applied to sequence sets that include corresponding sequence regions from vertebrates. We estimate motif significance by ap...

  16. Role of reactive oxygen species in cis-dichlorodiammineplatinum-induced cytotoxicity on bladder cancer cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Miyajima, A; Nakashima, J.; Yoshioka, K; Tachibana, M.; Tazaki, H.; Murai, M

    1997-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the intracellular induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by cis-dichlorodiammineplatinum (CDDP) and the augmentation of their cytotoxicity in bladder cancer cells (KU7) by enhancement of ROS generation by the glutathione (GSH) depletors buthionine sulphoximine (BSO) and diethylmaleate (DEM). CDDP-induced cytotoxicity in KU7 cells and its modulation by GSH depletors were determined using spectrophotometric measurement with crystal violet staining. T...

  17. Diastereoselektive Synthese von cis-3-Arylprolinen durch auxiliarkontrollierte zwitterionische Aza-Claisen-Umlagerungen

    OpenAIRE

    Laabs, Stephan

    2010-01-01

    Optically-active cis 3-aryl proline derivatives were synthesized via a six-step sequence involving an enantioselective auxiliary-controlled aza Claisen rearrangement as the key step. Initially, suitable N-(3-aryl allyl) amines were generated. A Pd(0) catalyzed amination of the corresponding allyl alcohols using optically active proline derivatives was developed. The zwitterionic aza-Claisen rearrangement with several acyl fluorides gave the corresponding á -substituted 3-ar...

  18. cis-Regulatory and Protein Evolution in Orthologous and Duplicate Genes

    OpenAIRE

    Castillo-Davis, Cristian I.; Hartl, Daniel L.; Achaz, Guillaume

    2004-01-01

    The relationship between protein and regulatory sequence evolution is a central question in molecular evolution. It is currently not known to what extent changes in gene expression are coupled with the evolution of protein coding sequences, or whether these changes differ among orthologs (species homologs) and paralogs (duplicate genes). Here, we develop a method to measure the extent of functionally relevant cis-regulatory sequence change in homologous genes, and validate it using microarray...

  19. Control of carotenoid biosynthesis through a heme-based cis-trans isomerase

    OpenAIRE

    Beltrán, Jesús; Kloss, Brian; Hosler, Jonathan P.; Geng, Jiafeng; Liu, Aimin; Modi, Anuja; Dawson, John H.; Sono, Masanori; Shumskaya, Maria; Ampomah-Dwamena, Charles; Love, James D; Wurtzel, Eleanore T.

    2015-01-01

    Plants synthesize carotenoids essential for plant development and survival. These metabolites also serve as essential nutrients for human health. The biosynthetic pathway leading to all plant carotenoids occurs in chloroplasts and other plastids and requires 15-cis-ζ-carotene isomerase (Z-ISO). It was not certain whether isomerization was achieved by Z-ISO alone or in combination with other enzymes. Here we show that Z-ISO is a bona fide enzyme and integral membrane protein. Z-ISO independent...

  20. 13-cis-Retinoic acid in the treatment of recurrent glioblastoma multiforme

    OpenAIRE

    See, Siew-Ju; Levin, Victor A.; Yung, W.-K. Alfred; Hess, Kenneth R.; Groves, Morris D.

    2004-01-01

    Basic science and clinical investigations have demonstrated that 13-cis-retinoic acid (cRA) has activity against malignant gliomas. To assess its effectiveness in the setting of recurrent glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), we performed a retrospective analysis of the medical records and neuroimaging results of patients with recurrent GBM who were treated with cRA. The toxicity profile of cRA, response, and effect on progression-free survival from initiation of treatment were end points of our ana...

  1. Genome-wide de novo prediction of cis-regulatory binding sites in prokaryotes

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Shaoqiang; Xu, Minli; Li, Shan; Su, Zhengchang

    2009-01-01

    Although cis-regulatory binding sites (CRBSs) are at least as important as the coding sequences in a genome, our general understanding of them in most sequenced genomes is very limited due to the lack of efficient and accurate experimental and computational methods for their characterization, which has largely hindered our understanding of many important biological processes. In this article, we describe a novel algorithm for genome-wide de novo prediction of CRBSs with high accuracy. We desi...

  2. Cis and Trans, p53 and NF-kB rules of transactivation

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Vasundhara

    2016-01-01

    p53 and NF-kB families of Transcription Factors (TFs) are among the most studied proteins in tumour biology, typically known to function as antagonists, although recent studies identified example of positive, even cooperative interactions. p53 and NF-kB act as dimer or dimer of dimers, bind cis regulatory elements (referred herein as Response Elements REs) of which multiple versions exist in the genome, and coordinate very large networks of target genes, through highly regulated transactivati...

  3. cis-Dichloridobis(1,10-phenanthroline)chromium(III) chloride

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoli Gao

    2011-01-01

    In the title complex, [CrCl2(C12H8N2)2]Cl, the CrIII ion is situated on a twofold rotation axis and displays a slightly distorted octahedral CrCl2N4 coordination geometry. The Cr environment is composed of a cis arrangement of two 1,10-phenanthroline and two chloride ligands. The chloride counter-anion exhibits half-occupation and is equally disordered over two positions.

  4. Instrumental analysis, metabolism and toxicity of cis- and trans-zearalenone and their biotransformation products

    OpenAIRE

    Drzymala, Sarah Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    trans-Zearalenon (ZEN) ist ein nicht-steroidales östrogenwirksames Mykotoxin, das weltweit Getreide kontaminiert. Tiere und Menschen können nach Aufnahme von befallenen Lebens- oder Futtermitteln zahlreiche Mykotoxikosen entwickeln, die auf der östrogenen Wirkung von ZEN beruhen. Strukturell zeichnet sich ZEN durch eine trans-konfigurierte Doppelbindung aus, die unter Lichteinfluss in die cis-Form isomerisieren kann. Die vorliegende Arbeit untersucht die instrumentelle Analytik, den Metabolis...

  5. Practical implications for the administration of 13-cis retinoic acid in pediatric oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauters, Tiene G M; Laureys, Geneviève; Van de Velde, Véronique; Benoit, Yves; Robays, Hugo

    2011-08-01

    Children with high-risk neuroblastoma are treated with polychemotherapy, surgery, radiotherapy and even autologous stem-cell transplantation. On top of this complex treatment, most children also receive 13-cis retinoic acid as differentiation agent. As no suitable pharmaceutical formulation is available so far, there are often problems with the administration of the product in children. The present report describes some practical recommendations for the administration of isotretinoin in children treated for high-risk neuroblastoma. PMID:21544558

  6. Reaction of nucleic acids with cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II): interstrand cross-links

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the reaction of cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II) (cis-DDP) with double-helical (dC-dG)4-(dC-dG)4 or (dC-dG)5-(dC-dG)5, intrastrand and interstrand cross-links between two guanine residues are formed. This is shown by gel electrophoresis in denaturing conditions of the reaction products and by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of the products digested with nuclease P1. In the reaction of cis-DDP and poly(dG-dC)-poly(dG-dC), at relatively low levels of platination, it is mainly interstrand cross-links between two guanine residues that are formed. This is shown by HPLC analysis of the nuclease P1 digest and by gel electrophoresis in denaturing and nondenaturing conditions of the platinated polymer after cleavage with the restriction enzyme HhaI. Moreover, the antibodies to platinated poly(dG-dC)-poly(dG-dC) cross-react with the interstrand cross-linked (dC-dG)4 or (dC-dG)5 but not with the intrastrand cross-linked (dG-dC)4 or (dC-dG)5. These antibodies cross-react with platinated natural DNA. The amount of interstrand cross-links deduced from radioimmunoassays (0.5% of the total bound platinum) is lower than that (2%) deduced by gel electrophoresis in denaturing conditions of a platinated DNA restriction fragment. By gel electrophoresis, it is also shown that in vitro the isomer trans-DDP is more efficient in forming interstrand cross-links than cis-DDP

  7. Ionizing radiation sources management in the Commonwealth of Independent States - CIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionizing radiation sources cover a broad band of power: from powerful NPP reactors and research reactors to portable radioisotope ionizing radiation sources applied in medicine, agriculture, industry and in the energy supply systems of remote facilities. At present, scales and use field of radionuclide sources in the CIS have the tendency to increase. In this connection, the issues of ionizing radiation sources management safety at all stages of their life cycle, from production to treatment, have been of a great importance. The materials on ionizing radiation sources inventory and treatment in the CIS (Russia, Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Ukraine) are presented in the report. It is shown that in some republics, there is difficulty in ionizing radiation sources accounting and control system; the national regulatory and legal framework bases regulating activity on radioactive sources use, localization and treatment require update. Many problems are connected with the sources beyond state accounting. The problem of ionizing radiation sources use safety is complicated by the growing activity of various terrorist groups. The opportunity to use ionizing radiation sources with terrorism goals requires the application of defined systems of security and physical protection at all stages of their management. For this purpose a collective, with all CIS countries, organization of radioactive sources accounting and control as well as countermeasures on their illegal transportation and use are necessary. In this connection, the information collection regarding situation with providing of ionizing radiation sources safety, conditions of equipment and storage facilities, radioactive materials accounting and control system in the CIS countries is vitally needed

  8. Computational and molecular dissection of an X-box cis-Regulatory module

    OpenAIRE

    Warrington, Timothy Burton

    2015-01-01

    Ciliopathies are a class of human diseases marked by dysfunction of the cellular organelle, cilia. While many of the molecular components that make up cilia have been identified and studied, comparatively little is understood about the transcriptional regulation of genes encoding these components. The conserved transcription factor Regulatory Factor X (RFX)/DAF-19, which acts through binding to the cis-regulatory motif known as X-box, has been shown to regulate ciliary genes in many animals f...

  9. Aspects of the Capital Markets’ Development from the CIS Member States and Republic of Moldova

    OpenAIRE

    R. Hîncu; V. Iordachi

    2013-01-01

    Evolution of capital markets is an important process for the all economies, irrespective their degree of development, while the trends emphasized during the last decades marked some common tendencies of evolution. Practically, most of the tendencies manifested on global capital market are also relevant for the securities market of the CIS member states, still, one of them possessing a more relevant character (capital concentration and centralization; regulation and deregulation of capital mar...

  10. Journalism Education and Children's Rights: New Approaches to Media Development in CEE/CIS Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Foley, Michael; Hayes, Noirin; O' Neill, Brian

    2012-01-01

    This article gives the background to a project entitled Children's Rights and Journalism Practice, which was carried out for UNICEF in university journalism faculties in CEE/CIS countries By focusing on journalism in the context of the academy and raising awareness of children’s rights from a journalistic perspective, the project seeks to provide a relatively safe space for critical engagement with journalistic ethics and values. Children are targets of, or are implicated in, nearly all as...

  11. Numerically accurate linear response-properties in the configuration-interaction singles (CIS) approximation

    OpenAIRE

    Kottmann, Jakob S.; Höfener, Sebastian; Bischoff, Florian A.

    2015-01-01

    In the present work, we report an efficient implementation of configuration interaction singles (CIS) excitation energies and oscillator strengths using the multi-resolution analysis (MRA) framework to address the basis-set convergence of excited state computations. In MRA (ground-state) orbitals, excited states are constructed adaptively guaranteeing an overall precision. Thus not only valence but also, in particular, low-lying Rydberg states can be computed with consistent quality at the ba...

  12. DNA oligonucleotide-cis-platin Binding: Ab initio interpretation of the vibrational spectra

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Andrushchenko, Valery; Wieser, H.; Bouř, Petr

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 111, č. 39 (2007), s. 9714-9723. ISSN 1089-5639 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400550702; GA ČR GA202/07/0732 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : cis-platin * DNA * vibrational spektra * ab initio Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.918, year: 2007

  13. Studying the functional conservation of cis-regulatory modules and their transcriptional output

    OpenAIRE

    Bailey Timothy L; Bauer Denis C

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Cis-regulatory modules (CRMs) are distinct, genomic regions surrounding the target gene that can independently activate the promoter to drive transcription. The activation of a CRM is controlled by the binding of a certain combination of transcription factors (TFs). It would be of great benefit if the transcriptional output mediated by a specific CRM could be predicted. Of equal benefit would be identifying in silico a specific CRM as the driver of the expression in a spec...

  14. Helix bundle loops determine whether histidine kinases autophosphorylate in cis or in trans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashenberg, Orr; Keating, Amy E; Laub, Michael T

    2013-04-12

    Bacteria frequently use two-component signal transduction pathways to sense and respond to environmental and intracellular stimuli. Upon receipt of a stimulus, a homodimeric sensor histidine kinase autophosphorylates and then transfers its phosphoryl group to a cognate response regulator. The autophosphorylation of histidine kinases has been reported to occur both in cis and in trans, but the molecular determinants dictating which mechanism is employed are unknown. Based on structural considerations, one model posits that the handedness of a loop at the base of the helical dimerization domain plays a critical role. Here, we tested this model by replacing the loop from Escherichia coli EnvZ, which autophosphorylates in trans, with the loop from three PhoR orthologs that autophosphorylate in cis. These chimeric kinases autophosphorylated in cis, indicating that this small loop is sufficient to determine autophosphorylation mechanism. Further, we report that the mechanism of autophosphorylation is conserved in orthologous sets of histidine kinases despite highly dissimilar loop sequences. These findings suggest that histidine kinases are under selective pressure to maintain their mode of autophosphorylation, but they can do so with a wide range of sequences. PMID:23333741

  15. Discrimination between thermodynamic models of cis-regulation using transcription factor occupancy data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeigler, Robert D; Cohen, Barak A

    2014-02-01

    Many studies have identified binding preferences for transcription factors (TFs), but few have yielded predictive models of how combinations of transcription factor binding sites generate specific levels of gene expression. Synthetic promoters have emerged as powerful tools for generating quantitative data to parameterize models of combinatorial cis-regulation. We sought to improve the accuracy of such models by quantifying the occupancy of TFs on synthetic promoters in vivo and incorporating these data into statistical thermodynamic models of cis-regulation. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation-seq, we measured the occupancy of Gcn4 and Cbf1 in synthetic promoter libraries composed of binding sites for Gcn4, Cbf1, Met31/Met32 and Nrg1. We measured the occupancy of these two TFs and the expression levels of all promoters in two growth conditions. Models parameterized using only expression data predicted expression but failed to identify several interactions between TFs. In contrast, models parameterized with occupancy and expression data predicted expression data, and also revealed Gcn4 self-cooperativity and a negative interaction between Gcn4 and Nrg1. Occupancy data also allowed us to distinguish between competing regulatory mechanisms for the factor Gcn4. Our framework for combining occupancy and expression data produces predictive models that better reflect the mechanisms underlying combinatorial cis-regulation of gene expression. PMID:24288374

  16. Ancient and recent positive selection transformed opioid cis-regulation in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the cis-regulation of neural genes likely contributed to the evolution of our species' unique attributes, but evidence of a role for natural selection has been lacking. We found that positive natural selection altered the cis-regulation of human prodynorphin, the precursor molecule for a suite of endogenous opioids and neuropeptides with critical roles in regulating perception, behavior, and memory. Independent lines of phylogenetic and population genetic evidence support a history of selective sweeps driving the evolution of the human prodynorphin promoter. In experimental assays of chimpanzee-human hybrid promoters, the selected sequence increases transcriptional inducibility. The evidence for a change in the response of the brain's natural opioids to inductive stimuli points to potential human-specific characteristics favored during evolution. In addition, the pattern of linked nucleotide and microsatellite variation among and within modern human populations suggests that recent selection, subsequent to the fixation of the human-specific mutations and the peopling of the globe, has favored different prodynorphin cis-regulatory alleles in different parts of the world.

  17. Surface hopping dynamics of direct trans --> cis photoswitching of an azobenzene derivative in constrained adsorbate geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floß, Gereon; Granucci, Giovanni; Saalfrank, Peter

    2012-12-01

    With ongoing miniaturization of electronic devices, the need for individually addressable, switchable molecules arises. An example are azobenzenes on surfaces which have been shown to be switchable between trans and cis forms. Here, we examine the "direct" (rather than substrate-mediated) channel of the trans → cis photoisomerization after ππ* excitation of tetra-tert-butyl-azobenzene physisorbed on surfaces mimicking Au(111) and Bi(111), respectively. In spirit of the direct channel, the electronic structure of the surface is neglected, the latter merely acting as a rigid platform which weakly interacts with the molecule via Van-der-Waals forces. Starting from thermal ensembles which represent the trans-form, sudden excitations promote the molecules to ππ*-excited states which are non-adiabatically coupled among themselves and to a nπ*-excited and the ground state, respectively. After excitation, relaxation to the ground state by internal conversion takes place, possibly accompanied by isomerization. The process is described here by "on the fly" semiclassical surface hopping dynamics in conjunction with a semiempirical Hamiltonian (AM1) and configuration-interaction type methods. It is found that steric constraints imposed by the substrate lead to reduced but non-vanishing, trans → cis reaction yields and longer internal conversion times than for the isolated molecule. Implications for recent experiments for azobenzenes on surfaces are discussed.

  18. Chemometric analysis of mass spectra of cis and trans fatty acid picolinyl esters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Torben

    1997-01-01

    Capillary GC of fatty acid methyl esters with MS detection only yields information about the molecular weight of the compound. However, if picolinyl esters of fatty acids are analysed in this way it is possible to obtain more information about their structure, perhaps even the cis or trans...... a quadropole MS-detector. The mass spectra clearly show the molecular weight and the position of double bonds in the fatty acids, but whether the configuration is cis or trans is impossible to discern visually. However, with the use of principal component analysis, it is possible to distinguish...... between cis and trans fatty acids of C16:1, C18:1,n-9, C18:1,n-12, C18:2 and C22:1 in two- and three-dimensional score plots. With Soft Independent Modelling of Class Analogy (SIMCA), it is possible to calculate models that can predict from the mass spectra of unknown fatty acids whether they are of the...

  19. Biosynthesis of 11-cis-retinoids and retinyl esters by bovine pigment epithelium membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previously, we have shown that retina/pigment epithelium membranes from the amphibian can synthesize 11-cis-retinoids from added all-trans-retinol. The activity was largely localized to the pigment epithelium. Here it is shown that, in the bovine system, the activity resides exclusively in the membranes of the pigment epithelium. Subcellular fractionation does not reveal a particular organelle where the activity resides. Washed bovine pigment epithelium membranes, which are devoid of retinoid redox activity, convert added all-trans-retinol to a mixture of 11-cis-retinol and its palmitate ester. all-trans-Retinal and all-trans-retinyl palmitate are not converted into 11-cis-retinoids by the membranes. The membranes show substantial ester synthetase activity, producing large amounts of all-trans-retinyl palmitate. Diverse chemical reagents, such as ethanol, hydroxylamine, and p-(hydroxymercuri)benzoate, inhibit both ester synthetase and isomerase activities in a roughly parallel fashion, suggesting a possible functional linkage between the two activities

  20. De novo synthesis of trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid in oleaginous yeast Yarrowia Lipolytica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Baixi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA has many well-documented beneficial physiological effects. Due to the insufficient natural supply of CLA and low specificity of chemically produced CLA, an effective and isomer-specific production process is required for medicinal and nutritional purposes. Results The linoleic acid isomerase gene from Propionibacterium acnes was expressed in Yarrowia lipolytica Polh. Codon usage optimization of the PAI and multi-copy integration significantly improved the expression level of PAI in Y. lipolytica. The percentage of trans-10, cis-12 CLA was six times higher in yeast carrying the codon-optimized gene than in yeast carrying the native gene. In combination with multi-copy integration, the production yield was raised to approximately 30-fold. The amount of trans-10, cis-12 CLA reached 5.9% of total fatty acid yield in transformed Y. lipolytica. Conclusions This is the first report of production of trans-10, cis-12 CLA by the oleaginous yeast Y. lipolytica, using glucose as the sole carbon source through expression of linoleic acid isomerase from Propionibacterium acnes.

  1. Synthesis of High cis-1,4-BR with Neodymium for the Manufacture of Tires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Leonor Méndez-Hernández

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The salt of neodymium has been widely used in industrial polymerization of 1,3-butadiene. We used the ternary catalytic system neodymium versatate/diethylaluminum chloride/triisobutylaluminum (NdV3/DEAC/TIBA with 0.5 mM NdV3/100 g Bd, NdV3 : DEAC = 1 : 9 mol : mol, and TIBA = 25, 50, 100, and 200 mM. The number-average molecular weight (Mn, weight-average molecular weight (Mw, and polydispersity index (PDI were analyzed by GPC; the rheological properties were analyzed by DMA. The formulations were prepared with carbon black (IRB6 as reinforcing filler and the mechanical properties were compared to behavior of the different elastomeric compounds. The elastomeric compounds were characterized by their rheological properties, tensile strength, abrasion resistance, tear strength, permanent set, resilience, and fatigue properties. The high cis-1,4 polybutadiene (high cis-1,4-BR was obtained with a percentage of cis-1,4 ≥97%. The weight-average molecular weight (Mw was from 150 × 103 to 900 × 103 g/mol and polydispersity index (PDI was from 3.1 to 5.1. This work is based on evaluation of the effect of the catalyst system on the final properties of the synthesized polybutadiene.

  2. Control of Biofilms with the Fatty Acid Signaling Molecule cis-2-Decenoic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia N. H. Marques

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Biofilms are complex communities of microorganisms in organized structures attached to surfaces. Importantly, biofilms are a major cause of bacterial infections in humans, and remain one of the most significant challenges to modern medical practice. Unfortunately, conventional therapies have shown to be inadequate in the treatment of most chronic biofilm infections based on the extraordinary innate tolerance of biofilms to antibiotics. Antagonists of quorum sensing signaling molecules have been used as means to control biofilms. QS and other cell-cell communication molecules are able to revert biofilm tolerance, prevent biofilm formation and disrupt fully developed biofilms, albeit with restricted effectiveness. Recently however, it has been demonstrated that Pseudomonas aeruginosa produces a small messenger molecule cis-2-decenoic acid (cis-DA that shows significant promise as an effective adjunctive to antimicrobial treatment of biofilms. This molecule is responsible for induction of the native biofilm dispersion response in a range of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria and in yeast, and has been shown to reverse persistence, increase microbial metabolic activity and significantly enhance the cidal effects of conventional antimicrobial agents. In this manuscript, the use of cis-2-decenoic acid as a novel agent for biofilm control is discussed. Stimulating the biofilm dispersion response as a novel antimicrobial strategy holds significant promise for enhanced treatment of infections and in the prevention of biofilm formation.

  3. Comparative genome sequencing of drosophila pseudoobscura: Chromosomal, gene and cis-element evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richards, Stephen; Liu, Yue; Bettencourt, Brian R.; Hradecky, Pavel; Letovsky, Stan; Nielsen, Rasmus; Thornton, Kevin; Todd, Melissa J.; Chen, Rui; Meisel, Richard P.; Couronne, Olivier; Hua, Sujun; Smith, Mark A.; Bussemaker, Harmen J.; van Batenburg, Marinus F.; Howells, Sally L.; Scherer, Steven E.; Sodergren, Erica; Matthews, Beverly B.; Crosby, Madeline A.; Schroeder, Andrew J.; Ortiz-Barrientos, Daniel; Rives, Catherine M.; Metzker, Michael L.; Muzny, Donna M.; Scott, Graham; Steffen, David; Wheeler, David A.; Worley, Kim C.; Havlak, Paul; Durbin, K. James; Egan, Amy; Gill, Rachel; Hume, Jennifer; Morgan, Margaret B.; Miner, George; Hamilton, Cerissa; Huang, Yanmei; Waldron, Lenee; Verduzco, Daniel; Blankenburg, Kerstin P.; Dubchak, Inna; Noor, Mohamed A.F.; Anderson, Wyatt; White, Kevin P.; Clark, Andrew G.; Schaeffer, Stephen W.; Gelbart, William; Weinstock, George M.; Gibbs, Richard A.

    2004-04-01

    The genome sequence of a second fruit fly, D. pseudoobscura, presents an opportunity for comparative analysis of a primary model organism D. melanogaster. The vast majority of Drosophila genes have remained on the same arm, but within each arm gene order has been extensively reshuffled leading to the identification of approximately 1300 syntenic blocks. A repetitive sequence is found in the D. pseudoobscura genome at many junctions between adjacent syntenic blocks. Analysis of this novel repetitive element family suggests that recombination between offset elements may have given rise to many paracentric inversions, thereby contributing to the shuffling of gene order in the D. pseudoobscura lineage. Based on sequence similarity and synteny, 10,516 putative orthologs have been identified as a core gene set conserved over 35 My since divergence. Genes expressed in the testes had higher amino acid sequence divergence than the genome wide average consistent with the rapid evolution of sex-specific proteins. Cis-regulatory sequences are more conserved than control sequences between the species but the difference is slight, suggesting that the evolution of cis-regulatory elements is flexible. Overall, a picture of repeat mediated chromosomal rearrangement, and high co-adaptation of both male genes and cis-regulatory sequences emerges as important themes of genome divergence between these species of Drosophila.

  4. Can ID repetitive elements serve as cis-acting dendritic targeting elements? An in vivo study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasneem Khanam

    Full Text Available Dendritic localization of mRNA/RNA involves interaction of cis-elements and trans-factors. Small, non-protein coding dendritic BC1 RNA is thought to regulate translation in dendritic microdomains. Following microinjections into cultured cells, BC1 RNA fused to larger mRNAs appeared to impart transport competence to these chimeras, and its 5' ID region was proposed as the cis-acting dendritic targeting element. As these ID elements move around rodent genomes and, if transcribed, form a long RNA stem-loop, they might, thereby, lead to new localizations for targeted gene products. To test their targeting ability in vivo we created transgenic mice expressing various ID elements fused to the 3' UTR of reporter mRNA for Enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein. In vivo, neither ID elements nor the BC1 RNA coding region were capable of transporting EGFP RNA to dendrites, although the 3' UTR of alpha-CaMKII mRNA, an established cis-acting element did produce positive results. Other mRNAs containing naturally inserted ID elements are also not found in neuronal dendrites. We conclude that the 5' ID domain from BC1 RNA is not a sufficient dendritic targeting element for mRNAs in vivo.

  5. Control of carotenoid biosynthesis through a heme-based cis-trans isomerase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán, Jesús; Kloss, Brian; Hosler, Jonathan P; Geng, Jiafeng; Liu, Aimin; Modi, Anuja; Dawson, John H; Sono, Masanori; Shumskaya, Maria; Ampomah-Dwamena, Charles; Love, James D; Wurtzel, Eleanore T

    2015-08-01

    Plants synthesize carotenoids, which are essential for plant development and survival. These metabolites also serve as essential nutrients for human health. The biosynthetic pathway for all plant carotenoids occurs in chloroplasts and other plastids and requires 15-cis-ζ-carotene isomerase (Z-ISO). It was not known whether Z-ISO catalyzes isomerization alone or in combination with other enzymes. Here we show that Z-ISO is a bona fide enzyme and integral membrane protein. Z-ISO independently catalyzes the cis-trans isomerization of the 15-15' carbon-carbon double bond in 9,15,9'-cis-ζ-carotene to produce the substrate required by the subsequent biosynthetic-pathway enzyme. We discovered that isomerization depends upon a ferrous heme b cofactor that undergoes redox-regulated ligand switching between the heme iron and alternate Z-ISO amino acid residues. Heme b-dependent isomerization of a large hydrophobic compound in a membrane was previously undescribed. As an isomerase, Z-ISO represents a new prototype for heme b proteins and potentially uses a new chemical mechanism. PMID:26075523

  6. A Cis-Lunar Propellant Infrastructure for Flexible Path Exploration and Space Commerce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oeftering, Richard C.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a space infrastructure concept that exploits lunar water for propellant production and delivers it to users in cis-lunar space. The goal is to provide responsive economical space transportation to destinations beyond low Earth orbit (LEO) and enable in-space commerce. This is a game changing concept that could fundamentally affect future space operations, provide greater access to space beyond LEO, and broaden participation in space exploration. The challenge is to minimize infrastructure development cost while achieving a low operational cost. This study discusses the evolutionary development of the infrastructure from a very modest robotic operation to one that is capable of supporting human operations. The cis-lunar infrastructure involves a mix of technologies including cryogenic propellant production, reusable lunar landers, propellant tankers, orbital transfer vehicles, aerobraking technologies, and electric propulsion. This cislunar propellant infrastructure replaces Earth-launched propellants for missions beyond LEO. It enables users to reach destinations with smaller launchers or effectively multiplies the user s existing payload capacity. Users can exploit the expanded capacity to launch logistics material that can then be traded with the infrastructure for propellants. This mutually beneficial trade between the cis-lunar infrastructure and propellant users forms the basis of in-space commerce.

  7. Hereditary overexpression of adenosine deaminase in erythrocytes: Evidence for a cis-acting mutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, E.H. (Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)); Tartaglia, A.P. (Albany Medical College, Albany, MI (United States)); Mitchell, B.S. (Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States))

    1993-10-01

    Overexpression of adenosine deaminase (ADA) in red blood cells is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait and causes hemolytic anemia. The increased ADA activity in erythrocytes is due to an increase in steady-state levels of ADA mRNA of normal sequence. Increased ADA mRNA may be due to a cis-acting mutation which results in increased transcription or a loss of down-regulation during erythroid differentiation. Alternatively, it is possible that the mutation is in a trans-acting factor which interacts with normal ADA transcriptional elements to cause overexpression in red blood cells. To discriminate between a cis-acting and a trans-acting mutation, the authors took advantage of a highly polymorphic TAAA repeat located at the tail end of an Alu repeat approximately 1.1 kb upstream of the ADA gene. Using PCR to amplify this region, the authors identified five different alleles in 19 members of the family. All 11 affected individuals had an ADA allele with 12 TAAA repeats, whereas none of the 8 normal individuals did. The authors conclude that this disorder results from a cis-acting mutation in the vicinity of the ADA gene. 24 refs., 3 figs.

  8. Concordant gene expression in leukemia cells and normal leukocytes is associated with germline cis-SNPs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah French

    Full Text Available The degree to which gene expression covaries between different primary tissues within an individual is not well defined. We hypothesized that expression that is concordant across tissues is more likely influenced by genetic variability than gene expression which is discordant between tissues. We quantified expression of 11,873 genes in paired samples of primary leukemia cells and normal leukocytes from 92 patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL. Genetic variation at >500,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs was also assessed. The expression of only 176/11,783 (1.5% genes was correlated (p<0.008, FDR = 25% in the two tissue types, but expression of a high proportion (20 of these 176 genes was significantly related to cis-SNP genotypes (adjusted p<0.05. In an independent set of 134 patients with ALL, 14 of these 20 genes were validated as having expression related to cis-SNPs, as were 9 of 20 genes in a second validation set of HapMap cell lines. Genes whose expression was concordant among tissue types were more likely to be associated with germline cis-SNPs than genes with discordant expression in these tissues; genes affected were involved in housekeeping functions (GSTM2, GAPDH and NCOR1 and purine metabolism.

  9. A mixed-valent cyclodiphosphazane: Transition metal chemistry and cis/trans isomerisation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Guddekoppa S Ananthnag; Joel T Mague; Maravanji S Balakrishna

    2015-06-01

    The hydrolysis of cis-{ClP(-NBu)2P(NHBu)} (1) produced a mixed PIII/PV derivative of cyclodiphosphazane, cis-{(BuNH)P(-NBu)2P(O)H} (2). The treatment of 2 with elemental selenium resulted in the formation of the monoselenide, trans-{(BuNH)P(Se)(-NBu)2P(O)H} (3) in good yield. The reactions of two equivalent of 2 with [Pd(-Cl)(3-C3H5)]2 or [Ru(6--cymene)(-Cl)Cl]2 in dichloromethane afforded corresponding mononuclear complexes, [(3-C3H5)PdCl{(BuNH)P(-NBu)2P(O)H}] (4) and [((6--cymene)RuCl2){(BuNH)P(-NBu)2P(O)H}] (5). The treatment of 2 with M(COD)Cl2 (M = Pd and Pt) in dichloromethane at room temperature gave [MCl2{(BuNH)P(-NBu)2P(O)H}2] (6 M = Pd; 7 M = Pt) in good yield. Owing to the cis/trans isomerisation of the cyclodiphosphazane rings, the complexes 6 and 7 exist as a mixture of two isomers. Various NMR spectroscopic techniques were employed for structural elucidation. The molecular structures of 5 and 7 were established by single crystal X-ray crystallographic studies.

  10. Study of biodistribution of lipidic nanospheres charged with cis-diaminedichloroplatinum (II) and labelled with radioactive nuclei of Indium-111; Estudio de biodistribucion de nanoesferas lipidicas cargadas con cis-diaminodicloroplatino (II) y marcadas con nucleos radioactivos de Indio-111

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez R, V.; Juarez O, C.; Medina L, A. [Unidad de Investigacion Biomedica en Cancer INCAN-UNAM, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Perez C, E.; Garcia L, P. [Instituto nacional de cancerologia, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2007-07-01

    The general objective of the study was to evaluate the lipidic nanospheres biodistribution charged with cis-diaminedichloroplatinum (II) (cis-DDP) and labelled with radioactive nuclei of Indium-111 (Lip-Cis-in-111) in Wistar rats and in a tumoral model of CaCu. The conclusions were: 1. The system Lip-Cis-in-111 it presents a very fast elimination probably, to a fast recognition response of the reticuloendothelial system (RES). 2. It is planned to make modifications to the formulation to increase the quantity of the hydrophilic polymer (PEG), so that its time of residence in the blood is bigger and allow a bigger accumulation in the tumor. (Author)

  11. Studies on the synthesis, characterization, binding with DNA and activities of two cis-planaramineplatinum(II complexes of the form: cis-PtL(NH3Cl2 where L = 3-hydroxypyridine and 2,3-diaminopyridine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayyem Hasan

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cis-planaramineplatinum(II complexes like their trans isomers are often found to be active against cancer cell lines. The present study deals with the synthesis, characterization and determination of activity of new cis-planaramineplatinum(II complexes. Results Two cis-planaramineplatinum(II complexes: cis-(3-hydroxypyridine(amminedichloroplatinum(II (code named AH3 and cis-(2,3-diaminopyridine(amminedichloroplatinum(II (code named AH7 have been prepared and characterised based on elemental analyses, IR, Raman, mass and 1H NMR spectral measurements. The interactions of the compounds with pBR322 plasmid DNA have been investigated and their activity against ovarian cancer cell lines: A2780, A2780cisR and A2780ZD047Rhave been determined. Like cisplatin, AH3 and AH7 are believed to form mainly monofunctional N7(G and bifunctional intrastrand N7(GN7(G adducts with DNA, causing a local distortion of a DNA strand. As a result, gel mobility of the DNA changes. Both AH3 and AH7 are found to be less active than cisplatin against the three cell lines with AH3 being the more active compound of the two. The higher activity of AH3 is in line with its lower molar conductivity value corresponding to a lower degree of dissociation. Conclusion The differences in activity of AH3, AH7 and cisplatin against the cell lines illustrate structure-activity relationship.

  12. Study of biodistribution of lipidic nanospheres charged with cis-diaminedichloroplatinum (II) and labelled with radioactive nuclei of Indium-111

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The general objective of the study was to evaluate the lipidic nanospheres biodistribution charged with cis-diaminedichloroplatinum (II) (cis-DDP) and labelled with radioactive nuclei of Indium-111 (Lip-Cis-in-111) in Wistar rats and in a tumoral model of CaCu. The conclusions were: 1. The system Lip-Cis-in-111 it presents a very fast elimination probably, to a fast recognition response of the reticuloendothelial system (RES). 2. It is planned to make modifications to the formulation to increase the quantity of the hydrophilic polymer (PEG), so that its time of residence in the blood is bigger and allow a bigger accumulation in the tumor. (Author)

  13. Studies on mechanism of cis9,trans11-CLA and trans10,cis12-CLA inducing apoptosis of human breast cancer cell line MCF-7

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xianzi Wan; Xianlin Yuan; Xiangling Yang; Yichen Li; Ling Zhong

    2010-01-01

    Objective:The aim of the study was to explore the activities of cis9,trans11-CLA (C9,t11-CLA) and trans10,cis12-CLA (t10,c12-CLA)inhibiting tumor,and investigate their relationships with PPARy and apoptotic proteins,and mechanism of anti-cancer.Methods:The inhibitory rate,cell growth curve and apoptotic morphological observation of MCF-7 cells were obtained by MTT assay,trypan blue staining and Hoechst33342 fluorescence staining.The apoptotic rate and cell cycle were detected with flow cytometry.Transcriptional level of genes was detected with RT-PCR semi-quantitative method,and Western blot was performed to detect proteins levels.Results:The two CLA isomers could reduce cell proliferation (P<0.05),increase apoptotic rate (P<0.05),and increase obviously the transcriptional and protein levels of PPARy (P<0.01).The synchronism and correlation between the effects of CLA to PPARy and apoptotic proteins Bax,Bcl-2,Caspase 3 changes were found with the dose-and time-dependent manners.There was cooperative relation between the levels of PPARy and the rates of Bax/Bcl-2,Caspase 3 (small fragment) by experiments of PPARy inhibitor GW9662 and ligand Rosiglitazone.Conclusion:The apoptotic pathway of PPARy-Bcl-2-Caspase 3 signaling was found.The C9,t11-CLA and t10,c12-CLA could inhibit MCF-7 cell proliferation and promote apoptosis via activating PPARy-Bcl-2-Caspase 3 pathway.CLA may be a kind of activator of PPARy.

