WorldWideScience

Sample records for barometers

  1. Biofuels barometer: Crops pending

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The actors and production capacities have changed only little in the biofuel sector from year to another. Nevertheless, it is interesting to take stock of the development of this sector at the end of 2002, so as to update the more complete barometer published in issue 144 of Systemes Solaires. Indeed, European ethanol production grew by 13% and that of bio-diesel by more than 20% in 2001. (authors)

  2. Biogas and biofuels barometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    European union countries are becoming more and more interested by the characteristics of biogas in terms of environment and energy production and are developing their proper channels of valorization according to their potential. In this way, biogas production reached nearly 5,3 million tons oil equivalent in 2006, representing a 13,6% increase with respect to 2005. Statistical data are provided on the primary energy production of biogas, the electricity production from biogas, gross heat production from biogas, and the representative firms of the biogas sector. In a second part the biofuels barometer is presented. The agricultural environment and landscape of the European Union countries is redefined a little more each year by energy crops for biofuel production. According to the first estimates for 2006, biofuel consumption reached 5,38 Mtoe last year in the EU, corresponding to a 1,8% share of the total consumption of fuels devoted to transport. (A.L.B.)

  3. What Is Wrong with Water Barometers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Dan M.; Smith, Robert W.; Kemnitz, E. J.; Barton, Kevin; Graham, Robert M.; Guenther, Raymond A.; Webber, Larry

    2010-01-01

    Every student who studies atmospheric pressure in physics or chemistry learns the principles behind the construction of barometers. Cistern barometers, such as those found in most laboratories, consist of a long glass tube containing an inverted column of liquid having an open end in a cistern of the liquid. Students learn that the column of…

  4. The Barometer of the Romanian Economy*

    OpenAIRE

    Iordan, Mioara; Pelinescu, Elena; Florescu, Ionel; Chilian, Nona; Scutaru, Cornelia; Pana, Crenguta; Uzlau, Carmen; Pecican, Liana

    2006-01-01

    The Barometer of the Romanian Economy" intends to be a mirror of the evolution of the Romanian economy and, at the same time, to be its global indicator of state and trend. "The Barometer of the Romanian Economy" was first published some years ago in Microeconomia aplicatã, on the initiative and under the co-ordination of Professor Cezar Mereuþã. Quarterly, during 1997-1999, eight issues were published until December 1999, when the publication ceased to exist. In 2000, "The Barometer of the R...

  5. The Barometer of the Romanian EConomy* MAY 2007 VERSION

    OpenAIRE

    Iordan, Mioara; Pelinescu, Elena; Florescu, Ionel; Chilian, Nona; Scutaru, Cornelia; Osmanovici, Crenguta; Uzlau, Carmen; Caraiani, Petre; Pecican, Liana

    2007-01-01

    "The Barometer of the Romanian Economy" intends to be a mirror of the evolution of the Romanian economy and, at the same time, to be its global indicator of the state and trend. "The Barometer of the Romanian Economy" was first published some years ago in Microeconomia aplicata, on the initiative and under the co-ordination of Professor Cezar Mereuta. Quarterly, during 1997-1999, eight issues were published until December 1999, when the publication ceased to exist. In 2000, "The Barometer of ...

  6. The Barometer of the Romanian Economy* - July 2007 Version–

    OpenAIRE

    Florescu, Ionel; Chilian, Nona; Scutaru, Cornelia; Radu, Brandusa Mihaela; Uzlau, Carmen; Iordan, Mioara; Caraiani, Petre; Pecican, Liana

    2007-01-01

    "The Barometer of the Romanian Economy" intends to be a mirror of the evolution of the Romanian economy and, at the same time, to be its global indicator of the state and trend. "The Barometer of the Romanian Economy" was first published some years ago in Microeconomia aplicata, on the initiative and under the co-ordination of Professor Cezar Mereuta. Quarterly, during 1997-1999, eight issues were published until December 1999, when the publication ceased to exist. In 2000, "The Barometer of ...

  7. On barometer correction for Dallas neutron monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the thirteenth international conference on cosmic rays Ahluwalia and Singh examined the question of higher harmonics in solar daily variation of cosmic rays by using pressure corrected neutron and muon data from different global observing sites. They find that there is no evidence for the existence of a frequency higher than 3 cpd, at any of the sites except at Dallas. They suggest that the frequency of 4 cpd at Dallas might be due to a lack of proper care in correcting the data for the local fluctuations of the atmospheric pressure. We redetermine the barometer coefficient (β) for Dallas neutron monitor by two independent methods. We find β=-0.74% per mb. When recorrected data are subjected to FFT the frequency of 4 cpd does not show up, above the noise level, in the amplitude spectrum

  8. Gatlinburg conference: barometer of progress in analytical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Much progress has been made in the field of analytical chemistry over the past twenty-five years. The AEC-ERDA-DOE family of laboratories contributed greatly to this progress. It is not surprising then to find a close correlation between program content of past Gatlinburg conferences and developments in analytical methodology. These conferences have proved to be a barometer of technical status

  9. Correlation of Barometer Pressure and Incidence of Cerebrovascular Insult

    OpenAIRE

    Slatina, Enes; Music, Miralem; Babic, nermina; Pleho –Kapic, Amna; Dervisevic, Senad; Salibasic, Mirhan; Mujaric, ekrema

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The intention of this work is to research whether the link between the barometer pressure and the cerebrovascular insult (CVI) exists. The stroke is the first cause of non-traumatic disability and third illness by mortality in the majority of available relevant literature. Goals: Goal of the sudy was to research all the cases of the patients who suffered from the acute stroke in the Canton of Sarajevo and those who were treated in the pre-hospital phase by Emergency Medical Inst...

  10. 2005 european barometer of renewable energies 5. report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This new edition of the 'European Barometer of Renewable Energies' confirms that the European Union as a whole has not yet been able to adopt all the policies needed to achieve the ambitious but realistic objective of renewable energies contributing 12 percent of primary energy consumption. In spite of some spectacular progress made in terms of absolute value in certain sectors like wind power, the absence of consumption management has resulted in stagnation in terms of the relative share of renewable energies. This now seems more than ever as the indispensable complementarity between restraint and energy efficiency on the one hand and development of renewable energies on the other. The recent French programming law defining energy policy orientations has chosen this course of action. It sets both short and medium-term objectives in these two fields and proposes new instruments to reach these objectives, like the new system of energy saving obligations for energy suppliers accompanied with a system of negotiable certificates. It confirms the state's commitment to the objectives for 2010 with a target of 21 percent renewable origin electricity and 5.75 percent biofuels, raised to 7 percent by the agricultural orientation law and defining a new objective for the heat sector, i.e. a 50 percent increase in renewable energy contribution in this field. The first indications of trends and evolutions for 2005 show that renewable energies are really taking off in France, something that should be confirmed in future editions of this invaluable European Barometer. (author)

  11. Short Note: Comparison of three surveying techniques applied to hydrogeological studies: level, barometer, and GPS

    OpenAIRE

    Xyoli Pérez; Luis E. Marín; Rangel, E.

    1998-01-01

    The error from three different surveying techniques- level, hand-held barometer, and hand-held GPS-were compared in terms of accuracy and cost effectiveness for hydrogeological studies by surveying a four-kilometer circuit within the campus of the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico.The polygon was surveyed once with the level and the barometer, and twice with GPS. Vertical errors were 17 mm, 13 meters and 114 meters, for the level, barometer and GPS, respectively. Of the three options,...

  12. Internet comments as a barometer of public opinion

    CERN Document Server

    Oster, Elad; Feigel, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Social susceptibility is defined and analyzed using data from CNN news website. The current models of opinion dynamics, voting, and herding in closed communities are extended, and the community's response to the injection of a group with predetermined and permanent opinions is calculated. A method to estimate the values of possible response in Internet communities that follow a specific developing subject is developed. The level of social influence in a community follows from the statistics of responses ("like" and "dislike" votes) to the comments written by the members of the same community. Three real cases of developing news stories are analyzed. We suggest that Internet comments may predict the level of social response similar to a barometer that predicts the intensity of a coming storm in still calm environment.

  13. Internet comments as a barometer of public opinion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oster, Elad; Gilad, Erez; Feigel, Alexander

    2015-07-01

    A new method is developed to estimate social influence in Internet communities that follow a specific developing news story. The technique stems from mean-field treatment of magnetic systems and provides a measure for community stability, such as the potential of a small perturbation to culminate in a phase-transition-like phenomenon. Three real cases of developing news stories from CNN news website are analyzed. Continuous dynamics of social influence together with time is observed together with a significant increase of social influence after the announcement of important information, such as the jury decision in a legal case. This work makes it possible to estimate the size of a group that can change the opinion of the entire population. We argue that Internet comments may predict the level of social response similar to a barometer that predicts the intensity of a coming storm in still calm environment.

  14. An analysis of the new norwegian customer satisfaction barometer (new NCSB) in a brazilian supermarket context.

    OpenAIRE

    Valter Afonso Vieira; Luiz Antonio Slongo

    2007-01-01

    A lot of consumer satisfaction barometers have been proposed by the literature. However, a dilemma is that the validity, the reliability, and the methods used to assess customer satisfaction and related constructs continue to learn, to adapt, and to improve over time. Thus, this paper tries to understand the modifications and improvements proposed by the new NCSB in Brazil. New NCSB is considers one of the last satisfaction barometers projected by the literature. The results showed support to...

  15. An analysis of the new norwegian customer satisfaction barometer (new NCSB in a brazilian supermarket context.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valter Afonso Vieira

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available A lot of consumer satisfaction barometers have been proposed by the literature. However, a dilemma is that the validity, the reliability, and the methods used to assess customer satisfaction and related constructs continue to learn, to adapt, and to improve over time. Thus, this paper tries to understand the modifications and improvements proposed by the new NCSB in Brazil. New NCSB is considers one of the last satisfaction barometers projected by the literature. The results showed support to seven from twelve hypotheses proposed by the model. Conclusions and general comments end the paper.

  16. SCK-CEN 2006 barometer on risk perception of the Belgian population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starting with 2000, the expert group Society and Policy Support carries out research on various aspects of risk governance. Measuring several risk perception items at regular intervals with the Belgian population is an important part of this research. SCK-CEN has organised a first risk perception barometer in 2002 and a second one in 2006. The 2006 barometer is based on 1063 Computer Assisted Personal Interviews, with a duration of approximately 35 minutes. The large scale of the survey ensures that general trends can be detected and allows specific and detailed analysis on subgroups of the population. Besides the classical background variables used to obtain a sample representative for the Belgian 18+ population (age, language, habitat, gender and social class), several questions were included assessing the sociological context and the psychological personality profile. A series of questions on risk perception, confidence in authorities and specific nuclear topics were repeated in 2006 and constitute a fixed core, allowing comparison over time in Belgium, as well as with the results from the IRSN French barometer. In addition, a number of topics such as acceptance of legal norms and management options for radioactively contaminated milk, energy, nuclear waste and the perception of the Chernobyl accident were covered in detail in the 2006 edition of the SCK-CEN barometer

  17. 76 FR 26225 - Elemental Mercury Used in Barometers, Manometers, Hygrometers/Psychrometers; Significant New Use...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ... pyrometers on July 21, 2010 (75 FR 42330). For more information on EPA activities on mercury in products and... with comparable accuracy to mercury-added thermometers; and digital devices, which use electronic... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 721 RIN 2070-AJ71 Elemental Mercury Used in Barometers, Manometers,...

  18. Studying the consequences of modernization on ethnic food patterns: Development of the Malaysian Food Barometer (MFB)

    OpenAIRE

    Poulain, Jean-Pierre; Smith, Wendy; Laporte, Cyrille; Tibère, Laurence; Ismail, Mohd Noor; Mognard, Elise; Aloysius, Marcella; Neethiahnanthan, Ari Ragavan; Shamsul, Amri Baharuddin

    2015-01-01

    Malaysian society is experiencing rapid urbanization and modernization. A sizeable new middle class has emerged and the traditional ways of life and eating habits of the different ethnic communities are changing. For many years, nutritional surveys have been capturing the transformations of food consumptions. To date no comprehensive survey focusing on the socio-cultural determinants of food habits at the national level have been reported. The Malaysian Food Barometer, a nationally representa...

  19. The SCK-CEN Barometer 2011 - Perception and attitudes towards nuclear technologies in the Belgian population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fourth edition of the SCK-CEN Barometer was established in May-June 2011. It continued the historical follow-up of topics such as risk perception and confidence in authorities, and addressed a number of issues in detail, among which: attitude towards nuclear technologies, confidence in the management of nuclear technologies, stakeholder participation, the accident at Fukushima and the management of high level radioactive waste. This report presents a general overview of the results.

  20. Combined flatland ST radar and digital-barometer network observations of mesoscale processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, W. L.; Vanzandt, T. E.; Gage, K. S.; Einaudi, F. E.; Rottman, J. W.; Hollinger, S. E.

    1991-01-01

    The paper describes a six-station digital-barometer network centered on the Flatland ST radar to support observational studies of gravity waves and other mesoscale features at the Flatland Atmospheric Observatory in central Illinois. The network's current mode of operation is examined, and a preliminary example of an apparent group of waves evident throughout the network as well as throughout the troposphere is presented. Preliminary results demonstrate the capabilities of the current operational system to study wave convection, wave-front, and other coherent mesoscale interactions and processes throughout the troposphere. Unfiltered traces for the pressure and horizontal zonal wind, for days 351 to 353 UT, 1990, are illustrated.

  1. DIAGNOSIS OF SUSTAINABILITY IN THE BRAZILIAN CITY OF TOUROS: AN APPLICATION OF THE BAROMETER OF SUSTAINABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geniberto Cesar de Araújo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to analyse the sustainability degree of the Municipality of Touros located in Rio Grande do Norte (Northeast of Brazil through the "Barometer of Sustainability” methodology, in 2010. This is a descriptive, exploratory and applicative study. The data collection was based on secondary source such as the databases of the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, the National Confederation of Municipalities, as well as the Institute for Sustainable Development and Environment of Rio Grande do Norte from October, 2010 to July, 2011. Regarding the choice of indicators applied, it was done taking into account the availability of data for the municipality. Hence, the human subsystem (HWI and ecological (EWI indicators were: life expectancy, child mortality, malnutrition, fertility rate, water supply, sanitation, literacy rate, education, literacy, energy consumption, agricultural production, environmental protection area, and vegetable extraction. It was applied thirteen indicators in the Barometer of Sustainability methodology. The degree obtained for the human subsystem was 48, showing that the municipality is in a satisfactory position. Concerning the ecological subsystem, the situation is potentially sustainable, a value of 67.58, which means a satisfactory score. Therefore, Touros has a strong potential for sustainability, requiring public policies for health and education and specifically for agricultural production and environmental protection area.

  2. Barometer I.R.S.N. 2004. The perception of risks situations by French people. Synthesis of results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this synthesis is to present the results of the barometer I.R.S.N. on the perception of risks and safety. This inquiry has been realised close by french people in october 2004 by I.R.S.N. ( Institute of radiation protection and nuclear safety) and follows a poll made since november 1988 on this theme. (N.C.)

  3. IT barometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howard, Rob; Samuelson, Olle

    1998-01-01

    The results of parallel surveys of IT use by architects, engineers, contractors and property managers in Denmark and Sweden......The results of parallel surveys of IT use by architects, engineers, contractors and property managers in Denmark and Sweden...

  4. Biogas barometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The energy recovery of biogas has kept on increasing in the European Union in 2013: +10.2%. Almost 13.4 million tep (tonnes of oil equivalent) of biogas primary energy was produced but the growth of the biogas sector is decreasing (it was 16.9% between 2011 and 2012). The growth for the coming years is expected to fall further because of political decisions in some countries to limit the use of land for farming purposes and to manage the biogas sector more efficiently. Germany ranks first for the production of biogas primary energy with 6717 ktep followed by United Kingdom with 1824 ktep. 2 tables give the production of electricity and heat from biogas in the E.U. member states in 2012 and 2013. The total production of electricity and heat from biogas in the E.U. in 2013 reached 53327 GWh and 432 ktep respectively. A list reviews the most significant companies working in Europe in the sector of methanation, 10 companies are listed among which 2 are Italian: AB Energy (Gruppo AB), BTS Italia and 8 are German: MT Energie, Envitec Biogas AG, Biogas Weser-Ems, Planet Biogastechnik, Schmack Biogas GmbH, Weltec Biopower GmbH, UTS Biogastechnik (Anaergia Group), Bioconstruct and BTS Italia. (A.C.)

  5. The opening of electricity and gas markets to residential customers. Annual barometer - First wave. December 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since July 1, 2007, French residential customers can freely chose their energy supplier. A quantitative inquiry has been carried out by LH2 on behalf of the French Energy Regulatory Commission (CRE) on a sample of 1501 households representative of the overall French households. The aim of this barometer is to answer the following questions: what is the level of knowledge and information of individuals about the opening of energy markets and the new regulation in force? How do they perceive this opening? What is their behaviour in front of the opening of markets to competition? Four years after the full opening of energy markets, this first inquiry has permitted to draw up a first status of the knowledge, behaviour and opinion of individuals with respect to the opening of these markets. (J.S.)

  6. Biogas and biofuels barometer; Le barometre du biogaz et des biocarburants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2007-05-15

    European union countries are becoming more and more interested by the characteristics of biogas in terms of environment and energy production and are developing their proper channels of valorization according to their potential. In this way, biogas production reached nearly 5,3 million tons oil equivalent in 2006, representing a 13,6% increase with respect to 2005. Statistical data are provided on the primary energy production of biogas, the electricity production from biogas, gross heat production from biogas, and the representative firms of the biogas sector. In a second part the biofuels barometer is presented. The agricultural environment and landscape of the European Union countries is redefined a little more each year by energy crops for biofuel production. According to the first estimates for 2006, biofuel consumption reached 5,38 Mtoe last year in the EU, corresponding to a 1,8% share of the total consumption of fuels devoted to transport. (A.L.B.)

  7. Inverted barometer contributions to recent sea level changes along the northeast coast of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piecuch, Christopher G.; Ponte, Rui M.

    2015-07-01

    Regional sea level (SL) changes reflect dynamic and isostatic ocean effects. Recent works have interpreted accelerated and extreme SL changes along the northeast coast of North America primarily in terms of dynamic changes; however, dedicated study of isostatic changes related to surface atmospheric pressure loading—the inverted barometer (IB) effect—has been lacking. This investigation uses five different atmospheric pressure products to analyze the influence of the IB effect on annual mean SL from tide gauge records. The IB effect explains ˜25% of interannual SL variance and accounts for ˜50% of the magnitude of a recent extreme event of SL rise along Atlantic Canada and New England. Estimated IB effects also amount to ˜10-30% of recent multidecadal SL accelerations over the Mid-Atlantic Bight and Southern New England. These findings reiterate the need for careful estimation and removal of isostatic effects for studies of dynamic SL.

  8. The opening of electricity and natural gas markets to professional clients. Yearly barometer - run 6. September 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The opening of energy markets to competition became effective to professionals on July 1, 2004. In 2010 this opening has entered into a mature phase. As soon as 2005, a barometer survey has been implemented to investigate the professional clients and to collect statistical data about their behaviour with regards to the opening of markets to competition. This document deals with the results of the sixth run of the professionals' barometer carried out from August 30 to September 10, 2010 by the LH2 institute. Among the 1502 surveyed entities, LH2 has questioned the decision-makers responsible for the electricity and natural gas contracts. The barometer aimed at answering the following questions: - what is the level of knowledge and information of professionals about markets opening and the existing regulation? - What perception of this opening do they have? (pros/cons, advantages/drawbacks); - what behaviour do they have in front of the opening of markets to competition? (approach with respect to information needs, knowledge about the offer, intention to change supplier, brakes/motivations in entering the open market). (J.S.)

  9. The opening of electricity and natural gas markets to professional clients. Yearly barometer - run 7. September 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The opening of energy markets to competition became effective to professionals on July 1, 2004. In 2008 this opening is entering into a mature phase. As soon as 2005, a barometer survey has been implemented to investigate the professional clients and to collect statistical data about their behaviour with regards to the opening of markets to competition. This document deals with the results of the seventh run of the professionals' barometer carried out from September 5 to September 12, 2011 by the LH2 institute. Among the 1508 surveyed entities, LH2 has questioned the decision-makers responsible for the electricity and natural gas contracts. The barometer aimed at answering the following questions: - what is the level of knowledge and information of professionals about markets opening and the existing regulation? - What perception of this opening do they have? (pros/cons, advantages/drawbacks); - what behaviour do they have in front of the opening of markets to competition? (approach with respect to information needs, knowledge about the offer, intention to change supplier, brakes/motivations in entering the open market). (J.S.)

  10. The opening of electricity and natural gas markets to professional clients. Yearly barometer - run 5. September 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The opening of energy markets to competition became effective to professionals on July 1, 2004. In 2008 this opening is entering into a mature phase. As soon as 2005, a barometer survey has been implemented to investigate the professional clients and to collect statistical data about their behaviour with regards to the opening of markets to competition. This document deals with the results of the fifth run of the professionals' barometer carried out from September 14 to September 25, 2009 by the LH2 institute. Among the 1501 surveyed entities, LH2 has questioned the decision-makers responsible for the electricity and natural gas contracts. The barometer aimed at answering the following questions: - what is the level of knowledge and information of professionals about markets opening and the existing regulation? - What perception of this opening do they have? (pros/cons, advantages/drawbacks); - what behaviour do they have in front of the opening of markets to competition? (approach with respect to information needs, knowledge about the offer, intention to change supplier, brakes/motivations in entering the open market). (J.S.)

  11. The opening of electricity and natural gas markets to professional clients. Yearly barometer - run 4. December 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The opening of energy markets to competition became effective to professionals on July 1, 2004. In 2008 this opening is entering into a mature phase. As soon as 2005, a barometer survey has been implemented to investigate the professional clients and to collect statistical data about their behaviour with regards to the opening of markets to competition. This document deals with the results of the fourth run of the professionals' barometer carried out from November 19 to December 2, 2008 by the LH2 institute. Among the 1501 surveyed entities, LH2 has questioned the decision-makers responsible for the electricity and natural gas contracts. The barometer aimed at answering the following questions: - what is the level of knowledge and information of professionals about markets opening and the existing regulation? - What perception of this opening do they have? (pros/cons, advantages/drawbacks); - what behaviour do they have in front of the opening of markets to competition? (approach with respect to information needs, knowledge about the offer, intention to change supplier, brakes/motivations in entering the open market). (J.S.)

  12. Consumers` Attitude towards Consumer Protection in the Digital Single Market, as Reflected by European Barometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doru Alexandru Pleşea

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The European Single Market is an ongoing project that will continue to further develop and adapt to changing realities. Traditional economic activities, and the administrative rules governing them, face the challenge of adapting to developments that blur the dividing lines, for example, between shop and online sales or between traditional media and Internet communication. Convergence of this type will lead to a European Digital Single Market. A genuine Digital Single Market would generate new types of growth and also sustainable economic and social benefits for all European citizens. There are still a number of barriers which impose obstacles for the development of the digital market in Europe. Obstacles which can be identified include national differences regarding data protection rules, e-commerce rules, consumer protection rules and other legislation pertaining to information flows. The paper brings in discussion the advantages of a Digital Single Market, the obstacles in developing it in connection with e-commerce regulations, consumer protection and information flows legislation and also the premises for implementing a Digital Single Market. Consumers’ trust in on-line commerce results as one of the driving factors in implementing a Digital Single Market. These are some of the main obstacles for the boosting consumers’ confidence in the European Single Market. Improving consumer confidence in cross-border shopping online by taking appropriate policy action could provide a major boost to economic growth in Europe. Empowered and confident consumers can drive forward the European economy. Starting from the results of the Flash Euro-barometer survey „Consumer attitudes towards cross-border trade and consumer protection this study analyzes consumer`s readiness for the European Digital Single Market

  13. An organic cosmo-barometer: Distinct pressure and temperature effects for methyl substituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are a number of key structures that can be used to reveal the formation and modification history of organic matter in the cosmos. For instance, the susceptibility of organic matter to heat is well documented and the relative thermal stabilities of different isomers can be used as cosmothermometers. Yet despite being an important variable, no previously recognized organic marker of pressure exists. The absence of a pressure marker is unfortunate considering our ability to effectively recognize extraterrestrial organic structures both remotely and in the laboratory. There are a wide variety of pressures in cosmic settings that could potentially be reflected by organic structures. Therefore, to develop an organic cosmic pressure marker, we have used state-of-the-art diamond anvil cell (DAC) and synchrotron-source Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy to reveal the effects of pressure on the substitution patterns for representatives of the commonly encountered methyl substituted naphthalenes, specifically the dimethylnaphthalenes. Interestingly, although temperature and pressure effects are concordant for many isomers, pressure appears to have the opposite effect to heat on the final molecular architecture of the 1,5-dimethylnaphthalene isomer. Our data suggest the possibility of the first pressure parameter or 'cosmo-barometer' (1,5-dimethylnaphthalene/total dimethylnaphthalenes) that can distinguish pressure from thermal effects. Information can be obtained from the new pressure marker either remotely by instrumentation on landers or rovers or directly by laboratory measurement, and its use has relevance for all cases where organic matter, temperature, and pressure interplay in the cosmos.

  14. The opening of electricity and natural gas markets to residential clients. Yearly barometer - run 4. September 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The opening of energy markets to competition became effective to individuals ('residential clients') on July 1, 2007 with the possibility to freely choose their energy supplier. This opening of energy markets to residential clients started 3 years after the opening to professionals (July 1, 2004). The Commission of energy regulation (CRE) and the national energy Ombudsman have set in place in 2007 a quantitative yearly survey ('barometer') addressed to residential clients in order to collect statistical data about the behaviour of these clients with regards to the opening of markets to competition. This document deals with the results of the fourth run of this survey carried out from September 6 to September 18, 2010 by the LH2 institute. For the 1504 households investigated, LH2 has questioned the person in charge of the energy bills management. The barometer aimed at answering the following questions: - what is the level of knowledge and information of residential clients about markets opening and the existing regulation? - What perception of this opening do they have? (pros/cons, advantages/drawbacks); - what behaviour do they have in front of the opening of markets to competition? (approach with respect to information needs, knowledge about the offer, intention to change supplier, brakes/motivations in entering the open market). (J.S.)

  15. The opening of electricity and natural gas markets to residential clients. Yearly barometer - run 5. September 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The opening of energy markets to competition became effective to individuals ('residential clients') on July 1, 2007 with the possibility to freely choose their energy supplier. This opening of energy markets to residential clients started 3 years after the opening to professionals (July 1, 2004). The Commission of energy regulation (CRE) and the national energy Ombudsman have set in place in 2007 a quantitative yearly survey ('barometer') addressed to residential clients in order to collect statistical data about the behaviour of these clients with regards to the opening of markets to competition. This document deals with the results of the fourth run of this survey carried out from September 12 to September 23, 2011 by the LH2 institute. For the 1500 households investigated, LH2 has questioned the person in charge of the energy bills management. The barometer aimed at answering the following questions: - what is the level of knowledge and information of residential clients about markets opening and the existing regulation? - What perception of this opening do they have? (pros/cons, advantages/drawbacks); - what behaviour do they have in front of the opening of markets to competition? (approach with respect to information needs, knowledge about the offer, intention to change supplier, brakes/motivations in entering the open market). (J.S.)

  16. Are Student Protests in Arab States Caused by Economic and Political Grievances? Empirical Evidence from the 2006-07 "Arab Barometer"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiq, M. Najeeb; Mason, Jessica; Seybolt, Taylor; DeLuca, Kristin

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the nature of protests by students (age 18 and older) in Algeria, Jordan, Morocco, and Yemen by using subsamples of students from nationally representative and acclaimed public opinion data (the 2006-07 "Arab Barometer"). We find between 22.1% (Jordan) and 54.7% (Yemen) participated in either the signing of petitions, or…

  17. 2005 european barometer of renewable energies 5. report; 5. bilan le barometre europeen 2005 des energies renouvelables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2006-01-15

    This new edition of the 'European Barometer of Renewable Energies' confirms that the European Union as a whole has not yet been able to adopt all the policies needed to achieve the ambitious but realistic objective of renewable energies contributing 12 percent of primary energy consumption. In spite of some spectacular progress made in terms of absolute value in certain sectors like wind power, the absence of consumption management has resulted in stagnation in terms of the relative share of renewable energies. This now seems more than ever as the indispensable complementarity between restraint and energy efficiency on the one hand and development of renewable energies on the other. The recent French programming law defining energy policy orientations has chosen this course of action. It sets both short and medium-term objectives in these two fields and proposes new instruments to reach these objectives, like the new system of energy saving obligations for energy suppliers accompanied with a system of negotiable certificates. It confirms the state's commitment to the objectives for 2010 with a target of 21 percent renewable origin electricity and 5.75 percent biofuels, raised to 7 percent by the agricultural orientation law and defining a new objective for the heat sector, i.e. a 50 percent increase in renewable energy contribution in this field. The first indications of trends and evolutions for 2005 show that renewable energies are really taking off in France, something that should be confirmed in future editions of this invaluable European Barometer. (author)

  18. Inverted Barometer Contributions to Accelerated and Extreme Annual Mean Sea Level Changes Along the East Coast of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piecuch, C. G.; Ponte, R. M.

    2015-12-01

    Recent works have interpreted accelerated and extreme sea level (SL) changes along the northeast coast of North America primarily in terms of dynamic changes related to the meridional overturning or coastal circulations. Isostatic changes related to surface atmospheric pressure loading —the inverted barometer (IB) effect— have been deemed relatively unimportant, but a comprehensive analysis of the IB effect has been lacking. In this work, we use five different atmospheric pressure products to analyze the influence of the IB effect on annual mean SL from tide gauge records. Consistently across all products, the IB effect accounts for about 50% of the magnitude of a recent extreme event of SL rise in 2009 along Atlantic Canada and New England. In fact, the unique nature of the event was largely a result of the extreme IB signal. Estimated IB effects also amount to about 10-30% of recent multidecadal SL accelerations over the Mid-Atlantic Bight and Southern New England. These findings reiterate the need for careful estimation of IB effects for studies that want to interpret observed SL in terms of dynamic ocean circulation changes.

  19. The IRSN Risk Perception Barometer: analyzing the 1997 - 2008 period and comparing expert, public and residents of a nuclear facility perceptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Since 1997, IRSN conducts a yearly survey designed to understand how the French population perceives risk: the IRSN barometer. In this survey, 30 risks are investigated from three different angles: a) Seriousness of the risk; b) Trust in the authorities; c) Credibility of information given about these risks. The 30 risks include situations widely covered by the media (traffic accidents, smoking, alcohol, etc.), as well as situations of which the public can be unaware (such as radon in homes) and situations perceived as low risk (X-rays, noise, etc.). The list includes nuclear power plants, nuclear waste storage, Chernobyl pollution impacts, chemical industries, chemical waste, transportation of hazardous chemicals, etc. Statistical analysis of the answers highlighted five groups of risks in relation with a common rationale of perception by the French people. This will be presented as the first part of the paper. The conclusion will show that the risk perceptions of the French population are not at all versatile. Their perception logic is based on the perceived seriousness of the risk, on their 'trust in the protective measures taken by the French authorities' and on the perceived credibility of information. Risk perception varies greatly with age, gender, culture and level of education. We know this with the IRSN Barometer and others opinion pools. However, few surveys are carried out among experts in risk. Do they have a different perception of risk from the general public? It's the subject of a study entitled PERPLEX (Perception of Risk by the Public and Experts) who was realized in October 2004. This will be presented in the second part of the paper. The same question can be asked for the population who live near a nuclear power plant or other nuclear facility. So, in November 2007, 318 residents in the vicinity of twenty nuclear facility have answered at the IRSN's annual barometer questionnaire. The results of these three surveys will be presented

  20. The I.P.S.N. barometer on the risk perception and the safety, a tool of opinion follow up on the risks in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The risk perception by the public is one of the policy elements of management, information, communication on the nuclear. the I.P.S.N. is working since 1977 on the psycho-social aspects of the risk. It makes inquiries about public opinion, attitudes, credibility of diffused information. The results of these polls are gathered in the I.P.S.N. barometer of the risk and safety perception and constitutes an unique tool in France by the number of data and their follow up in time. (N.C.)

  1. Photovoltaic barometer; Barometre photovoltaique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2009-04-15

    spain and Germany set the pace for the world photovoltaic market in 2008, which grew to more than twice its 2007 size. The European Union continued to drive photocell installation with an additional 4 592.3 MWp in 2008, or 151.6% growth over 2007. However, European growth prospects for the photovoltaic market in 2009 are being dampened by the global financial crisis and the scheduled slow-down of the Spanish market. (author)

  2. Photovoltaic barometer; Barometre photovoltaique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2011-04-15

    The photovoltaic sector is continuing on track, just as the extent of solar energy's electricity-generating potential is dawning on the public mind. The annual global installation figure was up more than twofold in 2010 (rising from just short of 7000 MWp in 2009). It leapt to over 16000 MWp, bringing worldwide installed photovoltaic capacity close to 38000 MWp. The photovoltaic power generated in the European Union at the end of 2010 reached 22.5 TWh which means an additional capacity of 13023 MWp during 2010. Concerning the cumulated installed capacity, Germany and Spain rank first and second in the European Union with respectively 17370 MWp and 3808 MWp

  3. Biogas barometer; barometre biogaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2010-11-15

    The biogas sector has never before aroused so much attention as it does today. Elected officers and investors' interest has been fired by the gradual introduction of regulatory restrictions on the treatment of organic waste and the renewable energy commitments recently made by the European Union Member States. The biogas sector is gradually deserting its core activities of waste cleanup and treatment and getting involved in energy production, with so much enthusiasm that in some countries its scope of action has extended to using energy crops. Across the European Union, the sector's progress is as clear as daylight, as in 2009, primary energy growth leapt by a further 4.3 per cent. (author)

  4. Wind power barometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wind power makes further inroads into the world's electricity mix every year. It looks as though global wind power capacity will increase by another 44184 MW in 2012 (it means a 18% increase), and so raise global installed capacity to more than 281 GW. The growth of the total wind power capacity in European Union reached 12.3% in 2012 which corresponds to a supplementary wind power capacity of 11.84 GW. The growth in 2012 was driven by the United-States which chalked up a new installation record, and by Europe which remains a safe bet in the world market. The Asian market weakened a little but its potential for this year nonetheless looks bright. In 2012, Asia is still the main installation area for wind power with a 35.6% market share.The electricity production from wind power in the European Union was 178,93 TWh in 2011 and 200.16 TWh in 2012 and in 2012 Spain was the top European wind power producer with an output of 48.5 TWh followed by Germany with 46 TWh, United-Kingdom with 21 TWh, France with 14.9 TWh and Italy with 13.2 TWh

  5. Photovoltaic energy barometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The european market showed all of its strength and soundness in 2005. The 2005 installed cells growth could have been even greater if the market had not been continually curbed by a lack of raw materials. Germany remained the leading photovoltaic market in the world in 2005, positioned far ahead of Japan and the USA. This unabashed success inspired both Spain and Italy, which set up conditions in order to rapidly develop their photovoltaic sectors. (A.L.B.)

  6. Wind power barometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The worldwide wind power increased by 12.4% in 2013 to reach 318.6 GW but the world market globally decreased by losing 10 GW: only 35.6 GW have been installed in 2013 which is even less than was installed in 2009. This activity contraction is mainly due to the collapse of the American market, American authorities having been late to decide to maintain federal incentives. The European wind power market also contracted in 2013 because of the lack of trust of the investors in the new energy policies of the European governments. In the rest of the world wind energy has kept on growing particularly in China and Canada. At the end of 2013 the cumulated wind power reached 117,73 GW in Europe. About 1.5 MW out of 10 MW of wind power installed in Europe in 2013 come from off-shore wind farms, United-Kingdom and Denmark being the most important players by totalling more than 70% of the off-shore wind power installed at the end of 2013. Various charts and tables give the figures of the wind power cumulated and installed in 2013 in different parts of the world: Europe, North America and Asia, the time evolution of the worldwide wind power since 1995, the wind power cumulated and installed in 2013 for the different countries of Europe and the ratio between the cumulated wind power and the country population. A table lists the main manufacturers of wind turbines and gives their turnover and number of employees at the end of 2013

  7. Fehmarnbelt Business Barometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Per Homann; Endres, Jean Paulo; Jakobsen, Marianne;

    2013-01-01

    Results from a survey made among CEO's and CFO's of large and medium sized companies in the Denmark Capital, Zealand and Scania regions and on the States of Hamburg and Schleswig-Holstein regarding the businnes perspectives related to the construction of the Fehmarn fixed link....

  8. Solar Thermal Barometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After two years of very strong growth, the solar thermal market (taking all technologies including unglazed flexible collectors into account) marked time in 2007 with 6.9% less collectors being sold with respect to year 2006. In the end, this market reached 2.9 million m2 vs. 3.1 million m2 in 2006, i.e. an equivalent capacity of more than 2000 MWth. This decrease is explained for a large part by a strong decline of the German market, the largest market of the European Union. Conversely, other countries are continuing to develop their markets and are showing double-digit growth rates

  9. Solar thermal barometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After two years of very strong growth, the solar thermal market marked time in 2007 with 6,9% less collectors being sold with respect to year 2006. In the end this market reached 2,9 million m2 facing 3,1 million m2 in 2006, an equivalent capacity of more than 2000 MWth. This decrease is explained for a large part by a strong decline of the german market, the largest market of the european union. Conversely, other countries are continuing to develop their markets and are showing double-digit growth rates. (A.L.B.)

  10. Wind energy barometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a bear market in 2013, wind energy industry has rebounded worldwide to reach a top in installed power. More than 52 GW of wind turbines were installed in 2014 worldwide while less than 37 GW were installed in 2013. More than half of the total GW of wind energy installed in 2014 were implemented in Asia. The cumulated installed capacity reached 371 GW at the end of 2014. When we consider the cumulated wind power installed per inhabitant in Europe, Denmark ranks first with 862 W, Sweden ranks second with 562 W and Germany ranks third with 501 W. Concerning the production of electricity with wind energy, the 4 most important producers in Europe are Germany (55.969 TWh), Spain (51.138 TWh), United Kingdom (31.450 TWh) and France (17.000 TWh). Some studies show that if we take into account some external costs like air quality, climate change or toxicity for man, wind energy would be the cheapest with a cost of 105 euros/MWh compared with 164 euros/MWh for natural gas and 133 euros/MWh for nuclear power. The cost of offshore wind energy (186 euros/MWh) could be reduced by using more and more powerful wind turbines. (A.C.)

  11. Biogas barometer 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biogas energy recovery for both electricity and heat application has increased in the European Union in 2011 (compared to 2010): +18% for gross electricity production from biogas and +16% for the gross heat production from biogas. The magnitude of the reduction (-7%) in the primary energy figures between 2010 and 2011 can be played down as it can be explained by a change in reporting method of the main producer country, Germany. Germany has taken the lead by far in the E.U. for the production of primary energy of biogas and its uses for heat or electricity production. Among the 13 most representative firms in the anaerobic digestion (methanization) sector in Europe, 8 are German. New markets are starting to emerge but the economic crisis and regulatory restrictions do not augur well of their expansion

  12. IT Barometer survey, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howard, Rob

    1998-01-01

    Survey results from Danish architects, engineers, contractors and property managers in the construction industry concerning their use of computers, communications, problems and needs.......Survey results from Danish architects, engineers, contractors and property managers in the construction industry concerning their use of computers, communications, problems and needs....

  13. Effects of Inverted Barometer Correction Results on Sea State Bias%逆大气压校正结果对海况偏差的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任浩然; 苗洪利; 周晓光; 王桂忠; 王云海; 张杰

    2013-01-01

    This paper used crossover data of Jason-1 altimeter after applying the least square method to analyze the effects of two inverted barometer model correction results on sea state bias (SSB). The results demonstrated that the SSB deriving from the conventional inverted barometer model and MOG2D inverted barometer model had better consistency in most domain of significant wave height (SWH) and wind speed (U),but there existed distinct differences in such strong sea state as SWH>6 m,U>10 m/s,and the maximum was 2. 6 cm. The RMS of crossover differences in the certain strong sea state domain was calculated,and the value of MOG2D correction result was smaller of 1. 4 mm than the convention IB correction result. Besides, the explained variance of SSB derived from MOG2D Model was larger of 3.14 cm2 than the convention IB Model. Therefore, MOG2D correction result is more effective than the conventional IB model to establish SSB parametric model and its effects in the strong sea state cannot be neglected.%基于最小二乘法原理,利用Jason-1高度计交叉点数据分析两种逆大气压校正结果对SSB的影响.结果表明,传统IB模型校正SSH后得到的SSB模型和MOG2D模型校正SSH后得到的SSB模型在SWH、U的大部分区域内符合较好,MOG2D校正结果对于SSB的影响主要集中在SWH大于6m和U大于10m/s的强海况海域,最大差异值可达2.6cm.通过计算上述强海况海域交叉点不符值的RMS,MOG2D校正结果得到的RMS相比传统IB校正结果减小1.4 mm.并且采用MOG2D校正结果的SSB可解释方差值增大3.14 cm2,说明MOG2D校正结果对于建立SSB参数模型更有效,特别在强海况海域其影响不可忽略.

  14. Empirical Test of “Barometer Function” of China's Stock Market——With Discussion of Lasting Price Falling in the Stock Market since 2001

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙开连; 王凯涛; 从臻

    2002-01-01

    Through the empirical test of the economic and stock market price index from 1994-2001.6, this article finds that the price tendency of the stock market in China could reflect the economic status and the future trend, thus has the function of barometer, additionally through the normal analysis of the continuing falling of the stock price since July 2001, so,the paper comes to the conclusion that the falling price is the reflection of the weak macro economy and the accelerating recession of the industries, and therefore is a warning of the possible worsened economic tendency. Suggestions are to adjust the macro fiscal and financial policy to prevent the economy from recessing. By the way the article conducts some of the primary analyses of punishments against market defiance and reducing state owned shares, thus to clarify some of the unclear concepts and prevent the misleading of economic adjustment.

  15. Biogas barometer; Le barometre biogaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-12-15

    This annual evaluation is a synthesis of works published in 2006. Comparisons are presented between the wind power performances and European Commission White Paper and Biomass action plan objectives. The United Kingdom is the leading european country in terms of production, but is being challenged more and more by Germany, which markedly increased its production in 2005. France is only classed 5. in Europe in spite of a valorisable potential. (A.L.B.)

  16. Barometer 2015: French people and renewable energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents and comments results of a survey on the relationship between French people and renewable energies. After a discussion of the context (low oil prices, opportunity to invest the induced saving in renewable energies) and of some key figures of the survey, some methodological aspects are briefly indicated, and results are graphically presented. A first set of issues addresses the energy context as it is perceived by French people: will to see a development of different energy sectors (renewable, natural gas, nuclear, shale gas, coal, oil) in France, opinions on renewable energies, opinion on household energy bill, use of the home-produced photovoltaic energy. The second set concerns how French people are equipped in terms of renewable energies: type of equipment in primary residence, comparison between owners and renters, intention to equip the primary residence with such apparatuses within a more or less short period of time. The third set of issues addresses renovation projects and the RGE quality label: knowledge of this label and of financial supports, perceived complexity of the sector, preference for labelled professionals, will to install a renewable energy device. The last set addresses the confidence in equipment and installers. All these results are graphically compared with those obtained by the four previous surveys

  17. Solar thermal and concentrated solar power barometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After 2 years of sharp decline, the European solar thermal market is bottoming out. The EurObservev'ER survey findings are that the installation figure fell just 1.9% in comparison with 2010, giving a newly-installed collector area of 3.7 million m2. The concentrated solar power sector has been forging ahead alongside the heat production applications, and at the end of 2011 installed capacity passed the one gigawatt mark in Spain for the first time with 1157.2 MWe. (author)

  18. Solar thermal and concentrated solar power barometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As could be expected, the recession cast long shadows over the European solar thermal market throughout 2010. For the second year running, new installations for hot water production and space heating (collectors) decreased. According to the EurObserv'ER survey the newly-assigned surface area was 3.8 million m2 in 2010, down from 4.2 million m2 in 2009 and 4.6 million m2 in 2008. At the same time, the European High-temperature solar sector related to electricity production has been taking shape alongside the heat-producing solar sector related to electricity production has been taking shape alongside the heat-producing applications, with 638.4 MW already installed. Spain accounts for almost all of this capacity, and a further 5 European Union countries, mostly Mediterranean, intend to develop the sector. The EU'solar thermal base to date at the end of 2010 is 25.135,6 MWth. (author)

  19. Solar thermal and concentrated solar power barometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The European concentrated solar power plant market is steeling itself for tough time ahead. The number of projects under construction is a pittance compared with 2012 that was an excellent year for installations (an additional 802.5 MW of capacity recorded). This drop is the result of the moratorium on renewable energy power plants introduced by the Spanish government. The European solar thermal market is hardly any more encouraging . EurObserv'ER holds that it slipped for the fourth year in a row (it dropped 5.5% between 2011 and 2012). The newly-installed solar thermal collector surface area in the EU now stands at 3.4 million m2, far short of its 2008 installation record of 4.6 million m2. The EU's solar thermal base to date at the end of 2012 is 29.6 GWth with 2.4 GWth installed during the year 2012. This article gives tables gathering the figures of the production for every European country for 2012 and describes the market and the general trend for every EU member

  20. Ground-source Heat Pump Barometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-09-15

    The double whammy dealt by the economic crisis and housing slump has stifled expansion of the ground-source heat pump market in many European countries. The European Union market contracted for the second year running (by 2.9% between 2009 and 2010), and this despite the fact that more than 100,000 units were sold over the twelve-month period, taking the number of installed units past the one million mark. [French] La crise economique ainsi que la crise immobiliere qui touchent de nombreux pays europeens ne facilitent pas l'essor du marche de la pompe a chaleur geothermique. Pour la deuxieme annee consecutive, le marche de l'union europeenne est en baisse (-2,9 % entre 2009 et 2010). il parvient tout de meme a se maintenir au-dessus des 100 000 unites vendues par an, ce qui lui permet de depasser pour la premiere fois le cap du million d'unites installees.

  1. Photovoltaic barometer 44% of growth in 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the year 2000, worldwide production of solar cells increased by 44% and installed capacity in the European Union rose by 29%. This trend should be reinforced in 2001 with new national programmes pertaining to grid-linked photovoltaic systems coming into effect and due to the increasing involvement of the big oil industrial groups in the sector. (author)

  2. Giant Radio Galaxies: I. Intergalactic Barometers

    CERN Document Server

    Malarecki, J M; Saripalli, L; Subrahmanyan, R; Jones, D H; Duffy, A R; Rioja, M

    2013-01-01

    We present new wideband radio observations with the Australia Telescope Compact Array of a sample of 12 giant radio galaxies. The radio observations are part of a larger radio-optical study aimed at relating the radio structures with the ambient medium on large scales. With projected linear sizes larger than 0.7 Mpc, these objects are ideal candidates for the study of the Warm-Hot Intergalactic Medium (WHIM). The sample includes sources with sizes spanning 0.8 to 3.2 Mpc and total powers of 1.2*10^24 to 4.0*10^26 W Hz^-1 at 2.1 GHz. Redshifts were limited to z<0.15 to permit spectroscopic observations of the hosts and neighbouring galaxies, which were obtained using the AAOmega spectrograph on the Anglo-Australian Telescope. We derive lobe energy densities from the radio observations via equipartition arguments. The inferred pressures in the lobes of the giant radio sources, which range from 1.1*10^-15 to 2.0*10^-14 Pa (80 to 1500 cm^-3 K), are lower than previously inferred from X-ray observations of dens...

  3. The opening of electricity and gas markets to residential customers. Annual barometer - First wave. December 2007; L'ouverture des marches de l'electricite et du gaz naturel pour les clients residentiels. Barometre annuel - vague 1. Decembre 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Since July 1, 2007, French residential customers can freely chose their energy supplier. A quantitative inquiry has been carried out by LH2 on behalf of the French Energy Regulatory Commission (CRE) on a sample of 1501 households representative of the overall French households. The aim of this barometer is to answer the following questions: what is the level of knowledge and information of individuals about the opening of energy markets and the new regulation in force? How do they perceive this opening? What is their behaviour in front of the opening of markets to competition? Four years after the full opening of energy markets, this first inquiry has permitted to draw up a first status of the knowledge, behaviour and opinion of individuals with respect to the opening of these markets. (J.S.)

  4. Wind energy barometer - EurObserv'ER - February 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wind power makes further inroads into the world's electricity mix every year. It looks as though global wind power capacity will increase by another 44184 MW in 2012, and so raise global installed capacity to more than 281 GW. Growth in 2012 was driven by the United States, which chalked up a new installation record, and Europe, which remains a safe bet in the world market. The Asian market weakened a little but its potential for this year nonetheless looks bright

  5. Wind energy barometer - EurObserv'ER - February 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the first time in 20 years, growth of the global wind power market faltered, stumbling by 5.8% to 35.7 GW in 2010 (37.9 GW in 2009). The North American market has taken a knock and the European market has slowed down. On the other hand Asian market growth has crept up steadily and now has a grip on more than half the global market

  6. Heat pumps barometer - EurObserv'ER - October 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demand on the European heat pump market has been a series of peaks and troughs since 2008 after several years of very strong growth. These fluctuations in annual sales affect the whole of Europe, and its individual countries. Sales have been hit by a blend of economic slowdown, financial uncertainties and low new construction figures. The 2012 trend pointed to further decline, because of tighter conditions in some of the key markets. The assessment made by EurObserv'ER of the air source and ground source HP market for domestic heating and cooling shows that sales decreased from 1.79 million units in 2011 to 1.65 million units in 2012, i.e. a 7.9% drop

  7. The 2009 photovoltaic barometer; Le barometre photovoltaique - 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2010-04-15

    The global photovoltaic market expanded again in 2009. Germany set a new system installation record while the capacity build-up of the major solar photovoltaic markets contained the fallout generated by the Iberian market derailment. The European Union has the highest photovoltaic plant capacity, with almost 5.5 GWp installed in 2009. Italy is the third European Union country to pass the symbolic 1000 MWp installed mark, following Germany and Spain. France ranks 6 with 185 MWp installed in 2009. The decrease in the price of silicon reached 80% in 2009. The industry is facing a coming-of-age crisis with prices falling and over-production. Most of the major cell manufacturers are located in Asia. The European industry is still well represented with Q-Cells, the German leading cell manufacturer in addition with hefty industry players. (A.C.)

  8. Smabarnens Kultur-Och Mediebarometer. (Barometer of Children's Cultural Activity).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipson, Leni; Schyller, Ingela

    This is the first of a planned series of investigations of the media habits and other cultural activities of 3- to 8-year-old Swedish children. Diagrams show the percent of children who use the various media on an average day and the frequency of their participation in such activities as visits to the theater, museum, or library. The amount of…

  9. Solar thermal barometer - EurObserv'ER - May 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2008, the European solar thermal market put on a strong spurt only to mark time in 2009 with about 4.2 million m2 installed, which is 443708 m2 less year-on-year. The economic crisis has had a ripple effect on the European market in the shape of the Euro crisis at the beginning of May, so the slump seems set to continue on into 2010

  10. Wind energy barometer - EurObserv'ER - February 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notwithstanding the economic crisis affecting most of the globe's major economies, wind energy continues to gain supporters around the world. Global wind power capacity increased by 40.5 GW between 2010 and 2011 compared to a 39 GW rise between 2009 and 2010, after deduction of decommissioned capacity. By the end of 2011 global installed wind turbine capacity should stand at around 238.5 GW, and much of the world's growth is being driven by capacity build-up in the emerging markets. In contrast some of the key wind energy markets may be showing fault lines

  11. Heat pumps barometer - EurObserv'ER - September 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heat pumps have moved up the ranks of renewable energy - producing heating technologies since the mid-2000's. The EU Member States' individual market trends are characterised by the technologies used and their heating and cooling needs. More than 1.7 million systems were sold in the European Union in 2014. According to EurObserv'ER, several market factors were responsible for sales dipping slightly below their 2013 level of just under 2 million

  12. The Belgian Risk Perception Barometer Risk Perception Measuring Instruments Revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recognition of the societal dimension of risk assessment has been at the cradle of the opinion research on risks. Since risk estimates are not fixed by experts anymore, but are considered to show variation across a diverse population, the people themselves must be asked how they experience the risks. Following the rise in popularity of risk assessment and the recognition of its 'human' dimension, the demand for public opinion surveys on risks has been increasing at a fast pace. Unfortunately, this high demand sees some negative consequences. First, surveys are frequently conducted by people lacking even a minimal knowledge of survey methodology. In this respect, we might think of a journal or a newspaper trying to impress their readers with the definitive public opinion poll about the latest issue in vogue. Second, time pressure causes experienced or trained researchers to lower themselves to 'quick and dirty' work. While methodologically flawed opinion research might not be something to worry about when appearing in the amusement press, concern is due if the results of a survey inspire policy development. Indeed, when public opinion research is conceived as an instrument to support rational, evidence based public policy, the strictest methodological standards should be applied, even if it is clear that scientific research will never substitute political reasoning. This contribution deals with the safeguarding and enhancing of the quality of large scale surveys focusing on risk perception and related issues. This attention is relevant, not only for the reason that methodological standards may be flawed due to the immense popularity of the opinion poll, but also because the results of opinion surveys may have far-reaching policy consequences

  13. Wind energy barometer - EurObserv'ER - February 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 2014 global wind energy market surged and set a new record after the previous year's slowdown. More than 52 GW of capacity was installed across the world compared to a little less than 37 GW in 2013. Global wind energy took a 41.4% leap in 2014 to culminate in more than 371 GW of installed capacity

  14. Photovoltaic Barometer - EurObserv'ER - April 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the euphoria of 2011, the European Union's photovoltaic market slowed right down in 2012. EurObserv'ER puts newly-connected capacity in 2012 at 16.5 GWp compared to 22 GWp in 2011, which is a 25% slide. At global level the market generally held up, with just over 30 GWp installed, bolstered by the build-up of the America and Asian markets

  15. Photovoltaic Barometer - EurObserv'ER - April 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The global photovoltaic market expanded again in 2009. Germany set a new system installation record while the capacity build-up of the major solar photovoltaic markets contained the fallout generated by the Iberian market derailment. The European Union has the highest photovoltaic plant capacity, with almost 5.5 GWp installed in 2009

  16. Wind energy barometer - EurObserv'ER - February 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spectacular rise of China's wind power market that resulted in connecting at least 30.5 GW, catapulted the global installation level to 62.7 GW in 2015- a 22% more than in 2014. The US and German markets also performed very well, the former because its tax credit mechanism remained in force and the latter because many of its offshore wind farms in the North Sea were connected to the grid. Global wind turbine capacity has increased by 17% and now stands at 432.6 GW

  17. Photovoltaic Barometer - EurObserv'ER - April 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The global photovoltaic market continued to expand between 2013 and 2014, rising from 37.6 GW to almost 40 GW unlike the European Union market that plummeted further. The EurObserv'ER estimate of the European photovoltaic market is about 6.9 GWp in 2014, a 32.3 % drop on 2013, yet three years earlier, in 2011, it hovered around the 22 GWp mark

  18. Photovoltaic Barometer - EurObserv'ER - April 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The photovoltaic sector is continuing on track, just as the extent of solar energy's electricity-generating potential is dawning on the public mind. The annual global installation figure was up more than twofold in 2010 (rising from just short of 7 000 MWp in 2009). It leapt to over 16 000 MWp, bringing worldwide installed photovoltaic capacity close to 38000 MWp

  19. A Barometer Of Entrepreneurial Dynamics Above The Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina M. Drăgan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the analysis is performed for Romania where, after 50 years of communism, the free market economy, based on the free initiative of entrepreneurship, has been returned. The implementation of a scientific management generating performances that can lead the sector of SMEs to the requests of the Lisbon Strategy, cannot be completed without the existence of well-trained entrepreneurs, capable to improve their skills in modern management, thus leading to competitive results in a highly competitive market. Therefore, we consider in our paper some relevant indicators such: the evolution of new founded enterprises, the entrepreneur’s socio-professional profile, the entrepreneur’s level of education and new enterprise foundation rate. The analysis performed by this research allows us to formulate, synthetically, strengths and weaknesses in the entrepreneurial evolution for the period 1995-2011. Also, this study reveals the dependency between the economic growth, measured by GDP, and the rate of newly founded enterprises. The dynamic of new companies provides information both on the crisis ending and the resumption of economic growth.

