WorldWideScience

Sample records for barns

  1. Barns of Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson-Newlin, Karen

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author shares a painting unit she introduced to her students. In this unit, her students painted pictures of barns and discussed the historical significance of barns in Wisconsin.

  2. Mit barn er anbragt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen Møller, Sanne; Skytte Aalborg Universitet, Marianne

    Anbringelse af etniske minoritetsbørn og -unge udgør en voksende opgave for kommunerne. I denne bog belyses gennem 11 personlige livshistorier de særlige problemer og dilemmaer, som etniske minoritetsforældre står i, når deres barn anbringes. Livshistorierne giver et indblik i, hvordan forældrene...

  3. Det postmoderne barn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ole Henrik

    2010-01-01

    Den nye psykologi fokuserer på dynamik og intersubjektivitet, mens den gamle var optaget af faser og udviklingstrin. Den postmoderne forståelse af det lille barn opfatter ikke faserne som aflåste, historiske sandheder, men som levende narrativer. Og så får det nye børnesyn indflydelse på Frode og...

  4. Keeping Barns in Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomash, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a landscape project using Grant Wood's paintings as an example. As part of the project, the students are required to include a barn in their picture. This project is a great opportunity to study an Iowa artist who did landscape painting and to study perspective. This is also an excellent project for teaching…

  5. Det akut syge barn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartvigsen, Tina

    2012-01-01

    Kapitlet handler om sygepleje til det akut og kritisk syge barn. Kapitlet tager udgangspunkt i casen om Mathilde på 4 måneder. Hun indlægges akut på børneafdelingen medtaget og påvirket af en luftvejsinfektion. Undervejs i kapitlet gennemgås ABCDE-principperne med særligt fokus på pædiatriske...

  6. Greenhouse gas emissions from barn animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marquis, A.

    2003-01-01

    Ninety six per cent of the carbon dioxide produced by barn animals is generated through the act of breathing, with the remainder generated through their droppings. The author examined various sources of carbon dioxide emissions associated with barn animals, including the animals themselves, their droppings and heating systems for barns. A similar review was conducted for emissions of methane and nitrous oxide. The author proposed ways to reduce the production of carbon dioxide and methane by barn animals. 8 refs., 1 tab

  7. Respiratory symptoms and functions in barn workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ege Gulec Balbay

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and aim. The presented study was undertaken to investigate the respiratory health problems in family barns with one or more cows and at least one family member working in the barn. Methods. 150 workers (128 female, 22 male from 4 villages of Yığılca district near the city of Düzce in north-west Turkey were enrolled in this study between October – December 2011. An Occupational and Environmental Chest Diseases questionnaire developed by the American Thoracic Society, pulmonary function test, physical examination and investigation for nasal eosinophil were performed in all subjects. Results. The mean age of workers was 47.7 ± 14.2 years. Cough was present in 24% of subjects. The rates of phlegm, wheezing, chest tightness and dyspnea were 13.3%, 6%, 6% and 27.3%, respectively. Obstructive ventilatory pattern was observed in 37 workers (24.6%. 43 workers (28.6% showed restrictive ventilatory pattern. Nasal eosinophilia was detected in 47.3% (71/150 of the subjects. Pulmonary functions of workers with nasal eosinophilia did not differ from the other workers. There were statistically significant negative correlations between the duration of working in barns and respiratory functions. Conclusions. Pulmonary functions of barn workers have been found to be decreased related to the duration of barn working. Furthermore, respiratory symptoms increased in relation with both barn working and biomass consumption. Precautions should therefore be taken to ventilate both barns and houses.

  8. Questionnaire assessment of airway disease symptoms in equine barn personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazan, Melissa R; Svatek, Jessica; Maranda, Louise; Christiani, David; Ghio, Andrew; Nadeau, Jenifer; Hoffman, Andrew M

    2009-06-01

    People working in cattle, swine and poultry barns have a higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms and decreased lung function. There is scant evidence regarding the respiratory health of humans working in horse barns, although it is well documented that stabled horses have a high prevalence of airway disease. To determine whether people spending time in horse barns have a higher prevalence of self-reported respiratory symptoms than non-exposed controls. A cross-sectional questionnaire study was conducted from May 2005 to January 2006 to investigate the prevalence of self-reported respiratory symptoms in 82 barn-exposed subjects and 74 control subjects. Logistic regression and the chi-square test were used to analyse the data. There was a significantly higher prevalence of self-reported respiratory symptoms in the barn-exposed group (50%) versus the control group (15%). Exposure to horse barns, smoking and family history of asthma or allergies was independent risk factors for respiratory symptoms. High exposure to the horse barn yielded a higher odds ratio for self-reported respiratory symptoms (8.9). Exposure to the equine barn is a risk factor for respiratory symptoms. Investigation of organic dust exposures, lung function and horse dander allergies in the barn-exposed group will be necessary to determine how best to protect the health of this group.

  9. A survey of Italian compost dairy barns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Leso

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Compost-bedded pack barns (CBPB, generally known as compost dairy barns, are alternative housing systems for dairy cows. In these barns, the whole surface of the resting area is covered with a deepbedded pack that is frequently stirred in order to incorporate fresh manure into the pack and to enhance the evaporation of water. Experiences with CBPB for dairy cows are reported in literature from the US, Israel, the Netherlands and Austria. Potential advantages of these housing systems regard animal welfare and manure management. Since 2006, this housing system has been widely applied in Italy. However, there is still little scientific knowledge available about Italian CBPB. This study aims to describe the housing system, assess producers’ satisfaction and measure performance of dairy cows housed in CBPB. Ten commercial dairy farms in northern Italy were involved in the study. All pens in each farm were surveyed to determine the total available surface area, bedded area and pack depth. A questionnaire was submitted to each farm manager in order to investigate management practices, labour requirement, amount of bedding materials used and producers’ satisfaction. The temperature of the bedded pack was measured in summer and in winter. Data from the Italian Dairy Association were collected for each herd over a period of one year (from September 2011 to September 2012. In the barns involved in the study, the average total available area was 10.9 m2/cow and the average pack area was 6.7 m2/cow. The bedded pack was aerated 1.4 times per day.The most commonly used bedding material in these farms was dry sawdust. The consumption of bedding materials was 8.1 m3/cow per year. A tendency towards inverse correlation was found between the space per cow and the amount of bedding needed per cow (R2=0.395; P=0.051. Operations related to pack management required 4.1 hours of labour per cow per year. A direct relationship was found between the bedded area space

  10. Mellin-Barnes meets Method of Brackets: a novel approach to Mellin-Barnes representations of Feynman integrals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prausa, Mario [RWTH Aachen University, Institute for Theoretical Particle Physics and Cosmology, Aachen (Germany)

    2017-09-15

    In this paper, we present a new approach to the construction of Mellin-Barnes representations for Feynman integrals inspired by the Method of Brackets. The novel technique is helpful to lower the dimensionality of Mellin-Barnes representations in complicated cases, some examples are given. (orig.)

  11. Adaptation potential of naturally ventilated barns to high temperature extremes: The OptiBarn project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menz, Christoph

    2016-04-01

    Climate change interferes with various aspects of the socio-economic system. One important aspect is its influence on animal husbandry, especially dairy faming. Dairy cows are usually kept in naturally ventilated barns (NVBs) which are particular vulnerable to extreme events due to their low adaptation capabilities. An effective adaptation to high outdoor temperatures for example, is only possible under certain wind and humidity conditions. High temperature extremes are expected to increase in number and strength under climate change. To assess the impact of this change on NVBs and dairy cows also the changes in wind and humidity needs to be considered. Hence we need to consider the multivariate structure of future temperature extremes. The OptiBarn project aims to develop sustainable adaptation strategies for dairy housings under climate change for Europe, by considering the multivariate structure of high temperature extremes. In a first step we identify various multivariate high temperature extremes for three core regions in Europe. With respect to dairy cows in NVBs we will focus on the wind and humidity field during high temperature events. In a second step we will use the CORDEX-EUR-11 ensemble to evaluate the capability of the RCMs to model such events and assess their future change potential. By transferring the outdoor conditions to indoor climate and animal wellbeing the results of this assessment can be used to develop technical, architectural and animal specific adaptation strategies for high temperature extremes.

  12. Barnes Ice Cap South Dome Trilateration Net Survey Data 1970-1984, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Barnes Ice Cap data set contains survey measurements of a network of 43 stakes along a 10 km flow line on the northeast flank of the south dome of the Barnes Ice...

  13. MBsums. A Mathematica package for the representation of Mellin-Barnes integrals by multiple sums

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ochman, Michal; Riemann, Tord

    2015-11-15

    Feynman integrals may be represented by the Mathematica package AMBRE and MB as multiple Mellin-Barnes integrals. With the Mathematica package MBsums we transform these Mellin-Barnes integrals into multiple sums.

  14. The development of the food barn in achieving food security of poor household in Wonogiri Regency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suminah

    2018-03-01

    Food barn has function as food stock which managed by households both individually and collectively. It has important role in food security. This study aims to determine the factors that influence the development of food barns, and formulate alternative strategies in the development of food barns in Wonogiri regency. The samples of this research were determined by random sampling. The data collection technique was done by interview, field observation and focus group discussion (FGD). The data analysis was done quantitatively with multiple regression, and qualitative information. The results showed that the age of respondents included in the category of middle age, their level of education was mostly from elementary school, most of their occupation were farmers, they had narrow knowledge of land management, and their income was around 1-2 million rupiah/month. In fact, the perception of food barns, institutional regulation of food barns, and the Economic institutions of food barn have a positive significant influence toward food barn development, filling the food barn and institutional capacity of food barn groups in realizing the food security of poor household in Wonogiri Regency. In food barn development, there are positive and clear perceptions of the food barn, institutional regulations. It indicates that significant as well as the economic institution of food barn are needed so that the food security can be realized.

  15. Unbiased classification of spatial strategies in the Barnes maze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illouz, Tomer; Madar, Ravit; Clague, Charlotte; Griffioen, Kathleen J; Louzoun, Yoram; Okun, Eitan

    2016-11-01

    Spatial learning is one of the most widely studied cognitive domains in neuroscience. The Morris water maze and the Barnes maze are the most commonly used techniques to assess spatial learning and memory in rodents. Despite the fact that these tasks are well-validated paradigms for testing spatial learning abilities, manual categorization of performance into behavioral strategies is subject to individual interpretation, and thus to bias. We have previously described an unbiased machine-learning algorithm to classify spatial strategies in the Morris water maze. Here, we offer a support vector machine-based, automated, Barnes-maze unbiased strategy (BUNS) classification algorithm, as well as a cognitive score scale that can be used for memory acquisition, reversal training and probe trials. The BUNS algorithm can greatly benefit Barnes maze users as it provides a standardized method of strategy classification and cognitive scoring scale, which cannot be derived from typical Barnes maze data analysis. Freely available on the web at http://okunlab.wix.com/okunlab as a MATLAB application. eitan.okun@biu.ac.ilSupplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Air quality in bedded mono-slope beef barns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedded mono-slope barns are becoming more common in the upper Midwest. Because these are new facilities, little research has been published regarding environmental quality, building management and animal performance in these facilities. A team of researchers from South Dakota State University, USDA ...

  17. Barn music at St Donat's castle / Philip Gross

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Gross, Philip, 1952-

    2011-01-01

    Muusikafestivalist "Vale of Glamorgan", mis oli 2010. a. pühendatud Arvo Pärdile. Eesti kammermuusikaansambli Resonabilis kavas oli ka festivali tellimusel valminud uelsi helilooja Gareth Peredur Churchilli "Vocable", mille teksti kirjutas Philip Gross. Festivalikontsertide muljeid leiab Grossi luuletsüklis "Barn music" (avaldatud samas ajakirjanumbris, lk. 42-43)

  18. John Dewey's Socially Instrumental Practice at the Barnes Foundation and the Role of "Transferred Values" in Aesthetic Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Margaret Hess

    2012-01-01

    When Albert Barnes established an art education program at the Barnes Foundation in 1924, he asked John Dewey to become the first president and director of education. Barnes and Dewey enjoyed a sustained and fruitful relationship with regard to aesthetic experience and scientific theory as applied to education. Barnes and Dewey shared a serious…

  19. Revitalization of food barns in supporting sustainable food security in Central Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riptanti, E. W.; Qonita, A.; Suprapti

    2018-02-01

    Rice barns have been developed in some areas in Central Java, but several problems seem to appear, leading to nonoptimal functions of nonactive food barns. The present article aims to examine revitalization of food barns through systematic, integrated, and sustainable empowerment. The research design is exploratory research to generate data that are in-depth qualitative and quantitative. Survey was applied in four regencies including Wonogiri, Purworejo, Temanggung, and Batang. Key informants comprise caretakers of food barns, village apparatus, public figures, and Food Security Office apparatus. The research results revealed that the food barns have not been managed in professional manners. Active roles of all members and caretakers, village government, and Food Security Agency are, therefore, required in revitalizing the food barns. In order to perform social functions well, the food barns should be profit-oriented to achieve sustainability.

  20. Aeroallergens in dairy barns near Cooperstown, New York and Rochester, Minnesota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, A.R.; Swanson, M.C.; Fernandez-Caldas, E.; Reed, C.E.; May, J.J.; Pratt, D.S.

    1989-01-01

    We sampled atmospheric barn air using a volumetric air sampler in ten barns near Cooperstown, NY and six barns near Rochester, MN, and, with radioimmunoassays, measured allergens of Aspergillus fumigatus, Thermoactinomyces vulgaris, Micropolyspori faeni, short ragweed, rye grass group I pollen, Alternaria (Alt-1), Dermatophagoides sp. Lepidoglyphus destructor, common insect allergen, mouse urine, rat urine, and cattle epithelium. The most abundant allergen present was A. fumigatus followed by L. destructor. This study provides initial data on barn aerobiology and demonstrates for the first time the abundance of L. destructor allergens in North American dairy barns. More comprehensive study of barns, poultry houses, confinement houses for swine, and other agricultural environments from various geographic locations is needed to define the allergen levels to which millions of farm workers are exposed each day. While most of the allergens were expected, the presence of airborne allergens reactive with antisera to Dermatophagoides suggests indirectly that substantial amounts of pyroglyphid mites are present in some barns

  1. The open-quotes Barn Bookclose quotes online

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLane, V.; Dunford, C.L.

    1997-01-01

    The open-quotes Barn Bookclose quotes has been a standard reference for neutron cross section data from the first edition published in 1955 as BNL-325 through the last edition published by Academic Press in 1988. With the development of electronic networks over the past decade, most users of nuclear data now have direct access to the most current data through the National Nuclear Data Center (NNDC) Online Data Service and similar services provided by other members of the Nuclear Data Centers Network or through the WorldWideWeb pages maintained by the members of this Network. A planned upgrade in the NNDC Online Data Service allows the user to plot the data in open-quotes Barn Bookclose quotes format

  2. Ammonia emission from Danish cubicle barns for dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kai, Peter; Adamsen, Anders Peter S.; Jensen, Morten L

    2017-01-01

    technique using carbon dioxide produced by the animals as tracer. The effect of manure removal from the slatted floor was tested in 2 SF barns applying an on-off test design, where a period of frequent manure removal was followed by a period of 0 or 1 manure removal per day. The on-off periods was repeated...... had solid drained floor (SDF). The manure was removed from the slatted floor 6 times per day and 12 times per day from solid drained floor. Each barn was measured 6 times over a period of a year, each period lasting 1-3 weeks. The ammonia emission was measured using the constant tracer injection...... difference in ammonia emission between periods with 6 manure removals per day or 0 or 1 manure removal per day was observed....

  3. Barn Jesus i en krybbe lå

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kirsten

    2007-01-01

    Efter en kort omtale af H.C. Andersens julesalme "Barn Jesus" præsenteres to nye julesalmer af henholdsvis Johannes Johansen, "Det var ikke en nat som de andre", og Lisbeth Smedegaard Andersen, "Blåt vælded lys frem bag skyers skred". Det påvises, at såvel Bibelen som den danske natur spiller en...

  4. Pragmatisk kompetanse hos barn med leppe-, kjeve-, og/ eller ganespalte

    OpenAIRE

    Vederhus, Ole-Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Denne tverrsnittstudiens hensikt er å kartlegge den pragmatiske kompetansen og de generelle kommunikasjonsferdighetene til barn med leppe-kjeve- og/ eller ganespalte. Barna (n = 17) i alderen 5:2-6:8 år ble kartlagt ved hjelp av The Children`s Communication Checklist 2 (D. V. M. Bishop, 2003), sammenlignet med sjekklistens normeringsgruppe og signifikanstestet på tvers av spaltetypene: isolert ganespalte (n = 7), leppe-, kjevespalte (n = 2) og leppe-, kjeve-, ganespalte (...

  5. Barnkonventionen och ansvarsfördelningen mellan barn och vuxna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolz, Pauline

    2011-01-01

    konvention pekar den ut rättigheter och skyldigheter för barn, föräldrar och stater på mycket specifika sätt. Men ansvarsfördelningen mellan dessa aktörer är oklar när man t ex kombinerar rätten till utbildning och till deltagande. I slutet av kapitlet kommer jag att ge exempel på utbildningspolitiska...

  6. Annual Report of Monitoring at Barnes, Kansas, in 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFreniere, Lorraine M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-05-01

    In 2006, the CCC/USDA assumed responsibility for the site investigation relating to potential carbon tetrachloride contamination. Initially, the CCC/USDA developed and implemented a work plan for targeted groundwater sampling and monitoring well installation (KDHE 2009). The investigation and subsequent monitoring (Argonne 2008a-d, 2009a,b, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2015a,b, 2016) were performed by the Environmental Science Division of Argonne National Laboratory. The reports of environmental investigations at Barnes are summarized.

  7. New four-dimensional integrals by Mellin-Barnes transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allendes, Pedro; Guerrero, Natanael; Kondrashuk, Igor; Notte Cuello, Eduardo A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the calculation of a special class of integrals by Mellin-Barnes transform. It contains double integrals in the position space in d=4-2ε dimensions, where ε is parameter of dimensional regularization. These integrals contribute to the effective action of the N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. The integrand is a fraction in which the numerator is the logarithm of the ratio of space-time intervals, and the denominator is the product of powers of space-time intervals. According to the method developed in the previous papers, in order to make use of the uniqueness technique for one of two integrations, we shift exponents in powers in the denominator of integrands by some multiples of ε. As the next step, the second integration in the position space is done by Mellin-Barnes transform. For normalizing procedure, we reproduce first the known result obtained earlier by Gegenbauer polynomial technique. Then, we make another shift of exponents in powers in the denominator to create the logarithm in the numerator as the derivative with respect to the shift parameter δ. We show that the technique of work with the contour of the integral modified in this way by using Mellin-Barnes transform repeats the technique of work with the contour of the integral without such a modification. In particular, all the operations with a shift of contour of integration over complex variables of twofold Mellin-Barnes transform are the same as before the δ modification of indices, and even the poles of residues coincide. This confirms the observation made in the previous papers that in the position space all the Green's function of N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory can be expressed in terms of Usyukina-Davydychev functions.

  8. Annual Report of Monitoring at Barnes, Kansas, in 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFreniere, Lorraine M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Barnes, Kansas, is a small rural community (population approximately 150) located in Washington County, in north-central Kansas (Figure 1.1). Barnes is located in Section 9, Township 4 South, Range 5 East, at approximate latitude 39°43'0'' north and longitude 96°52'25'' west (USGS 1968). The city lies in a transition zone between the Flint Hills and the glaciated region. The area’s topography consists of gently sloping hills of Pleistocene loess (< 20 ft) overlying a shale unit and interbedded shale, limestone, and siltstone of the Permian Chase Group. Groundwater for the public water supply is obtained from wells PWS2 and PWS3 at reported depths of 155 ft and 160 ft, respectively, located in the northwestern portion of the city. The water is produced from the bedrock aquifer of the Chase Group. Section 2 summarizes the hydrogeologic conceptual site model. This report summarizes findings for groundwater inspection in Barnes.

  9. Visual search in barn owls: Task difficulty and saccadic behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlowski, Julius; Ben-Shahar, Ohad; Wagner, Hermann

    2018-01-01

    How do we find what we are looking for? A target can be in plain view, but it may be detected only after extensive search. During a search we make directed attentional deployments like saccades to segment the scene until we detect the target. Depending on difficulty, the search may be fast with few attentional deployments or slow with many, shorter deployments. Here we study visual search in barn owls by tracking their overt attentional deployments-that is, their head movements-with a camera. We conducted a low-contrast feature search, a high-contrast orientation conjunction search, and a low-contrast orientation conjunction search, each with set sizes varying from 16 to 64 items. The barn owls were able to learn all of these tasks and showed serial search behavior. In a subsequent step, we analyzed how search behavior of owls changes with search complexity. We compared the search mechanisms in these three serial searches with results from pop-out searches our group had reported earlier. Saccade amplitude shortened and fixation duration increased in difficult searches. Also, in conjunction search saccades were guided toward items with shared target features. These data suggest that during visual search, barn owls utilize mechanisms similar to those that humans use.

  10. Air quality in barns for milk-fed calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavoie, J.

    2007-01-01

    Seventy per cent of the veal produced in Canada comes from Quebec. This paper reported on the air quality in barns used for milk-fed calves. It is known that air quality inside livestock buildings has an impact on both workers and animals, particularly in winter when air circulation is reduced. In this study, air quality inside barns was studied during the winter, spring and summer. Three types of barns with 3 different types of ventilation typically found in Quebec were evaluated. These included those with preheated corridors, lateral air entries, and central chimneys. Gases were measured in order to determine concentrations and emissions of: ammonia (NH 3 ) which is toxic, colourless and flammable; hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) which is very toxic, flammable; carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) which is colourless and odourless; nitrous oxide (N 2 O) which is colourless and flammable, but harmless to health in the short-term; carbon monoxide (CO) which is colourless, odourless and flammable; and methane (CH 4 ) which is the principal constituent released by animals, and is also colourless, odourless and extremely flammable. When exposed to air, both methane and carbon monoxide can produce an explosive mix especially in an enclosed area. Bacteria, mold, endotoxins, and dust are also present in barns. Samples of gases were analyzed with the help of different portable apparatuses. Results revealed that there are no significant problems with air quality in barns used for milk-fed calves in Quebec. It was determined that the inside temperature was appropriate even during summer periods, and although the relative humidity was higher than the recommended values for the care and handling of farm animals, it was still acceptable. In winter, ammonia was the only gas present in concentrations that reached values of weighted average exposure. Also, concentrations of bacteria were higher during winter. It was suggested that better air ventilation during the winter period would lower ammonia

  11. Emission factors of greenhouse gases from layer and broiler barns in Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngwabie, N. Martin; Acobta, Ada N.; Manga, Veronica E.; VanderZaag, Andrew C.

    2018-03-01

    Limited information is available in the literature on greenhouse gas (GHG) quantification from livestock production systems in Africa. Therefore, this project was carried out to generate baseline emission factors of methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2) from broiler and layer barns with building design typical of Cameroon. Emissions were measured from two broiler barns during the entire production cycles and a layer barn for a limited period using flux chambers. Methane emission factors from the broiler barns with mud and cement floors were 0.96 ± 1.04 and 0.36 ± 0.17 mg bird-1 hr-1 respectively, and 0.76 ± 0.56 mg bird-1 hr-1 from the layer barn with cement floor. Nitrous oxide emission from the broiler barns with mud and cement floors were 12.94 ± 10.11 and 1.68 ± 1.02 mg bird-1 hr-1 respectively, and 0.21 ± 0.28 mg bird-1 hr-1 from the layer barn. Carbon dioxide emission factors from the broiler barns with mud and cement floors were 9327 ± 3508 and 25526 ± 6904 mg bird-1 hr-1 respectively, and 8942 ± 36756 mg bird-1 hr-1 from the layer barn. When scaled per livestock unit (LU), where 1 LU is 500 kg bird weight, CH4 emissions were 0.16 ± 0.17 and 0.06 ± 0.03 g LU-1 hr-1 from the broiler barns, and 0.19 ± 0.14 g LU-1 hr-1 from the layer barn. Nitrous oxide emissions were 2.16 ± 1.69 and 0.28 ± 0.17 g LU-1 hr-1 from the broiler barns, and 0.05 ± 0.07 g LU-1 hr-1 from the layer barn. Broilers reared in management systems with wood shavings on mud floor had relatively high CH4 and N2O emissions compared to broilers on wood shavings and cement floor, with the contrary observed for CO2. The emissions N2O were significantly higher from broiler barns compared to layer barns. Emissions were higher in the mornings compared to later periods of the day. Given the observed results, GHG emission mitigation strategies need to be customised for each building design and management system.

  12. An Electronic open-quotes Barn Bookclose quotes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, J.Z.

    1996-01-01

    Electronic publication of a comprehensive compilation of neutron cross sections - an open-quotes electronic barn bookclose quotes - can be of immense value to the practicing nuclear engineer, as well as in nuclear education and training. This paper describes such a publication. The files are published on compact disk-read-only memory (CD-ROM), with automatic updating over the Internet. The current version stores the curves graphically, but a future version will take better advantage of the interactive capabilities of electronic publishing by drawing the curves from ACE files open-quotes on the fly.close quotes

  13. Annual report of monitoring at Barnes, Kansas, in 2011.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFreniere, L. M. (Environmental Science Division)

    2012-07-26

    Barnes, Kansas, is a small rural community (population approximately 150) located in Washington County, in north-central Kansas (Figure 1.1). The city lies in a transition zone between the Flint Hills and the glaciated region. The area's topography consists of gently sloping hills of Pleistocene loess (< 20 ft) overlying a shale unit and interbedded shale, limestone, and siltstone of the Permian Chase Group. Groundwater for the public water supply is obtained from wells PWS2 and PWS3 at reported depths of 155 ft and 160 ft, respectively, located in the northwestern portion of the city. The water is produced from the bedrock aquifer of the Chase Group. Section 2 summarizes of the hydrogeologic conceptual site model. The findings of the monitoring events at Barnes in 2011 continued to support the following previous conclusions: (1) Measurements of groundwater levels obtained manually and through the use of automatic recorders have consistently indicated that the flow direction is strongly influenced by pumping of the public water supply wells. The results have demonstrated an apparent groundwater flow direction to the northeast when the public wells are not pumping and a northwesterly groundwater flow trend when the public wells are pumping. (2) Evaluation of manual water level measurements and carbon tetrachloride concentrations continues to suggest that three vertically distinguishable aquifer zones are present at Barnes: shallow, intermediate, and deep (Table 4.1). The highest concentration of carbon tetrachloride occurs in the intermediate zone, in wells near the former CCC/USDA grain storage facility. Lower concentrations have been detected in the deep aquifer zone (where the public water supply wells are screened), and no carbon tetrachloride has been detected in the shallow zone. (3) The conceptual model of the groundwater flow system at Barnes, as postulated on the basis of the accumulated results, suggests that the observed vertical hydraulic gradients

  14. Matglede hos barn : effekter av et læringsprogram

    OpenAIRE

    Myhrer, Kristine Svartebekk

    2013-01-01

    SAMMENDRAG Bakgrunnen for denne studien var Nasjonalt råd for ernærings nye kostholdsråd for den norske befolkningen. I rådene er det anbefalt å begrense inntaket av rødt kjøtt, bearbeidet kjøtt, salt, sukker og mettet fett for å forebygge kroniske kostrelaterte sykdommer i befolkningen, slik som diabetes og overvekt. For å påvirke barns valg av mat mot et sunnere kosthold er det behov for å forstå faktorer som kan påvirke barnas valg og aksept av matvarer Formålet med masteroppgaven e...

  15. The Application of Barnes Filter to Positioning the Center of Landed Tropical Cyclone in Numerical Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibo Zou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available After a tropical cyclone (TC making landfall, the numerical model output sea level pressure (SLP presents many small-scale perturbations which significantly influence the positioning of the TC center. To fix the problem, Barnes filter with weighting parameters C=2500 and G=0.35 is used to remove these perturbations. A case study of TC Fung-Wong which landed China in 2008 shows that Barnes filter not only cleanly removes these perturbations, but also well preserves the TC signals. Meanwhile, the centers (track obtained from SLP processed with Barnes filter are much closer to the observations than that from SLP without Barnes filter. Based on the distance difference (DD between the TC center determined by SLP with/without Barnes filter and observation, statistics analysis of 12 TCs which landed China during 2005–2015 shows that in most cases (about 85% the DDs are small (between −30 km and 30 km, while in a few cases (about 15% the DDs are large (greater than 30 km even 70 km. This further verifies that the TC centers identified from SLP with Barnes filter are more accurate compared to that directly obtained from model output SLP. Moreover, the TC track identified with Barnes filter is much smoother than that without Barnes filter.

  16. THE IMPACT OF LOCALIZATION AND BARN TYPE ON INSOLATION OF SIDEWALL STALLS DURING SUMMER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Angrecka

    2017-07-01

    The obtained results allowed us to identify optimal orientation of barns and to suggest the simplest technical measures to protect sidewall stalls from solar heat gain deleterious to cows. The model analysis of stall shading demonstrated that extension of barn eaves to 1 m on the southern side reduced the insolation of stalls over even up to 90% of their area.

  17. Environmental contamination with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis within and around a dairy barn under experimental conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisenberg, S.W.F.; Nielen, M.; Hoeboer, J.; Rutten, V.P.; Heederik, D.; Koets, A.P.

    2012-01-01

    To establish environmental contamination in and around a dairy barn, cows shedding Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) were housed in a freestall barn. Fecal samples were collected 15 times at 3-wk intervals, and samples of all animals were cultured by using the Trek Diagnostic Systems

  18. The Educational Theory of Mary Sheldon Barnes: Inquiry Learning as Indoctrination in History Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAninch, Stuart A.

    1990-01-01

    Barnes, an educator and textbook author, was a pioneer in the use of inquiry to teach secondary school history. Her work is criticized for the indoctrination it entailed and for its failure to encourage students to identify and examine the spiritual and political premises underlying the historical framework Barnes presented. (IAH)

  19. Barnes Ice Cap South Dome Trilateration Net Survey Data 1970-1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Barnes Ice Cap data set contains survey measurements of a network of 43 stakes along a 10 km flow line on the northeast flank of the south dome of the Barnes Ice...

  20. Social interactions of dairy cows introduced postpartally to a separated barn section - pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burow, Elke; Nielsen, Tine Rousing; Halekoh, Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    The hypothesis of reduced social activity of early lactating dairy cows when transferred postpartally to a separated barn section (S, group size 9.3 SD 2.1) vs. to a barn section of the main lactating herd (H, group size 130.1 SD 57.9) was tested. Social interactions of 12 cows in S and 14 cows...

  1. Designing the optimal robotic milking barn, Part 1: Quantifying facility usage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halachmi, I.; Metz, J.H.M.; Maltz, E.; Dijkhuizen, A.A.; Speelman, L.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore the stochastic nature of the usage of facilities in a robotic milking barn, independent of the barn layout. It presents experimental data obtained by monitoring 10 dairy cows over a period of 18 days. To minimize restrictions to the access of cows to the

  2. Barns kommunikasjon med ulike typer kart - en progressiv tilnærming til kartlesing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trine Bjerva

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Utgangspunktet for denne studien er en erkjennelse av hvor vanskelig det kan være for barn å samhandle med det symbolske kartet. Hovedmålet for prosjektet var å utvikle sikrere viten om hvordan barn kommuniserer med ulike typer kart. Det er utarbeidet en modell (Bjerva, Græsli, & Sigurjónsson, 2010 som viser hvordan vi kan utvikle ferdigheten kartlesing hos barn. Vi har undersøkt 106 barn i alderen 3 til 12 år om hvordan de mestrer direkte representasjoner (detaljfoto og perspektiv representasjoner (håndtegnet skråkart. Forskningsdesignet har en økologisk tilnærming hvor datainnsamlingen har foregått i terrenget. Resultatene indikerer at selv små barn mestrer antatt kompliserte oppgaver når de blir presentert for enkle hjelpemidler.

  3. A dominance hierarchy of auditory spatial cues in barn owls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilana B Witten

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Barn owls integrate spatial information across frequency channels to localize sounds in space.We presented barn owls with synchronous sounds that contained different bands of frequencies (3-5 kHz and 7-9 kHz from different locations in space. When the owls were confronted with the conflicting localization cues from two synchronous sounds of equal level, their orienting responses were dominated by one of the sounds: they oriented toward the location of the low frequency sound when the sources were separated in azimuth; in contrast, they oriented toward the location of the high frequency sound when the sources were separated in elevation. We identified neural correlates of this behavioral effect in the optic tectum (OT, superior colliculus in mammals, which contains a map of auditory space and is involved in generating orienting movements to sounds. We found that low frequency cues dominate the representation of sound azimuth in the OT space map, whereas high frequency cues dominate the representation of sound elevation.We argue that the dominance hierarchy of localization cues reflects several factors: 1 the relative amplitude of the sound providing the cue, 2 the resolution with which the auditory system measures the value of a cue, and 3 the spatial ambiguity in interpreting the cue. These same factors may contribute to the relative weighting of sound localization cues in other species, including humans.

  4. Annual report of monitoring at Barnes, Kansas, in 2010.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFreniere, L. M. (Environmental Science Division)

    2011-05-25

    The Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) operated a grain storage facility at Barnes, Kansas, in 1949-1974. Carbon tetrachloride contamination was initially detected in 1986 in the town's public water supply wells. In 2006-2007, the CCC/USDA conducted a comprehensive targeted investigation at and near its former property in Barnes to characterize this contamination. Those results were reported previously (Argonne 2008a). The results of that investigation indicated that carbon tetrachloride contamination is present in groundwater at low to moderate levels in the vicinity of the former CCC/USDA grain storage facility. Information obtained during the 2006-2007 investigation also indicated that at least one other potential source might have contributed to the groundwater contaminant plume (Argonne 2008a). The former agriculture building owned by the local school district, located immediately east of well PWS3, is also a potential source of the contamination. In November 2007, the CCC/USDA began periodic groundwater monitoring at Barnes. The monitoring is being conducted on behalf of the CCC/USDA by Argonne National Laboratory, under the direction of the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE). The objective is to monitor the carbon tetrachloride contamination identified in the groundwater at Barnes. Through 2010, sampling was conducted in a network of 28 individual monitoring wells (at 19 distinct locations), 2 public water supply wells, and 1 private well (Figure 1.1). The results of the 2006-2007 targeted investigation and the subsequent monitoring events (Argonne 2008a-d, 2009a,b, 2010) demonstrated the presence of carbon tetrachloride contamination in groundwater at levels exceeding the KDHE Tier 2 risk-based screening level (RBSL) of 5.0 {micro}g/L for this compound. The contaminant plume appears to extend from the former CCC/USDA property northwestward, toward the Barnes public water supply wells. Long

  5. Lung responses to secondary endotoxin challenge in rats exposed to pig barn air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Townsend Hugh GG

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Swine barn air contains endotoxin and many other noxious agents. Single or multiple exposures to pig barn air induces lung inflammation and loss of lung function. However, we do not know the effect of exposure to pig barn air on inflammatory response in the lungs following a secondary infection. Therefore, we tested a hypothesis that single or multiple exposures to barn air will result in exaggerated lung inflammation in response to a secondary insult with Escherichia coli LPS (E. coli LPS. Methods We exposed Sprague-Dawley rats to ambient (N = 12 or swine barn air (N = 24 for one or five days and then half (N = 6/group of these rats received intravenous E. coli LPS challenge, observed for six hours and then euthanized to collect lung tissues for histology, immunohistochemistry and ELISA to assess lung inflammation. Results Compared to controls, histological signs of lung inflammation were evident in barn exposed rat lungs. Rats exposed to barn air for one or five days and challenged with E. coli LPS showed increased recruitment of granulocytes compared to those exposed only to the barn. Control, one and five day barn exposed rats that were challenged with E. coli LPS showed higher levels of IL-1β in the lungs compared to respective groups not challenged with E. coli LPS. The levels of TNF-α in the lungs did not differ among any of the groups. Control rats without E. coli LPS challenge showed higher levels of TGF-β2 compared to controls challenged with E. coli LPS. Conclusion These results show that lungs of rats exposed to pig barn air retain the ability to respond to E. coli LPS challenge.

  6. The Relation Between the Raw Milk and Barn Hygiene in Tied Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Popescu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between the hygiene of the barns and of the raw milk in tie stall dairy barns. Ten dairy farms with tie stalls from Transylvaniawere included in the study. The barn hygiene was evaluated based on the cows’ body hygiene. 820 dairy cows were assessed. The hygiene of the raw milk was investigated by the determination of the total bacteria count, in 359 individually milked samples. The data were analysed using the SPSS statistical software. The highest percentage of the 3 and 4 hygiene scores was recorded in the udder area, followed by the upper leg and flank and the lower leg. The total bacterial counts varied greatly in the milk from the investigated farms, from 100 CFU/ml to 307 x 103 CFU/ml. Four of the ten assessed barns were considered dirty and in five barns the total bacterial count exceeded the admitted limit. The barn hygiene correlated significantly with the hygiene of the raw milk (r = 0.82, P = 0.004. The results of the study attested that the hygiene quality of raw milk depends largely on the cleanliness of the barn where the animals are housed.

  7. Barns Society as a Buffer Stock (Case in Nglaris Village Bener District Purworejo Regency)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riptanti, E. W.; Qonita, A.; Suprapti

    2017-04-01

    Nglaris village is a mountainous area with most of its agricultural lands are used for growing annual crops, while only small agricultural areas are for growing rice. However, the post-harvest storage, in the form of barn society, can supply the people’s needs of rice. Article describes the function of barn society as a buffer for foods supply. Research design was exploratory research, aims to generate in-depth qualitative and contextual data. The technique applied in this research was a case study. The cost for barn society maintenance was collected from the joint venture between farmers united in the barn society group. The barn society has 20 tons capacity for unhulled rice. The farmers obtained the income from working during the harvest time and become a labour harvester to outside Nglaris or called “boro”. The farmer (field owner) gave natura wages (“bawon”). Bawon calculated based on the result of total harvested unhulled. Supply for buffer of foods in the dry season was at least 50% of the capacity barn society’s, so that it can secure the supplies of staple foods. The barn society is specifically advantageous during the dry season because each farmer could lend and should be returned within one year.

  8. Multiple exposures to swine barn air induce lung inflammation and airway hyper-responsiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willson Philip

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Swine farmers repeatedly exposed to the barn air suffer from respiratory diseases. However the mechanisms of lung dysfunction following repeated exposures to the barn air are still largely unknown. Therefore, we tested a hypothesis in a rat model that multiple interrupted exposures to the barn air will cause chronic lung inflammation and decline in lung function. Methods Rats were exposed either to swine barn (8 hours/day for either one or five or 20 days or ambient air. After the exposure periods, airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR to methacholine (Mch was measured and rats were euthanized to collect bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF, blood and lung tissues. Barn air was sampled to determine endotoxin levels and microbial load. Results The air in the barn used in this study had a very high concentration of endotoxin (15361.75 ± 7712.16 EU/m3. Rats exposed to barn air for one and five days showed increase in AHR compared to the 20-day exposed and controls. Lungs from the exposed groups were inflamed as indicated by recruitment of neutrophils in all three exposed groups and eosinophils and an increase in numbers of airway epithelial goblet cells in 5- and 20-day exposure groups. Rats exposed to the barn air for one day or 20 days had more total leukocytes in the BALF and 20-day exposed rats had more airway epithelial goblet cells compared to the controls and those subjected to 1 and 5 exposures (P Conclusion We conclude that multiple exposures to endotoxin-containing swine barn air induce AHR, increase in mucus-containing airway epithelial cells and lung inflammation. The data also show that prolonged multiple exposures may also induce adaptation in AHR response in the exposed subjects.

  9. Welfare Consequences of Omitting Beak Trimming in Barn Layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Anja Brinch; Hinrichsen, Lena Karina

    2017-01-01

    housing laying hens in the barn system. Each farm participated with a flock of beak-trimmed hens (T) and a flock of non-trimmed (NT) hens that were visited around 32 and 62 weeks of age. During visits, the condition of plumage, skin, feet, and keel bone of 100 hens was assessed. Mortality was recorded...... by the producers. NT flocks had a lower prevalence of hens with good plumage condition around 32 weeks of age (94.1 vs. 99.6%, P condition at 62 weeks of age (63.6 vs. 15.2%, P ... of keel bone damage was higher among hens with poor plumage condition than hens with moderate/good plumage condition (31.5 vs. 22.2%; P condition of plumage, skin, and keel bone, and tended to increase mortality, highlighting...

  10. Investigation of Usability Potential Geopolimer Concrete at Animal Barns Abstract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selçuk Memiş

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Portland cement, which causes significant energy and raw material consumption, is responsible for about 7% of CO2 emissions. In order to reduce CO2 emissions from cement production, with the aim of using a binder with a lower CO2 release or investigation of different methods, alternative materials to cement are required. In contrast to portland cement (PO, which is used in concrete production; geopolimer is a material that is potentially useful as an alternative to cement and is still being explored provides a very low CO2 emission, a high resistance to salts and acids, and a high temperature and fire resistance. In this study, the effects of geopolymer concrete were investigated in animal barn. For this purpose, samples were prepared using calcite aggregate, alkali activator and activation solution. As alkali activator of geopolymer material ceramic sludge (ST is used at 20% of blast furnace slag (YFC. Sodium silicate (Na2SiO4 and sodium hydroside (NaOH were used as the activation solution in 60-40% mixing ratio. Bending and compressive strengths were determined in 4×4×16 cm specimens and shrinkage ratios were determined on 25×25×285 mm specimens. In order to determine the conditions of the animal shelters of the geopolymer concrete, the strengths of the samples in 10% sulfuric acid (H2SO4 and sulphate (SO4 solution were compared with 28th, 56th and 90th days. It has been seen that the use of geopolymer concrete in animal barn can provide advantages.

  11. On farm development of bedded pack dairy barns in The Netherlands : animal welfare and milk quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouweltjes, W.; Smolders, E.A.A.

    2014-01-01

    This report describes figures on animal health and welfare on three Dutch commercial dairy farms that house their cows in bedded pack barns. Moreover, some milk quality parameters and culling and replacement figures are reported.

  12. Diabetes mellitus typ 2 bland barn och tonåringar : en kvalitativ litteraturstudie

    OpenAIRE

    Lundberg, Sandra; Östman, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    Syftet med detta examensarbete är att genom enkvalitativ litteraturstudie ta reda på de förebyggande åtgärderna mot diabetes mellitus typ 2 bland barn och tonåringar. För att förtydliga och skapa förståelse för de förebyggande åtgärderna för typ 2 diabetes bland barn och tonåringar har respondenterna valt att ta reda på orsaker och riskfaktorer till typ 2 diabetes bland barn och tonåringar. Litteraturstudien görs för att lyfta fram kunskap om typ 2 diabetes bland barn och tonåringar. För att...

  13. Evaluating two-loop massive operator matrix elements with Mellin-Barnes integrals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bierenbaum, I.; Bluemlein, J.; Klein, S.

    2006-07-01

    We calculate massive 5-propagator 2-loop integrals for operator matrix elements in the light-cone expansion, using Mellin-Barnes techniques and representations through generalized hypergeometric functions. (Orig.)

  14. Improvement of directionality and sound-localization by internal ear coupling in barn owls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Hermann; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Kettler, Lutz

    Mark Konishi was one of the first to quantify sound-localization capabilities in barn owls. He showed that frequencies between 3 and 10 kHz underlie precise sound localization in these birds, and that they derive spatial information from processing interaural time and interaural level differences....... However, despite intensive research during the last 40 years it is still unclear whether and how internal ear coupling contributes to sound localization in the barn owl. Here we investigated ear directionality in anesthetized birds with the help of laser vibrometry. Care was taken that anesthesia...... time difference in the low-frequency range, barn owls hesitate to approach prey or turn their heads when only low-frequency auditory information is present in a stimulus they receive. Thus, the barn-owl's sound localization system seems to be adapted to work best in frequency ranges where interaural...

  15. Assessment of long-term gas sampling design at two commercial manure-belt layer barns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Li-Long; Ni, Ji-Qin; Chen, Yan; Diehl, Claude A; Heber, Albert J; Lim, Teng T

    2010-06-01

    Understanding temporal and spatial variations of aerial pollutant concentrations is important for designing air quality monitoring systems. In long-term and continuous air quality monitoring in large livestock and poultry barns, these systems usually use location-shared analyzers and sensors and can only sample air at limited number of locations. To assess the validity of the gas sampling design at a commercial layer farm, a new methodology was developed to map pollutant gas concentrations using portable sensors under steady-state or quasi-steady-state barn conditions. Three assessment tests were conducted from December 2008 to February 2009 in two manure-belt layer barns. Each barn was 140.2 m long and 19.5 m wide and had 250,000 birds. Each test included four measurements of ammonia and carbon dioxide concentrations at 20 locations that covered all operating fans, including six of the fans used in the long-term sampling that represented three zones along the lengths of the barns, to generate data for complete-barn monitoring. To simulate the long-term monitoring, gas concentrations from the six long-term sampling locations were extracted from the 20 assessment locations. Statistical analyses were performed to test the variances (F-test) and sample means (t test) between the 6- and 20-sample data. The study clearly demonstrated ammonia and carbon dioxide concentration gradients that were characterized by increasing concentrations from the west to east ends of the barns following the under-cage manure-belt travel direction. Mean concentrations increased from 7.1 to 47.7 parts per million (ppm) for ammonia and from 2303 to 3454 ppm for carbon dioxide from the west to east of the barns. Variations of mean gas concentrations were much less apparent between the south and north sides of the barns, because they were 21.2 and 20.9 ppm for ammonia and 2979 and 2951 ppm for carbon dioxide, respectively. The null hypotheses that the variances and means between the 6- and 20

  16. Spatial, road geometric, and biotic factors associated with Barn Owl mortality along an interstate highway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Erin M.; Hanser, Steven E.; Regan, Tempe; Thompson, Jeremy; Lowe, Melinda; Kociolek, Angela; Belthoff, James R.

    2018-01-01

    Highway programs typically focus on reducing vehicle collisions with large mammals because of economic or safety reasons while overlooking the millions of birds that die annually from traffic. We studied wildlife‐vehicle collisions along an interstate highway in southern Idaho, USA, with among the highest reported rates of American Barn Owl Tyto furcata road mortality. Carcass data from systematic and ad hoc surveys conducted in 2004–2006 and 2013–2015 were used to explore the extent to which spatial, road geometric, and biotic factors explained Barn Owl‐vehicle collisions. Barn Owls outnumbered all other identified vertebrate species of roadkill and represented > 25% of individuals and 73.6% of road‐killed birds. At a 1‐km highway segment scale, the number of dead Barn Owls decreased with increasing numbers of human structures, cumulative length of secondary roads near the highway, and width of the highway median. Number of dead Barn Owls increased with higher commercial average annual daily traffic (CAADT), small mammal abundance index, and with grass rather than shrubs in the roadside verge. The small mammal abundance index was also greater in roadsides with grass versus mixed shrubs, suggesting that Barn Owls may be attracted to grassy portions of the highway with more abundant small mammals for hunting prey. When assessed at a 3‐km highway segment scale, the number of dead Barn Owls again increased with higher CAADT as well as with greater numbers of dairy farms. At a 5‐km scale, number of dead Barn Owls increased with greater percentage of cropland near the highway. While human conversion of the environment from natural shrub‐steppe to irrigated agriculture in this region of Idaho has likely enhanced habitat for Barns Owls, it simultaneously has increased risk for owl‐vehicle collisions where an interstate highway traverses the altered landscape. We review some approaches for highway mitigation and suggest that reducing wildlife

  17. Performance and carcass characteristics of finishing beef cattle managed in a bedded hoop-barn system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeyman, M S; Busby, W D; Lonergan, S M; Johnson, A K; Maxwell, D L; Harmon, J D; Shouse, S C

    2010-08-01

    The use of bedded hoop barns in finishing systems for beef cattle has not been widely researched. In this management system, beef cattle are confined to hoop barns throughout finishing, and bedding is used to absorb animal waste, which results in minimal effluent. The objective of this study was to compare the performance and carcass characteristics of finishing beef steers (n = 1,428) managed in a bedded hoop-barn management system vs. an open-feedlot system with shelter. Six feeding trials were conducted over a 3-yr period. Three trials were conducted during summer-fall and 3 trials were conducted during winter-spring. Crossbred steers were allotted to 3 pens in the hoop-barn system and to 3 pens in the open-lot system (approximately 40 steers per pen in both facility systems). Stocking densities for the steers were 4.65 m(2) per steer in the hoop-barn system and 14.7 m(2) per steer in the open-lot system. The steers were begun on trial weighing 410 and 411 kg (SD = 21), were fed for 102.3 and 103.0 d (SD = 3.8), and were weighed off test at 595 and 602 kg (SD = 21) for the hoop-barn and open-lot systems, respectively. Steer performance measures consisted of ADG, DMI, and G:F. Carcass characteristics were HCW, fat thickness, LM area, KPH percentage, marbling score, USDA yield grade, and USDA quality grade. No year, season, or pen (management system) main effects, or season x management system and year x management system interactions were observed for any of the items measured related to cattle performance or carcass characteristics (P > 0.05). Final mud scores (a subjective evaluation of the amount of soil and manure adhering to the hair coat of the animals) were greater for the steers from the open-lot system compared with those from the hoop-barn system (P winter-spring. The performance of finishing cattle managed in a hoop-barn system was not different from the performance of cattle managed in an open-feedlot system with shelter during summer and winter

  18. Rehabilitation of farmhouses and barns: limits of salt content

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Clercq, Hilde; Godts, Sebastiaan

    2016-09-01

    The rehabilitation of historic buildings is a practice that aims to turn a historic property into a state of contemporary comfort for private or commercial use, while preserving its historic, architectural and cultural value, respecting items of authenticity, compatibility and sustainability. What once was a modest use of locally fired brick and mortar has become the subject of ambitious rehabilitation campaigns conforming to the rules of comfort and hygiene of the twenty-first century. A pre-investigation concerning the diagnosis of damage phenomena and the risk assessment of interventions is a crucial aspect for the success of a restoration campaign. The question of "How to optimally preserve a monument within its current conditions" is replaced by "How can a monument optimally perform in the conditions suited to the assigned rehabilitation project". Today historic farms and their surroundings, after being abandoned for several decades, are the subject of different types of private or commercial rehabilitation projects. An example of such a project is the farm "Hof De Pleyne" in Loppem (West-Flanders, Belgium). The project intended to integrate a restaurant kitchen into the former animal barn. The limits of salt content with respect to the desired rehabilitation facilities while respecting safety regulations are presented.

  19. Memory Revisited in Julian Barnes's The Sense of an Ending

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maricel Oró Piqueras

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available An accumulation of years brings with it an accumulation of experiences. The revision of such experiences usually becomes more recurrent after retirement, a transition time from one period of life to another and, as such, a time in which we, human beings, have a tendency to take stock of our lives. This is actually one of the main issues present in Julian Barnes's last novel The Sense of an Ending (2011. When the main protagonist, a retired man quite comfortable and contented with his present life, receives an unexpected inheritance from the mother of a girlfriend from his university years, he is forced to track down a part of his life that he had left at the back of his mind a long time ago. As he explains his story, the protagonist and narrator of the novel raises a number of questions related to the quality and function of memory as one gets into old age. He experiments the unreliability of memory and questions to what extent memory is constructed through the remembered emotions that invaded him over that episode of his life rather than through the events as they actually took place. On the other hand, the act of revisiting and revising that specific episode, brings with it feelings of guilt and remorse as the protagonist realises that his past acts were not as noble as he remembered them to be. However, these acts are part of the past and they cannot be changed; thus, another question that the novel raises is how to account for those actions of which one does not feel proud and, more importantly, how to manage those bad memories as one gets older

  20. Barn swallows nesting near radioactive leaching ponds in southeastern Idaho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millard, J.B.; Whicker, F.W.; Markham, O.D.