  14. Mechanistic Insight into Peroxydisulfate Reactivity: Oxidation of the cis,cis-[Ru(bpy)2(OH2)]2O(4+) "Blue Dimer".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, James K; Roemeling, Margo D; Lymar, Sergei V

    2015-06-18

    One-electron oxidation of the μ-oxo dimer (cis,cis-[Ru(III)(bpy)2(OH2)]2O(4+), {3,3}) to {3,4} by S2O8(2-) can be described by three concurrent reaction pathways corresponding to the three protic forms of {3,3}. Free energy correlations of the rate constants, transient species dynamics determined by pulse radiolysis, and medium and temperature dependencies of the alkaline pathway all suggest that the rate-determining step in these reactions is a strongly nonadiabatic dissociative electron transfer within a precursor ion pair leading to the {3,4}|SO4(2-)|SO4(•-) ion triple. As deduced from the SO4(•-) scavenging experiments with 2-propanol, the SO4(•-) radical then either oxidizes {3,4} to {4,4} within the ion triple, effecting a net two-electron oxidation of {3,3}, or escapes in solution with ∼25% probability to react with additional {3,3} and {3,4}, that is, effecting sequential one-electron oxidations. The reaction model presented also invokes rapid {3,3} + {4,4} → 2{3,4} comproportionation, for which kcom ∼5 × 10(7) M(-1) s(-1) was independently measured. The model provides an explanation for the observation that, despite favorable energetics, no oxidation beyond the {3,4} state was detected. The indiscriminate nature of oxidation by SO4(•-) indicates that its fate must be quantitatively determined when using S2O8(2-) as an oxidant. PMID:25819370

  15. Contents of conjugated linoleic acid isomers cis9,trans11 and trans10,cis12 in ruminant and non-ruminant meats available in the Italian market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca M. Cicognini

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA isomers are considered healthy factors due to their anticarcinogenic, anti-atherosclerotic and lipolytic effect. A recommended daily intake from 0.8 to 3 g CLA/day/person has been proposed to obtain biological effects in humans. The aim of this work was to provide data on cis9,trans11 (c9,t11 CLA and trans10,cis12 (t10,c12 CLA contents in meats collected from Italian largescale retail trade and completing a food CLA database. In a first trial, beef loin meats were characterised for label information available for consumers: origin (i.e., Ireland, France- Italy, Piedmont and sex of animals. No differences were observed for c9,t11 and t10,c12 CLA contents (mg/g fat of loin meat from male or female. Piedmontese meat showed lower (P<0.05 c9,t11 CLA level (mg/g fat than Irish and French-Italian meats, whereas similar t10,c12 CLA contents were measured in Piedmontese, Irish and French-Italian meats. Successively, meat samples from different animal species (male and female beef, veal, suckling lamb, belly beef, canned beef meat, pork and horse were characterised for their contents in c9,t11 and t10,c12 CLA. Lamb meat had the highest (P<0.05 c9,t11 CLA content (mg/g fat. The c9,t11 CLA was lower than 2 mg/g fat in veal, pork and horse meats. Low t10,c12 CLA amounts were found in all analysed meat samples. These data provided information to estimate the average daily intake of CLA from meats in an Italian cohort, which can be used in epidemiological studies.

  16. Effects of 9cis,11trans and 10trans,12cis CLA on osteoclast formation and activity from human CD14+ monocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Sohemy Ahmed

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mixed CLA isomers variably affect bone resorption in animals and decrease osteoclast formation and activity in murine osteoclasts. These variable effects may be due to the different isomers present in commercial preparations of CLA, and the effects of the predominant individual isomers, 9cis,11trans (9,11 and 10trans,12cis (10,12 CLA are not clear. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of the individual CLA isomers on osteoclast formation and activity from human CD14+ monocytes, and to determine whether any changes are accompanied by changes in cathepsin K, matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9, receptor activator of NF-κB (RANK and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα gene expression. Osteoclasts were identified as TRAP+ multinucleated cells. Osteoclast activity was quantified by the amount of TRAP in the cultured media. Results At 50 μM, 9,11 CLA inhibited osteoclast formation by ~70%, and both 9,11 and 10,12 CLA decreased osteoclast activity by ~85–90%. Both isomers inhibited cathepsin K (50 μM 9,11 by ~60%; 10,12 by ~50% and RANK (50 μM 9,11 by ~85%; 50 μM 10,12 by ~65% expression, but had no effect on MMP-9 or TNFα expression. Conclusion 9,11 CLA inhibits osteoclast formation and activity from human cells, suggesting that this isomer may prevent bone resorption in humans. Although 10,12 CLA did not significantly reduce osteoclast formation, it reduced osteoclast activity and cathepsin K and RANK expression, suggesting that this isomer may also affect bone resorption.

  17. The retinoid X receptor ligand, 9-cis-retinoic acid, is a potential regulator of early Xenopus development.

    OpenAIRE

    Kraft, J C; Schuh, T.; Juchau, M; Kimelman, D

    1994-01-01

    Endogenous retinoids are potential regulators of vertebrate embryogenesis that have been implicated in early anterior-posterior patterning and limb-bud development. We have characterized the temporal and spatial distribution of 9-cis-retinoic acid in the Xenopus embryo and compared it to two other retinoids, all-trans-retinoic acid and all-trans-retinoyl-beta-glucuronide. 9-cis-Retinoic acid is first detected after the midblastula transition and by the end of gastrulation is localized primari...

  18. Effects of Lactation Stage and Individual Performance on Milk cis-9, trans-11 Conjugated Linoleic Acids Content in Dairy Cows

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, T; Oh, J J; Lim, J. N.; Hong, J E; Kim, J. H.; Kang, H.S.; Choi, Y. J.; Lee, H.G.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of lactation stage and individual performance on milk cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) content in dairy cows. In experiment 1, the milk cis-9, trans-11 CLA content from dairy cows in early (0.33±0.014%), middle (0.37±0.010%), and late stages (0.44±0.020%) showed significant differences (p

  19. Studies on the nuances of the electrochemically induced room temperature isomerization of cis-stilbene in acetonitrile and ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Rahim, Omar; Simonov, Alexandr N; Boas, John F; Rüther, Thomas; Collins, David J; Perlmutter, Patrick; Bond, Alan M

    2014-03-20

    Electrochemical reduction of cis-stilbene occurs by two well-resolved one-electron reduction steps in acetonitrile with (n-Bu)4NPF6 as the supporting electrolyte and in N-butyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium (Pyrr1,4(+)) and (trimethylamine)(dimethylethylamine)-dihydroborate bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide (NTf2(-)) ionic liquids (ILs). Mechanistic details of the electroreduction have been probed by dc and Fourier transformed ac voltammetry, simulation of the voltammetry, bulk electrolysis, and EPR spectroscopy. The first one-electron reduction induces fast cis to trans isomerization in CH3CN and ILs, most likely occurring via disproportionation of cis-stilbene radical anions and fast transformation of the cis-dianion to the trans-configuration. The second reduction process is chemically irreversible in CH3CN due to protonation of the dianion but chemically reversible in highly aprotic ILs under high cis-stilbene concentration conditions. Increase of the (n-Bu)4NPF6 supporting electrolyte concentration (0.01-1.0 M) in CH3CN induces substantial positive shifts in the potentials for reduction of cis-stilbene, consistent with strong ion pairing of the anion radical and dianion with (n-Bu)4N(+). However, protection by ion pairing against protonation of the stilbene dianions or electrochemically induced cis-trans-stilbene isomerization is not achieved. Differences in electrode kinetics and reversible potentials for cis-stilbene(0/•-) and trans-stilbene(0/•-) processes are less pronounced in the Pyrr1,4-NTf2 ionic liquid than in the molecular solvent acetonitrile. PMID:24558952

  20. Selectively fluorinated cyclohexane building blocks: Derivatives of carbonylated all-cis-3-phenyl-1,2,4,5-tetrafluorocyclohexane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoup, Mohammed Salah; Cordes, David B; Slawin, Alexandra M Z

    2015-01-01

    Summary Palladium catalysed carbonylation reactions using the meta- and para-iodo derivatives of all-cis-3-phenyl-1,2,4,5-tetrafluorocyclohexane (4) are illustrated as the start point for a variety of functional group interconversions. The resultant benzaldehyde and benzoic acids offer novel building blocks for further derivatisation and facilitate the incorporation of the facially polarised all-cis-1,2,4,5-tetrafluorocyclohexane motif into more advanced molecular scaffolds. PMID:26877788

  1. del cambio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Canales

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo analiza las propuestas y los compromisos en materia de cobertura y de financiamiento en el periodo 2000-2006. En particular, revisa las modificaciones y los ajustes de los tres principales documentos en los que se expresaron las iniciativas: el de la Asociación Nacional de Universidades e Instituciones de Educación Superior, el del equipo de la transición y el programa sectorial. Los resultados muestran que las cifras de atención a la demanda educativa e inversión quedaron lejos de las metas autoimpuestas por el gobierno federal y que será necesario realizar mayores esfuerzos para atender tales desafíos.

  2. The cis-state of an azobenzene photoswitch is stabilized through specific interactions with a protein surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korbus, Michael; Backé, Sarah; Meyer-Almes, Franz-Josef

    2015-03-01

    The photocontrol of protein function like enzyme activity has been the subject of many investigations to enable reversible and spatiotemporally defined cascading biochemical reactions without the need for separation in miniaturized and parallelized assay setups for academic and industrial applications. A photoswitchable amidohydrolase variant from Bordetella/Alcaligenes with the longest reported half-life (approximately 30 h) for the cis-state of the attached azobenzene group was chosen as a model system to dissect the underlying mechanism and molecular interactions that caused the enormous deceleration of the thermal cis-to-trans relaxation of the azobenzene photoswitch. A systematic site-directed mutagenesis study on the basis of molecular dynamics simulation data was employed to investigate enzyme and thermal cis-to-trans relaxation kinetics in dependence on selected amino acid substitution, which revealed a prominent histidine and a hydrophobic cluster as molecular determinants for the stabilization of the cis-isomer of the attached azobenzene moiety on the protein surface. The nature of the involved interactions consists of polar, hydrophobic, and possibly aromatic Π-Π contributions. The elucidated principles behind the stabilization of the cis-state of azobenzene derivatives on a protein surface can be exploited to design improved biologically inspired photoswitches. Moreover, the findings open the door to highly long-lived cis-states of azobenzene groups yielding improved bistable photoswitches that can be controlled by single light-pulses rather than continuous irradiation with UV light that causes potential photodamage to the employed biomolecules. PMID:25664524

  3. Evaluation of electrical and optical characteristics of ZnO/CdS/CIS thin film solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi, Zarei; Rasoul, Malekfar

    2016-02-01

    In this study, device modeling and simulation are conducted to explain the effects of each layer thickness and temperature on the performance of ZnO/CdS/CIS thin film solar cells. Also, the thicknesses of the CIS and CdS absorber layers are considered in this work theoretically and experimentally. The calculations of solar cell performances are based on the solutions of the well-known three coupling equations: the continuity equation for holes and electrons and the Poisson equation. Our simulated results show that the efficiency increases by reducing the CdS thickness. Increasing the CIS thickness can increase the efficiency but it needs more materials. The efficiency is more than 19% for a CIS layer with a thickness of 2 μm. CIS nanoparticles are prepared via the polyol route and purified through centrifugation and precipitation processes. Then nanoparticles are dispersed to obtain stable inks that could be directly used for thin-film deposition via spin coating. We also obtain x-ray diffraction (XRD) peak intensities and absorption spectra for CIS experimentally. Finally, absorption spectra for the CdS window layer in several deposition times are investigated experimentally.

  4. Mechanism elucidation of the cis-trans isomerization of an azole ruthenium-nitrosyl complex and its osmium counterpart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavriluta, Anatolie; Büchel, Gabriel E; Freitag, Leon; Novitchi, Ghenadie; Tommasino, Jean Bernard; Jeanneau, Erwann; Kuhn, Paul-Steffen; González, Leticia; Arion, Vladimir B; Luneau, Dominique

    2013-06-01

    Synthesis and X-ray diffraction structures of cis and trans isomers of ruthenium and osmium metal complexes of general formulas (nBu4N)[cis-MCl4(NO)(Hind)], where M = Ru (1) and Os (3), and (nBu4N)[trans-MCl4(NO)(Hind)], where M = Ru (2) and Os (4) and Hind = 1H-indazole are reported. Interconversion between cis and trans isomers at high temperatures (80-130 °C) has been observed and studied by NMR spectroscopy. Kinetic data indicate that isomerizations correspond to reversible first order reactions. The rates of isomerization reactions even at 110 °C are very low with rate constants of 10(-5) s(-1) and 10(-6) s(-1) for ruthenium and osmium complexes, respectively, and the estimated rate constants of isomerization at room temperature are of ca. 10(-10) s(-1). The activation parameters, which have been obtained from fitting the reaction rates at different temperatures to the Eyring equation for ruthenium [ΔH(cis-trans)‡ = 122.8 ± 1.3; ΔH(trans-cis)‡ = 138.8 ± 1.0 kJ/mol; ΔS(cis-trans)‡ = -18.7 ± 3.6; ΔS(trans-cis)‡ = 31.8 ± 2.7 J/(mol·K)] and osmium [ΔH(cis-trans)‡ = 200.7 ± 0.7; ΔH(trans-cis)‡ = 168.2 ± 0.6 kJ/mol; ΔS(cis-trans)‡ = 142.7 ± 8.9; ΔS(trans-cis)‡ = 85.9 ± 3.9 J/(mol·K)] reflect the inertness of these systems. The entropy of activation for the osmium complexes is highly positive and suggests the dissociative mechanism of isomerization. In the case of ruthenium, the activation entropy for the cis to trans isomerization is negative [-18.6 J/(mol·K)], while being positive [31.0 J/(mol·K)] for the trans to cis conversion. The thermodynamic parameters for cis to trans isomerization of [RuCl4(NO)(Hind)]-, viz. ΔH° = 13.5 ± 1.5 kJ/mol and ΔS° = -5.2 ± 3.4 J/(mol·K) indicate the low difference between the energies of cis and trans isomers. The theoretical calculation has been carried out on isomerization of ruthenium complexes with DFT methods. The dissociative, associative, and intramolecular twist isomerization

  5. Bounded search for de novo identification of degenerate cis-regulatory elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khetani Radhika S

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The identification of statistically overrepresented sequences in the upstream regions of coregulated genes should theoretically permit the identification of potential cis-regulatory elements. However, in practice many cis-regulatory elements are highly degenerate, precluding the use of an exhaustive word-counting strategy for their identification. While numerous methods exist for inferring base distributions using a position weight matrix, recent studies suggest that the independence assumptions inherent in the model, as well as the inability to reach a global optimum, limit this approach. Results In this paper, we report PRISM, a degenerate motif finder that leverages the relationship between the statistical significance of a set of binding sites and that of the individual binding sites. PRISM first identifies overrepresented, non-degenerate consensus motifs, then iteratively relaxes each one into a high-scoring degenerate motif. This approach requires no tunable parameters, thereby lending itself to unbiased performance comparisons. We therefore compare PRISM's performance against nine popular motif finders on 28 well-characterized S. cerevisiae regulons. PRISM consistently outperforms all other programs. Finally, we use PRISM to predict the binding sites of uncharacterized regulons. Our results support a proposed mechanism of action for the yeast cell-cycle transcription factor Stb1, whose binding site has not been determined experimentally. Conclusion The relationship between statistical measures of the binding sites and the set as a whole leads to a simple means of identifying the diverse range of cis-regulatory elements to which a protein binds. This approach leverages the advantages of word-counting, in that position dependencies are implicitly accounted for and local optima are more easily avoided. While we sacrifice guaranteed optimality to prevent the exponential blowup of exhaustive search, we prove that the error

  6. Kinetic isotope effects in the rearrangments of α-pinene and cis-1,2-divinylcyclopropane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    I. The Gas Phase Pyrolysis of α-Pinene, Pyrolysis of optically active α-pinene yields dispentene, alloocimene, and racemized starting material. Pyrolysis of the syn-6-trideuteriomethyl derivative resulted in a small normal kinetic isotope effect, but in a large change in the ratio of alloocimene to dipentene. Further the alloocimene had more than 90% of the deuterium on the Z methyl group, and twice as much deuterium as hydrogen was transferred in the formation of dipentene. The isotope effects require an intermediate formed after the rate determining transition state unless there is an unprecedented inverse kinetic isotope effect on the cleavage to ocimene, the precursor to alloocimine. The intermediate must have the original syn methyl group residing over the ring on the bisector of the presumed diradical species. Bond rotation in this species must necessarily be slow compared to reactions giving stable products. II. The 3,3-Sigmatropic Shift of Cis-1,2-Divinylcyclopropane. In an effort to understand why the title compound (CDVCP) undergoes rearrangement to 1,4-cycloheptadiene with ΔG double-dagger 298 6 kcal/mole lower than the 3,3-sigmatropic shift of cis-1,2-divinylcyclobutane, secondary deuterium isotope effects were used to ascertain the extent of bond formation across the termini of CDVCP. These experiments revealed that significant bond formation is present in the transition state of the rearrangement of CDVCP. This lies in marked contrast to the rearrangement of cis-1,2-divinylcyclobutane which has virtually no bond formation across the termini. Possible explanations for the differences in the transition states were examined

  7. Interdisciplinary studies of the Cis-Ural Neolithic (Upper Kama basin, Lake Chashkinskoe: Palaeoecological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeniia Lychagina

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present preliminary results of the first palaeoecological investigations in the Cis-Ural region. This was an area of intensive Neolithic occupation of fluvial landscapes within the basin of the Upper Kama River, the largest river in the area. We selected the area of Lake Chashkinskoe as a key region, where around 10 sites have been found on the remains of the fluvial terraces of the Kama River. We used palaeochannel analysis, radiocarbon dating, and palynology for past landscape reconstruction.

  8. Cis/trans Coordination in olefin metathesis by static and molecular dynamic DFT calculations

    KAUST Repository

    Poater, Albert

    2014-05-25

    In regard to [(N-heterocyclic carbene)Ru]-based catalysts, it is still a matter of debate if the substrate binding is preferentially cis or trans to the N-heterocyclic carbene ligand. By means of static and molecular dynamic DFT calculations, a simple olefin, like ethylene, is shown to be prone to the trans binding. Bearing in mind the higher reactivity of trans isomers in olefin metathesis, this insight helps to construct small alkene substrates with increased reactivity. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

  9. Structural and Landscape Analysis for the Robust Capacitated International Sourcing Problem (RoCIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hector Joaquín Fraire Huacuja

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the robust capacitated international sourcing problem (RoCIS is approached. It consists of selecting a subset of suppliers with finite capacity, from an available set of potential suppliers internationally located. This problem was introduced by González-Velarde and Laguna in [1], where they propose a deterministic solution based on tabu search memory strategies. In this work a structural and landscape analysis for the larger problem instances is reported, to try of explain the relative hardness observed when the improved tabu solution [11] is applied to solve the instances.

  10. Detection of cis-acting regulatory SNPs using allelic expression data

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, Rui; Scott, Laura J.

    2011-01-01

    Allelic expression (AE) imbalance between the two alleles of a gene can be used to detect cis-acting regulatory SNPs (rSNPs) in individuals heterozygous for a transcribed SNP (tSNP). In this paper, we propose three tests for AE analysis focusing on phase-unknown data and any degree of linkage disequilibrium (LD) between the rSNP and tSNP: a test based on the minimum p-value of a one-sided F and two-sided t tests proposed previously for phase-unknown data, a test that combines these two p-valu...

  11. Identification of a cis-regulatory element by transient analysis of co-ordinately regulated genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Andrew C

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transcription factors (TFs co-ordinately regulate target genes that are dispersed throughout the genome. This co-ordinate regulation is achieved, in part, through the interaction of transcription factors with conserved cis-regulatory motifs that are in close proximity to the target genes. While much is known about the families of transcription factors that regulate gene expression in plants, there are few well characterised cis-regulatory motifs. In Arabidopsis, over-expression of the MYB transcription factor PAP1 (PRODUCTION OF ANTHOCYANIN PIGMENT 1 leads to transgenic plants with elevated anthocyanin levels due to the co-ordinated up-regulation of genes in the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway. In addition to the anthocyanin biosynthetic genes, there are a number of un-associated genes that also change in expression level. This may be a direct or indirect consequence of the over-expression of PAP1. Results Oligo array analysis of PAP1 over-expression Arabidopsis plants identified genes co-ordinately up-regulated in response to the elevated expression of this transcription factor. Transient assays on the promoter regions of 33 of these up-regulated genes identified eight promoter fragments that were transactivated by PAP1. Bioinformatic analysis on these promoters revealed a common cis-regulatory motif that we showed is required for PAP1 dependent transactivation. Conclusion Co-ordinated gene regulation by individual transcription factors is a complex collection of both direct and indirect effects. Transient transactivation assays provide a rapid method to identify direct target genes from indirect target genes. Bioinformatic analysis of the promoters of these direct target genes is able to locate motifs that are common to this sub-set of promoters, which is impossible to identify with the larger set of direct and indirect target genes. While this type of analysis does not prove a direct interaction between protein and DNA

  12. Cisão corpo/mente na escola: uma analise a partir da epistemologia social

    OpenAIRE

    Zaboli, Fábio; Silva, Renato Izidoro da; Bordas, Miguel Angel Garcia

    2006-01-01

    A proposta aqui foi a de apresentar uma epistemologia social acerca do objeto: cisão corpo e mente na escola e na Educação Física. A escolha da referida base teórica para a abordagem do objeto em questão está pautada no interesse de distinguir uma nova interpretação que module o antagonismo entre as matrizes materialistas e idealistas que há muito discutem o tema. Mais estritamente, nossa abordagem atenta para as determinações epistêmicas que o paradigma moderno da realidade humana cindida em...

  13. Electrochemical activity of cis-platinated DNA and its utilization in protein-DNA binding studies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pivoňková, Hana; Havran, Luděk; Vidláková, Pavlína; Horáková Brázdilová, Petra; Těsnohlídková, Lucie; Fojta, Miroslav

    Glasgow, 2009. S205_009. [42nd IUPAC Congress - Chemistry Solutions. 02.08.2009-07.08.2009, Glasgow] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP204/07/P476; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06035; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA500040701; GA AV ČR(CZ) 1QS500040581 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : cis-platin * DNA modification * electrochemical technique Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics

  14. A DFT Study of the cis-Dihydroxylation of Nitroaromatic Compounds Catalyzed by Nitrobenzene Dioxygenase

    OpenAIRE

    Pabis, Anna; Geronimo, Inacrist; Paneth, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    The mechanism of cis-dihydroxylation of nitrobenzene and 2-nitrotoluene catalyzed by nitrobenzene 1,2-dioxygenase (NBDO), a member of the naphthalene family of Rieske non-heme iron dioxygenases, was studied by means of the density functional theory method using four models of the enzyme active site. Different possible reaction pathways for the substrate dioxygenation initiated either by the FeIII–OOH or HO–FeV=O attack on the aromatic ring were considered and the computed activation barriers ...

  15. Commercial Off-the-Shelf (COTS) Components and Enterprise Component Information System (eCIS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Minihan; Ed Schmidt; Greg Enserro; Melissa Thompson

    2008-06-30

    The purpose of the project was to develop the processes for using commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) parts for WR production and to put in place a system for implementing the data management tools required to disseminate, store, track procurement, and qualify vendors. Much of the effort was devoted to determining if the use of COTS parts was possible. A basic question: How does the Nuclear Weapons Complex (NWC) begin to use COTS in the weapon Stockpile Life Extension Programs with high reliability, affordability, while managing risk at acceptable levels? In FY00, it was determined that a certain weapon refurbishment program could not be accomplished without the use of COTS components. The elements driving the use of COTS components included decreased cost, greater availability, and shorter delivery time. Key factors that required implementation included identifying the best suppliers and components, defining life cycles and predictions of obsolescence, testing the feasibility of using COTS components with a test contractor to ensure capability, as well as quality and reliability, and implementing the data management tools required to disseminate, store, track procurement, and qualify vendors. The primary effort of this project then was to concentrate on the risks involved in the use of COTS and address the issues of part and vendor selection, procurement and acceptance processes, and qualification of the parts via part and sample testing. The Enterprise Component Information System (eCIS) was used to manage the information generated by the COTS process. eCIS is a common interface for both the design and production of NWC components and systems integrating information between SNL National Laboratory (SNL) and the Kansas City Plant (KCP). The implementation of COTS components utilizes eCIS from part selection through qualification release. All part related data is linked across an unclassified network for access by both SNL and KCP personnel. The system includes not

  16. Reinvesting in Children? Policies for the very young in South Eastern Europe and the CIS

    OpenAIRE

    Kitty Stewart; Carmen Huerta

    2006-01-01

    Economic collapse in the former Communist bloc led to soaring levels of child poverty in the 1990s. The effects of rising unemployment, underemployment and wage arrears were exacerbated by the erosion of state support for families with children as governments responded to a collapse in revenue. Since 1998, even the poorer countries of the bloc - those in South Eastern Europe and the CIS - have seen a return to economic growth. But have the benefits of growth been felt by children? Are child s...

  17. Distribution, biological activities, metabolism, and the conceivable function of cis-zeatin-type cytokinins in plants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gajdošová, Silvia; Spíchal, Lukáš; Kamínek, Miroslav; Hoyerová, Klára; Novák, Ondřej; Dobrev, Petre; Galuszka, Petr; Klíma, Petr; Gaudinová, Alena; Žižková, Eva; Hanuš, Jan; Dančák, M.; Trávníček, B.; Pešek, Bedřich; Krupička, M.; Vaňková, Radomíra; Strnad, Miroslav; Motyka, Václav

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 62, č. 8 (2011), s. 2827-2840. ISSN 0022-0957 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06034; GA AV ČR IAA600380701; GA AV ČR IAA600380805; GA ČR GA301/08/1649; GA ČR(CZ) GAP506/11/0774 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Arabidopsis thaliana * cis-zeatin * cytokinin oxidase Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 5.364, year: 2011

  18. SLC45A3-ELK4 Chimera in Prostate Cancer: Spotlight on Cis-Splicing

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar-Sinha, Chandan; Kalyana-Sundaram, Shanker; Chinnaiyan, Arul M.

    2012-01-01

    Using a series of detailed experiments, Zhang et al establish that the prostate cancer RNA chimera SLC45A3-ELK4 is generated by cis-splicing between the two adjacent genes and does not involve DNA rearrangements or trans-splicing. The chimera expression is induced by androgen treatment likely by overcoming the read-through block imposed by the intergenic CCCTC-insulators bound by CTCF repressor protein. The chimeric transcript, but not wild type ELK4, is shown to augment prostate cancer cell ...

  19. Reaction of cis- and trans-Dichlorotetra(Dimethylsulfoxide)Ruthenium(II) With the Antiviral Drug Acyclovir

    OpenAIRE

    Koutsodimou, Aglaia; Natile, Giovanni

    2000-01-01

    NMR was used to investigate the reaction of cis- and trans-[RuCl2(DMSO)4] with the antiviral drug acyclovir, a guanine derivative containing the acyclic (2-hydroxo) ethoxymethyl pendant linked to N(9). Studies were performed in aqueous solutions at ambient temperature and at 37 °C, and at various molar ratios. Both isomers yielded two compounds, a monoadduct and a bisadduct, the relative yields being dependent upon the metal to ligand concentration ratios. The products derived from the two Ru...

  20. Pleiotropic actions of the male pheromone cis-vaccenyl acetate in Drosophila melanogaster

    OpenAIRE

    Ejima, Aki

    2015-01-01

    The male-specific lipid, cis-vaccenyl acetate (cVA) has multiple functions in intra-species communication in Drosophila melanogaster. The presence of cVA in a male suppresses courtship motivation of other males and averts male–male courtship. Meanwhile, aggression behaviors between males are promoted by a high amount of cVA caused by increased densities of male flies. cVA also works as a modifier of courtship memory, which is suppressed courtship motivation driven by previous unsuccessful cou...

  1. cis-Difluoridobis(1,10-phenanthroline)chromium(III) perchlorate monohydrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birk, Torben; Bendix, Jesper; Weihe, Högni

    2008-01-01

    The title complex, [CrF(2)(C(12)H(8)N(2))(2)]ClO(4)·H(2)O, displays a slightly distorted octa-hedral coordination geometry around the central chromium(III) ion. The Cr environment is composed of a cis arrangement of two 1,10-phenanthroline [average Cr(III)-N = 2.0726 (10) Å] and two fluoride...... [average Cr(III)-F = 1.8533 (6) Å] ligands. The water molecule forms a hydrogen bond to fluorine in a neighbouring cation....

  2. cis-Difluoridobis(1,10-phenanthrolinechromium(III perchlorate monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Högni Weihe

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The title complex, [CrF2(C12H8N22]ClO4·H2O, displays a slightly distorted octahedral coordination geometry around the central chromium(III ion. The Cr environment is composed of a cis arrangement of two 1,10-phenanthroline [average CrIII—N = 2.0726 (10 Å] and two fluoride [average CrIII—F = 1.8533 (6 Å] ligands. The water molecule forms a hydrogen bond to fluorine in a neighbouring cation.

  3. Polibutadieno alto-cis: estudo viscosimétrico em tolueno e ciclo-hexano High-cis polybutadiene: viscometric study in toluene and cyclohexane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana L. Mello

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Foram realizadas medidas viscosimétricas, em soluções de tolueno e ciclo-hexano, a 30°C, com polibutadieno alto-cis, sintetizado com catalisadores à base de neodímio. Foram empregadas diferentes equações para determinar os valores de viscosidade intrínseca: Huggins; Kraemer; Martin; e Schulz-Blaschke, por extrapolação gráfica; e Solomon-Ciuta; Deb-Chanterjee e; novamente, Schulz-Blaschke, por determinação por um único ponto. Os valores de viscosidade intrínseca obtidos pelos dois métodos (extrapolação gráfica e por um único ponto foram comparados a fim de se verificar a validade da determinação por um único ponto para os sistemas analisados, bem como determinar que equação fosse a mais adequada para esse tipo de cálculo. Foram calculadas as constantes viscosimétricas de Huggins, Kraemer e Schulz-Blaschke e foi feita uma análise da qualidade do solvente, levando-se em conta também os valores do parâmetro de solubilidade de Hildebrand dos solventes e do polímero. Foi determinada a distância média quadrática entre as extremidades das cadeias poliméricas por meio da equação de Flory, para tal foram utilizados os dados viscosimétricos obtidos, bem como os pesos moleculares determinados por viscosimetria e por cromatografia de exclusão por tamanho. Verificou-se que o método de determinação por um único ponto foi apropriado para o polibutadieno alto-cis, tanto para o cálculo de viscosidade intrínseca quanto de peso molecular. Em tolueno, a equação de Solomon-Ciuta foi a mais adequada, ao passo que a equação de Deb-Chanterjee foi mais apropriada para o polímero em ciclo-hexano. Verificou-se também que o tolueno foi o melhor solvente para o polibutadieno em função dos maiores valores de viscosidade intrínseca e de distância média quadrática entre os extremos da cadeia polimérica. Os valores obtidos para as constantes viscosimétricas confirmaram essa observação.Viscometric measurements, in

  4. del discurso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Mosquera

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available En varios comunicados quedó reflejada la tensión de la reciente crisis entre Colombia y Venezuela, suscitada a raíz de la captura en diciembre de 2004 de un guerrillero de la FARC en Caracas (Rodrigo Granda. El presente trabajo es un avance de un proyecto de investigación, que persigue como objetivos: 1 describir el discurso implícito en dichos comunicados; 2 identificar los aspectos semánticos y pragmáticos presentes en la confrontación discursiva; y 3 delinear el componente ideológico reflejado en los comunicados. Para el respectivo análisis se siguieron algunos aspectos teóricos y metodológicos de Colle (2000, Bolívar (1998 yMolero de Cabeza (1985. Entre las conclusiones preliminares de este avance se tiene que, con el caso Granda, Colombia recurrió a la vieja política del "fin justifica los medios", a la vez que puso en entredicho el papel de Venezuela en la lucha contra el terrorismo, quizás como respuesta a su política exterior de estrechos vínculos con el gobierno estadounidense

  5. Action of cis-dichlorobis (cyclopentylamine) platinum (2) (cis-PAD) on L5178Y cells of two strains inversely cross-sensitive to X-rays and UV-light. Part 1. Cytotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The response to cis-PAD, an antitumour platinum complex, was studied in two strains of murine lymphoma L5178Y cross-sensitive to X-rays and UV light. Dose-survival relationship, DNA synthesis, formation of chromatid aberrations, progression through the cell cycle, and growth and viability changes after 1 h cis-PAD treatment at 370C were examined and compared with respective effects of X-rays and UV-light. In both strains studied, cis-PAD causes immediate inhibition of progression through the cell cycle, reduced rate of DNA synthesis, delayed appearance of chromatid aberrations and delayed death. However, there is a marked difference in sensitivity to cis-PAD between L5178Y-S strain (D0 ca.5.8 μg/ml) and L5178Y-R strain (D0 ca. 2.5μg/ml). In both strains a close resemblance was found between dose-survival relationship after cis-PAD and UV-light treatment, respectively. (author)

  6. Límites del derecho europeo de protección de datos en el control de fronteras de la UE

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Blasi Casagran

    2015-01-01

    En los años ochenta del siglo pasado la UE empezó a recoger datos de personas que llegaban de terceros países a territorio europeo para controlar los flujos migratorios. Sin embargo, los atentados terroristas del 11-S de 2001 propiciaron una extensión progresiva del uso de tal información, originalmente solo prevista para controlar la inmigración, para fines policiales. Sistemas de información tales como SIS, VIS, CIS y Eurodac han ido reformando sus respectivas legislaciones para permitir el...

  7. Tecnolog??as del cuidado del mundo

    OpenAIRE

    Higuera Esp??n, Javier de la

    2011-01-01

    Desde la ??ptica de la ontolog??a de la actualidad, este texto pretende pensar en la posibilidad de unas ???tecnolog??as del mundo??? que, en correlaci??n con las ???tecnolog??as del yo???, sean responsables del cuidado del acontecer singular que define nuestro presente, amenazado por fuertes tendencias homogeneizadoras capaces de cerrar o compactar el mundo. Por el contrario, el mundo s??lo es mundo si ???en ??l puede abrirse un afuera??? (J.-L. Nancy). Para ello analiza la naturaleza de es...

  8. El Banco del Sur

    OpenAIRE

    Espejo, Silvana

    2012-01-01

    En este trabajo abordaremos las características principales del Banco del Sur como una institución financiera sudamericana. Primero presentaremos sus principales características y explicaremos las características de un banco de desarrollo regional. Luego, expondremos el proceso de conformación del mismo haciendo un recorrido por sus principales antecedentes. Por último, cerraremos con una evaluación sobre el estado actual del Banco del Sur. (Párrafo extraído del texto a modo de resumen)...

  9. Unusually large secondary deuterium isotope effect. Thermal trans-cis isomerization of trans-1-phenylcyclohexene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldwell, R.A.; Misawa, H.; Healy, E.F.; Dewar, M.J.

    1987-01-01

    The magnitudes of secondary deuterium isotope effects (SDIE) are generally in the range of 0.9 < kH/kD < 1.25, and are often satisfactorily rationalized by the zero-point energy (ZPE) change on going from reactant to transition state due to C-H rehybridization. We now report a far larger SDIE for the title reaction. Its rationalization on the basis of transition-state theory suggests that it more closely resembles a primary isotope effect. Laser flash photolysis of cis-1-phenylcyclohexene (direct, 266 nm, or sensitized by thioxanthone, 355 nm) affords its trans isomer which in heptane exclusively reverts to 1, k = 2.1 x 10/sup 5/ s at 300 K. Isotopically substituted 2-2-d1 or 2-2,6-6-d3 (generated similarly from the corresponding cis isomers5) both have rates of reversion longer than 2 itself by a factor of 2.0 at room temperature. No previously reported SDIE approaches this magnitude.

  10. Innovative sputtering techniques for CIS and CdTe submodule fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, J.M.; Misra, M.S.; Lanning, B. (Martin Marietta Aerospace, Denver, CO (United States). Astronautics Group)

    1993-03-01

    This report describes work done during Phase 1 of the subject subcontract. The subcontract was designed to study innovative deposition techniques, such as the rotating cylindrical magnetron sputtering system and electrodeposition for large-area, low-cost copper indium diselenide (CIS) and cadmium telluride (CdTe) devices. A key issue for photovoltaics (PV) in terrestrial and future space applications is producibility, particularly for applications using a large quantity of PV. Among the concerns for fabrication of polycrystalline thin-film PV, such as CIS and CdTe, are production volume, cost, and minimization of waste. Both rotating cylindrical magnetron (C-Mag[trademark]) sputtering and electrodeposition have tremendous potential for the fabrication of polycrystalline thin-film PV due to scaleability, efficient utilization of source materials, and inherently higher deposition rates. In the case of sputtering, the unique geometry of the C-Mae facilitates innovative cosputtering and reactive sputtering that could lead to greater throughput reduced health and safety risks, and, ultimately, lower fabrication cost. Electrodeposited films appear to be adherent and comparable with low-cost fabrication techniques. Phase I involved the initial film and device fabrication using the two techniques mentioned herein. Devices were tested by both internal facilities, as well as NREL and ISET.

  11. Plasticity of the cis-regulatory input function of a gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avraham E Mayo

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The transcription rate of a gene is often controlled by several regulators that bind specific sites in the gene's cis-regulatory region. The combined effect of these regulators is described by a cis-regulatory input function. What determines the form of an input function, and how variable is it with respect to mutations? To address this, we employ the well-characterized lac operon of Escherichia coli, which has an elaborate input function, intermediate between Boolean AND-gate and OR-gate logic. We mapped in detail the input function of 12 variants of the lac promoter, each with different point mutations in the regulator binding sites, by means of accurate expression measurements from living cells. We find that even a few mutations can significantly change the input function, resulting in functions that resemble Pure AND gates, OR gates, or single-input switches. Other types of gates were not found. The variant input functions can be described in a unified manner by a mathematical model. The model also lets us predict which functions cannot be reached by point mutations. The input function that we studied thus appears to be plastic, in the sense that many of the mutations do not ruin the regulation completely but rather result in new ways to integrate the inputs.

  12. Theoretical reconstruction of realistic dynamics of highly coarse-grained cis-1,4-polybutadiene melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyubimov, I. Y.; Guenza, M. G.

    2013-03-01

    The theory to reconstruct the atomistic-level chain diffusion from the accelerated dynamics that is measured in mesoscale simulations of the coarse-grained system, is applied here to the dynamics of cis-1,4-polybutadiene melts where each chain is described as a soft interacting colloidal particle. The rescaling formalism accounts for the corrections in the dynamics due to the change in entropy and the change in friction that are a consequence of the coarse-graining procedure. By including these two corrections the dynamics is rescaled to reproduce the realistic dynamics of the system described at the atomistic level. The rescaled diffusion coefficient obtained from mesoscale simulations of coarse-grained cis-1,4-polybutadiene melts shows good agreement with data from united atom simulations performed by Tsolou et al. [Macromolecules 38, 1478 (2005)], 10.1021/ma0491210. The derived monomer friction coefficient is used as an input to the theory for cooperative dynamics that describes the internal dynamics of a polymer moving in a transient regions of slow cooperative motion in a liquid of macromolecules. Theoretically predicted time correlation functions show good agreement with simulations in the whole range of length and time scales in which data are available.

