WorldWideScience

Sample records for barometers

  1. Water Barometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akridge, Russell

    1993-01-01

    This activity makes a barometer out of 50 feet of clear vinyl tubing and a gallon of tea. The barometer is used in a building stairwell where students have easy access to the tube. Discusses possible pitfalls, vapor pressure, elevation, and weather influences. (MVL)

  2. Barometer Vastgoedmanagement Nederland 2015 - filmimpressie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veuger, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Jan Veuger, lector Maatschappelijk Vastgoed bij het Kenniscentrum NoorderRuimte, heeft de resultaten van het Barometer Maatschappelijk Vastgoed 2015 gepresenteerd in samenwerking met hoogleraren. De presentatie vond plaats tijdens het Congres Barometer Maatschappelijk Vastgoed op 5 okt 2015 op Nyenr

  3. Barometer. Mental health January 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-02-24

    Mental health trust chief executives are increasingly confident about recruiting crisis resolution and early intervention teams, according to the new HSJ Barometer survey. However, very few expect to gain foundation status in the next two years. The survey also shows that bed occupancy rates are increasing, with about a fifth of trusts showing rates above 100 per cent.

  4. Barometer. Acute trusts February 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-17

    Almost two thirds of acute trusts rate the quality of commissioning from their PCTs at three out of 10 or less, according to the latest HSJ Barometer survey. This is the lowest score since we began the survey a year ago. Confidence in their performance against the 98 per cent four-hour A&E target fell sharply from a December high to an average of 6.87. The survey also found that fewer than one in seven trusts were confident of winning foundation status by the end of 2006-07.

  5. What Is Wrong with Water Barometers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Dan M.; Smith, Robert W.; Kemnitz, E. J.; Barton, Kevin; Graham, Robert M.; Guenther, Raymond A.; Webber, Larry

    2010-01-01

    Every student who studies atmospheric pressure in physics or chemistry learns the principles behind the construction of barometers. Cistern barometers, such as those found in most laboratories, consist of a long glass tube containing an inverted column of liquid having an open end in a cistern of the liquid. Students learn that the column of…

  6. Student Feedback, Anonymity, Observable Change and Course Barometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, David

    A Course Barometer is a method for addressing the loss of informal feedback in a distance education setting. Originally proposed and used at the University of Trollhattan Uddevella this paper describes how the idea of a course barometer has been adopted by Central Queensland University. The paper suggests connections between anonymity, observable…

  7. The endothelium - the cardiovascular health barometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Joerg; Lerman, Amir

    2008-07-01

    Once considered to fulfill no other purpose than that of a physical barrier between blood and tissue, the multifunctional nature of the endothelium was discovered in the later half of the 20th century. In cardiology, the dysfunctional nature of the endothelium has received even more attention, initially mainly within the research community but later also in the clinical community, serving as a prime example for the translation of bench research to patient care. In this review, the entity of endothelial dysfunction, its modes of diagnosis in clinical practice, its prognostic implications, and its treatment options will be defined. From past conceptual ideas to current practical applications to the road ahead, the endothelium is to be viewed as the cardiovascular health barometer.

  8. Barometer gemeentelijk maatschappelijk vastgoed 2014 : Gemeenten in beweging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjeerdsma, Annette; Veuger, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Dit artikel bevat de resultaten van het onderzoek Barometer Gemeentelijk Maatschappelijk Vastgoed 2014. Het onderzoek is uitgevoerd door het lectoraat Maatschappelijk Vastgoed van het Kenniscentrum NoorderRuimte, Hanzehogeschool Groningen.

  9. Barometers of Black Economic Achievement: the Reality and the Myth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Beverly

    A comprehensive report on black employment in Chicago over the last decade is described. Employment, income, occupation, and industry are the four barometers analyzed. One finding of this analysis is that the proportion of unemployed blacks is twice that of whites. Both in Chicago and in the rest of the country, the dollar gap between median white…

  10. Theoretical investigation of the oceanic inverted barometer response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickman, S. R.

    1988-01-01

    Dynamic tidal theory is generalized in order to predict the oceanic response to atmospheric pressure variations. The oceans are found to exhibit distinct dynamic behavior when forced at periods less than one week; depending on the harmonic type of forcing, the amplitude of the response can differ by about 20 percent or more from the static response. Even at roughly two months the traditional 'inverted barometer' may not be sufficiently accurate for applications in which detection of long-term sea level trends or vertical crustal motion is the goal. For forcing at periods of order one year the oceanic response differs by at most a few percent from the static (not the inverted barometer) response; thus calculations of meteorological excitation of the annual and Chandler wobbles can employ the static approximation without reservation.

  11. Measuring general animal health status: Development of an animal health barometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depoorter, Pieter; Van Huffel, Xavier; Diricks, Herman; Imberechts, Hein; Dewulf, Jeroen; Berkvens, Dirk; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2015-03-01

    The development of an animal health barometer, an instrument to measure the general health of the Belgian livestock population on a yearly basis and to monitor its evolution over time, is described. The elaboration of a set of 13 animal health indicators (AHIs) as the basis for the animal health barometer is discussed. These indicators were weighted by experts - including scientists, policy makers and agro-industrial representatives - to determine their relative weight in the barometer. The result of the barometer is expressed as a comparison with a previous year. Based on the results of the 13 AHIs, it is concluded that general animal health in Belgium shows a positive evolution since 2008. The animal health barometer provides a composite view of the status of livestock health in Belgium and is a tool to communicate in an intelligible, comprehensible manner on aspects of animal health to consumers and professional stakeholders in the animal production and food chain. Together with the food safety barometer (Baert et al., 2011. Food Res. Int. 44, 940) and the plant health barometer (Wilmart et al., 2014. Eur. J. Plant Pathol. doi: 10.1007/s10658-014-0547-x), the animal health barometer is one of the three instruments to provide a holistic view on the overall status of the safety of the food chain in Belgium.

  12. On the solar cycle variation in the barometer coefficients of high latitude neutron monitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusunose, M.; Ogita, N.

    1985-01-01

    Evaluation of barometer coefficients of neutron monitors located at high latitudes has been performed by using the results of the spherical harmonic analysis based on the records from around twenty stations for twelve years from January 1966 to December 1977. The average of data at eight stations, where continuous records are available for twelve years, show that the absolute value of barometer coefficient is in positive correlation with the cosmic ray neutron intensity. The variation rate of the barometer coefficient to the cosmic ray neutron intensity is influenced by the changes in the cutoff rigidity and in the primary spectrum.

  13. Internet comments as a barometer of public opinion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oster, Elad; Gilad, Erez; Feigel, Alexander

    2015-07-01

    A new method is developed to estimate social influence in Internet communities that follow a specific developing news story. The technique stems from mean-field treatment of magnetic systems and provides a measure for community stability, such as the potential of a small perturbation to culminate in a phase-transition-like phenomenon. Three real cases of developing news stories from CNN news website are analyzed. Continuous dynamics of social influence together with time is observed together with a significant increase of social influence after the announcement of important information, such as the jury decision in a legal case. This work makes it possible to estimate the size of a group that can change the opinion of the entire population. We argue that Internet comments may predict the level of social response similar to a barometer that predicts the intensity of a coming storm in still calm environment.

  14. Internet comments as a barometer of public opinion

    CERN Document Server

    Oster, Elad; Feigel, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Social susceptibility is defined and analyzed using data from CNN news website. The current models of opinion dynamics, voting, and herding in closed communities are extended, and the community's response to the injection of a group with predetermined and permanent opinions is calculated. A method to estimate the values of possible response in Internet communities that follow a specific developing subject is developed. The level of social influence in a community follows from the statistics of responses ("like" and "dislike" votes) to the comments written by the members of the same community. Three real cases of developing news stories are analyzed. We suggest that Internet comments may predict the level of social response similar to a barometer that predicts the intensity of a coming storm in still calm environment.

  15. Non-Cholera Vibrios: The Microbial Barometer of Climate Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker-Austin, Craig; Trinanes, Joaquin; Gonzalez-Escalona, Narjol; Martinez-Urtaza, Jaime

    2017-01-01

    There is a growing interest in the role of climate change in driving the spread of waterborne infectious diseases, such as those caused by bacterial pathogens. One particular group of pathogenic bacteria - vibrios - are a globally important cause of diseases in humans and aquatic animals. These Gram-negative bacteria, including the species Vibrio vulnificus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio cholerae, grow in warm, low-salinity waters, and their abundance in the natural environment mirrors ambient environmental temperatures. In a rapidly warming marine environment, there are greater numbers of human infections, and most notably outbreaks linked to extreme weather events such as heatwaves in temperate regions such as Northern Europe. Because the growth of pathogenic vibrios in the natural environment is largely dictated by temperature, we argue that this group of pathogens represents an important and tangible barometer of climate change in marine systems. We provide a number of specific examples of the impacts of climate change on this group of bacteria and their associated diseases, and discuss advanced strategies to improve our understanding of these emerging waterborne diseases through the integration of microbiological, genomic, epidemiological, climatic, and ocean sciences.

  16. An analysis of the new norwegian customer satisfaction barometer (new NCSB in a brazilian supermarket context.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valter Afonso Vieira

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available A lot of consumer satisfaction barometers have been proposed by the literature. However, a dilemma is that the validity, the reliability, and the methods used to assess customer satisfaction and related constructs continue to learn, to adapt, and to improve over time. Thus, this paper tries to understand the modifications and improvements proposed by the new NCSB in Brazil. New NCSB is considers one of the last satisfaction barometers projected by the literature. The results showed support to seven from twelve hypotheses proposed by the model. Conclusions and general comments end the paper.

  17. The Community Barometer: A Breast Health Needs Assessment Tool for Community-Based Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lounsbury, David; Rapkin, Bruce; Marini, Lisa; Jansky, Elizabeth; Massie, Mary Jane

    2006-01-01

    This article presents findings from the ACCESS Project focusing on the impact of an outreach initiative that used "data sharing" as a mechanism to establish a wide variety of academic-community partnerships for cancer awareness. The Community Barometer, a brief needs assessment tool developed for this purpose, was used to collect data from…

  18. NMR spectroscopy of experimentally shocked single crystal quartz: A reexamination of the NMR shock barometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiske, P. S.; Gratz, A. J.; Nellis, W. J.

    1993-01-01

    Cygan and others report a broadening of the Si-29 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) peak for synthetic quartz powders with increasing shock pressure which they propose as a shock wave barometer for natural systems. These results are expanded by studying single crystal quartz shocked to 12 and 33 GPa using the 6.5 m two-stage light-gas gun at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories. Our NMR results differ substantially from those of Cygan and others and suggest that the proposed shock wave barometer may require refinement. The difference in results between this study and that of Cygan and others is most likely caused by different starting materials (single crystal vs. powder) and different shock loading histories. NMR results from single crystal studies may be more applicable to natural systems.

  19. The paratympanic organ: a barometer and altimeter in the middle ear of birds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Bartheld, Christopher S; Giannessi, Francesco

    2011-09-15

    A century has passed since the discovery of the paratympanic organ (PTO), a mechanoreceptive sense organ in the middle ear of birds and other tetrapods. This luminal organ contains a sensory epithelium with typical mechanosensory hair cells and may function as a barometer and altimeter. The organ is arguably the most neglected sense organ in living tetrapods. The PTO is believed to be homologous to a lateral line sense organ, the spiracular sense organ of nonteleostean fishes. Our review summarizes the current state of knowledge of the PTO and draws attention to the astounding lack of information about the unique and largely unexplored sensory modality of barometric perception.

  20. A New Oxygen Barometer for Solar System Basaltic Glasses Based on Vanadium Valence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karner, J. M.; Sutton, S. R.; Papike, S. R.; Delaney, J. S.; Shearer, C. K.; Newville, M.; Eng, P.; Rivers, M.; Dyar, M. D.

    2004-01-01

    The determination of oxidation conditions for basaltic magmas derived by the melting of planetary mantles is critical to our understanding of the nature and evolution of planetary interiors. Yet, these determinations are compromised in terrestrial and especially extraterrestrial basalts by our analytical and computational methods for estimating oxygen fugacity (fO2). For example, mineralogical barometers (1, 2) can be reduced in effectiveness by subsolidus re-equilibration of mineral assemblages, inversion of mineralogical data to melt characteristics, and deviations of the natural mineral compositions from ideal thermodynamic parameters.

  1. The Cultural Consumption Barometer. A case study of communication in statistics in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BECUT Anda Georgiana

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The Cultural Consumption Barometer is one of the most important studies carried out by the research team of the National Institute for Cultural Research and Training, starting with 2005. The Cultural Consumption Barometer is a representative survey and its goal is the description and analysis of the cultural sector in Romania, as far as the level of the cultural consumption is concerned. The main objectives of the study are: measurement of the degree of adjustment of cultural goods distribution infrastructure to the population needs, measurement of the cultural consumption and participation, measurement of the population’s cultural needs, identification of the preferences and cultural consumption behaviour. For ten years the statistical data have been produced and presented to various categories of beneficiaries. Each year a large amount of statistical information is produced and the challenges are to present them to the general public, who is interested in this topic, as well as to the experts in various fields of culture, who are willing to use the results in a more pragmatic manner. The goal of this article is to have an in-depth insight into the topic of presenting statistical data in culture for the general public, who in most of the cases is not familiar with this approach on the cultural field. How to present statistical data to the journalists, experts in culture or local public administration representatives? What is the most relevant information and how to present it, in order for it to be used for cultural strategies and projects? How was the data from the Cultural Consumption Barometer presented in mass-media and what reactions did they generate? These are the most important questions we want to answer in our article. We shall present a case study carried out on the archives, including media news about the results of the Cultural Consumption Barometer. First, we shall present the way statistical data were selected and included in

  2. Combined flatland ST radar and digital-barometer network observations of mesoscale processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, W. L.; Vanzandt, T. E.; Gage, K. S.; Einaudi, F. E.; Rottman, J. W.; Hollinger, S. E.

    1991-01-01

    The paper describes a six-station digital-barometer network centered on the Flatland ST radar to support observational studies of gravity waves and other mesoscale features at the Flatland Atmospheric Observatory in central Illinois. The network's current mode of operation is examined, and a preliminary example of an apparent group of waves evident throughout the network as well as throughout the troposphere is presented. Preliminary results demonstrate the capabilities of the current operational system to study wave convection, wave-front, and other coherent mesoscale interactions and processes throughout the troposphere. Unfiltered traces for the pressure and horizontal zonal wind, for days 351 to 353 UT, 1990, are illustrated.

  3. DIAGNOSIS OF SUSTAINABILITY IN THE BRAZILIAN CITY OF TOUROS: AN APPLICATION OF THE BAROMETER OF SUSTAINABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geniberto Cesar de Araújo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to analyse the sustainability degree of the Municipality of Touros located in Rio Grande do Norte (Northeast of Brazil through the "Barometer of Sustainability” methodology, in 2010. This is a descriptive, exploratory and applicative study. The data collection was based on secondary source such as the databases of the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, the National Confederation of Municipalities, as well as the Institute for Sustainable Development and Environment of Rio Grande do Norte from October, 2010 to July, 2011. Regarding the choice of indicators applied, it was done taking into account the availability of data for the municipality. Hence, the human subsystem (HWI and ecological (EWI indicators were: life expectancy, child mortality, malnutrition, fertility rate, water supply, sanitation, literacy rate, education, literacy, energy consumption, agricultural production, environmental protection area, and vegetable extraction. It was applied thirteen indicators in the Barometer of Sustainability methodology. The degree obtained for the human subsystem was 48, showing that the municipality is in a satisfactory position. Concerning the ecological subsystem, the situation is potentially sustainable, a value of 67.58, which means a satisfactory score. Therefore, Touros has a strong potential for sustainability, requiring public policies for health and education and specifically for agricultural production and environmental protection area.

  4. Integration of INS, GPS, Magnetometer and Barometer for Improving Accuracy Navigation of the Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlada Sokol Sokolovic

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes integrated navigation system that is based on a low cost inertial sensor, global positioning system (GPS receiver, magnetometer and a barometer, in order to improve accuracy of complete attitude and navigation solution. The main advantage of integration consists in availability of reliable navigation parameters during the intervals of absence of GPS data. The magnetometer and the barometer are applied for the attitude calibration and vertical channel stabilization, respectively. The acceptable accuracy of inertial navigation system (INS is achieved by the proper damping of INS errors. The integration is made by the implementation of an extended Kalman filter (EKF with control signal that is designed appropriate for low accuracy sensors noise characteristics. The analysis of integrated navigation system performances is made experimentally and the results show that integrated navigation system provides continuous and reliable navigation solutions.Defence Science Journal, 2013, 63(5, pp.451-455, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.63.4534

  5. Biofuels Barometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-15

    European Union biofuel use for transport reached the 12 million tonnes of oil equivalent (mtoe) threshold during 2009, heralding a further drop in the pace of the sectors growth, which rose by only 18.7% between 2008 and 2009 - just 1.9 mtoe of consumption over the previous year. The biofuel incorporation rate in all fuels used by transport in the EU is unlikely to pass 4% in 2009, which is a very long way short of the 5.75% goal for 2010 set in the 2003 European biofuel directive, which would require around 18 mtoe of biofuel use. [French] Durant l'annee 2009, la consommation de biocarburants dedies aux transports de l'Union europeenne a atteint le seuil des 12 millions de tonnes equivalent petrole (Mtep). Ce resultat marque une nouvelle diminution du rythme de croissance de la filiere, +18,7 % seulement entre 2008 et 2009, qui n'ajoute que 1,9 Mtep a la consommation de 2009 par rapport a celle de 2008. Le taux d'incorporation des biocarburants dans le contenu energetique de l'ensemble des carburants utilises dans les transports de l'UE ne devrait pas depasser les 4% en 2009. On est encore tres loin de l'objectif de 5,75 % en 2010 de la directive europeenne sur les biocarburants de 2003, qui necessiterait une consommation de biocarburants de l'ordre de 18 Mtep.

  6. Laser barometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abercrombie, Kevin R.; Shiels, David; Rash, Tim

    2001-02-06

    A pressure measuring instrument that utilizes the change of the refractive index of a gas as a function of pressure and the coherent nature of a laser light to determine the barometric pressure within an environment. As the gas pressure in a closed environment varies, the index of refraction of the gas changes. The amount of change is a function of the gas pressure. By illuminating the gas with a laser light source, causing the wavelength of the light to change, pressure can be quantified by measuring the shift in fringes (alternating light and dark bands produced when coherent light is mixed) in an interferometer.

  7. Education Is a Human Right. EI Barometer on Human and Trade Union Rights in the Education Sector, 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noonan, Michael A.

    This 2001 edition of Educational International's (EI) "Barometer on Trade Union and Human Rights in the Education Sector" focuses on four fundamental human rights: (1) the right to education; (2) academic freedom; (3) children's right to be protected from exploitation; and (4) workers' rights to form and join trade unions and to organize…

  8. 基于单片机控制的数字气压计的设计%Design of digital barometer controlled by single chip microcomputer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱叶

    2015-01-01

    数字气压计是一种精确测量压力大小的工具,运用单片机的数字气压计携带方便,操作简单,精确度高,安全性好,具有良好的应用前景.对基于单片机控制的数字气压计进行详细介绍,分析气压计的总体结构,介绍气压计的软硬件实现方法和数字气压计系统的调试与仿真,保障数字气压计系统功能的可靠性和稳定性.%Digital barometer is an accurate pressure measurement tool. The digital barometer with microcontroller is conve-nient to be carried,and has simple operation,high accuracy,good safety and good application prospect. The digital barometer controlled on single chip microcomputer is introduced in detail. The overall structure of the barometer is analyzed. then intro-duce The method to realize software and hardware of the barometer is described. The debugging and simulation methods of digi-tal barometer system elaborated to guarantee the reliability and stability of digital barometer function.

  9. Censoring the Press: A Barometer of Government Tolerance for Anti-regime Dissent under Authoritarian Rule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Ann Stein

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes that dissident leaders aiming to build mass opposition movements follow the mainstream press to help them gauge government tolerance for anti-government mass actions in repressive authoritarian regimes. Under conditions of censorship, media–state interactions serve as a barometer of the government’s disposition toward and capacity to impede public displays of dissent. Observing trends in coverage and the government’s reaction to this coverage helps activist leaders assess when it should be safest to plan anti-government mass actions, such as demonstrations, marches, or strikes. Using original data derived from coding content from the Brazilian newspaper Folha de São Paulo over the period of 1974–1982, I test whether opposition mass actions followed trends in taboo content and government treatment of the press during the period of political liberalization of Brazil’s military regime.

  10. Helping the blind to find the floor of destination in multistory buildings using a barometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yicheng; Jia, Wenyan; Zhang, Hong; Mao, Zhi-Hong; Sun, Mingui

    2013-01-01

    Propelled by rapid technological advances in smart phones and other mobile devices, indoor navigation for the blind and visually impaired individuals has become an active field of research. A reliable positioning and navigation system will reduce suffering of these individuals, help them live more independently, and promote their employment. Although much progress has been made, localization of the floor level in a multistory building is largely an unsolved problem despite its high significance in helping the blind to find their ways. In this paper, we present a novel approach using a miniature barometer in the form of a low-cost MEMS chip. The relationships among the atmospheric pressure, the absolute height, and the floor location are described along with a real-time calibration method and a hardware platform design. Our experiments in a building of twelve floors have shown high performance of our approach.

  11. Exploring the boundary between a siphon and barometer in a hypobaric chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Stephen; Gurung, Som

    2014-04-22

    Siphons have been used since ancient times, but exactly how they work is still a matter of debate. In order to elucidate the modus operandi of a siphon, a 1.5 m high siphon was set up in a hypobaric chamber to explore siphon behaviour in a low-pressure environment. When the pressure in the chamber was reduced to about 0.18 atmospheres, a curious waterfall-like feature appeared downstream from the apex of the siphon. A hypothesis is presented to explain the waterfall phenomenon. When the pressure was reduced further the siphon broke into two columns--in effect becoming two back-to-back barometers. This experiment demonstrates the role of atmospheric pressure in explaining the hydrostatic characteristics of a siphon and the role of molecular cohesion in explaining the hydrodynamic aspects.

  12. Using a partnership barometer to evaluate environmental public health tracking activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekkedal, Marni Y V; Malecki, Kristen M; Werner, Mark A; Anderson, Henry A

    2008-01-01

    High-quality environmental health surveillance is challenged by a system in which environmental and health agencies often function with insufficient coordination to routinely address critical issues. The Environmental Public Health Tracking program is working to build a more cohesive system with the capacity for integrated data and information. This work requires a significant amount of effort dedicated to establishing strong partnerships between agencies. Such a task requires skills and activities that differ significantly from the more technical skills needed to physically link data and information from environmental and health resources. Although the work to link people is different from linking data, it is of primary importance because the development of strong partnerships almost invariably provides the necessary foundation for the future integration of data and expertise. As such, the development of partnerships between environmental and health agencies needs to be recognized as a priority product. One approach for moving partnerships into the fore is the creation of assessment tools, or "partnership barometers," that objectively quantify the collaborative process for monitoring progress between and within partners over time. Such measurement would provide a realistic indicator of progress toward tangible products but more importantly emphasizes the importance of building sustainable relationships.

  13. With the Bible toward the year 2000: scriptural engagement as barometer, beacon and bellwether

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. Elliott

    1990-06-01

    Full Text Available Through the centuries, engagement with the Bible has served as a barometer (recording and reflec­ting the history of shifting circumstances, as a beacon (constituting a source of light illuminating theological reflection and guiding human conduct and as a bellwether (leading the way in setting new agendas for the Church, her theology and her encounter with the world. Against this back­ ground, the history of biblical engagement through the centuries is briefly traced. The main focus of the article is, however, to reflect on the role of the Bible in the next millenium. The author foresees an even stronger ecumenical engagement, an enhanced focus on a critical faith and a self-critical rationality, a stronger rejection of absolutist claims, renewed respect for the diversity of voices in the biblical canon, the emergence of biblical study to an attentive dialogue partner within other fields of human knowledge and a renewed search for wisdom in the Bible in future in order to face the problems which will confront humankind. Against the background of these developments the study of the Bible will, in the third millenium, become even more an interconfessional, international, interdisciplinary and intersocial enterprise, sustained by the conviction that the Bible is a holy and privileged word, both about human existence and humanity’s relation to God, society, history, and the cosmos.

  14. Biological monitoring involving children exposed to mercury from a barometer in a private residence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheepers, Paul T J; van Ballegooij-Gevers, Marieke; Jans, Henk

    2014-12-15

    A small spill of approximately 3 mL of mercury from a broken barometer in a residential setting resulted in blood values of 32 μg/L in a boy of 9 months and 26 μg/L in a girl of 2.5 years in samples collected within 6h after the start of the incident. A nanny who attempted to remove the spill had a blood mercury value of 20 μg/L at the same time point. These elevated blood values were attributed to inhalation rather than dermal uptake or ingestion. Exposure was aggravated by the use of a vacuum cleaner in an early attempt to remove the spill and incomplete decontamination of involved persons, leading to a continuation of exposure. Over a period of three months general cleaning was followed by targeted cleaning of hot spots until the indoor air mercury levels reached a median value of 0.090 μg/m(3) with a range of 0.032-0.140 μg/m(3). Meanwhile the family was staying in a shelter home. Human biological monitoring (HBM) was motivated by the complex exposure situation and the involvement of young children. Initially high blood values triggered alertness for clinical signs of intoxication, that (as it turned out) were not observed in any of the exposed individuals. Despite continued exposure from hair and clothes, within six weeks after the incident, blood levels returned to a background level normally seen in children. HBM contributed to reassurance of the parents of the young children that quick elimination of the mercury did not require medical treatment.

  15. Application of a barometer for assessment of oral functions: Donders space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraki, K; Yamada, Y; Kurose, M; Ofusa, W; Sugiyama, T; Ishida, R

    2017-01-01

    We developed a barometer applicable to a small space, to assess oral and pharyngeal functions. Negative oral pressure during rest and pressure changes during swallowing were measured in a space between the palate and tongue (STP). Twenty volunteers were asked to sit in a chair in a relaxed upright position. A sensor was placed on the posterior midline of hard palate. Recording commenced just before subjects closed their lips and continued. Subjects were asked to swallow saliva and keep the apposition. Finally, subjects were asked to open their mouth. Recordings were performed five times, and 5 s of continuous data in each phase was averaged. To verify the reliability of the system, the same procedure was accomplished with twin sensors. When the jaw and lips were closed, the pressure slightly decreased from atmospheric pressure (-0·17 ± 0·24-kPa). After swallowing, the pressure in STP showed more negative value (-0·50 ± 0·59-kPa). There is a significant difference between the values in open condition and after swallowing (P < 0·001) and between values after swallowing and final open condition (P < 0·05). Twin sensor showed almost the same trajectories of pressure changes for all the recordings. Obtained negative pressure might generate about 0·71-N of force and would be enough to keep the tongue in the palatal fossa at rest. The system detected large negative/positive pressure changes during swallowing. We conclude this system may be a tool to evaluate oral functions.

  16. An organic cosmo-barometer: Distinct pressure and temperature effects for methyl substituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montgomery, Wren; Watson, Jonathan S.; Sephton, Mark A., E-mail: w.montgomery@imperial.ac.uk [Impacts and Astromaterials Research Centre, Department of Earth Science and Engineering, Imperial College London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2014-04-01

    There are a number of key structures that can be used to reveal the formation and modification history of organic matter in the cosmos. For instance, the susceptibility of organic matter to heat is well documented and the relative thermal stabilities of different isomers can be used as cosmothermometers. Yet despite being an important variable, no previously recognized organic marker of pressure exists. The absence of a pressure marker is unfortunate considering our ability to effectively recognize extraterrestrial organic structures both remotely and in the laboratory. There are a wide variety of pressures in cosmic settings that could potentially be reflected by organic structures. Therefore, to develop an organic cosmic pressure marker, we have used state-of-the-art diamond anvil cell (DAC) and synchrotron-source Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy to reveal the effects of pressure on the substitution patterns for representatives of the commonly encountered methyl substituted naphthalenes, specifically the dimethylnaphthalenes. Interestingly, although temperature and pressure effects are concordant for many isomers, pressure appears to have the opposite effect to heat on the final molecular architecture of the 1,5-dimethylnaphthalene isomer. Our data suggest the possibility of the first pressure parameter or 'cosmo-barometer' (1,5-dimethylnaphthalene/total dimethylnaphthalenes) that can distinguish pressure from thermal effects. Information can be obtained from the new pressure marker either remotely by instrumentation on landers or rovers or directly by laboratory measurement, and its use has relevance for all cases where organic matter, temperature, and pressure interplay in the cosmos.

  17. Eating patterns and prevalence of obesity. Lessons learned from the Malaysian Food Barometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, T; Tibère, L; Laporte, C; Mognard, E; Ismail, M N; Sharif, S P; Poulain, J-P

    2016-12-01

    The Malaysian society is experiencing and coping with a fast modernization process, which is characterized by a rapid urbanization and rural exodus, an important reduction of the size of households, and the emergence of a new middle class. The Malaysian Food Barometer launched in 2013 has provided better understanding how these macro issues have affected the lifestyles and especially the food habits of the Malaysians. The country has indeed undergone a transition period from under-nutrition to over-nutrition in a few decades, with the prevalence of overweight and obesity having markedly and rapidly increased. A quantitative survey (n = 2000), elaborated from a qualitative preliminary phase, was carried out with the aim of analyzing the transformation of food habits at the national level. The present article focuses on the BMI issue in Malaysia, and investigates its relationships with the socio-demographic variables of the population, as well as their eating patterns. The mean BMI is 23.64 kg/m(2), with 9.5% of the sample being obese, and 22% overweight. Strong statistical associations have been identified between BMI and independent variables such as size of the living area, ethnicity, level of education, gender, and age. Contrary to general believe, overweight and obesity were neither associated with the number of food intakes taken per day (including snacks) nor with the frequency of eating out. Nonetheless, obesity is over-represented in people who have dissonant eating behaviors, i.e. who declare having fewer food intakes a day (food norms) than they do actually (food practices). This process testifies that the Malaysians are experiencing a "food transition", which is linked with socio-economic development.

  18. Consumers` Attitude towards Consumer Protection in the Digital Single Market, as Reflected by European Barometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doru Alexandru Pleşea

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The European Single Market is an ongoing project that will continue to further develop and adapt to changing realities. Traditional economic activities, and the administrative rules governing them, face the challenge of adapting to developments that blur the dividing lines, for example, between shop and online sales or between traditional media and Internet communication. Convergence of this type will lead to a European Digital Single Market. A genuine Digital Single Market would generate new types of growth and also sustainable economic and social benefits for all European citizens. There are still a number of barriers which impose obstacles for the development of the digital market in Europe. Obstacles which can be identified include national differences regarding data protection rules, e-commerce rules, consumer protection rules and other legislation pertaining to information flows. The paper brings in discussion the advantages of a Digital Single Market, the obstacles in developing it in connection with e-commerce regulations, consumer protection and information flows legislation and also the premises for implementing a Digital Single Market. Consumers’ trust in on-line commerce results as one of the driving factors in implementing a Digital Single Market. These are some of the main obstacles for the boosting consumers’ confidence in the European Single Market. Improving consumer confidence in cross-border shopping online by taking appropriate policy action could provide a major boost to economic growth in Europe. Empowered and confident consumers can drive forward the European economy. Starting from the results of the Flash Euro-barometer survey „Consumer attitudes towards cross-border trade and consumer protection this study analyzes consumer`s readiness for the European Digital Single Market

  19. Are Student Protests in Arab States Caused by Economic and Political Grievances? Empirical Evidence from the 2006-07 "Arab Barometer"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiq, M. Najeeb; Mason, Jessica; Seybolt, Taylor; DeLuca, Kristin

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the nature of protests by students (age 18 and older) in Algeria, Jordan, Morocco, and Yemen by using subsamples of students from nationally representative and acclaimed public opinion data (the 2006-07 "Arab Barometer"). We find between 22.1% (Jordan) and 54.7% (Yemen) participated in either the signing of petitions, or…

  20. Honeywell HPA200精密气压计测量异常现象分析%Abnormal measure analysis of the Honeywell HPA200 precision barometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张栋

    2011-01-01

    In order to solve the transnormal error which measured by the Honeywell HPA200 precision barometer,factors that related to the phenomenon are compared. The EMI characters of the HPA200 barometer have been found that the basic factor is the 400 MHz wireless interphone. Then,the hardware of the LC band reject filter is designed to lower the measure error value by the HPA200 precision barometer. The measure error is obviously reduced by the HPA200 barometer with the LC band reject filter in practice,and the ability of the anti-EMI is improved. Finally,the measure accuracy of the system demand is met by the HPA200 barometer with the LC band reject filter.%为了解决Honeywell HPA200精密气压计出现的严重超标的测量异常现象,通过分析对比相关的因素,查找验证HPA200精密气压计受到400 MHz无线对讲机的电磁干扰,依此设计硬件LC带阻滤波器,来滤除400 MHz左右的确定性干扰信号.最终通过实际测试和验证,LC带阻滤波器可以增强HPA200精密气压计抗干扰能力,降低气压计测量误差,并达到HPA200精密气压计的测量指标要求.

  1. Islamism, Secularism and the Woman Question in the Aftermath of the Arab Spring: Evidence from the Arab Barometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley M. Fox

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The uprisings that led to regime change during the early period of the Arab Spring were initially inclusive and pluralistic in nature, with men and women from every political and religious orientation engaging actively in political activities on the street and in virtual spaces. While there was an opening of political space for women and the inclusion of demands of marginalized groups in the activists’ agenda, the struggle to reimagine national identities that balance Islamic roots and secular yearnings is still ongoing in many countries in the region. This paper seeks to deepen understanding of the extent to which the pluralistic sentiments and openness to accepting the rights women have persisted following the uprising. We aim to examine changes in attitudes towards women’s equality in countries that underwent regime change through popular uprisings during revolutionary upheavals of the Arab Spring and in countries where regimes have remained unchanged. Using available data from consecutive rounds of the Arab Barometer survey, we examine changes in attitudes in nine countries with two rounds of Arab Barometer during and post Arab Spring (Egypt, Yemen, Tunisia, Algeria, Lebanon, Sudan, Jordan, Iraq, Palestine. We find that support for “Muslim feminism” (an interpretation of gender equality grounded in Islam has increased over the period and particularly in Arab Spring countries, while support for “secular feminism” has declined. In most countries examined, relatively high degrees of support for gender equality co-exist with a preference for Islamic interpretations of personal status codes pertaining to women. We discuss the implications of these findings for academics and activists concerned with women’s rights in the Middle East North Africa (MENA.

  2. Tracking sustainable development with a national barometer for South Africa using a downscaled "safe and just space" framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Megan J; Bailey, Richard M; New, Mark G

    2014-10-21

    Nations in the 21st century face a complex mix of environmental and social challenges, as highlighted by the on-going Sustainable Development Goals process. The "planetary boundaries" concept [Rockström J, et al. (2009) Nature 461(7263):472-475], and its extension through the addition of social well-being indicators to create a framework for "safe and just" inclusive sustainable development [Raworth K (2012) Nature Climate Change 2(4):225-226], have received considerable attention in science and policy circles. As the chief aim of this framework is to influence public policy, and this happens largely at the national level, we assess whether it can be used at the national scale, using South Africa as a test case. We developed a decision-based methodology for downscaling the framework and created a national "barometer" for South Africa, combining 20 indicators and boundaries for environmental stress and social deprivation. We find that it is possible to maintain the original design and concept of the framework while making it meaningful in the national context, raising new questions and identifying priority areas for action. Our results show that South Africa has exceeded its environmental boundaries for biodiversity loss, marine harvesting, freshwater use, and climate change, and social deprivation is most severe in the areas of safety, income, and employment. Trends since 1994 show improvement in nearly all social indicators, but progression toward or over boundaries for most environmental indicators. The barometer shows that achieving inclusive sustainable development in South Africa requires national and global action on multiple fronts, and careful consideration of the interplay between different environmental domains and development strategies.

  3. Using multiple barometers to detect the floor location of smart phones with built-in barometric sensors for indoor positioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Hao; Wang, Xiaogang; Qiao, Yanyou; Jian, Jun; Chang, Yuanfei

    2015-03-31

    Following the popularity of smart phones and the development of mobile Internet, the demands for accurate indoor positioning have grown rapidly in recent years. Previous indoor positioning methods focused on plane locations on a floor and did not provide accurate floor positioning. In this paper, we propose a method that uses multiple barometers as references for the floor positioning of smart phones with built-in barometric sensors. Some related studies used barometric formula to investigate the altitude of mobile devices and compared the altitude with the height of the floors in a building to obtain the floor number. These studies assume that the accurate height of each floor is known, which is not always the case. They also did not consider the difference in the barometric-pressure pattern at different floors, which may lead to errors in the altitude computation. Our method does not require knowledge of the accurate heights of buildings and stories. It is robust and less sensitive to factors such as temperature and humidity and considers the difference in the barometric-pressure change trends at different floors. We performed a series of experiments to validate the effectiveness of this method. The results are encouraging.

  4. The french opinion barometer and the energy in june 2006; Le barometre d'opinion sur les francais et l'energie en juin 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This barometer presents the opinion of a representative of 2013 french people, about three main themes: the nuclear, the attitude facing the fuel prices increase and the electric power from renewable energies. For a short majority of French, the nuclear electric power offers for the most part advantages (problems of accidents and radioactive wastes management, but no greenhouse effect impact and economical advantages). Most of French modified their attitude following the fuels prices increase and place the fuel consumption as a major criteria for a new vehicle purchase. The French are in majority favour of the renewable energies. (A.L.B.)

  5. The individual and "the general situation": the tension barometer and the race problem at the University of Chicago, 1947-1954.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Leah N

    2010-01-01

    This article explains how social theories that posited white attitudes as the root of racial injustice gained traction in postwar social thought. Examining the production of a "tension barometer," an attitude survey that scholars from the University of Chicago's Committee on Education, Training, and Research in Race Relations created to predict interracial violence, I chart vigorous debate over the nature and causes of racial oppression in the critical postwar decades. Available-and unavailable-social scientific frameworks, activists" interests, and emerging anticommunism, the Committee's history shows, created an environment where individualistic conceptions of "the race problem" won out, despite critique.

  6. Fehmarnbelt Business Barometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Per Homann; Endres, Jean Paulo; Jakobsen, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    Results from a survey made among CEO's and CFO's of large and medium sized companies in the Denmark Capital, Zealand and Scania regions and on the States of Hamburg and Schleswig-Holstein regarding the businnes perspectives related to the construction of the Fehmarn fixed link....

  7. Barometers of Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Bunyan I.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    The article discusses ways in which schools sometimes function as agents of social control and perpetuators of injustice, and recommends that resolving problems of injustice be made a first priority of educators. (CD)

  8. Photovoltaic barometer; Barometre photovoltaique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2009-04-15

    spain and Germany set the pace for the world photovoltaic market in 2008, which grew to more than twice its 2007 size. The European Union continued to drive photocell installation with an additional 4 592.3 MWp in 2008, or 151.6% growth over 2007. However, European growth prospects for the photovoltaic market in 2009 are being dampened by the global financial crisis and the scheduled slow-down of the Spanish market. (author)

  9. Photovoltaic barometer; Barometre photovoltaique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2011-04-15

    The photovoltaic sector is continuing on track, just as the extent of solar energy's electricity-generating potential is dawning on the public mind. The annual global installation figure was up more than twofold in 2010 (rising from just short of 7000 MWp in 2009). It leapt to over 16000 MWp, bringing worldwide installed photovoltaic capacity close to 38000 MWp. The photovoltaic power generated in the European Union at the end of 2010 reached 22.5 TWh which means an additional capacity of 13023 MWp during 2010. Concerning the cumulated installed capacity, Germany and Spain rank first and second in the European Union with respectively 17370 MWp and 3808 MWp

  10. IT Barometer survey, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howard, Rob

    1998-01-01

    Survey results from Danish architects, engineers, contractors and property managers in the construction industry concerning their use of computers, communications, problems and needs.......Survey results from Danish architects, engineers, contractors and property managers in the construction industry concerning their use of computers, communications, problems and needs....

  11. Effects of Inverted Barometer Correction Results on Sea State Bias%逆大气压校正结果对海况偏差的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任浩然; 苗洪利; 周晓光; 王桂忠; 王云海; 张杰

    2013-01-01

    This paper used crossover data of Jason-1 altimeter after applying the least square method to analyze the effects of two inverted barometer model correction results on sea state bias (SSB). The results demonstrated that the SSB deriving from the conventional inverted barometer model and MOG2D inverted barometer model had better consistency in most domain of significant wave height (SWH) and wind speed (U),but there existed distinct differences in such strong sea state as SWH>6 m,U>10 m/s,and the maximum was 2. 6 cm. The RMS of crossover differences in the certain strong sea state domain was calculated,and the value of MOG2D correction result was smaller of 1. 4 mm than the convention IB correction result. Besides, the explained variance of SSB derived from MOG2D Model was larger of 3.14 cm2 than the convention IB Model. Therefore, MOG2D correction result is more effective than the conventional IB model to establish SSB parametric model and its effects in the strong sea state cannot be neglected.%基于最小二乘法原理,利用Jason-1高度计交叉点数据分析两种逆大气压校正结果对SSB的影响.结果表明,传统IB模型校正SSH后得到的SSB模型和MOG2D模型校正SSH后得到的SSB模型在SWH、U的大部分区域内符合较好,MOG2D校正结果对于SSB的影响主要集中在SWH大于6m和U大于10m/s的强海况海域,最大差异值可达2.6cm.通过计算上述强海况海域交叉点不符值的RMS,MOG2D校正结果得到的RMS相比传统IB校正结果减小1.4 mm.并且采用MOG2D校正结果的SSB可解释方差值增大3.14 cm2,说明MOG2D校正结果对于建立SSB参数模型更有效,特别在强海况海域其影响不可忽略.

  12. The design of locater based on GPS and barometer%基于GPS及气压传感器定位仪的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴思远; 马建仓

    2012-01-01

    Aim One portable locater is designed to combine the altitude and GPS, which is based on the design of altimeter using integrated sensor measuring atmospheric pressure. Its purpose is to meet the need of actual usage. Methods The barometer is used to calculate the altitude which in turn is combined with the longitude and latitude from the GPS to form a complete 3-D location. Results This locater is composed of six main parts, which is GPS, barometer, SCM, power management module, LCD display module and matrix keyboard. SCM is the main control-ler. GPS is to get the longitude and latitude information. Via temperature compensation, barometer gets the baromet-ric pressure with high precision, which could be converted to altitude and in turn be displayed via LCD. The press key achieves the goal to input the data and switch over the display interfaces. The power management module sup-ply s power to the whole system and has the function to be charged. Conclusion This locater has the characteristic of high precision, stability, low power consumption and portability. It can be used in geologic prospecting, car navi-gation or aloft working.%目的 在以气压测量集成传感器研制高度计的基础上,设计一款高度与GPS相结合的便携式定位仪,以满足实际应用需求.方法 利用气压传感器来解算相应的高度信息,配合上GPS模块传输的经纬度信息实现完整的三维定位.结果 该定位仪由GPS模块、气压计模块、单片机模块、电源管理模块、LCD显示模块、矩阵键盘六大部分构成.单片机为主控芯片,GPS接收经纬度信息;气压计通过温度补偿获得高精度的气压信息进而可解算为高度信息;最终通过LCD实时显示;按键实现数据的输入以及显示界面之间的功能跳转;整个系统通过电源管理模块供电,并具有充电功能.结论 具有高精度、稳定性、低功耗和便携式特点,可应用于地质勘探、汽车导航或高空作业上.

  13. Empirical Test of “Barometer Function” of China's Stock Market——With Discussion of Lasting Price Falling in the Stock Market since 2001

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙开连; 王凯涛; 从臻

    2002-01-01

    Through the empirical test of the economic and stock market price index from 1994-2001.6, this article finds that the price tendency of the stock market in China could reflect the economic status and the future trend, thus has the function of barometer, additionally through the normal analysis of the continuing falling of the stock price since July 2001, so,the paper comes to the conclusion that the falling price is the reflection of the weak macro economy and the accelerating recession of the industries, and therefore is a warning of the possible worsened economic tendency. Suggestions are to adjust the macro fiscal and financial policy to prevent the economy from recessing. By the way the article conducts some of the primary analyses of punishments against market defiance and reducing state owned shares, thus to clarify some of the unclear concepts and prevent the misleading of economic adjustment.

  14. Inlfuence of temperature coefifcient on the metrological verifcation results of aneroid barometer%温度系数对空盒气压表检定结果的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈鑫; 杨京兆; 杜天鋆; 王炜

    2016-01-01

    描述了JJG272-2007规定的空盒气压表温度系数检测方法。通过实验方法分析了温度系数对空盒气压表检定结果的影响。研究结果表明了在空盒气压计检定过程中用出厂温度系数替代实测温度系数的可能性。%The temperature coefifcient measuring method of JJG272-2007 was described in this paper. The influence of temperature coefficient on the verification results of aneroid barometer was analyzed through experimental methods. The research results show the possibility of replacing the measured temperature coefifcient with the value given at the factory in the process of metrological veriifcation of aneroid barometers.

  15. Frequent and systematic unprotected anal intercourse among men using the Internet to meet other men for sexual purposes in France: results from the "Gay Net Barometer 2006" survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léobon, Alain; Frigault, Louis-Robert

    2008-04-01

    For men who have sex with men (MSM), the Internet has imposed itself in the past decade as the place to be to meet other men with similar interests for sex or just to surf in search of excitement. This is a biennial study on the MSM in France. Between December 2005 and February 2006, 15,085 MSM completed an online questionnaire on their social and sexual uses of the Internet. Participants in the "The Gay Net Barometer 2006" study responded to questions related to their sexual and sexual risk behaviours. One third of respondents reported at least one event of unprotected anal intercourse while 11.1% reported frequent or systematic unprotected anal intercourse. These sexual risk behaviours were associated with various sociodemographic and sexual variables in addition to the recruitment website. The study suggests Internet users are not a homogeneous group and intervention targeting of them should be based on an in-depth understanding of the sexual cultures operating within websites.

  16. V Xanes in Spinels as an Oxy-Barometer in Meteorites with Implications for Redox Variations in the Inner Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righter, K.; Sutton, S.; Danielson, L.; Pando, K.; Le, L.; Newville, M.

    2015-01-01

    The variation of oxygen fugacity within inner solar system materials spans a range of nearly 15 orders of magnitude. Igneous and metamorphic rocks commonly contain a mineral assemblage that allows oxygen fugacity to be calculated or con-strained such as FeTi oxides, olivine-opx-spinel, or some other oxy-barometer. Some rocks, however, contain a limited mineral assemblage and do not provide constraints on fO2 using mineral equilibria. Good examples of the latter are orthopyroxenites or dunites, such as diogenites, ALH 84001, chassignites, or brachinites. In fact it is no surprise that the fO2 of many of these achondrites is not well known, other than being "reduced" and below the metal saturation value. In order to bridge this gap in our understanding, we have initiated a study of V in chromites in achondrite. Because the V pre-edge peak intensity and energy in chromites varies with fO2, and this has been calibrated over a large fO2 range, we can apply this relation to rocks for which we otherwise have no fO2 constraints.

  17. Institutional Dimension of Sustainability and Environmental Management in the municipality of Moju, Pará: an application of the Barometer of Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreza Soares Cardoso

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Few analytical tools have been applied in sustainability studies in Amazonia, especially in the State of Pará. Municipalities in Pará included in the Centers for Biodiesel Production program of the Brazilian government, particularly Moju, are undergoing a phase of intensive agroindustrial investment for the production of Oil Palm, and of firm insertion of family agriculture in such a process. In this context, questions have arisen about the ability of Moju in absorbing such a public policy, represented by new territorial dynamics and which require strong local capacity of environmental management. This research aims to evaluate the institutional dimension of sustainability of the municipality of Moju by verifying the conditions presented by the city council vis-à-vis environmental management. We used the Barometer of Sustainability (BS for this analysis, taking into account five themes (institutional structure, operational structure, terms of conduct adjustment, rural environmental register and landholding tenure and 33 indicators, complemented by interviews with local administrators and entrepreneurs. Results revealed that Moju is indeed equipped for full environmental management, but also that this operational structure is still inadequate, which should certainly bring out problems if this policy is put into effect.

  18. Design of Health Barometer Based on Smart Phone%基于智能手机的健康晴雨表的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张虎军; 张楠楠; 蔡峰; 唐植

    2011-01-01

    Objective To design a software based on smart phone, which can realize the health assessment, health advice and health prescription. Methods By inputting individual basic health information, and accessing to the remote servers which contained the personal medical institutions and detailed data analysis by expert through GPRS, the system could realize the transmission of physical examination data, indicator trends, personal health risks and abnormal indicators and health guidance by health experts through the real-time synchronization via wireless network, which involved in the dietary advice, exercise recommendations and disease prevention. Finally the track of individual health and timely guidance were implemented. Results Based on Windows CE operating system and Symbian S60 smart phone operating system, the health barometer could be realized. Such data could be obtained as the basic personal information, health status, body mass index, health risks, prescription diet, exercise recommendations and other information through the health barometer. The system would be connected to the hospital personal health database, which could update the information of experts' advice timely in smart phones, to achieve the purpose of health alerts. Conclusion The monitoring, tracking and reminder of personal health are the basis of personalized health management, as well as an important way to prevent chronic disease and make healthy universal. It's a new service model to achieve personal health management through the most commonly used smart phone.%目的:设计一种基于智能手机的健康监测系统,该系统可以实现持有人健康状况的实时评估、健康建议、健康处方.方法:通过录入个人的健康基础信息,并通过GPRS接入远端服务器,服务器上有个人在健康体检机构体检详细数据和专家的分析结果,系统可以实时通过无线网络向手机同步历次健康体检的健康指标变化趋势,个人的健康隐患和异

  19. Design on the Remote Control and Test Platform of Simulate Double Needle Barometer%模拟双针气压表远端控制和测试平台设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周云光; 朱琴跃; 王瑛

    2012-01-01

    According to the requirements of the display driver control of the simulate double needle barometer, the design and implementation of the motor drive control and data acquisition hardware based on the C8051F MCU was completed firstly, and then the software which consists of drive control of simulate double needle barometer and remote testing software was designed, finally the remote control and performance test of the simulate double needle barometer was accomplished. The running results showed that the system is stable and reliable, and the good hardware and software debugging have provided a good platform for independent research and performance testing of the product.%针对模拟双针气压表显示驱动控制的要求,首先基于C8051F单片机完成了电机驱动控制和数据采集等硬件的设计和实现;并在此基础上完成了基于单片机的下位机模拟双针气压表驱动控制软件以及上位机测试及显示软件的设计;最终实现了对模拟双针气压表的远端控制和性能测试.运行结果表明,该系统工作稳定可靠,软硬件调试良好,为自主研制产品的性能测试提供了良好的平台和必要的手段.

  20. 情绪晴雨表在老年干部病房整体护理工作中的应用%Application of emotional barometer in the work of holistic nursing in old cadre wards

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓媛; 侯惠如; 申姜琼; 白云娟; 李谦

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the application of emotional barorneter in the work of holistic nursing in the old cadre wards. Methods The measures included designing and making the emotional barometer,including the patients'bed number,character color,daily emotional state,cause analysis of bad mood and communication strategy. The nurses were received training to improve their attention to mood changes in old patients and the ability of correct nursing intervention. Results The patient satisfaction was improved by the emetional barometer. The emotional barometer was thought to be simple and easy to operate by nurses. The awareness rate of the nurses to the patients'bad mood and communication strategy was improved. Conclusion The emotional barometer is convenient for remembering and exchanging the patients emotional state and communication strategy. It can effectively guide and help nurses to carry out holistic nursing.%目的 探讨情绪晴雨表在老年干部病房整体护理工作中的应用.方法 设计制作情绪晴雨表,包含患者床号、性格颜色、当日青绪、不良情绪原因分析和沟通策略栏.对护士进行相关培训,提高责任护士对老年患者情绪变化的关注及掌握正确护理干预策略的能力.结果 应用情绪晴雨表提高了患者对护理服务的满意度;护士认为情绪晴雨表使用简便、易操作;提高了护士对患者不良情绪和沟通策略的知晓率.结论 应用情绪晴雨表利于记忆、交接患者情绪状态及沟通策略,能够有效引导和帮助护士开展整体护理工作.

  1. The relationship between trust in mass media and the healthcare system and individual health: evidence from the AsiaBarometer Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tokuda Yasuharu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vertical and horizontal trust, as dimensions of social capital, may be important determinants of health. As mass media campaigns have been used extensively to promote healthy lifestyles and convey health-related information, high levels of individual trust in the media may facilitate the success of such campaigns and, hence, have a positive influence on health. However, few studies have investigated the relationship between trust levels in mass media, an aspect of vertical trust, and health. Methods Based on cross-sectional data of the general population from the AsiaBarometer Survey (2003–2006, we analyzed the relationship between self-rated health and trust in mass media, using a multilevel logistic model, adjusted for age, gender, marital status, income, education, occupation, horizontal trust, and trust in the healthcare system. Results In a total of 39082 participants (mean age 38; 49% male, 26808 (69% were classified as in good health. By the levels of trust in mass media, there were 6399 (16% who reported that they trust a lot, 16327 (42% reporting trust to a degree, 9838 (25% who do not really trust, 3307 (9% who do not trust at all, and 191 (0.5% who have not thought about it. In the multilevel model, trust in mass media was associated with good health (do not trust at all as the base group: the odds ratios (OR of 1.16 (95% confidence interval (CI = 1.05–1.27 for do not really trust; OR of 1.35 (95% CI = 1.23–1.49 for trust to a degree, and 1.57 (95% CI = 1.36–1.81 for trust a lot. Horizontal trust and trust in the healthcare system were also associated with health. Conclusion Vertical trust in mass media is associated with better health in Asian people. Since mass media is likely an important arena for public health, media trust should be enhanced to make people healthier.

  2. XDY01型振筒气压仪终端软件的设计与实现%The Design and Implementation of the Terminal Software for XDY01 Vibrating Barometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓飞; 杨显宇; 黄帅

    2009-01-01

    At present some obsolete equipments are stir in commission. As for this, with the use of RS232 serial eommucation protocols and Visual Basic, a method for the equipments digital improvement is proposed. Then the improvement plan, functions, concrete methods and prospect of XDY01 vibrating barometer are introduced.%本文在R5232串行通信协议和Visual Basic可视化编程的基础上,提出一种对仍在使用的气象探测设备进行数字化改造的方法.着重介绍了对XDY01型振筒气压仪的改造方案、实现功能、具体方法以及改造前景.

  3. Design of Altimeter and Barometer Module Monitor System Based on CC2430%一种大气压力传感器数据采集系统的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯小华; 胡文东; 张利利

    2011-01-01

    To monitor the work ability of pilot in the sky in real time, it detects the work environment of pilot, including of altimeter and barometer. It builds a system with CC2430 chip and SMD500 chip. It gets the altimeter and barometer parameters and writes to Micro SD card successfully. It also builds more date to research the work ability of pilot. Furthermore, it will be used to outdoors navigation, sports, weather forecast and so on.%为了实时监控飞行人员的工作能力状态,对飞行人员的工作环境参数进行实时检测;以Chipcon公司的CC2430单片机为主控制芯片,采用大容量存储设备,设计了实时监测大气压力及海拔高度的低功耗测量系统;给出了该控制器的功能和硬件结构以及软件流程设计;该系统在低压舱中模拟海拔高度为2400m的高空环境,测得气压数值为755hP,对应海拔高度为2413m,误差0.5%.实验结果表明,该系统可以成功的采集数据,并储存在MicroSD卡上.

  4. Design and research of miniature barometer sensor based on MS5540C%基于MS5540C的微型气压传感器的设计与研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘刚

    2012-01-01

    为实现提供气压和温度参数的高稳定性和高准确性的测量,介绍了MS5540C的特性和工作原理,并给出了基于MS5540C的微型传感器相关的硬件设计,提供了部分相关软件函数的设计作参考,最后对测量结果的补偿校准进行了讨论。试验表明,该设计具有高稳定性和高准确性。%To carry out the measurement on air pressure and temperature with high stability and accuracy,the character and operation principle of miniature barometer MS5540C are introduced,and design of hardware circuit and design suggestion are provided.In addition,some related software functions are provided as reference.The calibration methods for measurement result are discussed at last.The test shows that this design have the high stability and high accuracy.

  5. Determining Atmospheric Pressure Using a Water Barometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohrengel, C. Frederick, II; Larson, Paul R.

    2012-01-01

    The atmosphere is an envelope of compressible gases that surrounds Earth. Because of its compressibility and nonuniform heating by the Sun, it is in constant motion. The atmosphere exerts pressure on Earth's surface, but that pressure is in constant flux. This experiment allows students to directly measure atmospheric pressure by measuring the…

  6. Molecular Clouds as Cosmic-Ray Barometers

    CERN Document Server

    Casanova, S; Fukui, Y; Gabici, S; Jones, D I; Kawamura, A; Onishi, T; Rowell, G; Torii, K; Yamamoto, H

    2009-01-01

    It is generally assumed that the flux of cosmic-rays observed at the top of the Earth's atmosphere is representative of the flux in the Galaxy at large. The advent of high sensitivity, high resolution gamma-ray detectors, together with a knowledge of the distribution of the atomic hydrogen and especially of the molecular hydrogen in the Galaxy on sub-degree scales, as provided by the NANTEN survey, creates a unique opportunity to explore the flux of cosmic rays in the Galaxy. We present a methodology which aims to provide a test bed for current and future gamma-ray observatories to explore the cosmic ray flux at various positions in our Galaxy. In particular, for a distribution of molecular clouds and local cosmic ray density as measured at the Earth, we estimate the expected GeV to TeV gamma-ray signal, which can then be compared with observations. An observed gamma-ray flux less than predicted would imply a CR density in specific regions of the Galaxy less than that observed at Earth, and vice versa. The me...

  7. Giant Radio Galaxies: I. Intergalactic Barometers

    CERN Document Server

    Malarecki, J M; Saripalli, L; Subrahmanyan, R; Jones, D H; Duffy, A R; Rioja, M

    2013-01-01

    We present new wideband radio observations with the Australia Telescope Compact Array of a sample of 12 giant radio galaxies. The radio observations are part of a larger radio-optical study aimed at relating the radio structures with the ambient medium on large scales. With projected linear sizes larger than 0.7 Mpc, these objects are ideal candidates for the study of the Warm-Hot Intergalactic Medium (WHIM). The sample includes sources with sizes spanning 0.8 to 3.2 Mpc and total powers of 1.2*10^24 to 4.0*10^26 W Hz^-1 at 2.1 GHz. Redshifts were limited to z<0.15 to permit spectroscopic observations of the hosts and neighbouring galaxies, which were obtained using the AAOmega spectrograph on the Anglo-Australian Telescope. We derive lobe energy densities from the radio observations via equipartition arguments. The inferred pressures in the lobes of the giant radio sources, which range from 1.1*10^-15 to 2.0*10^-14 Pa (80 to 1500 cm^-3 K), are lower than previously inferred from X-ray observations of dens...

  8. The opening of electricity and gas markets to residential customers. Annual barometer - First wave. December 2007; L'ouverture des marches de l'electricite et du gaz naturel pour les clients residentiels. Barometre annuel - vague 1. Decembre 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Since July 1, 2007, French residential customers can freely chose their energy supplier. A quantitative inquiry has been carried out by LH2 on behalf of the French Energy Regulatory Commission (CRE) on a sample of 1501 households representative of the overall French households. The aim of this barometer is to answer the following questions: what is the level of knowledge and information of individuals about the opening of energy markets and the new regulation in force? How do they perceive this opening? What is their behaviour in front of the opening of markets to competition? Four years after the full opening of energy markets, this first inquiry has permitted to draw up a first status of the knowledge, behaviour and opinion of individuals with respect to the opening of these markets. (J.S.)

  9. Economy barometer analysis of China Stock Market:A dynamic analysis based on the thermal optimal path method%中国股市的经济晴雨表作用——基于热最优路径法的动态分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭琨; 周炜星; 成思危

    2012-01-01

    The real economy is closely related to the fictitious economy. The dynamics of stock market and e-conomy interact with each other since the stock market is an important part of the fictitious economy. The relationship between stock market and macro-economy is nonlinear and dynamic, which is hard to quantify using conventional econometric tools. In this paper, the thermal optimal path method borrowed from Econophysics is adopted and improved to investigate the dynamic lead-lag structure between Shanghai Stock Exchange Composite (SSEC) index and the GDP of China. No lead-lag structure between SSEC and GDP is detected before 2002. In contrast, the SSEC is found to lead the GDP by about two quarters after 2002 at the significance level of 5%, which is validated by a two-sided bootstrap statistical test. The findings indicate that the Chinese stock market has been gradually acting as the barometer of the economy since 2002.%虚拟经济与实体经济之间有着密切的联系.股票市场作为虚拟经济的重要组成部分,其运行周期与宏观经济有着密不可分的联系,但这种关系往往是多因素的非线性关系,很难用传统的计量方法来确证.本文采用并发展了金融物理学中的热最优路径法,研究了我国股指与GDP之间的动态领先滞后关系.结果表明,在2002年之前,上证指数与GDP之间不存在显著的领先滞后关系;而在2002年后,上证指数领先于GDP的关系日渐显现,大约领先两个季度左右;在2006年以后,上证指数领先于GDP的关系更加明显,说明我国股市已初现“经济睛雨表”的作用.

  10. The Transverse Energy as a Barometer of a Saturated Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Dumitru, A; Dumitru, Adrian; Gyulassy, Miklos

    2002-01-01

    The evolution of the gluon plasma produced with saturation initial conditions is calculated via Boltzmann transport theory for nuclear collisions at high energy. The saturation scale increases with the nuclear size and the beam energy, and thus we find that the perturbative rescattering rate decreases relative to the initial longitudinal expansion rate of the plasma. The effective longitudinal pressure remains significantly below the lattice QCD pressure until the plasma cools to near the confinement scale. Therefore, the transverse energy per unit of rapidity and its dependence on beam energy provides a sensitive test of gluon saturation models: the fractional transverse energy loss due to final state interactions is smaller and exhibits a weaker energy dependence than if ideal (nondissipative) hydrodynamics applied throughout the evolution.