    1978-01-01

    Seasonally occurring populations of barn swallows nest near the Test Reactor Area (TRA) radioactive leaching ponds on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Site. These birds utilize leaching pond arthropods and are therefore capable of accumulating radioactive materials and exporting them from the INEL Site during migration. The breeding biology is discussed for these swallows and a control group located 100 km away. Total nestling mortality for the controls and a 1977 TRA population was found to be statistically identical. Over 20 fission and activation products have been detected in immature and adult TRA birds. Mean concentrations of detectable radionuclides were used to calculate internal dose rates, and results showed that Na-24 contributed about 72% of the total average of 21.9 mrad/d for adult birds. Concentration factors were also calculated for predominant radionuclides in swallows relative to filtered pond water. Data from LiF dosimeters in swallow nests constructed with contaminated mud indicated average dose rates were 84 mrad/d for eggs and 220 mrad/d for nestlings. Growth curves were constructed for the immature TRA birds and controls. The first clutch of TRA swallows was found to have a significantly lower mean growth rate constant than the first clutch of controls. The statistical difference in growth rate between the control and TRA first clutch populations may have resulted from differences in climate, nesting site habitat, or available food sources, and cannot be solely attributed to radiation exposure as a causative factor. Growth rate parameters for TRA birds were within the range of values reported in the literature

  1. The Strategy to Increase Women Farmer's Participation in the Program of Village Food Barn in East Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuliatia, Yayuk; Iskaskar, Riyanti

    2016-01-01

    Food Barn Village Programme is one of the government's efforts in achieving household food security which includes four components. The purpose of this study was to develop a strategy to increase women's participation in the Food Barn Village Programme. This research was conducted in three villages in the district of Malang, namely: Village…

  2. Iterated Mellin-Barnes integrals as period on the Calabi-Yau manifolds with several modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passare, M.; Tsikh, A.K.; Cheshel', A.A.

    1996-01-01

    In superstring compactification theory the representation of periods on the Calabi-Yau manifolds with several modules is given by iterated Mellin-Barnes integrals. By using this representation and multidimensional residues a method of analytic continuation for fundamental period in terms of Gorn series is developed

  3. Do cows prefer a barn compartment with a grooved or slotted floor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stefanowska, J.; Swierstra, D.; Berg, van den J.V.; Metz, J.H.M.

    2002-01-01

    Cow preferences for one of two compartments with different floors were tested in a barn with two symmetrical, connected compartments, each intended for 16 cows. Compartments were identical except for the floor. One floor was grooved longitudinally to the feeding barrier and the other was slotted

  4. Variation in sperm morphometry and sperm competition among barn swallow (Hirundo rustica) populations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Laskemoen, T.; Albrecht, Tomáš; Bonisoli-Alquati, A.; Cepák, J.; De Lope, F.; Hermosell, I. G.; Johannessen, L. E.; Kleven, O.; Marzal, A.; Mousseau, T. A.; Moller, A. P.; Robertson, R. J.; Rudolfsen, G.; Saino, N.; Vortman, Y.; Lifjeld, J. T.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 2 (2013), s. 301-309 ISSN 0340-5443 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP506/12/2472 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Barn swallow * Extrapair paternity * Hirundo rustica * Sperm competition * Sperm size Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.049, year: 2013

  5. Milk urea concentration as an indicator of ammonia emission from dairy cow barn under restricted grazing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duinkerken, van G.; Smits, M.C.J.; Andre, G.; Sebek, L.B.J.; Dijkstra, J.

    2011-01-01

    Bulk milk urea concentration was evaluated to assess its potential as an indicator of ammonia emission from a dairy cow barn in a situation with restricted grazing. An experiment was carried out with a herd of, on average, 52 Holstein-Friesian dairy cows. The cows were housed in a naturally

  6. Endogenous anxiety and stress responses in water maze and Barnes maze spatial memory tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, F.E.; Hosseini, A.H.; McDonald, M.P.

    2009-01-01

    The effects of abnormally high or low stress on learning are well established. The Barnes maze and Morris water maze are two commonly-used tests of spatial memory, of which the water maze is considered more stressful; however, until now this has not been demonstrated empirically. In the present study, mice matched for performance on commonly-used anxiety tasks were trained on either the Barnes maze or water maze or received no cognitive testing. Water-maze training induced greater increases in plasma corticosterone than did Barnes maze training, assessed 30 min. after the final session. Importantly, spatial learning was inversely correlated with corticosterone levels in the water maze but not the Barnes maze, suggesting that performance on the water maze may be more affected by test-induced stress even within wild-type subjects of the same age and gender. These findings are important when considering the appropriate cognitive tasks for any experiment in which stress responses may differ systematically across groups. PMID:18996418

  7. Advance Organizers as a Teaching Strategy: A Reply to Barnes and Clawson

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Joseph T.; Wanska, Susan K.

    1977-01-01

    Barnes and Clawson's presentation of Ausubel's theory of meaningful learning (Review of Educational Research, 45, 1975, pp. 637-59) is misleading, according to the author. He states that Ausubel's crucial point is not that organizers relate new knowledge to an existing cognitive structure, but that new learning materials can only be considered…

  8. Social huddling and physiological thermoregulation are related to melanism in the nocturnal barn owl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreiss, Amélie N; Séchaud, Robin; Béziers, Paul; Villain, Nicolas; Genoud, Michel; Almasi, Bettina; Jenni, Lukas; Roulin, Alexandre

    2016-02-01

    Endothermic animals vary in their physiological ability to maintain a constant body temperature. Since melanin-based coloration is related to thermoregulation and energy homeostasis, we predict that dark and pale melanic individuals adopt different behaviours to regulate their body temperature. Young animals are particularly sensitive to a decrease in ambient temperature because their physiological system is not yet mature and growth may be traded-off against thermoregulation. To reduce energy loss, offspring huddle during periods of cold weather. We investigated in nestling barn owls (Tyto alba) whether body temperature, oxygen consumption and huddling were associated with melanin-based coloration. Isolated owlets displaying more black feather spots had a lower body temperature and consumed more oxygen than those with fewer black spots. This suggests that highly melanic individuals display a different thermoregulation strategy. This interpretation is also supported by the finding that, at relatively low ambient temperature, owlets displaying more black spots huddled more rapidly and more often than those displaying fewer spots. Assuming that spot number is associated with the ability to thermoregulate not only in Swiss barn owls but also in other Tytonidae, our results could explain geographic variation in the degree of melanism. Indeed, in the northern hemisphere, barn owls and allies are less spotted polewards than close to the equator, and in the northern American continent, barn owls are also less spotted in colder regions. If melanic spots themselves helped thermoregulation, we would have expected the opposite results. We therefore suggest that some melanogenic genes pleiotropically regulate thermoregulatory processes.

  9. The location of manure accumulated in cattle livestock barns and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Manure, which is accumulated in cattle livestock barns, is regarded as serious waste if it is not stored properly. In order to avoid such problems, the manure should be stored in a closed and leak-proof environment. This study was conducted via the use of a questionnaire in Izmir, Odemis, Turkey. A stratified random sampling ...

  10. IMPACT OF THE LOCATION OF THE DAIRY COWS IN THE BARN ON THEIR BODY SURFACE TEMPERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Slachta

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to determine skin surface temperature of dairy cows housed in tie stalls, according to their location in the barn. A total of 52 healthy cows were investigated, 31 of which were kept in cold stalls by the entrance to the barn and 21 in warm stalls located in the centre of the barn. Skin surface temperature was measured in 8 different body parts using a non-contact thermometer Fluke 572 pyrometer. The results showed that skin temperature of the cows varied according to their location. It was significantly lower in the cows housed in cold stalls compared to those kept in warm stalls P lt; 0.05. The difference was particularly evident for the udder, reaching 1.1C P lt, 0.01. Skin temperature of the cows varied between different measurement points. In both cold and warm stalls, skin temperature was highest on the udder and lowest at the hock joint P lt, 0.01. Time of day and air temperature outside the barn had a highly significant effect on the skin temperature of the cows. The lower the air temperature was, the lower was the skin temperature at all points of measurement P lt, 0.01. It was found that the skin surface of housed cows subjected to increased air movement is at a greater risk of becoming hypothermic.

  11. The location of manure accumulated in cattle livestock barns and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-05

    Dec 5, 2011 ... barns and its interaction with the environment. Atilgan Atilgan1*, Hasan Oz1 and Kenan Buyuktas2. 1Department of Agricultural Structure and Irrigation, Faculty of Agriculture, Süleyman Demirel University,. Isparta, 32260, Turkey. ... amount of production, product quality, soil structure, ground and surface ...

  12. Short Note An analysis of Barn and Grass Owl pellets from Alice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Short Note An analysis of Barn and Grass Owl pellets from Alice, Eastern Cape, South Africa. RM Baxter, AJ Matshili. Abstract. (Ostrich: 2003 74(3&4): 233-235). Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.2989/00306520309485400.

  13. Evaluating Soil Health Using Remotely Sensed Evapotranspiration on the Benchmark Barnes Soils of North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohn, Meyer; Hopkins, David; Steele, Dean; Tuscherer, Sheldon

    2017-04-01

    The benchmark Barnes soil series is an extensive upland Hapludoll of the northern Great Plains that is both economically and ecologically vital to the region. Effects of tillage erosion coupled with wind and water erosion have degraded Barnes soil quality, but with unknown extent, distribution, or severity. Evidence of soil degradation documented for a half century warrants that the assumption of productivity be tested. Soil resilience is linked to several dynamic soil properties and National Cooperative Soil Survey initiatives are now focused on identifying those properties for benchmark soils. Quantification of soil degradation is dependent on a reliable method for broad-scale evaluation. The soil survey community is currently developing rapid and widespread soil property assessment technologies. Improvements in satellite based remote-sensing and image analysis software have stimulated the application of broad-scale resource assessment. Furthermore, these technologies have fostered refinement of land-based surface energy balance algorithms, i.e. Mapping Evapotranspiration at High Resolution with Internalized Calibration (METRIC) algorithm for evapotranspiration (ET) mapping. The hypothesis of this study is that ET mapping technology can differentiate soil function on extensive landscapes and identify degraded areas. A recent soil change study in eastern North Dakota resampled legacy Barnes pedons sampled prior to 1960 and found significant decreases in organic carbon. An ancillary study showed that evapotranspiration (ET) estimates from METRIC decreased with Barnes erosion class severity. An ET raster map has been developed for three eastern North Dakota counties using METRIC and Landsat 5 imagery. ET pixel candidates on major Barnes soil map units were stratified into tertiles and classified as ranked ET subdivisions. A sampling population of randomly selected points stratified by ET class and county proportion was established. Morphologic and chemical data will

  14. Nye estimater av organdoser til barn ved datatomografi (CT) utført på 1990-tallet i Norge

    OpenAIRE

    Toft, Benthe

    2013-01-01

    Bakgrunn: Bruk av datatomografi (CT) har økt i Norge de siste ti årene og står nå for 80 % av befolkningsdosen fra medisinsk bruk av stråling. Det er usikkerhet rundt risikoen ved bruk av ioniserende stråling, særlig knyttet til CT av barn og unge. En stor internasjonal studie (EPI-CT-prosjektet) tar sikte på å skaffe økt kunnskap om risiko for leukemi og hjernekreft forbundet med CT-undersøkelser hos barn og unge. Studiens hensikt: Karlegging av organdoser til barn ved CT-undersøkelser p...

  15. Semi-annual monitoring report for Barnes, Kansas, for July-December 2009.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFreniere, L. M.; Environmental Science Division

    2010-04-27

    The Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) operated a grain storage facility at Barnes, Kansas, during most of the interval 1949-1974. Carbon tetrachloride contamination was initially detected in 1986 in the town's public water supply wells. In 2006-2007, the CCC/USDA conducted a comprehensive targeted investigation at and near its former property in Barnes to characterize this contamination. Those results were reported previously (Argonne 2008a). In November 2007, the CCC/USDA began quarterly groundwater monitoring at Barnes. The monitoring is being conducted on behalf of the CCC/USDA by Argonne National Laboratory, in accord with the recommendations made in the report for the 2006-2007 targeted investigation (Argonne 2008a). The objective is to monitor the carbon tetrachloride contamination identified in the groundwater at Barnes. The sampling is presently conducted in a network of 28 individual monitoring wells (at 19 distinct locations), 2 public water supply wells, and 1 private well (Figure 1.1). The results of the 2006-2007 targeted investigation and the subsequent monitoring events (Argonne 2008a-d, 2009a,b) demonstrated the presence of carbon tetrachloride contamination in groundwater at levels exceeding the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE) Tier 2 risk-based screening level (RBSL) of 5.0 {micro}g/L for this compound. The contaminant plume appears to extend from the former CCC/USDA property northwestward, toward the Barnes public water supply wells. Information obtained during the 2006-2007 investigation indicates that at least one other potential source might have contributed to the groundwater contaminant plume (Argonne 2008a). The former agriculture building owned by the local school district, located immediately east of well PWS3, is also a potential source of the contamination. This current report presents the results of the seventh quarterly monitoring event, conducted in September

  16. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 141-C Large Animal Barn and Biology Laboratory (Hog Barn), Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-027

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. A. Carlson

    2006-05-24

    The 141-C waste site is a former large animal barn and biology laboratory within the 100-F Area experimental animal farm. Strontium-90, arsenic, and multiple polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were detected within residual demolition debris at concentrations exceeding cleanup criteria. The site has been remediated by removing approximately 900 bank cubic meters of soil and debris within the former building footprint to the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility. The results of verification sampling demonstrated that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also showed that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  17. Differential predation cost of a secondary sexual character: sparrowhawk predation on barn swallows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MØller; Nielsen

    1997-12-01

    Models of reliable signalling assume that secondary sexual characters and other displays are more costly to individuals of low than high phenotypic quality, and that low quality individuals disproportionately compromise their reproduction and survival prospects by investment in signalling. A field study of barn swallows, Hirundo rustica with sexually exaggerated tail feathers, supported this prediction. Males were captured by sparrowhawks, Accipiter nisus more often than females, and captured males had shorter and more asymmetric tails than male barn swallows that were still alive at the end of the breeding season. These results suggest that there was a negative relationship between degree of sexual ornamentation and predation risk, consistent with the hypothesis that the secondary sexual character is a reliable indicator of quality.Copyright 1997 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour

  18. Animal hygiene assessment of microclimate in semi open free-stall barns for dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Dimov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The study was conducted in three semi open free-stall barns (B1, B2, and B3 for dairy cows with capacities for 120, 120 and 500 cows, respectively, from three different dairy farms (F-1, F-2 and F-3, situated in Central Southern Bulgaria. The investigated farms had the same production system – loose housing in semi open free-stall dairy barn. For each of the farms the main microclimatic parameters – air temperature, relative humidity and speed of airflow were recorded twice a month at 10.00 h 12.00 h, 14.00 h, 16.00 h and 18.00 h of the day inside the barns in three main technological zones - above the stalls, above manure and feed alleys and outside the buildings. It was found that: a Microclimatic parameters (air temperature, air relative humidity and speed of airflow in technological zones (above the stalls, the manure and feed alleys of three semi open free-stall dairy barns meet the animal hygienic requirements for all seasons according to Regulation No. 44 (2006. Exceptions are some values of relative humidity in B1 and B2 in the spring, and in B1 in winter and summer, which are lower than the minimum humidity (50% according to the standard. b The investigated barns are characterized with poor insulation and do not provide enough isolation from the external ambient temperatures. With the exception of winter, the temperature of the air inside the buildings was lower than that outside, with minor differences for all seasons. The fans in the barns have no effect on the inside air temperature, especially in summer. There was a risk of higher temperatures mainly during the summer period. c There is no significant difference between the average temperatures, air humidity and speed of airflow in all technological zones of the investigated barns. d The largest and statistically significant is the difference between the relative air humidity outside and inside the building in Farm 3, followed by buildings in Farm 1 and 2, where the

  19. Asymptotic expansions of Feynman diagrams and the Mellin-Barnes representation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friot, Samuel; Greynat, David

    2007-01-01

    In this talk, we describe part of our recent work [S. Friot, D. Greynat and E. de Rafael, Phys. Lett. B 628 (2005) 73 [ (arXiv:hep-ph/0505038)] (see also [S. Friot, PhD Thesis (2005); D. Greynat, PhD Thesis (2005)]) that gives new results in the context of asymptotic expansions of Feynman diagrams using the Mellin-Barnes representation

  20. Non-planar Feynman integrals, Mellin-Barnes representations, multiple sums

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bluemlein, Johannes; Dubovyk, Ievgen; Ochman, Michal; Raab, Clemens G.; Riemann, Tord [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Gluza, Janusz [Uniwersytet Slaski, Katowice (Poland). Inst. of Physics and Chemistry; Schneider, Carsten [Johannes Kepler Univ., Linz (Austria). Research Inst. for Symbolic Computation

    2014-07-15

    The construction of Mellin-Barnes (MB) representations for non-planar Feynman diagrams and the summation of multiple series derived from general MB representations are discussed. A basic version of a new package AMBREv.3.0 is supplemented. The ultimate goal of this project is the automatic evaluation of MB representations for multiloop scalar and tensor Feynman integrals through infinite sums, preferably with analytic solutions. We shortly describe a strategy of further algebraic summation.

  1. Numerical integration of massive two-loop Mellin-Barnes integrals in Minkowskian regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubovyk, Ievgen

    2016-07-01

    Mellin-Barnes (MB) techniques applied to integrals emerging in particle physics perturbative calculations are summarized. New versions of AMBRE packages which construct planar and nonplanar MB representations are shortly discussed. The numerical package MBnumerics.m is presented for the first time which is able to calculate with a high precision multidimensional MB integrals in Minkowskian regions. Examples are given for massive vertex integrals which include threshold effects and several scale parameters.

  2. Performance and Health of Group-Housed Calves Kept in Igloo Calf Hutches and Calf Barn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Wójcik*, Renata Pilarczyk, Anna Bilska, Ottfried Weiher1 and Peter Sanftleben1

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Group-reared calves are usually housed in common buildings, such as calf barns of all sorts; however, there are concerns about this practice due to problems such as an increased incidence of diseases and poor performance of the calves. Group calf rearing using igloo hutches may be a solution combining the benefits of individual and group housing systems. The aim of this study was to evaluate group-reared calves housed in Igloo-type hutches compared with those housed in common calf barns. The experiment was carried out on a large private dairy farm located in Vorpommern, Germany. A total of 90 Deutsche-Holstein bull calves were assigned to 2 treatment groups: the calf-barn group, with calves grouped in pens in a building, and the Igloo-hutch group, with calves housed in outdoor enclosures with an access to group igloo-style hutches. Calves entering the 84-day experiment were at an average age of about three weeks, with the mean initial body weight of about 50 kg. The calves housed in the group Igloo hutches attained higher daily weight gains compared to those housed in the calf barn (973 vs 721 g/day, consumed more solid feeds (concentrate, corn grain and maize silage: (1.79 vs 1.59 kg/day, and less milk replacer (5.51 vs 6.19 kg/day, had also a lower incidence of respiratory diseases (1.24 vs 3.57% with a shorter persistence of the illness.

  3. Breeding biology of the Barn Owl (Tyto alba) in the Lower Mainland of British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorraine A. Andrusiak; K. M. Cheng

    1997-01-01

    Breeding of the Barn Owl was studied from 1990-1992 in the Lower Mainland of British Columbia, the northern limit of the species' North American range. Over 3 years, mean clutch size was 6.5 ± 3.5, mean brood size at time of banding was 3.3 ± 2.0, and mean number of nestlings fledged was 2.6 ± 2.1. Clutch size ranged from 2 to 18 eggs....

  4. Time budgets of finishing bulls housed in an uninsulated barn or at pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leena Tuomisto

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at comparing the behaviour of finishing bulls raised in an uninsulated barn (UB and at pasture (PAS. In experiment 1, dairy bulls were housed in an uninsulated barn (two groups of five bulls, 32 m2/pen or at pasture (groups of four and five bulls, 5000 m2/paddock. In experiment 2, Hereford bulls were housed in an uninsulated barn (three groups of four or five bulls, 32 m2/pen or at pasture (three groups of five bulls, 5000 m2/paddock. There were no differences in drinking, social licking, butting, other social behaviour, self-licking or idling between the UB and PAS bulls. The UB bulls spent more time in lying, ruminating, oral explorative and manipulative behaviour and rubbing and less time foraging and walking than the PAS bulls. The UB bulls performed more social licking and oral manipulation of objects and less mounting than the PAS bulls. These differences resulted most probably from the different feeding regimes and different space allowances.

  5. WOMEN FARMERS RESPOND ABOUT RICE BARN VILLAGE PROGRAM IN THE PAMOTAN VILLAGE, DAMPIT SUBDISTRICT, MALANG REGENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadhung Prayoga

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Malang District was one of the recipients of the Village Food Barn Program because as rice production centre in East Java Province and the majority of the population work as farmers. On food barn village program implementation in Malang District is not only involves men farmers but also include women farmers participation. This research aims to analyse whether there is influence among knowledge, attitude and skill against the formation of women farmers’ response on food barn village in Pamotan Village, Dampit Subdistrict, Malang Regency. Women farmers to be sampled in this research, determination of sample do with non-probability approach and using purposive sampling methods by as much as 45 respondents. The analysis includes descriptive analysis, scoring with likert scale, and path analysis (Structural Equation Modelling. Results of the analysis show that variable knowledge turns out to affect positively against the response variables. Although its influence is indirect effect and no direct effect against the response with the value of indirect effect is 0.041. The attitude variable influences are directly and positively to the establishment of a response and the value is 1.18. Means that each an increase in attitude, it will increase the formation of a response by 1.18. Skill variable is directly affecting for establishment the response but it has negative values and the value is -0.30. Means that every single increase in skill, it will reduce establishment of the response of 0.30.

  6. Properties and cleanability of new and traditional surface materials in cattle barns - a field study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. KUISMA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study surface properties and cleanability of new and traditional surface materials in cattle barns were examined in a field test. The concrete and plastic-coated samples were placed on a walking path on the floor and on a feeding table in a cattle barn. The surfaces were characterized using colorimetric and gloss measurements and determination of topography. In most cases, the colour of the surfaces placed on the floor darkened during the one year study period, whereas the colour changes of the samples placed on the feeding table did not show a similar trend. However, in both locations the plastic-coated surfaces were generally the easiest to clean, and the highest colour changes indicating soil residues were detected on the uncoated and silane-impregnated concrete surfaces. The difference between the locations was also seen in the gloss values, which increased in the samples placed on the floor during the one-year test period but varied considerably between the different materials on the surfaces placed on the feeding table. This field study confirmed the observation from earlier laboratory studies that plastic coatings improved the cleanability of concrete cattle barn surfaces. Silane impregnation was not functionally competitive with the plastic coatings. In general, the cleanability results were in accordance with the results of previous laboratory experiments but the field study provided practical information about the behaviour of the surface materials examined.;

  7. A Continent-Wide Migratory Divide in North American Breeding Barn Swallows (Hirundo rustica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith A Hobson

    Full Text Available Populations of most North American aerial insectivores have undergone steep population declines over the past 40 years but the relative importance of factors operating on breeding, wintering, or stopover sites remains unknown. We used archival light-level geolocators to track the phenology, movements and winter locations of barn swallows (Hirdundo rustica; n = 27 from populations across North America to determine their migratory connectivity. We identified an east-west continental migratory divide for barn swallows with birds from western regions (Washington State, USA (n = 8 and Saskatchewan, Canada (n = 5 traveling shorter distances to wintering areas ranging from Oregon to northern Colombia than eastern populations (Ontario (n = 3 and New Brunswick (n = 10, Canada which wintered in South America south of the Amazon basin. A single swallow from a stable population in Alabama shared a similar migration route to eastern barn swallows but wintered farther north in northeast Brazil indicating a potential leap frog pattern migratory among eastern birds. Six of 9 (67% birds from the two eastern populations and Alabama underwent a loop migration west of fall migration routes including around the Gulf of Mexico travelling a mean of 2,224 km and 722 km longer on spring migration, respectively. Longer migration distances, including the requirement to cross the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico and subsequent shorter sedentary wintering periods, may exacerbate declines for populations breeding in northeastern North America.

  8. Is a new version of philosophical pragmatism necessary? A reply to Barnes-Holmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigland, Sam

    2003-01-01

    Barnes-Holmes (2000) discussed certain issues regarding philosophy, pragmatism, and behavior analysis, and offered a “behavioral pragmatism” based on or derived from behavior-analytic perspectives. In a comparison of certain philosophical views, Quine's concept of observation sentences was employed for representing pragmatism, but this concept is not sufficiently representative of the literature of philosophical pragmatism to warrant the broad conclusions drawn by Barnes-Holmes. Further, although the extensive and diverse literature of philosophical pragmatism has been shown by a number of writers to have various themes and perspectives in common with Skinner's radical behaviorism, it is unnecessary to extract a limited, generic version of pragmatism because (a) the latter cannot match the range and depth of the various extant versions and (b) the problems raised by Barnes-Holmes in justification for the new version yield readily to the current versions in philosophy. A set of philosophical views may provide additional verbal support for a given system of science, and the science of behavior analysis may eventually contribute to philosophical discourse. The latter, however, will not be achieved by proposing new versions of old philosophy, but rather by approaching established philosophical issues in new ways. PMID:22478409

  9. Microorganisms associated with feathers of barn swallows in radioactively contaminated areas around chernobyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czirják, Gábor Arpád; Møller, Anders Pape; Mousseau, Timothy A; Heeb, Philipp

    2010-08-01

    The Chernobyl catastrophe provides a rare opportunity to study the ecological and evolutionary consequences of low-level, environmental radiation on living organisms. Despite some recent studies about negative effects of environmental radiation on macroorganisms, there is little knowledge about the effect of radioactive contamination on diversity and abundance of microorganisms. We examined abundance patterns of total cultivable bacteria and fungi and the abundance of feather-degrading bacterial subset present on feathers of barn swallows (Hirundo rustica), a colonial migratory passerine, around Chernobyl in relation to levels of ground level environmental radiation. After controlling for confounding variables, total cultivable bacterial loads were negatively correlated with environmental radioactivity, whereas abundance of fungi and feather-degrading bacteria was not significantly related to contamination levels. Abundance of both total and feather-degrading bacteria increased with barn swallow colony size, showing a potential cost of sociality. Males had lower abundance of feather-degrading bacteria than females. Our results show the detrimental effects of low-level environmental radiation on total cultivable bacterial assemblage on feathers, while the abundance of other microorganism groups living on barn swallow feathers, such as feather-degrading bacteria, are shaped by other factors like host sociality or host sex. These data lead us to conclude that the ecological effects of Chernobyl may be more general than previously assumed and may have long-term implications for host-microbe interactions and overall ecosystem functioning.

  10. Barn og fysisk aktivitet i barnehagen: Hvordan kan aktivitetsnivået dokumenteres?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Stokke

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: We monitored the physical activity levels of 42 children during a regular day in kindergarten, using various instruments. This study will provide knowledge about children’s activity levels in kindergarten. It also discusses whether children’s activity levels can be adequately evaluated by the teachers or if there is a need for technical measurements. In addition, we compared the different instruments used to evaluate the children. The employees in the kindergarten were asked to answer a questionnaire about the children’s physical activity level during the day, and a student or a researcher observed and registered one child each. During the same day, activity levels were monitored using actigraphy (AC; Actigraf GT3X and continuous heart rate monitoring (HR; Team2 Polar ® in 14 children (six boys and eight girls, 38 and 47 months old, respectively. The researcher-observations defined the observed children as “moderately active”, and AC-data showed that all children had more than 60 minutes of moderate - or high - intensity activity. According to our comparisons, the use of HR to assess the activity in kindergartens is not recommended. On average, the questionnaires reported similar physical activity levels for the same child, although the evaluations varied between employees. When comparing one active and one inactive child, the different methods showed similar results. We conclude that professionals can see a child’s physical activity level when asked to reflect upon it.Sammendrag: Vi målte det fysiske aktivitetsnivået til 42 barn i løpet av en vanlig dag i barnehagen ved hjelp av ulike instrumenter. Denne studien vil gi kunnskap om barns fysiske aktivitet i barnehagen, og om barnas aktivitetsnivå kan bli tilstrekkelig evaluert av lærerne eller om det er behov for tekniske målinger. Videre har vi sammenlignet de ulike instrumentene brukt i observasjonen. De ansatte i barnehagen ble bedt om å svare på et sp

  11. Stable isotopes as a tool to differentiate eggs laid by caged, barn, free range, and organic hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Karyne M

    2009-05-27

    Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope values of whole yolk, delipidized yolk, albumen, and egg membrane were analyzed from 18 different brands of chicken eggs laid under caged, barn, free range, and organic farming regimes. In general, free range and organic egg components showed enrichment of (15)N values up to 4‰ relative to caged and barn laid eggs, suggesting a higher animal protein (trophic) contribution to the chicken's diet than pure plant-based foods and/or that the feed was organically manufactured. One sample of free range and two samples of organic eggs had δ(15)N values within the range of caged or barn laid eggs, suggesting either that these eggs were mislabeled (the hens were raised under "battery" or "barn" conditions, and not permitted to forage outside) or that there was insufficient animal protein gained by foraging to shift the δ(15)N values of their primary food source. δ(13)C values of potential food sources are discussed with respect to dietary intake and contribution to the isotopic signature of the eggs to determine mixing of C(3) and C(4) diets, although they did not elucidate laying regimen. The study finds that stable nitrogen isotope analysis of egg components is potentially a useful technique to unravel dietary differences between caged or barn hens and free range hens (both conventional and organic) and could be further developed as an authentication tool in the egg industry.

  12. AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF PATERNITY AND TAIL ORNAMENTATION IN THE BARN SWALLOW (HIRUNDO RUSTICA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saino, Nicola; Primmer, Craig R; Ellegren, Hans; M Ller, Anders Pape

    1997-04-01

    Previous studies of the socially monogamous barn swallow (Hirundo rustica) have shown that males that most frequently engage in extrapair copulations and whose partners are least involved in copulations with extrapair males are those with long tail ornaments. In this study, through the use of three highly polymorphic microsatellite markers, we analyze the relationships between length of tail ornaments of male barn swallows and proportion of nestlings fathered in own broods, number of offspring fathered in broods of other pairs, and total number of offspring fathered, using both a correlational and an experimental approach. Consistent with our predictions, we show that males with either naturally long or experimentally elongated tails have higher paternity (proportion of biological offspring in own broods), and they produce more biological offspring during the whole breeding season than males with naturally short or experimentally shortened tails. Males with naturally long tails also had more offspring in extrapair broods than short-tailed males, but the effect of tail manipulation on the number of offspring fathered in extrapair broods, although being in the predicted direction, was not statistically significant. Cuckolded males that did not fertilize extrapair females had smaller postmanipulation tail length than cuckolders. We conclude that there is a causal, positive relationship between male tail length and paternity. Since female barn swallows have extensive control over copulation partners and heritability of tail length is high, this study shows that female choice is a component of selection for larger male ornaments. Benefits from extrapair fertilizations to females may arise because they acquire "good" genes for sexual attractiveness or high viability for their offspring. © 1997 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  13. Problemer med å måle eksponering for passiv røyking blant barn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per Nafstad m.fl.

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available  SAMMENDRAGVanligvis måles eksponering for passiv røyking blant barn ved spørreskjemaopplysninger omforeldres røykevaner. Etter hvert som det blir mer oppmerksomhet om helseeffekter av passivrøyking, vil det kunne påvirke hvordan foreldre røyker og dermed også barns eksponering. Medhenvisning til innsamlede data om røykeeksponering i en kohort av Oslo-barn og fra en studie avbarn ved to helsestasjoner, diskuteres noen av de metodeproblemene en står overfor når en skal måleeksponering for passiv røyking i epidemiologiske studier. I disse studiene er barns eksponering forpassiv røyking målt ved spørreskjemaopplysninger og ved måling av hårnikotin og kotinin i urin.Det konkluderes med at det er usikkerhet om nøyaktigheten av eksisterende metoder for måling avpassiv røyking. Dette og manglende kunnskap om faktisk eksponeringsnivå kan føre til feilaktigestimering av helseeffekter av passiv røyking i en barnebefolkning.Nafstad P, Botten G, Magnus P. Problems in measuring environmental tobacco smoke exposurein children. Nor J Epidemiol 1995; 5 (2: 141-144.ENGLISH SUMMARYUsually environmental tobacco smoke exposure among children is measuered by questionnaires,recording parental smoking. As the adverse health effects of environmental tobacco smoke exposureare getting more known among the public, this is likely to influence the parents' way of smoking andby that their children's actual exposure. With references to findings in a cohort study of Oslochildren and a study of children attending two of Oslo’s health centers, some methodologicalproblems when measuring environmental tobacco smoke exposure in epidemiological studies arediscussed. The exposure in these studies is measured in questionnaires to the parents and aschildren's hair nicotine concentration and urine cotinine concentration. Furthermore, the paperdiscusses how the uncertainty in actual levels of exposure may lead to false estimates for the totalhealth impact of

  14. Contingency interim measure for the public water supply at Barnes, Kansas.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFreniere, L. M.; Environmental Science Division

    2009-07-09

    This document presents a conceptual design for a contingency interim measure (IM) for treatment of the public water supply system at Barnes, Kansas, should this become necessary. The aquifer that serves the public water supply system at Barnes has been affected by trace to low concentrations of carbon tetrachloride and its degradation product, chloroform. Investigations conducted on behalf of the CCC/USDA by Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne 2008a) have demonstrated that groundwater at the Barnes site is contaminated with carbon tetrachloride at concentrations exceeding the Kansas Tier 2 risk-based screening level (RBSL) and the EPA maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 5.0 {micro}g/L for this compound. The Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) formerly operated a grain storage facility in Barnes, approximately 800 ft east-southeast of the public water supply wells. Carbon tetrachloride was used in the treatment of grain. Another potential source identified in an investigation conducted for the KDHE (PRC 1996) is the site of a former agriculture building owned by the local school district (USD 223). This building is located immediately east of well PWS3. The potential contingency IM options evaluated in this report include the treatment of groundwater at the public water supply wellheads and the provision of an alternate water supply via Washington County Rural Water District No.2 (RWD 2). This document was developed in accordance with KDHE Bureau of Environmental Remediation (BER) Policy No.BER-RS-029 (Revised) (KDHE 2006a), supplemented by guidance from the KDHE project manager. Upon the approval of this contingency IM conceptual design by the KDHE, the CCC/USDA will prepare a treatment system design document that will contain the following elements: (1) Description of the approved contingency IM treatment method; (2) Drawings and/or schematics provided by the contractor and/or manufacturer of the approved technology; (3) A

  15. Comparisons of management practices and farm design on Australian commercial layer and meat chicken farms: Cage, barn and free range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Angela Bullanday; Singh, Mini; Toribio, Jenny-Ann; Hernandez-Jover, Marta; Barnes, Belinda; Glass, Kathryn; Moloney, Barbara; Lee, Amanda; Groves, Peter

    2017-01-01

    There are few published studies describing the unique management practices, farm design and housing characteristics of commercial meat chicken and layer farms in Australia. In particular, there has been a large expansion of free range poultry production in Australia in recent years, but limited information about this enterprise exists. This study aimed to describe features of Australian commercial chicken farms, with particular interest in free range farms, by conducting on-farm interviews of 25 free range layer farms, nine cage layer farms, nine barn layer farms, six free range meat chicken farms and 15 barn meat chicken farms in the Sydney basin bioregion and South East Queensland. Comparisons between the different enterprises (cage, barn and free range) were explored, including stocking densities, depopulation procedures, environmental control methods and sources of information for farmers. Additional information collected for free range farms include range size, range characteristics and range access. The median number of chickens per shed was greatest in free range meat chicken farms (31,058), followed by barn meat chicken (20,817), free range layer (10,713), barn layer (9,300) and cage layer farms (9,000). Sheds had cooling pads and tunnel ventilation in just over half of both barn and free range meat chicken farms (53%, n = 8) and was least common in free range layer farms (16%, n = 4). Range access in free range meat chicken farms was from sunrise to dark in the majority (93%, n = 14) of free range meat chicken farms. Over half of free range layer farms (56%, n = 14) granted range access at a set time each morning; most commonly between 9:00 to 10.00am (86%, n = 12), and chickens were placed back inside sheds when it was dusk.

  16. Comparisons of management practices and farm design on Australian commercial layer and meat chicken farms: Cage, barn and free range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mini; Toribio, Jenny-Ann; Hernandez-Jover, Marta; Barnes, Belinda; Glass, Kathryn; Moloney, Barbara; Lee, Amanda; Groves, Peter

    2017-01-01

    There are few published studies describing the unique management practices, farm design and housing characteristics of commercial meat chicken and layer farms in Australia. In particular, there has been a large expansion of free range poultry production in Australia in recent years, but limited information about this enterprise exists. This study aimed to describe features of Australian commercial chicken farms, with particular interest in free range farms, by conducting on-farm interviews of 25 free range layer farms, nine cage layer farms, nine barn layer farms, six free range meat chicken farms and 15 barn meat chicken farms in the Sydney basin bioregion and South East Queensland. Comparisons between the different enterprises (cage, barn and free range) were explored, including stocking densities, depopulation procedures, environmental control methods and sources of information for farmers. Additional information collected for free range farms include range size, range characteristics and range access. The median number of chickens per shed was greatest in free range meat chicken farms (31,058), followed by barn meat chicken (20,817), free range layer (10,713), barn layer (9,300) and cage layer farms (9,000). Sheds had cooling pads and tunnel ventilation in just over half of both barn and free range meat chicken farms (53%, n = 8) and was least common in free range layer farms (16%, n = 4). Range access in free range meat chicken farms was from sunrise to dark in the majority (93%, n = 14) of free range meat chicken farms. Over half of free range layer farms (56%, n = 14) granted range access at a set time each morning; most commonly between 9:00 to 10.00am (86%, n = 12), and chickens were placed back inside sheds when it was dusk. PMID:29166389

  17. Optimization of Apparatus Design and Behavioral Measures for the Assessment of Visuo-Spatial Learning and Memory of Mice on the Barnes Maze

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, Timothy P.; Brown, Richard E.

    2013-01-01

    We have previously shown that apparatus design can affect visual-spatial cue use and memory performance of mice on the Barnes maze. The present experiment extends these findings by determining the optimal behavioral measures and test procedure for analyzing visuo-spatial learning and memory in three different Barnes maze designs. Male and female…

  18. Characterization of Bioaerosols from Dairy Barns: Reconstructing the Puzzle of Occupational Respiratory Diseases by Using Molecular Approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Blais Lecours, Pascale; Veillette, Marc; Marsolais, David; Duchaine, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    To understand the etiology of exposure-related diseases and to establish standards for reducing the risks associated with working in contaminated environments, the exact nature of the bioaerosol components must be defined. Molecular biology tools were used to evaluate airborne bacterial and, for the first time, archaeal content of dairy barns. Three air samplers were tested in each of the 13 barns sampled. Up to 106 archaeal and 108 bacterial 16S rRNA genes per m3 of air were detected. Archae...

  19. Instrumentation strategies for energy conservation in broiler barns with ventilation air solar pre-heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordeau, Sebastien; Barrington, Suzelle [Department of Bioresource Engineering, Macdonald Campus of McGill University, 21 111 Lakeshore, Ste Anne de Bellevue, Quebec H9X 3V9 (Canada)

    2010-08-15

    At the present consumption rate, world fossil-fuel reserves are expected to be depleted by 2050 unless their consumption is optimized and supplemented with renewable energy sources. The objective of this project was to evaluate the performance of a simple data acquisition system installed to conduct an energy balance and identify energy saving strategies in two commercial broilers barns with ventilation air solar pre-heaters. Located near Montreal, Canada, the two identical barns were instrumented for inside and outside air conditions, ventilation rate and energy recovery by the solar air pre-heaters. Whereas the temperature, relative humidity and radiation sensors were reliable, inside air temperature stratification complicated energy balance analyses and broiler heat production rate calculations. Lack of room air mixing resulted in the loss of 25 and 15% of the generated heater load and recovered solar energy. The proper monitoring of all environmental conditions required their measurement every 5 rather than 20 min. Instead of using a data transmission service found to be unreliable in rural areas, all data loggers were downloaded onto a portable computer every 45 days during regular instrument maintenance. Accordingly, room air mixing is recommended to facilitate energy balance studies and improve the efficient use of heating energies. (author)

  20. An automatic system for the detection of dairy cows lying behaviour in free-stall barns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona M.C. Porto

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a method for the automatic detection of dairy cow lying behaviour in free-stall barns is proposed. A computer visionbased system (CVBS composed of a video-recording system and a cow lying behaviour detector based on the Viola Jones algorithm was developed. The CVBS performance was tested in a head-to-head free stall barn. Two classifiers were implemented in the software component of the CVBS to obtain the cow lying behaviour detector. The CVBS was validated by comparing its detection results with those generated from visual recognition. This comparison allowed the following accuracy indices to be calculated: the branching factor (BF, the miss factor (MF, the sensitivity, and the quality percentage (QP. The MF value of approximately 0.09 showed that the CVBS missed one cow every 11 well detected cows. Conversely, the BF value of approximately 0.08 indicated that one false positive was detected every 13 well detected cows. The high value of approximately 0.92 obtained for the sensitivity index and that obtained for QP of about 0.85 revealed the ability of the proposed system to detect cows lying in the stalls.

  1. Food Barn for The Village Community To Strengthen Community Empowerment Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maulidyah Indira Hasmarini

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the achievement level of community empowerment in realizing food security. The result was expected to reveal a model of community empowerment, particularly farmer community institution as an attempt to attain food security. Survey was employed as the research method that involved the farmers (farmer groups as the members of Food Barn for the Village Community (Lumbung Pangan Masyarakat Desa/LPMD. Technique of rapid rural appraisal was selected in the form of quantitative and qualitative analysis. Preliminary survey in study area was carried out to obtain the characteristic and status of food security; and to mapping the potential and role of Lumbung Pangan Masyarakat Desa in the process of community empowerment. Subsequently, study and analysis was done based on the survey. The results demonstrated the active role of stakeholders (A-B-G-C was significant in supporting the farmer institution (food barn. The economic and social aspects were also evidenced to have important role in enhancing the farmer community empowerment. This model is called social engine for rural community and local institution, particularly to attain the regional food security.

  2. Fitness loss and germline mutations in barn swallows breeding in Chernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellegren, Hans; Lindgren, Gabriella; Primmer, C.R. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Animal Breeding and Genetics Dept., Uppsala (Sweden); Moeller, A.P. [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie. Lab. d`Ecologie, Paris, 75 (France)

    1997-10-09

    The severe nuclear accident at Chernobyl in 1986 resulted in the worst reported accidental exposure of radioactive material to free-living organisms. Short-term effects on human populations inhabiting polluted areas include increased incidence of thyroid cancer, infant leukaemia, and congenital malformations in newborns. Two recent studies have reported, although with some controversy, that germline mutation rates were increased in humans and voles living close to Chernobyl, but little is known about the viability of the organisms affected. Here we report an increased frequency of partial albinism, a morphological aberration associated with a loss of fitness, among barn swallows, Hirundo rustica, breeding close to Chernobyl. Heretability estimates indicate that mutations causing albinism were at least partly of germline origin. Furthermore, evidence for an increased germline mutation rate was obtained from segregation analysis at two hypervariable microsatellite loci, indicating that mutation events in barn swallows from Chernobyl were two- to tenfold higher than in birds from control areas in Ukraine and Italy. (author).

  3. The projected demise of Barnes Ice Cap: Evidence of an unusually warm 21st century Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, A.; Flowers, G. E.; Miller, G. H.; Refsnider, K. A.; Young, N. E.; Radić, V.

    2017-03-01

    As a remnant of the Laurentide Ice Sheet, Barnes Ice Cap owes its existence and present form in part to the climate of the last glacial period. The ice cap has been sustained in the present interglacial climate by its own topography through the mass balance-elevation feedback. A coupled mass balance and ice-flow model, forced by Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 climate model output, projects that the current ice cap will likely disappear in the next 300 years. For greenhouse gas Representative Concentration Pathways of +2.6 to +8.5 Wm-2, the projected ice-cap survival times range from 150 to 530 years. Measured concentrations of cosmogenic radionuclides 10Be, 26Al, and 14C at sites exposed near the ice-cap margin suggest the pending disappearance of Barnes Ice Cap is very unusual in the last million years. The data and models together point to an exceptionally warm 21st century Arctic climate.

  4. Testosterone, plumage colouration and extra-pair paternity in male North-American barn swallows.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cas Eikenaar

    Full Text Available In most monogamous bird species, circulating testosterone concentration in males is elevated around the social female's fertile period. Variation in elevated testosterone concentrations among males may have a considerable impact on fitness. For example, testosterone implants enhance behaviours important for social and extra-pair mate choice. However, little is known about the relationship between natural male testosterone concentration and sexual selection. To investigate this relationship we measured testosterone concentration and sexual signals (ventral plumage colour and tail length, and determined within and extra-pair fertilization success in male North American barn swallows (Hirundo rustica erythrogaster. Dark rusty coloured males had higher testosterone concentrations than drab males. Extra-pair paternity was common (42% and 31% of young in 2009 and 2010, respectively, but neither within- nor extra-pair fertilization success was related to male testosterone concentration. Dark rusty males were less often cuckolded, but did not have higher extra-pair or total fertilization success than drab males. Tail length did not affect within- or extra-pair fertilization success. Our findings suggest that, in North American barn swallows, male testosterone concentration does not play a significant direct role in female mate choice and sexual selection. Possibly plumage colour co-varies with a male behavioural trait, such as aggressiveness, that reduces the chance of cuckoldry. This could also explain why dark males have higher testosterone concentrations than drab males.

  5. Compliance with NAGCAT work practices recommendations for youth cleaning service alleys in stall barns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canan, B D; Asti, L; Heaney, C; Ashida, S; Renick, K; Xiang, H; Stallones, L; Jepsen, S D; Crawford, J M; Wilkins, J R

    2011-04-01

    Unintentional injury is the leading cause of death in the U.S. among persons 1 to 44 years of age. Over one million children and adolescents in the U.S. live, work, and/or play on farms, where injury risk is relatively high compared to other settings. In an attempt to reduce the number of childhood agricultural injuries occurring on farms, the North American Guidelines for Children's Agricultural Tasks (NAGCAT) was developed to assist parents or other caregivers in assigning developmentally appropriate chores to youth exposed to agricultural hazards. The results presented here are from a longitudinal study in which we obtained (self-reported) daily chore, injury, and safety behavior data from children and adolescents. We focused on one NAGCAT chore, cleaning a service alley in a stall barn, in order to estimate the extent of compliance with specific work practice recommendations contained in the NAGCAT. Our results indicated that among the four NAGCAT-recommended safety practices for cleaning service alleys in stall barns (wearing nonskid shoes, leather gloves, a respirator, and eye protection), wearing non-skid shoes was the only safety practice reported with any degree of regularity. Overall, boys were more likely to wear non-skid shoes compared to girls. In addition, older youth were generally more likely to report higher work practice compliance compared to younger youth.

  6. Novel methods reveal shifts in migration phenology of barn swallows in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altwegg, Res; Broms, Kristin; Erni, Birgit; Barnard, Phoebe; Midgley, Guy F; Underhill, Les G

    2012-04-22

    Many migratory bird species, including the barn swallow (Hirundo rustica), have advanced their arrival date at Northern Hemisphere breeding grounds, showing a clear biotic response to recent climate change. Earlier arrival helps maintain their synchrony with earlier springs, but little is known about the associated changes in phenology at their non-breeding grounds. Here, we examine the phenology of barn swallows in South Africa, where a large proportion of the northern European breeding population spends its non-breeding season. Using novel analytical methods based on bird atlas data, we show that swallows first arrive in the northern parts of the country and gradually appear further south. On their north-bound journey, they leave South Africa rapidly, resulting in mean stopover durations of 140 days in the south and 180 days in the north. We found that swallows are now leaving northern parts of South Africa 8 days earlier than they did 20 years ago, and so shortened their stay in areas where they previously stayed the longest. By contrast, they did not shorten their stopover in other parts of South Africa, leading to a more synchronized departure across the country. Departure was related to environmental variability, measured through the Southern Oscillation Index. Our results suggest that these birds gain their extended breeding season in Europe partly by leaving South Africa earlier, and thus add to scarce evidence for phenology shifts in the Southern Hemisphere.

  7. The impact of uropygial gland secretions on mechanically induced wearing of barn owl and pigeon body feathers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Benjamin; Müsse, Annika; Wagner, Hermann

    2016-04-01

    Bird feathers are remarkable structures light but yet durable providing insulation and the ability of flight. Owls are highly specialized birds of prey, widely known for their ability to y silently which is enabled by (micro-) structural specializations of the feathers. The barn owl replaces feathers less frequently in comparison to other same sized birds like pigeons, indicating a much better resistance against material fatigue of these delicate microstructures. We used axisymmetric drop shape analysis (ADSA) of water drop contact angles as a non-destructive method of characterizing wearing processes in feathers. We hypothesized that feathers become more wettable when worn. We also investigated the impact of ethanol treatment in order to remove fatty residues of the uropygial gland secretions, barn owls and pigeons use for preening, on ageing processes. Ethanol treatment resulted in a slight, but significant increase of water repellency in barn owl but not in pigeon flight feathers. Our preliminary data also suggest that the uropygial gland secretions decelerate the wearing process of the feather keratin. We observed this effect in both species, however, it was more distinct for barn owl uropygial gland secretions. The results of this study, obtained by contact angle measurements used as a non-destructive evaluation method of material fatigue, yield insights into the material fatigue of feathers and the decelerating effect of uropygial gland secretions on wear on the other hand.

  8. Mortality causes in British Barn Owls (Tyto alba), based on 1,101 carcasses examined during 1963-1996

    Science.gov (United States)

    I. Newton; I. Wyllie; L. Dale

    1997-01-01

    During 1963-1996, 1,101 Barn Owl (Tyto alba) carcasses were received for autopsy and chemical analysis. Much larger numbers were received per month outside the breeding season than within it. A peak in the monthly mortality of first year birds occurred in autumn (November) and a peak in the mortality of adults in late winter (March).

  9. Effect of average diurnal barn airspace temperatures on prediction of their development during the day

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustav Chládek

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A year-round (i.e. 365 days experiment was performed at the Mendel University Training Farm in Žabčice, Czech Republic (GPS 49°0’51.967”N and 16°36’14.614”E, the altitude 179 m with the aim to quantify the effect of the variation of average diurnal barn airspace temperatures on prediction of their changes during the day. Barn airspace temperatures were monitored daily in one-hour intervals and the recorded values were used for calculations of average diurnal temperatures. These were classified into 7 categories (i.e. below 0 °C; 0.1 to 5 °C; 5.1 to 10 °C; 10.1 to 15 °C; 15.1 to 20 °C; 20.1 to 25 °C and above 25 °C. Regarding this classification system, all differences between temperatures measured at identical hours but within various limits were statistically highly significant. The statistical analysis involved also the calculation of the third degree polynomial regression equations, which enabled to characterise the relationship between the temperature and the hour of measurement within the aforementioned categories of diurnal temperatures. Individual equations were markedly different and ranged from y = − 0.0019x3 + 0.0596x2 − 0.3797x − 1.2169 (for temperatures below 0 °C to y = − 0.0108x3 + 0.3297x2 − 1.9367x + 24.3931 (for temperatures above 25 °C. Correlation coefficients (r and coefficients of determination (R2 of these regression equations were generally very high and ranged from 0.872 to 0.976 and from 0.760 to 0.953, respectively. Regarding high values of both coefficients it can be concluded that the calculated equations enable a good and reliable prediction of the diurnal development of barn airspace temperatures.