  13. Separation of cis- and trans-Asarone from Acorus tatarinowii by Preparative Gas Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. L. Zuo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A preparative gas chromatography (pGC method was developed for the separation of isomers (cis- and trans-asarone from essential oil of Acorus tatarinowii. The oil was primarily fractionated by silica gel chromatography using different ratios of petroleum ether and ethyl acetate as gradient elution solvents. And then the fraction that contains mixture of the isomers was further separated by pGC. The compounds were separated on a stainless steel column packed with 10% OV-101 (3 m × 6 mm, i.d., and then the effluent was split into two gas flows. One percent of the effluent passed to the flame ionization detector (FID for detection and the remaining 99% was directed to the fraction collector. Two isomers were collected after 90 single injections (5 uL with the yield of 178 mg and 82 mg, respectively. Furthermore, the structures of the obtained compounds were identified as cis- and trans-asarone by 1H- and 13C-NMR spectra, respectively.

  14. Transcription of Mammalian cis-Regulatory Elements Is Restrained by Actively Enforced Early Termination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austenaa, Liv M I; Barozzi, Iros; Simonatto, Marta; Masella, Silvia; Della Chiara, Giulia; Ghisletti, Serena; Curina, Alessia; de Wit, Elzo; Bouwman, Britta A M; de Pretis, Stefano; Piccolo, Viviana; Termanini, Alberto; Prosperini, Elena; Pelizzola, Mattia; de Laat, Wouter; Natoli, Gioacchino

    2015-11-01

    Upon recruitment to active enhancers and promoters, RNA polymerase II (Pol II) generates short non-coding transcripts of unclear function. The mechanisms that control the length and the amount of ncRNAs generated by cis-regulatory elements are largely unknown. Here, we show that the adaptor protein WDR82 and its associated complexes actively limit such non-coding transcription. WDR82 targets the SET1 H3K4 methyltransferases and the nuclear protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) complexes to the initiating Pol II. WDR82 and PP1 also interact with components of the transcriptional termination and RNA processing machineries. Depletion of WDR82, SET1, or the PP1 subunit required for its nuclear import caused distinct but overlapping transcription termination defects at highly expressed genes and active enhancers and promoters, thus enabling the increased synthesis of unusually long ncRNAs. These data indicate that transcription initiated from cis-regulatory elements is tightly coordinated with termination mechanisms that impose the synthesis of short RNAs. PMID:26593720

  15. CIS Modules Process R&D: Final Technical Report, October 2005 - June 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarrant, D. E.; Gay, R. R.

    2006-07-01

    The primary objectives of this subcontract were to: address key near-term technical R&D issues for continued improvement in thin-film PV products; continue process development for increased production capacity; pursue long-term R&D contributing to progress toward the MYTP goals for 2020 to increase the conversion efficiency to 15% and reduce module manufacturing costs to less than $50/m2, thus enabling PV systems with a 30-year lifetime at an installed cost of under $2.00/W; and advance the understanding of the requirements needed to achieve better thin-film PV cell and module performance, greater reliability and market acceptance, and investigate materials systems and new devices that can improve the cost/performance ratio of future thin-film PV factories. The demonstrated and maintained high production yield is a major accomplishment supporting attractive cost projections for CIS. Process R&D at successive levels of CIS production has led to the continued demonstration of the prerequisites for commitment to large-scale commercialization. Process and packaging R&D during this and previous subcontracts has demonstrated the potential for further cost and performance improvements.

  16. Cyclic side-chain-linked opioid analogs utilizing cis- and trans-4-aminocyclohexyl-D-alanine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piekielna, Justyna; Gentilucci, Luca; De Marco, Rossella; Perlikowska, Renata; Adamska, Anna; Olczak, Jacek; Mazur, Marzena; Artali, Roberto; Modranka, Jakub; Janecki, Tomasz; Tömböly, Csaba; Janecka, Anna

    2014-12-01

    Cyclization of linear sequences is a well recognized tool in opioid peptide chemistry for generating analogs with improved bioactivities. Cyclization can be achieved through various bridging bonds between peptide ends or side-chains. In our earlier paper we have reported the synthesis and biological activity of a cyclic peptide, Tyr-c[D-Lys-Phe-Phe-Asp]NH2 (1), which can be viewed as an analog of endomorphin-2 (EM-2, Tyr-Pro-Phe-Phe-NH2). Cyclization was achieved through an amide bond between side-chains of D-Lys and Asp residues. Here, to increase rigidity of the cyclic structure, we replaced d-Lys with cis- or trans-4-aminocyclohexyl-D-alanine (D-ACAla). Two sets of analogs incorporating either Tyr or Dmt (2',6'-dimethyltyrosine) residues in position 1 were synthesized. In the binding studies the analog incorporating Dmt and trans-D-ACAla showed high affinity for both, μ- and δ-opioid receptors (MOR and DOR, respectively) and moderate affinity for the κ-opioid receptor (KOR), while analog with Dmt and cis-D-ACAla was exceptionally MOR-selective. Conformational analyses by NMR and molecular docking studies have been performed to investigate the molecular structural features responsible for the noteworthy MOR selectivity. PMID:25456075

  17. Effects of cis and trans genetic ancestry on gene expression in African Americans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alkes L Price

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Variation in gene expression is a fundamental aspect of human phenotypic variation. Several recent studies have analyzed gene expression levels in populations of different continental ancestry and reported population differences at a large number of genes. However, these differences could largely be due to non-genetic (e.g., environmental effects. Here, we analyze gene expression levels in African American cell lines, which differ from previously analyzed cell lines in that individuals from this population inherit variable proportions of two continental ancestries. We first relate gene expression levels in individual African Americans to their genome-wide proportion of European ancestry. The results provide strong evidence of a genetic contribution to expression differences between European and African populations, validating previous findings. Second, we infer local ancestry (0, 1, or 2 European chromosomes at each location in the genome and investigate the effects of ancestry proximal to the expressed gene (cis versus ancestry elsewhere in the genome (trans. Both effects are highly significant, and we estimate that 12+/-3% of all heritable variation in human gene expression is due to cis variants.

  18. Genome-wide de novo prediction of cis-regulatory binding sites in prokaryotes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shaoqiang; Xu, Minli; Su, Zhengchang

    2009-01-01

    Although cis-regulatory binding sites (CRBSs) are at least as important as the coding sequences in a genome, our general understanding of them in most sequenced genomes is very limited due to the lack of efficient and accurate experimental and computational methods for their characterization, which has largely hindered our understanding of many important biological processes. In this article, we describe a novel algorithm for genome-wide de novo prediction of CRBSs with high accuracy. We designed our algorithm to circumvent three identified difficulties for CRBS prediction using comparative genomics principles based on a new method for the selection of reference genomes, a new metric for measuring the similarity of CRBSs, and a new graph clustering procedure. When operon structures are correctly predicted, our algorithm can predict 81% of known individual binding sites belonging to 94% of known cis-regulatory motifs in the Escherichia coli K12 genome, while achieving high prediction specificity. Our algorithm has also achieved similar prediction accuracy in the Bacillus subtilis genome, suggesting that it is very robust, and thus can be applied to any other sequenced prokaryotic genome. When compared with the prior state-of-the-art algorithms, our algorithm outperforms them in both prediction sensitivity and specificity. PMID:19383880

  19. Internal Motion Effects in the Microwave Spectrum of ARGON-{CIS}-1,2-DIFLUOROETHYLENE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Helen O.; Marshall, Mark D.

    2011-06-01

    Using the results of Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy, we have recently completed a comprehensive study of protic acid-fluoroethylene complexes. The structures obtained for these species, specifically the length of the hydrogen bonding interaction, the deviation of this bond from linearity, and the contribution from a secondary interaction between the electron rich portion of the acid and a hydrogen contained in the fluoroethylene moiety, have been interpreted in terms of changes in the nucleophilicity of the fluorine atoms caused by an increasing degree of fluorine substitution. Our work included complexes with all the possible mono-, di-, and tri-substituted fluoroethylenes, with the exception of cis-1,2-difluoroethylene. In the course of seeking to observe the complex of this species with HF, a rich spectrum due to complexes with the argon carrier gas has been observed. Most notably, all c-type transitions observed for Ar-cis-1,2-difluoroethylene are doubled, while a-type lines are not and b-type lines are absent. This suggests that the complex is interconverting between two equivalent, non-planar, symmetric structures on the timescale of the experiment, a conclusion that is supported by ab initio calculations. Comparisons will be made with previously observed Ar-fluoroethylene complexes.

  20. Cis-acting elements in its 3' UTR mediate post-transcriptional regulation of KRAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minlee; Kogan, Nicole; Slack, Frank J

    2016-03-15

    Multiple RNA-binding proteins and non-coding RNAs, such as microRNAs (miRNAs), are involved in post-transcriptional gene regulation through recognition motifs in the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of their target genes. The KRAS gene encodes a key signaling protein, and its messenger RNA (mRNA) contains an exceptionally long 3' UTR; this suggests that it may be subject to a highly complex set of regulatory processes. However, 3' UTR-dependent regulation of KRAS expression has not been explored in detail. Using extensive deletion and mutational analyses combined with luciferase reporter assays, we have identified inhibitory and stabilizing cis-acting regions within the KRAS 3' UTR that may interact with miRNAs and RNA-binding proteins, such as HuR. Particularly, we have identified an AU-rich 49-nt fragment in the KRAS 3' UTR that is required for KRAS 3' UTR reporter repression. This element contains a miR-185 complementary element, and we show that overexpression of miR-185 represses endogenous KRAS mRNA and protein in vitro. In addition, we have identified another 49-nt fragment that is required to promote KRAS 3' UTR reporter expression. These findings indicate that multiple cis-regulatory motifs in the 3' UTR of KRAS finely modulate its expression, and sequence alterations within a binding motif may disrupt the precise functions of trans-regulatory factors, potentially leading to aberrant KRAS expression. PMID:26930719

  1. Restructuring and privatising the coal industries in Central and Eastern Europe and the CIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews coal industry reforms in central and Eastern Europe (CEE), including the former GDR and Estonia (oil shale), and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). It describes achievements and failures during the last ten years on the road to an efficient, viable and environmentally acceptable coal industry playing the various roles assigned to it by governments as part of their energy policies. Obeying to conflicting objectives, coal-restructuring policies can best be described as stop-go policies. As a result, between 1990 and 1998, production declined by 41%, the number of pits by 26% and the number of employees by 45%. Productivity rose by only 8% in the region as a whole. At present, 80 to 90% of coal production is actually or virtually profitable under local or national circumstances. Turning virtual into actual profitability depends as much on continued reforms (unbundling of profitable from unprofitable mines, customerization of mines, equity privatisation) as on a fresh assessment, by investors, of two major opportunities: mine-utility partnerships and untapped productivity gains. These opportunities are growingly recognised by the business community: by 1998, 20% of coal production in the region are owned by equity investors, domestic and foreign. With, these opportunities in mind and assuming economic recovery, WEC, IIASA, IEA, DOE* (*World Energy Council, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, International Energy Agency, US Department of Energy) and national governments project a medium-term (2010,2020) increase of coal production against 1998 of about 20%, mostly in the CIS. (author)

  2. Numerically accurate linear response-properties in the configuration-interaction singles (CIS) approximation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottmann, Jakob S; Höfener, Sebastian; Bischoff, Florian A

    2015-12-21

    In the present work, we report an efficient implementation of configuration interaction singles (CIS) excitation energies and oscillator strengths using the multi-resolution analysis (MRA) framework to address the basis-set convergence of excited state computations. In MRA (ground-state) orbitals, excited states are constructed adaptively guaranteeing an overall precision. Thus not only valence but also, in particular, low-lying Rydberg states can be computed with consistent quality at the basis set limit a priori, or without special treatments, which is demonstrated using a small test set of organic molecules, basis sets, and states. We find that the new implementation of MRA-CIS excitation energy calculations is competitive with conventional LCAO calculations when the basis-set limit of medium-sized molecules is sought, which requires large, diffuse basis sets. This becomes particularly important if accurate calculations of molecular electronic absorption spectra with respect to basis-set incompleteness are required, in which both valence as well as Rydberg excitations can contribute to the molecule's UV/VIS fingerprint. PMID:25913482

  3. CIS-Type PV Device Fabrication by Novel Techniques; Phase I Annual Technical Report, 1 July 1998 - 30 June 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes work performed by International Solar Electric Technology, Inc. (ISET) during phase I of the R and D partnership subcontract titled ''CIS-Type PV Device Fabrication by Novel Techniques.'' The objective of this program is to bring ISET's novel non-vacuum CIS technology closer to commercialization by concentrating on issues such as device-efficiency improvement, larger-bandgap absorber growth, and module fabrication. Advances made in CIS and related compound solar cell fabrication processes have clearly shown that these materials and device structures can yield power conversion efficiencies in the 15%-20% range. However, many of the laboratory results on CIS-type devices have been obtained using relatively high-cost vacuum-based deposition techniques. The present project was specifically geared toward developing a low-cost, non-vacuum ''particle deposition'' method for CIS-type absorber growth. There are four major processing steps in this technique: i) preparation of a starting powder containing all or some of the chemical species constituting CIS, ii) preparation of an ink using the starting powder, iii) deposition of the ink on a substrate in the form of a thin precursor layer, and iv) conversion of the precursor layer into a fused photovoltaic absorber through annealing steps. During this Phase I program, ISET worked on tasks that were geared toward the following goals: i) elimination of back-contact problems, ii) growth of large-bandgap absorbers, and iii) fabrication of mini-modules. As a result of the Phase I research, a Mo back-contact structure was developed that eliminated problems that resulted in poor mechanical integrity of the absorber layers. Sulfur inclusion into CIS films through high-temperature sulfurization in H2S gas was also studied. It was determined that S diffusion was a strong function of the stoichiometry of the CIS layer. Sulfur was found to diffuse rapidly through the Cu-rich films, whereas the diffusion constant was

  4. Combined removal of a BTEX, TCE, and cis-DCE mixture using Pseudomonas sp. immobilized on scrap tyres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qihong; de Toledo, Renata Alves; Xie, Fei; Li, Junhui; Shim, Hojae

    2015-09-01

    The simultaneous aerobic removal of a mixture of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and o,m,p-xylene (BTEX); cis-dichloroethylene (cis-DCE); and trichloroethylene (TCE) from the artificially contaminated water using an indigenous bacterial isolate identified as Pseudomonas plecoglossicida immobilized on waste scrap tyres was investigated. Suspended and immobilized conditions were compared for the removal of these volatile organic compounds. For the immobilized system, toluene, benzene, and ethylbenzene were completely removed, while the highest removal efficiencies of 99.0 ± 0.1, 96.8 ± 0.3, 73.6 ± 2.5, and 61.6 ± 0.9% were obtained for o-xylene, m,p-xylene, TCE, and cis-DCE, respectively. The sorption kinetics of contaminants towards tyre surface was also evaluated, and the sorption capacity generally followed the order of toluene > benzene > m,p-xylene > o-xylene > ethylbenzene > TCE > cis-DCE. Scrap tyres showed a good capability for the simultaneous sorption and bioremoval of BTEX/cis-DCE/TCE mixture, implying a promising waste material for the removal of contaminant mixture from industrial wastewater or contaminated groundwater. PMID:25956516

  5. Purification and characterization of a cis-epoxysuccinic acid hydrolase from Nocardia tartaricans CAS-52, and expression in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ziqiang; Wang, Yunshan; Su, Zhiguo

    2013-03-01

    A highly enantioselective cis-epoxysuccinic acid hydrolase from Nocardia tartaricans was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity. The enzyme was purified 184-fold with a yield of 18.8 %. The purified cis-epoxysuccinic acid hydrolase had a monomeric molecular weight of 28 kDa, and its optimum conditions were 37 °C and pH 7-9. With sodium cis-epoxysuccinate as the substrate, Michaelis-Menten enzyme kinetics analysis gave a Km value of 35.71 mM and a Vmax of 2.65 mM min(-1). The enzyme was activated by Ni(2+) and Al(3+), while strongly inhibited by Fe(3+), Fe(2+), Cu(2+), and Ag(+). The cis-epoxysuccinic acid hydrolase gene was cloned, and its open reading frame sequence predicted a protein composed of 253 amino acids. A pET11a expression plasmid carrying the gene under the control of the T7 promoter was introduced into Escherichia coli, and the cis-epoxysuccinic acid hydrolase gene was successfully expressed in the recombinant strains. PMID:22552902

  6. Multiple gas-phase conformations of proline-containing peptides: is it always cis/trans isomerization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lietz, Christopher B; Chen, Zhengwei; Yun Son, Chang; Pang, Xueqin; Cui, Qiang; Li, Lingjun

    2016-08-01

    Ion mobility-mass spectrometry (IM-MS) is often employed to look at the secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structures of naked peptides and proteins in the gas-phase. Recently, it has offered a unique glimpse into proline-containing peptides and their cis/trans Xxx-Pro isomers. An experimental "signature" has been identified wherein a proline-containing peptide has its Pro residues substituted with another amino acid and the presence or absence of conformations in the IM-MS spectra is observed. Despite the high probability that one could attribute these conformations to cis/trans isomers, it is also possible that cis/trans isomers are not the cause of the additional conformations in proline-containing peptides. However, the experimental evidence of such a system has not been demonstrated or reported. Herein, we present the IM-MS analysis of Neuropeptide Y's wild-type (WT) signal sequence and Leu7Pro (L7P) mutant. Although comparison of arrival times and collision cross-sections of [M + 4H](4+) ions yields the cis/trans "signature", molecular dynamics indicates that a cis-Pro7 is not very stable and that trans-Pro7 conformations of the same cross-section arise with equal frequency. We believe that this work further underscores the importance of theoretical calculations in IM-MS structural assignments. PMID:27434776

  7. Cis-Natural Antisense Transcripts Are Mainly Co-expressed with Their Sense Transcripts and Primarily Related to Energy Metabolic Pathways during Muscle Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yunxia; Hou, Ye; Zhao, Changzhi; Liu, Fei; Luan, Yu; Jing, Lu; Li, Xinyun; Zhu, Mengjin; Zhao, Shuhong

    2016-01-01

    Cis-natural antisense transcripts (cis-NATs) are a new class of RNAs identified in various species. However, the biological functions of cis-NATs are largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the transcriptional characteristics and functions of cis-NATs in the muscle tissue of lean Landrace and indigenous fatty Lantang pigs. In total, 3,306 cis-NATs of 2,469 annotated genes were identified in the muscle tissue of pigs. More than 1,300 cis-NATs correlated with their sense genes at the transcriptional level, and approximately 80% of them were co-expressed in the two breeds. Furthermore, over 1,200 differentially expressed cis-NATs were identified during muscle development. Function annotation showed that the cis-NATs participated in muscle development mainly by co-expressing with genes involved in energy metabolic pathways, including citrate cycle (TCA cycle), glycolysis or gluconeogenesis, mitochondrial activation and so on. Moreover, these cis-NATs and their sense genes abruptly increased at the transition from the late fetal stages to the early postnatal stages and then decreased along with muscle development. In conclusion, the cis-NATs in the muscle tissue of pigs were identified and determined to be mainly co-expressed with their sense genes. The co-expressed cis-NATs and their sense gene were primarily related to energy metabolic pathways during muscle development in pigs. Our results offered novel evidence on the roles of cis-NATs during the muscle development of pigs. PMID:27489504

  8. SYNTHESIS OF NOVEL CROWN ETHERS BEARING THE exo-cis-2,3-NORBORNYL GROUP AS POTENTIAL Na+ AND K+ EXTRACTANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robeson, R.M.; Bonnesen, P.

    2007-01-01

    The synthesis of a series of novel dinorbornyl-16-crown-5 and dinorbornyl-18-crown-6 ethers that incorporate the exo-cis-2,3-norbornyl moiety within the macrocycle framework is described. The key starting material for the crown ethers, exo-cis-2,3-norbornanediol, was successfully prepared on a large (>30g) scale in 88% yield from norbornylene by osmium tetroxide-catalyzed hydroxylation. The syn and anti isomers of the dinorbornyl-16-crown-5 ether family were prepared using diethylene glycol with ring closure achieved using a methallyl linkage. The isomers cis-syn-cis and cis-anti-cis di-norbornano-15-methyleno-16-crown-5 (6A and 6B) could be separated using column chromatography, and a single crystal of the syn isomer 6A suitable for X-ray crystal structure analysis was obtained, thereby confi rming the syn orientation. The syn and anti isomers of the dinorbornyl-18-crown-6 ether family were successfully prepared employing a different synthetic strategy, involving the potassium–templated cyclization of two bis-hydroxyethoxy-substituted exo-cis-2,3-norbornyl groups under high dilution conditions. Attempts to fully separate cis-syn-cis di-norbornano-18-crown-6 (10A) and cis-anti-cis di-norbornano-18-crown-6 (10B) from one another using column chromatography were unsuccessful. All intermediates and products were checked for purity using either thin layer chromatography or gas chromatography, and characterized by proton and carbon NMR. Crown ethers 6AB and 10AB are to our knowledge the fi rst crown ethers to incorporate the exo-cis-2,3-norbornyl moiety into the crown ring to be successfully synthesized and characterized.

  9. Sister chromatid exchanges induced by two radiosensitizing platinum compounds (cis-dichloro-bis isopropylamine trans dihydroxy platinum IV (CHIP) and cis platinum metronidazole2Cl2(FLAP] in CHO cells in vitro.

    OpenAIRE

    Bocian, E; Laverick, M.; Nias, A H

    1983-01-01

    Sister chromatid exchange (SCE) induction by two radiosensitizing platinum compounds (cis-dichloro-bis isopropylamine trans dihydroxy platinum IV (CHIP) and cis-platinum metronidazole2 Cl2 (FLAP] was studied in CHO cells in vitro. Both drugs induced SCE in a dose dependent manner. CHIP was a much more potent inducer of SCE than FLAP and produced almost 4 times as many SCE as FLAP at equimolar concentrations and twice as many at equitoxic dosage. Induction of SCE by a component of the FLAP mol...

  10. Accesibilidad del sitio web del CONAPRED

    OpenAIRE

    Luján Mora, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    Accesibilidad del sitio web del CONAPRED (Consejo Nacional para Prevenir la Discriminación) de México. Más información: - http://accesibilidadweb.dlsi.ua.es - http://desarrolloweb.dlsi.ua.es Autor: Sergio Luján Mora, profesor de la Universidad de Alicante (http://www.ua.es).

  11. Comparative genome sequencing of Drosophila pseudoobscura: Chromosomal, gene, and cis-element evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richards, Stephen; Liu, Yue; Bettencourt, Brian R.;

    2005-01-01

    years (Myr) since the pseudoobscura/melanogaster divergence. Genes expressed in the testes had higher amino acid sequence divergence than the genome-wide average, consistent with the rapid evolution of sex-specific proteins. Cis-regulatory sequences are more conserved than random and nearby sequences......We have sequenced the genome of a second Drosophila species, Drosophila pseudoobscura, and compared this to the genome sequence of Drosophila melanogaster, a primary model organism. Throughout evolution the vast majority of Drosophila genes have remained on the same chromosome arm, but within each...... between the species-but the difference is slight, suggesting that the evolution of cis-regulatory elements is flexible. Overall, a pattern of repeat-mediated chromosomal rearrangement, and high coadaptation of both male genes and cis-regulatory sequences emerges as important themes of genome divergence...

  12. Synthesis of 1,2-cis-2-C-branched aryl-C-glucosides via desulfurization of carbohydrate based hemithioacetals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henok H. Kinfe

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available 1-C and 2-C-branched carbohydrates are present as substructures in a number of biologically important compounds. Although the synthesis of such carbohydrate derivatives is extensively studied, the synthesis of 1,2-cis-2-C-branched C-, S-, and N-glycosides is less explored. In this article a synthetic strategy for the synthesis of 1,2-cis-2-C-branched-aryl-C-glucosides is reported via a hydrogenolytic desulfurization of suitably orientated carbohydrate based hemithioacetals. 1,2-cis-2-Hydroxymethyl and 2-carbaldehyde of aryl-C-glucosides have been synthesized using the current strategy in very good yields. The 2-carbaldehyde-aryl-C-glucosides have been identified as suitable substrates for the stereospecific preparation of 2,3-unsaturated-aryl-C-glycosides (Ferrier products.

  13. Allele-Specific Transcriptome and Methylome Analysis Reveals Stable Inheritance and Cis-Regulation of DNA Methylation in Nasonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu; Werren, John H; Clark, Andrew G

    2016-07-01

    Gene expression divergence between closely related species could be attributed to both cis- and trans- DNA sequence changes during evolution, but it is unclear how the evolutionary dynamics of epigenetic marks are regulated. In eutherian mammals, biparental DNA methylation marks are erased and reset during gametogenesis, resulting in paternal or maternal imprints, which lead to genomic imprinting. Whether DNA methylation reprogramming exists in insects is not known. Wasps of the genus Nasonia are non-social parasitoids that are emerging as a model for studies of epigenetic processes in insects. In this study, we quantified allele-specific expression and methylation genome-wide in Nasonia vitripennis and Nasonia giraulti and their reciprocal F1 hybrids. No parent-of-origin effect in allelic expression was found for >8,000 covered genes, suggesting a lack of genomic imprinting in adult Nasonia. As we expected, both significant cis- and trans- effects are responsible for the expression divergence between N. vitripennis and N. giraulti. Surprisingly, all 178 differentially methylated genes are also differentially methylated between the two alleles in F1 hybrid offspring, recapitulating the parental methylation status with nearly 100% fidelity, indicating the presence of strong cis-elements driving the target of gene body methylation. In addition, we discovered that total and allele-specific expression are positively correlated with allele-specific methylation in a subset of the differentially methylated genes. The 100% cis-regulation in F1 hybrids suggests the methylation machinery is conserved and DNA methylation is targeted by cis features in Nasonia. The lack of genomic imprinting and parent-of-origin differentially methylated regions in Nasonia, together with the stable inheritance of methylation status between generations, suggests either a cis-regulatory motif for methylation at the DNA level or highly stable inheritance of an epigenetic signal in Nasonia. PMID

  14. Biological diversity and population history of Middle Holocene hunter-gatherers from the Cis-Baikal region of Siberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movsesian, Alla A; Bakholdina, Varvara Yu; Pezhemsky, Denis V

    2014-12-01

    In the past decades, prehistoric hunter-gatherers of the Cis-Baikal region has been a subject of multidisciplinary research. In this study, we used nonmetric cranial traits to assess the genetic relationships between various spatial and temporal groups of Cis-Baikal Middle Holocene hunter-gatherers and to reveal genetic continuity between the Cis-Baikal Neolithic-Bronze Age population and modern native Siberians. Cranial series belonging to the bearers of the Early Neolithic Kitoi (n = 72), Late Neolithic Serovo (n = 54), and Early Bronze Glazkovo (n = 98) cultures were examined. Phenotypic differentiation was analyzed by the mean measure of divergence and Nei's genetic distances. Our results revealed several patterns of spatiotemporal biodiversity among the Cis-Baikal Middle Holocene populations, including biological similarity between the Early and Late Neolithic-Bronze Age groups, which suggests that the temporal hiatus between the Early and Late Neolithic does not necessarily imply genetic discontinuity in the region. The following possible scenarios of population history in the Cis-Baikal region are proposed: 1) continuous occupation with outside invasion of new migrant groups in the Late Neolithic and Bronze Age and 2) migration of the Early Neolithic groups to the nearby regions and subsequent return of their descendants to the ancestral territory. A comparison of Cis-Baikal Neolithic populations with modern Siberian natives suggests that the Сis-Baikal region could have been a source area for population expansions into different parts of Siberia in the Neolithic and Bronze Age times. PMID:25176172

  15. Efficiency enhancement in a single emission layer yellow organic light emitting device: Contribution of CIS/ZnS quantum dot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demir, Nuriye; Oner, Ilker; Varlikli, Canan, E-mail: canan.varlikli@ege.edu.tr; Ozsoy, Cihan; Zafer, Ceylan

    2015-08-31

    Electroluminescence (EL) efficiency from a single emission layer solution processed yellow emitting polymer, i.e. poly[(9,9-dioctylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl)-co-(1,4-benzo-{2,10,3}-thiadiazole)] end-capped with dimethylphenyl (ADS233YE), is firstly enhanced by the optimization of stock polymer concentrations and the coating rates, and then with the addition of copper indium disulfide/zinc sulfide (CIS/ZnS) core/shell quantum dots (QDs). Using these bare core/shell QDs as the active layer in the studied device gave no EL at all. However, yellow EL with the maximum brightness of 56834 cd/m{sup 2}, maximum current efficiency of 4.7 cd/A and maximum power efficiency of 2.3 lm/W is obtained from the device structure of indium tin oxide/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate)/ADS233YE:0.4 wt.% CIS/ZnS QD/Ca/Al those of which correspond to approximately 4 and 2 folds of enhancements in the brightness and luminous and power efficiency values, respectively, compared to that of the device without CIS/ZnS. - Highlights: • Copper indium disulfide/zinc sulfide (CIS/ZnS) particles are synthesized. • Polymer light emitting diode performance of a yellow emitting polymer is enhanced. • The presence of CIS/ZnS in active layer enhanced the power efficiency two folds. • Optimum concentration of CIS/ZnS in polymer is 0.4 wt.%.

  16. Geologia del Baix Ter

    OpenAIRE

    Mas-Pla, Josep

    1986-01-01

    Article que analitza el valor i la singularitat de les zones humides del Baix Ter, tenint en compte la descripció de les característiques geològiques de la Plana del Ter i dels diferents ambients morfodinàmics que s' hi troben

  17. Il dono del racconto

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polito, Paola

    1998-01-01

    L'articolo indaga a vari livelli strutturali del romanzo "Il coraggio del pettirosso" (rete metaforica, dialogismo diegetico, dialogismo come fenomeno di voce, strategie discorsive messe in atto dalla voce narrante, stile colloquiale) la complessa realizzazione testuale del genere narrativo /racc...

  18. A primer on regression methods for decoding cis-regulatory logic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Debopriya; Pellegrini, Matteo; Gray, Joe W.

    2009-03-03

    The rapidly emerging field of systems biology is helping us to understand the molecular determinants of phenotype on a genomic scale [1]. Cis-regulatory elements are major sequence-based determinants of biological processes in cells and tissues [2]. For instance, during transcriptional regulation, transcription factors (TFs) bind to very specific regions on the promoter DNA [2,3] and recruit the basal transcriptional machinery, which ultimately initiates mRNA transcription (Figure 1A). Learning cis-Regulatory Elements from Omics Data A vast amount of work over the past decade has shown that omics data can be used to learn cis-regulatory logic on a genome-wide scale [4-6]--in particular, by integrating sequence data with mRNA expression profiles. The most popular approach has been to identify over-represented motifs in promoters of genes that are coexpressed [4,7,8]. Though widely used, such an approach can be limiting for a variety of reasons. First, the combinatorial nature of gene regulation is difficult to explicitly model in this framework. Moreover, in many applications of this approach, expression data from multiple conditions are necessary to obtain reliable predictions. This can potentially limit the use of this method to only large data sets [9]. Although these methods can be adapted to analyze mRNA expression data from a pair of biological conditions, such comparisons are often confounded by the fact that primary and secondary response genes are clustered together--whereas only the primary response genes are expected to contain the functional motifs [10]. A set of approaches based on regression has been developed to overcome the above limitations [11-32]. These approaches have their foundations in certain biophysical aspects of gene regulation [26,33-35]. That is, the models are motivated by the expected transcriptional response of genes due to the binding of TFs to their promoters. While such methods have gathered popularity in the computational domain

  19. Discovering cis-regulatory RNAs in Shewanella genomes by Support Vector Machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xing; Ji, Yongmei; Stormo, Gary D

    2009-04-01

    An increasing number of cis-regulatory RNA elements have been found to regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally in various biological processes in bacterial systems. Effective computational tools for large-scale identification of novel regulatory RNAs are strongly desired to facilitate our exploration of gene regulation mechanisms and regulatory networks. We present a new computational program named RSSVM (RNA Sampler+Support Vector Machine), which employs Support Vector Machines (SVMs) for efficient identification of functional RNA motifs from random RNA secondary structures. RSSVM uses a set of distinctive features to represent the common RNA secondary structure and structural alignment predicted by RNA Sampler, a tool for accurate common RNA secondary structure prediction, and is trained with functional RNAs from a variety of bacterial RNA motif/gene families covering a wide range of sequence identities. When tested on a large number of known and random RNA motifs, RSSVM shows a significantly higher sensitivity than other leading RNA identification programs while maintaining the same false positive rate. RSSVM performs particularly well on sets with low sequence identities. The combination of RNA Sampler and RSSVM provides a new, fast, and efficient pipeline for large-scale discovery of regulatory RNA motifs. We applied RSSVM to multiple Shewanella genomes and identified putative regulatory RNA motifs in the 5' untranslated regions (UTRs) in S. oneidensis, an important bacterial organism with extraordinary respiratory and metal reducing abilities and great potential for bioremediation and alternative energy generation. From 1002 sets of 5'-UTRs of orthologous operons, we identified 166 putative regulatory RNA motifs, including 17 of the 19 known RNA motifs from Rfam, an additional 21 RNA motifs that are supported by literature evidence, 72 RNA motifs overlapping predicted transcription terminators or attenuators, and other candidate regulatory RNA motifs

  20. The Sustainable Trapping of Falcons – is It Possible in Russia and Other CIS Countries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira G. Nikolenko

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article was prepared according on the analysis of the situation with the poaching and smuggling of falcons (Gyrfalcon Falco rusticolus, Saker Falcon F. cherrug and Peregrine Falcon F. peregrinus in CIS countries in 2006–2015. It is carried out within the program “Struggle against poaching and smuggling” of the Russian Raptor Research and Conservation Network. The total number of cases of “falcon detentions” in the CIS has 1.6 times increased for 10 years. The number of seized birds has 1.4 times increase from 538 in 1996–2005 to 737 in 2006–2015, including the number of Gyrfalcons has increased by 2.6 times (from 142 to 365, Saker Falcon – 1.1 times (from 260 to 284, Peregrine Falcon – 3.4 times (from 13 to 44. The rate of Gyrfalcon among seized birds has increased by 1.5 times, Peregrine Falcon – 2 times, and the rate of Saker Falcon has decreased by 1.5 times. The number of annual cases of “falcon detentions” has increased from 2–6 in 2006–2008 to 14–16 cases in 2014–2015, on an annual basis their dynamics is correlated with the changes in the legislation. The most effective detentions are in the Far East (Kamchatka and Chukotka, the second region of catching, where there are significantly more cases of detentions, is Altai-Sayan. The maximum number of detentions were made with the participation of MIA members (51; nearly half of the detentions were produced with FSS (23; 20 cases involved customs authorities; 11 cases – border guards. Regional bodies of Environmental Protection participated in arrest only 12 times, Rosprirodnadzor took part in three detentions. In 75 cases of 100 there were detained 155 people, including 51 locals, 13 residents from other regions of the same country, 13 foreign-born citizens and 65 foreigners. The maximum number of foreigners was detained in Siberia – 43 from 6 countries, they account for 75.4% of the total number of detainees, with 75% of foreigners – citizens of

  1. Cis- and Trans-Regulatory Mechanisms of Gene Expression in the ASJ Sensory Neuron of Caenorhabditis elegans

    OpenAIRE

    González-Barrios, María; Fierro-González, Juan Carlos; Krpelanova, Eva; Mora-Lorca, José Antonio; Pedrajas, José Rafael; Peñate, Xenia; Chavez, Sebastián; Swoboda, Peter; Jansen, Gert; Miranda-Vizuete, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The identity of a given cell type is determined by the expression of a set of genes sharing common cis-regulatory motifs and being regulated by shared transcription factors. Here, we identify cis and trans regulatory elements that drive gene expression in the bilateral sensory neuron ASJ, located in the head of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. For this purpose, we have dissected the promoters of the only two genes so far reported to be exclusively expressed in ASJ, trx-1 and ssu-1. We her...

  2. Use of cis-[18F] fluoro-proline for assessment of exercise-related collagen synthesis in musculoskeletal connective tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Dorthe; Kjaer, Andreas; Heinemeier, Katja Maria;

    2011-01-01

    Protein turnover in collagen rich tissue is influenced by exercise, but can only with difficulty be studied in vivo due to use of invasive procedure. The present study was done to investigate the possibility of applying the PET-tracer, cis-[(18)F]fluoro-proline (cis-Fpro), for non-invasive assess...... and 240 min p.i). SUV were calculated for Achilles tendon, calf muscle and tibial bone. The PET-derived results were compared to mRNA expression of collagen type I and III. Tibial bone had the highest SUV that increased significantly (p...

  3. Study on the thermal decomposition kinetics of cis/trans-[Cu(gly)2]·H2O

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; Fengxing; LI; Jun; LI; Hengxin; DU; Guixiang; SONG

    2005-01-01

    The thermal decomposition reactions of the complexes cis/trans-[Cu(gly)2]· H2Owere studied by TG-DSC methods. The results showed that they have similar decomposition process, which occur in two steps. The first step is the loss of water and the second step is the decomposition of anhydrous complexes.But for cis-[Cu(gly)2]· H2O,the tempoerature of losing water is higher than that of trans-isomer. Their reaction mechanisms of the two-step decomposition were also proposed.

  4. cis-Dichlorido(dimethyl sulfoxide-κS(N,N,N′,N′-tetramethylguanidine-κN′′platinum(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan I. Eliseev

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, cis-[PtCl2(C5H13N3(C2H6OS], the four-coordinate PtII atom is bonded to one N atom of the N,N,N′,N′-tetramethylguanidine ligand, one dimethyl sulfoxide S atom and two chloride ligands, forming a cis-square-planar geometry. The bond lengths and angles of the N—Pt—Cl functionality are typical for imine dichloridoplatinum(II complexes. The H atom of the imino group is oriented towards the O atom of the sulfoxide group of a neighboring molecule and forms an N—H...O hydrogen bond.