  11. Flow at AGS energies a barometer for high density effects?

    CERN Document Server

    Kahana, D E; Shuryak, E V

    1996-01-01

    Preliminary data on transverse energy `flow' and event asymmetries reported by the E877(814) collaborations are compared to ARC model calculations for Au+Au at full AGS beam energy. ARC triple differential cross-sections for protons and pions are presented. Proton flow is produced in ARC, with the maximum in-plane momentum about 120 MeV/c. For central events the directed momentum for pions is near zero, consistent with experiment. Pion momentum opposite to the nucleons' is evident in a peripheral sample, however, indicating that this pion `anti-flow' involves absorption by `spectator' matter. `Squeeze-out' of protons in central events at mid-rapidity is suggested by the ARC distributions.

  12. Barometers of Change: Individual, Educational, and Social Transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarason, Seymour Bernard

    This book of essays addresses changes in the U.S. social scene by examining the roots of change in history. The present is pregnant with many futures and citizens cannot afford to live from an intellectually simple, ahistorical stance. The book contains 12 chapters, including: (1) "Introduction: The Past in the Present"; (2) "The Coalescing of…

  13. Can clinical governance act as a cultural barometer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSherry, Robert; McSherry, Wilfred; Pearce, Paddy

    The Francis report into failings at the Mid Staffordshire Foundation Trust highlighted systemic failures across the NHS, with major stakeholders failing to intervene. Nursing organisations, along with all nurse leaders, managers and nurses themselves, need to make changes in accordance with the report's findings and recommendations. We suggest that the last thing the profession needs now is another campaign to change the "system" or "systems of care delivery". This article highlights the importance of nurses sharing and learning from the Francis report and illustrates how clinical governance offers a framework for gauging and measuring the healthcare culture and caring environments using the "cultural health check".

  14. A Barometer Of Entrepreneurial Dynamics Above The Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina M. Drăgan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the analysis is performed for Romania where, after 50 years of communism, the free market economy, based on the free initiative of entrepreneurship, has been returned. The implementation of a scientific management generating performances that can lead the sector of SMEs to the requests of the Lisbon Strategy, cannot be completed without the existence of well-trained entrepreneurs, capable to improve their skills in modern management, thus leading to competitive results in a highly competitive market. Therefore, we consider in our paper some relevant indicators such: the evolution of new founded enterprises, the entrepreneur’s socio-professional profile, the entrepreneur’s level of education and new enterprise foundation rate. The analysis performed by this research allows us to formulate, synthetically, strengths and weaknesses in the entrepreneurial evolution for the period 1995-2011. Also, this study reveals the dependency between the economic growth, measured by GDP, and the rate of newly founded enterprises. The dynamic of new companies provides information both on the crisis ending and the resumption of economic growth.

  15. The auditory brainstem is a barometer of rapid auditory learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoe, E; Krizman, J; Spitzer, E; Kraus, N

    2013-07-23

    To capture patterns in the environment, neurons in the auditory brainstem rapidly alter their firing based on the statistical properties of the soundscape. How this neural sensitivity relates to behavior is unclear. We tackled this question by combining neural and behavioral measures of statistical learning, a general-purpose learning mechanism governing many complex behaviors including language acquisition. We recorded complex auditory brainstem responses (cABRs) while human adults implicitly learned to segment patterns embedded in an uninterrupted sound sequence based on their statistical characteristics. The brainstem's sensitivity to statistical structure was measured as the change in the cABR between a patterned and a pseudo-randomized sequence composed from the same set of sounds but differing in their sound-to-sound probabilities. Using this methodology, we provide the first demonstration that behavioral-indices of rapid learning relate to individual differences in brainstem physiology. We found that neural sensitivity to statistical structure manifested along a continuum, from adaptation to enhancement, where cABR enhancement (patterned>pseudo-random) tracked with greater rapid statistical learning than adaptation. Short- and long-term auditory experiences (days to years) are known to promote brainstem plasticity and here we provide a conceptual advance by showing that the brainstem is also integral to rapid learning occurring over minutes.

  16. Barometer maatschappelijk vastgoed : Public real estate international 2015

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veuger, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Na de diverse thematieken van de afgelopen jaren Trends en ontwikkelingen in maatschappelijk vastgoed (2011), Onderzoeken en visie (2012), Onderzoeken en perspectieven op maatschappelijk en financieel rendement (2013) en Maatschappelijk Verantwoord Ondernemen (2014) kunnen we de scope van de 8e Baro

  17. The 2009 photovoltaic barometer; Le barometre photovoltaique - 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2010-04-15

    The global photovoltaic market expanded again in 2009. Germany set a new system installation record while the capacity build-up of the major solar photovoltaic markets contained the fallout generated by the Iberian market derailment. The European Union has the highest photovoltaic plant capacity, with almost 5.5 GWp installed in 2009. Italy is the third European Union country to pass the symbolic 1000 MWp installed mark, following Germany and Spain. France ranks 6 with 185 MWp installed in 2009. The decrease in the price of silicon reached 80% in 2009. The industry is facing a coming-of-age crisis with prices falling and over-production. Most of the major cell manufacturers are located in Asia. The European industry is still well represented with Q-Cells, the German leading cell manufacturer in addition with hefty industry players. (A.C.)

  18. The Belgian Risk Perception Barometer Risk Perception Measuring Instruments Revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aeken, Koen van; Carle, Benny; Hardeman, Frank [SCK-CEN, Mol (Belgium). PISA

    2006-09-15

    The recognition of the societal dimension of risk assessment has been at the cradle of the opinion research on risks. Since risk estimates are not fixed by experts anymore, but are considered to show variation across a diverse population, the people themselves must be asked how they experience the risks. Following the rise in popularity of risk assessment and the recognition of its 'human' dimension, the demand for public opinion surveys on risks has been increasing at a fast pace. Unfortunately, this high demand sees some negative consequences. First, surveys are frequently conducted by people lacking even a minimal knowledge of survey methodology. In this respect, we might think of a journal or a newspaper trying to impress their readers with the definitive public opinion poll about the latest issue in vogue. Second, time pressure causes experienced or trained researchers to lower themselves to 'quick and dirty' work. While methodologically flawed opinion research might not be something to worry about when appearing in the amusement press, concern is due if the results of a survey inspire policy development. Indeed, when public opinion research is conceived as an instrument to support rational, evidence based public policy, the strictest methodological standards should be applied, even if it is clear that scientific research will never substitute political reasoning. This contribution deals with the safeguarding and enhancing of the quality of large scale surveys focusing on risk perception and related issues. This attention is relevant, not only for the reason that methodological standards may be flawed due to the immense popularity of the opinion poll, but also because the results of opinion surveys may have far-reaching policy consequences.

  19. DYM pricision aneroid barometer and the maintenance for aneroid barometers%DYM型精密空盒气压表及空盒气压表的修理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛文斗

    1996-01-01

    @@ 一、DYM型精密空盒气压表 为了提高空盒气压表产品质量,改变空盒气压表30年不变样的状况,我所近10年来改进和创新出船用精密空盒气压表,多用精密空盒气压表等系列产品.

  20. German Anxiety Barometer – Clinical and Everyday-Life Anxieties in the General Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Adolph

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to test a time-efficient screening instrument to assess clinically relevant and everyday-life (e.g.,economic,political,personalanxieties.Furthermore,factors influencing these anxieties, correlations between clinical and everyday anxieties and, for the first time, anxiety during different stages of life were assessed in a representative sample of the general population (N= 2229.Around 30% of the respondents manifested at least one disorder-specific key symptom within one year (women > men, 8% reported severe anxiety symptoms.Two thirds of respondents reported minor everyday anxieties and 5% were strongly impaired, whereby persons with severe clinical symptoms were more frequently affected.A variety of potential influencing factors could be identified. These include,in addition to socioeconomic status, gender, general health, risk-taking and leisure behaviour, also some up to now little investigated possible protective factors,such as everyday-life mental activity. The observed effects are rather small, which, however, given the heterogeneity of the general population seems plausible. Although the correlative design of the study does not allow direct causal conclusions, it can, however, serve as a starting point for experimental intervention studies in the future. Together with time series from repeated representative surveys, we expect these data to provide a better understanding of the processes that underlie everyday-life and clinical anxieties.

  1. Uranium in larval shells as a barometer of molluscan ocean acidification exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frieder, Christina A; Gonzalez, Jennifer P; Levin, Lisa A

    2014-06-03

    As the ocean undergoes acidification, marine organisms will become increasingly exposed to reduced pH, yet variability in many coastal settings complicates our ability to accurately estimate pH exposure for those organisms that are difficult to track. Here we present shell-based geochemical proxies that reflect pH exposure from laboratory and field settings in larvae of the mussels Mytilus californianus and M. galloprovincialis. Laboratory-based proxies were generated from shells precipitated at pH 7.51 to 8.04. U/Ca, Sr/Ca, and multielemental signatures represented as principal components varied with pH for both species. Of these, U/Ca was the best predictor of pH and did not vary with larval size, with semidiurnal pH fluctuations, or with oxygen concentration. Field applications of U/Ca were tested with mussel larvae reared in situ at both known and unknown pH conditions. Larval shells precipitated in a region of greater upwelling had higher U/Ca, and these U/Ca values corresponded well with the laboratory-derived U/Ca-pH proxy. Retention of the larval shell after settlement in molluscs allows use of this geochemical proxy to assess ocean acidification effects on marine populations.

  2. A 107-year-old coral from Florida Bay: barometer of natural and man- induced catastrophes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, J.H.; Powell, G.V.N.; Robblee, M.B.; Smith, T. J.

    1989-01-01

    The 107-yr growth history of a massive coral Solenastrea bournoni from Florida Bay was reconstructed with X-ray imagery from a single 4 in. diameter (10 cm) core that penetrated the exact epicenter of the 95.3 cm high colony. Growth increments totalled 952.9 mm, averaging 8.9 mm/yr over the life of the coral. Growth rate trends in the Florida Bay coral were compared to those in a Montastraea annularis of similar age from a nearby patch reef on the Atlantic Ocean side of the Florida Keys. It was concluded that growth rate, at least in these specimens, is a questionable indicator of past hurricanes and freezes. There does appear to be, however, a possible cause-and-effect relationship between major man-induced environmental perturbations and a prolonged reduction in growth rate in each coral's growth record. -from Authors

  3. China-Japan-Korean Summit:New Barometer for East Asian Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Xiaosheng

    2009-01-01

    @@ On December 13, 2008, China Japan-Korean Summit was held in Fukuoka, Japan. The summit, which was greatly different from the previously eight summits held in the framework of ASEAN plus China,Japan and South Korean, that is 10+3, was confined to only these three countries and it's the first time for them to do so. It happened to be China's first foreign activity after the opening of the Central Economic Working Conference in the same month and explained its new economic policy and measures in 2009. In addition, it's the first time for three main economic entities to meet after the breakout of the global financial crisis. Thus financial and economic affairs were the core issues of the summit.

  4. Improving the Ginkgo CO2 barometer: Implications for the early Cenozoic atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, Richard S.; Wing, Scott L.

    2016-04-01

    Stomatal properties of fossil Ginkgo have been used widely to infer the atmospheric concentration of CO2 in the geological past (paleo-pCO2). Many of these estimates of paleo-pCO2 have relied on the inverse correlation between pCO2 and stomatal index (SI - the proportion of epidermal cells that are stomata) observed in recent Ginkgo biloba, and therefore depend on the accuracy of this relationship. The SI - pCO2 relationship in G. biloba has not been well documented, however. Here we present new measurements of SI for leaves of G. biloba that grew under pCO2 from 290 to 430 ppm. We prepared and imaged all specimens using a consistent procedure and photo-documented each count. As in prior studies, we found a significant inverse relationship between SI and pCO2, however, the relationship is more linear, has a shallower slope, and a lower correlation coefficient than previously reported. We examined leaves of G. biloba grown under pCO2 of 1500 ppm, but found they had highly variable SI and a large proportion of malformed stomata. We also measured stomatal dimensions, stomatal density, and the carbon isotope composition of G. biloba leaves in order to test a mechanistic model for inferring pCO2. This model overestimated observed pCO2, performing less well than the SI method between 290 and 430 ppm. We used our revised SI-pCO2 response curve, and new observations of selected fossils, to estimate late Cretaceous and Cenozoic pCO2 from fossil Ginkgo adiantoides. All but one of the new estimates is below 800 ppm, and together they show little long-term change in pCO2 or relation to global temperature. The low Paleogene pCO2 levels indicated by the Ginkgo SI proxy are not consistent with the high pCO2 inferred by some climate and carbon cycle models. We cannot currently resolve the discrepancy, but greater agreement between proxy data and models may come from a better understanding of the stomatal response of G. biloba to elevated pCO2, better counts and measurements of fossil Ginkgo, or models that can simulate greenhouse climates at lower pCO2.

  5. German Anxiety Barometer-Clinical and Everyday-Life Anxieties in the General Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolph, Dirk; Schneider, Silvia; Margraf, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test a time-efficient screening instrument to assess clinically relevant and everyday-life (e.g., economic, political, personal) anxieties. Furthermore, factors influencing these anxieties, correlations between clinical and everyday anxieties and, for the first time, anxiety during different stages of life were assessed in a representative sample of the general population (N = 2229). Around 30% of the respondents manifested at least one disorder-specific key symptom within 1 year (women > men), 8% reported severe anxiety symptoms. Two thirds of respondents reported minor everyday anxieties and 5% were strongly impaired, whereby persons with severe clinical symptoms were more frequently affected. A variety of potential influencing factors could be identified. These include, in addition to socioeconomic status, gender, general health, risk-taking, and leisure behavior, also some up to now little investigated possible protective factors, such as everyday-life mental activity. The observed effects are rather small, which, however, given the heterogeneity of the general population seems plausible. Although the correlative design of the study does not allow direct causal conclusions, it can, however, serve as a starting point for experimental intervention studies in the future. Together with time series from repeated representative surveys, we expect these data to provide a better understanding of the processes that underlie everyday-life and clinical anxieties.

  6. Romania’s Corruption Barometer: Putting the Public Sector on a Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Olusegun, Stober

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Diverting public resources or the use of public office for private gain, benefits a powerful few while imposes costs on the large majority of the society. In 2014, Romania, along with Bulgaria, Greece, and Italy were ranked the most corrupt nations out of 31 EU and Western European states in the Corruption Perceptions Index, a position Romania has remained in the last 3 years, scoring 43 out of 100 points. Transparency International relies on the perception of experts rather than measuring actual corruption experiences. Thus, this study is set out to capture the experience and perception of the general citizenry. This study finds robust evidence that corruption reacts to standard economic incentive, while the effects of anti-corruption policies often weaken as public officials, politicians and businessmen often find alternate strategies for rent seeking.

  7. An Analysis of the Correlation between the Economic Barometer and the Postal Service

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    There are many economic factors that can influence the postal market. In this paper, by adopting the method of quantitative analysis, the author analyse exhaustively the economic factors that influence the postal market and the internal relations between the economic factors and the postal market.

  8. p27: a barometer of signaling deregulation and potential predictor of response to targeted therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wander, Seth A; Zhao, Dekuang; Slingerland, Joyce M

    2011-01-01

    Phosphorylation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27 by upstream mitogenic signaling pathways regulates its stability, localization, and biological function. In human cancers, loss of the antiproliferative action of p27 can arise through reduced protein levels and/or cytoplasmic mislocalization, leading to increased cell proliferation and/or cell migration, respectively. Reduced p27 expression levels and p27 mislocalization have potential prognostic and therapeutic implications in various types of human cancers. This review highlights mechanisms of functional deregulation of p27 by oncogenic signaling that provide an important molecular rationale for pathway targeting in cancer treatment.

  9. Weighing and Body Monitoring among College Women: The Scale Number as an Emotional Barometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintz, Laurie B.; Awad, Germine H.; Stinson, Rebecca D.; Bledman, Rashanta A.; Coker, Angela D.; Kashubeck-West, Susan; Connelly, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated weighing and body-monitoring behaviors, as well as psychological and behavioral reactions to weighing, among female college students. Weighing and body monitoring were engaged in by the majority of participants. Participants changed food intake and exercise based on weight. About 63% reported that the scale number impacts…

  10. Root system reserve status, a potential barometer of carbon limitations in trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landhäusser, Simon

    2014-05-01

    Carbon reserve allocation in trees is an important factor in tree growth and survival which in turn influences the distribution of species and forest communities and their associated carbon, water and energy fluxes at multiple scales. We still lack a comprehensive understanding of the underlying mechanisms of carbon reserve allocation in trees and how they might be influenced by drought, biotic attack, and stand age. This is particularly true for mature trees. Over a period of eight years seasonal non-structural carbon reserves (NSC) were followed in different organs of mature aspens (Populus tremuloides Michx.). Foliar, twig, stem and root tissues were sampled. Over the eight years some of the aspen clones were defoliated in 2000, 2001 and/or 2007; results indicate that after the defoliation events the NSC reserves in the roots required much longer to recover than the NSC reserves in the twigs and stems of the crown. While reserve recovery in twigs was almost immediate in defoliated trees, root starch reserves recovered only fully after two growing seasons to values comparable to undefoliated trees. These results suggest that an allocation priority could exist, which in large part might be determined by a tissue's proximity to the canopy (crown). It is hypothesized that this would be most noticeable in tall trees with small live crown ratios resulting in greater carbon reserve withdrawal along the bole. This top-down allocation could result in carbon reserves shortages in the roots during carbon limitation, which could feedback on to the canopy, further reducing aboveground growth and potentially also resiliency to future stresses.

  11. 77 FR 31728 - Elemental Mercury Used in Barometers, Manometers, Hygrometers, and Psychrometers; Significant New...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-30

    ... (FDA) issued a national consumption advisory concerning mercury in fish. The advisory contains... can safely consume. By 2005, all 50 States had issued fish consumption advisories for fish from... hygrometers were used for cigar and tobacco humidors, or in residential settings, while...

  12. 76 FR 26225 - Elemental Mercury Used in Barometers, Manometers, Hygrometers/Psychrometers; Significant New Use...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ... a national consumption advisory concerning mercury in fish. The advisory contains recommended limits... safely consume. By 2005, all fifty states had issued fish consumption advisories for fish from certain... applications. Historically, mercury-containing hygrometers were used for cigar and tobacco humidors, or...

  13. 便携式气压计的电路与系统设计%Design of a portable barometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林琳; 陈金岭

    2000-01-01

    简述了压力传感器的温度补偿技术以及如何选择恒流源和数据放大器,重点对气压计的系统电路进行了设计.安装调试,结果证明,线性很好,完全符合设计要求.

  14. Are Batman and Superman the Barometer of Our Times? A Review of ‘Superheroes in Crisis’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ira Erika Franco

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The WWII historian Jeffrey K. Johnson studies how the two comic book legends Superman and Batman have adapted successfully to American cultural and social landscapes through time. This is a book review of ‘Superheroes in Crisis’, a monograph that details some decisive moments from their creation in the late 30’s up to the 70’s in which both characters have transformed in order to maintain their relevance as what Johnson calls ‘cultural barometers’

  15. THE QUALITY OF COMMERCIAL SERVICES – A BAROMETER OF THE COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE OF THE DISTRIBUTION CHANNEL MEMBERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan – Franc Valeriu

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The enterprises' offensive in various markets is focused on a. package of "services" that integrates - more than ever before - the observance of terms and vivid contacts between enterprises and customers. Metaphorically, we could say that services rendere

  16. Harmonious Labor Relations: the Barometer of Social Harmony%和谐劳动关系是社会和谐的晴雨表

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周国雄

    2007-01-01

    劳动关系作为现代社会关系中最基本、最重要的社会关系,涉及用人单位和劳动者的基本权益,与广大人民群众的切身利益密切相关,是现代社会和谐的晴雨表.要结合地区实际,综合运用多种手段构建和谐的劳动关系.

  17. A Measurement Accuracy of Automatic Mercury Barometer%自动水银气压表的测量准确度

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉存; 严志金

    1991-01-01

    @@ 1988~1989年,我部对吉林省气象局研制的,用微机读数的自动水银压表进行了试验.提供试验的自动标准水银气压表和自动动槽水银气压表各1支,一起进行了测试.本文介绍的是该次试验的结果.

  18. 现金流量表--企业财务状况的晴雨表%The Cash Flow Statement--The Barometer of Enterprise's Financial Situation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    时光胜

    2006-01-01

    论述了现金流量表在企业财务管理中的重要作用,对企业现金流量表进行了定性、定量的分析,并探讨了运用现金流量表分析企业财务状况时应注意的问题.

  19. A report for certified non-determinality of mercury barometer%水银气压表检定不确定度研究报告

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦岭; 杨保东; 武春爱; 杜东明; 习晓萍

    1995-01-01

    @@ 一、必要性 水银气压表是当今广大气象台站测量大气压力的基本仪器,也是国防、科研、大专院校、厂矿企业实验室、分析化验室测量大气压力的基本仪器.由于其准确度高,价格不贵,受到人们的普遍青睐.

  20. Verification Data Processing of Aneroid Barometer Based on Excel%基于EXCEL的空盒气压表检定数据处理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯兵; 李姝青

    2010-01-01

    本文利用EXCEL的数据处理功能,建立了DEM6型空盒气压表检定数据处理模板,实现了检定原始数据计算处理的自动化,解决了空盒气压表检定原始数据计算处理的繁琐问题,提高了计量检定工作的效率.

  1. 小说《上升的晴雨表》女主人公象征意义分析%The Symbolism Analysis of Heroine in Barometer Rising

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐凤娇

    2015-01-01

    分析加拿大著名小说家休·麦克里南的小说《上升的晴雨表》中的女主人公维恩·佩内洛蒂在小说中的象征意义,指出作为年轻一代女性的代表,佩内洛蒂看到了加拿大人的未来生活和奋斗希望.她的成功对于身边其她女性有着不可估量的影响.

  2. System Error Analysis with the Altitude of a Mercury Barometer%水银气压表与高度有关的系统误差分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周维新; 李建英

    1993-01-01

    @@ 一、问题的由来 据报告,新研制的振筒式气压计在不同海拔高度上在与水银气压表比对时发现,存在与高度有关的系统误差:高度增大,振筒式气压计示值偏低(详见附录1).

  3. The Parameter Setting Method of PTB220 Type Barometers%自动站气压传感器通用性参数设置方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭瑞宝

    2010-01-01

    通过对自动气象站PTB220气压传感器输出信号方式的分析,利用超级终端技术及参数设置命令,实现了气压传感器数据输出格式的设置,解决了气压传感器不能通用的问题.

  4. Risks and safety perception. IPSN barometer october 1999. Synthesis; Perception des risques et de la securite barometre IPSN octobre 1999 synthese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-10-01

    An opinion investigation was realized in october 1999 by the IPSN to know the public opinion concerning the risks and safety perception. Five subjects were treated: the public care subjects (social and environment); the science and scientists image; the food risks; the opinion on the nuclear activities (interveners ability and credibility, nuclear controversy, radioactive wastes and nuclear accidents); the french people cares about the risks. The methodology and the analysis of the poll results are detailed. Tables of data investigation are also included. (A.L.B.)

  5. The opinion barometer of French people and energy in January 2007; Le barometre d'opinion des francais et l'energie en janvier 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    By request of the French Energy Observatory, an inquiry has been carried out by CREDOC on a representative sample of 2009 people aged 18 and above, selected according to the quotas method. The inquiry is made of 10 questions about energy and deals with 4 main topics: nuclear energy, climatic change and greenhouse effect, power generation and energy supplies, and energy prices. The choice of nuclear energy for power generation gains more approvals than 6 months ago but remains divided (47% find advantages while 44% find drawbacks). Research in this domain must focus on the waste management problem (wastes volume and toxicity abatement, and safety improvement of transport and storage). In order to limit the greenhouse effect, a majority of French people agree with the principle of a change of lifestyle in particular in transports, energy choices and industrial activities. Despite the power outage of November 2006, French people are satisfied by the operation of power distribution in France. Opinions are divided concerning the decision power in energy supplies (European, national or market). Finally, fears about prices increase concern in priority the automotive fuels and in a lesser extent natural gas. (J.S.)

  6. The opinion barometer of French people and energy on June 2007; Le barometre d'opinion sur les francais et l'energie en juin 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-12-15

    On request of the French Observatory of Energy (DGEMP/OE), an inquiry was carried out on June 2007 by CREDOC on a representative sample of 2010 people selected according to the quotas method. Ten energy-related questions were addressed which dealt with three main topics: the nuclear energy (advantages and drawbacks, related risks, confidence in controls, wastes); the attitude of French people in front of the climatic change (origin of greenhouse gases, lifestyle changes, remedies, individual behaviors), and the electricity of renewable origin (impact on retail prices). A majority of the population finds more advantages than drawbacks in developing nuclear energy for power generation, but the problem of wastes management and the risk of serious accident remain a source of worries for a large part of the population. French people are also ready to change their lifestyles to limit the greenhouse effect and a majority is favourable to electricity of renewable origin. (J.S.)

  7. Interagency Integration in Phase Z

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-04

    other than the DOD see the security environment more like a barometer , where a lack of tension results in low-pressure readings while an increase in...tensions cause pressure to rise. If tensions continue to rise, eventually the barometer will receive so much pressure the barometer will explode

  8. 振筒式气压仪数据与AWOS气压值的自动对比%Automatic comparison of data from seif-recording barometer and AWOS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘涛

    2001-01-01

    利用振筒式气压仪串行输出接口,在Win98操作平台下,使用DELPHI5.0编写应用程序,实现振筒式气压仪数据的自动采集,处理和显示,并显示AWOS气压值和其他数据;程序自动读取两设备的数据并进行比较,当出现误差值大于规定值时,出现一个告警提示信息.

  9. 地区经济景气指数的构建与景气分析初探%A Preliminary Probe into Setup of Regional Economic Boom Index and Barometer Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文溥; 尚琳琳; 林新

    2001-01-01

    本文以福建省社会经济主要月度统计指标为基础,通过统计分析,构建了一个省级经济景气指数,并利用该指数对福建省近年的社会经济运行走势进行了预测分析。论文同时探讨了构建地区经济景气指数的有关问题。

  10. 水银气压表温度重力修正和重力引用问题%TEMPERATURE AND GRAVITATIONAL CORRECTION OF BAROMETER AND GRAVITATIONAL CORRECTION STUDIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建英; 贺晓雷

    2003-01-01

    温度、重力修正是影响水银气压表在使用和校准中测量不确定度的重要因素.文章介绍了水银气压表温度、重力修正的原理,引用重力加速度时出现的问题,以及重力引用误差对气压测量的影响.

  11. Barometer I.R.S.N.. perception of risks and safety. Results of poll of october 2004; Barometre IRSN. Perception des risques et de la securite. Resultats du sondage d'octobre 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    The first chapter aims to establish a level of importance through actual problems, at the social level and environment. The second chapter treats the risk perception in term of risks for the society, confidence and information on risks. General opinions on experts constitute the third chapter. The perception of technological, industrial and natural risks for environment are the object of the fourth chapter. The image of nuclear energy is gathered in the fifth chapter. (N.C.)

  12. A Comparison of Transparency in the Defense Procurement Processes of Turkey and Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    has created several indexes to measure corruption, including the Corruption Perceptions Index, the Global Corruption Barometer , and the Bribe Payers...Index. According to the Global Corruption Barometer 2013, most public opinion around the world agrees that corruption is a serious problem in the...Global Corruption Barometer 2013. Retrieved from http://www.transparency.org/gcb2013 Transparency International. (2013b). The Global Coalition

  13. Integration of a Star Tracker and Inertial Sensors Using an Attitude Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-18

    GPS, star tracker, and barometer . GPS measurements are used to update the INS position and velocity for a small duration in the beginning of the...vehicle’s flight time. Star tracker and barometer measurements are used to update the INS attitude and altitude, respectively. This research uses a...and barometer bias) using the three types of measurement updates. The simulation results show that the star tracker was able to improve the performance

  14. WHOI Hawaii Ocean Timeseries Station (WHOTS): WHOTS-3 Mooring Turnaround Cruise Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    ship measurements to nominal buoy height of 3m, on the basis of +0.12 mbm -1, and taken hourly averages to make the comparisons. The buoy barometers... mbm 1, and taken hourly averages to make the comparisons. The buoy barometers are reported to a resolution of 1mb, and are identical except for two

  15. 晚清中外关系的一块晴雨表——《北华捷报》的特点及其影响%A Barometer of Sino-foreign Relations in Late Qing Dynasty——On the Features of North-China Herald and Its Influence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何文贤

    2007-01-01

    《北华捷报》素有"中国外文第一报"的称誉,具有很高的社会文化价值,它对"西学东渐"和"东学西渐"均产生了积极的影响.同时,由于它对晚清政治、经济、军事、外交等方面的影响,奠定了在言论界举足轻重的地位.

  16. Kas Eestis on hea õppida?

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    2009 aastal Briti uuringufirma International Student Barometer korraldatud üleeuroopalisest välistudengite uuringust "I-Graduate", milles esmakordselt osalesid ka Eesti ülikoolid. Sisaldab välistudengite rahulolu elukeskonnaga näitavat tabelit

  17. Changes in Absolute Sea Level Along U.S. Coasts

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This map shows changes in absolute sea level from 1960 to 2016 based on satellite measurements. Data were adjusted by applying an inverted barometer (air pressure)...

  18. Heimtextil Trends 2012/2013Pont the Way for the Coming Season

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    As one of the biggest international trade fairs for home and contract textiles around the whole world, Heimtextil has a special function as a trend barometer and benchmark for quality textiles distinguished by good design and innovative functionality.

  19. "wall"译"墙壁"还是"管壁"%Does "the Wall" Mean "the Wall of a Building" or "a Tube Wall"?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金成星

    2001-01-01

    @@ 第二册Unit 9后面有一篇阅读文章,名字叫"ANGELS ON A PIN",大体内容是一位教授要求学生用一只气压表(barometer)来测量一栋楼的高度,答案应力求体现物理概念或原理.其中有这么一段话:"Yes,"said the student."There is a very basic measurement method that you will like. In this method, you take the barometer and began to walk up the stairs. As you climb the stairs, you mark off length of barometer along the wall. You then count the number of marks, and this will give you the height of the building in barometer units. A very direct method."

  20. Maailma turism 2005. aastal / Piret Kallas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kallas, Piret

    2006-01-01

    Maailma Turismiorganisatsiooni andmetel kasvas maailma turism 2005. aastal 5,5 protsenti. Prognoos 2006.aastaks. Allikas: UNWTO World Tourism Barometer, jaanuar 2006. Tabel: Ööbimisega välisreisid kogu maailmas, 2003-2005

  1. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU YUE

    2010-01-01

    @@ PMI Warms Up The Purchasing Managers' Index (PMI), a barometer of manufacturing activ-ities, reached 51.7 percent in August, up 0.5 percentage points from July, said the China Federation of Logistics and Purchasing.

  2. Some leaders, despite reputations, offer Latvians hope through crisis / Arta Ankrava

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ankrava, Arta

    2009-01-01

    DnB Nord Latvia Barometer küsitlusest selgus, et kõige enam usaldatakse ekspresident Vaira Vike-Freiberga, Riia linnapea Nils Usakovsi ja Ventspilsi endise linnapea Aivars Lembergsi majandusprognoose

  3. Mercury Quick Facts: Health Effects of Mercury Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercury Quick Facts Health Effects of Mercury Exposure What is Elemental Mercury? Elemental (metallic) mercury is the shiny, silver-gray metal found in thermometers, barometers, and thermostats and other ...

  4. The Lethal "Femme Fatale" in the Noir Tradition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boozer, Jack

    2000-01-01

    Traces the lethal seductress through Hollywood's "noir" history from "Double Indemnity" (1944) to "The Last Seduction" (1996). Examines how this figure largely abjures traditional romance and passive domesticity, choosing instead to apply her sexuality to homicidal plots toward greed. Argues that her narrative positioning serves as a barometer of…

  5. The Quality of Life in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sing, Ming

    2009-01-01

    The AsiaBarometer of 1,000 respondents shows that Hong Kong people have a great desire for materialistic attainment, and such an emphasis on materialism bodes ill for their quality of life. Negative assessments of the public life sphere, which encompasses the natural environment, the social welfare system, and the democratic system, also detract…

  6. Reflecting on the Japan-Chile Task-Based Telecollaboration Project for Beginner-Level Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, B. Greg

    2014-01-01

    Using O'Dowd and Ritter's (2006) Inventory of Reasons for Failed Communication in Telecollaborative Projects as a barometer, this article details the considerations and procedures followed in a task-based, asynchronous email telecollaboration project between EFL (English as a Foreign Language) learners in Japan and Chile. In a climate…

  7. On the Cutting Edge (of Torpor): Innovation and the Pace of Change in American Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Gordon

    2008-01-01

    This article considers the pace of innovation and technology adoption in higher education and suggests that the rate of change on 21st century campuses is remarkably similar to earlier centuries when it may have taken over 30 years to introduce "modern" inventions like the telescope, microscope, and barometer to students. The literature shows that…

  8. The Quality of Life in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chong-Min

    2009-01-01

    The AsiaBarometer survey of 1,023 respondents shows Life in Korea is highly modernized and digitalized without being much globalized. Despite the modernization and digitalization of their lifestyles, ordinary citizens still prioritize materialistic values more than post-materialistic values, and they remain least satisfied in the material life…

  9. How To...Activities in Meteorology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimmer, Donald N.; Sagness, Richard L.

    This series of experiments seeks to provide laboratory exercises which demonstrate concepts in Earth Science, particularly meteorology. Materials used in the experiments are easily obtainable. Examples of experiments include: (1) making a thermometer; (2) air/space relationship; (3) weight of air; (4) barometers; (5) particulates; (6) evaporation;…

  10. Weather in Your Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannegieter, Sandy; Wirkler, Linda

    Facts and activities related to weather and meteorology are presented in this unit. Separate sections cover the following topics: (1) the water cycle; (2) clouds; (3) the Beaufort Scale for rating the speed and force of wind; (4) the barometer; (5) weather prediction; (6) fall weather in Iowa (sleet, frost, and fog); (7) winter weather in Iowa…

  11. Social Boundaries and Marital Assimilation: Interpreting Trends in Racial and Ethnic Intermarriage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Zhenchao; Lichter, Daniel T.

    2007-01-01

    Interracial/interethnic marriage in America is a barometer of racial/ethnic relations and intergroup social distance. Using data from the 5-percent Public Use Microdata Sample of the 1990 and 2000 censuses, we interpret trends in intermarriage in light of new assimilation theory, recent changes in racial classification, and rapid demographic…

  12. Memories of the Ku Klux Klan Honorary Society at the University of Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messer-Kruse, Timothy

    1999-01-01

    Recounts the history of the Ku Klux Klan Honorary Junior Society at the University of Wisconsin from 1919 to 1926. Although not tied to the national Ku Klux Klan, this honorary group became a powerful intrafraternity society that served as a barometer of the cultural and ideological climate of the university. (SLD)

  13. Euro adoption in Romania: Facts and perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.-C. Enache

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to link the nominal convergence criteria with Romanian citizens perceptions about euro adoption. Based on convergence reports and Euro-barometer data, the 2010 and 2012 years are analysed. It is shown that even if the nominal convergence achievements are improving, the perceptions regarding the euro adoption are deteriorating. A better communication strategy is advised.

  14. Võistlus Vene turisti pärast ägeneb / Villu Zirnask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Zirnask, Villu, 1966-

    2006-01-01

    World Tourism Barometer turistide hulga kasvust eri riikides. Turistide hulga kasv Eestis, Lätis ja Soomes. Tabelid: Tulud välisturismist ja kulutused välismaal; Suuremad välismaalastest ööbijad Eestis, Soomes ja Lätis

  15. Latvia - a society squabbling with itself / Philip Birzulis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Birzulis, Philip

    2011-01-01

    DNB Nord Barometer poolt läbiviidud küsitlusuuringust selgus, et 28% Läti valijatest kavatseb erakorralistel parlamendivalimistel 2010. aastal tehtud valikut korrata. Venelaste ja lätlaste konfliktist. Parlamendivalimiste kandidaadid, nende tugevamad ja nõrgemad küljed

  16. THE KLEPTOCRACY – A CHARACTERISTIC OF ROMANIAN ECONOMY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TOMESCU-DUMITRESCU CORNELIA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the concept of kleptocratic management closely related to corruption. Considered a product of the transition to capitalist economy, modern kleptocratic management is the opposite of democratic management, strategic, aimed at rapid enrichment by any means. By analyzing Corruption Perception Index and Global Corruption Barometer kleptocratic management have highlighted the manifestation of the Romanian economy.

  17. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU YUE

    2010-01-01

    @@ Figures for October CPI and PPI The consumer price index(CPI), a barometer of inflation, grew 4.4 percent in October, a 24-month high and 0.8 percentage points higher than in Septmber, according to the National Bureau of Statistics(NBS).

  18. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU YUE

    2010-01-01

    @@ November Figures CPI The consumer price index (CPI), a barometer of inflation, grew 5.1 percent in November, a 28-month high and 0.7 percentage points higher than in October, said the National Bureau of Statistics (NBS). The CPI increase was largely driven by food and residential factors, said NBS spokesman Sheng Laiyun.

  19. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU YUE

    2010-01-01

    @@ July Economic Figures CPI and PPI The consumer price index(CPI),a barometer of inflation,grew 33 percent year on year in July,0.4 percentage points faster than in June,said the National Bureau of Statistics(NBS).This exceeded the government-set3-percent target for the entire year.

  20. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A batch of macroeconomic statistics were published during the third week of June. The consumer price index, a key barometer of inflation, grew 3.4 percent from a year before. Government departments are still at ease about the rise, believing the index an

  1. Editor's note

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG WeiMin

    2011-01-01

    Recent years see explosive data growth and rapid enhancement of computing powers.Under this background,file and storage technologies play a decisive role in business development and social progress,functioning as the master wand of diverse organizations,as well as a barometer of the performances of most computer systems in our information age.

  2. Maailma turism 2006 / Piret Kallas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kallas, Piret

    2007-01-01

    2006. aastal tehti kogu maailmas 842 miljonit ööbimisega välisreisi, mis on 4,5 protsenti enam kui 2005. aastal. Maailma turismitrendid 2006-2007, prognoos 2007. aastaks. Euroopa turismi arengust 2006. aastal. Allikas: UNWTO World Tourism Barometer, jaan. 2007

  3. Generalized Trust and Trust in Institutions in Confucian Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Soo Jiuan; Tambyah, Siok Kuan

    2011-01-01

    This study examines generalized trust and trust in institutions in Confucian Asia, covering six countries namely, China, Japan, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan and Vietnam, and one dependent region, Hong Kong. Using data from the 2006 AsiaBarometer Survey, our study affirms the reliability and validity of using a two-item scale to measure…

  4. Homo Voluntarius and the Rural Idyll

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2016-01-01

    Based on Mancur Olson’s and Robert Putnam’s theories, this article discusses whether it is more difficult to recruit volunteers in urban than in rural areas. We use data from the Danish Rural-Urban Barometer (2011/12), which contains 2000 valid responses from urban and rural respondents. We show...

  5. Relationship between upper and lower limb conduit artery vasodilator function in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thijssen, D.H.J.; Rowley, N.; Padilla, J.; Simmons, G.H.; Laughlin, M.H.; Whyte, G.; Cable, N.T.; Green, D.J.

    2011-01-01

    Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) is a strong predictor of future cardiovascular disease and is believed to represent a "barometer" of systemic endothelial health. Although a recent study [Padilla et al. Exp Biol Med (Maywood) 235: 1287-1291, 2010] in pigs confirmed a strong correlation b

  6. Impacts of altimeter corrections on local linear sea level trends around Taiwan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Yongcun; Andersen, Ole Baltazar

    2013-01-01

    .e. the inverted barometer correction, wet tropospheric correction, and sea state bias correction, have significant impacts on the determination of local LSLT. The trend of default corrections contribute more than 1.4 mm year-1 along the coastline of China mainland and 2.1 mm year-1 to local LSLT in the Taiwan...

  7. Estimating boundary currents from satellite altimetry: A case study for the east coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Durand, F.; Shankar, D.; Birol, F.; Shenoi, S.S.C.

    of the tide. As in Shankar (1998), we used the monthly climatology of COADS (Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set; http://icoads.noaa.gov) sea-level pressure to correct the PSMSL data for the inverse barometer effect (Ponte, 1993). Overall, for the MAP...

  8. Constituents of a hit parade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildgaard, Mette Simonsen; Jensen, Erik Granly

    2014-01-01

    Due to their historically inaccessible nature, public service broadcasters’ media archives have lent themselves primarily to internal reflection while historical contex- tualisation of the cultural heritage in these archives has been broadcasters’ preroga- tive. In this study, digitised material...... from the Danish youth radio programme P4 i P1’s Det elektriske barometer forms the basis for an experiment into how access to digital archives can inform humanities scholarship. We argue that one important implication of the new digital archives is that they enable approaches independent...... of broadcasters’ own narratives since they offer the possibility for autonomous study of large quantities of material. e character of listener participation in Det elektriske barometer, which had the slogan ‘the listener-determined hit parade’, is approached from a micro-, meso-, and macro-level employing...

  9. 7. report EurObserv'ER state of renewable energies in Europe; 7. bilan EurObserv'ER etat des energies renouvelables en Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The european renewable energies barometer for the year 2006 confirms the trends that had already been detected during the previous years: that the efforts being made for development are only sufficient in a limited number of European countries and that, overall, they are not accompanied by any real effort to conserve energy. This document provides in formation on the seventh annual assessment barometer, the methanization of the biomass, the revival of concentrating solar power, the emerging of marine energies, the 2010 objectives hard to reach and discussed how to use the blowing wind, to change light into electricity, to harness the sun's heat, to valorize the motive force of rivers, to draw heat from underground, to transform biomass in fuel, to valorize solid biomass and renewable waste. (A.L.B.)

  10. Nationalism consciousness dilemma colonial ties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐凤娇

    2009-01-01

    Hugh MacLennan is a famous Canadian novelist and essayist. In his long literary career, he wrote a great number of works and gained many literary honors. But above all he is a writer, focusing on national issues of Canada, which is well demonstrated by his first nov- el-Barometer l~ing, in which nationalism abounds. This paper covers three parts. Chapter one is mainly about Hugh MacLennan, his first work Barometer Rising as well as the introduction to nationalism and MacLennan's contribution in fiction in this respect. Chapter two fo- crees on nationalism in his first novel. The last chapter is the conclusion part in which we know that well awakened, the Canadians are striving to pursue their real independence and status on the international stage.

  11. ¿Anchoring on objectivity or navigating to pleasure?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Ibáñez Gracia

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available ¿What is it that moves into researching? ¿Why do we conduct it and what is such effort worth? These are the main questions underlying this paper: a tour into several of the topics involved in the "ought to's" of social sciences -objectivity, knowledge, transformation. His claim is that "pleasure is precisely what we count on to found our commitment for researching". Such claim does not imply in any way rather soft or pleasing criteria, for only the studies of great quality, implacable rigour, conscious elaboration and sustained effort, manage to reach the place of a beautiful objects of thought, capable of modifying their authors as well as those who enter in contact with them. To replace that old barometer of objectivity by the hetherodox barometer of pleasure -the main subject of this paper- is not to lowen any of the levels that a good social practice demands. Quite the contrary.

  12. ¿Fondear en la objetividad o navegar hacia el placer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ib��ñez Gracia, Tomás

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available ¿What is it that moves into researching? ¿Why do we conduct it and what is such effort worth? These are the main questions underlying this paper: a tour into several of the topics involved in the "ought to's" of social sciences -objectivity, knowledge, transformation. His claim is that "pleasure is precisely what we count on to found our commitment for researching". Such claim does not imply in any way rather soft or pleasing criteria, for only the studies of great quality, implacable rigour, conscious elaboration and sustained effort, manage to reach the place of a beautiful objects of thought, capable of modifying their authors as well as those who enter in contact with them. To replace that old barometer of objectivity by the hetherodox barometer of pleasure -the main subject of this paper- is not to lowen any of the levels that a good social practice demands. Quite the contrary.

  13. Does low self-esteem enhance social pain? The relationship between trait self-esteem and anterior cingulate cortex activation induced by ostracism

    OpenAIRE

    Onoda, Keiichi; Okamoto, Yasumasa; Nakashima, Ken’ichiro; Nittono, Hiroshi; Yoshimura, Shinpei; Yamawaki, Sigeto; Yamaguchi, Shuhei; Ura, Mitsuhiro

    2010-01-01

    According to sociometer theory, self-esteem serves as a barometer of the extent to which individuals are socially included or excluded by others. We hypothesized that trait self-esteem would be related to social pain responsiveness, and we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to experimentally investigate this potential relationship. Participants (n = 26) performed a cyberball task, a computerized game of catch during which the participants were excluded from the game. Participants then...

  14. Journalists views and use of social media: Cision Social Journalism Study 2012: global report

    OpenAIRE

    Pole, K.; Gulyás, A; Rehkopf, F.

    2012-01-01

    The annual Social Journalism Study conducted by Cision and Canterbury Christ Church University, UK, is charting the changes of how journalists and media professionals use social media for work. Unique to this year’s study is the identification of five profile groups of professional social media users who differ in terms of patterns of use, attitude and knowledge.These groups are: Architects, Hunters, Observers, Promoters and Sceptics. This report also includes a Social Journalism Barometer wh...

  15. The Bear Facts: Implications of Whitebark Pine Loss for Yellowstone Grizzlies

    OpenAIRE

    Willcox, Louisa

    2009-01-01

    Whitebark pine is a foundation species, and barometer of the health of high elevation forests ecosystems in the West. It provides food and cover for numerous wildlife species, including the Clark’s nutcracker, crossbill, grosbeak, red squirrel and chipmunk. Whitebark pine is particularly important in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE), where it provides an essential food source for the imperiled Yellowstone grizzly bear. We will review the current scientific knowledge about the relations...

  16. Search for $e^+e^- --> Lambda_b^0 barLambda_b^0 Near Threshold

    CERN Document Server

    Besson, D; Adam, N E; Adams, G S; Alexander, J P; Arms, K; Artuso, M; Athar, S B; Avery, P; Berkelman, K; Blusk, S; Boisvert, V; Bonvicini, G; Bornheim, A; Boulahouache, C; Breva-Newell, L; Briere, R A; Butt, J; Cassel, D G; Chasse, M; Chen, G P; Cinabro, D; Coan, T E; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Cummings, J P; Csorna, S E; Dambasuren, E; Danko, I; Dorjkhaidav, O; Duboscq, J E; Dubrovin, M; Dytman, S A; Eckhart, E; Ecklund, K M; Edwards, K W; Ehrlich, R; Eisenstein, B I; Ernst, J; Ferguson, T; Galik, R S; Gan, K K; Gao, K Y; Gao, Y S; Gibbons, L; Gittelman, B; Gollin, G D; Gong, D T; Gray, S W; Gwon, C; Hartill, D L; Haynes, J; Hsu, L; Huang, G S; Jones, C D; Kandaswamy, J; Karliner, I; Kreinick, D L; Kubota, Y; Kuznetsov, V E; Li, S Z; Lipeles, E; Liu, F; Lowrey, N; Magerkurth, A; Mahlke-Krüger, H; Mahmood, A H; Mehrabyan, S S; Menaa, N; Metreveli, Z V; Meyer, T O; Miller, D H; Mountain, R; Müller, J A; Muramatsu, H; Naik, P; Nam, S; Nandakumar, R; Napolitano, J; Pappas, S P; Park, C S; Park, W; Patterson, J R; Pavlunin, V; Pedlar, T K; Peterson, D; Pivarski, J; Poling, R A; Potlia, V; Redjimi, R; Riley, D; Sadoff, A J; Sanghi, B; Savinov, V; Schwarthoff, H; Scott, A W; Sedlack, C; Selen, M; Seth, K K; Severini, P; Shapiro, A; Shepherd, M R; Shibata, E I; Shipsey, I P J; Sia, R; Skubic, H; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, A; Stepaniak, C J; Stöck, H; Stone, S; Stroynowski, R; Sun, W M; Tatishvili, G T; Thaler, J J; Thayer, J B; Thayer, J G; Thorndike, E H; Tomaradze, A G; Urheim, J; Urner, D; Vogel, H; Wang, J C; Watkins, M E; Wefindh M,; Weinberger, M; Weinstein, A J; Wilksen, T; Williams, J; Yelton, J; Zweber, P

    2004-01-01

    Using the CLEO III detector at CESR we study e+e- collisions in the center-of-mass energy close to, or above, Lambda_b anti-Lambda_b production threshold. We search for evidence of Lambda_b anti-Lambda_b resonance production and set upper limits based on inclusive hadron production as a barometer of Lambda_b anti-Lambda_b production.

  17. GEOCHEMISTRY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20112218 Kang Zhiqiang (College of Earth Sciences,Guilin University of Technology, Guilin 541004,China);Feng Zuohai Reliability Comparison of Al-in-Hornblende and Biotite Barometer-A Case Study of Guposhan - Huashan Granite in North Guangxi(Journal of Guilin University of Technology,1674-9057, 45-1375/N,30(4),2010,p.474-479,3 illus.,3tables 14refs.)

  18. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU YUE

    2011-01-01

    PMI Holding Up The purchasing managers index (PMI),a barometer of manufacturing activities,stood at 51.2 percent in September,up 0.3 percentage point from August.This was the second consecutive month of increase after four straight months of decline,said the China Federation of Logistics and Purchasing (CFLP).The index came in at a 29-month low of 50.7 percent in July.

  19. Validade e confiabilidade das medidas de confiança interpessoal: o barômetro das Américas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucio Rennó

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Using an innovative databank, this article conducts validity and reliability tests for various measures of the concept of interpersonal trust. The Brazilian round of the Americas Barometer 2008 included different measures of the interpersonal trust concept, allowing the evaluation of its internal consistency and external validity. After a battery of tests, the conclusion is that the measure of interpersonal trust traditionally used in series like the World Values Survey, Eurobarometer, and Latinobarometer suffers from serious validity and reliability problems.

  20. CSM公布2005年7月份汽车产量晴雨表

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    面向汽车行业的汽车市场情报与预测领先供应商CSM Worldwide日前公布了2005年7月份的CSM汽车产量晴雨表(CSM Automotlve Productlon Barometer).供汽车经济学家和金融分析家进行他们现行的业内评估工作。

  1. An experimental study of amphibole stability in low-pressure granitic magmas and a revised Al-in-hornblende geobarometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutch, E. J. F.; Blundy, J. D.; Tattitch, B. C.; Cooper, F. J.; Brooker, R. A.

    2016-10-01

    We report new experimental data on the composition of magmatic amphiboles synthesised from a variety of granite (sensu lato) bulk compositions at near-solidus temperatures and pressures of 0.8-10 kbar. The total aluminium content (Altot) of the synthetic calcic amphiboles varies systematically with pressure ( P), although the relationship is nonlinear at low pressures (barometer expression is comparable to the precision with which near-solidus amphibole rim composition can be characterised.

  2. CP-violating CFT and trace anomaly

    CERN Document Server

    Nakayama, Yu

    2012-01-01

    It is logically possible that the trace anomaly in four dimension includes the Hirzebruch-Pontryagin density in CP violating theories. Although the term vanishes at free conformal fixed points, we realize such a possibility in the holographic renormalization group and show that it is indeed possible. The Hirzebruch-Pontryagin term in the trace anomaly may serve as a barometer to understand how much CP is violated in conformal field theories.

  3. Infrasound as a Geophysical Probe Using Earth as a Venus Analog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komjathy, Attila; Cutts, James; Pauken, Michael; Kedar, Sharon; Smrekar, Suzanne

    2016-10-01

    JPL is in a process of developing an instrument to measure seismic activity on Venus by detecting infrasonic waves in the atmosphere. The overall objective of this research is to demonstrate the feasibility of using sensitive barometers to detect infrasonic signals from seismic and explosive activity on Venus from a balloon platform. Because of Venus' dense atmosphere, seismic signatures from even small quakes (magnitude ~3) are effectively coupled into the atmosphere. The seismic signals are known to couple about 60 times more efficiently into the atmosphere on Venus than on Earth. It was found that almost no attenuation below 80 km on Venus for frequency less than 1Hz. Whereas wind noise is a major source of background noise for terrestrial infrasonic arrays, it is expected that a balloon platform, which drifts with winds will be capable of very sensitive measurements with low noise.In our research we will demonstrate and apply techniques for discriminating upward propagating waves from a seismic event by making measurements with two or more infrasonic sensors using very sensitive barometers on a tether deployed from the balloon in a series of earth-based tests. We will first demonstrate and validate the technique using an artificial infrasound source in a deployment from a hot air balloon on Earth and then extend it with longer duration flights in the troposphere and stratosphere.We will report results on the first flight experiment that will focus on using the barometer instruments on a tethered helium-filled balloon. The balloon flight will be conducted in the vicinity of a known seismic source generated by a seismic hammer. Earlier tests conducted by Sandia National Laboratory demonstrated that this is a highly reproducible source of seismic and acoustic energy using infrasound sensors. The results of the experiments are intended to validate the two-barometer signal processing approach using a well-characterized point signal source.

  4. SU-E-T-87: A TG-100 Approach for Quality Improvement of Associated Dosimetry Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manger, R; Pawlicki, T; Kim, G [UCSD Medical Center, La Jolla, CA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Dosimetry protocols devote so much time to the discussion of ionization chamber choice, use and performance that is easy to forget about the importance of the associated dosimetry equipment (ADE) in radiation dosimetry - barometer, thermometer, electrometer, phantoms, triaxial cables, etc. Improper use and inaccuracy of these devices may significantly affect the accuracy of radiation dosimetry. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the risk factors in the monthly output dosimetry procedure and recommend corrective actions using a TG-100 approach. Methods: A failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) of the monthly linac output check procedure was performed to determine which steps and failure modes carried the greatest risk. In addition, a fault tree analysis (FTA) was performed to expand the initial list of failure modes making sure that none were overlooked. After determining the failure modes with the highest risk priority numbers (RPNs), 11 physicists were asked to score corrective actions based on their ease of implementation and potential impact. The results were aggregated into an impact map to determine the implementable corrective actions. Results: Three of the top five failure modes were related to the thermometer and barometer. The two highest RPN-ranked failure modes were related to barometric pressure inaccuracy due to their high lack-of-detectability scores. Six corrective actions were proposed to address barometric pressure inaccuracy, and the survey results found the following two corrective actions to be implementable: 1) send the barometer for recalibration at a calibration laboratory and 2) check the barometer accuracy against the local airport and correct for elevation. Conclusion: An FMEA on monthly output measurements displayed the importance of ADE for accurate radiation dosimetry. When brainstorming for corrective actions, an impact map is helpful for visualizing the overall impact versus the ease of implementation.

  5. Правова природа адміністративної відповідальності неповнолітніх

    OpenAIRE

    Лесько, Наталія

    2013-01-01

    Problems of institute of administrative responsibility of minors are studied, the opinions of scholars in the sphere of administrative law are analyzed, on this basis new notion of administrative responsibility of minors is suggested. Administrative responsibility of minors – application of educational measures that are applicable to minors or administrative penalties to persons aged 16 – 18 years, guilty in committing of the administrative offense. Juvenile misconducts are so called baromete...

  6. Determinants of the Physical Demand for Gold : Evidence from Panel Data

    OpenAIRE

    Starr, Martha; Tran, Ky

    2008-01-01

    Although the role of gold in the world economy has declined since the gold standard was abandoned, it remains important as a central bank reserve, a hedge against risks, a barometer of geopolitical uncertainty, and an input for jewellery. While portfolio demand for gold has been well studied, determinants of physical demand are less understood. Certain emerging-market countries such as China and India import substantial amounts of gold, with several factors that may contribute: low financial ...

  7. Determinants of the physical demand for gold: Evidence from panel data

    OpenAIRE

    Martha Starr; Ky Tran

    2007-01-01

    Although the role of gold in the world economy has declined since the gold standard was abandoned, it remains important as a central bank reserve, a hedge against risks, a barometer of geopolitical uncertainty, and an input for jewelry. While portfolio demand for gold has been well studied, determinants of physical demand are less understood. Certain emerging-market countries like China and India import substantial amounts of gold, with several factors that may contribute: low financial devel...

  8. Evaluación de la intensidad de la actividad física basada en los sensores del smartphone

    OpenAIRE

    Arimany González, Joan

    2016-01-01

    The accuracy of physical activity intensity (PAI) quantifiers that rely solely on smartphone accelerometers is nowadays very poor. The addition of complementary information such as that provided by the magnetometer, gyroscope, GPS and/or barometer may improve the PAI evaluation hence improving the quantification, characterization and classification of PAI (according to the World Health Organization) as Very Low, Low, Moderate or Vigorous. A better evaluation would provide improved indicators ...

  9. The Development of Chinese Language and Social Change —Study on Catchwords during the Cultural Revolution%The Development of Chinese Language and Social Change—Study on Catchwords during the Cultural Revolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭亚玲

    2016-01-01

    Language is a mirror of society. It is one of the most important communication tools and social changes or potential social changes can often be reflected in it. We use language as a barometer of social changes and from the perspective of sociolinguistics. Social changes also determine the variations of Chinese language. Based on the former study about the relation between language and society, this paper mainly talks about the catchwords or popular language and social changes during the Cultural Revolution.

  10. When Oil Prices Encounter the Financial Crisis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Jintao

    2008-01-01

    @@ The oil market is just like the sea; it is never quiet for a single moment. Facing the sea to observe the tide, we must behave calm in order to act correctly. The oil in the country is like the blood of the economy, and the oil prices in the economy is like a barometer. Under the mysterious veil, there are oil supply changes, the pattern of political restructuring...

  11. Stomach Infrastructure: Lessons for Democracy and Good Governance

    OpenAIRE

    Emmanuel Olusegun Stober

    2016-01-01

    In 2014, a new paradigm shift occurred in Nigeria which defiled the expectation of many social and political analysts. This paradigm was later titled ‘Stomach Infrastructure’ – a concept of inducing potential voters to support a particular candidate in an election, creating thus a new barometer for measuring good governance. To understand the concept of stomach infrastructure, this study makes a graphical comparison between stomach infrastructure and physical infrastructure, as they are both ...

  12. West Europe Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    independent of the Super Powers’ security-policy interests, it has been asserted that Finland’s neutrality and national intergrity have only a little...attempt to cut off the popula- tion from all forms of international communication and that this naturally makes the efforts at having an honest dialog...This is shown by the current party barometer from Norway’s Market Data, and the institute has not noted such high figures for the party since

  13. Slow Lives in the Fast Landscape: Conservation and Management of Plethodontid Salamanders in Production Forests of the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Jessica A. Homyack; Andrew J. Kroll

    2014-01-01

    Intensively-managed forest (IMF) ecosystems support environmental processes, retain biodiversity and reduce pressure to extract wood products from other forests, but may affect species, such as plethodontid salamanders, that are associated with closed canopies and possess limited vagility. We describe: (1) critical aspects of IMF ecosystems; (2) effectiveness of plethodontid salamanders as barometers of forest change; (3) two case studies of relationships between salamanders and coarse wood...

  14. Experimental Evaluation of the Atmospheric Energy Input to Sea Surface Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-30

    with sonic anemometers , cups , vanes, measuring airflow velocity, sensitive barometers. Instruments for GPS and inertial navigation were positioned...constant, Ω is the Instruments Quantity measured Height/Location 7 Sonic Anemometers Wind velocity, Air temperature On the mast 5 RMY Prop... Anemometers Wind speed & direction At 5 levels on the mast 8 Pressure Instruments Atmospheric pressure On the mast 2 Wave Wires Sea surface elevation At

  15. Wind and Wind Stress Measurements in HiRes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Sonic anemometers for three-dimensional mean and turbulent winds 2. Cup and vane anemometers for mean winds 3. Candidate propeller-vane anemometer to...2 – Paroscientific Barameter, Campbell Sonic Anemometer ; Level 3- 2x Met One Cup , Met One Vane, RM Young Propeller; Level 4 – 2x Met One Cup ; Level...5 – 2x Paroscientific Barometer; Level 6 – Campbell Sonic Anemometer , Modified Krypton Hygrometer, Met One Cup , Met One Vane; Level 7 – 2x RM Young

  16. Internet sites of public utilities. Customers wish for interactive access; Die Internetauftritte der Versorger. Kunden wuenschen interaktive Anbindung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knechtel, Karsten [Process Management Consulting GmbH, Muenchen (Germany)

    2010-11-15

    Electric and gas utilities all have internet sites for private customers. Many of them provide interactive access to all relevant services for both regular and interested new customers. To the end users, innovative aspects of energy supply in the deregulated market are currently of increasing interest. A recent industry barometer shows the extent to which utilities have installed interactive integration of both their current and prospective private customers in their business processes. Especially multimedia criteria are gaining increasing importance. (orig.)

  17. RESEARCH ON CHARACTERISTICS AND DIFFERENCE OF BAROMETRIC PRESSURE EFFECT ON WELL WATER LEVEL%井水位气压效应特征差异研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄仲; 张卫华; 王慧; 张辉

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of geological structure background, the feature of barometer change and the structure of well hole in well network of the Three Gorges area, the characteristics and differences of barometer change in well water level are analyzed and the relation between it and the parameter of physical mechanics in water-bearing stratum is also studied. The results show that the characteristics and differences of inverted barometer effect in well water level have a certain relation with the lithology of water-bearing stratum and the depth of well hole.%基于三峡井网所在地的地质构造背景、气压变化特征和井孔结构,分析了整个井网井水位气压变化特征及其差异,以及与含水层物理力学参数之间的关系等.分析结果表明,承压井水位气压效应特征差异与含水层岩性、井孔深度有关.

  18. Early signaling, referral, and treatment of adolescent chronic pain: a study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voerman Jessica S

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic pain is prevalent among young people and negatively influences their quality of life. Furthermore, chronic pain in adolescence may persist into adulthood. Therefore, it is important early on to promote the self-management skills of adolescents with chronic pain by improving signaling, referral, and treatment of these youngsters. In this study protocol we describe the designs of two complementary studies: a signaling study and an intervention study. Methods and design The signaling study evaluates the Pain Barometer, a self-assessed signaling instrument for chronic pain in adolescents. To evaluate the feasibility of the Pain Barometer, the experiences of youth-health care nurses will be evaluated in semi-structured interviews. Also, we will explore the frequencies of referral per health-care provider. The intervention study evaluates Move It Now, a guided self-help intervention via the Internet for teenagers with chronic pain. This intervention uses cognitive behavioural techniques, including relaxation exercises and positive thinking. The objective of the intervention is to improve the ability of adolescents to cope with pain. The efficacy of Move It Now will be examined in a randomized controlled trial, in which 60 adolescents will be randomly assigned to an experimental condition or a waiting list control condition. Discussion If the Pain Barometer is proven to be feasible and Move It Now appears to be efficacious, a health care pathway can be created to provide the best tailored treatment promptly to adolescents with chronic pain. Move It Now can be easily implemented throughout the Netherlands, as the intervention is Internet based. Trial registration Dutch Trial Register NTR1926

  19. Surveying Medical Students to Gauge Library Use and Plan for a New Medical Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronoff, Nell

    2016-01-01

    In spring 2015, a 45-question survey was e-mailed to 585 medical students at the University at Buffalo (UB) in order to gauge their use of library spaces, resources, equipment, and services at UB's Health Sciences Library and plan for a library space located within a new medical school building. Students' self-reported use of the library during the academic year is presented along with the features they would like to see in their ideal library space. The responses generated in the survey are a barometer of current use and will be used in the planning process.