  10. Claw health and prevalence of lameness in cows from compost bedded and cubicle freestall dairy barns in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgstaller, J; Raith, J; Kuchling, S; Mandl, V; Hund, A; Kofler, J

    2016-10-01

    Claw health and lameness data from five dairies with compost bedded barns (n = 201 data sets) were evaluated and compared with data from five dairy herds housed in freestall cubicle barns (n = 297 data sets). They were matched for having the same cow numbers, flooring type and similar milk yield. The prevalence of lameness, claw lesions and their severity grades were analysed. Two claw health indicators, the cow claw score (CCS) and the farm claw score (FCS), were calculated using a computerised claw trimming database programme; there was no significant difference in overall lameness prevalence in cows from five compost bedded barns (18.7%) compared to cows from five freestall cubicle herds (14.9%). A cumulative link mixed model (CLMM) did not show significant differences in locomotion between different types of bedding material, flooring system, breed, visit number, observer and time since last trimming, but locomotion was significantly influenced by CCS. Another CLMM tested the impact of parameters mentioned on CCS and showed significant influence of flooring type, visit number and cattle breed. Statistically significant differences in the prevalence of claw disorders between compost bedded and freestall cubicle barns were found for white line disease (WLD; 20.4% and 46.6%, respectively), heel horn erosion (HHE; 26.9% and 59.9%, respectively), concave dorsal wall as a result of chronic laminitis (6.5% and 15.9%, respectively) and for interdigital hyperplasia (0.2% and 3.1%, respectively). The results of this study indicate that compost dairy barns are a good alternative to common cubicle housing systems in terms of lameness, claw health and animal welfare. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Associations of dairy cow behavior, barn hygiene, cow hygiene, and risk of elevated somatic cell count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devries, T J; Aarnoudse, M G; Barkema, H W; Leslie, K E; von Keyserlingk, M A G

    2012-10-01

    Poor dairy cow hygiene has been consistently associated with elevated somatic cell count (SCC) and the risk of subclinical mastitis. The objective of this study was to determine the associations between dairy cow standing and lying behavior, barn hygiene, cow hygiene, and the risk of experiencing elevated SCC. Lactating Holstein dairy cows (n=69; 86 ± 51 DIM; parity: 2.0 ± 1.2; means ± SD), kept in 1 of 2 groups, were monitored over a 4-mo period. Each group contained 61 ± 1 (mean ± SD) cows over the study period; complete data were obtained from 37 and 32 animals within each respective group. Cows were housed in a sand-bedded, freestall barn with 2 symmetrical pens, each with a free cow traffic automatic milking system. To vary barn hygiene, in 4 consecutive 28-d periods, alley manure scrapers in each of the 2 pens were randomly assigned to frequencies of operation of 3, 6, 12, and 24 times per day. During the last 7 d of each period, cow hygiene (upper leg/flank, lower legs, and udder; scale of 1 = very clean to 4 = very dirty) and stall hygiene (number of 0.15×0.15-m squares contaminated with manure in a 1.20×1.65-m grid) were recorded. Standing and lying behavior of the cows were collected during those days using data loggers. Individual-cow SCC was recorded at the beginning and end of each 28-d period. Elevated SCC was used as an indicator of subclinical mastitis; incidence of elevated SCC was defined as having a SCC >200,000 cells/mL at the end of each 28-d period, when SCC was cows having poorer hygiene. Poor udder hygiene was associated with poor stall hygiene. Longer lying duration was associated with poor hygiene of the upper legs/flank and udder. Greater premilking standing duration was associated with poor udder hygiene and decreased frequency of lying bouts was associated with poor hygiene of the lower legs. Higher milk yield was associated with poor hygiene of the udder and lower legs; multiparous cows had poorer hygiene of the upper legs

  12. El museo y la enciclopedia: Lecturas cruzadas de Borges y Barnes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Moneta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Taking in consideration the intertextual and biographical influence of the works of Jorge Luis Borges on the works of Julian Barnes, this article seeks to focus on certain borgian traces that speak of the status of literature in the present time. Starting with the image of the “museum and the encyclopedia” we can read Borges from a barnesian point of view and viceversa, while insisting in the relativity of any kind of order and classification. We shall start with the essential distrust that both authors show towards language. No one can deny that in the literary and critic landscape of our time Borges is a difficult character to overcome or ignore which we will use as a reading and writing mechanism.

  13. Independence of echo-threshold and echo-delay in the barn owl.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian S Nelson

    Full Text Available Despite their prevalence in nature, echoes are not perceived as events separate from the sounds arriving directly from an active source, until the echo's delay is long. We measured the head-saccades of barn owls and the responses of neurons in their auditory space-maps while presenting a long duration noise-burst and a simulated echo. Under this paradigm, there were two possible stimulus segments that could potentially signal the location of the echo. One was at the onset of the echo; the other, after the offset of the direct (leading sound, when only the echo was present. By lengthening the echo's duration, independently of its delay, spikes and saccades were evoked by the source of the echo even at delays that normally evoked saccades to only the direct source. An echo's location thus appears to be signaled by the neural response evoked after the offset of the direct sound.

  14. Breeding success of barn owls (Tyto alba) fed low levels of DDE and dieldrin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendenhall, Vivian M.; Klaas, E.E.; McLane, M.A.R.

    1983-01-01

    The relative importance of two organochlorine pesticides in the recent reproductive failure of raptors was investigated. Captive barn owls were fed 3.0 ppm DDE and 0.5 ppm dieldrin; doses were given separately and in combination for two years. Breeding success was followed from the laying of eggs through natural incubation and rearing of young. DDE was associated with significant eggshell thinning, egg breakage, embryo mortality, and reduced production per pair. Dieldrin alone was associated with slight but significant eggshell thinning, but not with reduction of breeding success. Ecological implications of the results are discussed; it is suggested that DDE had a much more severe effect on reproduction in wild raptors than dieldrin, which contributed to their decline primarily through adult mortality.

  15. Extrapair mating between relatives in the barn swallow: a role for kin selection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleven, Oddmund; Jacobsen, Frode; Robertson, Raleigh J; Lifjeld, Jan T

    2005-12-22

    Why do females of many species mate with more than one male? One of the main hypotheses suggests that female promiscuity is an insurance mechanism against the potential detrimental effects of inbreeding. Accordingly, females should preferably mate with less related males in multiple or extrapair mating. Here we analyse paternity, relatedness among mating partners, and relatedness between parents and offspring, in the socially monogamous North American barn swallow (Hirundo rustica erythrogaster). In contrast to the inbreeding avoidance hypothesis, we found that extrapair mating partners were more related than expected by random choice, and tended to be more related than social partners. Furthermore, extrapair mating resulted in genetic parents being more related to their extrapair young than to their withinpair young. We propose a new hypothesis for extrapair mating based on kin selection theory as a possible explanation to these findings.

  16. The GEMPAK Barnes interactive objective map analysis scheme. [General Meteorological Software Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, S. E.; Kocin, P. J.; Desjardins, M.

    1983-01-01

    The analysis scheme and meteorological applications of the GEMPAK data analysis and display software system developed by NASA are described. The program was devised to permit objective, versatile, and practical analysis of satellite meteorological data using a minicomputer and a display system with graphics capability. A data area can be selected within the data file for the globe, and data-sparse regions can be avoided. Distances between observations and the nearest observation points are calculated in order to avoid errors when determining synoptic weather conditions. The Barnes (1973) successive correction method is employed to restore the amplitude of small yet resolvable wavelengths suppressed in an initial filtering pass. The rms deviation is then calculated in relation to available measured data. Examples are provided of treatment of VISSR data from the GOES satellite and a study of the impact of incorrect cloud height data on synoptic weather field analysis.

  17. Investigation into levels of dioxins, furans and PCBs in battery, free range, barn and organic eggs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tlustos, C.; Pratt, I. [Food Safety Authority of Ireland, Dublin (Ireland); Moylan, R.; Neilan, R. [Dept. of Agriculture and Food, Maynooth (Ireland); White, S.; Fernandes, A.; Rose, M. [Central Science Lab., York (United Kingdom)

    2004-09-15

    The Food Safety Authority of Ireland (FSAI) has a statutory responsibility to assure the safety of food consumed, distributed, produced and sold on the Irish market. The results of a targeted surveillance study on levels of dioxins, furans and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in battery, free-range, barn and organic eggs are presented here. The study was undertaken against the background of increased awareness in the European Union of the possible health risks posed by dioxins, furans and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the food chain, and builds on previous studies undertaken by FSAI into levels of these contaminants in milk, fish and fish oils. The opportunity was taken at the same time to investigate the levels of a number of metals in these eggs, and results of the full study are available on the FSAI website.

  18. Prey selection by the Barn Owl Tyto alba (Scopoli, 1769 in captivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Vanitha

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available We investigated prey selection of the Barn Owl Tyto alba under captive conditions where birds were allowed to choose among individuals of varying size from four field rodent species: Bandicota bengalensis, Millardia meltada, Tatera indica and Mus booduga. Owls showed little species preference and a tendency to favour the medium weight class in all prey species except M. booduga. Preference for body parts consumed varied according to prey size, ranging from the head alone in the large weight class to the entire body in the small weight class. Biochemical measurements showed that protein, carbohydrate and lipid levels were higher respectively in the brain, liver and muscles of all three species and weight classes studied. The preference for medium weight prey despite a lower nutrient content compared to large weight prey is attributed to a greater ease of capture.

  19. Characterization of Prototheca zopfii Genotypes Isolated from Cases of Bovine Mastitis and Cow Barns in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, Muhammad; Ali, Tariq; Zhang, Limei; Hou, Rongguang; Zhang, Shiyao; Ding, Laidi; Han, Dandan; Deng, Zhaoju; Rahman, Abdur; Han, Bo

    2016-04-01

    Protothecal mastitis, caused mostly by Prototheca zopfii (P. zopfii), is increasing in dairy herds and is being reported globally. The present study was aimed at studying the epidemiology of mastitis and at molecular characterization of P. zopfii isolates from dairy herds and their surroundings in three provinces of China using microbiological, biochemical and molecular methods, and antibiotic susceptibility tests. Samples from milk (n = 620) of mastitic cows and their barns sources (n = 410) including feces, feed, bedding materials and drinking water were analyzed. Among other pathogens recovered from mastitic milk, 84 (13.5%) of the isolates were identified as P. zopfii. All of the P. zopfii isolates recovered from milk were recognized as genotype 2, whereas 58 (73.4%) and 21 (26.6%) isolates from environmental sources were found to be P. zopfii genotypes 1 and 2, respectively. The isolates were susceptible to some antibiotics and antifungal agents, including amikacin (78.1%), streptomycin (58.5%), gentamicin (17.8%), amphotericin B (68.6%) and nystatin (64.4%). Additionally, the two genotypes displayed versatile patterns of susceptibility to different antimicrobials agents. Phylogeny of the genotypes on the basis of 18S SSU rDNA and 28S SSU rDNA was also investigated. The isolates of the two genotypes separated into different clades, and no interrelationship was observed among these as shown by phylogenetic analysis. The genotype 1 isolates from cow barn sources were non-pathogenic and may not present any risk of mastitis. We conclude that P. zopfii genotype 2 might play an important role in bovine mastitis in China.

  20. Viability is associated with melanin-based coloration in the barn swallow (Hirundo rustica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Saino

    Full Text Available Pigmentation of body surface in animals can have multiple determinants and accomplish diverse functions. Eumelanin and pheomelanin are the main animal pigments, being responsible of yellow, brownish-red and black hues, and have partly common biosynthetic pathways. Many populations of vertebrates show individual variation in melanism, putatively with large heritable component. Genes responsible for eu- or pheomelanogenesis have pleiotropic but contrasting effects on life-history traits, explaining the patterns of covariation observed between melanization and physiology (e.g. immunity and stress response, sexual behavior and other characters in diverse taxa. Yet, very few studies in the wild have investigated if eu- and pheomelanization predict major fitness traits like viability or fecundity. In this correlative study, by contrasting adult barn swallows (Hirundo rustica matched for age, sex, breeding site, and year and date of sampling, we show that males but not females that survived until the next year had paler, relatively more eu- than pheomelanic pigmentation of ventral body feathers. Better performance of individuals that allocate relatively more to eumelanogenesis was expected based on previous evidence on covariation between eumelanic pigmentation and specific traits related to immunity and susceptibility to stress. However, together with the evidence of no covariation between viability and melanization among females, this finding raises the question of the mechanisms that maintain variation in genes for melanogenesis. We discuss the possibility that eu- and pheomelanization are under contrasting viability and sexual selection, as suggested by larger breeding and sperm competition success of darker males from other barn swallow subspecies.

  1. Population and colony-level determinants of tertiary sex ratio in the declining barn swallow.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Saino

    Full Text Available Sex ratio of adults (tertiary sex ratio, TSR is a major feature of animal populations with consequences for their behaviour, genetic structure and viability. Spatial and temporal variation in TSR occurs within species but the mechanisms behind it are poorly understood. In this long-term study of a declining population of a socially monogamous, colonial, migratory bird, the barn swallow (Hirundo rustica, we first analyzed population-level variation in TSR ( =  proportion of males of yearlings at sexual maturation in relation to ecological conditions as gauged by annual survival rate of adults. TSR was male-biased both among yearlings and older individuals, but male bias of yearlings was more pronounced after years with larger decline in adult survival. Thus, male offspring were less susceptible to the adverse ecological conditions that cause increased mortality. Dispersal and settling site decisions can have major consequences on fitness via the effects of local TSR on mating and sperm competition. Breeding barn swallows are highly philopatric while natal dispersal is high and, together with mortality, is the main determinant of colony TSR. We thus also investigated the mechanisms of breeding colony choice by yearlings and found that TSR of new-settlers in a given colony and year was negatively predicted by TSR of returning, early arriving older individuals in that year, but not by overall TSR at the colony in the previous year. This suggests that in our male-biased population new-settler males respond to local TSR upon arrival to choose the sites with larger breeding opportunities. Hence, variation in ecological conditions as reflected by adult survival can shift the TSR of individuals recruiting into a local population, with potentially various demographic consequences. However, breeding site choice based on TSR tends to homogenize TSR at a population level likely by facilitating settling of dispersing males in colonies with less male

  2. "Stress finns alltid med i bilden" : Skolrelaterad stress hos barn – en fråga för skolkuratorn?

    OpenAIRE

    Åkerström, Karolina

    2018-01-01

    Syftet med studien var att undersöka hur skolkuratorer beskriver skolrelaterad stress hos barn samt hur de i sin yrkesroll arbetar med frågor som rör skolrelaterad stress hos barn. Metoden i studien var kvalitativ och semistrukturerade intervjuer genomfördes med skolkuratorer arbetandes inom grundskolan. Studiens teoretiska tolkningsram var känsla av sammanhang (KASAM) och socialt stöd för att få en vidgad förståelse för barns skolrelaterade stress och skolkuratorns roll i det psykosociala ar...

  3. Morphometric characterisation of wing feathers of the barn owl Tyto alba pratincola and the pigeon Columba livia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaas Michael

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Owls are known for their silent flight. Even though there is some information available on the mechanisms that lead to a reduction of noise emission, neither the morphological basis, nor the biological mechanisms of the owl's silent flight are known. Therefore, we have initiated a systematic analysis of wing morphology in both a specialist, the barn owl, and a generalist, the pigeon. This report presents a comparison between the feathers of the barn owl and the pigeon and emphasise the specific characteristics of the owl's feathers on macroscopic and microscopic level. An understanding of the features and mechanisms underlying this silent flight might eventually be employed for aerodynamic purposes and lead to a new wing design in modern aircrafts. Results A variety of different feathers (six remiges and six coverts, taken from several specimen in either species, were investigated. Quantitative analysis of digital images and scanning electron microscopy were used for a morphometric characterisation. Although both species have comparable body weights, barn owl feathers were in general larger than pigeon feathers. For both species, the depth and the area of the outer vanes of the remiges were typically smaller than those of the inner vanes. This difference was more pronounced in the barn owl than in the pigeon. Owl feathers also had lesser radiates, longer pennula, and were more translucent than pigeon feathers. The two species achieved smooth edges and regular surfaces of the vanes by different construction principles: while the angles of attachment to the rachis and the length of the barbs was nearly constant for the barn owl, these parameters varied in the pigeon. We also present a quantitative description of several characteristic features of barn owl feathers, e.g., the serrations at the leading edge of the wing, the fringes at the edges of each feather, and the velvet-like dorsal surface. Conclusion The quantitative

  4. A Stiff Man-Child Walking: Derrida’s Economy of Secrecy and Faulkner’s “Barn Burning”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Wainwright

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Working from Jacques Derrida’s contentions about secrecy and authorial responsibility, and paying brief but specific attention to Charles Baudelaire’s “La fausse monnaie” (1869, as suggested by Derridean concerns over capitalist economics, this article studies the manner in which the inviolable and conditional secrets of William Faulkner’s “Barn Burning” (1938 reveal the poststructural tendencies avant la lettre of this leading American modernist.  While Faulkner scholars have focused on the ambivalent language and metaphors deployed in this short story, they have not formerly traced the manner in which “Barn Burning” incites a sense of deconstructive criticism, and have thereby failed to acknowledge Faulkner’s attendant authorial irresponsibility.  This article redresses this critical imbalance.

  5. Characterizing CH4, CO2 and N2O emission from barn feeding Tibetan sheep in Tibetan alpine pastoral area in cold season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tianwei; Zhao, Na; Hu, Linyong; Xu, Shixiao; Liu, Hongjin; Ma, Li; Zhao, Xinquan

    2017-05-01

    Herein, methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emission from different aged barn feeding Tibetan sheep were characterized using a respiration chamber in combination with gas chromatograph method in cold season of 2013. This work was based on measuring the increase of gas concentration inside respiration chamber by the means of gas chromatograph. Results indicated that diurnal CH4 emission patterns for barn feeding Tibetan sheep were driven by feeding schedule, diurnal CO2 emission patterns were relatively stable with two slight emission peaks, diurnal N2O emission patterns were driven by the variation of temperature inside chamber. Diurnal CH4 emission rates were 17.65, 19.49 and 21.06 g sheep-1 d-1 for yearling, two-year and three-year barn feeding Tibetan sheep, account for 6.15%, 5.76% and 5.45% of their daily gross energy intakes, respectively. Diurnal CO2 emission rates were 526.88, 588.43 and 640.66 g sheep-1 d-1 for yearling, two-year and three-year barn feeding Tibetan sheep, respectively. Diurnal N2O emission rates were 1.64, 1.25 and 1.05 mg sheep-1 d-1 for yearling, two-year and three-year barn feeding Tibetan sheep, respectively. Three-year barn feeding Tibetan sheep released more CO2-eq on per unit BW and BW0.75 gain basis.

  6. The effectiveness of mass vaccination on Marek's disease virus (MDV) outbreaks and detection within a broiler barn: a modeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Katherine E; Read, Andrew F; Walkden-Brown, Stephen W; Savill, Nicholas J; Woolhouse, Mark E J

    2013-12-01

    Marek's disease virus (MDV), a poultry pathogen, has been increasing in virulence since the mid twentieth century. Since multiple vaccines have been developed and widely implemented, losses due to MDV have decreased. However, vaccine failure has occurred in the past and vaccine breakthroughs remain a problem. Failure of disease control with current vaccines would have significant economic and welfare consequences. Nevertheless, the epidemiology of the disease during a farm outbreak is not well understood. Here we present a mathematical model to predict the effectiveness of vaccines to reduce the outbreak probability and disease burden within a barn. We find that the chance of an outbreak within a barn increases with the virulence of an MDV strain, and is significantly reduced when the flock is vaccinated, especially when there the contaminant strain is of low virulence. With low quantities of contaminated dust, there is nearly a 100% effectiveness of vaccines to reduce MDV outbreaks. However, the vaccine effectiveness drops to zero with an increased amount of contamination with a middle virulence MDV strain. We predict that the larger the barn, and the more virulent the MDV strain is, the more virus is produced by the time the flock is slaughtered. With the low-to-moderate virulence of the strains studied here, the number of deaths due to MDV is very low compared to all-cause mortality regardless of the vaccination status of the birds. However, the cumulative MD incidence can reach 100% for unvaccinated cohorts, and 35% for vaccinated cohorts. These results suggest that death due to MDV is an insufficient metric to assess the prevalence of MDV broiler barns regardless of vaccine status, such that active surveillance is required to successfully assess the probability of MDV outbreaks, and to limit transmission of MDV between successive cohorts of broiler chickens. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Differential contribution of demographic rate synchrony to population synchrony in barn swallows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaub, Michael; von Hirschheydt, Johann; Grüebler, Martin U

    2015-11-01

    Populations of many species show temporally synchronous dynamics over some range, mostly caused by spatial autocorrelation of the environment that affects demographic rates. Synchronous fluctuation of a demographic rate is a necessary, but not sufficient condition for population synchrony because population growth is differentially sensitive to variation in demographic rates. Little is known about the relative effects of demographic rates to population synchrony, because it is rare that all demographic rates from several populations are known. We develop a hierarchical integrated population model with which all relevant demographic rates from all study populations can be estimated and apply it to demographic data of barn swallows Hirundo rustica from nine sites that were between 19 and 224 km apart from each other. We decompose the variation of the population growth and of the demographic rates (apparent survival, components of productivity, immigration) into global and local temporal components using random effects which allowed the estimation of synchrony of these rates. The barn swallow populations fluctuated synchronously, but less so than most demographic rates. The highest synchrony showed the probability of double brooding, while fledging success was highly asynchronous. Apparent survival, immigration and total productivity achieved intermediate levels of synchrony. The growth of all populations was most sensitive to changes in immigration and adult apparent survival, and both of them contributed to the observed temporal variation of population growth rates. Using a simulation model, we show that immigration and apparent survival of juveniles and adults were able to induce population synchrony, but not components of local productivity due to their low population growth rate sensitivity. Immigrants are mostly first-time breeders, and consequently, their number depends on the productivity of neighbouring populations. Since total productivity was synchronized

  8. Characterization of bioaerosols from dairy barns: reconstructing the puzzle of occupational respiratory diseases by using molecular approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blais Lecours, Pascale; Veillette, Marc; Marsolais, David; Duchaine, Caroline

    2012-05-01

    To understand the etiology of exposure-related diseases and to establish standards for reducing the risks associated with working in contaminated environments, the exact nature of the bioaerosol components must be defined. Molecular biology tools were used to evaluate airborne bacterial and, for the first time, archaeal content of dairy barns. Three air samplers were tested in each of the 13 barns sampled. Up to 10(6) archaeal and 10(8) bacterial 16S rRNA genes per m(3) of air were detected. Archaeal methanogens, mainly Methanobrevibacter species, were represented. Saccharopolyspora rectivirgula, the causative agent of farmer's lung, was quantified to up to 10(7) 16S rRNA genes per m(3) of air. In addition, a wide variety of bacterial agents were present in our air samples within the high airborne bioaerosol concentration range. Despite recommendations regarding hay preservation and baling conditions, farmers still develop an S. rectivirgula-specific humoral immune response, suggesting intense and continuous exposure. Our results demonstrate the complexity of bioaerosol components in dairy barns which could play a role in occupational respiratory diseases.

  9. Carotenoids, sexual signals and immune function in barn swallows from Chernobyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camplani, A; Saino, N; Møller, A P

    1999-06-07

    Carotenoids have been hypothesized to facilitate immune function and act as free-radical scavengers, thereby minimizing the frequency of mutations. Populations of animals exposed to higher levels of free radicals are thus expected to demonstrate reduced sexual coloration if use of carotenoids for free-radical scavenging is traded against use for sexual signals. The intensity of carotenoid-based sexual coloration was compared among three populations of barn swallows Hirundo rustica differing in exposure to radioactive contamination. Lymphocyte and immunoglobulin concentrations were depressed, whereas the heterophil:lymphocyte ratio, an index of stress, was enhanced in Chernobyl swallows compared to controls. Spleen size was reduced in Chernobyl compared to that of two control populations. Sexual coloration varied significantly among populations, with the size of a secondary sexual character (the length of the outermost tail feathers) being positively related to coloration in the two control populations, but not in the Chernobyl population. Thus the positive covariation between coloration and sexual signalling disappeared in the population subject to intense radioactive contamination. These findings suggest that the reliable signalling function of secondary sexual characters breaks down under extreme environmental conditions, no longer providing reliable information about the health status of males.

  10. Viability and expression of sexual ornaments in the barn swallow Hirundo rustica: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, A; Saino, N; Møller, A P

    2017-10-01

    Sexual selection results in the evolution of exaggerated secondary sexual characters that can entail a viability cost. However, in species where sexual ornaments honestly reflect individual quality, the viability cost of secondary sexual characters may be overwhelmed by variation in individual quality, leading to expect that individuals with the largest secondary sexual characters show higher, rather than lower viability. Here, we used meta-analyses to test whether such expected positive relationship between sexual ornamentation and viability exists in the barn swallow Hirundo rustica, which is one of the most studied model species of sexual selection under field conditions. We found a mean positive effect size of viability in relation to the expression of secondary sexual characters of 0.181 (CI: 0.084-0.278), indicating that in this species the more ornamented individuals are more viable, and therefore of high quality. Analyses of moderator variables showed similar effects in males and females, the H. r. rustica subspecies rather than others and tail length rather than other secondary sexual characters. Future research emphasis on other subspecies than the European one and secondary sexual characters than tail length may help identify the sources of heterogeneity in effect sizes. © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  11. DAILY TIME BUDGET OF DAIRY COWS HOUSED IN TIE STALL BARNS, DURING TOTAL CONFINEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. GAVOJDIAN

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Although individual and social behavior of cattle has been studied extensively under pasture and loose housing conditions, similar behavioral data for partial or total confinement housing are limited. Essentially, the 24- h time budget represents the net response of a cow to her environment (Grant, 2003. Daily time budget was first introduced by Grant and Albright (in 2000 for cows housed in free-stall environment. Choices in stabling and management affect the behavior, health, longevity and performance of cows. Behavior while resting, eating, ruminating, urinating or defecating provides additional information about comfort. In the current study were used ten Romanian Black and White multiparous cows, housed in a tie stall barn 24 hours per day. Experiments were carried out during the cold season, in February 2008. Cows monitored were in their first hundred days of lactation. In our study cows spent resting on average 379.9 minutes (6.33 hours, value that represents 26.38 % from the days interval. Time devoted to feeding was on average 341.9 minutes (5.69 hours, in 17.5 periods. Rumination had place on average in 17.3 periods and a total time of 517.5 minutes (8.62 hours. Cows adopted lying position on average 581.2 minutes (40.36% from 24-h and standing position on average in 858.7 minutes (59.63% from 24-h.

  12. Solution to Bethe–Salpeter equation via Mellin–Barnes transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allendes, Pedro; Kniehl, Bernd A.; Kondrashuk, Igor; Notte-Cuello, Eduardo A.; Rojas-Medar, Marko

    2013-01-01

    We consider the Mellin–Barnes (MB) transform of the triangle ladder-like scalar diagram in d=4 dimensions. It is shown how the multi-fold MB transform of the momentum integral corresponding to an arbitrary number of rungs is reduced to the two-fold MB transform. For this purpose, we use the Belokurov–Usyukina reduction method for four-dimensional scalar integrals in position space. The result is represented in terms of the Euler ψ function and its derivatives. We derive new formulas for the MB two-fold integration in the complex planes of two complex variables. We demonstrate that these formulas solve the Bethe–Salpeter equation. We comment on further applications of the solution to the Bethe–Salpeter equation for the vertices in N=4 supersymmetric Yang–Mills theory. We show that the recursive property of the MB transforms observed in the present work for that kind of diagrams has nothing to do with quantum field theory, the theory of integral transforms, or the theory of polylogarithms in general, but has its origin in a simple recursive property of smooth functions, which may be shown by using basic methods of mathematical analysis

  13. Hunting Increases Phosphorylation of Calcium/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type II in Adult Barn Owls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant S. Nichols

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile barn owls readily adapt to prismatic spectacles, whereas adult owls living under standard aviary conditions do not. We previously demonstrated that phosphorylation of the cyclic-AMP response element-binding protein (CREB provides a readout of the instructive signals that guide plasticity in juveniles. Here we investigated phosphorylation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (pCaMKII in both juveniles and adults. In contrast to CREB, we found no differences in pCaMKII expression between prism-wearing and control juveniles within the external nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICX, the major site of plasticity. For prism-wearing adults that hunted live mice and are capable of adaptation, expression of pCaMKII was increased relative to prism-wearing adults that fed passively on dead mice and are not capable of adaptation. This effect did not bear the hallmarks of instructive information: it was not localized to rostral ICX and did not exhibit a patchy distribution reflecting discrete bimodal stimuli. These data are consistent with a role for CaMKII as a permissive rather than an instructive factor. In addition, the paucity of pCaMKII expression in passively fed adults suggests that the permissive default setting is “off” in adults.

  14. Solution to Bethe-Salpeter equation via Mellin-Barnes transform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allendes, Pedro [Concepcion Univ. (Chile). Dept. de Fisica; Kniehl, Bernd [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Kondrashuk, Igor; Rojas Medar, Marko [Univ. del Bio-Bio, Chillan (Chile). Dept. de Ciencias Basicas; Notte Cuello, Eduardo A. [Univ. de La Serena (Chile). Facultad de Ciencias

    2012-06-15

    We consider Mellin-Barnes transform of triangle ladder-like scalar diagram in d=4 dimensions. It is shown how multi-fold MB transform of the momentum integral corresponding to any number of rungs is reduced to two-fold MB transform. For this purpose we use Belokurov-Usyukina reduction method for four-dimensional scalar integrals in the position space. The result is represented in terms of Euler {psi}-function and its derivatives. We derive new formulas for MB two-fold integration in the complex planes of two complex variables. We demonstrate that these formulas solve Bethe-Salpeter equation. We comment on further applications of solution to Bethe-Salpeter equation for vertices in N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. We show that the recursive property of MB transforms observed in the present work for that kind of diagrams has nothing to do with quantum field theory, theory of integral transforms, or with theory of polylogarithms in general, but has an origin in a simple recursive property for smooth functions which can be shown by using basic methods of mathematical analysis.

  15. “And all the windows, great and small”. Finestre in Nightwood di Djuna Barnes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Chiappini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As a recurring subject and powerful symbol, the window dominates the female literary and artistic imagery of the twentieth century. It has been developed into mirror, photograph or painting, according to the writer’s needs, yet the basic shape of the frame is always retraceable. Among late modernist and postmodernist women writers, Djuna Barnes explores in detail the structural resources of this literary device. Although she already understands the potential of the frame in her early career as a journalist, she mostly challenges its extents of versatility in Nightwood (1936. Its crucial moments – either flashing epiphanies or missed catharsis – involve the physical presence of a window, which embodies a powerful narrative agent; more than mere symbol, it is active at several levels. Thematically, doors and windows, pictures and mirrors, play an important cohesive role. At a deeper stage of analysis, the structure of the novel itself is shored up by doors and windows, since the setting is essentially organized into indoors and outdoors scenes; windows and doors allow the characters to move between these two dimensions. On the metaphorical level, windows and doors represent a communicative channel; a room-door opening suggests the access to one’s inner life, whereas a shut window denies any chance of dialogue. However, all the characters seem to be too absorbed by their obsessions to realize such communicative potential, and rather meander uselessly in their mental frames.

  16. Quantitative genetics of migration syndromes: a study of two barn swallow populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teplitsky, C; Mouawad, N G; Balbontin, J; De Lope, F; Møller, A P

    2011-09-01

    Migration is a complex trait although little is known about genetic correlations between traits involved in such migration syndromes. To assess the migratory responses to climate change, we need information on genetic constraints on evolutionary potential of arrival dates in migratory birds. Using two long-term data sets on barn swallows Hirundo rustica (from Spain and Denmark), we show for the first time in wild populations that spring arrival dates are phenotypically and genetically correlated with morphological and life history traits. In the Danish population, length of outermost tail feathers and wing length were negatively genetically correlated with arrival date. In the Spanish population, we found a negative genetic correlation between arrival date and time elapsed between arrival date and laying date, constraining response to selection that favours both early arrival and shorter delays. This results in a decreased rate of adaptation, not because of constraints on arrival date, but constraints on delay before breeding, that is, a trait that can be equally important in the context of climate change. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2011 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  17. Two-fold Mellin-Barnes transforms of Usyukina-Davydychev functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kniehl, Bernd [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Kondrashuk, Igor [Univ. del Bio Bio, Chillan (Chile). Dept. de Ciencias Basicas; Bielefeld Univ. (Germany). Fakultaet fuer Physik; Notte-Cuello, Eduardo A. [Univ. de La Serena (Chile). Dept. de Matematicas; Parra-Ferrada, Ivan [Univ. del Bio Bio, Chillan (Chile). Facultad de Educacion y Humanidades; Rojas-Medar, Marko [Univ. del Bio Bio, Chillan (Chile). Dept. de Ciencias Basicas

    2013-04-15

    In our previous paper (Nucl.Phys.B 870 (2013) 243) we showed that multi-fold Mellin-Barnes (MB) transforms of the Usyukina-Davydychev (UD) functions may be reduced to two-fold MB transforms. The MB transforms were written there as polynomials of logarithms of ratios of squares of the external momenta with certain coefficients. We also showed that these coefficients have a combinatoric origin. In this paper we present an explicit formula for these coefficients. The procedure of recovering the coefficients is based on taking the double uni-form limit in certain series of smooth functions of two variables which is constructed according to a pre-determined iterative way. The result is obtained by using basic methods of mathematical analysis. We observe that the finiteness of the limit of this iterative chain of smooth functions should reflect itself in other mathematical constructions, too, since it is not related in any way to the explicit form of the MB transforms.

  18. Two-fold Mellin–Barnes transforms of Usyukina–Davydychev functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kniehl, Bernd A., E-mail: kniehl@desy.de [II. Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Hamburg, Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); Kondrashuk, Igor [Grupo de Matemática Aplicada, Departamento de Ciencias Básicas, Universidad del Bío-Bío, Campus Fernando May, Casilla 447, Chillán (Chile); Fakultät für Physik, Universität Bielefeld, Universitätsstraße 25, 33615 Bielefeld (Germany); Notte-Cuello, Eduardo A. [Departamento de Matemáticas, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de La Serena, Av. Cisternas 1200, La Serena (Chile); Parra-Ferrada, Ivan [Carrera de Pedagogia en Matemática, Facultad de Educación y Humanidades, Universidad del Bío-Bío, Campus Castilla, Casilla 447, Chillán (Chile); Rojas-Medar, Marko [Grupo de Matemática Aplicada, Departamento de Ciencias Básicas, Universidad del Bío-Bío, Campus Fernando May, Casilla 447, Chillán (Chile)

    2013-11-01

    In our previous paper (Allendes et al., 2013 [10]), we showed that multi-fold Mellin–Barnes (MB) transforms of Usyukina–Davydychev (UD) functions may be reduced to two-fold MB transforms. The MB transforms were written there as polynomials of logarithms of ratios of squares of the external momenta with certain coefficients. We also showed that these coefficients have a combinatoric origin. In this paper, we present an explicit formula for these coefficients. The procedure of recovering the coefficients is based on taking the double-uniform limit in certain series of smooth functions of two variables which is constructed according to a pre-determined iterative way. The result is obtained by using basic methods of mathematical analysis. We observe that the finiteness of the limit of this iterative chain of smooth functions should reflect itself in other mathematical constructions, too, since it is not related in any way to the explicit form of the MB transforms. This finite double-uniform limit is represented in terms of a differential operator with respect to an auxiliary parameter which acts on the integrand of a certain two-fold MB integral. To demonstrate that our result is compatible with original representations of UD functions, we reproduce the integrands of these original integral representations by applying this differential operator to the integrand of the simple integral representation of the scalar triangle four-dimensional integral J(1,1,1−ε)

  19. Timing of arrival from spring migration is associated with flight performance in the migratory barn swallow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matyjasiak, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    Timing of arrival at the breeding grounds by migratory birds affects their mating success and access to superior resources, thus being a major factor associated with fitness. Much empirical work has been devoted to investigate the condition dependence of arrival sequence of migrants and characteristics of individuals that influence arrival time from migration. Surprisingly, there are no studies examining the relationship between flight performance of individual birds and their arrival time. I investigated the relative importance of direct effects of short-term flight performance, age, body condition and the degree of sexual ornamentation (tail length) on timing of spring arrival in the barn swallow (Hirundo rustica), a long-distance trans-equatorial passerine migrant. I evaluated short-term flight performance (a composite variable comprising flight manoeuvrability, velocity and acceleration) in a standardised manner using flight tunnels. Short-term flight performance was a significant and important predictor of spring arrival date. Furthermore, locomotion predicted arrival date of individual birds independently of morphological variables-the degree of sexual ornamentation (the length of the tail) and wing aspect ratio and body condition. I discuss the possible role short-term flight performance may have in determining migratory performance. This is the first time flight performance has been shown to be associated with timing of arrival from migration in a migratory bird.

  20. Eggshell bacterial load is related to antimicrobial properties of feathers lining barn swallow nests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta-Sánchez, Juan Manuel; Soler, Juan José; Martín-Platero, Antonio Manuel; Knight, Rob; Martínez-Bueno, Manuel; Møller, Anders Pape

    2014-02-01

    The use of feathers to line bird's nests has traditionally been interpreted as having a thermoregulatory function. Feather-degrading bacteria growing on feathers lining nests may have antimicrobial properties, which may provide an additional benefit to lining nests with feathers. We test the hypothesis that the production of antimicrobial substances by feather bacteria affects the microbiological environment of the nest, and therefore the bacterial density on eggshells and, indirectly, hatching success. These effects would be expected to differ between nests lined with pigmented and white feathers, because bacteria grow differently on feathers of different colors. We experimentally manipulated the composition of pigmented and unpigmented feathers in nests of the barn swallow (Hirundo rustica) and studied the antimicrobial properties against the keratin-degrading bacterium Bacillus licheniformis of bacteria isolated from feathers of each color. Analyzed feathers were collected at the end of the incubation period, and antimicrobial activity was defined as the proportion of bacteria from the feathers that produce antibacterial substances effective against B. licheniformis. Our experimental manipulation affected antimicrobial activity, which was higher in nests with only white feathers at the beginning of incubation. Moreover, white feathers showed higher antimicrobial activity than black ones. Interestingly, antimicrobial activity in feathers of one of the colors correlated negatively with bacterial density on feather of the opposite color. Finally, antimicrobial activity of white feathers was negatively related to eggshell bacterial load. These results suggest that antimicrobial properties of feathers in general and of white feathers in particular affect the bacterial environment in nests. This environment in turn affects the bacterial load on eggshells, which may affect hatching success.

  1. Klatring i trær og hyttebygging: - om barns lek og lekesteder ute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merete Lund Fasting

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This article describes 10 year old children`s play in nature during school hours. However, my result does equally reflect on children in kindergarden as well. Observation and conversation was used as methods as well as pictures. The children’s play in the trees and building huts was conducted in groups, and their communication was nonverbal with each other and with the nature. However; the girls reveal that they enjoy their conversations while being in the tree. The children often play at the same place over and over. This is significant to the evolution of the play and the children’s communication with their places in nature.Sammendrag: Denne artikkelen omhandler 10 år gamle barns lek på natursteder i skoletida. Selv om studien omhandler 10 åringer så kan kunnskapen den frembringer også være viktig for å forstå barnehagebarns lek og tilknytning til sine lekesteder i barnehagen. Metodene som ble brukt for å undersøke barnas lek var observasjoner og samtaler med barna, i tillegg til fotografier. Barnas lek i trærne og i hyttebyggingen karakteriseres ved at de er flere sammen, og barna har en kroppslig dialog med hverandre og omgivelsene i leken. Barna snakker i liten grad sammen om leken og hvordan de skal leke; deres kommunikasjon er hovedsakelig nonverbal. Men når jentene sitter i treet forteller de meg at de liker å sitte og snakke. Barna leker på steder hvor de har vært mye før, og dette har en betydning for barnas lek og barnas kommunikasjon med deres steder.

  2. Språkkartlegging av flerspråklige barn i barnehagen - fra kontrovers til kompromiss?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nassira Essahli Vik

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Språkkartlegging i barnehagen er et konfliktfylt felt som preges av enten/eller tenkning. På den ene siden ser kartleggingstilhengerne ut til å ha en positivistisk tro på at kartlegging kan bidra til løsninger på alt fra enkeltbarns behov for hjelp, til tilrettelegging for livslang læring og sosial utjevning. På den andre siden ser kartleggingsskeptikerne ut til å befinne seg innenfor den nordiske barnehagemodellen, som tradisjonelt bygger på et helhetlig syn på læring og på en sterk vektlegging av barndommens egenverdi. Spenningen kan ha store konsekvenser for praksisfeltet. I denne artikkelen drøfter jeg språkkartleggingsdiskursen i lys av teori om vitenskapelige kontroverser og konkluderer med at det er åpning for kompromisser, men også at det er tendenser i diskursen som snarere kan forsterke enn redusere uenigheten om språkkartlegging av flerspråklige barn i barnehagen. Mapping of language skills in early childhood education and care (ECEC institutions is controversial. On the one hand, there are those who support language mapping based on a belief that mapping and measuring can help language acquisition and facilitate lifelong learning and social integration. On the other hand, there are skeptics who oppose mapping and emphasize the values of childhood. This article discusses the discourses on language mapping in light of theories on scientific controversies. Based on the analysis I find that although there are openings for compromises, it seems that tendencies in the discourse may amplify rather than reduce the controversy on the language mapping of multilingual children in Norwegian ECEC institutions.

  3. Samspill mellom barn og voksne ved måltidet. Muligheter for medlæring?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berit Bae

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available I denne artikkelen rettes oppmerksomheten mot samspill og ikke-intendert læring, dvs. aspekter ved
    den erfarte læreplanen, basert på samspill ved måltidet. Det som analyseres er medlæring, dvs. prosesser som er
    innbakt i og foregår sammen med andre aktiviteter. Empirisk sett tar framstillingen utgangspunkt i en mikroana-
    lytisk undersøkelse av dialoger mellom førskolelærer og barn i to barnehager i Oslo, hvor samspill i tre ulike situ-
    asjoner, derav måltidet, ble videofilmet med jevne mellomrom i løpet av et år. Ut fra analyse av videomaterialet
    ble det utviklet to kategorier for å skille mellom samspill av ulik kvalitet, nemlig romslige og trange mønstre (Bae,
    2004, 2005, 2007. I denne artikkelen vil framstillingen bli begrenset til romslige mønstre. Problemstillingen som
    drøftes er: Hvilke medlæringsmuligheter inneholder romslige samspill for de barna som er aktivt involvert, og for
    de som observerer samspillet? Fortolkende analyser viser at i tillegg til det som har kommet fram i tidligere forsk-
    ning om kunnskap om ernæring, gode spisevaner og bordskikk etc., kan måltidet også romme medlæringsmulig-
    heter om samtaleferdigheter og samarbeide rundt praktiske ting. Uten at dette blir eksplisitt fokusert, så innehol-
    der måltidet også muligheter for læring angående verdsetting av forskjellighet og mangfold, samt det å vise soli-
    daritet i forhold til andre.

  4. Samspill mellom barn og voksne ved måltidet. Muligheter for medlæring?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berit Bae

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available I denne artikkelen rettes oppmerksomheten mot samspill og ikke-intendert læring, dvs. aspekter ved den erfarte læreplanen, basert på samspill ved måltidet. Det som analyseres er medlæring, dvs. prosesser som er innbakt i og foregår sammen med andre aktiviteter. Empirisk sett tar framstillingen utgangspunkt i en mikroanalytisk undersøkelse av dialoger mellom førskolelærer og barn i to barnehager i Oslo, hvor samspill i tre ulike situasjoner, derav måltidet, ble videofilmet med jevne mellomrom i løpet av et år. Ut fra analyse av videomaterialet ble det utviklet to kategorier for å skille mellom samspill av ulik kvalitet, nemlig romslige og trange mønstre (Bae, 2004, 2005, 2007. I denne artikkelen vil framstillingen bli begrenset til romslige mønstre. Problemstillingen som drøftes er: Hvilke medlæringsmuligheter inneholder romslige samspill for de barna som er aktivt involvert, og for de som observerer samspillet? Fortolkende analyser viser at i tillegg til det som har kommet fram i tidligere forskning om kunnskap om ernæring, gode spisevaner og bordskikk etc., kan måltidet også romme medlæringsmuligheter om samtaleferdigheter og samarbeide rundt praktiske ting. Uten at dette blir eksplisitt fokusert, så inneholder måltidet også muligheter for læring angående verdsetting av forskjellighet og mangfold, samt det å vise solidaritet i forhold til andre.

  5. Effect of summer grazing on welfare of dairy cows reared in mountain tie-stall barns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simonetta Dovier

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Traditional mountain farms have an important economic, social and environmental role. The Alps management system for dairy cows consists of animals kept indoors from autumn to spring, mostly in tie-stalls, and moved to mountain pasture in summer. The aim of our study was to assess the effect of mountain summer grazing on the welfare of dairy cows housed in tie-stall barns. Twenty-four farms were considered. In twelve of them, animals were reared in tie-stalls and moved to mountain pasture for three months in summer; they were visited three times: (i four weeks before grazing during the indoor period in the stall; (ii about three weeks after the start of grazing; and (iii in the stall, in autumn, at least three weeks after returning from grazing. The other twelve farms kept the animals in tie-stalls all year; they were visited once in autumn. Data were collected following a protocol that considers animal-based measures and structure information on the basis of Quality Welfare Consortium® indications. Data allowed the calculation of both the Animal Needs Index score (ANI 35L and an overall assessment of the cows’ welfare obtained from three general aspects: housing, animal’s physical condition, and animal’s behaviour. Summer grazing had a significant positive effect on injuries, lameness and animal’s rising duration but a negative effect on faeces consistency. Moreover, a reduction of tongue playing was observed. The ANI 35L and the overall assessment did not show significant differences linked to summer grazing, which tended to have a positive but temporary effect on animal behaviour.

  6. A trade-off between reproduction and feather growth in the barn swallow (Hirundo rustica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Saino

    Full Text Available Physiological trade-offs mediated by limiting energy, resources or time constrain the simultaneous expression of major functions and can lead to the evolution of temporal separation between demanding activities. In birds, plumage renewal is a demanding activity, which accomplishes fundamental functions, such as allowing thermal insulation, aerodynamics and socio-sexual signaling. Feather renewal is a very expensive and disabling process, and molt is often partitioned from breeding and migration. However, trade-offs between feather renewal and breeding have been only sparsely studied. In barn swallows (Hirundo rustica breeding in Italy and undergoing molt during wintering in sub-Saharan Africa, we studied this trade-off by removing a tail feather from a large sample of individuals and analyzing growth bar width, reflecting feather growth rate, and length of the growing replacement feather in relation to the stage in the breeding cycle at removal and clutch size. Growth bar width of females and length of the growing replacement feather of both sexes were smaller when the original feather had been removed after clutch initiation. Importantly, in females both growth bar width and replacement feather length were negatively predicted by clutch size, and more strongly so for large clutches and when feather removal occurred immediately after clutch completion. Hence, we found strong, coherent evidence for a trade-off between reproduction, and laying effort in particular, and the ability to generate new feathers. These results support the hypothesis that the derived condition of molting during wintering in long-distance migrants is maintained by the costs of overlapping breeding and molt.

  7. Sexual dimorphism in melanin pigmentation, feather coloration and its heritability in the barn swallow (Hirundo rustica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Saino

    Full Text Available Melanin is the main pigment in animal coloration and considerable variation in the concentrations of the two melanin forms (pheo- and eumlanin in pigmented tissues exists among populations and individuals. Melanin-based coloration is receiving increasing attention particularly in socio-sexual communication contexts because the melanocortin system has been hypothesized to provide a mechanistic basis for covariation between coloration and fitness traits. However, with few notable exceptions, little detailed information is available on inter-individual and inter-population variation in melanin pigmentation and on its environmental, genetic and ontogenetic components. Here, we investigate melanin-based coloration in an Italian population of a passerine bird, the barn swallow (Hirundo rustica rustica, its sex- and age-related variation, and heritability. The concentrations of eu- and pheomelanin in the throat (brown and belly (white-to-brownish feathers differed between sexes but not according to age. The relative concentration of either melanin (Pheo:Eu differed between sexes in throat but not in belly feathers, and the concentrations in males compared to females were larger in belly than in throat feathers. There were weak correlations between the concentrations of melanins within as well as among plumage regions. Coloration of belly feathers was predicted by the concentration of both melanins whereas coloration of throat feathers was only predicted by pheomelanin in females. In addition, Pheo:Eu predicted coloration of throat feathers in females and that of belly feathers in males. Finally, we found high heritability of color of throat feathers. Melanization was found to differ from that recorded in Hirundo rustica rustica from Scotland or from H. r. erythrogaster from North America. Hence, present results show that pigmentation strategies vary in a complex manner according to sex and plumage region, and also among geographical populations

  8. Sexual Dimorphism and Population Differences in Structural Properties of Barn Swallow (Hirundo rustica Wing and Tail Feathers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter L Pap

    Full Text Available Sexual selection and aerodynamic forces affecting structural properties of the flight feathers of birds are poorly understood. Here, we compared the structural features of the innermost primary wing feather (P1 and the sexually dimorphic outermost (Ta6 and monomorphic second outermost (Ta5 tail feathers of barn swallows (Hirundo rustica from a Romanian population to investigate how sexual selection and resistance to aerodynamic forces affect structural differences among these feathers. Furthermore, we compared structural properties of Ta6 of barn swallows from six European populations. Finally, we determined the relationship between feather growth bars width (GBW and the structural properties of tail feathers. The structure of P1 indicates strong resistance against aerodynamic forces, while the narrow rachis, low vane density and low bending stiffness of tail feathers suggest reduced resistance against airflow. The highly elongated Ta6 is characterized by structural modifications such as large rachis width and increased barbule density in relation to the less elongated Ta5, which can be explained by increased length and/or high aerodynamic forces acting at the leading tail edge. However, these changes in Ta6 structure do not allow for full compensation of elongation, as reflected by the reduced bending stiffness of Ta6. Ta6 elongation in males resulted in feathers with reduced resistance, as shown by the low barb density and reduced bending stiffness compared to females. The inconsistency in sexual dimorphism and in change in quality traits of Ta6 among six European populations shows that multiple factors may contribute to shaping population differences. In general, the difference in quality traits between tail feathers cannot be explained by the GBW of feathers. Our results show that the material and structural properties of wing and tail feathers of barn swallows change as a result of aerodynamic forces and sexual selection, although the

  9. Measurement of heat stress conditions at cow level and comparison to climate conditions at stationary locations inside a dairy barn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüller, Laura K; Heuwieser, Wolfgang

    2016-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine heat stress conditions at cow level and to investigate the relationship to the climate conditions at 5 different stationary locations inside a dairy barn. In addition, we compared the climate conditions at cow level between primiparous and multiparous cows for a period of 1 week after regrouping. The temperature-humidity index (THI) differed significantly between all stationary loggers. The lowest THI was measured at the window logger in the experimental stall and the highest THI was measured at the central logger in the experimental stall. The THI at the mobile cow loggers was 2·33 THI points higher than at the stationary loggers. Furthermore, the mean daily THI was higher at the mobile cow loggers than at the stationary loggers on all experimental days. The THI in the experimental pen was 0·44 THI points lower when the experimental cow group was located inside the milking parlour. The THI measured at the mobile cow loggers was 1·63 THI points higher when the experimental cow group was located inside the milking parlour. However, there was no significant difference for all climate variables between primiparous and multiparous cows. These results indicate, there is a wide range of climate conditions inside a dairy barn and especially areas with a great distance to a fresh air supply have an increased risk for the occurrence of heat stress conditions. Furthermore, the heat stress conditions are even higher at cow level and cows not only influence their climatic environment, but also generate microclimates within different locations inside the barn. Therefore climate conditions should be obtained at cow level to evaluate the heat stress conditions that dairy cows are actually exposed to.