  20. Wind energy barometer - EurObserv'ER - February 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Global wind energy capacity increased by 12.4% in 2013 to 318.6 GW (283.4 GW at the end of 2012), while the global market shrank to 35.6 GW shedding 10 GW. Worldwide market contraction is largely attributable to the collapse of the US market, as a result of the eleventh-hour extension of the federal incentive system. The European market also declined because of investors' lack of confidence in the region's new policies. If we take the United States and Europe out of the equation, the global market continued to grow, driven by the Chinese and Canadian wind power sectors

  1. Photovoltaic Barometer - EurObserv'ER - April 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The global photovoltaic market has continued to expand despite the economic and financial crisis. Capacity in excess of 29 000 MWp was connected in 2011, which is roughly 12 200 MWp more than in 2010. The European Union is still the main hive of installation activity. It added more than 21 500 additional MWp of capacity to the grid last year, while outside the EU, the surging Chinese, American and Japanese markets vouch for the enormous growth potential offered by solar power worldwide

  2. Photovoltaic Barometer - EurObserv'ER - April 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The global solar photovoltaic market enjoyed a strong revival in 2013. Preliminary estimates put it in excess of 37 GWp, compared to 30 GWp in 2012 and 2011. The solar photovoltaic sector led the annual installed capacity ratings for renewable energies, taking worldwide capacity up to 137 GWp by the end of the year - a 35% year-on-year increase. At global level the high growth markets - China, Japan and America - contrast sharply with the contracting European Union market

  3. Wind energy barometer - EurObserv'ER - March 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The global wind power market not only repelled the strictures of the financial crisis, but according to initial estimates, saw the installation of 37 GW, which is almost 10 GW up on 2008. China and the United States registered particularly steady growth and the European Union also picked up momentum to break its installation record

  4. Solid biomass barometer - EurObserv'ER - November 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    solid biomass leaves the other renewable energy sources standing in terms of use and potential. Primary energy output from solid biomass combustion rose in 2009 yet again to a new height of 72.8 Mtoe, which equates to a 3.6% increase on 2008. The reason for this exploit, which prevailed over the tight economic context, is the resolve made by many countries to rely on this energy to achieve their European electricity or heat production target levels

  5. Biofuels barometer - EurObserv'ER - July 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    12.1 Mtoe of biofuels consumed in the transport sector in the EU in 2009. European Union biofuel use for transport reached the 12 million tons of oil equivalent (mtoe) threshold during 2009, heralding a further drop in the pace of the sector's growth, which rose by only 18.7% between 2008 and 2009 - just 1.9 mtoe of consumption over the previous year. The biofuel incorporation rate in all fuels used by transport in the EU is unlikely to pass 4% in 2009, which is a very long way short of the 5.75% goal for 2010 set in the 2003 European biofuel directive, which would require around 18 mtoe of biofuel use

  6. Biofuels barometer - EurObserv'ER - July 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    +6.1% The increase of biofuel consumption in European Union transport between 2013 and 2014 (in energy content). Biofuel consumption for transport picked up in Europe after a year of uncertainty and decline, increasing by 6.1% over 2013, to 14 million toe (Mtoe) according to EurObserv'ER's first estimates. However it is still below its 2012 level when 14.5 Mtoe of biofuel was incorporated. Consumption of biofuel that meets the European Renewable Energy directive's sustainability criteria rose to 12.5 Mtoe, its highest level so far

  7. ntertextile:Barometer,Trade Platform,and Innovative Showcase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Fei

    2011-01-01

    Intertextile Shanghai Apparel Fabrics 2011 witnessed a new record with an increase in scale of 30% on the 2010 edition. A total of 3,108 companies from 23 countries and regions exhibited at the four-day show, with 923 overseas exhibitors, up nearly 20%. New products and technologies contended in beauty and fascination.

  8. Biofuels barometer - EurObserv'ER - July 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The European Union governments no longer view the rapid increase in biofuel consumption as a priority. Between 2010 and 2011 biofuel consumption increased by 3.1%, which translates into 14 million tons of oil equivalent (toe) used in 2011 compared to 13.6 million toe in 2010. The European Union's attention has shifted to setting up sustainability systems to verify that the biofuel used in the various countries complies with the Renewable Energy Directive's sustainability criteria

  9. Biofuels barometer - EurObserv'ER - July 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    +2.9% the increase in EU biofuel consumption in transport between 2011 and 2012. Despite the uncertain political context, biofuel consumption growth was firm in the European Union, rising to almost 14.4 million toe in 2012, i.e. a year-on-year increase of 0.4 million toe. However the previous years' weaker growth trend is confirmed with growth at just 2.9% between 2011 and 2012

  10. Wood energy barometer. 43 million toe produced in 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of wood in the form of energy contributes in fighting global warming since, unlike fossil energies, the carbon dioxide emitted by its combustion is reabsorbed by the forests. These environmental and energetic advantages explain why the European Union large wood countries are preparing programmes to develop both wood energy technologies and wood energy consumption; This document takes stock or gives information on the breakdown of valorization of wood energy origin primary energy, the gross electricity generation from wood energy in the 15 european union countries and Poland, the primary energy from wood energy, the comparative between different wood energy fuel prices in Europe, the number of direct and indirect job created in different sectors, the wood energy sector industrialists and a comparison between current trend and white paper objectives. (A.L.B.)

  11. The Belgian Risk Perception Barometer Risk Perception Measuring Instruments Revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aeken, Koen van; Carle, Benny; Hardeman, Frank [SCK-CEN, Mol (Belgium). PISA

    2006-09-15

    The recognition of the societal dimension of risk assessment has been at the cradle of the opinion research on risks. Since risk estimates are not fixed by experts anymore, but are considered to show variation across a diverse population, the people themselves must be asked how they experience the risks. Following the rise in popularity of risk assessment and the recognition of its 'human' dimension, the demand for public opinion surveys on risks has been increasing at a fast pace. Unfortunately, this high demand sees some negative consequences. First, surveys are frequently conducted by people lacking even a minimal knowledge of survey methodology. In this respect, we might think of a journal or a newspaper trying to impress their readers with the definitive public opinion poll about the latest issue in vogue. Second, time pressure causes experienced or trained researchers to lower themselves to 'quick and dirty' work. While methodologically flawed opinion research might not be something to worry about when appearing in the amusement press, concern is due if the results of a survey inspire policy development. Indeed, when public opinion research is conceived as an instrument to support rational, evidence based public policy, the strictest methodological standards should be applied, even if it is clear that scientific research will never substitute political reasoning. This contribution deals with the safeguarding and enhancing of the quality of large scale surveys focusing on risk perception and related issues. This attention is relevant, not only for the reason that methodological standards may be flawed due to the immense popularity of the opinion poll, but also because the results of opinion surveys may have far-reaching policy consequences.

  12. Photovoltaic energy barometer. 39.2% growth in 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All the specialists, even the most optimistic among them have been surprised by the worldwide growth of the photovoltaic sector in 2001. More than 400 MWp of PV cells left the factories in 2001 vs.288 MWp for the year before. In light of the investments already made or planned on, the sector's growth over the years to come is more than encouraging. (authors)

  13. French people and renewable energies. Barometer - Wave 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a presentation of the methodology adopted for this survey, the results are presented under the form of graphics, notably to illustrate the evolution of French people opinion since 2011. The survey addressed the actuality and context of renewable energies (impact of the COP21 on the sensitivity to environmental issues, opinion on the household energy bill, achievement or project of works aimed at energy savings, wish to see a development of the different energy sources, opinion on the use of renewable energies, confidence in renewable energies), the equipment in renewable energies (equipment of primary residence, age of the equipment), intentions related to renewable energy equipment (type, delay, investment, knowledge of public support arrangements, perceived obstacles, knowledge of labelled professionals), and confidence in installers. A brief synthetic comment of survey results is also proposed

  14. Biofuels barometer - EurObserv'ER - July 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    13,6 % the increase in EU biofuel consumption in 2010. In 2010 biofuel continued to gnaw away at petrol and diesel consumption in the European Union. However its pace backs the assertion that EU biofuel consumption growth slackened off. In the transport sector, it increased by only 1.7 Mtoe compared to 2.7 Mtoe in 2009. The final total biofuel consumption figure for 2010 should hover at around 13,9 Mtoe

  15. Photovoltaic Barometer - EurObserv'ER - April 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The European Union solar photovoltaic market picked up in 2015 after three successive years of decline. It registered 3% growth over the twelve-month period, by installing 7 226 MW, which took Europe's installed capacity to date to 94.6 GW. The global market soared by comparison, gaining 25% year-on-year and connecting at least 50 GW, which took global PV capacity past the 227-GW mark

  16. Solid biomass barometer - EurObserv'ER - January 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Consumption of solid biomass in the European Union increased once again in 2013, this time by 2.9 Mtoe year-on-year to 91.5 Mtoe. However there was no straight-out trend as the increase in demand for solid biomass energy was particularly sharp in France and the UK and to a lesser degree in Spain and in Italy - in deep contrast with the needs of a number of major wood-energy consumers, such as Sweden and Poland, whose consumption slipped

  17. Risks and safety perception. IPSN barometer october 1999. Synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An opinion investigation was realized in october 1999 by the IPSN to know the public opinion concerning the risks and safety perception. Five subjects were treated: the public care subjects (social and environment); the science and scientists image; the food risks; the opinion on the nuclear activities (interveners ability and credibility, nuclear controversy, radioactive wastes and nuclear accidents); the french people cares about the risks. The methodology and the analysis of the poll results are detailed. Tables of data investigation are also included. (A.L.B.)

  18. Solid biomass barometer - EurObserv'ER - December 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primary energy production from solid biomass is back on the road to growth, which according to EurObserv'ER stood at about 5.4% between 2011 and 2012. Output rose to 82.3 million tons of oil equivalent, which is a 4.2 Mtoe improvement on 2011, whose exceptionally mild winter put paid to the sector's uninterrupted rise since 1999. This growth was enjoyed by all the solid biomass energy application sectors. Heat sales to heating networks increased 12.9% to 7.9 Mtoe in 2012 while electricity production, boosted by coal-fired power station conversions, gained 7.8% to produce 79.5 TWh

  19. Solid biomass barometer - EurObserv'ER - December 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The European Reanalysis and Observations for Monitoring (EURO4M) project experts report that the year 2014 was unusually hot on the European continent, with the highest temperatures on record, following on from 2013 whose winter conditions were also exceptionally mild, and ahead of 2015 which is also set to be very warm. This situation led to a fall in solid biomass consumption for heating across the European Union. In 2014 electricity output increased by 4.5% on its 2013 level to 84.8 TWh, as the vagaries of climate have less impact on demand and it was also boosted by the expansion of biomass cogeneration and new coal-fired power plant conversions

  20. Biofuels barometer - EurObserv'ER - July 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    6.8% the drop in biofuel consumption in European Union transport between 2012 and 2013. The growth of biofuel consumption for use in transport in the European Union (EU -28) has dwindled in the past few years and finally dropped by about 1 million toe (6.8%) between 2012 and 2013 according to EurObserv'ER, to a consumption level of 13.6 million toe. Nevertheless, sustainable biofuel consumption, certified and thus eligible for inclusion in European targets increased slightly by 1.1% to 11.8 Mtoe

  1. Solid biomass barometer - EurObserv'ER - December 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The winter of 2011 was exceptionally mild, even in Northern Europe, with unusually high temperatures. As a result the demand for firewood and solid biomass fuel was low. The European Union's primary energy production from solid biomass between 2010 and 2011 contracted by 2.9% slipping to 78.8 Mtoe. Solid biomass electricity production continued to grow, driven by the additional take-up of biomass co-firing

  2. Solid biomass barometer - EurObserv'ER - November 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The european Union Member states' political resolve to develop the energy potential of solid biomass has started to pay off, as in 2010 there were clear signs that growth of primary energy production had quickened pace. The output figure rose to 79.3 Mtoe in 2010, which is 8% up on 2009 and deserves comparison with the previous year's 4% rise (from 70.6 Mtoe in 2008). The trend, which was driven deeper by Europe's particularly cold winter of 2009- 2010, demonstrates that the economic downturn failed to scuttle the Member states' efforts to structure the solid biomass sector

  3. Biogas Barometer - EurObserv'ER - November 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The expansion of biogas energy usage has continued across the European Union. According to EurObserv'ER, about 13. 4 million tonnes oil equivalent (Mtoe) of biogas primary energy were produced during 2013, which is 1.2 Mtoe more than in 2012 representing a 10.2% growth. However, the biogas sector's momentum was more sluggish than in 2012 (16.9% between 2011 and 2012, giving an additional 1.8 Mtoe) and it is expected to lose some of its impetus in 2014 in a number of countries whose sector expansion controlling policy changes will limit the future use of energy crops

  4. Biogas barometer - EurObserv'ER - December 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    +18,2 % biogas electricity production growth in 2011. Biogas energy recovery for both electricity and heat application has increased in the European Union. The magnitude of the reduction in the primary energy figure can be played down as it can be explained by a change in reporting method of the main producer country, Germany. New markets are starting to emerge in its footsteps, but the economic crisis and regulatory restrictions do not auger well for their expansion

  5. Biogas barometer - EurObserv'ER - November 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biogas sector has never before aroused so much attention as it does today. elected officers and investors' interest has been fired by the gradual introduction of regulatory restrictions on the treatment of organic waste and the renewable energy commitments recently made by the European Union member states. the biogas sector is gradually deserting its core activities of waste cleanup and treatment and getting involved in energy production, with so much enthusiasm that in some countries its scope of action has extended to using energy crops. across the European Union, the sector's progress is as clear as daylight, as in 2009, primary energy growth leapt by a further 4,3%

  6. Renewable municipal waste barometer - EurObserv'ER - December 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    +2,6 % the growth of primary energy output from renewable municipal waste in the EU relative to 2010. Energy recovery by incinerating household refuse in the European Union led to renewable energy production of more than 8.2 million tons of oil equivalent in 2011, which is a 2.6% increase on 2010. While the increase in waste-to-energy recovery is preferable to using landfills, under no circumstances should this growth be made at the cost of waste prevention and recycling policies

  7. The IRSN 2012 barometer. The opinion on risks and security of the French population. Global results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents and comments the results of a survey during which a sample of the French population has been questioned on their current concerns (what is the most concerning issue in the present society and in the environment, science within concerns), on their opinion on scientific expertise (who should control a risky installation, the role and image of experts, the access to expertise files, the perception of pluralist structures), on their opinion on 33 risk situations (risks to which French people feel exposed, confidence in authorities to protect them, truth of information on hazards, hierarchy of the 33 situations), on their opinion on the nuclear activity and industry (the nuclear risk, the credibility and expertise of interveners), and on the Fukushima accident (perception of the accident, quality of information, expectations on the assessment of nuclear power stations)

  8. concentrated solar power and solar thermal Barometer - EurObserv'ER - May 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    European concentrated solar power capacity remained stable in 2014 and will probably post a negligible increase in 2015. Construction work on a number of new facilities in Italy that are scheduled for commissioning in 2016 and 2017 could commence in the second half of the year. The European solar thermal market for producing heat, domestic hot water and heating has not found the recipe for recovery. According to EurObserv'ER, the market contracted by a further 3.7% from its 2013 level which is the sixth decrease in a row

  9. Solar thermal and concentrated solar power barometer - EurObserv'ER - May 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The European concentrated solar plant market is set to mark time for a year following efforts to complete construction on 350 MW of CSP capacity in Spain in 2013. The spotlight has switched to Italy which could re-launch the European market within a couple of years. The European solar thermal market for heat and hot water production and space heating, is shrinking all the time. EurObserv'ER reports that the market is in its fifth successive year of contraction in the European Union. It now posts a 10.5% decline on its 2012 performance having struggled to install just over 3 million m2 of collectors in 2013

  10. The opinion barometer of French people and energy in January 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By request of the French Energy Observatory, an inquiry has been carried out by CREDOC on a representative sample of 2009 people aged 18 and above, selected according to the quotas method. The inquiry is made of 10 questions about energy and deals with 4 main topics: nuclear energy, climatic change and greenhouse effect, power generation and energy supplies, and energy prices. The choice of nuclear energy for power generation gains more approvals than 6 months ago but remains divided (47% find advantages while 44% find drawbacks). Research in this domain must focus on the waste management problem (wastes volume and toxicity abatement, and safety improvement of transport and storage). In order to limit the greenhouse effect, a majority of French people agree with the principle of a change of lifestyle in particular in transports, energy choices and industrial activities. Despite the power outage of November 2006, French people are satisfied by the operation of power distribution in France. Opinions are divided concerning the decision power in energy supplies (European, national or market). Finally, fears about prices increase concern in priority the automotive fuels and in a lesser extent natural gas. (J.S.)

  11. Renewable municipal waste barometer - EurObserv'ER - November 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EurObserv'ER reckons that the energy recovered from renewable municipal waste incineration that takes into account the organic part (cartons, kitchen waste, etc.) increased slightly in 2013 (by 0.7% over 2012), giving output of about 8.7 Mtoe. Heat sales to district heating networks stepped up conspicuously in 2013, as synergy between the incineration plants and the heating networks improved. Heat output increased 7.8% over 2012 to reach 2.4 Mtoe, while electricity output remained stable at 18.7 TWh. This development demonstrates the increased energy efficiency of the incineration plants that is stimulated by European legislation, primarily through the transposition of the framework directive on waste (2008/98/EC) that encourages operators to optimize the energy efficiency of their plants, primarily by looking for new outlets for heat production. The Directive stipulates that the incinerators can only be classed as waste-to- energy recovery units if they meet minimum yield criteria, which in the case of plant constructed since 31 December 2008 must be at least equal to 65%. The energy efficiency of those constructed prior to 2008 must be at least 60%. If these criteria are not met, the waste incineration process will not be recognized as treatment eligible for waste ranking as imposed by the directive

  12. Photovoltaic barometer - A study carried out by EurObserv'ER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The global photovoltaic market has continued expanding despite the economic and financial crisis. Capacity in excess of 29000 MWp was connected in 2011 in the world, which is roughly 12200 MWp more than in 2010. The European Union (E.U.) is still the main hive of installation activity. It added more than 21500 additional MWp of capacity to the grid las year, and the 4 most important contributors to this added capacity are Italy with 9280 MWp, Germany with 7505 MWp, France with 1634 MWp and United Kingdom with 937 MWp. Outside the E.U., the surging Chinese, American and Japanese markets vouch for the enormous growth potential offered by solar power worldwide. When considering the photovoltaic power per inhabitant for each E.U. member in 2011, Germany ranks first with 304 Wp/inhabitant, Italy second with 210 Wp/inhabitant, Czech Republic third with 186 Wp/inhabitant, Belgium fourth with 165 Wp/inhabitant, the other countries are below 100 Wp/inhabitant. The sharp drop in the price of photovoltaic modules has led to a new rush on installations and most European countries reviewed their incentive system during first half 2012 in order to regain very firm control of the market. The price war started by Chinese and Taiwanese manufacturers may have delighted developers and investors, but it has sent the global photovoltaic industry into a self-destructive spiral. (A.C.)

  13. The IRSN 2010 barometer. The opinion on risks and security of the French population. Global results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents and comments the results of a survey during which a sample of the French population has been questioned on their current concerns (about the society, about the environment, about the image of science), on their opinion on scientific expertise (who should control a risky installation, the role and image of experts, the access to expertise files, the perception of pluralist structures), the opinion on 32 risk situations (risks to which French people feel exposed, confidence in authorities, truth of information on hazards, hierarchy of the 32 situations), the opinion on the nuclear activity and industry (the nuclear risk, the credibility and expertise of interveners, incidents which occurred in 2008, the demand of information on the nuclear risk)

  14. Renewable municipal waste barometer - EurObserv'ER - November 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    7,7 Mtoe of primary energy produced from the combustion of renewable municipal waste in the European Union in 2009. Approximately half the energy produced in Union European's municipal waste incineration plants is obtained from fermentescible waste (ie biomass waste). To date, incineration is still the main energy conversion channel for renewable municipal waste, for in 2009, biomass energy output stood at 7.7 million toe, which is a 3.3% increase on 2008. Furthermore, this amount could be doubled, assuming a constant level of waste, by investing in modernisation and combustion efficiency improvements

  15. Weighing and Body Monitoring among College Women: The Scale Number as an Emotional Barometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintz, Laurie B.; Awad, Germine H.; Stinson, Rebecca D.; Bledman, Rashanta A.; Coker, Angela D.; Kashubeck-West, Susan; Connelly, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated weighing and body-monitoring behaviors, as well as psychological and behavioral reactions to weighing, among female college students. Weighing and body monitoring were engaged in by the majority of participants. Participants changed food intake and exercise based on weight. About 63% reported that the scale number impacts…

  16. Degree of zootechnics – barometer of economic development in the world countries

    OpenAIRE

    Merce, Emilian; Merce, Cristian Călin; Mureşan, Iulia

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents debates and analyses the causal relation between the level of economic development and the degree of development of the animal husbandry sector. There is a large variability in time and space at the level of the world's countries regarding this aspect. As a general trend it was observed in time an increase of the degree of development of the animal husbandry sector, with high differences among the countries being directly link to the level of development of each country. Th...

  17. IRSN 2007 barometer: perception of risks and security by French people. Global results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents under the form of graphs and comments the results of the annual IRSN opinion poll on matters of risk and security. The IRSN is the French Institute of Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety. Different themes are analysed: the present concerns for French people (in the present society, for the environment, about industrial risks and the image of science), the perception of expertise (who should control an installation, the role and the image of scientific experts, access to expertise documents), the public interest in risk issues (topic of interest, participation to information sessions), the attitude in front of 30 risk situations (presently perceived risks, confidence in public authorities to ensure their protection, truth about information on hazards, hierarchy of 30 situations). The last part is dedicated to the nuclear domain (nuclear risk, skill and credibility of interveners)

  18. The opinion barometer on the french people and the energy in january 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This inquiry realized by the CREDOC for the ''Observatoire de l'energie'', presents the opinion of french people on the main four topics: the nuclear energy, the energies prices, the supplying safety and the power lines hiding in the ground. It seems that the instability of the international situation and the economical context contributed to the french moroseness. The french energy independence becomes a priority objective and the nuclear choice, as the production of three quarters of the electric power in France, finds supporters again. (A.L.B.)

  19. Solar thermal and concentrated solar power barometer - EurObserv'ER - May 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The European concentrated solar power plant market is steeling itself for tough time ahead. The number of projects under construction is a pittance compared with 2012 that was an excellent year for installations (an additional 802.5 MW of capacity recorded). This drop is the result of the moratorium on renewable energy power plants introduced by the Spanish government. The European solar thermal market is hardly any more encouraging. EurObserv'ER holds that it slipped for the fourth year in a row (it dropped 5.5% between 2011 and 2012). The newly-installed solar thermal collector surface area in the EU now stands at 3.4 million m2, far short of its 2008 installation record of 4.6 million m2

  20. Solar thermal and concentrated solar power barometer - EurObserv'ER - May 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    638,4 MWe The CSP plant electrical generating capacity in the EU at the end of 2010 As could be expected, the recession cast long shadows over the European solar thermal market throughout 2010. For the second year running, new installations for hot water production and space heating (collectors) decreased. According to the EurObserv'ER survey the newly-assigned surface area was 3.8 million m2 in 2010, down from 4.2 million m2 in 2009 and 4.6 million m2 in 2008. At the same time, the European high-temperature solar sector related to electricity production has been taking shape alongside the heat-producing applications, with 638.4 MW already installed. Spain accounts for almost all of this capacity, and a further five EU countries, mostly Mediterranean, intend to develop the sector

  1. An Analysis of the Correlation between the Economic Barometer and the Postal Service

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    There are many economic factors that can influence the postal market. In this paper, by adopting the method of quantitative analysis, the author analyse exhaustively the economic factors that influence the postal market and the internal relations between the economic factors and the postal market.

  2. Responsiveness of Health Systems: a Barometer of the Quality of Health Services

    OpenAIRE

    Ana-Lucia Ristea; Ion Stegaroiu; Valeriu Ioan-Franc; Vasile Dinu

    2009-01-01

    In the health field, quality is a complex and multidimensional variable. The complexity is shown by different levels of quality, which provide a global picture of the performance of a health system: compliance with mandatory rules, compliance with professional recommendations/references, action of steady improvement aiming at resolving health problems, risk management or excellence seeking, etc. The multidimensional character is provided by various dimensions to be covered by evaluation indic...

  3. The IRSN 2008 barometer. The opinion on risks and security of the French population. Global results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents and comments the results of a survey during which a sample of the French population has been questioned on their current concerns (about the society, about the environment, about quantitative criteria of risk management and about the image of science), on their opinion of scientific expertise (who should control a risky installation, the role and image of experts, the access to expertise files, the perception of pluralist structures), the opinion on 31 risk situations (risks to which French people feel exposed, confidence in authorities, truth of information on hazards, hierarchy of the 31 situations), the opinion on the nuclear activity and industry (the nuclear risk, the credibility and expertise of interveners), incidents which occurred in 2007, the demand of information on the nuclear risk), and on their opinion about radiotherapy accidents in France

  4. Solar thermal and concentrated solar power barometer - EurObserv'ER - May 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    27545 MWth: the EU's solar thermal base to date at the end of 2011. After two years of sharp decline, the European solar thermal market is bottoming out. The EurObserv'ER survey findings are that the installation figure fell just 1.9% in comparison with 2010, giving a newly-installed collector area of 3.7 million m2. The concentrated solar power sector has been forging ahead alongside the heat production applications, and at the end of 2011 installed capacity passed the one gigawatt mark in Spain for the first time with 1157.2 MWe

  5. The opinion barometer of French people and energy on June 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On request of the French Observatory of Energy (DGEMP/OE), an inquiry was carried out on June 2007 by CREDOC on a representative sample of 2010 people selected according to the quotas method. Ten energy-related questions were addressed which dealt with three main topics: the nuclear energy (advantages and drawbacks, related risks, confidence in controls, wastes); the attitude of French people in front of the climatic change (origin of greenhouse gases, lifestyle changes, remedies, individual behaviors), and the electricity of renewable origin (impact on retail prices). A majority of the population finds more advantages than drawbacks in developing nuclear energy for power generation, but the problem of wastes management and the risk of serious accident remain a source of worries for a large part of the population. French people are also ready to change their lifestyles to limit the greenhouse effect and a majority is favourable to electricity of renewable origin. (J.S.)

  6. Ground-source heat pump barometer - EurObserv'ER - September 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2,9% slide by the GHSP market in the EU between 2009 and 2010. The double whammy dealt by the economic crisis and housing slump has stifled expansion of the ground-source heat pump market in many European countries. The European Union market contracted for the second year running (by 2.9% between 2009 and 2010), and this despite the fact that more than 100 000 units were sold over the twelve-month period, taking the number of installed units past the one million mark

  7. 77 FR 31728 - Elemental Mercury Used in Barometers, Manometers, Hygrometers, and Psychrometers; Significant New...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-30

    .... Federal Register (76 FR 26225, May 6, 2011) (FRL-8871-7). 2. EPA. Elemental Mercury Used in Flow Meters... Use Rule; Proposed Rule. Federal Register (71 FR 39035, July 11, 2006) (FRL-7733-9). 4. EPA. Mercury... FR 17376), EPA has decided that the intent of TSCA section 5(a)(1)(B) is best served by designating...

  8. The 2013 barometer of electric renewable energies in France - 4. issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Illustrated by many maps, graphs and tables, this publication proposes a rather detailed overview of the status and development (production and location, employment, sector turnover, market and tariffs) of the different electricity-producing renewable energies: wind energy, photovoltaic energy, hydraulic energy, solid biomass, biogas, renewable urban wastes, geothermal energy, sea energy, thermodynamic solar energy). It also proposes a regional overview of these different electricity-producing renewable sectors, of the regional climate-air-energy schemes and regional wind schemes. A focus is proposed on each French region

  9. Bayesian Recognition of Safety Relevant Motion Activities with Inertial Sensors and Barometer

    OpenAIRE

    Frank, Korbinian; Munoz Diaz, Estefania; Fuentes Sanchez, Francisco Javier; Robertson, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Activity recognition has been a hot topic in research throughout the last years. Walking, standing, sitting or lying have been detected with more or less confidence, in more or less suitable system designs. None of these systems however has entered daily life, neither in mass market, nor in professional environments. What is required is an unobtrusive system, requiring few resources and -- most important -- recognizing all important activities with high confidence. To this end, our research h...

  10. Consumers` Attitude towards Consumer Protection in the Digital Single Market, as Reflected by European Barometers

    OpenAIRE

    Doru Alexandru Pleşea; Irina Maiorescu; Alice Cîrstea

    2014-01-01

    The European Single Market is an ongoing project that will continue to further develop and adapt to changing realities. Traditional economic activities, and the administrative rules governing them, face the challenge of adapting to developments that blur the dividing lines, for example, between shop and online sales or between traditional media and Internet communication. Convergence of this type will lead to a European Digital Single Market. A genuine Digital Single Market would generate new...

  11. Improving the Ginkgo CO2 barometer: Implications for the early Cenozoic atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, Richard S.; Wing, Scott L.

    2016-04-01

    Stomatal properties of fossil Ginkgo have been used widely to infer the atmospheric concentration of CO2 in the geological past (paleo-pCO2). Many of these estimates of paleo-pCO2 have relied on the inverse correlation between pCO2 and stomatal index (SI - the proportion of epidermal cells that are stomata) observed in recent Ginkgo biloba, and therefore depend on the accuracy of this relationship. The SI - pCO2 relationship in G. biloba has not been well documented, however. Here we present new measurements of SI for leaves of G. biloba that grew under pCO2 from 290 to 430 ppm. We prepared and imaged all specimens using a consistent procedure and photo-documented each count. As in prior studies, we found a significant inverse relationship between SI and pCO2, however, the relationship is more linear, has a shallower slope, and a lower correlation coefficient than previously reported. We examined leaves of G. biloba grown under pCO2 of 1500 ppm, but found they had highly variable SI and a large proportion of malformed stomata. We also measured stomatal dimensions, stomatal density, and the carbon isotope composition of G. biloba leaves in order to test a mechanistic model for inferring pCO2. This model overestimated observed pCO2, performing less well than the SI method between 290 and 430 ppm. We used our revised SI-pCO2 response curve, and new observations of selected fossils, to estimate late Cretaceous and Cenozoic pCO2 from fossil Ginkgo adiantoides. All but one of the new estimates is below 800 ppm, and together they show little long-term change in pCO2 or relation to global temperature. The low Paleogene pCO2 levels indicated by the Ginkgo SI proxy are not consistent with the high pCO2 inferred by some climate and carbon cycle models. We cannot currently resolve the discrepancy, but greater agreement between proxy data and models may come from a better understanding of the stomatal response of G. biloba to elevated pCO2, better counts and measurements of fossil Ginkgo, or models that can simulate greenhouse climates at lower pCO2.

  12. A 107-year-old coral from Florida Bay: barometer of natural and man- induced catastrophes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, J.H.; Powell, G.V.N.; Robblee, M.B.; Smith, T. J., III

    1989-01-01

    The 107-yr growth history of a massive coral Solenastrea bournoni from Florida Bay was reconstructed with X-ray imagery from a single 4 in. diameter (10 cm) core that penetrated the exact epicenter of the 95.3 cm high colony. Growth increments totalled 952.9 mm, averaging 8.9 mm/yr over the life of the coral. Growth rate trends in the Florida Bay coral were compared to those in a Montastraea annularis of similar age from a nearby patch reef on the Atlantic Ocean side of the Florida Keys. It was concluded that growth rate, at least in these specimens, is a questionable indicator of past hurricanes and freezes. There does appear to be, however, a possible cause-and-effect relationship between major man-induced environmental perturbations and a prolonged reduction in growth rate in each coral's growth record. -from Authors

  13. Are share prices an economic barometer?: on the relationship between share prices and mental health

    OpenAIRE

    Ratcliffe, A; Taylor, K.

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between share prices and mental health, exploiting the availability of interview dates in the British Household Panel Survey to match the level and changes in the FTSE All Share price index to respondents over the period 1991-2008. We present evidence that the level, 6 month and yearly changes in the share price index are associated with better mental health while greater uncertainty, as measured by index volatility, is associated with poorer mental we...

  14. China-Japan-Korean Summit:New Barometer for East Asian Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Xiaosheng

    2009-01-01

    @@ On December 13, 2008, China Japan-Korean Summit was held in Fukuoka, Japan. The summit, which was greatly different from the previously eight summits held in the framework of ASEAN plus China,Japan and South Korean, that is 10+3, was confined to only these three countries and it's the first time for them to do so. It happened to be China's first foreign activity after the opening of the Central Economic Working Conference in the same month and explained its new economic policy and measures in 2009. In addition, it's the first time for three main economic entities to meet after the breakout of the global financial crisis. Thus financial and economic affairs were the core issues of the summit.

  15. Are Batman and Superman the Barometer of Our Times? A Review of ‘Superheroes in Crisis’

    OpenAIRE

    Ira Erika Franco

    2015-01-01

    The WWII historian Jeffrey K. Johnson studies how the two comic book legends Superman and Batman have adapted successfully to American cultural and social landscapes through time. This is a book review of ‘Superheroes in Crisis’, a monograph that details some decisive moments from their creation in the late 30’s up to the 70’s in which both characters have transformed in order to maintain their relevance as what Johnso...

  16. Are Batman and Superman the Barometer of Our Times? A Review of ‘Superheroes in Crisis’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ira Erika Franco

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The WWII historian Jeffrey K. Johnson studies how the two comic book legends Superman and Batman have adapted successfully to American cultural and social landscapes through time. This is a book review of ‘Superheroes in Crisis’, a monograph that details some decisive moments from their creation in the late 30’s up to the 70’s in which both characters have transformed in order to maintain their relevance as what Johnson calls ‘cultural barometers’

  17. The risks of sleeping "too much". Survey of a National Representative Sample of 24671 adults (INPES health barometer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damien Léger

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A significant U-shaped association between sleep duration and several morbidity (obesity, diabetes or cardiovascular disease and mortality risks has been regularly reported. However, although the physiological pathways and risks associated with "too short sleep" (<5 hours/day have been well demonstrated, little is known about "too much sleeping". PURPOSE: To explore socio-demographic characteristics and comorbidities of "long sleepers" (over 10 hours/day from a nationally representative sample of adults. METHODS: A cross-sectional nationally representative sample of 24,671 subjects from 15 to 85-year-old. An estimated total sleep time (TST on non-leisure days was calculated based on a specifically designed sleep log which allows to distinguish "long sleepers" from "short sleepers" (<5 hours/day. Insomnia was assessed according to the International classification of sleep disorders (ICSD-2. RESULTS: The average TST was 7 hours and 13 minutes (+/- 17 minutes. Six hundred and twelve subjects were "long sleepers" (2.7% and 1969 "short sleepers" (7.5%. Compared to the whole group, "long sleepers" were more often female, younger (15-25 year-old or older (above 65 year-old, with no academic degree, mostly clerks and blue collar workers. "Long sleepers" were significantly more likely to have psychiatric diseases and a greater body mass index (BMI. However, long sleep was not significantly associated with the presence of any other chronic medical disease assessed. Conversely, short sleep duration was significantly associated with almost all the other chronic diseases assessed. CONCLUSIONS: In the general population, sleeping too much was associated with psychiatric diseases and higher BMI, but not with other chronic medical diseases.

  18. Barometer I.R.S.N.. perception of risks and safety. Results of poll of october 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first chapter aims to establish a level of importance through actual problems, at the social level and environment. The second chapter treats the risk perception in term of risks for the society, confidence and information on risks. General opinions on experts constitute the third chapter. The perception of technological, industrial and natural risks for environment are the object of the fourth chapter. The image of nuclear energy is gathered in the fifth chapter. (N.C.)

  19. The opinion barometer of French people and energy in January 2007; Le barometre d'opinion des francais et l'energie en janvier 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    By request of the French Energy Observatory, an inquiry has been carried out by CREDOC on a representative sample of 2009 people aged 18 and above, selected according to the quotas method. The inquiry is made of 10 questions about energy and deals with 4 main topics: nuclear energy, climatic change and greenhouse effect, power generation and energy supplies, and energy prices. The choice of nuclear energy for power generation gains more approvals than 6 months ago but remains divided (47% find advantages while 44% find drawbacks). Research in this domain must focus on the waste management problem (wastes volume and toxicity abatement, and safety improvement of transport and storage). In order to limit the greenhouse effect, a majority of French people agree with the principle of a change of lifestyle in particular in transports, energy choices and industrial activities. Despite the power outage of November 2006, French people are satisfied by the operation of power distribution in France. Opinions are divided concerning the decision power in energy supplies (European, national or market). Finally, fears about prices increase concern in priority the automotive fuels and in a lesser extent natural gas. (J.S.)

  20. The opinion barometer of French people and energy on June 2007; Le barometre d'opinion sur les francais et l'energie en juin 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-12-15

    On request of the French Observatory of Energy (DGEMP/OE), an inquiry was carried out on June 2007 by CREDOC on a representative sample of 2010 people selected according to the quotas method. Ten energy-related questions were addressed which dealt with three main topics: the nuclear energy (advantages and drawbacks, related risks, confidence in controls, wastes); the attitude of French people in front of the climatic change (origin of greenhouse gases, lifestyle changes, remedies, individual behaviors), and the electricity of renewable origin (impact on retail prices). A majority of the population finds more advantages than drawbacks in developing nuclear energy for power generation, but the problem of wastes management and the risk of serious accident remain a source of worries for a large part of the population. French people are also ready to change their lifestyles to limit the greenhouse effect and a majority is favourable to electricity of renewable origin. (J.S.)

  1. Biogas barometer. 5.9 MTOE recovered in 2008 in EU; Le barometre du biogaz. 5,9 MTEP valorisees en 2007 dans l'UE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2008-07-15

    The major increase in the price of fossil fuels has made biogas more attractive. The application of biogas, which were once limited to recycling and/or recovering energy from waste, have widened with the use of energy crops. This has simulated European production, which has now reached 5,9 Mteps, i-e, a 20,5% increase in relation to 2006. (author)

  2. 'it’s in her eyes': A 'barometer' for EU accession through female perceptions of role portrayals in advertising: a Cross-cultural study of Ukraine and Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    De Kervenoael, Ronan; Aykaç, D. Selcen Ö.; Aykac, D. Selcen O.

    2007-01-01

    This article examines female response to gender role portrayals in advertising for Ukraine and Turkey. Both being new potential EU candidates, we argue that gender stereotype could also be use as a ‘barometer’ of progress and closure towards a more general EU accepted behaviour towards women. While their history remains different, both from a political and society values point of views, constraints are currently being faced that require convergence or justification of practices and understand...

  3. Evolution of 4π observables in the Vlasov-Uehling-Uhlenbeck theory and the transverse momentum transfer as a barometer for hadronic matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the dynamics of high energy heavy ion collisions through the Vlasov-Uehling-Uhlenbeck approach. Equilibration is observed, for central collisions. It is shown that the produced entropy, the pion multiplicity, flow angle, and transverse momentum distributions saturate at the moment of maximum compression and temperature. The effects of the nuclear equation of state and the Pauli principle are investigated. For the flow angle distribution there is a 20 deg reduction of the peak flow angle due to the Pauli principle. A stiff equation of state results in a 10--20 deg increase over the soft equation of state at all energies. The transverse momentum at projectile rapidity exhibits a peak structure as a function of impact parameter b. A 40% difference between soft and hard equation of state is observed for the peak impact parameter, i.e., for intermediate multiplicities

  4. Risks and safety perception. IPSN barometer october 1999. Synthesis; Perception des risques et de la securite barometre IPSN octobre 1999 synthese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-10-01

    An opinion investigation was realized in october 1999 by the IPSN to know the public opinion concerning the risks and safety perception. Five subjects were treated: the public care subjects (social and environment); the science and scientists image; the food risks; the opinion on the nuclear activities (interveners ability and credibility, nuclear controversy, radioactive wastes and nuclear accidents); the french people cares about the risks. The methodology and the analysis of the poll results are detailed. Tables of data investigation are also included. (A.L.B.)

  5. The opinion barometer on the french people and the energy in january 2003; Le barometre d'opinion sur les francais et l'energie en janvier 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-06-01

    This inquiry realized by the CREDOC for the ''Observatoire de l'energie'', presents the opinion of french people on the main four topics: the nuclear energy, the energies prices, the supplying safety and the power lines hiding in the ground. It seems that the instability of the international situation and the economical context contributed to the french moroseness. The french energy independence becomes a priority objective and the nuclear choice, as the production of three quarters of the electric power in France, finds supporters again. (A.L.B.)

  6. Barometer I.R.S.N.. perception of risks and safety. Results of poll of october 2004; Barometre IRSN. Perception des risques et de la securite. Resultats du sondage d'octobre 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    The first chapter aims to establish a level of importance through actual problems, at the social level and environment. The second chapter treats the risk perception in term of risks for the society, confidence and information on risks. General opinions on experts constitute the third chapter. The perception of technological, industrial and natural risks for environment are the object of the fourth chapter. The image of nuclear energy is gathered in the fifth chapter. (N.C.)

  7. Mercury Quick Facts: Health Effects of Mercury Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercury Quick Facts Health Effects of Mercury Exposure What is Elemental Mercury? Elemental (metallic) mercury is the shiny, silver-gray metal found in thermometers, barometers, and thermostats and other ...

  8. Kas Eestis on hea õppida?

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    2009 aastal Briti uuringufirma International Student Barometer korraldatud üleeuroopalisest välistudengite uuringust "I-Graduate", milles esmakordselt osalesid ka Eesti ülikoolid. Sisaldab välistudengite rahulolu elukeskonnaga näitavat tabelit

  9. Some leaders, despite reputations, offer Latvians hope through crisis / Arta Ankrava

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ankrava, Arta

    2009-01-01

    DnB Nord Latvia Barometer küsitlusest selgus, et kõige enam usaldatakse ekspresident Vaira Vike-Freiberga, Riia linnapea Nils Usakovsi ja Ventspilsi endise linnapea Aivars Lembergsi majandusprognoose

  10. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU YUE

    2010-01-01

    @@ PMI Warms Up The Purchasing Managers' Index (PMI), a barometer of manufacturing activ-ities, reached 51.7 percent in August, up 0.5 percentage points from July, said the China Federation of Logistics and Purchasing.

  11. Marine environment news. Vol. 2, no. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this issue of the IAEA's Marine Environment Newsletter topics including radiotracers as new barometers of ocean-climate coupling, bio-indicatos species in detecting marine radioactvity and pollution as well as training activities are covered

  12. 46 CFR 160.151-45 - Equipment required for servicing facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., or other pressure-measurement device or pressure gauge of equivalent accuracy and sensitivity; (j) Thermometer; (k) Barometer, aneroid or mercury; (l) Calibrated torque-wrench for assembling the...

  13. Maailma turism 2005. aastal / Piret Kallas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kallas, Piret

    2006-01-01

    Maailma Turismiorganisatsiooni andmetel kasvas maailma turism 2005. aastal 5,5 protsenti. Prognoos 2006.aastaks. Allikas: UNWTO World Tourism Barometer, jaanuar 2006. Tabel: Ööbimisega välisreisid kogu maailmas, 2003-2005

  14. DNSC08 mean sea surface and mean dynamic topography models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Knudsen, Per

    2009-01-01

    first global MSS without a polar gap including all of the Arctic Ocean by including laser altimetry from the ICESat mission. The mean dynamic topography (MDT) is the quantity that bridges the geoid and the mean sea surface constraining large-scale ocean circulation. Here we present a new high...... models. This way a consistent modeling of the interannual sea level variability is carried out before different MSS and MDT models are compared. Altimetric derived physical MSS can be converted into an "inverse barometer corrected MSS'' by correcting the altimeter range for the inverse barometer effect...

  15. The 2001 overview of renewable energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For more than three years now, EurObserv'ER has been collecting data concerning the renewable energy sources of the European Union in order to describe the status and dynamics of these sectors in thematic barometers. Today, these energies have imposed themselves as viable economic, energetic and industrial realities. The RE Assessment Barometer published here is the synthesis of the work carried out and published from October 2000 to February 2002 (issues 139 to 147 of Systemes Solaires magazine). This publication offers a survey of the dynamics of eight renewable energy sectors. As background reference, sector performances are measured in comparison with European Commission White Paper objectives. (authors)

  16. An Exploratory Study of Religion and Trust in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addai, Isaac; Opoku-Agyeman, Chris; Ghartey, Helen Tekyiwa

    2013-01-01

    Based on individual-level data from 2008 Afro-barometer survey, this study explores the relationship between religion (religious affiliation and religious importance) and trust (interpersonal and institutional) among Ghanaians. Employing hierarchical multiple regression technique, our analyses reveal a positive relationship between religious…

  17. Latvia - a society squabbling with itself / Philip Birzulis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Birzulis, Philip

    2011-01-01

    DNB Nord Barometer poolt läbiviidud küsitlusuuringust selgus, et 28% Läti valijatest kavatseb erakorralistel parlamendivalimistel 2010. aastal tehtud valikut korrata. Venelaste ja lätlaste konfliktist. Parlamendivalimiste kandidaadid, nende tugevamad ja nõrgemad küljed

  18. Correcting GRACE gravity fields for ocean tide effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Per; Andersen, Ole Baltazar

    2002-01-01

    tide model if altimetry corrected for inverted barometer effects was used in its derivation. To study the temporal characteristics of the ocean tidal constituents when sampled by GRACE, approximate alias frequencies were derived assuming a sampling of half a sidereal day. Those results show that the...

  19. Analisis Beberapa Faktor Yang Mempengaruhi Dinamika Kematian Bayi Di Propinsi Nusa Tenggara Timur Pada Tahun 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Ayu, Sri Putri

    2015-01-01

    Kematian atau mortalitas adalah salah satu dari tiga komponen proses demografi yang berpengaruh terhadap struktur penduduk. Tinggi rendahnya tingkat mortalitas penduduk di suatu daerah tidak hanya mempengaruhi pertumbuhan penduduk, tetapi juga merupakan barometer dari tinggi rendahnya tingkat kesehatan masyarakat di daerah tersebut. Dengan memperhatikan trend dari tingkat mortalitas di masa lampau dan estimasi perkembangan di masa mendatang dapatlah dibuat sebuah proyeksi pe...

  20. The Quality of Life in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sing, Ming

    2009-01-01

    The AsiaBarometer of 1,000 respondents shows that Hong Kong people have a great desire for materialistic attainment, and such an emphasis on materialism bodes ill for their quality of life. Negative assessments of the public life sphere, which encompasses the natural environment, the social welfare system, and the democratic system, also detract…

  1. Generalized Trust and Trust in Institutions in Confucian Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Soo Jiuan; Tambyah, Siok Kuan

    2011-01-01

    This study examines generalized trust and trust in institutions in Confucian Asia, covering six countries namely, China, Japan, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan and Vietnam, and one dependent region, Hong Kong. Using data from the 2006 AsiaBarometer Survey, our study affirms the reliability and validity of using a two-item scale to measure…

  2. Designing composite entrepreneurship indicators: An application using consensus PCA

    OpenAIRE

    Avanzini, Diego B.

    2009-01-01

    Existing indicators of entrepreneurial activity (such as the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor, Entrepreneurship Barometer, FORA's Entrepreneurship Index, OECD and Economic Commission's sets of indicators, among others) and several variables that have been considered good proxies for entrepreneurship during the last decades seem to be unsuitable to capture the complex relationship among economic, social, and demographic factors driving entrepreneurial activity. In order to suggest a consistent ...

  3. How To...Activities in Meteorology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimmer, Donald N.; Sagness, Richard L.

    This series of experiments seeks to provide laboratory exercises which demonstrate concepts in Earth Science, particularly meteorology. Materials used in the experiments are easily obtainable. Examples of experiments include: (1) making a thermometer; (2) air/space relationship; (3) weight of air; (4) barometers; (5) particulates; (6) evaporation;…

  4. A Mobile Science Index for Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Canessa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple Mobile Science Potentiality Index (mSPI is introduced as a barometer reflecting a new signal of world development through the capacity for a interconnected community to participate collectively in, and carry out, scientific studies using mobile devices. The mSP Index could be a new signal for world development.

  5. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU YUE

    2010-01-01

    @@ July Economic Figures CPI and PPI The consumer price index(CPI),a barometer of inflation,grew 33 percent year on year in July,0.4 percentage points faster than in June,said the National Bureau of Statistics(NBS).This exceeded the government-set3-percent target for the entire year.

  6. Dynamical evaluation of vaginal micro-ecosystem in a Chinese woman with recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Z Q; Zhou, W; Yue, X A; Mu, L Y; Jiang, Y M

    2015-01-01

    We reported a rare case of recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVVC) in this study. Through dynamic evaluation of the vaginal micro-ecosystem, we found that only depuratory degree, spores, blastospores, and hyphae were specific indicators and the "barometer" of RVVC development. Therefore, an understanding of vaginal micro-ecological changes can help clinicians to improve the treatment of patients with RVVC. PMID:25867410

  7. Trends and patterns in contemporary management in smaller companies: The Danish perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulhøi, John Parm; Madsen, Henning

    2001-01-01

    This paper reports empirical findings from a recent survey of Danish managers with a special focus on managers from smaller companies. The survey has been initiated in Denmark and it is called the 'Danish Management Barometer'. The project is a joint research program between the Aarhus School of ...

  8. Editor's note

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG WeiMin

    2011-01-01

    Recent years see explosive data growth and rapid enhancement of computing powers.Under this background,file and storage technologies play a decisive role in business development and social progress,functioning as the master wand of diverse organizations,as well as a barometer of the performances of most computer systems in our information age.

  9. The Evaluation of Impact on Business Organisations in Lithuania to Operate in an Environmentally Friendly Way

    OpenAIRE

    Irena Bakanauskienė

    2015-01-01

    The article presents the results of empirical research on environmental stakeholders’ impact on Lithuanian business organisations to act in an environmentally friendly way. Theoretical research framework is based on the research tool of the International Business Environmental Barometer (IBEB) and covers strengths and types of different environmental stakeholders (including internal and external stakeholders), organisational strategies of relations with them, and consequences of environmental...

  10. Impacts of altimeter corrections on local linear sea level trends around Taiwan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Yongcun; Andersen, Ole Baltazar

    2013-01-01

    inverted barometer correction, wet tropospheric correction, and sea state bias correction, have significant impacts on the determination of local LSLT. The trend of default corrections contribute more than 1.4 mm year-1 along the coastline of China mainland and 2.1 mm year-1 to local LSLT in the Taiwan...

  11. The Inclusion Lottery: Who's in and Who's out? Tracking Inclusion and Exclusion in New South Wales Government Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Linda J.; Sweller, Naomi

    2011-01-01

    The last few decades have witnessed a broad international movement towards the development of inclusive schools through targeted special education funding and resourcing policies. Student placement statistics are often used as a barometer of policy success but they may also be an indication of system change. In this paper, trends in student…

  12. Euro adoption in Romania: Facts and perceptions

    OpenAIRE

    I.-C. Enache; Z. Brodský

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to link the nominal convergence criteria with Romanian citizens perceptions about euro adoption. Based on convergence reports and Euro-barometer data, the 2010 and 2012 years are analysed. It is shown that even if the nominal convergence achievements are improving, the perceptions regarding the euro adoption are deteriorating. A better communication strategy is advised.

  13. Living in Two Worlds: The Development and Transition of Mormon Education in American Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esplin, Scott C.; Randall, E. Vance

    2014-01-01

    Religious organisations have long relied on education to transmit cherished values, working within society to preserve their worldview. Therefore, when a religious education system is restructured, it can act as a barometer of change, revealing societal values and reflecting negotiated roles. Like other faiths, the Church of Jesus Christ of…

  14. Relationship between upper and lower limb conduit artery vasodilator function in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thijssen, D.H.J.; Rowley, N.; Padilla, J.; Simmons, G.H.; Laughlin, M.H.; Whyte, G.; Cable, N.T.; Green, D.J.

    2011-01-01

    Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) is a strong predictor of future cardiovascular disease and is believed to represent a "barometer" of systemic endothelial health. Although a recent study [Padilla et al. Exp Biol Med (Maywood) 235: 1287-1291, 2010] in pigs confirmed a strong correlation b

  15. Maailma turism 2006 / Piret Kallas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kallas, Piret

    2007-01-01

    2006. aastal tehti kogu maailmas 842 miljonit ööbimisega välisreisi, mis on 4,5 protsenti enam kui 2005. aastal. Maailma turismitrendid 2006-2007, prognoos 2007. aastaks. Euroopa turismi arengust 2006. aastal. Allikas: UNWTO World Tourism Barometer, jaan. 2007

  16. 7. report EurObserv'ER state of renewable energies in Europe; 7. bilan EurObserv'ER etat des energies renouvelables en Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The european renewable energies barometer for the year 2006 confirms the trends that had already been detected during the previous years: that the efforts being made for development are only sufficient in a limited number of European countries and that, overall, they are not accompanied by any real effort to conserve energy. This document provides in formation on the seventh annual assessment barometer, the methanization of the biomass, the revival of concentrating solar power, the emerging of marine energies, the 2010 objectives hard to reach and discussed how to use the blowing wind, to change light into electricity, to harness the sun's heat, to valorize the motive force of rivers, to draw heat from underground, to transform biomass in fuel, to valorize solid biomass and renewable waste. (A.L.B.)

  17. 7. report EurObserv'ER state of renewable energies in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The european renewable energies barometer for the year 2006 confirms the trends that had already been detected during the previous years: that the efforts being made for development are only sufficient in a limited number of European countries and that, overall, they are not accompanied by any real effort to conserve energy. This document provides in formation on the seventh annual assessment barometer, the methanization of the biomass, the revival of concentrating solar power, the emerging of marine energies, the 2010 objectives hard to reach and discussed how to use the blowing wind, to change light into electricity, to harness the sun's heat, to valorize the motive force of rivers, to draw heat from underground, to transform biomass in fuel, to valorize solid biomass and renewable waste. (A.L.B.)

  18. Nationalism consciousness dilemma colonial ties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐凤娇

    2009-01-01

    Hugh MacLennan is a famous Canadian novelist and essayist. In his long literary career, he wrote a great number of works and gained many literary honors. But above all he is a writer, focusing on national issues of Canada, which is well demonstrated by his first nov- el-Barometer l~ing, in which nationalism abounds. This paper covers three parts. Chapter one is mainly about Hugh MacLennan, his first work Barometer Rising as well as the introduction to nationalism and MacLennan's contribution in fiction in this respect. Chapter two fo- crees on nationalism in his first novel. The last chapter is the conclusion part in which we know that well awakened, the Canadians are striving to pursue their real independence and status on the international stage.

  19. ECONOMETRIC ANALYSIS REGARDING THE DEPENDENCE OF THE FUTURES PRICE, THE UNDERLYING ASSET AND THE ROBOR

    OpenAIRE

    Mircea Gabriel Ciolpan; Jenica Popescu

    2012-01-01

    The derivatives market is an important barometer for the investments return and the national economy trends. To check the efficiency of the Romanian derivatives market represents a milestone for the professional investor. How information contributed to the futures price represented a guarantee for the investors that the derivatives follow the reality of the economy. As well, we considered that the banking interest rate represented a decisive aspect for making an investment decision. By markin...

  20. Coherent sea-level fluctuations along the global continental slope

    OpenAIRE

    Chris W. Hughes; Meredith, Michael P

    2006-01-01

    Signals in sea-level or, more properly, sub-surface pressure (SSP; sea-level corrected for the inverse barometer effect) are expected to propagate rapidly along the continental slope due to the effect of sloping topography on wave modes, resulting in strongly correlated SSP over long-distances. Observations of such correlations around the Arctic and Antarctic are briefly reviewed, and then extended using satellite altimetry to the rest of the global continental slope. It is shown that such lo...

  1. Stock Market Volatility under Sanctions

    OpenAIRE

    Hojatallah Goudarzi

    2014-01-01

    Since 1979, Iran has faced with unilateral and multilateral harsh sanctions due to its nuclear energy program. These sanctions have resulted in significant problem to both sanctioned and sanctioning parties. Given the fact that sanctions have had significant impacts on Iran’s economy and since Iran stock market is the barometer of its economy, it is assumed that sanctions affect the Iranian stock market as well. To test this hypothesis, this study studied the Iranian stock market volatility d...

  2. German public opinion on admitting refugees

    OpenAIRE

    Gerhards, Jürgen; Hans, Silke; Schupp, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Since the beginning of 2016, the Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) study has been conducting a monthly survey of German attitudes, expectations, and fears concerning migration. The third wave of the survey,-the Barometer of Public Opinion on Refugees in Germany (Stimmungsbarometer zu Geflüchteten in Deutschland)-, conductedin March 2016, shows that more than half of all respondents still associate the influx of refugees with more risks than opportunities. Nonetheless, a clear majority (81 percent o...

  3. Gender issues in architectural education: feminine paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    Raluca Niculae

    2012-01-01

    Whether we are referring to architectural practice or architectural education, women’s lack of visibility is an important issue that reveals the fact that architecture is still defined by a masculine paradigm starting from design norms and canons followed by the dissemination of the traditional image of the architect as white aggressive and egocentric middle-class man. In terms of architectural education, the gender barometer leans, according to specific statistics, in favour of the male side...