  20. Sea-level-rise trends off the Indian coasts during the last two decades

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Unnikrishnan, A.S.; Nidheesh, A.G.; Lengaigne, M.

    ://www.cmar.csiro.au/sealevel/sl_data_ cmar.html). In this study, we used two types of sea-level data: (i) the data corrected for two major land and envi- ronmental effects, namely GIA (glacial isostatic adjust- ment) and IB (inverse barometer effect), and (ii) the uncorrected data. We.... The significance of this correlation was assessed on the basis of a two-sided t-distribution of linear correla- tion coefficients with effective degrees of freedom taken as the number of maximum yearly values that exist in each tide-gauge record reduced by 2. We...

  1. ¿Polarización? Posiciones ideológicas durante la campaña presidencial colombiana en 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Camilo Plata Caviedes

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Based on a study of the 2014 presidential campaign in Colombia, this article analyzes how individuals use ideological labels to characterize their own ideological preferences and those of the candidates. Using information from the Americas Barometer, it establishes that individuals do not perceive major differences among the positions of presidential candidates. Secondly, it finds that the ideological preferences of those interviewed are less polarized than the “raw” data would seem to indicate. Finally, it presents evidence that the way individuals interpret ideological labels, within the context of the 2014 presidential elections in Colombia, reflects their preferences with respect to moral issues and the favorability of certain candidates.

  2. Total lymphoid irradiation in multiple sclerosis: blood lymphocytes and clinical course

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, S.D.; Devereux, C.; Troiano, R.; Zito, G.; Hafstein, M.; Lavenhar, M.; Hernandez, E.; Dowling, P.C.

    1987-11-01

    We have found a significant relationship between blood lymphocyte count and prognosis in 45 patients receiving either total lymphoid irradiation or sham irradiation for chronic progressive multiple sclerosis. Patients with sustained lymphocyte counts less than 900 mm-3 for prolonged periods after treatment showed less rapid progression over the ensuing 3 years than did patients with multiple sclerosis who had lymphocyte counts above this level (p less than 0.01). Our results suggest that a simple laboratory test, the absolute blood lymphocyte count, may serve as a valuable barometer for monitoring the amount of immunosuppressive therapy needed to prevent progression in patients with multiple sclerosis, and possibly other autoimmune diseases.

  3. Snert: Ritual-liturgical measurements and recipes for social capital

    OpenAIRE

    Cas Wepener

    2010-01-01

    The questions of how social capital is measured and how it is generated have received ample attention in recent years. This article is an attempt at making a modest contribution towards addressing these issues and specifically also as a contribution from the fields of Liturgical and Ritual Studies. It is argued that commensality can be taken as both lens/barometer with regard to the presence or absence of social capital, as well as being a potential generator of social capital. In order to ar...

  4. Globalization, neo-liberalism and community psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafstad, Hilde Eileen; Blakar, Rolv Mikkel; Carlquist, Erik; Phelps, Joshua Marvle; Rand-Hendriksen, Kim

    2009-03-01

    A longitudinal analysis (1984-2005) of media language in Norway is presented, demonstrating how the current globalized capitalist market ideology is now permeating this long-established Scandinavian welfare state. This ideological shift carries powerful implications for community psychology, as traditional welfare state values of equal services based on a universalistic principle are set aside, and social and material inequalities are increasingly accepted. The methodology developed in the present study may serve as a "barometer of community changes", to borrow a metaphor used by Sarason (2000).

  5. Economic condition of the transport, freight forwarding and logistics sector in Poland in the situation of the global economic recession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Rolbiecki

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently trends of macroeconomic indicators show that economy in Poland, despite the general recession in the EU, is in the stage of economic development. The question is 20 Ryszard Rolbiecki whether these positive signals in the Polish economy in relation to domestic demand, external investment, volume of industrial production and construction are reflected also in the improvement of economic situation in Transport, Freight Forwarding and Logistics (TFL sector in Poland. Hence the goal of the article is to analyze the economic condition of the TFL sector, which is recognized as one of the most important barometers of the economic growth.

  6. Interracial families in South Africa : an exploratory study

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    D.Litt. et Phil. Interracial marriage can be viewed as a barometer of social change. South Africa has historically been a country of racial tension with legislation seeking to keep the races apart. However, during April 1994 the country's first democratic elections took place, thus ending the reign of white minority rule. It is against this backdrop that the present study took place. The aim of the study is to seek a deeper understanding of the experiences of mixed: race families living in...

  7. Tabitha Sparks, The Doctor in the Victorian Novel : Family Practices

    OpenAIRE

    Escuret, Annie

    2016-01-01

    Tabitha Sparks’s The Doctor in the Victorian Novel: Family Practices looks at the trajectory of the figure of the doctor in Victorian literature, examining its evolution from the mid-1820s to the turn of the century. For Sparks, the doctor is, indeed, both a barometer of the evolution of the medical profession and of the Victorian novel. It is, in particular, through the variations of the marriage-plot that Spark traces the impact of the medical figure, oscillating between an index of social ...

  8. On the inflation of a rubber balloon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandermarlière, Julien

    2016-12-01

    It is a well-known fact that it is difficult to start a balloon inflating. But after a pressure peak that occurs initially, it becomes far easier to do it! The purpose of this article is to establish the experimental pressure-radius chart for a rubber balloon and to compare it to the theoretical one. We will demonstrate that the barometer of a smartphone is a very suitable tool to reach this goal. We hope that this phenomenon will help students realize that sometimes very simple questions can lead to very interesting and counterintuitive science.

  9. Precise Measurement of Subsurface Seismic Velocity Variation by Coda Wave Interferometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia Yu; Wang Baoshan; Ge Hongkui; Chen Yong

    2008-01-01

    A filed experiment was conducted continuously for three days,and the velocity variation was measured using coda wave interferometry.The measurement error is estimated to be around 10-4,which coincides well with the theoretical error.The velocity variation during this period is up to 10-3.The relationship between velocity variation and changes in air temperature,barometric pressure and solid earth tide was analyzed with linear least square fitting.The velocity has no dependence on air temperature,but displayed change of the order of 10-6~10-7 when the barometer or earth tide changed one Pa.

  10. Hydrodynamic Flow and Jet Induced Mach Shocks at RHIC and LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Stöcker, H; Rau, P; Betz, Barbara; Rau, Philip; St\\"ocker, Horst

    2007-01-01

    We discuss the present collective flow signals for the phase transition to quark-gluon plasma (QGP) and the collective flow as a barometer for the equation of state (EoS). A study of Mach shocks induced by fast partonic jets propagating through the QGP is given. We predict a significant deformation of Mach shocks in central Au+Au collisions at RHIC and LHC energies as compared to the case of jet propagation in a static medium. Results of a hydrodynamical study of jet energy loss are presented.

  11. Migrants and Democratization: The Political Economy of Chinese Immigrants in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stan Hok-Wui Wong

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we argue that immigrants can serve as staunch support of the conservative incumbents of a regime, due to a self-selection effect; immigrants are more likely to accept the political status quo and be less sympathetic to the opposition who might demand progressive changes. Based on Asian Barometer survey data in Hong Kong, we showed that Chinese immigrants in Hong Kong are more pro-establishment and supportive of pro-government parties. With China’s huge population, this implies a strategic importance of Chinese migrants, whose inflow to other Asian states can significantly skew the politics of neighbouring states in destined directions.

  12. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU YUE

    2011-01-01

    October Figures CPI and PPI The consumer price index (CPI),a barometer of inflation,grew 5.5 percent in October from a year ago,0.6 percentage points down from September,said the National Bureau of Statistics (NBS).This was the third straight month of decline.The biggest driver of the CPI was still food prices,which jumped 11.9 percent in October over the same month last year.Pork prices in particular increased 38.9 percent.Residential costs climbed 4.4 percent,down 0.7 percentage points from September.

  13. SINO-ASEAN EXPO,Integrating Guangxi+ASEAN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Liqin

    2009-01-01

    @@ "Compared with the Canton Fair,where overseas buyers' orders are generally regarded as China's foreign trade 'barometer' or 'weathervane',the Sino-ASEAN Expo boosts multi-lateral trade with comprehensive cooperation and mutual interaction.That is,through the Sino-ASEAN Expo and Business Investment Summit,Guangxi province has found a new method-not only selling products but also bringing in products from surrounding countries.In fact,it is an upgraded version of China's Foreign Trade for the new era."Mr.Cui,an expert buyer who has attended the all 6 sessions of the China-ASEAN Expo told China's Foreign Trade.

  14. "一月预言"与资金流共振

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟林

    2011-01-01

    @@ 每到年初,若要展望一下股市全年的大概走势,就应该重视每年的"一月预言"(January Barometer),这是笔者的经验之谈.虽不敢说百分百,但也八九不离十.所谓"一月预言"是指,"若一月份市升,则全年是升市;若一月份是跌市,这一年就会是跌市".

  15. Persepsi dan Harapan Pengguna terhadap Kualitas Layanan Data pada Smartphone di Jakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahrizal Lukman Budiono

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Jakarta sebagai ibukota negara dapat menjadi barometer perkembangan teknologi layanan data di Indonesia. Berdasarkan data Yayasasan Lembaga Konsumen Indonesia (YLKI masih banyak keluhan pengguna yang muncul pada kualitas layanan data. Studi ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui persepsi dan harapan pengguna terhadap kualitas layanan data seluler smartphone di Jakarta. Dengan menggunakan Importance Performance Analysis, studi ini menemukan bahwa tingkat kesesuaian antara persepsi dan harapan pengguna terhadap kualitas layanan data smartphone di Jakarta baru mencapai tahap sedang dengan indeks kesesuaian kinerja-kepentingan 69%. Belum tingginya persepsi pengguna mempengaruhi harapan yang mereka berikan terhadap kinerja kualitas layanan data. 

  16. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The Canton Fair, a barometer of the country’s export health, continued to send worrying signals as foreign buyers skimped on orders for Chinese products. The country’s fund managers cashed in on the stock market euphoria of the first quarter. The central state-owned enterprises bounced back from their previous dismal financial situation. China Mobile, the country’s largest mobile service provider, saw slower profit growth in the first quarter. The first domestic auto financing company with no foreign ownership opened in Shanghai.

  17. Ambient Interstellar Pressure and Superbubble Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Oey, M S

    2004-01-01

    High ambient interstellar pressure is suggested as a possible factor to explain the ubiquitous observed growth-rate discrepancy for supernova-driven superbubbles and stellar wind bubbles. Pressures of P/k ~ 1e5 cm-3 K are plausible for regions with high star formation rates, and these values are intermediate between the estimated Galactic mid-plane pressure and those observed in starburst galaxies. High-pressure components also are commonly seen in Galactic ISM localizations. We demonstrate the sensitivity of shell growth to the ambient pressure, and suggest that superbubbles ultimately might serve as ISM barometers.

  18. Security of supply since 2009. An opinion survey; Die Versorgungssicherheit seit 2009. Ein Stimmungsbild

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flues, Florens; Loeschel, Andreas; Massier, Philipp; Woelfing, Nikolas [Zentrum fuer Europaeische Wirtschaftsforschung GmbH (ZEW), Mannheim (Germany). Forschungsbereich Umwelt- und Ressourcenoekonomik, Umweltmanagement

    2013-04-15

    Security of supply is a central aspect of the concept of public energy supply and it plays an important role in German energy policy. But how can security of supply be measured? Since 2009 the ZEW Energy Market Barometer, a periodical survey carried out by the Centre for European Business Research among some 200 experts from the energy sector, has recorded opinions on the status of security of supply. Its development over the past years gives an instructive picture of how the decisions taken in 2011 to initiate an energy turnaround have impacted on the perceived security of supply.

  19. 2011,企业备战新声誉时代

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秋寒

    2011-01-01

    @@ 成功的公共关系再也不足以保护公司声誉不受损了. 然而与此相对应的,优质企业声誉的战略价值却与日俱增.由埃德曼公关公司发布的2010年"信任度晴雨表(Trust Barometer)"调查发现,人们认为信任、透明和诚实的商业惯例较之产品和服务质量或财务表现更能影响公司声誉.

  20. Property:The Original Sin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The Chinese property market is undergoing a correction after two years of investment mania. During this time,the consumer price index,a barometer of inflation,soared 7.9 percent in the first half of this year and now hovers at a high level of over 7 percent.Ren Yuling,a renowned economist and an adviser to the State Council,argues that property is the root cause of this round of inflation. In an interview with Dongfang Daily in early July,he called for commercial and residential developers to immediately reduce high property prices.

  1. Research on monitoring system for slope deformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiao-sheng; ZHANG Xue-zhuang; WANG Ai-gong

    2007-01-01

    The monitoring system for slope deformation which bases on Leica (TCA series)was researched and developed. This system consists of electronic total stations, high precision thermometer, digital barometer, photoelectric frequency adjustor and other related instruments and data collection and processing software. The system can monitor a series of targets automatically to obtain accurate data of distance at predetermined time, besides,it can timely display targets' coordinates and deformation value, velocity, etc. in graph as well. To compare of the results of different monitoring time, we can find the problems of mine slope deformation rapidly and accurately.

  2. Qualit(a)t künftig nicht selbstverst(a)ndlich!%质量在未来不是不言而喻的!

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沃尔夫冈·卡尔克斯; 马翔

    2010-01-01

    @@ 质量是德国的重要特征之一.一个在卓越晴雨表2009(ExceHence Barometers 2009)范围内有代表性的调查证实了这一点,此调查已在德国质量协会(DGQ)的质量报告中公布.质量管理人员以此来提高能力,并应充分意识到自己的责任.

  3. Semantics in mobile sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Yan, Zhixian

    2014-01-01

    The dramatic progress of smartphone technologies has ushered in a new era of mobile sensing, where traditional wearable on-body sensors are being rapidly superseded by various embedded sensors in our smartphones. For example, a typical smartphone today, has at the very least a GPS, WiFi, Bluetooth, triaxial accelerometer, and gyroscope. Alongside, new accessories are emerging such as proximity, magnetometer, barometer, temperature, and pressure sensors. Even the default microphone can act as an acoustic sensor to track noise exposure for example. These sensors act as a ""lens"" to understand t

  4. Test Structures Applied to the Rapid Prototyping of Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehler, M.; Chang, L-J.; Martin, D.

    1997-01-01

    Recently, test structures were used to aid in the rapid development of a gas sensor and pressure sensor. These sensors were fabricated using co-fired ceramic technology and a multiproject approach. This talk will describe results obtained from a ceramic substrate which contained 36 chips with six variants including the sensors, process control monitors, and an interconnect chip. As far as the authors know, this is the first implementation of multi-projects in co-fired ceramic substrate. The gas sensor is being developed for the Space Shuttle and the pressure gage is being developed as a Martian barometer.

  5. Calcium exchange between olivine and clinopyroxene calibrated as a geothermobarometer for natural peridotites from 2 to 60 kb with applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, T. P.; Brey, G. P.

    1990-09-01

    The equilibrium Ca content of olivine coexisting with clinopyroxene was determined (using an electron microprobe) in natural lherzolitic compositions Mg/(Mg + Fe)ol of about 0.9, in experiments covering lherzolitic systems from 2-60 kb and 900-1400 C. The boundary fluorescence effect was avoided by collecting analytical data from separated mineral grains. The experimental data on Ca solubility were fitted to two equations given in the form of barometers. It was found that calculated P,T conditions for spinel peridotite nodules from southwestern USA, fell within the spinel stablity field and along predicted geotherms for this region.

  6. Taking Inventory and Moving Forward: A Review of the Research Literature and Assessment of Qualitative Research in JPCC, 2010-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarroll, Pamela R

    2015-12-01

    As the foremost journal in spiritual care and counseling (SCC), Journal of Pastoral Care & Counseling (JPCC) functions as a barometer for the discipline's research and interests. This article presents the findings of a review of the research literature in JPCC between 2010 and 2014. It examines research articles by asking the following questions: What are the quantity and types of research published? What are the dominant themes in this research? What are the quantity and methodologies of qualitative research? Findings are presented, discussed and recommendations are made in an effort to assess and further build the research base of the discipline.

  7. Trends and patterns in smaller companies: The Danish perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulhøi, John Parm; Madsen, Henning

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents the empirical findings of a recent survey of Danish managers, with a special focus on managers in smaller companies. The survey, called the 'Danish Management Barometer', is part of a joint research programme between the Aarhus School of Business and the Danish Association...... of Managers and Executives. The aim of the survey, which is based on a structured, pre-tested questionnaire sent to 1500 pre-notified managers in Denmark, is to establish a database for use in monitoring and identifying interesting changes and patterns within a broad range of managerial and organisational...

  8. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU YUE

    2011-01-01

    PMI ReboundsThe purchasing managers index (PMI),a barometer of manufacturing activities,stood at 50.9 percent in August,reversing four consecutive months of declines,said the China Federation of Logistics and Purchasing (CFLP).The index came in at a 29-month low of 50.7 percent in July.Still,this was the 30th straight month in which the index was above the boom-andbust line of 50 percent.A reading above 50percent indicates economic expansion.

  9. MINI-RPV Engine Demonstrator Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-03-01

    with instru- mentation for the following measurements: (1) Measurement - Cooling Air Inclined Manometer Model No. 442BA35WM Meriam Instrument Co...TEST CELL. Laminar Flow Meter Model No. 50MC2-8 Meriam Instrument Co. Serial No. L22981 Range: 2000 CFM @ 8" H20, 700 F and 29.92" Hg. Abs. 8...442BA35WM Meriam Instrument Co. Serial No. L22985 Range: 8 to 48" Reads out directly in P.P.H. and C.F.M. Adjustable for barometer and temperature

  10. Milestone in the Protection of Human Rights on the Part of the Accused——From the Supreme People's Court recovery of death sentence approval authority

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUANYI

    2011-01-01

    @@ The protection of human rights on the part of the accused is the core of modern human rights protection, known as the barometer of human rights conditions of a society.The death sentence is, no doubt, the key in this respect,because the right to live is the most basic human right, an inherent natural right, belonging to the first generation of human rights.The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights says in Article 6: "Every human being has the inherent right to life.This right shall be protected by law.

  11. Trends and patterns in contemporary management in smaller companies: The Danish perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulhøi, John Parm; Madsen, Henning

    2001-01-01

    This paper reports empirical findings from a recent survey of Danish managers with a special focus on managers from smaller companies. The survey has been initiated in Denmark and it is called the 'Danish Management Barometer'. The project is a joint research program between the Aarhus School...... of Business and the Danish Association of Managers and Executives. It is based on a structured, pre-tested questionnaire send out to 1500 pre-notified managers in Denmark aiming at establishing a data base to further monitor and identify interesting changes and patterns within a broad range of managerial...

  12. Studying Mobile Media Cultural Technologies, Mobile Communication, and the IPhone

    CERN Document Server

    Hjorth, Larissa; Richardson, Ingrid

    2012-01-01

    The iPhone represents an important moment in both the short history of mobile media and the long history of cultural technologies. Like the Walkman of the 1980s, it marks a juncture in which notions about identity, individualism, lifestyle and sociality require rearticulation. this book explores not only the iPhone's particular characteristics, uses and "affects," but also how the "iPhone moment" functions as a barometer for broader patterns of change. In the iPhone moment, this study considers the convergent trajectories in the evolution of digital and mobile culture, and

  13. Atmospheric pressure loading parameters from very long baseline interferometry observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macmillan, D. S.; Gipson, John M.

    1994-01-01

    Atmospheric mass loading produces a primarily vertical displacement of the Earth's crust. This displacement is correlated with surface pressure and is large enough to be detected by very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) measurements. Using the measured surface pressure at VLBI stations, we have estimated the atmospheric loading term for each station location directly from VLBI data acquired from 1979 to 1992. Our estimates of the vertical sensitivity to change in pressure range from 0 to -0.6 mm/mbar depending on the station. These estimates agree with inverted barometer model calculations (Manabe et al., 1991; vanDam and Herring, 1994) of the vertical displacement sensitivity computed by convolving actual pressure distributions with loading Green's functions. The pressure sensitivity tends to be smaller for stations near the coast, which is consistent with the inverted barometer hypothesis. Applying this estimated pressure loading correction in standard VLBI geodetic analysis improves the repeatability of estimated lengths of 25 out of 37 baselines that were measured at least 50 times. In a root-sum-square (rss) sense, the improvement generally increases with baseline length at a rate of about 0.3 to 0.6 ppb depending on whether the baseline stations are close to the coast. For the 5998-km baseline from Westford, Massachusetts, to Wettzell, Germany, the rss improvement is about 3.6 mm out of 11.0 mm. The average rss reduction of the vertical scatter for inland stations ranges from 2.7 to 5.4 mm.

  14. User-Independent Motion State Recognition Using Smartphone Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuqiang Gu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The recognition of locomotion activities (e.g., walking, running, still is important for a wide range of applications like indoor positioning, navigation, location-based services, and health monitoring. Recently, there has been a growing interest in activity recognition using accelerometer data. However, when utilizing only acceleration-based features, it is difficult to differentiate varying vertical motion states from horizontal motion states especially when conducting user-independent classification. In this paper, we also make use of the newly emerging barometer built in modern smartphones, and propose a novel feature called pressure derivative from the barometer readings for user motion state recognition, which is proven to be effective for distinguishing vertical motion states and does not depend on specific users’ data. Seven types of motion states are defined and six commonly-used classifiers are compared. In addition, we utilize the motion state history and the characteristics of people’s motion to improve the classification accuracies of those classifiers. Experimental results show that by using the historical information and human’s motion characteristics, we can achieve user-independent motion state classification with an accuracy of up to 90.7%. In addition, we analyze the influence of the window size and smartphone pose on the accuracy.

  15. 六旋翼飞行器平稳着陆方法研究%Safe Landing Method Study of Six Rotor Aircraft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔凤利; 杨立志

    2014-01-01

    MWC-2012 Six rotor aircraft uses air pressure to measure its height.In the low lands,barometer has lots of measurement errors,resulting in frequent crashes.In order to overcome this phenomenon,this paper uses the ultrasonic ranging module in stead of barometer for aircraft landing height measurement.The experi-ment shows that the landing judgment on the basis of ultrasonic ranging can effectively prevent the air crash.%MWC-2012六旋翼飞行器采用气压计进行高度检测,在低空着陆时,气压计测量误差很大,造成频繁摔机。为了克服这种现象,本文采用超声测距模块替代气压计实现飞行器着陆前的高度判定,实践表明,依据超声测距进行着陆判断,能够有效防止摔机现象。

  16. Low-Level Corruption Tolerance: An “Action-Based” Approach for Peru and Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Pozsgai Alvarez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the beginning of the past decade, the tolerance of corruption by citizens of most Latin American countries has become a concept in its own right within the broader study of corruption. This construct, however, lacks a systematic approach and is yet to account for specific types of corruption tolerance or identify appropriate indicators to measure them. The present study addresses these voids by analyzing data provided by LAPOP’s AmericasBarometer 2006 for Peru (a typical case for the incidence of bribery in Latin America and the Global Corruption Barometer against a carefully constructed framework for the understanding of the phenomenon of corruption tolerance. The results indicate that attitudes toward specific types of low-level corruption should not be equated to citizens’ decisions to engage in such behavior. They further suggest that the study of corruption tolerance has the potential to greatly improve our understanding of the determinants of corruption in developing countries.

  17. Desenvolvimento sustentável: uma descrição das principais ferramentas de avaliação Sustainable development: presenting the main measurement methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Michael Van Bellen

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Desenvolvimento Sustentável: Uma Descrição das Principais Ferramentas de Avaliação Neste artigo são apresentadas as principais características de três métodos que se propõem a mensurar o grau de sustentabilidade do desenvolvimento. Este métodos foram selecionados por especialistas que atuam em diferentes esferas da sociedade e que lidam com o conceito de desenvolvimento sustentável. Os métodos descritos e analisados são o Ecological Footprint Method, o Dashboard of Sustainability e o Barometer of Sustainability.In this article are presented the main characteristics of three methods which purpose is to measure the rate of sustainability of the development. These methods were selected by specialists who operate at differents levels of the society and also deal with the concept of sustainable development. The methods described and analysed are the Ecological Footprint Method, the Dashboard of Sustainability and the Barometer of Sustainability.

  18. Investigating the Roots of Open Data’s Social Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Meng

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available It is a challenging and urgent task to innovate democracy. Open data policy and Information Communication Technologies offer promising tools to enhance participation in democratic procedures. To better understand this expected outcome, the Open Data Barometer conducted a cross-national study measuring readiness, implementation, and impact of open data. The barometer reveals puzzling inconsistencies. Countries scoring high in readiness and implementation do not consistently demonstrate high scores of impact. Furthermore, impact is elusive in most countries. Investigating what preconditions allow societies to realize impact can help inform policy makers, technologists, and civil society leaders on best practices to implement open data tools and policy. This paper looks specifically at the social impact of open data, described as marginalized groups having greater access and participation in government decision making. Using a most similar systems design and fuzzy logic, I evaluate the relationship between civil society and open data’s social impact in eight Latin American countries. Results indicate that societies rich in political capital experience greater social impact of open data.

  19. An experimental investigation of the stability of majoritic garnet in the Earth's mantle and an improved majorite geobarometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijbrans, C. H.; Rohrbach, A.; Klemme, S.

    2016-05-01

    The stability of the majorite component in garnet has been experimentally investigated at high pressure and high temperature, focusing on the effect of bulk composition and temperature. High-pressure experiments were performed in a multi-anvil apparatus, at pressures ranging from 6 to 14.5 GPa, and temperatures between 1400 and 1700 °C. Experiments were performed in a range of bulk compositions in the system SiO2-Al2O3-Cr2O3-CaO-MgO with varying Cr/(Cr + Al) ratios. The majorite content of garnet gradually increases with pressure, and the composition of the garnet, specifically the Cr/(Cr + Al) ratio, exerts a significant effect on the majorite substitution. We found no significant effect of temperature. We use the experimental results in combination with the literature data to derive two empirical geobarometers, which can be used to determine the equilibration pressure of natural majoritic garnets of peridotitic and eclogitic bulk compositions. The barometer for peridotitic compositions is {{P}} = - 77.1 + 27.6 × {{Si}} + 1.67 × {{Cr}} And the barometer for eclogitic compositions is {{P}} = - 29.6 + 11.8 × {{Si}} + 7.81 × {{Na}} + 4.49 × {{Ca}}.

  20. a Uav Based 3-D Positioning Framework for Detecting Locations of Buried Persons in Collapsed Disaster Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, H.; Kim, C.; Lee, W.

    2016-06-01

    Regarding spatial location positioning, indoor location positioning theories based on wireless communication techniques such as Wi-Fi, beacon, UWB and Bluetooth has widely been developing across the world. These techniques are mainly focusing on spatial location detection of customers using fixed wireless APs and unique Tags in the indoor environment. Besides, since existing detection equipment and techniques using ultrasound or sound etc. to detect buried persons and identify survival status for them cause 2nd damages on the collapsed debris for rescuers. In addition, it might take time to check the buried persons. However, the collapsed disaster sites should consider both outdoor and indoor environments because empty spaces under collapsed debris exists. In order to detect buried persons from the empty spaces, we should collect wireless signals with Wi-Fi from their mobile phone. Basically, the Wi-Fi signal measure 2-D location. However, since the buried persons have Z value with burial depth, we also should collect barometer sensor data from their mobile phones in order to measure Z values according to weather conditions. Specially, for quick accessibility to the disaster area, a drone (UAV; Unmanned Arial Vehicle) system, which is equipped with a wireless detection module, was introduced. Using these framework, this study aims to provide the rescuers with effective rescue information by calculating 3-D location for buried persons based on the wireless and barometer sensor fusion.

  1. A Clinopyroxene-Plagioclase Geobarometer for A-type Silicic Volcanic Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, J.; Iveson, A. A.; Davis, K.; Johnson, T. A.; Gahagan, S.; Ellis, B. S.

    2015-12-01

    Constraining the crustal storage depths of magmas is important in understanding volcanism. The reaction: anorthite (pl) = Ca-Tschermak's (cpx) + silica (Q or liq) has a large volume change and hence offers potential as a geobarometer, but has not been extensively exploited as such. One of the chief barriers to its wide application is consistent estimation of melt silica activity for assemblages that lack quartz. We have skirted this problem by confining attention to metaluminous silicic compositions (SiO2 > 60% by weight), for which silica activity during crystallization is presumed to be close to 1, and calibrated the barometer for the range 0 - 2 GPa using the LEPR database and additional experiments from the literature. Additional improvement is obtained by excluding hydrous phase-bearing assemblages. Despite the analytical uncertainties present in older experimental investigations, with knowledge of temperature, and clinopyroxene, plagioclase and host melt compositions, pressures for amphibole- and biotite-free dacites and rhyolites can be estimated to ±0.17 GPa (1 sigma). The limitations of the barometer render it most applicable to intraplate, A-type rhyolites. Application to one such system, the Snake River Plain rhyolites, indicate that both melt-hosted phenocrysts and clinopyroxene-plagioclase aggregate grains found in these rhyolites formed at low pressures, <0.5 GPa. This is consistent with isotopic evidence for a shallow crustal origin for Snake River Plain rhyolites.

  2. Risk perception of the Belgian population. Results of the public opinion survey in 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Aeken, K.; Turcanu, C.; Bombaerts, G.; Carle, B.; Hardeman, F.

    2007-01-15

    The Belgian Nuclear Research Center SCK-CEN 2006 risk perception barometer is based on over 1000 Computer Assisted Personal Interviews, taken from persons selected to be representative for the Belgian 18+ population, and all realized in the period March 21st to April 12th 2006. Besides the classical background variables used to obtain the quota for representativity (age, language, habitat, gender and social class), we also included a series of questions assessing the sociological context and the psychological personality profile. The main topics in the survey were I) risk perception and confidence in authorities; II) acceptance of legal norms for food products; III) acceptance of countermeasures for the food chain in case of a radiological contamination and associated consumers behaviour; IV) energy; v) disposal of radioactive waste; vi) perception of the Chernobyl accident and its consequences. Some of the questions asked in 2006 are similar to those enquired in the SCK barometer of 2002, in order to study the time evolution of the risk perception associated with various issues. For the part related to acceptance of legal norms and of countermeasures for the food chain, simulated news bulletins were used in order to better reproduce the real-life context of a contamination.

  3. Risk perception of the Belgian population. Results of the public opinion survey in 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perko, T.; Turcanu, C.; Schroeder, J.; Carle, B.

    2010-02-15

    The SCK-CEN 2009 risk perception barometer is based on over 1000 Computer Assisted Personal Interviews, taken from persons selected to be representative for the Belgian 18+ population, and all realized in the period July and August 2009. An additional sample , N = 100 is taken from the for the population living in the communities of Lambusart and Wanfercee-Baulet in the municipality of Fleurus. Besides the classical background variables used to obtain the quota for representatively (age, language, habitat, gender and social class), we also included a series of questions assessing the communication and sociological context. The main topics in the survey were I) risk perception and confidence in authorities; II) Attitude towards science and technology and attitudes toward nuclear energy; III) stake holders engagement; IV)acceptance of legal norms for food products; v) media use; vi) evaluation of nuclear actors; VII) psychometric risk characteristics; VII) safety behaviour and anomy; ix) knowledge about nuclear domain; x) risk communication; xi) consumer's attitude towards food with radioactive contamination. Some of the questions asked in 2009 are similar to those enquired in the SCK barometer of 2006 and 2002, in order to study the time evolution of the risk perception associated with various issues.

  4. User-Independent Motion State Recognition Using Smartphone Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Fuqiang; Kealy, Allison; Khoshelham, Kourosh; Shang, Jianga

    2015-12-04

    The recognition of locomotion activities (e.g., walking, running, still) is important for a wide range of applications like indoor positioning, navigation, location-based services, and health monitoring. Recently, there has been a growing interest in activity recognition using accelerometer data. However, when utilizing only acceleration-based features, it is difficult to differentiate varying vertical motion states from horizontal motion states especially when conducting user-independent classification. In this paper, we also make use of the newly emerging barometer built in modern smartphones, and propose a novel feature called pressure derivative from the barometer readings for user motion state recognition, which is proven to be effective for distinguishing vertical motion states and does not depend on specific users' data. Seven types of motion states are defined and six commonly-used classifiers are compared. In addition, we utilize the motion state history and the characteristics of people's motion to improve the classification accuracies of those classifiers. Experimental results show that by using the historical information and human's motion characteristics, we can achieve user-independent motion state classification with an accuracy of up to 90.7%. In addition, we analyze the influence of the window size and smartphone pose on the accuracy.

  5. Torricelli and the ocean of air: the first measurement of barometric pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, John B

    2013-03-01

    The recognition of barometric pressure was a critical step in the development of environmental physiology. In 1644, Evangelista Torricelli described the first mercury barometer in a remarkable letter that contained the phrase, "We live submerged at the bottom of an ocean of the element air, which by unquestioned experiments is known to have weight." This extraordinary insight seems to have come right out of the blue. Less than 10 years before, the great Galileo had given an erroneous explanation for the related problem of pumping water from a deep well. Previously, Gasparo Berti had filled a very long lead vertical tube with water and showed that a vacuum formed at the top. However, Torricelli was the first to make a mercury barometer and understand that the mercury was supported by the pressure of the air. Aristotle stated that the air has weight, although this was controversial for some time. Galileo described a method of measuring the weight of the air in detail, but for reasons that are not clear his result was in error by a factor of about two. Torricelli surmised that the pressure of the air might be less on mountains, but the first demonstration of this was by Blaise Pascal. The first air pump was built by Otto von Guericke, and this influenced Robert Boyle to carry out his classical experiments of the physiological effects of reduced barometric pressure. These were turning points in the early history of high-altitude physiology.

  6. Optimization of Palm Oil Plantation Revitalization in North Sumatera Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliza Hidayati

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The idea of making North Sumatera  as a barometer of national oil palm industry require efforts commodities and agro-industry development of oil palm. One effort that can be done is by successful execution plantation revitalization. The plantation Revitalization is an effort to accelerate the development of smallholder plantations, through expansion and replanting by help of palm estate company as business partner and bank financed plantation revitalization fund. Business partner agreement obliged and bound to make at least the same smallholder plantation productivity with business partners, so that the refund rate to banks become larger and prosperous people as a plantation owner. Generally low productivity of smallholder plantations under normal potential caused a lot of old and damaged plants with plant material at random. The purpose of revitalizing oil palm plantations which are to increase their competitiveness through increased farm productivity. The research aims to identify potential criteria in influencing plantation productivity improvement priorities to be observed and followed up in order to improve the competitiveness of destinations and make North Sumatera barometer of national palm oil can be achieved. Research conducted with Analytical Network Process (ANP, to find the effect of dependency relationships between factors or criteria with the knowledge of the experts in order to produce an objective opinion and relevant depict the actual situation. 

  7. 地幔岩矿物压力计评述%On the validity of the geobarometers in mantle rocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴春明

    2009-01-01

    适用于地幔岩石的矿物压力计有石榴石-斜方辉石压力计、石榴石-单斜辉石压力计、橄榄石-单斜辉石压力计、铬尖晶石压力计、二辉石压力计等有限几类.本文通过将这些压力计应用于岩石学相平衡实验数据,检验了其精确度.再将它们应用到天然地幔岩石样品,包括石榴石相二辉橄榄岩、尖晶石相二辉橄榄岩、石榴石-尖晶石过渡相二辉橄榄岩、含金刚石和石墨的地幔岩石,检验了其准确度.初步结论是,现有的石榴石-斜方辉石压力计(Nickel and Green,1985;Taylor,1998;Brey et al.,2008)质量相对最优,石榴石-单斜辉石压力计(Nimis and Taylor,2000;Simakov and Taylor,2000)次之.在应用这些压力计时,可配合二辉石温度计(Brey et al.,1990;Taylor,1998)或石榴石-橄榄石温度计(Wu and Zhao,2007),来同时估算平衡压力和温度.其余的压力计精确度和准确度都还很不够,需要更精确深入的实验研究来标定质量优良的压力计.%Nowadays there exist several kinds of geobarometers theoretically applicable to mantle rocks, i. e. , the garnet- orthopyroxene, garnet-clinopyroxene, olivine-clinopyroxene, Cr-in-spinel and two-pyroxene geobarometers. To test the precision and accuracy of these barometers, they have been applied to experimental data of phase equilibrium experiments and natural mantle xenoliths including the garnet- or spinel-bearing lherzolites and the garnet-spinel-bearing lherzolites, as well as mantle xenoliths containing graphite or diamond, collected from kimberlites or alkaline basalts. It is concluded that the present garnet-orthopyroxene barometers (Nickel and Green, 1985; Taylor, 1998; Brey et al. , 2008) are relatively the most valid ones, and the garnet-clinopyroxene barometers (Nimis and Taylor, 2000; Simakov and Taylor, 2000) are also applicable. Other kinds of barometers are obviously far from accurate and precise and should be much more precisely calibrated

  8. Mineral Chemistry and Crystallization Conditions of the Late Cretaceous Mamba Pluton from the Eastern Gangdese, Southern Tibetan Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaowei Li; Xuanxue Mo; Mark Scheltens; Qi Guan

    2016-01-01

    The Late Cretaceous Mamba granodiorite belongs to a part of the Mesozoic Gangdese con-tinental magmatic belt. No quantitative mineralogical study has been made hitherto, and hence the depth at which it formed is poorly constrained. Here we present mineralogical data for the Mamba pluton, in-cluding host rocks and their mafic microgranular enclaves (MMEs), to provide insights into their overall crystallization conditions and information about magma mixing. All amphiboles in the Mamba pluton are calcic, withB(Ca+Na)>1.5, and Si=6.81–7.42 apfu for the host rocks and Si=6.77–7.35 apfu for the MMEs. The paramount cation substitutions in amphibole include edenite type and tschermakite type. Biotites both in the host rocks and the MMEs collectively have high MgO (13.19 wt.%–13.03 wt.%) contents, but define a narrow range of Al apfu (atoms per formula unit) variations (2.44–2.57). The oxygen fugacity es-timates are based on the biotite compositions cluster around the NNO buffer. The calculated pressure ranges from 1.2 to 2.1 kbar according to the aluminum-in-hornblende barometer. The computed pressure varies from 0.9 to 1.3 kbar based on the aluminum-in-biotite barometer which corresponds to an average depth of ca. 3.9 km. Besides, the estimates of crystallization pressures vary from 0.8 to 1.4 kbar based on the amphibole barometer proposed by Ridolfi et al. (2010), which can be equivalent to the depths ranging from 3.1 to 5.2 km. The MMEs have plagioclase oscillatory zonings and quartz aggregates, probably indi-cating the presence of magma mixing. Besides, core-to-rim element variations (Rb, Sr, Ba, and P) for the K-feldspar megacrysts serve as robust evidence to support magma mixing and crystal fractionation. This indicates the significance of the magma mixing that contributes to the formation of K-feldspar megacryst zonings in the Mamba pluton.

  9. Analysis of Productivity Improvement in the Palm Oil Plantation Revitalization of North Sumatera using Analytic Network Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliza Hidayati

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The idea of making North Sumatera as a barometer of national palm oil industry requires commodity efforts and agro-industry development of palm oil. One effort that can be done is by successful execution plantation revitalization. The plantation Revitalization is an effort to accelerate the development of smallholder plantations, through expansion and replanting by help of palm estate company as business partner and bank financing plantation revitalization fund. Business partner agreement is obliged and bound to make at least the same smallholder estate productivity with business partners, so that the refund rate to banks become larger and prosperous people as a plantation owner. Generally, low productivity of smallholder plantations under normal potential caused a lot of old and damaged plants with plant material at random. The purpose of revitalizing palm oil plantations is to increase their competitiveness through increased farm productivity. The research aims at identifying potential criteria in influencing estate productivity improvement priorities to be observed and followed up in order to improve the competitiveness of destinations and make North Sumatera barometer of national palm oil can be achieved. Research conducted with Analytical Network Process (ANP, to find the effect of dependency relationships between factors or criteria with the knowledge of the experts in order to produce an objective opinion and relevant depict the actual situation. The results showed that the priority factors that have the biggest impact as a determinant of farm productivity enhancement, namely plant health (0.184595, the insertion of seeds (0.130569, the type of fertilizer (0.116755, the number and dose of fertilizer (0.102303, the suitability of the tool and the work material (0.072098, the type of soil (0.056612, the frequency of fertilizer (0.057095, working procedures (0.048561, weed control (0.041679, pest control (0.037839, fertilization technology

  10. On the cultural legacy of the Cold War: Sino-US educational exchange (1949-1990)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gu Ning

    2006-01-01

    The Cold War affected the Sino-US educational exchange between 1949 and 1990.During those years,preparation for educational exchanges,personal contact and cross-government relations characterized the three periods of the exchanges.However,even though the relationship had developed very fast,it was by no means smooth sailing.These exchanges served as a political barometer and also acted as a conduit between the two when diplomatic relations were non-existent.It eased the tension when the relationship between the two countries had problems.The 40 years of exchanges were a win-win situation for both sides and one of the valuable cultural legacies that came out of the Cold War era.

  11. I am your smartphone, and I know you are about to smoke: the application of mobile sensing and computing approaches to smoking research and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClernon, F Joseph; Roy Choudhury, Romit

    2013-10-01

    Much is known about the immediate and predictive antecedents of smoking lapse, which include situations (e.g., presence of other smokers), activities (e.g., alcohol consumption), and contexts (e.g., outside). This commentary suggests smartphone-based systems could be used to infer these predictive antecedents in real time and provide the smoker with just-in-time intervention. The smartphone of today is equipped with an array of sensors, including GPS, cameras, light sensors, barometers, accelerometers, and so forth, that provide information regarding physical location, human movement, ambient sounds, and visual imagery. We propose that libraries of algorithms to infer these antecedents can be developed and then incorporated into diverse mobile research and personalized treatment applications. While a number of challenges to the development and implementation of such applications are recognized, our field benefits from a database of known antecedents to a problem behavior, and further research and development in this exciting area are warranted.

  12. Gender please, without the gender police: rethinking pain in archetypal narratives of butch, transgender, and FTM masculinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detloff, Madelyn

    2006-01-01

    Why is it that many of the often-cited narratives about butch, FTM, and/or transgender masculinity happen to be fictions that highlight suffering as a de facto rite of passage for the butch, FTM, or transgendered protagonist? This essay attempts to answer that question, first by outlining the "coherentist assumptions" of lesbian feminism and the forms of gender-policing that cast butch, FTM, and transgendered subjectivities as "false consciousness." It then analyzes the practice of anchoring butch, FTM, and/or transgender identity claims in pain-filled narratives such as "The Well of Loneliness," "Stone Butch Blues," and "Boys Don't Cry." While these narratives do important cultural work-exposing the violence heaped upon butches, FTMs, and transgendered guys-it may be time to imagine alternative narratives that are less invested in suffering as a barometer of masculine authenticity.

  13. It's hard to be green: Reverse green value chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couto, João; Tiago, Teresa; Gil, Artur; Tiago, Flávio; Faria, Sandra

    2016-08-01

    Firms have recently discovered that it is not enough to optimize internal processes and relationships with partners along the value chain to create a sustainable competitive market position. A clear customer orientation, which acknowledges that consumer buying behavior is complex and includes many elements implied in the value chain, is required. As companies offering green products are no exception to this rule, this study analyzes consumer behavior in Europe from a reserve green supply chain management perspective, using descriptive analyses and a structural equation model, with data collected by Flash Barometer comprising 26,573 responses from 28 European countries. The results suggest that European consumers are conscious of the green concept, but are not willing to buy or pay more for these products since the value is unclear. Companies offering green products must therefore rethink their strategies, especially in terms of value proposition, communication strategies, and eco-labeling.

  14. 四川省技术交易发展态势浅析%A Brief Analysis of Technology Transaction Development Trend in Sichuan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王永志; 林松; 张育洋; 汪继红

    2015-01-01

    技术市场是市场经济体系的重要组成部分,技术交易合同登记是技术市场发展的“风向标”和“晴雨表”。通过对四川省2014年技术交易合同登记数据进行分析,研究得出全省技术交易活动的主要发展态势。%Technology transaction is an important part of market economy system. Technology transaction contract registration is the weather vane and barometer of the technology market development. The article reaches the main development trend of technol-ogy transaction activities in Sichuan Province through analyzing and researching the data of technology transaction contract regis-tration in 2014.

  15. Tourist Industry Recovers from World Economic Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Gabriela Turtureanu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Tourism has become an important economic engine onthe global point of view , but isextremely localized. Due to geographical distribution and nature of labor intensive activities intourism offers a wide range of employment opportunities for poor and vulnerable groups indeveloping countries, especially but not exclusively, in rural and remote areas. Tourism has sufferedalot during the global economic crisis, there was adecline of 4% of international tourist arrivals in2009, and revenues from international tourism fellby 6% by 2009. To a new report "Euro barometer"survey on the attitudes of Europeans towards tourism emphasized that the tourism industry has passedthe economic crisis confirmed by the indicators. Motivations of travel for 2011 have been totraditional tourist destinations (58%, while 28% wanted to discover new destinations.

  16. Medidas de democracia em surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Richard

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo examina como as questões dos surveys sobre democracia são estruturadas de modos diferentes, dependendo do emprego de uma definição idealista ou realista e da presença ou não de comparações com regimes alternativos. Começo mostrando medidas de democracia em países pós-comunistas que perguntam às pessoas se estão satisfeitas ou não com a democracia e pedem que a comparem com um padrão ideal. As seções posteriores apresentam os resultados de questões realistas do New Democracies Barometer, que pedem às pessoas para avaliar regimes do passado, do presente e do futuro - e alternativas não-democráticas historicamente familiares.

  17. E-RESOURCES GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM SYSTEM FOR MILITARY OPERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Kurniawan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the barometer of the strength of a country is a military force that is owned by the state. To produce a good military force in a country, it would require an easy, fast and accurate military resource management. This study utilized geographic data as a reference for the location of the logistics resources to help simplify the management of military data using spatial data in Geographic Information System (GIS. The system development approach used JSON Service technology framework and HTML 5 to improve system performance. The features development of the management of military resources associated with military operations are conducted. Results of this study generate e-resource military operation system which is swift and in accordance with the W3C web standards.

  18. Consumers will Spend More for Good Service%良好的服务吸引消费

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    根据《美国运通全球客户服务晴雨表》(American Express Global Customer Service Barometer)显示,良好的客户服务将有助于吸引消费.调查发现,今年,美国消费者对客服质量的重视程度比以往任何时候都高.70%的受访者表示,更愿在提供优质客户服务的商家消费,在那里消费的几率比在一般商家消费的几率要高13%.而去年的这两个百分比分别是58%和9%.

  19. 武汉老橱窗特征解析%An Analysis of Features of Wuhan Old Display Window

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    麻建雄

    2014-01-01

    Old display window represented the epitome of social life in Wuhan at that time. It was the indicator of economic rise and fall, the barometer of vicissitudes of national and international situation. It stood for the popular fashion of city life, and acted as silent sales promotion and colorful garden of art space.%武汉老橱窗是当时社会生活的缩影:老橱窗是经济大潮起落的风向标,是政治风云变幻的晴雨表,是都市生活的流行时尚眼,是商店卖场的无声宣传员,是艺术空间的多彩百花园。

  20. Do not panic: Hawkwind, the Cold War and “the imagination of disaster”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Ihde

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The English rock band, Hawkwind, was amongst the founders of the genre known as “space rock”. From the early 1970s to the early 1990s, their work also included references to Cold War issues. An examination of their concert appearances, musical output and printed matter reveals that relevant material often reflected the “imagination of disaster” made famous in an essay by Susan Sontag. As well, there are correlations between the waxing and waning of Cold War tensions, and the presence and absence of such themes in their work. Thus, their work provides an example of how popular music could serve as a barometer of the impact of the Cold War on popular culture.

  1. Values, Tolerance, Religion and Spirituality Among Young Romanians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIUS LAZĂR

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to provide a description with respect to values among young Romanians, generally speaking, but also with respect to social relations and religion or spirituality. Survey data from two major researches - the European Values Study, and Social condition and expectations of youth in Romania, the Youth Barometer 2008 - were used, and comparisons were made between young people and adults, Romanian youth and European youth, as well as comparisons across several years within the ‘youth' category. The data sources used in this article are the latest surveys available the topics concerned. The topic of the article, namely the values of young people, is however quite stable in time and, as such, we believe that the data and facts noted continue to be relevant even four years after the data were collected.

  2. The Evaluation of Impact on Business Organisations in Lithuania to Operate in an Environmentally Friendly Way

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Bakanauskienė

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of empirical research on environmental stakeholders’ impact on Lithuanian business organisations to act in an environmentally friendly way. Theoretical research framework is based on the research tool of the International Business Environmental Barometer (IBEB and covers strengths and types of different environmental stakeholders (including internal and external stakeholders, organisational strategies of relations with them, and consequences of environmental stakeholders’ impact. The IBEB is a representative quantitative survey of managers of business organisations to examine how managers feel environmental stakeholders’ pressure. Taking the purpose and attitudes of the research framework and the results of pilot interviews into account, some changes in IBEB methodology have been made. The results reveal quite low pressure of environmental stakeholders on managers of business organisations to deal with environmental issues.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.71.1.8650

  3. The moral economy of person production : the class relations of self-performance on “reality” television

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beverley Skeggs

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on the textual analysis of an ESRC research project “Making Class and the Self through Mediated Ethical Scenarios”, the paper illustrates how “reality” television offers a visible barometer of a person’s moral value. The research included an examination of the shift to self-legitimation, the increased importance of reflexivity and the decline of class proposed by the individualisation thesis.2 We focused on self-transformation “reality” television programmes as public examples of the dramatisation of individualisation. The over-recruitment of different types of working-class participants to these shows and the positioning of many in need of transformation, enabled an exploration of how certain people and cultures are positioned, evaluated and interpreted as inadequate, deficient and requiring improvement. We found that the individualisation promoted through the programmes was always reliant upon access to and operationalisation of specific social, cultural, economic and symbolic capital

  4. 熔体包裹体在估算花岗岩类矿床形成压力(深度)方面的应用%Application of melt inclusions to estimating ore-forming pressure (depth) of granite-related ore deposits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建康; 张德会; 李胜虎

    2011-01-01

    在花岗岩类矿床中,花岗岩浆分异出富挥发分熔体/流体的过程,是导致岩浆就位和成矿元素迁移、富集的关键因素之一.在该过程中,同时捕获的不同类别的熔体包裹体和流体包裹体可以互相限定捕获条件,由此可以建立一系列与熔体包裹体有关的地质压力计,进而得到相关分异作用发生的深度.这些深度数值,对于指导花岗岩地区的找矿工作具有重要价值.与熔体包裹体有关的压力计主要分为与硅酸盐熔体包裹体共生的流体包裹体地质压力计、硅酸盐熔体包裹体地质压力计和富子晶包裹体地质压力计.这些压力计使用的难点主要是均一实验,实验设备主要有Linkam高温热台系统、冷封式高压釜和热液金刚石压腔,三者各有优缺点.国内许多实验室已经具备开展熔体包裹体均一实验的条件.在中国,如南岭地区,许多花岗岩类矿床中存在花岗岩晶洞、花岗岩中的似伟晶岩囊体、花岗岩与围岩接触带的似伟晶岩壳、花岗伟晶岩以及富挥发分花岗岩,这些地质体保留了熔体分异出富挥发分熔体/流体的痕迹,是应用与熔体包裹体有关的压力计的良好对象.%In the granite-related ore deposits, the differentiation of volatile-rich melt or fluid from granitic magma constitutes one of the key factors controlling the emplacement depth as well as the migration and enrichment of ore-forming elements. In these processes, the coexisting melt and fluid inclusions can mutually constrain entrapment conditions, and then a series of geobarometers can be induced. The depth estimated by such barometers represents differentiation that occurred and can help ore exploration work in granite areas. These barometers include methods of fluid inclusions coexisting with melt inclusions, melt inclusions and crystal-rich inclusions. The main difficulty in application of these barometers is the melt inclusion microthermometry. At

  5. Os Impactos das Reclamações On-line na Lealdade dos Consumidores: um Estudo Experimental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane Nunes Viana de Almeida

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In a constant changing environment characterized by highly informed consumers, the search for long-term relationships through customer loyalty is the goal of many companies. However, studies suggest this loyalty may be affected by negative comments available on the internet. Thus, the aim of this study is to examine if the complaints available in the online environment impact loyalty to a cell phone brand. The research method was experimental, considering the antecedents of loyalty found in the revised NCSB model (Norwegian Customer Satisfaction Barometer. The approach was quantitative, using methods including descriptive statistics, factor analysis, multiple linear regression and non-parametric Wilcoxon test to analyze the data. All five propositions were confirmed. The results showed that complaints available the web may negatively impact consumer perception as it concerns loyalty, as well as its antecedents. These substantiations represent a warning, so that companies can be more attentive to content available on the internet, especially any related to complaints.

  6. Economic Development of Geological Prospecting Units Should Strengthen Statistical Management%经济发展新常态下地勘单位应加强统计管理工作

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程铸梅

    2015-01-01

    我国经济发展已进入新常态,以新常态来判断我国的经济特征,说明中央对当前经济增长变化的规律认识得更加深刻。统计作为反映国民经济运行的晴雨表,更要主动适应当前经济新常态。%The economic development of our country has entered a new normal. To determine the economic characteristics of the economic characteristics of our country means more profound understanding to the current economic growth and law regulation of the central government. Statistics as a barometer of the national economy should take the initiative to adapt to the current economic new normal.

  7. Not All Fun at the Fair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU YUE

    2011-01-01

    As growing uncertainties hang over China's trade front,a closer look at the latest Canton Fair,a barometer of China's foreign trade,can provide an insight on how exporters are faring.Officially known as the China Import and Export Fair,the biannual Canton Fair is held every spring and autumn in Guangzhou,capital of south Chian's Guangdong Province,and each fair has three phases.The 110th Canton Fair,held from October 15 to November 4,attracted more than 24,000 enterprises from home and abroad.Its first two phases witnessed export deals worth around $33.18billion,up 3.2 percent over the spring fair.

  8. Specific Features of the Study of Purchasing Behaviour and Consumption by the Customer, Financial and Banking Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitran Paula Cornelia

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of every economic activity in general and the financial one in particular is the satisfaction of clients’ necessities. Thespecificity of clients’ consumption behaviour in the financial – banking realm, impose the understanding of the necessities and their occasionalprocess to the banking system. The client’s behaviour analysis, as an obvious barometer of a bank evolution is the most important component of amarketing research. The relationship between the client, as a natural person or a juridical person and bank, is very important and requires to besupported in order to assure clients’ loyalty and to develop long term relations with them. Therefore, banks should give advice to their clientsconcerning their finance organization or concerning the preparation of their business plans, fact which is able to reinforce the professional image ofthe bank. This aspect must be completed by the presence of some communication specialists who will assure the information transfer, creating a feedbackbetween the employees and the clients.

  9. Aerodynamics in the amusement park: interpreting sensor data for acceleration and rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löfstrand, Marcus; Pendrill, Ann-Marie

    2016-09-01

    The sky roller ride depends on interaction with the air to create a rolling motion. In this paper, we analyse forces, torque and angular velocities during different parts of the ride, combining a theoretical analysis, with photos, videos as well as with accelerometer and gyroscopic data, that may be collected e.g. with a smartphone. For interpreting the result, it must be taken into account that the sensors and their coordinate system rotate together with the rider. The sky roller offers many examples for physics education, from simple circular motion, to acceleration and rotation involving several axes, as well as the relation between wing orientation, torque and angular velocities and using barometer pressure to determine the elevation gain.

  10. 环球政商两界信任度加强

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍炳焱

    2004-01-01

    日前,全球最大的独立公关公司爱德曼(Edelman)连续第5年发布信任度调查报告(Trust Barometer)在巴西、中国、法国、德国、英国和美国等6个国家共调查了1200名行业人业(美国400名,欧洲150名,英国、法国和德国各200名,中国200名、巴西各150名;年龄在35岁至64岁之间

  11. Religiosity and Values in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Dan ŞANDOR

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available In Romania the state supports religion. The main reason is claimed to be the fact that religion will improve the shared values (moral, social, economic or political of our society. Based on the data from the Public Opinion Barometer November 2005 (which included the questions from The World Values Survey 2005 this study explores the relationship between religiosity and work ethic, moral values and tolerance; as well as the ways in which religiosity affects political and gender-based attitudes. Regarding most of the values included a weak but significant relationship was found. A poorer work and general ethic, attitudes towards women and homosexuals or the preference for a more authoritarian regime are the most disquieting findings.

  12. Stock Analysis of S.C. ROPHARMA S.A. the Example of Romanian Pharmaceutical Entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela-Cristina ONICA

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Stock performance analysis can not find a better place than after presentation of earnings per share, the latter being one of the indicators on the performance of companies listed on capital markets. Exchange rates are considered final term market performance of listed companies since they incorporate information concerning stock, but also financial and accounting data on the net result for the year, sales per share, dividend per share, book value per share, etc. Stock rate of action is the barometer of a company's overall performance, officially recognized by the public through the capital market. But changes in stock price is determined by the evolution of economic and financial results of the enterprise, but also investors' expectations about the possibilities of its development, progress and prospects the industry in which company operates, and national and international economic trends.

  13. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU YUE

    2011-01-01

    August Figures CPI and PPI The consumer price index (CPI),a barometer of inflation,grew 6.2 percent in August from a year ago,0.3 percentage points down from July,said the National Bureau of Statistics (NBS).The figure was still well above the government-set target of 4 percent for the year.The biggest driver of the CPI was still food prices,up 13.4 percent in August over the same month last year.Pork prices,in particular,skyrocketed 45.5 percent.Residential costs climbed 5.5 percent,down 0.4 percentage points from July.

  14. Collapse of Flow: Probing the Order of the Phase Transition

    CERN Document Server

    Stöcker, Horst

    2007-01-01

    We discuss the present collective flow signals for the phase transition to the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) and the collective flow as a barometer for the equation of state (EoS). We emphasize the importance of the flow excitation function from 1 to $50 A$ GeV: here the hydrodynamic model has predicted the collapse of the $v_1$-flow at $\\sim 10 A$ GeV and of the $v_2$-flow at $\\sim 40 A$ GeV. In the latter case, this has recently been observed by the NA49 collaboration. Since hadronic rescattering models predict much larger flow than observed at this energy, we interpret this observation as potential evidence for a first order phase transition at high baryon density $\\rho_B$.

  15. Textile Index Monitor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Textile Index Monitor is a new column that delivers a textile-specific price index profile in weeks that are bygone when this monthly magazine comes to your hand. China Textile City is the name of the world-largest yarn&fabric marketplace in the famous town of Keqiao in Zhejiang,China.Several years ago,Ministry of Commerce(MOC)set up a national price index centre for textiles-specific category,China Textile City takes the leading role in publishing its analytical report of textile price index on weekly,monthly,quarterly and yearly basis,making it possible for Keqiao or its textile city to be the weathercock for textiles market trend in China and in the world as well.From this issue,a new column is given to cover the gist&feeds of the latest developments&gradients in this market barometer.

  16. O Barômetro da Sustentabilidade Aplicado ao Município de Taubaté-SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Luiz de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The contemporary society has presented a growing concern with the environmental impact caused by economic and technological development. As a result of this concern and research studies that indicate the possibility of negative impacts as a result of intense use of natural resources. The scientific community, together with the society, developed the concept of sustainable development, as well as some methodologies to assess the level of local sustainability, national or the planet. From this context, the purpose of this article, it is by means of bibliographic research, contribute to the reflection on what are sustainability and the methodology Sustainability Barometer (BS. Complementary to the bibliographical study presents an application of the methodology BS to the municipality of Taubaté, by collecting, tabulating and quantitative and qualitative analysis of various sources. The analysis of data collected according to the methodology BS, indicates that the municipality of Taubaté is a level of almost sustainable.

  17. Political Rationality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solhaug, Trond; Kristensen, Niels Nørgaard

    The very idea about democracies is public participation in elections, decision-making and/or public engagement. The democratic participation distributes power among ordinary people and serve to legitimize decisions in public affairs and is a vital characteristic of a political culture.”The term...... ’political culture’ refers to the specifically political orientations – attitudes toward the political system and its various parts, and attitudes toward the role of the self in the system” (Almond & Verba, 1963:12). A political culture is among several aspects characterized by the forms and level...... of participation and particularly how individuals regard themselves as active political citizens. Participation, either voter turnout or other forms of public involvement is regarded as a barometer of the quality of democracy in a country and serve to characterize the political culture in a democracy (Diamond...

  18. Kitchen Physics: Lessons in Fluid Pressure and Error Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieyra, Rebecca Elizabeth; Vieyra, Chrystian; Macchia, Stefano

    2017-02-01

    Although the advent and popularization of the "flipped classroom" tends to center around at-home video lectures, teachers are increasingly turning to at-home labs for enhanced student engagement. This paper describes two simple at-home experiments that can be accomplished in the kitchen. The first experiment analyzes the density of four liquids using a waterproof case and a smartphone barometer in a container, sink, or tub. The second experiment determines the relationship between pressure and temperature of an ideal gas in a constant volume container placed momentarily in a refrigerator freezer. These experiences provide a ripe opportunity both for learning fundamental physics concepts as well as to investigate a variety of error analysis techniques that are frequently overlooked in introductory physics courses.