  10. Clock gene variation is associated with breeding phenology and maybe under directional selection in the migratory barn swallow.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Caprioli

    Full Text Available In diverse taxa, photoperiodic responses that cause seasonal physiological and behavioural shifts are controlled by genes, including the vertebrate Clock orthologues, that encode for circadian oscillator mechanisms. While the genetic network behind circadian rhythms is well described, relatively few reports exist of the phenological consequences of and selection on Clock genes in the wild. Here, we investigated variation in breeding phenology in relation to Clock genetic diversity in a long-distance migratory bird, the barn swallow (Hirundo rustica.In a sample of 922 adult barn swallows from a single population breeding in Italy we found one very common (Q(7 and three rare (Q(5, Q(6, Q(8 length variants of a functionally significant polyglutamine repeat. Rare (2.9% Q(7/Q(8 heterozygous females, but not males, bred significantly later than common (91.5% Q(7/Q(7 females, consistent with the expectation that 'long' alleles cause late breeding, as observed in a resident population of another bird species. Because breeding date depends on arrival date from migration, present results suggest that the association between breeding date and Clock might be mediated by migration phenology. In addition, fecundity selection appears to be operating against Q(7/Q(8 because late migrating/breeding swallows have fewer clutches per season, and late breeding has additional negative selection effects via reduced offspring longevity. Genotype frequencies varied marginally non-significantly with age, as Q(7/Q(8 frequency showed a 4-fold reduction in old individuals. This result suggests negative viability selection against Q(7/Q(8, possibly mediated by costs of late breeding.This is the first study of migratory birds showing an association between breeding phenology and Clock genotype and suggesting that negative selection occurs on a phenologically deviant genotype. Low polymorphism at Clock may constrain microevolutionary phenological response to changing climate

  11. Natural selection in a postglacial range expansion: the case of the colour cline in the European barn owl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniazza, Sylvain; Kanitz, Ricardo; Neuenschwander, Samuel; Burri, Reto; Gaigher, Arnaud; Roulin, Alexandre; Goudet, Jérôme

    2014-11-01

    Gradients of variation--or clines--have always intrigued biologists. Classically, they have been interpreted as the outcomes of antagonistic interactions between selection and gene flow. Alternatively, clines may also establish neutrally with isolation by distance (IBD) or secondary contact between previously isolated populations. The relative importance of natural selection and these two neutral processes in the establishment of clinal variation can be tested by comparing genetic differentiation at neutral genetic markers and at the studied trait. A third neutral process, surfing of a newly arisen mutation during the colonization of a new habitat, is more difficult to test. Here, we designed a spatially explicit approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) simulation framework to evaluate whether the strong cline in the genetically based reddish coloration observed in the European barn owl (Tyto alba) arose as a by-product of a range expansion or whether selection has to be invoked to explain this colour cline, for which we have previously ruled out the actions of IBD or secondary contact. Using ABC simulations and genetic data on 390 individuals from 20 locations genotyped at 22 microsatellites loci, we first determined how barn owls colonized Europe after the last glaciation. Using these results in new simulations on the evolution of the colour phenotype, and assuming various genetic architectures for the colour trait, we demonstrate that the observed colour cline cannot be due to the surfing of a neutral mutation. Taking advantage of spatially explicit ABC, which proved to be a powerful method to disentangle the respective roles of selection and drift in range expansions, we conclude that the formation of the colour cline observed in the barn owl must be due to natural selection. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. EVALUATION OF PERCEIVED QUALITY OF THE WEBSITE OF AN ONLINE BOOKSTORE: AN EMPIRICAL APPLICATION OF THE BARNES AND VIDGEN MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ueliton da Costa Leonidio

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper’s objective is to evaluate the perceived quality of the Website of an online bookstore using the Barnes and Vidgen Model. Implemented over the Internet, this empirical research collected data on the perceived quality of the Website, used to sell products and online services. The questionnaire used to gather the data was answered by a convenience sample of 213 respondents. The importance of quality attributes and the dimension of perceived quality were investigated. The results indicate that the three dimensions named Reliability, Usability and Information were the most noticeable.

  13. Low level of extra-pair paternity in a population of the Barn Swallow Hirundo rustica gutturalis

    OpenAIRE

    Hasegawa, Masaru; Arai, Emi; Kojima, Wataru; Kitamura, Wataru; Fujita, Go; Higuchi, Hiroyoshi; Watanabe, Mamoru; Nakamura, Masahiko

    2010-01-01

    On average, male birds other than social father sire more than 10% of all offspring. Levels of extra-pair paternity below 5% of offspring are rarely found and are now considered worthy of explanation in monogamous birds. We recorded the lowest levels of paternity loss ever reported in a population of Barn Swallows Hirundo rustica. The levels of extra-pair paternity were below 5% of offspring (7/243 in 2005 and 1/53 in 2006). We discuss our results in relation to the density-dependence of extr...

  14. A note on linking electrical current, magnetic fields, charges and the pole in a barn paradox in special relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGlynn, Enda; Van Kampen, Paul

    2008-01-01

    We point out the connection between the 'pole in a barn paradox' and the phenomenon of alterations in charge in a segment of a current-carrying conductor as perceived by observers in different inertial reference frames. This connection appears to offer a useful pedagogical strategy helping students to appreciate that the issues which underlie the explanation of the paradox can be important and significant in everyday phenomena such as magnetic forces on moving charges and at the very modest speeds associated with electron drift in conductors. (note)

  15. Food Preference of the Short-Eared Owl (Asio flammeus) and Barn Owl (Tyto alba) at Usta Muhammad, Baluchistan, Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    MUSHTAQ-UL-HASSAN, Muhammad; GHAZI, Rafia Rehana; NISA, Noor-un

    2014-01-01

    The dominant food-items eaten by the short-eared owl were rats and mice (91.9%). Shrews (2.0%), bats (1.3%), and birds (5.0%) jointly constituted only 8.2% of the owl's diet. Among rats and mice, the most intensively consumed rodent pest by the owl was Millardia meltada (43.9%), followed by Mus musculus (29.8%), Tatera indica (16.3%), and Bandicota bengalensis (1.8%). In the case of the barn owl, rats and mice represented 9.7% of their diet, followed by shrews (4.7%), birds (3.3%), a...

  16. Fra skadet barn til kriminell voksen. Hvorvidt har oppvekstsvilkår betydning for senere kriminell adferd?

    OpenAIRE

    2017-01-01

    Oppgaven baserer seg hovedsakelig på hypoteser om hvordan omsorgssvikt og uhensiktsmessige oppvekstsvilkår, kan føre til utvikling av psykiske vansker og kriminelle adferdsmønstre. Fra skadet barn til kriminell voksen, tar utgangspunkt i tidligere undersøkelser gjort blant domfelte i norske fengsler, som kan vise til at 73 prosent har tegn til personlighetsforstyrrelser og at mishandling er en risikofaktor som øker sjansen med å begå en forbrytelse med 50 prosent. I tillegg til en signifikant...

  17. Nye estimater av organdoser til barn ved datatomografi (CT) utført på 1990-tallet i Norge

    OpenAIRE

    Toft, Benthe

    2013-01-01

    Masteroppgave i Folkehelsevitenskap ved Institutt for plante- og miljøvitenskap. 30 studiepoeng. Bakgrunn: Bruk av datatomografi (CT) har økt i Norge de siste ti årene og står nå for 80 % av befolkningsdosen fra medisinsk bruk av stråling. Det er usikkerhet rundt risikoen ved bruk av ioniserende stråling, særlig knyttet til CT av barn og unge. En stor internasjonal studie (EPI-CT-prosjektet) tar sikte på å skaffe økt kunnskap om risiko for leukemi og hjernekreft forbundet med CT-undersøkel...

  18. Rörelseövningar och närmelsesätt i anpassad gruppgymnastik för unga barn med cerebral pares : En systematisk litteraturstudie

    OpenAIRE

    Wessberg, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Barn med motorisk funktionsnedsättning har vanligen begränsade möjligheter att röra på sig i grupp tillsammans med andra barn. De största barriärerna är tillgången till, och säkerheten med, en gruppgymnastik som passar deras specialbehov. Detta examensarbete var ett beställningsarbete av en barnfysioterapeut. Syftet med arbetet var att genom en litteraturstudie utforska rekommenderade rörelseövningar och närmelsesätt för en anpassad gruppgymnastik för barn mellan 3 och 6 år, med motorisk f...

  19. The effect of production system (barn and free-range), slaughtering age and gender on carcass traits and meat quality of partridges (Alectoris chukar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamak, U S; Sarica, M; Boz, M A; Ucar, A

    2016-04-01

    1. A total of 400 Alectoris chukar partridges were reared in either barn or free-range production systems and slaughtered at 14, 16 or 18 weeks of age in order to determine the effects of production system, age and gender on carcass traits (live weight, carcass weight, carcass yield, carcass part and edible inner organ percentages at slaughtering) and meat quality (L*, a* and b* meat colour and pH). 2. Production system had a significant effect on both slaughter traits and meat quality. 3. Partridges raised in barn conditions had higher live weights and carcass weights whereas meat quality was better in birds raised in the free-range system.

  20. Comparison of Aviary, Barn and Conventional Cage Raising of Chickens on Laying Performance and Egg Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ahammed

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study intended to compare the productive performance of three different layer raising systems; conventional cage (CC, barn (BR and aviary (AV. The AV is welfare bestowed housing that allows free locomotion for birds within the BR. The BR allows bird’s free locomotion inside BR but without multilevel structures. Both pullets and cockerels were housed together in both AV and BR, but only pullets in CC. Seventeen weeks old Lohmann Brown Lite (n = 800 pullets were housed in AV during this study. The same age layer pullets were simultaneously assigned to either at CC or BR to compare egg production performance with AV. The duration of experiment was 40 weeks (from 21st to 60th week. There were no remarkable differences in egg production, hen day egg production (HDEP and average egg weight among three rearing systems. First 20 weeks (phase-1 average HDEP (% of AV, CC, and BR were 85.9, 88.8, 87.1 and average egg weights (g were 57.5, 59.9, and 56.9 respectively. Those of the remaining 20 weeks (phase-2 were 87.1, 87.9, 85.5 and 64.2, 63.0 62.1, respectively. Daily feed intakes (122 g, 110 g, 125 g; feed conversion ratio (2.4, 2.1, 2.5 and daily egg mass (53.9 g, 54.4 g, 52.8 g data from AV, CC, and BR were not influenced significantly by the respective raising systems. Daily feed intake of layers in both AV (124 g and BR (127 g tended to be higher than that in CC (113 g during phase-2. Overall, exterior egg quality (dirty and cracked eggs in both phases was superior in BR compared with AV and CC, whereas CC generated intermediate results. This study indicated that the HDEP per se in AV and BR were not significantly different from that in CC. The study implied that the facility depreciation cost for AV and cost for increased feed intake in AV compared to CC are believed to be critical to evaluate the cost effectiveness of egg production in AV.

  1. A COMPARISON OF LASER SCANNING AND STRUCTURE FROM MOTION AS APPLIED TO THE GREAT BARN AT HARMONDSWORTH, UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. P. Andrews

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The great barn at Harmondsworth near London Heathrow airport, United Kingdom (UK, was built in 1426–7 for the Bishop of Winchester. At 58 metres long and 11.4 metres wide, it is one of the largest ever known to have been built in the UK, and the largest intact medieval timber-framed barn in England. The barn is built almost entirely of oak, although the walls rest on a low masonry sill-wall. Internally the space is divided into a central "nave" with a lower aisle to each side, and is divided along its length into 12 bays. There are three doorways on the east side. For an entirely timber-framed barn, the fabric is exceptionally well preserved. Even the external weatherboarding may be partly original. Following years of neglect, however, there are a number of on-going structural and conservation problems, so in 2011 the barn was bought by English Heritage in order to allow these needs to be addressed. English Heritage is the government agency responsible for the historic sites and buildings in the care of the state of England and is also the UK government's lead advisor on the built heritage. As one of the first steps in the conservation process the English Heritage Geospatial Imaging and Imaging & Visualisation teams undertook a four-day campaign of survey data collection. This took the form of laser scanning of the interior and exterior of the barn plus the acquisition of photography of the exterior elevations to be used with structure from motion (SFM software. A comparison of the results of these complimentary yet potentially competing technologies will be given, as well as an evaluation of when they can be successfully used together. This paper will describe the procedures and problems involved with collecting the survey data and its subsequent analysis. The laser scanning was undertaken using a FARO Focus 3D phase based instrument. Approximately 60 scans were acquired in order to provide as comprehensive as possible coverage given the site

  2. Sex allocation according to multiple sexually dimorphic traits of both parents in the barn swallow (Hirundo rustica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, A; Romano, M; Caprioli, M; Costanzo, A; Parolini, M; Rubolini, D; Saino, N

    2015-06-01

    Parents should differentially invest in sons or daughters depending on the sex-specific fitness returns from male and female offspring. In species with sexually selected heritable male characters, highly ornamented fathers should overproduce sons, which will be more sexually attractive than sons of less ornamented fathers. Because of genetic correlations between the sexes, females that express traits which are under selection in males should also overproduce sons. However, sex allocation strategies may consist in reaction norms leading to spatiotemporal variation in the association between offspring sex ratio (SR) and parental phenotype. We analysed offspring SR in barn swallows (Hirundo rustica) over 8 years in relation to two sexually dimorphic traits: tail length and melanin-based ventral plumage coloration. The proportion of sons increased with maternal plumage darkness and paternal tail length, consistently with sexual dimorphism in these traits. The size of the effect of these parental traits on SR was large compared to other studies of offspring SR in birds. Barn swallows thus manipulate offspring SR to overproduce 'sexy sons' and potentially to mitigate the costs of intralocus sexually antagonistic selection. Interannual variation in the relationships between offspring SR and parental traits was observed which may suggest phenotypic plasticity in sex allocation and provides a proximate explanation for inconsistent results of studies of sex allocation in relation to sexual ornamentation in birds. © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  3. Offspring sexual dimorphism and sex-allocation in relation to parental age and paternal ornamentation in the barn swallow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saino, N; Ambrosini, R; Martinelli, R; Calza, S; Møller, A P; Pilastro, A

    2002-08-01

    We analysed the morphology of nestling barn swallows (Hirundo rustica) in relation to their sex, and laying and hatching order. In addition, we studied sex-allocation in relation to parentage, parental age and expression of a secondary sexual character of fathers. Molecular sexing was conducted using the sex chromosome-linked avian CHD1 gene. Sex of the offspring was not associated with laying or hatching order. None of nine morphological, serological and immunological variables varied in relation to offspring sex. Sexual dimorphism did not vary in relation to parental age and expression of a paternal secondary sexual character. The proportion of sons declined with brood size. Individual males and females had a similar proportion of sons during consecutive breeding years. The proportion of sons of individual females declined with age, but increased with the expression of a secondary sexual character of their current mate. The generalized lack of variation in sexual dimorphism among nestlings may suggest that barn swallows do not differentially invest in sons vs. daughters. Alternatively, male offspring may require different parental effort compared to their female siblings in order to attain the same morphological state. The lack of variation in offspring sexual dimorphism with paternal ornamentation suggests no adjustment of overall parental effort in relation to reproductive value of the two sexes. However, male-biased sex ratio among offspring of highly ornamented males may represent an adaptive sex-allocation strategy because the expression of male ornaments is heritable and highly ornamented males are at a sexual selection advantage.

  4. Melanin-based coloration covaries with ovary size in an age-specific manner in the barn owl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roulin, Alexandre

    2009-10-01

    While the adaptive function of black eumelanin-based coloration is relatively well known, the function of reddish-brown pheomelanin-based coloration is still unclear. Only a few studies have shown or suggested that the degree of reddish-brownness is associated with predator-prey relationships, reproductive parameters, growth rate and immunity. To gain insight into the physiological correlates of melanin-based coloration, I collected barn owl ( Tyto alba) cadavers and examined the covariation between this colour trait and ovary size, an organ that increases in size before reproduction. A relationship is expected because melanin-based coloration often covaries with sexual activity. The results showed that reddish-brown juveniles had larger ovaries than whiter juveniles particularly in individuals in poor condition and outside the breeding season, while in birds older than 2 years lightly coloured females had larger ovaries than reddish-brown conspecifics. As barn owls become less reddish-brown between the first and second year of age, the present study suggests that reddish-brown pheomelanic and whitish colorations are associated with juvenile- and adult-specific adaptations, respectively.

  5. a Comparison of Laser Scanning and Structure from Motion as Applied to the Great Barn at Harmondsworth, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, D. P.; Bedford, J.; Bryan, P. G.

    2013-07-01

    The great barn at Harmondsworth near London Heathrow airport, United Kingdom (UK), was built in 1426-7 for the Bishop of Winchester. At 58 metres long and 11.4 metres wide, it is one of the largest ever known to have been built in the UK, and the largest intact medieval timber-framed barn in England. The barn is built almost entirely of oak, although the walls rest on a low masonry sill-wall. Internally the space is divided into a central "nave" with a lower aisle to each side, and is divided along its length into 12 bays. There are three doorways on the east side. For an entirely timber-framed barn, the fabric is exceptionally well preserved. Even the external weatherboarding may be partly original. Following years of neglect, however, there are a number of on-going structural and conservation problems, so in 2011 the barn was bought by English Heritage in order to allow these needs to be addressed. English Heritage is the government agency responsible for the historic sites and buildings in the care of the state of England and is also the UK government's lead advisor on the built heritage. As one of the first steps in the conservation process the English Heritage Geospatial Imaging and Imaging & Visualisation teams undertook a four-day campaign of survey data collection. This took the form of laser scanning of the interior and exterior of the barn plus the acquisition of photography of the exterior elevations to be used with structure from motion (SFM) software. A comparison of the results of these complimentary yet potentially competing technologies will be given, as well as an evaluation of when they can be successfully used together. This paper will describe the procedures and problems involved with collecting the survey data and its subsequent analysis. The laser scanning was undertaken using a FARO Focus 3D phase based instrument. Approximately 60 scans were acquired in order to provide as comprehensive as possible coverage given the site circumstances. A

  6. Tests of the Aversive Summation Hypothesis in Rats: Effects of Restraint Stress on Consummatory Successive Negative Contrast and Extinction in the Barnes Maze

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Leonardo A.; Prado-Rivera, Mayerli A.; Cardenas-Poveda, D. Carolina; McLinden, Kristina A.; Glueck, Amanda C.; Gutierrez, German; Lamprea, Marisol R.; Papini, Mauricio R.

    2013-01-01

    The present research explored the effects of restraint stress on two situations involving incentive downshift: consummatory successive negative contrast (cSNC) and extinction of escape behavior in the Barnes maze. First, Experiment 1 confirmed that the restraint stress procedure used in these experiments increased levels of circulating…

  7. Long-Distance Range Expansion and Rapid Adjustment of Migration in a Newly Established Population of Barn Swallows Breeding in Argentina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkler, D.W.; Gandoy, F.A.; Areta, J.I.; Iliff, M.J.; Rakhimberdiev, E.; Kardynal, K.J.; Hobson, K.A.

    2017-01-01

    When bird populations spread, long-distance pioneeringpopulations are often backfilled by amore slowly advancing front [1–3]. The Barn SwallowHirundo rustica, a globally distributedpasserine [4, 5], expanded its breeding range anexceptional 7,000 km when it began breeding 35years ago in its regular

  8. Effect of sward height and distance between pasture and barn on cows' visits to an automatic milking system and other behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketelaar-de Lauwere, C.C.; Ipema, A.H.; Lokhorst, C.; Metz, J.H.M.; Noordhuizen, J.P.T.M.; Schouten, W.G.P.; Smits, A.C.

    2000-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to study the effects of sward height (experiment I) and the distance between barn and pasture plot (experiment II) on cows’ visits to an automatic milking system (AMS) and other behaviour. The study was carried out in a situation in which grazing was combined with

  9. Study of $ \\bar{p} $ and $ \\bar{n} $ annihilations at LEAR with OBELIX, a large acceptance and high resolution detector based on the Open Axial Field Spectrometer

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    % PS201 Study of $\\bar{p}$ and $\\bar{n}$ annihilations at LEAR with OBELIX, a large acceptance and high resolution detector based on the Open Axial Field Spectrometer \\\\ \\\\OBELIX is designed to study exclusive final states of antiproton and antineutron annihilations at low energies with protons and nuclei. \\\\ \\\\The physics motivations of the experiment are:\\\\ \\\\\\begin{itemize} \\item (gg, ggg), hybrids ($ q \\bar{q} g $), multiquarks ($ q q \\bar{q} \\bar{q} $) and light mesons ($ q \\bar{q} $) produced in $ N \\bar{N} $ annihilations and study of their spectroscopy and decays. Also broad structures will be searched for by comparing identical decay modes in exclusive final states of the same type occuring from initial states with different angular momentum or isospin. \\item Study of the dynamics of $ N \\bar{N} $ interactions and of the dependence of the final and intermediate resonant states of annihilation upon the quantum numbers of the initial $ N \\bar{N} $ state (angular momentum: S and P-wave in $\\bar{p}p $ at...

  10. A study of KK-bar system produced in the reaction Π-p#-> #KK-barn at 63 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palka, H.

    1983-01-01

    An analysis of KK-bar system produced in the reaction Π - p#-> #KK-barn at 63 GeV and measured by ACCMOR (Amsterdam-CERN-Cracow-Munich-Oxford-Rutherford) collaboration at the CERN SPS accelelator is presented. (author)

  11. How Do You Keep 'Em down on the Farm after They've Seen Technology? The Stone Barns Center for Food and Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donlevy, Jim

    2004-01-01

    In an age dominated by technology, teachers are challenged as never before to help students understand the deep connections they share with people from earlier times and nowhere is this more dramatically revealed than in basic farm life. This article discusses the Stone Barns Center for Food and Agriculture and describes technology use that…

  12. The effect of low and high barn temperatures on behaviour and performance of Holstein dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Večeřa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried out at the University Training Farm in Žabčice (the Czech Republic; location 49°0’51.081”N, 16°36’14.848”E, 179 m.a.s.l over the period of one year (1st July to 30th June. The assessment of temperature impact was based on data from 16 hottest days (H and 16 coldest days (L. The experimental group consisted of 70 cows in various stage of lactation (30d–210d and parity (1–8. The cows were housed in a section (one quarter of a free-stall barn with 77 stalls in three rows. Row A was located peripherally, close to the side wall, row B was in the middle and row C was situated centrally, close to the feed table. The cows were observed weekly on the same day at 9.00 a.m. The microclimate characteristics were recorded daily: temperature in hot (H resp. cold (L period was in average 27.1°C resp. – 1.47 °C, and relative humidity 54.4 % resp. 77.3 %, and THI 75 resp. 33.Behaviour was described by a number of cows standing or lying down, number of cows lying down on their left or right side and row preference (A, B, C in the resting area. Cow Comfort Index (CCI – a number of cows lying down at given time was calculated. A total of 1587 observations were analysed. A number of cows lying down (922 was significantly higher than that of standing cows (665. Milk production was significantly higher in hot (H period (by 1.0–1.7 kg. There was an interaction in milk production between period and standing. In H period the standing cows produced more milk, in L period vice versa. The cows with non-significant tendency towards left-side laterality produced more milk (by 1.2 kg. No interaction was found between period and laterality for milk production. All the observed parameters significantly differed between rows A, B and C. Row A was the most preferred, the cows preferring it were young (low number of lactation with greatest milk production. The cows in row C had the lowest milk production and were in late

  13. Associations between lying behavior and lameness in Canadian Holstein-Friesian cows housed in freestall barns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano, L; Barkema, H W; Pajor, E A; Mason, S; LeBlanc, S J; Nash, C G R; Haley, D B; Pellerin, D; Rushen, J; de Passillé, A M; Vasseur, E; Orsel, K

    2016-03-01

    Lying behavior is an important measure of comfort and well-being in dairy cattle, and changes in lying behavior are potential indicators and predictors of lameness. Our objectives were to determine individual and herd-level risk factors associated with measures of lying behavior, and to evaluate whether automated measures of lying behavior can be used to detect lameness. A purposive sample of 40 Holstein cows was selected from each of 141 dairy farms in Alberta, Ontario, and Québec. Lying behavior of 5,135 cows between 10 and 120 d in milk was automatically and continuously recorded using accelerometers over 4 d. Data on factors hypothesized to influence lying behavior were collected, including information on individual cows, management practices, and facility design. Associations between predictor variables and measures of lying behavior were assessed using generalized linear mixed models, including farm and province as random and fixed effects, respectively. Logistic regression models were used to determine whether lying behavior was associated with lameness. At the cow-level, daily lying time increased with increasing days in milk, but this effect interacted with parity; primiparous cows had more frequent but shorter lying bouts in early lactation, changing to mature-cow patterns of lying behavior (fewer and longer lying bouts) in late lactation. In barns with stall curbs >22 cm high, the use of sand or >2 cm of bedding was associated with an increased average daily lying time of 1.44 and 0.06 h/d, respectively. Feed alleys ≥ 350 cm wide or stalls ≥ 114 cm wide were associated with increased daily lying time of 0.39 and 0.33 h/d, respectively, whereas rubber flooring in the feed alley was associated with 0.47 h/d lower average lying time. Lame cows had longer lying times, with fewer, longer, and more variable duration of bouts compared with nonlame cows. In that regard, cows with lying time ≥ 14 h/d, ≤ 5 lying bouts per day, bout duration ≥ 110 min

  14. Sources of nitrous oxide and other climate relevant gases on surface area in a dairy free stall barn with solid floor and outside slurry storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmithausen, Alexander J.; Trimborn, Manfred; Büscher, Wolfgang

    2018-04-01

    Livestock production systems in agriculture are one of the major emitters of greenhouse gases. So far, the focus of research in the dairy farm sector was primarily on ruminal methane (CH4) emissions. Emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O) usually arise from solid manure or in deep litter free stall barns. Release of N2O occurs as a result of interactions between organic material, nitrogen and moisture. Data of N2O emissions from modern dairy barns and liquid manure management systems are rare. Thus, the goal of this research was to determine the main sources of trace gas emissions at the dairy farm level, including N2O. Areas such as the scraped surface area where dry and wet conditions alternate are interesting. Possible sources of trace gases within and outside the barn were localised by measuring trace gas concentration rates from different dairy farm areas (e.g., areas covered with urine and excrement or slurry storage system) via the closed chamber technique. The results indicate typical emission ratios of carbon dioxide (CO2), CH4 and N2O in the various areas to generate comparable equivalent values. Calculated on the basis of nitrogen excretion from dairy cows, total emissions of N2O were much lower from barns than typically measured in fields. However, there were also areas within the barn with individual events and unexpected release factors of N2O concentrations such as urine patches, polluted areas and cubicles. Emission factors of N2O ranged from 1.1 to 5.0 mg m-2 d-1, respectively, for cleaned areas and urine patches. By considering the release factors of these areas and their proportion of the entire barn, total emission rates of 371 CO2-eq. LU-1 a-1, 36 CO2-eq. LU-1 a-1, and 1.7 kg CO2-eq. LU-1 a-1 for CO2, CH4 and N2O, respectively, were measured for the whole barn surface area. The CH4 emissions from surface area were stronger climate relevant comparing to N2O emissions, but compared to CH4 emissions from slurry storage or ruminal fermentation (not

  15. CXCR1/CXCR2 antagonist CXCL8(3-74)K11R/G31P blocks lung inflammation in swine barn dust-instilled mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneberger, D; Gordon, J R; DeVasure, J M; Boten, J A; Heires, A J; Romberger, D J; Wyatt, T A

    2015-04-01

    Inhalation of agricultural occupational dusts from swine confinement facilities can result in lung inflammation. The innate immune response to organic barn dusts results in production of a number of pro-inflammatory factors in the lungs of barn workers such as cytokines, chemokines, and an influx of neutrophils. Many of these inflammatory factors are influenced by the chemokine CXCL8/IL-8 (KC or MIP-2 in mice). Previously, we have demonstrated that an endotoxin-independent component of swine barn dust extract (SBE) elevates lung chemokines in a protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent manner resulting in the significant formation of lung inflammatory cell infiltrates in a mouse model of SBE injury. In this study we test the ability of a CXCR1/CXCR2 antagonist, CXCL8(3-74)K11R/G31P (G31P) to block many of the features of lung-inflammation in response to challenge with SBE in an established mouse exposure system. Injection of G31P concurrent with SBE nasal instillation over a course of 3 weeks significantly reduced neutrophil accumulation in the lungs of barn dust exposed animals compared to those given SBE alone. There was a similar reduction in pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines IL-6, KC, and MIP-2 in SBE plus G31P-treated mice. In addition to excreted products, the receptors ICAM-1, CXCR1, and CXCR2, which all were elevated with SBE exposure, were also decreased with G31P treatment. SBE activation of PKCα and PKCε was reduced as well with G31P treatment. Thus, G31P was found to be highly effective at reducing several features of lung inflammation in mice exposed to barn dust extracts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Continuous measurement of reticuloruminal pH values in dairy cows during the transition period from barn to pasture feeding using an indwelling wireless data transmitting unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasteiner, J; Horn, M; Steinwidder, A

    2015-04-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effect of the transition from barn feeding to pasture on the pattern of reticuloruminal pH values in 8 multiparous dairy cows. A indwelling wireless data transmitting system for pH measurement was given to 8 multiparous cows orally. Reticuloruminal pH values were measured every 600 s over a period of 42 days. After 7 days of barn feeding (period 1), all of the animals were pastured with increasing grazing times from 2 to 7 h/day over 7 days (period 2). From day 15 to day 21 (period 3), the cows spent 7 h/day on pasture. Beginning on day 22, the animals had 20 h/day access to pasture (day and night grazing). To study reticuloruminal adaptation to pasture feeding, the phase of day and night grazing was subdivided into another 3 weekly periods (periods 4-6). Despite a mild transition period from barn feeding to pasture, significant effects on reticuloruminal pH values were observed. During barn feeding, the mean reticuloruminal pH value for all of the cows was 6.44 ± 0.14, and the pH values decreased significantly (p pH values increased again (pH 6.25 ± 0.22; pH 6.31 ± 0.17; pH 6.37 ± 0.16). Our results showed that the animals had significantly lowered reticuloruminal pH during the periods of feed transition from barn to pasture feeding. Despite these significant changes, the decrease was not harmful, as indicated by data of feed intake and milk production. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Humoral immune response in relation to senescence, sex and sexual ornamentation in the barn swallow (Hirundo rustica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saino, N; Ferrari, R P; Romano, M; Rubolini, D; Møller, A P

    2003-11-01

    Performance of animals may decline with age. The effects of senescence, however, may differ between the sexes because of differences in physiology and behaviour. Acquired immunity provides hosts with efficient mechanisms of anti-parasite defence, but the effect of senescence on immunocompetence has never been studied in natural populations. In the barn swallow (Hirundo rustica), primary antibody response to an antigen during one breeding season declined with age in females, while secondary response during the following breeding season declined with age in both sexes. Parasite-mediated sexual selection theory posits that male secondary sexual characters reveal resistance to parasites. Males with large tail ornaments had stronger primary response, retained larger antibody levels until the following year, but did not differ in secondary response compared with short-tailed males, as predicted if ornamentation reflects resistance to parasites. This is the first study showing that immunocompetence declines with age in any vertebrate under natural conditions.

  18. Use of FBC ash to stablize dairy barn feedlots, minimize nutrient pollution, and develop new utilization outlets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korcak, R.F.; Stout, W.

    1995-11-01

    Using technology developed by the USDA/ARS and US DOE, the Ahlstrom Ash Development Corporation has been successfully using fluidized bed combustion (FBC) ash from the Black River Co-Gen plant in Watertown, NY as an agricultural soil amendment. This permitted land application was based primarily on the jointly derived handbook on FBC utilization. During times of the year when ash cannot be spread on crop land, Ahlstrom has been using the ash as a low strength concrete to stabilize dairy barn feedlots. The stabilized feedlots provide a place for cattle to escape from muddy conditions in the spring and fall. Farmer acceptance of these stabilized feedlots is very positive. However, there is a need to provide data on the leachates from and through these barnyard pads.

  19. Sex-related effects of an immune challenge on growth and begging behavior of barn swallow nestlings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Romano

    Full Text Available Parent-offspring conflicts lead the offspring to evolve reliable signals of individual quality, including parasite burden, which may allow parents to adaptively modulate investment in the progeny. Sex-related variation in offspring reproductive value, however, may entail differential investment in sons and daughters. Here, we experimentally manipulated offspring condition in the barn swallow (Hirundo rustica by subjecting nestlings to an immune challenge (injection with bacterial lipopolysaccharide, LPS that simulates a bacterial infection, and assessed the effects on growth, feather quality, expression of morphological (gape coloration and behavioral (posture begging displays involved in parent-offspring communication, as well as on food allocation by parents. Compared to sham-injected controls, LPS-treated chicks suffered a depression of body mass and a reduction of palate color saturation. In addition, LPS treatment resulted in lower feather quality, with an increase in the occurrence of fault bars on wing feathers. The color of beak flanges, feather growth and the intensity of postural begging were affected by LPS treatment only in females, suggesting that chicks of either sex are differently susceptible to the immune challenge. However, irrespective of the effects of LPS, parents equally allocated food among control and challenged offspring both under normal food provisioning and after a short period of food deprivation of the chicks. These results indicate that bacterial infection and the associated immune response entail different costs to offspring of either sex, but a decrease in nestling conditions does not affect parental care allocation, possibly because the barn swallow adopts a brood-survival strategy. Finally, we showed that physiological stress induced by pathogens impairs plumage quality, a previously neglected major negative impact of bacterial infection which could severely affect fitness, particularly among long

  20. Morphological and molecular genetic analysis of Synhimantus (Synhimantus laticeps (Rudolphi, 1819 (Nematoda, Acuariidae from the barn owl (Tyto alba and the common kestrel (Falco tinnunculus in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebmer D.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of the biodiversity initiative and barcoding project “Austrian Barcode of Life” (ABOL post mortem examinations of the gastro-intestinal tracts of different species of wild birds were carried out and several adult helminths were retrieved. In the gizzard of two barn owls (Tyto alba and one common kestrel (Falco tinnuculus acuariid nematodes belonging to the species Synhimantus (Synhimantus laticeps (Rudolphi, 1819 were discovered. This report illustrates the identification of this parasitic nematode by morphometric comparison and scanning electron microscopic photographs. Furthermore, genetic identification of individual parasites based on a fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI gene and the nuclear 18S ribosomal RNA gene was carried out. This report constitutes the first COI-based DNA barcoding of S. (S. laticeps and its first record in the barn owl (Tyto alba in Austria.

  1. Forældres oplevelse af genindlæggelse af deres nyfødte barn efter ambulant fødsel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feenstra, Maria Monberg; Nilsson, Ingrid; Danbjørg, Dorthe Boe

    . telefon i døgnets 24 timer. Derudover kommer familien til ambulant opfølgning på sygehuset 48-72 timer efter fødslen. Til trods for den tætte kontakt til sundhedspersonalet, oplever stadig flere familier at blive genindlagt kort tid efter udskrivelsen grundet komplikationer vedrørende deres nyfødte barns...... fødslen og hvis nyfødte barn blev genindlagt på grund af manglende trivsel, blev inviteret til at deltage i undersøgelsen. Forældre, der ikke talte dansk, norsk eller svensk blev ekskluderet. Familierne blev interviewet via telefon efter de havde haft 1. sundhedsplejerskebesøg efter genindlæggelsen. Mødre...

  2. Modern embalming, circulation of fluids, and the voyage through the human arterial system: Carl L. Barnes and the culture of immortality in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podgorny, Irina

    2011-01-01

    By considering the work of American embalmer, lawyer, and physician Carl Lewis Barnes (1872-1927), this paper analyzes the emergence of modern embalming in America. Barnes experimented with and exhibited the techniques by which embalming fluids travelled into the most remote cavities of the human body. In this sense, modem embalmers based their skills and methods on experimental medicine, turning the anatomy of blood vessels, physiology of circulation, and composition of blood into a circuit that allowed embalming fluids to move throughout the corpse. Embalmers in the late 19th century took ownership of the laws of hydrodynamics and the physiology of blood circulation to market their fluids and equipment, thus playing the role of physiologists of death, performing and demonstrating physiological experiments with dead bodies.

  3. Impact of in-barn manure separation on biological air quality in an experimental setup identical to that in swine buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoie, J; Godbout, S; Lemay, S P; Belzile, M

    2009-07-01

    In-barn manure separation systems are becoming popular due to various environmental pressures on the swine industry. According to the literature, separation of feces and urine directly underneath the slats should have a positive impact on barn air quality. Removal and rapid separation of the two phases (solid/liquid) would reduce the dust and bioaerosol emissions, which would significantly improve the air quality in pig-housing facilities. From an occupational health and safety perspective, the maximum endotoxin and total bacteria concentrations to ensure workers' safety should not exceed 450 endotoxin units per cubic meter of air (EU m(-3)) and 10(4) colony-forming units per cubic meter of air (CFU m(-3)), respectively. In the current study, the effect on air quality of six in-barn manure handling systems was measured. A flat scraper system and four separation systems installed under the slats (a conveyor belt system, a conveyor net system, and a V-shaped scraper operated at two operation frequencies) were evaluated and compared to a conventional pull-plug system (control). The experiment took place in twelve independent and identical rooms housing four grower-finisher pigs each, and air samples were collected and analyzed for total dust, endotoxins, bacteria, and mold counts. The results obtained from this experimental setup show that the separation of feces and urine under the slats would concentrate at least 80% of the phosphorus in the solid phase. The total bacteria and endotoxin concentrations are lower than those found in commercial hog barns but remain higher than the recommended levels. Only the total dust concentrations are approximately 10% of their regulated value. This separation has no impact on dust and bioaerosol concentrations compared to the control.

  4. Barn owl (Tyto alba predation on small mammals and its role in the control of hantavirus natural reservoirs in a periurban area in southeastern Brazil

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    L. Magrini

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to inventory the species of small mammals in Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brazil, based on regurgitated pellets of the barn owl and to compare the frequency of rodent species in the diet and in the environment. Since in the region there is a high incidence of hantavirus infection, we also evaluate the importance of the barn owl in the control of rodents that transmit the hantavirus. Data on richness and relative abundance of rodents in the municipality were provided by the Centro de Controle de Zoonoses, from three half-yearly samplings with live traps. In total, 736 food items were found from the analysis of 214 pellets and fragments. Mammals corresponded to 86.0% of food items and were represented by one species of marsupial (Gracilinanus agilis and seven species of rodents, with Calomys tener (70.9% and Necromys lasiurus (6.7% being the most frequent. The proportion of rodent species in barn owl pellets differed from that observed in trap samplings, with Calomys expulsus, C. tener and Oligoryzomys nigripes being consumed more frequently than expected. Although restricted to a single place and based on few individuals, the present study allowed the inventory of eight species of small mammals in Uberlândia. The comparison of the relative frequencies of rodent species in the diet and in the environment indicated selectivity. The second most preyed upon species was N. lasiurus, the main hantavirus reservoir in the Cerrado biome. In this way, the barn owl might play an important role in the control of this rodent in the region, contributing to the avoidance of a higher number of cases of hantavirus infection.

  5. Barn owl (Tyto alba) predation on small mammals and its role in the control of hantavirus natural reservoirs in a periurban area in southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magrini, L; Facure, K G

    2008-11-01

    The aim of this study was to inventory the species of small mammals in Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brazil, based on regurgitated pellets of the barn owl and to compare the frequency of rodent species in the diet and in the environment. Since in the region there is a high incidence of hantavirus infection, we also evaluate the importance of the barn owl in the control of rodents that transmit the hantavirus. Data on richness and relative abundance of rodents in the municipality were provided by the Centro de Controle de Zoonoses, from three half-yearly samplings with live traps. In total, 736 food items were found from the analysis of 214 pellets and fragments. Mammals corresponded to 86.0% of food items and were represented by one species of marsupial (Gracilinanus agilis) and seven species of rodents, with Calomys tener (70.9%) and Necromys lasiurus (6.7%) being the most frequent. The proportion of rodent species in barn owl pellets differed from that observed in trap samplings, with Calomys expulsus, C. tener and Oligoryzomys nigripes being consumed more frequently than expected. Although restricted to a single place and based on few individuals, the present study allowed the inventory of eight species of small mammals in Uberlândia. The comparison of the relative frequencies of rodent species in the diet and in the environment indicated selectivity. The second most preyed upon species was N. lasiurus, the main hantavirus reservoir in the Cerrado biome. In this way, the barn owl might play an important role in the control of this rodent in the region, contributing to the avoidance of a higher number of cases of hantavirus infection.

  6. The prey composition of the Barn Owl (Tyto alba with respect to landscape structure of its hunting area (Zala County, Hungary

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    Szép Dávid

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The prey composition of the Barn Owl (Tyto alba can be monitored indirectly by pellet analysis and we used this method to investigate less known small mammal species of Zala County. The number and abundance of small mammal species depend on the structure of the landscape of Barn Owls’ hunting area, therefore we analysed landscape features in the surrounding circles with 2 km radius around the sampling sites. In 2016 we collected 1106 pellets from 13 sampling localities. From the pellets we identified 21 species of 3022 individuals of small mammals (more than 98% of prey. Among the 21 species there was the rare Parti-colured Bat (Vespertilio murinus and a new species for the county the Steppe Mouse (Mus spicilegus. Positive correlation was found between the diversity of the small mammal fauna of each sampling site and the landscape complexity (number of the landscape patches of the Barn Owl hunting area. Relative abundance of the Wood Mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus showed positive correlation with the number of landscape patches, while the abundance of the Lesser White-toothed Shrew (Crocidura suaveolens, the Miller’s Water Shrew (Neomys anomalus, the Striped Field Mouse (Apodemus agrarius and the Harvest Mouse (Micromys minutus was higher in hunting areas with more homogenous landscapes. Significant correlations were found between the relative abundance of some small mammal species and the landscape structure of the potential hunting area of owls that confirmed the consistency in habitat preference of some species. Our results proved that the prey-composition of Barn Owls reflects the land use through the distribution and abundance of small mammal species, therefore this method is suitable for ecological analyses of landscape.

  7. Diurnal and seasonal variations of greenhouse gas emissions from a naturally ventilated dairy barn in a cold region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Dandan; Guo, Huiqing

    2018-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions were quantified for a naturally ventilated free-stall dairy barn in the Canadian Prairies climate through continuous measurements for a year from February 2015 to January 2016, with ventilation rate estimated by a CO2 mass balance method. The results were categorized into seasonal emission profiles with monthly data measured on a typical day, and diurnal profiles in cold (January), warm (July), and mild seasons (October) of all three gases. Seasonal CO2, CH4, and N2O concentrations greatly fluctuated within ranges of 593-2433 ppm, 15-152 ppm, and 0.32-0.40 ppm, respectively, with obviously higher concentrations in the cold season. Emission factors of the three gases were summarized: seasonal N2O emission varied between 0.5 and 10 μg s-1 AU-1 with lower emission in the cold season, while seasonal CO2 and CH4 emissions were within narrow ranges of 112-119 mg s-1 AU-1 and 2.5-3.5 mg s-1 AU-1. The result suggested a lower enteric CH4 emission for dairy cows than that estimated by Environment Canada (2014). Significant diurnal effects (P emissions in all seasons with higher emissions in the afternoons and evenings. The total greenhouse gas (GHG) emission, which was calculated by summing the three GHG in CO2 equivalent, was mainly contributed by CO2 and CH4 emissions and showed no significant seasonal variations (P > 0.05), but obvious diurnal variations in all seasons. In comparison with previous studies, it was found that the dairy barn in a cold region climate with smaller vent openings had relatively higher indoor CO2 and CH4 concentrations, but comparable CO2 and CH4 emissions to most previous studies. Besides, ventilation rate, temperature, and relative humidity all significantly affected the three gas concentrations with the outdoor temperature being the most relevant factor (P emissions.

  8. Prevalence of lameness and associated risk factors in Canadian Holstein-Friesian cows housed in freestall barns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano, L; Barkema, H W; Pajor, E A; Mason, S; LeBlanc, S J; Zaffino Heyerhoff, J C; Nash, C G R; Haley, D B; Vasseur, E; Pellerin, D; Rushen, J; de Passillé, A M; Orsel, K

    2015-10-01

    Lameness is a severe welfare problem and a production-limiting disease in dairy farming. The objectives of this study were to determine prevalence of lameness and investigate cow- and herd-level factors associated with lameness in dairy cows housed in freestall barns in 3 Canadian provinces. A purposive sample of 40 Holstein-Friesian cows was selected from each of 141 dairy farms in Québec, Ontario, and Alberta. In total, 5,637 cows were scored once for lameness (presence of limping when walking). Data collected included information on individual cows (hock lesions, claw length, body condition score, parity, days in milk, and milk production), management practices (floor and stall cleaning routine, bedding routine, and footbath practices), and facility design (stall dimensions, stall base and bedding type, width of feed alley, flooring type, and slipperiness) hypothesized to be risk factors for lameness. Multilevel mixed logistic regression models were constructed (including farm as a random effect and province as a fixed effect). Herd-level lameness prevalence ranged from 0 to 69% (mean = 21%). Lameness prevalence increased with increasing parity; compared with first parity, cows in parity 2, 3, and ≥ 4 had 1.6, 3.3, and 4 times, respectively, higher odds of being lame. Furthermore, the odds of lameness were 1.6 times greater in cows with low body condition score (≤ 2.5) than in cows with a higher body condition score. In addition, injured hocks and overgrown claws were associated with 1.4- and 1.7-fold increased odds of being lame, respectively, whereas every 1 kg increase in daily milk production was associated with a 3% decrease in the odds of being lame. Lameness prevalence was higher in herds with ≤ 100 cows, but lower in barns with a sand or dirt stall base, or with bedding ≥ 2 cm deep. Cows exposed to very slippery floors had 2 times the odds of being lame compared with cows exposed to nonslippery floors. We attributed the wide range of lameness

  9. Sex-related effects of reproduction on biomarkers of oxidative damage in free-living barn swallows (Hirundo rustica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubolini, Diego; Colombo, Graziano; Ambrosini, Roberto; Caprioli, Manuela; Clerici, Marco; Colombo, Roberto; Dalle-Donne, Isabella; Milzani, Aldo; Romano, Andrea; Romano, Maria; Saino, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    According to life-history theory, the allocation of limiting resources to one trait has negative consequences for other traits requiring the same resource, resulting in trade-offs among life-history traits, such as reproduction and survival. In vertebrates, oxidative stress is increasingly being considered among the physiological mechanisms forming the currency of life-history trade-offs. In this study of the barn swallow (Hirundo rustica), we focus on the oxidative costs of reproduction, especially egg laying, by investigating the effects of breeding stage (pre- vs. post-laying) and progression of the season on three biomarkers of oxidative damage (OD) to plasma proteins, namely the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA)-protein adducts and of protein thiol groups (PSH), and the protein carbonyl (PCO) content. Moreover, we investigated whether males and females differed in plasma OD levels, because the inherent sex differences in reproductive roles and physiology may originate sex-specific patterns of OD during breeding. We found that MDA-protein adduct levels were higher in the pre-laying than in the post-laying phase, that males had lower levels of MDA-modified proteins than females, and that the decline of MDA-protein adduct concentration between the pre- and the post-laying phase was more marked for females than males. In addition, MDA-protein adduct levels declined with sampling date, but only during the pre-laying phase. On the other hand, plasma PCO levels increased from the pre- to the post-laying phase in both sexes, and females had higher levels of PCO than males. PSH concentration was unaffected by breeding stage, sex or sampling date. On the whole, our findings indicate that biomarkers of protein oxidation closely track the short-term variation in breeding stage of both male and female barn swallows. Moreover, the higher protein OD levels observed among females compared to males suggest that egg laying entails oxidative costs, which might negatively

  10. Forage conservation efficiency and lactation response to bahiagrass conserved as barn-stored hay, outdoor-stored hay, or baleage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, M E; Han, K J; Moreira, V R; Blouin, D C; Forbes, S

    2011-05-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effect of conserving bahiagrass as outdoor-stored hay (OSH), barn-stored hay (BSH), or baleage (BAL) on storage losses and lactation performance by Holstein cows. For baleage production, bahiagrass forage was cut and allowed to dry for 20 h in windrows, baled (1.2 × 1.4 m), and individually wrapped with white stretch film. Forage cut on the same day was dried to hay stage, baled (1.2 × 1.6 m round bales), and stored either outdoors (OSH) or in an enclosed hay barn (BSH). Bales were core sampled and weighed at harvest and again following a 6-mo storage period. At the end of the storage period, 30 multiparous mid-lactation Holstein cows [39.2 ± 5.6 kg of 3.5% fat-corrected milk and 142 ± 27 d in milk (DIM)] were stratified according to milk yield and DIM and randomly assigned to 1 of the 3 forage conservation treatments. Cows were trained to Calan feeding gates and were offered a common partial mixed ration in a 10-d covariate period followed by a 42-d treatment feeding period. Forage dry matter losses were highest for OSH, but were similar between BSH and baleage. Conservation method had little effect on poststorage crude protein levels, but acid detergent fiber and neutral detergent fiber concentrations were higher in OSH than in either BSH or BAL, which resulted in a 12.8% depression in net energy for OSH compared with the other treatments. Dry matter intake (20.5 vs. 22.1 kg/d) and milk yield (28.2 vs. 30.2 kg/d) tended to be lower for OSH than for BSH. Lactation performance was similar between BSH and BAL: 29.6 versus 28.7 kg/d of fat-corrected milk, respectively. No differences in milk composition, feed efficiency, body weight, or body condition score change related to conservation system were observed. In this study, dry matter losses and lactation performance from bahiagrass conserved as baleage were similar to that of similar forage stored indoors as hay, whereas hay stored outside resulted in less satisfactory

  11. Low variation in the polymorphic Clock gene poly-Q region despite population genetic structure across barn swallow (Hirundo rustica populations.

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    Roi Dor

    Full Text Available Recent studies of several species have reported a latitudinal cline in the circadian clock gene, Clock, which influences rhythms in both physiology and behavior. Latitudinal variation in this gene may hence reflect local adaptation to seasonal variation. In some bird populations, there is also an among-individual association between Clock poly-Q genotype and clutch initiation date and incubation period. We examined Clock poly-Q allele variation in the Barn Swallow (Hirundo rustica, a species with a cosmopolitan geographic distribution and considerable variation in life-history traits that may be influenced by the circadian clock. We genotyped Barn Swallows from five populations (from three subspecies and compared variation at the Clock locus to that at microsatellite loci and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA. We found very low variation in the Clock poly-Q region, as >96% of individuals were homozygous, and the two other alleles at this locus were globally rare. Genetic differentiation based on the Clock poly-Q locus was not correlated with genetic differentiation based on either microsatellite loci or mtDNA sequences. Our results show that high diversity in Clock poly-Q is not general across avian species. The low Clock variation in the background of heterogeneity in microsatellite and mtDNA loci in Barn Swallows may be an outcome of stabilizing selection on the Clock locus.