  4. The Evasion-Motivation, Reaction and Economic Reasons

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel Goicea; Roxana Ionescu

    2012-01-01

    The tax evasion is and has been a controversial phenomenon over time. Specialists in finance and the competent bodies of the village have always tried to find measures to control and limit this. In this paper, the authors aim to present the motivations behind the tax evasion. They seek both personal considerations and opportunities offered by the current legislation. The state of satiation of man and his daily comfort are perhaps the most important barometers in the analysis of the tax evasio...

  5. The Bear Facts: Implications of Whitebark Pine Loss for Yellowstone Grizzlies

    OpenAIRE

    Willcox, Louisa

    2009-01-01

    Whitebark pine is a foundation species, and barometer of the health of high elevation forests ecosystems in the West. It provides food and cover for numerous wildlife species, including the Clark’s nutcracker, crossbill, grosbeak, red squirrel and chipmunk. Whitebark pine is particularly important in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE), where it provides an essential food source for the imperiled Yellowstone grizzly bear. We will review the current scientific knowledge about the relations...

  6. Things are not always what it is measured: On the importance of adequately assessing energy poverty

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, Sandrine; Holzemer, Laurence; Nyssens Moraes Da Silva, Thiago; Maréchal, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Energy poverty is a major societal issue with both economic impacts and solidarity implications. Although its main drivers (e.g. insufficient income, bad quality housing, high energy prices) are widely recognised, there is no common definition of energy poverty at the European level, let alone a common way of measuring the phenomenon. The energy poverty barometer for Belgium has been developed accordingly. It draws on a set of composite indicators with the aim of grasping the multifaceted nat...

  7. Empirical Study on Consuming Psychology and Consuming Behavior of Contemporary University Students: Taking Shandong Province as an Example

    OpenAIRE

    Shuang Li

    2009-01-01

    As a sort of knowledge, emotion and disposition in the social living conditions, consuming psychology and behavior is not only a wind vane for social development to a certain extent, but also a barometer of the spirit of the time. Therefore, study on consuming psychology and the consuming behavior it affects becomes a significant and unique perspective to analyze state of development of the society and orientation of behaviors of its social members. University students are the vanguard of the...

  8. Public opinion’s involvement and interests on environmental issues

    OpenAIRE

    Natalia Melgar; Máximo Rossi

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to extend previous findings by showing that involvement in environmental issues is shaped by personal attributes such as education and the subjective income but also by country characteristics. The dataset for this research comes from the 2005 World Value Survey and the 2008 Latin-barometer survey that allow us to consider a large and heterogeneous set of countries. The contributions of the paper are three-fold. Firstly, we provide clear evidence that the economic per...

  9. Journalists views and use of social media: Cision Social Journalism Study 2012: global report

    OpenAIRE

    Pole, K.; Gulyás, A.; Rehkopf, F.

    2012-01-01

    The annual Social Journalism Study conducted by Cision and Canterbury Christ Church University, UK, is charting the changes of how journalists and media professionals use social media for work. Unique to this year’s study is the identification of five profile groups of professional social media users who differ in terms of patterns of use, attitude and knowledge.These groups are: Architects, Hunters, Observers, Promoters and Sceptics. This report also includes a Social Journalism Barometer wh...

  10. HYPERTENSIVE ENCEPHALOPATHY INDUCED BY MERCURY POISONING; A REPORT OF 3 CASES (IN AN IRANIAN FAMILY)

    OpenAIRE

    M. Sharifian MD; M. Noorisafa MD; M. Kiahosseini MD

    2007-01-01

    ObjectiveMercury poisoning is one of the important recent causes of mortality and mortality in children worldwide, particularly in industrial environments; mercury is a poisonous metal, especially harmful to the nervous and immune systems and the kidneys and can even be fatal. Elemental mercury is present in thermometers, barometer batteries, sphygmomanometers and latex paints.Inorganic mercury salts are found in antiseptics, pesticides, pigments and explosives and are used as preservatives i...

  11. Update of shadow prices. Financial valuation of environmental emission on the basis of Dutch governmental targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A tool has been designed by means of which small businesses can collect environmental information in a simple and effective way: That tool is the so-called 'Milieubarometer' (Environmental Barometer), a spread-sheet for the input of environmental data of a specific business. Based on those data the environmental performance of a business can be determined as well as the effects of planned measures to improve the process in a business. This memorandum is an update of shadow prices

  12. Positioning with Inertial Sensors and Aid Sensors when loosing GPS Fix

    OpenAIRE

    Mathiassen, Kim

    2010-01-01

    This thesis designs a multipurpose navigation unit. The unit is equipped with a GPS which is the primary navigation sensor, when the GPS satellites are available. If the GPS satellites becomes unavailable, a inertial system with aid sensors is used for navigation. A unit that collects data from a GPS, gyroscopes, accelerometers, magnetometers and a barometer has been developed in a project leading to this thesis. The software development was not completed. The software responsible for commun...

  13. Spotlight: maquiladora employment: new data confirm pickup in Juarez factory jobs

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Coronado; Jesus Canas

    2010-01-01

    For decades, Mexico's maquiladoras have been a major growth engine in the Rio Grande region, and monthly reports on the industry's employment, wages and production were key barometers for the border region's economy. ; We developed a model to estimate Juarez's monthly maquiladora employment. This model will continue to be a timely indicator of El Paso-Juárez area manufacturing activity, given its track record and Mexico's two-month lag in reporting IMMEX (Maquiladora Manufacturing Industry an...

  14. The relationship between tourism and trade in South Africa / by Denise Fry

    OpenAIRE

    Fry, Denise

    2008-01-01

    Tourism and trade are growing at an unprecedented rate. The United Nations World Tourism Organisation (UNWTO) barometer (2007) finds that foreign arrivals for January 2007 to August 2007 showed a 5.6 percent increase compared with the previous year. Furthermore, the World Trade Organization (2007) finds that merchandise trade grew by 8 percent worldwide. A number of studies have been conducted internationally on the relationship between tourism and trade and empirical evidence for these studi...

  15. IMPLICAŢIILE BALANŢEI DE PLĂŢI ASUPRA STABILITĂŢII FINANCIARE A REPUBLICII MOLDOVA (International Conference “EUROPEAN PERSPECTIVE OF LABOR MARKET - INOVATION, EXPERTNESS, PERFORMANCE”)

    OpenAIRE

    Rodica PERCIUN

    2015-01-01

    The balance of payments is the barometer of the entire financial and economic activity of a country. It highlights the capacity of production of goods and their competitiveness on the international market, both in terms of quality and price. Balance of payments direct implications on financial stability are dual: on the one hand, the currency exchange rate affects prices and thus increases or decreases profit international transactions, and on the other hand, the balance of payments situation...

  16. Does low self-esteem enhance social pain? The relationship between trait self-esteem and anterior cingulate cortex activation induced by ostracism

    OpenAIRE

    Onoda, Keiichi; Okamoto, Yasumasa; Nakashima, Ken’ichiro; Nittono, Hiroshi; Yoshimura, Shinpei; Yamawaki, Sigeto; Yamaguchi, Shuhei; Ura, Mitsuhiro

    2010-01-01

    According to sociometer theory, self-esteem serves as a barometer of the extent to which individuals are socially included or excluded by others. We hypothesized that trait self-esteem would be related to social pain responsiveness, and we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to experimentally investigate this potential relationship. Participants (n = 26) performed a cyberball task, a computerized game of catch during which the participants were excluded from the game. Participants then...

  17. E-RESOURCES GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM SYSTEM FOR MILITARY OPERATION

    OpenAIRE

    Aditya Kurniawan; Khaterini Mulyono; Mellyna; Stevan Gerardo

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, the barometer of the strength of a country is a military force that is owned by the state. To produce a good military force in a country, it would require an easy, fast and accurate military resource management. This study utilized geographic data as a reference for the location of the logistics resources to help simplify the management of military data using spatial data in Geographic Information System (GIS). The system development approach used JSON Service technology framework a...

  18. Reduced severity and improved control of self-reported asthma in Finland during 2001-2010

    OpenAIRE

    Kauppi, Paula; Peura, Sirpa; Salimäki, Johanna; Järvenpää, Salme; Linna, Miika; Haahtela, Tari

    2015-01-01

    Background Asthma and allergies are common and cause substantial burden in symptoms and suffering, hospitalizations and medication costs. However, despite the high prevalence, asthma burden has already decreased in Finland in 2000s. Objective We carried out an asthma barometer survey in all Finnish pharmacies to study changes in asthma severity and control, and use of health care services from 2001 to 2010. Methods Asthma severity, comorbid allergic conditions, and use of medication and healt...

  19. The Game People Played: Mahjong in Modern Chinese Society and Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Maggie Green

    2015-01-01

    This article considers the discourse surrounding the popular Chinese table game of mahjong in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, using it as a barometer to trace social and cultural changes during the late Qing and Republican periods. After analyzing the connection between mahjong; its forerunner, madiao; and their antithesis, weiqi (go), it traces the changing position of mahjong in Chinese society from a game seemingly loathed by literati to a staple of bourgeois parlors. Drawing on a ...

  20. Heterogeneous impact of traveling to Western countries on gender norms in Middle East and North Africa countries

    OpenAIRE

    Atamanov, Aziz

    2015-01-01

    Social gender norms shape individuals’ opportunities and actions. Traditional and gender biased norms can contribute to persistent gender disparities. However, counter-stereotypical images can shift an expected behavior for men and women. This paper investigates if traveling to Western countries relaxes gender norms in the Middle East and North Africa region using the Arab Barometer data. Preliminary empirical findings suggest that international travel to Western countries is associated with ...

  1. Правова природа адміністративної відповідальності неповнолітніх

    OpenAIRE

    Лесько, Наталія

    2013-01-01

    Problems of institute of administrative responsibility of minors are studied, the opinions of scholars in the sphere of administrative law are analyzed, on this basis new notion of administrative responsibility of minors is suggested. Administrative responsibility of minors – application of educational measures that are applicable to minors or administrative penalties to persons aged 16 – 18 years, guilty in committing of the administrative offense. Juvenile misconducts are so called baromete...

  2. When Oil Prices Encounter the Financial Crisis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Jintao

    2008-01-01

    @@ The oil market is just like the sea; it is never quiet for a single moment. Facing the sea to observe the tide, we must behave calm in order to act correctly. The oil in the country is like the blood of the economy, and the oil prices in the economy is like a barometer. Under the mysterious veil, there are oil supply changes, the pattern of political restructuring...

  3. How Much Do Perceptions of Corruption Really Tell Us?

    OpenAIRE

    Weber Abramo, Claudio

    2008-01-01

    Regressions and tests performed on data from Transparency International Global Corruption Barometer (GCB) 2004 survey show that personal or household experience of bribery is not a good predictor of perceptions held about corruption among the general population. In contrast, perceptions about the effects of corruption correlate consistently among themselves. However, no consistent relationship between opinions about general effects and the assessments of the extent with which corruption affec...

  4. Mediadekking in die Suid-Afrikaanse gedrukte media oor taalverwante onderwerpe, in besonder taalregte en taalbeleidskwessies

    OpenAIRE

    E. Truter

    2006-01-01

    Coverage of issues related to language, in particular language rights and language policy, in the South African print media The print media are both important and reliable barometers for determining the feelings and attitudes of the reading public. This information, compiled in an annual report to PanSALB, may assist in making various groups aware of their language rights and could help to cultivate a proactive culture of language rights. This, in turn, could contribute towards the transforma...

  5. Modeling and predicting the CBOE market volatility index

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Marcelo; Medeiros, Marcelo Cunha; Scharth, Marcel

    2013-01-01

    This paper performs a thorough statistical examination of the time-series properties of the market volatility index (VIX) from the Chicago Board Options Exchange (CBOE). The motivation lies on the widespread consensus that the VIX is a barometer to the overall market sentiment as to what concerns risk appetite. To assess the statistical behavior of the time series, we run a series of preliminary analyses whose results suggest there is some long-range dependence in the VIX index. This is consi...

  6. The ABX: how do the markets price subprime mortgage risk?

    OpenAIRE

    Ingo Fender; Martin Scheicher

    2008-01-01

    The ABX family of indices has become a key barometer of subprime mortgage market conditions during the recent financial crisis. Simple regression analysis illustrates the relationship between observed index returns and proxies of default risk, interest rates, market liquidity and risk appetite. The results suggest that declining risk appetite and heightened concerns about market illiquidity have provided a sizeable contribution to the observed collapse in ABX prices since the summer of 2007.

  7. The pricing of subprime mortgage risk in good times and bad: evidence from the ABX.HE indices

    OpenAIRE

    Fender, Ingo; Scheicher, Martin

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the market pricing of subprime mortgage risk on the basis of data for the ABX.HE family of indices, which have become a key barometer of mortgage market conditions during the recent financial crisis. After an introduction into ABX index mechanics and a discussion of historical pricing patterns, we use regression analysis to establish the relationship between observed index returns and macroeco-nomic news as well as market based proxies of default risk, interest rates, ...

  8. Validade e confiabilidade das medidas de confiança interpessoal: o barômetro das Américas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucio Rennó

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Using an innovative databank, this article conducts validity and reliability tests for various measures of the concept of interpersonal trust. The Brazilian round of the Americas Barometer 2008 included different measures of the interpersonal trust concept, allowing the evaluation of its internal consistency and external validity. After a battery of tests, the conclusion is that the measure of interpersonal trust traditionally used in series like the World Values Survey, Eurobarometer, and Latinobarometer suffers from serious validity and reliability problems.

  9. Measuring the sustainability of island tourism

    OpenAIRE

    De Groote, Patrick; Ballet, Birne

    2011-01-01

    The research discussed in this paper looks for an appropriate instrument to evaluate the sustainability of island tourism, taking economic, socio-cultural and ecological aspects into account. Multiple indicator models are suggested by literature such as the Barometer of Tourism Sustainability (BTS) model or the ecological footprint as an indicator of tourism sustainability. Based on a thorough literature review in combination with some further research an indicator index was constructed. ...

  10. Letter. Late cretaceous seasonal ocean variability from the arctic

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, Andrew; Kemp, Alan E.S.; Pike, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    The modern Arctic Ocean is regarded as barometer of global change and amplifier of global warming1 and therefore records of past Arctic change are of a premium for palaeoclimate reconstruction. Little is known of the state of the Arctic Ocean in the greenhouse period of the late Cretaceous, yet records from such times may yield important clues to its future behaviour given current global warming trends. Here we present the first seasonally resolved sedimentary record from the Cretaceous from...

  11. ДЕСЯТЬ ЛЕТ "БАРОМЕТРУ НОВОЙ РОССИИ" ПОЛИТИЧЕСКИЕ ТРЕНДЫ

    OpenAIRE

    Роуз, Ричард

    2002-01-01

    The New Russia Barometer (NRB) monitors the response of Russians to the political and economic transformation of their society through nationwide representative sample surveys. The NRB survey was started in January, 1992, the first month of the new Russian Federation. NRB surveys have been conducted regularly since, creating such basic economic, political and social indicators as support for the regime and for undemocratic alternatives, being paid or not being paid by employers, poverty, stra...

  12. RESEARCH ON CHARACTERISTICS AND DIFFERENCE OF BAROMETRIC PRESSURE EFFECT ON WELL WATER LEVEL%井水位气压效应特征差异研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄仲; 张卫华; 王慧; 张辉

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of geological structure background, the feature of barometer change and the structure of well hole in well network of the Three Gorges area, the characteristics and differences of barometer change in well water level are analyzed and the relation between it and the parameter of physical mechanics in water-bearing stratum is also studied. The results show that the characteristics and differences of inverted barometer effect in well water level have a certain relation with the lithology of water-bearing stratum and the depth of well hole.%基于三峡井网所在地的地质构造背景、气压变化特征和井孔结构,分析了整个井网井水位气压变化特征及其差异,以及与含水层物理力学参数之间的关系等.分析结果表明,承压井水位气压效应特征差异与含水层岩性、井孔深度有关.

  13. Early signaling, referral, and treatment of adolescent chronic pain: a study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voerman Jessica S

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic pain is prevalent among young people and negatively influences their quality of life. Furthermore, chronic pain in adolescence may persist into adulthood. Therefore, it is important early on to promote the self-management skills of adolescents with chronic pain by improving signaling, referral, and treatment of these youngsters. In this study protocol we describe the designs of two complementary studies: a signaling study and an intervention study. Methods and design The signaling study evaluates the Pain Barometer, a self-assessed signaling instrument for chronic pain in adolescents. To evaluate the feasibility of the Pain Barometer, the experiences of youth-health care nurses will be evaluated in semi-structured interviews. Also, we will explore the frequencies of referral per health-care provider. The intervention study evaluates Move It Now, a guided self-help intervention via the Internet for teenagers with chronic pain. This intervention uses cognitive behavioural techniques, including relaxation exercises and positive thinking. The objective of the intervention is to improve the ability of adolescents to cope with pain. The efficacy of Move It Now will be examined in a randomized controlled trial, in which 60 adolescents will be randomly assigned to an experimental condition or a waiting list control condition. Discussion If the Pain Barometer is proven to be feasible and Move It Now appears to be efficacious, a health care pathway can be created to provide the best tailored treatment promptly to adolescents with chronic pain. Move It Now can be easily implemented throughout the Netherlands, as the intervention is Internet based. Trial registration Dutch Trial Register NTR1926

  14. Societal expectations of regulators: integrity, participation and accountability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kjell Andersson (Karita Research, Sweden) presented the expectations of society on regulators based on his experiences, mostly from Sweden. Society expects the regulator to be competent, have integrity, take an active part in participative processes (without losing independence), be the 'people's experts', communicate standards and criteria. so that they are understandable and show their practical meaning. Some good results have been. obtained in Sweden with respect to trust in national agencies as -witnessed by the results of the Euro-barometer on information on radioactive waste in 2005

  15. The QCD vacuum, hadrons and superdense matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is probably the only textbook available that gathers QCD, many-body theory and phase transitions in one volume. The presentation is pedagogical and readable. Contents: The QCD Vacuum: Introduction; QCD on the Lattice Topological Effects in Gauges Theories. Correlation Functions and Microscopic Excitations: Introduction; Operator Product Expansion; The Sum Rules beyond OPE; Nonpower Contributions to Correlators and Instantons; Hadronic Spectroscopy on the Lattice. Dense Matter: Hadronic Matter; Asymptotically Dense Quark-Gluon Plasma; Instantons in Matter; Lattice Calculations at Finite Temperature; Phase Transitions; Macroscopic Excitations and Experiments: General Properties of High Energy Collisions; ''Barometers'', ''Thermometers'', Interferometric ''Microscope''; Experimental Perspectives

  16. Semantics in mobile sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Yan, Zhixian

    2014-01-01

    The dramatic progress of smartphone technologies has ushered in a new era of mobile sensing, where traditional wearable on-body sensors are being rapidly superseded by various embedded sensors in our smartphones. For example, a typical smartphone today, has at the very least a GPS, WiFi, Bluetooth, triaxial accelerometer, and gyroscope. Alongside, new accessories are emerging such as proximity, magnetometer, barometer, temperature, and pressure sensors. Even the default microphone can act as an acoustic sensor to track noise exposure for example. These sensors act as a ""lens"" to understand t

  17. Property:The Original Sin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The Chinese property market is undergoing a correction after two years of investment mania. During this time,the consumer price index,a barometer of inflation,soared 7.9 percent in the first half of this year and now hovers at a high level of over 7 percent.Ren Yuling,a renowned economist and an adviser to the State Council,argues that property is the root cause of this round of inflation. In an interview with Dongfang Daily in early July,he called for commercial and residential developers to immediately reduce high property prices.

  18. Globalization, neo-liberalism and community psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafstad, Hilde Eileen; Blakar, Rolv Mikkel; Carlquist, Erik; Phelps, Joshua Marvle; Rand-Hendriksen, Kim

    2009-03-01

    A longitudinal analysis (1984-2005) of media language in Norway is presented, demonstrating how the current globalized capitalist market ideology is now permeating this long-established Scandinavian welfare state. This ideological shift carries powerful implications for community psychology, as traditional welfare state values of equal services based on a universalistic principle are set aside, and social and material inequalities are increasingly accepted. The methodology developed in the present study may serve as a "barometer of community changes", to borrow a metaphor used by Sarason (2000). PMID:19130214

  19. The carrying capacity of a tourist destination. The case of a coastal Italian city

    OpenAIRE

    Maggi, Elena; Fredella, Franco Lorenzo

    2010-01-01

    In the last decades the world tourist flows rapidly grew and travel and tourism has become one of the world’s highest priority industries and employers. According to UNWTO world tourism barometer, in 2008 international tourist arrivals reached 919 million (880 million in 2009, a cause of the international recession), with a growth of 72% since 1995. Italy, which accounts in 2009 43 millions of tourist arrivals, is one of the most preferred destinations. Tourism gives an important contribu...

  20. Milestone in the Protection of Human Rights on the Part of the Accused——From the Supreme People's Court recovery of death sentence approval authority

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUANYI

    2011-01-01

    @@ The protection of human rights on the part of the accused is the core of modern human rights protection, known as the barometer of human rights conditions of a society.The death sentence is, no doubt, the key in this respect,because the right to live is the most basic human right, an inherent natural right, belonging to the first generation of human rights.The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights says in Article 6: "Every human being has the inherent right to life.This right shall be protected by law.

  1. Testing in a stratospheric balloon of a semiconductor detector altimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An altimeter containing a semiconductor detector has been operated on flight. We have used a stratospheric balloon launched from AIRE-SUR-ADOUR with the C.N.E.S. collaboration. During this assay two apparatus have been used. The first allowed to follow the balloon during its ascension and descent, the second to follow its evolution at its maximum altitude. Informations transmitted by radio and recorded on Magnetophon, have been studied after the flight. Results are identical with these given by the barometer used by the C.N.E.S. in this essay. (authors)

  2. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The Canton Fair, a barometer of the country’s export health, continued to send worrying signals as foreign buyers skimped on orders for Chinese products. The country’s fund managers cashed in on the stock market euphoria of the first quarter. The central state-owned enterprises bounced back from their previous dismal financial situation. China Mobile, the country’s largest mobile service provider, saw slower profit growth in the first quarter. The first domestic auto financing company with no foreign ownership opened in Shanghai.

  3. Trends and patterns in smaller companies: The Danish perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulhøi, John Parm; Madsen, Henning

    2000-01-01

    Managers and Executives. The aim of the survey, which is based on a structured, pre-tested questionnaire sent to 1500 pre-notified managers in Denmark, is to establish a database for use in monitoring and identifying interesting changes and patterns within a broad range of managerial and organisational......This paper presents the empirical findings of a recent survey of Danish managers, with a special focus on managers in smaller companies. The survey, called the 'Danish Management Barometer', is part of a joint research programme between the Aarhus School of Business and the Danish Association of...

  4. Siting criteria as a function of sensitivity of nesting ferruginous hawks to geothermal development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, C.M.; Thurow, T.L.; Sullivan, J.F.

    1978-01-01

    The ferruginous hawk has been studied over a number of years in the Raft River Valley area of south-central Idaho and consequently its population densities and dynamics are known. The ferruginous hawk is to be used as a barometer to the effects of human disturbance as might be found during geothermal development. It was proposed to determine what sort of buffer zones need to be established around the species to be compatible with the concepts of multiple use, and accumulate information and baseline data useful to such studies. (MHR)

  5. On atmospheric radio-activity and Peiping weather

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The atmospheric radio-activity of Peiping is considerably greater than what is observed by Simpsons Gockel and others in Europe, but is smaller than that observed by Deodhar in India. The rises and falls of the barometer are accompanied by the systematic decrease and increase in the activity, clouds always produce a lowering of the activity, but the dense and thick nimbus and cumulus clouds produce more lowering than any other thin clouds; winds from East produce a decrease in the activity while those from other directions produce an increase; the effect of the clouds on the activity is in general much greater than that due to the change in barometric height

  6. Studying Mobile Media Cultural Technologies, Mobile Communication, and the IPhone

    CERN Document Server

    Hjorth, Larissa; Richardson, Ingrid

    2012-01-01

    The iPhone represents an important moment in both the short history of mobile media and the long history of cultural technologies. Like the Walkman of the 1980s, it marks a juncture in which notions about identity, individualism, lifestyle and sociality require rearticulation. this book explores not only the iPhone's particular characteristics, uses and "affects," but also how the "iPhone moment" functions as a barometer for broader patterns of change. In the iPhone moment, this study considers the convergent trajectories in the evolution of digital and mobile culture, and

  7. Total lymphoid irradiation in multiple sclerosis: blood lymphocytes and clinical course

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have found a significant relationship between blood lymphocyte count and prognosis in 45 patients receiving either total lymphoid irradiation or sham irradiation for chronic progressive multiple sclerosis. Patients with sustained lymphocyte counts less than 900 mm-3 for prolonged periods after treatment showed less rapid progression over the ensuing 3 years than did patients with multiple sclerosis who had lymphocyte counts above this level (p less than 0.01). Our results suggest that a simple laboratory test, the absolute blood lymphocyte count, may serve as a valuable barometer for monitoring the amount of immunosuppressive therapy needed to prevent progression in patients with multiple sclerosis, and possibly other autoimmune diseases

  8. 46 CFR 160.077-23 - Production tests and inspections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... provided. (v) A Thermometer that is sensitive to 0.5 °C (1 °F) and does not have an error exceeding ±0.25 °C (0.5 °F). (vi) A Barometer that is capable of reading mm (inches) of mercury with a sensitivity of... sensitivity of 1 kPa (0.1 psig) and an error not exceeding ±0.5 kPa (0.05 psig). (ix) A Torque Wrench if...

  9. Newspaper archives : a knowledge asset

    OpenAIRE

    Pujari, Anita; Pai, Priya

    2005-01-01

    This paper deals with Newspaper Content as a source of knowledge and how Times Archives of the Times Group has converted the 166-year span of socio-political content of “The Times of India” and the 43 year economic and business barometer “The Economic Times” into an easily accessible Archive. The value of this Archive as a Knowledge Asset lies in its potential of being recalled, researched, reused and re-expressed by the various ventures of the Group. This paper describes the process of Micro...

  10. Patient Satisfaction with Spanish Pain Centers: Observational Study with More than 3,000 Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Puiggròs, Patricia; Tesedo Nieto, Javier; Acín Lázaro, María Pilar; Carrera González, Alfredo; Soler, Miguel José Arranz; Maldonado Vega, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Chronic pain is a serious problem in Spain. This multicenter, epidemiological 3-month follow-up study investigates pain management efficacy in Spanish centers using patient satisfaction criteria. 3,414 eligible adult patients (65,6% female) with moderate to severe chronic pain from 146 pain centers were included. Patient satisfaction was assessed based onto question 18 of Spanish healthcare barometer-CSI. Pain evolution (Brief Pain Inventory-Short Form (BPI-SF) and visual analog scale (VAS)), quality of life/EuroQol-5, and pain control expectations fulfillment were also assessed. Mean age was 61.3 years. 64.4% of participating centers employed multidisciplinary pain management approach. After 3 months, mean patient satisfaction was 7.8 (1–10) on the CIS barometer. Medical staff received the highest scores, whereas waiting for tests, appointment request to appointment date time, and waiting times at the center the lowest. Mean pain decreased from 7.4 to 4.0; BPI-SF intensity decreased from 6.5 to 3.8; pain control expectations were met in 78.7% of patients; EuroQoL-5D utility index increased from 0.37 to 0.62, p Spanish centers care; 80% had their pain control expectations met. Quality of life improved remarkably: 71% felt moderately to significantly better. However, waiting times need improvement.

  11. Risk perception of the Belgian population. Results of the public opinion survey in 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The SCK-CEN 2009 risk perception barometer is based on over 1000 Computer Assisted Personal Interviews, taken from persons selected to be representative for the Belgian 18+ population, and all realized in the period July and August 2009. An additional sample , N = 100 is taken from the for the population living in the communities of Lambusart and Wanfercee-Baulet in the municipality of Fleurus. Besides the classical background variables used to obtain the quota for representatively (age, language, habitat, gender and social class), we also included a series of questions assessing the communication and sociological context. The main topics in the survey were I) risk perception and confidence in authorities; II) Attitude towards science and technology and attitudes toward nuclear energy; III) stake holders engagement; IV)acceptance of legal norms for food products; v) media use; vi) evaluation of nuclear actors; VII) psychometric risk characteristics; VII) safety behaviour and anomy; ix) knowledge about nuclear domain; x) risk communication; xi) consumer's attitude towards food with radioactive contamination. Some of the questions asked in 2009 are similar to those enquired in the SCK barometer of 2006 and 2002, in order to study the time evolution of the risk perception associated with various issues.

  12. Desenvolvimento sustentável: uma descrição das principais ferramentas de avaliação Sustainable development: presenting the main measurement methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Michael Van Bellen

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Desenvolvimento Sustentável: Uma Descrição das Principais Ferramentas de Avaliação Neste artigo são apresentadas as principais características de três métodos que se propõem a mensurar o grau de sustentabilidade do desenvolvimento. Este métodos foram selecionados por especialistas que atuam em diferentes esferas da sociedade e que lidam com o conceito de desenvolvimento sustentável. Os métodos descritos e analisados são o Ecological Footprint Method, o Dashboard of Sustainability e o Barometer of Sustainability.In this article are presented the main characteristics of three methods which purpose is to measure the rate of sustainability of the development. These methods were selected by specialists who operate at differents levels of the society and also deal with the concept of sustainable development. The methods described and analysed are the Ecological Footprint Method, the Dashboard of Sustainability and the Barometer of Sustainability.

  13. a Uav Based 3-D Positioning Framework for Detecting Locations of Buried Persons in Collapsed Disaster Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, H.; Kim, C.; Lee, W.

    2016-06-01

    Regarding spatial location positioning, indoor location positioning theories based on wireless communication techniques such as Wi-Fi, beacon, UWB and Bluetooth has widely been developing across the world. These techniques are mainly focusing on spatial location detection of customers using fixed wireless APs and unique Tags in the indoor environment. Besides, since existing detection equipment and techniques using ultrasound or sound etc. to detect buried persons and identify survival status for them cause 2nd damages on the collapsed debris for rescuers. In addition, it might take time to check the buried persons. However, the collapsed disaster sites should consider both outdoor and indoor environments because empty spaces under collapsed debris exists. In order to detect buried persons from the empty spaces, we should collect wireless signals with Wi-Fi from their mobile phone. Basically, the Wi-Fi signal measure 2-D location. However, since the buried persons have Z value with burial depth, we also should collect barometer sensor data from their mobile phones in order to measure Z values according to weather conditions. Specially, for quick accessibility to the disaster area, a drone (UAV; Unmanned Arial Vehicle) system, which is equipped with a wireless detection module, was introduced. Using these framework, this study aims to provide the rescuers with effective rescue information by calculating 3-D location for buried persons based on the wireless and barometer sensor fusion.

  14. Atmospheric pressure loading parameters from very long baseline interferometry observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macmillan, D. S.; Gipson, John M.

    1994-01-01

    Atmospheric mass loading produces a primarily vertical displacement of the Earth's crust. This displacement is correlated with surface pressure and is large enough to be detected by very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) measurements. Using the measured surface pressure at VLBI stations, we have estimated the atmospheric loading term for each station location directly from VLBI data acquired from 1979 to 1992. Our estimates of the vertical sensitivity to change in pressure range from 0 to -0.6 mm/mbar depending on the station. These estimates agree with inverted barometer model calculations (Manabe et al., 1991; vanDam and Herring, 1994) of the vertical displacement sensitivity computed by convolving actual pressure distributions with loading Green's functions. The pressure sensitivity tends to be smaller for stations near the coast, which is consistent with the inverted barometer hypothesis. Applying this estimated pressure loading correction in standard VLBI geodetic analysis improves the repeatability of estimated lengths of 25 out of 37 baselines that were measured at least 50 times. In a root-sum-square (rss) sense, the improvement generally increases with baseline length at a rate of about 0.3 to 0.6 ppb depending on whether the baseline stations are close to the coast. For the 5998-km baseline from Westford, Massachusetts, to Wettzell, Germany, the rss improvement is about 3.6 mm out of 11.0 mm. The average rss reduction of the vertical scatter for inland stations ranges from 2.7 to 5.4 mm.

  15. Optimization of Palm Oil Plantation Revitalization in North Sumatera Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliza Hidayati

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The idea of making North Sumatera  as a barometer of national oil palm industry require efforts commodities and agro-industry development of oil palm. One effort that can be done is by successful execution plantation revitalization. The plantation Revitalization is an effort to accelerate the development of smallholder plantations, through expansion and replanting by help of palm estate company as business partner and bank financed plantation revitalization fund. Business partner agreement obliged and bound to make at least the same smallholder plantation productivity with business partners, so that the refund rate to banks become larger and prosperous people as a plantation owner. Generally low productivity of smallholder plantations under normal potential caused a lot of old and damaged plants with plant material at random. The purpose of revitalizing oil palm plantations which are to increase their competitiveness through increased farm productivity. The research aims to identify potential criteria in influencing plantation productivity improvement priorities to be observed and followed up in order to improve the competitiveness of destinations and make North Sumatera barometer of national palm oil can be achieved. Research conducted with Analytical Network Process (ANP, to find the effect of dependency relationships between factors or criteria with the knowledge of the experts in order to produce an objective opinion and relevant depict the actual situation. 

  16. Risk perception of the Belgian population. Results of the public opinion survey in 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perko, T.; Turcanu, C.; Schroeder, J.; Carle, B.

    2010-02-15

    The SCK-CEN 2009 risk perception barometer is based on over 1000 Computer Assisted Personal Interviews, taken from persons selected to be representative for the Belgian 18+ population, and all realized in the period July and August 2009. An additional sample , N = 100 is taken from the for the population living in the communities of Lambusart and Wanfercee-Baulet in the municipality of Fleurus. Besides the classical background variables used to obtain the quota for representatively (age, language, habitat, gender and social class), we also included a series of questions assessing the communication and sociological context. The main topics in the survey were I) risk perception and confidence in authorities; II) Attitude towards science and technology and attitudes toward nuclear energy; III) stake holders engagement; IV)acceptance of legal norms for food products; v) media use; vi) evaluation of nuclear actors; VII) psychometric risk characteristics; VII) safety behaviour and anomy; ix) knowledge about nuclear domain; x) risk communication; xi) consumer's attitude towards food with radioactive contamination. Some of the questions asked in 2009 are similar to those enquired in the SCK barometer of 2006 and 2002, in order to study the time evolution of the risk perception associated with various issues.

  17. Risk perception of the Belgian population. Results of the public opinion survey in 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Aeken, K.; Turcanu, C.; Bombaerts, G.; Carle, B.; Hardeman, F.

    2007-01-15

    The Belgian Nuclear Research Center SCK-CEN 2006 risk perception barometer is based on over 1000 Computer Assisted Personal Interviews, taken from persons selected to be representative for the Belgian 18+ population, and all realized in the period March 21st to April 12th 2006. Besides the classical background variables used to obtain the quota for representativity (age, language, habitat, gender and social class), we also included a series of questions assessing the sociological context and the psychological personality profile. The main topics in the survey were I) risk perception and confidence in authorities; II) acceptance of legal norms for food products; III) acceptance of countermeasures for the food chain in case of a radiological contamination and associated consumers behaviour; IV) energy; v) disposal of radioactive waste; vi) perception of the Chernobyl accident and its consequences. Some of the questions asked in 2006 are similar to those enquired in the SCK barometer of 2002, in order to study the time evolution of the risk perception associated with various issues. For the part related to acceptance of legal norms and of countermeasures for the food chain, simulated news bulletins were used in order to better reproduce the real-life context of a contamination.

  18. Risk perception of the Belgian population. Results of the public opinion survey in 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Belgian Nuclear Research Center SCK-CEN 2006 risk perception barometer is based on over 1000 Computer Assisted Personal Interviews, taken from persons selected to be representative for the Belgian 18+ population, and all realized in the period March 21st to April 12th 2006. Besides the classical background variables used to obtain the quota for representativity (age, language, habitat, gender and social class), we also included a series of questions assessing the sociological context and the psychological personality profile. The main topics in the survey were I) risk perception and confidence in authorities; II) acceptance of legal norms for food products; III) acceptance of countermeasures for the food chain in case of a radiological contamination and associated consumers behaviour; IV) energy; v) disposal of radioactive waste; vi) perception of the Chernobyl accident and its consequences. Some of the questions asked in 2006 are similar to those enquired in the SCK barometer of 2002, in order to study the time evolution of the risk perception associated with various issues. For the part related to acceptance of legal norms and of countermeasures for the food chain, simulated news bulletins were used in order to better reproduce the real-life context of a contamination.

  19. Public opinion research in France: A new approach through people's values understanding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear energy perception by the public has not only technical aspects but is also relevant to public debate and related to people's values. The developed countries and affluent societies, have been showing, in particular, a shift towards post-materialist values. Some of these values and needs environment protection, quality of life, involvement in decision-making process (government, corporates) must be taken into account when analysing public opinion towards nuclear energy. That is the reason why since 1992 a yearly nuclear barometer survey has been run, jointly, by the main corporations involved in nuclear research and industry CEA, the French Atomic Energy Commission, COGEMA, EDF and FRAMATOME. This barometer includes not only quantitative indicators but also, several series of questions on public attitude towards risk perception, controversial issues discussed in the media, potential energy sources for the future, politicians credibility etc. In addition, a very detailed public segmentation allows researchers to analyse similarities and differences related to age, gender, level of education of the population. This paper intends to give some concrete examples and current results on French public attitude towards nuclear energy and on the relation between social values and support for nuclear power

  20. Analysis of Productivity Improvement in the Palm Oil Plantation Revitalization of North Sumatera using Analytic Network Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliza Hidayati

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The idea of making North Sumatera as a barometer of national palm oil industry requires commodity efforts and agro-industry development of palm oil. One effort that can be done is by successful execution plantation revitalization. The plantation Revitalization is an effort to accelerate the development of smallholder plantations, through expansion and replanting by help of palm estate company as business partner and bank financing plantation revitalization fund. Business partner agreement is obliged and bound to make at least the same smallholder estate productivity with business partners, so that the refund rate to banks become larger and prosperous people as a plantation owner. Generally, low productivity of smallholder plantations under normal potential caused a lot of old and damaged plants with plant material at random. The purpose of revitalizing palm oil plantations is to increase their competitiveness through increased farm productivity. The research aims at identifying potential criteria in influencing estate productivity improvement priorities to be observed and followed up in order to improve the competitiveness of destinations and make North Sumatera barometer of national palm oil can be achieved. Research conducted with Analytical Network Process (ANP, to find the effect of dependency relationships between factors or criteria with the knowledge of the experts in order to produce an objective opinion and relevant depict the actual situation. The results showed that the priority factors that have the biggest impact as a determinant of farm productivity enhancement, namely plant health (0.184595, the insertion of seeds (0.130569, the type of fertilizer (0.116755, the number and dose of fertilizer (0.102303, the suitability of the tool and the work material (0.072098, the type of soil (0.056612, the frequency of fertilizer (0.057095, working procedures (0.048561, weed control (0.041679, pest control (0.037839, fertilization technology

  1. Surface atmospheric pressure excitation of the translational mode of the inner core

    CERN Document Server

    Rosat, Séverine; Rogister, Yves

    2014-01-01

    Using hourly atmospheric surface pressure field from ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts) and from NCEP (National Centers for Environmental Prediction) Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) models, we show that atmospheric pressure fluctuations excite the translational oscillation of the inner core, the so-called Slichter mode, to the sub-nanogal level at the Earth surface. The computation is performed using a normal-mode formalism for a spherical, self-gravitating anelastic PREM-like Earth model. We determine the statistical response in the form of power spectral densities of the degree-one spherical harmonic components of the observed pressure field. Both hypotheses of inverted and non-inverted barometer for the ocean response to pressure forcing are considered. Based on previously computed noise levels, we show that the surface excitation amplitude is below the limit of detection of the superconducting gravimeters, making the Slichter mode detection a challenging instrumental task...

  2. The DOE Laboratory Accreditation Program performance testing laboratory automated calibration verification program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Performance Testing Laboratory for the DOE Laboratory Accreditation Program (DOELAP) resides at the Radiological and Environmental Sciences Laboratory (RESL) on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). A system has been developed to verify the calibration of Cesium 137 irradiators using a reference class ionization chamber under computer control. The measurement system consists of irradiators, a Victoreen Model 415 ionization chamber, a Keithley Model 617 electrometer, a high voltage power supply, a VAXLAB microVAX II processor controller, a Fluke digital thermometer, a Heise digital barometer and an Optomux interface between the computer and irradiator. The ionization chamber is placed in an irradiation fixture which is affixed to the dosimeter phantom stand. The computer then executes a variety of steps to conduct the irradiation and measurement. The data taken over the last six months indicate that all of the irradiator geometries meet requirements in the governing standards

  3. The moral economy of person production : the class relations of self-performance on “reality” television

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beverley Skeggs

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on the textual analysis of an ESRC research project “Making Class and the Self through Mediated Ethical Scenarios”, the paper illustrates how “reality” television offers a visible barometer of a person’s moral value. The research included an examination of the shift to self-legitimation, the increased importance of reflexivity and the decline of class proposed by the individualisation thesis.2 We focused on self-transformation “reality” television programmes as public examples of the dramatisation of individualisation. The over-recruitment of different types of working-class participants to these shows and the positioning of many in need of transformation, enabled an exploration of how certain people and cultures are positioned, evaluated and interpreted as inadequate, deficient and requiring improvement. We found that the individualisation promoted through the programmes was always reliant upon access to and operationalisation of specific social, cultural, economic and symbolic capital

  4. Time variability of atmospheric and marine parameters over the Adriatic region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raicich, F.; Crisciani, F. [CNR, Centro Nazionale delle Ricerche, Trieste (Italy). Istituto Sperimentale Talassografico

    1999-04-01

    The time evolution of atmospheric and marine parameters over the Adriatic region is studied for the period 1946-1996 on different time-scales. On the inter annual and interdecadal time-scales evidence is found of the inverted barometer effect on sea level and the strong connection between air and sea temperatures. By contrast, opposite relationship are found on longer (secular) time-scales, which might be explained as different results of global climatic fluctuations on the atmospheric and marine parameters involved. On the inter annual time-scale a correlation is found between sea-level pressure gradient along the basin and the water inflow/outflow through the Otranto Channel, in terms of sea level and sea temperature.

  5. The Study of Clients’ Buying And Consumption Behavior Of Financial-Banking Products And Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitran Paula Cornelia

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of every economic activity in general and the financial one in particular is thesatisfaction of clients’ necessities. The specificity of clients’ consumption behavior in the financial – bankingrealm, impose the understanding of the necessities and their occasional process to the banking system. Theclient’s behavior analysis, as an obvious barometer of a bank evolution is the most important component of amarketing research. The relationship between the client, as a natural person or a juridical person and bank, isvery important and requires to be supported in order to assure clients’ loyalty and to develop long termrelations with them. Therefore, banks should give advice to their clients concerning their finance organizationor concerning the preparation of their business plans, fact which is able to reinforce the professional image ofthe bank. This aspect must be completed by the presence of some communication specialists who will assurethe information transfer, creating a feed-back between the employees and the clients.

  6. Specific Features of the Study of Purchasing Behaviour and Consumption by the Customer, Financial and Banking Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitran Paula Cornelia

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of every economic activity in general and the financial one in particular is the satisfaction of clients’ necessities. Thespecificity of clients’ consumption behaviour in the financial – banking realm, impose the understanding of the necessities and their occasionalprocess to the banking system. The client’s behaviour analysis, as an obvious barometer of a bank evolution is the most important component of amarketing research. The relationship between the client, as a natural person or a juridical person and bank, is very important and requires to besupported in order to assure clients’ loyalty and to develop long term relations with them. Therefore, banks should give advice to their clientsconcerning their finance organization or concerning the preparation of their business plans, fact which is able to reinforce the professional image ofthe bank. This aspect must be completed by the presence of some communication specialists who will assure the information transfer, creating a feedbackbetween the employees and the clients.

  7. Prograde P-T path of garnet-orthamphibole-gneiss from the Rhuys peninsula (Southern Brittany, France): evidence for a pre-carboniferous collisional stage in the Variscan orogeny

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A large lens of a magnesian garnet-orthamphibole gneiss with garnets up to 10 cm in diameter has been discovered within the Carboniferous Sarzeau leucogranite (Kerlin quarry, Rhuys peninsula). The garnets of a metamorphosed former magnesio-potassic lamprophyre have core-rim zonations with increasing Mg at constant Ca, and inclusions displaying a staurolite-breakdown reaction structure. Pressure and temperature estimates from garnet-biotite geo-thermometers and garnet-rutile-ilmenite-plagioclase-quartz geo-barometers indicate crystallization during increasing temperature and moderately increasing pressure along a prograde clockwise P-T path from 500 deg. C / 4 kbar to > 750 deg. C / 9 kbar. This prograde path identifies a major tectonic-metamorphic event during a pre-Carboniferous collisional stage in the Variscan orogeny. (authors). 14 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  8. The social context of marital happiness in urban Indian couples: interplay of intimacy and conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhya, Shaifali

    2009-01-01

    This research examines the happiness of 182 married, urban Hindu husbands and wives. Prior research emphasizes that the processes mediating well-being diverge across cultures with personal desires not impacting the happiness of non-Western couples. However, with globalization as self needs become important, barometers of happiness such as intimacy and conflict in a relationship assume a critical role in the quality and longevity of marriage, even for non-Western marriages in a contemporary India. Participants were 91 Indian couples, married an average of 11 years, from three socioeconomic classes, three family structures, and arranged and love marriages. Results reveal that happy couples, compared with unhappy couples, reported agreement, empathy, validation, support, and fulfilled expectations. Couples' experience and expression of intimacy, affected by social context, also predicted enhanced levels of happiness in marriage while conflict had a negative effect on marital happiness. This research suggests how personal desires may be transforming cultural practices. PMID:19161585

  9. High-performance terahertz wave absorbers made of silicon-based metamaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Sheng; Zhu, Jianfei; Jiang, Wei; Yuan, Jun; Yin, Ge; Ma, Yungui, E-mail: yungui@zju.edu.cn [State Key Lab of Modern Optical Instrumentation, Centre for Optical and Electromagnetic Research, College of Optical Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Xu, Wendao; Xie, Lijuan; Ying, Yibin [College of Biosystems Engineering and Food Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China)

    2015-08-17

    Electromagnetic (EM) wave absorbers with high efficiency in different frequency bands have been extensively investigated for various applications. In this paper, we propose an ultra-broadband and polarization-insensitive terahertz metamaterial absorber based on a patterned lossy silicon substrate. Experimentally, a large absorption efficiency more than 95% in a frequency range of 0.9–2.5 THz was obtained up to a wave incident angle as large as 70°. Much broader absorption bandwidth and excellent oblique incidence absorption performance are numerically demonstrated. The underlying mechanisms due to the combination of a waveguide cavity mode and impedance-matched diffraction are analyzed in terms of the field patterns and the scattering features. The monolithic THz absorber proposed here may find important applications in EM energy harvesting systems such as THz barometer or biosensor.

  10. Energy for sustainable development in Malaysia: Energy policy and alternative energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy is often known as the catalyst for development. Globally, the per capita consumption of energy is often used as a barometer to measure the level of economic development in a particular country. Realizing the importance of energy as a vital component in economic and social development, the government of Malaysia has been continuously reviewing its energy policy to ensure long-term reliability and security of energy supply. Concentrated efforts are being undertaken to ensure the sustainability of energy resources, both depletable and renewable. The aim of this paper is to describe the various energy policies adopted in Malaysia to ensure long-term reliability and security of energy supply. The role of both, non-renewable and renewable sources of energy in the current Five-Fuel Diversification Strategy energy mix will also be discussed. Apart from that, this paper will also describe the various alternative energy and the implementation of energy efficiency program in Malaysia

  11. Textile Index Monitor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Textile Index Monitor is a new column that delivers a textile-specific price index profile in weeks that are bygone when this monthly magazine comes to your hand. China Textile City is the name of the world-largest yarn&fabric marketplace in the famous town of Keqiao in Zhejiang,China.Several years ago,Ministry of Commerce(MOC)set up a national price index centre for textiles-specific category,China Textile City takes the leading role in publishing its analytical report of textile price index on weekly,monthly,quarterly and yearly basis,making it possible for Keqiao or its textile city to be the weathercock for textiles market trend in China and in the world as well.From this issue,a new column is given to cover the gist&feeds of the latest developments&gradients in this market barometer.

  12. The Microarea Composition of Garnet and Biotite from the Ji‘an Group in Tonghua District and Its Significance as an Indicator of Metamorphic P—T—t Path

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢良兆; 靳是琴; 等

    1997-01-01

    The garnet(Grt)and biotite(Bt) from gneisses of the Ji'an Group are characterized by diffusion zoning at the rim,but equilibrium composition of metamorphic peak is usually remained in extensive interior area.Garnet with growth zoning is also found in the kyanite zone.In the light of microarea compositional variation of Grt and Bt,the temperature and pressure at the progressive,peak and post-peak metamorphic stages are determined by correctly using Grt Bt thermometer and GASP barometer.On this basis,a counterclockwise P-T-t path can be constructed,which reflects the closing process of an ensialic rift belt in this region during the Early Proterozoic.

  13. It's hard to be green: Reverse green value chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couto, João; Tiago, Teresa; Gil, Artur; Tiago, Flávio; Faria, Sandra

    2016-08-01

    Firms have recently discovered that it is not enough to optimize internal processes and relationships with partners along the value chain to create a sustainable competitive market position. A clear customer orientation, which acknowledges that consumer buying behavior is complex and includes many elements implied in the value chain, is required. As companies offering green products are no exception to this rule, this study analyzes consumer behavior in Europe from a reserve green supply chain management perspective, using descriptive analyses and a structural equation model, with data collected by Flash Barometer comprising 26,573 responses from 28 European countries. The results suggest that European consumers are conscious of the green concept, but are not willing to buy or pay more for these products since the value is unclear. Companies offering green products must therefore rethink their strategies, especially in terms of value proposition, communication strategies, and eco-labeling. PMID:27209347

  14. Values, Tolerance, Religion and Spirituality Among Young Romanians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIUS LAZĂR

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to provide a description with respect to values among young Romanians, generally speaking, but also with respect to social relations and religion or spirituality. Survey data from two major researches - the European Values Study, and Social condition and expectations of youth in Romania, the Youth Barometer 2008 - were used, and comparisons were made between young people and adults, Romanian youth and European youth, as well as comparisons across several years within the ‘youth' category. The data sources used in this article are the latest surveys available the topics concerned. The topic of the article, namely the values of young people, is however quite stable in time and, as such, we believe that the data and facts noted continue to be relevant even four years after the data were collected.

  15. SENSITIVITY EVALUATION OF THE ELECTRONIC CAR SCALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz KĄDZIOŁKA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available During every day activities related with performed work or homework duties we meet a lot of equipment and we don't realize about their complex construction. This can be different type of equipment making every day work easier, such as food processors, dishwashers, ecologic furnaces, gas stoves or mechanisms, which are intended for protection against rain, which are personal umbrellas or devices ensuring higher safety such as ABS in a car or equipment used for measuring different values such as thermometers, barometers and finally scales. Scales due to performed tasks should be rated to measuring equipment which in metrology for example are used to specify linear and angular dimensions or deviations from nominal dimensions. In this article we present results of electronic scales sensitivity tests. For comparison of test results two electronic scales with different measuring range were analyzed

  16. VOR - Calibration by an Airborne Integrated Navigation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tore Smestad

    1980-01-01

    Full Text Available A simulation study of a possible application of modern control theory is presented. The problem is to check and calibrate a VOR-station from a circling aircraft. An accurate position estimate of the circling aircraft is needed in order to calculate the errors in the received VOR-signals. The position estimate is here obtained from an integrated navigation system using an inertial navigation system (INS, a laser range-finder, angle measurements on the laser line-of-sight, and barometer readings. The range and angle measurements are fed to a Kalman filter which estimates errors in the navigation system. Simulation results show that satisfactory accuracy is obtained by this method. The paper presents a description of the proposed system, the simulation model used, simulation results and some sensitivity analysis.

  17. 3D environment modeling and location tracking using off-the-shelf components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke, Robert H.

    2016-05-01

    The remarkable popularity of smartphones over the past decade has led to a technological race for dominance in market share. This has resulted in a flood of new processors and sensors that are inexpensive, low power and high performance. These sensors include accelerometers, gyroscope, barometers and most importantly cameras. This sensor suite, coupled with multicore processors, allows a new community of researchers to build small, high performance platforms for low cost. This paper describes a system using off-the-shelf components to perform position tracking as well as environment modeling. The system relies on tracking using stereo vision and inertial navigation to determine movement of the system as well as create a model of the environment sensed by the system.

  18. Policy implications of private sector involvement in correctional services and programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, T A

    1987-01-01

    The movement toward private sector involvement in our correctional services and programs is growing. Before our focus is turned completely to privatization of these services, it would be prudent to analyze the "policy impact of such change. It is evident that the diverse and incompatible policies guiding the government approach to corrections and the absence of any rational planning to answer public interest goals is costly. Moreover, despite the increasing complexity of problems now confronting public authorities, little change has been made in their approach to resolving them. However, is it realistic to assume that the profit/loss barometer of the private sector can be applied in an area of social problems that are so pluralistic and ill defined? What of the many areas of potential legal concern, that is, vicarious litigation, First Amendment right of prisoners, and so forth? These are all areas that need to be researched so that any judgements or decisions made will be sound. PMID:3819680

  19. E-RESOURCES GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM SYSTEM FOR MILITARY OPERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Kurniawan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the barometer of the strength of a country is a military force that is owned by the state. To produce a good military force in a country, it would require an easy, fast and accurate military resource management. This study utilized geographic data as a reference for the location of the logistics resources to help simplify the management of military data using spatial data in Geographic Information System (GIS. The system development approach used JSON Service technology framework and HTML 5 to improve system performance. The features development of the management of military resources associated with military operations are conducted. Results of this study generate e-resource military operation system which is swift and in accordance with the W3C web standards.

  20. Stock Analysis of S.C. ROPHARMA S.A. the Example of Romanian Pharmaceutical Entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela-Cristina ONICA

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Stock performance analysis can not find a better place than after presentation of earnings per share, the latter being one of the indicators on the performance of companies listed on capital markets. Exchange rates are considered final term market performance of listed companies since they incorporate information concerning stock, but also financial and accounting data on the net result for the year, sales per share, dividend per share, book value per share, etc. Stock rate of action is the barometer of a company's overall performance, officially recognized by the public through the capital market. But changes in stock price is determined by the evolution of economic and financial results of the enterprise, but also investors' expectations about the possibilities of its development, progress and prospects the industry in which company operates, and national and international economic trends.

  1. Corporal and capital punishment of juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, H C

    1990-01-01

    There is a previously unobserved connection between corporal punishment of public school children and capital punishment of juveniles. Both are barometers of acceptable levels of violent punishment and their elimination is a hallmark of a maturing and decent society. Within a majority of the eighteen states where school authorities most frequently strike children are housed 25 of the nation's 28 juvenile death row inmates. On average, the homicide rates of these jurisdictions are two and a half times greater than those that have abolished both state-sanctioned corporal and capital punishment or limit death sentences to those age eighteen and older at the time of their crime(s). Most of the eighteen state abolitions of corporal punishment occurred in the 1980's. The US Supreme Court has ruled both corporal and capital punishment of juveniles constitutional. Additional state legislative abolition of both is anticipated in the 1990s. PMID:2122167

  2. Os Impactos das Reclamações On-line na Lealdade dos Consumidores: um Estudo Experimental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane Nunes Viana de Almeida

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In a constant changing environment characterized by highly informed consumers, the search for long-term relationships through customer loyalty is the goal of many companies. However, studies suggest this loyalty may be affected by negative comments available on the internet. Thus, the aim of this study is to examine if the complaints available in the online environment impact loyalty to a cell phone brand. The research method was experimental, considering the antecedents of loyalty found in the revised NCSB model (Norwegian Customer Satisfaction Barometer. The approach was quantitative, using methods including descriptive statistics, factor analysis, multiple linear regression and non-parametric Wilcoxon test to analyze the data. All five propositions were confirmed. The results showed that complaints available the web may negatively impact consumer perception as it concerns loyalty, as well as its antecedents. These substantiations represent a warning, so that companies can be more attentive to content available on the internet, especially any related to complaints.

  3. Oxygen Fugacity of the Martian Mantle from Pigeonite/Melt Partitioning of Samarium, Europium and Gadolinium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musselwhite, S.; Jones, J. H.; Shearer, C.

    2004-01-01

    This study is part of an ongoing effort to calibrate the pyroxene/melt Eu oxybarometer for conditions relevant to the martian meteorites. There is fairly good agreement between a determinations using equilibria between Fe-Ti oxides and the estimates from Eu anomalies in shergottite augites in tenns of which meteorites are more or less oxidized. The Eu calibration was for angrite composition pyroxenes which are rather extreme. However, application of a calibration for martian composition augites 113 does not significantly reduce the discrepancy between the two methods. One possible reason for this discrepancy is that augites are non-liquidus. The use of pigeonite rather than augite as the oxy-barometer phase is considered. We have conducted experiments on martian composition pigeonite/melt REE partitioning as a function of fO2.