  19. Study of a sealed high gas pressure THGEM detector and response of Alpha particle spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yu-Ning; Liu, Hong-Bang; Xie, Yi-Gang; Lyu, Xiao-Rui; Chen, Shi; Huang, Wen-Qian; Hong, Dao-Jin; Zheng, Yang-Heng

    2016-01-01

    A sealed high gas pressure detector working in pure argon is assembled. It consists of a 5 cm $\\times$ 5 cm PCB THGEM (THick Gaseous Electron Multipliers). The detector structure and experimental setup are described. The performances under high pressure of 2 atm mainly consist in selecting optimal voltages for ionization region and induction region. The dependence of the shape of Alpha particle spectra measured with relative gas gain on gas pressure (1.3 $\\sim$ 2.0 atm) has been studied. The 8 groups of relative gas gain versus working voltage of THGEM expressed by weighting filed $E/P$ are normalized, being consistent with theory. The results show that the air tightness of the chamber is good measured by a sensitive barometer and checked with gas gain. The experimental results are compared with Monte Carlo simulation on energy deposition without gas gain involved.

  20. Stomach Infrastructure: Lessons for Democracy and Good Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Olusegun Stober

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In 2014, a new paradigm shift occurred in Nigeria which defiled the expectation of many social and political analysts. This paradigm was later titled ‘Stomach Infrastructure’ – a concept of inducing potential voters to support a particular candidate in an election, creating thus a new barometer for measuring good governance. To understand the concept of stomach infrastructure, this study makes a graphical comparison between stomach infrastructure and physical infrastructure, as they are both dividends of democracy. But to sum it up, stomach infrastructure is, first and foremost about the people’s survival. It is a living and stress-free man that can enjoy the benefit of a modern city or world class physical infrastructures. Thus, building stomach infrastructure is about following the natural sequence of actions in governance. It is about understanding the bottom-top, gradual approaches in developmental strides. It is about carrying everybody along, everyone at his own pace.

  1. The social context of marital happiness in urban Indian couples: interplay of intimacy and conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhya, Shaifali

    2009-01-01

    This research examines the happiness of 182 married, urban Hindu husbands and wives. Prior research emphasizes that the processes mediating well-being diverge across cultures with personal desires not impacting the happiness of non-Western couples. However, with globalization as self needs become important, barometers of happiness such as intimacy and conflict in a relationship assume a critical role in the quality and longevity of marriage, even for non-Western marriages in a contemporary India. Participants were 91 Indian couples, married an average of 11 years, from three socioeconomic classes, three family structures, and arranged and love marriages. Results reveal that happy couples, compared with unhappy couples, reported agreement, empathy, validation, support, and fulfilled expectations. Couples' experience and expression of intimacy, affected by social context, also predicted enhanced levels of happiness in marriage while conflict had a negative effect on marital happiness. This research suggests how personal desires may be transforming cultural practices.

  2. Don Muang IAP, Bangkok, Thailand. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-04-02

    00,10 10. 0.09, M0.±0.1k., 0..D.’ 0 J AQf 100 98,4100, 00.0100. 100.01001 00. 100,0100,0100, 100.0 00,0 00,o000.0100.0 2: 0 so .00100 1 100,1000 20...SUMMARYOP SURFACE WEATHER OSEAYATM BANGKOK THAILAND/DON WUANG IAP W8ANO 41001 N 13 55 E 100 36 ELEV 33 FT VTOD WMOE 46436 PARTS A-F POR FROM HOURLY OBS JAN...LOCATION STION FROM TO STATIONIrr) BAROMETER DAY 0I Don uang Apt, Thailand /TAF Jan 54 Dee 63 N 13 55 E 100 36 33 39 Ft 24 LOCATION CHANACTEI LOCATION

  3. Web portals to secure long-term customer loyalty; Webportale sollen die Kunden langfristig binden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knechtel, Karsten [Process Management Consulting GmbH, Muenchen (Germany)

    2011-08-15

    The primary motivation in presenting service offerings on the Internet is to secure long-term customer loyalty. To date the large majority of suppliers in the gas and electricity industries already make a respectable appearance on the Internet. However, customer development campaigns still offer many an opportunity for distinguishing oneself more from one's competitors. In 2002 an independent survey was initiated which has served as an independent industry barometer in the ten years since. The idea is for users to investigate to what extent standard business processes have been implemented on the Internet in a promising manner, with due consideration to customer needs as well appropriate security measures to gain the customers' confidence.

  4. High-performance terahertz wave absorbers made of silicon-based metamaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Sheng; Zhu, Jianfei; Jiang, Wei; Yuan, Jun; Yin, Ge; Ma, Yungui, E-mail: yungui@zju.edu.cn [State Key Lab of Modern Optical Instrumentation, Centre for Optical and Electromagnetic Research, College of Optical Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Xu, Wendao; Xie, Lijuan; Ying, Yibin [College of Biosystems Engineering and Food Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China)

    2015-08-17

    Electromagnetic (EM) wave absorbers with high efficiency in different frequency bands have been extensively investigated for various applications. In this paper, we propose an ultra-broadband and polarization-insensitive terahertz metamaterial absorber based on a patterned lossy silicon substrate. Experimentally, a large absorption efficiency more than 95% in a frequency range of 0.9–2.5 THz was obtained up to a wave incident angle as large as 70°. Much broader absorption bandwidth and excellent oblique incidence absorption performance are numerically demonstrated. The underlying mechanisms due to the combination of a waveguide cavity mode and impedance-matched diffraction are analyzed in terms of the field patterns and the scattering features. The monolithic THz absorber proposed here may find important applications in EM energy harvesting systems such as THz barometer or biosensor.

  5. Gender Differences and Informal Networks in a Scandinavian Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waldstrøm, Christian

    2001-01-01

    important competencies stated by male and female managers in Danish companies. While the results seem to indicate that there are fewer differences between the genders than might be expected, using a factor analysis indicates that there are some structural differences suggesting that the proposition about...... performed empirical analyses using networks theory. This has resulted in a number of well-founded propositions about how male and female managers develop and use different informal networks. One key finding, among others, is the proposition that female managers seem to develop dual networks (one with other...... women for friendship and one primarily with men for career development), while their male colleagues only develop one, which seems to satisfy both needs. In the empirical part of this paper, data from the Danish Management Barometer are used to gain an insight into the main differences between the most...

  6. Corporal and capital punishment of juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, H C

    1990-01-01

    There is a previously unobserved connection between corporal punishment of public school children and capital punishment of juveniles. Both are barometers of acceptable levels of violent punishment and their elimination is a hallmark of a maturing and decent society. Within a majority of the eighteen states where school authorities most frequently strike children are housed 25 of the nation's 28 juvenile death row inmates. On average, the homicide rates of these jurisdictions are two and a half times greater than those that have abolished both state-sanctioned corporal and capital punishment or limit death sentences to those age eighteen and older at the time of their crime(s). Most of the eighteen state abolitions of corporal punishment occurred in the 1980's. The US Supreme Court has ruled both corporal and capital punishment of juveniles constitutional. Additional state legislative abolition of both is anticipated in the 1990s.

  7. Inspection of the hydrogen gas pressure with metal shield by cold neutron radiography at CMRR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hang; Cao, Chao; Huo, Heyong; Wang, Sheng; Wu, Yang; Yin, Wei; Sun, Yong; Liu, Bin; Tang, Bin

    2017-04-01

    The inspection of the process of gas pressure change is important for some applications (e.g. gas tank stockpile or two phase fluid model) which need quantitative and non-touchable measurement. Neutron radiography provides a suitable tool for such investigations with nice resolution. The quantitative cold neutron radiography (CNR) is developed at China Mianyang Research Reactor (CMRR) to measure the hydrogen gas pressure with metal shield. Because of the high sensitivity to hydrogen, even small change of the hydrogen pressure can be inspected by CNR. The dark background and scattering neutron effect are both corrected to promote measurement precision. The results show that CNR can measure the hydrogen gas pressure exactly and the pressure value average relative error between CNR and barometer is almost 1.9%.

  8. Criminal trial from a crime control perspective——mode, function and judge's attitude%犯罪控制视野下的刑事审判——模式、功能与法官的态度

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘广三

    2007-01-01

    Such ideas as upholding the advantages and merits of ex officio doctrine, gradually borrowing the fair factors of the adversary system, embodying a new-style concept of crime control and establishing the safeguarding rules and principles of the basic procedure for minimum justice criteria are macroscopical themes to which we must stick in the course of criminal trial. The effectiveness of a particular function in criminal trial in faith results from the choice of"degree" in the respect of crime control. The attitude of a criminal judge directly or otherwise exercises an influence on the trial of a case, and may even be decisive on some occasions. The concept of crime control is a barometer of the judge's attitude in criminal trial, and an indispensable component of the judge's rational attitude as well.

  9. Snert: Ritual-liturgical measurements and recipes for social capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cas Wepener

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The questions of how social capital is measured and how it is generated have received ample attention in recent years. This article is an attempt at making a modest contribution towards addressing these issues and specifically also as a contribution from the fields of Liturgical and Ritual Studies. It is argued that commensality can be taken as both lens/barometer with regard to the presence or absence of social capital, as well as being a potential generator of social capital. In order to arrive at this conclusion regarding food and the eating habits of humankind, the phenomenon of commensality and its relation to social capital is approached here from three different angles, namely Social Anthropology, New Testament Studies and Ethnography.

  10. ¿Quién apoya a la izquierda ‘populista’ latinoamericana?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Moncagatta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A inicios del siglo XXI, América Latina se ve gobernada en su mayor parte por gobiernos de izquierda. Varios autores han diferenciado entre una izquierda ‘pragmática’, por un lado, y una ‘populista’ por otro. Usando datos de las encuestas AmericasBarometer del 2012, indagamos sobre el perfil socio-demográfico de quién apoya a la izquierda ‘populista’ en cuatro naciones: Argentina, Bolivia, Ecuador y Venezuela. Mediante modelos de regresión logística, analizamos las probabilidades de expresar intención de voto por el candidato o partido del actual presidente de ciudadanos pertenecientes a distintos niveles de educación, riqueza, y otras variables socio-demográficas. Los resultados permiten concluir que no todos los gobiernos calificados como pertenecientes a la izquierda ‘populista’ latinoamericana reciben el apoyo del mismo tipo de individuos.

  11. 3D environment modeling and location tracking using off-the-shelf components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke, Robert H.

    2016-05-01

    The remarkable popularity of smartphones over the past decade has led to a technological race for dominance in market share. This has resulted in a flood of new processors and sensors that are inexpensive, low power and high performance. These sensors include accelerometers, gyroscope, barometers and most importantly cameras. This sensor suite, coupled with multicore processors, allows a new community of researchers to build small, high performance platforms for low cost. This paper describes a system using off-the-shelf components to perform position tracking as well as environment modeling. The system relies on tracking using stereo vision and inertial navigation to determine movement of the system as well as create a model of the environment sensed by the system.

  12. Origin of granulite terranes and the formation of the lowermost continental crust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohlen, S R; Mezger, K

    1989-04-21

    Differences in composition and pressures of equilibration between exposed, regional granulite terranes and suites of granulite xenoliths of crustal origin indicate that granulite terranes do not represent exhumed lowermost crust, as had been thought, but rather middle and lower-middle crustal levels. Application of well-calibrated barometers indicate that exposed granulites record equilibration pressures of 0.6 to 0.8 gigapascal (20 to 30 kilometers depth of burial), whereas granulite xenoliths, which also tend to be more mafic, record pressures of at least 1.0 to 1.5 gigapascals (35 to 50 kilometers depth of burial). Thickening of the crust by the crystallization of mafic magmas at the crust-mantle boundary may account for both the formation of regional granulite terranes at shallower depths and the formation of deep-seated mafic crust represented by many xenolith suites.

  13. Surface atmospheric pressure excitation of the translational mode of the inner core

    CERN Document Server

    Rosat, Séverine; Rogister, Yves

    2014-01-01

    Using hourly atmospheric surface pressure field from ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts) and from NCEP (National Centers for Environmental Prediction) Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) models, we show that atmospheric pressure fluctuations excite the translational oscillation of the inner core, the so-called Slichter mode, to the sub-nanogal level at the Earth surface. The computation is performed using a normal-mode formalism for a spherical, self-gravitating anelastic PREM-like Earth model. We determine the statistical response in the form of power spectral densities of the degree-one spherical harmonic components of the observed pressure field. Both hypotheses of inverted and non-inverted barometer for the ocean response to pressure forcing are considered. Based on previously computed noise levels, we show that the surface excitation amplitude is below the limit of detection of the superconducting gravimeters, making the Slichter mode detection a challenging instrumental task...

  14. SENSITIVITY EVALUATION OF THE ELECTRONIC CAR SCALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz KĄDZIOŁKA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available During every day activities related with performed work or homework duties we meet a lot of equipment and we don't realize about their complex construction. This can be different type of equipment making every day work easier, such as food processors, dishwashers, ecologic furnaces, gas stoves or mechanisms, which are intended for protection against rain, which are personal umbrellas or devices ensuring higher safety such as ABS in a car or equipment used for measuring different values such as thermometers, barometers and finally scales. Scales due to performed tasks should be rated to measuring equipment which in metrology for example are used to specify linear and angular dimensions or deviations from nominal dimensions. In this article we present results of electronic scales sensitivity tests. For comparison of test results two electronic scales with different measuring range were analyzed

  15. The Study of Clients’ Buying And Consumption Behavior Of Financial-Banking Products And Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitran Paula Cornelia

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of every economic activity in general and the financial one in particular is thesatisfaction of clients’ necessities. The specificity of clients’ consumption behavior in the financial – bankingrealm, impose the understanding of the necessities and their occasional process to the banking system. Theclient’s behavior analysis, as an obvious barometer of a bank evolution is the most important component of amarketing research. The relationship between the client, as a natural person or a juridical person and bank, isvery important and requires to be supported in order to assure clients’ loyalty and to develop long termrelations with them. Therefore, banks should give advice to their clients concerning their finance organizationor concerning the preparation of their business plans, fact which is able to reinforce the professional image ofthe bank. This aspect must be completed by the presence of some communication specialists who will assurethe information transfer, creating a feed-back between the employees and the clients.

  16. Psychoneuroimmunology and natural killer cells: the chromium release whole blood assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Mary Ann; Barnes, Zachary; Broderick, Gordon; Klimas, Nancy G

    2012-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are an essential component of innate immunity. These lymphocytes are also sensitive barometers of the effects of endogenous and exogenous stressors on the immune system. This chapter will describe a chromium ((51)Cr) release bioassay designed to measure the target cell killing capacity of NK cells (NKCC). Key features of the cytotoxicity assay are that it is done with whole blood and that numbers of effector cells are determined for each sample by flow cytometry and lymphocyte count. Effector cells are defined as CD3-CD56+ lymphocytes. Target cells are the K562 eyrthroleukemia cell line. Killing capacity is defined as number of target cells killed per effector cell, at an effector cell/target cell ratio of 1:1 during a 4 h in vitro assay.

  17. Globalization and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Greg

    2005-04-22

    This debut editorial of Globalization and Health introduces the journal, briefly delineating its goals and objectives and outlines its scope of subject matter. 'Open Access' publishing is expected to become an increasingly important format for peer reviewed academic journals and that Globalization and Health is 'Open Access' is appropriate. The rationale behind starting a journal dedicated to globalization and health is three fold:Firstly: Globalization is reshaping the social geography within which we might strive to create health or prevent disease. The determinants of health - be they a SARS virus or a predilection for fatty foods - have joined us in our global mobility. Driven by economic liberalization and changing technologies, the phenomenon of 'access' is likely to dominate to an increasing extent the unfolding experience of human disease and wellbeing.Secondly: Understanding globalization as a subject matter itself needs certain benchmarks and barometers of its successes and failings. Health is one such barometer. It is a marker of social infrastructure and social welfare and as such can be used to either sound an alarm or give a victory cheer as our interconnectedness hurts and heals the populations we serve.And lastly: In as much as globalization can have an effect on health, it is also true that health and disease has an effect on globalization as exemplified by the existence of quarantine laws and the devastating economic effects of the AIDS pandemic.A balanced view would propose that the effects of globalization on health (and health systems) are neither universally good nor bad, but rather context specific. If the dialogue pertaining to globalization is to be directed or biased in any direction, then it must be this: that we consider the poor first.

  18. El rol del Estado como creador de empleo The Role of the Government in Job Creation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MITCHELL A SELIGSON

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El largo debate sobre el rol del Estado en la generación de empleo todavía permanece como un tema central en las Américas y en otras regiones. El Barómetro de las Américas 2008 encuentra que los niveles de apoyo del ciudadano "promedio", a que el Estado en vez del sector privado sea el principal actor en la creación de puestos de trabajo, alcanzan 56,4 puntos o más, en una escala de 0-100, en todos los países de América Latina o del Caribe incluidos en la encuesta del Barómetro de las Américas. Individuos que viven en hogares ricos se oponen significativamente al rol del Estado como principal generador de trabajo, pero, al contrario, mientras más rico es el país en términos de ingreso per cápita mayor es el rol que se espera del Estado como generador de empleo. Hay implicaciones importantes en cuanto a la política económica del Estado.The long debate on the role of the government remains a central one in the Americas and in other regions. The 2008 Americas Barometer finds that the "average" citizen's level of support for the government over the private sector as the primary actor job creation reaches 56.4 points and above, on a 0-100 scale, in every country in Latin America or the Caribbean, of those included in the Americas Barometer survey. Individuals from wealthier households significantly oppose a primary role of the government in job creation. On the other hand, the wealthier the country in per capita terms, the larger the role envisioned for the government in job creation. There are important implications for the state's public policies.

  19. June 13, 2013 U.S. East Coast Meteotsunami: Comparing a Numerical Model With Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, D.; Becker, N. C.; Weinstein, S.; Whitmore, P.; Knight, W.; Kim, Y.; Bouchard, R. H.; Grissom, K.

    2013-12-01

    On June 13, 2013, a tsunami struck the U.S. East Coast and caused several reported injuries. This tsunami occurred after a derecho moved offshore from North America into the Atlantic Ocean. The presence of this storm, the lack of a seismic source, and the fact that tsunami arrival times at tide stations and deep ocean-bottom pressure sensors cannot be attributed to a 'point-source' suggest this tsunami was caused by atmospheric forces, i.e., a meteotsunami. In this study we attempt to reproduce the observed phenomenon using a numerical model with idealized atmospheric pressure forcing resembling the propagation of the observed barometric anomaly. The numerical model was able to capture some observed features of the tsunami at some tide stations, including the time-lag between the time of pressure jump and the time of tsunami arrival. The model also captures the response at a deep ocean-bottom pressure gauge (DART 44402), including the primary wave and the reflected wave. There are two components of the oceanic response to the propagating pressure anomaly, inverted barometer response and dynamic response. We find that the dynamic response over the deep ocean to be much smaller than the inverted barometer response. The time lag between the pressure jump and tsunami arrival at tide stations is due to the dynamic response: waves generated and/or reflected at the shelf-break propagate shoreward and amplify due to the shoaling effect. The evolution of the derecho over the deep ocean (propagation direction and intensity) is not well defined, however, because of the lack of data so the forcing used for this study is somewhat speculative. Better definition of the pressure anomaly through increased observation or high resolution atmospheric models would improve meteotsunami forecast capabilities.

  20. Tobacco smoking surveillance: is quota sampling an efficient tool for monitoring national trends? A comparison with a random cross-sectional survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain Guignard

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: It is crucial for policy makers to monitor the evolution of tobacco smoking prevalence. In France, this monitoring is based on a series of cross-sectional general population surveys, the Health Barometers, conducted every five years and based on random samples. A methodological study has been carried out to assess the reliability of a monitoring system based on regular quota sampling surveys for smoking prevalence. DESIGN / OUTCOME MEASURES: In 2010, current and daily tobacco smoking prevalences obtained in a quota survey on 8,018 people were compared with those of the 2010 Health Barometer carried out on 27,653 people. Prevalences were assessed separately according to the telephone equipment of the interviewee (landline phone owner vs "mobile-only", and logistic regressions were conducted in the pooled database to assess the impact of the telephone equipment and of the survey mode on the prevalences found. Finally, logistic regressions adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics were conducted in the random sample in order to determine the impact of the needed number of calls to interwiew "hard-to-reach" people on the prevalence found. RESULTS: Current and daily prevalences were higher in the random sample (respectively 33.9% and 27.5% in 15-75 years-old than in the quota sample (respectively 30.2% and 25.3%. In both surveys, current and daily prevalences were lower among landline phone owners (respectively 31.8% and 25.5% in the random sample and 28.9% and 24.0% in the quota survey. The required number of calls was slightly related to the smoking status after adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics. CONCLUSION: Random sampling appears to be more effective than quota sampling, mainly by making it possible to interview hard-to-reach populations.

  1. Patient Satisfaction with Spanish Pain Centers: Observational Study with More than 3,000 Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio García García

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic pain is a serious problem in Spain. This multicenter, epidemiological 3-month follow-up study investigates pain management efficacy in Spanish centers using patient satisfaction criteria. 3,414 eligible adult patients (65,6% female with moderate to severe chronic pain from 146 pain centers were included. Patient satisfaction was assessed based onto question 18 of Spanish healthcare barometer-CSI. Pain evolution (Brief Pain Inventory-Short Form (BPI-SF and visual analog scale (VAS, quality of life/EuroQol-5, and pain control expectations fulfillment were also assessed. Mean age was 61.3 years. 64.4% of participating centers employed multidisciplinary pain management approach. After 3 months, mean patient satisfaction was 7.8 (1–10 on the CIS barometer. Medical staff received the highest scores, whereas waiting for tests, appointment request to appointment date time, and waiting times at the center the lowest. Mean pain decreased from 7.4 to 4.0; BPI-SF intensity decreased from 6.5 to 3.8; pain control expectations were met in 78.7% of patients; EuroQoL-5D utility index increased from 0.37 to 0.62, p<0.001, and health status (VAS from 40.6 to 61.9, p<0.001. Chronic pain patients (90% are satisfied with Spanish centers care; 80% had their pain control expectations met. Quality of life improved remarkably: 71% felt moderately to significantly better. However, waiting times need improvement.

  2. Globalization and Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Greg

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This debut editorial of Globalization and Health introduces the journal, briefly delineating its goals and objectives and outlines its scope of subject matter. 'Open Access' publishing is expected to become an increasingly important format for peer reviewed academic journals and that Globalization and Health is 'Open Access' is appropriate. The rationale behind starting a journal dedicated to globalization and health is three fold: Firstly: Globalization is reshaping the social geography within which we might strive to create health or prevent disease. The determinants of health – be they a SARS virus or a predilection for fatty foods – have joined us in our global mobility. Driven by economic liberalization and changing technologies, the phenomenon of 'access' is likely to dominate to an increasing extent the unfolding experience of human disease and wellbeing. Secondly: Understanding globalization as a subject matter itself needs certain benchmarks and barometers of its successes and failings. Health is one such barometer. It is a marker of social infrastructure and social welfare and as such can be used to either sound an alarm or give a victory cheer as our interconnectedness hurts and heals the populations we serve. And lastly: In as much as globalization can have an effect on health, it is also true that health and disease has an effect on globalization as exemplified by the existence of quarantine laws and the devastating economic effects of the AIDS pandemic. A balanced view would propose that the effects of globalization on health (and health systems are neither universally good nor bad, but rather context specific. If the dialogue pertaining to globalization is to be directed or biased in any direction, then it must be this: that we consider the poor first.

  3. The depth of sub-lithospheric diamond formation and the redistribution of carbon in the deep mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Christopher; Frost, Daniel J.

    2017-03-01

    Most diamonds form in the Earth's lithosphere but a small proportion contain Si-rich majoritic garnet inclusions that indicate formation in the deeper mantle. The compositions of syngenetic garnet inclusions can potential yield information on both the depth and mantle lithology in which the diamonds formed. Pressure dependent changes in garnet compositions have been calibrated using the results of experiments conducted in a multi-anvil apparatus at pressures between 6 and 16 GPa and temperatures of 1000 to 1400 °C. Using the results of these experiments a barometer was formulated based on an empirical parameterisation of the two major majoritic substitutions, referred to as majorite (Maj; Al3+ =Mg2+ +Si4+), and Na-majorite (Na-Maj; Mg2+ +Al3+ =Na+ +Si4+). Moreover, previously published experimental garnet compositions from basaltic, kimberlite, komatiite and peridotite bulk compositions were included in the calibration, which consequently covers pressures from 6 to 20 GPa and temperatures from 900 to 2100 °C. Experimental pressures are reproduced over these conditions with a standard deviation of 0.86 GPa. The barometer is used to determine equilibration pressures of approximately 500 reported garnet inclusions in diamonds from a range of localities. As the majority of these inclusions are proposed to be syngenetic this allows a detailed picture of diamond formation depths and associated source rocks to be established using inclusion chemistry. Geographic differences in diamond source rocks are mapped within the sub-lithospheric mantle to over 500 km depth. Continuous diamond formation occurs over this depth range within lithologies with eclogitic affinities but also in lithologies that appear transitional between eclogitic and peridotitic bulk compositions, with an affinity to pyroxenites. The geographic differences between eclogitic and pyroxenitic diamond source rocks are rationalised in terms of diamond formation within downwelling and upwelling regimes

  4. The role of local and external factors in determining the interannual sea level variability of the Adriatic and Black Seas during the 20th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarascia, Luca; Lionello, Piero

    2016-04-01

    The Adriatic Sea and the Black Sea are two semienclosed basins connected to the Mediterranean Sea by the Otranto and the Bosporus straits, respectively. This work aims to reconstruction the sea level for both basins in the 20th century and to investigate main sources of interannual variability. Using 7 tide gauge timeseries located along the Adriatic coast and 5 along the Black Sea coast, provided by the PSMSL (Permanent service of mean sea level), a seamless sea level timeseries (1900-2009) has been obtained for each basin on the basis of statistical procedure involving PCA and Least Square Method. The comparison with satellite data in the period 1993 - 2009 confirms that these are reliable representations of the observed sea level for the whole basin, showing a great agreement with a correlation value of 0.87 and 0.72 for Adriatic and Black Sea respectively. The sea level has been decomposed in various contributions in order to analyze the role of the factors responsible for its interannual variability. The annual cycles of the local effect of pressure (inverse barometer effect IB), of the steric effect due to temperature and salinity variation and of the wind effect have been computed. The largest contribute for the Adriatic Sea is due to the wind, whilst inverse barometer effect plays a minor role and the steric effect seems to be almost negligible. For the Black Sea, on the contrary, wind effect is negligible, and the largest source of variability is due to the Danube river, which is estimated from the available discharge data of Sulina (one of the exits of the Danube delta. Steric and IB effects play both a minor role in this basin. A linear regression model, built considering as predictor the SLP gradient identified at large scale after having carried out the correlation analysis, is capable to explain a further percentage of variability (about 20-25%) of the sea level after subtracting all the factors considered above. Finally, residual sea levels show a

  5. SU-E-T-571: Newly Emerging Integrated Transmission Detector Systems Provide Online Quality Assurance of External Beam Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, D; Chung, E; Hess, C; Stern, R; Benedict, S [UC Davis Cancer Center, Sacramento, CA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Two newly emerging transmission detectors positioned upstream from the patient have been evaluated for online quality assurance of external beam radiotherapy. The prototype for the Integral Quality Monitor (IQM), developed by iRT Systems GmbH (Koblenz, Germany) is a large-area ion chamber mounted on the linac accessory tray to monitor photon fluence, energy, beam shape, and gantry position during treatment. The ion chamber utilizes a thickness gradient which records variable response dependent on beam position. The prototype of Delta4 Discover™, developed by ScandiDos (Uppsala, Sweden) is a linac accessory tray mounted 4040 diode array that measures photon fluence during patient treatment. Both systems are employable for patient specific QA prior to treatment delivery. Methods: Our institution evaluated the reproducibility of measurements using various beam types, including VMAT treatment plans with both the IQM ion chamber and the Delta4 Discover diode array. Additionally, the IQM’s effect on photon fluence, dose response, simulated beam error detection, and the accuracy of the integrated barometer, thermometer, and inclinometer were characterized. The evaluated photon beam errors are based on the annual tolerances specified in AAPM TG-142. Results: Repeated VMAT treatments were measured with 0.16% reproducibility by the IQM and 0.55% reproducibility by the Delta4 Discover. The IQM attenuated 6, 10, and 15 MV photon beams by 5.43±0.02%, 4.60±0.02%, and 4.21±0.03% respectively. Photon beam profiles were affected <1.5% in the non-penumbra regions. The IQM’s ion chamber’s dose response was linear and the thermometer, barometer, and inclinometer agreed with other calibrated devices. The device detected variations in monitor units delivered (1%), field position (3mm), single MLC leaf positions (13mm), and photon energy. Conclusion: We have characterized two new transmissions detector systems designed to provide in-vivo like measurements upstream

  6. 室外移动机器人的组合导航定位系统设计%Design of Outdoor Mobile Robot Navigation Positioning System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴平; 张海

    2014-01-01

    The paper designes an outdoor mobile robot autonomous positioning system based on MSP430F149 microcontroller.The sys-tem applies the method of simulation SPI timing by GPIO pin to extend interface circuit,and the system focuses on solving the problem of lack of interface resources in the microcontroller,which can effectively complete the robot navigation services by accessing the satellite navigation receiver and inertial measurement unit,as well as the barometer.At the mean time the raw measured informations can be output for further precision navigation.In addition,this system solves the running problem of barometer MS5803-02BA which caused by negligences in the “user guide”.The conversion from pressure to height is also achieved by piecewise linear the function of pressure and height.The engineering solutions of aligning GNSS data and IMU data are given at last.%设计了一款基于 MSP430 F149微控制器的室外移动机器人自主定位系统。该系统通过 GPIO引脚模拟 SPI时序扩展接口电路,重点解决该款微控制器的硬件接口资源不足的问题,能够有效地接入卫星导航接收机、惯性测量单元、高度气压计,完成导航服务,同时可输出原始测量信息用于进一步高精度组合导航解算。此外,该系统还解决了由于高度气压计 MS580302BA使用手册中的疏漏导致无法正常工作的问题,并分段线性化气压值与高度之间的函数关系,从而完成气压值到高度的转换。最后,给出了卫星数据与惯导数据时间对准的工程解决方法。

  7. Lay perceptions of the greenhouse effect; Les representations profanes de l'effet de serre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peretti-Watel, P. [Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale (INSERM), UMR 379, Epidemiologie et Sciences Sociales Appliquees a l' Innovation Medicale / ORS PACA, 13 - Marseille (France); Hammer, B. [Electricite de France (EDF-GRETS), 92 - Clamart (France)

    2006-10-15

    Using the data from the French Environment Barometer EDF-RD 2004 (national representative sample of French citizens aged over 15) and surveys by ADEME between 2000 and 2005, the paper investigates lay perceptions of the causes and consequences of the greenhouse effect, which may be considered as archetypical of contemporary environmental risks. Beyond lay lack of knowledge, the greenhouse effect gives rise to coherent and meaningful cognitions, including causal explanations, shaped by the pre-existing cognitive framework. This cognitive work, based on analogic rather than scientific thought, strings together the greenhouse effect, ozone depletion, air pollution and even nuclear power. The cognitive process is also fed by the individuals' general conceptions of Nature and of the rights and duties of humankind towards Nature. People are not greatly worried about the unseen and controversial consequences of the greenhouse effect: such worry could be one of those 'elite fears' mentioned by Beck. Finally, while the efficiency of public policies to counter the greenhouse effect requires extensive societal involvement, low confidence towards both political and scientific authorities may prevent the population from becoming aware of the environmental stakes tied to the greenhouse effect. (authors)

  8. Estimation of mercury emissions into the Slovene environment in 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Svetina

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to collect data for better control of mercury emissions in Slovenia, especially from the point and spread sources of all categories. In the past years the Slovenian industry avoided the use of mercury as a raw material in the productionprocess to prevent the emissions and discharge of this hazardous substance. About 733 kg of Hg was imported with products, 620 kg Hg was produced with coal combustion and cement production, 920 kg was sold with products and around 200 kg was exported as waste in year 2001. Annually 1620 kg of Hg emission into environment is estimated, of this approximately 900 kg is deposited as waste, 630 kg escape in the air and 90 kg in water. The following sectors have been identified in Slovenia as the potential sources of mercury into environment: the thermal power plants, dental amalgams, products of electric industry (batteries, lamps, thermometers, manometers, barometers, chemicals, cement industry, incineration and waste treatment. A mercury flow diagram for Slovenia in theyear 2001 was established.

  9. An Empirical Analysis of the Housing Price Affecting Factors of Real Estate:Taking Shenyang as an Example%房地产住宅价格影响因素的实证分析--以沈阳市为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张国良; 徐永桂

    2013-01-01

    The residential property prices is a barometer of the real estate market, it can response the real estate market supply and demand situation, and the influence of the policy. Through the analysis of the housing price affecting factors of real estate in Shenyang, this paper establishes the research target, and with the help of statistics from 2002 to 2011 in Shenyang, uses Eviews software to take regression analysis for the data, and gets the regression equation of the commodity housing price change in Shenyang, so as to provide the theory basis for real estate enterprises decision-making and government policy making.%住宅价格是房地产市场的晴雨表,能够反应房地产市场的供需情况,以及政策的影响。本文通过对沈阳市住宅价格影响因素进行分析,确立研究指标,并借助沈阳市2002年到2011年统计数据,运用Eviews软件对数据进行回归分析,得到沈阳市商品住宅价格变动回归方程,从而为房地产企业决策及政府制定政策提供理论依据。

  10. Psychosocial safety climate as a lead indicator of workplace bullying and harassment, job resources, psychological health and employee engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Rebecca; Dollard, Maureen F; Tuckey, Michelle R; Dormann, Christian

    2011-09-01

    Psychosocial safety climate (PSC) is defined as shared perceptions of organizational policies, practices and procedures for the protection of worker psychological health and safety, that stem largely from management practices. PSC theory extends the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) framework and proposes that organizational level PSC determines work conditions and subsequently, psychological health problems and work engagement. Our sample was derived from the Australian Workplace Barometer project and comprised 30 organizations, and 220 employees. As expected, hierarchical linear modeling showed that organizational PSC was negatively associated with workplace bullying and harassment (demands) and in turn psychological health problems (health impairment path). PSC was also positively associated with work rewards (resources) and in turn work engagement (motivational path). Accordingly, we found that PSC triggered both the health impairment and motivational pathways, thus justifying extending the JD-R model in a multilevel way. Further we found that PSC, as an organization-based resource, moderated the positive relationship between bullying/harassment and psychological health problems, and the negative relationship between bullying/harassment and engagement. The findings provide evidence for a multilevel model of PSC as a lead indicator of workplace psychosocial hazards (high demands, low resources), psychological health and employee engagement, and as a potential moderator of psychosocial hazard effects. PSC is therefore an efficient target for primary and secondary intervention.

  11. Does low self-esteem enhance social pain? The relationship between trait self-esteem and anterior cingulate cortex activation induced by ostracism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onoda, Keiichi; Okamoto, Yasumasa; Nakashima, Ken'ichiro; Nittono, Hiroshi; Yoshimura, Shinpei; Yamawaki, Sigeto; Yamaguchi, Shuhei; Ura, Mitsuhiro

    2010-12-01

    According to sociometer theory, self-esteem serves as a barometer of the extent to which individuals are socially included or excluded by others. We hypothesized that trait self-esteem would be related to social pain responsiveness, and we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to experimentally investigate this potential relationship. Participants (n = 26) performed a cyberball task, a computerized game of catch during which the participants were excluded from the game. Participants then rated the degree of social pain experienced during both inclusion in and exclusion from the game. Individuals with lower trait self-esteem reported increased social pain relative to individuals with higher trait self-esteem, and such individuals also demonstrated a greater degree of dorsal anterior cingulate cortex activation. A psychophysiological interaction analysis revealed a positive connectivity between the dorsal anterior cingulate and prefrontal cortices for the lower trait self-esteem group, and a corresponding negative connectivity for the higher trait self-esteem group. Heightened dorsal anterior cortex activity and a corresponding connection with the prefrontal cortex might be one possible explanation for the greater levels of social pain observed experienced by individuals with low trait self-esteem.

  12. Optimization of Business Partners Feasibility for Oil Palm Revitalization Using Fuzzy Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliza Hidayati

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Resource potential of North Sumatra supports the idea to make North Sumatra as a national barometer of oil palm. The development of agro-CPO and its derivatives have great potential to grow rapidly because it is still 5.5% of the area planted with oil palm than 133 million hectares of potential land. Efforts to strengthen the availability of raw materials for CPO agroindustry and its derivatives by conducting Plantation Revitalization required with financial support from the banking system. Program of Plantation Revitalization is an effort to accelerate the development of smallholders through the expansion, replanting and rehabilitation of plantation-backed loans and investment of banking and interest subsidy by the government involving plantation companies as partners of the development, processing and marketing. The role of banks is quite large, but face problems of the large risks involved and the complexity of processes. Methode of Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process and Fuzzy Inference System integrated in the studies conducted. In AHP Fuzzy method, based on expert opinion the weighting criteria is resulting. Weighting being input to the FIS method to determine the feasibility of plantation companies as business partners to obtain credit financing. The study results show that not only financial performance but also non-financial performance should be taken into account in determining the creditworthiness of Revitalization Plantation program.

  13. Characterization of genes and pathways that respond to heat stress in Holstein calves through transcriptome analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srikanth, Krishnamoorthy; Kwon, Anam; Lee, Eunjin; Chung, Hoyoung

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the genes and pathways that respond to heat stress in Holstein bull calves exposed to severe ranges of temperature and humidity. A total of ten animals from 4 to 6 months of age were subjected to heat stress at 37 °C and 90 % humidity for 12 h. Skin and rectal temperatures were measured before and after heat stress; while no correlation was found between them before heat stress, a moderate correlation was detected after heat stress, confirming rectal temperature to be a better barometer for monitoring heat stress. RNAseq analysis identified 8567 genes to be differentially regulated, out of which 465 genes were significantly upregulated (≥2-fold, P heat stress. Significant terms and pathways enriched in response to heat stress included chaperones, cochaperones, cellular response to heat stress, phosphorylation, kinase activation, immune response, apoptosis, Toll-like receptor signaling pathway, Pi3K/AKT activation, protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum, interferon signaling, pathways in cancer, estrogen signaling pathway, and MAPK signaling pathway. The differentially expressed genes were validated by quantitative real-time PCR analysis, which confirmed the tendency of the expression. The genes and pathways identified in this analysis extend our understanding of transcriptional response to heat stress and their likely functioning in adapting the animal to hyperthermic stress. The identified genes could be used as candidate genes for association studies to select and breed animals with improved heat tolerance.

  14. Mean sea-level height variations in the Central Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerbini, Susanna; Bruni, Sara; Errico, Maddalena; Petracca, Fernanda; Raicich, Fabio; Santi, Efisio

    2015-04-01

    The Italian tide gauge network has experienced difficulties during last century. However, historical time series, starting from the end of the ninetieth century, are available in the PSMSL data base (Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level, http://www.psmsl.org/data/). Data from the early 1980s can also be obtained from the data base of ISPRA (Istituto Superiore per la Protezione e la Ricerca Ambientale, http://www.mareografico.it). In 1998, the Italian national tide gauge network (Rete Mareografica Nazionale - RMN) was completely restructured; it consists of 36 homogeneously distributed stations providing measurements sampled every 10 minutes. We have analyzed both the historical and the recent time series of a sub set of stations located in the Tyrrhenian area by using the Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOF) approach. The EOF analysis allows describing one data set as a linear combination of orthogonal components, or modes, that depend on position only, while the linear combination coefficients are functions of time only. Each mode is associated to a percentage of the total variance of the original data set, which accounts for the relative importance of the corresponding mode of variability. The aim of this work is to identify common modes which could possibly be related to wide area crustal deformation and/or to climatic fluctuations, such as the inverted barometer effect.

  15. Brand loyalty, patients and limited generic medicines uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Font, Joan; Rudisill, Caroline; Tan, Stefanie

    2014-06-01

    The sluggish development of European generic drug markets depends heavily on demand side factors, and more specifically, patients' and doctors' loyalty to branded products. Loyalty to originator drugs, to the point where originator prices rise upon generic entry has been described as the 'generics paradox'. Originator loyalty can emerge for a plethora of reasons; including costs, perceptions about quality and physician advice. We know very little about the behavioural underpinnings of brand loyalty from the consumer or patient standpoint. This paper attempts to test the extent to which patients are brand loyal by drawing upon Spain's 2002 Health Barometer survey as it includes questions about consumer acceptance of generics in a country with exceptionally low generic uptake and substitution at the time of the study. Our findings suggest that at least 13% of the population would not accept generics as substitutes to the originator. These results confirm evidence of brand loyalty for a minority. Alongside high levels of awareness of generics, we find that low cost-sharing levels explain consumer brand loyalty but their impact on acceptance of generic substitution is very small. Higher cost-sharing and exempting fewer patients from cost-sharing have the potential to encourage generic acceptance.

  16. Local house prices and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Nayan Krishna

    2016-03-01

    This paper examines the impact of local (county-level) house prices on individual self-reported mental health using individual level data from the United States Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System between 2005 and 2011. Exploiting a fixed-effects model that relies on within-county variations, relative to the corresponding changes in other counties, I find that while individuals are likely to experience worse self-reported mental health when local house prices decline, this association is most pronounced for individuals who are least likely to be homeowners. This finding is not consistent with a prediction from a pure wealth mechanism but rather with the hypothesis that house prices act as an economic barometer. I also demonstrate that the association between self-reported mental health and local house prices is not driven by unemployment or foreclosure. The primary result-that lower local house prices have adverse impact on self-reported mental health of homeowners and renters-is consistent with studies using data from the United Kingdom.

  17. Bolsa Família e voto na eleição presidencial de 2006: em busca do elo perdido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Cristina Licio

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo analisa o impacto de ser beneficiário do Programa Bolsa Família do governo federal na decisão de voto na eleição de 2006 e na avaliação atual do Presidente Lula da Silva e contribui para a crescente literatura que explora o impacto desse programa na distribuição de voto em Lula. Contudo, diferentemente de outros estudos, são analisados aqui dados ao nível individual, testando um modelo estatístico multivariado em uma amostra probabilística nacional usando o Barômetro das Américas de 2008. Os resultados indicam um forte impacto de ser beneficiário do programa no voto em Lula e em avaliações positivas de seu desempenho.This article explores the impact of being a Family Grant Program beneficiary in vote choice for President in the 2006 elections and in Lula da Silva's government evaluations. Therefore, the article contributes to the growing literature on how social programs affect voting behaviour in Brazil. However, differently from all other studies, we use individual level data from the AmericasBarometer 2008 Brazilian round, and multivariate statistical analysis to test our hypotheses. Results indicate that being a recipient of the Family Grant Program positively affects vote for Lula and his administration's evaluations.

  18. eBeam community speaks out on future directions for photomask manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimura, Aki; Willis, Jan

    2016-05-01

    As has been the case for many years and for the near future down to the 7-nm logic node, electron-beam (eBeam) mask writing is pushing the limits of acceptable write times and quality. The eBeam community has responded to these challenges through innovation, engineering and collaboration. In 2009, the eBeam Initiative was launched to provide a stronger voice and educational platform for eBeam technology within the photomask and semiconductor design and manufacturing ecosystem. For the fourth consecutive year, as the photomask community heads to the annual SPIE/BACUS Photomask Symposium in Monterey, the eBeam Initiative has conducted a survey on photomask-related trends and perceptions. This annual perceptions survey has been instrumental in confirming key areas to align the Initiative's efforts on to guide the industry ecosystem forward in supporting the introduction of new eBeam technologies. At the request of the community, an additional mask survey was conducted this year by the eBeam Initiative to include trends on key mask metrics that help serve as a barometer for mask makers. The complete results of both surveys are available for download at www.ebeam.org. Below is a summary and analysis of the key findings.

  19. Lake-level variations of Lago Fagnano, Tierra del Fuego: observations, modelling and interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano MENDOZA

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The lake-level variations of Lago Fagnano, the largest lake in Tierra del Fuego, southernmost South America, on time scales from a few minutes to three years are investigated using a geodetic approach and applying the tools of time series analysis. Based on pressure tide gauge records at three locations in the lake precise lake-level time series are derived. The analysis of the observed variations in space, time and frequency domain leads to the separation of the principal force-response mechanisms. We show that the lake-level variations in Lago Fagnano can be described essentially as a combination of lake-level shift and tilt and of surface seiches. Regarding the lake-level response to air-pressure forcing, a significant departure from the inverse barometer model is found. Surface seiches dynamics are particularly intensive in Lago Fagnano pointing towards exceptionally low dissipative friction. An undisturbed series of seiches lasting eleven days is presented; and at least eleven longitudinal modes are identified. Based on the characterisation of the main contributions in space and time as well as their relation to the driving forces, a model for the transfer of the lake-level variations at a reference point to an arbitrary location in the lake with an accuracy of 1 cm is developed.

  20. THE GENERATING AND COMPLEMENTARY EFFECTS OF THE UNDERGROUND ECONOMY PHENOMENON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corneliu Sorin BAICU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available For a comprehensive understanding of the informal sector, an analysis addressing the relationships and links between the morphology and etiology of the underground economy, on the one hand, and its effects on the economic, social or legal, on the other hand is required. The double identity, that of cause phenomenon and effect phenomenon, that the underground economy has, gives it a special status in explaining certain phenomena which vitiates the economic and social life. The generating and complementary effects of the underground area covered in this study are analyzed in terms of the following vectors of analysis: tax evasion, illegal work and money laundering. Tax evasion represents the central core of the underground economy and faithfully expresses the fiscal monetary policies ,the fiscal mortality and the degree of compliance of the taxpayer. Undeclared work is an indicator of the labor market in the informal economy and is a good barometer for analyzing the demand and supply of labor in the visible economy. Money laundering defines the level of economic and financial crime and reflects the level of illegal use of capital on the black market. Tax evasion, money laundering and illegal work can only develop on a framework provided by illicit markets for goods, services and labor. Beyond the, unidirectional or bidirectional relationships between phenomena, the paper consists in a plea for an interdependent, multi-causal analysis of the phenomena and operating mechanisms of the relationships within and outside the underground economy.

  1. Pedestrian tracking and navigation using an adaptive knowledge system based on neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grejner-Brzezinska, Dorota A.; Toth, Charles; Moafipoor, Shahram

    2007-11-01

    The primary objective of the research presented here is to develop theoretical foundations and implementation algorithms, which integrate the Global Positioning System (GPS), micro-electromechanical inertial measurement unit (MEMS IMU), digital barometer, electronic compass, and human pedometry to provide navigation and tracking of military and rescue ground personnel. This paper discusses the design, implementation and the performance analyses of the personal navigator prototype, with a special emphasis on dead-reckoning (DR) navigation supported by the human locomotion model. The adaptive knowledge system, based on the Artificial Neural Networks (ANN), is implemented to support this functionality. The knowledge system is trained during the GPS signal reception and is used to support navigation under GPS-denied conditions. The human locomotion parameters, step frequency (SF) and step length (SL), are extracted from GPS-timed impact switches (step frequency) and GPS/IMU data (step length), respectively, during the system calibration period. SL is correlated with several data types, such as acceleration, acceleration variation, SF, terrain slope, etc. that constitute the input parameters to the ANN-based knowledge system. The ANN-predicted SL, together with the heading information from the compass and gyro, support DR navigation. The current target accuracy of the system is 3-5 m CEP (circular error probable) 50%.

  2. Late Cretaceous seasonal ocean variability from the Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Andrew; Kemp, Alan E S; Pike, Jennifer

    2009-07-09

    The modern Arctic Ocean is regarded as a barometer of global change and amplifier of global warming and therefore records of past Arctic change are critical for palaeoclimate reconstruction. Little is known of the state of the Arctic Ocean in the greenhouse period of the Late Cretaceous epoch (65-99 million years ago), yet records from such times may yield important clues to Arctic Ocean behaviour in near-future warmer climates. Here we present a seasonally resolved Cretaceous sedimentary record from the Alpha ridge of the Arctic Ocean. This palaeo-sediment trap provides new insight into the workings of the Cretaceous marine biological carbon pump. Seasonal primary production was dominated by diatom algae but was not related to upwelling as was previously hypothesized. Rather, production occurred within a stratified water column, involving specially adapted species in blooms resembling those of the modern North Pacific subtropical gyre, or those indicated for the Mediterranean sapropels. With increased CO(2) levels and warming currently driving increased stratification in the global ocean, this style of production that is adapted to stratification may become more widespread. Our evidence for seasonal diatom production and flux testify to an ice-free summer, but thin accumulations of terrigenous sediment within the diatom ooze are consistent with the presence of intermittent sea ice in the winter, supporting a wide body of evidence for low temperatures in the Late Cretaceous Arctic Ocean, rather than recent suggestions of a 15 degrees C mean annual temperature at this time.

  3. The Analysis of the Macro Factors on the Stock Price of the Real Estate%宏观因素对房地产行业股票价格影响的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹妍

    2015-01-01

    The author has chosen the macro economic index and the stock price index of the real estate to empirically analyze the macro factors on the stock price of the real estate by regression analysis. What we have got from the study is that three macro economic indices(fixed investment, CPI and RMB benchmark deposit interest rates of financial in⁃stitutions)have obvious influence on the stock price index of the real estate,which can serve a certain barometer for in⁃vestors to invest in the real estate stock .%文章通过选择宏观经济指标与房地产股票价格指数数据,运用回归分析方法,就宏观因素对房地产股票价格的影响情况进行了实证分析,得出了固定资产投资、居民消费价格指数和金融机构人民币贷款基准利率3个宏观经济指标对房地产股票价格指数有显著的影响的结论,为投资者投资房地产行业股票提供一定的决策参考。

  4. 英文文摘

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Innovation of Accounting Theory Based on the Environment of E-businesses Tan Wenhao ( College of Science and Technology,Nanchang University,Nanchang,Jiangxi 330029 ) Abstract: With the rapid development of computer communications technology, creating a new business model - e-commerce. E-commerce business model, the traditional business model of companies had improved, re-optimize the allocation of resources. In e-commerce business model, the traditional business processes for enterprise restructuring and business transformation. E-commerce on the productivity of traditional business operations to bring changes in many aspects of economic life had a huge impact. Changes in the external economic environment, requiring as a barometer of the economy of accounting theory should make the appropriate theoretical innovation. This paper from the e-commerce features of the traditional theory of change, the new environment, the core issue of accounting theory, analysis, and build the basis of the analysis of innovative e-commerce environment based system of accounting theory, accounting for the emerging information systems in economic matters provide an accurate reflection of theoretical support.

  5. Collective Flow signals the Quark Gluon Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratkovskaya, E. L.; Bleicher, M.; Greiner, C.; Muronga, A.; Paech, K.; Reiter, M.; Scherer, S.; Soff, S.; Xu, Z.; Zeeb, G.; Zschiesche, D.; Tavares, B.; Portugal, L.; Aguiar, C.; Kodama, T.; Grassi, F.; Hama, Y.; Osada, T.; Sokolowski, O.; Werner, K.; Gallmeister, K.; Cassing, W.; Stöcker, H.

    2004-12-01

    A critical discussion of the present status of the CERN experiments on charm dynamics and hadron collective flow is given. We emphasize the importance of the flow excitation function from 1 to 50 AṡGeV: here the hydrodynamic model has predicted the collapse of the v1-flow and of the v2-flow at ˜ 10 AṡGeV; at 40 AṡGeV it has been recently observed by the NA49 collaboration. Since hadronic rescattering models predict much larger flow than observed at this energy we interpret this observation as potential evidence for a first order phase transition at high baryon density ρB. A detailed discussion of the collective flow as a barometer for the equation of state (EoS) of hot dense matter at RHIC follows. Additionally, detailed transport studies show that the away-side jet suppression can only partially (QGP formed at RHIC — can give further information on the equation of state (EoS) and transport coefficients of the Quark Gluon Plasma (QGP).

  6. Mach Cones and Hydrodynamic Flow:. Probing Big Bang Matter in the Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betz, Barbara; Rau, Philip; Stöcker, Horst

    A critical discussion of the present signals for the phase transition to quark-gluon plasma (QGP) is given. Since hadronic rescattering models predict much larger flow than observed from 1 to 50 A GeV laboratory bombarding energies, this observation is interpreted as potential evidence for a first-order phase transition at high baryon density. A detailed discussion of the collective flow as a barometer for the equation of state (EoS) of hot dense matter at RHIC follows. Here, hadronic rescattering models can explain 2 GeV/c. This is interpreted as an evidence for the production of superdense matter at RHIC. The connection of v2 to jet suppression is examined. A study of Mach shocks generated by fast partonic jets propagating through the QGP is given. The main goal is to take into account different types of collective motion during the formation and evolution of this matter. A significant deformation of Mach shocks in central Au+Au collisions at RHIC and LHC energies as compared to the case of jet propagation in a static medium is predicted. A new hydrodynamical study of jet energy loss is presented.

  7. 东亚与拉美民主信念的比较分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    恒川惠市; 鷲田任邦

    2010-01-01

    一个民主国家要想稳定持续就必须使得那些高度不满的公民能够信守民主制度.没有这种民主信念,民主制度将是不稳定的.即便是完成了民主转型,新兴民主体制也会因为公民的失望和动摇而陷入险境.本文首先根据“亚洲晴雨表调查”(Asia Barometer)数据来测量几个亚洲国家的民主信念水平,然后通过与拉丁美洲国家的比较,阐明亚洲各国民主信念的特征.随后,我们将再次通过与拉丁美洲的比较,分析那些与亚洲民主信念相关联的因素.

  8. The Role of Social Capital in Avoiding Over-education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BLANKA BALINT

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In post-socialist countries, overqualification is a current and relevant issue, butdespite its importance, this topic is not sufficiently addressed in the literature,especially in the post-communist region. Starting from the theory of professionalreorientation strategies, one can assume that the lack of social capital may be one ofthe causes of overqualification. In this study, I will investigate this hypothesis. Theanalysis of the issue was performed on the database of the “MOZAIK2001”sociological survey. The long period of time that has lapsed since the collection of thedata requires the verification of the assumptions on a much more recent database,namely the Cultural Consumption Barometer 2010. In order to identify the necessaryworkplace educational training, I used the occupation classification method.Overqualification was determined by comparing the educational training acquiredwith the occupation performed. Although the importance of relational resources on thelabour market is discussed in several studies in the field, the research was only partlyable to prove the positive role of social capital in avoiding overqualification.

  9. Behavioral Dispositions Towards the Prevention of Pollution in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAURA NISTOR

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines several aspects related to Romanian citizens' dispositions to financially contribute to the prevention of pollution. The data used are provided by the European Values Survey (EVS 1999 and the EVS/Public Opinion Barometer (BOP 2005. Both EVS waves used three specific questions, which investigated the extent to which persons would be willing to: 1. give up a part of their income, 2. accept a tax increase if this could contribute to the prevention of pollution, and 3. claim that the issue of pollution should be solved by the government, without individual financial contributions. These are the dependent variables of the analysis. Based on the epistemology of environmental citizenship literature, the dependent variables were dichotomized: the first two sentences are a semantic cover for the disposition towards active involvement, and the last sentence corresponds to the disposition towards passivity. In relation to these dependent variables, the effect of several independent variables (social-cultural, axiological, political-ideological, etc. was analyzed and, in the end, two different citizenship profiles, specific to the two dispositions studied, were outlined.

  10. Kajian Pengaruh Konfigurasi Mesin Penggilingan terhadap Rendemen dan Susut Giling beberapa Varietas Padi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rokhani Hasbullah

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Rice is the staple food for Indonesian people so that the rice supply will be the barometer for thenational’s food security. In rice production, both of postharvest losses and low milling yield are still theproblems due to lack of postharvest handling. In this study, the effect of rice milling machine configurationon the milling yield and quality of some paddy varieties was examined. Paddy variety of Ciherang, Cibogoand Hybrid were milled using a configuration process of: 1 two husking and two polishing (2H-2P, 2 onehusking, one separating and one polishing (H-S-P, and 3 one husking, two separating and two polishing(H-2S-2P. The results show that the paddy varieties significanly affect milling yield and losses. However,rice milling machine configurations are not significantly affect the milling yield and losses. Paddy variety ofCibogo resulting in the highest milling yield (67.80 % compared to Ciherang (62.61 % and Hibrida (60.78%. Paddy variety of Cibogo resulting in the lowest losses (1.41 % compared to Ciherang (3.43 % andHibrida (3.03 %. The speed of milling process for configuration of 2H-2P, H-S-P and H-2S-2P were 228.1kg/hour, 295.6 kg/h and 263.2 kg/hr respectively.

  11. Micro-area Chemical Composition and Preserved P-T Evolution Trace of Phengite in Albite Gneiss from the Donghai Ultrahigh-Pressure Metamorphic Area, East China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Study of micro-area chemical compositions indicates that phengite in albite gneiss from hole ZK2304 of the Donghai region has evident compositional zoning. SiO2 and tetrahedrally coordinated Si contents decrease, and Al2O3, AlIV and AlVI contents increase gradually from core to rim. However, K2O, MgO and FeO contents basically remain unchanged from core to rim. According to P-T estimates obtained from geothermometers and barometers, combined with previous experimental data, the core belt (micro-area I) of phengite was formed at T=637- 672° C and P=1.55- 1.73 GPa, and the transitional belt (micro-area II) of the phengite were formed at T=594- 654° C and P=1.35- 1.45 GPa. Towards the rim belt (micro-area III), the temperature decreased slightly, but the pressure decreased rapidly with T=542- 630° C and P=1.12- 1.19 GPa. The P-T evolution path recorded by the compositional zoning of phengite is characterized by significant near-isothermal decompression, revealing that the gneiss has undergone high-pressure-ultrahigh-pressure metamorphism. The compositional zoning of the phengite in the albite gneiss may have formed in the geodynamic process of rapid exhumation in the Sulu ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic belt.

  12. �Within the enclave� � Profiling South African social and religious developments since 1994

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Cilliers

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigated religious and social transformations within a specific religious tradition in South Africa. After clarifying the charged concept of �transformation�, the authors showed that transformation is about more than changed systems and structures, for, on a deeper level, it is also about the change in relationships and attitudes between the different cultural groups in South Africa. The argument was supported by making use of data from the SA reconciliation barometer 2010 and the 2009 Transformation audit. In the next part of the paper, the authors took a closer look at the Dutch Reformed Church (DRC as a case in point. The basic question they asked was how do these social transformations affect the religious transformations within the DRC and vice versa? By making use of Mary Douglas�s concept of �the enclave� it was proposed that a new enclave developed in the DRC after 1994, the characteristics of which were investigated in the remainder of the paper.

  13. La sociedad del conocimiento. Algunas claves para la modernización tecnológica de Andalucía.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Palma Martos

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available We analyze several aspects in an economic, social and political perspective as key elements to realize technological modernization and economic development of regions, focused on Andalusian reality at three levels: the context of convergence in New Economy and ICT between Spanish regions; a comparative approach (national and international of Andalusian levels of ICT industries, availability and quality of infrastructures and technological services, use and absorptive capacity of ICT; an internal analysis of Andalusian data using the Barometer i@ landalus, cutting by Andalusian provinces, age of people and size of municipalities. We found Andalusia badly positioned both in relation with Spain and internationally; nevertheless in the last years we can see an enhancement in their data, even if it shows a clear gap in relation to more advanced regions. But the solution for this must not be limited to increase funds devoted to these activities; it must be combined with a strategic transformation of productive, political and social structures as well as a reorientation of systems of values and of certain cultural aspects.

  14. Barômetro da Sustentabilidade aplicado a assentamentos rurais do leste do Estado do Pará, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veríssimo César Sousa Silva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The sustainability of rural settlements projects in Amazon has been questioned with regard to environmental impacts and socio-economic precariousness of rural populations. In recent years, several methods of assessing the sustainability of these settlements have been proposed, but the challenges are still enormous in order to incorporate a multidimensional view in assessing the quality of these settlements. This study aims to analyze the level of sustainability of rural settlements of Pará state, Brazil through the Sustainability Barometer (BS. Four themes were selected (social, economic- productive, organizational and environmental and 28 indicators drawn from a social and environmental assessment made by the National Institute of Colonization and Agrarian Reform – INCRA. Two categories of settlements were compared: Conventional Projects (PAC and Environmental Differentiated Projects (PAD. Both categories of rural settlements were demonstrated not to provide good quality of life to families considering the precariousness of basic services offered to rural settlers. On the other hand, both categories of settlement are in the same situation in terms of sustainability (Potentially Unsustainable - according to BS, the PAD model presents greater potential for economic and ecological sustainability.

  15. The influence of periodic wind turbine noise on infrasound array measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilger, Christoph; Ceranna, Lars

    2017-02-01

    Aerodynamic noise emissions from the continuously growing number of wind turbines in Germany are creating increasing problems for infrasound recording systems. These systems are equipped with highly sensitive micro pressure sensors accurately measuring acoustic signals in a frequency range inaudible to the human ear. Ten years of data (2006-2015) from the infrasound array IGADE in Northern Germany are analysed to quantify the influence of wind turbine noise on infrasound recordings. Furthermore, a theoretical model is derived and validated by a field experiment with mobile micro-barometer stations. Fieldwork was carried out 2004 to measure the infrasonic pressure level of a single horizontal-axis wind turbine and to extrapolate the sound effect for a larger number of nearby wind turbines. The model estimates the generated sound pressure level of wind turbines and thus enables for specifying the minimum allowable distance between wind turbines and infrasound stations for undisturbed recording. This aspect is particularly important to guarantee the monitoring performance of the German infrasound stations I26DE in the Bavarian Forest and I27DE in Antarctica. These stations are part of the International Monitoring System (IMS) verifying compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), and thus have to meet stringent specifications with respect to infrasonic background noise.

  16. Collective Flow signals the Quark Gluon Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Stöcker, H

    2005-01-01

    A critical discussion of the present status of the CERN experiments on charm dynamics and hadron collective flow is given. We emphasize the importance of the flow excitation function from 1 to 50 A$\\cdot$GeV: here the hydrodynamic model has predicted the collapse of the $v_1$-flow and of the $v_2$-flow at $\\sim 10$ A$\\cdot$GeV; at 40 A$\\cdot$GeV it has been recently observed by the NA49 collaboration. Since hadronic rescattering models predict much larger flow than observed at this energy we interpret this observation as potential evidence for a first order phase transition at high baryon density $\\rho_B$. A detailed discussion of the collective flow as a barometer for the equation of state (EoS) of hot dense matter at RHIC follows. Additionally, detailed transport studies show that the away-side jet suppression can only partially ($<$ 50%) be due to hadronic rescattering. We, finally, propose upgrades and second generation experiments at RHIC which inspect the first order phase transition in the fragmenta...