  12. Upper Ordovician-Lower Silurian shelf sequences of the Eastern Great Basin: Barn Hills and Lakeside Mountains, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, M.T. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States). Dept. of Geosciences); Sheehan, P.M. (Milwaukee Public Museum, WI (United States). Dept of Geology)

    1993-04-01

    Detailed stratigraphic sections through Upper Ordovician-Lower Silurian shelf strata of the Eastern Great Basin were measured in two Utah localities, Barn Hills (Confusion Range) and Lakeside Mountains. Six major subfacies occur in these strata: mud-cracked and crinkly laminated subfacies, Laminated mudstone subfacies, cross-bedded grainstone subfacies, cross-laminated packstone subfacies, grainy bioturbated subfacies, muddy bioturbated subfacies, and thalassinoides burrowed subfacies. These occur in 1--10 m thick cycles in three facies: muddy cyclic laminite facies (tidal flats), cross-bedded facies (subtidal shoals), and bioturbated facies (moderate to low-energy shelf). The vertical facies succession, stacking patterns of meter-scale cycles, and exposure surfaces define correlatable sequences. The authors recognize four Upper Ordovician sequences (Mayvillian to Richmondian). An uppermost Ordovician (Hirnantian) sequence is missing in these sections but occurs basinward. Lower Silurian sequences are of early Llandoverian (A), middle Llandoverian (B), early late Llandoverian (C1--C3), late late Llandoverian (C4--C5), latest Llandoverian (C6) to early Wenlock age. In general, Upper Ordovician and latest Llandoverian-Wenlockian facies are muddier than intervening Llandoverian facies. The shift to muddier shelf facies in latest Llandoverian probably corresponds to the development of a rimmed shelf. The sequence framework improves correlation of these strata by combining sedimentologic patterns with the biostratigraphic data. For example, in the Lakesides, the Ordovician-Silurian boundary is shifted 37 m downward from recent suggestions. In addition, the sequence approach highlights intervals for which additional biostratigraphic information is needed.

  13. Description of 44 biosecurity errors while entering and exiting poultry barns based on video surveillance in Quebec, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racicot, Manon; Venne, Daniel; Durivage, André; Vaillancourt, Jean-Pierre

    2011-07-01

    The effectiveness of biosecurity measures depends largely on the consistency of their applications by all those involved in poultry production. Unfortunately, poor biosecurity compliance has been reported repeatedly in poultry, as well in all other major animal productions. As part of a larger study, we conducted an investigation on eight poultry farms in Quebec, Canada, to evaluate compliance of existing biosecurity measures using hidden cameras. The objectives were to evaluate and describe the application of biosecurity measures when entering and exiting poultry barns. A total of 44 different mistakes were observed from 883 visits done by 102 different individuals. On average, four errors were recorded per visit. The maximum number of errors made by one individual during one visit was 14. People observed over several visits made on average six different errors. Twenty-seven out of the 44 errors (61.4%) were related to area delimitation (clean versus contaminated), six to boots (13.6%), five to hand washing (11.4%), three to coveralls (6.8%) and three to logbooks (6.8%). The nature and frequency of errors suggest a lack of understanding of biosecurity principles. There is thus a need to improve biosecurity training by making educational material available to all poultry personnel demonstrating why and how to apply biosecurity measures. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Solid-State Anaerobic Digestion of Dairy Manure from a Sawdust-Bedded Pack Barn: Moisture Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunjong Kim

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Bedded pack manure has long been considered an unsuitable feedstock for conventional anaerobic digestion systems due to its high solids content. However, solid-state anaerobic digestion (SS-AD provides an opportunity to generate methane from such high-solids feedstocks. This study was conducted to determine the influence of moisture content on the digestion of bedded pack dairy manure using SS-AD. Mixtures of sawdust bedding and dairy manure were prepared with moisture contents (MCs of 70, 76, and 83% and digested at 37 °C for 85 days. The performance of digesters containing manure at 83% MC was 1.3 to 1.4-fold higher than that of digesters containing 70% MC manure in terms of volatile solids (VS reduction and biogas production. VS reduction rates were 55 to 75% and cumulative methane yield ranged from 64 to 90 NmL (gVS−1. These values are lower than those from SS-AD of fresh manure and this is likely due to the partial decomposition of biodegradable materials during the two to three-month period before the manure was removed from the barn. However, in terms of efficient management of farm odors and providing a renewable energy source for heating, SS-AD of bedded pack manure offers a potential alternative to the conventional composting systems currently in use.

  15. Stimulus-specific adaptation to visual but not auditory motion direction in the barn owl's optic tectum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasmuht, Dante F; Pena, Jose L; Gutfreund, Yoram

    2017-02-01

    Whether the auditory and visual systems use a similar coding strategy to represent motion direction is an open question. We investigated this question in the barn owl's optic tectum (OT) testing stimulus-specific adaptation (SSA) to the direction of motion. SSA, the reduction of the response to a repetitive stimulus that does not generalize to other stimuli, has been well established in OT neurons. SSA suggests a separate representation of the adapted stimulus in upstream pathways. So far, only SSA to static stimuli has been studied in the OT. Here, we examined adaptation to moving auditory and visual stimuli. SSA to motion direction was examined using repeated presentations of moving stimuli, occasionally switching motion to the opposite direction. Acoustic motion was either mimicked by varying binaural spatial cues or implemented in free field using a speaker array. While OT neurons displayed SSA to motion direction in visual space, neither stimulation paradigms elicited significant SSA to auditory motion direction. These findings show a qualitative difference in how auditory and visual motion is processed in the OT and support the existence of dedicated circuitry for representing motion direction in the early stages of visual but not the auditory system. © 2016 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. The use of image analysis as a new approach to assess behaviour classification in a pig barn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamaria Costa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop an innovative method for measuring the activity level of pigs in a barn in real time. An infrared-sensitive camera was placed over two pens of the piggery, images were recorded for 24 h a day for eight days during the fattening period, and the activity and occupation indices were calculated every second in real time using software. In the laboratory, the recorded images were visually labelled to score the animals’ behaviour adopting the Martin and Bateson’s Scan sampling method, and to find a relation with the automatically measured activity index. Pigs’ behaviour was assigned in the following way, 0 - no activity, 1 - fighting or struggling, 2 - biting one another, 3 - abnormal behaviour as nuzzling or suckling one another (interacting pigs, 4 - feed assumption time. Pigs spent most of the time lying inactively (82–90% of the time, following a diurnal rhythm with peaks related to the feeding administration routine; fighting episodes occurred very rarely (0.05–0.10% of the time. Based on the analysis of the automatically measured group activity index compared to the manual labelling, a relation was found between the activity index and the behaviour types (no activity, nuzzling and feeding. The novelty presented in this study was the development of on-line tools to monitor farm animals continuously during their life, in a fully automatic way, with objective measures and criteria without imposing additional stress to the animals.

  17. Investimento em unidades de cura para tabaco tipo Virginia = Investments in tobacco curing barn for Virginia variety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Luiz Boettcher

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A fumicultura na região Sul do Brasil está fundamentada no sistema integrado de produção. Ao longo do processo produtivo, há a necessidade de utilização de unidades de cura e secagem (estufas, sendo um investimento oneroso ao produtor. Dois sistemas de estufas predominam e de funcionamento distintos, os de estufas convencionais (convecção natural do ar e com circulação forçada do ar. O sistema de circulação forçada é o modelo preferido pelos produtores que optam por fazer novos investimentos. A decisão em investir demanda criteriosa análise da viabilidade econômica por parte do produtor, para minimizar risco de endividamentos. O objetivo do trabalho foi determinar a viabilidade financeira de unidades de cura para tabaco nas modalidades de financiamento com juros de crédito rural e juros de crédito rural subvencionados. As ferramentas financeiras utilizadas foram Valor Presente Líquido [VPL], Taxa Interna de Retorno [TIR], payback simples e análise de sensibilidade do investimento em relação à variável produtividade (kg ha-1. Utilizando taxa mínima de atratividade [TMA] 7,16%, o investimento não apresenta viabilidade econômica nas duas modalidades de juros, considerando a produtividade média histórica, o modelo de estufa selecionado e prazo de amortização. A análise de sensibilidade confirmou a produtividade (kg ha-1 como fator determinante da viabilidade do projeto. O incremento de >10% na produtividade média, reverte o quadro e o projeto passa a ser economicamente viável nas duas modalidades de juros de amortização do investimento. = The tobacco production in the south of Brazil is based on the integrated production system. Along with this system, there is a need to use curing barn to cure and dry, bringing an expensive investment for farmers. Two distinct curing systems are predominant which are the conventional (convection and air force circulation system. The air force system is the preferred model by

  18. Geographical and seasonal variation in the intensity of sexual selection in the barn swallow Hirundo rustica: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Andrea; Costanzo, Alessandra; Rubolini, Diego; Saino, Nicola; Møller, Anders Pape

    2017-08-01

    Sexual selection arises from competition among individuals for access to mates, resulting in the evolution of conspicuous sexually selected traits, especially when inter-sexual competition is mediated by mate choice. Different sexual selection regimes may occur among populations/subspecies within the same species. This is particularly the case when mate choice is based on multiple sexually selected traits. However, empirical evidence supporting this hypothesis at the among-populations level is scarce. We conducted a meta-analysis of the intensity of sexual selection on the largest database to date for a single species, the barn swallow (Hirundo rustica), relying on quantitative estimates of sexual selection. The intensity of sexual selection was expressed as the strength (effect size) of the relationships between six plumage ornaments (tail length, tail asymmetry, size of white spots on tail, ventral plumage colour, throat plumage colour and throat patch size) and several fitness proxies related to reproduction, parental care, offspring quality, arrival date from spring migration, and survival. The data were gathered for four geographically separated subspecies (H. r. rustica, H. r. erythrogaster, H. r. gutturalis, H. r. transitiva). The overall mean effect size (Z r  = 0.214; 95% confidence interval = 0.175-0.254; N = 329) was of intermediate magnitude, with intensity of sexual selection being stronger in males than in females. Effect sizes varied during the breeding cycle, being larger before egg deposition, when competition for access to mates reaches its maximum (i.e. in the promiscuous part of the breeding cycle), and decreasing thereafter. In addition, effect sizes from experiments were not significantly larger than those from correlative studies. Finally, sexual selection on different sexually dimorphic traits varied among subspecies. This last result suggests that morphological divergence among populations has partly arisen from divergent sexual

  19. The role of envelope shape in the localization of multiple sound sources and echoes in the barn owl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Caitlin S; Nelson, Brian S; Takahashi, Terry T

    2013-02-01

    Echoes and sounds of independent origin often obscure sounds of interest, but echoes can go undetected under natural listening conditions, a perception called the precedence effect. How does the auditory system distinguish between echoes and independent sources? To investigate, we presented two broadband noises to barn owls (Tyto alba) while varying the similarity of the sounds' envelopes. The carriers of the noises were identical except for a 2- or 3-ms delay. Their onsets and offsets were also synchronized. In owls, sound localization is guided by neural activity on a topographic map of auditory space. When there are two sources concomitantly emitting sounds with overlapping amplitude spectra, space map neurons discharge when the stimulus in their receptive field is louder than the one outside it and when the averaged amplitudes of both sounds are rising. A model incorporating these features calculated the strengths of the two sources' representations on the map (B. S. Nelson and T. T. Takahashi; Neuron 67: 643-655, 2010). The target localized by the owls could be predicted from the model's output. The model also explained why the echo is not localized at short delays: when envelopes are similar, peaks in the leading sound mask corresponding peaks in the echo, weakening the echo's space map representation. When the envelopes are dissimilar, there are few or no corresponding peaks, and the owl localizes whichever source is predicted by the model to be less masked. Thus the precedence effect in the owl is a by-product of a mechanism for representing multiple sound sources on its map.

  20. Circulating testosterone and feather-gene expression of receptors and metabolic enzymes in relation to melanin-based colouration in the barn owl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béziers, Paul; Ducrest, Anne-Lyse; Simon, Céline; Roulin, Alexandre

    2017-09-01

    Knowledge of how and why secondary sexual characters are associated with sex hormones is important to understand their signalling function. Such a link can occur if i) testosterone participates in the elaboration of sex-traits, ii) the display of an ornament triggers behavioural response in conspecifics that induce a rise in testosterone, or iii) genes implicated in the elaboration of a sex-trait pleiotropically regulate testosterone physiology. To evaluate the origin of the co-variation between melanism and testosterone, we measured this hormone and the expression of enzymes involved in its metabolism in feathers of barn owl (Tyto alba) nestlings at the time of melanogenesis and in adults outside the period of melanogenesis. Male nestlings displaying smaller black feather spots had higher levels of circulating testosterone, potentially suggesting that testosterone could block the production of eumelanin pigments, or that genes involved in the production of small spots pleiotropically regulate testosterone production. In contrast, the enzyme 5α-reductase, that metabolizes testosterone to DHT, was more expressed in feathers of reddish-brown than light-reddish nestlings. This is consistent with the hypothesis that testosterone might be involved in the expression of reddish-brown pheomelanic pigments. In breeding adults, male barn owls displaying smaller black spots had higher levels of circulating testosterone, whereas in females the opposite result was detected during the rearing period, but not during incubation. The observed sex- and age-specific co-variations between black spottiness and testosterone in nestling and adult barn owls may not result from testosterone-dependent melanogenesis, but from melanogenic genes pleiotropically regulating testosterone, or from colour-specific life history strategies that influence testosterone levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A shortened Barnes maze protocol reveals memory deficits at 4-months of age in the triple-transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Attar

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that manifests as memory loss, cognitive dysfunction, and dementia. Animal models of Alzheimer's disease have been instrumental in understanding the underlying pathological mechanism and in evaluation of potential therapies. The triple transgenic (3 × Tg mouse model of AD is unique because it recapitulates both pathologic hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease--amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. The earliest cognitive deficits in this model have been shown at 6-m of age by most groups, necessitating aging of the mice to this age before initiating evaluation of the cognitive effects of therapies. To assess cognitive deficits in the 3 × Tg mice, originally we employed a typical Barnes maze protocol of 15 training trials, but found no significant deficits in aged mice. Therefore, we shortened the protocol to include only 5 training trials to increase difficulty. We found cognitive deficits using this protocol using mainly measures from the probe day, rather than the training trials. This also decreased the effort involved with data analysis. We compared 3 × Tg and wild-type mice at 4-m- and 15-m of age using both the original, long training, and the short training paradigms. We found that differences in learning between 3 × Tg and wild-type mice disappeared after the 4(th training trial. Measures of learning and memory on the probe day showed significant differences between 3 × Tg and wild-type mice following the short, 5-training trial protocol but not the long, 15-training trial protocol. Importantly, we detected cognitive dysfunction already at 4-m of age in 3 × Tg mice using the short Barnes-maze protocol. The ability to test learning and memory in 4-m old 3 × Tg mice using a shortened Barnes maze protocol offers considerable time and cost savings and provides support for the utilization of this model at pre-pathology stages for therapeutic studies.

  2. EL ESTRÉS AGUDO INTERFIERE CON LA EVOCACIÓN Y PROMUEVE LA EXTINCIÓN DE LA MEMORIA ESPACIAL EN EL LABERINTO DE BARNES

    OpenAIRE

    JULIETA TRONCOSO; MARISOL LAMPREA; DIANA MARCELA CUESTAS; ALEJANDRO MÚNERA

    2010-01-01

    Para evaluar los efectos del estrés agudo sobre la recuperación y la extinción de la memoria espacial, se utilizaron ratas entrenadas en el laberinto circular de Barnes. El entrenamiento consistió de 8 ensayos de adquisición (intervalo entre ensayos, IEE, de 5 min) en donde los animales debían aprender a encontrar una caja meta, ubicada en uno de los 18 agu- jeros del laberinto. Todos los animales adquirieron el aprendizaje espacial, ya que invirtieron menos tiempo en encontrar la caja meta y...

  3. Barn og bovaryst imellem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Tine Engel

    2008-01-01

    Om Bovarysme-tematikken i Kjærlighet. Romanen skriver sig ind i en lang tradition for kritik af romancegenren (og ikke mindst dét, denne 'gør ved' sine læsere). Ud over Don Quixote/Madame Bovary inddrages en forholdsvis ukendt roman af Zola, Une page d'amour, som lægger sig i forlængelse af Madame...

  4. Reviews | Barnes | Lexikos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Woordeboeke en Woordelyste I Dictionaries and Word-lists. William Branford. The South African Pocket Oxford Dictionary of Current English, 2nd South African edition 1994, 2nd impression 1995, xxiii + 1138 pp. ISBN 0-19-570760-5. Cape Town: Oxford University Press. Price R54,95.

  5. Skinner i kuddrummet : Personalfaktorer i förskola som påverkar effekten av beteendeterapi för barn med autism

    OpenAIRE

    Klintwall Malmqvist, Lars

    2009-01-01

    Flera olika behandlingsmetoder för autism finns utvecklade, även om bäst stöd finns för intensiv beteendeterapi (IBT). Variationen i behandlingseffekt inom IBT är dock stor. I Sverige används IBT på förskolor, sannolikt med varierande framgång. 22 förskolor med 24 barn som fått IBT i två år undersöktes retrospektivt med telefonenkäter, och flera faktorer undersöktes för samband med barnens förbättring i adaptiv förmåga under samma period. Integration av träningen i förskolans verksamhet samt ...

  6. Småbarnsfamiljers kostvanor : En studie om kostkvalitet och föräldrars inverkan på barns ätvanor

    OpenAIRE

    Qvarnström, Eva

    2007-01-01

    Många människor har svårt att etablera goda matvanor trots ett ständigt informationsflöde om hur ohälsosam kost påverkar hälsan negativt. Små barn befinner sig i en beroendeställning till de vuxna som finns runt dem. Det innebär att föräldrarnas kostvanor även blir barnens. De vuxna bestämmer vad som finns hemma och vad som serveras. Denna kvantitativa studie har undersökt småbarnsfamiljers kostvanor med utgångspunkt i Livsmedelsverkets rekommendationer om mindre mättat fett, mindre socker, m...

  7. Effect of barn airspace temperature on composition and technological parameters of bulk milk produced by dairy cows of Czech Fleckvieh and Holstein breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondřej Polák

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available On two farms (A and B, samples of bulk milk produced by dairy cows of the Holstein (H and Czech Fleckvieh (CF breeds were collected every week on the same day within the time interval of 36 weeks. The aim of this sampling was to determine the effect of barn airspace temperature on milk compositon and its technological parameters. The following average values of all bulk milk samples (n = 72 were recorded: barn airspace temperature (BAT 12.08 °C; rennet coagulation time (RCT 211 sec.; curd quality class (CQC 1.53; titratable acidity (TA 7.16 °SH; protein content (P 3.46 %; fat content (F 4.09 %; lactose content (L 4.79 %; and solids non fat (SNF 8.86 %. As compared with H, dairy cows of CF breed produced milk with statistically significantly higher (P < 0.01 contents of P (+0.27 % and SNF (+0.26 %. The remaining differences were statistically insignificant (P > 0.05: BAT (−2 °C; RCT (−4 sec.; CQC (0 class; TA (+0.11 °SH; F (+0.05 % and L (−0.03 %. As far as the effect of temperature was concerned, calculated correlation coefficients and plotted graphs indicated a marked effect of BAT on RCT; F and P. This effect was in all cases markedly negative: at lower BAT, F and P values were higher and RCT longer while at higher temperatures they were lower and shorter. These trends were similar in both breeds regardless to differences in average values of aforementioned parameters.

  8. Variabilidade espacial do microclima de um galpão utilizado para confinamento de bovinos de leite Climatic spatial variability of a dairy freestall barn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flaviane Flor de Faria

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento da variabilidade espacial de atributos climáticos e a construção de mapas de krigagem podem auxiliar no manejo adequado de animais confinados em galpões. Portanto, o trabalho teve como objetivos caracterizar a variabilidade espacial do microclima de um galpão do tipo free-stall utilizado para confinamento de bovinos leiteiros empregando a técnica de geoestatística e verificar se as variáveis climáticas encontram-se dentro dos limites de conforto dos animais. Os atributos microclimáticos - temperatura, umidade relativa, velocidade do vento, luminosidade e índice de temperatura e umidade (ITU - foram amostrados em 152 pontos, em intervalos regulares de 2m, na forma de malha. Por meio dos resultados obtidos, foi possível verificar que o uso da geoestatística possibilitou definir áreas com diferentes variabilidades espaciais para os atributos microclimáticos, definindo áreas específicas no galpão onde a umidade relativa, a temperatura, a velocidade do vento e a luminosidade estão acima do recomendado para o conforto térmico animal. O sistema de climatização utilizado não garantiu a homogeneização do ambiente. Os valores de ITU permaneceram fora da condição de conforto térmico, portanto, a condição de ambiência do galpão possivelmente não propicia conforto aos animais.The knowledge of the spatial variability of climatic attributes and the build of kriging maps can help livestock management in lodged animals. Therefore, the objective of this research was to characterize the spatial variability of the climatic attributes inside a dairy cow free-stall barn using the technique of geostatistics and to verify if the climatic variables are in agreement with the thermal comfort limits of the animals. The climatic attributes - temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, luminosity and temperature and humidity index (THI were sampled in 152 points, in regular spacing of 2m, as a grid. According the results, the

  9. Att vara förälder till barn med funktionsnedsättning : erfarenheter av stöd och av att vara professionell stödjare.

    OpenAIRE

    Lindblad, Britt-Marie

    2005-01-01

    Avhandlingens övergripande syfte är att tolka och beskriva innebörder av stöd, utifrån att vara förälder till barn med funktionsnedsättning och att vara professionella stödjare. Datainsamling har skett i form av berättande intervjuer med 39 föräldrar (23 mödrar och 16 fäder) och 9 professionella (7 kvinnor, 2 män) från olika verksamheter. Samtliga intervjuer har analyserats med hjälp av fenomenologisk hermeneutisk metod. Innebörder av att vara förälder till barn med funktionsnedsättning (stud...

  10. Skador, skadeprevention och psykosociala faktorers betydelse för träning inom truppgymnastik : En intervjustudie med tränare för barn 8-12 år

    OpenAIRE

    Kammerfors, Emilia; Emilsson, Malin

    2017-01-01

    Syfte: Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka vad tränare inom truppgymnastik för barn mellan 8-12 år har för erfarenheter av skador och skadeförebyggande träning och hur man på bästa sätt främjar en stimulerande och motiverande träningsmiljö. Design och metod: Deskriptiv och explorativ kvalitativ design. Semistrukturerade intervjuer av fem tränare inom truppgymnastik för barn i åldern 8-12 år. Data bearbetades med kvalitativ innehållsanalys enligt Graneheim och Lundman. Resultat: Tränarna ...

  11. Effects of reducing dietary nitrogen on ammonia emissions from manure on the floor of a naturally ventilated free stall dairy barn at low (0-20 degrees C) temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lifeng; Cyriac, Joby; Knowlton, Katharine F; Marr, Linsey C; Gay, Susan W; Hanigan, Mark D; Ogejo, Jactone Arogo

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the potential for reducing ammonia (NH3) emissions from manure deposited on the floor of a naturally ventilated free stall barn by mid-lactation dairy cows fed reduced or normal N diets. Two crude protein (CP) diets (178 g kg(-1) [high] and 159 g kg(-1) [low] dry matter ), were used. The diets were fed to 48 Holstein cows in a replicated crossover design with two pens per diet. The NH3 emitted from the manure deposited on the floor was measured using a dynamic flux chamber. The NH3 emissions were 2.7 (+/-2.0) and 2.9 (+/-1.8) g N cow(-1) d(-1) for high and low CP diets, respectively. Ammonia emission rates were significantly affected by manure pH, TKN, and ambient air temperature (Pammoniacal N (TAN) in manure and had no significant effect on the ammonia emission rates from the barn floor.

  12. Den komplexa väven Att organisera för barns övergångar till och från förskoleklass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Ackesjö

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on how children's transitions to and from preschool classes are organized in different schools. Principal’s arguments for this organization were sought via a web-based survey and analyzed using the frame factor theory in addition to theories of practical sense and the concept of continuity. The results show that children tend to make more transitions between social communities the younger they are. The distribution of the principal’s answers show that the majority of them, because of external conditions, split the preschool groups to new classes in the transition to preschool class. However, the same movements are not indicated in the transition to first grade. The results show how the work of organizing chidren’s transitions represent a complex web of external actual conditions as the number of children and the recruitment area of the school, the internal logics and ideas about what is best for children and best for continued learning as well as the school's own traditions of working with transitions. Föreliggande studie fokuserar på hur barns övergångar till och från förskoleklass organiseras på olika skolor. Via en webbaserad enkät söks skolledares argument för denna organisering. I analysen nyttjas ett ramfaktorteoretiskt tänkande som kompletteras med teorier om praktiskt förnuft samt kontinuitetsbegreppet. Resultaten visar att barn tenderar att göra fler övergångar mellan barngrupper och sociala gemenskaper ju yngre de är. Fördelningen av skolledarnas svar visar att majoriteten, på grund av yttre villkor, delar förskolegrupperna till nya klasser i övergången till förskoleklass. Däremot indikeras inte samma rörlighet i övergången till årskurs 1. Resultaten visar hur arbetet med att organisera övergångarna utgör en komplex väv av yttre faktiska villkor som barnantal och upptagningsområdets storlek, av inre logiker och föreställningar om vad som är det bästa för barnen och det b

  13. Retrofitting of a barn under preservation order into a residential house by means of passive house construction; Umbau einer unter Denkmalschutz stehenden Scheune zu einem Wohnhaus in Passivhausbauweise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaeser, R. [SAINT-GOBAIN ISOVER G und H AG, Ladenburg (Germany)

    2001-02-01

    This project shows the possibilities of old building retrofitting by means of passive house construction. A peculiarity is the special requirements at building physics, static and protection of historic monuments. The project was subsidised by the companies SAINT-GOBAIN ISOVER G+H AG; SAINT-GOBAIN GLASS Germany and BASF in order to show that even historic monuments can be brought to the latest level of building technology. The barn, built in approximately 1850 in the Brundtland city Viernheim known as energy conservation city, is part of an ensemble of former tobacco barns under preservation order, which partially have already been retrofitted into residential houses, a library or into a municipal culture centre. The object was supposed to be retrofitted into a passive house with a yearly heating energy demand of 15 kWh/m{sub 2} and thus reach a passive house standard that is so far unique for such a building under preservation order. The following had to be taken into consideration (a) compliance with regulations for protection of historic monuments (b) reaching the passive house standard (c) solutions in terms of humidity protection for the visible trelliswork wall and salt-loaded natural stone wall (d) solution of special static requirements by protecting neighbouring buildings. (orig.) [German] Dieses Projekt zeigt die Moeglichkeiten einer Altbausanierung in Passivhausbauweise auf. Eine Besonderheit hierbei sind spezielle Anforderungen an die Bauphysik, der Statik und des Denkmalschutzes. Das Vorhaben wurde unterstuetzt durch die Unternehmen SAINT-GOBAIN ISOVER G+H AG, SAINT-GOBAIN GLASS Deutschland und BASF, um zu zeigen, dass auch historische Altbauten auf den neuesten Stand der Bautechnik gebracht werden koennen. Die Scheune mit einem Baujahr von ca. 1850 in der als Energiesparstadt bekannten hessischen Brundtlandstadt Viernheim ist Teil eines denkmalgeschuetztes Ensembles von ehemaligen Tabakscheunen, die z.T. schon in Wohnhaeuser, in eine Bibliothek, oder

  14. Effects of two different rearing systems (organic and barn on production performance, animal welfare traits and egg quality characteristics in laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Guidobono Cavalchini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Alternative housing systems for hen eggs production represents clear evidence of the trend in animal housing and husbandry towards extensive rearing methods. Consumer demand is oriented towards healthy foods controlled not only under a safety point of view, but also under a welfare assessment of the animals’ living conditions. Among the different alternative systems deep litter and organic production in recent years have been improved in Italy. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether different housing systems (barn B and organic O for laying hens may influence productive performance, fear responses and egg quality characteristics. A total of 4,745 birds were housed in the B system and 2,016 in the O system, both of which were commercial facilities. In each system the same strain (Hy-Line Brown was housed and layer performance, external and internal egg characteristics, mortality and feed consumption were recorded weekly. Animal reactivity was recorded monthly with the approaching test. Moreover, the Tonic Immobility test was conducted at 70 weeks of age; feather and foot pad conditions were also investigated at the same time. The peak of laying was reached in both housing systems at 25 weeks of age and was higher in organic hens (94.5% than in barn hens (93.0%. Feed conversion rate during the overall laying period was 2.36 vs 2.20, respectively, in O and B housing systems. There was a significant difference concerning the eggs classified as very dirty, dirty and cracked between the two systems. The dirty eggs were higher in O system probably due to laying eggs in a free range area, while the higher number of cracked eggs in B system may be due to a significantly less shell thickness in this system. Egg weight increased with layer age in both housing systems. Animals reared in O system showed less fearfulness than in B emphasised by the approaching and Tonic Immobility test results. Feather scoring did not evidence any severe plumage

  15. Improvements of sound localization abilities by the facial ruff of the barn owl (Tyto alba as demonstrated by virtual ruff removal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Hausmann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: When sound arrives at the eardrum it has already been filtered by the body, head, and outer ear. This process is mathematically described by the head-related transfer functions (HRTFs, which are characteristic for the spatial position of a sound source and for the individual ear. HRTFs in the barn owl (Tyto alba are also shaped by the facial ruff, a specialization that alters interaural time differences (ITD, interaural intensity differences (ILD, and the frequency spectrum of the incoming sound to improve sound localization. Here we created novel stimuli to simulate the removal of the barn owl's ruff in a virtual acoustic environment, thus creating a situation similar to passive listening in other animals, and used these stimuli in behavioral tests. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: HRTFs were recorded from an owl before and after removal of the ruff feathers. Normal and ruff-removed conditions were created by filtering broadband noise with the HRTFs. Under normal virtual conditions, no differences in azimuthal head-turning behavior between individualized and non-individualized HRTFs were observed. The owls were able to respond differently to stimuli from the back than to stimuli from the front having the same ITD. By contrast, such a discrimination was not possible after the virtual removal of the ruff. Elevational head-turn angles were (slightly smaller with non-individualized than with individualized HRTFs. The removal of the ruff resulted in a large decrease in elevational head-turning amplitudes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The facial ruff a improves azimuthal sound localization by increasing the ITD range and b improves elevational sound localization in the frontal field by introducing a shift of iso-ILD lines out of the midsagittal plane, which causes ILDs to increase with increasing stimulus elevation. The changes at the behavioral level could be related to the changes in the binaural physical parameters that occurred after the

  16. 5-HTT Deficiency Affects Neuroplasticity and Increases Stress Sensitivity Resulting in Altered Spatial Learning Performance in the Morris Water Maze but Not in the Barnes Maze

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabeg, Margherita M.; Grauthoff, Sandra; Kollert, Sina Y.; Weidner, Magdalena; Heiming, Rebecca S.; Jansen, Friederike; Popp, Sandy; Kaiser, Sylvia; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Sachser, Norbert

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether spatial hippocampus-dependent learning is affected by the serotonergic system and stress. Therefore, 5-HTT knockout (-/-), heterozygous (+/-) and wildtype (+/+) mice were subjected to the Barnes maze (BM) and the Morris water maze (WM), the latter being discussed as more aversive. Additionally, immediate early gene (IEG) expression, hippocampal adult neurogenesis (aN), and blood plasma corticosterone were analyzed. While the performance of 5-HTT-/- mice in the BM was undistinguishable from both other genotypes, they performed worse in the WM. However, in the course of the repeated WM trials 5-HTT-/- mice advanced to wildtype level. The experience of a single trial of either the WM or the BM resulted in increased plasma corticosterone levels in all genotypes. After several trials 5-HTT-/- mice exhibited higher corticosterone concentrations compared with both other genotypes in both tests. Corticosterone levels were highest in 5-HTT-/- mice tested in the WM indicating greater aversiveness of the WM and a greater stress sensitivity of 5-HTT deficient mice. Quantitative immunohistochemistry in the hippocampus revealed increased cell counts positive for the IEG products cFos and Arc as well as for proliferation marker Ki67 and immature neuron marker NeuroD in 5-HTT-/- mice compared to 5-HTT+/+ mice, irrespective of the test. Most differences were found in the suprapyramidal blade of the dentate gyrus of the septal hippocampus. Ki67-immunohistochemistry revealed a genotype x environment interaction with 5-HTT genotype differences in naïve controls and WM experience exclusively yielding more Ki67-positive cells in 5-HTT+/+ mice. Moreover, in 5-HTT-/- mice we demonstrate that learning performance correlates with the extent of aN. Overall, higher baseline IEG expression and increased an in the hippocampus of 5-HTT-/- mice together with increased stress sensitivity may constitute the neurobiological correlate of raised

  17. Corticosterone shifts reproductive behaviour towards self-maintenance in the barn owl and is linked to melanin-based coloration in females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almasi, Bettina; Roulin, Alexandre; Jenni, Lukas

    2013-06-01

    Trade-offs between the benefits of current reproduction and the costs to future reproduction and survival are widely recognized. However, such trade-offs might only be detected when resources become limited to the point where investment in one activity jeopardizes investment in others. The resolution of the trade-off between reproduction and self-maintenance is mediated by hormones such as glucocorticoids which direct behaviour and physiology towards self-maintenance under stressful situations. We investigated this trade-off in male and female barn owls in relation to the degree of heritable melanin-based coloration, a trait that reflects the ability to cope with various sources of stress in nestlings. We increased circulating corticosterone in breeding adults by implanting a corticosterone-releasing-pellet, using birds implanted with a placebo-pellet as controls. In males, elevated corticosterone reduced the activity (i.e. reduced home-range size and distance covered within the home-range) independently of coloration, while we could not detect any effect on hunting efficiency. The effect of experimentally elevated corticosterone on female behaviour was correlated with their melanin-based coloration. Corticosterone (cort-) induced an increase in brooding behaviour in small-spotted females, while this hormone had no detectable effect in large-spotted females. Cort-females with small eumelanic spots showed the normal body-mass loss during the early nestling period, while large spotted cort-females did not lose body mass. This indicates that corticosterone induced a shift towards self-maintenance in males independently on their plumage, whereas in females this shift was observed only in large-spotted females. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Analysis of Odor-Causing VOCs and Semi-VOCs Associated with Particulate Matter in Swine Barns Using SPME-GC-MS-Olfactometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Lingshuang; Koziel, Jacek A.; Lo, Yin-Cheung; Hoff, Steven J.

    2009-05-01

    Swine operations can affect air quality by emissions of odor, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and other gases, and particulate matter (PM). Particulate matter has been proposed to be an important pathway for carrying odor. However, little is known about the odor-VOCs-PM interactions. In this research, continuous PM sampling was conducted simultaneously with three collocated TEOM analyzers inside a 1000-head swine finish barn located in central Iowa. Each TEOM (tapered element oscillating microbalance) was fitted with total suspended particulate (TSP), PM-10, PM-2.5 and PM-1 preseparators. Used filters were stored in 40 mL vials and transported to the laboratory. VOCs adsorbed/absorbed to dust were allowed to equilibrate with vial headspace. Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) Carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane(PDMS) 85 μm fibers were used to extract VOCs. Simultaneous chemical and olfactometry analyses of VOCs and odor associated with swine PM were completed using a gas chromatography-mass-olfactometry (GC-MS-O) system. Fifty VOCs categorized into nine chemical function groups were identified and confirmed with standards. Five of them are classified as hazardous air pollutants. VOCs were characterized with a wide range of molecular weight, boiling points, vapor pressures, water solubilities, odor detection thresholds, and atmospheric reactivities. All characteristic swine VOCs and odorants were present in PM and their abundance was proportional to PM size. However, the majority of VOCs and characteristic swine odorants were preferentially bound to smaller-size PM. The findings indicate that a significant fraction of swine odor can be carried by PM. Research of the effects of PM control on swine odor mitigation is warranted.

  19. Effect of lactation stage, its number, current milk performance and barn air temperature on laterality of Holstein dairy cows laying behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Zejdová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine effect of lactation stage and number, current milk performance and ambient temperature on laterality of dairy cows laying behaviour (i.e. preference of either left or right body side. The monitoring was performed at the University Training Farm in Žabčice, Czech Republic, (geographical coordinates 49° 0’4’’ N and 16° 36’ E, the altitude 179 m within the six warmest months of the year 2010 (i.e. from 1 April 2010 to 30 September 2010. Observed were altogether 70 Holstein dairy cows with the average daily milk production of 34.48 kg of milk, which were kept in loose housing boxes with bedding (size of boxes: 2500 mm x 1250 mm. Animals were directly observed once a week (always at 9.00 a.m.. In the course of observation, the position of dairy cows in the barn was exactly recorded. In case of laying animals, it was recorded on which body side they were resting. Altogether 1,239 records of laying position of individual dairy cows were analysed and it was found out that the experimental animals preferred the left body side of their body (left and right laterality was observed in 671 and 568 animals, respectively. This left-side laterality was more frequent among animals in later stages of lactation (more than 200 days and also in dairy cows with a higher number of lactations (4th and more. Dairy cows with a below-average milk performance rested on their left body side more frequently than those with a high level of milk production. As compared with average and/or low air temperatures, the left laterality was more frequent in periods of high ambient temperatures.

  20. Naturvetenskap för yngre barn – kunskapsinnehåll i lärarstudenters beskrivningar av sin framtida undervisning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna T. Danielsson

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Syftet med artikeln är att utforska vilket kunskapsinnehåll som lärarstudenter inriktade mot förskolan och grundskolans tidigare år framställer som centralt för undervisning av yngre barn i naturvetenskap. Detta utgår från antagandet att kunskap om lärarstudenters relation till naturvetenskap är en viktig del i naturvetenskapliga lärarutbildares ämnesdidaktiska kompetens. Studien använder Roberts (1982 kunskapsemfaser som ett analysverktyg för att tematisera vad lärarstudenter inriktade mot förskolan och grundskolans tidigare år framställer som centralt för naturvetenskaplig undervisning. Det empiriska materialet består av en essäuppgift där lärarstudenter (N=144 reflekterar över sina egna erfarenheter och upplevelser av naturvetenskap och naturvetenskaplig undervisning samt sin framtida undervisning. De två teman som allra starkast präglar essämaterialet är den starka fokuseringen på vardagsanknytning samt att grundlägga ett naturvetenskapligt intresse hos yngre elever, medan andra aspekter av naturvetenskaplig undervisning till stor del osynliggörs. Vi menar att det att utgå från lärarstudenternas beskrivningar av naturvetenskaplig undervisning kan vara stärkande (empowering för denna studentgrupp, då talet om förskollärares och tidigarelärares deltagande i naturvetenskapliga aktiviteter ofta fokuserar antingen brister i kunskaper eller i självförtroende.

  1. Evaluación de los cambios en la marcación de proteína Fos en dos protocolos de aprendizaje espacial en el Laberinto Circular de Barnes

    OpenAIRE

    Ortega Ferreira, Sandra Constanza

    2010-01-01

    El presente trabajo investigativo tuvo como objetivo determinar las diferencias en los indicadores comportamentales de aprendizaje y memoria, así como en la inmunoreactividad de la proteína Fos en secciones seriales del cerebro de ratas expuestas a protocolos de ocho o dieciséis ensayos de adquisición de una tarea espacial en el laberinto circular de Barnes. Para esto se utilizó un diseño factorial 3 X 2 con las variables independientes Protocolo de entrenamiento (Entrenamiento, Sobre-entrena...

  2. EL ESTRÉS AGUDO INTERFIERE CON LA EVOCACIÓN Y PROMUEVE LA EXTINCIÓN DE LA MEMORIA ESPACIAL EN EL LABERINTO DE BARNES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julieta Troncoso

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Para evaluar los efectos del estrés agudo sobre la recuperación y la extinción de la memoria espacial, se utilizaron ratas entrenadas en el laberinto circular de Barnes. El entrenamiento consistió de 8 ensayos de adquisición (intervalo entre ensayos, IEE, de 5 min en donde los animales debían aprender a encontrar una caja meta ubicada en uno de los 18 agujeros del laberinto. Todos los animales adquirieron el aprendizaje espacial, ya que invirtieron menos tiempo en encontrar la caja meta y cometieron menos errores a medida que se sucedían los ensayos de entrenamiento. Veinticuatro horas después del entrenamiento se evaluó la retención y extinción del aprendizaje espacial mediante una prueba con caja meta (PCC seguida de siete pruebas sin caja (PSC, con un IEE de 5 min. Una hora y media antes de la sesión de evaluación de la memoria un grupo de animales fue sometido a estrés por restricción de movimientos durante una hora, permitiéndoles un período de recuperación de 30 min y otro grupo permaneció en su caja hogar sin manipulación (control. Los resultados indican que el estrés deteriora el proceso de evocación de la memoria espacial, ya que los animales estresados cometieron un mayor número de errores y demoraron más tiempo en encontrar la caja meta durante la PCC, respecto de los controles. Además, el estrés facilita el proceso de extinción, ya que, durante las PSCs los animales estresados no mostraron una persistencia en la exploración del agujero que, en el entrenamiento, conducía a la caja meta.

  3. Perfomance of an evaporative cooling system of a finishing phase swine barn Desempenho de um sistema de resfriamento evaporativo em instalações para suínos em fase de terminação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valmir Sartor

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available The thermal environment inside of a finishing phase swine barn has great influence on the success of swine production. This environment can be characterized by the black globe temperature and humidity index (BGHI, that represents the air temperature, humidity, wind speed and radiation. Due to the small number of Brazilian reports on this specific subject, this experiment was performed to verify the effect of one kind of evaporative cooling system on the thermal comfort of the animal in a swine barn, during the 98/99 summer at Patos de Minas, MG, Brazil. Two constructions were used, divided in 36 barns, each one with 15 animals, 110 to 150 days old. Along a side of one barn, four cooling devices were installed, with a ventilation system connected to a sprayer, to form an evaporative cooling system (ECS. The other barn did not have any cooling system being a control unity (COS. The ECS provided an improvement of the environmental thermal conditions, reducing the index of black globe temperature and humidity inside the building, from 83.5 to 82.4, during the critical period of the day (2 p.m.. The ECS provided also an improvement of the food conversion, from 3.27 to 2.88, and a tendency of a substantial weight gain, from 0.97 to 1.02 kg per day.O ambiente térmico no interior das instalações para suínos em fase de terminação tem importância vital para o sucesso da atividade suinícula. Esse ambiente pode ser representado pelo índice de temperatura de globo e umidade (ITGU, que inclui a temperatura, a umidade relativa e a velocidade do ar, e a radiação. Baseado nisto foi desenvolvido um trabalho com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de um sistema de resfriamento evaporativo no conforto térmico de instalações para suínos em fase de terminação. O experimento foi realizado no período de verão (98/99 no município de Patos de Minas, MG. Foram utilizadas duas instalações divididas em 36 baias. Em cada baia foram alojados 15 animais por um

  4. Barns tankar om ekologiska processer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helldén, Gustav

    Bogen indledes med en oversigt over forskning om læring i naturvidenskab, herunder gennemgås blandt andet Piagets teorier. Herefter følger Helldéns undersøgelser af elevforestillinger om økologiske processer. Helldén har interviewet eleverne om livsbetingelser og vækst, nedbrydning i naturen og om...

  5. Barn and Pole Paradox: Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacioppo, Robert; Gangopadhyaya, Asim

    2012-01-01

    Paradoxes have played great instructive roles in many cultures. They provide an excellent paradigm for teaching concepts that require deep reflection. In this article, the authors present two different paradoxes related to the length contraction in special relativity and explain their resolution. They hope that these two Gedanken experiments and…

  6. På leit etter grunnlag for norske barnehagers matematikkdidaktiske arbeid med romforståelse. - Et systematisk søk på forskning om barns utvikling av romforståelse gjort i barnehagekonteksten 1995-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Line Rønning Føsker

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: A review of research on children’s development of spatial reasoning in  a preschool setting 1995-2010. This study reviews 16 journal articles, books and theses on spatial reasoning in early childhood mathematics education. The data was collected by way of systematical search in several major databases and relevant digital and non-digital journals. The article gives a brief presentation of the main findings and the different methods used and, if applicable, the authors’ focus on didactics in both method and analysis. When it comes  to children’s mathematical learning processes, a main focus for a majority of studies is children’s use of constructional play material. When it comes to preschool teachers’ work with spatial reasoning, most  studies focus on the teachers’ planned and spontaneous communication with the children. The article then goes on to discuss these findings in relation to the Norwegian Framework Plan for Kindergartens. It seems like future research on the teachers’ use of material, on their work with visualization and orientation, and on their general focus on spatial reasoning could gain curriculum practise. Sammendrag: Denne oversiktsartikkelen gir en presentasjon av 16 internasjonale forskningsarbeider som ser på barns romforståelse i en barnehagekontekst. Arbeidene består av 14 vitenskapelige artikler, en bok og en doktorgrad, og disse ble funnet gjennom systematiske søk i flere større databaser og relevante digitale og analoge tidsskrift. Artikkelen gir en kort presentasjon av de ulike arbeidenes metode, hovedfunn og didaktiske vinkling. Når det gjelder barns utvikling av romforståelse har en majoritet av studiene fokus på hvordan dette kan belyses ved å studere og stimulere barns konstruksjonslek. For de studiene som ser på pedagogens rolle i arbeid med romforståelse legges det mest vekt på kommunikasjon, både planlagt og spontan kommunikasjon. Oversiktsartikkelen drøfter deretter

  7. Comparison between barn owl pellet and fox scat analysis in small mammal survey / Analisi di borre di barbagianni e di feci di volpe: confronto tra due metodologie per il rilevamento di piccoli mammiferi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Agnelli

    1993-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the course of a small mammal survey 100 barn owl (Tyto alba Scop. pellets and 50 fox (Vulpes vulpes L. scats were collected at "Villa Demidoff Park" (Florence, Italy during six weekly samp1ings in the spring. Scat and pellet analyses were compared in order to point out advantages and disadvantages of these techniques as a tool in small mammal surveys. Riassunto In uno studio sul popolamento di piccoli mammiferi nel "Parco di Villa Demidoff" (Firenze, Italia realizzato durante il periodo primaverile, sono state analizzate 100 borre di barbagianni (Tyto alba Scop. e 50 feci di volpe (Vulpes vulpes L., raccolte nel corso di sei campionamenti a frequenza settimanale. Queste due metodologie sono state messe a confronto evidenziandone applicabilità e funzionalità come strumento di indagine per il rilevamento di piccoli mammiferi.

  8. Social Alienation and Displacement in Faulkner’s “Barn Burning”, Henry’s “The Social Triangle” and Mansfield’s “The Doll’s House”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein H. Zeidanin

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study questions the role of the state in reproducing class relations and interpellating lower class people. The state employs repressive and ideological apparatuses to maintain the ruling class hegemony. The apparatuses the study examines in the context of the selected stories include school, family, court and materiality.  Teachers and parents in Mansfield's "The Doll's House", justices in Faulkner's "Barn Burning" and materiality in Henry's "The Social Triangle" are the state agents of repression which lower class characters in the stories could not protest or rebel against. Their assimilation of the upper class culture, the narrators assert, gets them nowhere but to eventually become alienated. This accounts for their failure to attain social mobility.

  9. In vitro and ex-vivo cellular antioxidant protection and cognitive enhancing effects of an extract of Polygonum minus Huds (Lineminus™) demonstrated in a Barnes Maze animal model for memory and learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Polygonum minus Huds.is a culinary flavouring that is common in South East Asian cuisine and as a remedy for diverse maladies ranging from indigestion to poor eyesight. The leaves of this herb have been reported to be high in antioxidants. Flavonoids which have been associated with memory, cognition and protection against neurodegeneration were found in P. minus. Method This study examined a P. minus aqueous extract (Lineminus™) for its antioxidant activity using the Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) assay, the ex vivo Cellular Antioxidant Protection of erythrocytes (CAP-e) assays and for potential anticholinesterase activity in vitro. Cognitive function and learning of Lineminus™ was evaluated using scopolamine induced cognition deficits in a Barnes maze, rodent model of cognition. Results The extract displayed in vitro antioxidant activity with a total ORAC value of 16,964 μmole TE/gram. Cellular antioxidant protection from free radical damage using the CAP-e assay, with an IC50 of 0.58 g/L for inhibition of cellular oxidative damage, was observed. The extract inhibited cholinesterase activity with an IC50 of 0.04 mg/ml with a maximum inhibition of 68%. In a rodent model of cognition using scopolamine induced cognition deficits in the Barnes maze, the extract attenuated scopolamine induced disruptions in learning at the higher dose of 100 mg/kg. Conclusion These data shows that P. minus possesses antioxidant and anticholinesterase activity and demonstrated enhanced cognition in vivo. The data suggest neuroprotective properties of the extract. PMID:24886679

  10. Beyond mean allelic effects: A locus at the major color gene MC1R associates also with differing levels of phenotypic and genetic (co)variance for coloration in barn owls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San-Jose, Luis M; Ducret, Valérie; Ducrest, Anne-Lyse; Simon, Céline; Roulin, Alexandre

    2017-10-01

    The mean phenotypic effects of a discovered variant help to predict major aspects of the evolution and inheritance of a phenotype. However, differences in the phenotypic variance associated to distinct genotypes are often overlooked despite being suggestive of processes that largely influence phenotypic evolution, such as interactions between the genotypes with the environment or the genetic background. We present empirical evidence for a mutation at the melanocortin-1-receptor gene, a major vertebrate coloration gene, affecting phenotypic variance in the barn owl, Tyto alba. The white MC1R allele, which associates with whiter plumage coloration, also associates with a pronounced phenotypic and additive genetic variance for distinct color traits. Contrarily, the rufous allele, associated with a rufous coloration, relates to a lower phenotypic and additive genetic variance, suggesting that this allele may be epistatic over other color loci. Variance differences between genotypes entailed differences in the strength of phenotypic and genetic associations between color traits, suggesting that differences in variance also alter the level of integration between traits. This study highlights that addressing variance differences of genotypes in wild populations provides interesting new insights into the evolutionary mechanisms and the genetic architecture underlying the phenotype. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  11. Barn och konst - samtal, kommunikation och demokrati

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Lindh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Artikeln fokuserar på förskolebarns möte med konst i form av offentlig utsmyckning. Femåriga förskolebarn besöker sex skulpturer, interagerar med dem, med varandra och med sin lärare. De tecknar av skulpturerna på plats. Ett sociokulturellt och demokratiskt perspektiv används för att belysa barnen möte med konsten där leken tar stor plats. Deras egna tolkningar och samspelet med konsten undersöks med hjälp av partiell etnografi där deltagande  pedagoger möter konsten, tolkar den, samspelar med den, kopplar den till sin egen verklighet och dessutom engagerar sig i konsten.This article focuses on pre-school children and their meeting with public art in the form of sculptures. Together with their teacher they interact with the artworks, with each other, and they do their own interpretation at site by making drawings of the sculptures. The playful meeting between children and public art is described from a sociocultural and democratic perspective. The children’s own interpretations and interactions with the art are investigated using ethnographic method through participant observation. The result shows that pre-school children with the assistance of a proficient teacher meet the art, interpret it, interact with it, and connect it to their every-day lives, besides truly engaging in the artprocess.