  5. Effects of isotretinoin (13-cis-retinoic acid) on the development of mouse limbs in vivo and in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwasigroch, T E; Bullen, M

    1991-12-01

    Isotretinoin (13-cis-RA) is known to be teratogenic in humans and laboratory animals. The relatively low potency of 13-cis-RA in NRMI mice in comparison to the all-trans isomer has been proposed to be due to minimal transfer across the placenta (Creech-Kraft et al., '87). To further delineate the teratogenic potential of 13-cis-RA, a dose-response, temporal study was conducted in vivo and in vitro using submerged limb culture and image analysis evaluation of development. Dose-dependent embryotoxicity was produced by treatment on GD 7, while later treatments produced inconsistent effects on resorption rate and fetal weight. Treatment on either GD 7 or GD 8 produced a number of malformations in dose-dependent manner. Most common were tail and cleft palate defects, which were produced by 13-cis-RA on each of the days tested (GD 7-GD 11), with peak malformations occurring on GD 9 and GD 10 for tail and cleft palate, respectively. Most limb defects were produced after GD 10 and GD 11 exposure. The observed frequency of defects confirmed that in ICR mice 13-cis-RA is about 10-fold less potent than all-trans-RA as a limb teratogen (Kwasigroch and Kochhar, '80; Kochhar and Penner, '87). Effects observed via image analysis following maintenance of limbs in serum-free culture medium were dose dependent. Low dose treatment produced occasional polydactyly. The intermediate dose caused somewhat variable region-dependent increases in cartilaginous bone anlagen area. The high dose of 13-cis-RA produced irregular limb outlines, a reduction in bone anlagen area, and an inhibition of alcian blue staining of cartilage without affecting morphogenesis of bone anlagen. These results confirm that, when the effects of the administered doses are evaluated, 13-cis-RA is a much less potent teratogen in comparison to the all-trans isomer. More importantly, the results show that retinoids can enhance (at low and intermediate doses), depress (at high doses), or eliminate (high dose

  6. An in vivo comparison of cis- and trans-[{sup 18}F]mefway in the nonhuman primate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wooten, Dustin, E-mail: dwooten@wisc.edu [Department of Medical Physics, Waisman Laboratory for Brain Imaging and Behavior, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53705 (United States); Hillmer, Ansel; Murali, Dhanabalan; Barnhart, Todd [Department of Medical Physics, Waisman Laboratory for Brain Imaging and Behavior, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53705 (United States); Schneider, Mary L. [Department of Kinesiology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Mukherjee, Jogeshwar [Preclinical Imaging Center, Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, University of California-Irvine, Irvine 92697 (United States); Christian, Bradley T. [Department of Medical Physics, Waisman Laboratory for Brain Imaging and Behavior, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53705 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    Introduction: [{sup 18}F]Mefway is a serotonin 5-HT{sub 1A} PET radiotracer with high specificity and favorable in vivo imaging properties. The chemical structure of [{sup 18}F]mefway permits {sup 18}F labeling in either the cis or trans positions at the 4-cyclohexyl site. We have previously reported on the in vivo kinetics of trans-[{sup 18}F]mefway in the nonhuman primate. In this work, we compare the in vivo binding of cis-[{sup 18}F]mefway and trans-[{sup 18}F]mefway to evaluate the properties of cis-[{sup 18}F]mefway for 5-HT{sub 1A} PET imaging. Methods: The cis- and trans-[{sup 18}F]mefway tracers were synthesized via nucleophilic substitution with their respective tosyl precursors. Two monkeys (one male, one female) were given bolus injections of both cis- and trans-labeled [{sup 18}F]mefway in separate experiments. Dynamic scans were acquired for 90 min with a microPET P4 scanner. Time-activity curves were extracted in the areas of the mesial temporal cortex (MTC), anterior cingulate gyrus (aCG), insular cortex (IC), raphe nuclei (RN) and cerebellum (CB). The in vivo behavior of the radiotracers was compared based upon the nondisplaceable binding potential (BP{sub ND}) using the CB as a reference region. Results: Averaged over the two subjects, BP{sub ND} values were as follows: MTC: 7.7, 0.58; aCG: 4.95, 0.32; IC: 3.27, 0.2; and RN: 3.05, 0.13, for trans-[{sup 18}F]mefway and cis-[{sup 18}F]mefway, respectively. Conclusion: The cis-labeled [{sup 18}F]mefway tracer has low specific binding throughout the 5-HT{sub 1A} regions of the brain compared to trans-[{sup 18}F]mefway, suggesting that the target-to-background binding of cis-[{sup 18}F]mefway may limit its use for in vivo assessment of 5-HT{sub 1A} binding.

  7. Systems analysis of nuclear solid-core engines for cis-lunar trajectories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the result of a comprehensive study about the use of nuclear engines in cis-lunar space. The nuclear space transportation system elements were defined and the restrictions imposed on the nuclear ferries by the chemical Earth-to-LEO transportation system were analyzed. Operating conditions are met best by tungsten-water-moderated reactors due to a high specific impulse and long durability. Specific transportation cost for LEO-to-GEO and LEO-to-lunar orbit flights were calculated for a transportation system life of 50 years. Average transportation cost were estimated to be about 141 $/kg. No difference was made for both routes mentioned above. An additional analysis of smaller and larger flight units showed only small cost reductions by employing larger ferries but a significant cost increase in case smaller flight units would be used. (orig.)

  8. Anti-HCV RNA Aptamers Targeting the Genomic cis-Acting Replication Element

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Berzal-Herranz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV replication is dependent on the existence of several highly conserved functional genomic RNA domains. The cis-acting replication element (CRE, located within the 3' end of the NS5B coding region of the HCV genome, has been shown essential for efficient viral replication. Its sequence and structural features determine its involvement in functional interactions with viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and distant RNA domains of the viral genome. This work reports the use of an in vitro selection strategy to select aptamer RNA molecules against the complete HCV-CRE. After six selection cycles, five potential target sites were identified within this domain. Inhibition assays using a sample of representative aptamers showed that the selected RNAs significantly inhibit the replication (>80% of a subgenomic HCV replicon in Huh-7 cell cultures. These results highlight the potential of aptamer RNA molecules as therapeutic antiviral agents.

  9. [Identification and mapping of cis-regulatory elements within long genomic sequences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akopov, S B; Chernov, I P; Vetchinova, A S; Bulanenkova, S S; Nikolaev, L G

    2007-01-01

    The publication of the human and other metazoan genome sequences opened up the possibility for mapping and analysis of genomic regulatory elements. Unfortunately, experimental data on genomic positions of such sequences as enhancers, silencers, insulators, transcription terminators, and replication origins are very limited, especially at the whole genome level. As most genomic regulatory elements (e.g., enhancers) are generally gene-, tissue-, or cell-specific, the prediction of these elements in silico is often ambiguous. Therefore, the development of high-throughput experimental approaches for identification and mapping of genomic functional elements is highly desirable. In this review we discuss novel approaches to high-throughput experimental identification of mammalian genomes cis-regulatory elements which is a necessary step toward the complete genome annotation. PMID:18240562

  10. Drilling fleet pegged at 4,723 rigs in C.I.S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More than 4,700 drilling rigs are stationed in the former Soviet Union, says a study compiled by Petroconsultants SA. There were 4,699 land and platform rigs and 24 mobile offshore rigs either idle or active as of Jan. 1, 1991, the Geneva firm reports. The biggest concentrations were in western Siberia with 1,306 rigs and the Volga-Ural province with 1,058. Petroconsultants the the petroleum drilling sector in the Commonwealth of Independent States is extremely fragmented and divided among drilling operators and equipment manufacturing enterprises. In 1990 and early 1991 there were 33 administrations involved in exploration and appraisal drilling throughout the C.I.S. The paper provides operational statistics and technical parameters for rigs and an indication of the overall state and performance of the rig fleet of a given administration

  11. Femtosecond structural dynamics drives the trans/cis isomerization in photoactive yellow protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pande, Kanupriya; Hutchison, Christopher D M; Groenhof, Gerrit; Aquila, Andy; Robinson, Josef S; Tenboer, Jason; Basu, Shibom; Boutet, Sébastien; DePonte, Daniel P; Liang, Mengning; White, Thomas A; Zatsepin, Nadia A; Yefanov, Oleksandr; Morozov, Dmitry; Oberthuer, Dominik; Gati, Cornelius; Subramanian, Ganesh; James, Daniel; Zhao, Yun; Koralek, Jake; Brayshaw, Jennifer; Kupitz, Christopher; Conrad, Chelsie; Roy-Chowdhury, Shatabdi; Coe, Jesse D; Metz, Markus; Xavier, Paulraj Lourdu; Grant, Thomas D; Koglin, Jason E; Ketawala, Gihan; Fromme, Raimund; Šrajer, Vukica; Henning, Robert; Spence, John C H; Ourmazd, Abbas; Schwander, Peter; Weierstall, Uwe; Frank, Matthias; Fromme, Petra; Barty, Anton; Chapman, Henry N; Moffat, Keith; van Thor, Jasper J; Schmidt, Marius

    2016-05-01

    A variety of organisms have evolved mechanisms to detect and respond to light, in which the response is mediated by protein structural changes after photon absorption. The initial step is often the photoisomerization of a conjugated chromophore. Isomerization occurs on ultrafast time scales and is substantially influenced by the chromophore environment. Here we identify structural changes associated with the earliest steps in the trans-to-cis isomerization of the chromophore in photoactive yellow protein. Femtosecond hard x-ray pulses emitted by the Linac Coherent Light Source were used to conduct time-resolved serial femtosecond crystallography on photoactive yellow protein microcrystals over a time range from 100 femtoseconds to 3 picoseconds to determine the structural dynamics of the photoisomerization reaction. PMID:27151871

  12. The cis influence of the corrin in vitamin B12 models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govender, Penny P.; Navizet, Isabelle; Perry, Christopher B.; Marques, Helder M.

    2012-10-01

    Density Functional Theory (DFT) and Quantum Theory of Atoms in Molecules (QTAIM) calculations on [NH3[Co(III)(C10-X-corrin)]-CH3]+, where the C10-H of corrin is replaced by electron-donating or -withdrawing groups, X, explore the cis influence in these vitamin B12 models. As the electron donating ability of X increases, a normal trans influence is observed: the Co-NH3 bond weakens while the Co-CH3 bond strengthens. Surprisingly, though, the Co-CH3 bond dissociation energy decreases monotonically as the Co-C bond strengthens. This is found to be a consequence of the extent of shortening of the Co-NH3 during the homolysis reaction.

  13. Cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory activity of labdane and cis-clerodane type diterpenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demetzos, C; Dimas, K; Hatziantoniou, S; Anastasaki, T; Angelopoulou, D

    2001-10-01

    Two labdane type diterpenes, labd-13(E)-ene,-8alpha,15-diol (1) and labd-13(E)-ene,-8alpha,15-yl acetate (2) were isolated from the hexane extract of Cistus creticus subsp. eriocephalus (Viv.) Greuter & Burdet leaves, while (+)-19-acetoxy-cis-clerodan-3-en-15-oic acid (3) was isolated from the hexane extract of Cistus monspeliensis L. leaves. The compounds were examined for their in vitro cytostatic and cytotoxic activity against nine human leukemic cell lines, three of which exhibited a multidrug resistant phenotype. They were also evaluated for their anti-inflammatory activity in vivo on the back of hairless mice. The cytostatic and cytotoxic activity of the tested diterpenes followed the order 1>2>3. Topical application of the diterpenes on barrier disrupted skin did not seem to have a significant contribution to the repair rate of the skin barrier. PMID:11582537

  14. Etude des nouveaux systèmes DGPS précis

    OpenAIRE

    SILVE, N

    2003-01-01

    Ce stage, dans la section Robotique et Localisation, sur l'étude des nouveaux DGPS précis a balayé l'essentiel des activités d'un ingénieur dans le domaine de la recherche appliquée. En effet, un programme comme celui-ci débute par une mise à niveau culturelle sur ce qui se fait déjà dans le domaine, et à cette occasion l'étude bibliographique menée au début de ce stage a permis de cibler de manière efficace les points cruciaux de la problématique.

  15. Cis-regulatory architecture of a brain signaling center predates the origin of chordates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yao; Minor, Paul J; Zhao, Ying-Tao; Jeong, Yongsu; Pani, Ariel M; King, Anna N; Symmons, Orsolya; Gan, Lin; Cardoso, Wellington V; Spitz, François; Lowe, Christopher J; Epstein, Douglas J

    2016-05-01

    Genomic approaches have predicted hundreds of thousands of tissue-specific cis-regulatory sequences, but the determinants critical to their function and evolutionary history are mostly unknown. Here we systematically decode a set of brain enhancers active in the zona limitans intrathalamica (zli), a signaling center essential for vertebrate forebrain development via the secreted morphogen Sonic hedgehog (Shh). We apply a de novo motif analysis tool to identify six position-independent sequence motifs together with their cognate transcription factors that are essential for zli enhancer activity and Shh expression in the mouse embryo. Using knowledge of this regulatory lexicon, we discover new Shh zli enhancers in mice and a functionally equivalent element in hemichordates, indicating an ancient origin of the Shh zli regulatory network that predates the chordate phylum. These findings support a strategy for delineating functionally conserved enhancers in the absence of overt sequence homologies and over extensive evolutionary distances. PMID:27064252

  16. Analysis of acquired resistance to cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II) in oncogene transfected SHOK cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SHOK (Syrian hamster Osaka-Kanazawa) cells were transfected with activated oncogenes (v-mos, c-myc, N-ras, H-ras, K-ras). These oncogene transfected cells were treated with 195mPt-cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II) (CDDP). Clonogenic cell survival assay showed that oncogene-transfected cells exhibited a 1.3-4.8 fold increases resistance to cisplatin compared to the parental SHOK cells. The CDDP concentration binding to DNA, RNA and protein were measured by counting the 195mPt-radioactivity. The CDDP uptake was decreased in these oncogene transfected cells. The CDDP uptake in DNA of H-ras transfected cells decreased faster than control SHOK cells. (author)

  17. Dipole surface and infrared intensities for the cis- and trans-HOCO and DOCO radicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xinchuan; Fortenberry, Ryan C; Wang, Yimin; Francisco, Joseph S; Crawford, T Daniel; Bowman, Joel M; Lee, Timothy J

    2013-08-15

    The vibrational spectra for the HOCO radical in both of its conformers and deuterated isotopologues are shown here for the first time. Building on previous work with coupled cluster quartic force fields (QFFs) in the computation of the fundamental vibrational frequencies for both cis- and trans-HOCO, coupled cluster dipole surfaces are now provided for both HOCO conformers and their corresponding deuterated isotopologues. These surfaces and subsequent vibrational configuration interaction (VCI) computations produce the intensities of transitions into vibrational states including the fundamentals, overtones, and first few combination bands of less than 4000 cm(-1), slightly beyond the O-H stretch. Simulated spectra with an artificial full width at half-maximum broadening of 10 cm(-1) are also provided in order to aid in the characterization of HOCO's vibrational frequencies and to assist detection in various laboratory or astronomical observations. PMID:23199284

  18. Luminescent Lanthanide Metal Organic Frameworks for cis-Selective Isoprene Polymerization Catalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Russell

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we are combining two areas of chemistry; solid-state coordination polymers (or Metal-Organic Framework—MOF and polymerization catalysis. MOF compounds combining two sets of different lanthanide elements (Nd3+, Eu3+/Tb3+ were used for that purpose: the use of neodymium was required due to its well-known catalytic properties in dienes polymerization. A second lanthanide, europium or terbium, was included in the MOF structure with the aim to provide luminescent properties. Several lanthanides-based MOF meeting these criteria were prepared according to different approaches, and they were further used as catalysts for the polymerization of isoprene. Stereoregular cis-polyisoprene was received, which in some cases exhibited luminescent properties in the UV-visible range.

  19. Lessons from Domestication: Targeting Cis-Regulatory Elements for Crop Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinnen, Gwen; Goossens, Alain; Pauwels, Laurens

    2016-06-01

    Domestication of wild plant species has provided us with crops that serve our human nutritional needs. Advanced DNA sequencing has propelled the unveiling of underlying genetic changes associated with domestication. Interestingly, many changes reside in cis-regulatory elements (CREs) that control the expression of an unmodified coding sequence. Sequence variation in CREs can impact gene expression levels, but also developmental timing and tissue specificity of expression. When genes are involved in multiple pathways or active in several organs and developmental stages CRE modifications are favored in contrast to mutations in coding regions, due to the lack of detrimental pleiotropic effects. Therefore, learning from domestication, we propose that CREs are interesting targets for genome editing to create new alleles for plant breeding. PMID:26876195

  20. Evolutionarily Assembled cis-Regulatory Module at a Human Ciliopathy Locus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong Ho; Silhavy, Jennifer L.; Lee, Ji Eun; Al-Gazali, Lihadh; Thomas, Sophie; Davis, Erica E.; Bielas, Stephanie L.; Hill, Kiley J.; Iannicelli, Miriam; Brancati, Francesco; Gabriel, Stacey B.; Russ, Carsten; Logan, Clare V.; Sharif, Saghira Malik; Bennett, Christopher P.; Abe, Masumi; Hildebrandt, Friedhelm; Diplas, Bill H.; Attié-Bitach, Tania; Katsanis, Nicholas; Rajab, Anna; Koul, Roshan; Sztriha, Laszlo; Waters, Elizabeth R.; Ferro-Novick, Susan; Woods, C. Geoffrey; Johnson, Colin A.; Valente, Enza Maria; Zaki, Maha S.; Gleeson, Joseph G.

    2013-01-01

    Neighboring genes are often coordinately expressed within cis-regulatory modules, but evidence that nonparalogous genes share functions in mammals is lacking. Here, we report that mutation of either TMEM138 or TMEM216 causes a phenotypically indistinguishable human ciliopathy, Joubert syndrome. Despite a lack of sequence homology, the genes are aligned in a head-to-tail configuration and joined by chromosomal rearrangement at the amphibian-to-reptile evolutionary transition. Expression of the two genes is mediated by a conserved regulatory element in the noncoding intergenic region. Coordinated expression is important for their interdependent cellular role in vesicular transport to primary cilia. Hence, during vertebrate evolution of genes involved in ciliogenesis, nonparalogous genes were arranged to a functional gene cluster with shared regulatory elements. PMID:22282472

  1. Post-Soviet gas sector restructuring in the CIS: a political economy approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper analyses progress and obstacles to gas sector reform in the most important CIS-Countries (Russia, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan), taking a political economy perspective. This reform process is embedded in a very specific post-Soviet institutional framework stemming from the legacy of socialism. Firstly, we review the evolution of the gas sector for the period 1992-1998. The paper then identifies the post-Soviet specifies of gas sector restructuring, to which any reform strategy and technical assistance have to he adapted. We derive concrete, process-oriented policy conclusions to accelerate the reform process in a market-oriented way. The paper concludes with an evaluation of the perspectives of gas sector restructuring in this geopolitically strategic area of the world. (author)

  2. cis-Bis[2-(diphenylphosphinobenzenethiolato-κ2P,S]palladium(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simón Hernández-Ortega

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, [Pd(C18H14PS2], was synthesized by the reaction of (Ph2PC6H4SH with [PdCl2(NCC6H52] in a 2:1 molar ratio in the presence of a slight excess of NEt3 as base in dichloromethane. The compound crystallizes with the Pd(II atom on a twofold rotation axis. The palladium center has a slightly distorted square-planar environment, with the two P—S chelating ligands adopting a cis configuration. The present structure is a pseudo-polymorph of [Pd(C18H14PS2]·CH2Cl2.

  3. Chemometric analysis of mass spectra of cis and trans fatty acid picolinyl esters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Torben

    1997-01-01

    configuration. Picolinyl esters of fatty acids are prepared by adding carbonyl-diimidazole, 3-hydroxy-methylpyridine and 4-pyrrolidin-o-pyridine to a solution of free fatty acids in dichloromethane. The picolinyl esters dissolved in heptane are then separated by capillary GC on a CP Sil 88 column equipped with...... between cis and trans fatty acids of C16:1, C18:1,n-9, C18:1,n-12, C18:2 and C22:1 in two- and three-dimensional score plots. With Soft Independent Modelling of Class Analogy (SIMCA), it is possible to calculate models that can predict from the mass spectra of unknown fatty acids whether they are of the...

  4. Dissection of the cis-2-decenoic acid signaling network in Pseudomonas aeruginosa using microarray technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh eRahmani-Badi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Many bacterial pathogens use quorum-sensing (QS signaling to regulate the expression of factors contributing to virulence and persistence. Bacteria produce signals of different chemical classes. The signal molecule, known as diffusible signal factor (DSF, is a cis-unsaturated fatty acid that was first described in the plant pathogen Xanthomonas campestris. Previous works have shown that human pathogen, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, also synthesizes a structurally related molecule, characterized as cis-2-decenoic acid (C10: Δ2, CDA that induces biofilm dispersal by multiple types of bacteria. Furthermore, CDA has been shown to be involved in inter-kingdom signaling that modulates fungal behavior. Therefore, an understanding of its signaling mechanism could suggest strategies for interference, with consequences for disease control. To identify the components of CDA signaling pathway in this pathogen, a comparative transcritpome analysis was conducted, in the presence and absence of CDA. A protein-protein interaction (PPI network for differentially expressed (DE genes with known function was then constructed by STRING and Cytoscape. In addition, the effects of CDA in combination with antimicrobial agents on the biofilm surface area and bacteria viability were evaluated using fluorescence microscopy and digital image analysis. Microarray analysis identified 666 differentially expressed genes in the presence of CDA and gene ontology (GO analysis revealed that in P. aeruginosa, CDA mediates dispersion of biofilms through signaling pathways, including enhanced motility, virulence as well as persistence at different temperatures. PPI data suggested that a cluster of five genes (PA4978, PA4979, PA4980, PA4982, PA4983 is involved in the CDA synthesis and perception. Combined treatments using both CDA and antimicrobial agents showed that following exposure of the biofilms to CDA, remaining cells on the surface were easily removed and killed by antimicrobials.

  5. Brachyury, Foxa2 and the cis-Regulatory Origins of the Notochord.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana S José-Edwards

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A main challenge of modern biology is to understand how specific constellations of genes are activated to differentiate cells and give rise to distinct tissues. This study focuses on elucidating how gene expression is initiated in the notochord, an axial structure that provides support and patterning signals to embryos of humans and all other chordates. Although numerous notochord genes have been identified, the regulatory DNAs that orchestrate development and propel evolution of this structure by eliciting notochord gene expression remain mostly uncharted, and the information on their configuration and recurrence is still quite fragmentary. Here we used the simple chordate Ciona for a systematic analysis of notochord cis-regulatory modules (CRMs, and investigated their composition, architectural constraints, predictive ability and evolutionary conservation. We found that most Ciona notochord CRMs relied upon variable combinations of binding sites for the transcription factors Brachyury and/or Foxa2, which can act either synergistically or independently from one another. Notably, one of these CRMs contains a Brachyury binding site juxtaposed to an (AC microsatellite, an unusual arrangement also found in Brachyury-bound regulatory regions in mouse. In contrast, different subsets of CRMs relied upon binding sites for transcription factors of widely diverse families. Surprisingly, we found that neither intra-genomic nor interspecific conservation of binding sites were reliably predictive hallmarks of notochord CRMs. We propose that rather than obeying a rigid sequence-based cis-regulatory code, most notochord CRMs are rather unique. Yet, this study uncovered essential elements recurrently used by divergent chordates as basic building blocks for notochord CRMs.

  6. Cis-acting elements in its 3′ UTR mediate post-transcriptional regulation of KRAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minlee; Kogan, Nicole; Slack, Frank J.

    2016-01-01

    Multiple RNA-binding proteins and non-coding RNAs, such as microRNAs (miRNAs), are involved in post-transcriptional gene regulation through recognition motifs in the 3′ untranslated region (UTR) of their target genes. The KRAS gene encodes a key signaling protein, and its messenger RNA (mRNA) contains an exceptionally long 3′ UTR; this suggests that it may be subject to a highly complex set of regulatory processes. However, 3′ UTR-dependent regulation of KRAS expression has not been explored in detail. Using extensive deletion and mutational analyses combined with luciferase reporter assays, we have identified inhibitory and stabilizing cis-acting regions within the KRAS 3′ UTR that may interact with miRNAs and RNA-binding proteins, such as HuR. Particularly, we have identified an AU-rich 49-nt fragment in the KRAS 3′ UTR that is required for KRAS 3′ UTR reporter repression. This element contains a miR-185 complementary element, and we show that overexpression of miR-185 represses endogenous KRAS mRNA and protein in vitro. In addition, we have identified another 49-nt fragment that is required to promote KRAS 3′ UTR reporter expression. These findings indicate that multiple cis-regulatory motifs in the 3′ UTR of KRAS finely modulate its expression, and sequence alterations within a binding motif may disrupt the precise functions of trans-regulatory factors, potentially leading to aberrant KRAS expression. PMID:26930719

  7. Brachyury, Foxa2 and the cis-Regulatory Origins of the Notochord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    José-Edwards, Diana S; Oda-Ishii, Izumi; Kugler, Jamie E; Passamaneck, Yale J; Katikala, Lavanya; Nibu, Yutaka; Di Gregorio, Anna

    2015-12-01

    A main challenge of modern biology is to understand how specific constellations of genes are activated to differentiate cells and give rise to distinct tissues. This study focuses on elucidating how gene expression is initiated in the notochord, an axial structure that provides support and patterning signals to embryos of humans and all other chordates. Although numerous notochord genes have been identified, the regulatory DNAs that orchestrate development and propel evolution of this structure by eliciting notochord gene expression remain mostly uncharted, and the information on their configuration and recurrence is still quite fragmentary. Here we used the simple chordate Ciona for a systematic analysis of notochord cis-regulatory modules (CRMs), and investigated their composition, architectural constraints, predictive ability and evolutionary conservation. We found that most Ciona notochord CRMs relied upon variable combinations of binding sites for the transcription factors Brachyury and/or Foxa2, which can act either synergistically or independently from one another. Notably, one of these CRMs contains a Brachyury binding site juxtaposed to an (AC) microsatellite, an unusual arrangement also found in Brachyury-bound regulatory regions in mouse. In contrast, different subsets of CRMs relied upon binding sites for transcription factors of widely diverse families. Surprisingly, we found that neither intra-genomic nor interspecific conservation of binding sites were reliably predictive hallmarks of notochord CRMs. We propose that rather than obeying a rigid sequence-based cis-regulatory code, most notochord CRMs are rather unique. Yet, this study uncovered essential elements recurrently used by divergent chordates as basic building blocks for notochord CRMs. PMID:26684323

  8. Biodiversidad del margen continental del Caribe colombiano.

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Incluye valiosa información producto de varios años de investigación marina de las aguas profundas, la plataforma continental y el talud superior del Caribe colombiano, llevada a cabo por un grupo multidisciplinario de investigadores en áreas de taxonomía, geología, ecología, cartografía y conservación del Invemar. Dentro de los resultados más destacados se encuentra el haber colectado e identificado más de 1600 especies, de las cuales alrededor del 35% se constituyeron en primeros registr...

  9. All-cis hentriaconta-9,15,22-triene in microbial mats formed by the phototrophic prokaryote Chloroflexus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Meer, M.T.J. van der; Schouten, S.; Ward, D.M.; Geenevasen, J.A.J.

    1999-01-01

    All-cis hentriaconta-9,15,22-triene (I) has been isolated from Chloroflexus mats, Yellowstone National Park (USA), and identified by GC (HR)MS analysis of I and its hydrogenated and DMDS-derivatized products and by 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy.

  10. Synthesis, Crystal Structure and Magnetic Properties of a New cis-Heterotrinuclear [CuL-Mn-CuL] Complex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Fuan; LIU Hongling; LI Guopeng; TAO Ruojie

    2009-01-01

    A new dissymmetrical Schiff base copper precursor complex KCuL and a cis-heterotrinuclear complex with the chemical formula [(CuL)2Mn(H2O)2]·CH3OH,have been synthesized and characterized by means of elemental analysis and IR,where H3L=(E)-N-[2-(5-chloro-2-hydroxybenzylideneamino)ethyl]-2-hydroxybenzamide.The crystal structure of the cis-heterotrinuclear complex was determined by X-ray analysis.Each cell unit of the complex contains one neutral cis-heterotrinuclear molecule and two disordered methanol molecules.The central Mn2+ ion is located at the site of O6 with a distorted octahedral geometry,and two coordination anions [CuL]- are aligned in cis-configuration.The magnetic properties indicate that the trinuclear complex not only has antiferromagnetic interactions in the internal trinuclear molecule but also has weak ferromagnetic interactions between the trinuclear units.The best-fit parameters are J=-12.1 cm-1,g=2.20 and zj'=1.37 cm-1.

  11. Physisorption of cis- and trans-decalin on Pt{sub 4} clusters from density functional theory calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Shengping [Department of Chemistry, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China); Institute of Atomic and Molecular Physics, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China); Zeng, Qun; Yang, Mingli [Institute of Atomic and Molecular Physics, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China); Yang, Shengyong [Department of Chemistry, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China)

    2011-10-15

    The adsorption of cis- and trans-decalin on Pt{sub 4} clusters was investigated using density functional theory calculations. A number of low-lying Pt{sub 4}-decalin isomers were identified with an extensive structure screening. Typical physisorption of trans- and cis-decalins on Pt{sub 4} surfaces was noted. The geometrical and electronic properties of Pt{sub 4} clusters are subjected to minor changes upon decalin adsorption. The rhombus Pt{sub 4} structures are found in most of the low-lying isomers, while the tetrahedral and square Pt{sub 4} appear in a few individuals. Trans- and cis-decalins behave similarly in the adsorption although the Pt{sub 4}-trans-decalin complexes are slightly more stable than the corresponding Pt{sub 4}-cis-decalin isomers. Three main adsorption patterns distinguished with the number and circumstance of Pt atom(s) and H atoms in decalin are characterized among the low-lying isomers. The revealed Pt{sub 4}-decalin interaction patterns could be useful for future study of dehydrogenation and cracking reactions of cycloalkanes catalyzed by Pt nanoclusters. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. Comparison of insect kinin analogs with cis-peptide bond motif 4-aminopyroglutamate identifies optimal stereochemistry for diuretic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The insect kinins are present in a wide variety of insects and function as potent diuretic peptides, though they are subject to rapid degradation by internal peptidases. Insect kinin analogs incorporating stereochemical variants of (2S,4S)-4-aminopyroglutamate (APy), a cis-peptide bond motif, demon...

  13. 75 FR 5566 - NOAA Cooperative Institutes (CIs): (1) A CI To Support NOAA Research Facilities in the Pacific...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-03

    ... published in the Federal Register on November 13, 2009 (74 FR 58603-58607). The date when applications must... notice of February 11, 2008 (73 FR 7696) are applicable to this solicitation. Limitation of Liability... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration NOAA Cooperative Institutes (CIs): (1) A CI To Support...

  14. Optimization of a new extraction technique for analysis of verbenone and cis-verbenol in pine seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Liazid, Ali; Fernández Barbero, Gerardo; Palma Lovillo, Miguel; García Barroso, Carmelo

    2007-01-01

    Results from a systematic study of the factors affecting extraction of cis-verbenol and verbenone from pine seeds are presented. Five extraction conditions were investigated: extraction solvent, method of extraction, extraction temperature, volume of solvent, and the ratio of the mass of sample to the amount of extraction solvent.

  15. DNA damage induced by cis- and carboplatin as indicator for in vitro sensitivity of ovarian carcinoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Wilde Rudy L

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The DNA damage by platinum cytostatics is thought to be the main cause of their cytotoxicity. Therefore the measurement of the DNA damage induced by cis- and carboplatin should reflect the sensitivity of cancer cells toward the platinum chemotherapeutics. Methods DNA damage induced by cis- and carboplatin in primary cells of ovarian carcinomas was determined by the alkaline comet assay. In parallel, the reduction of cell viability was measured by the fluorescein diacetate (FDA hydrolysis assay. Results While in the comet assay the isolated cells showed a high degree of DNA damage after a 24 h treatment, cell viability revealed no cytotoxicity after that incubation time. The individual sensitivities to DNA damage of 12 tumour biopsies differed up to a factor of about 3. DNA damage after a one day treatment with cis- or carboplatin correlated well with the cytotoxic effects after a 7 day treatment (r = 0,942 for cisplatin r = 0.971 for carboplatin. In contrast to the platinum compounds the correlation of DNA damage and cytotoxicity induced by adriamycin was low (r = 0,692, or did not exist for gemcitabine. Conclusion The measurement of DNA damage induced by cis- and carboplatin is an accurate method to determine the in vitro chemosensitivity of ovarian cancer cells towards these cytostatics, because of its quickness, sensitivity, and low cell number needed.

  16. Calorimetric studies of the effect of cis-carotenoids on the thermotropic phase behavior of phosphatidylcholine bilayers

    OpenAIRE

    Widomska, Justyna; Kostecka-Gugała, Anna; Latowski, Dariusz; Gruszecki, Wiesław I.; Strzałka, Kazimierz

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Carotenoid geometry is a factor that determines their solubility and orientation in the lipid memebrane as well as antioxidant capacities and bioavailability. The effects of the cis-isomers of carotenoids (zeaxanthin and ?-carotene) on the thermotropic properties of lipid membranes formed with dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) were investigated by means of differential scanning calorimetry. The results were compared with the ef...

  17. Analytical and semipreparative chiral separation of cis-itraconazole on cellulose stationary phases by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurka, Ondřej; Kučera, Lukáš; Bednář, Petr

    2016-07-01

    cis-Itraconazole is a chiral antifungal drug administered as a racemate. The knowledge of properties of individual cis-itraconazole stereoisomers is vital information for medicine and biosciences as different stereoisomers of cis-itraconazole may possess different affinity to certain biological pathways in the human body. For this purpose, either chiral synthesis of enantiomers or chiral separation of racemate can be used. This paper presents a two-step high-performance liquid chromatography approach for the semipreparative isolation of four stereoisomers (two enantiomeric pairs) of itraconazole using polysaccharide stationary phases and volatile organic mobile phases without additives in isocratic mode. The approach used involves the separation of the racemate into three fractions (i.e. two pure stereoisomers and one mixed fraction containing the remaining two stereoisomers) in the first run and consequent separation of the collected mixed fraction in the second one. For this purpose, combination of cellulose tris-(4-methylbenzoate) and cellulose tris-(3,5-dimehylphenylcarbamate) columns with complementary selectivity for cis-itraconazole provided full separation of all four stereoisomers (with purity of each isomer > 97%). The stereoisomers were collected, their optical rotation determined and their identity confirmed based on the results of a previously published study. Pure separated stereoisomers are subjected to further biological studies. PMID:27240968

  18. Characterization and identification of cis-regulatory elements in Arabidopsis based on single-nucleotide polymorphism information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkuc, Paula; Schippers, Jos H M; Walther, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Identifying regulatory elements and revealing their role in gene expression regulation remains a central goal of plant genome research. We exploited the detailed genomic sequencing information of a large number of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) accessions to characterize known and to identify novel cis-regulatory elements in gene promoter regions of Arabidopsis by relying on conservation as the hallmark signal of functional relevance. Based on the genomic layout and the obtained density profiles of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in sequence regions upstream of transcription start sites, the average length of promoter regions in Arabidopsis could be established at 500 bp. Genes associated with high degrees of variability of their respective upstream regions are preferentially involved in environmental response and signaling processes, while low levels of promoter SNP density are common among housekeeping genes. Known cis-elements were found to exhibit a decreased SNP density than sequence regions not associated with known motifs. For 15 known cis-element motifs, strong positional preferences relative to the transcription start site were detected based on their promoter SNP density profiles. Five novel candidate cis-element motifs were identified as consensus motifs of 17 sequence hexamers exhibiting increased sequence conservation combined with evidence of positional preferences, annotation information, and functional relevance for inducing correlated gene expression. Our study demonstrates that the currently available resolution of SNP data offers novel ways for the identification of functional genomic elements and the characterization of gene promoter sequences. PMID:24204023

  19. SALM4 suppresses excitatory synapse development by cis-inhibiting trans-synaptic SALM3–LAR adhesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lie, Eunkyung; Ko, Ji Seung; Choi, Su-Yeon; Roh, Junyeop Daniel; Cho, Yi Sul; Noh, Ran; Kim, Doyoun; Li, Yan; Kang, Hyeyeon; Choi, Tae-Yong; Nam, Jungyong; Mah, Won; Lee, Dongmin; Lee, Seong-Gyu; Kim, Ho Min; Kim, Hyun; Choi, Se-Young; Um, Ji Won; Kang, Myoung-Goo; Bae, Yong Chul; Ko, Jaewon; Kim, Eunjoon

    2016-01-01

    Synaptic adhesion molecules regulate various aspects of synapse development, function and plasticity. These functions mainly involve trans-synaptic interactions and positive regulations, whereas cis-interactions and negative regulation are less understood. Here we report that SALM4, a member of the SALM/Lrfn family of synaptic adhesion molecules, suppresses excitatory synapse development through cis inhibition of SALM3, another SALM family protein with synaptogenic activity. Salm4-mutant (Salm4−/−) mice show increased excitatory synapse numbers in the hippocampus. SALM4 cis-interacts with SALM3, inhibits trans-synaptic SALM3 interaction with presynaptic LAR family receptor tyrosine phosphatases and suppresses SALM3-dependent presynaptic differentiation. Importantly, deletion of Salm3 in Salm4−/− mice (Salm3−/−; Salm4−/−) normalizes the increased excitatory synapse number. These results suggest that SALM4 negatively regulates excitatory synapses via cis inhibition of the trans-synaptic SALM3–LAR adhesion. PMID:27480238

  20. 11-cis-retinal reduces constitutive opsin phosphorylation and improves quantum catch in retinoid-deficient mouse rod photoreceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ablonczy, Zsolt; Crouch, Rosalie K; Goletz, Patrice W; Redmond, T Michael; Knapp, Daniel R; Ma, Jian-Xing; Rohrer, Barbel

    2002-10-25

    Rpe65(-/-) mice produce minimal amounts of 11-cis-retinal, the ligand necessary for the formation of photosensitive visual pigments. Therefore, the apoprotein opsin in these animals has not been exposed to its normal ligand. The Rpe65(-/-) mice contain less than 0.1% of wild type levels of rhodopsin. Mass spectrometric analysis of opsin from Rpe65(-/-) mice revealed unusually high levels of phosphorylation in dark-adapted mice but no other structural alterations. Single flash and flicker electroretinograms (ERGs) from 1-month-old animals showed trace rod function but no cone response. B-wave kinetics of the single-flash ERG are comparable with those of dark-adapted wild type mice containing a full compliment of rhodopsin. Application (intraperitoneal injection) of 11-cis-retinal to Rpe65(-/-) mice increased the rod ERG signal, increased levels of rhodopsin, and decreased opsin phosphorylation. Therefore, exogenous 11-cis-retinal improves photoreceptor function by regenerating rhodopsin and removes constitutive opsin phosphorylation. Our results indicate that opsin, which has not been exposed to 11-cis-retinal, does not generate the activity generally associated with the bleached apoprotein. PMID:12176991

  1. Ring-extended gramicidin S analogs Containing cis δ-sugar amino acid turn mimetics with varying ring size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knijnenburg, A.D.; Spalburg, E.; Neeling, A.J. de; Mars-Groenendijk, R.H.; Noort, D.; Grotenbreg, G.M.; Marel, G.A. van der; Overkleeft, H.S.; Overhand, M.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a series of ring-extended gramicidin S derivatives, 9-14, that have four ornithine residues as polar protonated side chains and one modified turn region containing a mono-functionalized cis-δ-oxetane, δ-furanoid, or δ-pyranoid sugar amino acid residue. Of the GS analogs evaluat

  2. Boronate Affinity Fluorescent Nanoparticles for Förster Resonance Energy Transfer Inhibition Assay of cis-Diol Biomolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuangshou; Ye, Jin; Li, Xinglin; Liu, Zhen

    2016-05-17

    Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) has been essential for many applications, in which an appropriate donor-acceptor pair is the key. Traditional dye-to-dye combinations remain the working horses but are rather nonspecifically susceptive to environmental factors (such as ionic strength, pH, oxygen, etc.). Besides, to obtain desired selectivity, functionalization of the donor or acceptor is essential but usually tedious. Herein, we present fluorescent poly(m-aminophenylboronic acid) nanoparticles (poly(mAPBA) NPs) synthesized via a simple procedure and demonstrate a FRET scheme with suppressed environmental effects for the selective sensing of cis-diol biomolecules. The NPs exhibited stable fluorescence properties, resistance to environmental factors, and a Förster distance comparable size, making them ideal donor for FRET applications. By using poly(mAPBA) NPs and adenosine 5'-monophosphate modified graphene oxide (AMP-GO) as a donor and an acceptor, respectively, an environmental effects-suppressed boronate affinity-mediated FRET system was established. The fluorescence of poly(mAPBA) NPs was quenched by AMP-GO while it was restored when a competing cis-diol compounds was present. The FRET system exhibited excellent selectivity and improved sensitivity toward cis-diol compounds. Quantitative inhibition assay of glucose in human serum was demonstrated. As many cis-diol compounds such as sugars and glycoproteins are biologically and clinically significant, the FRET scheme presented herein could find more promising applications. PMID:27089186

  3. cis-Regulatory control of the initial neurogenic pattern of onecut gene expression in the sea urchin embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsi, Julius C; Davidson, Eric H

    2016-01-01

    Specification of the ciliated band (CB) of echinoid embryos executes three spatial functions essential for postgastrular organization. These are establishment of a band about 5 cells wide which delimits and bounds other embryonic territories; definition of a neurogenic domain within this band; and generation within it of arrays of ciliary cells that bear the special long cilia from which the structure derives its name. In Strongylocentrotus purpuratus the spatial coordinates of the future ciliated band are initially and exactly determined by the disposition of a ring of cells that transcriptionally activate the onecut homeodomain regulatory gene, beginning in blastula stage, long before the appearance of the CB per se. Thus the cis-regulatory apparatus that governs onecut expression in the blastula directly reveals the genomic sequence code by which these aspects of the spatial organization of the embryo are initially determined. We screened the entire onecut locus and its flanking region for transcriptionally active cis-regulatory elements, and by means of BAC recombineered deletions identified three separated and required cis-regulatory modules that execute different functions. The operating logic of the crucial spatial control module accounting for the spectacularly precise and beautiful early onecut expression domain depends on spatial repression. Previously predicted oral ectoderm and aboral ectoderm repressors were identified by cis-regulatory mutation as the products of goosecoid and irxa genes respectively, while the pan-ectodermal activator SoxB1 supplies a transcriptional driver function. PMID:26522848

  4. Abiotic Removal of TCE and cis-DCE by Magnetite under Aerobic Conditions in Ground Water (Maryland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The former Twin Cities Army Ammunition Plant (TCAAP) is located just north of St. Paul, Minnesota. Disposal of chlorinated solvents at the Building102 site on the TCAAP contaminated groundwater in the shallow, unconsolidated sand aquifer with TCE and cis-DCE. Concentrations of ...