  4. Criminal trial from a crime control perspective——mode, function and judge's attitude%犯罪控制视野下的刑事审判——模式、功能与法官的态度

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘广三

    2007-01-01

    Such ideas as upholding the advantages and merits of ex officio doctrine, gradually borrowing the fair factors of the adversary system, embodying a new-style concept of crime control and establishing the safeguarding rules and principles of the basic procedure for minimum justice criteria are macroscopical themes to which we must stick in the course of criminal trial. The effectiveness of a particular function in criminal trial in faith results from the choice of"degree" in the respect of crime control. The attitude of a criminal judge directly or otherwise exercises an influence on the trial of a case, and may even be decisive on some occasions. The concept of crime control is a barometer of the judge's attitude in criminal trial, and an indispensable component of the judge's rational attitude as well.

  5. Persepsi Mahasiswa Fakultas Ekonomi Terhadap Program Kewirausahaan Pada Perguruan Tinggi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soenartomo Soepomo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Government promoted-entrepreneurship program for students launched in 2009 had been responsed yet. Students have various perceptions toward the program, for this reason the program need to be explained using stereotype interpretion, impression management, and emotion as perception elements and barometers that the entrepreneurship program is going along smoothly in a university. Research objectives; 1 Analyzing simultanously influences of stereotype interpretion, impression, and emotion on the program in a University; 2 studying the partial inffluence of stereotype interpretion, impression management, and emotion on the program; 3 Finding the variable that has the most dominant influence on the program. Results; Perceptions partially and simultanously influence the entrepreneurship program. Students show good responsiveness towards the program. Their perceptions partially contribute the program (66%. Perception on stereotype interpretetion share a contribution of 20.50 %. Perception on impression management contributes an amount of 27, 7 %. Finally perceptin on emotional intensity give a contribution of 28. 30 %.

  6. On the cultural legacy of the Cold War: Sino-US educational exchange (1949-1990)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gu Ning

    2006-01-01

    The Cold War affected the Sino-US educational exchange between 1949 and 1990.During those years,preparation for educational exchanges,personal contact and cross-government relations characterized the three periods of the exchanges.However,even though the relationship had developed very fast,it was by no means smooth sailing.These exchanges served as a political barometer and also acted as a conduit between the two when diplomatic relations were non-existent.It eased the tension when the relationship between the two countries had problems.The 40 years of exchanges were a win-win situation for both sides and one of the valuable cultural legacies that came out of the Cold War era.

  7. O Barômetro da Sustentabilidade Aplicado ao Município de Taubaté-SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Luiz de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The contemporary society has presented a growing concern with the environmental impact caused by economic and technological development. As a result of this concern and research studies that indicate the possibility of negative impacts as a result of intense use of natural resources. The scientific community, together with the society, developed the concept of sustainable development, as well as some methodologies to assess the level of local sustainability, national or the planet. From this context, the purpose of this article, it is by means of bibliographic research, contribute to the reflection on what are sustainability and the methodology Sustainability Barometer (BS. Complementary to the bibliographical study presents an application of the methodology BS to the municipality of Taubaté, by collecting, tabulating and quantitative and qualitative analysis of various sources. The analysis of data collected according to the methodology BS, indicates that the municipality of Taubaté is a level of almost sustainable.

  8. A mathematical correlation between variations in solar radiation parameters. 2. Global radiation, air temperature and specific humidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We derive from first principles, an equation which expresses global radiation as a function of specific humidity and air temperature at screen height. The practical validity of this equation is tested by using humidity, air temperature and global radiation data from Tanzania. It is shown that global radiation values calculated on the basis of the derived equation agree with measured radiation values to within ± 8% as long as the prevalent (horizontal) winds are either calm or light. It is noted that the equation is equally valid at times of strong horizontal winds provided that the temperature and humidity measuring site is sufficiently shielded from the winds. This implies that meteorological stations that are (for some unavoidable reasons) unable to stock pyranometers can still procure reasonable estimates of local global radiation as long as they can, at least, stock the relatively cheaper barometers and wet- and dry-bulb psychrometers. (author). 12 refs, 1 fig., 4 tabs

  9. Political Rationality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solhaug, Trond; Kristensen, Niels Nørgaard

    The very idea about democracies is public participation in elections, decision-making and/or public engagement. The democratic participation distributes power among ordinary people and serve to legitimize decisions in public affairs and is a vital characteristic of a political culture.”The term...... of participation and particularly how individuals regard themselves as active political citizens. Participation, either voter turnout or other forms of public involvement is regarded as a barometer of the quality of democracy in a country and serve to characterize the political culture in a democracy (Diamond...... ’political culture’ refers to the specifically political orientations – attitudes toward the political system and its various parts, and attitudes toward the role of the self in the system” (Almond & Verba, 1963:12). A political culture is among several aspects characterized by the forms and level...

  10. Snert: Ritual-liturgical measurements and recipes for social capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cas Wepener

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The questions of how social capital is measured and how it is generated have received ample attention in recent years. This article is an attempt at making a modest contribution towards addressing these issues and specifically also as a contribution from the fields of Liturgical and Ritual Studies. It is argued that commensality can be taken as both lens/barometer with regard to the presence or absence of social capital, as well as being a potential generator of social capital. In order to arrive at this conclusion regarding food and the eating habits of humankind, the phenomenon of commensality and its relation to social capital is approached here from three different angles, namely Social Anthropology, New Testament Studies and Ethnography.

  11. Mediadekking in die Suid-Afrikaanse gedrukte media oor taalverwante onderwerpe, in besonder taalregte en taalbeleidskwessies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Truter

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Coverage of issues related to language, in particular language rights and language policy, in the South African print media The print media are both important and reliable barometers for determining the feelings and attitudes of the reading public. This information, compiled in an annual report to PanSALB, may assist in making various groups aware of their language rights and could help to cultivate a proactive culture of language rights. This, in turn, could contribute towards the transformation of our society. It could also serve as deterrent to linguistic discrimination. In order to determine the validity of the assumptions represented in the print media, language issue coverage in the print media is compared to official language rights complaints lodged with PanSALB. The government might well avoid conflict by taking cognisance of language problems and ensuring that constitutional rights are upheld before problems arise.

  12. Energy for sustainable development in Malaysia: Energy policy and alternative energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman Mohamed, Abdul [School of Chemical Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Seri Ampangan, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Seberang Perai Selatan, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia); Lee, Keat Teong [School of Chemical Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Seri Ampangan, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Seberang Perai Selatan, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)]. E-mail: chktlee@eng.usm.my

    2006-10-15

    Energy is often known as the catalyst for development. Globally, the per capita consumption of energy is often used as a barometer to measure the level of economic development in a particular country. Realizing the importance of energy as a vital component in economic and social development, the government of Malaysia has been continuously reviewing its energy policy to ensure long-term reliability and security of energy supply. Concentrated efforts are being undertaken to ensure the sustainability of energy resources, both depletable and renewable. The aim of this paper is to describe the various energy policies adopted in Malaysia to ensure long-term reliability and security of energy supply. The role of both, non-renewable and renewable sources of energy in the current Five-Fuel Diversification Strategy energy mix will also be discussed. Apart from that, this paper will also describe the various alternative energy and the implementation of energy efficiency program in Malaysia.

  13. Energy for sustainable development in Malaysia: energy policy and alternative energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdul Rahman Mohamed; Keat Teong Lee [Universiti Sains Malaysia, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia). School of Chemical Engineering

    2006-10-15

    Energy is often known as the catalyst for development. Globally, the per capita consumption of energy is often used as a barometer to measure the level of economic development in a particular country. Realizing the importance of energy as a vital component in economic and social development, the government of Malaysia has been continuously reviewing its energy policy to ensure long-term reliability and security of energy supply. Concentrated efforts are being undertaken to ensure the sustainability of energy resources, both depletable and renewable. The aim of this paper is to describe the various energy policies adopted in Malaysia to ensure long-term reliability and security of energy supply. The role of both non-renewable and renewable sources of energy in the current Five-Fuel Diversification Strategy energy mix is also be discussed. This paper also describes the various alternative energy and the implementation of energy efficiency program in Malaysia. 42 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  14. Energy for sustainable development in Malaysia: energy policy and alternative energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdul Rahman Mohamed; Keat Teong Lee [Universiti Sains Malaysia, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia). School of Chemical Engineering

    2006-10-15

    Energy is often known as the catalyst for development. Globally, the per capita consumption of energy is often used as a barometer to measure the level of economic development in a particular country. Realizing the importance of energy as a vital component in economic and social development, the government of Malaysia has been continuously reviewing its energy policy to ensure long-term reliability and security of energy supply. Concentrated efforts are being undertaken to ensure the sustainability of energy resources, both depletable and renewable. The aim of this paper is to describe the various energy policies adopted in Malaysia to ensure long-term reliability and security of energy supply. The role of both, non-renewable and renewable sources of energy in the current Five-Fuel Diversification Strategy energy mix will also be discussed. Apart from that, this paper will also describe the various alternative energy and the implementation of energy efficiency program in Malaysia. (author)

  15. Do not panic: Hawkwind, the Cold War and “the imagination of disaster”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Ihde

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The English rock band, Hawkwind, was amongst the founders of the genre known as “space rock”. From the early 1970s to the early 1990s, their work also included references to Cold War issues. An examination of their concert appearances, musical output and printed matter reveals that relevant material often reflected the “imagination of disaster” made famous in an essay by Susan Sontag. As well, there are correlations between the waxing and waning of Cold War tensions, and the presence and absence of such themes in their work. Thus, their work provides an example of how popular music could serve as a barometer of the impact of the Cold War on popular culture.

  16. Crustal accretion along the global mid-ocean ridge system based on basaltic glass and olivine-hosted melt inclusion compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanless, V. D.; Behn, M. D.

    2015-12-01

    The depth and distribution of crystallization at mid-ocean ridges controls the overall architecture of the oceanic crust, influences hydrothermal circulation, and determines geothermal gradients in the crust and uppermost mantle. Despite this, there is no overall consensus on how crystallization is distributed within the crust/upper mantle or how this varies with spreading rate. Here, we examine crustal accretion at mid-ocean ridges by combining crystallization pressures calculated from major element barometers on mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB) glasses with vapor-saturation pressures from melt inclusions to produce a detailed map of crystallization depths and distributions along the global ridge system. We calculate pressures of crystallization from >11,500 MORB glasses from the global ridge system using two established major element barometers (1,2). Additionally, we use vapor-saturation pressures from >400 olivine-hosted melt inclusions from five ridges with variable spreading rates to constrain pressures and distributions of crystallization along the global ridge system. We show that (i) crystallization depths from MORB glasses increase and become less focused with decreasing spreading rate, (ii) maximum glass pressures are greater than the maximum melt inclusion pressure, which indicates that the melt inclusions do not record the deepest crystallization at mid-ocean ridges, and (iii) crystallization occurs in the lower crust/upper mantle at all ridges, indicating accretion is distributed throughout the crust at all spreading rates, including those with a steady-state magma lens. Finally, we suggest that the remarkably similar maximum vapor-saturation pressures (~ 3000 bars) in melt inclusion from all spreading rates reflects the CO2 content of the depleted upper mantle feeding the global mid-ocean ridge system. (1) Michael, P. & W. Cornell (1998), Journal of Geophysical Research, 103(B8), 18325-18356; (2) Herzberg, C. (2004), Journal of Petrology, 45(12), 2389.

  17. June 13, 2013 U.S. East Coast Meteotsunami: Comparing a Numerical Model With Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, D.; Becker, N. C.; Weinstein, S.; Whitmore, P.; Knight, W.; Kim, Y.; Bouchard, R. H.; Grissom, K.

    2013-12-01

    On June 13, 2013, a tsunami struck the U.S. East Coast and caused several reported injuries. This tsunami occurred after a derecho moved offshore from North America into the Atlantic Ocean. The presence of this storm, the lack of a seismic source, and the fact that tsunami arrival times at tide stations and deep ocean-bottom pressure sensors cannot be attributed to a 'point-source' suggest this tsunami was caused by atmospheric forces, i.e., a meteotsunami. In this study we attempt to reproduce the observed phenomenon using a numerical model with idealized atmospheric pressure forcing resembling the propagation of the observed barometric anomaly. The numerical model was able to capture some observed features of the tsunami at some tide stations, including the time-lag between the time of pressure jump and the time of tsunami arrival. The model also captures the response at a deep ocean-bottom pressure gauge (DART 44402), including the primary wave and the reflected wave. There are two components of the oceanic response to the propagating pressure anomaly, inverted barometer response and dynamic response. We find that the dynamic response over the deep ocean to be much smaller than the inverted barometer response. The time lag between the pressure jump and tsunami arrival at tide stations is due to the dynamic response: waves generated and/or reflected at the shelf-break propagate shoreward and amplify due to the shoaling effect. The evolution of the derecho over the deep ocean (propagation direction and intensity) is not well defined, however, because of the lack of data so the forcing used for this study is somewhat speculative. Better definition of the pressure anomaly through increased observation or high resolution atmospheric models would improve meteotsunami forecast capabilities.

  18. Globalization and Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Greg

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This debut editorial of Globalization and Health introduces the journal, briefly delineating its goals and objectives and outlines its scope of subject matter. 'Open Access' publishing is expected to become an increasingly important format for peer reviewed academic journals and that Globalization and Health is 'Open Access' is appropriate. The rationale behind starting a journal dedicated to globalization and health is three fold: Firstly: Globalization is reshaping the social geography within which we might strive to create health or prevent disease. The determinants of health – be they a SARS virus or a predilection for fatty foods – have joined us in our global mobility. Driven by economic liberalization and changing technologies, the phenomenon of 'access' is likely to dominate to an increasing extent the unfolding experience of human disease and wellbeing. Secondly: Understanding globalization as a subject matter itself needs certain benchmarks and barometers of its successes and failings. Health is one such barometer. It is a marker of social infrastructure and social welfare and as such can be used to either sound an alarm or give a victory cheer as our interconnectedness hurts and heals the populations we serve. And lastly: In as much as globalization can have an effect on health, it is also true that health and disease has an effect on globalization as exemplified by the existence of quarantine laws and the devastating economic effects of the AIDS pandemic. A balanced view would propose that the effects of globalization on health (and health systems are neither universally good nor bad, but rather context specific. If the dialogue pertaining to globalization is to be directed or biased in any direction, then it must be this: that we consider the poor first.

  19. The role of local and external factors in determining the interannual sea level variability of the Adriatic and Black Seas during the 20th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarascia, Luca; Lionello, Piero

    2016-04-01

    The Adriatic Sea and the Black Sea are two semienclosed basins connected to the Mediterranean Sea by the Otranto and the Bosporus straits, respectively. This work aims to reconstruction the sea level for both basins in the 20th century and to investigate main sources of interannual variability. Using 7 tide gauge timeseries located along the Adriatic coast and 5 along the Black Sea coast, provided by the PSMSL (Permanent service of mean sea level), a seamless sea level timeseries (1900-2009) has been obtained for each basin on the basis of statistical procedure involving PCA and Least Square Method. The comparison with satellite data in the period 1993 - 2009 confirms that these are reliable representations of the observed sea level for the whole basin, showing a great agreement with a correlation value of 0.87 and 0.72 for Adriatic and Black Sea respectively. The sea level has been decomposed in various contributions in order to analyze the role of the factors responsible for its interannual variability. The annual cycles of the local effect of pressure (inverse barometer effect IB), of the steric effect due to temperature and salinity variation and of the wind effect have been computed. The largest contribute for the Adriatic Sea is due to the wind, whilst inverse barometer effect plays a minor role and the steric effect seems to be almost negligible. For the Black Sea, on the contrary, wind effect is negligible, and the largest source of variability is due to the Danube river, which is estimated from the available discharge data of Sulina (one of the exits of the Danube delta. Steric and IB effects play both a minor role in this basin. A linear regression model, built considering as predictor the SLP gradient identified at large scale after having carried out the correlation analysis, is capable to explain a further percentage of variability (about 20-25%) of the sea level after subtracting all the factors considered above. Finally, residual sea levels show a

  20. SU-E-T-571: Newly Emerging Integrated Transmission Detector Systems Provide Online Quality Assurance of External Beam Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Two newly emerging transmission detectors positioned upstream from the patient have been evaluated for online quality assurance of external beam radiotherapy. The prototype for the Integral Quality Monitor (IQM), developed by iRT Systems GmbH (Koblenz, Germany) is a large-area ion chamber mounted on the linac accessory tray to monitor photon fluence, energy, beam shape, and gantry position during treatment. The ion chamber utilizes a thickness gradient which records variable response dependent on beam position. The prototype of Delta4 Discover™, developed by ScandiDos (Uppsala, Sweden) is a linac accessory tray mounted 4040 diode array that measures photon fluence during patient treatment. Both systems are employable for patient specific QA prior to treatment delivery. Methods: Our institution evaluated the reproducibility of measurements using various beam types, including VMAT treatment plans with both the IQM ion chamber and the Delta4 Discover diode array. Additionally, the IQM’s effect on photon fluence, dose response, simulated beam error detection, and the accuracy of the integrated barometer, thermometer, and inclinometer were characterized. The evaluated photon beam errors are based on the annual tolerances specified in AAPM TG-142. Results: Repeated VMAT treatments were measured with 0.16% reproducibility by the IQM and 0.55% reproducibility by the Delta4 Discover. The IQM attenuated 6, 10, and 15 MV photon beams by 5.43±0.02%, 4.60±0.02%, and 4.21±0.03% respectively. Photon beam profiles were affected <1.5% in the non-penumbra regions. The IQM’s ion chamber’s dose response was linear and the thermometer, barometer, and inclinometer agreed with other calibrated devices. The device detected variations in monitor units delivered (1%), field position (3mm), single MLC leaf positions (13mm), and photon energy. Conclusion: We have characterized two new transmissions detector systems designed to provide in-vivo like measurements upstream

  1. Considering Community Psychology Competencies: A Love Letter to Budding Scholar-Activists Who Wonder if They Have What It Takes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhout, Regina Day

    2015-06-01

    Recently, community psychologists have re-vamped a set of 18 competencies considered important for how we practice community psychology. Three competencies are: (1) ethical, reflexive practice, (2) community inclusion and partnership, and (3) community education, information dissemination, and building public awareness. This paper will outline lessons I-a white working class woman academic-learned about my competency development through my research collaborations, using the lens of affective politics. I describe three lessons, from school-based research sites (elementary schools serving working class students of color and one elite liberal arts school serving wealthy white students). The first lesson, from an elementary school, concerns ethical, reflective practice. I discuss understanding my affect as a barometer of my ability to conduct research from a place of solidarity. The second lesson, which centers community inclusion and partnership, illustrates how I learned about the importance of "before the beginning" conversations concerning social justice and conflict when working in elementary schools. The third lesson concerns community education, information dissemination, and building public awareness. This lesson, from a college, taught me that I could stand up and speak out against classism in the face of my career trajectory being threatened. With these lessons, I flesh out key aspects of community practice competencies. PMID:25758325

  2. Mean sea-level height variations in the Central Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerbini, Susanna; Bruni, Sara; Errico, Maddalena; Petracca, Fernanda; Raicich, Fabio; Santi, Efisio

    2015-04-01

    The Italian tide gauge network has experienced difficulties during last century. However, historical time series, starting from the end of the ninetieth century, are available in the PSMSL data base (Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level, http://www.psmsl.org/data/). Data from the early 1980s can also be obtained from the data base of ISPRA (Istituto Superiore per la Protezione e la Ricerca Ambientale, http://www.mareografico.it). In 1998, the Italian national tide gauge network (Rete Mareografica Nazionale - RMN) was completely restructured; it consists of 36 homogeneously distributed stations providing measurements sampled every 10 minutes. We have analyzed both the historical and the recent time series of a sub set of stations located in the Tyrrhenian area by using the Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOF) approach. The EOF analysis allows describing one data set as a linear combination of orthogonal components, or modes, that depend on position only, while the linear combination coefficients are functions of time only. Each mode is associated to a percentage of the total variance of the original data set, which accounts for the relative importance of the corresponding mode of variability. The aim of this work is to identify common modes which could possibly be related to wide area crustal deformation and/or to climatic fluctuations, such as the inverted barometer effect.

  3. CEO and Businesses are Losing Trust: Comparison of EU, USA, Czech and Slovak Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denisa Kasl Kollmannová

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an in-depth study based on open-source data analysis (Edelman Trust Barometer and EuropeanCommunication Monitor concerning the general loss of trust, which both commercial companies, governments and,on a minor scale, also NGOs have been experiencing since the Global Financial Crisis in 2008. Trust is an essentialline of corporate communications, public relations and reputation management of companies and it is personalizedby the CEOs and top management. According to the data, the trust of CEOs saw the biggest decline in the U.S.while in Slovakia the trust is still quite high; on the contrary, in the E.U. in general, the level of trust of CEOs reacheda historical minimum of 30%. The overall shift from trusting the traditional authorities, such as government, CEOsand offi cial representatives to academics, stakeholders, employees and general “vox populi” can be seen globally.The aim of this article is to defi ne trust and the social and communications context of building trust as a key factorin a company´s reputation. Finally, clear managerial implications on reputation management focusing on Czech andSlovak CEOs and businesses will be given.

  4. Tracking the Evolution of Smartphone Sensing for Monitoring Human Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Rosario, Michael B; Redmond, Stephen J; Lovell, Nigel H

    2015-01-01

    Advances in mobile technology have led to the emergence of the "smartphone", a new class of device with more advanced connectivity features that have quickly made it a constant presence in our lives. Smartphones are equipped with comparatively advanced computing capabilities, a global positioning system (GPS) receivers, and sensing capabilities (i.e., an inertial measurement unit (IMU) and more recently magnetometer and barometer) which can be found in wearable ambulatory monitors (WAMs). As a result, algorithms initially developed for WAMs that "count" steps (i.e., pedometers); gauge physical activity levels; indirectly estimate energy expenditure and monitor human movement can be utilised on the smartphone. These algorithms may enable clinicians to "close the loop" by prescribing timely interventions to improve or maintain wellbeing in populations who are at risk of falling or suffer from a chronic disease whose progression is linked to a reduction in movement and mobility. The ubiquitous nature of smartphone technology makes it the ideal platform from which human movement can be remotely monitored without the expense of purchasing, and inconvenience of using, a dedicated WAM. In this paper, an overview of the sensors that can be found in the smartphone are presented, followed by a summary of the developments in this field with an emphasis on the evolution of algorithms used to classify human movement. The limitations identified in the literature will be discussed, as well as suggestions about future research directions. PMID:26263998

  5. Pedestrian tracking and navigation using an adaptive knowledge system based on neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grejner-Brzezinska, Dorota A.; Toth, Charles; Moafipoor, Shahram

    2007-11-01

    The primary objective of the research presented here is to develop theoretical foundations and implementation algorithms, which integrate the Global Positioning System (GPS), micro-electromechanical inertial measurement unit (MEMS IMU), digital barometer, electronic compass, and human pedometry to provide navigation and tracking of military and rescue ground personnel. This paper discusses the design, implementation and the performance analyses of the personal navigator prototype, with a special emphasis on dead-reckoning (DR) navigation supported by the human locomotion model. The adaptive knowledge system, based on the Artificial Neural Networks (ANN), is implemented to support this functionality. The knowledge system is trained during the GPS signal reception and is used to support navigation under GPS-denied conditions. The human locomotion parameters, step frequency (SF) and step length (SL), are extracted from GPS-timed impact switches (step frequency) and GPS/IMU data (step length), respectively, during the system calibration period. SL is correlated with several data types, such as acceleration, acceleration variation, SF, terrain slope, etc. that constitute the input parameters to the ANN-based knowledge system. The ANN-predicted SL, together with the heading information from the compass and gyro, support DR navigation. The current target accuracy of the system is 3-5 m CEP (circular error probable) 50%.

  6. Soaring energetics and glide performance in a moving atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Graham K; Reynolds, Kate V; Thomas, Adrian L R

    2016-09-26

    Here, we analyse the energetics, performance and optimization of flight in a moving atmosphere. We begin by deriving a succinct expression describing all of the mechanical energy flows associated with gliding, dynamic soaring and thermal soaring, which we use to explore the optimization of gliding in an arbitrary wind. We use this optimization to revisit the classical theory of the glide polar, which we expand upon in two significant ways. First, we compare the predictions of the glide polar for different species under the various published models. Second, we derive a glide optimization chart that maps every combination of headwind and updraft speed to the unique combination of airspeed and inertial sink rate at which the aerodynamic cost of transport is expected to be minimized. With these theoretical tools in hand, we test their predictions using empirical data collected from a captive steppe eagle (Aquila nipalensis) carrying an inertial measurement unit, global positioning system, barometer and pitot tube. We show that the bird adjusts airspeed in relation to headwind speed as expected if it were seeking to minimize its aerodynamic cost of transport, but find only weak evidence to suggest that it adjusts airspeed similarly in response to updrafts during straight and interthermal glides.This article is part of the themed issue 'Moving in a moving medium: new perspectives on flight'. PMID:27528788

  7. Optimization of Business Partners Feasibility for Oil Palm Revitalization Using Fuzzy Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliza Hidayati

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Resource potential of North Sumatra supports the idea to make North Sumatra as a national barometer of oil palm. The development of agro-CPO and its derivatives have great potential to grow rapidly because it is still 5.5% of the area planted with oil palm than 133 million hectares of potential land. Efforts to strengthen the availability of raw materials for CPO agroindustry and its derivatives by conducting Plantation Revitalization required with financial support from the banking system. Program of Plantation Revitalization is an effort to accelerate the development of smallholders through the expansion, replanting and rehabilitation of plantation-backed loans and investment of banking and interest subsidy by the government involving plantation companies as partners of the development, processing and marketing. The role of banks is quite large, but face problems of the large risks involved and the complexity of processes. Methode of Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process and Fuzzy Inference System integrated in the studies conducted. In AHP Fuzzy method, based on expert opinion the weighting criteria is resulting. Weighting being input to the FIS method to determine the feasibility of plantation companies as business partners to obtain credit financing. The study results show that not only financial performance but also non-financial performance should be taken into account in determining the creditworthiness of Revitalization Plantation program.

  8. Floor Identification with Commercial Smartphones in Wifi-Based Indoor Localization System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, H. J.; Liu, M. Y.; Shi, Y. M.; Zhao, J. Q.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we utilize novel sensors built-in commercial smart devices to propose a schema which can identify floors with high accuracy and efficiency. This schema can be divided into two modules: floor identifying and floor change detection. Floor identifying module starts at initial phase of positioning, and responsible for determining which floor the positioning start. We have estimated two methods to identify initial floor based on K-Nearest Neighbors (KNN) and BP Neural Network, respectively. In order to improve performance of KNN algorithm, we proposed a novel method based on weighting signal strength, which can identify floors robust and quickly. Floor change detection module turns on after entering into continues positioning procedure. In this module, sensors (such as accelerometer and barometer) of smart devices are used to determine whether the user is going up and down stairs or taking an elevator. This method has fused different kinds of sensor data and can adapt various motion pattern of users. We conduct our experiment with mobile client on Android Phone (Nexus 5) at a four-floors building with an open area between the second and third floor. The results demonstrate that our scheme can achieve an accuracy of 99% to identify floor and 97% to detecting floor changes as a whole.

  9. Smartphone-Based Indoor Integrated WiFi/MEMS Positioning Algorithm in a Multi-Floor Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zengshan Tian

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Indoor positioning in a multi-floor environment by using a smartphone is considered in this paper. The positioning accuracy and robustness of WiFi fingerprinting-based positioning are limited due to the unexpected variation of WiFi measurements between floors. On this basis, we propose a novel smartphone-based integrated WiFi/MEMS positioning algorithm based on the robust extended Kalman filter (EKF. The proposed algorithm first relies on the gait detection approach and quaternion algorithm to estimate the velocity and heading angles of the target. Second, the velocity and heading angles, together with the results of WiFi fingerprinting-based positioning, are considered as the input of the robust EKF for the sake of conducting two-dimensional (2D positioning. Third, the proposed algorithm calculates the height of the target by using the real-time recorded barometer and geographic data. Finally, the experimental results show that the proposed algorithm achieves the positioning accuracy with root mean square errors (RMSEs less than 1 m in an actual multi-floor environment.

  10. Temperature and atmospheric CO2 concentration estimates through the PETM using triple oxygen isotope analysis of mammalian bioapatite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehler, Alexander; Gingerich, Philip D.; Pack, Andreas

    2016-07-01

    The Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) is a remarkable climatic and environmental event that occurred 56 Ma ago and has importance for understanding possible future climate change. The Paleocene–Eocene transition is marked by a rapid temperature rise contemporaneous with a large negative carbon isotope excursion (CIE). Both the temperature and the isotopic excursion are well-documented by terrestrial and marine proxies. The CIE was the result of a massive release of carbon into the atmosphere. However, the carbon source and quantities of CO2 and CH4 greenhouse gases that contributed to global warming are poorly constrained and highly debated. Here we combine an established oxygen isotope paleothermometer with a newly developed triple oxygen isotope paleo-CO2 barometer. We attempt to quantify the source of greenhouse gases released during the Paleocene–Eocene transition by analyzing bioapatite of terrestrial mammals. Our results are consistent with previous estimates of PETM temperature change and suggest that not only CO2 but also massive release of seabed methane was the driver for CIE and PETM.

  11. 我国股票市场发展的问题及完善措施%The Problems and Improvement Measures of China's Stock Market Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何洁

    2012-01-01

    The stock market is a barometer of the national economy,can promote the sound and rapid development of the stock market in the process of rapid development in China to establish a good financial environment,maintaining the security of the national economy.The paper first analyzes the problems of China's stock market,and comparative study of the domestic and foreign stock markets,the development of China's stock market made a number of recommendations for improvement.%股票市场是国民经济的晴雨表,股票市场又好又快地发展可以促使我国在快速发展的过程中建立起良好的金融环境,维护国民经济的安全。本文首先分析了我国股票市场存在的问题,并对比研究了国内外的股票市场,最后对我国股票市场的发展提出了一些改进的建议。

  12. Participación ciudadana en sesiones municipales Citizen Participation in Municipal Meetings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIEL MONTALVO

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo muestra que en el contexto latinoamericano, los niveles de participación en sesiones municipales se mantienen generalmente bajos. Analizando los datos provistos por la encuesta de 2008 del Barómetro de las Américas, encontramos que los individuos que han sido victimizados por el crimen y la corrupción tienen mayor probabilidad de participar en sus gobiernos locales. Esta tendencia se observa también entre aquellos individuos que residen en áreas rurales y aquellos con mayor educación. Estos hallazgos sugieren que los individuos participan para incrementar los niveles de seguridad y transparencia, y que la descentralización gubernamental puede tener un impacto más pronunciado en municipalidades rurales y entre gente más educada.This article shows that in the Latin American context, participation in municipal meetings remains generally low. By looking at the data provided by the AmericasBarometer 2008 survey, we find in 20 countries that individuals who have been victimized by crime or corruption are more likely to participate in their local governments. This pattern is also observed among individuals who live in rural areas and who are more educated. These findings suggest that individuals participate to increase security and transparency and that governmental decentralization may have a more pronounced impact in rural municipalities and among educated people.

  13. Barometric tides from ECMWF operational analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. D. Ray

    Full Text Available The solar diurnal and semidiurnal tidal oscillations in surface pressure are extracted from the operational analysis product of the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF. For the semidiurnal tide this involves a special temporal interpolation, following Van den Dool et al. (1997. The resulting tides are compared with a "ground truth" tide data set, a compilation of well-determined tide estimates deduced from many long time series of station barometer measurements. These comparisons show that the ECMWF (analysis tides are significantly more accurate than the tides deduced from two other widely available reanalysis products. Spectral analysis of ECMWF pressure series shows that the tides consist of sharp central peaks with modulating sidelines at integer multiples of 1 cycle/year, superimposed on a broad cusp of stochastic energy. The integrated energy in the cusp dominates that of the side-lines. This complicates the development of a simple empirical model that can characterize the full temporal variability of the tides.

    Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (waves and tides

  14. High-pressure granulite from Western Kunlun,northwestern China:Its metamorphic evolution,zircon SHRIMP U-Pb ages and tectonic implication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    High-pressure mafic granulites occurring as lenticular bodies within garnet-amphibolites in Kangxiwar Fault have been first reported in this paper. The P-T conditions of two metamorphic stages were ob-tained using calibrated geothermal barometers and ThermoCalc Program. The peak metamorphic con-dition of these high-pressure granulites is about 760―820℃,1.0―1.2 GPa and the retrograde meta-morphic condition is about 620―720℃,0.7―0.8 GPa. The petrological studies show that they have a near-isobaric cooling P-T path which suggests that the Western Kunlun underwent initial crustal thickening,subsequent exhumation and cooling. The SHRIMP zircon U-Pb dating gives two groups of ages for high-pressure granulites. One is 177±6 Ma which is obtained from the rim of the zircon. We consider this age should be the metamorphic age. And the other is 456±30 Ma which is obtained from the core of the zircon and should be the protolith age. The formation of these high-pressure granulites in western Kunlun is closely correlated with the evolution of the Paleo-Tethys and has important im-plications for the research on Tethys and Paleo-Asian tectonic zone.

  15. Carrying Position Independent User Heading Estimation for Indoor Pedestrian Navigation with Smartphones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zhi-An; Wang, Guofeng; Hu, Ying; Cui, Yang

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel heading estimation approach for indoor pedestrian navigation using the built-in inertial sensors on a smartphone. Unlike previous approaches constraining the carrying position of a smartphone on the user’s body, our approach gives the user a larger freedom by implementing automatic recognition of the device carrying position and subsequent selection of an optimal strategy for heading estimation. We firstly predetermine the motion state by a decision tree using an accelerometer and a barometer. Then, to enable accurate and computational lightweight carrying position recognition, we combine a position classifier with a novel position transition detection algorithm, which may also be used to avoid the confusion between position transition and user turn during pedestrian walking. For a device placed in the trouser pockets or held in a swinging hand, the heading estimation is achieved by deploying a principal component analysis (PCA)-based approach. For a device held in the hand or against the ear during a phone call, user heading is directly estimated by adding the yaw angle of the device to the related heading offset. Experimental results show that our approach can automatically detect carrying positions with high accuracy, and outperforms previous heading estimation approaches in terms of accuracy and applicability. PMID:27187391

  16. The state of renewable energies in Europe. Edition 2015 - 15. EurObserv'ER Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For sixteen years now, EurObserv'ER has been collecting data on European Union renewable energy sources to describe the state and thrust of the various sectors in its focus studies or barometers. The first part of this assessment is an updated and completed summary of the work published in 2015 in 'Systemes Solaires' ('Journal de l'Eolien' no. 16, 'Journal du Photovoltaique' no. 13 and 'Journal des Energies Renouvelables' no. 227, 228 and 229). This publication provides a complete overview of the twelve renewable sectors. Their performances are compared against the sta-ted goals set out by each country in its National Renewable Energy Action Plan (NREAP). Additionally, for the sixth year running, the EurObserv'ER consortium members have published their annual renewable energy share estimates of overall final energy consumption for each Member State of the European Union. These figures provide preliminary indication of how the various countries are faring along their renewable energy paths and whether their individual trends point to successful achievement of the targets set by European Directive 2009/28/EC

  17. The City Image and the Local Public Administration: a Working Tool in Urban Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Cristian NEACȘU

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study consist of identifyingand testing in operational terms the concept of cityimage in the decision-making processes, both asfar as the urban planning and the future policies oflocal and regional development are concerned or inthe management of public spaces. It is well-knownthe fact that the simple series of statistical dataand the models based upon them do not sketchout a complete image regarding the urban reality,the perception of habitants at a micro-scale levelabout habituation conditions, illustrated by thecity image, presenting itself as a barometer of thedysfunctionalities encountered in the city. Thus, thepractical implications of this concept based on anew vision in the philosophy of the managementof urban spaces are likely to be interestingenough. Using this tool in the policies and in theactivity of public administration, in urbanism etc.,complementarily to statistical analyses, shouldaccompany any type of local development policyin order to enhance life quality and to transmit acertain life style, well appreciated by the residentswhich should bestow the city distinctiveness anda particular status in the regional and nationalhierarchy. The conceptual scheme of this studyis based on three elements: theory (what doesthe city image represent?, method (how could wemap at a micro-scale level?, case study (whichare the results and the tests of the applicability inthe city of Ploieşti.

  18. Research of coastal late development port logistics contribution to economy growth——Taking GuangXi Beibu Gulf Econmic zone as an example%沿海后发地区港口物流对经济增长的贡献度研究——以广西北部湾经济区为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王景敏; 隋博文

    2012-01-01

    Current,the opening up and development of the coastal developing areas is a new force suddenly rises,and economic development of the neighboring port is also swift and violent,the port logistics has become the barometer and the power source of economic growth.taking Guangxi Beibu Gulf Economic Zone as an example,using SOLOW-SWAN principle to construct the contribution degree model of port logistics to economic growth.determine the contribution degree of its port logistics development to economic growth,provide reference of the sustainable development on the port logistics and regional economy in coastal developing areas.%当前,沿海后发地区开放开发异军突起,临港经济发展迅猛,港口物流已成为拉动区域经济增长的晴雨表和动力源。拟以广西北部湾经济区为例,运用SOLOW—SWAN原理建构港口物流对经济增长贡献度模型,测定港口物流发展对经济增长的贡献度,并提出促进沿海后发地区港口物流与区域经济可持续发展的对策建议。

  19. Empirical Study on Consuming Psychology and Consuming Behavior of Contemporary University Students: Taking Shandong Province as an Example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Li

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available As a sort of knowledge, emotion and disposition in the social living conditions, consuming psychology and behavior is not only a wind vane for social development to a certain extent, but also a barometer of the spirit of the time. Therefore, study on consuming psychology and the consuming behavior it affects becomes a significant and unique perspective to analyze state of development of the society and orientation of behaviors of its social members. University students are the vanguard of the mass culture and consumption, so study and analysis in their consuming psychology and behavior is helpful to come to know the consumer trends of contemporary young people, and even the whole society. In this article, the author adopts the research method with combination of questionnaire survey and interview, and conducts a sample survey on university students in several colleges and universities in Shandong Province. The survey indicates the following characteristics of consumption among university students: prominent trend of consumption diversification, obvious disequilibrium of consumption, co-existence of consumption individuation and belongingness, practical consumption being the main stream, increasing consumption of intercourse and entertainment. Enlightenment and recommendations: To cultivate and strengthen the Financial Quotient of university students, to establish scientific consumption value and to advocate green consumption.

  20. PENGARUH KUALITAS PELAYANAN TERHADAP KEPUASAN PELANGGAN DAN KONSEKUENSINYA PADA LOYALITAS (STUDI PADA OBYEK WISATA DI KABUPATEN MALANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Indah Mustikowati

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Studi ini meneliti kepuasan wisatawan yang mengunjungi obyek wisata yang ada di Kabupaten Malang dengan menggunakan konsep dasar Swedish Customer Satisfaction Barometer (SCSB. Tujuan penelitian untuk menganalisis pengaruh langsung kualitas layanan (service quality terhadap kepuasan wisatawan domestik (customer satisfaction, menganalisis pengaruh langsung harapan konsumen (customer expectation terhadap kepuasan wisatawan domestik (customer satisfaction, dan menganalisis pengaruh langsung kepuasan konsumen (customer satisfaction terhadap loyalitas konsumen (customer loyalty wisatawan domestik. Sampel penelitian adalah wisatawan domestik yang berkunjung ke objek wisata (Pantai Sendang Biru, Pantai Ngliyep dan Pantai Bale Kambang, yaitu sebanyak 150 responden. Teknik analisis data yang digunakan adalah Structural Equation Modelling (SEM dengan menggunakan bantuan program AMOS. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa ada pengaruh langsung antara kualitas layanan dan kepuasan pelanggan, tidak ada pengaruh yang signifikan anatara harapan dengan kepuasan pelanggan, ada pengaruh langsung antara kepuasan pelanggan dengan loyalitas konsumen. Variabel kualitas layanan yaitu reliability dan emphaty memiliki pengaruh yang paling besar terhadap kepuasan pelanggan sedangkan responsiveness, assurance, dan tangible memilki pengaruh yang cukup signifikan.

  1. [Food habits, consumption, and knowledge of a low-income French population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, C; Baudier, F; Loundou, A; Le Bihan, G; Janvrin, M P; Rotily, M

    1998-09-01

    Behaviors related to nutrition as well as the eating habits of low-income French people are analyzed from data collected by the Nutrition and Health Barometer of the CFES in 1996. French people with monthly incomes of less than 4000 francs appear to go to fast-food restaurants more often than to other types of restaurant (for leisure or work). They appear to eat their three main meals alone more often, to spend less time over the evening meal, to watch television during their noon and evening meals, to have cheese or another dairy product rather than a main dish, and to limit their evening meal to a single dish. They are less numerous than higher-income people to have the "ideal" breakfast. These economically disavantaged French people do their shopping more often in large of medium-sized supermarkets and more often plan their meals according to the family budget. In terms of food they are more numerous to eat neither fruit nor vegetables; they consume less pork, fish and shellfish, dairy products, alcoholic beverages and especially before-dinner drinks. This study shows that the eating behavior of low-income French people is less in conformity with commonly accepted nutritional recommendations. Likewise, the rate of obesity observed among the women from this households appears high. PMID:9881031

  2. Design and Testing of a Multi-Sensor Pedestrian Location and Navigation Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valérie Renaudin

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available avigation and location technologies are continually advancing, allowing ever higher accuracies and operation under ever more challenging conditions. The development of such technologies requires the rapid evaluation of a large number of sensors and related utilization strategies. The integration of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSSs such as the Global Positioning System (GPS with accelerometers, gyros, barometers, magnetometers and other sensors is allowing for novel applications, but is hindered by the difficulties to test and compare integrated solutions using multiple sensor sets. In order to achieve compatibility and flexibility in terms of multiple sensors, an advanced adaptable platform is required. This paper describes the design and testing of the NavCube, a multi-sensor navigation, location and timing platform. The system provides a research tool for pedestrian navigation, location and body motion analysis in an unobtrusive form factor that enables in situ data collections with minimal gait and posture impact. Testing and examples of applications of the NavCube are provided.

  3. Negative Pressures and the First Water Siphon Taller than 10.33 Meters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, Francisco; Rivera, Rodrigo; Romero-Maltrana, Diego; Villanueva, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    A siphon is a device that is used to drain a container, with water rising inside a hose in the form of an inverted U and then going down towards a discharge point placed below the initial water level. The siphon is the first of a number of inventions of the ancients documented about 2.000 years ago by Hero of Alexandria in his treatise Pneumatics, and although the explanation given by Hero was essentially correct, there is nowadays a controversy about the underlying mechanism that explains the working of this device. Discussions concerning the physics of a siphon usually refer to concepts like absolute negative pressures, the strength of liquid's cohesion and the possibility of a siphon working in vacuum or in the presence of bubbles. Torricelli understood the working principle of the barometer and the impossibility of pumping water out of wells deeper than 10.33 m. Following Torricelli's ideas it would also not be possible to build a siphon that drives pure water to ascend higher than 10.33 m. In this work, we report the first siphon that drives water (with surfactant) to ascend higher than the Torricellian limit. Motivated by the rising of sap in trees, we built a 15.4 m siphon that shows that absolute negative pressures are not prohibited, that cohesion plays an important role in transmitting forces through a fluid, and that surfactants can help to the transport of water in a metastable regime of negative pressures. PMID:27054847

  4. Approach of Improving the Inertial Navigation System Error for Large Transport Aircraft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Huzi; GENG Jianzhong; TANG Changhong; LI Wei

    2013-01-01

    The corresponding corrected method is proposed for the INS (INS-Inertial Navigation System) accumulated error of large transport aircraft.System errors contain aircraft position error,altitude error and speed error,one is increasing the accuracy of hardware; the other is development of low cost software algorithms.Because of improving hardware is more difficult in my country at present,developing software algorithms is essential way,which have been validated in my types of airplane.The combined heuristic algorithms (ABPNN,Advanced Back-propagation neural networks algorithm and LSM-least square method) are presented,which incorporates the effects of flight region and measured terrain height data by radar and barometer.Based on this algorithm,the appropriate match region was gotten by recognition of fiducial digital map in real time online.In process of work,the minimum of position error as a cost function and the constraint conditions are gave,the flight positions are recognized in real time and continuously,least sum of square is calculated based on LSM,in other words,the optimized result is obtained.The simulation case demonstrate that the method is very successful,the correct rate of recognition is more 90 percent.In words,the algorithm presented is economical,validation and effective.

  5. Carrying Position Independent User Heading Estimation for Indoor Pedestrian Navigation with Smartphones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zhi-An; Wang, Guofeng; Hu, Ying; Cui, Yang

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel heading estimation approach for indoor pedestrian navigation using the built-in inertial sensors on a smartphone. Unlike previous approaches constraining the carrying position of a smartphone on the user's body, our approach gives the user a larger freedom by implementing automatic recognition of the device carrying position and subsequent selection of an optimal strategy for heading estimation. We firstly predetermine the motion state by a decision tree using an accelerometer and a barometer. Then, to enable accurate and computational lightweight carrying position recognition, we combine a position classifier with a novel position transition detection algorithm, which may also be used to avoid the confusion between position transition and user turn during pedestrian walking. For a device placed in the trouser pockets or held in a swinging hand, the heading estimation is achieved by deploying a principal component analysis (PCA)-based approach. For a device held in the hand or against the ear during a phone call, user heading is directly estimated by adding the yaw angle of the device to the related heading offset. Experimental results show that our approach can automatically detect carrying positions with high accuracy, and outperforms previous heading estimation approaches in terms of accuracy and applicability. PMID:27187391

  6. Some aspects of the role of intergranular fluids in the compositional evolution of metamorphic rocks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sumit Chakraborty; Ralf Dohmen

    2001-12-01

    Minerals that react with each other during the progressive evolution of metamorphic terranes are not always in physical contact. As such, an "intergranular fluid" could play a major role in element transfer and chemical evolution. However, the nature of this uid and its specific role remains somewhat elusive. Recent experiments in our laboratory shed some light on the behavior of such a uid. Here we present a simple mathematical model which accounts for diffusion within crystals and fluid, solubility in the fluid and mass balance between the various reservoirs. The model elucidates the nature of element exchange between two minerals via the mediation of an intergranular fluid. It is shown that a coupling of thermodynamics and kinetics controls the evolution of the system and the concentration of an element in the intergranular fluid is a key parameter of interest. The results have important implications for standard tools of metamorphic petrology such as geothermometers and barometers, geospeedometry and the closure of isotopic systems. For example, homogeneity of mineral grains may be a poor criterion for equilibrium and the rim compositions of minerals showing diffusion zoning may be out of equilibrium with distant exchange partners, even in the presence of a uid in which transport is fast.

  7. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The natural gas liquids industry and specifically the gas processing business has not been rosy the last several years. processors have been faced with low NGL prices, high inventories and more regulations which have forced product margins to all time lows and have resulted in plant closings, mergers and a determined search for those processors that are left for ways to make ends meet until times get better. Whether a barometer for the future or merely a fluke in the economy, things got better in 1990. Last year represented a change for the positive in all the indicators characterizing the gas processing business. An early winter in 1989, propane distribution problems, overall increases in petrochemical demand for NGLs and the fear brought on by events in Kuwait all contributed to changes in the marketplace. For the gas processor, these events combined with relatively low natural gas prices to produce wider processing margins and a degree of prosperity. The biggest regulatory event in 1990 however was without a doubt the Clean Air Act Amendments. These sweeping changes to the 1970 Clean Air Act promise to affect the economy and public health well into the next century. The purpose of this paper is to examine first the major provisions of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 and then relate those anticipated changes to the gas processing industry. As will be examined later, the Amendments will create both threats and opportunities for gas processors

  8. Sovereign Wealth Fund Decision Scorecard (DSC - Macroeconomic Evidences from Emerging Economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manvinder Singh Pahwa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Sovereign Wealth Funds (SWFs with combined asset under management of around $4.8 Trillion have emerged as major power in the financial world. However, literature which has empirically analyzed the decision variables impacting the establishment of these funds is limited. Authors has identified and collaborated list of 63 variables which were then rationalized to list of 30 variables that may have affected establishment of Sovereign Wealth Fund for Emerging economies of China, Russia, Mexico and Brazil and analyzed the static state of these variables at the time of establishment of these funds. For India another set of 30 variables were identified and the static state of these variables was then analyzed with respect to macroeconomic and socio-political environment in the country as on 2011. Authors observed the paradox of political stability coupled with low scoring on corruption barometer for all these emerging economies. Author also argue, that all the countries including India do confirm to reserve adequate matrice but risk of capital flight, current account and fiscal account deficit with social and infrastructure trade-off will be major debate issues and weigh heavily against the creation of such fund.

  9. Lay perceptions of the greenhouse effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the data from the French Environment Barometer EDF-RD 2004 (national representative sample of French citizens aged over 15) and surveys by ADEME between 2000 and 2005, the paper investigates lay perceptions of the causes and consequences of the greenhouse effect, which may be considered as archetypical of contemporary environmental risks. Beyond lay lack of knowledge, the greenhouse effect gives rise to coherent and meaningful cognitions, including causal explanations, shaped by the pre-existing cognitive framework. This cognitive work, based on analogic rather than scientific thought, strings together the greenhouse effect, ozone depletion, air pollution and even nuclear power. The cognitive process is also fed by the individuals' general conceptions of Nature and of the rights and duties of humankind towards Nature. People are not greatly worried about the unseen and controversial consequences of the greenhouse effect: such worry could be one of those 'elite fears' mentioned by Beck. Finally, while the efficiency of public policies to counter the greenhouse effect requires extensive societal involvement, low confidence towards both political and scientific authorities may prevent the population from becoming aware of the environmental stakes tied to the greenhouse effect. (authors)

  10. An ancient depleted mantle sample from a 42-Ma dike in Montana: Constraints on persistence of the lithosphere during Eocene Magmatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudas, F.O.; Harlan, S.S.

    1999-01-01

    Recent models for the Cenozoic tectonic evolution of the western margin of North America propose that delamination of ancient lithosphere accompanied asthenospheric upwelling, magmatism, and uplift subsequent to Laramide deformation. On the basis of the age of an alkaline dike in south-central Montana, thermometry of mantle xenoliths from the dike, and Sr, Nd, and Pb isotopic compositions of the dike and a xenocryst, we show that refractory lithosphere, derived from ancient, depleted mantle, remained in place under the Wyoming Craton as late as 42 Ma. The Haymond School Dike, a camptonite, yields a 40Ar/39Ar plateau date of 41.97 ?? 0.19 Ma (2??). Paleomagnetic data are consistent with this date and indicate intrusion during chron C19r. The dike has Sr, Nd, and Pb isotopic compositions similar to those of other Eocene alkaline rocks from central Montana. A clinopyroxene megacryst from the dike has ??42 = 17, and 87Sr/86Sr = 0.70288, indicating that it derives from ancient, depleted mantle isotopically distinct from the source of the host camptonite. Thermometry of xenoliths from the dike shows pyroxene populations that formed at 880?? and 1200??C. Combining thermometry with previous estimates of the regional Eocene geotherm inferred from xenoliths in kimberlites, and with the Al-in-orthopyroxene barometer, we infer that lithospheric mantle remained intact to depths of 110-150 km as late as 42 Ma. Eocene magmatism was not accompanied by complete removal of ancient lithosphere.

  11. Disease Prevention in the Age of Convergence - the Need for a Wider, Long Ranging and Collaborative Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan L. Prescott

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is time to bring our imagination, creativity and passion to the fore in solving the global challenges of our age. Our global health crisis and the pandemic of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs is clearly rooted in complex modern societal and environmental changes, many of which have effects on developing immune and metabolic responses. It is intimately related to wider environmental challenges. And it is unsurprising that many NCDs share similar risk factors and that many are associated with a rising predisposition for inflammation. Allergy is one of the earliest signs of environmental impact on these biological pathways, and may also offer an early barometer to assess the effects of early interventions. There is dawning awareness of how changing microbial diversity, nutritional patterns, sedentary indoor behaviours and modern pollutants adversely affect early metabolic and immune development, but still much to understand the complexity of these interactions. Even when we do harness the science and technology, these will not provide solutions unless we also address the wider social, cultural and economic determinants of health - addressing the interconnections between human health and the health of our environment. Now more than ever, we need a wider vision and a greater sense of collective responsibility. We need long-range approaches that aim for life long benefits of a ‘healthier start to life’, and stronger cross-sectoral collaborations to prevent disease. We need to give both our hearts and our minds to solving these global issues.

  12. 从1902年霍乱传播模式看清末北方社会%Society of North China in Perspective of Cholera Dissemination in 1902

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单丽

    2011-01-01

    在晚清行将告罄的1902年,霍乱作为一个历史进程的指标,敏感地反映了开埠通商前后中国北方社会环境的剧烈变化:疫区的盈缩反映出区域商贸交往体系的成型及港口的兴衰;城乡传播模式的沿海环绕及内陆、沿海轻重疫区的清晰分层则暗示出其时区域人口交往密度的沿海大倾斜。而现代交通工具的介入,则从速度上悄然影响着霍乱的传播区域。%In 1902,approaching the collapse of Qing dynasty,cholera could be regarded as a barometer,which sensitively reflects the radical environmental changes in north China before and after the port opening.On the one hand,the variation of re-infected areas reflects a formation of regional trade system and a rise and fall of local ports;On the other hand,cholera's urban-rural spread pattern indicates that there is a higher frequency of communication in coastal areas than inner land.And during this course,the modern transport attributed to cholera diffuse gradually.

  13. Lay perceptions of the greenhouse effect; Les representations profanes de l'effet de serre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peretti-Watel, P. [Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale (INSERM), UMR 379, Epidemiologie et Sciences Sociales Appliquees a l' Innovation Medicale / ORS PACA, 13 - Marseille (France); Hammer, B. [Electricite de France (EDF-GRETS), 92 - Clamart (France)

    2006-10-15

    Using the data from the French Environment Barometer EDF-RD 2004 (national representative sample of French citizens aged over 15) and surveys by ADEME between 2000 and 2005, the paper investigates lay perceptions of the causes and consequences of the greenhouse effect, which may be considered as archetypical of contemporary environmental risks. Beyond lay lack of knowledge, the greenhouse effect gives rise to coherent and meaningful cognitions, including causal explanations, shaped by the pre-existing cognitive framework. This cognitive work, based on analogic rather than scientific thought, strings together the greenhouse effect, ozone depletion, air pollution and even nuclear power. The cognitive process is also fed by the individuals' general conceptions of Nature and of the rights and duties of humankind towards Nature. People are not greatly worried about the unseen and controversial consequences of the greenhouse effect: such worry could be one of those 'elite fears' mentioned by Beck. Finally, while the efficiency of public policies to counter the greenhouse effect requires extensive societal involvement, low confidence towards both political and scientific authorities may prevent the population from becoming aware of the environmental stakes tied to the greenhouse effect. (authors)

  14. Characteristics of the stress and barometric seismograms produced by the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake ( M9.0) and vertical movements derived from barometric seismograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Hiroshi; Asai, Yasuhiro

    2016-04-01

    High-quality data concerning the Tohoku Earthquake ( M9.0) on March 11, 2011, were obtained from the deep borehole observation network (maximum depth of 1030 m; epicentral distance of approximately 600 km) of the Tono Research Institute of Earthquake Science. In addition to data acquired via seismometers, stress meters, and strain meters, barometric seismograms were recorded by several barometers that are usually used for weather observations. We examined the characteristics of barometric and stress seismograms and compared them to the data obtained using broadband seismometers, finding a shared feature: large amplitudes and long-period waveforms began with the arrival of surface waves. We also investigated the relationship between vertical movements observed with GPS and barometric variations and discovered that the barometric variations were related to the differential of vertical movements, while the vertical movements corresponded to the integral of barometric variations. All these results demonstrate that vertical movements at observation points can be computed from the barometric variations observed at those points.

  15. A collection of sub-daily pressure and temperature observations for the early instrumental period with a focus on the "year without a summer" 1816

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugnara, Y.; Auchmann, R.; Brönnimann, S.; Allan, R. J.; Auer, I.; Barriendos, M.; Bergström, H.; Bhend, J.; Brázdil, R.; Compo, G. P.; Cornes, R. C.; Dominguez-Castro, F.; van Engelen, A. F. V.; Filipiak, J.; Holopainen, J.; Jourdain, S.; Kunz, M.; Luterbacher, J.; Maugeri, M.; Mercalli, L.; Moberg, A.; Mock, C. J.; Pichard, G.; Řezníčková, L.; van der Schrier, G.; Slonosky, V.; Ustrnul, Z.; Valente, M. A.; Wypych, A.; Yin, X.