  12. Playboy Hefner meenutab ja naeratab / Brooks Barnes

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Barnes, Brooks

    2009-01-01

    Kuigi meediaettevõte Playboy Enterprises on rahalistes raskustes, kärpides ka reklaamijatele lubatud levinumbrit 2,6 miljonilt eksemplarilt 1,5 miljonile, väidab ettevõtte asutaja Hugh Hefner, et Playboy ei ole kokkukukkumise äärel

  13. Første danske barn tyndtarmstransplanteret

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøstesen, Lisbeth Marianne; Lassen, Lissi Bank; Qvist, Niels

    2010-01-01

    A girl with extensive Hirschsprung's disease was operated, leaving her with a 35 cm short bowel. She received long-term parenteral nutrition through a central catheter. Progressive liver failure and intravenous access problems developed and at the age of 5.5 years she was transplanted in Birmingh...

  14. Odontogent myksom i maksillen hos et barn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsson, Lina Isabella; Jakobsen, John; Thygesen, Torben H

    2014-01-01

    exclusively in the maxilla. Orbital involvement is very rare, and to our knowledge reconstruction with a Medpore sheet has not previously been reported. At post-operative follow-up normal eye function and an excellent cosmetic result was observed. OM should be considered in a midfacial mass....

  15. Barns motstand som demokratisk deltaking i basebarnehagen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liv Torunn Grindheim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available New kindergarten architecture in Norway with special rooms designed for specific learning activities are claimed to present space for democratic participation. Assuming that conditions for democratic participation can only be considered related to whether and how children participate, new architecture as context for children’s participation is questioned. Episodes from a fieldwork in such a kindergarten demonstrate that contrasts of the architecture, indicating both freedom of choice and regulations, are emerging in routine situations where children are shifting from one activity to another. In these situations children resist and challenge traditional power relations between children and adults, by involving adults in playing ‘hide and seek’. This playful resistance is interpreted as democratic participation, and thereby underlines play as an important way for children to express themselves as co-constructers of their communities in kindergartens.

  16. Barn av grundsøgum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moberg, Bergur Rønne

    Hovedartiklen i bogen kaldes "Der må være en udkant" med undertitlen. "En videnskabelig tese om sted og nation som konstituerende træk ved færøsk litteratur" (50 s.). Stort set hele bogen diskuterer konstruktionsforestillingen i den modernistiske filosofi i forskellige sammenhænge....

  17. Klassiker på barn- och ungdomsbiblioteket : Bibliotekariens arbete med barn- och ungdomslitteraturens klassiker

    OpenAIRE

    Johannesson, Elsa

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. This empirical study investigates the attitudes of Swedish public librarians who work in the children’s and/or young adult departments, towards children’s literary classics. This is achieved by examining work with the Classics shelf, a genre classification located in the children’s or young adult section. Method. The empirical material consists of transcripts from interviews with seven children’s and young adult public librarians in four Swedish municipalities, the Classics shel...

  18. Barn i Sorg : pedagogens viktiga roll för barn i sorg

    OpenAIRE

    Rodin, Christina

    2008-01-01

    Abstract This work is about children in sorrow. I have chosen to set the focus on the school and the teacher’s role in the meeting with mourning children and the difference between boys and girls reactions when mourning. The awareness and the great importance for a teachers knowledge to meet a child in mourning, is something I myself has experienced when a child in nursery school lost one parent through accident. The result of the study reflects on four teachers and two headmasters experience...

  19. La dieta de la lechuza (Tyto alba (Aves: Strigiformes en hábitats naturales y antropogénicos de la región central de Cuba Diet of Barn Owl (Tyto alba (Aves: Strigiformes in natural and anthropogenic habitat in central Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel Hernández-Muñoz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Para determinar los hábitos tróficos de la lechuza, Tyto alba, se analizaron 1232 egagrópilas recolectadas entre 1994 y 2001 en 24 localidades de la región central de Cuba. Se encontraron 3943 presas; los roedores exóticos (Mus musculus y Rattus spp. fueron las presas dominantes y representaron 80% del total. Otros tipos de presas fueron de menor frecuencia; por ejemplo, insectos (6.1%, murciélagos (5%, anfibios (4.8%, aves (3.6% y reptiles (0.2%. Se agruparon las localidades de recolecta de egagrópilas en 2 categorías de hábitat: antropogénicos y naturales, para explorar el efecto de los disturbios antrópicos en la dieta de la lechuza. Contrario a lo esperado, no se encontró variación significativa en el índice de amplitud trófica de Levins (Bantropogénicos= 1.32 ± 0.3 vs Bnaturales = 1.38 ± 0.4. La composición de la dieta en ambos hábitats no difiere, al menos en la proporción de las diferentes clases, aunque existe la tendencia a depredar más aves en hábitats naturales que en sitios perturbados donde los insectos son más frecuentes. Los resultados sugieren que tanto en hábitats antropogénicos como naturales, las lechuzas se comportan como depredadores efectivos de las poblaciones de roedores múridos introducidos.To determine food habits of Barn Owl, Tyto alba, we analyzed 1232 pellets collected from 24 localities in central Cuba from 1994 to 2001. The pellets yielded 3943 prey items, with introduced rodents (Mus musculus and Rattus spp. being the primary prey, accounting for 80% of items in the diet. Other prey classes were of minor frequency; e.g., insects (6.1%, bats (5%, amphibians (4.8%, birds (3.6%, and reptiles (0.2%.We grouped pellet collection localities into 2 habitat categories: "anthropogenic" and "natural," to explore the effect of anthropogenic disturbance on the diet Barn Owl. Contrary to our expectation, we found no significant difference in the Levin's niche-breadth index (B, calculated for the

  20. Hjertetamponade hos et praematurt barn med perkutant anlagt centralt venekateter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callesen, Michael T; Nielsen, Peter Ehlert

    2008-01-01

    We report a case of a premature girl born with a gestational age of 26 weeks who developed cardiac tamponade after displacement of a peripheral inserted central catheter. She recovered completely after an acutely performed pericardiocentesis. The pericardial fluid was consistent with parental...... nutrition. Pericardiac effusion must be suspected in children with central catheters and sudden cardiovascular decompensation. This article discusses recommended positioning of peripherally inserted central catheters....

  1. Barn owl productivity response to variability of vole populations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavluvčík, P.; Poprach, K.; Machar, I.; Losík, J.; Gouveia, A.; Tkadlec, Emil

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 12 (2015), e0145851 E-ISSN 1932-6203 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : animal experiment * correlation coefficient * Czech Republic * fledgling * life history * nonhuman * productivity * specialization * stochastic model * theoretical model * time series analysis Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.057, year: 2015

  2. Stresshyperglykaemi hos et barn med svaer akut gastroenteritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Jesper V.

    2002-01-01

    A case of a two years and ten months old girl with severe acute gastroenteritis, dehydration, and hyperglycaemia is described. Transient hyperglycaemia is a common clinical finding in children under stress. We discuss the distinction between hyperglycaemia as a prediabetic state and that as a phy......A case of a two years and ten months old girl with severe acute gastroenteritis, dehydration, and hyperglycaemia is described. Transient hyperglycaemia is a common clinical finding in children under stress. We discuss the distinction between hyperglycaemia as a prediabetic state...... and that as a physiological response to stress during acute illness. Udgivelsesdato: 2002-Nov-18...

  3. Hjertetamponade hos et praematurt barn med perkutant anlagt centralt venekateter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callesen, Michael T; Nielsen, Peter Ehlert

    2008-01-01

    We report a case of a premature girl born with a gestational age of 26 weeks who developed cardiac tamponade after displacement of a peripheral inserted central catheter. She recovered completely after an acutely performed pericardiocentesis. The pericardial fluid was consistent with parental...

  4. Short communications: Recent results from Barn Swallow Hirundo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scopus: Journal of East African Ornithology. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 29 (2009) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  5. Veld composition in relation to grazing capacity. | Barnes | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Present methods of evaluating veld composition in relation to grazing capacity can be criticised on grounds of subjectivity, especially with regard to the assignment of relative values to the constituent species. Data relating to botanical composition and estimated grazing capacity, derived from long-term animal production ...

  6. Trombotisk trombocytopenisk purpura hos barn med lavt ADAMTS13 enzymniveau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spangenberg, Katrine Bredsdorff; Clasen-Linde, Erik; Poulsen, Anja

    2014-01-01

    Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is a rare condition, but important to consider in case of thrombocytopenia and haemolysis. It is imperative to proceed with the correct treatment, in order to ensure a satisfactory outcome. TTP is either acquired or idiopathic. This case report shows...

  7. Toksisk shock syndrom. Et tilfoelde hos et barn med forbroending

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glazowski, M J; Ostergaard, G Z; Arpi, M

    1992-01-01

    A case of the toxic shock syndrome (TSS) in a burnt (scalded) child is presented. TSS is a condition most frequently associated with menstruating women using tampons. In recent years, however, increased knowledge of the syndrome has led to an increase in the number of reported cases associated...

  8. Hjernen og følelser--fra barn til voksen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plessen, Kerstin J; Kabicheva, Galina

    2010-01-01

    -regulation may explain different behavioural traits that are typical for specific age groups. INTERPRETATION: Emotional regulation develops in a complex interaction between a child's relationships, experiences, activities and underlying biological/genetic factors. Knowledge of these underlying neural constraints......BACKGROUND: Contemporary neuroscience relates human behaviour, emotions and cognition to underlying neurobiological processes in the brain. Increased awareness of such processes may improve our understanding of emotional regulatory problems and development of psychopathology in some children......: linear development of white matter, growth and subsequent elimination of gray matter and maturation of various neuronal networks in the brain. Emotional regulation develops discontinuously in children and adolescents, and varying degrees of maturation of specific neural networks involved in self...

  9. Emosjonsregulering og motivasjon hos barn med AD/HD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høvik, Marie Farstad; Plessen, Kerstin J

    2010-01-01

    Impaired cognitive control functions have long been regarded as the main problem in the development of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). A more recent model emphasizes the importance of emotional and motivational problems. We have reviewed the evidence for this model, which may have...... important implications for clinical practice....

  10. Selvadministreret ventrikelsondeernaering hos et barn med infantil autisme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrborg, J

    1991-01-01

    An example of self-administered gastric tube nutrition in a boy aged 15 years with infantile autism is presented. The boy would neither eat nor drink in the normal manner since the age of eight years and has gradually administered tube-feeding himself. This patient does not fulfill the internatio......An example of self-administered gastric tube nutrition in a boy aged 15 years with infantile autism is presented. The boy would neither eat nor drink in the normal manner since the age of eight years and has gradually administered tube-feeding himself. This patient does not fulfill...

  11. The diet of barn owls at a roost near Grahamstown

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wagener, 1857, D. nanus Dogiel and Bychowsky, 1934 and D. parvus Wagener, 1909, associated with. Palaeoarctic cyprinids of the subfamily Leuciscinae, namely species of the genera Albumus, BUcca,. Leuciscus, Rutilus and Scardinius. The other species found on Mirogrex terraesanctae terraesanctae in Lake.

  12. Udder health in a Danish compost bedded pack barn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svennesen, Line; Enevoldsen, Carsten; Bjerg, Bjarne Schmidt

    Besides welfare advantages of the compost bedded pack system (CBP) there could be a negative effect of the organic bedding on udder health. Our objectives were to evaluate the effects of a CBP on udder health compared to a free stall system (FS) with sand bedded cubicles. Within the same Danish...

  13. "A Roadmap for Flue-curing Tobacco Barns: Towards Developing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tobacco crop currently provides the best economic return per hectare amongst all the major annual crops grown in Zimbabwe. Tobacco production currently contributes 30 % of the total exports and nearly 10 % of the GDP. According to the Tobacco Industry and Marketing Board, of the 106 127 number of registered tobacco ...

  14. Hjernen og følelser--fra barn til voksen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plessen, Kerstin J; Kabicheva, Galina

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Contemporary neuroscience relates human behaviour, emotions and cognition to underlying neurobiological processes in the brain. Increased awareness of such processes may improve our understanding of emotional regulatory problems and development of psychopathology in some children......: linear development of white matter, growth and subsequent elimination of gray matter and maturation of various neuronal networks in the brain. Emotional regulation develops discontinuously in children and adolescents, and varying degrees of maturation of specific neural networks involved in self...... and adolescents. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This article is based on articles identified through a non-systematic search in PubMed and on publications from the authors' own database. RESULTS: Several processes form the biological basis for how children and adolescents regulate their emotions when relating to others...

  15. Etikk i praksis: Barn med samspillsvansker og medvirkning i barnehagen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingvild Åmot

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Title: Ethics in practice: Children who have difficulties interacting and their participation in day-care centres.Abstract: In recent years there has been a trend promoting "children’s right to participation". The point of departure for the article is qualitative data material collected from three day-care centres in Norway. The main objective has been to illuminate the choices the staff have and the dilemmas they face in their day-to-day practice when it comes to children who have interaction difficulties and their opportunities to participate. Findings: The practice is action-oriented. Actions, dilemmas and discretionary assessments are related to consequential- and deontological-ethics reasons.

  16. Når mor/barn-relationen bliver teenager

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gad, Ulrik Pram

    2008-01-01

    Når danske og grønlandske historier om rigsfællesskabet sammenholdes, bliver det klart, at en fortsættelse af fællesskabet har to paradoksale forudsætninger: Relationen må kunne fremstilles som en fælles proces med afvikling af fællesskabet som mål. Og relationen må kunne fremstilles som en ligev...

  17. Recent results from Barn Swallow Hirundo rustica ringing in Iringa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . Remarkably, on 5 February 1971, Reynolds also recovered a bird originally ringed from the Chokpak Pass in Kazakhstan, indicating that this population is still wintering or passing through this part of Africa almost 37 years later. Table 1.

  18. Selvadministreret ventrikelsondeernaering hos et barn med infantil autisme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrborg, J

    1991-01-01

    An example of self-administered gastric tube nutrition in a boy aged 15 years with infantile autism is presented. The boy would neither eat nor drink in the normal manner since the age of eight years and has gradually administered tube-feeding himself. This patient does not fulfill the internatio...... the international criteria for the diagnosis of anorexia nervosa. A possible etiological factor and the education/psychological attitudes to the compulsive symptom are discussed. Udgivelsesdato: 1991-Oct-14...

  19. Førskolelærere om barns oppholdstid i barnehagen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgitte Johansen

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Norway is facing full day care coverage and most children have full time places. The local authorities
    responsible for the day care sector are framed by New Public Management principles of governing urging for
    more efficient and user oriented day care services. Full time day care is vital for adult worker families. Yet, historically
    there is evidence for scepticism towards full time day care in Norway, also among preschool teachers. There
    is little knowledge about present perceptions amongst preschool teachers of the best time for children to spend in
    day care. This is relevant to explore given the importance of expertise and knowledge in the government of parents
    and parental choices. The article analyses textual data from a survey and interview data and explores Norwegian
    preschool teachers’ understanding of the best period of time for children to spend in day care. The analyse
    is framed by day care organisation discourses and Norwegian discourses of family, childhood and parenting. It
    discusses the apparent ambivalence on the issue among the preschool teachers linked to their position as professionals
    in relation to parents.
    Keywords: Preschool teachers, children’s time in day care, new public management, working parents

  20. ANALYSIS OF A COLLECTION OF BARN OWL TYTO ALBA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1969/70, birds made up 1,13 % of the total biomass, and in 1971, 4,75 %. Two birds, P loceus velatus and Que/ea quelea made up 4,55 % of the total biomass. .... Rate o/pellet casting. Table 3 gives the number of pellets collected at the roost and the number of owls present at the roost. TABLE 3. MEAN NUMBER OF ...

  1. The diet of barn owls at a roost near Grahamstown

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1972; Dean 1973; Skinner, Lindeque, van Aarde &. Dieckmann 1980; Tilson & Le Roux 1983). Most of the studies are based on a single collection of pellets from a roost, from which only distributional information and a list of prey items can be obtained. Perrin (1982) compared his analysis of a single collection of pellets to.

  2. Hjernen og følelser--fra barn til voksen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plessen, Kerstin J; Kabicheva, Galina

    2010-01-01

    : linear development of white matter, growth and subsequent elimination of gray matter and maturation of various neuronal networks in the brain. Emotional regulation develops discontinuously in children and adolescents, and varying degrees of maturation of specific neural networks involved in self......-regulation may explain different behavioural traits that are typical for specific age groups. INTERPRETATION: Emotional regulation develops in a complex interaction between a child's relationships, experiences, activities and underlying biological/genetic factors. Knowledge of these underlying neural constraints...... for development of more specific therapies....

  3. Phenomenological Intentionality meets an Ego-less State | Barnes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    When trying to capture and describe experiences that are beyond the understanding of the body and the mind, namely experiences of deep meditative states, one is confronted with the limitations of the research method itself. One of the fundamental concepts within the phenomenological method is that of Intentionality.

  4. Rytme, dynamikk, rom og relasjoner i barns egeninitierte estetiske uttrykk : en mikroetnografisk studie av barn i alderen 1-3 år i barnehage

    OpenAIRE

    Mæhlum, Simen

    2006-01-01

    Master i barnehagepedagogikk This thesis focuses on children’s self made aesthetic practise in the daily life of kindergartens. Do children aged 1-3 years old express themselves aesthetically, and if so, how will this appear in the kindergartens daily life? This study has a micro-ethnographic approach and witch also consist video observation. The study has been done in a Norwegian kindergarten on 12 children aged 1-3 years with focus on their physical and oral expressions. The aesthetic...

  5. Barns rätt till skydd och undervisning i krigsdrabbade områden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Wessells

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The widespread global support for children’s rights is reflected in the nearly universal ratification of the U N Convention on the rights of the child. An immense gap exists, however, between the concept of children’s rights and the realities that many children experience. Millions of children are under assault by armed conflicts, prostitution, hunger, poverty and exposure to HIV/AIDS. This paper illuminates the violations of children’s rights that result from armed conflict and examines the opportunities and challenges this situation poses for education. Emergency education is increasingly viewed as a fundamental support for children in contexts of war, but educational interventions face difficult issues such as the presumed universality of human rights, colonial residues and ecological pressures that support violence at multiple levels. Relating these and other issues to the author’s field of experience in assisting war-affected children, the paper situates informal education in critical perspective yet argues that education is an essential tool for protecting children’s rights and building peace.

  6. Barnes-type multiple q-zeta functions and q-Euler polynomials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Taekyun

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a systemic study of some families of multiple q-Euler numbers and polynomials and we construct multiple q-zeta functions which interpolate multiple q-Euler numbers at a negative integer. This is a partial answer to the open question in a previous publication (see Kim et al 2001 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 34 7633-8).

  7. Brood parasitism and quasi-parasitism in the European barn swallow Hirundo rustica rustica

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petrželková, Adéla; Michálková, R.; Albrechtová, Jana; Cepák, J.; Honza, Marcel; Kreisinger, J.; Munclinger, P.; Soudková, M.; Tomášek, Oldřich; Albrecht, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 69, č. 9 (2015), s. 1405-1414 ISSN 0340-5443 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP506/12/2472 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Altricial birds * Colonial breeding * Conspecific brood parasitism * Egg dumping * Host fitness * Parasite fitness Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.382, year: 2015

  8. Measurement methods to assess methane production of individual dairy cows in a barn

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, L.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Mitigation of methane production from dairy cows is critical to reduce the dairy industry’s contribution to the production of greenhouse gases. None of current used methane measurement methods are flawless and application of the methods is limited to assess the

  9. Effect of increasing levels of apparent metabolizable energy on laying hens in barn system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hwan Ku; Park, Seong Bok; Jeon, Jin Joo; Kim, Hyun Soo; Park, Ki Tae; Kim, Sang Ho; Hong, Eui Chul; Kim, Chan Ho

    2018-04-12

    This experiment was to investigate the effect of increasing levels of apparent metabolizable energy (AMEn) on the laying performance, egg quality, blood parameter, blood biochemistry, intestinal morphology, and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of energy and nutrients in diets fed to laying hens. A total of three-hundred twenty 33-week-old Hy-Line Brown laying hens (Gallus domesticus) were evenly assigned to four experimental diets of 2,750, 2,850, 2,950, and 3,050 kcal AMEn/kg in floor with deep litter of rice hulls. There were four replicates of each treatment, each consisting of 20 birds in a pen. AMEn intake was increased (linear, p Feed intake and feed conversion ratio were improved (linear, p hen-day egg production tended to be increased as increasing level of AMEn in diets increased. During the experiment, leukocyte concentration and blood biochemistry (total cholesterol, triglyceride, glucose, total protein, calcium, asparate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine transferase (ALT) were not influenced by increasing level of AMEn in diets. Gross energy and ether extract were increased (linear, p hens fed high AMEn diet (i.e., 3,050 kcal/kg in the current experiment) tended to overconsume energy with a positive effect on feed intake, feed conversion ratio, nutrient digestibility, and intestinal morphology but not in egg production and egg mass.

  10. Ekstrakorporal membranoxygenering af et barn med svær kemisk pneumoni

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Anders Bastholm; Pedersen, Karen Damgaard; Hertel, Steen

    2011-01-01

    was changed to veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) on the third day. After nine days of ECMO and further two days of conventional ventilatory treatment he was extubated, and four months later the child presented with normal X-ray of the lungs and without any signs of disease....

  11. Influence of feed delivery frequency on behavioural activity of dairy cows in freestall barns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Riva

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Research on feeding management in more competitive free-stall settings indicates that frequency of delivery of fresh feed stimulates feed bunk attendance and can affect other aspects of cows’ time budgets apart from feeding such as time spent standing vs. lying down. The objective of this study was to examine how the frequency of feed delivery affects the behavior in two farms, one with a conventional and one with automatic milking system (AMS. The feeding frequency was varied from two to three times per day in the conventional dairy farm; one to two times per day in the AMS farm. The experiment was carried out in two different seasons. All behaviours of the cows were monitored in continuous by video recording. As expected, behavioral indices have been significantly affected by environmental conditions both in conventional farm and AMS farm. The variation in the frequency of feed delivery seems to affect the cow behavioural activity only in a limited way and modify only slightly the daily averages of the time spent in different activities mainly increasing the time cows spend standing (+4- 5%.

  12. Barns rätt til deltagelse i två kulturer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samuelsson, Ingrid Pramling; Sommer, Dion; González, Monica Berger

    Et tværkulturelt sammenligning af de oprindelige Maya forældre i Guatamala med dansk/svenske (skandinaviske) forældre vedr. børnesyn og opfattelse af børns rettigheder.......Et tværkulturelt sammenligning af de oprindelige Maya forældre i Guatamala med dansk/svenske (skandinaviske) forældre vedr. børnesyn og opfattelse af børns rettigheder....

  13. Hvordan kommer matematisk meningsskaping til syne i barns lek? En casestudie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vigdis Flottorp

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Title: Mathematical meaning making in children’s play? Verbal and non-verbal forms of expressionsAbstract: I analyze an episode from field work in a multilingual day-care centre in Oslo. I examine verbal and non-verbal expressions. The children are 5 years old, and the mathematics is about classification. The children are creating structure and are seeking meaning. This is a key part of their play. My findings indicate that mathematical order and structure become conscious experiences to the children. I argue that we cannot know about the children’s mathematical and communicative competence without knowing the physical context, the play in the sandpit, and the friendship between the boys.

  14. Effects of vole fluctuations on the population dynamics of the barn owl Tyto alba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klok, T.C.; Roos, A.M.

    2007-01-01

    Many predator species feed on prey that fluctuates in abundance from year to year. Birds of prey can face large fluctuations in food abundance i.e. small mammals, especially voles. These annual changes in prey abundance strongly affect the reproductive success and mortality of the individual

  15. Fine-tuned modulation of competitive behaviour according to kinship in barn swallow nestlings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boncoraglio, Giuseppe; Caprioli, Manuela; Saino, Nicola

    2009-01-01

    Kin selection theory predicts that, in species where progeny members compete for limiting parental care, individual offspring should be more prone to monopolize parental resources as their genetic relatedness to brood competitors decreases. Mixed parentage among broodmates may arise as a

  16. Distribution of the characteristics of barbs and barbules on barn owl wing feathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weger, Matthias; Wagner, Hermann

    2017-05-01

    Owls are known for the development of a silent flight. One conspicuous specialization of owl wings that has been implied in noise reduction and that has been demonstrated to change the aerodynamic behavior of the wing is a soft dorsal wing surface. The soft surface is a result of changes in the shape of feather barbs and barbules in owls compared with other bird species. We hypothesized that as the aerodynamic characteristics of a wing change along its chordwise and spanwise direction, so may the shape of the barbs and barbules. Therefore, we examined in detail the shapes of the barbs and barbules in chordwise and spanwise directions. The results showed changes in the shapes of barbs and barbules at the anterior and distal parts of the wing, but not at more posterior parts. The increased density of hook radiates at the distalmost wing position could serve to stiffen that vane part that is subject to the highest forces. The change of pennulum length in the anterior part of the wing and the uniformity further back could mean that a soft surface may be especially important in regions where flow separation may occur. © 2017 Anatomical Society.

  17. Time to critical overcrowding of Manitoba swine barns in the event of restriction on animal movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargen, Leeanne L.; Whiting, Terry L.

    2002-01-01

    Canada maintains a stamping-out policy for control of foreign animal disease. Integral to stamping out, there are obligatory animal movement restrictions that, over time, can result in severe animal welfare problems. The purpose of this study was to estimate the time to critical overcrowding in a sample of Manitoba swine farms, if they were placed under movement restriction. Time to critical overcrowding in both static and dynamic populations was estimated by modeling swine growth and projecting anticipated on-farm stocking density through time and comparing it with a standard maximal stocking density. The time to critical overcrowding of 15 isowean piglet production units was 0.66 ± 0.88 weeks. On average, 7 isolated nursery facilities reached critical overcrowding in 52 ± 14 days and 5 farrow-to-finish operations reached critical overcrowding in 43 ± 18 days. Animal welfare concerns should be included in contingency plans to control foreign animal disease. PMID:12497962

  18. Kartlegging av barns språk: Godt for hvem – godt for hva?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liv Gjems

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Title: Screening of children’s language: Who is it good for? What is it good for? Abstract: In this article I discuss the importance of teacher’s knowledge regarding children’s language learning as a qualification for screening of language in preschools. Teachers have to be able to use the screening results in ways that support children’s further language learning and development. Screening, whether standardized or not, will not give teachers any information about how they can assist the children who are struggling with language learning. Tests and screening may reveal when and at which age a child masters something or not. They do not display how a child learns language and can be assisted in her or his learning process. A study of 46 early childhood teacherstudents in language interactions with children showed that many of them offered children little language support. They rarely invited children to talk and their vocabulary did not contatin many known or unknown words. Screening of children’s language skills gives little effect if the teachers lack knowledge of the importance of a rich language environment and how to support children’s language learning.

  19. Comparison of segmentation algorithms for cow contour extraction from natural barn background in side view images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hertem, van T.; Alchanatis, V.; Antler, A.; Maltz, E.; Halachmi, I.; Schlageter Tello, A.A.; Lokhorst, C.; Viazzi, S.; Romanini, C.E.B.; Pluk, A.; Bahr, C.; Berckmans, D.

    2013-01-01

    Computer vision techniques are a means to extract individual animal information such as weight, activity and calving time in intensive farming. Automatic detection requires adequate image pre-processing such as segmentation to precisely distinguish the animal from its background. For some analyses

  20. Differential Endocannabinoid Regulation of Extinction in Appetitive and Aversive Barnes Maze Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harloe, John P.; Thorpe, Andrew J.; Lichtman, Aron H.

    2008-01-01

    CB[subscript 1] receptor-compromised animals show profound deficits in extinguishing learned behavior from aversive conditioning tasks, but display normal extinction learning in appetitive operant tasks. However, it is difficult to discern whether the differential involvement of the endogenous cannabinoid system on extinction results from the…

  1. Simulated National Identity and Ascendant Hyperreality in Julian Barnes's England, England

    OpenAIRE

    Abootalebi H., Hassan; N., Niazi

    2015-01-01

    The paper sets out to analyze Julian Barnes’s novel England, England (1998) in the light of Jean Baudrillard’s concepts of simulation and hyperreality. According to Baudrillard, what we experience in today’s world is a simulation of reality superseded by signs and images, and therefore we are living in a hyperreal world. Barnes’s book offers a representative sample of hyperreal world in which Martha, the protagonist, finds herself troubled. Although initially she is impressed by the glamour o...

  2. Tenkning i sykepleie om eksklusjon av foreldre ved barns innleggelse i sykehus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hildegunn Sundal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Analyses of textbooks in nursing, of photographs and numerous other documents suggest that parents had limited access to participate in the care for their hospitalized children in Norway in the period 1877-1940. The analyses are conducted in the tradition of the French philosopher Michel Foucault’s writings on discipline. In accordance with Foucault’s understanding, it seems logical that ideas about parenting exclusion had impact even within the hospital health care system in the current era, provided the general separation of parents and children in the modern industrial society at large. In this perspective, exclusion of parents in the hospital health care system may be considered a consequence of employers’ interests with regard to productivity, the lack of welfare services for parents, and the fear of parents transmitting infections from the hospitals.

  3. Temporal and spatial variation of methane concentrations around lying cubicles in dairy barns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Liansun; Groot Koerkamp, Peter W.G.; Ogink, Nico W.M.

    2016-01-01

    To breed cows for low methane production, farm measurement methods are required to measure individual methane production of cows. The long lying period of cows in cubicles could be utilised here. However, variable aerial conditions around cubicles may challenge this approach. The objective of

  4. Measurement methods to assess methane production of individual dairy cows in a barn

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, L.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract

    Mitigation of methane production from dairy cows is critical to reduce the dairy industry’s contribution to the production of greenhouse gases. None of current used methane measurement methods are flawless and application of the methods is limited to assess the

  5. Kartlegging av barns språk: Godt for hvem – godt for hva?

    OpenAIRE

    Liv Gjems

    2010-01-01

    Title: Screening of children’s language: Who is it good for? What is it good for? Abstract: In this article I discuss the importance of teacher’s knowledge regarding children’s language learning as a qualification for screening of language in preschools. Teachers have to be able to use the screening results in ways that support children’s further language learning and development. Screening, whether standardized or not, will not give teachers any information about how ...

  6. Can we close the barn door before the horses get out? A case study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    typically, risks based on data from available family studies).1 By their very nature, empiric risks are summary estimates and thus would not be expected to apply directly to. Can we close the ... neurodevelopmental disorder in which brain development.

  7. Spiseforstyrrelse hos en 19 måneder gammel pige med komorbid mor-barn-relationsforstyrrelse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Anne Lise; Sigvard, Anne Mette; Skovgaard, Anne Mette

    2015-01-01

    Feeding and eating problems and weight faltering are common causes for parents contact to health services in infancy and early childhood, and 0.15% of the child population aged 0-3 years are diagnosed at hospital with an ICD-10 childhood eating disorder. We describe the clinical presentation...... of an early feeding and eating disorder in a child of basically normal health and deve-l-op-ment. The case illustrates the significance of the mother child relationship both in the putative risk mechanisms and as a key factor in the treatment. The importance of a close coopera-tion between paediatric...

  8. "Stakkars pappa" – hva kan far-barn-relasjonen si oss om barnerollen?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiil, Hanne

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available “Poor daddy”–child's perspective and iconotext in three award-winning picture books. The Western dichotomy between children and adults characterize our opinion both on children and childhood. In this understanding framework the children are seen as something totally different from adults. Can artistic children's literature modify this habitual thinking about such hierarchical levels? The three books to examine closer have all won awards from Ministry of Culture as the best Norwegian picture book that year. Both Svein Nyhus: Pappa [Daddy] (1998, Hans Sande and Gry Moursund: Arkimedes og brødskiva [Archimedes and the Sandwich] (2000 and Stein Erik Lunde and Øyvind Torseter: Eg kan ikkje sove no [I Can't Sleep Now] (2008 are first-person narratives where the main character is a child. In such picture books visual and verbal point of view rarely are the same. The illustrations usually observe the central character from a distance and then allow the reader not only to adopt the narrator's point of view. What kind of ambiguities in the complex relationship between text and images give signals to the readers–and to the understanding of the narrator's position and perspective? What can this perspective and the iconotext in the three books tell us about today's children's role?

  9. Environmental Assessment for Lake Ashtabula Winter Drawdown, Barnes County, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-31

    benthic invertebrates in Lake Ashtabula found that Mollusca comprised about 46% of the biomass collected, Diptera accounted for 34%, Annelida...vegetation (Peterka 1972). Sago pondweed attracts waterfowl, which feed on the plant. 2.5 CULTURAL RESOURCES Cultural resources in the Lake...mussels. For the Order Diptera (fly species), the next most common invertebrate group after mussels, biomass was about three times greater in the

  10. Phenotypic differentiation is associated with divergent sexual selection among closely related barn swallow populations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wilkins, M. R.; Karaardic, H.; Vortman, Y.; Parchman, T. L.; Albrecht, Tomáš; Petrželková, Adéla; Özkan, L.; Pap, P. L.; Hubbard, J. K.; Hund, A. K.; Safran, R. J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 12 (2016), s. 2410-2421 ISSN 1010-061X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LH14045 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : birds * natural selection * population genetics * sexual selection & conflicts * speciation Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.792, year: 2016

  11. Giv dit barn en god start på idrætslivet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhr, Lasse Kristian

    2014-01-01

    Hvad skal børnene bruge deres krudt på i de kommende måneder? Det spørgsmål er formentlig til debat i mange hjem lige nu, for netop i august har mange idrætsklubber åbent for tilmelding til sæsonens aktiviteter. Mulighederne er mange, og det samme er mulighederne for at vælge forkert. Her kan du ...... blive klogere på, hvad du som forælder kan gøre for at give dit skolebarn en god start på et aktivt idrætsliv....

  12. Female- and male-specific signals of quality in the barn owl

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roulin, A; Dijkstra, C; Riols, C; Ducrest, AL

    Most bird studies of female signalling have been confined to species in which females display a male-ornament in a vestigial form. However, a great deal of benefit may be gained from considering phenotypic traits that are specific to females. This is because (1) sex-specific traits may signal

  13. Flooded bus barns and buckled rails: public transportation and climate change adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this project is to provide transit professionals with information and analysis relevant to adapting U.S. public transportation assets and services to climate change impacts. Climate impacts such as heat waves and flooding will hinder...

  14. Guide för referenshantering : APA-manual inom Barn- och ungdomsvetenskap (BUVA)

    OpenAIRE

    Engdahl, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    Denna guide behandlar först hur du enligt APA refererar i löpande text och därefter hur man skriver en referenslista. För en komplett guide till APA Style hänvisas till Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (American Psychological Association, 2010) eller till hemsidan http://www.apastyle.org, där det finns tydlig introduktion i ljud och bild till APA Style.

  15. A female melanin ornament signals offspring fluctuating asymmetry in the barn owl

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roulin, A; Ducrest, AL; Balloux, F; Dijkstra, Cornelis; Riols, C

    2003-01-01

    Sexual selection theory predicts that males advertise quality by displaying extravagant ornaments. By contrast, whether phenotypic variation in females has a signalling function remains an open question. Here, to our knowledge, we provide the first evidence that a female plumage trait can signal

  16. The Lived Experience of Meditation | Barnes | Indo-Pacific Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Heuristic Phenomenology lends itself well to a relatively naïve exploration of meditative experiences. I began with ... I noticed that I could not tape descriptions of my experiences while in a deep meditative state because when in this state, I was not aware of the material world in which my body and the tape recorder existed.

  17. Tidlig eller sen afnavling af det mature, det praemature og det meget praemature barn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moller, N.K.; Weber, T.

    2008-01-01

    Randomized studies from 2006 and two meta-analyses published in 2007 agree that clamping of the umbilical cord can be delayed. For the preterm and very preterm infant benefits include less need for blood transfusion and less morbidity, especially for the very preterm male infant. For the term...

  18. Barn Swallow Hirundo rustica parents work harder when foraging conditions are good

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schifferli, Luc; Grueebler, Martin U.; Meijer, Harro A. J.; Visser, G. Henk; Naef-Daenzer, Beat

    2014-01-01

    In altricial birds, the great effort involved in supplying food to nestlings can create trade-offs in the allocation of resources between the current brood and parental self-maintenance. In poor foraging conditions, parents have to adjust their energy expenditure in relation to the increased

  19. Kort, konsentrert, eller intensiv kognitiv atferdsterapi ved PTSD hos barn og ungdom: En litteraturgjennomgang

    OpenAIRE

    Kristiansen, Ingvild

    2018-01-01

    Background: Having Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can be immensely devastating for children; affecting life quality, increasing the risk of comorbid mental disorders and often lasting into adulthood. Effective treatment is crucial for regaining normal functioning. This literature review aims to investigate the effect of Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT) delivered in a brief, concentrated, or intensive format. Methods: A literature search was conducted with the search word...

  20. Helicobacter pylori eradication and gastric cancer: when is the horse out of the barn?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, A. C.; Kuipers, E. J.; Rauws, E. A. J.

    2009-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is a major risk factor for gastric cancer development. Therefore, H. pylori eradication may be an important approach in the prevention of gastric cancer. However, long-term data proving the efficacy of this approach are lacking. This report describes two patients who

  1. Individuella utvecklingsplaner för yngre barn i Sverige; Ett kritiskt ämnesdidaktiskt perspektiv

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann-Christine Vallberg Roth

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Individual development plans for younger children from a critical subject didactics perspective. The paper aims to describe and problematize the content of individual development plans (IDP for preschool and preschool class (age six pupils from a critical subject didactics perspective. The didactical 'what question' pertaining to content (the object of learning is central to the analysis. Subject refers to the construction of content and not only in the narrow sense of academic subject, but also thematically and pragmatically connected across subject lines to the content of child care, upbringing and children’s possible questions. Critical didactics are applied to shed light on the relationships between the actors (children and teacher and their co-determination and agency. The critical approach also encompasses study of the content in relation to the power dimensions of place, age, gender and ethnicity. IDP material was collected in October 2006 in four municipalities in southern Sweden, three urban and one rural. Both relatively ethnically homogeneous and heterogeneous districts were included in the three urban municipalities. The material comprised 82 randomly selected plans. The analysis can be summed up in three distinguishing main tracks or normalities: Academic subject-regulated normal children – in a relatively homogeneous urban district; Socially and monolingually regulated multicultural children – in a relatively heterogeneous urban district; Primarily needs-regulated monocultural children – in a rural municipality

  2. Individuella utvecklingsplaner för yngre barn i Sverige; Ett kritiskt ämnesdidaktiskt perspektiv

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann-Christine Vallberg Roth

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Individual development plans for younger children from a critical subject didactics perspective. The pa- 

    per aims to describe and problematize the content of individual development plans (IDP for preschool and pre- 

    school class (age six pupils from a critical subject didactics perspective. The didactical ‘what question’ pertaining 

    to content (the object of learning is central to the analysis. Subject refers to the construction of content and not 

    only in the narrow sense of academic subject, but also thematically and pragmatically connected across subject 

    lines to the content of child care, upbringing and children’s possible questions. Critical didactics are applied to 

    shed light on the relationships between the actors (children and teacher and their co-determination and agency. 

    The critical approach also encompasses study of the content in relation to the power dimensions of place, age, 

    gender and ethnicity. IDP material was collected in October 2006 in four municipalities in southern Sweden, 

    three urban and one rural. Both relatively ethnically homogeneous and heterogeneous districts were included in 

    the three urban municipalities. The material comprised 82 randomly selected plans. The analysis can be summed 

    up in three distinguishing main tracks or normalities: Academic subject-regulated normal children – in a relatively 

    homogeneous urban district; Socially and monolingually regulated multicultural children – in a relatively hetero- 

    geneous urban district; Primarily needs-regulated monocultural children – in a rural municipality

  3. Ørebetennelser hos barn – "alle har noen, men gutter har flest"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari J. Kværner

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available  SAMMENDRAGMellomørebetennelse, eller otitis media, er en infeksjons- eller inflammasjonsprosess i mellomøret somogså rammer de tilgrensende avsnitt av denne delen av øvre luftveier, dvs. tuba auditiva og mastoidcellene,selv om disse sjelden gir manifeste symptomer. OM er nesten alltid sekundært til en oppadstigendeslimhinnepatologi i nesen, epipharynx og tuba auditiva.Kværner KJ. Otitis media in children. Nor J Epidemiol 1999; 9 (2: 123-127. ENGLISH SUMMARYOtitis media refers to an infection or inflammation of the middle ear cavity that also affects the eustachiantube and the mastoid cells. Otitis media is almost always caused by an ascending pathology of theepithelial and subepithelial layers of the middle ear mucoperiostium. This paper firstly describes theclassification and distribution of otitis media. Next, using Norwegian data, host related risk factors forotitis media are discussed, particularly focusing on gender differences.

  4. Demokrati som möjlighet i små barns liv och verksamhet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgitta Qvarsell

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Title: Democracy as a possibility in young children’s life and activitiesAbstract: In this article influence and partaking in decisions as fundamental preconditions for young children’s democratic possibilities and development are questioned. In a cultural democratic view, which is here proposed, other conditions may be more important, such as having to do with creative activities and ways to express oneself in various modes. Examples are given from daily life in and around preschool, to illustrate the reasoning of how democracy may grow and be expressed by young children, in terms of affordances, meaning making and room for action. Problems as well as possibilities are in the end a question of whose control and power will be most decisive in preschool daily life. However, it is also a question of respect. How active and autonomous may children be allowed to become?  

  5. Fatal Syngamus trachea Infection in a Barn Owl (Tyto alba) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in a Pea fowl (Pavo cristatus) ZooPrint Journal 18(9):1204. TARELLO, W. (2008). Efficacy of ivermectins against intestinal capillariosis in falcons Parasite 15(2):. 171-174. WELTE, S.C. and KIRKPATRICK, C.E.. (1986) Syngamiasis injuvenile American robins (Turdus migratorius) with a note on prevalence of other faecal ...

  6. Ekstrakorporal membranoxygenering af et barn med svær kemisk pneumoni

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Anders Bastholm; Pedersen, Karen Damgaard; Hertel, Steen

    2011-01-01

    This case presents a thirteen months old child with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome after ingestion of lamp oil (hydrocarbon). Mechanical ventilation including high-frequency oscillation could not stabilise the course, and the child developed pneumothorax and emphysema. Treatment...

  7. Tidlig eller sen afnavling af det mature, det praemature og det meget praemature barn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moller, N.K.; Weber, T.

    2008-01-01

    Randomized studies from 2006 and two meta-analyses published in 2007 agree that clamping of the umbilical cord can be delayed. For the preterm and very preterm infant benefits include less need for blood transfusion and less morbidity, especially for the very preterm male infant. For the term inf...... infant benefits include improved hematologic status measured as hematocrit and iron status and less risk of anaemia during the first months of life. No harmful effects were seen, even though significant polycythaemia could be demonstrated Udgivelsesdato: 2008/5/26...

  8. The Lived Experience of Meditation | Barnes | Indo-Pacific Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Indo-Pacific Journal of Phenomenology. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 1, No 2 (2001) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected ...

  9. Timing of arrival from spring migration is associated with flight performance in the migratory barn swallow

    OpenAIRE

    Matyjasiak, Piotr

    2012-01-01

    Timing of arrival at the breeding grounds by migratory birds affects their mating success and access to superior resources, thus being a major factor associated with fitness. Much empirical work has been devoted to investigate the condition dependence of arrival sequence of migrants and characteristics of individuals that influence arrival time from migration. Surprisingly, there are no studies examining the relationship between flight performance of individual birds and their arrival time. I...

  10. Barns möte med institutionaliserad undervisning och dess innebörder för demokratiskt medborgarskap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Liljestrand

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Children’s encounters with institutionalized teaching and theirimplications for democratic citizenship. The aim of this article is to study children’s early socialization to institutionalized teaching practices and its consequences for democratic citizenship. The data on which the study is based consist of recordings from a group of 5-year-olds at a preschool and from a preschool class. The results show that a recurring pattern in teaching practices is that curricula are closely linked to the knowledge and experiences of the teachers, with few connections with the lifeworld of the children. If institutionalized teaching is to support democratic citizenship,it is suggested that children’s perspectives and experiences must be seen as an important point of departure.

  11. Hvordan fastholdes deltagere i nuværende danske mor-barn kohorter, så frafald mindskes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jane Søborg; Terkelsen, Marlene

    2014-01-01

    in a negative direction for participants and non-­‐participants, because this is considered to create a negative impact on these concepts. Discussion and conclusion: The thesis brings new and original ways to Work actively with the dropout-­rate in the current Danish mother-­child cohorts, and although....... Health research is a broad field, but one of the areas is the Development of cohort studies, including the mother­‐child cohorts.These types of cohort studies provide a Unique opportunity to investigate the triggers of disease, because the data Collection starts during the woman's pregnancy. The data...... Collection continues after the birth where it is primarily the child WHO is being examined. There are several large mother­‐child cohorts, both in Denmark and abroad, and they provide important knowledge about Health and disease. However, a cohort are challenged by the fact that it enrolls participants...

  12. Origin-related, environmental, sex, and age determinants of immunocompetence, susceptibility to ectoparasites, and disease symptoms in the barn owl

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roulin, Alexandre; Christe, Philippe; Dijkstra, Cor; Ducrest, Anne-Lyse; Jungi, Thomas W.

    Knowledge of the role of origin-related, environmental, sex, and age factors on host defence mechanisms is important to understand variation in parasite intensity. Because alternative components of parasite defence may be differently sensitive to various factors, they may not necessarily covary.

  13. Kejsersnit kan have konsekvenser på lang sigt for både mor og barn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabakke, Anna J M; Krebs, Lone; Lykke, Jacob A

    2015-01-01

    The rate of caesarean section is increasing worldwide. There is scientific evidence that caesarean sections have long-term consequences in consecutive pregnancies and for mother and child. This article reviews these consequences. When consulting women before decision on mode of delivery it is enc......The rate of caesarean section is increasing worldwide. There is scientific evidence that caesarean sections have long-term consequences in consecutive pregnancies and for mother and child. This article reviews these consequences. When consulting women before decision on mode of delivery...... it is encouraged that all these issues are taken into account and balanced to the benefits of having a caesarean section....

  14. Sjuksköterskans omvårdnadsåtgärder vid cancer hos barn - en litteraturstudie

    OpenAIRE

    Bergman, Linda; Ekberg, Christina

    2008-01-01

    Every year 300 children in Sweden are diagnosed with cancer, but through research and successful clinical work 70 % of the children survive their cancer. Aim: To illuminate nursing care of children with cancer. Method: The study was carried out as a general literature study through systematic review and analyse of 18 scientific articles. Result: The analysis resulted in five themes: Support, play as a psychological assistance, alternatives to alleviation of pain, nutrition and relieving sympt...

  15. A refined protocol for calculating air flow rate of naturally-ventilated broiler barns based on co2 mass balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Barreto-Mendes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio se realizó para evaluar protocolos relativamente simples para el monitoreo de la tasa de ventilación (TV en instalaciones pecuarias con ventilación natural (ENV. Los protocolos de ensayo se aplicaron primero a una instalación de pollos de engorde mecánicamente ventilada (EMV, donde TV se estimó con mayor precisión y luego se utilizaron para calcular la TV en la ENV. Las concentraciones de CO2 se midieron con dos esquemas de muestreo diferentes: (S1 la media de las mediciones al interior y a lo largo de la longitud de la instalación a dos alturas de 0,5 m y 1,5 m del suelo; y (S2 igual que la anterior pero con las mediciones de concentración fueron realizadas únicamente a 0,5 m del suelo. La tasa de producción de CO2 metabólico dinámico de las aves se predijo con dos algoritmos diferentes: (A1 el mantenimiento constante durante los periodos de luz y oscuridad, y (A2 que varía con la actividad de los animales sobre una base horaria. Los resultados demostraron que la combinación de S2 con A1 o A2 presentó la mejor estimación de TV en el ENV.

  16. Skader oppstått på skolen hos barn mellom sju og 15 år

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuller, A A; Kopjar, B

    2000-01-01

    This study had two purposes: first, to describe the incidence and characteristics of school injuries among 7 to 15 year old pupils in Norway; second, to identify effective preventive measures. Data on school injuries were taken from the Norwegian National Injury Register (National Institute of

  17. The effectiveness of mass vaccination on Marek's disease virus (MDV) outbreaks and detection within a broiler barn: A modeling study ?

    OpenAIRE

    Atkins, Katherine E.; Read, Andrew F.; Walkden-Brown, Stephen W.; Savill, Nicholas J.; Woolhouse, Mark E.J.

    2013-01-01

    Marek's disease virus (MDV), a poultry pathogen, has been increasing in virulence since the mid twentieth century. Since multiple vaccines have been developed and widely implemented, losses due to MDV have decreased. However, vaccine failure has occurred in the past and vaccine breakthroughs remain a problem. Failure of disease control with current vaccines would have significant economic and welfare consequences. Nevertheless, the epidemiology of the disease during a farm outbreak is not wel...

  18. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Galactic CHaMP. III. 12CO dense clump properties (Barnes+,

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, P. J.; Hernandez, A. K.; O'Dougherty, S. N.; Schap, W. J., III; Muller, E.

    2017-01-01

    In Phase II of the Mopra observing for the Census of High- and Medium-mass Protostars (CHaMP) project during 2009-12, we tuned the receiver to a central frequency of 111.3GHz and set up the Mopra Spectrometer (MOPS) digital filterbank to map all the CHaMP clumps in a second set of spectral lines at frequencies of 107-115GHz. This new set of transitions most notably includes the J=1->0 lines for the triad of CO-isotopologue species, 12CO, 13CO, and C18O. (3 data files).

  19. God social funktion hos et barn med kraftig synsnedsættelse på grund af korioretinale kolobomer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mads Brok Molbech; Gade, Else

    2016-01-01

    A child born with bilateral colobomas was referred to the department of ophthalmology. At birth the child was assumed to be blind. During the follow-up period of seven years his visual acuity improved to 0.08 and he became a socially and intellectually well-functioning child. He attended a normal...... school, and in his spare time he was able to ride his bike, swim and play football. This example illustrates how difficult it is to predict the visual and social function of a newborn with poor vision....

  20. "Alla barn har ett språk" : Ett examensarbete om svenska som andraspråk i skolan

    OpenAIRE

    Rönning, Monika

    2013-01-01

    This paper is about multilingualism in school and how teachers work with pupils who haveanother native language then Swedish. The aim of the study is to find out how teachers workwith Swedish as second language and what they found functional in their classroom. Theresearch questions are about how teachers defines Swedish as second language, how teacherswork and which work procedures that they think give a positive effect on the pupil’sknowledge. From the interviews with teachers from two diff...

  1. Den formgivande barndomen : En kvalitativ studie om antisocialt beteende hos barn och professionellas arbetssätt ur ett preventionsperspektiv

    OpenAIRE

    Pudas, Nicole; Björkgren, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Research has shown that antisocial behaviour already develops in early infancy. Insufficiency in attachment has proven to be a prominent factor in those cases a child develops antisocial behaviour. Therefore the purpose of the study is to research how antisocial behaviour in children expresses itself and how professionals approach the complex of problems. The result of this study has shown that work to establish safe relations and trust are accentuated to be one of the most significant compon...