  17. Uso do Barômetro da Sustentabilidade Para Avaliação de um Município Localizado em Região Semiárida do Nordeste Brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline de Souza Amorim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The increase in economic and industrial activities has resulted in the emergence of environmental problems that affect the quality of life triggers thus a crisis in relations between society and environ - ment. In this context of cultural changes, social and environmental arises the concept of sustainable development and with it the sustainability indicators, which through various aggregate indices, have a central role in decision-making process, ie, the transformation of information into concrete actions aimed at the collective interest. Attending to this, this study aimed to assess the sustainability of the city of Caic ó – RN through the application of the Barometer of Sustainability and from the results to an analysis of how they can influence the quality of the water supply of the municipality. Performance scales were made of the municipality and the results were treated and placed in relative scales ranging from 0 to 100. The results indicate that Caicó occupies a potentially unsustainable according to the methodology of the tool, requiring, therefore, of public policies that improve this situation.

  18. Role of Social Protection Unit District Cilacap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunawan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Implementation of security and peace, order and protection of the people especially those who are within the settlement is the duty and responsibility of member units of community protection (Satlinmas, and what happens when members Satlinmas in carrying out its duties and functions not supported by the human resources of adequate quality and quantity , so the expectations and desires of the community to get security and peace, order and public protection are not met in full and result in (Satlinmas presence cannot be felt by the community. The method used in this study using qualitative research with descriptive analysis, the data obtained through documentation, observation, and interviews, sample locations were selected based on purposive sample of Cilacap, Cilacap is a district that has accommodated the institutional Linmas the organizational structure of Civil Service Police Unit and a barometer for other regions in the implementation of the enforcement of local regulations. The purpose of the study wanted to know how far Satlinmas can act in accordance with its duties and functions. Research results that Satlinmas role in organizing disaster management, the handling of security, peace and order, protection of the public at the district level are generally already be implemented, but at the neighbourhood level and harmonious citizens tasks and functions are yet to be implemented optimally.

  19. Modelling Central Bank Independence and Inflation: Deus Ex Machina?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumiter Florin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Central bank independence represents the core element of assessing the complex relationship between government and central bank, having at background the fundamental issue of a free monetary policy decision-making process from the hands of the political circle. However, central bank independence is a multilevel concept within some social, economic and behavioral implications both for the central banks and for the society at whole. Central bank independence is needed in order to establish an autonomous central bank with a high degree of freedom in choosing its’ instruments, objectives, techniques and tactics. Moreover, a high degree of transparency for the public disclosure and monitoring of central bank operation and transaction is needed for the social barometer of the central bank. Consequently the central bank must have a high degree of accountability and responsibility vis - á - vis of the most democratic institution, i.e. Parliament. In this article it is presented a comprehensive study regarding the complex relationship between central bank independence and inflation by modeling these two monetary policy panacea, in order to make a fine tuning regarding the causal relationship established in a heterodox manner.

  20. Carrying Position Independent User Heading Estimation for Indoor Pedestrian Navigation with Smartphones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-An Deng

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel heading estimation approach for indoor pedestrian navigation using the built-in inertial sensors on a smartphone. Unlike previous approaches constraining the carrying position of a smartphone on the user’s body, our approach gives the user a larger freedom by implementing automatic recognition of the device carrying position and subsequent selection of an optimal strategy for heading estimation. We firstly predetermine the motion state by a decision tree using an accelerometer and a barometer. Then, to enable accurate and computational lightweight carrying position recognition, we combine a position classifier with a novel position transition detection algorithm, which may also be used to avoid the confusion between position transition and user turn during pedestrian walking. For a device placed in the trouser pockets or held in a swinging hand, the heading estimation is achieved by deploying a principal component analysis (PCA-based approach. For a device held in the hand or against the ear during a phone call, user heading is directly estimated by adding the yaw angle of the device to the related heading offset. Experimental results show that our approach can automatically detect carrying positions with high accuracy, and outperforms previous heading estimation approaches in terms of accuracy and applicability.

  1. High-pressure granulite from Western Kunlun,northwestern China:Its metamorphic evolution,zircon SHRIMP U-Pb ages and tectonic implication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    High-pressure mafic granulites occurring as lenticular bodies within garnet-amphibolites in Kangxiwar Fault have been first reported in this paper. The P-T conditions of two metamorphic stages were ob-tained using calibrated geothermal barometers and ThermoCalc Program. The peak metamorphic con-dition of these high-pressure granulites is about 760―820℃,1.0―1.2 GPa and the retrograde meta-morphic condition is about 620―720℃,0.7―0.8 GPa. The petrological studies show that they have a near-isobaric cooling P-T path which suggests that the Western Kunlun underwent initial crustal thickening,subsequent exhumation and cooling. The SHRIMP zircon U-Pb dating gives two groups of ages for high-pressure granulites. One is 177±6 Ma which is obtained from the rim of the zircon. We consider this age should be the metamorphic age. And the other is 456±30 Ma which is obtained from the core of the zircon and should be the protolith age. The formation of these high-pressure granulites in western Kunlun is closely correlated with the evolution of the Paleo-Tethys and has important im-plications for the research on Tethys and Paleo-Asian tectonic zone.

  2. 结构位置、社会心理与抗争性政治参与——中国大陆与西方式民主国家之间的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余晶晶

    2012-01-01

    本文从结构位置解释与社会心理解释两个方面对“亚洲动态民主调查”(Asia Barometer Survey Data)数据进行分析,比较中国与西方式民主国家之间抗争性政治参与的情况及其影响因素的差异。结果发现,在抗争参与方面,与西方社会的高参与率相比较,中国参与过抗争性政治活动的比例很少,阶层、教育等结构性因素和不满情绪、认知解放等社会心理因素对西方民主国家的抗争参与均有显著影响,但中国的抗争参与仅受阶层和性别的影响。从抗争活动参与潜力来看,中国尽管实际的抗争参与不多,但抗争活动参与潜力很大,受教育和不满情绪的影响较大。

  3. Barometric tides from ECMWF operational analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. D. Ray

    Full Text Available The solar diurnal and semidiurnal tidal oscillations in surface pressure are extracted from the operational analysis product of the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF. For the semidiurnal tide this involves a special temporal interpolation, following Van den Dool et al. (1997. The resulting tides are compared with a "ground truth" tide data set, a compilation of well-determined tide estimates deduced from many long time series of station barometer measurements. These comparisons show that the ECMWF (analysis tides are significantly more accurate than the tides deduced from two other widely available reanalysis products. Spectral analysis of ECMWF pressure series shows that the tides consist of sharp central peaks with modulating sidelines at integer multiples of 1 cycle/year, superimposed on a broad cusp of stochastic energy. The integrated energy in the cusp dominates that of the side-lines. This complicates the development of a simple empirical model that can characterize the full temporal variability of the tides.

    Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (waves and tides

  4. The aluminum-in-olivine thermometer for mantle peridotites - Experimental versus empirical calibration and potential applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussweiler, Y.; Brey, G. P.; Pearson, D. G.; Stachel, T.; Stern, R. A.; Hardman, M. F.; Kjarsgaard, B. A.; Jackson, S. E.

    2017-02-01

    This study provides an experimental calibration of the empirical Al-in-olivine thermometer for mantle peridotites proposed by De Hoog et al. (2010). We report Al concentrations measured by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) in olivines produced in the original high-pressure, high-temperature, four-phase lherzolite experiments by Brey et al. (1990). These reversed experiments were used for the calibration of the two-pyroxene thermometer and Al-in-orthopyroxene barometer by Brey and Köhler (1990). The experimental conditions of the runs investigated here range from 28 to 60 kbar and 1000 to 1300 °C. Olivine compositions from this range of experiments have Al concentrations that are consistent, within analytical uncertainties, with those predicted by the empirical calibration of the Al-in-olivine thermometer for mantle peridotites. Fitting the experimental data to a thermometer equation, using the least squares method, results in the expression: This version of the Al-in-olivine thermometer appears to be applicable to garnet peridotites (lherzolites and harzburgites) well outside the range of experimental conditions investigated here. However, the thermometer is not applicable to spinel-bearing peridotites. We provide new trace element criteria to distinguish between olivine from garnet-, garnet-spinel-, and spinel-facies peridotites. The estimated accuracy of the thermometer is ± 20 °C. Thus, the thermometer could serve as a useful tool in settings where two-pyroxene thermometry cannot be applied, such as garnet harzburgites and single inclusions in diamond.

  5. FLOOR IDENTIFICATION WITH COMMERCIAL SMARTPHONES IN WIFI-BASED INDOOR LOCALIZATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. J. Ai

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we utilize novel sensors built-in commercial smart devices to propose a schema which can identify floors with high accuracy and efficiency. This schema can be divided into two modules: floor identifying and floor change detection. Floor identifying module starts at initial phase of positioning, and responsible for determining which floor the positioning start. We have estimated two methods to identify initial floor based on K-Nearest Neighbors (KNN and BP Neural Network, respectively. In order to improve performance of KNN algorithm, we proposed a novel method based on weighting signal strength, which can identify floors robust and quickly. Floor change detection module turns on after entering into continues positioning procedure. In this module, sensors (such as accelerometer and barometer of smart devices are used to determine whether the user is going up and down stairs or taking an elevator. This method has fused different kinds of sensor data and can adapt various motion pattern of users. We conduct our experiment with mobile client on Android Phone (Nexus 5 at a four-floors building with an open area between the second and third floor. The results demonstrate that our scheme can achieve an accuracy of 99% to identify floor and 97% to detecting floor changes as a whole.

  6. STRATEGIC OPTIONS IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE BUCHAREST BRAND THROUGH THE APPLICATION ANALYSIS OF THE MEASURING INSTRUMENTS FOR THE URBAN BRANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RUXANDRA IRINA POPESCU

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The reality demonstrates that, in the present context, the competition between the cities is harsh, amplified by the economic and politic effects of the globalization. Thecities are fighting to attract investments, influence, businesses, tourists, residents. One of the challenges of the urban management in its efforts to grow the performance is linked around the construction of the urban brand as a solution in the process of the cities’ development. This construction implies the validity, credibility, simplicity, attractiveness and distinctiveness of the city’s image. The answer of the researchers to the need of a critical effective instrument in this area was the creation of the Urban Brand Index. Through these measuring instruments, the actors implied in the administration of the cities can easily understand the perception of the visitors, investors, costumers and future residents upon the image of the city, to identify and apply some pro-active measures to stimulate and improvement of the existing opportunities that have as main result the development of the city. In this study are presented three of these instruments - The City Brands Index, The European Barometer of City Brands and The Global Cities Index - and the way in which these can contribute to the actions for constructing a powerful urban brand of Bucharest, is analyzed.

  7. Mach Cones and Hydrodynamic Flow Probing Big Bang Matter in the Laboratory

    CERN Document Server

    Betz, Barbara; Stöcker, Horst

    2007-01-01

    A critical discussion of the present signals for the phase transition to quark-gluon plasma (QGP) is given. Since hadronic rescattering models predict much larger flow than observed from 1 to 50 A GeV laboratory bombarding energies, this observation is interpreted as potential evidence for a first-order phase transition at high baryon density. A detailed discussion of the collective flow as a barometer for the equation of state (EoS) of hot dense matter at RHIC follows. Here, hadronic rescattering models can explain $ 2$ GeV/c. This is interpreted as an evidence for the production of superdense matter at RHIC. The connection of $v_2$ to jet suppression is examined. A study of Mach shocks generated by fast partonic jets propagating through the QGP is given. The main goal is to take into account different types of collective motion during the formation and evolution of this matter. A significant deformation of Mach shocks in central Au+Au collisions at RHIC and LHC energies as compared to the case of jet propag...

  8. Design and Testing of a Multi-Sensor Pedestrian Location and Navigation Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valérie Renaudin

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available avigation and location technologies are continually advancing, allowing ever higher accuracies and operation under ever more challenging conditions. The development of such technologies requires the rapid evaluation of a large number of sensors and related utilization strategies. The integration of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSSs such as the Global Positioning System (GPS with accelerometers, gyros, barometers, magnetometers and other sensors is allowing for novel applications, but is hindered by the difficulties to test and compare integrated solutions using multiple sensor sets. In order to achieve compatibility and flexibility in terms of multiple sensors, an advanced adaptable platform is required. This paper describes the design and testing of the NavCube, a multi-sensor navigation, location and timing platform. The system provides a research tool for pedestrian navigation, location and body motion analysis in an unobtrusive form factor that enables in situ data collections with minimal gait and posture impact. Testing and examples of applications of the NavCube are provided.

  9. 东亚与拉美民主信念的比较分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    恒川惠市; 鷲田任邦; 朱传峰

    2010-01-01

    一个民主国家要想稳定持续就必须使得那些高度不满的公民能够信守民主制度。没有这种民主信念,民主制度将是不稳定的。即便是完成了民主转型,新兴民主体制也会因为公民的失望和动摇而陷入险境。本文首先根据"亚洲晴雨表调查"(Asia Barometer)数据来测量几个亚洲国家的民主信念水平,然后通过与拉丁美洲国家的比较,阐明亚洲各国民主信念的特征。随后,我们将再次通过与拉丁美洲的比较,分析那些与亚洲民主信念相关联的因素。

  10. A Pedestrian Dead Reckoning System Integrating Low-Cost MEMS Inertial Sensors and GPS Receiver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-feng Li

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The body-mounted inertial systems for pedestrian navigation do not require any preinstalled facilities and can run autonomously. The advantages over other technologies make it especially attractive for the applications such as first responders, military and consumer markets. The hardware platform integrating the low-cost, low-power and small-size MEMS (micro-electro-mechanical systems inertial sensors and GPS (global positioning system receiver is proposed. When the satellite signals are available, the location of the pedestrian is directly obtained from the GPS receiver. The inertial sensors are the complement of the GPS receiver in places where the GPS signals are not available, such as indoors, urban canyons and places under dense foliages. The height tracking is achieved by the barometer. The proposed PDR (pedestrian dead reckoning algorithm is real-timely implemented in the platform. The simple but effective step detection and step length estimation method are realized to reduce the computation and memory requirements on the microprocessor. A complementary filter is proposed to fuse the data from the accelerometer, gyroscope and digital compass for decreasing the heading error, which is the main error source in positioning. The reliability and accuracy of the proposed system is verified by field pedestrian walking tests in outdoors and indoors. The positioning error is less than 4% of the total traveled distance. The results indicate that the pedestrian dead reckoning system is able to provide satisfactory tracking performance.

  11. The City Image and the Local Public Administration: a Working Tool in Urban Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Cristian NEACȘU

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available  The goal of this study consist of identifyingand testing in operational terms the concept of cityimage in the decision-making processes, both asfar as the urban planning and the future policies oflocal and regional development are concerned or inthe management of public spaces. It is well-knownthe fact that the simple series of statistical dataand the models based upon them do not sketchout a complete image regarding the urban reality,the perception of habitants at a micro-scale levelabout habituation conditions, illustrated by thecity image, presenting itself as a barometer of thedysfunctionalities encountered in the city. Thus, thepractical implications of this concept based on anew vision in the philosophy of the managementof urban spaces are likely to be interestingenough. Using this tool in the policies and in theactivity of public administration, in urbanism etc.,complementarily to statistical analyses, shouldaccompany any type of local development policyin order to enhance life quality and to transmit acertain life style, well appreciated by the residentswhich should bestow the city distinctiveness anda particular status in the regional and nationalhierarchy. The conceptual scheme of this studyis based on three elements: theory (what doesthe city image represent?, method (how could wemap at a micro-scale level?, case study (whichare the results and the tests of the applicability inthe city of Ploieşti.

  12. In situ AFM studies on lithium (de)intercalation-induced morphology changes in a LixCoO2 micro-machined thin film electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jonghuyn [University of Michigan; Kalnaus, Sergiy [ORNL; Han, Sangwoo [University of Michigan; Lee, Yoon Koo [University of Michigan; Less, Greg [University of Michigan; Dudney, Nancy J [ORNL; Daniel, Claus [ORNL; Sastry, Ann-Marie [University of Michigan

    2013-01-01

    Structural instability due to intercalation-induced stresses in electrode materials is one of the key degradation mechanisms of Li-ion batteries. Fragmentation of material degrades structural integrity and electrical resistance, and also accelerates harmful side reactions. In situ experiments are the appropriate approach to investigate the actual time dependent nature of behavior changes of an electrode material while it is charged and discharged. In the current work, a unique in situ electrochemical atomic force microscopy (ECAFM) measurement is made on samples of cylindrical shape, which are micro-machined by focused ion beam (FIB) microscopy. This pre-defined geometry allows the exclusion of secondary, non-active materials from the electrochemically active material as well as the removal of any vagueness coming from the irregular geometry of particles. Also, the experimental results are used to validate a proposed coupled electrochemical and mechanical model for determination of the stress-strain state of active electrode material during electrochemical cycling. The results produced using the model correlate the experimental data rather well. The combined results reveal the key effects of the geometry, kinetics, and mechanics of electrode materials on the stress-strain state, which is a barometer of structural stability of a material.

  13. New Indices of Endothelial Function Measured by Digital Thermal Monitoring of Vascular Reactivity: Data from 6084 Patients Registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Naghavi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Endothelial function is viewed as a barometer of cardiovascular health and plays a central role in vascular reactivity. Several studies showed digital thermal monitoring (DTM as a simple noninvasive method to measure vascular reactivity that is correlated with atherosclerosis risk factors and coronary artery disease. Objectives. To further evaluate the relations between patient characteristics and DTM indices in a large patient registry. Methods. DTM measures were correlated with age, sex, heart rate, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure in 6084 patients from 18 clinics. Results. DTM vascular reactivity index (VRI was normally distributed and inversely correlated with age (r=-0.21, p<0.0001. Thirteen percent of VRI tests were categorized as poor vascular reactivity (VRI < 1.0, 70 percent as intermediate (1.0 ≤ VRI < 2.0, and 17 percent as good (VRI ≥ 2.0. Poor VRI (<1.0 was noted in 6% of <50 y, 10% of 50–70 y, and 18% of ≥70 y. In multiple linear regression analyses, age, sex, and diastolic blood pressure were significant but weak predictors of VRI. Conclusions. As the largest database of finger-based vascular reactivity measurement, this report adds to prior findings that VRI is a meaningful physiological marker and reflects a high level of residual risk found in patients currently under care.

  14. SRC kinase regulation in progressively invasive cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weichen Xu

    Full Text Available Metastatic progression is a multistep process that involves tumor growth and survival, motility and invasion, and subsequent proliferation in an inappropriate environment. The Src protein tyrosine kinase has been implicated in many of the biochemical pathways that drive these behaviors. Although Src itself is only rarely mutated in human tumors, its aberrant activity has been noted in various cancers and suggested to serve as a barometer of metastatic potential. With these features in mind, we examined Src kinase regulation at the structural, enzymatic, and expression levels as a function of progressively invasive prostate cancer cell lines. Surprisingly, both total Src content and kinase activity decrease with increasing cell line aggressiveness, an observation that appears to be inconsistent with the well-documented role of Src in the signaling pathways that drive growth and invasion. However, we do observe a direct correlation between Src kinase specific activity (total Src kinase activity/total Src content and metastatic aggressiveness, possibly suggesting that in highly aggressive cell lines, key signaling enzymes are globally recruited to drive the cancerous phenotype. In addition, although the expected enhanced phosphorylation of Src at Tyr-416 (activation site is present in the most aggressive prostate cancer cell lines, unexpectedly high phosphorylation levels at the Tyr-527 inhibitory site are observed as well. The latter, rather than representative of inhibited enzyme, is more indicative of primed Src responsive to local phosphorylated binding partners.

  15. The Management of Media Organizations from Theory to Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ph. D. Cristina Andreescu (Manolache

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Media organizations have become a barometer in the development of a society. The way these organizations are managed depends on the context they can be placed in. Media organizations can be assimilated with a social and economic context. I attempted to emphasize the importance of good management that takes into account the basic principles and which can be integrated into a media organization. Leadership should be concerned with combining the specifics of management with those of human nature.The need for management is real. As it is the interdependence between the media organization and an efficient management. Despite their shortcomings, today’s managers are able to manage a newspaper, a radio or a television station. They can be divided into three categories, namely: managers of a media organization, having no knowledge of management; managers having the necessary training but unaware of how to implement management rules and finally, managers with very good training but lacking interest, who let things run by themselves.

  16. The ABC's of Suicide Risk Assessment: Applying a Tripartite Approach to Individual Evaluations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith M Harris

    Full Text Available There is considerable need for accurate suicide risk assessment for clinical, screening, and research purposes. This study applied the tripartite affect-behavior-cognition theory, the suicidal barometer model, classical test theory, and item response theory (IRT, to develop a brief self-report measure of suicide risk that is theoretically-grounded, reliable and valid. An initial survey (n = 359 employed an iterative process to an item pool, resulting in the six-item Suicidal Affect-Behavior-Cognition Scale (SABCS. Three additional studies tested the SABCS and a highly endorsed comparison measure. Studies included two online surveys (Ns = 1007, and 713, and one prospective clinical survey (n = 72; Time 2, n = 54. Factor analyses demonstrated SABCS construct validity through unidimensionality. Internal reliability was high (α = .86-.93, split-half = .90-.94. The scale was predictive of future suicidal behaviors and suicidality (r = .68, .73, respectively, showed convergent validity, and the SABCS-4 demonstrated clinically relevant sensitivity to change. IRT analyses revealed the SABCS captured more information than the comparison measure, and better defined participants at low, moderate, and high risk. The SABCS is the first suicide risk measure to demonstrate no differential item functioning by sex, age, or ethnicity. In all comparisons, the SABCS showed incremental improvements over a highly endorsed scale through stronger predictive ability, reliability, and other properties. The SABCS is in the public domain, with this publication, and is suitable for clinical evaluations, public screening, and research.

  17. LA COLONIALIDAD DEL SER Y DEL SABER: LA MITOLOGIZACIÓN DEL DESARROLLO EN AMÉRICA LATINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan David Gómez Quintero

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the concept of coloniality ofbeing and knowledge as a process by which amanner of hegemonic thought was built andconsolidated, which became widespread in thecolonial societies. The article poses the relationbetween coloniality and development as a historiccontinuum which reproduces, in the post-colonialsocieties, the values and beliefs of the WesternModernity. These values and beliefs make part ofthe modern world view which classified thecolonized subjects as the othernesses of colonists,othernesses which were silenced from and by thehegemonic speeches of power-knowledge ofModernity. This classification of the others was“improved” thanks to the help of the theoreticalapparatus of the XVIII century Enlightenment andthe social sciences of the XIX century. Therefore,concepts like civilization, progress and development were since then the paradigms that articulated the implementation of the modernproject in peripheral societies like Latin America. The reasoning of the hypothesis is based on theories of subordination/postcoloniality and on empirical data of the World Values Survey and on the Latin American Barometer.

  18. An exact CKM matrix related to the approximate Wolfenstein form

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Jihn E

    2011-01-01

    Noting the hierarchy between three mixing angles, $\\theta_{2,3}={\\cal O}(\\theta_1^2)$, we present an exact form of the quark mixing matrix, replacing Wolfenstein's approximate form. In addition, we suggest to rotate the unitarity triangle, using the weak CP phase convention where the phase is located at the (31) element $\\sin\\theta_1\\sin\\theta_2 e^{i\\delta}$ while the (13) element $\\sin\\theta_1\\sin\\theta_3$ is real. For the $(ab)$ unitarity triangle, the base line (x-axis) is defined from the product of the first row elements, $V_{1a}V^*_{1b}$, and the angle between two sides at the origin is defined to be the phase $\\delta$. This is a useful definition since every Jarlskog triangle has the angle $\\delta$ at the origin, defined directly from the unitarity condition. It is argued that $\\delta$ represents the barometer of the weak CP violation, which can be used to relate it to possible Yukawa textures.

  19. High-pressure granulite from Western Kunlun, northwestern China: Its metamorphic evolution, zircon SHRIMP U-Pb ages and tectonic implication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QU JunFeng; ZHANG LiFei; AI YongLiang; L(U) Zeng; WANG JianPing; ZHOU Hui; WANG ShiYan

    2007-01-01

    High-pressure mafic granulites occurring as lenticular bodies within garnet-amphibolites in Kangxiwar Fault have been first reported in this paper. The P-T conditions of two metamorphic stages were obtained using calibrated geothermal barometers and ThermoCalc Program. The peak metamorphic condition of these high-pressure granulites is about 760-820℃, 1.0-1.2 GPa and the retrograde metamorphic condition is about 620-720℃, 0.7-0.8 GPa. The petrological studies show that they have a near-isobaric cooling P-T path which suggests that the Western Kunlun underwent initial crustal thickening, subsequent exhumation and cooling. The SHRIMP zircon U-Pb dating gives two groups of ages for high-pressure granulites. One is 177±6 Ma which is obtained from the rim of the zircon. We consider this age should be the metamorphic age. And the other is 456±30 Ma which is obtained from the core of the zircon and should be the protolith age. The formation of these high-pressure granulites in western Kunlun is closely correlated with the evolution of the Paleo-Tethys and has important implications for the research on Tethys and Paleo-Asian tectonic zone.

  20. Acoustic Resonance between Ground and Thermosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Matsumura

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Ultra-low frequency acoustic waves called "acoustic gravity waves" or "infrasounds" are theoretically expected to resonate between the ground and the thermosphere. This resonance is a very important phenomenon causing the coupling of the solid Earth, neutral atmosphere, and ionospheric plasma. This acoustic resonance, however, has not been confirmed by direct observations. In this study, atmospheric perturbations on the ground and ionospheric disturbances were observed and compared with each other to confirm the existence of resonance. Atmospheric perturbations were observed with a barometer, and ionospheric disturbances were observed using the HF Doppler method. An end point of resonance is in the ionosphere, where conductivity is high and the dynamo effect occurs. Thus, geomagnetic observation is also useful, so the geomagnetic data were compared with other data. Power spectral density was calculated and averaged for each month. Peaks appeared at the theoretically expected resonance frequencies in the pressure and HF Doppler data. The frequencies of the peaks varied with the seasons. This is probably because the vertical temperature profile of the atmosphere varies with the seasons, as does the reflection height of infrasounds. These results indicate that acoustic resonance occurs frequently.

  1. Corruption and Political Participation in the Americas and the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Bonifácio

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with an issue as yet little explored in the vast literature about political participation: the role of corruption in political engagement. It investigates whether the coexistence, the values and the perception of citizens in relation to corrupt practices and actors have effects on political activism, and it verifies the direction in which this is evolving, whether it is in the direction of engagement in or withdrawal from politics. The unit of analysis is the individual, the geographic sector includes the Americas and the Caribbean, and the time frame includes biennial intervals between 2004 and 2012. A theoretical discussion and empirical analysis of the data from the Americas Barometer is used. Five distinct types of political participation were identified: contact with political and governmental actors, community activism, partisan and electoral activism, voter turnout and protest activism. The article concludes that the experience with corruption and the tolerance for bribe increase the chances of engagement in participative activities, going against the principal contributions of the specialized literature.

  2. Temperature and atmospheric CO2 concentration estimates through the PETM using triple oxygen isotope analysis of mammalian bioapatite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehler, Alexander; Gingerich, Philip D.; Pack, Andreas

    2016-07-01

    The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) is a remarkable climatic and environmental event that occurred 56 Ma ago and has importance for understanding possible future climate change. The Paleocene-Eocene transition is marked by a rapid temperature rise contemporaneous with a large negative carbon isotope excursion (CIE). Both the temperature and the isotopic excursion are well-documented by terrestrial and marine proxies. The CIE was the result of a massive release of carbon into the atmosphere. However, the carbon source and quantities of CO2 and CH4 greenhouse gases that contributed to global warming are poorly constrained and highly debated. Here we combine an established oxygen isotope paleothermometer with a newly developed triple oxygen isotope paleo-CO2 barometer. We attempt to quantify the source of greenhouse gases released during the Paleocene-Eocene transition by analyzing bioapatite of terrestrial mammals. Our results are consistent with previous estimates of PETM temperature change and suggest that not only CO2 but also massive release of seabed methane was the driver for CIE and PETM.

  3. Factors Effecting Studies in the Department of Industrial Informatics of the Kavala Institute of Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Polychronidou

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Information regarding students’ and education institutes’ progress is a barometer for the overall prestige of the education system in Greece. Scientific community, the relative ministries and the society demand the evaluation of students and education institutes. Higher education studies are one of the most important level of education in Greece and compose important time in the lives of young scientists. A long deliberation took place during the last years regarding the time that is consuming for higher education and whether it should be unlimited or it should be limited to an upper limit. Recently, a rule of (2ν+1 for the upper limit of studies has been set by the Greek state. The pass-mark of 10 has been abolished and a deliberation for possible integration and abolishment of departments has started. In this paper, we study data regarding duration of studies in the department of Industrial Informatics of the Kavala Institute of Technology. The goal of this study is to extract important conclusions for the students’ progress and for their evaluation for the department. The final conclusions can become an important tool for the department, in order to make the necessary actions for its better function.

  4. Understanding the patterns of biological response to physical forcing in the Alborán Sea (western Mediterranean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Gabriel; Vázquez, Águeda; Macías, Diego; Bruno, Miguel; Ruiz, Javier

    2011-12-01

    A singular value decomposition (SVD) analysis was performed to determine the coupled modes of variability of satellite surface chlorophyll (CHL) and absolute dynamic topography (ADT) data for the Alborán Sea (western Mediterranean) during a 12-year period (1998-2009). From this analysis we have been able to detect features of the Alborán Sea dynamics that had not been recognized in previous research on the primary production of this basin. We have found that the two leading SVD modes represent more than 97% of the total squared covariance. The first mode is associated with the inverse barometer and its impact on chlorophyll distribution, whereas the second physical mode can explain the distribution of eutrophic and oligotrophic waters in the Alborán Sea. The results also confirm that the phytoplankton in the basin is very tightly controlled by meteorological and physical processes, via the advection of properties through the Strait, by the influence of Atlantic Jet intensity, which controls the gyres of the basin, and by the activation of up- or down-welling coastal processes by wind.

  5. Application of UAVs at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofstetter, K.J.; Pendergast, M.M.

    1996-08-01

    Small, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) equipped with sensors for physical, chemical, and radiochemical measurements of remote environments have been tested at the Savannah River Site (SRS). A miniature helicopter was used as an aerial platform for testing a variety of sensors with outputs integrated with the flight control system for real-time data acquisition and evaluation. The sensors included a precision magnetometer, two broad band infra-red radiometers, a 1-inch by 1-inch Nal(TI) scintillation detector, and an on-board color video camera. Included in the avionics package was an ultrasonic altimeter, a precision barometer, and a portable Global Positioning System. Two separate demonstration locations at SRS were flown that had been previously characterized by careful sampling and analyses and by aerial surveys at high altitudes. The Steed Pond demonstration site contains elevated levels of uranium in the soil and pond silt due to runoff from one of the site`s uranium fuel and target production areas. The soil at the other site is contaminated with oil bearing materials and contains some buried objects. The results and limitations of the UAV surveys are presented and improvements for future measurements are discussed.

  6. Participación ciudadana en sesiones municipales Citizen Participation in Municipal Meetings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIEL MONTALVO

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo muestra que en el contexto latinoamericano, los niveles de participación en sesiones municipales se mantienen generalmente bajos. Analizando los datos provistos por la encuesta de 2008 del Barómetro de las Américas, encontramos que los individuos que han sido victimizados por el crimen y la corrupción tienen mayor probabilidad de participar en sus gobiernos locales. Esta tendencia se observa también entre aquellos individuos que residen en áreas rurales y aquellos con mayor educación. Estos hallazgos sugieren que los individuos participan para incrementar los niveles de seguridad y transparencia, y que la descentralización gubernamental puede tener un impacto más pronunciado en municipalidades rurales y entre gente más educada.This article shows that in the Latin American context, participation in municipal meetings remains generally low. By looking at the data provided by the AmericasBarometer 2008 survey, we find in 20 countries that individuals who have been victimized by crime or corruption are more likely to participate in their local governments. This pattern is also observed among individuals who live in rural areas and who are more educated. These findings suggest that individuals participate to increase security and transparency and that governmental decentralization may have a more pronounced impact in rural municipalities and among educated people.

  7. Mic Flocks in the Cloud: Harnessing Mobile Ubiquitous Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garces, M. A.; Christe, A.

    2015-12-01

    Smartphones provide a commercial, off-the-shelf solution to capture, store, analyze, and distribute infrasound using on-board or external microphones (mics) as well as on-board barometers. Free iOS infrasound apps can be readily downloaded from the Apple App Store, and Android versions are in progress. Infrasound propagates for great distances, has low sample rates, and provides a tractable pilot study scenario for open distributed sensor networks at regional and global scales using one of the most ubiquitous sensors on Earth - microphones. Data collection is no longer limited to selected vendors at exclusive prices: anybody on Earth can record and stream infrasound, and the diversity of recording systems and environments is rapidly expanding. Global deployment may be fast and easy (www.redvox.io), but comes with the cost of increasing data volume, velocity, variety, and complexity. Flocking - the collective motion of mobile agents - is a natural human response to threats or events of interest. Anticipating, modeling and harnessing flocking sensor topologies will be necessary for adaptive array and network processing. The increasing data quantity and complexity will exceed the processing capacity of human analysts and most research servers. We anticipate practical real-time applications will require the on-demand adaptive scalability and resources of the Cloud. Cloud architectures for such heterogeneous sensor networks will consider eventual integration into the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS).

  8. 从1902年霍乱传播模式看清末北方社会%Society of North China in Perspective of Cholera Dissemination in 1902

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单丽

    2011-01-01

    在晚清行将告罄的1902年,霍乱作为一个历史进程的指标,敏感地反映了开埠通商前后中国北方社会环境的剧烈变化:疫区的盈缩反映出区域商贸交往体系的成型及港口的兴衰;城乡传播模式的沿海环绕及内陆、沿海轻重疫区的清晰分层则暗示出其时区域人口交往密度的沿海大倾斜。而现代交通工具的介入,则从速度上悄然影响着霍乱的传播区域。%In 1902,approaching the collapse of Qing dynasty,cholera could be regarded as a barometer,which sensitively reflects the radical environmental changes in north China before and after the port opening.On the one hand,the variation of re-infected areas reflects a formation of regional trade system and a rise and fall of local ports;On the other hand,cholera's urban-rural spread pattern indicates that there is a higher frequency of communication in coastal areas than inner land.And during this course,the modern transport attributed to cholera diffuse gradually.

  9. Corruption and use of antibiotics in regions of Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rönnerstrand, Björn; Lapuente, Victor

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this article is to investigate the association between corruption and antibiotic use at sub-national level. We explore the correlation between, on the one hand, two measures of corruption (prevalence of corruption in the health sector and prevalence of bribes in the society) at regional level from the European Quality of Government Index; and, on the other, the consumption of antibiotics in those European regions from a 2009 Special Euro Barometer. In a multivariate regression model, we control for potential confounders: purchasing power of standardized regional gross domestic product, inhabitants per medical doctor and age-standardized all-cause mortality rates. We find that there is a strong positive association between both measures of corruption (i.e. in the health sector, and in the society at large) and antibiotics use; and that this association is robust to the introduction of the control variables. These results support previous findings in the literature linking corruption to higher antibiotic use at cross-national level. We show that corruption does seem to account for some of the remarkable between-region variation in antibiotic consumption in Europe.

  10. 俄罗斯加入世贸组织:影响美俄关系的《杰克逊—瓦尼克法案》能否被终止?%Russia's Accession to WTO:Jackson-Vanik Amendment Influencing the Relationship between US and Russia Can Be Suspended?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安兆祯

    2012-01-01

    俄罗斯于2012年8月正式加入世界贸易组织。加入世贸组织,为俄罗斯加快经济发展提供了难得的发展机遇,但目前美国仍未给予俄罗斯永久正常贸易关系。影响美俄关系的《杰克逊—瓦尼克法案》能否被终止?《谢尔盖·马格尼茨基法案》能否成为替代品?这已成为今后一个时期美俄关系的重要风向标。%Russia has joined WTO formally in August,2012,which provides a precious opportunity of development.But at present,US has not yet given permanent normal trade relations.It is the most important barometer of US-Russian relations in the next period whether Jackson-Vanik Amendment influencing relationship between US and Russia can be suspended or Magnitsky Act can be as a substitute for that amendment.

  11. Interdependence between Islamic capital market and money market: Evidence from Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Wahyudi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigate VAR Toda–Yamamoto causality test between macroeconomic variables and Islamic financial market. The purpose of this study is to analyze the information content of Islamic capital market and money market return with respect to macroeconomic and global factors. Using bivariate method, we found that Islamic capital market index (JII has more content information than Islamic money market index (SBIS. The exchange rate and VIX index significantly affected JII. Otherwise, only VIX index have been found to significantly affect SBIS. Using multivariate method, JII has more content information (exchange rate, world oil price, China's economic growth, and VIX index than SBIS (SBI rate, inflation rate, and VIX index. Contradiction in these findings indicates the presence of (i interaction between the macroeconomic variables, (ii interaction between the financial market and the macroeconomic variables, and (iii interaction between the Islamic capital market and money market. Further, by considering these interactions, JII more suitable for use as a barometer of fiscal policies in Indonesia, while SBIS suitable for monetary policies.

  12. Heart rate variability and the anxious client: cardiac autonomic and behavioral associations with therapeutic alliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratford, Trisha; Meara, Alan; Psychotherapy, M Gestalt; Lal, Sara

    2014-08-01

    This exploratory study was designed to investigate the link between a client's heart rate variability (HRV) and the forming of a therapeutic alliance (TA) during psychotherapy. Change in HRV is associated with many psychological and physiological situations, including cardiac mortality. Cardiac effects were evaluated during therapy in 30 symptomatically anxious clients using HRV during six weekly 1-hour therapy sessions (S1-S6). Therapeutic index (TI), a measure of TA, was evaluated using skin conductance resonance between client and therapist. The Working Alliance Inventory provides a subjective measure of TA. State and trait anxiety and mood states were also assessed. Most HRV parameters were highest during S4. The sympathovagal balance was highest in S1 but stabilized after S2. In S4, TI was linked to high HRV parameters. Overall higher anxiety levels seem to be associated to lower HRV parameters. Conversely, in S4, high HRV parameters were linked to higher mood scores. This study found that a subjective measure of TA contradicted the physiological outcome. Results suggest that physiological data collected during therapy are a more accurate barometer of TA forming. These research findings suggest a need for further research identifying physiological markers in clients with a variety of mental health disorders over long-term therapy.

  13. Humboldt der Seefahrer und sein Marinechronometer Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der Nautik und Meereskunde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Kortum

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Article in German, Abstracts in English, Spanish and German. HUMBOLDT the Navigator and his ChronometerA Contribution to the History of Navigation and OceanographyHUMBOLDT acquired a remarkable precision time-keeper instrument shortly before he left Paris for his Journey to the Neotropics (1799-1804. This chronometer was made by the famous Swiss-French watchmaker Louis BERTHOUD (1753-1813 with the series number 27. It had belonged to "the celebrated BORDA", as HUMBOLDT stated in his "Personal Narrative". Jean Louis BORDA (1733-1799 was a 18th century French navigator, mathematician and cartographer, who invented or improved a number of geomagnetic instruments. HUMBOLDT used this pocket chronometer for his routine astronomic and geomagnetic observations and to fix the longitude of his position while on board a vessel in the Atlantic and Pacific Ocean. Until John "Timekeeper" HARRISON developed his famous "H 4" chronometer in 1773, a strategic invention for a maritime power as Great Britain, the longitude was a major navigational problem. HUMBOLDT, who confessed that he had a "peculiar predelication for the sea", developed great nautical skills, and his findings were much better than those of the pilots. Furthermore he used the chronometer to observe and calculate ocean currents and to improve the geographical coordinates and thus the maps for many places in Latin America. So, beside his thermometer and barometer, the chronometer certainly was a very basic instrument in the state-of-the-art collection of scientific equipment he bought before leaving Europe.

  14. Soaring energetics and glide performance in a moving atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Kate V.; Thomas, Adrian L. R.

    2016-01-01

    Here, we analyse the energetics, performance and optimization of flight in a moving atmosphere. We begin by deriving a succinct expression describing all of the mechanical energy flows associated with gliding, dynamic soaring and thermal soaring, which we use to explore the optimization of gliding in an arbitrary wind. We use this optimization to revisit the classical theory of the glide polar, which we expand upon in two significant ways. First, we compare the predictions of the glide polar for different species under the various published models. Second, we derive a glide optimization chart that maps every combination of headwind and updraft speed to the unique combination of airspeed and inertial sink rate at which the aerodynamic cost of transport is expected to be minimized. With these theoretical tools in hand, we test their predictions using empirical data collected from a captive steppe eagle (Aquila nipalensis) carrying an inertial measurement unit, global positioning system, barometer and pitot tube. We show that the bird adjusts airspeed in relation to headwind speed as expected if it were seeking to minimize its aerodynamic cost of transport, but find only weak evidence to suggest that it adjusts airspeed similarly in response to updrafts during straight and interthermal glides. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Moving in a moving medium: new perspectives on flight’. PMID:27528788

  15. The state of HIV sector local governance in Malawi and Zambia: Evidence from five districts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Steyn

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper encapsulates the outputs of a Swiss Agency for Development Cooperation (SDC funded project that aimed to improve the levels of HIV governance at the district level in Malawi and Zambia by encouraging public participation in an effort to more effective use of local resources. The methodology for this project, developed by the Institute for Democracy in Africa (Idasa and SDC, included a barometer which assessed perceptions of district HIV governance among key stakeholders. Perceptions were gathered on governance principles of effectiveness, efficiency, rule of law, accountability, participation and equity. The stakeholders ranged from administrators, political representatives, community-based organisations and the private sector on the supply side and citizens on the demand or beneficiary side. The findings of the research indicate specific sector governance issues that may be generalised to governance. Communication and transparency appear to be major issues underpinning the bottlenecks and shortcomings in the HIV sector governance at the district level. Information gaps have given rise to accountability deficits and coordination deficiencies. Addressing these matters would make more effective use of resources and lessen dependence on external funding sources.

  16. Racially and ethnically diverse schools and adolescent romantic relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strully, Kate

    2014-11-01

    Focusing on romantic relationships, which are often seen as a barometer of social distance, this analysis investigates how adolescents from different racial-ethnic and gender groups respond when they attend diverse schools with many opportunities for inter-racial-ethnic dating. Which groups respond by forming inter-racial-ethnic relationships, and which groups appear to "work around" opportunities for inter-racial-ethnic dating by forming more same-race-ethnicity relationships outside of school boundaries? Most prior studies have analyzed only relationships within schools and, therefore, cannot capture a potentially important way that adolescents express preferences for same-race-ethnicity relationships or work around constraints from other groups' preferences. Using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, I find that, when adolescents are in schools with many opportunities for inter-racial-ethnic dating, black females and white males are most likely to form same-race-ethnicity relationships outside of the school; whereas Hispanic males and females are most likely to date across racial-ethnic boundaries within the school.

  17. Precise GPS/GNSS Positioning Solution for Airborne Data Acquisition Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B. G. Gerlach; D. Gondy

    2003-01-01

    The precise positioning of aircrafts during flights belongs to the great challenges with respect to the development of airborne data acquisition systems. Satellite positioning systems like GPS offers a unique capability for precise positioning but requires in depth knowledge of GPS in airborne applications, e.g.GPS for high dynamic application, integration of GPS with other sensors, dynamic behaviour of aircrafts or antenna location. For its positioning reference system of Flight Inspection systems Aerodata AG has developed a robust GPS carrier phase ambiguity solution P-DGPS, Precise Differential GPS combined with complementary sensors like INS, barometers, radio altimeters or laser altimeters as well as laser trackers. Using recorded data during the flight the algorithm offers also the capability to calculate more accurate positions in post-processing. The presented sensor fusion algorithm using GPS without differential corrections (SGPS, standalone GPS) offers a precise height reference solution for approach calibration based only on aircraft-based sensors. SGPS data are combined in post-processing with inertial, pressure, radio and laser altimeter data. Flight trials with a Bombardier "Global Express" at Braunschweig Airport on May 2002 shows the achieved accuracies of the height reference solution calculated by SGPS in comparison to P-DGPS. The SGPS solution for precise height calculation of special mission aircrafts provides accuracies in the order of 5 m and at the runway's threshold in the order of 30 cm.

  18. Do authoritarians vote for authoritarians? Evidence from Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mollie J. Cohen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available During the 2016 presidential election campaign in the United States, scholars argued that authoritarian visions of the family are associated with support for Donald Trump, a candidate also noted to exhibit authoritarian or illiberal tendencies. Though it is plausible that “authoritarian” citizens (defined by parenting attitudes vote for “authoritarian” candidates (defined by disrespect for democratic institutions, past research provides relatively little guide regarding this relationship. One reason is that few US candidates announce overtly authoritarian views. Latin America, by contrast, has had many such candidates. We take advantage of this variation using the 2012 AmericasBarometer, which applied a battery of authoritarian parenting attitudes. We first describe mass authoritarianism across Latin America, showing it is associated with many social attitudes. We then examine authoritarians’ voting behavior, distinguishing between support for “mano dura” (“strong arm” candidates, who are usually rightists, and for candidates threatening violations of general civil liberties, who are often leftists in Latin America. We find that authoritarians tend to vote for right-wing authoritarian candidates, while authoritarianism boosts support for candidates threatening civil liberty violations only among citizens identifying on the ideological right. Education is the most consistent determinant reducing support for both leftist and rightist authoritarian candidates.

  19. The use of a novel injectable hydrogel nucleus pulposus replacement in restoring the mechanical properties of cyclically fatigued porcine intervertebral discs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkovec, Christian; Vernengo, Jennifer; McGill, Stuart M

    2013-06-01

    Repeated flexion and extension of an intervertebral disc has been shown to affect the angular stiffness of spinal motion segments and is a barometer of the mechanical integrity of the disc. A degenerated disc that loses height causes higher levels of stress on the annulus and facet joints which may increase its level of degeneration; restoring disc height may therefore help to slow this degenerative cascade. Previous research has indicated that nucleus implants have the potential to improve the mechanical characteristics of a disc and an implant that is custom-fit to the intervertebral disc yields the best results with respect to decreasing annular degeneration. Two groups of porcine spinal motion segments were exposed to repeated flexion and extension. One group was then injected with a novel hydrogel while the other group was used as a control. Both groups were then exposed to another round of cyclic flexion and extension to examine the effect that the hydrogel had on restoring the original mechanics to the motion segments. Angular stiffness was restored to the group which received the hydrogel injection in addition to a significant improvement in specimen height. No significant changes were seen in the group which did not receive an injection. It would appear that use of the novel injectable hydrogel is able to restore angular stiffness to cyclically fatigued spinal motion segments. It is also important to note that continued repetition of the event causing specimen fatigue after performing hydrogel injection will result in an eventual return to the same fatigued state.

  20. New approaches to donor crossmatching and successful transplantation of highly sensitized patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delmonico, F L; Fuller, A; Cosimi, A B; Tolkoff-Rubin, N; Russell, P S; Rodey, G E; Fuller, T C

    1983-12-01

    A class I HLA molecule may bear not only a private or unique determinant, but a shared, yet discrete, public epitope. These public determinants occur with a much higher frequency in the random donor population than the associated private determinants--and thus, are encountered more often in random donor blood transfusions and in renal transplantation. Sera from highly sensitized dialysis patients have been reported to contain a restricted number of antibodies to public determinants rather than a diverse array of antibodies directed against the private HLA-AB epitopes. As detailed in this report, comprehensive serum analysis of the public antibodies in highly sensitized transplant candidates has optimized identification of potential crossmatch-compatible donors and has avoided needless crossmatches. During the past two years, the incidence of renal transplantation from cadaveric donors to highly sensitized recipients has doubled at this institution. At 10-25 months following transplantation, 70% of these allografts are functioning. Private HLA class I antigen incompatibility was not a barometer for exclusion in the final donor crossmatch of these highly sensitized recipients. Furthermore, positive donor T cell crossmatches with sera obtained more than six months prior to transplantation may not represent an impediment to successful transplantation. We conclude that the approach of detailed antibody analysis can result in an improved outlook for successful transplantation of more dialysis patients who are highly sensitized to the class I HLA alloantigens.

  1. Protocol to the 1979 convention on long-range transboundary air pollution on heavy metals; Aarhus, 24 June 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-08-01

    The Executive Body adopted the Protocol on Heavy Metals on 24 June 1998 in Aarhus (Denmark). It targets three particularly harmful metals: cadmium, lead and mercury. According to one of the basic obligations, parties will have to reduce their emissions for these three metals below their levels in 1990. The Protocol aims to cut emissions from industrial sources, combustion process and waste incineration. It lays down strighten limit values for emissions from stationary sources and suggests best available techniques (BAT) for these sources, such as special filters or scrubbers for combustion sources or mercury-free processes. The Protocol requires parties to phase out leaded petrol. It also introduces measures to lower heavy metal emissions from other products, such as mercury in batteries, and proposes the introduciton of management measures for other mercury-containing products, such as electrical componets (thermostats, switches), measuring devices (thermometers, manometers, barometers), fluorescent lamps, dental amalgam, pesticides and paint. The convention has not yet been ratified in the UK.

  2. Smartphone-Based Indoor Integrated WiFi/MEMS Positioning Algorithm in a Multi-Floor Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zengshan Tian

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Indoor positioning in a multi-floor environment by using a smartphone is considered in this paper. The positioning accuracy and robustness of WiFi fingerprinting-based positioning are limited due to the unexpected variation of WiFi measurements between floors. On this basis, we propose a novel smartphone-based integrated WiFi/MEMS positioning algorithm based on the robust extended Kalman filter (EKF. The proposed algorithm first relies on the gait detection approach and quaternion algorithm to estimate the velocity and heading angles of the target. Second, the velocity and heading angles, together with the results of WiFi fingerprinting-based positioning, are considered as the input of the robust EKF for the sake of conducting two-dimensional (2D positioning. Third, the proposed algorithm calculates the height of the target by using the real-time recorded barometer and geographic data. Finally, the experimental results show that the proposed algorithm achieves the positioning accuracy with root mean square errors (RMSEs less than 1 m in an actual multi-floor environment.

  3. (Desconfianza en los partidos políticos en América Latina (Mistrust in Political Parties in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARGARITA CORRAL

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza los niveles de confianza ciudadana en los partidos políticos en América Latina utilizando para ello los datos de encuesta que proporciona la ronda 2008 del Barómetro de las Américas llevado a cabo por el Proyecto de Opinión Pública en América Latina (LAPOP de la Universidad de Vanderbilt. Asimismo, se presentan los determinantes que explican los bajos niveles de confianza en los partidos que aparecen en la región. El análisis muestra cómo el apoyo al sistema político, y la percepción de eficacia del gobierno a nivel nacional son factores clave a la hora de explicar la confianza en estas instituciones de representación.This article analyzes the levels of trust in political parties in Latin America using the 2008 database provided by the AmericasBarometer survey carried out by the Latin American Public Opinion Project (LAPOP at Vanderbilt University. Furthermore, it shows the determinants of the low levels of confidence in political parties we find in the region. The analysis demonstrates that system support and satisfaction with government performance at national and local levels are key factors explaining trust in these institutions of representation.

  4. On whose shoulders we stand - the pioneering entomological discoveries of Károly Sajó.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vig, Károly

    2011-01-01

    The excellence of Károly Sajó as a researcher into Hungary's natural history has been undeservedly neglected. Yet he did lasting work, especially in entomology, and a number of his discoveries and initiatives were before their time.Born in 1851 in Győr, he received his secondary education there and went to Pest University. He taught in a grammar school in 1877-88 before spending seven years as an entomologist at the National Phylloxera Experimental Station, later the Royal Hungarian State Entomological Station. Pensioned off at his own request in 1895, he moved to Őrszentmiklós, where he continued making entomological observations on his own farm and wrote the bulk of his published materials: almost 500 longer or shorter notes, articles and books, mainly on entomological subjects.Sajó was among the first in the world to publish in 1896 a study of how the weather affects living organisms, entitled Living Barometers. His Sleep in Insects, which appeared in the same year, described his discovery, from 1895 observations of the red turnip beetle, Entomoscelis adonidis (Pallas, 1771), of aestivation in insects - in present-day terms diapause.It was a great loss to universal entomology when Sajó ceased publishing about 25 years before his death. His unpublished notes, with his library and correspondence, were destroyed in the World War II. His surviving insect collection is now kept in the Hungarian Natural History Museum, Budapest.

  5. On whose shoulders we stand – the pioneering entomological discoveries of Károly Sajó

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karoly Vig

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The excellence of Károly Sajó as a researcher into Hungary’s natural history has been undeservedly neglected. Yet he did lasting work, especially in entomology, and a number of his discoveries and initiatives were before their time.Born in 1851 in Győr, he received his secondary education there and went to Pest University. He taught in a grammar school in 1877–88 before spending seven years as an entomologist at the National Phylloxera Experimental Station, later the Royal Hungarian State Entomological Station. Pensioned off at his own request in 1895, he moved to Őrszentmiklós, where he continued making entomological observations on his own farm and wrote the bulk of his published materials: almost 500 longer or shorter notes, articles and books, mainly on entomological subjects.Sajó was among the first in the world to publish in 1896 a study of how the weather affects living organisms, entitled Living Barometers. His Sleep in Insects, which appeared in the same year, described his discovery, from 1895 observations of the red turnip beetle, Entomoscelis adonidis (Pallas 1771, of aestivation in insects – in present-day terms diapause.It was a great loss to universal entomology when Sajó ceased publishing about 25 years before his death. His unpublished notes, with his library and correspondence, were destroyed in the World War II. His surviving insect collection is now kept in the Hungarian Natural History Museum, Budapest.

  6. [Quality management systems are compulsory: clinics have the choice. Comparison of the systems DIN EN ISO 9000 ff, KTQ and EFQM].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbrucker, S

    2011-10-01

    According to §§135-137 SGB V (German Civil Code), German hospitals are required to introduce and develop an institutional quality management (QM) system. They are, however, currently not obliged to undergo a certification. The prime responsibility to introduce a QM system lies with the top management. The aim is to continuously monitor and improve the quality of the processes and practices in the hospital. QM systems are one of the major constituents which influence the prosperity of an enterprise. Hospitals are able to improve the quality of their processes without significantly increasing the costs. The Excellence Barometer® Health Care (ExBa) of the Fraunhofer Institute has shown that deficits are usually not identified in the professional competence of the medical personnel but rather in respect to leadership abilities, communication and motivation. The introduction of QM in a hospital requires an in-depth familiarity with the various QM systems to select an appropriate model for the own institution. The systems most commonly in use in German hospitals are DIN EN ISO ff, EFQM and KTQ®. The article illustrates and compares the layout, requirements and assessment criteria of the various systems.

  7. A Multi-Sensor Fusion MAV State Estimation from Long-Range Stereo, IMU, GPS and Barometric Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yu; Nuske, Stephen; Scherer, Sebastian

    2016-12-22

    State estimation is the most critical capability for MAV (Micro-Aerial Vehicle) localization, autonomous obstacle avoidance, robust flight control and 3D environmental mapping. There are three main challenges for MAV state estimation: (1) it can deal with aggressive 6 DOF (Degree Of Freedom) motion; (2) it should be robust to intermittent GPS (Global Positioning System) (even GPS-denied) situations; (3) it should work well both for low- and high-altitude flight. In this paper, we present a state estimation technique by fusing long-range stereo visual odometry, GPS, barometric and IMU (Inertial Measurement Unit) measurements. The new estimation system has two main parts, a stochastic cloning EKF (Extended Kalman Filter) estimator that loosely fuses both absolute state measurements (GPS, barometer) and the relative state measurements (IMU, visual odometry), and is derived and discussed in detail. A long-range stereo visual odometry is proposed for high-altitude MAV odometry calculation by using both multi-view stereo triangulation and a multi-view stereo inverse depth filter. The odometry takes the EKF information (IMU integral) for robust camera pose tracking and image feature matching, and the stereo odometry output serves as the relative measurements for the update of the state estimation. Experimental results on a benchmark dataset and our real flight dataset show the effectiveness of the proposed state estimation system, especially for the aggressive, intermittent GPS and high-altitude MAV flight.

  8. The Game People Played: Mahjong in Modern Chinese Society and Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maggie Green

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the discourse surrounding the popular Chinese table game of mahjong in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, using it as a barometer to trace social and cultural changes during the late Qing and Republican periods. After analyzing the connection between mahjong; its forerunner, madiao; and their antithesis, weiqi (go, it traces the changing position of mahjong in Chinese society from a game seemingly loathed by literati to a staple of bourgeois parlors. Drawing on a variety of journals, newspapers, and visual sources, the article further explores culture from class and gender perspectives in the late Qing and Republican periods, as mahjong moved from a visibly male activity to one largely associated with women. Finally, it considers the relationship between games and discourses of modernity, and the important changes taking place regarding leisure time in the twentieth century. The article argues that mahjong has been uniquely resistant to regulation and control. Enjoyment of the game spread across class and gender lines, despite the efforts of reformers, for reasons that reflect and embody key shifts from the late Qing dynasty through the end of the Republican period.

  9. Negative Pressures and the First Water Siphon Taller than 10.33 Meters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, Francisco; Rivera, Rodrigo; Romero-Maltrana, Diego; Villanueva, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    A siphon is a device that is used to drain a container, with water rising inside a hose in the form of an inverted U and then going down towards a discharge point placed below the initial water level. The siphon is the first of a number of inventions of the ancients documented about 2.000 years ago by Hero of Alexandria in his treatise Pneumatics, and although the explanation given by Hero was essentially correct, there is nowadays a controversy about the underlying mechanism that explains the working of this device. Discussions concerning the physics of a siphon usually refer to concepts like absolute negative pressures, the strength of liquid’s cohesion and the possibility of a siphon working in vacuum or in the presence of bubbles. Torricelli understood the working principle of the barometer and the impossibility of pumping water out of wells deeper than 10.33 m. Following Torricelli’s ideas it would also not be possible to build a siphon that drives pure water to ascend higher than 10.33 m. In this work, we report the first siphon that drives water (with surfactant) to ascend higher than the Torricellian limit. Motivated by the rising of sap in trees, we built a 15.4 m siphon that shows that absolute negative pressures are not prohibited, that cohesion plays an important role in transmitting forces through a fluid, and that surfactants can help to the transport of water in a metastable regime of negative pressures. PMID:27054847

  10. A metabolomic study of adipose tissue in mice with a disruption of the circadian system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, C; Briggs, W; Paschos, G K; FitzGerald, G A; Griffin, J L

    2015-07-01

    Adipose tissue functions in terms of energy homeostasis as a rheostat for blood triglyceride, regulating its concentration, in response to external stimuli. In addition it acts as a barometer to inform the central nervous system of energy levels which can vary dramatically between meals and according to energy demand. Here a metabolomic approach, combining both Mass Spectrometry and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy, was used to analyse both white and brown adipose tissue in mice with adipocyte-specific deletion of Arntl (also known as Bmal1), a gene encoding a core molecular clock component. The results are consistent with a peripheral circadian clock playing a central role in metabolic regulation of both brown and white adipose tissue in rodents and show that Arntl induced global changes in both tissues which were distinct for the two types. In particular, anterior subcutaneous white adipose tissue (ASWAT) tissue was effected by a reduction in the degree of unsaturation of fatty acids, while brown adipose tissue (BAT) changes were associated with a reduction in chain length. In addition the aqueous fraction of metabolites in BAT were profoundly affected by Arntl disruption, consistent with the dynamic role of this tissue in maintaining body temperature across the day-night cycle and an upregulation in fatty acid oxidation and citric acid cycle activity to generate heat during the day when rats are inactive (increases in 3-hydroxybutyrate and glutamate), and increased synthesis and storage of lipids during the night when rats feed more (increased concentrations of glycerol, choline and glycerophosphocholine).

  11. Research records and the resolution of misconduct allegations at research universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kenneth; Schreier, Alan; Griffin, Angel; Resnik, David

    2007-01-01

    Accurate record keeping is an important part of the responsible conduct of research. However, there is very little empirical research on scientific record keeping. No one knows the incidence of serious problems with research records, the types of problems that occur, nor their consequences. In this study, we examined the role of research records in the resolution of misconduct allegations as a useful barometer for the incidence and types of problems that occur with records. We interviewed Research Integrity Officers (RIOs) at 90 major research universities and conducted focus groups with active research faculty. RIOs reported problems with research records in 38% of the 553 investigations they conducted. Severe problems with research records often prevented completion of investigations while problems that are more typical lengthened them by 2 to 3 weeks. Five types of poor record keeping practices accounted for 75 % of the problems with incomplete/inadequate records being the most common (30%). The focus groups concurred with the findings from the interviews with RIOs, stressed the importance of the research group leader in setting and maintaining record practices, and offered additional insights. While university officials and faculty members have suspected for many years that there are serious problems with research record keeping, our study provides empirical evidence for this belief. By documenting some of the problems with record keeping in university-based research, the results of our study provide information that will be useful for policy development at academic institutions.

  12. Tracking the Evolution of Smartphone Sensing for Monitoring Human Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Rosario, Michael B; Redmond, Stephen J; Lovell, Nigel H

    2015-07-31

    Advances in mobile technology have led to the emergence of the "smartphone", a new class of device with more advanced connectivity features that have quickly made it a constant presence in our lives. Smartphones are equipped with comparatively advanced computing capabilities, a global positioning system (GPS) receivers, and sensing capabilities (i.e., an inertial measurement unit (IMU) and more recently magnetometer and barometer) which can be found in wearable ambulatory monitors (WAMs). As a result, algorithms initially developed for WAMs that "count" steps (i.e., pedometers); gauge physical activity levels; indirectly estimate energy expenditure and monitor human movement can be utilised on the smartphone. These algorithms may enable clinicians to "close the loop" by prescribing timely interventions to improve or maintain wellbeing in populations who are at risk of falling or suffer from a chronic disease whose progression is linked to a reduction in movement and mobility. The ubiquitous nature of smartphone technology makes it the ideal platform from which human movement can be remotely monitored without the expense of purchasing, and inconvenience of using, a dedicated WAM. In this paper, an overview of the sensors that can be found in the smartphone are presented, followed by a summary of the developments in this field with an emphasis on the evolution of algorithms used to classify human movement. The limitations identified in the literature will be discussed, as well as suggestions about future research directions.