  5. NON-BIOLOGICAL REMOVAL OF CIS-DICHLOROETHYLENE AND 1.1-DICHLOROETHYLENE IN AQUIFER SEDIMENT CONTAINING MAGNETITE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reductive dechlorination could not explain the removal of cis-DCE, and 1,1-DCE from a plume of contaminated ground water in Minnesota. To identify the processes responsible for removal, laboratory microcosms were constructed with sediment from the aquifer near the source of the ...

  6. The role of cis-zeatin-type cytokinins in plant growth regulation and mediating responses to environmental interactions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schäfer, M.; Brütting, C.; Meza-Canales, I.D.; Großkinsky, D.K.; Vaňková, Radomíra; Baldwin, I.T.; Meldau, S.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 66, č. 16 (2015), s. 4873-4884. ISSN 0022-0957 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/09/2062 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Abiotic stress * cis-zeatin * c-io(6)A37-tRNA Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 5.526, year: 2014

  7. DMPD: Activation of lymphokine genes in T cells: role of cis-acting DNA elements thatrespond to T cell activation signals. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1492121 Activation of lymphokine genes in T cells: role of cis-acting DNA elements ...html) (.csml) Show Activation of lymphokine genes in T cells: role of cis-acting ...DNA elements thatrespond to T cell activation signals. PubmedID 1492121 Title Activation of lymphokine genes in T cells: role

  8. Conserved cis-regulatory modules in promoters of genes encoding wheat high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine eRAVEL

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The concentration and composition of the gliadin and glutenin seed storage proteins (SSPs in wheat flour are the most important determinants of its end-use value. In cereals, the synthesis of SSPs is predominantly regulated at the transcriptional level by a complex network involving at least five cis-elements in gene promoters. The high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS are encoded by two tightly linked genes located on the long arms of group 1 chromosomes. Here, we sequenced and annotated the HMW-GS gene promoters of 22 electrophoretic wheat alleles to identify putative cis-regulatory motifs. We focused on 24 motifs known to be involved in SSP gene regulation. Most of them were identified in at least one HMW-GS gene promoter sequence. A common regulatory framework was observed in all the HMW-GS gene promoters, as they shared conserved cis-regulatory modules including all the five motifs known to regulate the transcription of SSP genes. This common regulatory framework comprises a composite box made of the GATA motifs and GCN4-like Motifs (GLMs and was shown to be functional as the GLMs are able to bind a bZIP transcriptional factor SPA (Storage Protein Activator. In addition to this regulatory framework, each HMW-GS gene promoter had additional motifs organized differently. The promoters of most highly expressed x-type HMW-GS genes contain an additional box predicted to bind R2R3-MYB transcriptional factors. However, the differences in annotation between promoter alleles could not be related to their level of expression. In summary, we identified a common modular organization of HMW-GS gene promoters but the lack of correlation between the cis-motifs of each HMW-GS gene promoter and their level of expression suggests that other cis-elements or other mechanisms regulate HMW-GS gene expression.

  9. Use of cis-[18F]fluoro-proline for assessment of exercise-related collagen synthesis in musculoskeletal connective tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorthe Skovgaard

    Full Text Available Protein turnover in collagen rich tissue is influenced by exercise, but can only with difficulty be studied in vivo due to use of invasive procedure. The present study was done to investigate the possibility of applying the PET-tracer, cis-[(18F]fluoro-proline (cis-Fpro, for non-invasive assessment of collagen synthesis in rat musculoskeletal tissues at rest and following short-term (3 days treadmill running. Musculoskeletal collagen synthesis was studied in rats at rest and 24 h post-exercise. At each session, rats were PET scanned at two time points following injection of cis-FPro: (60 and 240 min p.i. SUV were calculated for Achilles tendon, calf muscle and tibial bone. The PET-derived results were compared to mRNA expression of collagen type I and III. Tibial bone had the highest SUV that increased significantly (p<0.001 from the early (60 min to the late (240 min PET scan, while SUV in tendon and muscle decreased (p<0.001. Exercise had no influence on SUV, which was contradicted by an increased gene expression of collagen type I and III in muscle and tendon. The clearly, visible uptake of cis-Fpro in the collagen-rich musculoskeletal tissues is promising for multi-tissue studies in vivo. The tissue-specific differences with the highest basal uptake in bone are in accordance with earlier studies relying on tissue incorporation of isotopic-labelled proline. A possible explanation of the failure to demonstrate enhanced collagen synthesis following exercise, despite augmented collagen type I and III transcription, is that SUV calculations are not sensitive enough to detect minor changes in collagen synthesis. Further studies including kinetic compartment modeling must be performed to establish whether cis-Fpro can be used for non-invasive in-vivo assessment of exercise-induced changes in musculoskeletal collagen synthesis.

  10. Delayed translocation of NGFI-B/RXR in glutamate stimulated neurons allows late protection by 9-cis retinoic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathisen, Gro H.; Fallgren, Asa B.; Strom, Bjorn O.; Boldingh Debernard, Karen A.; Mohebi, Beata U. [Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1068, Blindern, N-0316 Oslo (Norway); Paulsen, Ragnhild E., E-mail: r.e.paulsen@farmasi.uio.no [Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1068, Blindern, N-0316 Oslo (Norway)

    2011-10-14

    Highlights: {yields} NGFI-B and RXR translocate out of the nucleus after glutamate treatment. {yields} Arresting NGFI-B/RXR in the nucleus protects neurons from excitotoxicity. {yields} Late protection by 9-cis RA is possible due to a delayed translocation of NGFI-B/RXR. -- Abstract: Nuclear receptor and apoptosis inducer NGFI-B translocates out of the nucleus as a heterodimer with RXR in response to different apoptosis stimuli, and therefore represents a potential pharmacological target. We found that the cytosolic levels of NGFI-B and RXR{alpha} were increased in cultures of cerebellar granule neurons 2 h after treatment with glutamate (excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain, involved in stroke). To find a time-window for potential intervention the neurons were transfected with gfp-tagged expressor plasmids for NGFI-B and RXR. The default localization of NGFI-Bgfp and RXRgfp was nuclear, however, translocation out of the nucleus was observed 2-3 h after glutamate treatment. We therefore hypothesized that the time-window between treatment and translocation would allow late protection against neuronal death. The RXR ligand 9-cis retinoic acid was used to arrest NGFI-B and RXR in the nucleus. Addition of 9-cis retinoic acid 1 h after treatment with glutamate reduced the cytosolic translocation of NGFI-B and RXR{alpha}, the cytosolic translocation of NGFI-Bgfp observed in live neurons, as well as the neuronal death. However, the reduced translocation and the reduced cell death were not observed when 9-cis retinoic acid was added after 3 h. Thus, late protection from glutamate induced death by addition of 9-cis retinoic acid is possible in a time-window after apoptosis induction.

  11. Determination of cis and trans Fe{sup 2+} populations in 2M{sub 1} muscovite by Moessbauer spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shabani, Amir A.T. [University of Ottawa, Department of Earth Sciences (Canada); Rancourt, Denis G. [University of Ottawa, Department of Physics (Canada); Lalonde, Andre E. [University of Ottawa, Department of Earth Sciences (Canada)

    1998-12-15

    Specimens of muscovite from Siluro-Devonian Appalachian granites of the Gander zone in New Brunswick were studied by {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy, microprobe analysis and X-ray powder diffractometry. Chemical compositions, corresponding structural formulae and powder patterns indicate that they are dioctahedral true micas of 2M{sub 1} polytype. Moessbauer spectroscopy shows that these muscovites fall into two groups having distinct spectra, despite an absence of systematic differences in their chemical compositions, X-ray patterns, unit-cell parameters, and Fe{sup 3+}/Fe{sub total} ratios. In the first group, two distinct and well-resolved {sup vi}Fe{sup 2+} spectral contributions occur whereas, in the second group, a single but broader {sup vi}Fe{sup 2+} contribution occurs. All spectra from both groups have {sup vi}Fe{sup 3+} contributions. These observations are confirmed by quadrupole splitting distribution (QSD) analyses of the spectra. Spectra from the first group clearly show a bimodal distribution of quadrupole splittings for Fe{sup 2+}, with a dominant contribution at {approx}3.0 mm/s and a minor one at {approx}2.1 mm/s. In the second group, the spectra show a broad unimodal distribution of QSDs for Fe{sup 2+}. We attribute the 3.0 and 2.1 mm/s QSD components to Fe{sup 2+} in cis and trans octahedral sites, respectively. Muscovites from our second group may have Fe{sup 2+} in both cis and trans sites but these cannot be resolved, as is usually the case, for example, with trioctahedral micas. In group one, cis/trans populations provide measures of the degree of cation order and of the density of vacancies on the cis sites. Simple models based on average unit cell site dimensions are found not to hold. Local effects seem to dominate, with Fe{sup 2+} showing no systematic preference for cis or trans sites.

  12. Photochromism of halorhodopsin. cis/trans isomerization of the retinal around the 13-14 double bond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanyi, J K

    1986-10-25

    The isomeric composition of retinal in membrane-bound and in purified but detergent-free, dark-adapted halorhodopsin was found to be about 70% 13-cis and 30% all-trans. Any illumination increased the all-trans content relative to the dark-adapted state, but blue illumination shifted the isomeric composition more toward all-trans while red illumination of blue-adapted samples shifted it more toward 13-cis. In the presence of chloride this photoisomerization caused the kind of photochromic behavior reported earlier in Smith, S. O., Marvin, M. J., Bogomolni, R. A., and Mathies, R. A. (1984) J. Biol. Chem. 259, 12326-12329, i.e. blue light caused the absorption maximum to move toward longer wavelengths and red light reversed the shift. Only the all-trans chromophore exhibited the complete photocycle described earlier in detergent-solubilized halorhodopsin, and this was the form that could be associated with light-driven chloride transport activity in cell envelope vesicles. In the absence of chloride the spectroscopic changes caused by illumination were much smaller. Reconstitution of bleached preparations with 13-cis- and all-trans-retinal, in the presence and absence of chloride, confirmed that the difference between the absorption maxima of the two isomeric forms of the chromophore is affected by chloride: 13-cis-halorhodopsin absorbs at about 567-568 nm with and without chloride, and the all-trans pigment absorbs near 568 nm in the absence of chloride, but at 578 nm in its presence. The simplest explanation of this finding is that most of the red-shift which accompanies the 13-cis----all-trans transition originates from electrostatic interaction of the retinal with chloride bound in its vicinity. PMID:3771521

  13. Cis-and Trans-Cinnamic Acids Have Different Effects on the Catalytic Properties of Arabidopsis Phenylalanine Ammonia Lyases PAL1, PAL2, PAL4

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming-Jie CHEN; Veerappan VIJAYKUMAR; Bing-Wen LU; Bing XIA; Ning LI

    2005-01-01

    Cis-cinnamic acid (CA) is a naturally occurring compound, presumably converted from transCA in higher plants. To investigate the effect of cis-CA on the activity of Arabidopsis phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), AtPAL1, AtPAL2, and AtPAL4 genes were isolated using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. These genes were fused to a glutathione S-transferase gene and overexpressed in a heterologous prokaryotic system of Escherichia coli. The purified PAL1, PAL2 and PAL4 enzymes were characterized biochemically to determine the effects of cis-CA on the kinetic parameter Km. The results showed that cis-CA is a competitive inhibitor for PAL1, but not PAL2 and PAL4, whereas trans-CA acts as a competitive inhibitor for all three PAL isomers, suggesting that cis- and trans-CA have different effects on the catalytic activity of PAL.

  14. Facies del subfondo del canal Beagle, Tierra del Fuego

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Bujalesky

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available El canal Beagle conecta los océanos Pacífico y Atlántico en el extremo meridional de Sudamérica y se ubica en el ambiente subantártico. Conforma una cuenca de unos 300 m de profundidad máxima y está separada del océano Atlántico por un umbral de 30 m de profundidad. El canal es un valle tectónico que fue completamente cubierto por el hielo glacial durante la última glaciación. Posteriormente, el canal fue ocupado por un lago glacial desde los 12.000 a los 8.000 años A.P., cuando fue invadido por el mar que alcanzó un nivel máximo entre los 6.000 y 5.000 años A.P. Con el objetivo de analizar las facies sedimentarias superficiales y del subfondo del canal se realizó un relevamiento geofísico con sonar de barrido lateral y un perfilador de 3,5 kHz. Sobre un basamento constituido por rocas metamórficas del Mesozoico, se identificaron depósitos de till y secuencias granodecrecientes que representan distintos estadios del retroceso glaciar, evidenciando hacia la sección superior facies lacustres y por encima depósitos de la transgresión marina del Holoceno. Además, se han identificado paleocauces y secuencias fluviales cubiertas por sedimentos marinos transgresivos.

  15. Estudio del proceso de crecimiento del cultivo del tomate

    OpenAIRE

    Barraza, Fernando V.; Fischer, Gerhard; Cardona, Carlos E.

    2010-01-01

    Para conocer la densidad poblacional óptimay obtener el mayor rendimiento en el cultivo deltomate en el Valle del Sinú medio, se hizo una investigaciónmediante diseño completamente al azar con cuatrotratamientos (densidades poblacionales de 20.000,25.000, 33.333 y 50.000 plantas∙ha -1) y tres repeticiones.Se tomaron las medidas directas: altura de planta, númerode hojas, área foliar, número de frutos y rendimiento.También se calcularon los índices de crecimiento: tasa decrecimiento del cultiv...

  16. Identification and comparative analysis of sixteen fungal peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase repertoires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pemberton Trevor J

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase (PPIase class of proteins is present in all known eukaryotes, prokaryotes, and archaea, and it is comprised of three member families that share the ability to catalyze the cis/trans isomerisation of a prolyl bond. Some fungi have been used as model systems to investigate the role of PPIases within the cell, however how representative these repertoires are of other fungi or humans has not been fully investigated. Results PPIase numbers within these fungal repertoires appears associated with genome size and orthology between repertoires was found to be low. Phylogenetic analysis showed the single-domain FKBPs to evolve prior to the multi-domain FKBPs, whereas the multi-domain cyclophilins appear to evolve throughout cyclophilin evolution. A comparison of their known functions has identified, besides a common role within protein folding, multiple roles for the cyclophilins within pre-mRNA splicing and cellular signalling, and within transcription and cell cycle regulation for the parvulins. However, no such commonality was found with the FKBPs. Twelve of the 17 human cyclophilins and both human parvulins, but only one of the 13 human FKBPs, identified orthologues within these fungi. hPar14 orthologues were restricted to the Pezizomycotina fungi, and R. oryzae is unique in the known fungi in possessing an hCyp33 orthologue and a TPR-containing FKBP. The repertoires of Cryptococcus neoformans, Aspergillus fumigatus, and Aspergillus nidulans were found to exhibit the highest orthology to the human repertoire, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae one of the lowest. Conclusion Given this data, we would hypothesize that: (i the evolution of the fungal PPIases is driven, at least in part, by the size of the proteome, (ii evolutionary pressures differ both between the different PPIase families and the different fungi, and (iii whilst the cyclophilins and parvulins have evolved to perform conserved

  17. Marketing Mix del Software.

    OpenAIRE

    Yudith del Carmen Rodríguez Pérez

    2006-01-01

    La ingeniería del software y los modelos de calidad del software han consolidado sus esfuerzos en el proceso de producción del mismo, sin embargo son pocos sus aportes en el proceso de comercialización. Es esencial en la ciencia de la computación desarrollar un modelo de comercialización para las organizaciones productoras de software con el fin de elevar la productividad de las mismas. Sin embargo, es preciso primero conocer las características del producto software que los diferencian de ot...

  18. Los sentimientos del Cid

    OpenAIRE

    Aurelio González

    2007-01-01

    Un recorrido por los sentimientos que se han plasmado en la caracterización del personaje del Cid conlleva el análisis de las formas expresivas, que se utilizan para que estos sentimientos sean verosímiles, sin entrar en contradicción con la condición heroica y épica del personaje. La consideración de las expresiones de tristeza, alegría, devoción o gratitud de Rodrigo permite identificar estrategias discursivas del poema que intentan acercar al receptor a una valoración positiva de la baja n...

  19. Evaluación de la distribución de contaminantes orgánicos persistentes (COPs) en aire en la zona de la cuenca del Plata mediante muestreadores pasivos artificiales

    OpenAIRE

    Astoviza, Malena J.

    2014-01-01

    Esta tesis presenta los resultados del estudio de Contaminantes Orgánicos Persistentes (HAPs: Hidrocarburos Aromáticos Policíclicos; PCBs: Bifenilos Policlorados y POCLs: Pesticidas Organoclorados incluyendo Endos: Endosulfanos; DDTs: diclorodifeniltricloroetano y sus metabolitos DDE y DDD; α- β- y γ-HCHs: hexaclorociclohexanos; y CLDs: heptacloro y su epóxido, trans- y cis- clordanos y nonaclors) en el aire de 23 localidades del sur de la cuenca del Plata (Litoral: Entre Rios y Santa Fe; y B...

  20. Estudio del léxico del Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Estrella Santos, Ana Teresa

    2008-01-01

    El presente trabajo de investigación pretende proporcionar una descripción del léxico del español del Ecuador, a partir de materiales de la lengua hablada. Hemos llevado a cabo un análisis contrastivo del léxico de las provincias de Pichincha y Guayas, una recopilación del léxico general del Ecuador y un análisis de los quichuismos presentes en nuestro corpus.

  1. Riesgos laborales en trabajadores del sector informal del Cauca, Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Augusto Muñoz-Caicedo; Pilar Mirely Chois-Lenis

    2014-01-01

    Antecedentes. Un estudio a nivel nacional permitió establecer los riesgos a los cuales estaban expuestos los trabajadores del sector informal del comercio. Sin embargo, no fue incluido el Departamento del Cauca. Objetivo. Describirlos riesgos laborales de las personas ocupadas en el sector informal del comercio, en cinco municipios del departamento del Cauca, durante el 2011. Materiales y métodos. Estudio descriptivo, transversal, desarrollado con 223 sujetos a quienes se les aplicó una encue...

  2. The novel complex allele [A238V;F508del] of the CFTR gene: clinical phenotype and possible implications for cystic fibrosis etiological therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diana, Anna; Polizzi, Angela Maria; Santostasi, Teresa; Ratclif, Luigi; Pantaleo, Maria Giuseppina; Leonetti, Giuseppina; Iusco, Danila Rosa; Gallo, Crescenzio; Conese, Massimo; Manca, Antonio

    2016-06-01

    Few mutations in cis have been annotated for F508del homozygous patients. Southern Italy patients who at a first analysis appeared homozygous for the F508del mutation (n=63) or compound heterozygous for the F508del and another mutation in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene (n=155) were searched for the A238V mutation in exon 6. The allelic frequency of the complex allele [A238V;F508del] was 0.04. When the whole data set was used (comprised also of 56 F508del/F508del and 34 F508del/other mutation controls), no differences reached the statistical significance in the clinical parameters, except chloride concentrations which were lower in [A238V;F508del]/other mutation compared with F508del/other mutation (P=0.03). The two study groups presented less complications than the control groups. Within the minimal data set (34 F508del/F508del, 27 F508del/other mutation, 4 [A238V;F508del]/F508del cases and 5 [A238V;F508del]/other mutation cases); that is, presenting all the variables in each patient, forced expiratory volume in 1 s and forced vital capacity presented a trend to lower levels in the study groups in comparison with the F508del/F508del group, and C-reactive protein approximated statistically significant higher levels in the [A238V;F508del]/other mutation as compared with F508del/F508del patients (P=0.09). The analysis of statistical dependence among the variables showed a significant anticorrelation between chloride and body mass index in the [A238V;F508del]/other mutation group. In conclusion, the complex allele [A238V;F508del] seems to be associated with less general complications than in the control groups, on the other hand possibly giving a worse pulmonary phenotype and higher systemic/local inflammatory response. These findings have implications for the correct recruitment and clinical response of F508del patients in the clinical trials testing the new etiological drugs for cystic fibrosis. PMID:26911355

  3. Spectral characteristics of ions in the earth's plasmasheet. Statistical results from Cluster CIS and RAPID

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. We present a comprehensive statistical study of the spectral characteristics of ions in the Earth's plasma sheet for various geomagnetic disturbance levels. The study is based on more than 2000 hours of data combined from the Cluster CIS and RAPID instruments obtained during the tail season (July-October). In addition we have utilized solar wind measurements from the ACE spacecraft, properly time shifted to be representative for the upstream magnetopause. The results show that the higher energies often deviate significantly from a Maxwellian distribution, and is better represented by a Kappa distribution. The actual spectral slope depends on various magnetospheric driver parameters, such as AE and Dst activity indicies, and solar wind input. During disturbed geomagnetic conditions, a significant hardening of the spectra is observed. Periods with high solar wind pressure and a strong magnetopause reconnection rate are also characterized by a much harder spectra. Unlike the electron spectra, we do not see any local time dependence in the ion spectra.

  4. Synchrotron FTIR spectroscopy of weak torsional bands: A case study of cis-methyl formate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudorie, M.; Ilyushin, V.; Vander Auwera, J.; Pirali, O.; Roy, P.; Huet, T. R.

    2012-08-01

    The far infrared spectrum of cis-methyl formate has been recorded on the AILES beamline of the synchrotron SOLEIL using a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer coupled to a long path cell. The very weak fundamental band associated with the methyl-top torsion mode (ν18) was observed. The frequency analysis was performed using the "rho axis method", and the microwave and millimeter-wave data from the literature. A precise determination of the band origins ({ν }_{18}^A = 132.4303 cm-1 and {ν }_{18}^E = 131.8445 cm-1) and of the barrier height [V3 = 370.7398 (58) cm-1] have been obtained. The intensity of the ν18 fundamental band was determined to be 3.4 × 10-21 cm-1/(molecule cm-2) at 297 K, equally shared among A-A and E-E transitions, thus leading to a dipole moment component μc(3) equal to 0.0483 D. The results were compared with the ab initio calcula-tions of Senent et al. [Astrophys. J. 627, 567 (2005)], 10.1086/430201.

  5. Stock Summary Reports for Columbia River Anadromous Salmonids, Volume V; Idaho Subbasins, 1992 CIS Summary Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keifer, Sharon (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID); Rowe, Mike (Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, Fort Hall, ID); Hatch, Keith (Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission, Portland, OR)

    1993-05-01

    An essential component of the effort to rebuild the Columbia Basin's anadromous fish resources is that available information and experience be organized and shared among numerous organizations and individuals. Past experience and knowledge must form the basis for actions into the future. Much of this knowledge exists only in unpublished form in agency and individual files. Even that information which is published in the form of technical and contract reports receives only limited distribution and is often out of print and unavailable after a few years. Only a small fraction of the basin's collective knowledge is captured in permanent and readily available databases (such as the Northwest Environmental Database) or in recognized journals. State, tribal, and federal fishery managers have recognized these information management problems and have committed to a program, the Coordinated Information System Project, to capture and share more easily the core data and other information upon which management decisions are based. That project has completed scoping and identification of key information needs and development of a project plan. Work performed under the CIS project will be coordinated with and extend information contained in the Northwest Environmental Database. Construction of prototype systems will begin in Phase 3. This report is one in a series of seven describing the results of the Coordinated Information System scoping and needs identification phase. A brief description of each of these reports is given.

  6. The Development of the STEM Career Interest Survey (STEM-CIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kier, Meredith W.; Blanchard, Margaret R.; Osborne, Jason W.; Albert, Jennifer L.

    2014-06-01

    Internationally, efforts to increase student interest in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) careers have been on the rise. It is often the goal of such efforts that increased interest in STEM careers should stimulate economic growth and enhance innovation. Scientific and educational organizations recommend that efforts to interest students in STEM majors and careers begin at the middle school level, a time when students are developing their own interests and recognizing their academic strengths. These factors have led scholars to call for instruments that effectively measure interest in STEM classes and careers, particularly for middle school students. In response, we leveraged the social cognitive career theory to develop a survey with subscales in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. In this manuscript, we detail the six stages of development of the STEM Career Interest Survey. To investigate the instrument's reliability and psychometric properties, we administered this 44-item survey to over 1,000 middle school students (grades 6-8) who primarily were in rural, high-poverty districts in the southeastern USA. Confirmatory factor analyses indicate that the STEM-CIS is a strong, single factor instrument and also has four strong, discipline-specific subscales, which allow for the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics subscales to be administered separately or in combination. This instrument should prove helpful in research, evaluation, and professional development to measure STEM career interest in secondary level students.

  7. The novel effect of cis-2-decenoic acid on biofilm producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Soheili

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Microbial biofilms are a main cause of many chronic infections and mortalities, such as dental caries, cystic fibrosis, osteoradionecrosis, urinary tract infections and native valve endocarditis. These polymeric matrices are sessile communities with different rules from those forms via known planktonic bacteria. One of the important biofilm-producing human pathogens is Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which causes death in the majority of people who suffer from cystic fibrosis, AIDS, burns and neutropenic cancer. To find a method for controlling the growth and resistance of P. aeruginosa biofilm, this study investigated the dispersion induction of this microorganism with a diffusible signal factor (DSF, cis-2-decenoic acid (CDA, in combination with Tobramycin as a useful antibiotic. Our findings confirmed that although CDA did not act as a dispersion inducer in this experiment, it did show an antimicrobial effect and decreased the MIC of Tobramycin. These results suggested that research on the probable new effects of DSF molecules will result in advances in the control of biofilm infections.

  8. Bacterial regulon modeling and prediction based on systematic cis regulatory motif analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bingqiang; Zhou, Chuan; Li, Guojun; Zhang, Hanyuan; Zeng, Erliang; Liu, Qi; Ma, Qin

    2016-03-01

    Regulons are the basic units of the response system in a bacterial cell, and each consists of a set of transcriptionally co-regulated operons. Regulon elucidation is the basis for studying the bacterial global transcriptional regulation network. In this study, we designed a novel co-regulation score between a pair of operons based on accurate operon identification and cis regulatory motif analyses, which can capture their co-regulation relationship much better than other scores. Taking full advantage of this discovery, we developed a new computational framework and built a novel graph model for regulon prediction. This model integrates the motif comparison and clustering and makes the regulon prediction problem substantially more solvable and accurate. To evaluate our prediction, a regulon coverage score was designed based on the documented regulons and their overlap with our prediction; and a modified Fisher Exact test was implemented to measure how well our predictions match the co-expressed modules derived from E. coli microarray gene-expression datasets collected under 466 conditions. The results indicate that our program consistently performed better than others in terms of the prediction accuracy. This suggests that our algorithms substantially improve the state-of-the-art, leading to a computational capability to reliably predict regulons for any bacteria.

  9. Degradation of cis- and trans-(4-methylcyclohexyl) methanol in activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Li; Zhi, Wei; Liu, Yangsheng; Smiley, Elizabeth; Gallagher, Daniel; Chen, Xi; Dietrich, Andrea M; Zhang, Husen

    2016-04-01

    Crude (4-methylcyclohexyl)methanol (MCHM) caused extensive contamination of drinking water, wastewater, and the environment during the 2014 West Virginia Chemical Spill. However, information related to the environmental degradation of cis- and trans-4-MCHM, the main components of the crude 4-MCHM mixture, remains largely unknown. This study is among the first to investigate the degradation kinetics and transformation of 4-MCHM isomers in activated sludge. The 4-MCHM loss was mainly due to biodegradation to form carbon dioxide (CO2), plus acetic, propionic, isobutyric, and isovaleric acids with little contribution from adsorption. The biodegradation of 4-MCHM isomers followed the first-order kinetic model with half-lives higher than 0.50 days. Nitrate augmented the degradation of 4-MCHM isomers, while glucose and acetate decreased their degradation. One 4-MCHM-degrading bacterium isolated from activated sludge was identified as Acinetobacter bouvetii strain EU40 based on 16S rRNA gene sequences. This study will enhance the prediction of the environmental fate of 4-MCHM in water treatment systems. PMID:26745518

  10. FRACTAL CHARACTER OF PHASE MORPHOLOGY OF HIGH IMPACT POLYSTYRENE/POLY(cis-BUTADIENE) RUBBER BLENDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun-yan Li; Yun-ping Han; Jing Sheng

    2006-01-01

    Evolution and fractal character of the phase morphology of high impact polystyrene/poly(cis-butadiene) rubber (HIPS/PcBR) blends during melting and mixing were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The characteristic length L was defined as the size of particles of the dispersed phase in blends. Different fractal dimensions, Df and Dm, were introduced to study the distribution width of phase dimensions in the dimensionless region and the uniformity of the spatial distribution of particles, respectively. The results showed that the average characteristic length Lm and Df increase as the volume fraction of the dispersed phase increases, when the volume fraction of the dispersed phase is lower than 50%. In other words, the size of particles increases and their distribution in the dimensionless region becomes more uniform. Meanwhile, the uniformity of the spatial distribution becomes more perfect as the volume fraction increases. At a certain composition, Lm decreases in the initial stage of the mixing and levels off in the late stage. In the initial stage, Df becomes large rapidly with the process of blending, which means that the distribution of L in the dimensionless region becomes more uniform. Meanwhile, the spatial distribution tends to be ideal rapidly in the early stage and fluctuates in a definite range in the late stage of the mixing.

  11. Characterization of Putative cis-Regulatory Elements in Genes Preferentially Expressed in Arabidopsis Male Meiocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhua Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Meiosis is essential for plant reproduction because it is the process during which homologous chromosome pairing, synapsis, and meiotic recombination occur. The meiotic transcriptome is difficult to investigate because of the size of meiocytes and the confines of anther lobes. The recent development of isolation techniques has enabled the characterization of transcriptional profiles in male meiocytes of Arabidopsis. Gene expression in male meiocytes shows unique features. The direct interaction of transcription factors (TFs with DNA regulatory sequences forms the basis for the specificity of transcriptional regulation. Here, we identified putative cis-regulatory elements (CREs associated with male meiocyte-expressed genes using in silico tools. The upstream regions (1 kb of the top 50 genes preferentially expressed in Arabidopsis meiocytes possessed conserved motifs. These motifs are putative binding sites of TFs, some of which share common functions, such as roles in cell division. In combination with cell-type-specific analysis, our findings could be a substantial aid for the identification and experimental verification of the protein-DNA interactions for the specific TFs that drive gene expression in meiocytes.

  12. Distribution of trans and cis 18:1 fatty acid isomers in chicks fed different fats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    al-Athari, A K; Watkins, B A

    1988-05-01

    The effects of dietary trans isomers of 18:1 (t-18:1) were studied in chicks by feeding purified diets containing soybean oil (SBO) as the control lipid source, saturated fat (SF), hydrogenated soybean oil (HSBO), or spent restaurant grease (SRG) for three weeks. Argentation thin-layer chromatography and gas-liquid chromatography were used to separate trans and cis (c) isomers of 18:1 and to determine the fatty acid composition in chick tissues. Chicks fed HSBO (34% t-18:1 of total 18:1) had weight gains similar to those of chicks fed SF but significantly (P less than .05) lower gains than those of chicks fed SBO or SRG. No differences were observed in feed conversion ratios (total feed:total gain) across treatments. Trans-18:1 was incorporated into liver, heart, lung, and abdominal fat pad of chicks fed HSBO. Chicks fed HSBO had higher levels of c-16:1 omega 7 and 18:1 and lower levels of linoleate and arachidonate in tissue lipids. Similar changes were observed in liver microsomal fatty acids of chicks fed SRG that was adequate in linoleate, but which contained low levels of t-18:1 (4% of total 18:1). Positional and geometrical isomers of 18:1 appear to impair essential fatty acid metabolism in the chick. PMID:3405954

  13. A digital monolithic active pixel sensor chip in a quadruple-well CIS process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A CMOS sensor chip for charged particle detection has been developed and submitted for fabrication in a 0.18 m Quadruple-Well (N and P-Wells, Deep N and P-Wells) CMOS Image Sensor (CIS) process. Improvement of the radiation hardness, the readout speed and the power dissipation of the mainstream CMOS sensors is expected with the exploration of this process. In order to ensure better charge collection and neutron tolerance, wafers with high-resistivity epitaxial layer have been chosen. The chip comprises several sub-chips, and in this paper one of them, a digital CMOS sensor prototype developed in order to validate the key analog blocs (from sensing element to I-bit digital conversion) of a binary MAPS in this process will be presented. The digital sensor prototype comprises four different sub-arrays of 20 μm pitch 64 * 32 pixels, 128 column-level auto-zeroed discriminators, a sequencer and an output digital multiplexer. Laboratory tests results including the charge-to-voltage conversion factor, the charge collection efficiency, the temporal noise and the fixed-pattern noise are presented in details. A 55Fe source is used for calibration of pixels. Some irradiation results will also be given. (authors)

  14. Computational study of cis-oleic acid adsorption on Ni(1 1 1) surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simonetti, S., E-mail: ssimonet@uns.edu.ar [Departamento de Fisica, IFISUR, Universidad Nacional del Sur-CONICET, Av. Alem 1253, 8000 Bahia Blanca (Argentina); Departamentos de Ciencias Basicas e Ingenieria Mecanica, Universidad Tecnologica Nacional, Facultad Regional Bahia Blanca, 11 de Abril 461, 8000 Bahia Blanca (Argentina); Ulacco, S. [Departamentos de Ciencias Basicas e Ingenieria Mecanica, Universidad Tecnologica Nacional, Facultad Regional Bahia Blanca, 11 de Abril 461, 8000 Bahia Blanca (Argentina); Brizuela, G.; Juan, A. [Departamento de Fisica, IFISUR, Universidad Nacional del Sur-CONICET, Av. Alem 1253, 8000 Bahia Blanca (Argentina)

    2012-05-15

    In the present work, the Atom Superposition and Electron Delocalization method has been applied in order to study the adsorption of cis-oleic acid on Ni(1 1 1) surface. This molecule presents two active functional groups, C=C (in the middle) and -COOH (at one end). Therefore, it is important to explore adsorption on the metal surface through the C=C bond in a geometry parallel to the surface and also in a vertical one with -COOH pointing at Ni atoms. Our results indicate that the parallel geometry is more stable than the vertical one and C=C bond adsorption dominates the process. Energetic results show a strong interaction with the metallic surface. Ni-Ni, C=C, and C-C bonds are weakened upon adsorption because of a bonding interaction between carbons and nickel surface. We found that Ni 5d{sub z}{sup 2} and 5d{sub yz} orbitals play an important role in the bonding between C p{sub x}, p{sub z} orbitals and surface, and the same happens with Ni 6p{sub x} and Ni 6p{sub z}. A small Ni-H interaction is also detected.

  15. Mechanisms, Chemistry, and Kinetics of Anaerobic Biodegradation of cis-Dichloroethene and Vinyl Chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarty, P.L.; Spormann, A.M.