  2. Prevalence of microfungi in Finnish cow barns and some aspects of the occurrence of Wallemia sebi and Fusaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanhela, R; Louhelainen, K; Pasanen, A L

    1995-06-01

    The occurrence of microfungi in the air and in feeding and bedding materials was studied on 32 Finnish dairy farms. Air samples for determining viable and total spore concentrations were collected on membrane filters and with a cascade impactor. Genera of mesophilic, xerophilic, and thermophilic fungi were identified in four culture media. Total spore counts were done with the aid of an epifluorescence microscope. To identify fungal flora in agricultural materials, feeding and bedding material samples were also taken from the farms. The airborne spore concentrations varied for viable mesophilic, xerophilic, and thermophilic fungi from 10(1) to 10(7) colony-forming units per cubic meter, and for total spores from 10(5) to 10(7) spores per cubic meter. Aspergillus, Penicillium, Cladosporium, Absidia species, Wallemia sebi and yeasts were the predominant fungi in the air, as well as in the material samples. In general, the airborne spore concentrations were high although the variation in the concentrations of different fungal groups was large between the farms. Along with using new growth media, two fungi whose prevalence was earlier poorly known in Finland were detected. W sebi proved to be the most abundant xerophilic fungi in the air and hay samples, while Fusarium spp were very common in grain and straw but rare in air.

  3. Norske kostholdsanbefalinger av mettet fett, med fokus på anbefalinger om fett i melk til barn : en litteraturstudie

    OpenAIRE

    Bjørgum, Bente

    2015-01-01

    I sin begynnelse var myndighetenes kostholdsanbefalinger basert på å beskytte befolkningen mot ernæringsmangler og underernæring. Hypotesen om at for mye fett i kostholdet, og spesielt mettet fett gir økt risiko for utvikling av hjerte- og karsykdommer har påvirket kostholdsanbefalingene i Norge siden 1970 tallet og helt fram til i dag. Også livsstilssykdommer som diabetes type 2, kreft, fedme og metabolsk syndrom var satt i sammenheng med bruk av fett, og spesielt mettet fett i kosthol...

  4. What do predators really want? The role of gerbil energetic state in determining prey choice by Barn Owls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embar, Keren; Mukherjee, Shomen; Kotler, Burt P

    2014-02-01

    In predator-prey foraging games, predators should respond to variations in prey state. The value of energy for the prey changes depending on season. Prey in a low energetic state and/or in a reproductive state should invest more in foraging and tolerate higher predation risk. This should make the prey more catchable, and thereby, more preferable to predators. We ask, can predators respond to prey state? How does season and state affect the foraging game from the predator's perspective? By letting owls choose between gerbils whose states we experimentally manipulated, we could demonstrate predator sensitivity to prey state and predator selectivity that otherwise may be obscured by the foraging game. During spring, owls invested more time and attacks in the patch with well-fed gerbils. During summer, owls attacked both patches equally, yet allocated more time to the patch with hungry gerbils. Energetic state per se does not seem to be the basis of owl choice. The owls strongly responded to these subtle differences. In summer, gerbils managed their behavior primarily for survival, and the owls equalized capture opportunities by attacking both patches equally.

  5. Et løfte om inkludering: Barnehagens rammer for samhandling mellom hørselshemmede og hørende barn i barnehagen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Elise Kristoffersen

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In Norway today, most deaf children are in their local nursery school together with hearing children. To facilitate inclusive settings where deaf and hearing children can interact on equal terms require knowledge about deafness and the needs of these children. This study shows that nursery schools have challenges in developing such inclusive settings especially concerning knowledge and competence. We discuss how the framework for the nursery school curricula, programs and expertise may impact deaf children’s opportunities for collaboration in significant literacy events.

  6. Efectos de la restricción comportamental crónica sobre el aprendizaje de una tarea espacial en el laberinto circular de Barnes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Múnera

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Estudios anteriores utilizando modelos de memoria espacial basados en la natación forzada o la deprivación alimentaria han mostrado que el estrés por inmovilización aplicado de forma crónica (21 días afecta el aprendizaje en términos de la velocidad para aprender la tarea y del número de errores cometidos. Igualmente, se ha observado que el estrés deteriora la ejecución cognitiva despúes de largos intervalos y la mejora a intervalos cortos (despuesta adaptativa.

  7. RESENHA: GOURINAT, J. B.; BARNES, J. (Org..Ler os Estoicos. Paula S. R. C. Silva (Trad.. São Paulo: Loyola, 2013.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Dinucci

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A Loyola acaba de lançar a tradução da obra Lirelesstoïciens, publicada originalmente em francês pelas PressesUniversitaires de France, em2009.  Os organizadores são reconhecidos pesquisadores da área, produzindohá muito excelentes trabalhos sobre estoicismo.

  8. The hot gas cleaning with multifunctional sorbent technique at 1-20 bar pressure; Kaasujen kuumapuhdistus multifunktionaalisella sorbenttitekniikalla 1-20 bar:n paineessa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaanu, K.; Orjala, M.; Paakkinen, K.; Rantanen, J. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    The aim of the research was to study the simultaneous hot gas cleanup of alkali metals and selected heavy metals under pressure of 1-20 bar using multifunctional sorbent technology, to investigate effects of it on sulfur and nitrogen emissions and to improve the total efficiency of the hot gas cleanup method by reducing the concentrations of harmful components to the level required by the gas turbines. The research has started in the year 1993. The optimization of the test facility at 900 deg C and 20 bar has been accomplished, as targeted. The main topics have been the alkali metals. The main targets of the year 1994 was to concentrate on the research of sorbent effectiveness to remove the impurities like alkalies etc. from the flue gas. Furthermore researches on kinetics and mechanisms were started. The results showed that the developed multifunctional sorbent are highly effective to remove alkalies from the flue gas. Also a mechanism for alkali and lead sorption was proposed. The main topics for 1995 were scheduled to be the completion of the kinetic and mechanical studies and the modelling and the estimation of the data for the pilot scale unit. The kinetic data for one sorbent has been completed and a model for that has also been developed. The measured and calculated results are indicating that the developed multifunctional sorption process is highly effective to remove alkalies and heavy metals such as lead and cadmium from high-temperature combustion gases. The tests are carried out mainly using the pressurized entrained flow reactor of VTT Energy, located in Jyvaeskylae, and in the university of Arizona, where the tests are conducted under atmospheric pressure. Some comparisons of the results might be made with those of Aabo Akademi during the future modelling. 3. The results are applied to purification of the hot gases in boilers, power and process industry. (Abstract Truncated)

  9. A Feasibility Study on the Use of a Structured Light Depth-Camera for Three-Dimensional Body Measurements of Dairy Cows in Free-Stall Barns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Pezzuolo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Frequent checks on livestock’s body growth can help reducing problems related to cow infertility or other welfare implications, and recognizing health’s anomalies. In the last ten years, optical methods have been proposed to extract information on various parameters while avoiding direct contact with animals’ body, generally causes stress. This research aims to evaluate a new monitoring system, which is suitable to frequently check calves and cow’s growth through a three-dimensional analysis of their bodies’ portions. The innovative system is based on multiple acquisitions from a low cost Structured Light Depth-Camera (Microsoft Kinect™ v1. The metrological performance of the instrument is proved through an uncertainty analysis and a proper calibration procedure. The paper reports application of the depth camera for extraction of different body parameters. Expanded uncertainty ranging between 3 and 15 mm is reported in the case of ten repeated measurements. Coefficients of determination R² > 0.84 and deviations lower than 6% from manual measurements where in general detected in the case of head size, hips distance, withers to tail length, chest girth, hips, and withers height. Conversely, lower performances where recognized in the case of animal depth (R² = 0.74 and back slope (R² = 0.12.

  10. Sykepleiers erfaringer i møte med ungdommer som har anorexia nervosa, på en barne- eller ungdomspsykiatrisk avdeling.

    OpenAIRE

    Vollan, Renate; Andersen, Iselin Margrethe Iserni

    2016-01-01

    Hensikt: Hensikten med oppgaven er å se nærmere på hvilke erfaringer sykepleiere har med å jobbe med ungdommer som har anorexia nervosa. Metode: Vi har anvend åtte kvalitative forskningsartikler for å gjøre et systematisk litteraturstudie. Funnene ble brukt for å belyse problemstillingen. Resultat: Sykepleierne fulgte et gitt behandlingsprogram, som gjorde at de måtte være overvåkende og strenge. Dette gikk på akkord med deres verdier, og at sykepleierne heller ønsket å være omsorgsfull...

  11. Spänningslitteratur för barn och vuxna: När målgrupper och genrer korsas i verkens paratexter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kärrholm, Sara

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Many of the established Swedish crime writers write for both adults and young readers. These authors are successful in the two literary market segments that are dominating the contemporary Swedish book market: crime literature and children’s literature. Can certain developed trademarks in their authorship for adults be used in order to market books for other age groups and to what extent do the authors use this possibility? This article specifically addresses three authors writing for both young and adults: Anna Jansson, Kristina Ohlsson and Åsa Larsson. Their novels for a younger audience are analysed based on how they are packaged and marketed through paratexts such as covers, illustrations, and other texts, using Gérard Genette’s theory of paratexts and theories of genre and marketing. The analysis shows that these authors and their publishers use similar, but also different strategies to hold on to their former target group while also reaching out to new readers. The adult crime genre has an indirect influence over the market of mystery books for children, which is also seen in how different aspects of the crime market for adult crime fiction have become more important on the book market for children, involving agents, events and tourism.

  12. ”Det feta barnet” : en diskursanalys av dagspressens framställning av barn som bedöms som överviktiga eller feta

    OpenAIRE

    Berglund, Camilla; Karlsson, Eva

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this undergraduate thesis was to examine the media’s portrayal of overweight and obese children and their surroundings, using the first and third dimensions of Fairclough’s three dimensional model for critical discourse analysis. The study addressed the following questions: How does the press, in this study represented by two newspapers, portray overweight and obese children? What discourses regarding overweight and obesity among children are the most prominent in these two newspap...

  13. Sub-lethal effects of the anticoagulant rodenticides bromadiolone and chlorophacinone on breeding performances of the barn owl (Tyto alba in oil palm plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salim Hasber

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Štúdia skúma vplyv prvej generácie antikoagulacného rodenticídu chlórofacinonu a druhej generácie bromadiolonu na parametre hniezdenej úspešnosti plamienky driemavej na plantážach palmy olejovej. Založili sa tri pokusné plochy: jedna ošetrená chlórofacinonom, dalšia s bromadiolonom a tretia kontrolná bez rodenticídu. Na chemicky ošetrených plochách sa pocas hniezdnej sezóny rodenticíd vykladal štyri krát. Obsadenost hniezdnych búdok, velkost znášky, pocet vyliahnutých mládat a podiel vyletených mládat plamienky sa zistovali v týždenných intervaloch. Z obsadených hniezd sa tiež v týždenných intervaloch zbierali vývržky. Z výsledkov vyplýva, že podiel obsadených búdok bol štatisticky významne vyšší na chemicky neošetrenej ploche než na plochách s vyloženou otrávenou návnadou. Rovnako aj parametre hniezdenia - velkost znášky, pocet vyliahnutých mládat a pocet vyletených mládat - dosahovali vyšších hodnôt na neošetrenej ploche. Z výsledkov z vysokoúcinnej kvapalinovej chromatografie (HPLC vyplýva, že 20,56 % (priemerná koncentrácia rezíduí: 1 ,335 ± 0,073 lg/g a 28,89 % (priemerná koncentrácia rezíduí: 0,777 ± 0,032 lg/g z vývržkov zozbieraných v rodenticídom ošetrených plochách obsahovalo rezíduá bromadiolonu alebo chlórofacinonu. Priemerná velkost znášky a pocet vyletených mládat negatívne korelovali s priemernou koncentráciou rezíduí rodenticídov vo vývržkoch a s relatívnym podielom vývržkov obsahujúcich tieto rezíduá (R2 k 0.44, P 0.05. Zovšeobecnujúc možno konštatovat, že cím vyššie bolo množstvo chemických rezíduí vo vývržkoch, tým nižšie boli parametre hniezdnej úspešnosti

  14. Tid till att bli svensk: En studie av mottagandet av nyanlända barn och familjer i den svenska förskolan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Lunneblad

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is from a study about the integration of young refugee children and their families in Sweden. The preschool has here a special responsibility in this mission for children in the age 1-5. The setting for the study is a multiethnic area located on the outskirts of the city. Methodologically an extended case is used. The study has so far been conducted during a period of 14 months doing fieldwork 1-2 days a week. The analyse focus on how the educators educate practice and talk about how the immigrant parents raise and foster their children. This is described as part of a wider ambition to integrate immigrants in Swedish society.

  15. Faktaboken i praktiken : hur ett antal barn- och ungdomsbibliotekarier arbetar med faktaböcker i sin lässtimulerande verksamhet

    OpenAIRE

    Åkerlund, Ulrika

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to study how children's librarians in public libraries use non-fiction books in their work to promote reading. My research questions are: What methods do children's librarians use för promoting non-fiction books? Are there children who can gain more from non-fiction books than other children do? Are there any differences in working with fiction and non-fiction books? To answer these questions I have interwieved five children's librarians about their methods, atti...

  16. "Hemma längar jag bort, borta längtar jag hem." Andra världskrigets finska krigsbarn i svensk barn- och ungdomslitteratur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulf Boëthius

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available During and after the Second World War Sweden received around 70 000 Finnish war children. It was by far the biggest of all contingents of refugees during the war. The (often only Finnish speaking children were placed in Swedish foster homes or in children's homes. Most of them were sent back to Finland after the war but a big group also stayed with their foster parents. The movements from one home to another (some made this journey on more than one occasion made many of them feel lonely, deserted and abandoned. In this paper I am going to discuss how the Finnish war children are depicted in Swedish books for children and youth from the war years up until today. After a discussion of the fluctuations of interest in the Finnish child refugees in Swedish children's books I will focus on how they have been depicted. What aspects have been focused on and what problems have been selected (or neglected in different books at different times? I will also show how the treatment of the subject has been governed by a whole set of different factors: the age of the addressees, the choice of genre, the expanding research on the Second World War (and more specific the Finnish war children, the public debates on the treatment of (also contemporary war refugees and not least the changes of the Swedish literature for children and youth, from the 1960s focusing more on social problems and developing towards a greater realism.

  17. COST COMPARISON BETWEEN BARN WITH STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS MADE OF CONCRETE AND METAL SHED WITH ROOF TRUSS AND PRECAST ABUTMENTS FOR THE SINOP-MT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. F. Miranda

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article it was show a cost comparative between two constructive methods employed in sheds in the city of Sinop-MT, constructed with precast beams of armed concrete and structural system of the roofs varying between metalic trellis and precast concrete beams. For this, it was created a standard project, with the same architetonic dimensions, being dimensioned all elements for both methods. To the elaborationof the structural projects were followed cauculation scripts always with the assistence of the softwares VisualVentos, Ftool, DimPerfil and Superporticos, like the current norms. As a result the two buildings studied showed numerous differences, both in costs as in structural features, having a big variation in the self weight of approximately 47%. As element wich made this comparative relevant, stands out that the roof system of the shed with metalic structure had a variation of 173% when compared with the competitor shed. Thus, the constructive system, where all the parts were made of concrete, showed a cost variation of 52% to minus when compared to the competing system, were ignored in the quantitative elements outside the structure in which both were equal

  18. Sorgens två ansikten : En litteraturstudie om män och kvinnors sorg vid förlust av ett barn

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Linda; Nilsson, Maria

    2009-01-01

    Background: To lose a child describes as the most painful loss that a human being can experience. The grief can be experienced individual depending on several factors such as culture and life experience. Being a man or woman is another factor that may influence the experience of grief. The nurse´s role is to support both parents in their role as mother and father. Aim: The aim was to describe men’s and women’s experiences of the loss of a child. Method: The study was made as a general literat...

  19. Musik som ett specialpedagogiskt verktyg för barns språkutveckling : Fem sydafrikanska pedagogers syn på musik som pedagogiskt verktyg

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Lina

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this essay is to study if and how five South African educators work with music as a special pedagogical tool in children's language development. To achieve the purpose of this study, two research questions were created. As method, interviews of a qualitative character were chosen.  The aim of the method is to give the educators the opportunity to think about and use their own experience before answering the questions. The result shows that the South African educators are not us...

  20. For eller imod vaccination? Om forældres beslutningstagen I forbindelse med Calmette-vaccination af deres nyfødte barn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thybo Pihl, Gitte

    Kolding blev efterfølgende telefon-interviewet med en dansk valideret udgave af "The Decisional Conflict Scale" med det formål at undersøge, hvor trygge de var ved beslutningen og om socio-demografiske faktorer havde betydning for deres oplevelse af tvivl. Ad formål 3: Spørgsmål om forældres...... kvantitativ metode, idet der anvendes statistiske tests af socio-demografiske faktorers betydning for The Decisional Conflict Score, ligesom selve scoren opgøres statistisk. Formål 3 er undersøgt i et miks af statistiske opgørelser af svarene fra telefon-interview kombineret med uddybende perspektiver fra...

  1. GERMINAÇÃO E REINDUÇÃO DA TOLERÂNCIA À DESSECAÇÃO EM SEMENTES DE Senna multijuga (RICH. IRWIN ET BARN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Egídio Ribeiro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to verify the effects of different tests in the overcoming dormancy, excellent germination terms, as light and temperature, and the possibility of re-induction of desiccation tolerance in Senna multijuga seeds. We evaluated two tests for overcoming dormancy: immersion in water with an initial temperature of 100ºC (hot water and immersion in water at a constant temperature at 100ºC for 20 seconds (boiling water, both treatments followed by rest out of the heating for 24 hours. For the germination test, we evaluated 25ºC, 30ºC (constant and 20-30ºC (alternate, in the presence and absence of light. For the reinduction of desiccation tolerance, we selected seeds germinated with 1, 2, 3 and 4mm of radicle length. We submitted the germinated seeds to the follow treatments: no incubation, incubation in polyethylene glycol (PEG6000 at the -1,4, -1,7 and -2,0MPa; incubation in PEG -1,4MPa + ABA at the concentrations of 1, 10 and 100μM. The tests followed a completely randomized design (DIC using 4 repetitions of 25 seeds. The overcoming dormancy using hot water provided the best germination (65%. The Senna multijuga seeds are not photoblastic required, but in light conditions the germination was higher. We observed the resumption of the radicle growth in germinated seeds of up to 3mm length.

  2. Odor control in swine buildings: recycle flush vs. automated scraper

    Science.gov (United States)

    A research project was conducted to compare odor concentrations in exhaust of traditional flush barns and barns equipped with automated scrapers. The study was conducted at commercial tunnel-ventilated swine barns in northwest Missouri. Odor samples were collected from the barn exhaust in polyvinyl ...

  3. 78 FR 40491 - Federal Property Suitable as Facilities To Assist the Homeless

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-05

    ... Service--PNW Research Station Corvallis Forestry Sciences Lab Corvallis OR 97331 Landholding Agency... & garage; barn 1; barn 2; pigeon house; springhouse; hen house; storage building Comments: Off-site removal...

  4. 170 - 174_Yarube_revised

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    around a familiar location, just as a rodent's visio- spatial memory is needed to learn the location of food or platform at the end of a maze (Denis and Loomis,. 2007).Barnes maze test was first developed by Carol. Barnes in 1979 (Barnes, 1979). The test was originally developed for use in rats to overcome stress induced by ...

  5. Efeitos do peso vivo sobre a comercialização de bezerros de corte em leilões Effects of the live weight on the commercialization of beef calves in auction barn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.F. Christofari

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Analisaram-se os efeitos da média de peso vivo de 1.880 lotes de bezerros comercializados em 13 leilões, no Rio Grande do Sul, sobre o valor de venda final por unidade de peso, e caracterizou-se a frequência dos lotes conforme a classe de peso durante as estações de outono e primavera, no período de 2004 a 2006. Os dados foram corrigidos pelo índice geral de preços - disponibilidade interna e analisados por meio de histogramas de frequência e análises de regressão e correlação. O peso vivo influenciou o preço dos bezerros, e a magnitude do efeito foi maior nos anos de grande demanda. Observou-se correlação negativa entre preço e peso dos bezerros na primavera, reflexo da oferta de animais mais pesados, devido aos efeitos de estação do ano ou à maior idade dos bezerros, comparados aos ofertados no outono. Não se observou maior liquidez dos bezerros comercializados no outono em relação aos da primavera. A conjuntura da cadeia da carne bovina e os preços de outras categorias têm grande relação com os preços pagos. A aquisição de animais de menor ou maior peso na ocasião da transação comercial pode auxiliar na redução dos custos que a reposição representa na produção.The effects of the live weight of 1,880 lots of calves marketed in 13 auctions in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, on the value of final sale per unit of weight were evaluated, as well as the frequency of the lots according to the weight class during the autumn and spring seasons, in the period from 2004 to 2006, was characterized. The data were analyzed by frequency histograms, regression, and correlation analyses. The live weight is one of the characteristics that influenced the price of the calves; however, the magnitude of the effect was higher in years of great demand. A negative correlation was observed between price and weight of the calves in spring, which were results of the offer of heavier animals, due to the season effects or the oldest age of the calves compared to those presented in the autumn. The chain conjuncture of the bovine meat and the prices of other categories have great relation with the prices paid. Therefore, the acquisition of highter or heavier animals in the occasion of the business deal may help in the reduction of the costs represented by the replacement in the production.

  6. Desempenho de telhas de escória de alto forno e fibras vegetais em protótipos de galpões Performance of tiles composed of blast furnace slag and vegetable fiber in prototype barns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maristela N. da Conceição

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Busca-se, em todo o mundo, a substituição do cimento amianto por alternativas seguras para o ambiente e para a saúde do trabalhador, além de econômicas, razão por que o uso de fibras vegetais como aglomerado em países tropicais onde estes resíduos são abundantes, tem-se mostrado bastante viável. No presente experimento foram comparadas telhas de cimento amianto pintadas com tinta reflexiva, telhas cerâmicas e telhas compostas de uma matriz à base de cimento Portland CPII 32Z (ABNT NBR-5735, escória de alto-forno (EAF e sílica ativa, reforçadas com fibras de polpa celulósica de sisal (Agave sisalana. Utilizaram-se protótipos de galpões avícolas nos quais o calor produzido pelas aves foi simulado por lâmpadas incandescentes. Para caracterização do ambiente térmico lançou-se mão dos índices de conforto: ITU (índice de temperatura e umidade, ITGU (índice de temperatura de globo e umidade, CTR (carga térmica radiante e entalpia (H em que os resultados demonstraram que as telhas compostas apresentaram comportamento térmico semelhante ao das telhas cerâmicas, podendo ser utilizadas em substituição às telhas de cimento amianto.The substitution of cement asbestos by safer and equally economical alternatives has being searched for throughout the world. The usage of vegetal staple fiber as agglomerate in tropical countries where these residues are abundant has shown it self to be viable. In this study, roofing tiles fabricated with cement base Portland CPII 32Z (ABNT NBR-5735, blast furnace slag (EAF, active silica reinforced with cellulose pulp staple fibers of sisal (Agave sisalana were compared with cement asbestos roofing tiles with white paint and ceramic roofing tiles. Prototypes of poultry facilities were used and lamps simulated the heat produced by the birds. Indices ITU, ITGU, CTR and entalpy (H were employed for the characterization of the thermal atmospheric comfort and the results showed that the alternative roofing tiles were similar to the ceramic tiles and could be used as a substitute for asbestos roofing tiles.

  7. The effect of fast neutrons, as compared with X-rays upon mutation spectrum and mutation frequency in Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. and Hordeum vulgare L. in relation to evaluation of the BARN-reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dellaert, L.M.W.

    1980-01-01

    Explanations were sought for the 'saturation' in mutant frequency, observed after relatively high irradiation doses (fast neutrons and X-rays) in Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh, when scoring for mutants is done in the siliques (Mueller's embryotest) of the 'main' inflorescence of M 1 -plants. Studies have been carried out on the effect of the presence of dithiothreitol (DTT) during irradiation, on fast neutron and X-ray induced M 1 -ovule sterility, M 2 -embryonic lethals, M 2 -chlorophyll mutants and M 2 -viable mutants in Arabidopsis thaliana. It was found that DTT provides considerable protection against both fast neutron and X-ray induced genetic damage. (Auth.)

  8. Tillvarons pussel : En studie om fyra behandlares tankar kring barns självkänsla.The puzzle of existence. A study about four therapists thoughts around children’s self-esteem.

    OpenAIRE

    Jönsson, Marie

    2005-01-01

    The study aims to get knowledge about how therapists express their apprehension and their method of working around children with low self-esteem. From this angel I have tree questionings : How does the therapists define self-esteem? How does the therapists know if a child has a low self-esteem? How does the therapists work with this complex of problems? The study is a qualitative survey with interviews. The group of survey consists of four therapists from different backgrounds, who work with ...

  9. Basalmetabolism hos barn och ungdomar med cystisk fibros : En jämförande studie av uppmätta och beräknade basalmetabolismvärden

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Emilie; Edbom, Elisabet

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to compare equations used to calculate BMR to values of BMR obtained from measurements in order to determine the most suitable equation to be used on children and adolescents with CF. Design: The participants where children and adolescents with CF. Data was collected from the division of Clinical Nutrition at Uppsala Akademiska Sjukhus. Age, weight, height, BMI, BMR, FFM and FM was recorded from 27 measurements. BMR from the participants collected from the...

  10. Récritures du Déluge et de l’Arche de Noé dans la fiction contemporaine de langue anglaise (Coover, Findley, Winterson, Roberts et Barnes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa GUIGNERY

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Dans Boating for Beginners (1985 de Jeanette Winterson, la figure du démon orange remarque : “Flood myths are very potent things, humankind can’t resist them” (92. À en juger par les nombreuses représentations du Déluge en peinture et dans la littérature, par les multiples essais sur la question et par les diverses entreprises de récriture du désastre biblique, il semble en effet que les figures du Déluge n’en finissent pas de fasciner les lecteurs, de susciter la réflexion et de stimuler l...

  11. ”Kan verka skrämmande på små barn.” Våld, sex och historiebruk i tv-serien Trälarna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommy Gustafsson

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the television adaption and reception of Swedish youth novelist Sven Wernström's series of historical youth novels called Trälarna (“The Thralls” in the late 1970s and early 1980s. The book series as well as the Danish animated televisions series used a noticeable class perspective in order to make comparisons between the condition of slaves in medieval times and Swedish working class of the 19th and 20th centuries. In accordance with the novels, the television series therefore displays a strong moral historical perspective. The analysis in the article focuses mainly on the abundant use of violence and sex as political and pedagogical instruments to promote class consciousness among its child viewers. In contrast to the novels, the television series was able to create more explicit audiovisual images of violence and sex that, in fact, were censored by Swedish state television before it was aired on a child friendly timeslot. Although some scenes in the television series were censored, the final analysis reveals that “The Thralls” can be seen as a rather typical example of the politically and aesthetically radical Swedish children's culture of the 1970's.

  12. Post-Skinnerian, Post-Skinner, or Neo-Skinnerian? Hayes, Barnes-Holmes, and Roche's Relational Frame Theory: A Post-Skinnerian Account of Human Language and Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingvarsson, Einar T.; Morris, Edward K.

    2004-01-01

    The perceived inability of behaviorism to deal with complex human behavior has been a recurrent theme among its critics. Although ingenious and subtle, even Skinner's Verbal Behavior (1957) is widely faulted on these grounds, in particular, for failing to explain linguistic generativity (Chomsky, 1959). In Relational Frame Theory: A…

  13. CTD cast and zooplankton count data collected in Dabob Bay, Hood Canal, Puget Sound, Washington during twenty-six cruises aboard the CLIFFORD A. BARNES, February 2002 - April 2004 (NODC Accession 0014832)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains CTD cast and zooplankton data collected during twenty-six cruises to Dabob Bay, Washington in 2002 - 2004 for the project entitled "Copepod -...

  14. Analisis dan Simulasi Distribusi Suhu Udara pada Kandang Sapi Perah Menggunakan Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Yani

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to analyze the temperature and relative humidity distribution in dairy barn of Friesian Holstein (FH using computational fluid dynamics (CFD as a basic consideration for dairy barn design. The capacity of the dairy barn was 20 heads of FH with tail to tail model. The dimensions of the dairy barn were: 13 m in length, 6.3 m in width, and 5.75 m in height. The floor was made from concrete with 2o slope. Asbestos was used as roof of the dairy barn, whereas frame of the dairy barn was made from steel. The results of the analysis showed that during the daytime, air temperature inside the dairy barn increased by the height from floor level. The CFD simulation showed clearly the temperature distribution in the dairy barn. Air temperature obtained from CFD simulation was in line with that of the measured values. Therefore, it can be used as basic consideration for the dairy barn design with respect to low air temperature and uniform air temperature distribution. It was recommended that one of the best design configurations is 6.25 m high, 8.3 m wide, 0.4 m high of wall. The best design could decrease 0.474 oC of air temperature and increased dry matter intake of dairy cattle 0.403 kg per day per head. The amount of heat production of FH was considered to determine the best design of dairy barn.

  15. Study of Antineutron Production at LEAR

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this experiment is the study of antineutron ($\\bar{n}$) production at LEAR as a first step for the investigation of $\\bar{n}$-p $\\bar{n}$-n physics. A good method of producing high-quality $\\bar{n}$ beams is that of using the charge-exchange (CEX) reaction @*p~@A~$\\bar{n}$n on an external LH^2 target. The production of $\\bar{n}$ at 0|0 (see figure) may be most useful for some experiments, the production at different angles with the simultaneous detection of the associated neutron (tagged beam) most powerful for other measurements.\\\\ \\\\ The $\\bar{n}$ calorimeter consists of ten equal modules: each one is made of an iron slab, a scintillator wall and a plane of x-y streamer tubes, with a detecting area of @=~1~m|2. The $\\bar{n}$ calorimeter allows the determination of the time and the location of $\\bar{n}$ annihilations.

  16. Radiochemical determination of the neutron capture cross sections of {sup 241}Am irradiated in the JMTR reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinohara, N.; Hatsukawa, Y.; Hata, K.; Kohno, N. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-03-01

    The thermal neutron capture cross section {sigma}{sub 0} and Resonance integral I{sub 0} of {sup 241}Am leading to the production of {sup 242m}Am and {sup 242g}Am were measured by radiochemical method. The cross sections obtained in this study are {sigma}{sub 0}=60.9 {+-} 2.6 barn, I{sub 0}=213 {+-} 13 barn for {sup 241}Am(n,{gamma}){sup 242m}Am and {sigma}{sub 0}=736 {+-} 31 barn, I{sub 0}=1684 {+-} 92 barn for {sup 241}Am(n,{gamma}){sup 242g}Am. (author)

  17. Behavioral Neuroscience Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This lab supports cognitive research using rodent models. Capabilities for behavioral assessments include:Morris water maze and Barnes maze (spatial memory)elevate...

  18. Role of moral values in the trade-off between animal welfare and food safety risks in broiler husbandry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asselt, van Mariska; Ekkel, E.D.; Kemp, B.; Stassen, E.N.

    2016-01-01

    To cope with societal concerns regarding animals kept in intensive systems, alternative broiler husbandry systems that comply with above-legal animal welfare standards, such as the free-range barn system have been introduced. However, broilers in free-range barn systems show higher Campylobacter

  19. NDIR Gas Sensor for Spatial Monitoring of Carbon Dioxide Concentrations in Naturally Ventilated Livestock Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Luciano B; Ogink, Nico W M; Edouard, Nadège; van Dooren, Hendrik Jan C; Tinôco, Ilda de Fátima F; Mosquera, Julio

    2015-05-13

    The tracer gas ratio method, using CO2 as natural tracer, has been suggested as a pragmatic option to measure emissions from naturally ventilated (NV) barns without the need to directly estimate the ventilation rate. The aim of this research was to assess the performance of a low-cost Non-Dispersive Infra-Red (NDIR) sensor for intensive spatial field monitoring of CO2 concentrations in a NV dairy cow house. This was achieved by comparing NDIR sensors with two commonly applied methods, a Photo-Acoustic Spectroscope (PAS) Gas Monitor and an Open-Path laser (OP-laser). First, calibrations for the NDIR sensors were obtained in the laboratory. Then, the NDIR sensors were placed in a dairy cow barn for comparison with the PAS and OP-laser methods. The main conclusions were: (a) in order to represent the overall barn CO2 concentration of the dairy cow barn, the number of NDIR sensors to be accounted for average concentration calculation was dependent on barn length and on barn area occupation; and (b) the NDIR CO2 sensors are suitable for multi-point monitoring of CO2 concentrations in NV livestock barns, being a feasible alternative for the PAS and the OP-laser methods to monitor single-point or averaged spatial CO2 concentrations in livestock barns.

  20. NDIR Gas Sensor for Spatial Monitoring of Carbon Dioxide Concentrations in Naturally Ventilated Livestock Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano B. Mendes

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The tracer gas ratio method, using CO2 as natural tracer, has been suggested as a pragmatic option to measure emissions from naturally ventilated (NV barns without the need to directly estimate the ventilation rate. The aim of this research was to assess the performance of a low-cost Non-Dispersive Infra-Red (NDIR sensor for intensive spatial field monitoring of CO2 concentrations in a NV dairy cow house. This was achieved by comparing NDIR sensors with two commonly applied methods, a Photo-Acoustic Spectroscope (PAS Gas Monitor and an Open-Path laser (OP-laser. First, calibrations for the NDIR sensors were obtained in the laboratory. Then, the NDIR sensors were placed in a dairy cow barn for comparison with the PAS and OP-laser methods. The main conclusions were: (a in order to represent the overall barn CO2 concentration of the dairy cow barn, the number of NDIR sensors to be accounted for average concentration calculation was dependent on barn length and on barn area occupation; and (b the NDIR CO2 sensors are suitable for multi-point monitoring of CO2 concentrations in NV livestock barns, being a feasible alternative for the PAS and the OP-laser methods to monitor single-point or averaged spatial CO2 concentrations in livestock barns.

  1. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-03-02

    Mar 2, 2006 ... Mountain West (BMW), Warren County. Barn, Houchens, and Potato Cave Nests. Four of the five nest sites I observed were located in small caves with 100% deciduous. 27 tree canopy surrounding each site. The fifth nest was located in a barn's unused hayloft. This site had two small deciduous tree lots.

  2. The Impact of Farm Lot Shape on Patterns in the Rural Landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Ian A.; Parson, Helen E.

    1997-01-01

    Examines the spatial implications of farm lot shape. Specifically discusses three aspects of farmstead location: the location of the house, the location of the barn, and the distance and direction relationships between the barn and the house. Explores the role of farm lot shape within the farm survey system. (MJP)

  3. 77 FR 75153 - Notice of Receipt of Pesticide Products; Registration Applications To Register New Uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-19

    ...: Diglycolamine salt of dicamba. Product Type: Herbicide. Proposed Use: Dicamba glufosinate tolerant MON 88701... Uses: Control of stable fly larvae in cattle barns and horse barns; control of litter beetles in... oil); grapes; raisins; cotton (seed and gin byproducts); tea; milk; cattle, sheep, goat, horse (meat...

  4. NDIR Gas Sensor for Spatial Monitoring of Carbon Dioxide Concentrations in Naturally Ventilated Livestock Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Luciano B.; Ogink, Nico W. M.; Edouard, Nadège; van Dooren, Hendrik Jan C.; Tinôco, Ilda de Fátima F.; Mosquera, Julio

    2015-01-01

    The tracer gas ratio method, using CO2 as natural tracer, has been suggested as a pragmatic option to measure emissions from naturally ventilated (NV) barns without the need to directly estimate the ventilation rate. The aim of this research was to assess the performance of a low-cost Non-Dispersive Infra-Red (NDIR) sensor for intensive spatial field monitoring of CO2 concentrations in a NV dairy cow house. This was achieved by comparing NDIR sensors with two commonly applied methods, a Photo-Acoustic Spectroscope (PAS) Gas Monitor and an Open-Path laser (OP-laser). First, calibrations for the NDIR sensors were obtained in the laboratory. Then, the NDIR sensors were placed in a dairy cow barn for comparison with the PAS and OP-laser methods. The main conclusions were: (a) in order to represent the overall barn CO2 concentration of the dairy cow barn, the number of NDIR sensors to be accounted for average concentration calculation was dependent on barn length and on barn area occupation; and (b) the NDIR CO2 sensors are suitable for multi-point monitoring of CO2 concentrations in NV livestock barns, being a feasible alternative for the PAS and the OP-laser methods to monitor single-point or averaged spatial CO2 concentrations in livestock barns. PMID:25985166

  5. Can High Bandwidth and Latency Justify Large Cache Blocks in Scalable Multiprocessors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Introduction The overhead of remot.e memory accesses is a major impedinwiat to achieving good application performance on modern shared-memory multiproces...Lo. Medium High VHi.h L-nw Mcdm High VHigh Na.wOk L&Way Nawoi L~muy Figure 27: Predicted MCPR of Barnes-Hut Figure 28: Predicted MCPR of Barnes-Hut

  6. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    home

    2014-09-13

    Sep 13, 2014 ... livestock husbandry and health problems were collected by interviewing ... participate in barn construction while women take part in barn cleaning and milking ... Cg= communal grazing, Cr= Crop residue, Gc= Green chops, Gh= Grass hay, IF= Improved forage, Kw= Kitchen waste leftover,. HJ= Horro Jersey ...

  7. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 3751 - 3800 of 4029 ... R.C. Pattinson, J.D. Makin, A Shaw, S.D. Delport. Vol 106, No 3 ... Aaron Mabuza, John M. Govere, David N. Durrheim, Barry L.F. Bredenkamp, Brian L. Sharp, Karen Barnes ... Aaron Mabuza, John Govere, David Durrheim, Nicros Mangomezulu, Barry Bredenkamp, Karen Barnes, Brian Sharp.

  8. 75 FR 9281 - General Provisions; Revised List of Migratory Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    ..., Collared, Charadrius collaris--Texas (AOU 1998); Pond-Heron, Chinese, Ardeola bacchus--Alaska (AOU 2000...) for the name change: Barn-Owl, Common, Tyto alba, becomes Owl, Barn (AOU 1989, 1998); Bittern, Chinese..., Intermediate, Mesophoyx intermedia (Monroe and Sibley 1993); Night-Heron, Malay, Nycticorax melanolophus...

  9. Unleaded shooting: hunters like copper bullets

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-03-01

    Mar 1, 2007 ... Ammunition, Bismuth Cartridge Co. and Barnes Bullets to let hunters see if they worked. They did. Shot groups fired with the Barnes copper hollow point. Triple Shock X-Bullet were generally tighter than with conventional softpoint bullets. A test firing of the two types of bullets into plastic bins filled with wet.

  10. Trophic systems and chorology: data from shrews, moles and voles of Italy preyed by the barn owl / Sistemi trofici e corologia: dati su Soricidae, Talpidae ed Arvicolidae d'Italia predati da Tyto alba (Scopoli 1769

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longino Contoli

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In small Mammals biogeography, available data are up to now by far too scanty for elucidate the distribution of a lot of taxa, especially with regard to the absence from a given area. In this respect, standardized quantitative sampling techniques, like Owl pellets analysis can enable not only to enhance faunistic knowledges, but also to estimate the actual absence probability of a given taxon "m", lacking from the diet of an individual raptor. For the last purpose, the relevant frequencies of "m" in the other ecologically similar sites of the same raptor species diets are averaged ($f_m$ : the relevant standard error (multiplicated by a coefficient, according to the desired degree of accuracy, in relation of the integral of probabilities subtracted ($overline{F}_m - a E$: then, the probability that a single specimen is not pertaining to "m" is obtained ($P_0 = 1 - F_m + a E$; lastly, the desiderate accuracy probability ($P_d$ is chosen. Now, "$N_d$" (the number of individuals of all prey species in a single site needed for obtain, with the desired probability, a specimen at least of "m" is obtained through $$N = frac{ln P_d}{ln P_0}$$ Obviously, every site-diet with more than "N" preyed individuals and without any "i" specimen is considered to be lacking of such taxon. A "usefulness index" for the above purposes is outlined and checked about three raptors. Some exanples about usefulness of the Owl pellet analysis method in biogeography are given, concerning Tyto alba diets in peninsular Italy about: - Sorex minutus, lacking in some quite insulated areas; - Sorex araneus (sensu stricto, after GRAF et al., 1979, present also in lowland areas in Emilia-Romagna; - Crocidura suaveolens and - Suncus etruscus, present also in the southermost part of Calabria (Reggio province; - Talpa caeca, present also in the Antiapennines of Latium (Cimini mounts; - Talpa romana, present also in the middle of Tuscany; - Clethrionomys glareolus, lacking in few small, insulated areas, but present in coastal woodlands; - Microtus (Pitymys sp., apparently lacking only in some coastal areas of Toscana and Liguria, or in some Etna slopes (Linguaglossa. Riassunto Un metodo standardizzato e quantitativo di raccolta dei dati quale l'esame delle borre di rapaci consente non solo di integrare le conoscenze faunistiche, ma pure di tentare una valutazione della probabilità di assenza di un dato taxon da un'area geografica. In proposito, vengono presentati esempi originali circa Sorex minutus, Sorex araneus, Crocidura suaveolens, Suncus etruscus, Talpa caeca, Microtus (Pitymys savii e Microtus (Pitymys multiplex in Italia peninsulare.

  11. Final Environmental Impact Statement for Proposed Implementation of the Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) Final Recommendations and Associated Actions for the 104th Fighter Wing, Massachusetts Air National Guard at Westfield-Barnes Airport, Westfield, Massachusetts. Volume 1: Executive Summary through Chapter 9.0, and Volume 2: Appendices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-10-01

    ear senses louder noise. The unit used to measure the intensity of sound is the decibel (dB). Sound intensity varies widely (from a soft whisper to...the sound is heard is also significant. The Sound Exposure Level (abbreviated SEL or LAE for A-weighted sounds) combines both of these

  12. Physical profile data from CTD casts from the R/V THOMAS G. THOMPSON and the R/V CLIFFORD A. BARNES from the Ecology and Oceanography of Harmful Algal Blooms (ECOHAB) program, 17 February 2005 to 13 December 2006 (NODC Accession 0049911)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The CTD data in this collection were supported by NOAA ECOHAB project NA04NOS4780273, "The relationship between Paralytic Shellfish toxins and Alexandrium cysts in...

  13. « The arrested step », Nightwood de Djuna Barnes : « Une image est une halte que fait l’esprit entre deux incertitudes » “The arrested step”, Djuna Barnes’s Nightwood: “An image is a stop the mind makes between uncertainties”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Guillois

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The tortured universe of Nightwood engages in a fundamental questioning of the common notion of man’s duality. Against a backdrop in which night is indistinguishable from day and characters are denied their wholeness, the body, essentially the body seen in movement, appears as the paradox inherent in the human condition. The reader encounters five characters drifting towards madness in an unsettled world, and a startlingly poetic prose that constantly disrupts the flow of events as it relentlessly explores their existential depths. With an unwavering sense of urgency, the literature of excess that defines Djuna Barnes’s work pushes back the limits of the unacceptable, as if to bring into the light that which is most intimate in man. She will have none of fossilized emotions and acts predicated on habit. She seeks the authentic, and it is this quest that leads her to bodies in motion, for while fashioned out of personal history, they throb with pulsations that are universal. In her search for the universal in this animal aspiring to transcendence and now passing through its human stage, she probes the bodies of her characters with a doggedness that leads to near-disintegration. What is human in man is not permanently established; it is to be rediscovered and reconquered, constantly.

  14. En målsättning för de Andra: Förskolepedagogers tal om barn och föräldrar under planering och utvärdering på en förskola med en kulturellt blandad barngrupp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Lunneblad

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This article displays how a multicultural way of working in early childhood education is articulated during planning and evaluation. The results shows that it is articulated as an objective or goal for the Other. The objectives for a multicultural way of working fall outside of the regular activities. In these discussions, the immigrant parents are articulated in ambivalent positions, linked to a specific interests and responsibilities. At the same time as the pedagogues are making clear that parents must not feel that this is a demand or a coercion. It is possible to draw parallels with how integration policies are realized in practice, where multiculturalism has become associated with non-integrated pupils and their parents, and where the responsibility for lack of integration is often placed within these groups.

  15. Tathwīr Al-Kafāat At-Tarbawiyyah ‘Alā Dhau Barnāmaj At-Tadrīb At-Takāmuly Li Mudarrisi Al-Lughah Al-‘Arabiyyah Fī Al-Madāris Al-Ibtidāiyyah Tāsikmalaya

    OpenAIRE

    Nandang, Ade

    2017-01-01

    إن المشكلات المواجهة فى تدريس اللغة العربية هى كون المدرس ضعيف الكفاءة، فلم تنفذ عملية تدريس اللغة العربية تنفيذا جيدا. يهدف هذا البحث للحصول على البرنامج الذى يقدر على ترقية الكفاءة التربوية لمدرسى اللغة العربية فى المدارس الإبتدائية بمنطقة تاسكمالايا.  والطريقة المستخدمة هي الطريقة التجريبية. وأساليب جمع البيانات هي الملاحظة والمقابلة والاستبيانات والاختبار. دل حاصل البحث على أن لبرنامج التدريب التكاملى مزايا وهى: أ) يبنى هذا البرنامج على تحليل الحاجة، ب) يعقد البرنامج موحدا بين عملية التعل...

  16. Tathwīr al-Kafāat at-Tarbawiyyah ‘Alā Dhau Barnāmaj at-Tadrīb at-Takāmuly li Mudarrisi al-Lughah al-‘Arabiyyah fī al-Madāris al-Ibtidāiyyah Tāsikmalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ade Nandang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available إن المشكلات المواجهة فى تدريس اللغة العربية هى كون المدرس ضعيف الكفاءة، فلم تنفذ عملية تدريس اللغة العربية تنفيذا جيدا. يهدف هذا البحث للحصول على البرنامج الذى يقدر على ترقية الكفاءة التربوية لمدرسى اللغة العربية فى المدارس الإبتدائية بمنطقة تاسكمالايا.  والطريقة المستخدمة هي الطريقة التجريبية. وأساليب جمع البيانات هي الملاحظة والمقابلة والاستبيانات والاختبار. دل حاصل البحث على أن لبرنامج التدريب التكاملى مزايا وهى: أ يبنى هذا البرنامج على تحليل الحاجة، ب يعقد البرنامج موحدا بين عملية التعلم فى الفصل وعملية الإرشاد قام بها المدرب مباشرة. أما نقائص هذا البرنامج أنه يحتاج فى تصنيفة وتطبيقه إلى أكثر المتأهلين، فإذا لم يشترك بعضه من بعض فيغلب على الظن أن البرنامج غير ناجح، 5 كان برنامج التدريب التكاملى يقدر على ترقية الكفاءة التربوية لمدرسى اللغة العربية فى المدارس الإبتدائية تاسكمالايا.

  17. Att skaffa barn i samkönade relationer : -       En studie av ett diskussionsforum för homo- och bisexuella föräldrar/ blivande homo- och bisexuella föräldrar

    OpenAIRE

    Tecle, Mary

    2010-01-01

    I denna c- uppsats har en undersökning gjorts om interaktionen och samspelet mellan medlemmarna på ett forum som är ett av de främsta diskussionsforumen för homo- och bisexuella föräldrar/blivande homo- och bisexuella föräldrar. Syftet med undersökningen var att är få ökad insikt om den sociala interaktionen på forumet med hjälp av dessa tre frågeställningar: Hur ser interaktionen/samspelet ut mellan medlemmarna på forumet? Går det att utläsa särskilda teman utifrån inläggen? På vilket sätt k...

  18. Short communication: Comparison of ambient temperature, relative humidity, and temperature-humidity index between on-farm measurements and official meteorological data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüller, L K; Burfeind, O; Heuwieser, W

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to compare the climate conditions of 7 dairy farms with the climate recorded at the closest official meteorological station. Specifically, we set out to compare the ambient temperature, relative humidity, and the resulting temperature-humidity index (THI) from 7 different barns with those data obtained from the closest official meteorological stations and to compare the climate conditions between 4 different locations within 1 barn. Measures of correlation and agreement demonstrated that climate conditions differ significantly between the barn and the corresponding official meteorological stations as well as between 4 different locations inside 1 barn. The ambient temperature was higher (6.4±3.6°C) in the barn than at the official meteorological station. The relative humidity was higher at the official meteorological station (0.2±7.2%) than in the barn. The THI was higher (11.1±6.5) in the barn than at the official meteorological station. Days with an average THI≥72 were 64 and 4 out of 756 experimental d in the barn and at the official meteorological station, respectively. Also, in a comparison of 7 different barns, ambient temperature and THI were significantly higher than at the closest corresponding official meteorological station. These results indicate that climate conditions should be obtained from on-farm measurements to evaluate potential heat stress and to develop effective measures to abate heat stress of dairy cows. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Åben Adoption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeldtoft, Nadia

    2007-01-01

    Denne rapport er en systematisk forskningsoversigt over udenlandske erfaringer med adoption i forhold til anbringelse uden for hjemmet, fx familiepleje, institutionsanbringelse og hjemgivelse til de biologiske forældre. Konklusionerne i rapporten er overraskende entydige: Adopterede børn klarer sig...... barn adopteres, jo mere stabil og uproblematisk bliver relationen mellem barn og adoptivforældre. Samtidig peger undersøgelserne på, at adoptioner med høj grad af åbenhed og kontakt mellem barn, adoptivforældrene og de biologiske forældre fungerer bedst. Hermed rokkes ved en udbredt forestilling om...

  20. Adoption som indsats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mogens; Hammen, Ida; Raft Andersen, Karen

    Denne rapport er en systematisk forskningsoversigt over udenlandske erfaringer med adoption i forhold til anbringelse uden for hjemmet, fx familiepleje, institutionsanbringelse og hjemgivelse til de biologiske forældre. Konklusionerne i rapporten er overraskende entydige: Adopterede børn klarer sig...... barn adopteres, jo mere stabil og uproblematisk bliver relationen mellem barn og adoptivforældre. Samtidig peger undersøgelserne på, at adoptioner med høj grad af åbenhed og kontakt mellem barn, adoptivforældrene og de biologiske forældre fungerer bedst. Hermed rokkes ved en udbredt forestilling om...

  1. [Deaths in swine by a lightning strike in the sty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, G

    1991-05-01

    It is reported on deaths of pigs due to lightning stroke in the barn. During a severe thunder storm 11 clinically healthy pigs with an average weight of approx. 22 kg died simultaneously and suddenly in the barn. The animals were kept on a floor of metal slats. The pens were separated by metal bars. A water pipe leading into the barn from outside had contact to the bars. Two pigs were submitted for an examination approx. three hours post mortem. The macroscopic and microscopic necropsy findings are described.

  2. Magic of Play: How It Inspires & Aids Early Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... If I push this button, the pony will pop out of the barn!"). Now, as preschoolers, they ... their imaginations and creativity will translate into art, music, and creative writing, and help with critical thinking. ...

  3. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PYRIMETHAMINE. I UNCOMPLICATED l'LASMODIUM FA LCIPARUM r IALARIA 3 YEARS AFTER. I TRODUCTION IN. T A:PUMALANGA f uon Mabuza, John Govere, David Durrheim, Nicros . ngomezulu, Barry Bredenkamp, Karen Barnes, Brian ...

  4. 9 CFR 55.4 - Disinfection of premises, conveyances, and materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... premises, including barns, stockyards and pens, all cars and other conveyances, and all other materials on... would include washing surfaces with high-pressure hoses and disinfectants and burying or burning...

  5. Designs, groups and lattices

    OpenAIRE

    Bachoc, Christine

    2005-01-01

    We study the Grassmannian 4-designs contained in lattices, in connection with the local property of the Rankin constant. We prove that the sequence of Barnes-Wall lattices contain Grassmannian 6-designs.

  6. Proceedings of biological applications of relativistic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alard, J.P.; Montret, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    The workshop BARN 92 on various aspects of radiation treatment of tumours and of biological radiation effects on living system hosted 38 short papers. Each is indexed and abstracted separately for the INIS database. (R.P.)