    2015-08-01

    The eruption of Mount Tambora (Indonesia) in April 1815 is the largest documented volcanic eruption in history. It is associated with a large global cooling during the following year, felt particularly in parts of Europe and North America, where the year 1816 became known as the "year without a summer". This paper describes an effort made to collect surface meteorological observations from the early instrumental period, with a focus on the years of and immediately following the eruption (1815-1817). Although the collection aimed in particular at pressure observations, correspondent temperature observations were also recovered. Some of the series had already been described in the literature, but a large part of the data, recently digitised from original weather diaries and contemporary magazines and newspapers, is presented here for the first time. The collection puts together more than 50 sub-daily series from land observatories in Europe and North America and from ships in the tropics. The pressure observations have been corrected for temperature and gravity and reduced to mean sea level. Moreover, an additional statistical correction was applied to take into account common error sources in mercury barometers. To assess the reliability of the corrected data set, the variance in the pressure observations is compared with modern climatologies, and single observations are used for synoptic analyses of three case studies in Europe. All raw observations will be made available to the scientific community in the International Surface Pressure Databank.

  16. Protocol to the 1979 convention on long-range transboundary air pollution on heavy metals; Aarhus, 24 June 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-08-01

    The Executive Body adopted the Protocol on Heavy Metals on 24 June 1998 in Aarhus (Denmark). It targets three particularly harmful metals: cadmium, lead and mercury. According to one of the basic obligations, parties will have to reduce their emissions for these three metals below their levels in 1990. The Protocol aims to cut emissions from industrial sources, combustion process and waste incineration. It lays down strighten limit values for emissions from stationary sources and suggests best available techniques (BAT) for these sources, such as special filters or scrubbers for combustion sources or mercury-free processes. The Protocol requires parties to phase out leaded petrol. It also introduces measures to lower heavy metal emissions from other products, such as mercury in batteries, and proposes the introduciton of management measures for other mercury-containing products, such as electrical componets (thermostats, switches), measuring devices (thermometers, manometers, barometers), fluorescent lamps, dental amalgam, pesticides and paint. The convention has not yet been ratified in the UK.

  17. Brand loyalty, patients and limited generic medicines uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Font, Joan; Rudisill, Caroline; Tan, Stefanie

    2014-06-01

    The sluggish development of European generic drug markets depends heavily on demand side factors, and more specifically, patients' and doctors' loyalty to branded products. Loyalty to originator drugs, to the point where originator prices rise upon generic entry has been described as the 'generics paradox'. Originator loyalty can emerge for a plethora of reasons; including costs, perceptions about quality and physician advice. We know very little about the behavioural underpinnings of brand loyalty from the consumer or patient standpoint. This paper attempts to test the extent to which patients are brand loyal by drawing upon Spain's 2002 Health Barometer survey as it includes questions about consumer acceptance of generics in a country with exceptionally low generic uptake and substitution at the time of the study. Our findings suggest that at least 13% of the population would not accept generics as substitutes to the originator. These results confirm evidence of brand loyalty for a minority. Alongside high levels of awareness of generics, we find that low cost-sharing levels explain consumer brand loyalty but their impact on acceptance of generic substitution is very small. Higher cost-sharing and exempting fewer patients from cost-sharing have the potential to encourage generic acceptance. PMID:24573104

  18. Precise GPS/GNSS Positioning Solution for Airborne Data Acquisition Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B. G. Gerlach; D. Gondy

    2003-01-01

    The precise positioning of aircrafts during flights belongs to the great challenges with respect to the development of airborne data acquisition systems. Satellite positioning systems like GPS offers a unique capability for precise positioning but requires in depth knowledge of GPS in airborne applications, e.g.GPS for high dynamic application, integration of GPS with other sensors, dynamic behaviour of aircrafts or antenna location. For its positioning reference system of Flight Inspection systems Aerodata AG has developed a robust GPS carrier phase ambiguity solution P-DGPS, Precise Differential GPS combined with complementary sensors like INS, barometers, radio altimeters or laser altimeters as well as laser trackers. Using recorded data during the flight the algorithm offers also the capability to calculate more accurate positions in post-processing. The presented sensor fusion algorithm using GPS without differential corrections (SGPS, standalone GPS) offers a precise height reference solution for approach calibration based only on aircraft-based sensors. SGPS data are combined in post-processing with inertial, pressure, radio and laser altimeter data. Flight trials with a Bombardier "Global Express" at Braunschweig Airport on May 2002 shows the achieved accuracies of the height reference solution calculated by SGPS in comparison to P-DGPS. The SGPS solution for precise height calculation of special mission aircrafts provides accuracies in the order of 5 m and at the runway's threshold in the order of 30 cm.

  19. Pressure tide gauge records from the Atlantic shelf off Tierra del Fuego, southernmost South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Andreas; Mendoza, Luciano; Perdomo, Raúl; Hormaechea, José Luis; Savcenko, Roman; Bosch, Wolfgang; Dietrich, Reinhard

    2012-07-01

    Based on pressure tide gauge observations at three sites off the Atlantic coast of Tierra del Fuego main island, time series spanning one to seven months of bottom pressure and sea-level variations are derived and analysed to reveal the major driving mechanisms. Ocean tides account for 99.5% of the total energy of the sea-level variations. The amplitudes and phases of a comprehensive set of tidal constituents resulting from a harmonic tidal analysis are presented. Exceptionally large shallow-water tides are identified. The second largest contribution is due to the local inverse barometer model accounting for up to 65% of the variance of the tide residual sea-level variations. Close to the shore a significant topographic modulation of the sea-level variations is revealed. The in situ observations are compared with six recent global ocean tide models, official tide tables, and sea-surface heights derived from satellite altimetry data. The amplitudes and phases predicted by the ocean tide models for the semidiurnal and diurnal constituents agree with those derived from our tide gauge records on average within 2 cm and 5°, respectively. In the time domain the tidal signal represented by the models deviates typically by a few decimetres from that extracted from our records. Absolute altimeter biases were determined for the Jason-2, Jason-1 extended mission, and Envisat satellite altimeters. Relative sea-level variations are represented by the altimetry data with an accuracy of the order of 5 cm.

  20. Development and implantation of a control and data acquisition program for the calibration of instruments for diagnostic radiology; Desenvolvimento e implantacao de um programa de controle e aquisicao de dados na calibracao de instrumentos em radiodiagnostico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betti, Flavio

    2007-07-01

    Design techniques of an automatic control system implementing corrected kerma determination and shutter command in the calibration laboratory at IPEN are shown, as well as the periodic calibration program developed for a monitor chamber for several X-ray beam qualities used for diagnostic radiology and radiation protection instruments. Two reference electrometers, a multichannel secondary standard thermometer, and an absolute pressure barometer were connected to the Rs-232 interface from a PC computer equipped with a National Instruments multi function analog and digital I/O card. LabVIEW{sup MR} was chosen as programming tool, which allowed for the development of a suite of programs for both controlling the shutter timing cycles and the calibration of the monitor chamber against a reference standard. A detailed description of the methods used for troubleshooting, fine tuning of parameters and evaluation of program results is followed by an analysis showing that considerable advantages regarding reduction of time and precision improvements during the calibrations could be achieved by the use of the developed programs, particularly under adverse conditions like those found during short expositions, or instead during long irradiation intervals where fluctuation of parameters like kerma rate or room conditions (temperature or pressure) can be found. (author)

  1. Estimation of mercury emissions into the Slovene environment in 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Svetina

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to collect data for better control of mercury emissions in Slovenia, especially from the point and spread sources of all categories. In the past years the Slovenian industry avoided the use of mercury as a raw material in the productionprocess to prevent the emissions and discharge of this hazardous substance. About 733 kg of Hg was imported with products, 620 kg Hg was produced with coal combustion and cement production, 920 kg was sold with products and around 200 kg was exported as waste in year 2001. Annually 1620 kg of Hg emission into environment is estimated, of this approximately 900 kg is deposited as waste, 630 kg escape in the air and 90 kg in water. The following sectors have been identified in Slovenia as the potential sources of mercury into environment: the thermal power plants, dental amalgams, products of electric industry (batteries, lamps, thermometers, manometers, barometers, chemicals, cement industry, incineration and waste treatment. A mercury flow diagram for Slovenia in theyear 2001 was established.

  2. Childhood disability in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples: a literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children have higher rates of disability than non-Indigenous children and are considered doubly disadvantaged, yet there is very little data reflecting prevalence and service access to inform design and delivery of services. Failing to address physical, social, and psychological factors can have life-long consequences and perpetuate longstanding health disparities. Methods A narrative literature review was undertaken to identify peer reviewed literature describing factors impacting on the prevention, recognition, and access to support and management of disability in Indigenous Australian children. Results Twenty-seven peer-reviewed journal articles met inclusion criteria. The majority of articles focused on the hearing loss and learning disabilities consequent of otitis media. Few articles reported data on urban or metropolitan Indigenous populations or described interventions. Individual/community-, provider-, and systems level factors were identified as impacting on recognition and management of disability in young Indigenous children. Conclusions Given the burden of childhood disability, the limited literature retrieved is concerning as this is a barometer of activity and investment. Solutions addressing childhood disability will require collaboration between health, social and educational disciplines as well as an increased investment in prevention, identification and promotion of access. PMID:23327694

  3. Humboldt der Seefahrer und sein Marinechronometer Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der Nautik und Meereskunde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Kortum

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Article in German, Abstracts in English, Spanish and German. HUMBOLDT the Navigator and his ChronometerA Contribution to the History of Navigation and OceanographyHUMBOLDT acquired a remarkable precision time-keeper instrument shortly before he left Paris for his Journey to the Neotropics (1799-1804. This chronometer was made by the famous Swiss-French watchmaker Louis BERTHOUD (1753-1813 with the series number 27. It had belonged to "the celebrated BORDA", as HUMBOLDT stated in his "Personal Narrative". Jean Louis BORDA (1733-1799 was a 18th century French navigator, mathematician and cartographer, who invented or improved a number of geomagnetic instruments. HUMBOLDT used this pocket chronometer for his routine astronomic and geomagnetic observations and to fix the longitude of his position while on board a vessel in the Atlantic and Pacific Ocean. Until John "Timekeeper" HARRISON developed his famous "H 4" chronometer in 1773, a strategic invention for a maritime power as Great Britain, the longitude was a major navigational problem. HUMBOLDT, who confessed that he had a "peculiar predelication for the sea", developed great nautical skills, and his findings were much better than those of the pilots. Furthermore he used the chronometer to observe and calculate ocean currents and to improve the geographical coordinates and thus the maps for many places in Latin America. So, beside his thermometer and barometer, the chronometer certainly was a very basic instrument in the state-of-the-art collection of scientific equipment he bought before leaving Europe.

  4. Infrasound research of volcanic eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetti, Emanuele; Ripepe, Maurizio

    2016-04-01

    Volcanic eruptions are efficient sources of infrasound produced by the rapid perturbation of the atmosphere by the explosive source. Being able to propagate up to large distances from the source, infrasonic waves from major (VEI 4 or larger) volcanic eruptions have been recorded for many decades with analogue micro-barometers at large regional distances. In late 1980s, near-field observations became progressively more common and started to have direct impact on the understanding and modeling of explosive source dynamics, to eventually play a primary role in volcano research. Nowadays, infrasound observation from a large variety of volcanic eruptions, spanning from VEI 0 to VEI 5 events, has shown a dramatic variability in terms of signature, excess pressure and frequency content of radiated infrasound and has been used to infer complex eruptive source mechanisms for the different kinds of events. Improved processing capability and sensors has allowed unprecedented precise locations of the explosive source and is progressively increasing the possibility to monitor volcanoes from distant records. Very broadband infrasound observations is also showing the relation between volcanic eruptions and the atmosphere, with the eruptive mass injection in the atmosphere triggering acoustic-gravity waves which eventually might control the ash dispersal and fallout.

  5. Does low self-esteem enhance social pain? The relationship between trait self-esteem and anterior cingulate cortex activation induced by ostracism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onoda, Keiichi; Okamoto, Yasumasa; Nakashima, Ken'ichiro; Nittono, Hiroshi; Yoshimura, Shinpei; Yamawaki, Sigeto; Yamaguchi, Shuhei; Ura, Mitsuhiro

    2010-12-01

    According to sociometer theory, self-esteem serves as a barometer of the extent to which individuals are socially included or excluded by others. We hypothesized that trait self-esteem would be related to social pain responsiveness, and we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to experimentally investigate this potential relationship. Participants (n = 26) performed a cyberball task, a computerized game of catch during which the participants were excluded from the game. Participants then rated the degree of social pain experienced during both inclusion in and exclusion from the game. Individuals with lower trait self-esteem reported increased social pain relative to individuals with higher trait self-esteem, and such individuals also demonstrated a greater degree of dorsal anterior cingulate cortex activation. A psychophysiological interaction analysis revealed a positive connectivity between the dorsal anterior cingulate and prefrontal cortices for the lower trait self-esteem group, and a corresponding negative connectivity for the higher trait self-esteem group. Heightened dorsal anterior cortex activity and a corresponding connection with the prefrontal cortex might be one possible explanation for the greater levels of social pain observed experienced by individuals with low trait self-esteem. PMID:20144945

  6. 组织机构代码数据动态分析与研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    过浩宇

    2014-01-01

    The changes of organization codes data are the barometer of social and economic development. Through the statistical analysis of dynamic organization codes data in different regions, industries, economic types, this article concluded the main factors affecting the changes of Organization Codes, studied the trend of organization development, put forward some suggestions, and provided the government and relevant departments a good reference to review the macro policies and decision effects.%组织机构代码数据动态堪称社会经济发展的晴雨表。通过对区域、行业、产业、经济类型的组织机构动态数据统计分析,发现影响组织机构代码动态变化的主要因素,研究组织机构动态发展趋势并提出建议,为政府和相关部门考察政策效果以及宏观决策提供参考。

  7. The Game People Played: Mahjong in Modern Chinese Society and Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maggie Green

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the discourse surrounding the popular Chinese table game of mahjong in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, using it as a barometer to trace social and cultural changes during the late Qing and Republican periods. After analyzing the connection between mahjong; its forerunner, madiao; and their antithesis, weiqi (go, it traces the changing position of mahjong in Chinese society from a game seemingly loathed by literati to a staple of bourgeois parlors. Drawing on a variety of journals, newspapers, and visual sources, the article further explores culture from class and gender perspectives in the late Qing and Republican periods, as mahjong moved from a visibly male activity to one largely associated with women. Finally, it considers the relationship between games and discourses of modernity, and the important changes taking place regarding leisure time in the twentieth century. The article argues that mahjong has been uniquely resistant to regulation and control. Enjoyment of the game spread across class and gender lines, despite the efforts of reformers, for reasons that reflect and embody key shifts from the late Qing dynasty through the end of the Republican period.

  8. An imperfect "PAST" Lessons learned from the National Review of Asthma Deaths (NRAD) UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasser, Shuaib

    2016-01-01

    Asthma deaths are a barometer of the quality of asthma care. The principal care for patients with severe asthma is often a joint partnership between primary and secondary services. Communication between the two services determines the effectiveness of treatment. Undertaking an audit on asthma in either primary or separately in secondary care is a relatively straightforward process. However, when the audit spans both primary and secondary care in a country as large as the United Kingdom which is further sub-divided into the separate healthcare systems of England, Wales, Scotland, and Northern Island, then the audit becomes considerably more challenging. The National Review of Asthma Deaths (NRAD) reported in May 2014 was a confidential enquiry tasked with identifying circumstances surrounding asthma deaths across the whole of the UK, in order to ascertain avoidable factors and make recommendations to improve care and reduce future asthma deaths (Why asthma still kills: the National Review of Asthma Deaths (NRAD) Confidential Enquiry report, 2014, http://www.rcplondon.ac.uk/sites/default/files/why-asthma-still-kills-full-report.pdf ). The idea for NRAD arose from a longstanding East of England confidential enquiry started in 1988 by Dr Brian Harrison and then handed onto me in 2001 until funding for the national review of asthma deaths was secured in 2010. PMID:27435407

  9. STRATEGIC OPTIONS IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE BUCHAREST BRAND THROUGH THE APPLICATION ANALYSIS OF THE MEASURING INSTRUMENTS FOR THE URBAN BRANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RUXANDRA IRINA POPESCU

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The reality demonstrates that, in the present context, the competition between the cities is harsh, amplified by the economic and politic effects of the globalization. Thecities are fighting to attract investments, influence, businesses, tourists, residents. One of the challenges of the urban management in its efforts to grow the performance is linked around the construction of the urban brand as a solution in the process of the cities’ development. This construction implies the validity, credibility, simplicity, attractiveness and distinctiveness of the city’s image. The answer of the researchers to the need of a critical effective instrument in this area was the creation of the Urban Brand Index. Through these measuring instruments, the actors implied in the administration of the cities can easily understand the perception of the visitors, investors, costumers and future residents upon the image of the city, to identify and apply some pro-active measures to stimulate and improvement of the existing opportunities that have as main result the development of the city. In this study are presented three of these instruments - The City Brands Index, The European Barometer of City Brands and The Global Cities Index - and the way in which these can contribute to the actions for constructing a powerful urban brand of Bucharest, is analyzed.

  10. Mic Flocks in the Cloud: Harnessing Mobile Ubiquitous Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garces, M. A.; Christe, A.

    2015-12-01

    Smartphones provide a commercial, off-the-shelf solution to capture, store, analyze, and distribute infrasound using on-board or external microphones (mics) as well as on-board barometers. Free iOS infrasound apps can be readily downloaded from the Apple App Store, and Android versions are in progress. Infrasound propagates for great distances, has low sample rates, and provides a tractable pilot study scenario for open distributed sensor networks at regional and global scales using one of the most ubiquitous sensors on Earth - microphones. Data collection is no longer limited to selected vendors at exclusive prices: anybody on Earth can record and stream infrasound, and the diversity of recording systems and environments is rapidly expanding. Global deployment may be fast and easy (www.redvox.io), but comes with the cost of increasing data volume, velocity, variety, and complexity. Flocking - the collective motion of mobile agents - is a natural human response to threats or events of interest. Anticipating, modeling and harnessing flocking sensor topologies will be necessary for adaptive array and network processing. The increasing data quantity and complexity will exceed the processing capacity of human analysts and most research servers. We anticipate practical real-time applications will require the on-demand adaptive scalability and resources of the Cloud. Cloud architectures for such heterogeneous sensor networks will consider eventual integration into the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS).

  11. Information Strategy of Nuclear Training Center Ljubljana in the Area of Radioactive Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slovenia has plans to build a repository for low- and medium-radioactive waste by 2013, the location in the very neighborhood of nuclear power plant is almost chosen, but the final approval hasn't been granted yet. The main obstacle is public opinion. Public information activities are therefore vitally important. One of the most important players in this area in Slovenia is Nuclear Training Center in Ljubljana. Though its main task is training of nuclear professionals, it has a significant role in dissemination of knowledge about radioactivity and nuclear technology also among general public. Public information is focused on youngsters. Almost one half of every generation of schoolchildren in Slovenia visits the Information center yearly and in May 2007, we have celebrated the 100,000. visitor since its opening. Live lectures, exhibition, publications and laboratory demonstrations are offered. To measure the opinion of youngsters about nuclear power and get a feed-back for our activities about 1000 youngsters are polled every year since 1993 using the same basic set of questions. The paper describes the information strategy, types of lectures and information materials, permanent exhibition with the most important exhibits. Furthermore, the results of yearly polls of our visitors and comparison with relevant Euro-barometer polls are presented. (authors)

  12. Prevalence of Tongue Anomalies in Hamadan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Mojarrad

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Since the earliest days of medicine, the tongue has been considered a good reflection of systemic disease. Hippocrates, Galen and others considered the tongue to be barometer of health. In addition, the early diagnose of tongue lesions help to recognize the some systemic diseases. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of different morphological variations (anomaly of the tongue in a population of school children aged 6-12 years in Hamadan, Iran. Method: This cross sectional study was held with questionnaires and face-to-face interview among 1600 schoolchildren 6- 12 years old (800 girls, 800 boys with cluster randomize method were selected and examined. Each school was considered as a cluster that was selected by randomized selections in view of the total sample size. Results: Tongue lesions were found in 39.7% of the children. Overall, the most frequent condition was geographic tongue (27% and fissured tongue (12.9%. Microglosia and median rhomboid glossitis were in 0.2% of cases. Conclusion: The present study indicates a higher frequency of tongue abnormalities specially geographic tongue than previous studies however further investigation are required to indicate if hereditary and congenital factors play a vital role or if the environmental factors in this region vary with those in their regions. On the other hand the findings from this survey should serve as a baseline for future studies.

  13. Air density correction in ionization dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Air density must be taken into account when ionization dosimetry is performed with unsealed ionization chambers. The German dosimetry protocol DIN 6800-2 states an air density correction factor for which current barometric pressure and temperature and their reference values must be known. It also states that differences between air density and the attendant reference value, as well as changes in ionization chamber sensitivity, can be determined using a radioactive check source. Both methods have advantages and drawbacks which the paper discusses in detail. Barometric pressure at a given height above sea level can be determined by using a suitable barometer, or data downloaded from airport or weather service internet sites. The main focus of the paper is to show how barometric data from measurement or from the internet are correctly processed. Therefore the paper also provides all the requisite equations and terminological explanations. Computed and measured barometric pressure readings are compared, and long-term experience with air density correction factors obtained using both methods is described

  14. A Pedestrian Dead Reckoning System Integrating Low-Cost MEMS Inertial Sensors and GPS Receiver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-feng Li

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The body-mounted inertial systems for pedestrian navigation do not require any preinstalled facilities and can run autonomously. The advantages over other technologies make it especially attractive for the applications such as first responders, military and consumer markets. The hardware platform integrating the low-cost, low-power and small-size MEMS (micro-electro-mechanical systems inertial sensors and GPS (global positioning system receiver is proposed. When the satellite signals are available, the location of the pedestrian is directly obtained from the GPS receiver. The inertial sensors are the complement of the GPS receiver in places where the GPS signals are not available, such as indoors, urban canyons and places under dense foliages. The height tracking is achieved by the barometer. The proposed PDR (pedestrian dead reckoning algorithm is real-timely implemented in the platform. The simple but effective step detection and step length estimation method are realized to reduce the computation and memory requirements on the microprocessor. A complementary filter is proposed to fuse the data from the accelerometer, gyroscope and digital compass for decreasing the heading error, which is the main error source in positioning. The reliability and accuracy of the proposed system is verified by field pedestrian walking tests in outdoors and indoors. The positioning error is less than 4% of the total traveled distance. The results indicate that the pedestrian dead reckoning system is able to provide satisfactory tracking performance.

  15. Application of UAVs at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) equipped with sensors for physical, chemical, and radiochemical measurements of remote environments have been tested at the Savannah River Site (SRS). A miniature helicopter was used as an aerial platform for testing a variety of sensors with outputs integrated with the flight control system for real-time data acquisition and evaluation. The sensors included a precision magnetometer, two broad band infra-red radiometers, a 1-inch by 1-inch Nal(TI) scintillation detector, and an on-board color video camera. Included in the avionics package was an ultrasonic altimeter, a precision barometer, and a portable Global Positioning System. Two separate demonstration locations at SRS were flown that had been previously characterized by careful sampling and analyses and by aerial surveys at high altitudes. The Steed Pond demonstration site contains elevated levels of uranium in the soil and pond silt due to runoff from one of the site's uranium fuel and target production areas. The soil at the other site is contaminated with oil bearing materials and contains some buried objects. The results and limitations of the UAV surveys are presented and improvements for future measurements are discussed

  16. ASSESSMENT MODEL OF THE NATIONS' HUMAN CAPITAL - THE CASE OF THE EU COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura-Maria, Dindire

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the knowledge-based society and in the creative economy towards which all the EU countries aspire, being also driven by the regulations of the European Commission through Europe 2020 Strategy, the human capital of a nation acquires new values, representing a powerful comparative advantage for the countries investing in this direction. In this context, the purpose of this scientific approach is to propose a model for assessing the human capital of a nation, created in a new approach, by using representative variables. By using the model proposed benchmarking of the world countries can be made. In this paper we present a benchmark of the EU countries. To answer the approach of this paper, we have used the following research techniques: investigation of secondary data and content analysis of the key reports and studies of international organizations such as: World Bank – Human Development Reports, World Economic Forum, statistics and Eurostat and UNCTAD publications, Euro barometers and EU reports on human capital, etc. For the analysis of the data we applied statistical methods of analysis, from the simplest (descriptive statistics to the implementation of complex analysis.

  17. The Management of Media Organizations from Theory to Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ph. D. Cristina Andreescu (Manolache

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Media organizations have become a barometer in the development of a society. The way these organizations are managed depends on the context they can be placed in. Media organizations can be assimilated with a social and economic context. I attempted to emphasize the importance of good management that takes into account the basic principles and which can be integrated into a media organization. Leadership should be concerned with combining the specifics of management with those of human nature.The need for management is real. As it is the interdependence between the media organization and an efficient management. Despite their shortcomings, today’s managers are able to manage a newspaper, a radio or a television station. They can be divided into three categories, namely: managers of a media organization, having no knowledge of management; managers having the necessary training but unaware of how to implement management rules and finally, managers with very good training but lacking interest, who let things run by themselves.

  18. Diurnal Variation of Air Temperature in the Atmospheric Surface Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Likso

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to illustrate the nature of the diurnal temperature variations in the atmospheric surface layer in all seasons a set of hourly observations at the Zagreb-Maksimir Observatory (Croatia, measured at three different levels (5 cm, 50 cm and 2 m above ground during the year 2005, was used. An approximate method for calculating air temperature at 5 cm, using the air temperature at 2 m, is presented. For this purpose, hourly data (screen height temperature, cloudiness, air pressure at barometer level and wind speed at 2 m collected at the Zagreb-Maksimir Observatory during the summer season of 2005 have been used. Th is method is based on the Monin-Obukhov similarity theory. Estimated values have been compared with observations. The results obtained are the most accurate for cloudy weather, and the least accurate in the case of clear sky. A systematic error of this approach was discovered using a clustering procedure and is briefly discussed.

  19. Diurnal Variation of Air Temperature in the Atmospheric Surface Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Likso

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to illustrate the nature of the diurnal temperature variations in the atmospheric surface layer in all seasons a set of hourly observations at the Zagreb-Maksimir Observatory (Croatia, measured at three different levels (5 cm, 50 cm and 2 m above ground during the year 2005, was used. An approximate method for calculating air temperature at 5 cm, using the air temperature at 2 m, is presented. For this purpose, hourly data (screen height temperature, cloudiness, air pressure at barometer level and wind speed at 2 m collected at the Zagreb-Maksimir Observatory during the summer season of 2005 have been used. Th is method is based on the Monin-Obukhov similarity theory. Estimated values have been compared with observations. The results obtained are the most accurate for cloudy weather, and the least accurate in the case of clear sky. A systematic error of this approach was discovered using a clustering procedure and is briefly discussed.

  20. On whose shoulders we stand – the pioneering entomological discoveries of Károly Sajó

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karoly Vig

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The excellence of Károly Sajó as a researcher into Hungary’s natural history has been undeservedly neglected. Yet he did lasting work, especially in entomology, and a number of his discoveries and initiatives were before their time.Born in 1851 in Győr, he received his secondary education there and went to Pest University. He taught in a grammar school in 1877–88 before spending seven years as an entomologist at the National Phylloxera Experimental Station, later the Royal Hungarian State Entomological Station. Pensioned off at his own request in 1895, he moved to Őrszentmiklós, where he continued making entomological observations on his own farm and wrote the bulk of his published materials: almost 500 longer or shorter notes, articles and books, mainly on entomological subjects.Sajó was among the first in the world to publish in 1896 a study of how the weather affects living organisms, entitled Living Barometers. His Sleep in Insects, which appeared in the same year, described his discovery, from 1895 observations of the red turnip beetle, Entomoscelis adonidis (Pallas 1771, of aestivation in insects – in present-day terms diapause.It was a great loss to universal entomology when Sajó ceased publishing about 25 years before his death. His unpublished notes, with his library and correspondence, were destroyed in the World War II. His surviving insect collection is now kept in the Hungarian Natural History Museum, Budapest.

  1. On whose shoulders we stand - the pioneering entomological discoveries of Károly Sajó.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vig, Károly

    2011-01-01

    The excellence of Károly Sajó as a researcher into Hungary's natural history has been undeservedly neglected. Yet he did lasting work, especially in entomology, and a number of his discoveries and initiatives were before their time.Born in 1851 in Győr, he received his secondary education there and went to Pest University. He taught in a grammar school in 1877-88 before spending seven years as an entomologist at the National Phylloxera Experimental Station, later the Royal Hungarian State Entomological Station. Pensioned off at his own request in 1895, he moved to Őrszentmiklós, where he continued making entomological observations on his own farm and wrote the bulk of his published materials: almost 500 longer or shorter notes, articles and books, mainly on entomological subjects.Sajó was among the first in the world to publish in 1896 a study of how the weather affects living organisms, entitled Living Barometers. His Sleep in Insects, which appeared in the same year, described his discovery, from 1895 observations of the red turnip beetle, Entomoscelis adonidis (Pallas, 1771), of aestivation in insects - in present-day terms diapause.It was a great loss to universal entomology when Sajó ceased publishing about 25 years before his death. His unpublished notes, with his library and correspondence, were destroyed in the World War II. His surviving insect collection is now kept in the Hungarian Natural History Museum, Budapest. PMID:22303108

  2. On whose shoulders we stand – the pioneering entomological discoveries of Károly Sajó *

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vig, Károly

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The excellence of Károly Sajó as a researcher into Hungary’s natural history has been undeservedly neglected. Yet he did lasting work, especially in entomology, and a number of his discoveries and initiatives were before their time. Born in 1851 in Győr, he received his secondary education there and went to Pest University. He taught in a grammar school in 1877–88 before spending seven years as an entomologist at the National Phylloxera Experimental Station, later the Royal Hungarian State Entomological Station. Pensioned off at his own request in 1895, he moved to Őrszentmiklós, where he continued making entomological observations on his own farm and wrote the bulk of his published materials: almost 500 longer or shorter notes, articles and books, mainly on entomological subjects. Sajó was among the first in the world to publish in 1896 a study of how the weather affects living organisms, entitled Living Barometers. His Sleep in Insects, which appeared in the same year, described his discovery, from 1895 observations of the red turnip beetle, Entomoscelis adonidis (Pallas, 1771), of aestivation in insects – in present-day terms diapause. It was a great loss to universal entomology when Sajó ceased publishing about 25 years before his death. His unpublished notes, with his library and correspondence, were destroyed in the World War II. His surviving insect collection is now kept in the Hungarian Natural History Museum, Budapest. PMID:22303108

  3. Temperature and Oxygen Fugacity Constraints on CK and R Chondrites and Implications for Water and Oxidation in the Early Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righter, K.; Neff, K. E.

    2007-01-01

    Recent chondritic meteorite finds in Antarctica have included CB, CH, CK and R chondrites, the latter two of which are among the most oxidized materials found in meteorite collections. In this study we present petrographic and mineralogic data for a suite of CK and R chondrites, and compare to previous studies of CK and R, as well as some CV chondrites. In particular we focus on the opaque minerals magnetite, chromite, sulfides, and metal as well as unusual silicates hornblende, biotite, and plagioclase. Several mineral thermometers and oxy-barometers are utilized to calculate temperatures and oxygen fugacities for these unusual meteorites compared to other more common chondrite groups. R and CK chondrites show lower equilibrium temperatures than ordinary chondrites, even though they are at similar petrologic grades (e.g., thermal type 6). Oxygen fugacity calculated for CV and R chondrites ranges from values near the iron-wustite (IW) oxygen buffer to near the fayalite-magnetite-quartz (FMQ) buffer. In comparison, the fO2 recorded by ilmenite-magnetite pairs from CK chondrites are much higher, from FMQ+3.1 to FMQ+5.2. The latter values are the highest recorded for materials in meteorites, and place some constraints on the formation conditions of these magnetite-bearing chondrites. Differences between mineralogic and O isotopic compositions of CK and R chondrites suggest two different oxidation mechanisms, which may be due to high and low water: rock ratios during metamorphism, or to different fluid compositions, or both.

  4. Psychosocial safety climate as a lead indicator of workplace bullying and harassment, job resources, psychological health and employee engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Rebecca; Dollard, Maureen F; Tuckey, Michelle R; Dormann, Christian

    2011-09-01

    Psychosocial safety climate (PSC) is defined as shared perceptions of organizational policies, practices and procedures for the protection of worker psychological health and safety, that stem largely from management practices. PSC theory extends the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) framework and proposes that organizational level PSC determines work conditions and subsequently, psychological health problems and work engagement. Our sample was derived from the Australian Workplace Barometer project and comprised 30 organizations, and 220 employees. As expected, hierarchical linear modeling showed that organizational PSC was negatively associated with workplace bullying and harassment (demands) and in turn psychological health problems (health impairment path). PSC was also positively associated with work rewards (resources) and in turn work engagement (motivational path). Accordingly, we found that PSC triggered both the health impairment and motivational pathways, thus justifying extending the JD-R model in a multilevel way. Further we found that PSC, as an organization-based resource, moderated the positive relationship between bullying/harassment and psychological health problems, and the negative relationship between bullying/harassment and engagement. The findings provide evidence for a multilevel model of PSC as a lead indicator of workplace psychosocial hazards (high demands, low resources), psychological health and employee engagement, and as a potential moderator of psychosocial hazard effects. PSC is therefore an efficient target for primary and secondary intervention. PMID:21658506

  5. 英文文摘

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Innovation of Accounting Theory Based on the Environment of E-businesses Tan Wenhao ( College of Science and Technology,Nanchang University,Nanchang,Jiangxi 330029 ) Abstract: With the rapid development of computer communications technology, creating a new business model - e-commerce. E-commerce business model, the traditional business model of companies had improved, re-optimize the allocation of resources. In e-commerce business model, the traditional business processes for enterprise restructuring and business transformation. E-commerce on the productivity of traditional business operations to bring changes in many aspects of economic life had a huge impact. Changes in the external economic environment, requiring as a barometer of the economy of accounting theory should make the appropriate theoretical innovation. This paper from the e-commerce features of the traditional theory of change, the new environment, the core issue of accounting theory, analysis, and build the basis of the analysis of innovative e-commerce environment based system of accounting theory, accounting for the emerging information systems in economic matters provide an accurate reflection of theoretical support.

  6. Temperature and atmospheric CO2 concentration estimates through the PETM using triple oxygen isotope analysis of mammalian bioapatite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehler, Alexander; Gingerich, Philip D; Pack, Andreas

    2016-07-12

    The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) is a remarkable climatic and environmental event that occurred 56 Ma ago and has importance for understanding possible future climate change. The Paleocene-Eocene transition is marked by a rapid temperature rise contemporaneous with a large negative carbon isotope excursion (CIE). Both the temperature and the isotopic excursion are well-documented by terrestrial and marine proxies. The CIE was the result of a massive release of carbon into the atmosphere. However, the carbon source and quantities of CO2 and CH4 greenhouse gases that contributed to global warming are poorly constrained and highly debated. Here we combine an established oxygen isotope paleothermometer with a newly developed triple oxygen isotope paleo-CO2 barometer. We attempt to quantify the source of greenhouse gases released during the Paleocene-Eocene transition by analyzing bioapatite of terrestrial mammals. Our results are consistent with previous estimates of PETM temperature change and suggest that not only CO2 but also massive release of seabed methane was the driver for CIE and PETM. PMID:27354522

  7. Development and implantation of a control and data acquisition program for the calibration of instruments for diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Design techniques of an automatic control system implementing corrected kerma determination and shutter command in the calibration laboratory at IPEN are shown, as well as the periodic calibration program developed for a monitor chamber for several X-ray beam qualities used for diagnostic radiology and radiation protection instruments. Two reference electrometers, a multichannel secondary standard thermometer, and an absolute pressure barometer were connected to the Rs-232 interface from a PC computer equipped with a National Instruments multi function analog and digital I/O card. LabVIEWMR was chosen as programming tool, which allowed for the development of a suite of programs for both controlling the shutter timing cycles and the calibration of the monitor chamber against a reference standard. A detailed description of the methods used for troubleshooting, fine tuning of parameters and evaluation of program results is followed by an analysis showing that considerable advantages regarding reduction of time and precision improvements during the calibrations could be achieved by the use of the developed programs, particularly under adverse conditions like those found during short expositions, or instead during long irradiation intervals where fluctuation of parameters like kerma rate or room conditions (temperature or pressure) can be found. (author)

  8. 茂名热电厂300MW机组掺烧印尼煤研究%Test&Analysis of Blended Indonesian Coal Burning in 300MW Unit Boilers in Maoming Heat and Power Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张云贵

    2012-01-01

      Steam coal is in short supply in marketing at present.The coal fired in power plants facea variety of coal types.It is different with coal designed,which makes boiler efficient and unit economic barometer decreasing.In this paper, combined with the reality of Maoming Heat and Power Plant 300MW Units blended with Indonesian coal from running, analyzing and solving the normal operation of the boiler coal unstable or coal deviate from the design of coal and so on, thereby effectively improving the safety and economy of the boiler operation.%  目前市场发电用煤供应紧张,各电厂普遍面临煤种变化大,实际燃用煤质较设计煤种变化较大,直接导致锅炉效率下降,电厂整体经济性下降。结合茂名热电厂300MW机组掺烧印尼煤的情况从运行实际出发,分析解决了由于煤质不稳定等对锅炉的正常运行带来的负面影响,从而有效地提高了锅炉运行的安全性及经济性。

  9. The Role of Social Capital in Avoiding Over-education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BLANKA BALINT

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In post-socialist countries, overqualification is a current and relevant issue, butdespite its importance, this topic is not sufficiently addressed in the literature,especially in the post-communist region. Starting from the theory of professionalreorientation strategies, one can assume that the lack of social capital may be one ofthe causes of overqualification. In this study, I will investigate this hypothesis. Theanalysis of the issue was performed on the database of the “MOZAIK2001”sociological survey. The long period of time that has lapsed since the collection of thedata requires the verification of the assumptions on a much more recent database,namely the Cultural Consumption Barometer 2010. In order to identify the necessaryworkplace educational training, I used the occupation classification method.Overqualification was determined by comparing the educational training acquiredwith the occupation performed. Although the importance of relational resources on thelabour market is discussed in several studies in the field, the research was only partlyable to prove the positive role of social capital in avoiding overqualification.

  10. The state of HIV sector local governance in Malawi and Zambia: Evidence from five districts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Steyn

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper encapsulates the outputs of a Swiss Agency for Development Cooperation (SDC funded project that aimed to improve the levels of HIV governance at the district level in Malawi and Zambia by encouraging public participation in an effort to more effective use of local resources. The methodology for this project, developed by the Institute for Democracy in Africa (Idasa and SDC, included a barometer which assessed perceptions of district HIV governance among key stakeholders. Perceptions were gathered on governance principles of effectiveness, efficiency, rule of law, accountability, participation and equity. The stakeholders ranged from administrators, political representatives, community-based organisations and the private sector on the supply side and citizens on the demand or beneficiary side. The findings of the research indicate specific sector governance issues that may be generalised to governance. Communication and transparency appear to be major issues underpinning the bottlenecks and shortcomings in the HIV sector governance at the district level. Information gaps have given rise to accountability deficits and coordination deficiencies. Addressing these matters would make more effective use of resources and lessen dependence on external funding sources.

  11. Revisiting Emplacement Depths of the Fine Gold Intrusive Suite, West-Central Sierra Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, D.; Lackey, J.

    2013-12-01

    The Fine Gold Intrusive Suite (FGIS) is a large intrusive complex in the west central portion of the Sierra Nevada Batholith. Portions of the Sierra Nevada Batholith have been well studied for plutonic pressure and crystallization histories (e.g., Ague and Brimhall, 1988, GSAB), whereas the regional depth of emplacement of the FGIS is not well characterized, and in previous work pressure estimates were not corrected for crystallization temperatures. An accurate sense of barometric gradient in the FGIS is important to evaluate the roles of pre-batholithic structural breaks in controlling magma emplacement levels, and also to reconstruct erosional levels within the Sierra Nevada as a whole. In this study, samples from the FGIS, all from the Bass Lake Tonalite, were petrographically characterized to identify those samples that contain mineral assemblage and crystallization textures appropriate for application of the Aluminum-in-Hornblende barometer of Hammarstrom and Zen (1986) re-calibrated by Anderson and Smith (1995). Analysis of these samples and use of the barometer results in both pressure and temperature of crystallization. FGIS amphiboles are typical magnesio-hornblende on average: K0.2Na0.1Ca1.8[Mg2.4(Al,Fe3+)(0.2-0.6)]Si6.7Ti0.1Al1.3O22(OH)2. Plagioclase compositional ranges are Ab(54-69)An(30-45)Or(0-1). Bass Lake Tonalite data of Ague and Brimhall (1988) were re-calculated for typical plagioclase composition in the Bass Lake Tonalite (Ab62An37Or1), yielding slightly higher crystallization pressures (3.3 to 5.8 kbar) than the original range (2.4 to 4.5 kbar). New FGIS crystallization pressures of 2.6 to 3.5 kbar match the recalculated data well, thus providing larger coverage for estimates of emplacement depth. Apparent temperatures from adjacent amphibole and plagioclase rims were found to be 691 to 767°C. When all barometric data are considered together, and uncertainties of the calibration are factored in, we find that FGIS crystallization pressures

  12. Interpreting Al-in Hornblende and Hbl-Plag thermobarometry results from the Tuolumne batholith and magmatic lobes in conjunction with single mineral element distribution electron microprobe maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memeti, V.; Krause, J.; Anderson, J. L.; Paterson, S. R.

    2009-12-01

    Several recent thermobarometry studies have been conducted on the 95-85 Ma Tuolumne batholith, Sierra Nevada, CA, since Ague & Brimhall (1988) first reported ~2.5-3 kbar pressures and an emplacement depth of ~ 10 km from these sphene bearing granodioritic rocks. Average pressure estimates from more recent reports using the simultaneous solution of the plagioclase-amphibole thermometer by Holland & Blundy (1994), and the temperature corrected Al-in-hornblende barometer by Anderson & Smith (1995) are around 2 kbar, but vary in detail from 2 to 3 kbar. Further complications are revealed on temperature-pressure plots since some results fall below the granite and tonalite solidi and are thus subsolidus in nature. Many recent studies also indicate that single minerals in volcanic and plutonic rocks preserve complex magmatic growth histories, and in one sample or thin section can show heterogeneous mineral chemistries and multiple mineral populations, likely due to recycling and mixing processes occurring in large magma chambers. This implies that the pairing of minerals for thermobarometry calculations and thus the usage of these methods is complicated and requires the prior evaluation of the geochemistry of the individual minerals used for the analyses. We have done pressure and temperature estimates using the thermometer by Holland & Blundy (1994) and the Al-in-hornblende barometer by Anderson & Smith (1995) in conjunction with X-ray electron microprobe element distribution maps of the amphiboles and plagioclase grains used for the thermobarometry. With this approach, we attempt to better control the process of analyses pairing for the calculations since we establish a better awareness of the nature of individual mineral chemistry heterogeneities and the presence of multiple mineral populations. We selected a number of granodiorite samples from the peripheral magmatic lobes of the batholith, which have been determined to represent less complex and shorter lived, local

  13. Variations of the Earth's Gravity Field from GRACE, Geophysical Model and Satellite Laser Ranging%根据人卫激光测距、GRACE和地球物理模型求解地球低阶重力场季节变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲伟菁; 吴斌; 周旭华

    2012-01-01

    利用2002年4月至2010年10月的Lageosl和Lageos2激光卫星观测数据、GRACE以及地球物理模型3种独立的方法计算地球低阶重力场系数J2的变化△J2其中大气变化的贡献分别按反变气压计(IB)和非反变气压计(N旧)两种假设进行计算。通过分析△J2的季节特性可得:①在N旧假设下大气质量变化引起的J2变化的周年振幅比其在旧假设下引起的△J2变化的周年振幅大3倍左右,相位相差47°;②大气和陆地水的质量变化对△J2周年变化的贡献占主导地位,海洋的影响较小;③大气、海洋和陆地水质量变化引起△J2半年振幅和相位值与SLR得到的振幅和相位值吻合较差,尤其是在旧假设下大气得到的结果与SLR结果相差更大;④SLR、GRACE和地球物理模型3种独立方法得到的△J2周年项之间吻合相对较好。GRACE得到的周年振幅比SLR得到的周年振幅大50%左右,SLR观测得到的△J2。周年振幅介于在N旧和旧两种假设下地球物理模型得到的结果之间,GRACE与SLR得到的△J2半年的振幅相同。%Several independent time series of variations J~ in Earth's gravity field are compared from GRACE, geophysical model and satellite laser ranging(SLR) for the period April 2002 to cteber 2010. It is computed the atmospheric induced J2 variations for both inverted-barometer (IB) and non-inverted-barometer (NIB) response of the oceans. The results of the comparison show that@ the annual term amplitude of ]2 in NIB case is bigger by a3 times than that in IB case, the difference of the both phase is 47~~ @ at the annual frequency, atmospheric pressure and surface ground water effects are the dominate contributors~ @ for the semi-annual term, the amplitudes and phases of the atmospheric pressure, ocean and surface ground water do not agree very well, especially for the results of the atmospheric pressure in IB case~ @ GRACE, geophysical model and SLR

  14. An analysis of Super typhoon Rammasun's(2014) peak intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Qinbo; Xu, Yinglong

    2016-04-01

    Super typhoon Rammasun (2014) made landfall over Hainan Island, China, at 0730UTC 18 July 2014. Due to the damage of the anemometers, the Automatic Weather Stations (AWS) and the bouy which by Rammasun passed, failed to obtain its peak wind. Lack of the direct evident, in real-time monitoring, its peak intensities were given by 110kts (.i.e. 60m/s)/910hPa,135kts/922hPa , and 90kts/935hPa based on Dvorak technique , which were made by China Meteorological Administration (CMA),Joint Typhoon Warning Center(JTWC), and Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) respectively. However, a minimum pressure of 881.2hPa recorded by a barometer which located at Qixhou island (19.982︒N,111.269︒E) while Rammasun approaching, indicates that its intensity was under estimated. By using observation data such as AWS, satellite, Doppler radar and wind tower near the ground, this study performs a detail evaluation to obtain its actual intensity. At 0521UTC, Qizhou Island station recorded 881.2hPa of the minimum station pressure and 899.2hPa of minimum sea level pressure (MSLP) while the anemometer had been destroyed. These are the lowest records in Chinese history and also are ones of the global lowest pressures obtained directly by barometer. It is evident that Rammasun's eyewall did not pass across Qizhou Island directly, so the actual MSLP should be lower than 899.2hPa. By applying wind-pressure relationship, it is reckoned that the reasonable MSLP and peak wind of Rammasun should be 888hPa and 70-76m/s, which makes Rammasun the strongest typhoon ever made landfall in China's history. In order to intuitively investigate the real intensity of Ramasun, eyewall structures are compared with some historical extreme typhoons (hurricanes) such as Saomai(2006), Haiyan(2013) and Katrina(2005). Satellite images show that the dense overcast convection strength of Rammasun is stronger than those when Saomai and Katrina were in their peak intensities and before landing, but weaker than Haiyan. The

  15. 资源分布、阶层地位与社会支持 基于东亚华人社会的比较%Distribution of Resources, Social Class, and Social Support: Comparisons of the Chinese Societies in East Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范晓光

    2012-01-01

    已有研究大多从网络结构角度讨论社会支持,本文基于2006年“亚洲民主动态调查”(AsianBarometerSurvey)的数据,从地位结构观角度探讨了东亚华人社会城市居民的社会支持选择。研究结果表明,在不同资源分布格局的华人社会中,阶层结构对城市居民在社会支持选择上的影响存在差异。具体而言,在正式支持和混合支持的选择上,与中国大陆相比,教育地位对港台地区居民选择混合支持的几率有更明显的正向作用;在正式支持和非正式支持的选择上,教育地位对中国大陆居民选择正式支持的几率的正向作用更强。%In Chinese societies, kinship relations always play a very important role in social support due to the impact of Confucian culture. The establishment of the modern welfare system including social assistance and pensions has shifted the overreliance on personal networks for social support to using the formal multi-level support system. Current scholars have studied social support from the network structural perspective. This paper tries to apply the social status perspective to the study of social support. At present there are two theoretical perspectives, i. e., the theory of resource distribution and the theory of social status block, the former emphasizing how the distribution of economic resources and political power structure influence individuals' network selection and utilization, and the latter emphasizing how social stratification controls people's social contact and interaction to influence the accessible network resources. Facing the theoretical limitations, the author proposes a new analytical framework of "distribution of resource-structure of class' (DR- SC)" to examine the selection of social support by the urban citizens in the Chinese societies in East Asia based on the 2006 Asia Barometer Survey. The findings suggest that, in Mainland China, which had the

  16. Corruption in Latin America: Understanding the Perception–Exposure Gap Corrupção na América Latina. Entendendo a lacuna entre percepção e exposição

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone R. Bohn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available What beliefs do citizens who perceive levels of corruption in their countries to be of significance hold? Do those beliefs arise from their exposure to corruption? Furthermore, do perceptual and experiential corruption decrease the reservoir of legitimacy of a democratic regime? We attempt to answer these questions using the 2012 Americas Barometer survey of 24 Latin American countries. We find that whereas “rational-choice corrup-tors,” males and, to a lesser extent, individuals with resources are particularly exposed to corruption, perceived corruption originates from a sense of impunity derived from a negative evaluation of the state’s ability to curb corruption. In addition, we show that perceived corruption significantly decreases citizen satisfaction with democracy, but exposure to corruption does not. All in all, the policy implications of our study are straightforward: having an efficient and trusted judiciary is central to curbing both experiential and perceived corruption, even if it increases the latter in the short run.Quais são as crenças esposadas por indivíduos que acreditam haver corrupção em seu país? Essas crenças nascem em resposta à experiência direta com corrupção? Além disso, os dois fenômenos – ou seja, a percepção de corrupção e a exposição à corrupção – diminuem a reserva de legitimidade do regime democrático? Esse trabalho responde essas questões utilizando-se do survey de 24 países da América Latina e do Caribe, realizado pelo Americas Barometer em 2012. Os resultados da análise indicam que os “corruptores racionais”, os homens e, de uma certa maneira, os indivíduos mais abastados tendem a ser mais expostos à corrupção. A percepção da corrupção, por sua vez, emana de um senso de impunidade, particularmente de uma availação negativa em relação à capacidade de o estado controlar a corrupção. A análise também revela que a percepção da corrupção diminui a

  17. A quality assurance program for radiotherapy centers in the Republic of Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recognizing the importance of quality assurance in radiotherapy and the need to make access to radiation standards traceable to the international measurement system to every radiotherapy center, the KFDA, as a national secondary standard dosimetry laboratory (SSDL), has started a quality assurance program from 1999. This program was initiated by tele-survey to all radiotherapy centers regarding general information about their radiotherapists, medical physicists, type of equipment, dosimeters, etc. This provided the KFDA with a data file and led to links between the KFDA and the clinics. In 1999 a national quality assurance program for ensuring dosimetry accuracy has been performed by on-site dosimetry for 4 60Co γ ray, 47 high-energy photon beams used in 43 centers. During the audits, the procedure followed by the KFDA was to measure the outputs of the LINAC(6 MV) and Co-60 teletherapy units in terms of absorbed dose to water for fixed dose (2 Gy) in water phantom (only one phantom used in this on-site visit). For all the case, the measurements are carried out in a water phantom according to the IAEA recommended code of practice. The distributions of deviations in total audit are given. The results showed deviations varying between -7.11% and 8.38%. KFDA follow up the large deviated radiotherapy centers. The traceability to SSDL is a major factor of deviation between KFDA measurement dose and clinics quoted dose. The correction for air density (temperature and pressure) is a factor that sometimes introduces errors. Most of the clinics do not calibrate their own barometers and sometimes rely on the air pressure that is quoted during measurements by local metrological offices. In one case, the barometer and thermometer of the clinic were deviating from KFDA instruments by about 10 mmHg and 2, respectively even if the temperature was measured in air. In one case, about 4% of output variation with gantry head angle (horizontal vs. vertical). In the past two years the

  18. Robert Hooke: early respiratory physiologist, polymath, and mechanical genius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, John B

    2014-07-01

    Robert Hooke (1635-1703) was a polymath who made important contributions to respiratory physiology and many other scientific areas. With Robert Boyle, he constructed the first air pump that allowed measurements on small animals at a reduced atmospheric pressure, and this started the discipline of high-altitude physiology. He also built the first human low-pressure chamber and described his experiences when the pressure was reduced to the equivalent of an altitude of ∼2,400 m. Using artificial ventilation in an animal preparation, he demonstrated that movement of the lung was not essential for life. His book Micrographia describing early studies with a microscope remains a classic. He produced an exquisite drawing of the head of a fly, showing the elaborate compound eye. There is also a detailed drawing of a flea, and Hooke noted how the long, many-jointed legs enable the insect to jump so high. For 40 years, he was the curator of experiments for the newly founded Royal Society in London and contributed greatly to its intellectual ferment. His mechanical inventions covered an enormous range, including the watch spring, the wheel barometer, and the universal joint. Following the Great Fire of London in 1666, he designed many of the new buildings in conjunction with Christopher Wren. Unfortunately, Hooke had an abrasive personality, which was partly responsible for a lack of recognition of his work for many years. However, during the last 25 years, there has been renewed interest, and he is now recognized as a brilliant scientist and innovator. PMID:24985326

  19. Research on Earth's rotation and the effect of atmospheric pressure on vertical deformation and sea level variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahr, John

    1993-03-01

    The work done under NASA grant NAG5-485 included modelling the deformation of the earth caused by variations in atmospheric pressure. The amount of deformation near coasts is sensitive to the nature of the oceanic response to the pressure. The PSMSL (Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level) data suggest the response is inverted barometer at periods greater than a couple months. Green's functions were constructed to describe the perturbation of the geoid caused by atmospheric and oceanic loading and by the accompanying load-induced deformation. It was found that perturbation of up to 2 cm are possible. Ice mass balance data was used for continental glaciers to look at the glacial contributions to time-dependent changes in polar motion, the lod, the earth's gravitational field, the position of the earth's center-of-mass, and global sea level. It was found that there can be lateral, non-hydrostatic structure inside the fluid core caused by gravitational forcing from the mantle, from the inner core, or from topography at the core/mantle or inner core/outer core boundaries. The nutational and tidal response of a non-hydrostatic earth with a solid inner core was modeled. Monthly, global tide gauge data from PSMSL was used to look at the 18.6-year ocean tide, the 14-month pole tide, the oceanic response to pressure, the linear trend and inter-annual variability in the earth's gravity field, the global sea level rise, and the effects of post glacial rebound. The effects of mantle anelasticity on nutations, earth tides, and tidal variation in the lod was modeled. Results of this model can be used with Crustal Dynamics observations to look at the anelastic dissipation and dispersion at tidal periods. The effects of surface topography on various components of crustal deformation was also modeled, and numerical models were developed of post glacial rebound.

  20. Health behaviors: is there any distinction for teachers? A cross-sectional nationwide study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabien Gilbert

    Full Text Available Health behaviors, as important modifiable determinants of health, are consistently targeted by prevention messages. Teachers, as educators and role models, may play a key-role in bringing such messages to children and adolescents. It is not clear which areas of prevention could be improved in collaboration with teachers to promote healthy behaviors at the population level through health education in schools.to evaluate teacher's health awareness, we compared their health/risk behaviors to those of non-teachers, taking into account demographic and socioeconomic factors that could confound crude differences. We used data from the 2010 Health Barometer, a cross-sectional nationally-representative French survey conducted by telephone among 27,653 persons aged 15-85. Adjusting sequentially for potential confounders, we compared six indicators of lifestyle and risky conducts (at-risk drinking, current smoking, cannabis use, gambling, corpulence, sleep duration between teachers (n = 725 and two comparison groups: other occupations (n = 12,483 on the one hand, and other intermediate and managerial/professional occupations (n = 6,026 on the other.In the fully-adjusted models, teachers were less likely than other occupations to smoke, to have used cannabis in the last 12 months, to gamble regularly and to be overweight or obese. When restricting the comparison group to other occupations belonging to the same socio-professional category, differences were attenuated, but remain highly significant for tobacco, cannabis and gambling. No significant differences were observed between teachers and non-teachers regarding alcohol use and sleep duration, once important confounders had been adjusted for.Our results suggest that teachers behave on the whole more healthily than other adults with a similar demographic and socioeconomic profile. The absence of a teacher distinction toward at-risk drinking needs to be examined in more detail.