    2000-12-01

    Anaerobic biological processes can result in PCE and TCE destruction through conversion to cis-dichloroethene (cDCE) then to vinyl chloride (VC), and finally to ethene. Here, the chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs) serve as electron acceptors in energy metabolism, requiring electron donors such as hydrogen from an external source. The purpose of this study was to learn more about the biochemistry of cDCE and VC conversion to ethene, to better understand the requirements for electron donors, and to determine factors affecting the rates of CAH degradation and organism growth. The biochemistry of reductive dehalogenation of VC was studied with an anaerobic mixed culture enriched on VC. In other studies on electron donor needs for dehalogenation of cDCE and VC, competition for hydrogen was found to occur between the dehalogenators and other microorganisms such as methanogens and homoacetogens in a benzoate-acclimated dehalogenating methanogenic mixed culture. Factors affecting the relative rates of destruction of the solvents and their intermediate products were evaluated. Studies using a mixed PCE-dehalogenating culture as well as the VC enrichment for biochemical studies suggested that the same species was involved in both cDCE and VC dechlorination, and that cDCE and VC competitively inhibited each other's dechlorination rate.

  16. Columbia River Coordinated Information System (CIS); Data Catalog, 1992 Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Connor, Dick (Washington Department of Fisheries, Olympia, WA); Allen, Stan; Reece, Doug (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)

    1993-05-01

    The Columbia River Coordinated Information system (CIS) Project started in 1989 to address regional data sharing. Coordinated exchange and dissemination of any data must begin with dissemination of information about those data, such as: what is available; where the data are stored; what form they exist in; who to contact for further information or access to these data. In Phase II of this Project (1991), a Data Catalog describing the contents of regional datasets and less formal data collections useful for system monitoring and evaluation projects was built to improve awareness of their existence. Formal datasets are described in a `Dataset Directory,` while collections of data are Used to those that collect such information in the `Data Item Directory.` The Data Catalog will serve regional workers as a useful reference which centralizes the institutional knowledge of many data contacts into a single source. Recommendations for improvement of the Catalog during Phase III of this Project include addressing gaps in coverage, establishing an annual maintenance schedule, and loading the contents into a PC-based electronic database for easier searching and cross-referencing.

  17. Liquid-Liquid Equilibria of Ternary Systems cis-1,2-Dimethylcyclohexane+Toluene+Sulfolane☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoyan Sun; Shuguang Xiang

    2014-01-01

    Liquid–Liquid Equilibrium (LLE) data for three Ternary Systems comprising cis-1,2-dimethylcyclohexane+toluene+sulfolane were measured at 298.15, 313.15 and 328.15 K under atmospheric pressure. The phase di-agrams for the ternary systems were presented. The reliability of the experiment data was tested using the Othmer–Tobias correlation. The LLE data were then correlated with the universal functional activity coefficient for liquid–liquid systems (UNIF-LL) and non-random two liquid using dataset 2 (NRTL/2) activity coefficient models to obtain the binary interaction parameters as programmed by the Aspen Plus simulation. The results showed that the experimental data were satisfactorily represented by both the UNIF-LL and the NRTL/2 models as revealed from the very smal values of the root mean square error and the absolute deviation in composition. © 2014 The Chemical Industry and Engineering Society of China, and Chemical Industry Press. Al rights reserved.

  18. Cis-regulatory programs in the development and evolution of vertebrate paired appendages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrke, Andrew R; Shubin, Neil H

    2016-09-01

    Differential gene expression is the core of development, mediating the genetic changes necessary for determining cell identity. The regulation of gene activity by cis-acting elements (e.g., enhancers) is a crucial mechanism for determining differential gene activity by precise control of gene expression in embryonic space and time. Modifications to regulatory regions can have profound impacts on phenotype, and therefore developmental and evolutionary biologists have increasingly focused on elucidating the transcriptional control of genes that build and pattern body plans. Here, we trace the evolutionary history of transcriptional control of three loci key to vertebrate appendage development (Fgf8, Shh, and HoxD/A). Within and across these regulatory modules, we find both complex and flexible regulation in contrast with more fixed enhancers that appear unchanged over vast timescales of vertebrate evolution. The transcriptional control of vertebrate appendage development was likely already incredibly complex in the common ancestor of fish, implying that subtle changes to regulatory networks were more likely responsible for alterations in phenotype rather than the de novo addition of whole regulatory domains. Finally, we discuss the dangers of relying on inter-species transgenesis when testing enhancer function, and call for more controlled regulatory swap experiments when inferring the evolutionary history of enhancer elements. PMID:26783722

  19. Microwave spectra of the deuterium isotopologues of cis-hexatriene and a semiexperimental equilibrium structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Norman C; Chen, Yihui; Fuson, Hannah A; Tian, Hengfeng; van Besien, Herman; Conrad, Andrew R; Tubergen, Michael J; Rudolph, Heinz Dieter; Demaison, Jean

    2013-10-01

    Microwave transitions and ground state rotational constants are reported for five newly synthesized deuterium isotopologues of cis-1,3,5-hexatriene (cHTE). These rotational constants along with those of the parent and the three (13)C species are used with vibration-rotation constants calculated from an MP2/cc-pVTZ model to derive an equilibrium structure. That structure is improved by the mixed estimation method. In this method, internal coordinates from good-quality quantum chemical calculations (with appropriate uncertainties) are fit simultaneously with moments of inertia of the full set of isotopologues. The new structure of cHTE is confirmed to be planar and is stabilized by an interaction between the hydrogen atoms H2 and H5, which form a bond and participate in a six-membered ring. cHTE shows larger structural effects of π-electron delocalization than does butadiene with the effects being magnified in the center of the molecule. Thus, strong structural evidence now exists for an increase in π-electron delocalization as the polyene chain lengthens. PMID:23237234

  20. Validation of skeletal muscle cis-regulatory module predictions reveals nucleotide composition bias in functional enhancers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew T Kwon

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We performed a genome-wide scan for muscle-specific cis-regulatory modules (CRMs using three computational prediction programs. Based on the predictions, 339 candidate CRMs were tested in cell culture with NIH3T3 fibroblasts and C2C12 myoblasts for capacity to direct selective reporter gene expression to differentiated C2C12 myotubes. A subset of 19 CRMs validated as functional in the assay. The rate of predictive success reveals striking limitations of computational regulatory sequence analysis methods for CRM discovery. Motif-based methods performed no better than predictions based only on sequence conservation. Analysis of the properties of the functional sequences relative to inactive sequences identifies nucleotide sequence composition can be an important characteristic to incorporate in future methods for improved predictive specificity. Muscle-related TFBSs predicted within the functional sequences display greater sequence conservation than non-TFBS flanking regions. Comparison with recent MyoD and histone modification ChIP-Seq data supports the validity of the functional regions.

  1. Spectral characteristics of protons in the Earth's plasmasheet: statistical results from Cluster CIS and RAPID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Haaland

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available We present a study of the spectral characteristics of protons in the Earth's plasma sheet for various geomagnetic disturbance levels. The study is based on about 5400 h of data combined from the Cluster RAPID and CIS instruments obtained during the tail season (July–October. The overall proton spectral shape is generally that of a κ distribution, that is, resembling a Maxwellian at lower energies which smoothly merges into a power-law tail at higher energies. The actual spectral long-term slope depends on various magnetospheric driver parameters, but is on average around 3.5–4. During disturbed conditions, such as geomagnetic storm or substorm periods, a shift in the characteristic energy is observed. For two individual storms, we also found a hardening of the spectra. Unlike the electron spectra, we do not see any significant local time dependence in the spectral slope, but we find higher average ion fluxes in the dusk side. We also do not find any direct response in the energy spectra to changes in the interplanetary magnetic field or solar wind dynamic pressure. This suggests that energization of the ions are mainly due to internal processes in the plasma sheet.

  2. Common and Specific Features of Migration Flows In Russia, CIS and Far Abroad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Vladimirovna Kuprina

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the features of migration flows in Russia, CIS and abroad in terms of transnationality and translocality. Special attention is paid to migration flows from Asia, depending on the gender perception. During the analysis, the preferences of migrants of different age groups are determined. It shows their desire for a more independent financial and professional life, relationship with family responsibilities, plans for the future. The data obtained by the method of continuous selection have led to the following conclusions: migration is a multidimensional phenomenon that requires multidisciplinary research; the heterogeneity of migration flows to the socio-cultural and gender features must be taken into account; the problem of illegal migration requires special solutions; in connection with the emigration of highly skilled professionals and immigration of low-skilled personnel, a professional important indicator of migratory replacement and attracting compatriots from abroad are important. The data obtained can be used for ethnic and cultural planning in order to improve production activities that affect the quality of solving of production tasks and programming adaptation of migrants as the significant impact of intangible factors on the development of society has been noted by economists for a long time. Thus, the economic sustainability requires new thinking based on socio-cultural sustainability determined by such global phenomena as international migration flows.

  3. The effect of cis-diamminedichloroplatinum (II) on radiation damage in mouse rectum after fractionated irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewit, L.; Oussoren, Y.; Bartelink, H. (Nederlands Kanker Inst. ' Antoni van Leeuwenhoekhuis' , Amsterdam (Netherlands)); Thames, H.D. (Anderson (M.D.) Hospital and Tumor Inst., Houston, TX (USA))

    1989-10-01

    The influence of cis-diamminedichloroplatinum (II) (c-DDP) on radiation injury in the rectum of ice was investigated after single dose and fractionated irradiation. Mice were exposed to single doses, or 2, 4 or 8 fractions of X-rays given daily (or twice a day for the 8 fractions) with or without 8 mg/kg of c-DDP. The incidence of rectal stenosis and of anal discharge were scored and a direct analysis of the data for linear-quadratic dose-dependence of damage was performed with correction for censoring. For each endpoint, c-DDP did not significantly change the dose-response curves after fractionated irradiation. Subtile modifications in the coefficients of the linear-quadratic relationship were observed. The drug appeared to increase the {alpha} term by a factor of 2.3 and the {beta} term by a factor of 1.5, but the differences did not reach statistical significance. For the rectal stenosis endpoint, the {alpha}/{beta} was 4.4 Gy after irradiation alone and 6.9 Gy after combination treatment. Again the differences were not significant. These data suggest that c-DDP did not reduce the repair capacity in the mouse rectum during fractionated irradiation. Combined modality therapy with c-DDP and radiation would therefore not be expected to cause an increas in late damage in the large bowel. (author). 23 refs.; 2 figs.; 1 tab.

  4. Computational study of cis-oleic acid adsorption on Ni(1 1 1) surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present work, the Atom Superposition and Electron Delocalization method has been applied in order to study the adsorption of cis-oleic acid on Ni(1 1 1) surface. This molecule presents two active functional groups, C=C (in the middle) and -COOH (at one end). Therefore, it is important to explore adsorption on the metal surface through the C=C bond in a geometry parallel to the surface and also in a vertical one with -COOH pointing at Ni atoms. Our results indicate that the parallel geometry is more stable than the vertical one and C=C bond adsorption dominates the process. Energetic results show a strong interaction with the metallic surface. Ni-Ni, C=C, and C-C bonds are weakened upon adsorption because of a bonding interaction between carbons and nickel surface. We found that Ni 5dz2 and 5dyz orbitals play an important role in the bonding between C px, pz orbitals and surface, and the same happens with Ni 6px and Ni 6pz. A small Ni-H interaction is also detected.

  5. Detection of discriminative sequence patterns in the neighborhood of proline cis peptide bonds and their functional annotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papaloukas Costas

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polypeptides are composed of amino acids covalently bonded via a peptide bond. The majority of peptide bonds in proteins is found to occur in the trans conformation. In spite of their infrequent occurrence, cis peptide bonds play a key role in the protein structure and function, as well as in many significant biological processes. Results We perform a systematic analysis of regions in protein sequences that contain a proline cis peptide bond in order to discover non-random associations between the primary sequence and the nature of proline cis/trans isomerization. For this purpose an efficient pattern discovery algorithm is employed which discovers regular expression-type patterns that are overrepresented (i.e. appear frequently repeated in a set of sequences. Four types of pattern discovery are performed: i exact pattern discovery, ii pattern discovery using a chemical equivalency set, iii pattern discovery using a structural equivalency set and iv pattern discovery using certain amino acids' physicochemical properties. The extracted patterns are carefully validated using a specially implemented scoring function and a significance measure (i.e. log-probability estimate indicative of their specificity. The score threshold for the first three types of pattern discovery is 0.90 while for the last type of pattern discovery 0.80. Regarding the significance measure, all patterns yielded values in the range [-9, -31] which ensure that the derived patterns are highly unlikely to have emerged by chance. Among the highest scoring patterns, most of them are consistent with previous investigations concerning the neighborhood of cis proline peptide bonds, and many new ones are identified. Finally, the extracted patterns are systematically compared against the PROSITE database, in order to gain insight into the functional implications of cis prolyl bonds. Conclusion Cis patterns with matches in the PROSITE database fell mostly into two

  6. Room temperature synthesis of nanostructured mixed-ordered-vacancy compounds (OVCs) and chalcopyrite CuInSe{sub 2} (CIS) thin films in alkaline chemical bath

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Ramphal [Thin Film and Nanotechnology Laboratory, Department of Physics, Dr Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, Aurangabad 431004 (India); Mane, Rajaram S; Ghule, Gangri Cai Anil; Ham, Duk-Ho; Min, Sun-Ki; Lee, Seung-Eon; Han, Sung-Hwan, E-mail: rps.phy@gmail.co, E-mail: shhan@hanyang.ac.k [Inorganic-Nanomaterials Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Hanyang University, Sungdong-Ku, Haengdang-dong 17, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-03-07

    Room temperature synthesis of ordered-vacancy-compounds (OVCs) and copper indium diselenide (CuInSe{sub 2}, CIS) by cation and anion exchange reactions of solid CdS thin films with CIS ionic solution in an alkaline chemical bath is reported. The growth parameters such as pH, deposition time and concentration of the solutions were optimized to achieve uniform thin films. Nanostructured CdS thin films (150 nm thick) prepared by chemical bath deposition are used for the deposition of OVC and CIS thin films. The ion exchange reaction between the CdS thin film and the CIS ionic solutions transforms the yellow colour CdS film into faint black, indicating the formation of OVC and CIS film. The resultant films were annealed in air at 200 deg. C for 1 h and further subjected to characterization using the x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray analysis, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, optical absorption and electrical measurement techniques. The OVC and CuIn{sub 3}Se{sub 5} nanodomains are observed in chalcopyrite CIS thin films and these films have nanostructured morphology onto amorphous/nanocrystalline phase of CdS. The OVC-CIS films are p-type with a band gap energy of 1.453 eV.

  7. A cis-regulatory sequence from a short intergenic region gives rise to a strong microbe-associated molecular pattern-responsive synthetic promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmeyer, Mona; Hanko, Erik K R; Roling, Lena; Gonzalez, Lilian; Wehrs, Maren; Hehl, Reinhard

    2016-06-01

    The high gene density in Arabidopsis thaliana leaves only relatively short intergenic regions for potential cis-regulatory sequences. To learn more about the regulation of genes harbouring only very short upstream intergenic regions, this study investigates a recently identified novel microbe-associated molecular pattern (MAMP)-responsive cis-sequence located within the 101 bp long intergenic region upstream of the At1g13990 gene. It is shown that the cis-regulatory sequence is sufficient for MAMP-responsive reporter gene activity in the context of its native promoter. The 3' UTR of the upstream gene has a quantitative effect on gene expression. In context of a synthetic promoter, the cis-sequence is shown to achieve a strong increase in reporter gene activity as a monomer, dimer and tetramer. Mutation analysis of the cis-sequence determined the specific nucleotides required for gene expression activation. In transgenic A. thaliana the synthetic promoter harbouring a tetramer of the cis-sequence not only drives strong pathogen-responsive reporter gene expression but also shows a high background activity. The results of this study contribute to our understanding how genes with very short upstream intergenic regions are regulated and how these regions can serve as a source for MAMP-responsive cis-sequences for synthetic promoter design. PMID:26833485

  8. Cartas del Observatorio N° 2

    OpenAIRE

    Castell, Edmon; Torres Carreño, Guillermo Andrés; Diazgranados, Carlos Nicolás; Mora, Yaneth

    2011-01-01

    El boletín del OAN, "Cartas del Observatorio", es una pieza de comunicación desarrollada entre el Observatorio Astronómico Nacional (OAN) y el Área de Comunicación del SPM. El boletín periódico forma parte de los aportes del SPM al Bicentenario de la Independencia (2010) de Colombia. Este segundo número de Cartas del Observatorio, describe la construcción del edificio, el plan museológico por parte del SPM, una de las piezas importante del OAN, la publicación de la infografía y la partici...

  9. La luz del origen del universo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casas, Alberto

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Penzias and Wilson discovered the cosmic microwave background, a luminous echo of the Big Bang, in 1965. The amount of information encoded in this relic of the early universe is truly extraordinary. At present, the most precise data about the origin and structure of the universe comes from the study of this primordial light, the full potential of which has yet to be explored.En 1965 se descubrió el fondo de radiación de microondas, un eco luminoso de la Gran Explosión (Big Bang. La cantidad de información contenida en esta reliquia del universo primitivo es verdaderamente extraordinaria. En la actualidad los datos más precisos sobre el origen y estructura del universo provienen del estudio de esta luz primigenia, que aún no ha sido explorada en todo su potencial.

  10. El equilibrio del consumidor

    OpenAIRE

    León Rodríguez, Mª Dolores; Fernández Pérez, Ana Mª

    2008-01-01

    Obtencin de la recta presupuestaria de un consumidor. Definición y características de las Curvas de indiferencia. Concepto de relación marginal de sustitución. Obtención del equilibrio del consumidor

  11. Los reptiles del Delta del Orinoco, Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Molina, César; Señaris, josefa; Rivas, Gilson

    2004-01-01

    Como resultado de cinco años (1992-1997) de exploraciones herpetológicas, revisiones bibliográficas y examen de museos nacionales, se presenta un análisis taxonómico, ecológico y biogeográfico preliminar de los reptiles del delta del río Orinoco, Estado Delta Amacuro. Se reconocen 70 especies de reptiles agrupados en tres órdenes, 22 familias y 53 géneros. El orden Squamata es el más diverso, con dominancia de las serpientes de la familias Colubridae y Boidae, y los lagartos de las familias G...

  12. Las cosas del quehacer

    OpenAIRE

    Sergio C. Staude

    2010-01-01

    El psicoanálisis es una praxis y no una práctica especulativa que solo busca afianzar un saber. Esta praxis encuentra su eje central en la noción de acto que es la invitación —y el sostén— a una experiencia y no a la acumulación de información. Ese acto da cuenta del tiempo de un pasaje, y el artículo destaca dos: el del momento inaugural del psicoanálisis y el de la función del psicoanalista en el devenir del análisis. A ambas las une la responsabilidad ...

  13. A theoretical view on the thermodynamic cis-trans equilibrium of dihalo ruthenium olefin metathesis (pre-)catalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Pump, Eva

    2015-02-24

    Abstract: This work was conducted to provide an overview on the position of the thermodynamic cis–trans equilibrium of 85 conventional and X-chelated alkylidene-ruthenium complexes (X=O, S, Se, N, P, Cl, I, Br). The reported energies (ΔE) were obtained through single-point calculations with M06 functional and TZVP basis set from BP86/SVP-optimized cis- and trans-dichloro geometries and using the polarizable continuum model to simulate the influence of the solvent. Dichloromethane and toluene were selected as examples for solvents with high and low dielectric constants. The obtained relative stabilities of the cis- and trans-dihalo derivatives of the respective alkylidene complexes will serve for a better explanation of their catalytic activity as has been disclosed herein with selected examples.Graphical abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  14. Ternary semiconductor compounds CuInS2 (CIS) thin films synthesized by electrochemical atomic layer deposition (EC-ALD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the formation and characterization of the I-III-VI2 semiconductor compound CuInS2 (CIS) on gold substrate at room temperature by electrochemical atomic layer deposition (EC-ALD) method are reported. Optimum deposition potentials for each element are determined using cyclic voltammetry (CV) technique and Amperometric I-t method is used to prepare the semiconductor compound. These thin films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). XRD results indicate that the CIS thin films have a (1 1 2) preferred orientation. The XPS analyses of the films reveal that Cu, In and S are present in an atomic ratio of approximately 1:1:2. And their semiconductor band gaps are found to be 1.50 eV by FT-IR.

  15. cis-Dichlorido(dimethyl sulfoxide-κS)(N,N,N',N'-tetra-methyl-guanidine-κN'')platinum(II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliseev, Ivan I; Bokach, Nadezhda A; Haukka, Matti; Golenya, Irina A

    2013-02-01

    In the title compound, cis-[PtCl(2)(C(5)H(13)N(3))(C(2)H(6)OS)], the four-coordinate Pt(II) atom is bonded to one N atom of the N,N,N',N'-tetra-methyl-guanidine ligand, one dimethyl sulfoxide S atom and two chloride ligands, forming a cis-square-planar geometry. The bond lengths and angles of the N-Pt-Cl functionality are typical for imine dichloridoplatinum(II) complexes. The H atom of the imino group is oriented towards the O atom of the sulfoxide group of a neighboring mol-ecule and forms an N-H⋯O hydrogen bond. PMID:23424410

  16. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MOTIVES AND BENEFITS ON ADOPTING QLASSIC – CIS 7: 2006 IN MALAYSIA CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenn Jhun Kam

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews on the building contractors motivating factors on adopting the newly imposed quality assurance initiative in Malaysia's construction industry. The quality assurance initiative named Quality Assessment System in Construction (QLASSIC - The Construction Industry Standard (CIS - CIS 7:2006. It is introduced by the Construction Industry Development Board of Malaysia (CIDB. This QLASSIC system consists of a building construction standard where all the contractors must follow the specification, if adopting this system in their construction project. Literature commonly categorized motivation factor into two types, which are internally and externally. Both types of motivation factors are put into study in related to the benefits on adopting the QLASSIC system. Further analysis will be done to determine the motives and benefits relationship behind the adoption of the QLASSIC system in the construction projects.

  17. PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF cis-1,4- POLYBUTADIENE CONTAINING A FRACTION OF trans- 1,4-POLYBUTADIENE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Zhenya; LI Shuquan; LIN Yunqing

    1984-01-01

    Polymerization of butadiene catalysed first with V(acac)3-Al(i-Bu)2Cl, then with Co(acac)3-H2O-Al(i-Bu)2Cl has been studied. The polymer obtained was identified to be a new variety of cis-1,4-polybutadiene which contained a fraction of trans-1,4-polybutadiene chemically bonded to the cis-1,4-polybutadiene chains. Its molecular weight and trans-1,4 content can be regulated by varying the catalyst composition and concentration as well as other polymerization conditions. The trans-1,4fraction, although it presents only in 9-16%, forms a crystalline phase in the matrix at room temperature and facilitates the crystallization of the polymer.

  18. Atmospheric Chemistry of cis-CF3CH=CHF: Kinetics of reactions with OH radicals and O3 and products of OH radical initiated oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Elna Johanna Kristina; Nielsen, Ole John; Johnson, Matthew Stanley;

    2009-01-01

    Long path length FTIR-smog chamber techniques were used to measure k(OH + cis-CF3CH@CHF) = (1.20 ± 0.14) 1012 and k(O3 + cis-CF3CH@CHF) = (1.65 ± 0.16) 1021 cm3 molecule 1 s1 in 700 Torr of N2/O2 diluent at 296 K. The OH initiated oxidation of cis-CF3CH@CHF gives CF3CHO and HCOF in molar yields w...

  19. Synthesis of 1,2-cis-2-C-branched aryl-C-glucosides via desulfurization of carbohydrate based hemithioacetals

    OpenAIRE

    Kinfe, Henok H.; Mebrahtu, Fanuel M.; Mandlenkosi M. Manana; Kagiso Madumo; Sokamisa, Mokela S

    2015-01-01

    1-C and 2-C-branched carbohydrates are present as substructures in a number of biologically important compounds. Although the synthesis of such carbohydrate derivatives is extensively studied, the synthesis of 1,2-cis-2-C-branched C-, S-, and N-glycosides is less explored. In this article a synthetic strategy for the synthesis of 1,2-cis-2-C-branched-aryl-C-glucosides is reported via a hydrogenolytic desulfurization of suitably orientated carbohydrate based hemithioacetals. 1,2-cis-2-Hydroxym...

  20. Three v-SNAREs and two t-SNAREs, present in a pentameric cis-SNARE complex on isolated vacuoles, are essential for homotypic fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ungermann, C; von Mollard, G F; Jensen, Ole Nørregaard;

    1999-01-01

    in the same cis multi-SNARE complex. After priming, which disassembles the cis-SNARE complex, antibodies to any of the five SNARE proteins still inhibit the fusion assay until the docking stage is completed, suggesting that each SNARE plays a role in docking. Furthermore, vti1 temperature-sensitive alleles...... cause a synthetic fusion-defective phenotype in our reaction. Our data show that vacuole-vacuole fusion requires a cis-SNARE complex of five SNAREs, the t-SNAREs Vam3p and Vam7p and the v-SNAREs Nyv1p, Vti1p, and Ykt6p....

  1. An unusual cis-dichloro[17-(cyclobutylmethyl)-3-methoxymorphinan-14-ol-N,O] palladium(II) complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synthesis and crystal structure of cis-dichloro[17-(cyclobutylmethyl)-3-methoxymorphinan-14-ol-N,O] palladium(II) methanol solvate is reported. The title complex crystallises in the triclinic P1 space group and is remarkable both by the number of independent molecules in the unit cell and the coordination sphere of palladium(II) formed by tertiary alcohol, tertiary amine and two chlorine atoms. (author)

  2. The barrier to the methyl rotation in Cis-2-butene and its isomerization energy to Trans-2-butene, revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matta, Chérif F; Sadjadi, SeyedAbdolreza; Braden, Dale A; Frenking, Gernot

    2016-01-01

    We respond to the two questions posed by Weinhold, Schleyer, and McKee (WSM) in their study of cis-2-butene (Weinhold et al., J Comput Chem 2014, 35, 1499), in which they solicit explanations for the relative conformational energies of this molecule in terms of the Quantum Theory of Atoms in Molecules (QTAIM). WSM requested answers to the questions: (1) why is cis-2-butene less stable than trans-2-butene despite the presence of a hydrogen-hydrogen (H⋯H) bond path in the former but not in the latter if the H⋯H bond path is stabilizing? (2) Why is the potential well of the conformational global minimum of cis-2-butene only 0.8 kcal/mol deep when the H⋯H bonding is stabilizing by 5 kcal/mol? Both questions raised by WSM are answered by considering the changes in the energies of all atoms as a function of the rotation of one of the two methyl groups from the minimum-energy structure, which exhibits the H⋯H bond path, to the transition state, which is devoid of this bond path. It is found that the stability gained by the H⋯H bonding interaction is cancelled by the destabilization of one of the ethylenic carbon atoms which, alone, destabilizes the system by as much as 5 kcal/mol in the global minimum conformation. Further, it is found that the 1.1 kcal/mol stability of trans-2-butene with respect to the cis-isomer is driven by the considerable destabilization of the ethylenic carbons by 11 kcal/mol, while the changes in the atomic energies of the other corresponding atoms in the two isomers account for the observed different stabilities. The error introduced into QTAIM atomic energies by neglecting the virials of the forces on the nuclei for partially optimized structures is discussed. PMID:26581645

  3. A conjugated linoleic acid (CLA supplement containing trans-10, cis-12 CLA reduces milk fat synthesis in lactating goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Bauman

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of a lipid-encapsulated trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid supplement (LE-CLA on milk production and milk fatty acid (FA profile was investigated. Thirty multiparous Alpine lactating goats (50 ± 7.4 kg in late lactation were used in a 3 × 3 Latin square design. Does were fed a diet of bermudagrass hay, dehydrated alfalfa pellets, and concentrate. Does were randomly allocated to three treatments; A unsupplemented (Control, B supplemented with 30 g/d LE-CLA (low-dose; LLE, and C supplemented with 60 g/d LE-CLA (high-dose; HLE. Milk yield, DMI, and milk protein content and yield were unaffected by treatment (P > 0.05. Compared with Control, milk fat yield was reduced 8.1% by the LLE treatment and 21.2% by the HLE treatment (P < 0.001, with milk fat content reduced 4.8 and 17.6% by the LLE and HLE treatments, respectively (P < 0.001. Milk fat content of trans-10, cis-12 CLA was 0.03, 0.09 and 0.19 g/100 g of fatty acids for the Control, LLE and HLE treatments, respectively. The transfer efficiency of trans-10, cis-12 CLA from the two levels of CLA supplement into milk fat was not different between treatments and averaged 1.85%. In conclusion, trans-10, cis- 12 CLA reduced milk fat synthesis in lactating goats in a manner similar to that observed for lactating dairy cows and sheep. However, dose-response comparisons suggest that the degree of reduction in milk fat synthesis is less in goats compared with sheep and dairy cows.

  4. Bioavailability and dose-dependent anti-tumour effects of 9-cis retinoic acid on human neuroblastoma xenografts in rat

    OpenAIRE

    Ponthan, F; Kogner, P; Bjellerup, P; Klevenvall, L; Hassan, M

    2001-01-01

    Neuroblastoma, the most common extracranial solid tumour in children, may undergo spontaneous differentiation or regression, but the majority of metastatic neuroblastomas have poor prognosis despite intensive treatment. Retinoic acid regulates growth and differentiation of neuroblastoma cells in vitro, and has shown activity against human neuroblastomas in vivo. The retinoid 9-cis RA has been reported to induce apoptosis in vitro, and to inhibit the growth of human neuroblastoma xenografts in...

  5. A NOVEL COPOLYMER-BOUND CIS- DICARBONYLRHODIUM COMPLEX FOR THE CARBONYLATION OF METHANOL TO ACETIC ACID AND ACETIC ANHYDRIDE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Guoqing; CHEN Yuying; CHEN Rongyao

    1989-01-01

    A series of porous microspheres of linear and ethylene diacrylate (M ') cross-linked copolymers of 2 - vinylpyridine (V) and methyl acrylate (M) reacted with tetracarbonyldichlorodirhodium to form a series of cis-dicarbonylrhodium chelate complex (MVRh and MVM 'Rh). They are thermally stable yet very reactive in the carbonylation of methanol to acetic acid, and of methanol - acetic acid mixture to acetic acid and acetic anhydride with a selectivity of 100% under relatively mild and anhydrous conditions.

  6. Pregnancies and improved early embryonic development with bovine oocytes matured in vitro with 9-cis-retinoic acid

    OpenAIRE

    Hidalgo, C.O. (Carlos); Díez, Carmen; Duque, Paloma; Facal, Nieves; Gómez, Enrique

    2010-01-01

    Retinoids have an important role in cell growth, morphogenesis and differentiation. In the present study the developmental potential of bovine oocytes was examined after in vitro maturation in the presence of 9-cis-retinoic acid, a vitamin A metabolite, at 5 nmol l(-1) in chemically defined conditions. Experiments studied early in vitro development, blastocyst differential cell counts and the capacity of embryos to establish pregnancy after transfer to recipients. After in vitro fertilization...

  7. Income and Distribution Effects of Migration and Remittances: an Analysis Based on CGE Models for Selected CIS Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Atamanov, Aziz; Luecke, Matthias; Omar Mahmoud, Toman; Mogilevsky, Roman; Tereshchenko, Kseniya; Tourdyeva, Natalia A.; Uzagalieva, Ainura; Vavryschuk , Vitaly

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes the direct and indirect income effects of international labor migration and remittances in selected CIS countries. The analysis is based on computable general equilibrium (CGE) models for Moldova, Ukraine, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, and Russia. All net emigration countries would experience a sharp contraction of private consumption in the absence of remittances. In Russia, the main effect of immigration has been to hold down the real wage (as potential capital stock adjustments ...

  8. Redundant cis-acting elements control expression of the Drosophila affinidisjuncta Adh gene in the larval fat body.

    OpenAIRE

    McKenzie, R W; Hu, J; Brennan, M D

    1994-01-01

    The alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) gene in the Hawaiian species of fruit fly, Drosophila affinidisjuncta, like the Adh genes from all Drosophila species analyzed, is expressed at high levels in the larval fat body via a larval-specific promoter. To identify the cis-acting elements involved in this highly conserved aspect of Adh gene expression, deleted D. affinidisjuncta genes were introduced into D. melanogaster by somatic transformation. Unlike previously described methods, this transformation...

  9. Cascade Reaction of Donor-Acceptor Cyclopropanes: Mechanistic Studies on Cycloadditions with Nitrosoarenes and cis-Diazenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidley, Tristan; Vemula, Naresh; Carson, Cheryl A; Kerr, Michael A; Pagenkopf, Brian L

    2016-06-17

    Tandem ring opening, elimination, and cycloaddition of donor-acceptor cyclopropanes were observed in Yb(OTf)3-catalyzed cycloaddition with nitrosoarenes. The reaction results in formation of tetrahydro-1,2-oxazine instead of the normal cycloadduct isoxazolidine via in situ nitrone formation. A similar cascade sequence was observed with cis-diazines. Mechanistic studies on this unique transformation offer an entirely new approach for reaction design with donor-acceptor cyclopropanes. PMID:27267360

  10. Sequence and Time Interval in Combination of Irradiation and Cis-Diamminedichloroplatinum in C3H Mouse Fibrosarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments have been carried out with C3H mouse fibrosarcoma (FSa II) to determine the effect of different sequence and time intervals between irradiation and administration of cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(cia-DDP) with gross tumors (6 mm in diameter), microscopic tumors (3 days after transplantation of 103 cells) and cells in culture. The drug was administered either 24, 12, 8, 4, 2, 1, 0.5 hour before irradiation, immediately before irradiation, or 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 24 hours after irradiation. In case of in vivo studies, tumor growth delay was used as an end point. Clonogenic cell surviving fraction was used for in vivo studies. Tumor growth delay for gross tumor after 10 Gy radiation plus 10 mg/kg cis-DDP ranged from 0.3 to 10.66 days and the enhancement ratio ranged from 1.37 to 2.23. The most effective combination was whets cis-DDP was given 4 hours before irradiation. Tumor growth delay for microscopic tumor after 5 Gy of radiation and 5 mg/kg of cia-DDP ranged from 3.55 to 11.98 days with enhancement ratio from 2.05 to 6.92. Microscopic tumors showed response significantly greater than additive in every time interval and the most effective treatments were when cis-DDP was given 2 and 1 hour before irradiation. In in vitro experiment, the surviving fraction after 6 Gy of radiation and 1 hour exposure to 4 μM cia-DDP fluctuated as a function of time between treatments, but the difference between maximum and minimum surviving fractions was very small. According to the above results the sequence and time interval between irradiation and chemotherapy is very critical especially for the management of microscopic tumors as in the case of postoperative adiuvant treatment

  11. Peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans-Isomerase A1 (Pin1) Is a Target for Modification by Lipid Electrophiles

    OpenAIRE

    Aluise, Christopher D.; Rose, Kristie; Boiani, Mariana; Reyzer, Michelle L.; Manna, Joseph D.; Tallman, Keri; Porter, Ned A.; Marnett, Lawrence J.

    2012-01-01

    Oxidation of membrane phospholipids is associated with inflammation, neurodegenerative disease, and cancer. Oxyradical damage to phospholipids results in the production of reactive aldehydes that adduct proteins and modulate their function. 4-Hydroxynonenal (HNE), a common product of oxidative damage to lipids, adducts proteins at exposed Cys, His, or Lys residues. Here, we demonstrate that peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans-isomerase A1 (Pin1), an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of the peptide b...

  12. Three Novel cis-Acting Elements Required for Efficient Plus-Strand DNA Synthesis of the Hepatitis B Virus Genome

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jehan; Shin, Myeong-Kyun; Lee, Hye-Jin; Yoon, Gyesoon; Ryu, Wang-Shick

    2004-01-01

    Synthesis of the relaxed-circular (RC) DNA genomes of hepadnaviruses by reverse transcriptase involves two template switches during plus-strand DNA synthesis. These template switches require repeat sequences (so-called donor and acceptor sites) between which a complementary strand of nucleic acid is transferred. To determine cis-acting elements apart from the donor and acceptor sites that are required for plus-strand RC DNA synthesis by hepatitis B virus (HBV), a series of mutants bearing a s...

  13. Identification of cis-Acting Elements and Splicing Factors Involved in the Regulation of BIM Pre-mRNA Splicing

    OpenAIRE

    Juan, Wen Chun; Roca, Xavier; Ong, S. Tiong

    2014-01-01

    Aberrant changes in the expression of the pro-apoptotic protein, BCL-2-like 11 (BIM), can result in either impaired or excessive apoptosis, which can contribute to tumorigenesis and degenerative disorders, respectively. Altering BIM pre-mRNA splicing is an attractive approach to modulate apoptosis because BIM activity is partly determined by the alternative splicing of exons 3 or 4, whereby exon 3-containing transcripts are not apoptotic. Here we identified several cis-acting elements and spl...

  14. Effect of anti-cancer drug cis-platin on leukemia cells-protein profiling using three independent analytical techniques

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Skalníková, Helena; Martinková, Jiřina; Hrabáková, Rita; Novák, Petr; Pompach, Petr; Man, Petr; Strohalm, Martin; Havlíček, Vladimír; Džubák, P.; Hajduch, M.; Gadher, S. J.; Kovářová, Hana

    Veszprem : OOK-PRESS Kft, 2009 - (Marko - Varga, G.; Laurell, T.), s. 235-238 ISBN 978-963-86156-4-0. [3rd EuPA Congress Clinical Proteomics. Stockholm (CH), 14.06.2009-17.06.2009] R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC07017 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510; CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : Cis-platin * CEM T-lymphoblastic leukemia * 2D-electrophoresis Subject RIV: FD - Oncology ; Hematology

  15. Improvement of avian leukosis virus (ALV)-based retrovirus vectors by using different cis-acting sequences from ALVs.

    OpenAIRE

    Cosset, F L; Legras, C.; Thomas, J.L.; Molina, R. M.; Chebloune, Y; Faure, C.; Nigon, V M; Verdier, G

    1991-01-01

    Production and expression of double-expression vectors which transduce both Neo(r) and lacZ genes and are based on the structure of avian leukosis virus were enhanced by using cis-acting sequences (long terminal repeats and noncoding sequences) from Rous-associated virus-1 and Rous-associated virus-2 rather than those of avian erythroblastosis virus previously used in our constructs. Polyclonal producer cells obtained after transfection of these vectors into the Isolde packaging cell line gav...