  13. Tracking the Evolution of Smartphone Sensing for Monitoring Human Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael B. del Rosario

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Advances in mobile technology have led to the emergence of the “smartphone”, a new class of device with more advanced connectivity features that have quickly made it a constant presence in our lives. Smartphones are equipped with comparatively advanced computing capabilities, a global positioning system (GPS receivers, and sensing capabilities (i.e., an inertial measurement unit (IMU and more recently magnetometer and barometer which can be found in wearable ambulatory monitors (WAMs. As a result, algorithms initially developed for WAMs that “count” steps (i.e., pedometers; gauge physical activity levels; indirectly estimate energy expenditure and monitor human movement can be utilised on the smartphone. These algorithms may enable clinicians to “close the loop” by prescribing timely interventions to improve or maintain wellbeing in populations who are at risk of falling or suffer from a chronic disease whose progression is linked to a reduction in movement and mobility. The ubiquitous nature of smartphone technology makes it the ideal platform from which human movement can be remotely monitored without the expense of purchasing, and inconvenience of using, a dedicated WAM. In this paper, an overview of the sensors that can be found in the smartphone are presented, followed by a summary of the developments in this field with an emphasis on the evolution of algorithms used to classify human movement. The limitations identified in the literature will be discussed, as well as suggestions about future research directions.

  14. The state of renewable energies in Europe. 11th EurObserv'ER report; Etat des energies renouvelables en Europe. 11e bilan EurObserv'ER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liebard, Alain; Civel, Yves-Bruno (eds.)

    2012-01-15

    For over ten years now, EurObserv'ER has been collecting data on European Union renewable energy sources to describe the state and thrust of various sectors in its focus studies or barometers. The first part of this assessment is an updated and completed summary of the work published in 2011. It provides a complete overview of the ten renewables sectors, supplemented by two summary notes on concentrated solar power and ocean energy. Their performances are compared against the stated goals set out by each country in its National Renewable Energy Action Plan (NREAP). Additionally, for the second year running, the EurObserv'ER consortium members have published their annual renewable energy share estimates of overall final energy consumption for each Member State of the European Union. These figures provide preliminary indication of how the various countries are faring along their renewable energy paths and whether their individual trends point to successful achievement of the targets set by European Directive 2009/28/EC.

  15. Slow Lives in the Fast Landscape: Conservation and Management of Plethodontid Salamanders in Production Forests of the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica A. Homyack

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Intensively-managed forest (IMF ecosystems support environmental processes, retain biodiversity and reduce pressure to extract wood products from other forests, but may affect species, such as plethodontid salamanders, that are associated with closed canopies and possess limited vagility. We describe: (1 critical aspects of IMF ecosystems; (2 effectiveness of plethodontid salamanders as barometers of forest change; (3 two case studies of relationships between salamanders and coarse woody debris (CWD; and (4 research needs for effective management of salamanders in IMF ecosystems. Although plethodontid salamanders are sensitive to microclimate changes, their role as ecological indicators rarely have been evaluated quantitatively. Our case studies of CWD and salamanders in western and eastern forests demonstrated effects of species, region and spatial scale on the existence and strength of relationships between plethodontid species and a “critical” microhabitat variable. Oregon slender salamanders (Batrachoseps wrighti were more strongly associated with abundance of CWD in managed second growth forests than ensatina salamanders (Ensatina eschscholtzii. Similarly, CWD was not an important predictor of abundance of Appalachian salamanders in managed hardwood forest. Gaining knowledge of salamanders in IMF ecosystems is critical to reconciling ecological and economic objectives of intensive forest management, but faces challenges in design and implementation.

  16. Early history of high-altitude physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, John B

    2016-02-01

    High-altitude physiology can be said to have begun in 1644 when Torricelli described the first mercury barometer and wrote the immortal words "We live submerged at the bottom of an ocean of the element air." Interestingly, the notion of atmospheric pressure had eluded his teacher, the great Galileo. Blaise Pascal was responsible for describing the fall in pressure with increasing altitude, and Otto von Guericke gave a dramatic demonstration of the enormous force that could be developed by atmospheric pressure. Robert Boyle learned of Guericke's experiment and, with Robert Hooke, constructed the first air pump that allowed small animals to be exposed to a low pressure. Hooke also constructed a small low-pressure chamber and exposed himself to a simulated altitude of about 2400 meters. With the advent of ballooning, humans were rapidly exposed to very low pressures, sometimes with tragic results. For example, the French balloon, Zénith, rose to over 8000 m, and two of the three aeronauts succumbed to the hypoxia. Paul Bert was the first person to clearly state that the deleterious effects of high altitude were caused by the low partial pressure of oxygen (PO2), and later research was accelerated by high-altitude stations and expeditions to high altitude.

  17. Robert Boyle's landmark book of 1660 with the first experiments on rarified air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, John B

    2005-01-01

    In 1660, Robert Boyle (1627-1691) published his landmark book New Experiments Physico-Mechanicall, Touching the Spring of the Air, and its Effects... in which he described the first controlled experiments of the effects of reducing the pressure of the air. Critical to this work was the development of an air pump by Boyle with Robert Hooke (1635-1703). For the first time, it was possible to observe physical and physiological processes at both normal and reduced barometric pressures. The air pump was described in detail, although the exact design of the critical piston is unclear. Boyle reported 43 separate experiments, which can conveniently be divided into 7 groups. The first experiments were on the "spring of the air," that is the pressure developed by the air when its volume was changed. Several experiments described the behavior of the barometer invented by Torricelli just 16 years before when it was introduced into the low-pressure chamber. The behavior of burning candles was discussed, although this emphasized early misunderstandings of the nature of combustion. There were some physiological observations, although these were later extended by Boyle and Hooke. The effects of the low pressure on such diverse physical phenomena as magnetism, sound propagation, behavior of a pendulum, evolution of gases from liquids, and the behavior of smoke were described. This classic book is brimming with enthusiasm and fresh ideas even for today and deserves to be better known.

  18. Durable antibacterial and cross-linking cotton with colloidal silver nanoparticles and butane tetracarboxylic acid without yellowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montazer, Majid; Alimohammadi, Farbod; Shamei, Ali; Rahimi, Mohammad Karim

    2012-01-01

    Colloidal nano silver was applied on the surface of cotton fabric and stabilized using 1,2,3,4-butanetetracarboxylic acid (BTCA). The two properties of antimicrobial activity and resistance against creasing were imparted to the samples of fabric as a result of the treatment with silver nano colloid and BTCA. The antimicrobial property of samples was evaluated using two pathogenic bacteria including Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus as outstanding barometers in this field. The durability of applied nanoparticles, color variation, wettability and wrinkle recovery angle of the treated samples were investigated employing related credible standards. The presence of nano silver particles on the surface of treated cotton fabric was proved using EDS spectrum as well as the SEM images. Furthermore, the creation of cross-links was confirmed by the means of both ATR-FTIR and Raman spectra. In conclusion, it was observed that BTCA plays a prominent role in stabilizing silver nanoparticle. Besides, Wettability and winkle recovery angle of finished samples decreased and increased, respectively. In addition, it is noteworthy that no obvious color variation was observed.

  19. Rhyolite thermobarometry and the shallowing of the magma reservoir, Coso volcanic field, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manley, C.R.; Bacon, C.R.

    2000-01-01

    The compositionally bimodal Pleistocene Coso volcanic field is located at the western margin of the Basin and Range province ~ 60 km north of the Garlock fault. Thirty-nine nearly aphyric high-silica rhyolite domes were emplaced in the past million years: one at 1 Ma from a transient magma reservoir, one at ~ 0.6 Ma, and the rest since ~ 0.3 Ma. Over the past 0.6 My, the depth from which the rhyolites erupted has decreased and their temperatures have become slightly higher. Pre-eruptive conditions of the rhyolite magmas, calculated from phenocryst compositions using the two-oxide thermometer and the Al-in-hornblende barometer, ranged from 740??C and 270 MPa (2.7 kbar; ~ 10 km depth) for the ~ 0.6 Ma magma, to 770??C and 140 MPa (1.4 kbar; ~ 5.5 km) for the youngest (~ 0.04 Ma) magma. Results are consistent with either a single rhyolitic reservoir moving upward through the crust, or a series of successively shallower reservoirs. As the reservoir has become closer to the surface, eruptions have become both more frequent and more voluminous.

  20. Kinematics, Thermicity and Petroleum Potential Appraisal in the External Parts of FOLD-and-THRUST Belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roure, Francois

    2014-05-01

    Fold-and-thrust belts still constitute frontier areas for HC exploration. However, coupled 2D kinematic and thermal modelling techniques, based on seismic interpretation and the input of balanced cross sections, can be used to recontruct the burial history of source rocks and reservoirs, and to identify the timing of petroleum generation. Fluid flow and pore-fluid pressure modelling can be used also to get estimates on the hydrocarbon charge of potential prospects, and on chemical transfers occurring at both regional and reservoir scale when diagenesis operates in an open system. Bottom hole temperature and maturity ranks of the organic matter (Tmax, and R) can be used to calibrate the overall thermal history, but paleo-thermo-barometers are likely to provide better controls on the paleo-thickness of the eroded overburden. Further post-orogenic controls exerted by mantle dynamics must be also taken into account, because they can induce rapid uplift and erosion in both the foothills and adjacent foreland, and modify strongly the overall drainage areas. The integrated workflow developped at IFP-EN for the evaluation of the petroleum potential of fold-and-thrust belts will be documented by regional case studies in the Apennines, Sicily, Albania and North Algeria in the Mediterranean, as well as in the Sub-Andean basins from Veezuela and Colombia, and in Mexican and Canaduian segments of the North American Cordillera.

  1. Development and implantation of a control and data acquisition program for the calibration of instruments for diagnostic radiology; Desenvolvimento e implantacao de um programa de controle e aquisicao de dados na calibracao de instrumentos em radiodiagnostico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betti, Flavio

    2007-07-01

    Design techniques of an automatic control system implementing corrected kerma determination and shutter command in the calibration laboratory at IPEN are shown, as well as the periodic calibration program developed for a monitor chamber for several X-ray beam qualities used for diagnostic radiology and radiation protection instruments. Two reference electrometers, a multichannel secondary standard thermometer, and an absolute pressure barometer were connected to the Rs-232 interface from a PC computer equipped with a National Instruments multi function analog and digital I/O card. LabVIEW{sup MR} was chosen as programming tool, which allowed for the development of a suite of programs for both controlling the shutter timing cycles and the calibration of the monitor chamber against a reference standard. A detailed description of the methods used for troubleshooting, fine tuning of parameters and evaluation of program results is followed by an analysis showing that considerable advantages regarding reduction of time and precision improvements during the calibrations could be achieved by the use of the developed programs, particularly under adverse conditions like those found during short expositions, or instead during long irradiation intervals where fluctuation of parameters like kerma rate or room conditions (temperature or pressure) can be found. (author)

  2. Considering Community Psychology Competencies: A Love Letter to Budding Scholar-Activists Who Wonder if They Have What It Takes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhout, Regina Day

    2015-06-01

    Recently, community psychologists have re-vamped a set of 18 competencies considered important for how we practice community psychology. Three competencies are: (1) ethical, reflexive practice, (2) community inclusion and partnership, and (3) community education, information dissemination, and building public awareness. This paper will outline lessons I-a white working class woman academic-learned about my competency development through my research collaborations, using the lens of affective politics. I describe three lessons, from school-based research sites (elementary schools serving working class students of color and one elite liberal arts school serving wealthy white students). The first lesson, from an elementary school, concerns ethical, reflective practice. I discuss understanding my affect as a barometer of my ability to conduct research from a place of solidarity. The second lesson, which centers community inclusion and partnership, illustrates how I learned about the importance of "before the beginning" conversations concerning social justice and conflict when working in elementary schools. The third lesson concerns community education, information dissemination, and building public awareness. This lesson, from a college, taught me that I could stand up and speak out against classism in the face of my career trajectory being threatened. With these lessons, I flesh out key aspects of community practice competencies.

  3. Formation of current coils in geodynamo simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kageyama, Akira; Miyagoshi, Takehiro; Sato, Tetsuya

    2008-08-28

    Computer simulations have been playing an important role in the development of our understanding of the geodynamo, but direct numerical simulation of the geodynamo with a realistic parameter regime is still beyond the power of today's supercomputers. Difficulties in simulating the geodynamo arise from the extreme conditions of the core, which are characterized by very large or very small values of the non-dimensional parameters of the system. Among them, the Ekman number, E, has been adopted as a barometer of the distance of simulations from real core conditions, in which E is of the order of 10(-15). Following the initial computer simulations of the geodynamo, the Ekman number achieved has been steadily decreasing, with recent geodynamo simulations performed with E of the order of 10(-6). Here we present a geodynamo simulation with an Ekman number of the order of 10(-7)-the highest-resolution simulation yet achieved, making use of 4,096 processors of the Earth Simulator. We have found that both the convection flow and magnetic field structures are qualitatively different from those found in larger-Ekman-number dynamos. The convection takes the form of sheet plumes or radial sheet jets, rather than the columnar cell structures that are usually found. We have found that this sheet plume convection is an effective dynamo and the generated current is organized as a set of coils in the shape of helical springs or at times as a torus.

  4. Using vanadium in spinel as a sensor of oxygen fugacity in meteorites: Applications to Mars, Vesta, and other asteroids.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Righter, K.; Sutton, S.; Danielson, L.; Pando, K.; Le, L.; Newville, M. (Jacobs Engineering); (NASA JSC); (Hamilton Sundstrand); (UC)

    2009-03-23

    Some meteorites do not contain mineral assemblages required to apply traditional oxy-barometers. Here we introduce a technique using vanadium X-ray absorption features in spinels to characterize the oxygen fugacity of meteoritic dunites, pyroxenites, and chondrites. Igneous and metamorphic rocks commonly contain a mineral assemblage that allows oxygen fugacity to be calculated or constrained such as FeTi oxides, olivine-opx-spinel, or some other oxybarometer. Some rocks, however, contain a limited mineral assemblage and do not provide constraints on fO{sub 2} using mineral equilibria. Good examples of the latter are orthopyroxenites or dunites, such as diogenites, ALH 84001, chassignites, or brachinites. In fact it is no surprise that the fO{sub 2} of many of these samples is not well known, other than being 'reduced' and below the metal saturation value. In order to bridge this gap in our understanding, we have initiated a study of V in chromites in natural meteorite samples. Because the V pre-edge peak intensity and energy in chromites varies with fO{sub 2}, and this has been calibrated over a large fO{sub 2} range, we can apply this relation to rocks for which we otherwise have no fO{sub 2} constraints.

  5. Floor Identification with Commercial Smartphones in Wifi-Based Indoor Localization System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, H. J.; Liu, M. Y.; Shi, Y. M.; Zhao, J. Q.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we utilize novel sensors built-in commercial smart devices to propose a schema which can identify floors with high accuracy and efficiency. This schema can be divided into two modules: floor identifying and floor change detection. Floor identifying module starts at initial phase of positioning, and responsible for determining which floor the positioning start. We have estimated two methods to identify initial floor based on K-Nearest Neighbors (KNN) and BP Neural Network, respectively. In order to improve performance of KNN algorithm, we proposed a novel method based on weighting signal strength, which can identify floors robust and quickly. Floor change detection module turns on after entering into continues positioning procedure. In this module, sensors (such as accelerometer and barometer) of smart devices are used to determine whether the user is going up and down stairs or taking an elevator. This method has fused different kinds of sensor data and can adapt various motion pattern of users. We conduct our experiment with mobile client on Android Phone (Nexus 5) at a four-floors building with an open area between the second and third floor. The results demonstrate that our scheme can achieve an accuracy of 99% to identify floor and 97% to detecting floor changes as a whole.

  6. Some aspects of the role of intergranular fluids in the compositional evolution of metamorphic rocks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sumit Chakraborty; Ralf Dohmen

    2001-12-01

    Minerals that react with each other during the progressive evolution of metamorphic terranes are not always in physical contact. As such, an "intergranular fluid" could play a major role in element transfer and chemical evolution. However, the nature of this uid and its specific role remains somewhat elusive. Recent experiments in our laboratory shed some light on the behavior of such a uid. Here we present a simple mathematical model which accounts for diffusion within crystals and fluid, solubility in the fluid and mass balance between the various reservoirs. The model elucidates the nature of element exchange between two minerals via the mediation of an intergranular fluid. It is shown that a coupling of thermodynamics and kinetics controls the evolution of the system and the concentration of an element in the intergranular fluid is a key parameter of interest. The results have important implications for standard tools of metamorphic petrology such as geothermometers and barometers, geospeedometry and the closure of isotopic systems. For example, homogeneity of mineral grains may be a poor criterion for equilibrium and the rim compositions of minerals showing diffusion zoning may be out of equilibrium with distant exchange partners, even in the presence of a uid in which transport is fast.

  7. CEO and Businesses are Losing Trust: Comparison of EU, USA, Czech and Slovak Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denisa Kasl Kollmannová

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an in-depth study based on open-source data analysis (Edelman Trust Barometer and EuropeanCommunication Monitor concerning the general loss of trust, which both commercial companies, governments and,on a minor scale, also NGOs have been experiencing since the Global Financial Crisis in 2008. Trust is an essentialline of corporate communications, public relations and reputation management of companies and it is personalizedby the CEOs and top management. According to the data, the trust of CEOs saw the biggest decline in the U.S.while in Slovakia the trust is still quite high; on the contrary, in the E.U. in general, the level of trust of CEOs reacheda historical minimum of 30%. The overall shift from trusting the traditional authorities, such as government, CEOsand offi cial representatives to academics, stakeholders, employees and general “vox populi” can be seen globally.The aim of this article is to defi ne trust and the social and communications context of building trust as a key factorin a company´s reputation. Finally, clear managerial implications on reputation management focusing on Czech andSlovak CEOs and businesses will be given.

  8. Approach of Improving the Inertial Navigation System Error for Large Transport Aircraft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Huzi; GENG Jianzhong; TANG Changhong; LI Wei

    2013-01-01

    The corresponding corrected method is proposed for the INS (INS-Inertial Navigation System) accumulated error of large transport aircraft.System errors contain aircraft position error,altitude error and speed error,one is increasing the accuracy of hardware; the other is development of low cost software algorithms.Because of improving hardware is more difficult in my country at present,developing software algorithms is essential way,which have been validated in my types of airplane.The combined heuristic algorithms (ABPNN,Advanced Back-propagation neural networks algorithm and LSM-least square method) are presented,which incorporates the effects of flight region and measured terrain height data by radar and barometer.Based on this algorithm,the appropriate match region was gotten by recognition of fiducial digital map in real time online.In process of work,the minimum of position error as a cost function and the constraint conditions are gave,the flight positions are recognized in real time and continuously,least sum of square is calculated based on LSM,in other words,the optimized result is obtained.The simulation case demonstrate that the method is very successful,the correct rate of recognition is more 90 percent.In words,the algorithm presented is economical,validation and effective.

  9. Corruption in Latin America: Understanding the Perception–Exposure Gap Corrupção na América Latina. Entendendo a lacuna entre percepção e exposição

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone R. Bohn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available What beliefs do citizens who perceive levels of corruption in their countries to be of significance hold? Do those beliefs arise from their exposure to corruption? Furthermore, do perceptual and experiential corruption decrease the reservoir of legitimacy of a democratic regime? We attempt to answer these questions using the 2012 Americas Barometer survey of 24 Latin American countries. We find that whereas “rational-choice corrup-tors,” males and, to a lesser extent, individuals with resources are particularly exposed to corruption, perceived corruption originates from a sense of impunity derived from a negative evaluation of the state’s ability to curb corruption. In addition, we show that perceived corruption significantly decreases citizen satisfaction with democracy, but exposure to corruption does not. All in all, the policy implications of our study are straightforward: having an efficient and trusted judiciary is central to curbing both experiential and perceived corruption, even if it increases the latter in the short run.Quais são as crenças esposadas por indivíduos que acreditam haver corrupção em seu país? Essas crenças nascem em resposta à experiência direta com corrupção? Além disso, os dois fenômenos – ou seja, a percepção de corrupção e a exposição à corrupção – diminuem a reserva de legitimidade do regime democrático? Esse trabalho responde essas questões utilizando-se do survey de 24 países da América Latina e do Caribe, realizado pelo Americas Barometer em 2012. Os resultados da análise indicam que os “corruptores racionais”, os homens e, de uma certa maneira, os indivíduos mais abastados tendem a ser mais expostos à corrupção. A percepção da corrupção, por sua vez, emana de um senso de impunidade, particularmente de uma availação negativa em relação à capacidade de o estado controlar a corrupção. A análise também revela que a percepção da corrupção diminui a

  10. Thermobarometry for spinel lherzolite xenoliths in alkali basalts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Kazuhito; Youbi, Nasrrddine; Boumehdi, Moulay Ahmed; Nagahara, Hiroko

    2016-04-01

    Application of geothermobarometers to peridotite xenoliths has been providing very useful information on thermal and chemical structure of lithospheric or asthenospheric mantle at the time of almost instantaneous sampling by the host magmas, based on which various thermal (e.g., McKenzie et al., 2005), chemical (e.g., Griffin et al., 2003), and rheological (e.g., Ave Lallemant et al., 1980) models of lithosphere have been constructed. Geothermobarometry for garnet or plagioclase-bearing lithologies provide accurate pressure estimation, but this is not the case for the spinel peridotites, which are frequently sampled from Phanerozoic provinces in various tectonic environments (Nixon and Davies, 1987). There are several geobarometers proposed for spinel lherzolite, such as single pyroxene geothermobarometer (Mercier, 1980) and geothermobarometer based on Ca exchange between olivine and clinopyroxene (Köhler and Brey, 1990), but they have essential problems and it is usually believed that appropriated barometers do not exist for spinel lherzolites (O'Reilly et al., 1997; Medaris et al., 1999). It is thus imperative to develop reliable barometry for spinel peridotite xenoliths. We have developed barometry for spinel peridotite xenoliths by exploiting small differences in pressure dependence in relevant reactions, whose calibration was made through careful evaluation of volume changes of the reactions. This is augmented with higher levels of care in application of barometer by choosing mineral domains and their chemical components that are in equilibrium as close as possible. This is necessary because such barometry is very sensitive to changes in chemical composition induced by transient state of the system possibly owing to pressure and temperature changes as well as chemical modification, forming chemical heterogeneity or zoning frequently reported from various mantle xenoliths (Smith, 1999). Thus very carful treatment of heterogeneity, which might be trivial for

  11. An analysis of Super typhoon Rammasun's(2014) peak intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Qinbo; Xu, Yinglong

    2016-04-01

    Super typhoon Rammasun (2014) made landfall over Hainan Island, China, at 0730UTC 18 July 2014. Due to the damage of the anemometers, the Automatic Weather Stations (AWS) and the bouy which by Rammasun passed, failed to obtain its peak wind. Lack of the direct evident, in real-time monitoring, its peak intensities were given by 110kts (.i.e. 60m/s)/910hPa,135kts/922hPa , and 90kts/935hPa based on Dvorak technique , which were made by China Meteorological Administration (CMA),Joint Typhoon Warning Center(JTWC), and Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) respectively. However, a minimum pressure of 881.2hPa recorded by a barometer which located at Qixhou island (19.982︒N,111.269︒E) while Rammasun approaching, indicates that its intensity was under estimated. By using observation data such as AWS, satellite, Doppler radar and wind tower near the ground, this study performs a detail evaluation to obtain its actual intensity. At 0521UTC, Qizhou Island station recorded 881.2hPa of the minimum station pressure and 899.2hPa of minimum sea level pressure (MSLP) while the anemometer had been destroyed. These are the lowest records in Chinese history and also are ones of the global lowest pressures obtained directly by barometer. It is evident that Rammasun's eyewall did not pass across Qizhou Island directly, so the actual MSLP should be lower than 899.2hPa. By applying wind-pressure relationship, it is reckoned that the reasonable MSLP and peak wind of Rammasun should be 888hPa and 70-76m/s, which makes Rammasun the strongest typhoon ever made landfall in China's history. In order to intuitively investigate the real intensity of Ramasun, eyewall structures are compared with some historical extreme typhoons (hurricanes) such as Saomai(2006), Haiyan(2013) and Katrina(2005). Satellite images show that the dense overcast convection strength of Rammasun is stronger than those when Saomai and Katrina were in their peak intensities and before landing, but weaker than Haiyan. The

  12. 资源分布、阶层地位与社会支持 基于东亚华人社会的比较%Distribution of Resources, Social Class, and Social Support: Comparisons of the Chinese Societies in East Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范晓光

    2012-01-01

    已有研究大多从网络结构角度讨论社会支持,本文基于2006年“亚洲民主动态调查”(AsianBarometerSurvey)的数据,从地位结构观角度探讨了东亚华人社会城市居民的社会支持选择。研究结果表明,在不同资源分布格局的华人社会中,阶层结构对城市居民在社会支持选择上的影响存在差异。具体而言,在正式支持和混合支持的选择上,与中国大陆相比,教育地位对港台地区居民选择混合支持的几率有更明显的正向作用;在正式支持和非正式支持的选择上,教育地位对中国大陆居民选择正式支持的几率的正向作用更强。%In Chinese societies, kinship relations always play a very important role in social support due to the impact of Confucian culture. The establishment of the modern welfare system including social assistance and pensions has shifted the overreliance on personal networks for social support to using the formal multi-level support system. Current scholars have studied social support from the network structural perspective. This paper tries to apply the social status perspective to the study of social support. At present there are two theoretical perspectives, i. e., the theory of resource distribution and the theory of social status block, the former emphasizing how the distribution of economic resources and political power structure influence individuals' network selection and utilization, and the latter emphasizing how social stratification controls people's social contact and interaction to influence the accessible network resources. Facing the theoretical limitations, the author proposes a new analytical framework of "distribution of resource-structure of class' (DR- SC)" to examine the selection of social support by the urban citizens in the Chinese societies in East Asia based on the 2006 Asia Barometer Survey. The findings suggest that, in Mainland China, which had the

  13. The reconstruction of air pressure in Gdańsk in the period of instrumental observations, 1739-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipiak, Janusz

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of the paper is to characterise the details of reconstruction of air pressure in Gdańsk in the whole period of regular instrumental records spanning the period 1739-2012. Gdańsk pressure series has been reconstructed by joining air pressure observations of 15 local shorter series. The entire instrumental series can be divided into three sub-periods: the Early Observers period, lasting to 1806, the First Meteorological Networks, covering the years from 1807 to 1875 and Modern Measurements begun in 1876. During the first period, observations were made from two to four times per day, sometimes even at midnight. In the 19th century and up to 1945 thrice-daily barometer readings were a standard, in the last few decades the density of data is much denser. A serious gap in the original daily data exists for the period 1849-1875, where it appears that no original source of data have survived. Selected data are presented in the form of five-day or monthly averages. Numerous errors made probably during the re-writing of original observers' data by their assistants were discovered during digitalization. Despite this the quality of observations can be regarded as good. Data have been corrected to provide a monthly-mean measure of atmospheric pressure in the unit of hPa at standard conditions, i.e. standard gravity, 0 °C and at sea level. Some inconsistencies may still arise as the procedure of the homogenization of air temperature is not completed and in case of a few oldest series air temperature was estimated. Numerous breakpoints were identified in the homogenisation of the series and they cannot be always linked to known causes. A reasonably detailed station history has been compiled by incorporating metadata contained in various written sources. These metadata have facilitated the homogenisation of the data series. Mean annual atmospheric pressure in Gdańsk in period 1739-2012 calculated on the basis of homogenized series was 1014.9 hPa. Mean seasonal

  14. Health behaviors: is there any distinction for teachers? A cross-sectional nationwide study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabien Gilbert

    Full Text Available Health behaviors, as important modifiable determinants of health, are consistently targeted by prevention messages. Teachers, as educators and role models, may play a key-role in bringing such messages to children and adolescents. It is not clear which areas of prevention could be improved in collaboration with teachers to promote healthy behaviors at the population level through health education in schools.to evaluate teacher's health awareness, we compared their health/risk behaviors to those of non-teachers, taking into account demographic and socioeconomic factors that could confound crude differences. We used data from the 2010 Health Barometer, a cross-sectional nationally-representative French survey conducted by telephone among 27,653 persons aged 15-85. Adjusting sequentially for potential confounders, we compared six indicators of lifestyle and risky conducts (at-risk drinking, current smoking, cannabis use, gambling, corpulence, sleep duration between teachers (n = 725 and two comparison groups: other occupations (n = 12,483 on the one hand, and other intermediate and managerial/professional occupations (n = 6,026 on the other.In the fully-adjusted models, teachers were less likely than other occupations to smoke, to have used cannabis in the last 12 months, to gamble regularly and to be overweight or obese. When restricting the comparison group to other occupations belonging to the same socio-professional category, differences were attenuated, but remain highly significant for tobacco, cannabis and gambling. No significant differences were observed between teachers and non-teachers regarding alcohol use and sleep duration, once important confounders had been adjusted for.Our results suggest that teachers behave on the whole more healthily than other adults with a similar demographic and socioeconomic profile. The absence of a teacher distinction toward at-risk drinking needs to be examined in more detail.

  15. Reconstruction of climate dynamics in an Arctic fjord environment: evidence from a multi-proxy high resolution marine record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLachlan, S. E.; Howe, J.

    2012-12-01

    The cryosphere is a crucial component of the Earth's climate system, and comprises sea ice, snow, glaciers, ice cap, ice shelves, river and lake ice, ice sheets and frozen ground. The cryosphere has shown ice growth and decay on many timescales associated both with 100,000 year ice age cycles and with shorter-term (Ice Age. Crucially the cyosphere acts as a barometer for climate change because it provides a visible means of assessing the impacts of recent climate warming. Coastal Arctic regions are particularly sensitive to climate change, and records of glacier fluctuations can be used to infer past climate. The western Svalbard margin is a climatically sensitive region presently influenced by the warm and saline Atlantic water of the West Spitsbergen Current. This current is the northernmost extension of the Norwegian Atlantic Current that transports significant quantities of heat northward, maintaining the seas west of the Svalbard shelf increasingly ice free. For the Svalbard area there are currently a number of low-resolution (centennial to multi-decadal) marine records that span the Holocene. Despite their low resolution, several studies have highlighted abrupt environmental shifts and fluctuating glacial conditions during the Holocene. A few low-resolution lake records and other sporadic terrestrial datasets also exist providing a limited insight into the terrestrial environmental changes over the last two millennia. We have generated the first sub-decadal resolution late Holocene climatic record, in order to determine the nature and timing of environmental changes across transient climate events at an unprecedented temporal scale for this region. XRF analyses provides the high-resolution data series, which has been integrated with sedimentological data to better define the environmental processes; thus providing the basis for the reconstruction of climate change in this glaciated fjordic environment.

  16. Termobarometría Opx-Cpx aplicada al conocimiento de las condiciones de formación de las roca s ultramálicas de Vivero (Lugo, noroeste de España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galán, G.

    1985-12-01

    Full Text Available Several two-pyroxene thermometers and barometers have been used to determine the genetic conditions of ultramafic rocks associated to calc-alkalic granites that outcrop in the Vivero Massif (Lugo, NW of Spain. These ultramafic rocks, some of which are similar to cortlandtites, have an amphibole being the most abundant phase, together with olivino, pyroxenes and phlogopite. They have been differentiated in peridotites, pyroxenites and hornblendites. Some dioritic mafic rocks are also present. Their emplacement, simultaneous with that of the granites, was made following a shear zone related to the Mondoñedo nappe and resulted in Penetrative deformationof the whole complex Temperatures obtained with different methods are quite uniform with an average value of 938º C, and a pressure of about 3 Kbars. The results of the different thermometers are compared, as well as their petrological and regional significance.

    Diversos métodos termométricos y barométricos, basados en el equilibrio ortopiroxenoclinopiroxeno, se utilizan en la determinación de la temperatura y presión de formación de rocas ultramáficas ricas en anfíbol, asociadas a granitos calcoalcalinos del macizo de Vivero (Lugo, noroeste de España. Se trata de rocas ultramáficas, algunas de ellas de tipo cortlandtítico, con una proporción variable de olivinos, piroxenos, anfíboles y flogopita como fases principales, que se emplazan simultáneamente con los granitos asociados, aprovechando una zona de cizalla en relación con el manto de Mondoñedo. Se comparan los resultados obtenidos y la validez de los diversos métodos empleados, a la vez que se discute su significado petrológico y regional.

  17. Affect School for chronic benign pain patients showed improved alexithymia assessments with TAS-20

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thulesius Hans O

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alexithymia is a disturbance associated with psychosomatic disorders, pain syndromes, and a variety of psychiatric disorders. The Affect School (AS based on Tomkins Affect Theory is a therapy focusing on innate affects and their physiological expressions, feelings, emotions and scripts. In this pilot study we tried the AS-intervention method in patients with chronic benign pain. Methods The AS-intervention, with 8 weekly group sessions and 10 individual sessions, was offered to 59 patients with chronic non-malignant pain at a pain rehabilitation clinic in Sweden 2004-2005. Pre and post intervention assessments were done with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale (HAD, the Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20 (TAS-20, the Visual Analogue Scale for pain assessment (VAS-pain, the European Quality of Life health barometer (EQoL and the Stress and Crisis Inventory-93 (SCI-93. After the group sessions we used Bergdahl's Questionnaire for assessing changes in interpersonal relations, general well-being and evaluation of AS. Results The AS intervention was completed by 54 out of 59 (92% patients. Significant reductions in total TAS-20 post-test scores (p = 0.0006 as well as TAS-20 DIF and DDF factors (Difficulties Identifying Feelings, and Difficulties Describing Feelings were seen (p = 0.0001, and p = 0.0008 while the EOT factor (Externally Oriented Thinking did not change. Improvements of HAD-depression scores (p = 0.04, EQoL (p = 0.02 and self-assessed changes in relations to others (p Conclusions This pilot study involving 59 patients with chronic benign pain indicates that the alexithymia DIF and DDF, as well as depression, social relations and quality of life may be improved by the Affect School therapeutic intervention.

  18. Energy in France, reference data; L'energie en France, reperes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This little booklet presents a selection of statistical data about the energy in France: 1 - energy in economy: contribution of energy industries to the gross domestic product; employment; investment of public companies in the energy sector; 2 - overall energies: average monthly and annual prices of crude oil; public opinion barometer; 2001 status of supplies, employment and consumption; production and consumption of primary energy per energy sources; consumption per sector; energy bill; price of imported crude and US$ change rate; 3 - petroleum: total primary production; final consumption of refined petroleum products per sector and per type of product; evolution of the gasoline and diesel automotive fuels demand; imports and exports of petroleum products; petroleum bill; 4 - natural gas: total national production; consumption per sector; imports per country of origin and costs; 5 - coal: national production, consumption per sector; imports per country of origin; 6 - electric power: gross production; thermal production per type of fuel; end-consumption per sector; nuclear power plants; power trades with neighboring countries; 7 - renewable energy sources: national production; wind power connected to the grid; end consumption of wood; energy production from municipal wastes; solar thermal and photovoltaic production; 8 - district heating networks: primary energy consumption per energy type; non-conventional energy sources (geothermal, wastes, industrial heat); 9 - rational use of energy: energy intensity; compared evolutions of the gross domestic product and of the energy consumption; cumulated energy saving since 1986; 10 - energy prices: in the industry, for domestic uses; automotive fuels; energy consumption in the overall consumption of households; 11 - energy and environment: CO{sub 2} emissions per sector; net CO{sub 2} emissions of energy origin. (J.S.)

  19. Bowie Lecture: The Record of Sea Level Change from Satellite Measurements: What Have We Learned?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerem, R. S.

    2005-12-01

    Over the last decade, satellite geodetic measurements together with in situ measurements, have revolutionized our understanding of present-day sea level change. This is important because sea level change can be used as one barometer of climate variations and because of the implications sea level change has for coastal populations. With measurements from satellite altimeter missions (TOPEX/Posiedon and Jason), satellite gravity missions (GRACE), and the Global Positioning System (GPS), we are now able to start asking some important questions with regards to global sea level change and its regional variations. What has been the rate of global mean sea level change over the last dozen years? Is this rate different from the historical rate observed by the tide gauges over the last century? What are the principal causes of the observed sea level change, and are they related to anthropogenic climate variations? The record of sea level change from satellite altimetry will be reviewed, its error sources and limitations discussed, and the results placed in context with other estimates of sea level change from tide gauges, in situ measurements, and global climate models. The much shorter, but just as important, record of ocean mass variations from satellite gravity measurements will be similarly reviewed. In addition, GPS measurements of the deformation of the solid Earth due to the melting of continental ice and what they tell us about sea level change will be discussed. A sea level change budget will be presented, both for the altimetric era and the last century, containing estimates of contributions from thermal expansion, ocean mass changes (melting ice, runoff, etc.), and other contributions to sea level change. Finally, the need for continuing the satellite measurements of sea level change will be discussed in the context of future missions and the scientific gain that would result.

  20. Potassium isotopic evidence for a high-energy giant impact origin of the Moon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kun; Jacobsen, Stein B

    2016-10-27

    The Earth-Moon system has unique chemical and isotopic signatures compared with other planetary bodies; any successful model for the origin of this system therefore has to satisfy these chemical and isotopic constraints. The Moon is substantially depleted in volatile elements such as potassium compared with the Earth and the bulk solar composition, and it has long been thought to be the result of a catastrophic Moon-forming giant impact event. Volatile-element-depleted bodies such as the Moon were expected to be enriched in heavy potassium isotopes during the loss of volatiles; however such enrichment was never found. Here we report new high-precision potassium isotope data for the Earth, the Moon and chondritic meteorites. We found that the lunar rocks are significantly (>2σ) enriched in the heavy isotopes of potassium compared to the Earth and chondrites (by around 0.4 parts per thousand). The enrichment of the heavy isotope of potassium in lunar rocks compared with those of the Earth and chondrites can be best explained as the result of the incomplete condensation of a bulk silicate Earth vapour at an ambient pressure that is higher than 10 bar. We used these coupled constraints of the chemical loss and isotopic fractionation of K to compare two recent dynamic models that were used to explain the identical non-mass-dependent isotope composition of the Earth and the Moon. Our K isotope result is inconsistent with the low-energy disk equilibration model, but supports the high-energy, high-angular-momentum giant impact model for the origin of the Moon. High-precision potassium isotope data can also be used as a 'palaeo-barometer' to reveal the physical conditions during the Moon-forming event.

  1. Infrasonic Signals from the 29 June 2012 Derecho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winslow, N.; Howard, W. B.; Pulli, J. J.; Kofford, A. S.

    2012-12-01

    Common weather events such as pressure fronts, tornados, and hurricanes generate infrasonic signals (sub-audible acoustic signals with an oscillatory frequency below 20 Hz). These signals can provide a distal (>10km) analysis of weather events because: (1) the attenuation of an infrasonic signal with distance is less than that of a similar audible signal, and (2) the propagation velocities of typical weather events are much slower than the speed of sound. The 29 June, 2012 Derecho (a widespread, long-lived, rapidly moving linear band of storms extending more than 240 miles and including wind gusts in excess of 58 mph) that stretched from Chicago, IL to Washington, DC generated infrasonic signals in addition to causing over $100 million in damage to the power systems of Virginia, West Virginia, and Maryland alone. The infrasonic (and seismic) signals from this event were recorded on the NCPA micro barometers along the northeastern edge of the current configuration of the USArray. These instruments, which sample at 40 Hz, exhibit a flat frequency response from around 0.1 Hz to above 20 Hz and show a sensitivity of 1.57 x 104 Volts/Pascal at 0.8 Hz. An analysis of the recordings observed at multiple stations identified several infrasonic signatures from the Derecho. The signal's duration was approximately 40 minutes and exhibited a large peak pressure fluctuation. A characteristic ramp up occurred before the peak pressure fluctuation, and the majority of the infrasonic energy occurred below 1 Hz. These signatures are analyzed within the context of the Derecho as an infrasonic source, and the propagation of infrasound in the atmosphere.

  2. Recent developments in antitrust: challenges to medical autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R D

    1989-01-01

    Once exemptions from antitrust scrutiny were removed, economic arguments have proved effective in dissolving the hegemony formerly held by psychiatrists over the provision of mental health services. A growing number of courts, legislatures, and insurance companies have been persuaded by psychologists that they can provide at least comparable services at lower costs than psychiatrists. The fact that psychotherapy is less obviously a "medical" procedure than surgery or other physical treatments has facilitated the establishment of the psychologists' position. After these gains, there are indications that other mental health providers will follow the paths established by psychologists. Cost-containment efforts in the mental health care industry, particularly through health maintenance organizations, have already led to increased utilization of nondoctoral providers for initial screening services, and psychiatrists have even filed countersuits alleging restraint of their trade through the exclusive use of lower-cost providers (State Medical Society of Wisconsin v. Schweiker et al., 1982). With the clear message from many courts and legislatures that profession will no longer serve to distinguish among mental health providers, it appears that the validity of psychiatrists' assertions that independent practice by nonmedical mental health professionals will result in lower quality of care for patients will be tested in the marketplace, with peer review and tort litigation serving as the barometer by which that quality will be measured. And, as other nonmedical professionals establish their credentials through licensure and recognition by consumers, we can expect that they will also seek recognition of their capacities to provide (and be reimbursed for) professional services through the courts. With this greater access to consumers of mental health care will also come, of course, greater public scrutiny and greater risk of malpractice liability.

  3. Collective flow signals the quark-gluon plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöcker, H.

    2005-03-01

    A critical discussion of the present status of the CERN experiments on charm dynamics and hadron collective flow is given. We emphasize the importance of the flow excitation function from 1 to 50 A GeV: here the hydrodynamic model has predicted the collapse of the v-flow and of the v-flow at ˜10 A GeV; at 40 A GeV it has been recently observed by the NA49 Collaboration. Since hadronic rescattering models predict much larger flow than observed at this energy we interpret this observation as evidence for a first order phase transition at high baryon density ρ. A detailed discussion of the collective flow as a barometer for the equation of state (EoS) of hot dense matter at RHIC follows. Here, hadronic rescattering models can explain 2 GeV/c. This is interpreted as evidence for the production of superdense matter at RHIC with initial pressure far above hadronic pressure, p>1 GeV/fm. We suggest that the fluctuations in the flow, v and v, should be measured in future since ideal hydrodynamics predicts that they are larger than 50% due to initial state fluctuations. Furthermore, the QGP coefficient of viscosity may be determined experimentally from the fluctuations observed. The connection of v to jet suppression is examined. It is proven experimentally that the collective flow is not faked by minijet fragmentation. Additionally, detailed transport studies show that the away-side jet suppression can only partially (QGP formed at RHIC—can give further information on the equation of state (EoS) and transport coefficients of the quark-gluon plasma (QGP).

  4. LOFAR observations of decameter carbon radio recombination lines towards Cassiopeia A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, P.; Oonk, J. B. R.; van Weeren, R. J.; Salgado, F.; Morabito, L. K.; Toribio, M. C.; Emig, K.; Röttgering, H. J. A.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.

    2017-01-01

    We present a study of carbon radio recombination lines towards Cassiopeia A using LOFAR observations in the frequency range 10-33 MHz. Individual carbon α lines are detected in absorption against the continuum at frequencies as low as 16 MHz. Stacking several Cα lines we obtain detections in the 11-16 MHz range. These are the highest signal-to-noise measurements at these frequencies. The peak optical depth of the Cα lines changes considerably over the 11-33 MHz range with the peak optical depth decreasing from 4 × 10-3 at 33 MHz to 2 × 10-3 at 11 MHz, while the line width increases from 20 km s-1 to ˜150 km s-1. The combined change in peak optical depth and line width results in a roughly constant integrated optical depth. We interpret this as carbon atoms close to local thermodynamic equilibrium. In this work we focus on how the 11-33 MHz carbon radio recombination lines can be used to determine the gas physical conditions. We find that the ratio of the carbon radio recombination lines to that of the 158 μm [CII] fine-structure line is a good thermometer, while the ratio between low frequency carbon radio recombination lines provides a good barometer. By combining the temperature and pressure constraints with those derived from the line width we are able to constrain the gas properties (electron temperature and density) and radiation field intensity. Given the 1σ uncertainties in our measurements these are; Te ≈ 68-98 K, ne ≈ 0.02-0.035 cm-3 and Tr, 100 ≈ 1500-1650 K. Despite challenging RFI and ionospheric conditions, our work demonstrates that observations of carbon radio recombination lines in the 10-33 MHz range can provide insight into the gas conditions.

  5. EU BUDGET – THE POLICY OF SHARING THE CAKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hella GERTH

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the EU budget aiming at casting light on the relationship between political and economic matters and on the importance that they function as a mechanism. Somehow the budget could be compared to a barometer showing the political pressure and the level of integration inside the European Union. Discussing the structure of the budget, where the EU money come from and how are the funds distributed afterwards, and also referring to important moments in the historical development of the European Union’s budget, the paper emphasizes the same idea of financial matters strong related to the political choices. It argues also, by describing the complexity of the budgetary procedure and the importance of financial control, that the budget is an important interplay between actors, is an important balance of power trying to reach equilibrium and efficiency. The paper also reviews the main issues of the present budgetary debates, the positions taken by European actors, counting their losses and gains, and to which extent their choices are more a national concern or following the European interest, aiming at presenting the actual state of the European Union taking into account both the economic and the political integration. The budget being one of the key elements forming the structure of the big edifice, the European Union, it is of great importance when discussing budgetary matters to have in mind the present context as a whole, determined by issues like the failure of the summit for setting a new budgetary framework, or the rejection of the European Constitution by the citizens of two of its founding members. Though, it is important when discussing the budget, economical matters to put them in a political context and also to see them in the present context.

  6. Computational Representation of Situation Awareness with Graphical Expressions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yim, Hobin; Seong, Poonghyun [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    Training is also frequently listed in general applications of SA evaluation. Unfortunately, almost of all methods are either subjective or qualitative, and often time consuming. Since the problems indicate, the core matter of using SA in training is the lack of well-developed or robust measurement tools. Therefore, an intuitive and easy handling SA measurement tool for NPP operators was developed based on the Petri-net and Bayesian inference. Measuring SA using Bayesian theory has been controversy, so sets of simulation training conducted by real NPP operators were video recorded for validation of the tool. There have been many attempts to understand cognitive processes in operators. Describing operator's SA is considered as one of the most plausible ways of such endeavors. Operator's cognitive activities in training can be a barometer of operator's unknown behavior in real situations. Knowing what the operator is thinking is important for better results of upcoming training. To give trainers an intuition that how well operators cope with dynamic situations, the quantitative tool to estimate SA named Corsage was proposed. Corsage gives reasonable clues why the operator behaves in a certain way by showing possible changes in a quantitative and graphical manner. Especially, a graphical comparison between referential information processing flow and operator's real information processing flow can offer trainers a detailed insight. In short, despite the incredulous opinion on measuring human cognition with probability, the result showed a positive view of applicability of Bayesian inference to SA measurement. The next step of the research will be improvement in responsiveness to 'rare but important' information.

  7. An overview of the lightning and atmospheric electricity observations collected in Southern France during the HYdrological cycle in Mediterranean EXperiment (HyMeX, Special Observation Period 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Defer

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The PEACH (Projet en Electricité Atmosphérique pour la Campagne HyMeX – the Atmospheric Electricity Project of HyMeX Program project is the Atmospheric Electricity component of the HyMeX (Hydrology cycle in the Mediterranean Experiment experiment and is dedicated to the observation of both lightning activity and electrical state of continental and maritime thunderstorms in the area of the Mediterranean Sea. During the HyMeX SOP1 (Special Observation Period; 5 September–6 November 2012, four European Operational Lightning Locating Systems (OLLSs (ATDNET, EUCLID, LINET, ZEUS and the HyMeX Lightning Mapping Array network (HyLMA were used to locate and characterize the lightning activity over the Southeastern Mediterranean at flash, storm and regional scales. Additional research instruments like slow antennas, video cameras, micro-barometer and microphone arrays were also operated. All these observations in conjunction with operational/research ground-based and airborne radars, rain gauges and in situ microphysical records aimed at characterizing and understanding electrically active and highly precipitating events over Southeastern France that often lead to severe flash floods. Simulations performed with Cloud Resolving Models like Meso-NH and WRF are used to interpret the results and to investigate further the links between dynamics, microphysics, electrification and lightning occurrence. A description of the different instruments deployed during the field campaign as well as the available datasets is given first. Examples of concurrent observations from radio frequency to acoustic for regular and atypical lightning flashes are then presented showing a rather comprehensive description of lightning flashes available from the SOP1 records. Then examples of storms recorded during HyMeX SOP1 over Southeastern France are briefly described to highlight the unique and rich dataset collected. Finally the next steps of the work required for the

  8. ARE THERE DIFFERENCES REFFERING TO THE LIVING STANDARD IN ROMANIA ACCORDING TO THE OCCUPATIONAL STATUS? EMPIRIC RESEARCH REFFERING TO THE ENDOWMENT WITH DURABLE GOODS IN ROMANIAN HOUSEHOLDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MANUELA ROZALIA GABOR

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The endowment with durable goods is both a barometer of the living standard and life quality published as a statisticindicator by the National Institute for Statistics from Romania (INS and at European level – comparative – byEurostat, for European countries. For both national and European level , this indicator is reported taking into accountsocio-demographic characteristics of the of the family head and of the household itself , such as : occupational status ,education level, gender, the age of the family head , the number of the persons from the household, etc. From all thesocio-demographic variables , we consider the most important the one referring to the occupational status of thefamily head, this being correlated directly with the educational level and implicitly with the income, variables whichwere the foundation of constituting the sample basis of this research. Previous research proved that the endowmentwith durable goods presents significant differences from a statistical point of view at the level of the developmentregions from Romania. In this work, we complete previous research for Romania, based on a representative sample aturban national level consisting of 300 households, using a double scheme of sampling, stratified samples and on levels.For this I used methods of descriptive and non-parametric statistics starting from the hypothesis that, the livingstandard and the quality of life in Romania are significantly different from a statistical point of view according to theoccupational status of the household head. The conclusions of this research present importance from the point of viewof social and macroeconomical politics as well as for the “’actors” of the market for these consumption goods.

  9. Considerations on Cyber Security Assessments of Korean Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung-Woon; Song, Jae-Gu; Han, Kyung-Soo; Lee, Cheol Kwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Mingyun [E-Gonggam Co. Ltd., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control (KINAC) has prepared the regulatory standard RS-015 based on RG 5.71. RS-015 defines the elements of a cyber security program to be established in nuclear facilities and describes the security control items and relevant requirements. Cyber security assessments are important initial activities in a cyber security program for NPPs. Cyber security assessments can be performed in the following key steps: 1) Formation of a cyber security assessment team (CSAT); 2) Identification of critical systems and critical digital assets (CDAs); 3) Plant compliance checks with the security control requirements in RS-015. Through the assessments, the current status of security controls applied to NPPs can be found out. The assessments provide baseline data for remedial activities. Additional analyses with the results from the assessments should be performed before the implementation of remedial security controls. The cyber security team at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has studied how to perform cyber security assessments for NPPs based on the regulatory requirements. Recently, KAERI's cyber security team has performed pilot cyber security assessments of a Korean NPP. Based on this assessment experience, considerations and checkpoints which would be helpful for full-scale cyber security assessments of Korean NPPs and the implementation of remedial security controls are discussed in this paper. Cyber security assessment is one of important and immediate activities for NPP cyber security. The quality of the first assessment will be a barometer for NPP cyber security. Hence cyber security assessments of Korean NPPs should be performed elaborately.

  10. Latinobarómetro 1997: Principales resultados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael CRESPO

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: El latinobarómetro es quizá la encuesta de opinión pública más importante que, cada año, analiza conjuntamente la realidad latinoamericana y española y que, además, permite la comparación de indicadores entre 18 países. Lo que se nos presenta a continuación son comentarios a los principales resultados extraídos en 1997, comparados con los obtenidos el año anterior, sobre aspectos como el desarrollo político e institucional y el estado de la democracia, junto a otras valoraciones de la realidad económica; ofreciéndonos, con ello, una clara descripción de la evolución de la opinión pública en estos países. Palabras clave: Latinobarómetro, opinión pública.ABSTRACT: The "latin-barometer" is perhaps the most important public opinion survey which analysies the latinamerican and the spanish situation together each year. Moreover it allows the comparition of indicators between eighteen countries. This paper shows the main results obtained during 1997. These results are compared with wihic were obtained on 1996. It comparies issues such as the instituctional and political development and the conditios of democracy; it linked to other valuations of the economic situation. These data offer us a clear description about the evoluction of public opinion in these countries.

  11. FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENTS IN THE ROMANIAN ECONOMY IN A REGIONAL CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIEL STĂNCESCU

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Foreign direct investments represent the most important and stable source of externalfinancing of all states of the world, irrespective of their level of development.In Romania’s path from the elimination of the centralized economy and up to nowadays,foreign direct investments were also a source of economic growth, a financing source, and a meansof acceleration in the process of transition, a contributor to the capitalization of the wealth of thecountry but also a real barometer of the economic situation.The aim of this article is to analyse the foreign direct investment flows in the Romanianeconomy after 1990 according to the 3 stages of qualitative evolution of the Romanian marketeconomy : the period of transition to the market economy (1990-2003, the period of the marketeconomy, of pre-accession to the Union (2004-2006, the period of the first 4 years of membershipin the European Union (2006-2010, the main focus of the research being on outlining the place ofthe national economy in the South Eastern European region, as well as in the European Union.In 20 years of activity to attract international investments, foreign direct investments havecovered on average current account deficit of about 60%.In the last two decades, Romania was the leader of the South East European region (7countries, the investors were directing to our country more than 33% of their investments.The best results achieved by Romania in FDI were recorded in 2003-2006 when totalinvestment flows accounted for about 8% of GDP.

  12. Revisiting sea level changes in the North Sea during the Anthropocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Jürgen; Dangendorf, Sönke; Wahl, Thomas; Niehüser, Sebastian

    2016-04-01

    The North Sea is one of the best instrumented ocean basins in the world. Here we revisit sea level changes in the North Sea region from tide gauges, satellite altimetry, hydrographic profiles and ocean reanalysis data from the beginning of the 19th century to present. This includes an overview of the sea level chapter of the North Sea Climate Change Assessment (NOSCCA) complemented by results from more recent investigations. The estimates of long-term changes from tide gauge records are significantly affected by vertical land motion (VLM), which is related to both the large-scale viscoelastic response of the solid earth to ice melting since the last deglaciation and local effects. Removing VLM (estimated from various data sources such as GPS, tide gauge minus altimetry and GIA) significantly reduces the spatial variability of long-term trends in the basin. VLM corrected tide gauge records suggest a transition from relatively moderate changes in the 19th century towards modern trends of roughly 1.5 mm/yr during the 20th century. Superimposed on the long-term changes there is a considerable inter-annual to multi-decadal variability. On inter-annual timescales this variability mainly reflects the barotropic response of the ocean to atmospheric forcing with the inverted barometer effect dominating along the UK and Norwegian coastlines and wind forcing controlling the southeastern part of the basin. The decadal variability is mostly remotely forced and dynamically linked to the North Atlantic via boundary waves in response to long-shore winds along the continental slope. These findings give valuable information about the required horizontal resolution of ocean models and the necessary boundary conditions and are therefore important for the dynamical downscaling of sea level projections for the North Sea coastlines.

  13. A Re-Interpretation of the 'Two-child Norm' in Post-Transitional Demographic Systems: Fertility Intentions in Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Basten

    Full Text Available Taiwan currently has one of the lowest fertility rates in the world, leading to projections of rapid population ageing and decline. In common with other territories in Pacific Asia, policies designed to support childbearing have recently been introduced. Some optimism for the future success of these policies has been drawn from the fact that the 'ideal' number of children stated in Taiwanese surveys is over two. In this way, Taiwan appears to fit the 'two-child norm' model identified for Europe and North America. Furthermore, this feature has led commentators to state that Taiwan is not in a 'low fertility trap'-where positive feedback mechanisms emanating from the normalisation of small families, slow economic growth and ageing/declining population mean attempts to increase fertility become ever less likely to succeed. Using a recent national representative survey, and arguing that 'intentions' are a more reliable guide to understanding the circumstances of family formation, this paper explores fertility intentions in Taiwan with a special focus on women at parity one and parity two. This will form the first full-length examination of fertility intentions in Taiwan published in English and one of the few studies of Pacific Asia that reports a micro-level analysis. We argue that using intentions should provide a better 'barometer' of attitudes towards childbearing in Taiwan, and that through micro-level analysis, we can better identify the predictors of intentions that could, in turn, provide useful clues both for projections as well as shaping policy responses. While we found some evidence for a 'two-child norm' among childless women, this could be an unrealistic ideal. This is supported by the fact that a majority of women with one child do not intend to have another.

  14. Precise revision of the garnet-muscovite geothermometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU; Chunming; (吴春明); ZHAO; Yingjun; (赵英俊)

    2002-01-01

    The garnet-muscovite geothermometer was refined through empirical calibration by using natural rocks metamorphosed under the physical conditions of 238—1306 MPa and 490—700℃. Input temperatures and pressures were determined through simultaneously applying the garnet-biotite geothermometer and the garnet-biotite-plagioclase-quartz barometer, assuming that all FeO in muscovite and garnet be ferrous. Garnet was treated as the asymmetric quaternary solid solution, and muscovite as the symmetric binary solid solution. Input muscovite compositions include Fe atoms between 0.03—0.19 and Mg atoms between 0.04—0.16 on the basis of 11 oxygen atoms, and input garnet compositions include spessartine fractions between 0.01—0.289, grossular fractions between 0.028—0.273, and the Fe/Mg ratio between 3.387-18.986. The resulting garnet-muscovite geothermometer reproduces temperatures within (50℃ compared with the garnet-biotite thermometer. Total random error of ±37℃ of the new thermometer may stem from the pressure uncertainty of ±200 MPa, and uncertainties of ±5% of Fe and Mg components in muscovite, and ±5% of Fe, Mg, Mn and Ca components in garnet, altogether. When there exist 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% Fe3+ in muscovite, respectively, the computed garnet-muscovite temperatures will be 1—6℃, 2—12℃, 3—16℃, 5—24℃ and 7—29℃, respectively, lower than those obtained when assuming that all FeO be ferrous. The new garnet-muscovite geothermometer can efficiently reflect temperature change of typical prograde sequences and contact aureole rocks, and may be applied to low- to high-grade and low- to high-pressure metamorphic rocks.

  15. A high-throughput and sensitive method to measure Global DNA Methylation: Application in Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamaev Sergey

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome-wide changes in DNA methylation are an epigenetic phenomenon that can lead to the development of disease. The study of global DNA methylation utilizes technology that requires both expensive equipment and highly specialized skill sets. Methods We have designed and developed an assay, CpGlobal, which is easy-to-use, does not utilize PCR, radioactivity and expensive equipment. CpGlobal utilizes methyl-sensitive restriction enzymes, HRP Neutravidin to detect the biotinylated nucleotides incorporated in an end-fill reaction and a luminometer to measure the chemiluminescence. The assay shows high accuracy and reproducibility in measuring global DNA methylation. Furthermore, CpGlobal correlates significantly with High Performance Capillary Electrophoresis (HPCE, a gold standard technology. We have applied the technology to understand the role of global DNA methylation in the natural history of lung cancer. World-wide, it is the leading cause of death attributed to any cancer. The survival rate is 15% over 5 years due to the lack of any clinical symptoms until the disease has progressed to a stage where cure is limited. Results Through the use of cell lines and paired normal/tumor samples from patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC we show that global DNA hypomethylation is highly associated with the progression of the tumor. In addition, the results provide the first indication that the normal part of the lung from a cancer patient has already experienced a loss of methylation compared to a normal individual. Conclusion By detecting these changes in global DNA methylation, CpGlobal may have a role as a barometer for the onset and development of lung cancer.

  16. Preoperative erectile function and the pathologic features of prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Wook Jeong

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose We evaluated whether preoperative erectile function is associated with pathologic features in the patients who underwent radical prostatectomy (RP. Materials and Methods We reviewed medical records of 1,743 men who underwent RP from November 2003 through May 2012. Of these, 50 patients who had prior hormone therapy and 272 patients who had lacking data of International Index of Erectile Function-5 (IIEF-5 were excluded. Men whose IIEF-5 was in the lower 25 percentile were assigned as Low Erectile Function group and the others were assigned as Control group. We compared pathologic features using univariable and multivariable logistic regression analysis between two groups. Results A total of 1,421 patients were included in the analysis. Patients’ age was 65.8 ± 6.7 years and prostate-specific antigen (PSA was 12.8±16.1 ng/mL. Median and low 25 percentile of IIEF-5 were 14 and 8, respectively. Low Erectile Function group (IIEF-5<8 had higher risk to have high Gleason score (≥7(4+3, odds ratio (OR 1.642, p<0.001 and large tumor volume (≥5 mL, OR 1.292, p=0.042. Even after adjusting age, year of surgery, body mass index, Charlson comorbidity index, PSA, clinical stage and biopsy Gleason score, Low Erectile Function group still had higher risk of high Gleason score (OR 1.910, p<0.001 and large tumor volume (OR 1.390, p=0.04 by multivariable logistic regressions. Conclusions Lower erectile function before RP was associated with higher Gleason’s score and larger tumor volume in final pathology. Thus, erectile function could be a surrogate barometer for prostate cancer aggressiveness.

  17. Air pressure effects on sea level changes during the twentieth century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piecuch, Christopher G.; Thompson, Philip R.; Donohue, Kathleen A.

    2016-10-01

    Interpretation of tide gauge data in terms sea level (η) and ocean dynamics requires estimates of air pressure (pa) to determine the ocean's isostatic response—the inverted barometer effect (ηib). Three gridded pa products (HadSLP2, NOAA-20CRv2, and ERA-20C) are used alongside meteorological station pa and tide gauge η records to evaluate the contribution of ηib to η changes over the twentieth century. Agreement between gridded products is better during more recent periods and over regions with good historical data coverage, whereas it is worse for earlier time periods or in ocean areas with poor observational data coverage. Comparison against station data reveals the presence of systematic errors in the gridded products, for example, such that uncertainties estimated through differencing the gridded products underestimate the true errors by roughly 40% on interannual and decadal time scales. Notwithstanding such correlated errors, gridded products are still useful for interpretation of tide gauge data. Removing gridded estimates of ηib from η records reduces spatial variance in centennial trends across tide gauges by 10-30%, formal errors in centennial trends from individual gauges by ˜5%, and the temporal variance in detrended records by 10-15% on average (depending on choice of gridded product). Results here advocate for making the ηib correction to tide gauge records in studies of ocean circulation and global η over long, multidecadal, and centennial time scales using an ensemble mean taken across several gridded ηib products.