  1. A high-throughput and sensitive method to measure Global DNA Methylation: Application in Lung Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genome-wide changes in DNA methylation are an epigenetic phenomenon that can lead to the development of disease. The study of global DNA methylation utilizes technology that requires both expensive equipment and highly specialized skill sets. We have designed and developed an assay, CpGlobal, which is easy-to-use, does not utilize PCR, radioactivity and expensive equipment. CpGlobal utilizes methyl-sensitive restriction enzymes, HRP Neutravidin to detect the biotinylated nucleotides incorporated in an end-fill reaction and a luminometer to measure the chemiluminescence. The assay shows high accuracy and reproducibility in measuring global DNA methylation. Furthermore, CpGlobal correlates significantly with High Performance Capillary Electrophoresis (HPCE), a gold standard technology. We have applied the technology to understand the role of global DNA methylation in the natural history of lung cancer. World-wide, it is the leading cause of death attributed to any cancer. The survival rate is 15% over 5 years due to the lack of any clinical symptoms until the disease has progressed to a stage where cure is limited. Through the use of cell lines and paired normal/tumor samples from patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) we show that global DNA hypomethylation is highly associated with the progression of the tumor. In addition, the results provide the first indication that the normal part of the lung from a cancer patient has already experienced a loss of methylation compared to a normal individual. By detecting these changes in global DNA methylation, CpGlobal may have a role as a barometer for the onset and development of lung cancer

  2. Stock market prediction using technical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradić-Martinović Aleksandra

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Technical analysis (TA is a form of analyzing market encompassing supply and demand of securities according to the study of their prices and trading volume. Using the appropriate methods, TA aims to identify price movements in the stock market, futures or currencies. In short, TA analysis is the process by which "future price movements are formulated according to the price history". TA originates from the work of Charles Dow and his conclusions about the global behavior of the market, as well as from Elliot Wave Theory. Dow did not regard its theory as a tool for stock market movement prediction, nor as a guide for investors, but as a kind of barometer of general market movements. The term TA methods encompasses all the methods used in tracking prices aiming to clearly predict future events. Many different methods, mainly statistical, are used in technical analysis, the most popular ones being: establishing and following trends using moving average, recognizing price momentum, calculating indicators and oscillators, as well as cycle analysis (structure indicators. It is also necessary to point out that TA is not a science in the true meaning of the term, and that methods it uses frequently deviate from the conventional manner of their use. The main advantage of these methods is their relative ease of use, aiming to give as clear picture as possible of price movements, while at the same time avoiding the use of complicated and complex mathematical methods. The reason for this is simple and is reflected in the dynamics of financial markets, where changes occur during short periods of time and where prompt decision-making is of vital importance.

  3. 浅谈气象仪器计量与观测中的视差分析%Parallax analysis in meteorological measurement and observation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈蓓莹; 黄纯玺

    2016-01-01

    Meteorological instrument is a kind of professional equipment that apply in weather forecasting and observation,we often read data on it like thermometer,hydrometer and barometer.In the course of actual operation,external and human factors will influence the accuracy of data.This paper introduce the importance of accurate meteorological observation data and put forward the method of strengthen the measurement accuracy.%气象仪器是用于气象预报和气象监测等气象服务领域的一种专业设备,在进行常规的仪器计量和气象观测的工作中,经常要对温度表、湿度表、水银气压表等仪表上的数据进行读取。由于在实际操作的过程中,往往会受到外界或人为方面的影响而导致最终的读取数据出现误差,从而影响测量数据的准确性。本文对气象仪器测量数据准确的重要性进行了介绍,分析了常用的几种测量方法和出现测量误差的原因,提出了加强测量准确性的方法。

  4. A global ground truth view of the lunar air pressure tide L2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindelegger, Michael; Dobslaw, Henryk

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive model of the lunar air pressure tide L2 is developed on the basis of 2315 ground truth estimates from land barometers and moored buoys. Regional-scale features of the tide and its seasonal modulations are well resolved by the in situ scatter and gridded to a 2° mesh through multiquadric interpolation. The resulting climatologies serve as an independent standard to validate the lunar semidiurnal tidal signal that is present in ERA-Interim reanalysis products despite the absence of L2-related gravitational forcing mechanisms in the prescribed model physics. Inconsistencies between the reanalysis solution of the barometric lunar tide and its empirical account are generally small, yet when averaged over the period 1979-2010, ERA-Interim underestimates the 100 μbar open ocean tidal amplitude in the Tropics by up to 20 μbar and produces times of peak pressure that are too early by 10 lunar minutes. Large-amplitude features of the reanalysis tide off the coast of Alaska, the eastern U.S., and Great Britain are evidently spurious, introduced to the analysis system by assimilating marine pressure data at an invariant reference surface instead of properly accounting for vertical sensor movements associated with the M2 ocean tide. Additionally, a credible L2 signal is documented for the ERA-20C pilot reanalysis of the twentieth century. The fact that this model rests upon input data from mere surface observations provides an unambiguous indication that the lunar tidal oscillation in atmospheric analysis systems is closely tied to the assimilation of conventional pressure measurements from stations and marine objects.

  5. Striving for Excellence: Organizational Climate Matters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelley Phipps

    2013-06-01

    associated strategies. The Libraries’ progress on its strategic plan will serve as the barometer for gauging the effect of these changes.

  6. Automated correction on X-rays calibration using transmission chamber and LabVIEWTM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uncertainties during prolonged exposure times on X-rays calibration procedures at the Instruments Calibration facilities at IPEN may suffer from efficiency (and therefore intensity) variations on the industrial X-Ray generator used. Using a transmission chamber as an online reference chamber during the whole irradiation process is proposed in order to compensate for such error source. Also temperature (and pressure) fluctuations may arise from the performance limited calibration room air conditioning system. As an open ionization chamber, that monitor chamber does require calculation of a correction factor due to the temperature and pressure effects on air density. Sending and processing data from all related instruments (electrometer, thermometer and barometer) can be more easily achieved by interfacing them to a host computer running an especially developed algorithm using LabVIEWTM environment which will not only apply the proper correction factors during runtime, but also determine the exact length of time to reach a desired condition, which can be: time period, charge collected, or air kerma, based on the previous calibration of the whole system using a reference chamber traceable to primary standard dosimetry laboratories. When performing such calibration, two temperature sensors (secondary standard thermistors) are simultaneously used, one for the transmission chamber, and other for the reference chamber. As the substitution method is used during actual customer's calibration, the readings from the second thermistor can also be used when desired for further corrections. Use of LabVIEWTM programming language allowed for a shorter development time, and it is also extremely convenient to make things easier when improvements and modifications are called for. (author)

  7. Heavy truck modeling for fuel consumption. Simulations and measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandberg, T.

    2001-12-01

    Fuel consumption for heavy trucks depends on many factors like roads, weather, and driver behavior that are hard for a manufacturer to influence. However, one design possibility is the power train configuration. Here a new simulation program for heavy trucks is created to find the configuration of the power train that gives the lowest fuel consumption for each transport task. For efficient simulations the model uses production code for speed and gear control, and it uses exchangeable data sets to allow simulation of the whole production range of engine types, on recorded road profiles from all over the world. Combined with a graphical user interface this application is called STARS (Scania Truck And Road Simulation). The forces of rolling resistance and air resistance in the model are validated through an experiment where the propeller shaft torque of a heavy truck is measured. It is found that the coefficient of rolling resistance is strongly dependent on tire temperature, not only on vehicle speed as expected. This led to the development of a new model for rolling resistance. The model includes the dynamic behavior of the tires and relates rolling resistance to tire temperature and vehicle speed. In another experiment the fuel consumption of a test truck in highway driving is measured. The altitude of the road is recorded with a barometer and used in the corresponding simulations. Despite of the limited accuracy of this equipment the simulation program manage to predict a level of fuel consumption only 2% lower than the real measurements. It is concluded that STARS is a good tool for predicting fuel consumption for trucks in highway driving and for comparing different power train configurations.

  8. A high-throughput and sensitive method to measure Global DNA Methylation: Application in Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamaev Sergey

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome-wide changes in DNA methylation are an epigenetic phenomenon that can lead to the development of disease. The study of global DNA methylation utilizes technology that requires both expensive equipment and highly specialized skill sets. Methods We have designed and developed an assay, CpGlobal, which is easy-to-use, does not utilize PCR, radioactivity and expensive equipment. CpGlobal utilizes methyl-sensitive restriction enzymes, HRP Neutravidin to detect the biotinylated nucleotides incorporated in an end-fill reaction and a luminometer to measure the chemiluminescence. The assay shows high accuracy and reproducibility in measuring global DNA methylation. Furthermore, CpGlobal correlates significantly with High Performance Capillary Electrophoresis (HPCE, a gold standard technology. We have applied the technology to understand the role of global DNA methylation in the natural history of lung cancer. World-wide, it is the leading cause of death attributed to any cancer. The survival rate is 15% over 5 years due to the lack of any clinical symptoms until the disease has progressed to a stage where cure is limited. Results Through the use of cell lines and paired normal/tumor samples from patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC we show that global DNA hypomethylation is highly associated with the progression of the tumor. In addition, the results provide the first indication that the normal part of the lung from a cancer patient has already experienced a loss of methylation compared to a normal individual. Conclusion By detecting these changes in global DNA methylation, CpGlobal may have a role as a barometer for the onset and development of lung cancer.

  9. Geology of the Cane Branch and Helton Branch watershed areas, McCreary County, Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Erwin J.

    1957-01-01

    Cane Branch and Helton Branch in McCreary County, Kentucky, are about 1.4 miles apart (fig. 1). Can Branch, which is about 2.1 miles long, emptied into Hughes Fork of Beaver Creek. Its watershed area of about 1.5 square miles lies largely in the Wiborf 7 1/2-minute quadrangle (SW/4 Cumberland Falls 15-minute quadrangle), but the downstream part of the area extends northward into the Hail 7 1/2-minute quadrangle (NW/4 Cumberland Falls 15-minute quadrangle). Helton Branch, which is about 1.1 miles long, has two tributaries and empties into Little Hurricane Fork of Beaver Creek. It drains an area of about 0.8 square mile of while about 0.5 square mile is in the Hail quadrangle and the remainder in the Wilborg quadrangle. The total relief in the Can Branch area is about 500 feet and in the Helton Branch area about 400 feet. Narrow, steep-sided to canyon-like valley and winding ridges, typical of the Pottsville escarpment region, are characteristic of both areas. Thick woods and dense undergrowth cover much of the two areas. Field mapping was done on U.S. Geological Survey 7 1/2-minute maps having a scale of 1:24,000 and a contour interval of 20 feet. Elevations of lithologic contacts were determined with a barometer and a hand level. Aerial photographs were used principally to trace the cliffs formed by sandstone and conglomerate ledges. Exposures, except for those of the cliff- and ledge-forming sandstone and conglomerates, are not abundant. The most complete stratigraphic sections (secs. 3 and 4, fig. 2) in the two areas are exposed in cuts of newly completed Forest Service roads, but the rick in the upper parts of the exposures is weathered. To supplement these sections, additional sections were measured in cuts along the railroad and main highways in nor near the watersheds.

  10. Affect School for chronic benign pain patients showed improved alexithymia assessments with TAS-20

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thulesius Hans O

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alexithymia is a disturbance associated with psychosomatic disorders, pain syndromes, and a variety of psychiatric disorders. The Affect School (AS based on Tomkins Affect Theory is a therapy focusing on innate affects and their physiological expressions, feelings, emotions and scripts. In this pilot study we tried the AS-intervention method in patients with chronic benign pain. Methods The AS-intervention, with 8 weekly group sessions and 10 individual sessions, was offered to 59 patients with chronic non-malignant pain at a pain rehabilitation clinic in Sweden 2004-2005. Pre and post intervention assessments were done with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale (HAD, the Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20 (TAS-20, the Visual Analogue Scale for pain assessment (VAS-pain, the European Quality of Life health barometer (EQoL and the Stress and Crisis Inventory-93 (SCI-93. After the group sessions we used Bergdahl's Questionnaire for assessing changes in interpersonal relations, general well-being and evaluation of AS. Results The AS intervention was completed by 54 out of 59 (92% patients. Significant reductions in total TAS-20 post-test scores (p = 0.0006 as well as TAS-20 DIF and DDF factors (Difficulties Identifying Feelings, and Difficulties Describing Feelings were seen (p = 0.0001, and p = 0.0008 while the EOT factor (Externally Oriented Thinking did not change. Improvements of HAD-depression scores (p = 0.04, EQoL (p = 0.02 and self-assessed changes in relations to others (p Conclusions This pilot study involving 59 patients with chronic benign pain indicates that the alexithymia DIF and DDF, as well as depression, social relations and quality of life may be improved by the Affect School therapeutic intervention.

  11. Public perceptions of the iodine tablets distribution around French nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In April 1996 the French ministry of health took the decision to distribute iodine tablets to the population surrounding all nuclear power plants in France. In case of a severe accident the absorption of stable iodine would prevent irradiation of the thyroid by radioactive iodine released by the plant. This preventive distribution was initiated at the end of 1996 around 4 pilot sites, and then spread to all sited in 1997. During this period, the large public sample surveys conducted by IPSN for its barometer contained questions on counter-measures in case of a nuclear accident and more specifically on the distribution of iodine tablets. The aim of this polls was to find out if the general public had known about this decision and to get some feedback on its reactions. The work presented in this paper is the detailed analysis of the two sets of data obtained by the answers to the polls. Some numerical treatments and tests were performed to compare the data, evaluate their consistency and analyse the relation between the distance to a nuclear site and the perception of the public. The main conclusions are that people living close to nuclear sites knew more about the on-going action of the ministry of health, and appreciated it more than the general population but in the same time, many people (70% of interviewed people) are quite reluctant to have tablets in their home; and 65% of the population directly concerned with the distribution did not know where to get their tablets. It is now intended to follow the potential evolution of this results in year 2000 when public authorities have to organise a new distribution of iodine tablets. (author)

  12. An overview of the lightning and atmospheric electricity observations collected in Southern France during the HYdrological cycle in Mediterranean EXperiment (HyMeX, Special Observation Period 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Defer

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The PEACH (Projet en Electricité Atmosphérique pour la Campagne HyMeX – the Atmospheric Electricity Project of HyMeX Program project is the Atmospheric Electricity component of the HyMeX (Hydrology cycle in the Mediterranean Experiment experiment and is dedicated to the observation of both lightning activity and electrical state of continental and maritime thunderstorms in the area of the Mediterranean Sea. During the HyMeX SOP1 (Special Observation Period; 5 September–6 November 2012, four European Operational Lightning Locating Systems (OLLSs (ATDNET, EUCLID, LINET, ZEUS and the HyMeX Lightning Mapping Array network (HyLMA were used to locate and characterize the lightning activity over the Southeastern Mediterranean at flash, storm and regional scales. Additional research instruments like slow antennas, video cameras, micro-barometer and microphone arrays were also operated. All these observations in conjunction with operational/research ground-based and airborne radars, rain gauges and in situ microphysical records aimed at characterizing and understanding electrically active and highly precipitating events over Southeastern France that often lead to severe flash floods. Simulations performed with Cloud Resolving Models like Meso-NH and WRF are used to interpret the results and to investigate further the links between dynamics, microphysics, electrification and lightning occurrence. A description of the different instruments deployed during the field campaign as well as the available datasets is given first. Examples of concurrent observations from radio frequency to acoustic for regular and atypical lightning flashes are then presented showing a rather comprehensive description of lightning flashes available from the SOP1 records. Then examples of storms recorded during HyMeX SOP1 over Southeastern France are briefly described to highlight the unique and rich dataset collected. Finally the next steps of the work required for the

  13. 房地产业发展与国民经济增长的互动关系——以湖北省为例%The Relationship of the Real Estate Development and National Economy---Taking Hubei Province as an Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李荣; 祝爱武

    2012-01-01

    从中国经济近年的发展来看,房地产业已经成为我国经济的基础性、主导性和支柱性产业。房地产业对国民经济增长的带动性强,对相关产业的辐射面广,成为国民经济发展的“睛雨表”。由于房地产业具有明显的区域特征,文章以湖北省房地产业为例,利用计量模型分析房地产业与国民经济增长之间的互动关系,并对房地产业的健康发展提出了相关的政策建议。%From Chinese economy development in recent years, the real estate industry has become the basis, leading and pillar industry of China. The real estate industry, which is of strong impetus on national economy and relevant industrial wideth,has become the development of "national economy barometer". Because the real estate industry has obvious regional characteristics, this paper takes Hubei Province real estate industry as an example, using econometric model analysis of the interactive relation about the real 'estate industry and the national economic growth , then puts forward relevant policy suggestion to the healthy development of real estate industry.

  14. Revisiting sea level changes in the North Sea during the Anthropocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Jürgen; Dangendorf, Sönke; Wahl, Thomas; Niehüser, Sebastian

    2016-04-01

    The North Sea is one of the best instrumented ocean basins in the world. Here we revisit sea level changes in the North Sea region from tide gauges, satellite altimetry, hydrographic profiles and ocean reanalysis data from the beginning of the 19th century to present. This includes an overview of the sea level chapter of the North Sea Climate Change Assessment (NOSCCA) complemented by results from more recent investigations. The estimates of long-term changes from tide gauge records are significantly affected by vertical land motion (VLM), which is related to both the large-scale viscoelastic response of the solid earth to ice melting since the last deglaciation and local effects. Removing VLM (estimated from various data sources such as GPS, tide gauge minus altimetry and GIA) significantly reduces the spatial variability of long-term trends in the basin. VLM corrected tide gauge records suggest a transition from relatively moderate changes in the 19th century towards modern trends of roughly 1.5 mm/yr during the 20th century. Superimposed on the long-term changes there is a considerable inter-annual to multi-decadal variability. On inter-annual timescales this variability mainly reflects the barotropic response of the ocean to atmospheric forcing with the inverted barometer effect dominating along the UK and Norwegian coastlines and wind forcing controlling the southeastern part of the basin. The decadal variability is mostly remotely forced and dynamically linked to the North Atlantic via boundary waves in response to long-shore winds along the continental slope. These findings give valuable information about the required horizontal resolution of ocean models and the necessary boundary conditions and are therefore important for the dynamical downscaling of sea level projections for the North Sea coastlines.

  15. The Development and Applications of Financial Informatization in China’s SMEs in the Big Data Era%论我国中小企业财务信息化在大数据时期的发展和应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡源; 张亚军

    2015-01-01

    随着信息化技术的快速发展,作为企业运营的晴雨表,财务的信息化不仅成为现代企业发展的重要标志,更是企业精益管理一体化的关键环节。作为中国经济最有活力的中小企业,在大数据时期的财务信息化发展和应用方向应合理设定目标,进行科学规划,优化操作流程和组织框架,科学借鉴成功和失败案例的经验,不断完善自身发展战略,合理构建企业财务信息系统,使之成为在大数据时期,保证企业正常有序运行的源动力,进一步提高企业经济效益。%As a barometer of business operation,financial informatization is not only a symbol of modern enterprises,but also a key component of their lean management. SMEs are the most vigorous body of China’s economy. This paper advocates that in the era of big data,SMEs should set reasonable goals for the development and application of their financial informa-tization,make scientific plans,optimize their operation procedures and organizational structure,take examples by both successes and failures to improve their development strategy and build up their financial information system,thus ensuring their source power of orderly operation and benefiting themselves.

  16. ARE THERE DIFFERENCES REFFERING TO THE LIVING STANDARD IN ROMANIA ACCORDING TO THE OCCUPATIONAL STATUS? EMPIRIC RESEARCH REFFERING TO THE ENDOWMENT WITH DURABLE GOODS IN ROMANIAN HOUSEHOLDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MANUELA ROZALIA GABOR

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The endowment with durable goods is both a barometer of the living standard and life quality published as a statisticindicator by the National Institute for Statistics from Romania (INS and at European level – comparative – byEurostat, for European countries. For both national and European level , this indicator is reported taking into accountsocio-demographic characteristics of the of the family head and of the household itself , such as : occupational status ,education level, gender, the age of the family head , the number of the persons from the household, etc. From all thesocio-demographic variables , we consider the most important the one referring to the occupational status of thefamily head, this being correlated directly with the educational level and implicitly with the income, variables whichwere the foundation of constituting the sample basis of this research. Previous research proved that the endowmentwith durable goods presents significant differences from a statistical point of view at the level of the developmentregions from Romania. In this work, we complete previous research for Romania, based on a representative sample aturban national level consisting of 300 households, using a double scheme of sampling, stratified samples and on levels.For this I used methods of descriptive and non-parametric statistics starting from the hypothesis that, the livingstandard and the quality of life in Romania are significantly different from a statistical point of view according to theoccupational status of the household head. The conclusions of this research present importance from the point of viewof social and macroeconomical politics as well as for the “’actors” of the market for these consumption goods.

  17. Evaluation of an operational ocean model configuration at 1/12° spatial resolution for the Indonesian seas - Part 1: Ocean physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranchant, B.; Reffray, G.; Greiner, E.; Nugroho, D.; Koch-Larrouy, A.; Gaspar, P.

    2015-08-01

    INDO12, a 1/12° regional version of the NEMO physical ocean model covering the whole Indonesian EEZ has been developed and is now running every week in the framework of the INDESO project (Infrastructure Development of Space Oceanography) implemented by the Indonesian Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries. The initial hydrographic conditions as well as open boundary conditions are derived from the operational global ocean forecasting system at 1/4° operated by Mercator Ocean. Atmospheric forcing fields (3 hourly ECMWF analyses) are used to force the regional model. INDO12 is also forced by tidal currents and elevations, and by the inverse barometer effect. The turbulent mixing induced by internal tides is taken into account through a specific parameterization. In this study we evaluate the model skill through comparisons with various datasets including outputs of the parent model, climatologies, in situ temperature and salinity measurements, and satellite data. The simulated and altimeter-derived Eddy Kinetic Energy fields display similar patterns and confirm that tides are a dominant forcing in the area. The volume transport of the Indonesian ThroughFlow is in good agreement with the INSTANT current meter estimates while the transport through Luzon Strait is, on average, westward but probably too weak. Significant water mass transformation occurs along the main routes of the Indonesian Throughflow (ITF) and compares well with observations. Vertical mixing is able to erode the South and North Pacific subtropical waters salinity maximum as seen in TS diagrams. Compared to satellite data, surface salinity and temperature fields display marked biases in the South China Sea. Altogether, INDO12 proves to be able to provide a very realistic simulation of the ocean circulation and water mass transformation through the Indonesian Archipelago. A few weaknesses are also detected. Work is on-going to reduce or eliminate these problems in the second INDO12 version.

  18. Impotent science, omnipotent public opinion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Nowadays public opinion has become prominent when political leaders have themselves to vote. Even scientific or economical decisions are often taken more in accordance to these trends than to rational reasons. For a long time it has been widely accepted that a clear and pedagogical explanation was enough to make scientific issues understandable. For nearly 20 years, a true scientific and professional communication has been developed in France towards the general public to make nuclear industry acceptable. Nevertheless today, we notice that the acceptance of the nuclear option has lost many points in public polls. An accident, in the nuclear fields or in another fields, in one point or another of the planet can ruin the work of many years in communication. 1) In order to draw a more precise picture of public opinion, to follow these trends and make them more understandable, the CEA communication direction has built a 'public opinion barometer' dealing with the following fields: - Information on nuclear fields; - The nuclear actors; - The future of nuclear option; - Radioactive waste; - Risks perception; - Nuclear energy and other sources of energy; - Economy and nuclear power; - Image of nuclear. 2) Come and visit our labs to make up your own opinion: As communication methods through the classical media has, up to now, failed in changing public opinion regarding nuclear, the decision was made to offer to people the opportunity to meet searchers at work.400 'Communicating researchers' to day are volunteers to receive the public .They are trained to be able to explain their work to non specialists; they receive documents dealing with current events to help them answer to questions and they are invited to an annual general meeting (last one in January 2001). 85 laboratories are opened (civil and military ones). In 2000, nearly 10,000 visitors have come to us. In 2001, new additional operations will be lead toward young people, teachers, associations. (author)

  19. Ubiquitous User Localization in LBS - The Need for Implementing Ethical Thinking in Our Research Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retscher, Guenther; Obex, Franz

    2015-12-01

    Location-based Services (LBS) influence nowadays every individual's life due to the emerging market penetration of smartphones and other mobile devices. For smartphone Apps localization technologies are developed ranging from GNSS beyond to other alternative ubiquitous positioning methods as well as the use of the in-built inertial sensors, such as accelerometers, gyroscopes, magnetometer, barometer, etc. Moreover, signals-of-opportunity which are not intended for positioning at the first sight but are receivable in many environments such as in buildings and public spaces are more and more utilized for positioning and navigation. The use of Wi-Fi (Wireless Fidelity) is a typical example. These technologies, however, have become very powerful tools as the enable to track an individual or even a group of users. Most technical researchers imply that it is mainly about further enhancing technologies and algorithms including the development of new advanced Apps to improve personal navigation and to deliver location oriented information just in time to a single LBS user or group of users. The authors claim that there is a need that ethical and political issues have to be addressed within our research community from the very beginning. Although there is a lot of research going on in developing algorithms to keep ones data and LBS search request in private, researchers can no longer keep their credibility without cooperating with ethical experts or an ethical committee. In a study called InKoPoMoVer (Cooperative Positioning for Real-time User Assistance and Guidance at Multi-modal Public Transit Junctions) a cooperation with social scientists was initiated for the first time at the Vienna University of Technology, Austria, in this context. The major aims of this study in relation to ethical questions are addressed in this paper.

  20. Blueschist metamorphism and its tectonic implication of Late Paleozoic-Early Mesozoic metabasites in the mélange zones, central Inner Mongolia, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinrui; Wei, Chunjing; Chu, Hang

    2015-01-01

    Blueschists in central Inner Mongolia are distributed as layers and blocks in mélanges including the southern zone in Ondor Sum area and the northern zone in Manghete and Naomuhunni areas. They have been attributed to the subduction of Early Paleozoic oceanic crust. Blueschists from Ondor Sum and Naomuhunni are characterized by occurrence of sodic amphibole coexisting with epidote, albite, chlorite, calcic amphibole (in Ondor Sum) and muscovite (in Naomuhunni). Blueschists in Manghete contain porphyroblastic albite with inclusions of garnet and epidote in a matrix dominated by calcic-sodic amphibole, epidote, chlorite, albite and muscovite. Phase equilibria modeling for three blueschist samples using pseudosection suggest that the AlM2 contents in sodic amphibole can be used as a good barometer in the limited assemblage involving sodic amphibole + actinolite + epidote + chlorite + albite + quartz under pressures 7-10 kbar. In the sodic amphibole-bearing assemblages, the NaM4 contents in sodic amphibole mainly decrease as temperature rises, being a potential thermometry. The calculated pseudosections constrain the P-T conditions of blueschists to be 3.2-4.2 kbar/355-415 °C in Ondor Sum, 8.2-9.0 kbar/455 °C-495 °C in Manghete and 6.6-8.1 kbar/420-470 °C in Naomuhunni. These P-T estimates indicate a rather high geothermal gradient of 18-25 °C/km for the blueschist metamorphism, being of intermediate P/T facies series. Available zircon U-Pb age data suggests that the protoliths of blueschists were formed later than Late Paleozoic-Early Mesozoic and metamorphosed soon afterwards. An alternative interpretation for the tectonic implication of blueschists in central Inner Mongolia is that they may be a new type attributed to closure of limited ocean basins and do not represent a tectonic regime occurred in conventional subduction setting.

  1. A University’s Energy Operation: Basis for Energy Management Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floriza N. Laplap

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available University's energy management policy is more important as schools espouse new practices, technology and equipment that can affect energy needs. One of the programs is the Government Energy Management Program (GEMP which aims to integrate efficiency concepts into the operation of government agencies to realize the reduction target of ten percent in electricity and fuel consumption in compliance with the presidential; directive under AO 126. From this perspective, this research looked into the energy operation in Cebu Normal University in order to come up with an energy management policy. Triangulation method with quantitative approaches was made in order to analyze the data gathered from primary as well as secondary information. The university’s consumption on electricity in the past 3 years, 2009 - 2011, shows a consistent increase in the monthly consumption of electricity from January to February and March due to various activities conducted for every last two months of the second semester. The university officials and the non teaching staff asserted that “the soaring prices of fuel and commodities are the barometer of the electricity crisis” while the teaching personnel mentioned that “energy crisis is manifested in the oil price increase”. Likewise, the students agreed and felt that “in the fast pace of modernization, the demand of energy is getting higher”. The current status of the university Energy Management Policy is belonged to Level 1 which means that the university had created small steps towards energy management. Consequently, the university’s energy saving practices and the energy management level of sophistication were influenced by the electricity consumption of stakeholders’. Thus, the university’s ability to devise energy conservation strategies and to raise its level of energy management level of sophistication can effect lesser energy consumption, thus efficient energy management system is attained.

  2. Infrasonic Signals from the 29 June 2012 Derecho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winslow, N.; Howard, W. B.; Pulli, J. J.; Kofford, A. S.

    2012-12-01

    Common weather events such as pressure fronts, tornados, and hurricanes generate infrasonic signals (sub-audible acoustic signals with an oscillatory frequency below 20 Hz). These signals can provide a distal (>10km) analysis of weather events because: (1) the attenuation of an infrasonic signal with distance is less than that of a similar audible signal, and (2) the propagation velocities of typical weather events are much slower than the speed of sound. The 29 June, 2012 Derecho (a widespread, long-lived, rapidly moving linear band of storms extending more than 240 miles and including wind gusts in excess of 58 mph) that stretched from Chicago, IL to Washington, DC generated infrasonic signals in addition to causing over $100 million in damage to the power systems of Virginia, West Virginia, and Maryland alone. The infrasonic (and seismic) signals from this event were recorded on the NCPA micro barometers along the northeastern edge of the current configuration of the USArray. These instruments, which sample at 40 Hz, exhibit a flat frequency response from around 0.1 Hz to above 20 Hz and show a sensitivity of 1.57 x 104 Volts/Pascal at 0.8 Hz. An analysis of the recordings observed at multiple stations identified several infrasonic signatures from the Derecho. The signal's duration was approximately 40 minutes and exhibited a large peak pressure fluctuation. A characteristic ramp up occurred before the peak pressure fluctuation, and the majority of the infrasonic energy occurred below 1 Hz. These signatures are analyzed within the context of the Derecho as an infrasonic source, and the propagation of infrasound in the atmosphere.

  3. The Victorian Amateur Astronomer: Independent Astronomical Research in Britain 1820-1920

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Allan

    1999-01-01

    This is the first book to look in detail at amateur astronomy in Victorian Britain. It deals with the technical issues that were active in Victorian astronomy, and reviews the problems of finance, patronage and the dissemination of scientific ideas. It also examines the relationship between the amateur and professional in Britain. It contains a wealth of previously unpublished biographical and anecdotal material, and an extended bibliography with notes incorporating much new scholarship. In The Victorian Amateur Astronomer, Allan Chapman shows that while on the continent astronomical research was lavishly supported by the state, in Britain such research was paid for out of the pockets of highly educated, wealthy gentlemen the so-called Grand Amateurs . It was these powerful individuals who commissioned the telescopes, built the observatories, ran the learned societies, and often stole discoveries from their state-employed colleagues abroad. In addition to the Grand Amateurs , Victorian Britain also contained many self-taught amateurs. Although they belonged to no learned societies, these people provide a barometer of the popularity of astronomy in that age. In the late 19th century, the comfortable middle classes clergymen, lawyers, physicians and retired military officers took to astronomy as a serious hobby. They formed societies which focused on observation, lectures and discussions, and it was through this medium that women first came to play a significant role in British astronomy. Readership: Undergraduate and postgraduate students studying the history of science or humanities, professional historians of science, engineering and technology, particularly those with an interest in astronomy, the development of astronomical ideas, scientific instrument makers, and amateur astronomers.

  4. Computational Representation of Situation Awareness with Graphical Expressions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Training is also frequently listed in general applications of SA evaluation. Unfortunately, almost of all methods are either subjective or qualitative, and often time consuming. Since the problems indicate, the core matter of using SA in training is the lack of well-developed or robust measurement tools. Therefore, an intuitive and easy handling SA measurement tool for NPP operators was developed based on the Petri-net and Bayesian inference. Measuring SA using Bayesian theory has been controversy, so sets of simulation training conducted by real NPP operators were video recorded for validation of the tool. There have been many attempts to understand cognitive processes in operators. Describing operator's SA is considered as one of the most plausible ways of such endeavors. Operator's cognitive activities in training can be a barometer of operator's unknown behavior in real situations. Knowing what the operator is thinking is important for better results of upcoming training. To give trainers an intuition that how well operators cope with dynamic situations, the quantitative tool to estimate SA named Corsage was proposed. Corsage gives reasonable clues why the operator behaves in a certain way by showing possible changes in a quantitative and graphical manner. Especially, a graphical comparison between referential information processing flow and operator's real information processing flow can offer trainers a detailed insight. In short, despite the incredulous opinion on measuring human cognition with probability, the result showed a positive view of applicability of Bayesian inference to SA measurement. The next step of the research will be improvement in responsiveness to 'rare but important' information

  5. Latinobarómetro 1997: Principales resultados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael CRESPO

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: El latinobarómetro es quizá la encuesta de opinión pública más importante que, cada año, analiza conjuntamente la realidad latinoamericana y española y que, además, permite la comparación de indicadores entre 18 países. Lo que se nos presenta a continuación son comentarios a los principales resultados extraídos en 1997, comparados con los obtenidos el año anterior, sobre aspectos como el desarrollo político e institucional y el estado de la democracia, junto a otras valoraciones de la realidad económica; ofreciéndonos, con ello, una clara descripción de la evolución de la opinión pública en estos países. Palabras clave: Latinobarómetro, opinión pública.ABSTRACT: The "latin-barometer" is perhaps the most important public opinion survey which analysies the latinamerican and the spanish situation together each year. Moreover it allows the comparition of indicators between eighteen countries. This paper shows the main results obtained during 1997. These results are compared with wihic were obtained on 1996. It comparies issues such as the instituctional and political development and the conditios of democracy; it linked to other valuations of the economic situation. These data offer us a clear description about the evoluction of public opinion in these countries.

  6. The interdependence among oil markets: Any discernible patterns?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study is presented which tests a hypothesis about co-movement of oil prices in all regions, implying that markets are interdependent. The hypothesis is tested against the background of the structural changes that occurred in the oil industry during the last 20 years, using the concept of cointegration. These changes occurred mainly in response to the oil price hikes in the 1970s and the price collapse in 1986. Refinery upgrading and increased flexibility in buying and selling crude oil and products, as well as the continuing articulation of oil markets with a variety of specific instruments, are key elements of the transformation during the past 15-20 years. A framework for modelling market interdependence via three approaches is outlined, focusing on the approach that consists of exploring the univariate time-series characteristics of two or more random variables with a view to verifying that the variables tend to move together in the long term. To examine the empirical evidence for market interdependence, monthly observations on crude and product prices from three major spot markets are used. Cointegration tests show that spot and futures market prices for gas, oil and crudes move closely together in the long run. In particular, the key role played by price differences rather than absolute price levels as a market barometer is confirmed. A test of the law of one price between two markets for the same crude or product generally confirms the co-movement of prices. It is concluded that, globally, oil markets are integrated and indeed constitute one great pool. 29 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs

  7. WVR-GPS comparison measurements and calibration of the 20-32 GHz tropospheric water vapor absorption model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collocated measurements of opacity (from water vapor radiometer brightness temperatures) and wet path delay (from ground-based tracking of global positioning satellites) are used to constrain the model of atmospheric water vapor absorption in the 20-32 GHz band. A differential approach is presented in which the slope of opacity-versus-wet delay data is used as the absorption model constraint. This technique minimizes the effects of radiometric calibration errors and oxygen model uncertainties in the derivation of a best-fit vapor absorption model. A total of approximately five months of data was obtained from two experiment sites. At the Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site near Lamont, Oklahoma, three independent water vapor radiometers (WVRs) provided near-continuous opacity measurements over the interval July-September 1998. At the NASA/Goldstone tracking station in the California desert two WVRs; obtained opacity data over the September-October 1997 interval. At both sites a Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) receiver and surface barometer obtained the data required for deriving the zenith wet delays over the same time frames. Measured values of the opacity-versus-wet delay slope parameter were obtained at four WVR frequencies (20.7, 22.2, 23.8, and 31.4 GHz) and compared with predictions of four candidate absorption models referenced in the literature. With one exception, all three models provide agreement within 5% of the opacity-versus-wet delay slope measurements at all WVR frequencies at both sites. One model provides agreement for all channels at both sites to the 2-3% level. This absorption model accuracy level represents a significant improvement over that attainable using radiosondes.

  8. The Analysis of the Current Situation and Countermeasures of Noise Trading in China Stock Market%我国证券市场噪声交易现状及对策分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    窦颖

    2015-01-01

    股票市场是经济的晴雨表,它的良性发展将给经济发展带来不可估量的作用。我国证券市场在去“政策市”的道路上一路前行,但由于股民专业能力参差不齐还存在很多盲从行为。噪声交易现象作为一把“双刃剑”,只有合理监管才能发挥其积极作用,削减甚至规避不利影响。文章结合近10年来我国证券市场噪声交易基本情况进行分析,并提出相应的对策建议。%The market of the stock is a barometer of the economy, playing an invaluable role in the healthy development of economy .Our stock market is going forward in China on the way of removing the “policy market”, but there are still many herd behaviors because the capacity veries of the invertors. Noise trading phenomenon is a double-edged sword, only reasonable supervision can make it playing an active role, reducing or even avoid the adverse. In this paper, combining the stock market in China over the past decade, I analyse the basic situation of noise trading, and advanced corresponding countermeasures.

  9. Health-related quality of life in French adolescents and adults: norms for the DUKE Health Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collin Jean-François

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The continual monitoring of population health-related quality of life (HRQoL with validated instruments helps public health agencies assess, protect, and promote population health. This study aimed to determine norms for the French adolescent and adult general population for the Duke Health Profile (DUKE questionnaire in a large representative community sample. Methods We randomly selected 17,733 French people aged 12 to 75 years old in 2 steps, by households and individuals, from the National Health Barometer 2005, a periodic population study by the French National Institute for Prevention and Health Education. Quality of life and other data were collected by computer-assisted telephone interview. Results Normative data for the French population were analyzed by age, gender and self-reported chronic disease. Globally, function scores (best HRQoL=100 for physical, mental, social, and general health, as well as perceived health and self-esteem, were 72.3 (SEM 0.2, 74.6 (0.2, 66.8 (0.1, 71.3 (0.1, 71.3 (0.3, 76.5 (0.1, respectively. Dysfunction scores (worst HRQoL=100 for anxiety, depression, pain and disability domains were 30.9 (0.1, 27.6 (0.2, 34.3 (0.3, 3.1 (0.1, respectively. Conclusion The French norms for adolescents and adults for the DUKE could be used as a reference for other studies assessing HRQoL, for specific illnesses, in France and for international comparisons.

  10. Analysis of Envisat Orbit Maintenance Strategies to Improve/Increase Envisat ASAR Interferometry Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuijper, D.; Matatoros, Garcia

    2007-01-01

    The biggest and most advanced Earth Observation Satellite in-orbit, developed by the European Space Agency (ESA) and its member states, is Envisat. It was launched on March 1, 2002 by an Ariane V from French Guyana and holds a total of 10 multi-disciplinary Earth observation instruments, among which an Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR). The ASAR user community requested the Flight Dynamics division of the European Space Operations Centre (ESOC) to investigate how the orbit control maintenance strategy for Envisat could be changed to optimize ASAR interferometry opportunities overall and in addition support the International Polar Year 2007/2008 initiative. The Polar Regions play a pivotal role in understanding our planet and our impact on it as they are recognized as sensitive barometers of environmental change. One of the main themes of the International Polar Year 2007/2008 is therefore the study of Earth s changing ice and snow, and its impact on our planet and our lives. Naturally, ESA would like to support this very important initiative. This paper presents the investigations that have been conducted to support these requests in the best possible way. It discusses the orbit maintenance strategy that has been in place since its launch, ensuring the actual orbit to be within 1 km of a so-called reference orbit, and presents the new orbit maintenance strategy that is aimed at improving/increasing the opportunities for Envisat ASAR interferometry, while preserving the fuel on board the spacecraft. The hydrazine on-board Envisat happens to be a precious resource as only approximately 300 kg of it was available at launch, like ERS-2. The difference being however that the mass of Envisat is approximately 3.2 times that of ERS-2.

  11. EU BUDGET – THE POLICY OF SHARING THE CAKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hella GERTH

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the EU budget aiming at casting light on the relationship between political and economic matters and on the importance that they function as a mechanism. Somehow the budget could be compared to a barometer showing the political pressure and the level of integration inside the European Union. Discussing the structure of the budget, where the EU money come from and how are the funds distributed afterwards, and also referring to important moments in the historical development of the European Union’s budget, the paper emphasizes the same idea of financial matters strong related to the political choices. It argues also, by describing the complexity of the budgetary procedure and the importance of financial control, that the budget is an important interplay between actors, is an important balance of power trying to reach equilibrium and efficiency. The paper also reviews the main issues of the present budgetary debates, the positions taken by European actors, counting their losses and gains, and to which extent their choices are more a national concern or following the European interest, aiming at presenting the actual state of the European Union taking into account both the economic and the political integration. The budget being one of the key elements forming the structure of the big edifice, the European Union, it is of great importance when discussing budgetary matters to have in mind the present context as a whole, determined by issues like the failure of the summit for setting a new budgetary framework, or the rejection of the European Constitution by the citizens of two of its founding members. Though, it is important when discussing the budget, economical matters to put them in a political context and also to see them in the present context.

  12. USArray recordings of infrasound generated by the Chelyabinsk Meteor and other, smaller bolides

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot-Hedlin, Catherine; Hedlin, Michael

    2014-05-01

    A small asteroid that entered Earth's atmosphere near the city of Chelyabinsk, Russia, generated infrasound signals that were recorded by USArray barometers at distances from 6000-10000 km from the source. The infrasound recordings made of this event by these arrays are unprecedented, due to rarity of this type of event and the high density and spatial extent of the recording network. Signal characteristics vary across the network; infrasound arrivals recorded in Alaska and along the U.S. northwest coast had higher velocities and higher frequency content than those recorded in the eastern part of the network. The recorded pressure amplitudes at Alaska sites were significantly larger than for the remaining stations. Atmospheric specifications of global wind and sound speeds indicate the presence of a stratospheric duct for propagation to Alaska and stations along the northwest coast; however, most USarray stations lie within a thermospheric duct. Raytrace modeling confirms that, at stations in Alaska and the northwest U.S., the arrival times and durations of stratospherically ducted rays are consistent with observed arrivals at frequencies above the microbarom band. At lower frequencies, arrival times are consistent with thermospheric ducting at stations across the network. Estimates of infrasound attenuation from the Chelyabisk meteor to the recording sites were made using an attenuation formula derived from parabolic equation simulations. The results suggest that, under the assumption that infrasound was radiated isotropically from the Chelyabinsk meteor, thermospheric returns have higher than expected amplitudes as compared to stratospheric returns at the same frequencies. We examine in greater detail our assumption of isotropic infrasound radiation from a bolide explosion using a number of much smaller fireball events observed at seismic and infrasound sensors at the USArray.

  13. Infrasound from the Chelyabinsk Meteor recorded at the USArray

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot-Hedlin, C. D.; Hedlin, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    A small asteroid that entered Earth's atmosphere near the city of Chelyabinsk, Russia, generated infrasound signals that were recorded by USArray barometers at distances from 6000-10000 km from the source. The infrasound recordings made of this event by these arrays are unprecedented, due to the high density of the networks and their spatial extent. Signal characteristics vary across the network; infrasound arrivals recorded in Alaska and along the U.S. northwest coast had higher velocities and higher frequency content than those recorded in the eastern part of the network. Waveform amplitudes at Alaska sites were approximately ten times larger than for the remaining stations, much more than expected due solely to their shorter travel paths. Atmospheric specifications of global wind and sound speeds indicate the presence of a stratospheric duct for propagation to Alaska and stations along the northwest coast; however, most USarray stations lie within a thermospheric duct. Raytrace modeling confirms that, at stations in Alaska and the northwest U.S., the arrival times and durations of stratospherically ducted rays are consistent with observed arrivals at frequencies above the microbarom band. At lower frequencies, arrival times are consistent with thermospheric ducting at stations across the network. An attenuation formula derived from parabolic equation simulations is used to estimate infrasound transmission losses at all USArray stations, using simplified models of the effective sound speed along each source-receiver path. Results indicate that, under the assumption of an isotropic source, attenuation estimates for most USArray sites are in agreement with observed variations in waveform amplitudes. However, stations in the northwest U.S, which lie along a geographic boundary between stratospheric and thermospheric ducting, have lower than expected amplitudes.

  14. Energy in France, reference data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This little booklet presents a selection of statistical data about the energy in France: 1 - energy in economy: contribution of energy industries to the gross domestic product; employment; investment of public companies in the energy sector; 2 - overall energies: average monthly and annual prices of crude oil; public opinion barometer; 2001 status of supplies, employment and consumption; production and consumption of primary energy per energy sources; consumption per sector; energy bill; price of imported crude and US$ change rate; 3 - petroleum: total primary production; final consumption of refined petroleum products per sector and per type of product; evolution of the gasoline and diesel automotive fuels demand; imports and exports of petroleum products; petroleum bill; 4 - natural gas: total national production; consumption per sector; imports per country of origin and costs; 5 - coal: national production, consumption per sector; imports per country of origin; 6 - electric power: gross production; thermal production per type of fuel; end-consumption per sector; nuclear power plants; power trades with neighboring countries; 7 - renewable energy sources: national production; wind power connected to the grid; end consumption of wood; energy production from municipal wastes; solar thermal and photovoltaic production; 8 - district heating networks: primary energy consumption per energy type; non-conventional energy sources (geothermal, wastes, industrial heat); 9 - rational use of energy: energy intensity; compared evolutions of the gross domestic product and of the energy consumption; cumulated energy saving since 1986; 10 - energy prices: in the industry, for domestic uses; automotive fuels; energy consumption in the overall consumption of households; 11 - energy and environment: CO2 emissions per sector; net CO2 emissions of energy origin. (J.S.)

  15. The great environmental restoration cost estimating shootout: A blind test of three DOE cost estimating groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cost of the Department of Energy's (DOE) Environmental Restoration (ER) Program has increased steadily over the last three years and, in the process, has drawn increasing scrutiny from Congress, the public, and government agencies such as the Office of Management and Budget and the General Accounting Office. Programmatic costs have been reviewed by many groups from within the DOE as well as from outside agencies. While cost may appear to be a universally applicable barometer of project conditions, it is actually a single dimensional manifestation of a complex set of conditions. As such, variations in cost estimates can be caused by a variety of underlying factors such as changes in scope, schedule, performing organization, economic conditions, or regulatory environment. This paper will examine the subject of cost estimates by evaluating three different cost estimates prepared for a single project including two estimates prepared by project proponents and another estimate prepared by a review team. The paper identifies the reasons for cost growth as measured by the different estimates and evaluates the ability of review estimates to measure the validity of costs. The comparative technique used to test the three cost estimates will identify the reasons for changes in the estimated cost, over time, and evaluate the ability of an independent review to correctly identify the reasons for cost growth and evaluate the reasonableness of the cost proposed by the project proponents. Recommendations are made for improved cost estimates and improved cost estimate reviews. Conclusions are reached regarding the differences in estimate results that can be attributed to differences in estimating techniques, the implications of these differences for decision makers, and circumstances that are unique to environmental cost estimating. (author)

  16. Geyser Interaction: Two examples from El Tatio, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz Saez, Carolina; Namiki, Atsuko; Manga, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Geysers are eruptive hot springs that episodically discharge steam, liquid water, and non-condensable gases. While hot springs are abundant in geothermal areas, geysers are uncommon and they require special conditions of water supply, heat flow, and fractures and/or porous rocks. Despite more than 200 years of study, there are still open questions about how and why geysers erupt: How is geyser cycle influenced by other adjacent and distant thermal sources? Are hot springs and geyser connected through permeable pathways? Why do only a few hot springs erupt as geysers? We conducted two week-long field studies of geyser interactions in the El Tatio geyser field, Chile during Oct. 2012 and Oct. 2014. We found two different cases: geyser-pool interaction and geyser-geyser interaction. In the first case, we documented how the water level of the pool varies as the geyser eruption evolves. Measured temperature in the geyser conduit has a repeatable pattern, when it reaches boiling the eruption occurs. In contrast, the temperature in the adjacent pool is constant and never reaches the boiling point, suggesting that heat is supplied only to the geyser conduit. Pressure in the geyser conduit and pool have a similar evolution over time so that the side pool acts as a barometer for the conduit. The geyser-geyser interaction was documented in 2014. A geyser with long eruption intervals (1-3 hours) changes the behavior of a short-interval geyser (c.a. 10 minutes). When the long-interval geyser erupts, the short-interval geyser stops erupting. When the eruption of the long-interval geyser becomes less vigorous, the short-interval geyser resumes its eruptions with shorter intervals. During the week of measurements in 2012, we did not observe the short-interval geyser erupting. At that time, the eruption of the long-interval geyser was regular (4 hours and 40 minutes, ref 1). We thus infer that the geyser-geyser interaction made the eruption cycle chaotic. Geyser-pool and geyser

  17. Deviation of Baltic, Adriatic and Black Sea level from the global mean during the 20th century: analysis of the main factors involved and a high-end projection to the end of 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarascia, Luca; Lionello, Piero

    2016-04-01

    The main goal of this work is to investigate which are the main factors determining interannual sea level variability of Baltic, Adriatic and Black seas, and to which extent the sea level of these three basins can deviate from the global mean. The three basins selected are semi-enclosed marginal seas connected with the adjacent seas by narrow straits. 13 sea level timeseries in Baltic Sea, 7 in Adriatic Sea and 5 in Black Sea provided by PSMSL, allowed us to compute a single seamless sea level timeseries representative for each basin from 1900 and for the entire 20th century, using statistical tools (PCA and Least Square method). Comparison with satellite data in the period 1993-2009, confirms that timeseries so computed are good representations of the observed sea level, with correlation values of 0.97, 0.87 and 0.72 for Baltic, Adriatic and Black Sea respectively. At basin scale the sea level has been decomposed in various contributions that have been separately analyzed: local effect of pressure, steric effect due to temperature and salinity variation, boundary forcing, wind effect and river discharge. The annual cycles and their variability, show that the largest contribution is due to the wind for the Adriatic Sea and for the Baltic Sea. In these two basins the inverse Barometer effect plays a minor role and the steric factor is almost negligible. The wind seems to play a negligible role on Black Sea, where the Danube river discharge plays an important role. A linear regression model, built considering large scale sea level pressure distribution as predictor, is capable to explain a further percentage of sea level variability variability (about 20%) left after subtracting all the factors considered above. Sea level of the Baltic and Black Sea show a significant positive correlation (0.3 about) revealing the likely influence of an external common forcing. Past sea level variability shows no strong evidences of large deviation from the global mean sea level

  18. Adriatic and Black Sea level in the 20th century and projection to the end of the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarascia, Luca; Lionello, Piero

    2015-04-01

    Adriatic and Black Sea are semi-enclosed basins characterized by densely populated coasts, industrial compounds and a rich cultural and historical heritage. It appears to be crucial, for the management and the protection of their coastlines, to understand how much they will be impacted by the global sea level (SL) rise, projected by the end of this century. The aim of this work is to develop a method that allows to estimate to which extent the SL of the two basins will depart from the mean global level. The future evolution of global sea level is not a meaningful indicator at this regional scale and past deviations, due to local factors of the Adriatic and Black Sea levels from the global one, have been observed. The Adriatic Sea is the basin of the Mediterranean Sea best covered by past SL observations. In fact, for the Adriatic Sea is possible to obtain, by statistical method based on PCA and Least square Method, a seamless and long time series (from 1900 to 2009) using records of 7 mareographic stations located along the Italian and Croatian coasts (from PSMSL database). Satellite data of SL are available for the whole Mediterranean from 1993 to 2012 and they show a very high correlation (rho > 0.9) with Adriatic time series based on mareographic records. The SL time series of the 20th century in the Black Sea is computed using data of 4 stations, which are available in the PSMSL (Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level) archive, located on the north-east coast. This time series shows a lower correlation (rho about 0.5) with satellite data than in the case of Adriatic Sea. Further it shows a higher interannual variability. All the time series are considered after the subtraction of the Inverse Barometer (IB) effect. A statistical approach, based on a multivariate linear regression model, is used to investigate the link between SL anomaly, computed as the difference between the regional SL and global SL, and three large scale climate variables (sea level pressure

  19. The 154-year record of sea level at San Francisco: extracting the long-term trend, recent changes, and other tidbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breaker, Laurence C. [Moss Landing Marine Laboratories, Moss Landing, CA (United States); Ruzmaikin, Alexander [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA (United States)

    2011-02-15

    A data adaptive method called ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) is used to examine the 154-year record of monthly sea level at San Francisco. The mode that is lowest in frequency corresponds to the long-term trend. The next highest mode corresponds to an oscillation with a period of {proportional_to}100 years and may be related to solar variability. When this mode is combined with the long-term trend, the rate of increase in sea level starts to decrease by {proportional_to}1980. The next lower mode corresponds to interdecadal time scales and thus includes the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. When combined with the two lower modes, sea level itself starts to decrease by the mid-1990s. These results are consistent with the most recent results from the intergovernmental panel on climate change (IPCC), and may be the first obtained from a tidal record. Prior to conducting EEMD, corrections for glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) and the inverse barometer (IB) effect were applied. The effect of applying the GIA correction was relatively small, but the IB correction reduced the slope of the long-term trend in sea level by almost 15%. This reduction is due to a long-term increase in the variance of sea level pressure. To determine if the 10-15 year ENSO modulation cycle could be detected from the decomposition we first compared the envelope from the mode associated with ENSO, with the two adjacent modes that were lower in frequency. Spectral analysis revealed no significant maxima in the ENSO mode envelope, but a major peak in the spectrum for the two adjacent modes, with a period of 12.8 years. This is consistent with a local response to El Nino warming for the ENSO mode, but a non-local response for the two adjacent modes. A similar analysis was performed for the Southern Oscillation Index and a spectral maximum was found between 12 and 16 years, consistent with our non-local interpretation of the previous two modes. (orig.)

  20. Three essays in energy consumption: Time series analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Hee Bai

    1997-10-01

    Firstly, this dissertation investigates that which demand specification is an appropriate model for long-run energy demand between the conventional demand specification and the limited demand specification. In order to determine the components of a stable long-run demand for different sectors of the energy industry, I perform cointegration tests by using the Johansen test procedure. First, I test the conventional demand specification including prices and income as components. Second, I test a limited demand specification only income as a component. The reason for performing these tests is that we can determine that which demand specification is a good long-run predictor of energy consumption between the two demand specifications by using the cointegration tests. Secondly, for the purpose of planning and forecasting energy demand in case of cointegrated system, long-run elasticities are of particular interest. To retrieve the optimal level of energy demand in case of price shock, we need long-run elasticities rather than short-run elasticities. The energy demand study provides valuable information to the energy policy makers who are concerned about the long-run impact of taxes and tariffs. A long-run price elasticity is a primary barometer of the substitution effect between energy and non-energy inputs and long-run income elasticity is an important factor since we can measure the energy demand growing slowly or fast than in the past depending on the magnitude of long-run elasticity. The one other problem in estimating the total energy demand is that there exists an aggregation bias stemming from the process of summation in four different energy types for the total aggregation prices and total aggregation energy consumption. In order to measure the aggregation bias between the Btu aggregation method and the Divisia Index method, i.e., which methodology has less aggregation bias in the long-run, I compare the two estimation results with calculated results estimated on

  1. Long lasting interactions between tectonic loading, unroofing, post-rift thermal subsidence and sedimentary transfers along the western margin of the Gulf of Mexico: Some insights from integrated quantitative studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roure, François; Alzaga-Ruiz, Humberto; Callot, Jean-Paul; Ferket, Helga; Granjeon, Didier; Gonzalez-Mercado, Graciela Esmeralda; Guilhaumou, Nicole; Lopez, Michel; Mougin, Pascal; Ortuno-Arzate, Salvador; Séranne, Michel

    2009-09-01

    After Jurassic rifting, numerous carbonate platforms (i.e., the Orizaba, Cordoba and Golden Lane-Tuxpan platforms) developed during the Lower and Middle Cretaceous episode of thermal subsidence along the western passive margin of the Gulf of Mexico, with intervening basinal domains (i.e., the Tampico-Misantla, Zongolica, Veracruz and Deep Gulf of Mexico - DGM - basins). During the Late Cretaceous-Paleocene, the east-verging Sierra Madre Oriental thrust belt developed, resulting in tectonic uplift and unroofing of the allochthonous units (i.e. tectonic units made up of former Orizaba and Cordoba platforms and Zongolica Basin series). This new topography provided also an important source of clastics to feed the adjacent foredeep, where coeval tectonic loading accounted for the bending of the foreland lithosphere. However, shallow water facies or even emersion persisted until the Eocene in the forebulge area (at the present location of the Golden Lane), preventing locally the clastics to reach the DGM. This topographic barrier was ultimately bypassed by the clastics only during the Oligocene and Neogene, once (1) the prograding clastic wedge had exceeded accommodation, and (2) the long lasting thermal subsidence of the passive margin could overpass the effect of the bending and force the former bulge to sink. Numerous paleo-thermo-meters (Tmax, Ro), paleo-thermo-barometers (fluid inclusions), PVT and coupled forward kinematic and thermal modeling have been used to calibrate and date the progressive unroofing of the thrust belt. Coupled tectonic and sedimentologic modeling was applied in the foreland to predict the distribution of sand versus shale ratios in the Oligocene to Plio-Quaternary clastic sedimentary wedge of the passive margin, where gravitational gliding of post-Eocene series occurred during the Neogene along major listric faults. Mantle dynamics are advocated as the main process accounting for post-orogenic uplift and regional tilting of the basement

  2. Exploring the interior structure of Venus with balloons and satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimoun, David; Cutts, Jim; Stevenson, Dave

    2015-04-01

    Although present daily in our sky as the brightest object at dusk and dawn, many characteristics of Venus remains a mystery. Its dense atmosphere hides the surface from orbital viewing, and the extreme conditions experienced at its surface (460°C, almost 100 bar of pressure at the surface) pose a formidable challenge to the sustained survival and operation of planetary landers. Despite their sharply contrasting atmospheres, Venus is not very different from Earth in size, its composition should be very similar, its orbit is very close to be circular and it is only a little closer to the Sun ( 0.7 A.U). So what are the processes that turned the twin sister of our planet into such a different object? And how can we better understand the processes that have shaped the terrestrial planets, and to understand their formation history? With its harsh surface environment, conventional seismology on Venus, requiring seismometers to be deployed at the surface for months or even years seems impractical. In June 2014, the Keck Institute for Space Studies (KISS) at the California Institute of Technology sponsored a one-week workshop with 30 specialists in the key techniques and technologies relevant to investigating Venus's interior structure focusing on alternative approaches to seismology . As the vertical component of surface motion on Venus is very efficiently coupled into the atmosphere as infrasonic waves, especially at low frequency, several alternative approaches to detecting seismic events can be considered. Seismo-acoustic waves propagate upwards producing pressure fluctuations in the middle atmosphere of Venus and the seismic wave energy is ultimately dissipated by local heating, ionospheric perturbation, or airglow. These atmospheric perturbations can therefore be recorded either in-situ (with a barometer network, deployed on balloons floating in the cloud layer near 55 km) or remotely via optical imaging or electromagnetic sounding deployed on a spacecraft. A report

  3. Sele coastal plain flood risk due to wave storm and river flow interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benassai, Guido; Aucelli, Pietro; Di Paola, Gianluigi; Della Morte, Renata; Cozzolino, Luca; Rizzo, Angela

    2016-04-01

    -critical simulation, the boundary condition is a known downstream WSE, in this case the elevated water level due to wave setup, wind setup and inverted barometer, while the upstream boundary condition consisted in WSE corresponding to river discharges associated to different return periods. The results of the simulations evidence, for the last 10 kilometers of the river, the burst of critical inundation scenarios even with moderate flow discharge, if associated with concurrent storm surge which increase the water level at the river mouth, obstructing normal flow discharge.