  16. Priming of Production in Maize of Volatile Organic Defence Compounds by the Natural Plant Activator cis-Jasmone

    OpenAIRE

    Oluwafemi, Sunday; Dewhirst, Sarah Y.; Veyrat, Nathalie; Powers, Stephen; Bruce, Toby J.A.; Caulfield, John C.; Pickett, John A; Birkett, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    cis-Jasmone (CJ) is a natural plant product that activates defence against herbivores in model and crop plants. In this study, we investigated whether CJ could prime defence in maize, Zea mays, against the leafhopper, Cicadulina storeyi, responsible for the transmission of maize streak virus (MSV). Priming occurs when a pre-treatment, in this case CJ, increases the potency and speed of a defence response upon subsequent attack on the plant. Here, we tested insect responses to plant volatile o...

  17. Biogeochemistry of chernobyl-derived radionuclides in the forest ecosystems of the european part of the CIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 9-years dynamic of Chernobyl-derived radionuclides in the vegetation and soil covers of the forest ecosystems of the European part of the CIS is considered. The quantitative estimation has been done for main fluxes of Cs-137 in the forests of automorphic landscapes: influx to the vegetation, return with the litterfall, stem flow and throughfall, vertical migration in the soil profile and redistribution within the system of geochemically connected landscapes. Refs. 27, figs. 6, tabs. 4

  18. Diseño, implementación y simulación del procesador externo de sonido de un implante coclear

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández del Barrio, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    En este Proyecto Fin de Carrera se ha llevado a cabo una labor de documentación con la cual se ha podido tener una visión global y aproximada al mundo de la implantación con fines auditivos. Después de adquirir unos conocimientos iniciales, se comenzó a desarrollar la estrategia de codificación del habla CIS, estudiando el comportamiento de cada etapa de procesado del conjunto de veintidós canales y relacionando cada bloque con un comportamiento biológico y psicoacústico. Un...

  19. Cis- and Trans-Regulatory Mechanisms of Gene Expression in the ASJ Sensory Neuron of Caenorhabditis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Barrios, María; Fierro-González, Juan Carlos; Krpelanova, Eva; Mora-Lorca, José Antonio; Pedrajas, José Rafael; Peñate, Xenia; Chavez, Sebastián; Swoboda, Peter; Jansen, Gert; Miranda-Vizuete, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The identity of a given cell type is determined by the expression of a set of genes sharing common cis-regulatory motifs and being regulated by shared transcription factors. Here, we identify cis and trans regulatory elements that drive gene expression in the bilateral sensory neuron ASJ, located in the head of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. For this purpose, we have dissected the promoters of the only two genes so far reported to be exclusively expressed in ASJ, trx-1 and ssu-1. We hereby identify the ASJ motif, a functional cis-regulatory bipartite promoter region composed of two individual 6 bp elements separated by a 3 bp linker. The first element is a 6 bp CG-rich sequence that presumably binds the Sp family member zinc-finger transcription factor SPTF-1. Interestingly, within the C. elegans nervous system SPTF-1 is also found to be expressed only in ASJ neurons where it regulates expression of other genes in these neurons and ASJ cell fate. The second element of the bipartite motif is a 6 bp AT-rich sequence that is predicted to potentially bind a transcription factor of the homeobox family. Together, our findings identify a specific promoter signature and SPTF-1 as a transcription factor that functions as a terminal selector gene to regulate gene expression in C. elegans ASJ sensory neurons. PMID:25769980

  20. Health, safety and environmental risks from the operation of CdTe and CIS thin-film modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper identifies the materials embedded in on a type of CIS (Copper indium diselenide) and four different types of CdTe (cadmium telluride) thin-film modules. It refers to the results of our outdoor leaching experiments on photovoltaic (PV) samples broken into small fragments. Estimations for modules accidents on the roof or in the garden of a residential house, e.g. leaching of hazardous materials into water or soil, are given. The outcomes of our estimations show some module materials released into water or oil during leaching accidents. In a worst-case scenario for CdTe modules the leached cadmium concentration in the collected water is estimated to be no higher than the German drinking water limit concentration. For the CIS module scenario the estimated leached element concentrations are about one to two orders of magnitude below the German drinking water limit concentration. For broken CIS and CdTe modules on the ground no critical increase of the natural element concentration is observed after leaching into the soil for 1 year. (Author)

  1. Surface hopping dynamics of direct trans → cis photoswitching of an azobenzene derivative in constrained adsorbate geometries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floß, Gereon; Granucci, Giovanni; Saalfrank, Peter

    2012-12-21

    With ongoing miniaturization of electronic devices, the need for individually addressable, switchable molecules arises. An example are azobenzenes on surfaces which have been shown to be switchable between trans and cis forms. Here, we examine the "direct" (rather than substrate-mediated) channel of the trans → cis photoisomerization after ππ∗ excitation of tetra-tert-butyl-azobenzene physisorbed on surfaces mimicking Au(111) and Bi(111), respectively. In spirit of the direct channel, the electronic structure of the surface is neglected, the latter merely acting as a rigid platform which weakly interacts with the molecule via Van-der-Waals forces. Starting from thermal ensembles which represent the trans-form, sudden excitations promote the molecules to ππ∗-excited states which are non-adiabatically coupled among themselves and to a nπ∗-excited and the ground state, respectively. After excitation, relaxation to the ground state by internal conversion takes place, possibly accompanied by isomerization. The process is described here by "on the fly" semiclassical surface hopping dynamics in conjunction with a semiempirical Hamiltonian (AM1) and configuration-interaction type methods. It is found that steric constraints imposed by the substrate lead to reduced but non-vanishing, trans → cis reaction yields and longer internal conversion times than for the isolated molecule. Implications for recent experiments for azobenzenes on surfaces are discussed. PMID:23267492

  2. Volume-conserving trans-cis isomerization pathways in photoactive yellow protein visualized by picosecond X-ray crystallography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yang Ouk; Lee, Jae Hyuk; Kim, Joonghan; Schmidt, Marius; Moffat, Keith; Šrajer, Vukica; Ihee, Hyotcherl

    2013-03-01

    Trans-to-cis isomerization, the key reaction in photoactive proteins, usually cannot occur through the standard one-bond-flip mechanism. Owing to spatial constraints imposed by a protein environment, isomerization probably proceeds through a volume-conserving mechanism in which highly choreographed atomic motions are expected, the details of which have not yet been observed directly. Here we employ time-resolved X-ray crystallography to visualize structurally the isomerization of the p-coumaric acid chromophore in photoactive yellow protein with a time resolution of 100 ps and a spatial resolution of 1.6 Å. The structure of the earliest intermediate (IT) resembles a highly strained transition state in which the torsion angle is located halfway between the trans- and cis-isomers. The reaction trajectory of IT bifurcates into two structurally distinct cis intermediates via hula-twist and bicycle-pedal pathways. The bifurcating reaction pathways can be controlled by weakening the hydrogen bond between the chromophore and an adjacent residue through E46Q mutation, which switches off the bicycle-pedal pathway.

  3. Diffusion Tensor Imaging in NAWM and NADGM in MS and CIS: Association with Candidate Biomarkers in Sera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renuka Natarajan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate diffusion tensor imaging (DTI indices in the corpus callosum and pyramidal tract in normal-appearing white matter (NAWM and the caudate nucleus and thalamus in deep grey matter (NADGM in all MS subtypes and clinically isolated syndrome (CIS. Furthermore, it was determined whether these metrics are associated with clinical measures and the serum levels of candidate immune biomarkers. Apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC values were significantly higher than in controls in all six studied NAWM regions in SPMS, 4/6 regions in RRMS and PPMS and 2/6 regions in CIS. In contrast, decreased fractional anisotropy (FA values in comparison to controls were detected in 2/6 NAWM regions in SPMS and 1/6 in RRMS and PPMS. In RRMS, the level of neurological disability correlated with thalamic FA values (r=0.479, P=0.004. In chronic progressive subtypes and CIS, ADC values of NAWM and NADGM were associated with the levels of MIF, sFas, and sTNF-α. Our data indicate that DTI may be useful in detecting pathological changes in NAWM and NADGM in MS patients and that these changes are related to neurological disability.

  4. Mapping Association between Long-Range Cis-Regulatory Regions and Their Target Genes Using Comparative Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mongin, Emmanuel; Dewar, Ken; Blanchette, Mathieu

    In chordates, long-range cis-regulatory regions are involved in the control of transcription initiation (either as repressors or enhancers). They can be located as far as 1 Mb from the transcription start site of the target gene and can regulate more than one gene. Therefore, proper characterization of functional interactions between long-range cis-regulatory regions and their target genes remains problematic. We present a novel method to predict such interactions based on the analysis of rearrangements between the human and 16 other vertebrate genomes. Our method is based on the assumption that genome rearrangements that would disrupt the functional interaction between a cis-regulatory region and its target gene are likely to be deleterious. Therefore, conservation of synteny through evolution would be an indication of a functional interaction. We use our algorithm to classify a set of 1,406,084 putative associations from the human genome. This genome-wide map of interactions has many potential applications, including the selection of candidate regions prior to in vivo experimental characterization, a better characterization of regulatory regions involved in position effect diseases, and an improved understanding of the mechanisms and importance of long-range regulation.

  5. Equilibrium study on the reactions of boric acid with some cis-diaqua CrIII-complexes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G N Mukherjee; Ansuman Das

    2003-08-01

    Substitution inert cis-diaqua CrIII complexes: cis-[(L-)CrIII(H2O)2](3-)+ derived from N-donor ligands (L-) viz., bipyridine and 1,10-phenanthroline ( = 0) and N,O-donor ligands viz., nitrilotriacetate and anthranilate N,N-diacetate ( = 3) titrate as diprotic acids in aqueous solution and enhance the acidity of otherwise weakly acidic boric acid (H3BO3) producing mononuclear and binuclear mixed ligand CrIII-borate complexes: [(L)Cr(H2BO4)]- and [(L)Cr(BO4)Cr(L)](1-2)+ respectively through coordination of the H2O and/or OH- ligands, cis-coordinated in the CrIII-complexes on the electron deficient BIII-atom in H3BO3 with release of protons. Deprotonation of the parent CrIII-complexes and their reactions with H3BO3 have been investigated by potentiometric method in aqueous solution, = 0.1 mol dm-3 (NaNO3) at 25 ± 0.1° C. The equilibrium constants have been evaluated by computerized methods and the tentative stoichiometry of the reactions have been worked out on the basis of the speciation curves.

  6. Separation of cis/trans fatty acid isomers on gas chromatography compared to the Ag-TLC method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study investigates the separation of the cis/ trans isomers of fatty acids on the 75 m SP2560 column under different gas chromatographic (GC) conditions including an isothermal program and a time-temperature program. The time-temperature program showed improved separation of cis/trans isomers of C14:1, C16:1, C18:1, C18:2 and C18:3 fatty acids along with short chain fatty acids compared to the isothermal program. The separation of trans/trans isomers of C18:1 fatty acids including elaidic acid (C18:1 .9t) and vaccenic acid (C18:1 Δ11t) was difficult with the time-temperature program. The thin layer chromatography impregnated with silver nitrate (Ag- TLC) method was performed to separate cis/trans fractions and GC analysis was carried out with the trans fraction. But GC analysis showed a co-elution of trans isomers of C18:1 fatty acid. Thus the study shows that a time-temperature programmed GC method with the highly polar cyanopropyl column is sufficient to resolve trans fatty acids along with short chain fatty acids when a large number of samples has to be analyzed. (Author) 33 refs.

  7. Recurrent cis-SAGe chimeric RNA, D2HGDH-GAL3ST2, in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Fujun; Song, Zhenguo; Chang, Maxwell; Song, Yansu; Frierson, Henry; Li, Hui

    2016-09-28

    Neighboring genes transcribing in the same direction can form chimeric RNAs via cis-splicing (cis-SAGe). Previously, we reported 16 novel cis-SAGe chimeras in prostate cancer cell lines, and performed in silico validation on 14 pairs of normal and tumor samples from Chinese patients. However, whether these fusions exist in different populations, as well as their clinical implications, remains unclear. To investigate, we developed a bioinformatics pipeline using modified Spliced Transcripts Alignment to a Reference (STAR) to quantify these fusion RNAs simultaneously in silico. From RNA-Seq data of 100 paired normal and prostate cancer samples from TCGA, we find that most fusions are not specific to cancer. However, D2HGDH-GAL3ST2 is more frequently seen in cancer samples, and seems to be enriched in the African American group. Further validation with our own collection as well as from commercial sources did not detect this fusion RNA in 29 normal prostate samples, but in 19 of 93 prostate cancer samples. It is more frequently detected in late stage cancer, suggesting a role in cancer progression. Consistently, silencing this fusion resulted in dramatic reduction of cell proliferation rate and cell motility. PMID:27322736

  8. Process R&D for CIS-Based Thin-Film PV: Final Technical Report, April 2002 - April 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarrant, D. E.; Gay, R. R.

    2006-01-01

    The primary objectives of this Shell Solar Industries subcontract are to address key near-term technical R&D issues for continued CIS product improvement; continue process development for increased production capacity; develop processes capable of significantly contributing to DOE 2020 PV shipment goals; advance mid- and longer-term R&D needed by industry for future product competitiveness including improving module performance, decreasing production process costs per watt produced, and improving reliability; and perform aggressive module lifetime R&D directed at developing packages that address the DOE goal for modules that will last up to 30 years while retaining 80% of initial power. These production R&D results, production volume, efficiency, high line yield, and advances in understanding are major accomplishments. The demonstrated and maintained high production yield is a major accomplishment supporting attractive cost projections for CIS. Process R&D at successive levels of CIS production has led to the continued demonstration of the prerequisites for commitment to large-scale commercialization. Process and packaging R&D during this and previous subcontracts has demonstrated the potential for further cost and performance improvements.

  9. Changes in cis-regulatory elements of a key floral regulator are associated with divergence of inflorescence architectures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusters, Elske; Della Pina, Serena; Castel, Rob; Souer, Erik; Koes, Ronald

    2015-08-15

    Higher plant species diverged extensively with regard to the moment (flowering time) and position (inflorescence architecture) at which flowers are formed. This seems largely caused by variation in the expression patterns of conserved genes that specify floral meristem identity (FMI), rather than changes in the encoded proteins. Here, we report a functional comparison of the promoters of homologous FMI genes from Arabidopsis, petunia, tomato and Antirrhinum. Analysis of promoter-reporter constructs in petunia and Arabidopsis, as well as complementation experiments, showed that the divergent expression of leafy (LFY) and the petunia homolog aberrant leaf and flower (ALF) results from alterations in the upstream regulatory network rather than cis-regulatory changes. The divergent expression of unusual floral organs (UFO) from Arabidopsis, and the petunia homolog double top (DOT), however, is caused by the loss or gain of cis-regulatory promoter elements, which respond to trans-acting factors that are expressed in similar patterns in both species. Introduction of pUFO:UFO causes no obvious defects in Arabidopsis, but in petunia it causes the precocious and ectopic formation of flowers. This provides an example of how a change in a cis-regulatory region can account for a change in the plant body plan. PMID:26220938

  10. Separation of cis/trans fatty acid isomers on gas chromatography compared to the Ag-TLC method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravi Kiran, C.; Reshma, M. V.; Sundaresan, A.

    2013-05-01

    The present study investigates the separation of the cis/ trans isomers of fatty acids on the 75 m SP2560 column under different gas chromatographic (GC) conditions including an isothermal program and a time-temperature program. The time-temperature program showed improved separation of cis/trans isomers of C{sub 1}4:1, C{sub 1}6:1, C{sub 1}8:1, C{sub 1}8:2 and C{sub 1}8:3 fatty acids along with short chain fatty acids compared to the isothermal program. The separation of trans/trans isomers of C{sub 1}8:1 fatty acids including elaidic acid (C{sub 1}8:1 .9t) and vaccenic acid (C{sub 1}8:1 {Delta}11t) was difficult with the time-temperature program. The thin layer chromatography impregnated with silver nitrate (Ag- TLC) method was performed to separate cis/trans fractions and GC analysis was carried out with the trans fraction. But GC analysis showed a co-elution of trans isomers of C{sub 1}8:1 fatty acid. Thus the study shows that a time-temperature programmed GC method with the highly polar cyanopropyl column is sufficient to resolve trans fatty acids along with short chain fatty acids when a large number of samples has to be analyzed. (Author) 33 refs.

  11. Deciphering Cis-Regulatory Element Mediated Combinatorial Regulation in Rice under Blast Infected Condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, Arindam; Kundu, Sudip

    2015-01-01

    Combinations of cis-regulatory elements (CREs) present at the promoters facilitate the binding of several transcription factors (TFs), thereby altering the consequent gene expressions. Due to the eminent complexity of the regulatory mechanism, the combinatorics of CRE-mediated transcriptional regulation has been elusive. In this work, we have developed a new methodology that quantifies the co-occurrence tendencies of CREs present in a set of promoter sequences; these co-occurrence scores are filtered in three consecutive steps to test their statistical significance; and the significantly co-occurring CRE pairs are presented as networks. These networks of co-occurring CREs are further transformed to derive higher order of regulatory combinatorics. We have further applied this methodology on the differentially up-regulated gene-sets of rice tissues under fungal (Magnaporthe) infected conditions to demonstrate how it helps to understand the CRE-mediated combinatorial gene regulation. Our analysis includes a wide spectrum of biologically important results. The CRE pairs having a strong tendency to co-occur often exhibit very similar joint distribution patterns at the promoters of rice. We couple the network approach with experimental results of plant gene regulation and defense mechanisms and find evidences of auto and cross regulation among TF families, cross-talk among multiple hormone signaling pathways, similarities and dissimilarities in regulatory combinatorics between different tissues, etc. Our analyses have pointed a highly distributed nature of the combinatorial gene regulation facilitating an efficient alteration in response to fungal attack. All together, our proposed methodology could be an important approach in understanding the combinatorial gene regulation. It can be further applied to unravel the tissue and/or condition specific combinatorial gene regulation in other eukaryotic systems with the availability of annotated genomic sequences and suitable

  12. The legislation of CIS countries on the issue of genetically modified products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammadov, Vugar; Mustafayeva, Aytan

    2011-12-01

    Genetic engineering is a fast-moving research field that produces many achievements, including genetically modified organisms, which are used during the production of food products. Recent decades have shown that scientists, policy makers and the general public cannot reach a consensus about the benefits and hazards of genetically modified food products. Opinions are so different, and both sides are so well-grounded, that it is not easy to reach a conclusion about this scientific achievement. Nevertheless, food security is one of the main objectives of the state, which is responsible for providing safe food products to its own citizens in the marketplace. This is why states are interested in reviewing these scientific achievements, in terms of the state's national interests and the security of its citizens. This article sets forth: (1) the main advantages and disadvantages of genetically modified products; (2) the role of national legislation in the control of food security; and (3) the attitude toward genetically modified products in the national legislatures of CIS countries. Taking these points into account, the authors come to the conclusion that actual Azerbaijan law is not responding to the changes, which have taken place in recent decades, in development of the world market and technological conditions in the production of food products. This provides the basis to conclude that, in actual conditions, the rights ofAzerbaijan citizens to the safety of food products are not well protected. At the end of this article, the authors make recommendations about the necessity of amendments to the legislation in their own country, towards the goal of greater control over such products in Azerbaijan. PMID:22397180

  13. Platinum-nickel catalyst: The effect of promoters in cis-oleic acid adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simonetti, S., E-mail: ssimonet@uns.edu.ar [Universidad Tecnologica Nacional, Facultad Regional Bahia Blanca, 11 de Abril 461, 8000 Bahia Blanca (Argentina); Universidad Nacional del Sur-IFISUR-CONICET, Av. Alem 1253, 8000 Bahia Blanca (Argentina); Martirena, M.; Ulacco, S. [Universidad Tecnologica Nacional, Facultad Regional Bahia Blanca, 11 de Abril 461, 8000 Bahia Blanca (Argentina); Brizuela, G. [Universidad Nacional del Sur-IFISUR-CONICET, Av. Alem 1253, 8000 Bahia Blanca (Argentina)

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer C=O adsorption is more favored than C=C adsorption on the PtNi(1 1 1) surface. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The adsorption of the olefinic bond is strengthened by K, Mg, Co, B or Pd promoters. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The energy of the system and the C=C/surface distances decrease using promoters. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The molecule-surface interaction is favored by electron density exchange. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Co promoter shows better adsorption properties than K, Mg, B or Pd. - Abstract: The study of the cis-oleic acid adsorption, on clean and promoted (K, Mg, Co, B or Pd) PtNi(1 1 1) surface was performed by quatum chemical calculations. The oleic acid adsorption on PtNi(1 1 1) surface shows a weak molecule-surface interaction. No preferential site for C=C adsorption is computed and only the C=O adsorption is favored on the clean PtNi(1 1 1) surface. The adsorption properties of the PtNi(1 1 1) are improved by promoters. The stability of the system is increased and the C=C/surface distances are reduced when promoters are present. Among the considered promoters, Co has the best performance in terms of system stability. The lowest C p orbital substantially interacts with Pt and Co s, p and d orbitals. The change electron density of metal centers, enhance the C=C adsorption being the Pt-C interaction the more favored. After adsorption, the strength of the C=C, Pt-Pt and Pt-Co bonds decrease while a molecule-surface bond is formed.

  14. Identification of High-Impact cis-Regulatory Mutations Using Transcription Factor Specific Random Forest Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svetlichnyy, Dmitry; Imrichova, Hana; Fiers, Mark; Kalender Atak, Zeynep; Aerts, Stein

    2015-11-01

    Cancer genomes contain vast amounts of somatic mutations, many of which are passenger mutations not involved in oncogenesis. Whereas driver mutations in protein-coding genes can be distinguished from passenger mutations based on their recurrence, non-coding mutations are usually not recurrent at the same position. Therefore, it is still unclear how to identify cis-regulatory driver mutations, particularly when chromatin data from the same patient is not available, thus relying only on sequence and expression information. Here we use machine-learning methods to predict functional regulatory regions using sequence information alone, and compare the predicted activity of the mutated region with the reference sequence. This way we define the Predicted Regulatory Impact of a Mutation in an Enhancer (PRIME). We find that the recently identified driver mutation in the TAL1 enhancer has a high PRIME score, representing a "gain-of-target" for MYB, whereas the highly recurrent TERT promoter mutation has a surprisingly low PRIME score. We trained Random Forest models for 45 cancer-related transcription factors, and used these to score variations in the HeLa genome and somatic mutations across more than five hundred cancer genomes. Each model predicts only a small fraction of non-coding mutations with a potential impact on the function of the encompassing regulatory region. Nevertheless, as these few candidate driver mutations are often linked to gains in chromatin activity and gene expression, they may contribute to the oncogenic program by altering the expression levels of specific oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. PMID:26562774

  15. Recurrent modification of a conserved cis-regulatory element underlies fruit fly pigmentation diversity.

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    William A Rogers

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The development of morphological traits occurs through the collective action of networks of genes connected at the level of gene expression. As any node in a network may be a target of evolutionary change, the recurrent targeting of the same node would indicate that the path of evolution is biased for the relevant trait and network. Although examples of parallel evolution have implicated recurrent modification of the same gene and cis-regulatory element (CRE, little is known about the mutational and molecular paths of parallel CRE evolution. In Drosophila melanogaster fruit flies, the Bric-à-brac (Bab transcription factors control the development of a suite of sexually dimorphic traits on the posterior abdomen. Female-specific Bab expression is regulated by the dimorphic element, a CRE that possesses direct inputs from body plan (ABD-B and sex-determination (DSX transcription factors. Here, we find that the recurrent evolutionary modification of this CRE underlies both intraspecific and interspecific variation in female pigmentation in the melanogaster species group. By reconstructing the sequence and regulatory activity of the ancestral Drosophila melanogaster dimorphic element, we demonstrate that a handful of mutations were sufficient to create independent CRE alleles with differing activities. Moreover, intraspecific and interspecific dimorphic element evolution proceeded with little to no alterations to the known body plan and sex-determination regulatory linkages. Collectively, our findings represent an example where the paths of evolution appear biased to a specific CRE, and drastic changes in function were accompanied by deep conservation of key regulatory linkages.

  16. Recurrent Modification of a Conserved Cis-Regulatory Element Underlies Fruit Fly Pigmentation Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, William A.; Salomone, Joseph R.; Tacy, David J.; Camino, Eric M.; Davis, Kristen A.; Rebeiz, Mark; Williams, Thomas M.

    2013-01-01

    The development of morphological traits occurs through the collective action of networks of genes connected at the level of gene expression. As any node in a network may be a target of evolutionary change, the recurrent targeting of the same node would indicate that the path of evolution is biased for the relevant trait and network. Although examples of parallel evolution have implicated recurrent modification of the same gene and cis-regulatory element (CRE), little is known about the mutational and molecular paths of parallel CRE evolution. In Drosophila melanogaster fruit flies, the Bric-à-brac (Bab) transcription factors control the development of a suite of sexually dimorphic traits on the posterior abdomen. Female-specific Bab expression is regulated by the dimorphic element, a CRE that possesses direct inputs from body plan (ABD-B) and sex-determination (DSX) transcription factors. Here, we find that the recurrent evolutionary modification of this CRE underlies both intraspecific and interspecific variation in female pigmentation in the melanogaster species group. By reconstructing the sequence and regulatory activity of the ancestral Drosophila melanogaster dimorphic element, we demonstrate that a handful of mutations were sufficient to create independent CRE alleles with differing activities. Moreover, intraspecific and interspecific dimorphic element evolution proceeded with little to no alterations to the known body plan and sex-determination regulatory linkages. Collectively, our findings represent an example where the paths of evolution appear biased to a specific CRE, and drastic changes in function were accompanied by deep conservation of key regulatory linkages. PMID:24009528

  17. Human Papillomavirus Type 18 cis-Elements Crucial for Segregation and Latency.

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    Mart Ustav

    Full Text Available Stable maintenance replication is characteristic of the latency phase of HPV infection, during which the viral genomes are actively maintained as extrachromosomal genetic elements in infected proliferating basal keratinocytes. Active replication in the S-phase and segregation of the genome into daughter cells in mitosis are required for stable maintenance replication. Most of our knowledge about papillomavirus genome segregation has come from studies of bovine papillomavirus type 1 (BPV-1, which have demonstrated that the E2 protein cooperates with cellular trans-factors and that E2 binding sites act as cis-regulatory elements in the viral genome that are essential for the segregation process. However, the genomic organization of the regulatory region in HPVs, and the properties of the viral proteins are different from those of their BPV-1 counterparts. We have designed a segregation assay for HPV-18 and used it to demonstrate that the E2 protein performs segregation in combination with at least two E2 binding sites. The cooperative binding of the E2 protein to two E2 binding sites is a major determinant of HPV-18 genome segregation, as demonstrated by the change in spacing between adjacent binding sites #1 and #2 in the HPV-18 Upstream Regulatory Region (URR. Duplication or triplication of the natural 4 bp 5'-CGGG-3' spacer between the E2 binding sites increased the cooperative binding of the E2 molecules as well as E2-dependent segregation. Removal of any spacing between these sites eliminated cooperative binding of the E2 protein and disabled segregation of the URR and HPV-18 genome. Transfer of these configurations of the E2 binding sites into viral genomes confirmed the role of the E2 protein and binding sites #1 and #2 in the segregation process. Additional analysis demonstrated that these sites also play an important role in the transcriptional regulation of viral gene expression from different HPV-18 promoters.

  18. Human Papillomavirus Type 18 cis-Elements Crucial for Segregation and Latency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustav, Mart; Castaneda, Fernando Rodriguez; Reinson, Tormi; Männik, Andres; Ustav, Mart

    2015-01-01

    Stable maintenance replication is characteristic of the latency phase of HPV infection, during which the viral genomes are actively maintained as extrachromosomal genetic elements in infected proliferating basal keratinocytes. Active replication in the S-phase and segregation of the genome into daughter cells in mitosis are required for stable maintenance replication. Most of our knowledge about papillomavirus genome segregation has come from studies of bovine papillomavirus type 1 (BPV-1), which have demonstrated that the E2 protein cooperates with cellular trans-factors and that E2 binding sites act as cis-regulatory elements in the viral genome that are essential for the segregation process. However, the genomic organization of the regulatory region in HPVs, and the properties of the viral proteins are different from those of their BPV-1 counterparts. We have designed a segregation assay for HPV-18 and used it to demonstrate that the E2 protein performs segregation in combination with at least two E2 binding sites. The cooperative binding of the E2 protein to two E2 binding sites is a major determinant of HPV-18 genome segregation, as demonstrated by the change in spacing between adjacent binding sites #1 and #2 in the HPV-18 Upstream Regulatory Region (URR). Duplication or triplication of the natural 4 bp 5'-CGGG-3' spacer between the E2 binding sites increased the cooperative binding of the E2 molecules as well as E2-dependent segregation. Removal of any spacing between these sites eliminated cooperative binding of the E2 protein and disabled segregation of the URR and HPV-18 genome. Transfer of these configurations of the E2 binding sites into viral genomes confirmed the role of the E2 protein and binding sites #1 and #2 in the segregation process. Additional analysis demonstrated that these sites also play an important role in the transcriptional regulation of viral gene expression from different HPV-18 promoters. PMID:26288015

  19. Bioinformatic analysis of cis-regulatory interactions between progesterone and estrogen receptors in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matloob Khushi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Chromatin factors interact with each other in a cell and sequence-specific manner in order to regulate transcription and a wealth of publically available datasets exists describing the genomic locations of these interactions. Our recently published BiSA (Binding Sites Analyser database contains transcription factor binding locations and epigenetic modifications collected from published studies and provides tools to analyse stored and imported data. Using BiSA we investigated the overlapping cis-regulatory role of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα and progesterone receptor (PR in the T-47D breast cancer cell line. We found that ERα binding sites overlap with a subset of PR binding sites. To investigate further, we re-analysed raw data to remove any biases introduced by the use of distinct tools in the original publications. We identified 22,152 PR and 18,560 ERα binding sites (<5% false discovery rate with 4,358 overlapping regions among the two datasets. BiSA statistical analysis revealed a non-significant overall overlap correlation between the two factors, suggesting that ERα and PR are not partner factors and do not require each other for binding to occur. However, Monte Carlo simulation by Binary Interval Search (BITS, Relevant Distance, Absolute Distance, Jaccard and Projection tests by Genometricorr revealed a statistically significant spatial correlation of binding regions on chromosome between the two factors. Motif analysis revealed that the shared binding regions were enriched with binding motifs for ERα, PR and a number of other transcription and pioneer factors. Some of these factors are known to co-locate with ERα and PR binding. Therefore spatially close proximity of ERα binding sites with PR binding sites suggests that ERα and PR, in general function independently at the molecular level, but that their activities converge on a specific subset of transcriptional targets.

  20. Studying the functional conservation of cis-regulatory modules and their transcriptional output

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    Bailey Timothy L

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cis-regulatory modules (CRMs are distinct, genomic regions surrounding the target gene that can independently activate the promoter to drive transcription. The activation of a CRM is controlled by the binding of a certain combination of transcription factors (TFs. It would be of great benefit if the transcriptional output mediated by a specific CRM could be predicted. Of equal benefit would be identifying in silico a specific CRM as the driver of the expression in a specific tissue or situation. We extend a recently developed biochemical modeling approach to manage both prediction tasks. Given a set of TFs, their protein concentrations, and the positions and binding strengths of each of the TFs in a putative CRM, the model predicts the transcriptional output of the gene. Our approach predicts the location of the regulating CRM by using predicted TF binding sites in regions near the gene as input to the model and searching for the region that yields a predicted transcription rate most closely matching the known rate. Results Here we show the ability of the model on the example of one of the CRMs regulating the eve gene, MSE2. A model trained on the MSE2 in D. melanogaster was applied to the surrounding sequence of the eve gene in seven other Drosophila species. The model successfully predicts the correct MSE2 location and output in six out of eight Drosophila species we examine. Conclusion The model is able to generalize from D. melanogaster to other Drosophila species and accurately predicts the location and transcriptional output of MSE2 in those species. However, we also show that the current model is not specific enough to function as a genome-wide CRM scanner, because it incorrectly predicts other genomic regions to be MSE2s.

  1. Elementos del sistema electoral del Congreso Mexicano

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    Aldo Medina García

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo es un estudio de los componentes del sistema electoral, diseñado por el legislador mexicano para integrar al parlamento federal. Estudio desarrollado a sabiendas de la importancia que reviste el sistema electoral como un medio que permite a los ciudadanos convertir su voto expresado en las urnas en escaños a favor de determinado candidato o partido. En dicho análisis tomamos en cuenta la evolución constitucional del sistema electoral mexicano, la participación de las fuerzas minoritarias en la integración del Senado y de la Cámara de Diputados, la división que se hace del territorio en circunscripciones electorales, la barrera electoral que se fija a los partidos políticos para acceder a la representación en el Parlamento, la fórmula de asignación que se aplica a la votación obtenida, para finalmente concluir que el sistema electoral mexicano es esencialmente mayoritario aun cuando se vista de proporcional.

  2. OBJETIVO DEL DESARROLLO DEL MILENIO 7

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    Margarita M. Pérez O.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Los Objetivos de Desarrollo del Milenio, también conocidos como los Objetivos del Milenio, constituyeron las metas finales que aprobaron los dirigentes mundiales, 189 jefes de estado y de gobierno en la Cumbre del Milenio de las Naciones Unidas celebrada en Nueva York en el año 2000, en la cual los Estados miembros de la organización reafirmaron su compromiso de luchar por un mundo en el que el desarrollo sostenible y la eliminación de la pobreza tuvieran máxima prioridad1 . En la cumbre se definió la Declaración del Milenio, la cual detalla los objetivos, principios, valores, metas y acciones para erradicar la pobreza Mundial hacia el año 2015, todos ellos ratificados con alto interés y acción estratégica de carácter global, como marco para la medición de los progresos en materia de desarrollo.

  3. La crisi del diritto del lavoro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Garilli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Riassunto - L’Autore ripercorre in chiave critica l’evoluzione delle politiche legislative in materia di lavoro, alla luce dell’attuale fase di crisi economico finanziaria. Nell’esaminare i principali interventi normativi attuati da inizio secolo, l’Autore mette in evidenza le scelte di metodo e gli elementi di continuità che accomunano i vari provvedimenti, individuandoli nell’affannosa ricerca del punto di equilibrio tra flessibilità e garantismo. La riflessione si chiude con alcuni interrogativi sulle ultime linee di riforma del mercato del lavoro e con l’auspicio che, anche al cospetto delle imprescindibili ragioni dell’economia, il diritto del lavoro possa continuare a svolgere il proprio tradizionale ruolo di disciplina di tutela della persona.   Abstract - The author analyzes, with a critically oriented approach, the development of the employment law, in the light of the current economic and financial crisis. In examining the main regulatory measures implemented since the beginning of the century, the author highlights the methodological choices and the elements of continuity that unite the various measures, focusing them in a hard research of a point of balance between flexibility and security. The discussion concludes with some questions about the last lines of the reform of the labor market and with the hope that, even in the face of compelling reasons of economy, labor law can continue to play its traditional role of governing the protection of person.

  4. Ruptura del projecte parental i disposici?? dels preembrions

    OpenAIRE

    Farn??s Amor??s, Esther

    2010-01-01

    La tesi doctoral "Ruptura del projecte parental i disposici?? dels preembrions" analitza els efectes del consentiment a les t??cniques de reproducci?? assistida prestat en el marc d'un projecte parental. La tesi ofereix una resposta als conflictes que enfronten exesposos o exconvivents en relaci?? al dest?? dels preembrions sobrants d'un cicle de fecundaci?? "in vitro" iniciat durant la relaci??. Aquests conflictes constitueixen un grup de casos al voltant del qual no hi ha solucions legislat...

  5. Sociedad abierta del conocimiento

    OpenAIRE

    Echeverría, Javier

    2007-01-01

    En las sociedades del conocimiento hay dos modelos opuestos de gestión: conocimiento libre y conocimiento propietario. Ambos generan desarrollos tecnológicos e innovaciones, pero el primero favorece la emergencia de sociedades abiertas del conocimiento. Aplicando las propuestas de von Hippel, este artículo muestra que la contraposición entre ambos modelos no sólo afecta a la producción y distribución del conocimiento, también a su almacenamiento y uso. Los usuarios son la principal fuente de ...

  6. Secretos del test extraterrestre

    OpenAIRE

    Hybris, Profesor

    2016-01-01

    Por el parasicólogo y astrólogo Profesor Hybris La prensa mundial ha revelado recientemente los detalles del extraño caso de Asdrúbal Carrasquilla, el camionero chileno que desapareciera misteriosamente en su país, ante el asombro de varios automovilistas que lo vieron desvanecerse en el aire, junto con su camión, en la muy transitada vía entre Las Fraguas y San Venancio, en la provincia chilena de Valverde. El hecho ocurrió a las 16.55 del 15 de diciembre de 1981. A las 16.58 del mismo día, ...

  7. La muerte del mito

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez-Biosca, Vicente

    1990-01-01

    Habría de ser de nuevo John Ford quien sentenciará la defunción del western en cuanto mito, su imposibilidad de construirse en el vacío de la historia. Y habría de ser en uno de los más lúcidos films de la historia del cine: The Man who shot Liberty Valance (El hombre que mató a Liberty Valance, 1962). Todo en este film posee un reverso: un viaje en ferrocarril abre paso al pueblecito de Shinbone. Pero, en el interior del relato, otro emprendido por el antes pionero y ho...

  8. La escritura del mundo

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez García-Posada, Ángel

    2010-01-01

    El mapa de un arquitecto es un paisaje alternativo, una representación intencionada del medio que se aleja del documento impuesto y apunta la posibilidad de transformarlo, así comienza el proyecto; el sentido inverso, llevar al territorio los signos del plano, remite a la esencia de la arquitectura y su capacidad de alterar el mundo. Nuestras representaciones describen una realidad y a su vez son otra distinta, entre ambos campos se produce un flujo que los liga y los condiciona. La cartograf...

  9. LA ESCRITURA DEL MUNDO

    OpenAIRE

    Ángel Martínez García-Posada

    2010-01-01

    RESUMEN El mapa de un arquitecto es un paisaje alternativo, una representación intencionada del medio que se aleja del documento impuesto y apunta la posibilidad de transformarlo, así comienza el proyecto; el sentido inverso, llevar al territorio los signos del plano, remite a la esencia de la arquitectura y su capacidad de alterar el mundo. Nuestras representaciones describen una realidad y a su vez son otra distinta, entre ambos campos se produce un flujo que los liga y los condiciona. La c...