  18. Water Vapor Radiometer-Global Positioning System Comparison Measurements and Calibration of the 20 to 32 Gigahertz Tropospheric Water Vapor Absorption Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keihm, S. J.; Bar-Sever, Y.; Liljegren, J.

    2000-10-01

    Collocated measurements of opacity (from water vapor radiometer (WVR) brightness temperatures) and wet path delay (from ground-based tracking of Global Positions System (GPS) satellites) are used to constrain the model of atmospheric water vapor absorption in the 20 to 32 GHz band. A differential approach is presented in which the slope of opacity-versus-wet delay data is used as the absorption model constraint. This technique minimizes the effects of radiometric calibration errors and oxygen model uncertainties in the derivation of a best-fit vapor absorption model. A total of approximately 5 months of data were obtained from two experiment sites. At the Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site near Lamont, Oklahoma, three independent WVRs provided near-continuous opacity measurements over the interval from July through September 1998. At NASA's Goldstone tracking station in the California desert, two WVRs obtained opacity data over the September through October 1997 interval. At both sites, a GPS receiver and surface barometer obtained the data required for deriving the zenith wet delays over the same time frames. Measured values of the opacity-versus-wet delay slope parameter were obtained at four WVR frequencies (20.7, 22.2, 23.8, and 31.4 GHz) and compared with predictions of three candidate absorption models referenced in the recent literature. With one exception, all three models provide agreement within approximately 5 percent of the opacity-versus-wet delay slope measurements at all WVR frequencies at both sites. One model provides agreement for all channels at both sites to the 2 to 3 percent level. This accuracy is sufficient to meet the requirements of the tropospheric calibration system now being deployed at Goldstone to support the Cassini Gravitational Wave Experiment.

  19. Seasonal Mass Changes in the Red Sea Observed By GPS and Grace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alothman, A. O.; Fing, W.; Fernandes, R. M. S.; Bos, M. S.; Elsaka, B.

    2014-12-01

    The Red Sea is a semi-enclosed basin and exchanges water with the Gulf of Aden through the strait of Bab-el-Mandeb at the southern part of the sea. Its circulation is affected by the Indian Monsoon through its connection via the Gulf of Aden. Two distinctive (in summer and in winter) seasonal signals represent the water exchange. To understand the seasonal mass changes in the Red Sea, estimates of the mass changes based on two geodetic techniques are presented: from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) and from the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS). The GRACE solutions were truncated up to spherical harmonic degree and order degree 60 to estimate the average monthly mass change in the atmosphere and ocean from models (several hours). GNSS solution is based on observations from four stations along the Red Sea that have been acquired in continuous mode starting in 2007 (having at least 5 years' data-span). The time series analysis of the observed GNSS vertical deformation of these sites has been analyzed. The results revealed that the GNSS observed vertical loading agrees with the atmospheric loading (ATML) assuming that the hydrological signal along the costs of the Red sea is negligible. Computed values of daily vertical atmospheric loading using the NCEP surface pressure data (Inverted Barometer IB) for the 4 stations for 2003 until 2013 are provided. Comparison of the GRACE and GNSS solutions has shown significant annual mass variations in the Red Sea (about 15 cm annual amplitude). After removing the atmospheric effect (ATML), the ocean loading can be observed by GNSS and GRACE estimates in the Red Sea.

  20. Stock market prediction using technical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradić-Martinović Aleksandra

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Technical analysis (TA is a form of analyzing market encompassing supply and demand of securities according to the study of their prices and trading volume. Using the appropriate methods, TA aims to identify price movements in the stock market, futures or currencies. In short, TA analysis is the process by which "future price movements are formulated according to the price history". TA originates from the work of Charles Dow and his conclusions about the global behavior of the market, as well as from Elliot Wave Theory. Dow did not regard its theory as a tool for stock market movement prediction, nor as a guide for investors, but as a kind of barometer of general market movements. The term TA methods encompasses all the methods used in tracking prices aiming to clearly predict future events. Many different methods, mainly statistical, are used in technical analysis, the most popular ones being: establishing and following trends using moving average, recognizing price momentum, calculating indicators and oscillators, as well as cycle analysis (structure indicators. It is also necessary to point out that TA is not a science in the true meaning of the term, and that methods it uses frequently deviate from the conventional manner of their use. The main advantage of these methods is their relative ease of use, aiming to give as clear picture as possible of price movements, while at the same time avoiding the use of complicated and complex mathematical methods. The reason for this is simple and is reflected in the dynamics of financial markets, where changes occur during short periods of time and where prompt decision-making is of vital importance.

  1. Mean sea level and surface circulation variability of the Mediterranean Sea from 2 years of TOPEX/POSEIDON altimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larnicol, Gilles; Le Traon, Pierre-Yves; Ayoub, Nadia; de Mey, Pierre

    1995-12-01

    We describe the circulation and mean sea level variations of the Mediterranean Sea from 2 years of TOPEX/POSEIDON altimetric data. It is first shown that the response of the Mediterranean Sea to atmospheric pressure forcing is close to an inverse barometer (except at high frequencies) which means that the adjustment is accompanied by a flow through the Straits of Sicily and Gibraltar. We then use TOPEX/POSEIDON to study the mean sea level variations, representing steric effects and integrated large-scale changes of the mass of the Mediterranean Sea. We observe an annual cycle with a fast drop during winter. Steric effects account for about half of the observed variations. The remaining signal is believed to be driven by evaporation minus precipitation (E - P) forcing and internal hydraulic control in the Straits of Gibraltar. Using suboptimal space-time objective analysis, the classic components of the Mediterranean surface circulation are recovered, despite low signal-to-noise ratio (the rms of sea level variability is less than 10 cm). The variable Mediterranean circulation is seen as a complex combination of mesoscale and large-scale variations. The surface circulation is more complex in the eastern basin than in the western basin. In the east it is composed of subbasin-scale gyres, such as the so-called Mersa-Matruh and Shikmona gyres, which do not have an obvious recurrence period. We also observe an intensification of the large-scale cyclonic winter circulation in the western and in the Ionian basins. Several mesoscale structures, such as the Alboran gyres and the Ierepetra gyre, show a clear seasonal cycle, with a maximum in summer. The good qualitative and quantitative agreement of the results with previous data from the Mediterranean illustrates the improved accurary of TOPEX/POSEIDON over its predecessors.

  2. 中国-土耳其关系中中国新疆因素的波动及前景%Xinjiang in the Relationship between China and Turkey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艳

    2016-01-01

    文章回顾了百年来中国—土耳其关系的发展脉络和中国新疆因素对两国关系的影响,论证了中国—土耳其关系发展始终绕不开中国新疆因素,新世纪中国新疆因素已成为观察两国关系的“晴雨表”。在“一带一路”新的历史机遇下,土耳其对待中国新疆事务的不干涉态度是实现两国合作共赢的前提。我们希望通过中国—土耳其两国的共同努力,使中国新疆因素转化为发展两国关系的纽带与桥梁。%Having reviewed the development of relations between China and Turkey and the role of Xinjiang in the bi-lateral relations over the past century, this paper demonstrated the development of China-Turkey relations had been inseparable from the factor of Xinjiang. In the new century, Xinjiang has become the"barometer"of measuring the relations between the two countries. In the history of facing the new opportunities brought about by the“Belt and Road”Initiative, Turkey’s non-interference attitude is a prerequisite to achieve the win-win cooperation between the two countries. We hope that the joint efforts of China and Turkey can transform Xinjiang factor into the ties and bridges between the two countries.

  3. The role of amphibole in the evolution of arc magmas and crust: the case from the Jurassic Bonanza arc section, Vancouver Island, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larocque, Jeff; Canil, Dante

    2010-04-01

    The Jurassic Bonanza arc, on Vancouver Island, British Columbia, represents an exhumed island arc crustal section of broadly diorite composition. We studied bodies of mafic and ultramafic cumulates within deeper levels of the arc to constrain the conditions and fractionation pathways leading from high-Mg basalt to andesite and dacite. Major element trends coupled with textural information show the intercumulus crystallization of amphibole, as large oikocrysts enclosing olivine in primitive cumulates controls the compositions of liquids until the onset of plagioclase crystallization. This process is cryptic, occurring only in the plutonic section, and explains the paucity of amphibole in mafic arc volcanics and the change in the Dy/Yb ratios in many arc suites with differentiation. The correlation of octahedral Al in hornblende with pressure in liquidus experiments on high-Mg basalts is applied as an empirical barometer to hornblendes from the Bonanza arc. It shows that crystallization took place at 470-880 MPa in H2O-saturated primitive basaltic magmas. There are no magmatic equivalents to bulk continental crust in the Bonanza arc; no amount of delamination of ultramafic cumulates will shift the bulk arc composition to the high-Mg# andesite composition of bulk continental crust. Garnet removal from wet magmas appears to be the key factor in producing continental crust, requiring high pressures and thick crust. Because oceanic island arcs are built on thinner crust, the long-term process generating the bulk continental crust is the accretion of island arcs to continental margins with attendant tectonic thickening.

  4. Ubiquitous User Localization in LBS - The Need for Implementing Ethical Thinking in Our Research Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retscher, Guenther; Obex, Franz

    2015-12-01

    Location-based Services (LBS) influence nowadays every individual's life due to the emerging market penetration of smartphones and other mobile devices. For smartphone Apps localization technologies are developed ranging from GNSS beyond to other alternative ubiquitous positioning methods as well as the use of the in-built inertial sensors, such as accelerometers, gyroscopes, magnetometer, barometer, etc. Moreover, signals-of-opportunity which are not intended for positioning at the first sight but are receivable in many environments such as in buildings and public spaces are more and more utilized for positioning and navigation. The use of Wi-Fi (Wireless Fidelity) is a typical example. These technologies, however, have become very powerful tools as the enable to track an individual or even a group of users. Most technical researchers imply that it is mainly about further enhancing technologies and algorithms including the development of new advanced Apps to improve personal navigation and to deliver location oriented information just in time to a single LBS user or group of users. The authors claim that there is a need that ethical and political issues have to be addressed within our research community from the very beginning. Although there is a lot of research going on in developing algorithms to keep ones data and LBS search request in private, researchers can no longer keep their credibility without cooperating with ethical experts or an ethical committee. In a study called InKoPoMoVer (Cooperative Positioning for Real-time User Assistance and Guidance at Multi-modal Public Transit Junctions) a cooperation with social scientists was initiated for the first time at the Vienna University of Technology, Austria, in this context. The major aims of this study in relation to ethical questions are addressed in this paper.

  5. Health information as an aid to effective hospital management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogli, G D

    2003-03-01

    No institution can be efficiently organized and managed unless one makes a critical analysis of organizational needs and takes appropriate action to develop the way one wishes it to be. It is, in fact, more true with hospital organization, usually the new hospital starts as a simple and small organization and with-in the space of few years, however, it evolves into a complex body governed by precise laws and regulations, especially as regards finances, facilities and organizations. In order to maintain any organization especially the hospital administration efficiently it is necessary to develop management tools that would reflect the true operation of the hospital and enable resources (personnel, equipment and buildings) to be fully utilized and adapted to the needs of the population serviced. These indicators of true hospital operation would then serve as a basis for determining hospital activity at any given time, in relation to the number and characteristics of the patients, as well as for evaluation hospital activity in terms of progress made towards good utilization of resources. A record of activities, related to the individual patient, would provide a valid basis for establishing a relationship with the morbidity observed in the hospital and would be a first step towards an evaluation of the services "rendered" by the hospital, or its impact on the demand for care in its own particular area. Thus, in its aims of establishing a hospital to adjusting supply to demand in the field of health care. The author had stressed too much emphasis on health information collection and interpretation because of valid reasons. Correct and timely administrative and clinical information which is a barometer of hospital efficiency could indicate whether the quality is balanced with expenditure or whether leading into financial crisis. So, whatever may be the motive behind establishing a hospital whether for profit making, or public-service, it is necessary the investors

  6. THEORIES OF MONETARY POLICY – FROM THE MERCANTILIST PRAGMATISM TO THE MODERN MONETARY THEORIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zina CIORAN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to perform an incursion into the monetary theories, from the mercantilists to the modern theories. The monetary area is an important component of the economic system which has always been and still is tormented by anxiety and uncertainty. The currency can be considered a barometer that promptly and precisely registers a country’s economic oscillations and the fundamental problems that torment the human society nowadays is mainly expressed in monetary terms. Being one of the major tools the state uses to balance the economy, the monetary politics has permanently generated fervent controversies and discussions. Scientific research of the monetary phenomenon, facing the complexity of the currency problems with a diversity of currency types and with the complex currency role within the company, as well as the explosive evolution of the financial institutions, structures and monetary and financial products has always kept the monetary theory in the beginning of a new research program. The monetary theory center, around which the economists‘ thinking is founded, is formed of: emphasizing the money role in the economy, the money measurement, the money offer and request with their influence factors, the monetary balance theory, the monetary impulse transition modality as well as the monetary behavior on the part of the economic agents. It was established that each economical thinking movement marked the social, economical and political life for a certain amount of time, each school has criticized or supported their predecessors’ ideas contributing to the enrichment of the monetary theory and the economic development, implicitly.

  7. Medical training as adventure-wonder and adventure-ordeal: a dialogical analysis of affect-laden pedagogy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madill, Anne; Sullivan, Paul

    2010-12-01

    Our purpose is to examine the possibilities of Bakhtinian dialogical analysis for understanding students' experiences of medical training. Twenty-three interviews were conducted with eleven British medical students intercalating in psychology. Forty emotionally resonant key moments were identified for analysis. Our analysis illustrates students' use of the professional genre to present their training as emotionally neutral. However, we show how medical training can be framed in more unofficial and affective-laden ways in which threshold moments of crisis are presented as space-time breaches characteristic of the genres of adventure-wonder and adventure-ordeal. This affect was often depotentiated in the narratives through brief allusion to the professional genre. This cycling between genres suggests that the students were searching for an appropriate way in which to frame their experiences, a central dilemma being the extent to which medical training makes sense within an immediate and affect-laden, or future-orientated and affect-neutral, pedagogy. Finally, we identify how consultants are an important aspect of the affective experience of medical training who, at their best, offer inspiring exemplars of flexible movement between official and unofficial ways of being a doctor. In conclusion, we demonstrate the potential of genres to make sense, and to organize the experience, of medical training spatially in terms of moving between personal and impersonal contact, temporally in terms of moving between the extraordinary and routine, and affectively in terms of moving between potent and neutral affect. Learning to use the professional genre is part of enculturation as a doctor and can be helpful in providing a framework restoring coherence and composure through engaging with, and reformulating, difficult experiences. However, it is important to take seriously the resistance many of the students demonstrated to the professional genre as a possible barometer of its

  8. A Re-Interpretation of the 'Two-child Norm' in Post-Transitional Demographic Systems: Fertility Intentions in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basten, Stuart; Verropoulou, Georgia

    2015-01-01

    Taiwan currently has one of the lowest fertility rates in the world, leading to projections of rapid population ageing and decline. In common with other territories in Pacific Asia, policies designed to support childbearing have recently been introduced. Some optimism for the future success of these policies has been drawn from the fact that the 'ideal' number of children stated in Taiwanese surveys is over two. In this way, Taiwan appears to fit the 'two-child norm' model identified for Europe and North America. Furthermore, this feature has led commentators to state that Taiwan is not in a 'low fertility trap'-where positive feedback mechanisms emanating from the normalisation of small families, slow economic growth and ageing/declining population mean attempts to increase fertility become ever less likely to succeed. Using a recent national representative survey, and arguing that 'intentions' are a more reliable guide to understanding the circumstances of family formation, this paper explores fertility intentions in Taiwan with a special focus on women at parity one and parity two. This will form the first full-length examination of fertility intentions in Taiwan published in English and one of the few studies of Pacific Asia that reports a micro-level analysis. We argue that using intentions should provide a better 'barometer' of attitudes towards childbearing in Taiwan, and that through micro-level analysis, we can better identify the predictors of intentions that could, in turn, provide useful clues both for projections as well as shaping policy responses. While we found some evidence for a 'two-child norm' among childless women, this could be an unrealistic ideal. This is supported by the fact that a majority of women with one child do not intend to have another.

  9. Teleconnections force interannual-to-decadal tidal variability in the Lagoon of Venice (northern Adriatic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanchettin, D.; Rubino, A.; Traverso, P.; Tomasino, M.

    2009-04-01

    In the present investigation, for the first time, fundamental characteristics of autumn and winter average sequences of sea level heights (SLH) that were recorded in the Lagoon of Venice (northern Adriatic, in the Mediterranean Sea) during the period 1872-2004 are investigated. Interannual-to-decadal variability of Venetian SLH is found to reflect the variability of the most prominent Euro-Atlantic teleconnections (EATs). In particular, the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), the East Atlantic/Western Russian, and the Scandinavian patterns are found to contribute to generate the ˜5-year, ˜8-year and ˜22-year peaks that dominate the spectra of seasonal Venetian SLH. Among the possible oceanic and atmospheric phenomena downscaling interannual-to-decadal large-scale atmospheric signals into the observed variability in the Venetian SLH, we explore inverse barometer effect, wind-driven setup, and the thermohaline circulation of both the Adriatic and the Mediterranean seas. All these phenomena are assessed to display some of the typical features of the shared interannual-to-decadal variability of both Venetian SLH and EATs. Our analysis shows also that the decadal variability of winter Venetian SLH is closely linked with variations in solar activity: in particular, the winter SLH multidecadal pattern is found to be correlated, with very high statistical confidence, to the Hale Cycles pattern (˜22 years), which describes the series of sunspot cycles with alternating opposite polarity. The marked signature of Hale Cycles on the leading mode of multidecadal sea level pressure winter variability (which is practically indistinguishable from the inverse wintertime NAO) is also detailed to further support the hypothesis of a Sun-Venetian SLH association.

  10. Axions and SN 1987A: Axion trapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Adam; Ressell, M. Ted; Turner, Michael S.

    1990-01-01

    If an axion of mass between about 10(exp -3) and 10 eV exists, axion emission would have significantly affected the cooling of the nascent neutron star associated with SN 1987A. For an axion of mass greater than about 10(exp -2) eV axions would, like neutrinos, have a mean-free path that is smaller than the size of a neutron star, and thus would become trapped and radiated from an axion sphere. The trapping regime is treated by using numerical models of the initial cooling of a hot neutron star that incorporate a diffusion approximation for axion-energy transport. The axion opacity due to inverse nucleon-nucleon, axion bremsstrahlung is computed; and then the numerical models are used to calculate the integrated axion luminosity, the temperature of the axion sphere, and the effect of axion emission on the neutrino bursts detected by the Kamiokande II (KII) and Irvine-Michigan-Brookhaven (IMB) water-Cherenkov detectors. The larger the axion mass, the stronger the trapping and the smaller the axion luminosity. The estimate of the axion mass is confirmed above which trapping is so strong that axion emission does not significantly affect the neutrino burst. Based upon the neutrino-burst duration - the most sensitive barometer of axion cooling - it is concluded that for an axion mass greater than about 3 eV axion emission would not have had a significant effect on the neutrino bursts detected by KII and IMB. It is strongly suggested that an axion with mass in the interval 10(exp -3) to 3 eV is excluded by the observation of neutrinos from SN 1987A.

  11. Thermobarometric studies on the Levack Gneisses: Footwall rocks to the Sudbury Igneous Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, R. S.; Peredery, W.; Sweeny, J. M.

    1992-01-01

    Granulite and amphibolite facies gneisses and migmatites of the Levack Gneiss Complex occupy a zone up to 8 km wide around the northern part of the Sudbury Igneous Complex (SIC). Orthopyroxene- and garnet-bearing tonalitic and semipelitic assemblages of granulite facies grade occur within 3 km of the SIC together with lenses of mafic and pyroxenitic rock compositions normally represented by an amphibole +/- cpx-rich assemblage; amphibolite facies assemblages dominate elsewhere in this terrain. These 2.711-Ga gneisses were introduced by (1) the Cartier Granite Batholith during late Archaean to early Proterozoic time and (2) the SIC, at 1.85 Ga, which produced a contact aureole 1-1.5 km wide in which pyroxene hornfelses are common within 200-300 m of the contact. A suite of 12 samples including both the opx-gt and amphibole-rich rock compositions have been studied. Garnets in the semipelitic gneisses are variably replaced by a plg-bio assemblage. Thermobarometric calculations using a variety of barometers and thermometers reported in the literature suggest that the granulite facies assemblages formed at depths in the 21-28 km range (6-8 kbar). Textures and mineral chemistry in the garnet-bearing semipelitic rocks indicate that this terrain underwent a second metamorphic event during uplift to depth in the 5-11 km range (2-3 kbar) and at temperatures as low as 500-550 C. This latter event is distinct from thermal recrystallization caused by the emplacement of the SIC; it probably represents metamorphism attributable to intrusion of the Cartier Granite Batholith. These data allow two interpretations for the crustal uplift of the Levack Gneisses: (1) The gneisses were tectonically uplifted prior to the Sudbury Event (due to intrusion of the Cartier Batholith); or (2) the gneisses were raised to epizonal levels as a result of meteorite impact at 1.85 Ga.

  12. Motivation to obtain a food reward of pregnant ewes in negative energy balance: behavioural, metabolic and endocrine considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeek, E; Waas, J R; Oliver, M H; McLeay, L M; Ferguson, D M; Matthews, L R

    2012-07-01

    Low food availability often coincides with pregnancy in grazing animals. This study investigated how chronic reductions in food intake affected feeding motivation, and metabolic and endocrine parameters in pregnant sheep, which might be indicative of compromised welfare. Ewes with an initial Body Condition Score of 2.7±0.3 (BCS; 0 indicates emaciation and 5 obesity) were fed to attain low (LBC 2.0±0.0,), medium (MBC 2.9±0.1) or high BCS (HBC 3.7±0.1) in the first trimester of pregnancy. A feeding motivation test in which sheep were required to walk a set distance for a palatable food reward was conducted in the second trimester. LBC and MBC ewes consumed more rewards (P=0.001) and displayed a higher expenditure (P=0.02) than HBC ewes, LBC ewes also tended to consume more rewards than MBC ewes (P=0.09). Plasma leptin and glucose concentrations were inversely correlated to expenditure (both Pnegative energy balance, with lower muscle dimensions, plasma glucose, leptin, insulin, cortisol, and insulin-like growth factor-1 concentrations and higher free fatty acids concentrations compared to HBC ewes; metabolic and endocrine parameters of the MBC ewes were intermediate. The high feeding motivation and negative energy balance of low BCS ewes suggested an increased risk of compromised welfare. Imposing even a small cost on a food reward reduced motivation substantially in high BCS ewes (despite high intake when food was freely available). Assessment of a willingness to work for rewards, combined with measures of key metabolic and endocrine parameters, may provide sensitive barometers of welfare in energetically-taxed animals.

  13. Deconstruction of "Diet can reflect politics"ideology(1)%“食以体政”思想之解构(上)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建刚; 冯文娟

    2015-01-01

    During Xia and Shang Dynasties, the"diet can reflect politics"ideology was generated in China, which established the relationship between politics and diet, and made a drink and a peck be given a political color.Diet was not only the basis of engaging in political activities, but also the reaction of political wisdom of politicians.At any time, food security is the Damocles sword hanging over the head of politicians and solving the problem of feeding the people is the top priority which the rulers have to consider.Diet activities also hide methods of governance of the country.Food ingredients, cooking skills and e-ven cooking utensils all contain a certain political implications, which makes diet become a barometer of political changes.%夏商时期,中国产生了“食以体政”思想,由此确立了政治与饮食之间的关系,一啄一饮都赋予了政治色彩,饮食既是从事政治活动的基础,又是政治家政治智慧的反映。饮食活动中也隐藏了治理国家的方法,食物原料、烹饪技法甚至炊食器具都蕴涵了一定的政治含义,使饮食成为衡量政治变化的晴雨表。

  14. Generation Equity Research on the Context of Socialism Core Values%代际公正语境下社会主义核心价值观探微

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧清华; 胡解旺

    2011-01-01

    Enculture embodies in the values of time continuity, and then a group of core values, ideologies, ways of action can be passed on to the next generation, and pushed in and finally realize the core values of carrying the torch from generation to generation. From the analysis of political ethics, intergenerational justice refers to the previous generation gains or losses of the resources and benefits which should be reduced as much as possible, even to zero,and the development opportunities should provide a level playing field to the next generation of environment. It accurately reflects the essence of people's survival and sustainable development of society needs and objective require-ments of intergenerational harmony within the community, and a harmonious extended barometer, values effectively passing on to the next generation. In this way ,we can promote the generation and ultimately socialism core valuesand seamless system.%价值观的濡化作用体现为时间上的连续性,使得某一群体的核心价值观、思想意识、行为方式能够绵延不断地传给下一代,推进并最终实现核心价值观的薪火相传、世代延续。代际公正正确地反映了人们生存和社会可持续发展的本质需要和客观要求,是社会从代内和谐向代际和谐延展的晴雨表,是推动上一代价值观有效传承给下一代并最终与社会主义核心价值观无缝对接的系统工程。

  15. Health-related quality of life in French adolescents and adults: norms for the DUKE Health Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collin Jean-François

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The continual monitoring of population health-related quality of life (HRQoL with validated instruments helps public health agencies assess, protect, and promote population health. This study aimed to determine norms for the French adolescent and adult general population for the Duke Health Profile (DUKE questionnaire in a large representative community sample. Methods We randomly selected 17,733 French people aged 12 to 75 years old in 2 steps, by households and individuals, from the National Health Barometer 2005, a periodic population study by the French National Institute for Prevention and Health Education. Quality of life and other data were collected by computer-assisted telephone interview. Results Normative data for the French population were analyzed by age, gender and self-reported chronic disease. Globally, function scores (best HRQoL=100 for physical, mental, social, and general health, as well as perceived health and self-esteem, were 72.3 (SEM 0.2, 74.6 (0.2, 66.8 (0.1, 71.3 (0.1, 71.3 (0.3, 76.5 (0.1, respectively. Dysfunction scores (worst HRQoL=100 for anxiety, depression, pain and disability domains were 30.9 (0.1, 27.6 (0.2, 34.3 (0.3, 3.1 (0.1, respectively. Conclusion The French norms for adolescents and adults for the DUKE could be used as a reference for other studies assessing HRQoL, for specific illnesses, in France and for international comparisons.

  16. The Development and Applications of Financial Informatization in China’s SMEs in the Big Data Era%论我国中小企业财务信息化在大数据时期的发展和应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡源; 张亚军

    2015-01-01

    随着信息化技术的快速发展,作为企业运营的晴雨表,财务的信息化不仅成为现代企业发展的重要标志,更是企业精益管理一体化的关键环节。作为中国经济最有活力的中小企业,在大数据时期的财务信息化发展和应用方向应合理设定目标,进行科学规划,优化操作流程和组织框架,科学借鉴成功和失败案例的经验,不断完善自身发展战略,合理构建企业财务信息系统,使之成为在大数据时期,保证企业正常有序运行的源动力,进一步提高企业经济效益。%As a barometer of business operation,financial informatization is not only a symbol of modern enterprises,but also a key component of their lean management. SMEs are the most vigorous body of China’s economy. This paper advocates that in the era of big data,SMEs should set reasonable goals for the development and application of their financial informa-tization,make scientific plans,optimize their operation procedures and organizational structure,take examples by both successes and failures to improve their development strategy and build up their financial information system,thus ensuring their source power of orderly operation and benefiting themselves.

  17. Robert Hooke: early respiratory physiologist, polymath, and mechanical genius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, John B

    2014-07-01

    Robert Hooke (1635-1703) was a polymath who made important contributions to respiratory physiology and many other scientific areas. With Robert Boyle, he constructed the first air pump that allowed measurements on small animals at a reduced atmospheric pressure, and this started the discipline of high-altitude physiology. He also built the first human low-pressure chamber and described his experiences when the pressure was reduced to the equivalent of an altitude of ∼2,400 m. Using artificial ventilation in an animal preparation, he demonstrated that movement of the lung was not essential for life. His book Micrographia describing early studies with a microscope remains a classic. He produced an exquisite drawing of the head of a fly, showing the elaborate compound eye. There is also a detailed drawing of a flea, and Hooke noted how the long, many-jointed legs enable the insect to jump so high. For 40 years, he was the curator of experiments for the newly founded Royal Society in London and contributed greatly to its intellectual ferment. His mechanical inventions covered an enormous range, including the watch spring, the wheel barometer, and the universal joint. Following the Great Fire of London in 1666, he designed many of the new buildings in conjunction with Christopher Wren. Unfortunately, Hooke had an abrasive personality, which was partly responsible for a lack of recognition of his work for many years. However, during the last 25 years, there has been renewed interest, and he is now recognized as a brilliant scientist and innovator.

  18. EIA completes corrections to drilling estimates series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trapmann, W.; Shambaugh, P. [Energy Information Administration, Washington, DC (United States)

    1998-11-23

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) has published monthly and annual estimates of US oil and gas drilling activity since 1978. These data are key information for many industry analysts, serving as a leading indicator of trends in the industry and a barometer of general industry status. They are assessed directly for trends, as well as in combination with other measures to assess the productivity and profitability of upstream industry operations. They are major reference points for federal and state policymakers. EIA does not itself collect drilling activity data. Instead, it relies on an external source for data on oil, bas, and dry well completions. These data are provided to EIA monthly on an as reported basis. During a recent effort to enhance EIA`s well completion data system, the detection of unusual patterns in the well completion data as received led to an expanded examination of these data. Substantial discrepancies between the data as received by EIA and correct record counts since 1987 were identified. For total wells by year, the errors ranged up to more than 2,300 wells, 11% of the 1995 total, and the impact of these errors extended backward in time to at least the early 1980s. When the magnitude and extent of the as reported well completion data problem were confirmed, EIA suspended its publication and distribution of updated drilling data. EIA staff proceeded to acquire replacement files with the as reported records and then revise the statistical portion of its drilling data system to reflect the new information. The replacement files unfortunately also included erroneous data based on the improper allocation of wells between exploration and development. EIA has now resolved the two data problems and generated revised time series estimates for well completions and footage drilled. The paper describes the problems in the data, differences between the series, and maintaining future data quality.

  19. Governance and health in the Arab world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batniji, Rajaie; Khatib, Lina; Cammett, Melani; Sweet, Jeffrey; Basu, Sanjay; Jamal, Amaney; Wise, Paul; Giacaman, Rita

    2014-01-25

    Since late 2010, the Arab world has entered a tumultuous period of change, with populations demanding more inclusive and accountable government. The region is characterised by weak political institutions, which exclude large proportions of their populations from political representation and government services. Building on work in political science and economics, we assess the extent to which the quality of governance, or the extent of electoral democracy, relates to adult, infant, and maternal mortality, and to the perceived accessibility and improvement of health services. We compiled a dataset from the World Bank, WHO, Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, Arab Barometer Survey, and other sources to measure changes in demographics, health status, and governance in the Arab World from 1980 to 2010. We suggest an association between more effective government and average reductions in mortality in this period; however, there does not seem to be any relation between the extent of democracy and mortality reductions. The movements for changing governance in the region threaten access to services in the short term, forcing migration and increasing the vulnerability of some populations. In view of the patterns observed in the available data, and the published literature, we suggest that efforts to improve government effectiveness and to reduce corruption are more plausibly linked to population health improvements than are efforts to democratise. However, these patterns are based on restricted mortality data, leaving out subjective health metrics, quality of life, and disease-specific data. To better guide efforts to transform political and economic institutions, more data are needed for health-care access, health-care quality, health status, and access to services of marginalised groups.

  20. Striving for Excellence: Organizational Climate Matters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelley Phipps

    2013-06-01

    associated strategies. The Libraries’ progress on its strategic plan will serve as the barometer for gauging the effect of these changes.

  1. Roundtable discussion at the UICC World Cancer Congress: looking toward the realization of universal health coverage for cancer in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akaza, Hideyuki; Kawahara, Norie; Nozaki, Shinjiro; Sonoda, Shigeto; Fukuda, Takashi; Cazap, Eduardo; Trimble, Edward L; Roh, Jae Kyung; Hao, Xishan

    2015-01-01

    The Japan National Committee for the Union for International Cancer Control (UICC) and UICC-Asia Regional Office (ARO) organized a Roundtable Discussion as part of the official program of the UICC World Cancer Congress 2014 in Melbourne, Australia. The theme for the Roundtable Discussion was - Looking Toward the Realization of Universal Health Care (UHC) for Cancer in Asia - and it was held on December 5, 2014. The meeting was held based on the recognition that although each country may take a different path towards the realization of UHC, one point that is common to all is that cancer is projected to be the most difficult disease to address under the goals of UHC and that there is, therefore, an urgent and pressing need to come to a common understanding and awareness with regard to UHC concepts that are a priority component of a post-MDG development agenda. The presenters and participants addressed the issue of UHC for cancer in Asia from their various perspectives in academia and international organizations. Discussions covered the challenges to UHC in Asia, collaborative approaches by international organizations, the need for uniform and relevant data, ways to create an Asia Cancer Barometer that could be applied to all countries in Asia. The session concluded with the recognition that research on UHC in Asia should continue to be used as a tool for cancer cooperation in Asia and that the achievement of UHC would require research and input not only from the medical community, but from a broad sector of society in a multidisciplinary approach. Discussions on this issue will continue towards the Asia-Pacific Cancer Conference in Indonesia in August 2015.

  2. Heavy truck modeling for fuel consumption. Simulations and measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandberg, T.

    2001-12-01

    Fuel consumption for heavy trucks depends on many factors like roads, weather, and driver behavior that are hard for a manufacturer to influence. However, one design possibility is the power train configuration. Here a new simulation program for heavy trucks is created to find the configuration of the power train that gives the lowest fuel consumption for each transport task. For efficient simulations the model uses production code for speed and gear control, and it uses exchangeable data sets to allow simulation of the whole production range of engine types, on recorded road profiles from all over the world. Combined with a graphical user interface this application is called STARS (Scania Truck And Road Simulation). The forces of rolling resistance and air resistance in the model are validated through an experiment where the propeller shaft torque of a heavy truck is measured. It is found that the coefficient of rolling resistance is strongly dependent on tire temperature, not only on vehicle speed as expected. This led to the development of a new model for rolling resistance. The model includes the dynamic behavior of the tires and relates rolling resistance to tire temperature and vehicle speed. In another experiment the fuel consumption of a test truck in highway driving is measured. The altitude of the road is recorded with a barometer and used in the corresponding simulations. Despite of the limited accuracy of this equipment the simulation program manage to predict a level of fuel consumption only 2% lower than the real measurements. It is concluded that STARS is a good tool for predicting fuel consumption for trucks in highway driving and for comparing different power train configurations.

  3. Magmatic oxygen fugacity estimated using zircon-melt partitioning of cerium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smythe, Duane J.; Brenan, James M.

    2016-11-01

    Using a newly-calibrated relation for cerium redox equilibria in silicate melts (Smythe and Brenan, 2015), and an internally-consistent model for zircon-melt partitioning of Ce, we provide a method to estimate the prevailing redox conditions during crystallization of zircon-saturated magmas. With this approach, oxygen fugacities were calculated for samples from the Bishop tuff (USA), Toba tuff (Indonesia) and the Nain plutonic suite (Canada), which typically agree with independent estimates within one log unit or better. With the success of reproducing the fO2 of well-constrained igneous systems, we have applied our Ce-in-zircon oxygen barometer to estimating the redox state of Earth's earliest magmas. Using the composition of the Jack Hills Hadean zircons, combined with estimates of their parental magma composition, we determined the fO2 during zircon crystallization to be between FMQ -1.0 to +2.5 (where FMQ is the fayalite-magnetite-quartz buffer). Of the parental magmas considered, Archean tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite (TTG) compositions yield zircon-melt partitioning most similar to well-constrained modern suites (e.g., Sano et al., 2002). Although broadly consistent with previous redox estimates from the Jack Hills zircons, our results provide a more precise determination of fO2, narrowing the range for Hadean parental magmas by more than 8 orders of magnitude. Results suggest that relatively oxidized magmatic source regions, similar in oxidation state to that of 3.5 Ga komatiite suites, existed by ∼4.4 Ga.

  4. Precision Nutrition 4.0: A Big Data and Ethics Foresight Analysis--Convergence of Agrigenomics, Nutrigenomics, Nutriproteomics, and Nutrimetabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdemir, Vural; Kolker, Eugene

    2016-02-01

    Nutrition is central to sustenance of good health, not to mention its role as a cultural object that brings together or draws lines among societies. Undoubtedly, understanding the future paths of nutrition science in the current era of Big Data remains firmly on science, technology, and innovation strategy agendas around the world. Nutrigenomics, the confluence of nutrition science with genomics, brought about a new focus on and legitimacy for "variability science" (i.e., the study of mechanisms of person-to-person and population differences in response to food, and the ways in which food variably impacts the host, for example, nutrient-related disease outcomes). Societal expectations, both public and private, and claims over genomics-guided and individually-tailored precision diets continue to proliferate. While the prospects of nutrition science, and nutrigenomics in particular, are established, there is a need to integrate the efforts in four Big Data domains that are naturally allied--agrigenomics, nutrigenomics, nutriproteomics, and nutrimetabolomics--that address complementary variability questions pertaining to individual differences in response to food-related environmental exposures. The joint use of these four omics knowledge domains, coined as Precision Nutrition 4.0 here, has sadly not been realized to date, but the potentials for such integrated knowledge innovation are enormous. Future personalized nutrition practices would benefit from a seamless planning of life sciences funding, research, and practice agendas from "farm to clinic to supermarket to society," and from "genome to proteome to metabolome." Hence, this innovation foresight analysis explains the already existing potentials waiting to be realized, and suggests ways forward for innovation in both technology and ethics foresight frames on precision nutrition. We propose the creation of a new Precision Nutrition Evidence Barometer for periodic, independent, and ongoing retrieval, screening

  5. The Electoral Republic of Romania. Arguments about the need for an analysis regarding the Romanian participatory culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan TEODORESCU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available For Romania, the 90’s have been the decade of transition to a democratic political system (with everything it implies: more parties, free elections, the separation of powers, rights and political freedoms etc.. But has taking this institutional model also lead to acquiring the underlying values that support it? How far has Romania come on the road to a participative democracy, to a society that has a strong civic culture, as defined by classical authors such as Almond and Verba? How many of the traits of social capital, as defined by Putnam, can be found in the post-revolutionary public space? We knew, from research, that this democratic system was desirable (there is no need to enumerate the many research papers, in particular Euro-barometer surveys, which referred to Romanians’ support for democracy, rule of law and economic freedom. But beyond the rhetoric, which was and is, in fact, the real situation? If we take the statements into account, Romanians are participative, want political pluralism and many parties and want support elements of liberal democracy – but do they take advantage of these rights? Are they active citizens, organized in a dynamic civil society? Do they engage with public decisions and policies even after the election period? Are we a society where politics matter only in election years or one in which political and civic participation is stimulated and active the rest of the time? Research helps us in this regard. In this article we present conclusions supported by surveys conducted in recent years by the InfoPolitic Center for Studies and Research (SITC, for the Multimedia Foundation for Local Democracy.The list of questions is extensive because it takes into account a huge dissonance noticed during the 90s by people in our generation – the great distance from words to actions! Romanians received rights and freedoms which, from our point of view, they have rarely used – and without impact. Political Romania

  6. Gambling in Qing Dynasty%清代的赌博述论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王美英

    2001-01-01

    清初,赌博之风并不严重,参赌的人也不多;清朝中后期,赌风颇为厉害,其花样之多,波及地域之广,参与人数之众,为此前各朝历代所不及。这不只是一个严重的社会问题,而且给社会造成了恶劣的影响。究其根源,在于清朝中后期政治腐败,对赌博缺乏抵抗力;社会闲散人员多,以赌博为寄托;赌博的消遣、图利功能具有很大的吸引力,吸引众多人员参与。赌博与政治腐败密切相关,政治腐败之时赌博之风越厉害,赌博是政治腐败的标志,它又会加速政治的腐朽与没落。%With a comparatively small quantity of participants,gambling didn't form a serious social problem in early Qing dynasty.However,when it came to its middle and late periods,with a large variety of forms,a wide coverage of aread and a great number of participants,gambling brought very ill effects to the society.It was rooted in the corruption of the middle and late Qing governments,which resulted in a fable immunity of the society against gambling and a considerable number of unemployed citizens to whom gambling made a great attraction for its entertainment and lucrative potentiality.This paper puts forward the thesis point that gambling is closely related to political corruption.The more corrupted a government is,the more popular gambling becomes.Gambling,as a barometer of political corruption,can accelerate the corruption and degeneration of the government in return.

  7. A new stratospheric sounding platform based on unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) droppable from meteorological balloon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efremov, Denis; Khaykin, Sergey; Lykov, Alexey; Berezhko, Yaroslav; Lunin, Aleksey

    High-resolution measurements of climate-relevant trace gases and aerosols in the upper troposphere and stratosphere (UTS) have been and remain technically challenging. The high cost of measurements onboard airborne platforms or heavy stratospheric balloons results in a lack of accurate information on vertical distribution of atmospheric constituents. Whereas light-weight instruments carried by meteorological balloons are becoming progressively available, their usage is constrained by the cost of the equipment or the recovery operations. The evolving need in cost-efficient observations for UTS process studies has led to development of small airborne platforms - unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV), capable of carrying small sensors for in-situ measurements. We present a new UAV-based stratospheric sounding platform capable of carrying scientific payload of up to 2 kg. The airborne platform comprises of a latex meteorological balloon and detachable flying wing type UAV with internal measurement controller. The UAV is launched on a balloon to stratospheric altitudes up to 20 km, where it can be automatically released by autopilot or by a remote command sent from the ground control. Having been released from the balloon the UAV glides down and returns to the launch position. Autopilot using 3-axis gyro, accelerometer, barometer, compas and GPS navigation provides flight stabilization and optimal way back trajectory. Backup manual control is provided for emergencies. During the flight the onboard measurement controller stores the data into internal memory and transmits current flight parameters to the ground station via telemetry. Precise operation of the flight control systems ensures safe landing at the launch point. A series of field tests of the detachable stratospheric UAV has been conducted. The scientific payload included the following instruments involved in different flights: a) stratospheric Lyman-alpha hygrometer (FLASH); b) backscatter sonde; c) electrochemical

  8. Smartphone applications for chronic pain management: a critical appraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander JC

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available John C Alexander, Girish P JoshiDepartment of Anesthesiology & Pain Management, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USAChronic pain is a common condition with significant detrimental physical, psychological, social, and economic impact. The Institute of Medicine estimates that >100 million Americans suffer from chronic pain,1 representing approximately one-third of the entire population of the US.2 Conservative estimates suggest that well over US $500 billion per year is spent in the treatment of these pain conditions, not to mention the lost productivity of these individuals or the burden that their suffering engenders for patients and their families. Despite tremendous efforts, chronic pain continues to be a major societal problem.1Smartphones have become one of the most rapidly adopted technologies in the modern history of mankind allowing for previously unimaginable opportunities for communication and access to information.3 Powering this societal revolution is not so much the onboard or attachable hardware for smartphones, but the dizzying array of software programs that use the hardware to add novel functions; we call the unifying software programs “applications” or, more commonly, “apps”. While each phone comes with onboard technologies, such as Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, lights, microphones, cameras, accelerometers, and even barometers, it is the development of the app that combines these functionalities to create new and innovative uses for the same hardware for everything from Skype4 to Pokémon GO.5The use of such applications within the health care industry continues to grow, and it is estimated that the market for mobile health apps will grow to US$26 billion in 2017.6 The immense size of this market is due to the functional flexibility that apps can provide. These emerging technologies also provide new opportunities to engage with patients and improve health care outcomes. Studies have shown that mobile

  9. Violence Concealment and Expropriation:the Power Structure of Force -advocating Focus Sway in Chinese Martial Arts%暴力的遮蔽和征用:中国武术尚力重心摇摆的权力架构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王仕虎; 刘连发

    2014-01-01

    采用文献资料和逻辑分析等研究方法对中国武术尚力重心摇摆的历史变迁现象和权力架构进行研究,主要研究内容涉及武术中的尚力向度的发生学考察、尚武或抑武的风向标摇摆以及中国武术尚力重心摇摆的权力架构。研究认为:历史变迁中,中国武术尚力重心摇摆存在暴力遮蔽或解蔽的二律背反现象;科层制权力,儒、释、道的文化权利,国家权力和身体感性权力共同形塑了武术尚力摇摆的架构;儒、释、道的文化弱化了武术尚力元素,国家权力和科层制出于工具理性对武术暴力实现了褒贬、管控和征用。%In this paper ,documents ,logical analysis and other research methods were used to study the historical evolution phenome-non and power structure for force-advocating focus sway in Chinese martial arts .The main research contents involve study of em-bryology of force-advocating dimension in martial arts ,sway of barometer for martialism -advocating or martialism -despising and power structure for force-advocating focus sway in Chinese martial arts .We hold that in the historical evolution ,there existed the phenomenon of antinomy of violence concealment and revelation in force -advocating focus sway in Chinese martial arts .The bureau-cratic power ,the cultural rights of Confucianism ,Buddhism and Taoism and body sensual power together form the structure or force-advocating sway in martial arts .The culture of Confucianism ,Buddhism and Taoism has weakened the force-advocating elements of martial arts ,the state power and bureaucracy achieved judgment ,control and expropriation of violence of martial arts for instru-mental rationality .

  10. Remote Borehole Strainmeter Sites: Power system optimization improves data quality and increases equipment uptime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyatt, C.; Van Boskirk, E.; Gallaher, W.; Hodgkinson, K. M.; Henderson, D. B.; Gottlieb, M. H.; Johnson, W.; Fox, O.; Mencin, D.; Mattioli, G.

    2012-12-01

    The Earthscope Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) Borehole strainmeter network consists of 74 sites, spanning the west coast of North America from Anza, California to Vancouver Island, British Columbia. Several instruments are installed at each site (including Gladwin Tensor Strainmeter, 3-component geophone, barometer, and rain gauge), with associated data storage and communications equipment. Selected sites also are co-located with high-precision GPS, tiltmeter, pore pressure sensor and metpack. The peak load for a site with VSAT communications is approximately 65W. Most sites are AC powered with battery backup systems. 21 sites are located in remote areas where AC power is unavailable; of these, 18 use solar panels and batteries as the primary power source. During O&M phase of PBO, two issues have brought the borehole solar sites into focus. First, most solar sites cannot continuously operate throughout the winter months because of inclement weather and local topography that blocks the solar array, which results in data loss. Second, high frequency noise is introduced into the instrument data stream by the solar charging system. Reducing noise levels at higher frequencies would decrease the detection threshold for short term transients, such as aseismic creep events, thus allowing researchers to leverage the overlap between simultaneous seismometer and strainmeter observations. Several improvements have been made to optimize the power system as well as decrease noise. TriStar TS-MPPT-60 solar controllers have been installed, which optimize solar flux by tracking and responding to the solar array maximum power point. The battery charge algorithm is designed to provide gains of up to 15% efficiency during winter months. In addition, the new solar controllers have been engineered to limit noise, and also feature remote network interfaces and data logging capability. For those sites where topography impacts the function of the solar power system, methanol fuel cells

  11. Experimental subsolidus phase relations in the system CaCO3-CaMg(CO3)2 up to 6.5 GPa and implications for subducted marbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, Jörg; Troitzsch, Ulrike; Scott, Dean

    2016-10-01

    The dissociation of dolomite to aragonite + magnesite and the reaction of dolomite + aragonite to Mg-calcite have been experimentally determined by piston cylinder experiments in the range of 650-1000 °C and 2-6.5 GPa. Friction decay within the salt sleeves used as pressure medium was monitored by continuously logging the travel distance of the piston. Piston movement ceased after the first 24 h of the experiment, and all experiments were kept at the steady-state conditions for an additional 24-196 h. The reaction of dolomite to aragonite + magnesite has a positive slope and has been bracketed at 650 °C between 5.1 and 5.8 GPa and at 750 °C between 5.7 and 6.5 GPa. The reaction is sluggish with a 0.6-GPa interval where all three phases coexist. The reaction dolomite + aragonite to Mg-calcite has been determined in 0.5-GPa intervals from 660 °C at 2 GPa to 940 °C at 6.5 GPa. The composition of Mg-calcite at the reaction curve is buffered and changes systematically from X(Ca) of 0.90 at 2 GPa to 0.57 at 6.5 GPa. The solvus between dolomite and Mg-calcite shrinks slightly with increasing pressure, providing evidence for a small negative slope of the critical curve dolomite = Mg-calcite. The degree of disorder in dolomite has been determined in some of the retrieved samples by Rietveld refinement based on X-ray diffraction patterns. The order parameter S decreases gradually from 1 to 0.7 as a function of temperature as the critical curve is approached and then drops dramatically after crossing it. No ordering on quench has been observed. The experimental results permit the construction of a petrogenetic grid for the system dolomite, aragonite, Mg-calcite, and magnesite, which has an invariant point at ~7.5 GPa and 980 °C, representing the maximum pressure stability of dolomite. X(Ca) isopleths of Mg-calcite coexisting with dolomite serve mainly as a thermometer, whereas in the presence of aragonite they are a useful barometer. The experimental results have been

  12. Evaluation of an operational ocean model configuration at 1/12° spatial resolution for the Indonesian seas (NEMO2.3/INDO12) - Part 1: Ocean physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranchant, Benoît; Reffray, Guillaume; Greiner, Eric; Nugroho, Dwiyoga; Koch-Larrouy, Ariane; Gaspar, Philippe

    2016-03-01

    INDO12 is a 1/12° regional version of the NEMO physical ocean model covering the whole Indonesian EEZ (Exclusive Economic Zone). It has been developed and is now running every week in the framework of the INDESO (Infrastructure Development of Space Oceanography) project implemented by the Indonesian Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries. The initial hydrographic conditions as well as open-boundary conditions are derived from the operational global ocean forecasting system at 1/4° operated by Mercator Océan. Atmospheric forcing fields (3-hourly ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast) analyses) are used to force the regional model. INDO12 is also forced by tidal currents and elevations, and by the inverse barometer effect. The turbulent mixing induced by internal tides is taken into account through a specific parameterisation. In this study we evaluate the model skill through comparisons with various data sets including outputs of the parent model, climatologies, in situ temperature and salinity measurements, and satellite data. The biogeochemical model results assessment is presented in a companion paper (Gutknecht et al., 2015). The simulated and altimeter-derived Eddy Kinetic Energy fields display similar patterns and confirm that tides are a dominant forcing in the area. The volume transport of the Indonesian throughflow (ITF) is in good agreement with the INSTANT estimates while the transport through Luzon Strait is, on average, westward but probably too weak. Compared to satellite data, surface salinity and temperature fields display marked biases in the South China Sea. Significant water mass transformation occurs along the main routes of the ITF and compares well with observations. Vertical mixing is able to modify the South and North Pacific subtropical water-salinity maximum as seen in T-S diagrams. In spite of a few weaknesses, INDO12 proves to be able to provide a very realistic simulation of the ocean circulation and water mass

  13. Analysis on Co-movement of Stock Markets of China and USA in the Post-crisis Age%后危机时期中美股市的联动性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘悦莹

    2015-01-01

    考虑通过中国股指和美国股指这一宏观经济的晴雨表来分析危机后中美股市的联动性.针对中国上证综合指数和和美国道琼斯工业平均指数日对数收益率( 2012/6/26 ~2014/9/30 )建立了VAR模型,并进行Granger因果关系检验、脉冲响应和方差分解等实证分析,结果表明:在后危机时期,道琼斯工业平均指数前一日的对数收益率变动一个单位,会引起上证综合指数当日对数收益率同向变动0 .165013个单位.短期内,美国股市对中国股市具有单方向的影响,而反之不然.%According to China's stock market and the American stock index, the macroeconomic barome-ter, the paper analyzed the correlation of the stock market of China and the United States after the crisis.This paper built a VAR model on logarithmic return rate(2012/6/26 ~2014/9/30) of Shanghai Stock Composite In-dex and USA Dow Jones industrial average index.Further, empirical analysis was made using Granger causality test, impulse response and variance decomposition.The result showed that in the post-crisis age, when the pre-vious day logarithmic return rate of the Dow Jones industrial average index changed one unit, the Shanghai stock composite index's day logarithmic return rate moves 0.165013 units.In the short term, the us stock market has the effect of single direction on China's stock market and not the converse.

  14. Deviation of Baltic, Adriatic and Black Sea level from the global mean during the 20th century: analysis of the main factors involved and a high-end projection to the end of 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarascia, Luca; Lionello, Piero

    2016-04-01

    The main goal of this work is to investigate which are the main factors determining interannual sea level variability of Baltic, Adriatic and Black seas, and to which extent the sea level of these three basins can deviate from the global mean. The three basins selected are semi-enclosed marginal seas connected with the adjacent seas by narrow straits. 13 sea level timeseries in Baltic Sea, 7 in Adriatic Sea and 5 in Black Sea provided by PSMSL, allowed us to compute a single seamless sea level timeseries representative for each basin from 1900 and for the entire 20th century, using statistical tools (PCA and Least Square method). Comparison with satellite data in the period 1993-2009, confirms that timeseries so computed are good representations of the observed sea level, with correlation values of 0.97, 0.87 and 0.72 for Baltic, Adriatic and Black Sea respectively. At basin scale the sea level has been decomposed in various contributions that have been separately analyzed: local effect of pressure, steric effect due to temperature and salinity variation, boundary forcing, wind effect and river discharge. The annual cycles and their variability, show that the largest contribution is due to the wind for the Adriatic Sea and for the Baltic Sea. In these two basins the inverse Barometer effect plays a minor role and the steric factor is almost negligible. The wind seems to play a negligible role on Black Sea, where the Danube river discharge plays an important role. A linear regression model, built considering large scale sea level pressure distribution as predictor, is capable to explain a further percentage of sea level variability variability (about 20%) left after subtracting all the factors considered above. Sea level of the Baltic and Black Sea show a significant positive correlation (0.3 about) revealing the likely influence of an external common forcing. Past sea level variability shows no strong evidences of large deviation from the global mean sea level

  15. Evidence of different ocean responses to atmospheric pressurevariations in the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Basins as deduced fromERS-2 altimetric data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Gómez-Enri

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The exponential increase in the use of altimeter data in oceanographic studies in the past two decades has improved the knowledge of the processes that govern the interaction between the ocean and the atmosphere. One of these processes is the response of the ocean to atmospheric pressure variations, which has been deeply analysed in the past. That response is based on the isostatic assumption used to establish a standard correction for altimetric purposes, the Inverse Barometer Correction (IBC. As a general rule, the ocean goes up/down 1cm when the atmospheric pressure goes down/up 1mbar. However, in light of recent works in some oceanic regions, discrepancies arise when the real response is compared to the hypothetical one. It is important to quantify this discrepancy, in order to improve the accuracy of the correction, which is one of the most significant geophysical corrections applied to altimeter records. Some aspects of this response remain unclear, such as the real space-temporal scales where IBC can be applied, the influence of wind, non-isostatic atmospheric pressure-driven signals, and the effect of aliasing from high frequency signals. This paper is an attempt to gain insight into this phenomenon. The data used are the residuals obtained between sea surface heights from the ERS-2 altimeter and the outputs of a global barotropic ocean model. Significant departures from the hypothetical isostatic response in all data series (spatial and temporal domain have been found, especially in the case of altimeter records. By applying the collinear track method, we observe that the estimated Atlantic Ocean response is quite similar to the one deduced from the isostatic assumption at all latitudinal bands. Nonetheless, the Indian and Pacific Oceans show important departures from the hypothetical value at low latitudes. Results obtained with the crossover track method show important deviations at low latitudes in the three basins. In

  16. Impact of Altimeter Data Processing on Sea Level Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Lázaro

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available This study addresses the impact of satellite altimetry data processing on sea levelstudies at regional scale, with emphasis on the influence of various geophysical correctionsand satellite orbit on the structure of the derived interannual signal and sea level trend. Thework focuses on the analysis of TOPEX data for a period of over twelve years, for threeregions in the North Atlantic: Tropical (0o≤φ≤25o, Sub-Tropical (25o≤φ≤50o and Sub-Arctic (50o≤φ≤65o. For this analysis corrected sea level anomalies with respect to a meansea surface model have been derived from the GDR-Ms provided by AVISO by applyingvarious state-of-the-art models for the geophysical corrections. Results show that sea leveltrend determined from TOPEX altimetry is dependent on the adopted models for the majorgeophysical corrections. The main effects come from the sea state bias (SSB, and from theapplication or not of the inverse barometer (IB correction. After an appropriate modellingof the TOPEX A/B bias, the two analysed SSB models induce small variations in sea leveltrend, from 0.0 to 0.2 mm/yr, with a small latitude dependence. The difference in sea leveltrend determined by a non IB-corrected series and an IB-corrected one has a strong regionaldependence with large differences in the shape of the interannual signals and in the derivedlinear trends. The use of two different drift models for the TOPEX Microwave Radiometer(TMR has a small but non negligible effect on the North Atlantic sea level trend of about0.1 mm/yr. The interannual signals of sea level time series derived with the NASA and theCNES orbits respectively, show a small departure in the middle of the series, which has noimpact on the derived sea level trend. These results strike the need for a continuousimprovement in the modelling of the various effects that influence the altimetermeasurement.

  17. Sele coastal plain flood risk due to wave storm and river flow interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benassai, Guido; Aucelli, Pietro; Di Paola, Gianluigi; Della Morte, Renata; Cozzolino, Luca; Rizzo, Angela

    2016-04-01

    -critical simulation, the boundary condition is a known downstream WSE, in this case the elevated water level due to wave setup, wind setup and inverted barometer, while the upstream boundary condition consisted in WSE corresponding to river discharges associated to different return periods. The results of the simulations evidence, for the last 10 kilometers of the river, the burst of critical inundation scenarios even with moderate flow discharge, if associated with concurrent storm surge which increase the water level at the river mouth, obstructing normal flow discharge.

  18. Apartheid's Alcatraz: The Barberton Prison Complex During the Early 1980s - Part Two

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Allister Peté.

    2015-07-01

    symptomatic of what was happening to the apartheid system as a whole. The South African penal system - in particular at its harshest extremity - acted as a kind of barometer, revealing both the cruelty of the system, as well as the considerable constraints and pressures under which it was operating.

  19. SU-E-T-123: Anomalous Altitude Effect in Permanent Implant Brachytherapy Seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watt, E; Spencer, DP; Meyer, T [University of Calgary and Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Permanent seed implant brachytherapy procedures require the measurement of the air kerma strength of seeds prior to implant. This is typically accomplished using a well-type ionization chamber. Previous measurements (Griffin et al., 2005; Bohm et al., 2005) of several low-energy seeds using the air-communicating HDR 1000 Plus chamber have demonstrated that the standard temperature-pressure correction factor, P{sub TP}, may overcompensate for air density changes induced by altitude variations by up to 18%. The purpose of this work is to present empirical correction factors for two clinically-used seeds (IsoAid ADVANTAGE™ {sup 103}Pd and Nucletron selectSeed {sup 125}I) for which empirical altitude correction factors do not yet exist in the literature when measured with the HDR 1000 Plus chamber. Methods: An in-house constructed pressure vessel containing the HDR 1000 Plus well chamber and a digital barometer/thermometer was pumped or evacuated, as appropriate, to a variety of pressures from 725 to 1075 mbar. Current measurements, corrected with P{sub TP}, were acquired for each seed at these pressures and normalized to the reading at ‘standard’ pressure (1013.25 mbar). Results: Measurements in this study have shown that utilization of P{sub TP} can overcompensate in the corrected current reading by up to 20% and 17% for the IsoAid Pd-103 and the Nucletron I-125 seed respectively. Compared to literature correction factors for other seed models, the correction factors in this study diverge by up to 2.6% and 3.0% for iodine (with silver) and palladium respectively, indicating the need for seed-specific factors. Conclusion: The use of seed specific altitude correction factors can reduce uncertainty in the determination of air kerma strength. The empirical correction factors determined in this work can be applied in clinical quality assurance measurements of air kerma strength for two previously unpublished seed designs (IsoAid ADVANTAGE™ {sup 103}Pd and

  20. Recent and historic sediment dynamics along Difficult Run, a suburban Virginia Piedmont stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hupp, Cliff R.; Noe, Gregory B.; Schenk, Edward R.; Bentham, Adam J.

    2012-01-01

    nonequilibrium channel conditions. Both peak discharge and number of peaks above base have substantially increased since the mid-1960s when urbanization of the watershed began. Deposition patterns are most closely correlated with channel gradient, sinuosity, and channel width/floodplain width for recent and historic periods. The substantial amounts of fine grained sediment deposited on the floodplain over the past two centuries or so do not appear to be closely related to historic mill pond presence or location. The floodplain continues to provide the critical ecosystem service of sediment trapping in the face of multiple human alterations. Trends in sediment deposition/erosion may react rapidly to land use practices within the watershed and offer a valuable barometer of the effects of management actions.

  1. New high-order, semi-implicit Hybridized Discontinuous Galerkin - Spectral Element Method (HDG-SEM) for simulation of complex wave propagation involving coupling between seismic, hydro-acoustic and infrasonic waves: numerical analysis and case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrana, S.; Vilotte, J. P.; Guillot, L.

    2015-12-01

    New seismological monitoring networks combine broadband seismic receivers, hydrophones and micro-barometers antenna, providing complementary observation of source-radiated waves. Exploiting these observations requires accurate and multi-media - elastic, hydro-acoustic, infrasound - wave simulation methods, in order to improve our physical understanding of energy exchanges at material interfaces.We present here a new development of a high-order Hybridized Discontinuous Galerkin (HDG) method, for the simulation of coupled seismic and acoustic wave propagation, within a unified framework ([1],[2]) allowing for continuous and discontinuous Spectral Element Methods (SEM) to be used in the same simulation, with conforming and non-conforming meshes. The HDG-SEM approximation leads to differential - algebraic equations, which can be solved implicitly using energy-preserving time-schemes.The proposed HDG-SEM is computationally attractive, when compared with classical Discontinuous Galerkin methods, involving only the approximation of the single-valued traces of the velocity field along the element interfaces as globally coupled unknowns. The formulation is based on a variational approximation of the physical fluxes, which are shown to be the explicit solution of an exact Riemann problem at each element boundaries. This leads to a highly parallel and efficient unstructured and high-order accurate method, which can be space-and-time adaptive.A numerical study of the accuracy and convergence of the HDG-SEM is performed through a number of case studies involving elastic-acoustic (infrasound) coupling with geometries of increasing complexity. Finally, the performance of the method is illustrated through realistic case studies involving ground wave propagation associated to topography effects.In conclusion, we outline some on-going extensions of the method.References:[1] Cockburn, B., Gopalakrishnan, J., Lazarov, R., Unified hybridization of discontinuous Galerkin, mixed and

  2. High-Order Hybridized Discontinuous Galerkin (HDG) Method for Wave Propagation Simulation in Complex Geophysical Media - Elastic, Acoustic and Hydro-Acoustic - an Unifying Framework to Couple Continuous Spectral Element and Discontinuous Galerkin Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sébastien, T.; Vilotte, J. P.; Guillot, L.; Mariotti, C.