  4. Thermodynamic Phase Relations in the MgO-FeO-SiO2 System in the Lower Mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, A. S.; Caracas, R.; Asimow, P. D.

    2008-12-01

    The perovskite (Pv) to post-perovskite (PPv) phase transition at pressures near the Earth's core-mantle boundary (CMB) is currently the favored candidate for explaining most, if not all, of the peculiarities of the D" layer (~200 km region above core) [1, 2]. Additionally, the pressure- and temperature-dependence of this phase boundary in the Earth provides the possibility of an important new thermo-barometer at the bottom of the convecting mantle. The post-perovskite phase boundary in pure MgSiO3 is fairly well known, but the experimental and calculated results on the partitioning of Fe among the stable coexisting phases and its influence on the transition pressure are currently contradictory [3, 4, 5, 6]. Using density functional theory (DFT), we investigate the MgO-FeO-SiO2 ternary system over the temperatures and pressures relevant to the core-mantle boundary. We use DFT to calculate the energies of the relevant stable phases (Pv, PPv, (Mg,Fe)O magnesio-wustite, and SiO2 stishovite) for a range of Fe compositions along the Mg-Fe binary. These results are fit with a Vinet equation of state, allowing us to parameterize the effect of both pressure and Fe composition. The effect of temperature is modeled using a Grüneisen thermal correction, where the vibrational heat capacities are determined using DFT perturbation calculations and the quasi-harmonic approximation. These pressure-, temperature-, and composition-dependent equations of state are then used to explore the predicted phase relations. The results of this investigation are a complete thermodynamic description of the stable phases for this simplified chemistry and a theoretical prediction for iron partioning in the lower mantle. In particular, we find that there may be a coincidence point (azeotrope) on the Pv-PPv phase loop, across which the sense of Fe-partitioning changes sign, as well as significant immiscibility between Mg-rich and Fe-rich post-perovskite. These findings help explain many of the

  5. Truck-Mounted Testing System Design and Validation for the Propeller of High Altitude Airships%高空飞艇螺旋桨车载试验系统设计与验证

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦俊; 宋笔锋; 张玉刚; 李育斌

    2015-01-01

    In order to get enough experimental data of propellers operating in the low Reynolds number, high Mach number flight environment, a truck⁃mounted testing technology which used to be applied in aerodynamic propeller test, is proposed in this paper to solve the problem. The system uses an assembled sensor balance to measure the force and torque of the propeller,and according to the trucked mounted experimental characteristic, electric genera⁃tor, voltage stabilizer, anemometer and barometer were applied for supplying stable power and indicating the experi⁃mental atmospheric conditions. Due to the advantages of the LABVIEW graphical programming platform, the control and measurement process became easy and intelligent. At last, a 6. 8 meter propeller model experiments were carried out for different altitudes with different atmosphere densities;results obtained from the truck mounted exper⁃iments agree fairly well with those of the numerical simulation, which verifies the accuracy of the testing system.%针对高空飞艇螺旋桨低雷诺数高马赫数的气动特性,设计了一种车载试验测控系统,将螺旋桨、电机、电源和测控设备等安装在运输车上,通过改变螺旋桨试验海拔高度改变试验环境大气参数,得到不同密度下的螺旋桨性能。该测控系统使用一种组合式传感器天平,利用基于虚拟仪器的Lab⁃VIEW开发软件实现了试验数据采集和仪器控制,并根据车载试验的特点提出了车载试验的数据处理方法。通过对比分析车载试验的结果和CFD计算数据可知,二者基本吻合,从而验证了高空飞艇螺旋桨车载试验测控系统的可行性。

  6. Storms and surges in Irish coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olbert, Agnieszka I.; Hartnett, Michael

    Mechanisms of storm surge formation and severity on the north European continental shelf and, in particular, in the Irish coastal waters are examined in this paper. A numerical surge model was developed and used in combination with meteorological forcing and hydrographic records to analysis aspects of surge mechanics. An attempt is made to estimate sea level response to meteorology and to quantify pressure and wind contributions as a driving force. Results show that the inverted barometer term contributes to more than 80% of surge residual in the Celtic Sea and to approximately 55% along the British coast in the Irish Sea. Local winds on the Irish Sea have less of an impact on storm surge heights than previously reported; the Irish Sea surges are predominantly caused by the propagation of external surges into the basin from the north and south channels. An analysis of sea level variability due to wind or pressure was undertaken to select regions of positive and negative interactions. Negative correlation between wind and pressure-driven surges found in the Celtic Sea explains generally low magnitudes of surges in this region, while medium level correlation coefficients could be responsible for generally high surges in the eastern Irish Sea and coast of Scotland. Following a regression analysis, it was determined that in these regions a drop of atmospheric pressure by 1 mbar implies a rise of sea level by 1.2 cm. Non-linear tide-surge interactions are also investigated. Relationships between surge and tidal phase are determined at numerous locations in the Irish coastal waters. Analysis shows that interaction characteristics vary from site to site due to shallow water dynamics and variations in topography. The regional pattern of tide-surge interactions is quite remarkable. Finally, a characterisation of the statistical properties of extreme surges is given. An efficient approach is adopted considering statistics of extremes. A hybrid GEV-EV1 statistical solution

  7. Gambling in Qing Dynasty%清代的赌博述论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王美英

    2001-01-01

    清初,赌博之风并不严重,参赌的人也不多;清朝中后期,赌风颇为厉害,其花样之多,波及地域之广,参与人数之众,为此前各朝历代所不及。这不只是一个严重的社会问题,而且给社会造成了恶劣的影响。究其根源,在于清朝中后期政治腐败,对赌博缺乏抵抗力;社会闲散人员多,以赌博为寄托;赌博的消遣、图利功能具有很大的吸引力,吸引众多人员参与。赌博与政治腐败密切相关,政治腐败之时赌博之风越厉害,赌博是政治腐败的标志,它又会加速政治的腐朽与没落。%With a comparatively small quantity of participants,gambling didn't form a serious social problem in early Qing dynasty.However,when it came to its middle and late periods,with a large variety of forms,a wide coverage of aread and a great number of participants,gambling brought very ill effects to the society.It was rooted in the corruption of the middle and late Qing governments,which resulted in a fable immunity of the society against gambling and a considerable number of unemployed citizens to whom gambling made a great attraction for its entertainment and lucrative potentiality.This paper puts forward the thesis point that gambling is closely related to political corruption.The more corrupted a government is,the more popular gambling becomes.Gambling,as a barometer of political corruption,can accelerate the corruption and degeneration of the government in return.

  8. 我省旅馆业治安管理的现实困境与社会管理创新%The Dilemma and Social Management Innovation of Public Security Administration of Hotel Industry in Hunan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘振华

    2012-01-01

      Hotels industry hasplayed an important role in promoting the development of local economy and providing recreation for tourists, but it also has become the focus of attention and barometer of social security assessment, as various cases and accidents happened frequently and various social evils repeated again and again. Though Public security organs have taken lots of measures to strengthen the administration of small hotels, results has not been satisfactory because of some factors such as the incompletion of relevant laws and regulations and the shortage of policemen. In order to solve these problems, Public security organs are supposed to innovate the concept and mode of security administration; fulfill real-name registration; strengthen the security inspection; invest heavily in training and establish evaluation mechanism of small hotels.%  旅馆业在促进地方经济发展和为人们提供休闲娱乐方面发挥了较大作用。但是,旅馆业中各类案件和事故频发,社会丑恶现象屡禁不止,已成为社会关注的焦点和评价社会治安的“晴雨表”。公安机关虽然采取了诸多措施加强旅馆业治安管理,但由于相关法律法规不完善,公安机关的警力不足等因素的影响,致使旅馆业治安管理难以取得理想的效果。为突破旅馆业治安管理瓶颈,公安机关必须创新旅馆业治安管理理念和模式,通过落实旅馆业实名登记,强化治安检查,加大培训力度,建立旅馆业考评机制等创新措施,进一步加强旅馆业治安管理,促进旅馆业健康有序发展。

  9. Mineral and whole-rock geochemistry of the Topuk Granitoid (Bursa, Western Anatolia, Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orhan, Ayşe; Demirbilek, Mehmet; Mutlu, Halim

    2014-05-01

    The Eocene aged Topuk Granitoid exposing in the Tavşanlı Zone at south of the Izmir-Ankara Suture Zone is one of the granitoids which were formed as a result of collision of the Anatolide-Tauride block with the Sakarya continent in the late Cretaceous. Nearly east-west extending, elliptical shaped Topuk Granitoid was intruded into the Paleozoic and Mesozoic metamorphites and upper Cretaceous ophiolitic rocks. The intrusion is in granodiorite composition and contains spherical/ellipsoidal mafic microgranular enclaves (MME) with composition of monzodiorite to monzogabbro. The granitoid which contains xenoliths is frequently cut by porphyritic granodiorite, granite aplite and quartz dikes at the margins. Topuk Granitoid is represented by an I-type pluton with medium to high K calc-alkaline affinity and metaluminous melt composition. Ocean ridge granite (ORG) normalized element distributions show that the granitoid, dikes and MME's have similar patterns. A significant enrichment of LIL (Rb, Ba, K, Th and Sr) elements and relatively depletion of HFS (Ta, Nb, Ce, Hf, Y, Zr and Ti) elements are indicative of formation from hybrid magma in a subduction environment. In tectonic discrimination diagrams (Ta -Yb and Rb-Y+Nb), samples of the Topuk Granitoid are plotted into the volcanic arc granite (VAG) field which is characteristic for the post collision granites. The results of mineral chemistry show that plagioclases are in oligoclase-andesine (An20-49) composition, amphiboles are of magnesio-hornblende and biotites are of Fe-Mg-biotite composition. In the Al2O3-FeO-MgO diagram biotite minerals are accompanied by amphibole and other ferromagnesian minerals and represent biotites of calc-alkaline orogenic zones. Calculations based on the hornblende-barometer indicate that the calc-alkaline magma was crystallized under pressure of 2-6 kbars (mean=4 kbars) and at depth of 7-20 km (mean=12 km). The whole-rock and mineral chemistry data show that the Topuk Granitoid was formed

  10. Evaluation of an operational ocean model configuration at 1/12° spatial resolution for the Indonesian seas (NEMO2.3/INDO12) - Part 1: Ocean physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranchant, Benoît; Reffray, Guillaume; Greiner, Eric; Nugroho, Dwiyoga; Koch-Larrouy, Ariane; Gaspar, Philippe

    2016-03-01

    INDO12 is a 1/12° regional version of the NEMO physical ocean model covering the whole Indonesian EEZ (Exclusive Economic Zone). It has been developed and is now running every week in the framework of the INDESO (Infrastructure Development of Space Oceanography) project implemented by the Indonesian Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries. The initial hydrographic conditions as well as open-boundary conditions are derived from the operational global ocean forecasting system at 1/4° operated by Mercator Océan. Atmospheric forcing fields (3-hourly ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast) analyses) are used to force the regional model. INDO12 is also forced by tidal currents and elevations, and by the inverse barometer effect. The turbulent mixing induced by internal tides is taken into account through a specific parameterisation. In this study we evaluate the model skill through comparisons with various data sets including outputs of the parent model, climatologies, in situ temperature and salinity measurements, and satellite data. The biogeochemical model results assessment is presented in a companion paper (Gutknecht et al., 2015). The simulated and altimeter-derived Eddy Kinetic Energy fields display similar patterns and confirm that tides are a dominant forcing in the area. The volume transport of the Indonesian throughflow (ITF) is in good agreement with the INSTANT estimates while the transport through Luzon Strait is, on average, westward but probably too weak. Compared to satellite data, surface salinity and temperature fields display marked biases in the South China Sea. Significant water mass transformation occurs along the main routes of the ITF and compares well with observations. Vertical mixing is able to modify the South and North Pacific subtropical water-salinity maximum as seen in T-S diagrams. In spite of a few weaknesses, INDO12 proves to be able to provide a very realistic simulation of the ocean circulation and water mass

  11. Geotechnical Trainspotting: Early Observations From the New Seattle Liquefaction Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodin, P.; Yelin, T.; Weaver, C. S.; Steidl, J. H.; Steller, R. A.; Gomberg, J. S.

    2012-12-01

    The Seattle Liquefaction Array (SLA) is a geotechnical monitoring array established by the US Geological Survey earlier this year in industrialized Seattle, Washington. Funding for the array was provided by the Advanced National Seismic System, at the behest of the Pacific Northwest Seismic Network's regional advisory committee. The SLA aims to further the understanding of earthquake-induced liquefaction, particularly the processes associated with repeatedly liquefied soils and the liquefaction of deeply buried deposits. The SLA occupies a site at which shaking-induced liquefaction was observed during earthquakes in 1949, 1965, and 2001. The SLA site is seismically noisy but important as it is similar to sites that host many structures in Seattle. The site is comprised chiefly by loose-to-dense interbedded coastal and river outwash sands. Instrumentation at the site includes four 3-component accelerometers at the surface and at depths of 5.4, 44.9, and 56.4 meters, a surface barometer, and six piezometers at depths of 6.9, 22.9, 28.9, 43.1, 46.9, and 51.9 meters. Emplacement depths were selected to sample a variety of liquefaction susceptibilities. Continuous data from all sensors are sampled at 200 samples per second, and are available from the IRIS DMC archive, with a buffer of data stored on site in the event of telemetry failure. To date, only a handful of earthquakes have produced shaking strong enough at the SLA to be observed within the high levels of background noise. However, the noise itself provides data useful to constrain the low-strain seismic and pressure response of the site. Notably, the array is within a few meters of a set of busy railroad tracks. Passing and parked trains expose the site to a broad bandwidth of deformations, including seismic frequencies, albeit with a source at the surface. Many times each day the site experiences both high levels of shaking, and step changes in the pressure field of a variety of amplitudes that may last from

  12. The Electoral Republic of Romania. Arguments about the need for an analysis regarding the Romanian participatory culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan TEODORESCU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available For Romania, the 90’s have been the decade of transition to a democratic political system (with everything it implies: more parties, free elections, the separation of powers, rights and political freedoms etc.. But has taking this institutional model also lead to acquiring the underlying values that support it? How far has Romania come on the road to a participative democracy, to a society that has a strong civic culture, as defined by classical authors such as Almond and Verba? How many of the traits of social capital, as defined by Putnam, can be found in the post-revolutionary public space? We knew, from research, that this democratic system was desirable (there is no need to enumerate the many research papers, in particular Euro-barometer surveys, which referred to Romanians’ support for democracy, rule of law and economic freedom. But beyond the rhetoric, which was and is, in fact, the real situation? If we take the statements into account, Romanians are participative, want political pluralism and many parties and want support elements of liberal democracy – but do they take advantage of these rights? Are they active citizens, organized in a dynamic civil society? Do they engage with public decisions and policies even after the election period? Are we a society where politics matter only in election years or one in which political and civic participation is stimulated and active the rest of the time? Research helps us in this regard. In this article we present conclusions supported by surveys conducted in recent years by the InfoPolitic Center for Studies and Research (SITC, for the Multimedia Foundation for Local Democracy.The list of questions is extensive because it takes into account a huge dissonance noticed during the 90s by people in our generation – the great distance from words to actions! Romanians received rights and freedoms which, from our point of view, they have rarely used – and without impact. Political Romania

  13. Mineral chemistry, P-T-t paths and exhumation processes of mafic granulites in Dinggye, Southern Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; Shuwen; ZHANG; Jinjiang; SHU; Guiming; LI; Qiugen

    2005-01-01

    The mafic granulites in Dinggye, as various scale lense-shaped enclaves within the high Himalayan crystalline rock series, occur along mylonitic foliations at the junction between the Southern Tibetan Detachment System (STDS) and the Xainza-Dinggye normal fault system. The main lithological assemblage comprises garnet plagioclase pyroxenite, garnet two-pyroxene granulite, pyroxene garnet amphibolite and so on. The detailed petrological analyses show that these mafic granulites underwent at least four-stage metamorphic evolution. The first metamorphic stage, the garnet+clinopyroxene+quart mineral assemblage (M1) was probably formed under eclogite facies, the second stage, the plagioclase+clinopyroxene symplectite mineral assemblage (M2) was produced under high-pressure granulite facies by the early decompressive breakdown of M1 mineral assemblage, the third stage, the plagioclase+clinopyroxene+ hypersthene symplectite mineral assemblage (M3) was formed at granulite facies by the late period decompressive breakdown of M1 and M2 mineral assemblages and the final stage, plagioclase+hornblende mineral assemblage (M4) was formed by hydrolysis of earlier mineral assemblages during late uplifting. The detailed mineral composition analyses suggest that garnets and clinopyroxenes within M1 and M2 mineral assemblages display similar compositions to the equivalents in the B and C types of eclogites, whereas the M3 clinopyroxenes are akin to these of the same kind of minerals in the granulite. These mineral chemistry features and P-T estimates calculated by mineral thermometers and barometers indicate that the early stage relic porphyroblasts (M1) could be formed at the eclogite facies, the early decompressive breakdown (M2) occurred at the high-pressures granulite facies of 1.35―1.48 GPa and 625―675℃, the M3 mineral assemblage recorded the granulite facies of 0.7―0.95 GPa and 775―900℃ and M4 plagioglase+hornblende retrograde mineral assemblage was produced under

  14. Civic engagement and the transition to adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Constance; Levine, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Constance Flanagan and Peter Levine survey research on civic engagement among U.S. adolescents and young adults. Civic engagement, they say, is important both for the functioning of democracies and for the growth and maturation it encourages in young adults, but opportunities for civic engagement are not evenly distributed by social class or race and ethnicity. Today's young adults, note the authors, are less likely than those in earlier generations to exhibit many important characteristics of citizenship, raising the question of whether these differences represent a decline or simply a delay in traditional adult patterns of civic engagement. Flanagan and Levine also briefly discuss the civic and political lives of immigrant youth in the United States, noting that because these youth make up a significant share of the current generation of young adults, their civic engagement is an important barometer of the future of democracy. The authors next survey differences in civic participation for youth from different social, racial, and ethnic backgrounds. They explore two sets of factors that contribute to a lower rate of civic engagement among low-income and minority young adults. The first is cumulative disadvantage-unequal opportunities and influences before adulthood, especially parental education. The second is different institutional opportunities for civic engagement among college and non-college youth during the young-adult years. Flanagan and Levine survey various settings where young adults spend time-schools and colleges, community organizations, faith-based institutions, community organizing and activism projects, and military and other voluntary service programs-and examine the opportunities for civic engagement that each affords. As the transition to adulthood has lengthened, say the authors, colleges have become perhaps the central institution for civic incorporation of younger generations. But no comparable institution exists for young adults who do not

  15. HYPERTENSIVE ENCEPHALOPATHY INDUCED BY MERCURY POISONING; A REPORT OF 3 CASES (IN AN IRANIAN FAMILY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sharifian MD

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveMercury poisoning is one of the important recent causes of mortality and mortality in children worldwide, particularly in industrial environments; mercury is a poisonous metal, especially harmful to the nervous and immune systems and the kidneys and can even be fatal. Elemental mercury is present in thermometers, barometer batteries, sphygmomanometers and latex paints.Inorganic mercury salts are found in antiseptics, pesticides, pigments and explosives and are used as preservatives in medicine. Mercury was once used to stop fever, and this worked because the immune system was so weakened that it could no longer sustain the attack for which the fever was created. Some medical drugs still contain mercury chloride and mercurous chloride and certain forms of mercury are still used in some laxatives. Mercury toxicity of the nervous system causes anorexia, ataxia, lack of ability to coordinate voluntary muscle movements, dementia, depression, dizziness, emotional instability, erethism (abnormal irritability in response to stimulation, incoordination, insomnia, irritability, loss of ability to speak, memory impairment, numbness, saresthesias (sensation of prickling, tingling or creeping on the skin, psychosis, tremors, drowsiness, fatigue and weakness.Other organ damages include kidney failure, headaches, hearing impairment, visual impairment, hypertension, dermatitis, digestive tract problems, colitis, diarrhea, stomatitis and excessive salivation, loss of teeth, metallic taste, chromosomal damage, birth defects and ensuing organ failure. Chronic mercury poisoning can cause Acrodynia (Pink disease. Mercury poisoning is a rare cause of hypertension in children. Herein we report 3 cases, the first a child with hypertensive encephalopathy due to severe mercury poisoning and his two siblings with moderate symptoms.Case reportA 10 year old boy was admitted in psychiatric ward of Imam Hossein Hospital with behavioral disorder, irritability, mood

  16. Mantle Evolution Beneath The Colorado Palteau: Interpreta-tion of The Study of Mineral Concentrate From Kimberlite Pipe Kl-1 Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashchepkov, I.; Vladykin, N.; Mitchell, R.; Coopersmith, H.; Garanin, V.; Saprykin, A. I.; Khmelnikova, O. S.

    Mineral grains and their intergrowth from the concentrate form the KL1- kimberlite pipe Colorado plateau was analyzed by EPMA and LAM ICP MS in Analytic Center of UIGGM. Garnets reveal nearly continuous trend of the compositions divided into 5 intervals. 1 cumulates from the crust and Sp facie mantle; 2. Gar-Sp lherzolites; 3- Gar- wehrlites, lherzolites and harzburgites; 4- Gar lherzolites and harzburgites; 4. Pyroxenites and Il peri-dotites . They reveal three trend of Ti decrease with the ris- ing Cr content. Those in the inter-growth with the pyroxenes are less in Tio2 as well as the pyroxenes. Discrete large Cpx grains are richer in Na, Al, Cr. TP conditions determined for the clinopyroxenes with Nimis- Taylor, 2001 thermobarometer and barometer Ashchepkov, 2001 reveal the heating from 35 to 40-42 mv/m2 in 30-50kbar interval. The spinels show two compositional intervals 64-50% Cr2O3 and 47-30%. The branch with the essential enrichment to 8% TiO2with the Cr decrease what also suppose the peridotite alteration due to rising of evolving Ti-rich melts. Two descend- ing crystallization lines for the ilmenites suggest the (polybaric) differentiation in two magmatic chambers. The Cr-rich ilmenites and most Cr-rich subcalcis garnets were found in the serpentinized ilmenite harzburgites that probably surround the most deep mag-matic chamber. The Ilm -Q (coesite) intergrowth suggests the deep differenti- ation. Several ilmenites contain up to 11%MnO. Trace elements determined for the clinopyroxenes suppose small decree melting possibly under influence of subducted- related melts having definite U peak and Ta-Nb minimums. Their reaction with peri- dotites with garnet dissolution according to AFC model decrease La/Ybn ration as well as the Pb* and U peak. Two stages of the Ti-rich melt percolations suggested to be accompanied the plum- re-lated melts influence on the peridotite of Wyoming craton keel which was followed with fur-ther followed by submelting of the subducted

  17. Climatically sensitive 'Arctic': Another scientific frontier for India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khare, N. [Ministry of Earth Sciences, Goa (India). National Centre for Antarctic and Ocean Research

    2008-01-15

    According to the recent Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change report, climate change is set to impact every continent and threaten nearly a third of the world's species with extinction. Effects on the earth's weather systems from increasing greenhouse gases will change rainfall pattern, punch-up the power of storms and boost the risk of droughts, flooding and stress on water supplies. Therefore, economic planners are in the quest of predictive models of such climatic change. It has now become a global responsibility to understand the climate change, on both short and long timescales as a global phenomenon, with different parts of the earth responding to the climatic change with a time lead-lag and by different orders of magnitude. Though the exact cause of climatic change on earth is still unknown, the time lead-lag in climatic change in different parts of the earth helps in understanding the role of various regions in triggering (?) or enhancing the climatic change. Deciphering and inter-comparing the climatic history of different geographic regions can help to better understand the possible role of different geographic regions in global climatic variations. The Arctic region is critical for studying global change because it impacts the entire earth system through powerful feedback processes involving the atmosphere, cryosphere, land surface and ocean. The Arctic region will experience the effects of global warming first and will amplify its effects within the earth system. Rapid changes are being observed in the Arctic region, which may be considered as the barometer of global climatic change. The Arctic region and its ecosystem serve an area of active research because it is particularly sensitive to climate change and also because climatically induced environmental changes can induce further changes of global consequence. The Arctic system is not only an amplifier of variability in the global climate, but also of the effects of greenhouse forcings

  18. The state of renewable energies in Europe. 11th EurObserv'ER report; Etat des energies renouvelables en Europe. 11e bilan EurObserv'ER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Civel, Y.B. (ed.)

    2012-02-15

    For over ten years now, eurobserv'eR has been collecting data on european Union renewable energy sources to describe the state and thrust of the various sectors in its thematic barometers. The first part of this assessment is an updated and completed summary of the work published in 2011. It provides a complete overview of the ten renewable sectors, supplemented by two summary notes on concentrated solar power and ocean energies. Their performances are compared against the european Commission White Paper and Biomass Action plan targets. The eurobserv'eR consortium members will publish their end-of-year estimates of the renewable energy share of overall final energy consumption for each European Union country from this edition onwards. These figures will thus provide preliminary indication of how the various countries are faring along their renewable energy paths and will ascertain whether their individual trends point to success in achieving their objectives [Dutch] Depuis plus de dix ans, eurobserv'er collecte des donnees sur les sources d'energies renouvelables de l'union europeenne afin de decrire, dans des barometres thematiques, l'etat et la dynamique des filieres. La premiere partie de cet ouvrage constitue une synthese des travaux publies en 2011, actualisee et completee. Elle offre un tour d'horizon complet des dix filieres renouvelables, completee par deux notes de synthese sur l'heliothermodynamique et l'energie marine. Ces filieres sont analysees a l'aide de differents indicateurs de types energetiques. leurs performances sont comparees aux objectifs du livre blanc de la Commission europeenne et de son plan d'action biomasse. a partir de cette edition, les membres du consortium eurobserv'er publieront chaque fin d'annee leurs estimations de la part des energies renouvelables dans la consommation brute d'energie finale pour chaque pays de l'union europeenne. Ces estimations

  19. Background Lamb waves in the Earth's atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, K.; Kobayashi, N.; Fukao, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Lamb waves of the Earth's atmosphere in the millihertz band have been considered as transient phenomena excited only by large events [e.g. the major volcanic eruption of Krakatoa in 1833, the impact of Siberian meteorite in 1908, the testing of large nuclear tests and the huge earthquakes, Garrett1969]. In a case of the solid Earth, observation of background free oscillations in the millihertz band-now known as Earth's background free oscillations or seismic hum, has been firmly established. Above 5 mHz, their dominant excitation sources are oceanic infragravity waves. At 3.7 and 4.4 mHz an elasto-acoustic resonance between the solid Earth and the atmosphere was observed [Nishida et al., 2000]. These seismic observations show that the contribution of atmospheric disturbances to the seismic hum is dominant below 5 mHz. Such contribution implies background excitations of acoustic-gravity waves in this frequency range. For direct detection of the background acoustic-gravity waves, our group conducted observations using an array of barometers [Nishida et al. 2005]. However, the spatial scale of the array of about 10 km was too small to detect acoustic modes below 10 mHz. Since then, no direct observations of these waves have been reported. In 2011, 337 high-resolution microbarometers were installed on a continental scale at USArray Transportable Array. The large and dense array enables us to detect the background atmospheric waves. Here, we show the first evidence of background Lamb waves in the Earth's atmosphere from 0.2 to 10 mHz, based on the array analysis of microbarometer data from the USArray in 2012. The observations suggest that the excitation sources are atmospheric disturbances in the troposphere. Theoretically, their energy in the troposphere tunnels into the thermosphere at a resonant frequency via thermospheric gravity wave, where the observed amplitudes indeed take a local minimum. The energy leak through the frequency window could partly contribute to

  20. Precision Nutrition 4.0: A Big Data and Ethics Foresight Analysis--Convergence of Agrigenomics, Nutrigenomics, Nutriproteomics, and Nutrimetabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdemir, Vural; Kolker, Eugene

    2016-02-01

    Nutrition is central to sustenance of good health, not to mention its role as a cultural object that brings together or draws lines among societies. Undoubtedly, understanding the future paths of nutrition science in the current era of Big Data remains firmly on science, technology, and innovation strategy agendas around the world. Nutrigenomics, the confluence of nutrition science with genomics, brought about a new focus on and legitimacy for "variability science" (i.e., the study of mechanisms of person-to-person and population differences in response to food, and the ways in which food variably impacts the host, for example, nutrient-related disease outcomes). Societal expectations, both public and private, and claims over genomics-guided and individually-tailored precision diets continue to proliferate. While the prospects of nutrition science, and nutrigenomics in particular, are established, there is a need to integrate the efforts in four Big Data domains that are naturally allied--agrigenomics, nutrigenomics, nutriproteomics, and nutrimetabolomics--that address complementary variability questions pertaining to individual differences in response to food-related environmental exposures. The joint use of these four omics knowledge domains, coined as Precision Nutrition 4.0 here, has sadly not been realized to date, but the potentials for such integrated knowledge innovation are enormous. Future personalized nutrition practices would benefit from a seamless planning of life sciences funding, research, and practice agendas from "farm to clinic to supermarket to society," and from "genome to proteome to metabolome." Hence, this innovation foresight analysis explains the already existing potentials waiting to be realized, and suggests ways forward for innovation in both technology and ethics foresight frames on precision nutrition. We propose the creation of a new Precision Nutrition Evidence Barometer for periodic, independent, and ongoing retrieval, screening

  1. Crystallography of hornblende amphibole in LAP04840 R chondrite and implication for its metamorphic history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LAP04840 is an unusual R chondrite that includes abundant hornblende amphibole. LAP04840 shows a texture of equilibrated chondrite composed of 59.3% olivine, 13.5% orthopyroxene, 13.3% hornblende, 6.2% plagio-clase, 6.0% Fe-Ni sulfide, and 1.7% accessory minerals. Hornblende replaces olivine and pyroxene in both chondrules and matrices, suggesting its secondary origin. All major phases in LAP04840 are homogeneous: olivine (Fa37), orthopyroxene (En70Wo1), and plagioclase (An8Or2). Hornblende is also nearly homogeneous, but the total sum by electron microprobe analysis is 96-98 wt%, suggesting the presence of Fe3+ and a hydroxyl group. Synchrotron Fe-XANES analysis gives a Fe3+/ΣFe ratio of ∼0.6 and micro-FT-IR analysis confirms the presence of a hydroxyl group. Thus, the structural formula is (Na0.40K0.04) (Ca1.46Mn0.02Fe0.062+Na0.46) (Al0.08Fe0.432+Fe0.753+Cr0.08Mg3.60) (Si7.02Al0.98)O22(OH)2. Single crystal X-ray diffraction of LAP04840 hornblende gives the following lattice constants: a=9.7957(9) A, b=18.0788(12) A, c=5.2949(5) A, β=104.747(3)deg. The relatively short distances of [M(1)-O=2.069 A], [M(2)-O=2.081 A], and [M(3)-O=2.058 A] suggest the feasible preference of small Fe3+ at these sites. The mineralogy and petrology of LAP04840 are consistent with its classification as an R6 chondrite. However, the presence of hornblende and biotite is quite unique among not only R chondrites but also asteroidal meteorites in general. The presence of these hydrous minerals suggests metamorphism under high pressure and an aqueous environment probably at depth in the parent body. A thermometer using hornblende and plagioclase equilibria gives T=670-690degC. Further, a barometer using Al content in hornblende gives P=∼0.1 GPa. Although these estimates bear some uncertainties, it is likely that the size of the R chondrite parent body was large enough to induce such metamorphism. (author)

  2. Micro-social and Contextual Sources of Democratic Attitudes in Latin America Las fuentes microsociales y contextuales de las actitudes democráticas en América Latina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Salinas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Many Latin American countries democratized between 1975 and 2000, and research has confirmed that contemporary Latin Americans hold democratic political attitudes. Using AmericasBarometer surveys of 18 countries from 2008, we examine the commitment of Latin Americans to three democratic attitudes – preference for democracy over other forms of government, support for general participation rights, and tolerance for participation by system critics. We also explore the impact of personal resources, crime and corruption, evaluation of system performance, social capital, and the sociopolitical context on democratic attitudes. A preference for democracy and support for citizens’ participation rights are strong, but tolerance is lower than the other attitudes. Evidence is found for acculturation – that Latin Americans acquire democratic attitudes by living in democratic regimes and through education.Muchos países latinoamericanos se convirtieron en democracias entre 1975 y 2000 y diversos estudios han comprobado que los latino-americanos tienen actitudes democráticas. Utilizando datos de encuestas del Barómetro de las Américas para 18 países, estudiamos el compromiso de los latino-americanos con tres actitudes democráticas – la preferencia por la democracia sobre otros estilos de gobierno, el apoyo a los derechos generales de participación política, y tolerancia a la participación de personas críticas del sistema político. También investigamos el impacto que ejercen sobre las actitudes democráticas los recursos personales, la percepción y la experiencia de victimización por la criminalidad y la corrupción, la evalua-ción del desempeño del sistema, el capital social y el contexto sociopolítico. Pudimos comprobar que la preferencia por la democracia y el apoyo a los derechos de participación ciudadana son elevados, pero, al mismo tiempo, la tolerancia se encuentra a niveles menores. Asimismo, encontramos evidencia de aculturaci

  3. The Poisoned Chalice? Understanding carbon in olivine-hosted melt inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclennan, John

    2016-04-01

    The solubility of CO2 in basaltic liquids is dependent on pressure. The CO2 content of olivine-hosted melt inclusions therefore provides a potential source of information about the depths of magma storage. Such petrological constraints on magmatic histories provide context for the interpretation of geophysical volcano monitoring data. However, when multiple petrological barometers are available for the magmatic suites, pressure estimates from melt inclusion CO2 contents appear to be systematically low, even when saturation has occurred. In this contribution I will explore the role of the post-entrapment pressure-temperature-time (P-T-t) path of the host crystal in controlling the relationship between observed melt inclusion CO2 contents and entrapment pressures. A global compilation of 2878 melt inclusions from mafic volcanics of mid-ocean ridges, ocean islands and continental rift zones reveals some unexpected features. First, the distribution of estimated saturation pressures is not strongly dependent on the methods of correction of measured inclusion compositions for post-entrapment crystallisation and bubble growth. Second, the different tectono-magmatic settings show similar distributions of estimated saturation pressures. Third, 80% of the recovered saturation pressures are 200 MPa, with an upper limit at ˜500 MPa. A model was developed of the evolution of the pressure and distribution of CO2 inside inclusions as their olivine hosts travel through an imposed P-T-t history. Model results indicate that the dominance of low saturation pressures in the melt inclusions and the systematic difference between these pressures and the independent estimates of magma storage depths are likely to be caused by decrepitation: previous experimental studies have found that the maximum pressure difference that can be maintained between large fluid inclusions and the external melt is ˜200-300 MPa. A fraction of the inclusions record higher apparent pressures of saturation

  4. Apartheid's Alcatraz: The Barberton Prison Complex During the Early 1980s - Part Two

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Allister Peté.

    2015-07-01

    symptomatic of what was happening to the apartheid system as a whole. The South African penal system - in particular at its harshest extremity - acted as a kind of barometer, revealing both the cruelty of the system, as well as the considerable constraints and pressures under which it was operating.

  5. HYPERTENSIVE ENCEPHALOPATHY INDUCED BY MERCURY POISONING; A REPORT OF 3 CASES (IN AN IRANIAN FAMILY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Noorisafa MD,

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveMercury poisoning is one of the important recent causes of mortality andmortality in children worldwide, particularly in industrial environments; mercuryis a poisonous metal, especially harmful to the nervous and immune systemsand the kidneys and can even be fatal. Elemental mercury is present inthermometers, barometer batteries, sphygmomanometers and latex paints.Inorganic mercury salts are found in antiseptics, pesticides, pigments andexplosives and are used as preservatives in medicine. Mercury was once usedto stop fever, and this worked because the immune system was so weakenedthat it could no longer sustain the attack for which the fever was created. Somemedical drugs still contain mercury chloride and mercurous chloride and certainforms of mercury are still used in some laxatives.Mercury toxicity of the nervous system causes anorexia, ataxia, lack of abilityto coordinate voluntary muscle movements, dementia, depression, dizziness,emotional instability, erethism (abnormal irritability in response to stimulation,incoordination, insomnia, irritability, loss of ability to speak, memory impairment,numbness, saresthesias (sensation of prickling, tingling or creeping on the skin,psychosis, tremors, drowsiness, fatigue and weakness.Other organ damages include kidney failure, headaches, hearing impairment,visual impairment, hypertension, dermatitis, digestive tract problems, colitis,diarrhea, stomatitis and excessive salivation, loss of teeth, metallic taste,chromosomal damage, birth defects and ensuing organ failure. Chronic mercurypoisoning can cause Acrodynia (Pink disease. Mercury poisoning is a rarecause of hypertension in children. Herein we report 3 cases, the first a childwith hypertensive encephalopathy due to severe mercury poisoning and histwo siblings with moderate symptoms.Case reportA 10 year old boy was admitted in psychiatric ward of Imam Hossein Hospitalwith behavioral disorder, irritability, mood change and convulsion

  6. The share of renewable energy in the EU. Country Profiles. Overview of Renewable Energy Sources in the Enlarged European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The promotion of renewable energy has an important role to play in addressing the growing dependence on energy imports in Europe and in tackling climate change. Since 1997, the Union has been working towards the ambitious target of a 12% share of renewable energy in gross inland consumption by 2010. In 1997, the share of renewable energy was 5.4%; by 2001 it had reached 6%. This Staff Working Document gives an overview of the different situations of renewable energy sources in the European Union. It includes part of the formal report that the Commission is required to make under Article 3 of Directive 2001/77/EC on electricity from renewable energy sources, and it completes the overall picture with information at a country level on the heat produced from renewable energies and biofuels in the transport sector. This Staff Working Document complements the Communication on 'The share of Renewable Energy sources in the EU'. Data is based on different sources. Firstly, on the reports from Member States on national progress in achieving the targets on electricity from renewable energy sources. Secondly, on a study launched by the Commission on the evolution of renewable energy sources. And thirdly, on a variety of sources like the European Barometer of renewable energies, data from the industry, etc. With the enlargement of the European Union, the new Member States are required to adopt the RES-E Directive (renewable energy sources for electricity) by 1 May 2004. In the accession treaty, national indicative targets are set and the overall renewable electricity target for the enlarged Union will therefore be 21% of gross electricity consumption by 2010. The Commission has the legal obligation to report on the degree of achievement of new Member States' targets by 2006. Although it is too early to assess RES-policy in the new Member States due to very recently adopted regulations, this document also includes national information on the States now joining the European Union

  7. 福建省有线数字电视安全播出监测系统设计实现%Design and Implementation of the Security Monitoring System of Cable Digital TV in Fujian Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李仁朗

    2015-01-01

    安全播出是广播电视永恒的主题,监测系统是确保广播电视安全播出的重要环节,是广播电视传输系统的“晴雨表”“温度计”,前者一旦出现任何问题,后者立刻就可以最直观、最科学、最及时的信息进行体现。通过监测系统的建设,提高了广播电视安全播出的管理水平和应急处理能力。文章以福建省有线数字电视安全播出监测系统为例,介绍了省级安全播出监测系统建设的需求、设计及实现,为广播电视安全播出监测系统建设提供了一种新的模式和思路,具有良好的示范效应。%Safety broadcast radio and television eternal theme, the monitoring system is an important link to ensure the safety of radio and television broadcast, is the "barometer" of radio and television transmission system "thermometer", the former if there is any problem, the latter can immediately to the most intuitive, most scientiifc, the most timely information to relfect. Through the construction of the monitoring system, improve the management level and emergency handling ability of the radio and TV safety broadcast. Taking Fujian digital cable television security broadcast monitoring system as an example, introduces the provincial security broadcast monitoring system for the construction of the demand, design and implementation, for the security of broadcast TV broadcast monitoring system construction provides a new mode and a new idea, has a good demonstration effect.

  8. Structures, kinematic analysis, rheological parameters and temperature-pressure estimate of the Mesozoic Xingcheng-Taili ductile shear zone in the North China Craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chenyue; Liu, Yongjiang; Neubauer, Franz; Bernroider, Manfred; Jin, Wei; Li, Weimin; Zeng, Zuoxun; Wen, Quanbo; Zhao, Yingli

    2015-09-01

    The NE to ENE trending Mesozoic Xingcheng-Taili ductile shear zone of the northeastern North China Craton was shaped by three phases of deformation. Deformation phase D1 is characterized by a steep, generally E-W striking gneissosity. It was then overprinted by deformation phase D2 with NE-sinistral shear with K-feldspar porphyroclasts forming a subhorizontal low-angle stretching lineation on a steep foliation. During deformation phase D3, lateral motion accommodated by ENE sinistral strike-slip shear zones dominated. Associated fabrics developed at upper greenschist metamorphic facies conditions and show the deformation characteristics of middle- to shallow crustal levels. In some parts, the older structures have been in turn overprinted by late-stage sinistral D3 shearing. Finite strain and kinematic vorticity in all deformed granitic rocks indicate a prolate ellipsoid (L-S tectonites) near plane strain. Simple shear-dominated general shear during D3 deformation is probably of general significance. The quartz c-axis textures indicate prism-gliding with a dominant rhomb slip and basal slip system formed mainly at low-middle temperatures. Mineral deformation behavior, quartz c-axis textures, quartz grain size and the Kruhl thermometer demonstrate that the ductile shear zone developed under greenschist facies metamorphic conditions at deformation temperatures ranging from 400 to 500 °C. Dislocation creep is the main deformation mechanism at a shallow crustal level. Fractal analysis showed that the boundaries of recrystallized quartz grains had statistically self-similarities. Differential stresses deduced from dynamically recrystallized quartz grain size are at around 20-39 MPa, and strain rates in the order of 10-12 to 10-14 s-1. This indicates deformation of granitic rocks in the Xingcheng-Taili ductile shear zone at low strain rates, which is consistent with most other ductile shear zones. Hornblende-plagioclase thermometer and white mica barometer indicate

  9. Issue 3: Driving factors for nuclear industry strategies and choices. Accelerating the nuclear renaissance: Crucial roles for government and industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ten years ago, the phrase 'nuclear renaissance' conveyed only a cautious hope within a narrow community of dedicated professionals. Today, the rebirth of nuclear energy has become an unmistakable reality that is gathering speed and momentum on the full world stage. This revitalisation is a composite of several developments: - Continuing evolutionary advance in reactor technology; - Multinational research efforts to produce quantum leaps in technology; - Unprecedented levels of efficiency and capacity utilisation in key countries; - A robust and accumulating record of operational safety, backed by the emergence of a global nuclear safety culture; - Political progress in implementing the scientifically sound concept of waste disposal using deep geological repositories; - And the truest barometer - expansive growth planning for nuclear power in major nations in both the developed and developing worlds. In countries representing the preponderance of world economic activity and world population - from North America across much of Europe to Russia and on to the leading countries of South and East Asia - the value of nuclear power has been reviewed and reaffirmed. Major countries without nuclear power - such as Poland, Turkey, and Vietnam - stand on the threshold of introducing nuclear energy for the first time; and even Italy, the one nation ever to suspend nuclear generation, now plans to reconsider. To be sure, anti-nuclear convictions can still be found: - In the mythologies that motivate many environmental groups; - In the assumptions of environmental journalists and bureaucrats; - In the rhetoric of some small countries like Denmark and Austria that are not inhibited by the hypocrisy of importing nuclear electricity, and - In the case of Germany, in the declaratory policy of a major country where a governing coalition is temporarily beholden to a small minority party. But all of these reactionary forces, taken together, are receding under the onslaught of facts that

  10. Heat capacity and phase equilibria of almandine, Fe3Al2Si3O12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anovitz, Lawrence M.; Essene, E.J.; Metz, G.W.; Bohlen, S.R.; Westrum, E.F., Jr.; Hemingway, B.S.

    1993-01-01

    The heat capacity of a synthetic almandine, Fe3Al2Si3O12, was measured from 6 to 350 K using equilibrium, intermittent-heating quasi-adiabatic calorimetry and from 420 to 1000 K using differential scanning calorimetry. These measurements yield Cp298 = 342.80 ?? 1.4 J/mol ?? K and S298o = 342.60 J/mol ?? K. Mo??ssbauer characterizations show the almandine to contain less than 2 ?? 1% of the total iron as Fe3+. X-ray diffraction studies of this synthetic almandine yield a = 11.521 ?? 0.001 A?? and V298o = 115.11 +- 0.01 cm3/mol, somewhat smaller than previously reported. The low-temperature Cp data indicate a lambda transition at 8.7 K related to an antiferromagnetic-paramagnetic transition with TN = 7.5 K. Modeling of the lattice contribution to the total entropy suggests the presence of entropy in excess of that attributable to the effects of lattice vibrations and the magnetic transition. This probably arises from a low-temperature electronic transition (Schottky contribution). Combination of the Cp data with existing thermodynamic and phase equilibrium data on almandine yields ??Gf,298o = -4938.3 kJ/mol and ??Hf,298o= -5261.3 kJ/mol for almandine when calculated from the elements. The equilibrium almandine = hercynite + fayalite + quartz limits the upper T P for almandine and is metastably located at ca. 570??C at P = 1 bar, with a dP dT of +17 bars/??C. This agrees well with reversed experiments on almandine stability when they are corrected for magnetite and hercynite solid-solutions. In {norm of matrix}O2-T space, almandine oxidizes near QFM by the reactions almandine + O2 = magnetite + sillimanite + quartz and almandine + 02 = hercynite + magnetite + quartz. With suitable correction for reduced activities of solid phases, these equilibria provide useful oxygen barometers for medium- to high-grade metamorphic rocks. ?? 1993.

  11. 提升惠州市新生代农民工幸福指数措施研究%Research on Measure of Improving Happiness Index of New Generation Migrant Worker in Huizhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    游建雄; 陈宏寿

    2012-01-01

    新生代农民工是当今惠州市的一个重要群体。他们的幸福感如何,是衡量社会是否和谐的“晴雨表”.也是检验“幸福惠州”建设成果的“试金石”。本文基于对惠州市新生代农民工幸福指数特征的调查研究,加深了对新生代农民工的主观幸福感现状的认识。通过分析影响其幸福感的主要因素,并针对新生代农民工群体存在的主要问题,提出了四项措施以提升惠州市新生代农民工的幸福感:一是加快产业升级,提升劳动力价值;二是消除体制壁垒,完善保障体系;三是建立教育培训机制,提高新生代农民工的就业竞争力;四是加大维权力度,引导新生代农民工合法维权。%New generations of migrant worker have already become a significant part of city community. How do they feel towards happiness is not only a barometer to measure whether the society is harmonious or not, but also a touchstone to verify all the achievements and constructions in building "Happiness in Huizhou". Based on the investigations and researches about the characteristics of the happiness index of those migrant workers, we deepened our understanding about the current situation of their senses of happiness. By analyzing the main reasons influencing their senses of happiness, I put forward four main measures to promote their senses of happiness: Firstly, to Speed up the optimization and upgrading of the industrial structure, and to raise the value of labor force. Secondly, to eliminate system and mechanism harriers and to improve social security systems. Thirdly, to establish education and training programs and systems on order to raise their competitiveness in finding jobs. Fourthly, to intensify the efforts on safeguarding their legal fights and to guide them to legally protect their rights and interests.

  12. Return to the Grindhouse: Tarantino and the modernization of 1970s Exploitation Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Platz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Exploitation films from the 1970s and early 80s such as Foxy Brown (Jack Hill, 1974 and Switchblade Sisters (Jack Hill, 1975 were the first films to allow women to actively control the narrative and course of events in a film. Men become secondary characters who had no or little control over the course of events in these films. Because the films were made during the rapidly changing social climate of the 1970s, the films also became a barometer in their treatment of female characters of social mores. Director Quentin Tarantino’s films Death Proof (2007, Kill Bill I and II (2003 and 2004, Jackie Brown (1997, and Inglourious Basterds (2009 attempt to modernize the active women from exploitation films of the 1970s, reworking the female characters’ mobilization against typical gender roles, and attributing her with the abilities to compete, and even challenge men in a patriarchic society.However, Tarantino’s films mostly fail to progress beyond the trappings of the classic exploitation films of the 1970s, still relying heavily on the excessive display of female bodies, and subjugating women to the male camera and spectator gaze. In Tarantino’s attempt to remove female characters from the gender restraints of most Hollywood films, he creates the female action star, and inadvertently reverses the work of classic exploitation films by limiting the traits strong women are able to possess. By contrast, the female leads of 1970s exploitation films, although still heavily sexualized, are able to be physically powerful while retaining their feminine identifications as a wives, mothers, lovers, and beauty queens. Tarantino’s portrayal of strong women is more limited, however when strong sexuality and typical feminine traits are not connected to the powerful female characters. Instead female sexuality and feminine appearances are shown as weaknesses that contribute to the female characters’ deaths or lack of individuality. Tarantino allows one

  13. The state of renewable energies in Europe. 10. EurObserv'ER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This EurObserv'ER publication, which is supported by the Intelligent Energy Europe (IEE) programme, provides a concise overview of the latest renewable energy market statistics even before official data are available. These have proven to be broadly consistent with the Eurostat figures. It also gives valuable insights into each of the main renewable energy markets, showing how well each sector is progressing, and reviewing relevant legislation, policy frameworks, and market structures. Currently, the EurObserv'ER methodology is being adapted to reflect the requirements of the 2009 Renewable Energy Directive. This will permit future EurObserv'ER barometers to be used to track the trajectory of each Member State towards its binding 2020 target, and the corresponding progress of each technology. The IEE programme supports public and private organisations across the European Union which are working together to accelerate the growth of renewable energy markets, and to remove market barriers. 2010 was a milestone in the success story of modern renewable energies. The energy revolution began, new binding targets came into force, and European Union Member States submitted their first National Renewable Energy Action Plans (NREAPs). Each NREAP defines a trajectory towards its binding national target and presents its planned policy measures. As we go into 2011, the European Commission is assessing these NREAPs, and in the coming years will work with the Member States to deliver their targets. Despite continuing progress, the renewable energy share of European Union gross inland energy consumption is only 9.4%; therefore the 12% targeted by the White Paper will not be achieved. The main reason for this failure is that the efforts to reduce consumption have not matched the efforts to develop renewable energies. Thus, while major investments have indeed been made, they amount to a smaller-than-anticipated share of energy consumption, given the later continued growth. We must

  14. NucNet's growing impact on the media - Now the official figures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Net's impact on the news media has had to be almost completely anecdotal. Now, thanks to a comparatively new database search facility, the NucNet Central Office team is able to track instances in which NucNet has been quoted as the source for a news story or magazine article. The database is run by Reuters, but contains information from a wide range of other news sources, such as national news agencies and major national newspapers. A search of the database, carried out on December 10th 1997, produced 42 cases of NucNet being quoted by name over the previous three years. There were five in 1995, 13 in 1996, and 24 in 1997. No fewer than 15 of the 24 cases in 1997 occurred in the preceding six months. It takes no great mathematician to see that each annual figure is roughly double that of the preceding 12-month period. We can at least see every instance of NucNet being quoted by Reuters, but this of course does not cover the other major international news agencies, such as the Associated Press, UPI and AFP. This underlines the fact that NucNet Central Office and the NucNet Board rely heavily on individual network members spontaneously reporting examples of media use. The results obtained recently, showing regular and fairly frequent use by Reuters and the print media, but the figures do not give the full picture. If the database, known as Reuters Business Briefing, acts as some sort of barometer measuring NucNet's impact on the news media, we cannot say exactly what the weather is like - but at least we can say that the barometer reading is on the increase. And for once we can give definite figures. (author)

  15. Right Here Right Now: Developing an understanding of responses to smoking policy developments using online data collection in near to real time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian Fergie

    2015-10-01

    78 participants. In relation to e-cigarettes most participants described seeing e-cigarettes as a matter of course, a mundane and quickly adopted feature of social life, particularly outdoors and especially in the street. The responses offered a range of drivers for e-cigarette use, and the varied references to health reflect the complex and often competing public narratives of health risk and benefit surrounding e-cigarettes. By contrast responses to legislation prohibiting smoking in cars carrying children and the legacy of the ‘smoking ban’ in enclosed public spaces showed almost universal support. Almost all participants responded by reproducing well-rehearsed and coherent statements around the harms of second-hand smoke. Conclusions: The Right Here Right Now system was able to provide rapid insights into people’s perceptions of ongoing debates around tobacco and nicotine use, and associated policy developments/legislative proposals. The system can provide a barometer for public support for proposed legislation, and its acceptability as a means of changing health behaviours. It can also offer insights for policy development which require further nuanced understanding.

  16. Modern soil system constraints on reconstructing deep-time atmospheric CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montañez, Isabel P.

    2013-01-01

    Paleosol carbonate-based estimates of paleo-atmospheric CO2 play a prominent role in constraining radiative-forcing and climate sensitivity in the deep-time. Large uncertainty in paleo-CO2 estimates made using the paleosol-carbonate CO2-barometer, however, arises primarily from their sensitivity to soil-respired CO2 (S(z)). This parameter is poorly constrained due to a paucity of soil CO2 measurements during carbonate formation in modern soils and a lack of widely applicable proxies of paleo-soil CO2. Here the δ13C values of carbonate and soil organic matter (SOM) pairs from 130 Holocene soils are applied to a two-component CO2-mixing equation to define soil order-specific ranges of soil CO2 applicable for constraining S(z) in their corresponding paleosol analogs. Equilibrium carbonate-SOM pairs, characterized by Δ13Ccarb-SOM values of 12.2-15.8‰, define a mean effective fractionation of 14.1‰ and overall inferred total soil CO2 contents during calcite formation of Calcisols and Argillisols), a best estimate of S(z) during calcite formation is 1500-2000 ppmv (range of 500-2500 ppmv). Overall higher values (2000-5000 ppmv) are indicated by the subset of these soils characterized by higher moisture content and productivity. Near atmospheric levels (400 ± 200 ppmv) of estimated S(z) are indicated by immature soils, recording their low soil productivity. Vertisols define the largest range in total soil CO2 (25,000 ppmv) reflecting their seasonally driven dynamic hydrochemistry. A S(z) range of 1000-10,000 ppmv is suggested for paleo-Vertisols for which calcite precipitation can be constrained to have occurred in an open system with two-component CO2 mixing, with a best estimate of 2000 ppmv ± 1000 ppmv appropriate for paleo-Vertisols for which evidence of protracted water saturation is lacking. Mollisol pairs define a best estimate of S(z) of 2500 ppmv (range of 600-4000 ppmv) for late Cretaceous and Cenozoic analogs. Non-equilibrium pairs with Δ13C values >16

  17. Stable isotope values in coastal sediment estimate subsidence near Girdwood during the 1964 great Alaska earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, A. M.; Witter, R. C.; Rogers, M.; Saenger, C. P.