  10. Reactions of Cisplatin Hydrolytes with Thiols. 3: Reactions of cis-[Pt(15NH32(H2O2]2+ with Glutathione

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutopo Hadi

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The reaction of cis-[Pt(15NH32(H2O2]2+ (3 with glutathione (GSH was investigated in aqueous solution. In this reaction, the ammine in the platinum complex formed was liberated. Surprisingly two chelate rings were observed, six-membered-S,O-chelate ring complex cis-[Pt(15NH32(SG-S,O (7 and five-membered-S,N-chelate ring complex cis-[Pt(15NH32(SG-S,N] (8. The bis (thiolate platinum(II complex, cis-[Pt(15NH32(SG2] (9 was always present in this reaction in any mole ratio used. The dinuclear sulphur-bridged complex (10, giving a broad peak in 15N NMR, was only present in very tiny amounts.

  11. LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHIC SEPARATION OF THE ENANTIOMERS OF TRANS-CHLORDANE, CIS-CHLORDANE, HEPTACHLOR, HEPTACHLOR EPOXIDE AND ALPHA-HEXACHLOROCYCLOHEXANE WITH APPLICATION TO SMALL-SCALE PREPARATIVE SEPARATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Analytical high-performance liquid chromatographic separations of the individual enantiomers of five polychlorinated compounds were obtained on polysaccharide stereoselective HPLC columns. The enantiomers of the pesticides trans-chlordane, cis-chlordane and heptachlor were separa...

  12. Reactivity of stabilized Criegee intermediates (sCIs) from isoprene and monoterpene ozonolysis toward SO2 and organic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipilä, M.; Jokinen, T.; Berndt, T.; Richters, S.; Makkonen, R.; Donahue, N. M.; Mauldin, R. L., III; Kurtén, T.; Paasonen, P.; Sarnela, N.; Ehn, M.; Junninen, H.; Rissanen, M. P.; Thornton, J.; Stratmann, F.; Herrmann, H.; Worsnop, D. R.; Kulmala, M.; Kerminen, V.-M.; Petäjä, T.

    2014-11-01

    Oxidation processes in Earth's atmosphere are tightly connected to many environmental and human health issues and are essential drivers for biogeochemistry. Until the recent discovery of the atmospheric relevance of the reaction of stabilized Criegee intermediates (sCIs) with SO2, atmospheric oxidation processes were thought to be dominated by a few main oxidants: ozone, hydroxyl radicals (OH), nitrate radicals and, e.g. over oceans, halogen atoms such as chlorine. Here, we report results from laboratory experiments at 293 K and atmospheric pressure focusing on sCI formation from the ozonolysis of isoprene and the most abundant monoterpenes (α-pinene and limonene), and subsequent reactions of the resulting sCIs with SO2 producing sulfuric acid (H2SO4). The measured total sCI yields were (0.15 ± 0.07), (0.27 ± 0.12) and (0.58 ± 0.26) for α-pinene, limonene and isoprene, respectively. The ratio between the rate coefficient for the sCI loss (including thermal decomposition and the reaction with water vapour) and the rate coefficient for the reaction of sCI with SO2, k(loss) /k(sCI + SO2), was determined at relative humidities of 10 and 50%. Observed values represent the average reactivity of all sCIs produced from the individual alkene used in the ozonolysis. For the monoterpene-derived sCIs, the relative rate coefficients k(loss) / k(sCI + SO2) were in the range (2.0-2.4) × 1012 molecules cm-3 and nearly independent of the relative humidity. This fact points to a minor importance of the sCI + H2O reaction in the case of the sCI arising from α-pinene and limonene. For the isoprene sCIs, however, the ratio k(loss) / k(sCI + SO2) was strongly dependent on the relative humidity. To explore whether sCIs could have a more general role in atmospheric oxidation, we investigated as an example the reactivity of acetone oxide (sCI from the ozonolysis of 2,3-dimethyl-2-butene) toward small organic acids, i.e. formic and acetic acid. Acetone oxide was found to react faster

  13. Azo···phenyl stacking: a persistent self-assembly motif guides the assembly of fluorinated cis-azobenzenes into photo-mechanical needle crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushuyev, Oleksandr S; Tomberg, Anna; Vinden, Joanna R; Moitessier, Nicolas; Barrett, Christopher J; Friščić, Tomislav

    2016-02-01

    We describe a novel, persistent motif of molecular assembly in photo-mechanical crystals and cocrystals of fluorinated cis-azobenzenes. The azo···phenyl stacking, preserved upon either chemical substitution or halogen-bonded cocrystallization, guides the assembly of fluorinated cis-azobenzenes into columnar stacks and drives the formation of crystals with needle-like morphologies optimal for photo-mechanical motion. PMID:26691226

  14. Trans-10, Cis-12 Conjugated Linoleic Acid Antagonizes Ligand-Dependent PPARγ Activity in Primary Cultures of Human Adipocytes1,2

    OpenAIRE

    Kennedy, Arion; Chung, Soonkyu; LaPoint, Kathleen; Fabiyi, Oluwatoyin; McIntosh, Michael K.

    2008-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that trans-10, cis-12 (10,12) conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) causes human adipocyte delipidation, insulin resistance, and inflammation in part by attenuating PPARγ target gene expression. We hypothesized that CLA antagonizes the activity of PPARγ in an isomer-specific manner. 10,12 CLA, but not cis-9, trans-11 (9,11) CLA, suppressed ligand-stimulated activation of a peroxisome proliferator response element-luciferase reporter. This decreased activation of PPARγ by 1...

  15. Ruthenium(II) complexes containing N(4)-tolyl-2-acetylpyridine thiosemicarbazones and phosphine ligands: NMR and electrochemical studies of cis- trans isomerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graminha, Angelica E.; Batista, Alzir A.; Ellena, Javier; Castellano, Eduardo E.; Teixeira, Letícia R.; Mendes, Isolda C.; Beraldo, Heloisa

    2008-03-01

    [Ru(HL)(PPh 3) 2Cl]Cl complexes have been obtained in which HL = N(4)- ortho (complex 1), N(4)- meta (complex 2) and N(4)- para-tolyl 2-acetylpyridine thiosemicarbazone (complex 3). NMR and electrochemical studies indicate that both cis and trans isomers exist in solution, and that the cis isomers are converted into the trans isomers with time. Crystal structure determination of ( 1) reveals that the trans isomer is formed in the solid state.

  16. Experimental design for assessment of electrokinetically enhanced delivery of lactate and bacteria in 1,2-cis-dichloroethylene contaminated limestone

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen , Bente M.; With Nedergaard, Lærke; Ottosen, Lisbeth; Broholm, Mette Martina; Riis, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial dechlorination of chlorinated solvents often causes accumulation of the intermediate cis-DCE. Back diffusion of e.g. cis-DCE, due to the dual porosity of limestone, often limits the remediation efficiency. A remediation scheme capable of establishing contact between contaminant, degrading bacteria and electron donor within the low permeable limestone matrix is required. The technology EK-BIO, which combines enhanced reductive dechlorination and electrokinetics (EK), was assessed. Th...

  17. Identification of the benzothiazepine-binding polypeptide of skeletal muscle calcium channels with (+)-cis-azidodiltiazem and anti-ligand antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purified dihydropyridine-sensitive calcium channel from skeletal muscle transverse tubules consists of several subunits, termed alpha 1, alpha 2, beta, gamma and delta. From its associated drug receptors, those for 1,4-dihydropyridines and phenylalkylamines have been shown previously by photoaffinity labeling to reside on the alpha 1 subunit. In the present study the arylazide photo-affinity ligand, (+)-cis-azidodiltiazem ((+)-cis-(2S,3S)-5-[2-(4- azidobenzoyl)aminoethyl]-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-3-hydroxy-2-(4-methoxyphenyl )-4- oxo-1,5-benzothiazepine), and the respective tritiated derivative, (+)-cis-[3H]azidodiltiazem (45 Ci/mmol), were developed to identify directly the benzothiazepine binding subunit. (+)-cis-Azidodiltiazem binds competitively to the benzothiazepine receptor in rabbit skeletal muscle transverse tubule membranes. Upon ultraviolet irradiation of the (+)-cis-[3H]azidodiltiazem-purified calcium channel complex, the ligand photoincorporates exclusively into the alpha 1 subunit. Photoincorporation is protected by 100 microM (-)-desmethoxyverapamil and 100 microM (+)-cis-diltiazem. A polyclonal antiserum directed against (+)-cis-azidodiltiazem was employed to detect (+)-cis-azidodiltiazem immunoreactivity photoincorporated into the purified calcium channel complex, confirming the exclusive labeling of the alpha 1 subunit. Our data provide direct evidence that, together with the drug receptors for 1,4-dihydropyridines and phenylalkylamines, the benzothiazepine binding domain of skeletal muscle calcium channels is located on the alpha 1 subunit. We conclude that our anti-ligand antibodies could be used successfully to affinity purify the photolabeled proteolytic fragments of the alpha 1 subunit which are expected to form part of the benzothiazepine binding domain

  18. Actividad del virus del oeste del Nilo y otros flavivirus en cinco departamentos del Caribe colombiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Álvarez

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available El virus del oeste del Nilo (VON y el virus de la encefalitis de San Luis (VESL pertenece a la familia Flaviviridae, género Flavivirus y hacen parte del serocomplejo de la encefalitis japonesa (1. Estos virus se encuentran distribuidos en Estados Unidos, centro América y suramerica (2. Son mantenidos en la naturaleza en un ciclo enzoótico ave-mosquito-ave. Humanos, équidos y otros vertebrados se infectan por la picadura de mosquitos del genero Culex principalmente (1,2. En humanos se han identificado y descrito nuevos modos de transmisión de VON incluyendo infección a través de productos sanguíneos contaminados (3, transplante de órganos (4, transmisión a través de la leche materna (5, transmisión intrauterina (6, y exposición ocupacional (7.

  19. Integration of Bioinformatics and Synthetic Promoters Leads to the Discovery of Novel Elicitor-Responsive cis-Regulatory Sequences in Arabidopsis1[C][W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koschmann, Jeannette; Machens, Fabian; Becker, Marlies; Niemeyer, Julia; Schulze, Jutta; Bülow, Lorenz; Stahl, Dietmar J.; Hehl, Reinhard

    2012-01-01

    A combination of bioinformatic tools, high-throughput gene expression profiles, and the use of synthetic promoters is a powerful approach to discover and evaluate novel cis-sequences in response to specific stimuli. With Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) microarray data annotated to the PathoPlant database, 732 different queries with a focus on fungal and oomycete pathogens were performed, leading to 510 up-regulated gene groups. Using the binding site estimation suite of tools, BEST, 407 conserved sequence motifs were identified in promoter regions of these coregulated gene sets. Motif similarities were determined with STAMP, classifying the 407 sequence motifs into 37 families. A comparative analysis of these 37 families with the AthaMap, PLACE, and AGRIS databases revealed similarities to known cis-elements but also led to the discovery of cis-sequences not yet implicated in pathogen response. Using a parsley (Petroselinum crispum) protoplast system and a modified reporter gene vector with an internal transformation control, 25 elicitor-responsive cis-sequences from 10 different motif families were identified. Many of the elicitor-responsive cis-sequences also drive reporter gene expression in an Agrobacterium tumefaciens infection assay in Nicotiana benthamiana. This work significantly increases the number of known elicitor-responsive cis-sequences and demonstrates the successful integration of a diverse set of bioinformatic resources combined with synthetic promoter analysis for data mining and functional screening in plant-pathogen interaction. PMID:22744985

  20. Integration of bioinformatics and synthetic promoters leads to the discovery of novel elicitor-responsive cis-regulatory sequences in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koschmann, Jeannette; Machens, Fabian; Becker, Marlies; Niemeyer, Julia; Schulze, Jutta; Bülow, Lorenz; Stahl, Dietmar J; Hehl, Reinhard

    2012-09-01

    A combination of bioinformatic tools, high-throughput gene expression profiles, and the use of synthetic promoters is a powerful approach to discover and evaluate novel cis-sequences in response to specific stimuli. With Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) microarray data annotated to the PathoPlant database, 732 different queries with a focus on fungal and oomycete pathogens were performed, leading to 510 up-regulated gene groups. Using the binding site estimation suite of tools, BEST, 407 conserved sequence motifs were identified in promoter regions of these coregulated gene sets. Motif similarities were determined with STAMP, classifying the 407 sequence motifs into 37 families. A comparative analysis of these 37 families with the AthaMap, PLACE, and AGRIS databases revealed similarities to known cis-elements but also led to the discovery of cis-sequences not yet implicated in pathogen response. Using a parsley (Petroselinum crispum) protoplast system and a modified reporter gene vector with an internal transformation control, 25 elicitor-responsive cis-sequences from 10 different motif families were identified. Many of the elicitor-responsive cis-sequences also drive reporter gene expression in an Agrobacterium tumefaciens infection assay in Nicotiana benthamiana. This work significantly increases the number of known elicitor-responsive cis-sequences and demonstrates the successful integration of a diverse set of bioinformatic resources combined with synthetic promoter analysis for data mining and functional screening in plant-pathogen interaction. PMID:22744985

  1. Cis-urocanic acid synergizes with histamine for increased PGE2 production by human keratinocytes: link to indomethacin-inhibitable UVB-induced immunosuppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is considerable evidence that suppression of the immune system by UVB (280-320 nm UV) irradiation is initiated by UVB-dependent isomerization of a specific skin photoreceptor, urocanic acid (UCA), from the trans to the cis form. Previous studies have confirmed that cis-UCA administration to mice 3-5 days prior to hapten sensitization at a distant site, suppresses the contact hypersensitivity (CHS) response upon challenge. This study demonstrates in mice that cis-UCA, like UVB, suppresses CHS to trinitrochlorobenzene by a mechanism partly dependent on prostanoid production. In vitro experimentation showed that human keratinocytes, isolated from neonatal foreskin, increased prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production in response to histamine but not UCA alone. However, cis-UCA synergized with histamine for increased PGE2 production by keratinocytes. Cis-urocanic acid also increased the sensitivity of keratinocytes for PGE2 production in response to histamine. Prostaglandin E2 from keratinocytes exposed to cis-UCA and histamine may contribute directly, or indirectly, to the regulation of CHS responses by UVB irradiation. (Author)

  2. Isolation of cDNAs encoding a human protein that binds selectively to DNA modified by the anticancer drug cis-diammine-dichloroplatinum(II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DNA modified by the antitumor drug cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II) (cis-DDP or cisplatin) was used to identify a factor in mammalian cells that binds to cis-DDP-damaged DNA and hence may play a role in repair. This factor selectivity recognizes double-stranded DNA fragments modified by cis-DDP or [Pt(en)Cl2] (en, ethylenediamine). Little or no binding occurs to unmodified double-stranded DNA or to DNA modified with the clinically ineffective compounds trans-DDP and [Pt(dien)Cl]Cl (dien, diethylenetriamine). Low levels of binding to single-stranded DNA modified by cis-DDP are observed. The apparent molecular mass of the factor in a variety of mammalian cells is ∼ 100 kDa, as determined by modified Western blotting. Two recombinant phage have been isolated from a human B-cell λgt11 library by using a cis-DDP-modified DNA restriction fragments as a probe. The two clones have insert sizes of 1.88 and 1.44 kilobases and are aligned at their 5' ends. The polypeptides encoded by the recombinant phage exhibit DNA binding properties similar to those of the cellular factor identified in crude extracts prepared from mammalian cells. Northern analysis with one of the clones revealed an mRNA of 2.8 kilobases that is conserved in humans and rodents. The methods used here should be applicable in studies of other damage-specific DNA binding proteins

  3. Sunscreens with broad-spectrum absorption decrease the trans TO cis photoisomerization of urocanic acid in the human stratum corneum after multiple UV light exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The trans to cis photoisomerization of urocanic acid (UCA) in skin is considered to play an important role in the mechanism of immunosuppression. We have investigated the effects of skin type and various sunscreens with low sun protection factor (SPF) on the UV-induced cis-UCA formation in human skin after exposure to artificial UV light. The rate of cis-UCA formation depends little on the skin type and is reduced by topical application of sunscreens. The rate of cis-UCA formation decreases with increasing SPF and only broad-spectrum, highly protective sunscreens offer protection against the UV-induced formation of cis-UCA, which accumulates in the stratum corneum after multiple UV exposures. A theoretical approach to estimate the distribution of cis-UCA after irradiation indicates that this compound may diffuse into the deeper layers of the epidermis with D ∼ 10-17 m2/s, and that its elimination from the stratum corneum is mainly due to desquamation. (author)

  4. Fatty acids attached to all-trans-astaxanthin alter its cis-trans equilibrium, and consequently its stability, upon light-accelerated autoxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruijn, Wouter J C; Weesepoel, Yannick; Vincken, Jean-Paul; Gruppen, Harry

    2016-03-01

    Fatty acid esterification, common in naturally occurring astaxanthin, has been suggested to influence both colour stability and degradation of all-trans-astaxanthin. Therefore, astaxanthin stability was studied as influenced by monoesterification and diesterification with palmitate. Increased esterification decelerated degradation of all-trans-astaxanthin (RP-UHPLC-PDA), whereas, it had no influence on colour loss over time (spectrophotometry). This difference might be explained by the observation that palmitate esterification influenced the cis-trans equilibrium. Free astaxanthin produced larger amounts of 9-cis isomer whereas monopalmitate esterification resulted in increased 13-cis isomerization. The molar ratios of 9-cis:13-cis after 60min were 1:1.7 (free), 1:4.8 (monopalmitate) and 1:2.6 (dipalmitate). The formation of 9-cis astaxanthin, with its higher molar extinction coefficient than that of all-trans-astaxanthin, might compensate for colour loss induced by conjugated double bond cleavage. As such, it was concluded that spectrophotometry is not an accurate measure of the degradation of the all-trans-astaxanthin molecule. PMID:26471660

  5. Synthesis of cis - and trans-diisothiocyanato-bis(NHC) complexes of nickel(II) and applications in the Kumada-Corriu reaction

    KAUST Repository

    Jothibasu, Ramasamy

    2010-09-13

    Metathetical reaction of AgSCN with a series of trans-dihalido-bis(carbene) nickel(II) complexes in CH3CN readily afforded the novel diisothiocyanato-bis(carbene) complexes [Ni(NCS)2(NHC)2] (trans-2a, NHC = 1,3-diisopropylbenzimidazolin-2-ylidene; trans-2b, NHC = 1,3-diisobutylbenzimidazolin-2-ylidene; trans-2c, NHC = 1,3- dibenzylbenzimidazolin-2-ylidene; cis-2d, NHC = 1,3-di(2-propenyl) benzimidazolin-2-ylidene; cis-2e, NHC = 1-propyl-3-methylbenzimidazolin-2- ylidene) as greenish-yellow powders in moderate to good yields. While dihalido-bis(carbene) Ni(II) complexes exclusively form trans-complexes, a trans-cis isomerization occurs upon halido-isothiocyanato exchange with complexes bearing less bulky carbene ligands, i.e., cis-2d/e. DFT calculations indicated that this isomerization can be attributed to a reduced energy difference between trans- and cis-isomers of diisothiocyanato complexes. All complexes have been characterized by multinuclear NMR spectroscopy, ESI mass spectrometry, and X-ray diffraction analysis. A catalytic study revealed that cis-complexes generally exhibit greater activities in the Kumada-Corriu coupling reaction. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  6. Improving the Accuracy of Excited-State Simulations of BODIPY and Aza-BODIPY Dyes with a Joint SOS-CIS(D) and TD-DFT Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chibani, Siwar; Laurent, Adèle D; Le Guennic, Boris; Jacquemin, Denis

    2014-10-14

    BODIPY and aza-BODIPY dyes constitute two key families of organic dyes with applications in both materials science and biology. Previous attempts aiming to obtain accurate theoretical estimates of their optical properties, and in particular of their 0-0 energies, have failed. Here, using time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT), configuration interaction singles with a double correction [CIS(D)], and its scaled-opposite-spin variant [SOS-CIS(D)], we have determined the 0-0 energies as well as the vibronic shapes of both the absorption and emission bands of a large set of fluoroborates. Indeed, we have selected 47 BODIPY and 4 aza-BODIPY dyes presenting diverse chemical structures. TD-DFT yields a rather large mean signed error between the experimental and theoretical 0-0 energies with a systematic overshooting of the transition energies (by ca. 0.4 eV). This error is reduced to ca. 0.2 [0.1] eV when the TD-DFT 0-0 energies are corrected with vertical CIS(D) [SOS-CIS(D)] energies. For BODIPY and aza-BODIPY dyes, both CIS(D) and SOS-CIS(D) clearly outperform TD-DFT. The present computational protocol allows accurate data to be obtained for the most relevant properties, that is, 0-0 energies and optical band shapes. PMID:26588151

  7. El vicio del amor

    OpenAIRE

    Zaietz, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    “Si alguien entre nosotros no conoce el arte de amar, que lea este poema y, adoctrinado por su lectura, ame”. Con generoso didactismo, comienza Ovidio, poeta romano (43 a.C.-17 d.C), su libro Arte de Amar, texto clásico bien conocido por el clérigo Guillaume de Lorris al momento de escribir la primera parte del Roman de la Rose. (Párrafo extraído del texto a modo de resumen)

  8. Il problema del litio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Antona, F.

    1995-03-01

    Contents: 1. Introduzione. 2. La nucleosintesi del Big Bang. 3. Il litio nelle stelle di popolazione II. 4. I modelli stellari standard. 5. Il litio negli ammassi aperti. 6. Meccanismi di distruzione "non standard". 7. I modelli non-standard applicati alla popolazione II. 8. L'evoluzione Galattica del litio. 9. Quali stelle producono litio? 10. Il litio come elemento chiave per dare un nome agli oggetti stellari più minuscoli. 11. Conclusioni.

  9. Co-conserved features associated with cis regulation of ErbB tyrosine kinases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amar Mirza

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The epidermal growth factor receptor kinases, or ErbB kinases, belong to a large sub-group of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs, which share a conserved catalytic core. The catalytic core of ErbB kinases have functionally diverged from other RTKs in that they are activated by a unique allosteric mechanism that involves specific interactions between the kinase core and the flanking Juxtamembrane (JM and COOH-terminal tail (C-terminal tail. Although extensive studies on ErbB and related tyrosine kinases have provided important insights into the structural basis for ErbB kinase functional divergence, the sequence features that contribute to the unique regulation of ErbB kinases have not been systematically explored. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we use a Bayesian approach to identify the selective sequence constraints that most distinguish ErbB kinases from other receptor tyrosine kinases. We find that strong ErbB kinase-specific constraints are imposed on residues that tether the JM and C-terminal tail to key functional regions of the kinase core. A conserved RIxKExE motif in the JM-kinase linker region and a glutamine in the inter-lobe linker are identified as two of the most distinguishing features of the ErbB family. While the RIxKExE motif tethers the C-terminal tail to the N-lobe of the kinase domain, the glutamine tethers the C-terminal tail to hinge regions critical for inter-lobe movement. Comparison of the active and inactive crystal structures of ErbB kinases indicates that the identified residues are conformationally malleable and can potentially contribute to the cis regulation of the kinase core by the JM and C-terminal tail. ErbB3, and EGFR orthologs in sponges and parasitic worms, diverge from some of the canonical ErbB features, providing insights into sub-family and lineage-specific functional specialization. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our analysis pinpoints key residues for mutational analysis, and

  10. el Valle del Cauca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Humberto Ortiz

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo se enfoca en la identi- ficación de aquellos factores estructurales que explican la pérdida de dinamismo económico de largo plazo en Colombia y, en particular, en el Valle del Cauca. Se examina la competitividad del Valle en relación con Colombia y con el resto del mundo. Se cuestiona la insistencia en una estrategia exportadora como dinamizadora del desarrollo económico. Se identifica que una gran parte de la población está excluida de los beneficios del desarrollo económico. Para construir un modelo de desarrollo que incluya a esta población se recomienda recuperar la senda de la industrialización, invertir en el capital humano (educación de alta calidad, salud, salubridad y nutrición, e invertir en infraestructura. La participación del Estado en estas inversiones sociales es necesaria para disminuir la desigualdad y aumentar el crecimiento económico.

  11. pensiones del ISSSTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Villagómez Amezcua

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El análisis en este estudio ofrece una valoración sobre el problema de viabilidad financiera del programa de pensiones del ISSSTE y la urgente necesidad de modificarlo, no sólo por el costo fiscal que implica, sino porque este costo será creciente. Actualmente las aportaciones no son suficientes para cubrir las pensiones vigentes por lo que se recibe una transferencia de recursos del ramo XIX que en 2001 superó 0.20% del PIB. Utilizando supuestos moderados para el comportamiento futuro de la economía y de este programa, estimamos que de no reformarse el costo fiscal oscilará entre 22 y 39% del PIB. Si se realiza una reforma menor que sólo afecte algunos de los parámetros del esquema actual como contribuciones y edad de retiro, este costo puede reducirse en casi 50%. Sin embargo, no deben descartarse alternativas mixtas que permitan mitigar este costo aún más al tiempo que el programa cumpla con su objetivo final que es el de garantizar pensiones a los trabajadores.

  12. Espectroscopia del Cometa Halley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naranjo, O.; Fuenmayor, F.; Ferrin, L.; Bulka, P.; Mendoza, C.

    1987-05-01

    Se reportan observaciones espectroscópicas del cometa Halley. Los espectros fueron tomados usando el espectrógrafo del telescopio reflector de 1 metro del Observatorio Nacional de Venezuela. Se utilizó óptica azul, con una red de difracción de 600 lineas/min, obteniéndose una dispersión de 74.2 A/mm y una resolución de 2.5 A, en el rango espectral de 3500 a 6500 A. Seis placas fueron tomadas con emulsión IIa-O y dos con IIa-D. Los tiempos de exposición fueron entre 10 y 150 minutos. El cometa se encontraba entre 0.70 y 1.04 UA del Sol, y entre 1.28 y 0.73 UA de la Tierra. Las emisiones más prominentes en el espectro, son las del CN, C2, y C3. Otras emisiones detectadas corresponden a CH, NH2 y Na. Los espectros muestran un fuerte continuo, indicando un contenido significativo de polvo. Se detectó mayor intensidad del contínuo, en la dirección anti solar, lo cual es evidencia de la cola de polvo.

  13. Effects of cis-9,trans-11 and trans-10,cis-12 Conjugated Linoleic Acid, Linoleic Acid, Phytanic Acid and the Combination of Various Fatty Acids on Proliferation and Cytokine Expression of Bovine Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Dänicke

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acids may have an impact on immune functions, which is important in times of increased mobilization of body fat, e.g., around parturition. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of the CLA isomers cis-9,trans-11 and trans-10,cis-12, phytanic acid (PA, linoleic acid (LA and a fatty acid (FA mixture (containing 29.8% palmitic acid, 6.7% palmitoleic acid, 17.4% stearic acid and 46.1% oleic acid on the proliferation of bovine blood mononuclear cells (PBMC in vitro using alamar blue (AB and 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU assay. Quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction analyses were performed to evaluate the expression of interleukin (IL-4, IL-10, interferon (IFN-γ, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR-γ in response to cis-9,trans-11 and LA. The IC50 values did not differ between the investigated FA, but there were differences within the proliferation in the response of these FA in a concentration range between 20 and 148 µM (e.g., increased proliferation after treatment with lower concentrations of LA. No differences occurred when different FA combinations were tested. ConA stimulation increased the expression of TNF-α and IFN-γ, whereas IL-10 decreased. In general, neither the baseline expression nor the ConA-stimulated mRNA expression of cytokines and PPAR-γ were affected by the FA. In conclusion, all FA inhibit the proliferation of PBMC dose dependently without significantly altering the induced cytokine spectrum of activated bovine PBMC.

  14. An oil mixture with trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid increases markers of inflammation and in vivo lipid peroxidation compared with cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid in postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tholstrup, Tine; Raff, Marianne; Straarup, Ellen Marie; Lund, Pia; Basu, Samar; Bruun, Jens M.

    2008-01-01

    total cholesterol:HDL cholesterol and concentrations of C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 were significantly higher in women supplemented with the CLA mixture than in those supplemented with CLA milk. Plasma triacylglycerol was significantly higher and HDL cholesterol....... The plasma cytokines interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-a were not affected by the treatments, nor were any of the other variables measured. In conclusion, oil containing trans-10,cis-12 CLA has several adverse effects on classical and novel markers of coronary vascular disease, whereas the c9, t...

  15. Probing the Early Stages of Solvation of cis-Pinate Dianions by Water, Acetonitrile, and Methanol: A Photoelectron Spectroscopy and Theoretical Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Gao-Lei; Kong, Xiang-Tao; Valiev, Marat; Jiang, Ling; Wang, Xue B.

    2016-01-01

    Cis-pinic acid is one of the most important oxidation products of α-pinene – a key monoterpene compound in biogenic emission processes affecting the atmosphere. Molecular level understanding of interactions involved in the cluster formations around cis-pinic acid is an important and necessary prerequisite toward ascertaining its role in the aerosol formation processes. In this work, we studied the structures and energetics of the solvated clusters of cis-pinate (cis-PA²⁻), the doubly deprotonated dicarboxylate of cis-pinic acid, with H₂O, CH₃OH, and CH₃CN by negative ion photoelectron spectroscopy and ab initio theoretical calculations. We found that cis-PA²⁻ prefers being solvated alternately on the two -CO₂⁻ groups with increase of solvent coverage, a well-known solvation pattern that has been observed in microhydrated linear dicarboxylate dianion (DCn²⁻) clusters. Experiments and calculations further reveal an intriguing feature for the existence of the asymmetric type isomers for cis-PA2–(H2O)2 and cis-PA²⁻(CH₃OH)₂, in which both solvent molecules interact with only one of the -CO²⁻ groups – a phenomena that has not been observed in DCn²⁻ water clusters and exhibits the subtle effect of the rigid four-membered carbon ring brought in on the cis-PA²⁻ solvation. The dominant interactions between cis-PA²⁻ and solvent molecules are forming bidentate O–···H–O H-bonds for H₂O, O–···H–O and O–···H–C H-bonds for CH₃OH, and tridentate O–···H–C H-bonds for CH₃CN. The formation of inter-solvent H-bonds between H₂O and CH₃CN is found to be favorable in mixed solvent clusters, distinctly different from that between H₂O and CH₃OH. These findings have important implications for understanding the mechanism of cluster growth and nucleation of atmospheric organic aerosols and the nature of structure-function relationship of proteins containing carboxylate groups under various solvent

  16. PRE-1, a cis element sufficient to enhance cone- and rod- specific expression in differentiating zebrafish photoreceptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hurley James B

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Appropriate transcriptional regulation is required for cone photoreceptor development and integrity. To date, only a few cis-regulatory elements that control cone photoreceptor-specific expression have been characterised. The alpha-subunit of cone transducin (TαC is specifically expressed in cone photoreceptors and is required for colour vision. In order to better understand the molecular genetics controlling the initiation of cone photoreceptor-specific expression in vivo, we have utilised zebrafish to identify cis-regulatory elements in the upstream promoter region of the TαC gene. Results A 0.5 kb TαC promoter fragment is sufficient to direct cone-specific expression in transgenic larvae. Within this minimal promoter, we identify photoreceptor regulatory element-1 (PRE-1, a unique 41 bp sequence. PRE-1 specifically binds nuclear factors expressed in ocular tissue. PRE-1 is not required for cone-specific expression directed from a 2.5 kb TαC promoter. However, PRE-1-like sequences, with potential functional redundancy, are located in this 2.5 kb promoter. PRE-1-rho which has the highest sequence and structural homology to PRE-1 is located in the rhodopsin promoter. Surprisingly, PRE-1 and PRE-1-rho are functionally distinct. We demonstrate that PRE-1, but not PRE-1-rho, is sufficient to enhance expression from a heterologous UV cone promoter. PRE-1 is also sufficient to enhance expression from a heterologous rhodopsin promoter without altering its rod photoreceptor specificity. Finally, mutations in consensus E-box and Otx sites prevent PRE-1 from forming complexes with eye nuclear protein and enhancing photoreceptor expression. Conclusions PRE-1 is a novel cis-regulatory module that is sufficient to enhance the initiation of photoreceptor-specific gene expression in differentiating rod and cone photoreceptors.

  17. Isotopic studies of trans- and cis-HOCO using rotational spectroscopy: Formation, chemical bonding, and molecular structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Michael C; Martinez, Oscar; McGuire, Brett A; Crabtree, Kyle N; Martin-Drumel, Marie-Aline; Stanton, John F

    2016-03-28

    HOCO is an important intermediate in combustion and atmospheric processes because the OH + CO → H + CO2 reaction represents the final step for the production of CO2 in hydrocarbon oxidation, and theoretical studies predict that this reaction proceeds via various intermediates, the most important being this radical. Isotopic investigations of trans- and cis-HOCO have been undertaken using Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy and millimeter-wave double resonance techniques in combination with a supersonic molecular beam discharge source to better understand the formation, chemical bonding, and molecular structures of this radical pair. We find that trans-HOCO can be produced almost equally well from either OH + CO or H + CO2 in our discharge source, but cis-HOCO appears to be roughly two times more abundant when starting from H + CO2. Using isotopically labelled precursors, the OH + C(18)O reaction predominately yields HOC(18)O for both isomers, but H(18)OCO is observed as well, typically at the level of 10%-20% that of HOC(18)O; the opposite propensity is found for the (18)OH + CO reaction. DO + C(18)O yields similar ratios between DOC(18)O and D(18)OCO as those found for OH + C(18)O, suggesting that some fraction of HOCO (or DOCO) may be formed from the back-reaction H + CO2, which, at the high pressure of our gas expansion, can readily occur. The large (13)C Fermi-contact term (aF) for trans- and cis-HO(13)CO implicates significant unpaired electronic density in a σ-type orbital at the carbon atom, in good agreement with theoretical predictions. By correcting the experimental rotational constants for zero-point vibration motion calculated theoretically using second-order vibrational perturbation theory, precise geometrical structures have been derived for both isomers. PMID:27036445

  18. Isotopic studies of trans- and cis-HOCO using rotational spectroscopy: Formation, chemical bonding, and molecular structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Michael C.; Martinez, Oscar; McGuire, Brett A.; Crabtree, Kyle N.; Martin-Drumel, Marie-Aline; Stanton, John F.

    2016-03-01

    HOCO is an important intermediate in combustion and atmospheric processes because the OH + CO → H + CO2 reaction represents the final step for the production of CO2 in hydrocarbon oxidation, and theoretical studies predict that this reaction proceeds via various intermediates, the most important being this radical. Isotopic investigations of trans- and cis-HOCO have been undertaken using Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy and millimeter-wave double resonance techniques in combination with a supersonic molecular beam discharge source to better understand the formation, chemical bonding, and molecular structures of this radical pair. We find that trans-HOCO can be produced almost equally well from either OH + CO or H + CO2 in our discharge source, but cis-HOCO appears to be roughly two times more abundant when starting from H + CO2. Using isotopically labelled precursors, the OH + C18O reaction predominately yields HOC18O for both isomers, but H18OCO is observed as well, typically at the level of 10%-20% that of HOC18O; the opposite propensity is found for the 18OH + CO reaction. DO + C18O yields similar ratios between DOC18O and D18OCO as those found for OH + C18O, suggesting that some fraction of HOCO (or DOCO) may be formed from the back-reaction H + CO2, which, at the high pressure of our gas expansion, can readily occur. The large 13C Fermi-contact term (aF) for trans- and cis-HO13CO implicates significant unpaired electronic density in a σ-type orbital at the carbon atom, in good agreement with theoretical predictions. By correcting the experimental rotational constants for zero-point vibration motion calculated theoretically using second-order vibrational perturbation theory, precise geometrical structures have been derived for both isomers.

  19. Synthesis of mixed-ligand cobalt complexes and their applications in high cis-1,4-selective butadiene polymerization

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Wen

    2015-08-03

    Incomplete oxidation of (N-di-tert-butylphosphino)-6-(2-methyl-2’H-benzoimidazole)-2-aminepyridine dichlorocobalt (PN3CoCl2) in DMF results in a unique co-crystal I formed with three parts including DMF, unit A and unit B complex with Co1 and Co2, respectively, (PN3 ligand in unit A: (N-di-tert-butylphosphino)-6-(2’-methyl-2’H-benzoimidazole)-2-aminepyridine, and O=PN3 ligand in unit B: (N-di-tert-butylphosphinoxide)-6-(2’-methyl-2’H-benzoimidazole)-2-aminepyridine) with 1:1:1 molar ratio. Co1 and Co2 complexes both display a five-coordinated distorted-square-pyramidal geometry around the metal center. The Co1 center is coordinated with PN3 ligand via two N atoms from pyridine, benzoimidazole moiety as well as one P atom, and the Co2 center is coordinated with the oxidized ligandO=PN3 via two N atoms from pyridine, benzoimidazole moiety as well as one O atom from DMF molecule, while the oxidized phosphine moiety (O=P) being excluded from the coordination sphere. Activated with AlEt2Cl, the co-crystallized complexes I are able to actively convert butadiene to polybutadiene, affording cis-1,4 polybutadiene with cis-1,4 unit up to 95.5-97.8% and number average molecular weight of cal. 105g/mol. The high cis-1,4 selectivity and monomodal GPC curve of resultant polymer imply that the identical active species generated from two distinctive cobalt centers.

  20. Stock Summary Reports for Columbia River Anadromous Salmonids, Volume 1; Oregon Subbasins Below Bonneville Dam, 1992 CIS Summary Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, Eric; Pierce, Paige (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Clackamas, OR); Hatch, Keith (Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission, Portland, OR)

    1993-05-01

    An essential component of the effort to rebuild the Columbia Basin's anadromous fish resources is that available information and experience be organized and shared among numerous organizations and individuals. Past experience and knowledge must form the basis for actions into the future. Much of this knowledge exists only in unpublished form in agency and individual files. Even that information which is published in the form of technical and contract reports receives only limited distribution and is often out of print and unavailable after a few years. Only a small fraction of the basin's collective knowledge is captured in permanent and readily available databases (such as the Northwest Environmental Database) or in recognized journals. State, tribal, and federal fishery managers have recognized these information management problems and have committed to a program, the Coordinated Information System Project, to capture and share more easily the core data and other information upon which management decisions are based. That project has completed scoping and identification of key information needs and development of a project plan. Work performed under the CIS project will be coordinated with and extend information contained in the Northwest Environmental Database. Construction of prototype systems will begin in Phase 3. This report is one in a series of seven describing the results of the Coordinated Information System scoping and needs identification phase. A brief description of each of these reports follows. This report (Roger 1992) summarizes and integrates the results of the next five reports and relates them to deliverables identified in the Phase II cooperative agreement. Broader issues of organization and operation which are not appropriate for the more focused reports are also discussed. This report should be viewed as an executive summary for the CIS project to date. If one wants a quick overview of the CIS project, this report and the project