    2014-12-01

    Today seismological observation systems combine broadband seismic receivers, hydrophones and micro-barometers antenna that provide complementary observations of source-radiated waves in heterogeneous and complex geophysical media. Exploiting these observations requires accurate and multi-physics - elastic, hydro-acoustic, infrasonic - wave simulation methods. A popular approach is the Spectral Element Method (SEM) (Chaljub et al, 2006) which is high-order accurate (low dispersion error), very flexible to parallelization and computationally attractive due to efficient sum factorization technique and diagonal mass matrix. However SEMs suffer from lack of flexibility in handling complex geometry and multi-physics wave propagation. High-order Discontinuous Galerkin Methods (DGMs), i.e. Dumbser et al (2006), Etienne et al. (2010), Wilcox et al (2010), are recent alternatives that can handle complex geometry, space-and-time adaptativity, and allow efficient multi-physics wave coupling at interfaces. However, DGMs are more memory demanding and less computationally attractive than SEMs, especially when explicit time stepping is used. We propose a new class of higher-order Hybridized Discontinuous Galerkin Spectral Elements (HDGSEM) methods for spatial discretization of wave equations, following the unifying framework for hybridization of Cockburn et al (2009) and Nguyen et al (2011), which allows for a single implementation of conforming and non-conforming SEMs. When used with energy conserving explicit time integration schemes, HDGSEM is flexible to handle complex geometry, computationally attractive and has significantly less degrees of freedom than classical DGMs, i.e., the only coupled unknowns are the single-valued numerical traces of the velocity field on the element's faces. The formulation can be extended to model fractional energy loss at interfaces between elastic, acoustic and hydro-acoustic media. Accuracy and performance of the HDGSEM are illustrated and

  3. 福建省有线数字电视安全播出监测系统设计实现%Design and Implementation of the Security Monitoring System of Cable Digital TV in Fujian Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李仁朗

    2015-01-01

    安全播出是广播电视永恒的主题,监测系统是确保广播电视安全播出的重要环节,是广播电视传输系统的“晴雨表”“温度计”,前者一旦出现任何问题,后者立刻就可以最直观、最科学、最及时的信息进行体现。通过监测系统的建设,提高了广播电视安全播出的管理水平和应急处理能力。文章以福建省有线数字电视安全播出监测系统为例,介绍了省级安全播出监测系统建设的需求、设计及实现,为广播电视安全播出监测系统建设提供了一种新的模式和思路,具有良好的示范效应。%Safety broadcast radio and television eternal theme, the monitoring system is an important link to ensure the safety of radio and television broadcast, is the "barometer" of radio and television transmission system "thermometer", the former if there is any problem, the latter can immediately to the most intuitive, most scientiifc, the most timely information to relfect. Through the construction of the monitoring system, improve the management level and emergency handling ability of the radio and TV safety broadcast. Taking Fujian digital cable television security broadcast monitoring system as an example, introduces the provincial security broadcast monitoring system for the construction of the demand, design and implementation, for the security of broadcast TV broadcast monitoring system construction provides a new mode and a new idea, has a good demonstration effect.

  4. Study of strong interaction between atmosphere and solid Earth by using hurricane data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanimoto, Toshiro

    2016-04-01

    The original energy of seismic noise is in the atmosphere although the most well-known seismic noise (microseism) gets excited through the ocean, i.e. the atmosphere (winds) excites ocean waves that in turn generate seismic noise in the solid earth. The oceans work as an intermediary in this case. But there is some seismic noise that is directly caused by the atmosphere-solid earth interactions. An extreme example for such a direct interaction can be found in the case of hurricanes (tropical cyclones) when they landfall and move on land. If we had such data, we could study the process of atmosphere-solid earth interactions directly. The Earthscope TA (Transportable Array) provided a few examples of such landfallen hurricanes which moved through the TA that had both seismometers and barometers. This data set allows us to study how ground motions changed as surface pressure (i.e., the source strength) varied over time. Because effects of surface pressure show up at short distances more clearly, we first examine the correlation between pressure and ground motion for the same stations. Plots of vertical ground velocity PSD (Power Spectral Density) vs. surface pressure PSD show that there are no significant ground motions unless pressure PSD becomes larger than 10 (Pa^2/s). Above this threshold, ground motion increases as P**1.69 (P is pressure and 1.69 is close to 5/3). Horizontal ground motions are larger than vertical ground motions (in seismic data), approximately by a factor of 10-30. But we note that the variations of horizontal motions with pressure show a linear relationship. Considering the instrumental design of TA stations, this is more likely due to the tilt of the whole recording system as (lateral) strong winds apply horizontal force on it. This linear trend exists for the whole range of the observed pressure PSD data, extending to small pressure values. We interpret that tilt signals overwhelmed other seismic signals in horizontal seismograms for

  5. Micro-social and Contextual Sources of Democratic Attitudes in Latin America Las fuentes microsociales y contextuales de las actitudes democráticas en América Latina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Salinas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Many Latin American countries democratized between 1975 and 2000, and research has confirmed that contemporary Latin Americans hold democratic political attitudes. Using AmericasBarometer surveys of 18 countries from 2008, we examine the commitment of Latin Americans to three democratic attitudes – preference for democracy over other forms of government, support for general participation rights, and tolerance for participation by system critics. We also explore the impact of personal resources, crime and corruption, evaluation of system performance, social capital, and the sociopolitical context on democratic attitudes. A preference for democracy and support for citizens’ participation rights are strong, but tolerance is lower than the other attitudes. Evidence is found for acculturation – that Latin Americans acquire democratic attitudes by living in democratic regimes and through education.Muchos países latinoamericanos se convirtieron en democracias entre 1975 y 2000 y diversos estudios han comprobado que los latino-americanos tienen actitudes democráticas. Utilizando datos de encuestas del Barómetro de las Américas para 18 países, estudiamos el compromiso de los latino-americanos con tres actitudes democráticas – la preferencia por la democracia sobre otros estilos de gobierno, el apoyo a los derechos generales de participación política, y tolerancia a la participación de personas críticas del sistema político. También investigamos el impacto que ejercen sobre las actitudes democráticas los recursos personales, la percepción y la experiencia de victimización por la criminalidad y la corrupción, la evalua-ción del desempeño del sistema, el capital social y el contexto sociopolítico. Pudimos comprobar que la preferencia por la democracia y el apoyo a los derechos de participación ciudadana son elevados, pero, al mismo tiempo, la tolerancia se encuentra a niveles menores. Asimismo, encontramos evidencia de aculturaci

  6. Geotechnical Trainspotting: Early Observations From the New Seattle Liquefaction Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodin, P.; Yelin, T.; Weaver, C. S.; Steidl, J. H.; Steller, R. A.; Gomberg, J. S.

    2012-12-01

    The Seattle Liquefaction Array (SLA) is a geotechnical monitoring array established by the US Geological Survey earlier this year in industrialized Seattle, Washington. Funding for the array was provided by the Advanced National Seismic System, at the behest of the Pacific Northwest Seismic Network's regional advisory committee. The SLA aims to further the understanding of earthquake-induced liquefaction, particularly the processes associated with repeatedly liquefied soils and the liquefaction of deeply buried deposits. The SLA occupies a site at which shaking-induced liquefaction was observed during earthquakes in 1949, 1965, and 2001. The SLA site is seismically noisy but important as it is similar to sites that host many structures in Seattle. The site is comprised chiefly by loose-to-dense interbedded coastal and river outwash sands. Instrumentation at the site includes four 3-component accelerometers at the surface and at depths of 5.4, 44.9, and 56.4 meters, a surface barometer, and six piezometers at depths of 6.9, 22.9, 28.9, 43.1, 46.9, and 51.9 meters. Emplacement depths were selected to sample a variety of liquefaction susceptibilities. Continuous data from all sensors are sampled at 200 samples per second, and are available from the IRIS DMC archive, with a buffer of data stored on site in the event of telemetry failure. To date, only a handful of earthquakes have produced shaking strong enough at the SLA to be observed within the high levels of background noise. However, the noise itself provides data useful to constrain the low-strain seismic and pressure response of the site. Notably, the array is within a few meters of a set of busy railroad tracks. Passing and parked trains expose the site to a broad bandwidth of deformations, including seismic frequencies, albeit with a source at the surface. Many times each day the site experiences both high levels of shaking, and step changes in the pressure field of a variety of amplitudes that may last from

  7. Exploring the interior structure of Venus with balloons and satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimoun, David; Cutts, Jim; Stevenson, Dave

    2015-04-01

    Although present daily in our sky as the brightest object at dusk and dawn, many characteristics of Venus remains a mystery. Its dense atmosphere hides the surface from orbital viewing, and the extreme conditions experienced at its surface (460°C, almost 100 bar of pressure at the surface) pose a formidable challenge to the sustained survival and operation of planetary landers. Despite their sharply contrasting atmospheres, Venus is not very different from Earth in size, its composition should be very similar, its orbit is very close to be circular and it is only a little closer to the Sun ( 0.7 A.U). So what are the processes that turned the twin sister of our planet into such a different object? And how can we better understand the processes that have shaped the terrestrial planets, and to understand their formation history? With its harsh surface environment, conventional seismology on Venus, requiring seismometers to be deployed at the surface for months or even years seems impractical. In June 2014, the Keck Institute for Space Studies (KISS) at the California Institute of Technology sponsored a one-week workshop with 30 specialists in the key techniques and technologies relevant to investigating Venus's interior structure focusing on alternative approaches to seismology . As the vertical component of surface motion on Venus is very efficiently coupled into the atmosphere as infrasonic waves, especially at low frequency, several alternative approaches to detecting seismic events can be considered. Seismo-acoustic waves propagate upwards producing pressure fluctuations in the middle atmosphere of Venus and the seismic wave energy is ultimately dissipated by local heating, ionospheric perturbation, or airglow. These atmospheric perturbations can therefore be recorded either in-situ (with a barometer network, deployed on balloons floating in the cloud layer near 55 km) or remotely via optical imaging or electromagnetic sounding deployed on a spacecraft. A report

  8. Deciphering Pressure-Temperature path of the Stak eclogites (Pakistan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanari, Pierre; Vidal, Olivier; Engi, Martin

    2013-04-01

    The Stak massif is located in the NW Himalaya syntaxis (northern Pakistan) and corresponds to a newly recognized occurrence of continental eclogite formed during the subduction of the northern margin of the Indian continent. This high pressure (HP) to ultra-high pressure (UHP) unit was extensively retrogressed during the Himalayan collision. This retrogressed metamorphic event occurs under lower pressure and is associated with the replacement of eclogite-facies minerals by amphibolite-facies minerals. We propose a continuous pressure-temperature (P-T) path assessed from a single thin-section, using a micro-cartographic approach with the program XMapTools (more details at http://www.xmaptools.com). This method uses electron microprobe X-ray compositional maps of a small thin-section area of 520 μm × 670 μm showing three assemblages. The HP assemblage (1) made of garnet + omphacite + phengite. This first assemblage is destabilized into (2) symplectites of clinopyroxene + amphibole + plagioclase. The low-pressure assemblage (3) is made of amphibole + plagioclase +/- biotite and is associated to the late collisional event. The study of the chemical images is followed by the calculations of ~200.000 P-T estimates using for each assemblage appropriate thermometers and barometers from the literature. This study shows that the Stak eclogite underwent prograde metamorphism, increasing from 650°C and 2.4 GPa to the pressure peak conditions of 750°C and 2.5 GPa. Then this unit is retrogressed to 700-650°C and 1.6-0.9 GPa under amphibolite-facies conditions. The estimated peak metamorphic P-T conditions and P-T path are similar to those of the Kaghan and Tso Morari HP/UHP massifs in NW Himalaya. We propose that these two HP/UHP massifs and the Stak massif define a large HP to UHP province covering more than 500 km × 150 km partly covered by the Kohistan-Ladakh arc and metamorphic Tethyan series. This NW Himalayan province is comparable in size to the Dabie-Sulu province

  9. Coastal sea level variability in the US West Coast Ocean Forecast System (WCOFS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurapov, Alexander L.; Erofeeva, Svetlana Y.; Myers, Edward

    2017-01-01

    Sea level variability along the US West Coast is analyzed using multi-year time series records from tide gauges and a high-resolution regional ocean model, the base of the West Coast Ocean Forecast System (WCOFS). One of the metrics utilized is the frequency of occurrences when model prediction is within 0.15 m from the observed sea level, F. A target level of F = 90% is set by an operational agency. A combination of the tidal sea level from a shallow water inverse model, inverted barometer (IB) term computed using surface air pressure from a mesoscale atmospheric model, and low-pass filtered sea level from WCOFS representing the effect of coastal ocean dynamics (DYN) provides the most straightforward approach to reaching levels F>80%. The IB and DYN components each add between 5 and 15% to F. Given the importance of the DYN term bringing F closer to the operational requirement and its role as an indicator of the coastal ocean processes on scales from days to interannual, additional verification of the WCOFS subtidal sea level is provided in terms of the model-data correlation, standard deviation of the band-pass filtered (2-60 days) time series, the annual cycle amplitude, and alongshore sea level coherence in the range of 5-120-day periods. Model-data correlation in sea level increases from south to north along the US coast. The rms amplitude of model sea level variability in the 2-60-day band and its annual amplitude are weaker than observed north of 42 N, in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) coast region. The alongshore coherence amplitude and phase patterns are similar in the model and observations. Availability of the multi-year model solution allows computation and analysis of spatial maps of the coherence amplitude. For a reference location in the Southern California Bight, relatively short-period sea level motions (near 10 days) are incoherent with those north of the Santa Barbara Channel (in part, due to coastal trapped wave scattering and/or dissipation). At a

  10. HYPERTENSIVE ENCEPHALOPATHY INDUCED BY MERCURY POISONING; A REPORT OF 3 CASES (IN AN IRANIAN FAMILY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sharifian MD

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveMercury poisoning is one of the important recent causes of mortality and mortality in children worldwide, particularly in industrial environments; mercury is a poisonous metal, especially harmful to the nervous and immune systems and the kidneys and can even be fatal. Elemental mercury is present in thermometers, barometer batteries, sphygmomanometers and latex paints.Inorganic mercury salts are found in antiseptics, pesticides, pigments and explosives and are used as preservatives in medicine. Mercury was once used to stop fever, and this worked because the immune system was so weakened that it could no longer sustain the attack for which the fever was created. Some medical drugs still contain mercury chloride and mercurous chloride and certain forms of mercury are still used in some laxatives. Mercury toxicity of the nervous system causes anorexia, ataxia, lack of ability to coordinate voluntary muscle movements, dementia, depression, dizziness, emotional instability, erethism (abnormal irritability in response to stimulation, incoordination, insomnia, irritability, loss of ability to speak, memory impairment, numbness, saresthesias (sensation of prickling, tingling or creeping on the skin, psychosis, tremors, drowsiness, fatigue and weakness.Other organ damages include kidney failure, headaches, hearing impairment, visual impairment, hypertension, dermatitis, digestive tract problems, colitis, diarrhea, stomatitis and excessive salivation, loss of teeth, metallic taste, chromosomal damage, birth defects and ensuing organ failure. Chronic mercury poisoning can cause Acrodynia (Pink disease. Mercury poisoning is a rare cause of hypertension in children. Herein we report 3 cases, the first a child with hypertensive encephalopathy due to severe mercury poisoning and his two siblings with moderate symptoms.Case reportA 10 year old boy was admitted in psychiatric ward of Imam Hossein Hospital with behavioral disorder, irritability, mood

  11. Return to the Grindhouse: Tarantino and the modernization of 1970s Exploitation Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Platz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Exploitation films from the 1970s and early 80s such as Foxy Brown (Jack Hill, 1974 and Switchblade Sisters (Jack Hill, 1975 were the first films to allow women to actively control the narrative and course of events in a film. Men become secondary characters who had no or little control over the course of events in these films. Because the films were made during the rapidly changing social climate of the 1970s, the films also became a barometer in their treatment of female characters of social mores. Director Quentin Tarantino’s films Death Proof (2007, Kill Bill I and II (2003 and 2004, Jackie Brown (1997, and Inglourious Basterds (2009 attempt to modernize the active women from exploitation films of the 1970s, reworking the female characters’ mobilization against typical gender roles, and attributing her with the abilities to compete, and even challenge men in a patriarchic society.However, Tarantino’s films mostly fail to progress beyond the trappings of the classic exploitation films of the 1970s, still relying heavily on the excessive display of female bodies, and subjugating women to the male camera and spectator gaze. In Tarantino’s attempt to remove female characters from the gender restraints of most Hollywood films, he creates the female action star, and inadvertently reverses the work of classic exploitation films by limiting the traits strong women are able to possess. By contrast, the female leads of 1970s exploitation films, although still heavily sexualized, are able to be physically powerful while retaining their feminine identifications as a wives, mothers, lovers, and beauty queens. Tarantino’s portrayal of strong women is more limited, however when strong sexuality and typical feminine traits are not connected to the powerful female characters. Instead female sexuality and feminine appearances are shown as weaknesses that contribute to the female characters’ deaths or lack of individuality. Tarantino allows one

  12. Airborne Gas Surveillance of Volcanoes in Western USA and Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, T. M.; McGee, K. A.; Doukas, M. P.

    2002-05-01

    Volcanoes of the western USA and Alaska pose challenges to gas surveillance of volcano unrest. Locations are remote, and ground access is generally difficult. Wet climates and melt from glaciers and thick winter snowpack foster hydrothermal and ground waters that can scrub acid gases (SO2, HCl, HF) before they reach the surface, thereby masking their degassing from shallow vapor-saturated subvolcanic magma. These gases may not exhibit significant increases in emission rates until dry pathways or magma itself reaches the surface. Background or low emissions of the acid gases may thus give a false sense of security. CO2 is more likely to give early indication of subvolcanic magma degassing. It is the second most abundant magmatic volatile; it is among the least soluble magmatic volatiles; and it is far less susceptible to scrubbing than SO2, HCl, or HF. Rising H2S emissions are also a plausible early warning, since unlike SO2, HCl and HF, H2S is strongly volatilized from boiling water. Unfortunately, remote sensing of early increases in volcanic CO2 and H2S emissions is usually problematic, owing to high atmospheric CO2 levels, water vapor interference, and poor H2S infrared absorbance. We have therefore developed an aircraft-mounted system that directly measures these gases by extraction sampling of plumes. The system includes an infrared spectrometer for CO2 and an electrochemical sensor for H2S, in addition to a COSPEC and high-precision barometer, temperature probe, and GPS receiver. Measurements are made at different elevations along traverses orthogonal to plume direction or along orbits around a volcano if plume is not visible. Data for all gases are recorded in a data logger at 1-s intervals and tagged with clock time, latitude, longitude, altitude, temperature, and pressure. In-flight wind data are also acquired. Plume cross-sections are constructed with mapping software and used to calculate emission rates. Several campaigns to date show that emission rates

  13. The state of renewable energies in Europe. 11th EurObserv'ER report; Etat des energies renouvelables en Europe. 11e bilan EurObserv'ER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Civel, Y.B. (ed.)

    2012-02-15

    For over ten years now, eurobserv'eR has been collecting data on european Union renewable energy sources to describe the state and thrust of the various sectors in its thematic barometers. The first part of this assessment is an updated and completed summary of the work published in 2011. It provides a complete overview of the ten renewable sectors, supplemented by two summary notes on concentrated solar power and ocean energies. Their performances are compared against the european Commission White Paper and Biomass Action plan targets. The eurobserv'eR consortium members will publish their end-of-year estimates of the renewable energy share of overall final energy consumption for each European Union country from this edition onwards. These figures will thus provide preliminary indication of how the various countries are faring along their renewable energy paths and will ascertain whether their individual trends point to success in achieving their objectives [Dutch] Depuis plus de dix ans, eurobserv'er collecte des donnees sur les sources d'energies renouvelables de l'union europeenne afin de decrire, dans des barometres thematiques, l'etat et la dynamique des filieres. La premiere partie de cet ouvrage constitue une synthese des travaux publies en 2011, actualisee et completee. Elle offre un tour d'horizon complet des dix filieres renouvelables, completee par deux notes de synthese sur l'heliothermodynamique et l'energie marine. Ces filieres sont analysees a l'aide de differents indicateurs de types energetiques. leurs performances sont comparees aux objectifs du livre blanc de la Commission europeenne et de son plan d'action biomasse. a partir de cette edition, les membres du consortium eurobserv'er publieront chaque fin d'annee leurs estimations de la part des energies renouvelables dans la consommation brute d'energie finale pour chaque pays de l'union europeenne. Ces estimations

  14. The state of renewable energies in Europe. 10th EurObserv'ER report; Etat des energies renouvelables en Europe. 10e bilan EurObserv'ER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Civel, Y.B. (ed.)

    2011-01-15

    For over ten years now, eurobserv'eR has been collecting data on european Union renewable energy sources to describe the state and thrust of the various sectors in its thematic barometers. The first part of this assessment is an updated and completed summary of the work published in 2010. It provides a complete overview of the ten renewable sectors, supplemented by two summary notes on concentrated solar power and ocean energies. Their performances are compared against the european Commission White Paper and Biomass Action plan targets. The eurobserv'eR consortium members will publish their end-of-year estimates of the renewable energy share of overall final energy consumption for each European Union country from this edition onwards. These figures will thus provide preliminary indication of how the various countries are faring along their renewable energy paths and will ascertain whether their individual trends point to success in achieving their objectives. [Dutch] Depuis plus de dix ans, eurobserv'er collecte des donnees sur les sources d'energies renouvelables de l'union europeenne afin de decrire, dans des barometres thematiques, l'etat et la dynamique des filieres. La premiere partie de cet ouvrage constitue une synthese des travaux publies en 2010, actualisee et completee. Elle offre un tour d'horizon complet des dix filieres renouvelables, completee par deux notes de synthese sur l'heliothermodynamique et l'energie marine. Ces filieres sont analysees a l'aide de differents indicateurs de types energetiques. leurs performances sont comparees aux objectifs du livre blanc de la Commission europeenne et de son plan d'action biomasse. a partir de cette edition, les membres du consortium eurobserv'er publieront chaque fin d'annee leurs estimations de la part des energies renouvelables dans la consommation brute d'energie finale pour chaque pays de l'union europeenne. Ces estimations

  15. 提升惠州市新生代农民工幸福指数措施研究%Research on Measures of Improving Happiness Index of New Generation Migrant Workers in Huizhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    游建雄; 陈宏寿

    2012-01-01

    New generations of migrant workers have already become a significant part ot city community. How they tee1 towards happiness is not only a barometer to measure whether the society is harmonious or not, but also a touchstone to verify all the achievements and constructions in building "Happiness in Huizhou". Based on the investigations and researches about the characteristics of the happiness index of those migrant workers, we deepened our understanding of the current situation of their senses of happiness. By analyzing the main reasons influencing their senses of happiness, this paper puts forward four main measures to promote their senses of happiness : first, to speed up the optimization and upgrading of the industrial structure, and to raise the value of labor force; second, to eliminate system and mechanism barriers and to improve social security systems; third, to establish education and training programs and systems in order to raise their competitiveness in finding jobs ; fourth, to intensify the efforts on safeguarding their legal rights and to guide them to legally protect their rights and interests.%新生代农民工是当今城市的一个重要主体,他们的幸福感如何,是衡量社会是否和谐的“晴雨表”,也是检验“幸福惠州”建设成果的“试金石”。基于对惠州市新生代农民工幸福指数特征的调查研究,加深对新生代农民工的主观幸福感现状的认识。通过分析影响其幸福感的主要因素,并针对新生代农民工群体存在的主要问题,提出以下四项措施来提升惠州市新生代农民工的幸福感:一是加快产业升级,提升劳动力价值;二是消除体制壁垒,完善保障体系;三是建立教育培训机制,提高新生代农民工的就业竞争力;四是加大维权力度,引导新生代农民工合法维权。

  16. 提升惠州市新生代农民工幸福指数措施研究%Research on Measure of Improving Happiness Index of New Generation Migrant Worker in Huizhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    游建雄; 陈宏寿

    2012-01-01

    新生代农民工是当今惠州市的一个重要群体。他们的幸福感如何,是衡量社会是否和谐的“晴雨表”.也是检验“幸福惠州”建设成果的“试金石”。本文基于对惠州市新生代农民工幸福指数特征的调查研究,加深了对新生代农民工的主观幸福感现状的认识。通过分析影响其幸福感的主要因素,并针对新生代农民工群体存在的主要问题,提出了四项措施以提升惠州市新生代农民工的幸福感:一是加快产业升级,提升劳动力价值;二是消除体制壁垒,完善保障体系;三是建立教育培训机制,提高新生代农民工的就业竞争力;四是加大维权力度,引导新生代农民工合法维权。%New generations of migrant worker have already become a significant part of city community. How do they feel towards happiness is not only a barometer to measure whether the society is harmonious or not, but also a touchstone to verify all the achievements and constructions in building "Happiness in Huizhou". Based on the investigations and researches about the characteristics of the happiness index of those migrant workers, we deepened our understanding about the current situation of their senses of happiness. By analyzing the main reasons influencing their senses of happiness, I put forward four main measures to promote their senses of happiness: Firstly, to Speed up the optimization and upgrading of the industrial structure, and to raise the value of labor force. Secondly, to eliminate system and mechanism harriers and to improve social security systems. Thirdly, to establish education and training programs and systems on order to raise their competitiveness in finding jobs. Fourthly, to intensify the efforts on safeguarding their legal fights and to guide them to legally protect their rights and interests.

  17. The Poisoned Chalice? Understanding carbon in olivine-hosted melt inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclennan, John

    2016-04-01

    The solubility of CO2 in basaltic liquids is dependent on pressure. The CO2 content of olivine-hosted melt inclusions therefore provides a potential source of information about the depths of magma storage. Such petrological constraints on magmatic histories provide context for the interpretation of geophysical volcano monitoring data. However, when multiple petrological barometers are available for the magmatic suites, pressure estimates from melt inclusion CO2 contents appear to be systematically low, even when saturation has occurred. In this contribution I will explore the role of the post-entrapment pressure-temperature-time (P-T-t) path of the host crystal in controlling the relationship between observed melt inclusion CO2 contents and entrapment pressures. A global compilation of 2878 melt inclusions from mafic volcanics of mid-ocean ridges, ocean islands and continental rift zones reveals some unexpected features. First, the distribution of estimated saturation pressures is not strongly dependent on the methods of correction of measured inclusion compositions for post-entrapment crystallisation and bubble growth. Second, the different tectono-magmatic settings show similar distributions of estimated saturation pressures. Third, 80% of the recovered saturation pressures are pressures that are lower than those of the shallowest reservoir in the system as constrained by geophysical observations. Finally, in all settings, 5-10% of the inclusions record saturation pressures >200 MPa, with an upper limit at ˜500 MPa. A model was developed of the evolution of the pressure and distribution of CO2 inside inclusions as their olivine hosts travel through an imposed P-T-t history. Model results indicate that the dominance of low saturation pressures in the melt inclusions and the systematic difference between these pressures and the independent estimates of magma storage depths are likely to be caused by decrepitation: previous experimental studies have found that the

  18. Recent and historic sediment dynamics along Difficult Run, a suburban Virginia Piedmont stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hupp, Cliff R.; Noe, Gregory B.; Schenk, Edward R.; Benthem, Adam J.

    2013-01-01

    nonequilibrium channel conditions. Both peak discharge and number of peaks above base have substantially increased since the mid-1960s when urbanization of the watershed began. Deposition patterns are most closely correlated with channel gradient, sinuosity, and channel width/floodplain width for recent and historic periods. The substantial amounts of fine grained sediment deposited on the floodplain over the past two centuries or so do not appear to be closely related to historic mill pond presence or location. The floodplain continues to provide the critical ecosystem service of sediment trapping in the face of multiple human alterations. Trends in sediment deposition/erosion may react rapidly to land use practices within the watershed and offer a valuable barometer of the effects of management actions.

  19. Mineral chemistry, P-T-t paths and exhumation processes of mafic granulites in Dinggye, Southern Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; Shuwen; ZHANG; Jinjiang; SHU; Guiming; LI; Qiugen

    2005-01-01

    The mafic granulites in Dinggye, as various scale lense-shaped enclaves within the high Himalayan crystalline rock series, occur along mylonitic foliations at the junction between the Southern Tibetan Detachment System (STDS) and the Xainza-Dinggye normal fault system. The main lithological assemblage comprises garnet plagioclase pyroxenite, garnet two-pyroxene granulite, pyroxene garnet amphibolite and so on. The detailed petrological analyses show that these mafic granulites underwent at least four-stage metamorphic evolution. The first metamorphic stage, the garnet+clinopyroxene+quart mineral assemblage (M1) was probably formed under eclogite facies, the second stage, the plagioclase+clinopyroxene symplectite mineral assemblage (M2) was produced under high-pressure granulite facies by the early decompressive breakdown of M1 mineral assemblage, the third stage, the plagioclase+clinopyroxene+ hypersthene symplectite mineral assemblage (M3) was formed at granulite facies by the late period decompressive breakdown of M1 and M2 mineral assemblages and the final stage, plagioclase+hornblende mineral assemblage (M4) was formed by hydrolysis of earlier mineral assemblages during late uplifting. The detailed mineral composition analyses suggest that garnets and clinopyroxenes within M1 and M2 mineral assemblages display similar compositions to the equivalents in the B and C types of eclogites, whereas the M3 clinopyroxenes are akin to these of the same kind of minerals in the granulite. These mineral chemistry features and P-T estimates calculated by mineral thermometers and barometers indicate that the early stage relic porphyroblasts (M1) could be formed at the eclogite facies, the early decompressive breakdown (M2) occurred at the high-pressures granulite facies of 1.35―1.48 GPa and 625―675℃, the M3 mineral assemblage recorded the granulite facies of 0.7―0.95 GPa and 775―900℃ and M4 plagioglase+hornblende retrograde mineral assemblage was produced under

  20. Perfiles sociales de la opinión pública española sobre la inmigración

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayerdi, Peio

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Immigration and its sharp increase in Spain in the last years, as has been stated by experts, is an important social, economic and also political phenomenon. Immigration has social consequences of different kinds such as demographic, economic, cultural, fiscal and political for the hostess society. The feelings (opinion and attitudes towards immigration in November 2005 are analysed in this study, based on information from the CIS 2625 Barometer. Questions of interest include: What social profiles make people the most open towards the phenomenon of immigration? And the most restrictive? In this paper significant interrelationships found among socio-political attitudes (ideology, quantity of cultural capital (education and economic interests (class; regarding attitude and public opinion towards immigration in the Spanish context at beginning of the 21st century are described and analysed.

    La entrada de la inmigración en España y su fuerte aceleración en los últimos años, tal como afirman los expertos, es un fenómeno de principal importancia social, económica y también política. La inmigración tiene consecuencias sociales para la sociedad anfitriona. Estas pueden ser de tipo demográfico, económico, cultural, fiscal y también de tipo político. En este trabajo se analiza el sentimiento (opinión y actitudes ante la inmigración en Noviembre de 2005. Se consideran y analizan datos del Barómetro 2625 del CIS. Algunas preguntas de interés son: ¿Qué perfiles sociales son los más abiertos a la inmigración? ¿Y los más restrictivos? En nuestro trabajo se presentan interrelaciones significativas entre la actitud socio-política (ideología, el volumen de capital cultural (educación y los intereses económicos (clase; con las actitudes y la opinión pública ante la inmigración en el contexto español de principios del siglo XXI.

  1. Three essays in energy consumption: Time series analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Hee Bai

    1997-10-01

    Firstly, this dissertation investigates that which demand specification is an appropriate model for long-run energy demand between the conventional demand specification and the limited demand specification. In order to determine the components of a stable long-run demand for different sectors of the energy industry, I perform cointegration tests by using the Johansen test procedure. First, I test the conventional demand specification including prices and income as components. Second, I test a limited demand specification only income as a component. The reason for performing these tests is that we can determine that which demand specification is a good long-run predictor of energy consumption between the two demand specifications by using the cointegration tests. Secondly, for the purpose of planning and forecasting energy demand in case of cointegrated system, long-run elasticities are of particular interest. To retrieve the optimal level of energy demand in case of price shock, we need long-run elasticities rather than short-run elasticities. The energy demand study provides valuable information to the energy policy makers who are concerned about the long-run impact of taxes and tariffs. A long-run price elasticity is a primary barometer of the substitution effect between energy and non-energy inputs and long-run income elasticity is an important factor since we can measure the energy demand growing slowly or fast than in the past depending on the magnitude of long-run elasticity. The one other problem in estimating the total energy demand is that there exists an aggregation bias stemming from the process of summation in four different energy types for the total aggregation prices and total aggregation energy consumption. In order to measure the aggregation bias between the Btu aggregation method and the Divisia Index method, i.e., which methodology has less aggregation bias in the long-run, I compare the two estimation results with calculated results estimated on

  2. Under the Era of Big Data"Computer Foundation"Curriculum Reform Research%大数据时代下“计算机基础”课程改革研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白会剑

    2015-01-01

    继云计算之后,大数据成了时代的风向标。高职院校的“计算机基础”课程也应该紧跟大数据时代的步伐,结合工作的实际,积极开展课程改革研究。在教学内容方面,实现以知识点为单元的在线学习与移动学习;在学习流程方面,实现以学生为中心的人性化与个性化设计;在教学资源方面,实现海量资源的网络共享;在教学平台方面,搭建基于云计算的网络教学平台。只有与时俱进、不断改革,才能更好地适应大数据时代的要求,才能更好地培养出适应时代与岗位需要的人才。%following the cloud computing, big data becomes the barometer. Higher Vocational College "computer basis" course should also keep up with the pace of the era of big data, combined with practical work, and actively carry out research on curricu⁃lum reform. In the aspect of teaching contents, in order to achieve the knowledge point as the online learning and mobile learning unit;in the learning process, realize the humanization and individuation design taking students as the center;in the teaching re⁃sources, realize the massive resources sharing in the network;teaching platform, build a network teaching platform based on cloud computing. Only to keep pace with the times, reform continuously, in order to better adapt to the requirements of the era of big da⁃ta, in order to better adapt to the times and cultivate talents.

  3. HYPERTENSIVE ENCEPHALOPATHY INDUCED BY MERCURY POISONING; A REPORT OF 3 CASES (IN AN IRANIAN FAMILY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Noorisafa MD,

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveMercury poisoning is one of the important recent causes of mortality andmortality in children worldwide, particularly in industrial environments; mercuryis a poisonous metal, especially harmful to the nervous and immune systemsand the kidneys and can even be fatal. Elemental mercury is present inthermometers, barometer batteries, sphygmomanometers and latex paints.Inorganic mercury salts are found in antiseptics, pesticides, pigments andexplosives and are used as preservatives in medicine. Mercury was once usedto stop fever, and this worked because the immune system was so weakenedthat it could no longer sustain the attack for which the fever was created. Somemedical drugs still contain mercury chloride and mercurous chloride and certainforms of mercury are still used in some laxatives.Mercury toxicity of the nervous system causes anorexia, ataxia, lack of abilityto coordinate voluntary muscle movements, dementia, depression, dizziness,emotional instability, erethism (abnormal irritability in response to stimulation,incoordination, insomnia, irritability, loss of ability to speak, memory impairment,numbness, saresthesias (sensation of prickling, tingling or creeping on the skin,psychosis, tremors, drowsiness, fatigue and weakness.Other organ damages include kidney failure, headaches, hearing impairment,visual impairment, hypertension, dermatitis, digestive tract problems, colitis,diarrhea, stomatitis and excessive salivation, loss of teeth, metallic taste,chromosomal damage, birth defects and ensuing organ failure. Chronic mercurypoisoning can cause Acrodynia (Pink disease. Mercury poisoning is a rarecause of hypertension in children. Herein we report 3 cases, the first a childwith hypertensive encephalopathy due to severe mercury poisoning and histwo siblings with moderate symptoms.Case reportA 10 year old boy was admitted in psychiatric ward of Imam Hossein Hospitalwith behavioral disorder, irritability, mood change and convulsion

  4. June 2013 Meteotsunami Captured by NOAA/NOS Coastal Water Level Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, K.; DiVeglio, C.; Welty, A.

    2014-12-01

    On June 13, 2013, a north-south oriented, long formation of strong storms passed eastward over the New Jersey coast. Three hours later, while the weather was calm, a sudden runup of water along the New Jersey and New England coasts was witnessed despite no nearby seismic activity. Post-event analysis revealed that a rare meteotsunami impacted the East Coast of the United States. The strong pressure jump associated with the storms generated an ocean wave that became amplified when the speed of the storms reached the speed of the wave, creating resonance. The wave approached the Mid-Atlantic shelf break and reflected back, explaining the time lag between the passing storms and the incoming wave. The National Water Level Observing Network (NWLON) stations maintained by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Ocean Service (NOS) Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services (CO-OPS) measured strong water level oscillations at several stations along the eastern seaboard. The detided one-minute data show the tsunami signal with maximum amplitudes ranging from 0.16 m at Nantucket Island, MA to 0.61 m. at Newport, RI. The Narragansett Bay stations captured the meteotsunami wave propagating northward and diminishing towards the innermost part of the Bay. The Atlantic City, NJ station captured the 3.2-mb pressure jump in the six-minute barometer data from the passing storms as well as the incoming wave that hit three hours later with a maximum amplitude of 0.47 m. Along the U.S. coast, harbor shape and orientation contributed to the strength of the tsunami wave, and some stations that were in shadowed areas did not measure a strong signal despite being in an area of measurable impact. Meteotsunamis pose a threat to the U.S. coastline, and without high-resolution observations and models these events cannot be quantitatively forecasted. NOAA does not currently have an operational warning system but the June 2013 meteotsunami provides an

  5. Final Technical Report: Microbial Production of Isoprene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fall, Ray

    2003-09-12

    natural state (e.g. as biofilms on surfaces). (3) We successfully used on-line mass spectrometry methods to measure release of volatiles, including isoprene, from bioreactors during growth of B. subtilis. This methodology, still in its infancy, may provide a new means to assess physiological processes during industrial growth of Bacillus species, and use isoprene formation as a barometer of carbon flow in these bacteria. (4) We also addressed the question: is Bacillus isoprene formation analogous to chloroplast processes? This research was initiated because of the continuing interest in the puzzle of isoprene formation in leaf chloroplasts. In pursuit of linkages between bacterial and plant isoprene formation, we used our DMAPP assay to demonstrate that leaves of the isoprene-emitter (cottonwood) show a diurnal cycle, peaking at mid-day in parallel with isoprene release. Thus it appears that in two different biological systems isoprene formation is highly regulated, and linked to isoprenoid carbon availability. (5) We developed a new method to detect Bacillus species in plant root samples, and demonstrated that plant roots are a rich source of biofilm-forming B. subtilis. Furthermore, using cultured Arabidopsis roots as a test system, we were able to demonstrate the formation of stable, viable Bacillus biofilms on the roots. Such roots were protected from killing by a root pathogenic Pseudomonas syringae strain. We have now formulated a mechanism to explain how such biocontrol by B. subtilis occurs, and future work will explore the role of isoprene in signaling between different rhizobacteria and plant roots.

  6. Intelligent personal navigator supported by knowledge-based systems for estimating dead reckoning navigation parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moafipoor, Shahram

    Personal navigators (PN) have been studied for about a decade in different fields and applications, such as safety and rescue operations, security and emergency services, and police and military applications. The common goal of all these applications is to provide precise and reliable position, velocity, and heading information of each individual in various environments. In the PN system developed in this dissertation, the underlying assumption is that the system does not require pre-existing infrastructure to enable pedestrian navigation. To facilitate this capability, a multisensor system concept, based on the Global Positioning System (GPS), inertial navigation, barometer, magnetometer, and a human pedometry model has been developed. An important aspect of this design is to use the human body as navigation sensor to facilitate Dead Reckoning (DR) navigation in GPS-challenged environments. The system is designed predominantly for outdoor environments, where occasional loss of GPS lock may happen; however, testing and performance demonstration have been extended to indoor environments. DR navigation is based on a relative-measurement approach, with the key idea of integrating the incremental motion information in the form of step direction (SD) and step length (SL) over time. The foundation of the intelligent navigation system concept proposed here rests in exploiting the human locomotion pattern, as well as change of locomotion in varying environments. In this context, the term intelligent navigation represents the transition from the conventional point-to-point DR to dynamic navigation using the knowledge about the mechanism of the moving person. This approach increasingly relies on integrating knowledge-based systems (KBS) and artificial intelligence (AI) methodologies, including artificial neural networks (ANN) and fuzzy logic (FL). In addition, a general framework of the quality control for the real-time validation of the DR processing is proposed, based on a

  7. Comparison between monitored and modeled pore water pressure and safety factor in a slope susceptible to shallow landslides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordoni, Massimiliano; Meisina, Claudia; Zizioli, Davide; Valentino, Roberto; Bittelli, Marco; Chersich, Silvia

    2014-05-01

    -high topographic gradient (ranging from 22 to 35°). The bedrock is made up of gravel, sand and poorly cemented conglomerates; superficial soils, derived by the weathered bedrock, are prevalently clayey-sandy silts and clayey-silty sands with different amounts of pebbles and carbonate concretions. A geotechnical, mechanical, pedological and mineralogical characterization of superficial deposits was performed. Laboratory reconstruction of hysteretic soil water characteristic curves was also carried out to determine the main soil hydrological properties. The experimental station consists in a pluviometer, a thermo-hygrometer, a barometer, an anemometer and a net radiometer. Six TDR probes equipped with a multiplexer are installed at 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 1, 1.2, 1.4 m from ground level to measure volumetric water content; to measure pore water pressure, three tensiometers and three heat dissipation sensors are installed at 0.2, 0.6, 1.2 m from ground level. The data are collected by a CR1000 datalogger (Campbell Sci. Inc.) each 10 minutes. In this work the results of the comparison between monitored and modeled pore water pressures and the safety factor in different conditions are analyzed in order to understand the hydro-mechanical properties that could predispose the triggering mechanism of shallow instabilities and the processes that have to be taken into account in the evaluation of shallow landslides susceptibility.

  8. 金融危机对广东入境旅游经济及市场的影响%The Impact of Financial Crisis to the Inbound Tourism Economy and Market of Guangdong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜泳; 李睿; 韩旭

    2013-01-01

    2008年爆发的全球金融危机,使全球经济遭受了巨大的冲击。入境旅游一定程度上是世界经济的晴雨表。本文应用ARMA模型、游客集中度系数、亲景度和市场竞争态等定量方法,评估了金融危机对广东省入境旅游经济的总体影响,分析了危机对其入境旅游客源市场结构变化情况。结果表明,金融危机使广东入境游客量和旅游外汇收入比预期正常值分别降低了6%~15%和0.7%~1.1%,入境游客量和减少幅度超过旅游外汇收入减少幅度;危机使入境旅游游客集中度明显提高,增加了广东对少数几个入境客源地的依赖程度;在金融危机背景下,广东省在全国对入境客源的竞争力一定程度上受到了其他旅游目的地的挤压。最后,有针对性地提出了广东拓展入境客源市场的思路和策略。%In 2008, the outbreak of the international financial crisis has made the global economy suffered massive negative effects. To some extent, the inbound tourism is a barometer of the world economy. This paper evaluated the total impact of international financial crisis on inbound tourism economy of Guangdong Province, and analyzed the inbound tourist market structure changes by the ARMA model, the tourist concentration coefficient, the preference scale, the competition state and other quantitative methods. The results showed that, the financial crisis has made the inbound tourists and foreign exchange earnings from tourism respectively decreased by 6~15% and 0.7~1.1% than the expected normal values; The crisis has caused the inbound tourism tourists concentration degree improving obviously, and increased the dependency of Guangdong to several inbound tourists; Under the background of financial crisis, the inbound tourism competitiveness of Guangdong Province was squeezed by other tourist destinations of our country. Finally, this paper proposed the development thought and strategy of inbound

  9. Inertial and GPS data integration for positioning and tracking of GPR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicarella, Simone; D'Alvano, Alessandro; Ferrara, Vincenzo; Frezza, Fabrizio; Pajewski, Lara

    2015-04-01

    Nowadays many applications and studies use a Global Positioning System (GPS) to integrate Ground-Penetrating Radar (GPR) data [1-2]. The aim is the production of detailed detection maps that are geo-referenced and superimposable on geographic maps themes. GPS provides data to determine static positioning, and to track the mobile detection system path on the land. A low-cost standard GPS, like GPS-622R by RF Solutions Ltd, allows accuracy around 2.5 m CEP (Circular Error Probability), and a maximum update rate of 10 Hz. These accuracy and update rate are satisfying values when we evaluate positioning datum, but they are unsuitable for precision tracking of a speedy-mobile GPR system. In order to determine the relative displacements with respect to an initial position on the territory, an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) can be used. Some inertial-system applications for GPR tracking have been presented in recent studies [3-4]. The integration of both GPS and IMU systems is the aim of our work, in order to increase GPR applicability, e.g. the case of a GPR mounted on an unmanned aerial vehicle for the detection of people buried under avalanches [5]. In this work, we will present the design, realization and experimental characterization of our electronic board that includes GPS-622R and AltIMU-10 v3 by Pololu. The latter comprises an inertial-measurement unit and an altimeter. In particular, the IMU adopts L3GD20 gyro and LSM303D accelerometer and magnetometer; the digital barometer LPS331AP provides data for altitude evaluation. The prototype of our system for GPR positioning and tracking is based on an Arduino microcontroller board. Acknowledgement This work benefited from networking activities carried out within the EU funded COST Action TU1208 'Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar. ' References [1] M. Solla, X. Núñez-Nieto, M. Varela-González, J. Martínez-Sánchez, and P. Arias, 'GPR for Road Inspection: georeferencing and efficient

  10. INVESTMENT FUNDS IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    COPIL CRINA ANGELA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available I chose this topic because my goal was to capture in detail all aspects of the evolution of investment funds under the influence of factors leading to globalization of the banking financial market. Main motivation was that I proposed to present in an original manner the concept of investment in mutual funds by the thoroughness of the following points: the different types of investment funds from Romania, the advantages, the risks and the specific costs of the investment in mutual funds and the effects of the financial crisis on the industry of the investment funds on the national level. The financial crisis and the risk of infecting the global economy affected the taste of risk of the investors and their request for the investment fund, determining the orientation of the investors to the funds with a lower risk – the diversified funds, the funds of bonds and the monetary funds. I considered important the theoretical approach of the concept of investments in investment funds because they are a barometer of the macro economical stability, in case the economical increase is positive on the macro economical level the investments in investments funds are increasing too. In Romania the market of the mutual funds is at an incipient level, but with potential and perspectives of development. Due to the bankruptcy of FNI in the beginning of the years 2000 and due to the absence of a clear legislation regarding the calculation of the unitary value of the net asset and the control of the activity developed by the investment funds, the development of the industry of the investment funds had to fight against the crisis of credibility generated by these events. The convergence of the Romanian economy to the European standards will attract also a modification of the structure of the financial investments of the individuals, by an increase of the investments in funds. In the world the investment funds are preferred by the investors for their advantages

  11. High-order Hybridized Discontinuous Galerkin (HDG) method for wave propagation simulation in complex geophysical media (elastic, acoustic and hydro-acoustic); an unifying framework to couple continuous Spectral Element and Discontinuous Galerkin Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrana, Sebastien; Vilotte, Jean-Pierre; Guillot, Laurent; Mariotti, Christian

    2015-04-01

    Today seismological observation systems combine broadband seismic receivers, hydrophones and micro-barometers antenna that provide complementary observations of source-radiated waves in heterogeneous and complex geophysical media. Exploiting these observations requires accurate and multi-physics - elastic, hydro-acoustic, infrasonic - wave simulation methods. A popular approach is the Spectral Element Method (SEM) (Chaljub et al, 2006) which is high-order accurate (low dispersion error), very flexible to parallelization and computationally attractive due to efficient sum factorization technique and diagonal mass matrix. However SEMs suffer from lack of flexibility in handling complex geometry and multi-physics wave propagation. High-order Discontinuous Galerkin Methods (DGMs), i.e. Dumbser et al (2006), Etienne et al. (2010), Wilcox et al (2010), are recent alternatives that can handle complex geometry, space-and-time adaptativity, and allow efficient multi-physics wave coupling at interfaces. However, DGMs are more memory demanding and less computationally attractive than SEMs, especially when explicit time stepping is used. We propose a new class of higher-order Hybridized Discontinuous Galerkin Spectral Elements (HDGSEM) methods for spatial discretization of wave equations, following the unifying framework for hybridization of Cockburn et al (2009) and Nguyen et al (2011), which allows for a single implementation of conforming and non-conforming SEMs. When used with energy conserving explicit time integration schemes, HDGSEM is flexible to handle complex geometry, computationally attractive and has significantly less degrees of freedom than classical DGMs, i.e., the only coupled unknowns are the single-valued numerical traces of the velocity field on the element's faces. The formulation can be extended to model fractional energy loss at interfaces between elastic, acoustic and hydro-acoustic media. Accuracy and performance of the HDGSEM are illustrated and

  12. Mercury toxicity and neurodegenerative effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carocci, Alessia; Rovito, Nicola; Sinicropi, Maria Stefania; Genchi, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Mercury is among the most toxic heavy metals and has no known physiological role in humans. Three forms of mercury exist: elemental, inorganic and organic. Mercury has been used by man since ancient times. Among the earliest were the Chinese and Romans, who employed cinnabar (mercury sulfide) as a red dye in ink (Clarkson et al. 2007). Mercury has also been used to purify gold and silver minerals by forming amalgams. This is a hazardous practice, but is still widespread in Brazil's Amazon basin, in Laos and in Venezuela, where tens of thousands of miners are engaged in local mining activities to find and purify gold or silver. Mercury compounds were long used to treat syphilis and the element is still used as an antiseptic,as a medicinal preservative and as a fungicide. Dental amalgams, which contain about 50% mercury, have been used to repair dental caries in the U.S. since 1856.Mercury still exists in many common household products around the world.Examples are: thermometers, barometers, batteries, and light bulbs (Swain et al.2007). In small amounts, some organo mercury-compounds (e.g., ethylmercury tiosalicylate(thimerosal) and phenylmercury nitrate) are used as preservatives in some medicines and vaccines (Ballet al. 2001).Each mercury form has its own toxicity profile. Exposure to Hg0 vapor and MeHg produce symptoms in CNS, whereas, the kidney is the target organ when exposures to the mono- and di-valent salts of mercury (Hg+ and Hg++, respectively)occur. Chronic exposure to inorganic mercury produces stomatitis, erethism and tremors. Chronic MeHg exposure induced symptoms similar to those observed in ALS, such as the early onset of hind limb weakness (Johnson and Atchison 2009).Among the organic mercury compounds, MeHg is the most biologically available and toxic (Scheuhammer et a!. 2007). MeHg is neurotoxic, reaching high levels of accumulation in the CNS; it can impair physiological function by disrupting endocrine glands (Tan et a!. 2009).The most

  13. 基于熵权与集对分析的食品供应链安全预警模型研究%Research on food supply chain safety pre-warning model based on entropy weight and set pair analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞峰; 李荣钧

    2012-01-01

    items of the system and reflects the warning grade of food safety, which is the "barometer" and "direction sign" of the safety management of the food supply chain.

  14. Mineralogía y termo-barometría de los Complejos máficos Sol de Mayo y Suya Taco, Norte de las Sierras de Comechingones, Córdoba Mineralogy and thermo-barometry of the Sol de Mayo and Suya Taco mafic complexes from northern Sierra de Comechingones, Córdoba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina M. Tibaldi

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo presenta un estudio detallado de la petrografía, mineralogía química y termo-barometría de dos complejos máficos que afloran al norte de la sierra de Comechingones. Se aplicaron un conjunto de termómetros y barómetros empíricos con el propósito de determinar los rangos de P y T absolutas de cristalización de estas rocas. Las temperaturas de equilibrio en pares de piroxenos (cpx-opx se estimaron usando tres termómetros independientes. Dos calibraciones termométricas (Wells 1977, Kretz 1982 dan resultados consistentes y razonables indicando que los piroxenos registran condiciones de cristalización magmática (920-1150ºC, mientras que la tercera calibración (Lindsley 1983 estima temperaturas muy inferiores. Esta discrepancia puede estar relacionada con el hecho de que la última calibración no sería aplicable a rocas que cristalizaron a partir de magmas ricos en hierro. Por su parte, la termometría Amph-Pl sugiere temperaturas de equilibrio comprendidas entre 750-850ºC, para composiciones típicas de núcleos, mientras que para composiciones representativas de los bordes de grano las temperaturas estimadas son significativamente inferiores (This work presents a detailed study including petrography, mineral chemistry and thermo-barometry of igneous rock from two mafic complexes that outcrop in the north portion of the sierra de Comechingones. The range of absolute P and T under which these rocks crystallized is retrieved using a set of empiric barometers and thermometers. The estimations of equilibrium temperature determined in pairs of pyroxenes (cpx-opx were performed through three independent thermometers. Two of the thermometric formulations (Wells 1977, Kretz 1982 yield consistent and reasonable results indicating that these phases record magmatic crystallizations conditions (920-1150ºC, whereas the third calibration by Lindsley (1983 gives lower temperatures. This discrepancy is thought to reflect the fact that

  15. Metamorphic and tectonic evolution of Ceuta peninsula (Internal Rif): new interpretation in the framework of arc and back arc evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homonnay, Emmanuelle; Lardeaux, Jean-Marc; Corsini, Michel; Cenki-Tok, Bénédicte; Bosch, Delphine; Munch, Philippe; Romagny, Adrien; Ouazzani-Touhami, Mohamed

    2016-04-01

    thrusting toward the NE. Furthermore, biotite-sillimanite bearing S2 foliation affecting the whole of crustal rocks is contemporaneous with the movement on this main ductile thrusting. We combined garnet-biotite and GASP thermo-barometers with thermodynamic modelling (Theriak-Domino) in order to constrain pressure and temperature conditions of D2 and D3 tectono-metamorphic events. P-T conditions of D2 deformation are in the range 7-10kbar and 770-820°C and are compatible with syn-tectonic partial melting. D3 deformation event occurred at 1-7kbar and 400-550°C. These metamorphic conditions reflect abnormally high geothermal gradients during both shortening and thinning and are clearly compatible with the thermal evolution recognized in continental arcs. Preliminary U-Th-Pb (monazite, zircon and xenotime) and previous Ar39/Ar40 (micas) analyses, furnished similar ages around 21 Ma for D2 and D3 events, suggesting a very fast transition from arc to back-arc dynamics.

  16. Accuracy analysis of direct georeferenced UAV images utilising low-cost navigation sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briese, Christian; Wieser, Martin; Verhoeven, Geert; Glira, Philipp; Doneus, Michael; Pfeifer, Norbert

    2014-05-01

    control points should be used to improve the estimated values, especially to decrease the amount of systematic errors. For the bundle block adjustment the calibration of the camera and their temporal stability must be determined additionally. This contribution presents next to the theory a practical study on the accuracy analysis of direct georeferenced UAV imagery by low-cost navigation sensors. The analysis was carried out within the research project ARAP (automated (ortho)rectification of archaeological aerial photographs). The utilized UAS consists of the airplane "MAJA", manufactured by "Bormatec" (length: 1.2 m, wingspan: 2.2 m) equipped with the autopilot "ArduPilot Mega 2.5". For image acquisition the camera "Ricoh GR Digital IV" is utilised. The autopilot includes a GNSS receiver capable of DGPS (EGNOS), an inertial measurement system (INS), a barometer, and a magnetometer. In the study the achieved accuracies for the estimated position and orientation of the images are presented. The paper concludes with a summary of the remaining error sources and their possible corrections by applying further improvements on the utilised equipment and the direct georeferencing process.

  17. Hadean Thermobarometry Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, M.; Harrison, T. M.; Manning, C. E.

    2009-12-01

    Ancient detrital zircons from the Jack Hills region of Western Australia are our principle source of information for the physical and chemical state of Earth’s crust for much of the Hadean Eon (before about 3.85 Ga). Examination of mineral inclusions within these zircons yields information about the magmatic environment in which they formed. We have electron imaged over 1300 pre-4.0 Ga zircons to identify mineral inclusions. We have found 131 which possess inclusions that intersected the polished surfaces. Consistent with our earlier report, the inclusion population is dominated by co-equal abundances of muscovite and quartz (~75%). This observation alone restricts the host melts to have formed at pressure-temperature (P-T) conditions of ~650-800°C and >4 kbars. Individual inclusions (8 muscovites and one hornblende) that were large enough (>5 μm) to be accurately analyzed by electron microprobe were selected for barometric studies. Six out of the eight muscovites contain an average Si per formula unit (normalized to 11 oxygens) of 3.12±0.01, and the sole hornblende inclusion contains an Al content of 2.25 (per 13 cations). Muscovite-phengite and Al-in-hornblende barometers coupled with Ti-in-zircon thermometry for this expanded data set yields a estimate of magmatic P-T conditions of 7±2 kbar and 700±25°C. The two remaining muscovites in our sample suite yield Si contents ~3.4, implying even higher formation pressures at similar temperatures. In all cases, no visible cracks were seen in the vicinity of the inclusions and measured Cr contents of muscovite are low (communication with the fuchsite-rich host metasedimentary rock and support our interpretation that these minerals are primary magmatic inclusions which record crystallization conditions and remained closed chemical systems since crystallization. The newly expanded data set reinforces our previous interpretation that these zircons grew in a crustal environment (<40 km depth) under a geotherm of

  18. 21. ATSR congress - Book of abstracts; 21eme congres de l'ATSR - Recueil des resumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-10-15

    Communication and radiation protection (A. Medvedowsky, General Council of Bouches-du-Rhone, C.L.I. de Cadarache); 14 - local information commissions: the privileged place for communication (Y. Bourlat, CEA Saclay; R. Messina, General Council of Essonne); 15 - communication with the public about radiation protection: the experience from the Gard local information commission (C. Mouchet, R. Granier, CLI - Gard); 16 - communication as a privileged tool for all risk prevention policies (P. Deboodt, Mol nuclear energy research centre, Belgium); 17 - nuclear risk training Experience in labour medicine (L. Grappin (CEA-Cadarache); 18 - why still so many occupational injuries? A theoretical approach (P. Trinquet (Provence univ., Aix) 19 - dosimetric impact of chlorine 36 in the Cogema-La Hague facility environment (J. Herbelet, G. Linden, J-L. Pasquier, OPRI); 20 - radiation protection in the opposite way (Manfred Hoefert (CERN, Geneva); 21 - communication in the service of a radiation protection project (M. Benoit, L. Equille, Techman Industrie, ONECTRA Group, Pierrelatte); 22 - Cobalt coincidence Method - CCM (F. Daumain, APVL Engineering); 23 - consequences of the Chernobyl accident in SE France, the communication from 1986 to 2000 (H. Maubert, SPR, CEA Cadarache); 24 - is it possible to repair an altered brand image? (J-F. Lacronique, OPRI); 25 - patient's dosimetry: what information to communicate? (B. Aubert (Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif); 26 - doctors and radiation protection information (J-C. Artus, CRLC Val d'Aurelle-Paul Lamarque, Montpellier); 27 - IPSN's barometer on risk and safety perception, an opinion follow up tool about risks in France (S. Charron, H. Mansoux, IPSN); 28 - Communicating, why and how? (G. Sibieude, Sibenson Environnement, Paris); 29 - the 'Nord-Cotentin radioecological group': a plural expertise? (A. Sugier, IPSN); 30 - nuclear related information and its handling by written media (M. Ammerich, CEA INSTN); 31 - risks and

  19. Right Here Right Now: Developing an understanding of responses to smoking policy developments using online data collection in near to real time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian Fergie

    2015-10-01

    78 participants. In relation to e-cigarettes most participants described seeing e-cigarettes as a matter of course, a mundane and quickly adopted feature of social life, particularly outdoors and especially in the street. The responses offered a range of drivers for e-cigarette use, and the varied references to health reflect the complex and often competing public narratives of health risk and benefit surrounding e-cigarettes. By contrast responses to legislation prohibiting smoking in cars carrying children and the legacy of the ‘smoking ban’ in enclosed public spaces showed almost universal support. Almost all participants responded by reproducing well-rehearsed and coherent statements around the harms of second-hand smoke. Conclusions: The Right Here Right Now system was able to provide rapid insights into people’s perceptions of ongoing debates around tobacco and nicotine use, and associated policy developments/legislative proposals. The system can provide a barometer for public support for proposed legislation, and its acceptability as a means of changing health behaviours. It can also offer insights for policy development which require further nuanced understanding.

  20. MP3 - A Meteorology and Physical Properties Package to explore Air:Sea interaction on Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, R. D.

    2012-04-01

    barometer subsystem uses pressure sensors from FMI of the type flown on Huygens. METH. Methane humidity (and the presence of fog) is measured with a near-IR differential absorption spectro-photometer. The humidity may vary with and fetch, as well as on nearby rainfall. WIND. An ultrasonic anemometer, mounted on a mast to minimize flow perturbations, measures wind speed and direction. DIEL : An immersed parallel-plate capacitor (spare from Huygens SSP) fills with liquid to measure the dielectric constant. This is sensitive to the methane/ethane ratio, and to the possible presence of nitriles such as HCN. SOSO : A pair of ultrasound transducers (SSP spares) measure the speed of sound in the liquid, a function of the methane/ethane ratio (unaffected by trace nitriles). SONR : A down-looking piezoelectric depth-sounder to measure the bottom profile. The echo record will also indicate suspended scatterers and the presence of bubble noise at the sea surface. TURB. A visible light beam is passed through the liquid and the direct and scattered intensity is measured to gauge particles in the liquid and the deposition of solar heat with depth.