    2013-12-01

    Subsidence during the Mw 9.2, 1964 great Alaska earthquake lowered Turnagain Arm near Girdwood, Alaska by ~1.5m and caused rapid relative sea-level (RSL) rise that shifted estuary mud flats inland over peat-forming wetlands. Sharp mud-over-peat contacts record these environment shifts at sites along Turnagain Arm including Bird Point, 11km west of Girdwood. Transfer functions based on changes in intertidal microfossil populations across these contacts accurately estimate earthquake subsidence at Girdwood, but poor preservation of microfossils hampers this method at other sites in Alaska. We test a new method that employs compositions of stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes in intertidal sediments as proxies for elevation. Because marine sediment sources are expected to have higher δ13C and δ15N than terrestrial sources, we hypothesize that these values should decrease with elevation in modern intertidal sediment, and should also be more positive in estuarine mud above sharp contacts that record RSL rise than in peaty sediment below. We relate δ13C and δ15N values above and below the 1964 mud/peat contact to values in modern sediment of known elevation, and use these values qualitatively to indicate sediment source, and quantitatively to estimate the amount of RSL rise across the contact. To establish a site-specific sea level datum, we deployed a pressure transducer and compensatory barometer to record a 2-month tide series at Bird Point. We regressed the high tides from this series against corresponding NOAA verified high tides at Anchorage (~50km west of Bird Point) to calculate a high water datum within ×0.14m standard error (SE). To test whether or not modern sediment isotope values decrease with elevation, we surveyed a 60-m-long modern transect, sampling surface sediment at ~0.10m vertical intervals. Results from this transect show a decrease of 4.64‰ in δ13C and 3.97‰ in δ15N between tide flat and upland sediment. To evaluate if δ13C and δ15N

  18. A glassy lava flow from Toconce volcano and its relation with the Altiplano-Puna Magma Body in Central Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy, B.; Rodriguez, I.; Aguilera, F.

    2012-12-01

    indicate supercooled magma. The fast ascent of the magmas could be related with injection of the primitive magmas in the low-pressure magmatic chambers. References Chmielowsky, J., Zandt, G., and Haberland, C., 1999. The Central Andean Altiplano-Puna Magma Body. Geophys. Res. Lett., 26(6), 783-786. de Silva, S.L., 1989. The Altiplano Puna volcanic complex of the central Andes. Geology, v. 17, 1102-1106. de Silva, S., Zandt, G., Trumbull, R., Viramonte, J.G., Salas, G, and Jiménez, N., 2006. Large ignimbrite eruptions and volcano-tectonic depressions in the Central Andes: a thermomechanical perspective. Geol. Soc. Lon. Spec. Pub., v 269, p 47-63 Godoy, B., Wörner, G., Kojima, S., 2011. The San Pedro - Linzor volcanic chain at 22° to 22°30' S: Low pressure evolution of Central Andean magmas on thick crust. In 22nd International Coloquium on Latin American Earth Sciences, March 30th - April 1st, Heidelberg, Germany. Putirka, K.D., 2008. Thermometers and barometers for volcanic systems. Rev. Min. Geochem., 69, 61-120.

  19. Mantle xenocrysts of Chompolo field of the alkaline volcanics, Aldan shield, South Yakutia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolenko, Evgeny; Tychkov, Nikolay; Afanasiev, Valentin

    2015-04-01

    -element compositions. Anomalously low HFSE (Nb, Ta, Ti), low HREE, and high La/Nb ratios in multi-element spectra indicate high oxygen fugacity and possible crustal contamination (or influence of fluids). Cpx thermobarometry (Nimis et al., 2001) indicate a lithospheric thickness beneath Chompolo field > 130 km (4.1 GPa) supported by P38 monomineral garnet barometer (Grütter et al., 2006). We infer that the Chompolo alkali volcanic rocks are not kimberlites but rather low-Ti alkaline rocks similar to those in the Aldan province. Unlike the Aldan lamproite (Tobuk-Khatystyr field, etc.), the Chompolo rocks contain both crustal and mantle minerals. The compositions of pyrope and Cr spinel, as well as thermobarmetry estimates of lithospheric thickness at the time of magmatic activity, indicate that the Chompolo rocks are diamond-barren. RFBR 15-05-04885. Smelov A.P., Timofeev V.F. Gondwana Research. 2007, 12:279-288 Zaitsev A.I., Smelov A.P. DPMGI SB RAS. Y akutsk. 2010, p. 108 Kostrovitsky S.I., Garanin V.K. Zapiski RMO. 1992, 1: 67-72 Shilin, G., S. Zeitlin, Sov.Geol. 1959, 10:132-136. Panina, L. and N. Vladykin, Russian Geology and Geophysics. 1994, 35(12): 100-113. Davies G. et al. Journal of Petrology, 2006, 47(6): 1119-1146.

  20. INVESTMENT FUNDS IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    COPIL CRINA ANGELA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available I chose this topic because my goal was to capture in detail all aspects of the evolution of investment funds under the influence of factors leading to globalization of the banking financial market. Main motivation was that I proposed to present in an original manner the concept of investment in mutual funds by the thoroughness of the following points: the different types of investment funds from Romania, the advantages, the risks and the specific costs of the investment in mutual funds and the effects of the financial crisis on the industry of the investment funds on the national level. The financial crisis and the risk of infecting the global economy affected the taste of risk of the investors and their request for the investment fund, determining the orientation of the investors to the funds with a lower risk – the diversified funds, the funds of bonds and the monetary funds. I considered important the theoretical approach of the concept of investments in investment funds because they are a barometer of the macro economical stability, in case the economical increase is positive on the macro economical level the investments in investments funds are increasing too. In Romania the market of the mutual funds is at an incipient level, but with potential and perspectives of development. Due to the bankruptcy of FNI in the beginning of the years 2000 and due to the absence of a clear legislation regarding the calculation of the unitary value of the net asset and the control of the activity developed by the investment funds, the development of the industry of the investment funds had to fight against the crisis of credibility generated by these events. The convergence of the Romanian economy to the European standards will attract also a modification of the structure of the financial investments of the individuals, by an increase of the investments in funds. In the world the investment funds are preferred by the investors for their advantages

  1. Metamorphic and tectonic evolution of Ceuta peninsula (Internal Rif): new interpretation in the framework of arc and back arc evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homonnay, Emmanuelle; Lardeaux, Jean-Marc; Corsini, Michel; Cenki-Tok, Bénédicte; Bosch, Delphine; Munch, Philippe; Romagny, Adrien; Ouazzani-Touhami, Mohamed

    2016-04-01

    thrusting toward the NE. Furthermore, biotite-sillimanite bearing S2 foliation affecting the whole of crustal rocks is contemporaneous with the movement on this main ductile thrusting. We combined garnet-biotite and GASP thermo-barometers with thermodynamic modelling (Theriak-Domino) in order to constrain pressure and temperature conditions of D2 and D3 tectono-metamorphic events. P-T conditions of D2 deformation are in the range 7-10kbar and 770-820°C and are compatible with syn-tectonic partial melting. D3 deformation event occurred at 1-7kbar and 400-550°C. These metamorphic conditions reflect abnormally high geothermal gradients during both shortening and thinning and are clearly compatible with the thermal evolution recognized in continental arcs. Preliminary U-Th-Pb (monazite, zircon and xenotime) and previous Ar39/Ar40 (micas) analyses, furnished similar ages around 21 Ma for D2 and D3 events, suggesting a very fast transition from arc to back-arc dynamics.

  2. 青藏高原东南缘点苍山-哀牢山杂岩带中片麻岩的变质演化及深熔作用特征%Metamorphic evolution and anatexis of gneissic rocks in the Diancangshan-Ailaoshan metamorphic complex belt, southeastern Tibet Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王舫; 刘福来; 刘平华

    2011-01-01

    The gneissic rocks, which consist mainly of sillimanite-gamet-biotite gneiss, garnet biotite gneiss and staurolite- and kyanite-bearing sillimanite garnet gneiss, are widely distributed in the Diancangshan-Ailaoshan metamorphic complex belt. Combined the petrography, genetic mineralogy with metamorphic reaction, the P-T conditions for each metamorphic stage has been obtained using geo-thermometer and -barometers. The mineral assemblage for the peak metamorphic stage records P-T condition of 700 - 770℃ and 0. 5 ~0. 8GPa. In contrast, the mineral assemblage for the late retrograde stage records P-T condition of 600 ~ 650℃ and 0. 35 ~ 0. 45GPa, indicating the gneissic rocks in the Diancangshan-Ailaoshan complex belt experienced a granulite-facies metamorphism overprinted with a late retrogression. These results have an important significance for in-depth studying the metamorphic evolution, anatexis and dynamic process of the Dianeangshan-Ailaoshan complex belt%片麻岩是点苍山-哀牢山变质杂岩带最常见的岩石类型,主要由夕线石榴黑云二长片麻岩、石榴黑云斜长片麻岩以及含十字石蓝晶夕线石榴片麻岩所组成,其原岩的化学成分与华北克拉通典型孔兹岩系十分相似.岩相学、成因矿物学和变质反应性质研究以及温压条件估算结果表明,研究区片麻岩类岩石变质峰期的温压条件为T=700~770℃,P=0.5~0.8GPa,已达到或接近麻粒岩相变质,晚期退变质阶段的温压条件为T=600~650℃,P=0.35~0.45GPa.片麻岩变质演化的P-T轨迹具有顺时针型式.在麻粒岩相变质阶段,片麻岩类岩石普遍发生深熔作用,主要表现为含水矿物黑云母的脱水熔融和长英质矿物的部分熔融.该项研究对于进一步揭示青藏高原东南缘点苍山-哀牢山造山带的变质演化深熔作用机理及动力学过程具有重要的科学意义.

  3. 浙西南八都群泥质麻粒岩的变质演化与pT轨迹%The metamorphic evolution and pT path of pelitic granulite from the Badu Group in southwestern Zhejiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵磊; 周喜文

    2012-01-01

    浙西南古元古界八都群是目前华夏地块最古老的变质基底,以往研究认为其变质程度仅达角闪岩相.近来在对遂昌地区八都群富铝片麻岩的研究过程中,发现了具有“石榴石+夕线石+正/反条纹长石+黑云母”特征组合的泥质麻粒岩,表明该地体曾经历麻粒岩相变质改造.通过岩相学与矿物化学分析,确定该岩石经历了3个阶段的演化过程,即:早期进变质阶段(M1),形成“石榴石+黑云母+白云母+夕线石+斜长石+石英”的矿物组合;变质峰期阶段(M2-3),形成“石榴石+夕线石+三元长石+黑云母+石英”的矿物组合;峰期后降压冷却阶段(M4),形成“黑云母+白云母+新生斜长石+石英”的矿物组合.岩石中石榴石普遍发育与降温过程有关的扩散成分环带和与降压过程有关的斜长石后生合晶.通过石榴石-黑云母温度计和GASP压力计估算变质峰期的温压条件为800~850℃、0.6~0.7 GPa,峰期后退变质阶段的温压条件为560~590℃、0.25~0.33 GPa,具有顺时针样式的PT演化轨迹,反映一种陆壳碰撞增厚、后又拉伸减薄的动力学过程.%The Paleoproterozoic Badu Group in southwestern Zhejiang Province is the oldest metamorphic basement in the Cathaysia block, and its metamorphic grade was previously considered to be only of amphibolite facies. Recently, pelitic granulite with the typical mineral assemblage of garnet + sillimanite + perthite + antiperthite + biotite was discovered in the Al-rich gneiss of Suichang area. According to petrographic observation, micro-mineral composition and calculating results from garnet-biotite thermometer and GASP barometer, three stages of metamorphism were recognized in the pelitic granulite. The early prograde metamorphic stage (M1) was detected on the basis of inclusions of biotite, muscovite and sillimanite in garnet. The peak metamorphic stage (M2.3) is characterized by the presence of garnet, biotite

  4. Eighth meeting of the radiation protection-skilled persons - Conference proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This eighth meeting of the radiation protection skilled persons celebrated the 15. anniversary of this type of meetings. It is the occasion for radiation protection specialists to share information and their experience on various topics, in particular the recent evolutions of the regulation. This document gathers the available presentations given during this conference: 1 - Opening talk (T. Juhel); 2 - Regulatory evolutions in the domain of protection of workers exposed to ionising radiations (T. Lahaye); 3 - Evolution of the regulatory documents on the basis of the French public health law (C. Rousse); 4 - Relations between IRSN and Companies - regulatory obligations from the perspective of the radiation protection-skilled person (Y. Billarand); 5 - IRSN's follow up of workers' exposure (P. Scanff); 6 - Contribution of a 18F preparation and injection system to the radiation protection of workers (D. Celier); 7 - Workplace analysis in interventional radiology (G. Bulla, C. Guillalmon); 8 - Interest of Workplace analyses in risk information (G. Mechin); 9 - Running of a joint operators/contractors club of radiation protection skilled persons at the scale of a CEA centre (P. Blaise); 10 - Radiological exposure of the maintenance personnel of aerial monitoring radars (X. Michel); 11 - The IRSN barometer (M.H. El Jammal); 12 - An original network of professional radiation protection: the GoogleGroup for dental radiation protection-skilled persons (Y. Raffoux); 13 - Cirkus radiation protection association - a portal for a practical and operational radiation protection (B. Kernisant); 14 - Situation of networks - what do we do in a network? What is the role of the national coordination? (S. Balduyck, C. Lefaure); 15 - Update on the situation at Fukushima (M. Ammerich); 15 - Radio-induced cataracts: why lowering the eye lens legal limit? (S. Wassilieff); 16 - O'CLOC study - Radio-induced cataracts among interventional Cardiologists (S. Jacob); 17 - Photon dosimetry of the

  5. Mineralogía y termo-barometría de los Complejos máficos Sol de Mayo y Suya Taco, Norte de las Sierras de Comechingones, Córdoba Mineralogy and thermo-barometry of the Sol de Mayo and Suya Taco mafic complexes from northern Sierra de Comechingones, Córdoba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina M. Tibaldi

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo presenta un estudio detallado de la petrografía, mineralogía química y termo-barometría de dos complejos máficos que afloran al norte de la sierra de Comechingones. Se aplicaron un conjunto de termómetros y barómetros empíricos con el propósito de determinar los rangos de P y T absolutas de cristalización de estas rocas. Las temperaturas de equilibrio en pares de piroxenos (cpx-opx se estimaron usando tres termómetros independientes. Dos calibraciones termométricas (Wells 1977, Kretz 1982 dan resultados consistentes y razonables indicando que los piroxenos registran condiciones de cristalización magmática (920-1150ºC, mientras que la tercera calibración (Lindsley 1983 estima temperaturas muy inferiores. Esta discrepancia puede estar relacionada con el hecho de que la última calibración no sería aplicable a rocas que cristalizaron a partir de magmas ricos en hierro. Por su parte, la termometría Amph-Pl sugiere temperaturas de equilibrio comprendidas entre 750-850ºC, para composiciones típicas de núcleos, mientras que para composiciones representativas de los bordes de grano las temperaturas estimadas son significativamente inferiores (This work presents a detailed study including petrography, mineral chemistry and thermo-barometry of igneous rock from two mafic complexes that outcrop in the north portion of the sierra de Comechingones. The range of absolute P and T under which these rocks crystallized is retrieved using a set of empiric barometers and thermometers. The estimations of equilibrium temperature determined in pairs of pyroxenes (cpx-opx were performed through three independent thermometers. Two of the thermometric formulations (Wells 1977, Kretz 1982 yield consistent and reasonable results indicating that these phases record magmatic crystallizations conditions (920-1150ºC, whereas the third calibration by Lindsley (1983 gives lower temperatures. This discrepancy is thought to reflect the fact that

  6. Wind stress: Which formulation for coastal applications?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jenny; Mercier, Francois; Amoudry, Laurent; Souza, Alejandro

    2013-04-01

    surface stress due to the 10 m wind components. In this coastal application a 180 m Liverpool Bay model is nested such that the tide-surge and baroclinic influence from the European Continental Shelf and more locally within the Irish Sea, forces the boundaries. The full CORE bulk formulae includes: air temperature, relative humidity, cloud cover, atmospheric pressure and surface wind stress, to represent the transfer of heat and momentum fluxes across the atmosphere-ocean boundary in addition to the inverse barometer effect. This set up along with riverine inputs allows a realistic barotropic-baroclinic simulation of the circulation within the study area. The full CORE bulk formula is initially used to represent the complete atmospheric forcing; a second simulation then replaces the wind stress parameterisation within the CORE bulk formulae with that of the Charnock parameterisation. More accurate coastal circulation is generated using the Charnock method for surface wind stress. Problems with the CORE bulk formulae are identified with offshore wind conditions. Our conclusion is that the Charnock parameterisation produces better surge and coastal wind driven currents.

  7. The evolution and storage of primitive melts in the Eastern Volcanic Zone of Iceland: the 10 ka Grímsvötn tephra series (i.e. the Saksunarvatn ash)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neave, David A.; Maclennan, John; Thordarson, Thorvaldur; Hartley, Margaret E.

    2015-08-01

    -undersaturated melts. Thermobarometric calculations indicate that final crystal-melt equilibration within the evolved assemblage occurred at ~1140 °C and 0.0-1.5 kbar. Considering the large volume of the erupted tephra and textural evidence for rapid crystallisation of the evolved assemblage, 0.0-1.5 kbar is considered unlikely to represent a pressure of long-term magma accumulation and storage. Multiple thermometers indicate that the primitive assemblage crystallised at high temperatures of 1240-1300 °C. Different barometers, however, return markedly different crystallisation depth estimates. Raw clinopyroxene-melt pressures of 5.5-7.5 kbar conflict with apparent melt inclusion entrapment pressures of 1.4 kbar. After applying a correction derived from published experimental data, clinopyroxene-melt equilibria return mid-crustal pressures of 4 ± 1.5 kbar, which are consistent with pressures estimated from the major element content of primitive melt inclusions. Long-term storage of primitive magmas in the mid-crust implies that low CO2 concentrations measured in primitive plagioclase-hosted inclusions (262-800 ppm) result from post-entrapment CO2 loss during transport through the shallow crust. In order to reconstruct basaltic plumbing system geometries from petrological data with greater confidence, mineral-melt equilibrium models require refinement at pressures of magma storage in Iceland. Further basalt phase equilibria experiments are thus needed within the crucial 1-7 kbar range.

  8. Basic functions of telecommunication channel elements for successful information transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milorad S. Markagić

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The challenge in the field of multimedia telecommunications is an attempt to integrate texts, sound, images and videos coherently and consistently and to ensure simplicity and interactivity of operation. In order to make the proposed multimedia applications acceptable to end-users, the quality of transmission through the network and message presentation should have special attention. The main aims of this paper are the introduction to the communication channel with its basic elements, a detailed description of the information source and the presentation of possible approaches to the analysis of the telecommunication channel. Introduction In the age of mass application of various communication means, end-users of telecommunication channel elements rarely pay attention to the processes taking place in everyday communication and the elements presented in the channel. In order to discuss all the factors that influence the establishment and maintenance of the links, this paper will explain the basic elements of telecommunication channels. Source Every object that generates messages to be transferred to a recipient is called the source of the message. Directors, writers, speakers, books, newspapers, various instruments (thermometer, barometer, ammeter, etc., computers, a man himself - these are all sources of various messages. In relation to facilities that generate messages, there are different sources of messages. All the messages that they generate belong to discrete or continuous modes of messages. Discrete messages can be presented with element sets, where elements can be considered through different values of observed messages. Each text message of arbitrary length, for example, is made of a finite number of elements - symbols (letters, numbers, punctuation marks, from the set of symbols called the alphabet message source. Continuous messages can be presented with an infinite number of sets of elements where elements can have different values of

  9. Final Technical Report: Microbial Production of Isoprene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fall, Ray

    2003-09-12

    natural state (e.g. as biofilms on surfaces). (3) We successfully used on-line mass spectrometry methods to measure release of volatiles, including isoprene, from bioreactors during growth of B. subtilis. This methodology, still in its infancy, may provide a new means to assess physiological processes during industrial growth of Bacillus species, and use isoprene formation as a barometer of carbon flow in these bacteria. (4) We also addressed the question: is Bacillus isoprene formation analogous to chloroplast processes? This research was initiated because of the continuing interest in the puzzle of isoprene formation in leaf chloroplasts. In pursuit of linkages between bacterial and plant isoprene formation, we used our DMAPP assay to demonstrate that leaves of the isoprene-emitter (cottonwood) show a diurnal cycle, peaking at mid-day in parallel with isoprene release. Thus it appears that in two different biological systems isoprene formation is highly regulated, and linked to isoprenoid carbon availability. (5) We developed a new method to detect Bacillus species in plant root samples, and demonstrated that plant roots are a rich source of biofilm-forming B. subtilis. Furthermore, using cultured Arabidopsis roots as a test system, we were able to demonstrate the formation of stable, viable Bacillus biofilms on the roots. Such roots were protected from killing by a root pathogenic Pseudomonas syringae strain. We have now formulated a mechanism to explain how such biocontrol by B. subtilis occurs, and future work will explore the role of isoprene in signaling between different rhizobacteria and plant roots.

  10. MP3 - A Meteorology and Physical Properties Package to explore Air:Sea interaction on Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, R. D.

    2012-04-01

    barometer subsystem uses pressure sensors from FMI of the type flown on Huygens. METH. Methane humidity (and the presence of fog) is measured with a near-IR differential absorption spectro-photometer. The humidity may vary with and fetch, as well as on nearby rainfall. WIND. An ultrasonic anemometer, mounted on a mast to minimize flow perturbations, measures wind speed and direction. DIEL : An immersed parallel-plate capacitor (spare from Huygens SSP) fills with liquid to measure the dielectric constant. This is sensitive to the methane/ethane ratio, and to the possible presence of nitriles such as HCN. SOSO : A pair of ultrasound transducers (SSP spares) measure the speed of sound in the liquid, a function of the methane/ethane ratio (unaffected by trace nitriles). SONR : A down-looking piezoelectric depth-sounder to measure the bottom profile. The echo record will also indicate suspended scatterers and the presence of bubble noise at the sea surface. TURB. A visible light beam is passed through the liquid and the direct and scattered intensity is measured to gauge particles in the liquid and the deposition of solar heat with depth.

  11. Accuracy analysis of direct georeferenced UAV images utilising low-cost navigation sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briese, Christian; Wieser, Martin; Verhoeven, Geert; Glira, Philipp; Doneus, Michael; Pfeifer, Norbert

    2014-05-01

    control points should be used to improve the estimated values, especially to decrease the amount of systematic errors. For the bundle block adjustment the calibration of the camera and their temporal stability must be determined additionally. This contribution presents next to the theory a practical study on the accuracy analysis of direct georeferenced UAV imagery by low-cost navigation sensors. The analysis was carried out within the research project ARAP (automated (ortho)rectification of archaeological aerial photographs). The utilized UAS consists of the airplane "MAJA", manufactured by "Bormatec" (length: 1.2 m, wingspan: 2.2 m) equipped with the autopilot "ArduPilot Mega 2.5". For image acquisition the camera "Ricoh GR Digital IV" is utilised. The autopilot includes a GNSS receiver capable of DGPS (EGNOS), an inertial measurement system (INS), a barometer, and a magnetometer. In the study the achieved accuracies for the estimated position and orientation of the images are presented. The paper concludes with a summary of the remaining error sources and their possible corrections by applying further improvements on the utilised equipment and the direct georeferencing process.

  12. Mammography calibration facility in Medical Physics Laboratory, Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A facility for mammography calibration is being established in the Medical Physics Laboratory, Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT). A mammography x-ray machine model MF-150G (maximum rating 150 mA 35 kV) fitted with 30 micron Molybdenum (Mo) filter is used as an x-ray radiation source for mammography calibration. Five radiation qualities are selected for calibration purpose namely 23, 25, 28, 30 and 35 kV, which are selectable from the control panel of the x-ray machine. Important parameters that are set for this calibration facility are exposure time, tube current, focus to dosemeter distance (FDD) and beam size at specified distance. Typical FDD and beam size values are 40 cms and 10x10 cm2. The room temperature and pressure are recorded by using barometer and thermometer model Lambrecht (Type 00.06040.100000 No:670699.0001). First and second half value layer of the beam are measured by using the Aluminum Half Value Layer Attenuator Set of type Gammex RMI 115A which consists of a few 0.1mm and 0.5mm thickness Aluminium attenuators. A RadCal measuring system is used as a standard measuring equipment. For kV measurement, a Radiation Monitor Controller Model 9010 (SN:90-2021) is connected to Accu-kV control unit Model 4081 (SN: 41-0455) and Accu-kV sensor model 40X5-Mo (S/N: 48-0602). For dose measurement the RadCal Radiation Monitor Controller Model 9010 is connected to a unit converter Model 9060 (S/N: 99-1137) and ion chamber Model 10X5/6M (S/N: 8789). The standard measuring system is used to ensure calibration traceability to primary standard laboratories. This measuring system is capable of measuring dose up to 600Gy, kV up to 40kV and measuring exposure time up to 500 milliseconds. The typical dose rate of x-ray radiation at FDD 40 cms is about 650 mGy/min at 27 kV and 12.5 mAs. Substitution method is used for calibration of user's instruments. Chamber model 10X5-6M (S/N: 8789) is used as a standard chamber to measure the mammography x

  13. Assessing the impact of direct-to-consumer advertisements on the AA patient: a multisite survey of patients during the office visit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison-Ottey, Sharon; Ruffin, Karen; Allison, Kimberly; Ottey, Colin C

    2003-02-01

    , neither the demanding or the complacent are our preference, we want relationship and believe that this will improve the patient's health status. The question is whether the increased information, dialogue, and patient involvement utilizing the information from new sources are a good thing, a bad thing or simply a reality of medicine's entrance into the information age. Must we encourage our patients to take an active role in their healthcare but place boundaries on the venues by which they receive information? How do patients interact with their physician in the office after exposure to an ad for a prescription medication? How do physicians react to the questions and do we encourage the interaction? What is the effect of the pharmaceutical industry marketing directly to our patients? Do we know and how will we ever fully assess the impact? Although these questions have no succinct answer, the physician and the patient dyad must be the guiding barometer. PMID:12760607

  14. Use of the Internet as a Health Information Resource Among French Young Adults: Results From a Nationally Representative Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Jean-Baptiste; Nguyen-Thanh, Viet; Montagni, Ilaria; Parizot, Isabelle; Renahy, Emilie

    2014-01-01

    Background The Internet is one of the main resources of health information especially for young adults, but website content is not always trustworthy or validated. Little is known about this specific population and the importance of online health searches for use and impact. It is fundamental to assess behaviors and attitudes of young people looking for online health-related information and their level of trust in such information. Objective The objective is to describe the characteristics of Internet users aged 15-30 years who use the Web as a health information resource and their trust in it, and to define the context and the effect of such use on French young adults’ behavior in relation to their medical consultations. Methods We used the French Health Barometer 2010, a nationally representative survey of 27,653 individuals that investigates population health behaviors and concerns. Multivariate logistic regressions were performed using a subsample of 1052 young adults aged 15-30 years to estimate associations between demographics, socioeconomic, and health status and (1) the use of the Internet to search for health information, and (2) its impact on health behaviors and the physician-patient relationship. Results In 2010, 48.5% (474/977) of Web users aged 15-30 years used the Internet for health purposes. Those who did not use the Internet for health purposes reported being informed enough by other sources (75.0%, 377/503), stated they preferred seeing a doctor (74.1%, 373/503) or did not trust the information on the Internet (67.2%, 338/503). However, approximately 80% (371/474) of young online health seekers considered the information found online reliable. Women (P<.001) and people with higher sociocultural positions (OR 0.5, 95% CI 0.3-0.9 and OR 0.4, 95% CI 0.2-0.7 for employees and manual workers, respectively, vs individuals with executive or manager positions) were more likely to use the Internet for health purposes. For a subsample of women only

  15. Parallel Computation of Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave Coupled Storm Surge Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K.; Yamashita, T.

    2003-12-01

    Ocean-atmosphere interactions are very important in the formation and development of tropical storms. These interactions are dominant in exchanging heat, momentum, and moisture fluxes. Heat flux is usually computed using a bulk equation. In this equation air-sea interface supplies heat energy to the atmosphere and to the storm. Dynamical interaction is most often one way in which it is the atmosphere that drives the ocean. The winds transfer momentum to both ocean surface waves and ocean current. The wind wave makes an important role in the exchange of the quantities of motion, heat and a substance between the atmosphere and the ocean. Storm surges can be considered as the phenomena of mean sea-level changes, which are the result of the frictional stresses of strong winds blowing toward the land and causing the set level and the low atmospheric pressure at the centre of the cyclone can additionally raise the sea level. In addition to the rise in water level itself, another wave factor must be considered. A rise of mean sea level due to white-cap wave dissipation should be considered. In bounded bodies of water, such as small seas, wind driven sea level set up is much serious than inverted barometer effects, in which the effects of wind waves on wind-driven current play an important role. It is necessary to develop the coupled system of the full spectral third-generation wind-wave model (WAM or WAVEWATCH III), the meso-scale atmosphere model (MM5) and the coastal ocean model (POM) for simulating these physical interactions. As the component of coupled system is so heavy for personal usage, the parallel computing system should be developed. In this study, first, we developed the coupling system of the atmosphere model, ocean wave model and the coastal ocean model, in the Beowulf System, for the simulation of the storm surge. It was applied to the storm surge simulation caused by Typhoon Bart (T9918) in the Yatsushiro Sea. The atmosphere model and the ocean model have

  16. Inertial and GPS data integration for positioning and tracking of GPR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicarella, Simone; D'Alvano, Alessandro; Ferrara, Vincenzo; Frezza, Fabrizio; Pajewski, Lara

    2015-04-01

    Nowadays many applications and studies use a Global Positioning System (GPS) to integrate Ground-Penetrating Radar (GPR) data [1-2]. The aim is the production of detailed detection maps that are geo-referenced and superimposable on geographic maps themes. GPS provides data to determine static positioning, and to track the mobile detection system path on the land. A low-cost standard GPS, like GPS-622R by RF Solutions Ltd, allows accuracy around 2.5 m CEP (Circular Error Probability), and a maximum update rate of 10 Hz. These accuracy and update rate are satisfying values when we evaluate positioning datum, but they are unsuitable for precision tracking of a speedy-mobile GPR system. In order to determine the relative displacements with respect to an initial position on the territory, an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) can be used. Some inertial-system applications for GPR tracking have been presented in recent studies [3-4]. The integration of both GPS and IMU systems is the aim of our work, in order to increase GPR applicability, e.g. the case of a GPR mounted on an unmanned aerial vehicle for the detection of people buried under avalanches [5]. In this work, we will present the design, realization and experimental characterization of our electronic board that includes GPS-622R and AltIMU-10 v3 by Pololu. The latter comprises an inertial-measurement unit and an altimeter. In particular, the IMU adopts L3GD20 gyro and LSM303D accelerometer and magnetometer; the digital barometer LPS331AP provides data for altitude evaluation. The prototype of our system for GPR positioning and tracking is based on an Arduino microcontroller board. Acknowledgement This work benefited from networking activities carried out within the EU funded COST Action TU1208 'Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar. ' References [1] M. Solla, X. Núñez-Nieto, M. Varela-González, J. Martínez-Sánchez, and P. Arias, 'GPR for Road Inspection: georeferencing and efficient

  17. The Norwegian system for implementing the IAEA code of practice based on absorbed dose to water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    , barometers and electrometers. A new roundtrip was done for electron beams. The aim of this visit was to cross-calibrate the hospital plan-parallel chambers in a high energy electron beam and measure absorbed dose to water in different high energy electron beams. The measurements were performed in the local water tank for beam data measurements. The absorbed dose was this time compared to the treatment units monitor calibration. Results from absorbed dose to water measurements for high energy electron beams showed that compared to TRS 398 the electron beams was off in the range -2,3 to + 4,6%. The uncertainty of the electron measurements was 1.5 % (k=1). The absorbed dose to water calculated from the former air kerma 60Co standard is at the Norwegian SSDL 0.5% lower than absorbed dose to water 60Co standard. From calculation one can see that the CoP TRS 277 give 0.5% to 1.0% higher dose than CoP TRS 398 in high energy photon beams depending on beam quality. For electrons this deviation is in the range - 0.3% to + 0.1%. The air kerma standard and TRS 277 CoP give in Norway 1.0 % to 1.5 % too high doses for high energy photons, while the dose change for electron beams is smaller than the uncertainty. On site measurements show higher deviations because of local implementation of a code of practice. The medical physicists welcomed the visit and requested more visits. This research was done in cooperation with IAEA, Agreement No. 11627

  18. A Small Autonomous Unmanned Aerial Vehicle, Ant-Plane 4, for aeromagnetic survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funaki, M.; Tanabe, S.; Project, A.

    2007-05-01

    Autonomous unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) are expected to use in Antarctica for geophysical research due to economy and safety operations. We have developed the technology of small UAVwith autonomous navigation referred to GPS and onboard magnetometer, meteorolgical devices and digital camera under the Ant-Plane project. The UAV focuses on operation for use in the summer season at coastal area in Antarctica; higher temperature than -15C under calm wind. In case of Ant-Plane 4, it can fly continuously more than 500 km, probably more than 1000 km, although the flight in Antarcitca has not succeeded The UAV of FRP is pusher type drone consisting of 2.6m span and 2.0m length with 2-cycles and 2-cylinder 86cc gasoline engine (7.2 HP) navigated. The maximum takeoff weight is 25kg including 1kg of payload. Cruising distance 500 km at speed of 130 km/h using 10 litter of fuel. The UAV is controlled by radio telemeter within 5km from a ground station and autonomous navigation referred to GPS latitude and longitude, pitot tube speed and barometer altitude. The magnetometer system consists of a 3-component magneto-resistant magnetometer (MR) sensor (Honeywell HMR2300), GPS and data logger. Three components of magnetic field, latitude, longitude, altitude, the number of satellite and time are recorded every second during 6 hours. The sensitivity of the magnetometer is 7 nT and we use a total magnetic field intensity for magnetic analysis due to unknown direction of heading of the plane. We succeeded in long distant flight to 500km with magnetometer by Ant-Plane 4 collaborated with Geoscience Australia, in March 2006. The survey was performed in the area 10kmx10km at Kalgoorlie, Western Australia. The magnetic data are obtained from 41 courses (250m in interval) of EW direction. The altitude of the flight was 900m from sea level and 500m from the runway. MR-magnetometer sensor was installed at the tip of a FRP pipe of 1m length, and the pipe was fixed to the head of the plane

  19. Estimation of minimum or maximum pressure or temperature conditions in metamorphic rocks%变质作用温度与压力极限值的估算方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴春明; 陈泓旭

    2013-01-01

    压力的极小值或极大值.估算变质作用P-T的极限值,方法并不限于本文所述的例子.%When a mineral necessary in computing pressure (P) or temperature (T) conditions is absent,or compositions of the relevant mineral(s) were changed due to retrograde reactions in a metamorphic assemblage,and thus the true P and/or T cannot be determined,maximum or minimum P and/or T may be estimated and some examples are given in this work.(1) Extreme P or T conditions can be deciphered using phase diagrams of pure phases.For example,T of an assemblage containing sillimanite cannot be lower than 504 ± 20℃,whereas P of an assemblage containing andalusite cannot be higher than 0.375 ± 0.025GPa; (2) Some assemblages themselves indicate extreme P or T conditions.For example,the hypersthene + sillimanite + quartz assemblage can only be stable at P higher than 1.05GPa and the sapphirine + quartz assemblage cannot be stable lower than 1050℃,in high-and ultra-high temperature rocks ; (3) The equilibrium conditions of some reaction-out curves of mineral(s) also imply the limit of P or T conditions.For example,the reaction muscovite + quartz → K-feldspar + kyanite/sillimanite + H2O suggests that an assemblage containing muscovite cannot be stable at T higher than ca.650℃ at moderate P; (4) T yielded from solvus thermometry stands for the lower T limit of a unified solid solution phase when deriving the T conditions through combining the newly formed exsolution lamella and the relic matrix phase; (5) Metamorphic peak P-T conditions can only be determined on the basis of retrieving the chemical compositions of peak minerals when later retrograde reactions occurred and the peak minerals were destroyed partially; and (6) Maximum or minimum P conditions can be deciphered using model reactions of barometers when one phase is absent.For example,when rutile is absent in a metapelitic assemblage,maximum P can be estimated by considering that rutile is present because

  20. The state of renewable energies in Europe. 11. EurObserv'ER report; Etat des energies renouvelables en Europe. Edition 2011. 11e bilan EurObserv'ER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillett, William; Schwarz, Virginie; Liebard, Alain; Civel, Yves-Bruno; Augereau, Laurence; Marandet, Laure; Szita Toth, Klara; Roncz, Judit; Decombe, Annabelle; Baratte, Lucie

    2011-12-15

    For over ten years now, EurObserv'ER has been collecting data on European Union renewable energy sources to describe the state and thrust of the various sectors in its focus studies or barometers. The first part of this assessment is an updated and completed summary of the work published in 2011 in 'Systemes Solaires' (Journal des energies Renouvelables No. 203, 204, 205 and 206), 'Journal de l'eolien' no. 8 and 'Journal du Photovoltaique' no.5). It provides a complete overview of the ten renewable sectors, supplemented by two summary notes on concentrated solar power and ocean energy. Their performances are compared against the stated goals set out by each country in its National Renewable Energy Action Plan (NREAP). Additionally, for the second year running, the EurObserv'ER consortium members have published their annual renewable energy share estimates of overall final energy consumption for each Member State of the European Union. These figures provide preliminary indication of how the various countries are faring along their renewable energy paths and whether their individual trends point to successful achievement of the targets set by European Directive 2009/28/EC. 2010 was momentous for the evolution of the renewable energy market in Europe; were adopted by Member States to implement the Renewable Energy Directive and the first results can now be seen, despite the difficult economic climate. As revealed in this report, renewable energy production in the EU grew by +11.3% between 2009 and 2010. Even though factors such as a cold winter and a high level of rainfall have surely helped, this figure highlights the positive impacts of support policies and additional investments by market players. As the renewable energy sector shows promising signs of growth, we acknowledge the growing accuracy of EurObserv'ER's estimates. According to the official data published in November 2011 by Eurostat, the share of

  1. Application of Clinopyroxene Chemistry to Interpret the Physical Conditions of Ascending Magma, a Case Study of Eocene Volcanic Rocks in the Ghohrud Area (North of Isfahan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Sayari

    2016-07-01

    authors would like to thank the University of Isfahan, and Dr. Seyed Mohsen Tabatabaei Manesh for his help for doing microprobe analyses. References Dilek, Y., Imamverdiyev, N. and Altunkaynak, S., 2010. Geochemistry and tectonics of Cenozoic volcanism in the Lesser Caucasus (Azerbaijan and the peri-Arabian region: collision-induced mantle dynamics and its magmatic fingerprint. International Geology Review, 52(4-6: 536-578. Nimis, P. and Ulmer, P., 1998. Clinopyroxene geobarometry of magmatic rocks. 1. An expanded structural geobarometer for anhydrous and hydrous, basic and ultrabasic systems. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 133(1-2: 122-135. Putirka, K., 2008. Thermometers and Barometers for Volcanic Systems. Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry, 69(1: 61-120. Putirka, K., Johnson, M., Kinzler, R. and Walker, D., 1996. Thermobarometry of mafic igneous rocks based on clinopyroxene-liquid equilibria, 0-30 kbar. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 123(1: 92-108. Sayari, M., 2012. APG: An efficient software program for Amp-Pl thermobarometry based on graphical method. Journal of Sciences, Islamic Republic of Iran, 22(4: 345-349. Sayari, M., 2015. Petrogenesis and evolution of Oligocene-Pliocene volcanism in the central part of Urumieh-Dokhtar Magmatic Arc (NE of Isfahan. Ph.D Thesis, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran, 195 pp (in Persian with English abstract. Sayari, M. and Sharifi, M., 2014. SCG: A computer application for single clinopyroxene geothermobarometry. Italian Journal of Geosciences 133(2: 315-322.

  2. Indicadores de calidad en los centros sociosanitarios del grupo Capio Sanidad Quality indicators in Capio group geriatric centers in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Zamora Sánchez

    2007-03-01

    álido, que permite la evaluación de procesos, la comparación entre centros, la fijación de objetivos de mejora y objetivar su logro.Introduction: We present the geriatric center control panel used by Capio Spain as an instrument for managing the quality system. Objectives: Stimulate qualitative improvements in a continuous and sustained manner in all Capio Spain geriatric centers. This necessitates the development of a system of management-by-process. Establish a barometer system which permits the assessment of quality-objective attainment along with internal and external comparability. Material and methods: The Central Quality Core (CQC has laid out a global control panel for geriatric centers consisting of basic indicators related to the processes identified in each area, all in accordance with their own Process Map. All indicators have corresponding description files detailing their content; these are made available to those with access to the quality portal located in the corporate intranet. Each center quality promotion group (QPC is responsible for compiling the information regarding the indicators and forwarding it to the CQC on a quarterly basis; the CQC will then inform corporate management of its overall findings. Independently of the basic indicators, each process owner determines and defines the specific indicators that he/she finds suitable for the complete control of the process in question. When the preestablished alert levels are surpassed, the responsible quality groups (at both corporate and center levels automatically contact each other. Results: Each quarter, the CQC assesses the introduction of the basic indicators, with the goal that all Capio centers achieve 80% fulfilment by 2006. A description as to the indicators is provided regarding strategic processes, geriatric care, health care- and non-health care support. Conclusions: The system used for monitoring indicators has proven to be valid and effective: it allows for the assessment of processes

  3. The state of renewable energies in Europe. 11. EurObserv'ER report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For over ten years now, EurObserv'ER has been collecting data on European Union renewable energy sources to describe the state and thrust of the various sectors in its focus studies or barometers. The first part of this assessment is an updated and completed summary of the work published in 2011 in 'Systemes Solaires' (Journal des energies Renouvelables No. 203, 204, 205 and 206), 'Journal de l'eolien' no. 8 and 'Journal du Photovoltaique' no.5). It provides a complete overview of the ten renewable sectors, supplemented by two summary notes on concentrated solar power and ocean energy. Their performances are compared against the stated goals set out by each country in its National Renewable Energy Action Plan (NREAP). Additionally, for the second year running, the EurObserv'ER consortium members have published their annual renewable energy share estimates of overall final energy consumption for each Member State of the European Union. These figures provide preliminary indication of how the various countries are faring along their renewable energy paths and whether their individual trends point to successful achievement of the targets set by European Directive 2009/28/EC. 2010 was momentous for the evolution of the renewable energy market in Europe; were adopted by Member States to implement the Renewable Energy Directive and the first results can now be seen, despite the difficult economic climate. As revealed in this report, renewable energy production in the EU grew by +11.3% between 2009 and 2010. Even though factors such as a cold winter and a high level of rainfall have surely helped, this figure highlights the positive impacts of support policies and additional investments by market players. As the renewable energy sector shows promising signs of growth, we acknowledge the growing accuracy of EurObserv'ER's estimates. According to the official data published in November 2011 by Eurostat, the share of renewable energies in the EU in 2009 was 11.7%; Eur

  4. FOREWORD: Special issue on density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Kenichi

    2004-04-01

    silicon spheres. These technologies are currently being used not only for establishing a solid density standard, but also for determining the Avogadro constant by the x-ray crystal density method, where the density, molar mass and lattice constant of a silicon crystal are measured based on the definition of the SI units. Considering that much of the present research on the Avogadro constant has been undertaken to replace the present definition of the kilogram with a new definition based on a number of atoms, it is satisfying to note that the most accurate density standard may contribute to a new definition of the kilogram. Differential density measurements by hydrostatic weighing and by the pressure of flotation method developed for measuring the density differences between silicon crystals and solids are given in a review article and three original articles, where combined standard uncertainties of a few parts in 108 have been achieved in measuring relative density differences. These technologies are being used not only for the determination of the Avogadro constant, but also for evaluating defects in silicon crystals used in the semiconductor industry. Another important liquid used in the density standard is mercury because the pressured standard determined from mercury column barometers, the molar gas constant determined from an acoustic resonator, and the Josephson constant determined from a mercury voltmeter are all dependent on the density of mercury. A review article is therefore dedicated to an overview of the history, recommended value and recent progress in the measurement of the density of mercury. This special issue also features the technologies developed for measuring the thermodynamic properties of fluids. New instruments with a magnetic suspension balance have substantially improved the uncertainty in measuring the density of fluids at elevated pressures and temperatures. Two review articles and an original article are therefore dedicated to describing the

  5. Characterization of an absorbed dose standard in water through ionometric methods; Caracterizacion de un patron de dosis absorbida en agua mediante metodos ionometricos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas V, M.X

    2003-07-01

    , that is with the infrastructure that at the moment the SSDL-Mexico possesses to carry out the unit of absorbed dose to water (instrumentation, traceability of the electrometers, barometers, thermometers, calculation algorithms, time of machine, etc). Third: In this work it was shown the necessity to solve, if it exists, the ambiguity [Alvarez et al. 2002] of the models of the IAEA and the BIPM methods, when applying them to the design of the CC01-131 chamber. It was determined that, within the order of uncertainty with which the correction factors and the D{sub agua} were obtained, none of the two models presents the problem of ambiguity. (Author)

  6. The Scientific Papers of James Prescott Joule 2 Volume Set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott Joule, James

    2011-03-01

    , and on the constitution of elastic fluids; Some remarks on heat and the constitution of elastic fluids; On the mechanical equivalent of heat; On a remarkable appearance of lightning; On some amalgams; On the air-engine; Account of experiments with a powerful electro-magnet; On the economical production of mechanical effect from chemical forces; An account of some experiments with a large electro-magnet; Introductory research on the induction of magnetism by electric currents; On the fusion of metals by voltaic electricity; Note on Dalton's determination of the expansion of air by heat; On the utilization of the sewage of London and other large towns; Notice of experiments on the heat developed by friction in air; On the intensity of light during the recent solar eclipse; On an improved galvanometer; On the thermo-electricity of ferruginous metals, and on the thermal effects of stretching solid bodies; On the thermal effects of longitudinal compression of solids, with an investigation on the alterations of temperature accompanying changes of pressure in fluids; On some thermo-dynamic properties of solids; On the thermal effects of compressing fluids; On a method of testing the strength of steam-boilers; Experiments on the total heat of steam; Experiments on the passage of air through pipes and apertures in thin plates; On some amalgams; On the probable cause of electric storms; On the surface-condensation of steam; Notice of a compressing air-pump; Note on a mirage at Douglas; On a sensitive barometer; On a sensitive thermometer; Note on the meteor of February 6th, 1818; On a method of hardening steel wires for magnetic needles; On an instrument for showing rapid changes in magnetic declination; Determination of the dynamical equivalent of heat from the thermal effects of electric currents; Observations on the alteration of the freezing-point in thermometers; On a new

  7. The Trans-African Hydro-Meteorological Observatory project; an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hut, Rolf; van de Giesen, Nick

    2010-05-01

    . This is not because a lack of interest, nor intelligence, but simply because the materials to conduct experiments are not available. Whilst any American or European primary school has a supply of thermometers, barometers, etc. this (relative) expensive equipment is not available in an African setting. This way Africans (future) scientist, but also its (future) politicians, watermanagers, farmers, etc. don't learn the importance (and not to forget: fun) of doing measurements. The 100 weather station is our answer to the issues mentioned above. The basic idea is to have 20.000 weather stations across Africa, at local schools. With the weather station we intend to: -give local people access to climate data on their own region, relevant to their daily lives. -provide climate scientists with a huge new amount of data: 20.000 new measuring station in Africa, recording real time data for them to incorporate in their models -train a new generation on how to do measurements and on the benefits those measurements have. As a first step, students at Delft university showed that it is possible to build an acoustic disdrometer that costs lest than 20 dollar to produce. To move this project into the next gear, we are following two parallel tracks: First, we are developing the weather station, together with a commercial partner. Secondly, we are going to do a pilot project in Africa: We want to have a student in education go to a specific region (probably Ghana, because of contacts we have from previous projects) armed with a weather station and give him/her the assignment to develop a curriculum around the station, to be used in local schools. The follow up of this is to send a group of students with weather stations (10-20) to a region and have them place the stations at all schools in the region. Timewise, we hope to have this first pilot project done within the next two years. Somewhere in the year after that, the extended pilot can take place. Since we hope to send this group out

  8. Direct Radiative Effect and Heating Rate of black carbon aerosol: high time resolution measurements and source-identified forcing effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero, Luca; Mocnik, Grisa; Cogliati, Sergio; Comi, Alberto; Degni, Francesca; Di Mauro, Biagio; Colombo, Roberto; Bolzacchini, Ezio

    2016-04-01

    Black carbon (BC) absorbs sunlight in the atmosphere heating it. However, up to now, heating rate (HR) calculations from the divergence of the net radiative flux with altitude or from the modelling activity are too sparse. This work fills the aforementioned gap presenting a new methodology based on a full set of physical equations to experimentally determine both the radiative power density absorbed into a ground-based atmospheric layer (ADRE), and the consequent HR induced by the absorptive component of aerosol. In urban context, it is essentially related to the BC. The methodology is also applicable to natural components (i.e. dust) and is obtained solving the first derivative of the main radiative transfer equations. The ADRE and the consequent HR can be determined coupling spectral aerosol absorption measurements with the spectrally resolved measurements of the direct, diffuse downward radiation and the surface reflected radiance components. Moreover, the spectral absorption of BC aerosol allows its source apportionment (traffic and biomass burning (BB)) allowing the same apportionment on HR. This work reports one year of high-time resolution measurements (5 min) of sunlight absorption and HR induced by BC aerosol over Milan. A unique sampling site was set up from March 2015 with: 1) Aethalometer (AE-31, Magee Scientific, 7-λ), 2) the Multiplexer-Radiometer-Irradiometer which detects downward and reflected radiance (350-1000 nm in 3648 spectral bands) coupled with a rotating shadow-band to measure spectrally-resolved global and diffuse radiation (thus direct), 3) a meteorological station (LSI-Lastem) equipped with 3 pyranometers (global, diffuse and refrected radiation; 300-3000 nm), a thermohygrometer, a barometer, an anemometer, 4) condensation and optical particle counters (TSI 3775 and Grimm 1.107), 5) low volume sampler (FAI Hydra dual sampler, PM2.5 and PM10) for sample collection and chemistry determination. Results concerning the radiative power

  9. Guidelines, Editors, Pharma And The Biological Paradigm Shift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajai R. Singh

    2007-01-01

    , have independent access to all trial data and control all editorial and publication decisions. However the findings of a 2002 study suggest that academic institutions routinely participate in clinical research that does not adhere to ICMJE standards of accountability, access to data and control of publication.There is an inevitable slant to produce not necessarily useful but marketable products which ensure the profitability of industry and research grants outflow to academia. Industry supports new, not traditional, therapies, irrespective of what is effective. Whatever traditional therapy is supported is most probably because the company concerned has a product with a big stake there, which has remained a 'gold standard' or which that player thinks has still some 'juice' left.Industry sponsorship is mainly for potential medications, not for trying to determine whether there may be non-pharmacological interventions that may be equally good, if not better. In the paradigm shift towards biological psychiatry, the role of industry sponsorship is not overt but probably more pervasive than many have realised, or the right thinking may consider good, for the health of the branch in the long run.An issue of major concern is protection of the interests of research subjects. Patients agree to become research subjects not only for personal medical benefit but, as an extension, to benefit the rest of the patient population and also advance medical research.We all accept that industry profits have to be made, and investment in research and development by the pharma industry is massive. However, we must also accept there is a fundamental difference between marketing strategies for other entities and those for drugs.The ultimate barometer is patient welfare and no drug that compromises it can stand the test of time. So, how does it make even commercial sense in the long term to market substandard products? The greatest mistake long-term players in industry may make is try to adopt

  10. Emplacement age for the mafic-ultramafic plutons in the northern Dabie Mts. (Hubei): Zircon U-Pb, Sm-Nd and 40Ar/39Ar dating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Jianghai

    2002-01-01

    , China, Sci. in China, Ser. D, 2000, 43(2): 225-236.[11]Hacker, B. R., Wang, Q. C., Ar/Ar geochronology of ultrahigh-pressure metamorphism in Central China, Tectonics, 1995, 14: 994-1006.[12]Ge, N. J., Hou, Z. H., Li, H. M. et al., Zircon U-Pb ages of the Shacun gabbro body, Yuexi, Dabie orogen and its geological implications, Chinese Sci. Bull., 2000, 45(1): 74-79.[13]Xu, S. T., Liu, Y. C., Jiang, L. L. et al., Tectonic Regime and Evolution of the Dabie Mountains, Beijing: Science Press, 1994, 1-175.[14]Li, S. G., Ni, Y. H., Zheng, S. G. et al., Interaction between subducted continental crust and the mantle: I. Major and trace element geochemistry of syncollisional mafic-ultramafic intrusions in the Dabie Mountains, Sci. in China, Ser. D, 1998, 41(5): 545-553.[15]Blundy, J. D., Holland, T. J. B., Calcic amphibole equilibrium and a new amphibole plagioclase geothermometer, Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 1990, 104: 208-224.[16]Hammartron, J. M., Zen, E. A., Aluminum in hornbole: an empirical igneous geobarometer, Amer. Mineral., 1986, 71: 1297-1313.[17]Hollister, L. S., Grisson, G. C., Peters, E. K. et al., Confirmation of the empirical correlation of Al in hornblende with pressure of solidification of calcalkaline plutons, Amer. Mineral., 1987, 72: 231-239.[18]Johnson, M. C., Rutherford, M. J., Experimental calibration of an aluminium-hornblende geobarometer applicable to calc-alkaline rocks, EOS, 1988, 69: 1511.[19]Whitney, J. A., Stormer, J. C., The distribution of NaAlSi3O8 between coexisting microcline and plagioclase and its effect on geothermometric calculations, Am. Mineral., 1977, 62: 687-691.[20]Zhang, R. Y., Cong, B. L., Mineral Thermometers and Barometers, Beijing: Geological Publishing House, 1983, 150-173.[21]Krogh, T. E., A low-contamination method for hydrothermal decomposition of zircon and extraction of U and Pb for isotopic age determinations, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 1973, 48: 505-511.[22]Krogh, T. E., Vapour

  11. Guidelines, editors, pharma and the biological paradigm shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ajai R; Singh, Shakuntala A

    2007-01-01

    independent access to all trial data and control all editorial and publication decisions. However the findings of a 2002 study suggest that academic institutions routinely participate in clinical research that does not adhere to ICMJE standards of accountability, access to data and control of publication.There is an inevitable slant to produce not necessarily useful but marketable products which ensure the profitability of industry and research grants outflow to academia. Industry supports new, not traditional, therapies, irrespective of what is effective. Whatever traditional therapy is supported is most probably because the company concerned has a product with a big stake there, which has remained a 'gold standard' or which that player thinks has still some 'juice' left.Industry sponsorship is mainly for potential medications, not for trying to determine whether there may be non-pharmacological interventions that may be equally good, if not better. In the paradigm shift towards biological psychiatry, the role of industry sponsorship is not overt but probably more pervasive than many have realised, or the right thinking may consider good, for the health of the branch in the long run.An issue of major concern is protection of the interests of research subjects. Patients agree to become research subjects not only for personal medical benefit but, as an extension, to benefit the rest of the patient population and also advance medical research.We all accept that industry profits have to be made, and investment in research and development by the pharma industry is massive. However, we must also accept there is a fundamental difference between marketing strategies for other entities and those for drugs.The ultimate barometer is patient welfare and no drug that compromises it can stand the test of time. So, how does it make even commercial sense in the long term to market substandard products? The greatest mistake long-term players in industry may make is try to adopt the shady

  12. Identification and Analysis of Foreign Tourists Motivations for Travelling to Isfahan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Ranjbarian

    2013-01-01

    , Economical journal, Vol 9, No3, p3World Travel &Tourism Council (WTTC, (2004, Industry As A Partner For Sustainable Development,www.wttc.org, p89WTO, (World Tourism Organization, (2008, World Tourism Barometer, Vol. 3, No 2, p96Zhang, Jie, and Marcussen, Carl, (2007, Tourist motivation, market segmentation and marketing strategies, 5th Bi-Annual Symposium of the International Society of Culture, Tourism, and Hospitality Research” June 4-6, Charleston, South Carolina, USA, p4