  7. What Are the Symptoms of Osteogenesis Imperfecta?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... most of which occur before puberty or after middle age Motor skill delays People with type IV often ... A, Cabral WA, Barnes AM, & Marini JC. (2011). New Perspectives on Osteogenesis Imperfecta. Nat Rev Endocrinol, Jun ...

  8. ROSETTA-ORBITER EARTH RPCMAG 4 EAR1 RESAMPLED V3.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — 2010-07-30 SBN:T.Barnes Updated and DATA_SET_DESCThis dataset contains RESAMPLED DATA of the first Earth Flyby (EAR1). Included are the data of the very Flyby from...

  9. PERSEPSI DAN PARTISIPASI MASYARAKAT DALAM PENGEMBANGAN LUMBUNG PANGAN DI KABUPATEN LAMPUNG BARAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    . Kholik

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";} Community’s perception and participation is necessary to be noticed in the effort of developing food barn in rural area. The objective of this study were to: 1 analyze community’s perception about food barn in Lampung Barat District, 2 inventory factors that influence community’s participation in developing food barn in Lampung Barat District, 3 formulate model and strategy in developing participative food barn to reach food security in Lampung Barat District. This research was conducted by using cross sectional design and descriptive analysis approach. The location was chosen by using purposive sampling which were in Tribudi Syukur Village, Sumberjaya Subdistrict and Buay Nyerupa Village,  Sukau Subdistrict. The selection was based on consideration that these villages has different implementation performance of food barn according to the assessment from Food Crops and Horticulture Office in Lampung Barat District. The result of the research shows that the community’s perception category, represented by farmer as sample, based on total perception variable score between Tribudi Syukur and Buay Nyerupa, is different. The general condition of the community (like age, education level, income, etc. do not have correlation with its perception about food barn. The community’s participation in food barn category, represented by farmer as sample, based on total participation variable score between Tribudi Syukur and Buay Nyerupa, is also different. There is

  10. Genetics Home Reference: congenital generalized lipodystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Rare Disorders (NORD) Resource List from the University of Kansas Medical Center: Heart/Cardiology Conditions ... Sources for This Page Agarwal AK, Arioglu E, De Almeida S, Akkoc N, Taylor SI, Bowcock AM, Barnes RI, Garg A. AGPAT2 ...

  11. Narnia 1300 aastat hiljem / Timo Diener

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Diener, Timo

    2008-01-01

    Mängufilm "Narnia lood : prints Caspian" ("The Chronicles of Narnia : Prince Caspian") C.S. Lewise muinasjutu ainetel : peaosas Ben Barnes : režissöör Andrew Adamson : Ameerika Ühendriigid - Suurbritannia 2008

  12. Moekunstniku katsetused kinolinal / Anna-Liisa Soomann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soomann, Anna-Liisa

    2007-01-01

    Taani moekunstniku Mads Nırgaardi filmidebüüt Kopenhaageni moenädalal. Film tutvustab kunstniku moekollektsiooni, kaasa teevad taani supermodellid Freja Beha ja Eddie Merz, muusika DJ Djuna Barnes'ilt

  13. Naisteromaanide uimarohi / Ilona Martson, Kristi Pärn

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Martson, Ilona, 1970-

    1997-01-01

    Atwood, Margaret. Röövelpruut; Austen, Jane. Veenmine; Sheldon, Sidney. Veresidemed; Ondaatje, Michael. Inglise patsient; Lind, Hera. Kahe mehe vahel; Simmel, Johannes Mario. Vastust teab vaid tuul; Gaskin, Catherine. Fiona; Gaskin, Catherine. Perekonnaasjad; Barne, John. Evita

  14. A review of the genus Ogdoconta Butler (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Condicinae, Condicini) from North America north of Mexico with descriptions of three new species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzler, Eric H.; Knudson, Edward C.; Poole, Robert W.; J. Donald Lafontaine; Pogue, Michael G.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The species of the genus Ogdoconta Butler, 1891 (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Condicinae, Condicini) from North America north of Mexico are reviewed, and a description of the genus is given. Ogdoconta satana Metzler, Knudson & Poole, sp. n., is described from New Mexico and Texas, Ogdoconta rufipenna Metzler, Knudson & Poole, sp. n., is described from Arizona, and Ogdoconta fergusoni Metzler & Lafontaine, sp. n., is described from Florida, Mississippi, and Louisiana. A key to the species of Ogdoconta of North America north of Mexico is provided. Adult moths and male and female genitalia of Ogdoconta satana, Ogdoconta rufipenna, Ogdoconta fergusoni, Ogdoconta cinereola (Guenée, 1852), Ogdoconta moreno Barnes, 1907, Ogdoconta sexta Barnes & McDunnough, 1913, Ogdoconta altura Barnes, 1904, and Ogdoconta tacna (Barnes, 1904) are illustrated. PMID:23717183

  15. 78 FR 24774 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-26

    ... District of Columbia Capital Traction Company Car Barn, 4615 14th St. NW., Washington, 13000290 ] GEORGIA... & Lyons Rds., Peru, 13000304 Erie County Buffalo Zoo Entrance Court, Parkside Ave. & Amherst St., Buffalo...

  16. Retrospective Case Study in Wise County, Texas, Study of the Potential Impacts of Hydraulic Fracturing on Drinking Water Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report describes the retrospective case study in north central Texas, conducted at three locations in Wise County where both conventional and unconventional gas production occurred in the past. Currently unconventional gas production occurs from the Mississippian-aged Barne...

  17. 77 FR 20807 - Northwest Pipeline GP; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-06

    ... diameter pipelines away from an adjacent surface coal mine west of Kemmerer, Wyoming. Northwest also... directed to Pam Barnes, Manager Certificates and Tariffs, Northwest Pipeline GP, 295 Chipeta Way, Salt Lake...

  18. Polycystic ovary syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polycystic ovaries; Polycystic ovary disease; Stein-Leventhal syndrome; Polyfollicular ovarian disease; PCOS ... RL, Barnes RB, Ehrmann DA. Hyperandrogenism, hirsuitism, and polycystic ovary syndrome. In: Jameson JL, De Groot LJ, de ...

  19. OPTIMAL PARTITIONS OF DATA IN HIGHER DIMENSIONS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — OPTIMAL PARTITIONS OF DATA IN HIGHER DIMENSIONS BRADLEY W. JACKSON*, JEFFREY D. SCARGLE, AND CHRIS CUSANZA, DAVID BARNES, DENNIS KANYGIN, RUSSELL SARMIENTO, SOWMYA...

  20. Corticosterone mediates the condition-dependent component of melanin-based coloration

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Roulin, A.; Almasi, B.; Rossi-Pedruzzi, A.; Ducrest, A.-L.; Wakamatsu, K.; Mikšík, Ivan; Blount, J.D.; Jenni-Eiermann, S.; Jenni, L.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 75, č. 4 (2008), s. 1351-1358 ISSN 0003-3472 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : coricosterone * barn owl * melanin Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.828, year: 2008

  1. Dioscorea rotundata Poir

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Johnny

    humid tropics especially in Nigeria, where ... botanicals in preference to conventional chemicals especially for farmers who cannot afford to buy expensive synthetic ... feature enhanced air circulation and excluded some rodents. Inside the barn ...

  2. ROSETTA-ORBITER SW RPCMAG 4 CR2 RESAMPLED V3.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — 2010-07-30 SBN:T.Barnes Updated and DATA_SET_DESCThis dataset contains RESAMPLED DATA of the CRUISE 2 phase (CR2). (Version 3.0 is the first version archived.)

  3. 'energy plus transmutation' set-up for neutron production and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    . Keywords. ... large (hundreds and thousands of barns) and the neutron absorption should be taken into account during the ..... tiparticle and High Energy Applications, LANL, Los Alamos, New Mexico (2002). [4] V S Barashenkov, Comp. Phys.

  4. Hvordan kan fosterbarns indre arbeidsmodeller positivt påvirkes i relasjon med nære omsorgspersoner? Knyttet opp mot SIP-modellen (Sosial informasjonsprosesserings-modell)

    OpenAIRE

    Sunde, Gunn Karin

    2014-01-01

    Master's thesis in Special education Sammendrag Det er stadig flere barn som har behov for å bli omplassert i fosterhjem (Aleris, 2012), grunnet bl.a. omsorgssvikt og utrygg tilknytning (Anke, 2007). Det vil ha innflytelse på fosterbarns indre arbeidsmodeller, som er integrerte mønster hos barnet basert på erfaringer fra samspillet med tilknytningspersonene (Bowlby, 1994). SIP-modellen gir kunnskap om barns mentale prosesser og sosiale tilpasning, og viser mulighet for modifisering av f...

  5. Contribution of diet type and pasture conditions to the influence of high altitude grazing on intake, performance and composition and renneting properties of the milk of cows

    OpenAIRE

    Leiber, Florian; Kreuzer, Michael; Leuenberger, Hans; Wettstein, Hans-Rudolf

    2006-01-01

    International audience; Individual factors contributing to the influence of high altitude grazing on milk synthesis and quality were investigated in three groups of six cows each. After an initial period, where all cows received a silage-concentrate control diet, two groups were offered only grass further on, the third received the control diet and stayed in the barn in the lowlands. Grass-fed cows were either kept on pasture or in barn and were subjected to four experimental periods, two of ...

  6. Integrating Representation Learning and Skill Learning in a Human-Like Intelligent Agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-21

    interpretation. Other systems (e.g., Tatsuoka, 1983, Barnes, 2005) use a Q-matrix to find knowledge structure from student response data. Baffes and Mooney...1983, Barnes, 2005, Baffes and Mooney, 1996] and artificial intelligence [Langley and Ohlsson, 1984, Burton, 1982, Sleeman and Smith, 1981, VanLehn...pages 337–348, New York, NY, USA, 2003. ACM. 57 P. Baffes and R. Mooney. Refinement-based student modeling and automated bug library con- struction

  7. Forlengede sugevaner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolldén, Annelie Kristina; Berger, Siri Brandtsegg; Sonnesen, Liselotte

    2013-01-01

    Forlengede sugevaner: rådgivning av barn og foreldre for å hindre okklusjonsavvik En initiell ikke-ernærende sugevane på tommel eller smokk oppstår som følge av en primitiv refleks og forekommer ofte hos små barn. Hvis en ikke-ernærende sugevane persisterer utover treårsalderen, er den definert s...

  8. A revision of the genus Hypotrix Guenee in North America with descriptions of four new species and a new genus (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Noctuinae, Eriopygini)

    OpenAIRE

    Lafontaine, Donald; Ferris, Clifford; Walsh, J.

    2010-01-01

    The genus Hypotrix Guenee, 1852 is synonymized with Trichorthosia Grote, 1883, Proteinania Hampson, 1905, Ursogastra Smith, 1906, and Trichagrotis McDunnough, [1929]. Four species are transferred from the genus Hexorthodes McDunnough [Hypotrix trifascia (Smith, 1891), comb. n., H. alamosa (Barnes, 1904), comb. n., T. hueco (Barnes, 1904), comb. n., and T. optima (Dyar, 1920), comb. n.]. Four new species are described (T. basistriga Lafontaine, Ferris & Walsh; T. naglei Lafontaine, Ferris ...

  9. Microphysical Properties of a Large Scale Cloud System, 1-3 March 1978.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-07

    determining sampling locations came from Mr. Robert Myers, Mr. John Powers and Dr. Arnold Barnes who interpreted satellite data from AFGL’s McIDAS...Man-Computer Interactive Data Access System). Several helpful suggestions on report content were made by Dr. Barnes, Dr. Robert Cunningham and Mr...storms over the Pacific Northwest has been given by Hobbs. 1 In their study of rainbands in an occluded frontal system Houze et a12 found that vapor

  10. Final Report for Oregon University Grant N00014-89-J-1582.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    the tones at each &(P were multiplied by a triangular envelope from a digital to analog converter (Modular Instruments Inc.). The envelopes were...complex of the barn owl. J. Comp. Neurol. 274:212-238. Takahashi TT, Konishi M, Carr CE, Brecha N (1987) Calcium binding protein-like immunoreactivity...central nucleus of the barn owl’s inferior colliculus. J. Neurosci., 7:3105-3116. Takahashi, T.T., C.E. Carr, N. Brecha , and M. Konishi, 1987 Calcium

  11. Paint, Stain, Varnish, or Preservative? It's Your Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark T. Knaebe

    2013-01-01

    If you’ve ever admired an old, unpainted barn that has survived 100 years or more of weather, it’s easy to wonder why you should use a finish on your home. However, the cracks, fissures, and air spaces that give weathered barn siding its character wouldn’t be acceptable on most houses. For a discussion of weathering and decay see the FinishLine “Outdoor Furniture,...

  12. How do they manage? The development of a theory of resource-creation through a qualitative study of parents of  a severely disabled child

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graungaard, Anette Hauskov

    Baggrund  Når forældre får et handicappet barn, står de overfor mange udfordringer og stress faktorer udover den belastning, børnefamilier oplever i almindelighed. I tidligere studier har man ofte fokuseret på de negative konsekvenser og følelser, som er en følge af at få et handicappet barn, men...

  13. Characterization of 22Ne implanted target by 22Ne(p,γ)23Na resonance reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisoi, Abhijit; Saha Sarkar, M.; Desai, C.A.; Tribedi, L.C.; Jung, H.S.; Setoodehnia, K.; Lyons, S.; Görres, J.; Stech, Ed; Robertson, D.; Wiescher, M.

    2013-01-01

    Studies of nuclear reactions relevant to astrophysical scenario, often require measurement of cross section in picobarn to nano-barn range (1 barn = 10 −24 cm 2 ). So we need targets which are isotopically pure and can withstand high beam load over a long time. Even the backings used should contain no or very low concentration of impurities. Implantation technique has been found to be one of the most effective methods to produce such targets

  14. Spherically-Convergent, Advanced-Fuel Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, D. C.; Nebel, R. A.; Schauer, M. M.; Umstadter, K. R.

    1998-11-01

    Combining nonneutral electron confinement with spherical ion convergence leads to a cm sized reactor volume with high power density.(R. A. Nebel and D. C. Barnes, Fusion Technol.), to appear (1998); D. C. Barnes and R. A. Nebel, Phys. of Plasmas 5, 2498 (1998). This concept is being investigated experimentally,(D. C. Barnes, T. B. Mitchell, and M. M. Schauer, Phys. Plasmas) 4, 1745 (1997). and results will be reported. We argue that D-D operation of such a system offers all the advantages of aneutronic fusion cycles. In particular, no breeding or large tritium inventory is required, and material problems seem tractable based on previous LWR experience. In addition the extremely small unit size leads to a massively modular system which is easily maintained and repaired, suggesting a very high availability. It may also be possible to operate such a system with low or aneutronic fuels. Preliminary work in this direction will be presented.

  15. Nest sanitation behavior in hirundines as a pre-adaptation to egg rejection to counter brood parasitism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Canchao; Wang, Longwu; Liang, Wei; Møller, Anders Pape

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies suggested that nest sanitation behavior may have been a pre-adaptation from which egg rejection of brood parasite eggs evolved. We tested this hypothesis in two swallow species, the red-rumped swallow (Cecropis daurica) and the barn swallow (Hirundo rustica). Our results indicated that the red-rumped swallow, which is an accepter of foreign eggs, rejected a low percentage of non-egg-shaped objects and did so less often than the barn swallow, which is an intermediate rejecter of foreign eggs. Furthermore, the egg rejection rates of the barn swallow increased with the increase in rejection rates of non-egg-shaped objects among different populations. These results showed that nest cleaning behavior could have evolved into a means of reducing the costs of brood parasitism, suggesting that egg recognition ability has evolved from recognition of non-egg-shaped objects. This finding advances our understanding of the evolution of egg recognition behavior in birds.

  16. FORMATION OF HYGROTHERMAL CONDITIONS IN A DEEP-LITTER BARN IN A WINTER SEASON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Sokołowski

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In free stall, the maintenance of animals in the deep litter, the measurements of temperature and relative humidity of indoor air, temperature and relative humidity of the outside air were conducted. Observation also covered the thermal conditions of litter and its thickness. The study covered the winter period from 1st of December to 28th of February. The study showed that during the winter there is a slight risk of unfavorable thermal conditions for dairy cattle in the barn. The analysis of the obtained results showed a significant effect of the number of animals present in the barn on thermal conditions and humidity. The increase in stocking density in the barn affects the increase of the internal temperature and relative humidity.

  17. From biokinematics to a robotic active vision system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzilay, Ouriel; Zelnik-Manor, Lihi; Gutfreund, Yoram; Wagner, Hermann; Wolf, Alon

    2017-09-21

    Barn owls move their heads in very particular motions, compensating for the quasi-immovability of their eyes. These efficient predators often perform peering side-to-side head motions when scanning their surroundings and seeking prey. In this work, we use the head movements of barn owls as a model to bridge between biological active vision and machine vision. The biomotions are measured and used to actuate a specially built robot equipped with a depth camera for scanning. We hypothesize that the biomotions improve scan accuracy of static objects. Our experiments show that barn owl biomotion-based trajectories consistently improve scan accuracy when compared to intuitive scanning motions. This constitutes proof-of-concept evidence that the vision of robotic systems can be enhanced by bio-inspired viewpoint manipulation. Such biomimetic scanning systems can have many applications, e.g. manufacturing inspection or in autonomous robots.

  18. A revision of the genus Hypotrix Guenee in North America with descriptions of four new species and a new genus (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Noctuinae, Eriopygini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Lafontaine

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The genus Hypotrix Guenee, 1852 is synonymized with Trichorthosia Grote, 1883, Proteinania Hampson, 1905, Ursogastra Smith, 1906, and Trichagrotis McDunnough, [1929]. Four species are transferred from the genus Hexorthodes McDunnough [Hypotrix trifascia (Smith, 1891, comb. n., H. alamosa (Barnes, 1904, comb. n., T. hueco (Barnes, 1904, comb. n., and T. optima (Dyar, 1920, comb. n.]. Four new species are described (T. basistriga Lafontaine, Ferris & Walsh; T. naglei Lafontaine, Ferris & Walsh; T. ocularis Lafontaine, Ferris & Walsh; and T. rubra Lafontaine, Ferris & Walsh. A new genus, Anhypotrix Lafontaine, Ferris & Walsh, is proposed for Polia tristis Barnes & McDunnough, 1910, currently misplaced in Trichorthosia. A key to species, descriptions, illustrations of adults and genitalia are included.

  19. Metodeudvikling af hjælp til familier med børn med handicap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Kirsten; Nørregård, Birgitte

    2000-01-01

    Et undersøgelses- og metodeudviklingsprojekt i relation til forældre til børn med handicap, der passer deres barn i hjemmet. Projektet var finansieret af satspuljemidler. projektet bestod af en række delprojekter, hvis resultater samt anbefalinger til Socialministeriet er samlet i denne evaluerin......Et undersøgelses- og metodeudviklingsprojekt i relation til forældre til børn med handicap, der passer deres barn i hjemmet. Projektet var finansieret af satspuljemidler. projektet bestod af en række delprojekter, hvis resultater samt anbefalinger til Socialministeriet er samlet i denne...

  20. Friends on the other side. Fremstilling av religion og magi i Disney-filmen The Princess and the Frog

    OpenAIRE

    Sørbye, Vilde Marie Svanes

    2016-01-01

    Disney-konsernet er en stor distributør av barnefilmer og det er mulig at Disney-filmer kan påvirke hvordan barn oppfatter religion. Studier viser nemlig at film affekterer barn både kognitivt og følelsesmessig. Denne oppgaven tar for seg hvordan religion er fremstilt i Disney-filmen The Princess and the Frog. Metoden som er blitt brukt i denne oppgaven har vært å analysere religion og religiøse symboler i filmen. Religion og religiøse aspekter som ble funnet i filmen, ble kategorisert i føl...

  1. John Bowlby på besök i 1950-talets Sverige : - en udda fågel i svensk barnpsykiatri

    OpenAIRE

    Zetterqvist Nelson, Karin; Van der Horst, Frank; Van der Veer, René

    2017-01-01

    En udda fågel på besök: John Bowlby och den svenska efterkrigstidens barnpsykiatriska expertis Den brittiske barnpsykiatern John Bowlby var en mycket inflytelserik forskare i utvecklingen av anknytningsteorin som starkt betonar av moderns betydelse för barns psykiska utveckling och hälsa. Ett avgörande steg för Bowlby var den WHO-rapport om föräldralösa barns vård och omsorg år 1950 som han fick i uppdrag att skriva 1949. Som ett led i den uppgiften besökte Bowlby USA, Frankrike, Holland och ...

  2. Journal of Earth System Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. J Barnes. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 115 Issue 4 August 2006 pp 451-460 Special Section on: Material exchanges at marine boundaries and surface ocean processes: Forcings and feedbacks. Spatial and temporal distribution of methane in ...

  3. 78 FR 4430 - Chassahowitzka National Wildlife Refuge, FL; Final Comprehensive Conservation Plan and Finding of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-22

    ... efficiency in the design and construction of new facilities and in equipment replacement. Authority This... greater resource study, mapping, data analysis, and enforcement. The hiring of a wildlife specialist and... construct a pole barn near the maintenance shop in which to store equipment, and will make improvements to...

  4. Yam Storability and Economic Benefits of Storage Under the Modern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines yam storability and the economic benefits of storage under the modern (underground) and the traditional (yam barn) storage technologies in Southeastern Nigeria. Data were collected mainly from 55 respondents who were interviewed, as well as from measurement of storage parameters on yam ...

  5. Untitled

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    (New York: Manchester Univ. Press Barnes and Noble Inc.) Ch. 1. Bechert D and Pfizenmaier E 1975 J. Sound Vib. 43 581. Billingsley J and Kinns R 1976.J. Sound Vib. 484. Candel S M 1972 Ph.D. Thesis Cal. Inst. of Tech. Crighton D G and Leppington F G 1971 J. Fluid Mech. 46577. Crighton D G 1972. J. Fluid Mech.

  6. Fertilizer value of nitrogen captured using ammonia scrubbers attached to animal production facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over half of the nitrogen (N) excreted from broiler chickens is lost to the atmosphere before the manure is removed from the barns, resulting in air and water pollution and the loss of a valuable fertilizer resource. The objective of this study was to determine the fertilizer efficiency of N, which...

  7. integrating community- based reproductive health services with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We describe how this model has evolved in the Velondriake locally managed marine area, home to .... to fishing in the arid southwest, and inadequate management capacity – are converging to result in the unsustainable ..... Madagascar. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. Barnes-Mauthe, M., Oleson, K. L. L. and ...

  8. South African Medical Journal - Vol 103, No 10 (2013)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Case management of malaria: Treatment and chemoprophylaxis · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. IS Ukpe, D Moonasar, J Raman, KI Barnes, L Baker, L Blumberg, 793-798. http://dx.doi.org/10.7196/SAMJ.7443 ...

  9. 26 CFR 1.121-1 - Exclusion of gain from sale or exchange of a principal residence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... sale of the 8 acres. Example 4. In 1998 Taxpayer D buys a house and 1 acre that he uses as his principal residence. In 1999 D buys 29 acres adjacent to his house and uses the vacant land as part of his... buys a property that includes a house, a barn, and 2 acres. B uses the house and 2 acres as her...

  10. Community Partnerships: Pathways to Meaningful Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Sarah B.; Karp, Karen S.; Lentz, Tova; Nadler, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    This article showcases the benefits of the alliance the authors have established during the past two years with the Barnes Foundation to add more mathematics activities to their repertoire and to integrate more art into their mathematics lessons. Recently, they decided to focus on activities at the K-grade 2 level that could be used as an on-site…

  11. Language, the Learner and the School. Penguin Papers in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Douglas

    This book is concerned with language as it is used by the teacher, as it affects the learner, and as it can function to integrate the curriculum. Douglas Barnes, in "Language in the Secondary Classroom," discusses the student-teacher language interaction in 12 sample lessons, and analyzes the importance upon student learning of the languages used…

  12. The Psychological Reality of Grammar : the Theta Principle in Parsing Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sadeh-Leicht, O.

    2007-01-01

    This dissertation presents evidence for the psychological reality of a grammatical principle, the Theta Principle. It adopts a grammar-derived theory of human natural language processing ? the thematic parser. Parsing phenomena such as garden path effects (The horse raced past the barn fell) and

  13. South African Medical Journal - Vol 85, No 8 (1995)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maternal deaths in Bloemfontein, South Africa -1986 - 1992 · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. C. A. Spies, R. H. Barn, H. S. Cronje, M. G. Schoon, M. Wild, I. Niemand, 753-755 ...

  14. Le régime alimentaire de trois espèces de rapaces nocturnes en ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , making up 93% of prey in spring in a habitat of northern Tunisia, while vertebrates (primarily mammals) accounted for 86% of Barn Owl prey in summer in the same locality. The diet overlap is extremely low. The analysis of Eagle Owl pellets ...

  15. nymphas and adeyemi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PUBLICATIONS1

    electromagnetic radiation, etc, coming from the earth's surface (Barns, 1994; Liperovskaya et al., 2003). The vertical mobilities of electrons are much higher in the E-region than those of positive ions. The primary East-West field causes a vertical polarization of electric field that greatly increases the electric conductivity.

  16. Integrated Farm System Model Version 4.2 and Dairy Gas Emissions Model Version 3.2 Software development and distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emissions of ammonia (NH3) and nitrous oxide (N2O) vary among animal facilities due to differences in housing structure and associated manure management. Bedded pack barns are structures with a roof and sidewalls resulting in a lower air velocity and evaporation potential inside the structure. But s...

  17. Sprogvurdering.dk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kasper Østerholdt; Jørgensen, Rune Nørgaard; Bleses, Dorthe

    2009-01-01

    Elektronisk registrering af sprogvurderinger landet over åbner for spændende perspektiver for praksis og forskning. For den logopædiske praksis giver Sprogvurdering.dk mulighed for lettilgængeligt overblik og indblik i sprogvurderingsindsatsen i forhold til kommune, dagtilbud og det enkelte barn....

  18. Untitled

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The costs of thematerials used ranged between N4500 to N8000 on the average for a barn with about four lines (2000 tubers). The lifespan of the traditional yambarn is about three years, and it is estimated that farmers spent between N2200 to N3800 yearly on repairs and maintenance including replacement of bamboos,.

  19. 75 FR 29338 - Energy Efficiency of Natural Gas Infrastructure and Operations Conference; Final Notice of Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-25

    ... [email protected] or call toll free 866-208-3372 (voice) or (202)-208-1659 (TTY), or send a FAX to (202... Thomsen, Ormat Technologies. Jeremy Barnes, GE Oil & Gas. 11:45 a.m.--Break for Lunch 12:45 p.m.--Panel 4...

  20. and Prince Edward Island

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    bird populations of the island group have led to it being declared an Important Bird Area by BirdLife .... 2000) and South African (Barnes 2000) classifications of conservation status are indicated, as well as the trend over the most recent decade ..... Congruity with a number of Southern Ocean is- land nature reserves of other ...

  1. Population status and distribution of forest elephants ( Loxodonta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elephant densities were computed as described by Barnes and Jensen (1987), while the estimate of elephant numbers was extrapolated from the footprints diameter ... The main factors contributing to the distribution of elephants in the study area are water and food availability, human disturbance and settlement camps.

  2. ROSETTA-ORBITER SW RPCMAG 2 CR2 RAW V3.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — 2010-07-30 SBN:T.Barnes Updated and DATA_SET_DESCThis dataset contains EDITED RAW DATA of the CRUISE 2 phase (CR2). (Version 3.0 is the first version archived.)

  3. 2018-02-22T18:17:57Z https://www.ajol.info/index.php/all/oai oai:ojs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    article/74336 2018-02-22T18:17:57Z saje:ART The influence of school culture and school climate on violence in schools of the Eastern Cape Province Barnes, K Brynard, S de Wet, C CSCSS-SF; school climate; school culture; school violence ...

  4. Production system dynamism and parasitic interac- tion of swine in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    separate house without drainage) and poor (housed together with other live- stock in open barn with no shed). Statistical analysis. The Chi-square test was applied to ... owners release their swine to graze on the field along with other livestock. .... which 14 farms were having more than 30 pigs and 36 farms were having less.

  5. think Piece

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (UNESCO) Education for All Global Monitoring Report, 'success or failure in achieving education for all hinges ... quantifying skills demand and supply in the South African automotive components industry,. Barnes (2009) noted that ..... Development. Yokohama, Japan: United Nations University, Institute of Advanced Stdies.

  6. Effect of different levels and particle sizes of perlite on serum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-04-18

    Apr 18, 2011 ... Bailey RH, Phillips TD (1997). Effect of inorganic adsorbents and cyclopiazonic acid in broiler chicken. J. Poult. Sci. 76: 1141-1149. Frost TJ, Roland DA, Barnes DG, Laurent SM (1992). The effect of sodium zeolite A and cholecalciferol on plasma levels of 1, 25 dihydroxycholecalciferol, Ca, and P in ...

  7. Acta theologica supplementum 12-2009

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    University of the Free State

    (Barnes 1798; Orr 1939; PMI 2005:16). Therefore, it is argued, the generic translation “overseer” is preferable to the specific term “bishop”. In order to investigate these arguments, it is necessary to investigate the use of the word episkopos in ancient Greek writings and the Septuagint, as well as the use of overseer as ...

  8. ISSN 2073 ISSN 2073 9990 East Cent. Afr. J. 9990 East Cent. Afr. J ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hp 630 Dual Core

    29. Hesdorffer DC,Ghajar J, Iacono L. Predictors of compliance with the evidence based guidelines for traumatic brain injury care: a survey of United States trauma centers. J. Trauma 2002;52:1202 09. 30. Chafi S, Barnes SA, Millar D, Sobrino J, Kudyakov R, Berryman BS et al. Suboptimal compliance with evidence based ...

  9. 36 CFR 60.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... any form of human activity, such as a house, barn, church, hotel, or similar structure. Building may... National Historic Preservation Act of 1966, as amended, and Executive Order 11593 including nominating... of carrying out the provisions of the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966, as amended, and...

  10. Uus näitlejapõlvkond endale armu ei anna / Margit Tõnson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tõnson, Margit, 1978-

    2010-01-01

    Eesti Muusika- ja Teatriakadeemia lavakunstikooli XXV lennu bakalaureuselavastus "Jumala narride Vennaskond" Tallinna Linnateatris. Lavastaja Elmo Nüganen, autor Peter Barnes. Juhan Ulfsaki lavastusest "Idioodid" Lars von Trieri samanimelise filmi järgi Von Krahli teatris. Mängivad TÜ Viljandi Kultuuriakadeemia teatrikunsti 8. lennu Von Krahli kursuslased

  11. 17 AN ETHICAL APPRAISAL OF NIGERIAN POLICY ON ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Singapore: HoongFatt Press. Barnes, J. (Ed.). (1984). The Complete Works of Aristotle: The Revised Oxford Translation. Princeton: Princeton University Press. Bauman, Z. (2004). Wasted Lives: Modernity and Its Outcast. USA: Polity Press. Catholic Secretariat of Nigeria. (2012). Lineamenta: 2nd National Pastoral Congress.

  12. Mis saab raamatupoest edasi? / Silvia Viidik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Viidik, Silvia, 1972-

    2010-01-01

    USA suurim raamatupoeketi Barnes & Noble majandustulemused näitavad, et e-raamatute ja e-lugejate müügi kasv on mõjutanud ka ettevõtte edukust, sundides raamatupoeketti oma strateegilisi valikuid ümber hindama

  13. Eesti patrioot, kes nägi oma silmaga Dresdeni tulepommitamist ja Nürnbergi protsessi / Chistopher Bollyn, Helje Kaskel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Bollyn, Chistopher

    2006-01-01

    August Kuklane, Võrumaal sündinud eestlane, kelle elusaatusest on kirjutanud ajakirjanikud ajakirjas The Barnes Review. Läbi August Kuklase silmade ja tema poolt läbielatu kaudu saame osa Teise maailmasõja lahingutest, tema teenistusest SS väeüksustes, s.h. Nürnbergi vahipataljonis, elust pagulasena Ameerika Ühendriikides

  14. "Ma ei usu Jumalasse, kuid tunnen temast puudust" / Urmas Petti

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Petti, Urmas, 1965-2016

    2013-01-01

    Ameerika õigusfilosoofi Ronald Dworkini "jumalatu religiooni" kontseptsioonist; pealkiri on inglise kirjaniku Julin Barnes'i tsitaat, millest sai Šveitsi ajalehe Der Bund esseekonkursi teema aastal 2011; autor tsiteerb veel Mihkel Kunnust (Humanismi õnnetusi, Sirp, 6. aug. 2010), Torgny Lindgren ja Jeanette Wintersoni

  15. Reconstruction of the paleo-coastline of Santorini island (Greece ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, School of Geology, 54124, Thessaloniki, Greece. ∗Corresponding author. e-mail: oikonomi@geo.auth.gr. A catastrophic volcanic explosion took ... (Kirk 1977; Hequette and Barnes 1990; Jibson et al. 1994; Amin and Davidson-Arnott 1997; Sallenger et al. 2002; Gulyaev and Buckeridge ...

  16. A comparison

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-10-26

    Oct 26, 2015 ... He was the student of Socrates and the teacher of Aristotle, 427–347. BCE; viewed 24 August 2014, from ... For Aristotle, a student of Plato, the true purpose of human life is achieved in ...... Goodenough, E.R., 1963, An introducfion to Philo Judaeus, Barnes & Noble, New York. Goodenough, E.R., 1969, By ...

  17. NDIR gas sensor for spatial monitoring of carbon dioxide concentrations in naturally ventilated livestock buildings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mendes, L.B.; Ogink, N.W.M.; Edouard, Nadège; Dooren, van H.J.C.; Tinoco, I.; Mosquera, Julio

    2015-01-01

    The tracer gas ratio method, using CO2 as natural tracer, has been suggested as a pragmatic option to measure emissions from naturally ventilated (NV) barns without the need to directly estimate the ventilation rate. The aim of this research was to assess the performance of a low-cost

  18. Book Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    will clearly never satisfy all invertebrate zoologists. The author has made an attempt to be up to date and in controversial taxonomic areas tries to draw the student's attention to such problems. I was surprised to see that. Barnes does not include the new class Concen- tricycloidea in the chapter on Echinoderms. Surely one.

  19. Dyp tæerne i skriftsproget!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Klara Aalbæk

    2012-01-01

    I denne bog argumenterer forskere og erfarne praktikere for, hvorfor det lille barn bør inviteres til at udforske og kommunikere via skriftsproget. Der bliver også lagt vægt på, hvordan skrivning kan indgå i børnehaven på en legende og støttende måde....

  20. Palaeoceanographic implications of abundance and mean ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    climate, different parameters of marine microfossils are used. Among various microfossils, characteristics of foraminifera, a majority thriving in marine envi- ronments and very sensitive to climatic changes, ..... Sea; In: Oceanography and Marine Biology: an Annual. Review, A D Ansell, R N Gibson and M Barnes (eds).

  1. Intertidal barnacles are not uniformly abundant around the coast of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    BRANCH, G. M. 1981 — The biology of limpets: physical factors, energy flow, and ecological interactions. In Oceanography and Marine Biology. An Annual Review 19. Barnes, M. (Ed.). Aberdeen; University Press: 235–379. BRANCH, G. [M.] and M. [L.] BRANCH 1981 — The Living. Shores of Southern Africa. Cape Town ...

  2. Compost en ander strooisel in ligboxen voor melkvee = Compost and other bedding material in cubicle housing for dairy cow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smolders, G.

    2012-01-01

    In 2011 cubicle housing with different bedding material were assessed with the welfare quality protocol, samples of the bedding and bulktank milk were taken to analyze heavy metals and bacteria. Skin damages were lowest in barns with lush bedding material with no real differences between boxcompost,

  3. Signal traits and oxidative stress: a comparative study across populations with divergent signals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vitousek, M. N.; Tomášek, Oldřich; Albrecht, Tomáš; Wilkins, M. R.; Safran, R. J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 56 (2016), s. 56 ISSN 2296-701X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LH14045 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : sexual selection * social selection * speciation * physiology * antioxidants * barn swallows * Hirundo rustica Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  4. Adaptive Ventilation Control for Cattle Housing and Integrated Climate Sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiaoshuai

    2018-01-01

    . Parametric studies were done as well using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). Moreover, an air-precooling approach, namely earth-air heat exchanger (EAHE), was investigated. A design-oriented model for predicting the cooling capacity of EAHE was proposed specifically to animal barns in which the EAHE...

  5. Effect of some botanical extracts on post-harvest losses of yam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two storage experiments in an improved yam barn were carried out simultaneously at two locations in southern Nigeria to determine the influence of cultivar, botanical storage treatments and storage environments on the shelf life of yam (Dioscorea rotundata). The experiments were conducted from January to July.

  6. Farm-scale testing of soybean peroxidase and calcium peroxide for surficial swine manure treatment and mitigation of odorous VOCs, ammonia and hydrogen sulfide

    Science.gov (United States)

    The swine industry, regulatory agencies, and the public are interested in farm-tested methods for controlling gaseous emissions from swine barns. In earlier lab- and pilot-scale studies, a renewable catalyst consisting of soybean peroxidase (SBP) mixed with calcium peroxide was found to be effective...

  7. ORIGINAL ARTICLES Cost-effectiveness analysis for priority-setting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Center at the US NIH and the Bill and Melinda Gates. Foundation as part of the launch of the PRICELESS SA initiative, August. 2009. References. 1. Muheki C, McIntyre D, Barnes KI. Artemisinin-based combination therapy reduces expenditure on malaria treatment in KwaZulu Natal, South Africa. Trop Med Int ...

  8. Summary and Findings of the ARL Dynamic Failure Forum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-29

    Amann JF, Balzar S, Barnes Jr PD, Crow ML, Cushing SB, Eddleman JC, et al. An 800-MeV proton radiography facility for dynamic experiments. Nuclear...Development and Engineering Center Lee Magness US Army Research Laboratory Jim McCauley US Army Research Laboratory Jason McDonald US Army Research

  9. The Antiaircraft Journal. Volume 92, Number 6, November-December 1949

    Science.gov (United States)

    1949-12-01

    navigational promoDltories. Comer reflectors are being installed in the .form of a T in Liverpool Harbor to give unmistakahle identification in all weather...Pages; How to Put Your Ideas Across, 345 Pages; How to Get Leadership and Ill~uellce, 353 Pages. FOOTBALL OFFICIAL GUIDE 1949. A. S. Barnes & Company. 287

  10. It is warm outside today

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Peetz; Wredle, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    The effect of Temperature Humidity Index (THI) on dairy cows’ willingness to be on pasture was examined. Information for 2 years regarding weather, milk production, and time for voluntarily passing a gate between the barn and pasture of cows milked with an automatic milking system was studied. Wh...

  11. Untitled

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    fore reasonable to expect that more deaths Would re- sult when labour and delivery are unsupervised and .... Table IV. Perinatal Marta/1'9! amang Out—barn and [reborn Irg'ants. Out—born In-born P~value Odds Ratio .... workers have demonstrated significant differences in the perinatal mortality rate in relation to the place ...

  12. Effects of marketing group on the variability of fresh loin, belly, and fresh and processed ham quality from pigs sourced from a commercial processing facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective was to quantify the effect of marketing group (MG) on the variability of primal quality. Pigs (N=7,684) were slaughtered in 3 MGs from 8 barns. Pigs were from genetic selection programs focused on lean growth (L; group 1 n=1,131; group 2 n=1,466; group 3 n=1,030) or superior meat qua...

  13. Effects of marketing group on the quality of fresh and cured hams sourced from a commercial processing facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective was: 1) to characterize the effect of marketing 30 group on fresh and cured ham quality, and 2) to determine which fresh ham traits correlated to cured ham quality traits. Pigs raised in 8 barns representing two seasons (hot and cold) and two production focuses (lean and quality) were ...

  14. Effects of marketing group and production focus on quality and variability of adipose tissue and bellies sourced from a commercial processing facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objectives were to determine the effects of marketing group on quality and variability of belly and adipose tissue quality traits of pigs sourced from differing production focuses (lean vs. quality). Pigs (N = 8,042) raised in 8 barns representing 2 seasons (cold and hot) were used. Three groups wer...

  15. Cafe Society: Do School Libraries Need a Double Shot of Espresso?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, Debra Lau

    2008-01-01

    When Jim Chadwell, the former principal of Northwest High School in Texas, renovated his media center four years ago, he had two things in mind: Starbucks and Barnes & Noble. According to Media Specialist Naomi Bates, Chadwell wanted a place where students could read, do research, and work on classroom assignments, but also socialize. That is…

  16. Depth and Diameter of the Parent Roots of Aspen Root Suckers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert E. Farmer

    1962-01-01

    Studies of the Populus tremuloides root system by Day (1944), Sandberg (1951) and Barnes (1959) have all shown lateral roots extending as much as 30 feet from tree base. These roots may branch extensively and sometimes exhibit an "undulating" growth habit. According to the above authors, suckers occur on the segments of these lateral roots...

  17. Molecular dynamics simulation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The importance of porphyrins as therapeutic drugs and targeting agents has been widely recognized.1 Por- phyrins have ... of several diseases, including photodynamic therapy. (PDT) of malignant tumours,4 photosensitized medal ...... 25. http://manual.gromacs.org/. 26. Mason P E, Neilson G W, Dempsey C E, Barnes A C.

  18. A breeding strategy for Acacia mearnsii (black wattle) in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A breeding strategy for Acacia mearnsii (black wattle) in South Africa: management paper. RW Dunlop, RD Barnes, KM Nixon, SF Hagedorn. Abstract. The black wattle breeding programme that has served the wattle bark industry of South Africa for the past five decades put little emphasis on improving the yield and quality ...

  19. Antisepsis with Argyrol, acrimony and advocacy for African art ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite lack of evidence regarding its antiseptic superiority over silver nitrate for preventing ophthalmia neonatorum, Argyrol was promoted so savvily by Albert Coombs Barnes that the revenues enabled him to amass a unique art collection reflecting his early appreciation of the African influence on European painters.

  20. Impacts of climatic changes on small mammal communities in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To evaluate the impact of climatic change on rodent sahelian communities, we analysed the contents of over 2500 barn owl (Tyto alba) pellets collected along the Senegal river between 1989 and 2003, and from the Ferlo sahelian area in 2003. These results are compared with data from the 1970s and 1980s in the same ...

  1. Om institutionalisering af børneopdragelse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulløv, Eva

    2009-01-01

      Kapitlet beskæftiger sig med konsekvenser ved institutionsophold. Ikke de psykologiske konsekvenser, som institutionsophold kan have for det enkelte barn, men de mere kollektive implikationer ved, at børneopdragelse gennem de sidste 50 år er blevet et samfundsanliggende. Diskussionen består af ...

  2. 21ST Century Manufacturing Enterprise Strategy Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    1988): "Limiting Environmental Impact by Waste Management". Resources, Conservation and Recycling, vol. 4(1,2), pp. 51- 62. 27. Barnes, B.H.; Bollinger ...Competitive Power". Harvard Business Review, November-December, vol. 66(6), pp. 110-118. 47. Brandt, E. (1990): "From Bedford Park, Illinois, to Paris

  3. Every Voice Counts... Proceedings [of] the Annual African American and Latino/a American Adult Education Research Symposium (10th, Chicago, Illinois, April 21, 2001).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garth, Phyllis Ham, Ed.

    This symposium publication consists of 26 presentations. Papers are "'How to Eat an Oreo': Using African American Research through Personal Narrative To Analyze Ethnic Dysmorphic Phenomenon" (Ashford); "Authentic Members: Uncovering Adult Children" (Barnes); "What Good Is Government? Assessment of Government Official…

  4. Efficacy of clove ( Syzygium aromaticum (l.) Merr and perry) powder ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Under farmerfs storage, 50 kg kernel lots of 6 and 9 % initial storage moisture contents were protected with 2 % (w/w) Syzygium powder. Kernel lots stored without Syzygium powder served as control. These were packaged in interlaced polypropylene bags (IPPB) or polyethylene bags (PB) and stored in a farmerfs barn on ...

  5. A case control study of fowl pox in southeastern Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, D M; Martin, S W

    1990-06-01

    An outbreak of fowl pox, which occurred in south-eastern Ontario between July 1988 and April 1989, was investigated in the spring of 1989 to determine factors associated with the spread of the disease. Clinical fowl pox was confirmed on five farms (cases). Twenty-seven farms, out of 35 egg producers with quota from Durham region to Northumberland county, provided information as controls. Bivariate analyses were performed on mail survey data using Fisher's exact test and odds ratios. Although the tests of hypotheses lacked statistical power because of the small number of case farms, and barns, a number of significant associations were found. At the farm level, fowl pox infection was associated with pullets purchased from a particular pullet grower. At the barn level, fowl pox infection was associated with pullets from a particular grower, mixing different groups of pullets, and a trend towards having birds early in the laying period, and higher numbers of birds placed. Fowl pox-infected barns had higher mortality and lower egg production postoutbreak. The results may indicate that the virus enters the laying barn at, or near, the time new birds are placed. Better communication among producers, catch-and-fill crews, and others associated with the egg industry, as well as more complete records of dates, sources, and persons involved with pullet placements, are recommended.

  6. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (80th, Chicago, Illinois, July 30-August 2, 1997): Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

    The Advertising section of the Proceedings contains the following 13 papers: "Offering a Creative Track in the Advertising Major: A Case History" (Beth E. Barnes and Carla V. Lloyd); "Messages of Individualism in French, Spanish, and American Television Advertising" (Ronald E. Taylor and Joyce Wolburg); "Frequency Levels…

  7. Investigation of Radiofrequency Radiation Effects on Excitable Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-07-31

    can be 4 explained in terms of equivalent direct currents [19]. Models of RFR effects on membranes include one based on the Hodgkin - Huxley equations...Barnes, "Microwave Effects on Isolated Neurons Vary with Field Orientation," (abstract) Bioelectro- magnetics 1:205, 1980. 88 25. W. F. Pickard, Y . H

  8. S:4 )~W:<.. ~ ---1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    existence is totally different to that of ... J.J. Clark and D.H. Barnes: Sea Power and its Meaning. INewYork,1966),p17. 3. S.G. Gorshkov: Red Star ..... hard fact and is firmly convinced that if it can gain the upper hand at sea and cut the maritime arteries ...

  9. Design and test of an artificial reference cow to simulate methane release through exhalation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Liansun; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.; Ogink, N.W.M.

    2015-01-01

    To mitigate methane emission from dairy cows, a technique is needed to evaluate individual methane emission from a large number of cows under practical conditions in barns. For developing such a measurement technique, a known reference source that can simulate cow exhalation of methane would be a

  10. Targeting Fear of Spiders with Control-, Acceptance-, and Information-Based Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagener, Alexandra L.; Zettle, Robert D.

    2011-01-01

    The relative impact of control-, acceptance-, and information-based approaches in targeting a midlevel fear of spiders among college students was evaluated. Participants listened to a brief protocol presenting one of the three approaches before completing the Perceived-Threat Behavioral Approach Test (PT-BAT; Cochrane, Barnes-Holmes, &…

  11. Giv lærerne bedre vilkår og red folkeskolen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grumløse, Sine Penthin; Hedegaard Sørensen, Lotte

    2016-01-01

    Havde vi blot en skolepolitik, der baserede sig på viden fra praksis, ville skolen fungere bedre. Uanset hvor højt der råbes, så er god undervisning kun mulig at etablere, hvis det enkelte barn har gode vilkår for at kunne tage del i undervisningen, skriver to pædagogiske forskere...

  12. Effect of rumen degradable protein balance and forage type on bulk milk urea concentration and emission of ammonia from dairy cow houses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duinkerken, van G.; Andre, G.; Smits, M.C.J.; Monteny, G.J.; Sebek, L.B.J.

    2005-01-01

    As the Dutch government and dairy farming sector have given priority to reducing ammonia emission, the effect of diet on the ammonia emission from dairy cow barns was studied. In addition, the usefulness of milk urea content as an indicator of emission reduction was evaluated. An experiment was

  13. Leadership Style and Employee Behaviour: A Reciprocal Relationship

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Positive relationship between leaders and followers is important in every organisation because, according to Carstens and Barnes (2006) the quality of the relationships has influence on issues like teamwork, group accountability, performance standards, subordinate growth or role interchangeability which, in turn, influence.

  14. Sacramento River, Chico Landing to Red Bluff, California Bank Protection Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Lippia nodi flora) Southern California Milk thistle Common-Nationwide X (Silybum marianum) Poi son hemlock Common-Nat i onw i de X...Mourning dove (Zenaidura macroura) Barn owl (Tyto alba ) Screech owl (Otus asio) ABUNDANCE AND RANGE IN THE UNITED STATES Common-Nat i onw i de

  15. Environmental and Water Quality Operational Studies. Environmental Features for Streamside Levee Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-08-01

    Matgrass Lippia n -odiflora Mountain Mahogany, Birchleaf Gercocarpus sp. Myrtle, Wax Myrica cerifera 2 Pecan Carya sp. Pondweed Potomogeton Oak Quercus...subis Nuthatch Sitta sp owl, Barn Tyto alba owl, Saw-whet Aegolius acadicus Owl, Screech Otus asio *Partridge, Hungarian Perdix perdix Pheasant, Ring

  16. Usage based language acquisition in the Danish crèche

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ole Henrik

    2010-01-01

    Forskning i det lille barns sprogtilegnelse i den danske vuggestue må tage højde for diverse sprogsyn og videnskabelige grundsyn, for at kunne udtrykke noget validt om barnets første sprog....

  17. Abdulla Fayez Modeling of groundwater flow for Mujib aquifer ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Carbon and oxygen isotope compositions of the carbonate facies in the Vindhyan Supergroup, central India. 113. Banerjee Santanu see Sarkar Subir. 49 see Dutta Suryendu. 99. Barnes J see Shalini A. 451. Bhaskar P V. Dynamics of transparent exopolymeric particles. (TEP) and particle-associated carbohydrates in the.

  18. Climate Regulation of Rearing-Related Buildings - Evaluating the Factors Related to the Energy Requirement of Heating/Cooling, and Analysis of Alternative Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toth Laszló

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The most notable role in the energy usage of rearing-related buildings belongs to barn climate. For animals, one of the most important climate parameter is the temperature of the barn atmosphere. This can be kept in the proper interval by either heating or cooling. Apart from the operation of technological solutions, the need for airing barns must be taken into consideration. This means there are special technical requirements for airing. Also, they can cause significant energy losses. The temperature limit of heating is mainly influenced by the technological temperature related to keeping the animal in question, its acceptable differences, the heat loss of the barn, and the airing requirement. Energy sources applicable to heating can be traditional sources (coal, oil, gas, renewable sources (solar, biomass, wind, water, or geothermal energy, or transformed energy (electricity. As these have specific operation systems, they also mean further challenges in implementing efficient energy usage. The usage of heating energy can either be optimised by the rational usage of the heating system, or machinery explicitly made for reserving energy. Sparing heating energy via recuperative heating exchange may cut costs significantly, which we also proved in this research with actual calculations. However, we have to state that the efficient usage of heat exchangers requires that the internal and external temperatures differ greatly, which has a huge impact on heat recovery performance.

  19. 9 CFR 55.1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... spread. Materials. Parts of barns or other structures, straw, hay, and other feed for animals, farm... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 55.1 Section 55.1 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE...

  20. New Bilateral Type Generating Function Associated with I-Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Agarwal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We aim at establishing a new bilateral type generating function associated with the I-function and a Mellin-Barnes type of contour integral. The results derived here are of general character and can yield a number of (known and new results in the theory of generating functions.